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Full text of "Annual report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ending .."

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

ISTHMIAN CANAL 
COMMISSION 



FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 

1913 




WASHINGTCW 
I91S 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofis1913isth 




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House Doc. 426; 63d Cong., 2d Sess. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

ISTHMIAN CANAL 
COMMISSION 



FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 

1913 




WASHINGTON 

1913 



TABLE OF OONTE:N^TS. 



Page. 

Report of the chairman and chief engineer 1 

Organization 1 

Construction and engineering 2 

First division 2 

Atlantic division 13 

Central division 23 

Fifth division 28 

Sixth division 35 

Second division 38 

Construction of the new Panama Railroad 48 

Fortifications 49 

Cost keeping 49 

Quartermaster's department 53 

Subsistence department 57 

Examination of accounts and disbursements 58 

Examination of accounts 58 

Disbursements 61 

Departments of civil administration and law 61 

Civil administration 61 

Department of law 65 

Department of sanitation 67 

Recreation of employees 68 

Washington office 68 

General remarks 69 

APPENDIX A. 

Report of the assistant chief engineer in charge of first division of the office of the 

chief engineer 73 

Masonry and lock structures 73 

Locks 73 

Valves and fixed irons 74 

Design and contract 74 

Installation 74 

Fixed irons for spillways, spillway gates, caissons, footbridges, and 

railings 74 

Design and contract 74 

Erection and installation 75 

Drawings 75 

Summary of drawings 75 

Contracts 75 

Castings made on Isthmus 77 

Tests 77 

Lock gates and protective devices 77 

Lock gates 78 

Chain fenders 81 

Lock entrance caissons 85 

ni 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Report of the aesistant chief engineer, etc. — Continued. Page. 

Operating machinery and electrical installation 87 

Rising stem valve machines 87 

Fixed irons for rising stem gate valves 87 

Test on rising stem gate- valve machines 87 

Operation of the valve in the dry 88 

Cylindrical valve machines 88 

Auxiliary culvert valve machines 88 

Test and correction for leakage of cylindrical valves 88 

Tests of cylindrical and auxiliary culvert valve machines 89 

Guard valve machinery 89 

Miter-gate moving machines. 90 

Miter-gate forcing machine 90 

Test of miter-gate machinery 91 

Miter-forcing tests 91 

Towing track material 91 

Class 1 91 

Class 2 92 

Class 3 92 

Class 4 92 

Class 5 92 

Towing locomotives 92 

Towing tests — Panama Railroad steamships 92 

Spillway gate machines 93 

Test of spillway gate machines 94 

Transformer room equipment 94 

Insulated cable 94 

Wire and cable on order 95 

Lock control and indicating equipment 96 

Illumination » 96 

Hydroelectric plant 97 

Transmission line 98 

Cover seats for crank gear— machinery rooms 98 

Concrete t • • 98 

Redesign of cargo-handling cranes — Ballioa- Panama Railroad docks.. 99 

Inspection of machinery and electrical equipment 99 

General 100 

Emergency dams 101 

Inspection in the United States 101 

First test 101 

Second test 101 

Third test 102 

Shipments 102 

Method of erection 102 

Progress of the work for each dam 104 

East dam — Gatun 104 

West dam — Gatun 104 

West dam — Pedro Miguel 105 

East dam — Pedro Miguel 105 

East and west dams — Miraflores 105 

Final tests of the east dam at Gatun 105 

Aids to navigation 106 

Clearing and surveys 108 

Gas buoys 108 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. V 

Report of the assistant chief engineer, etc. — Continued. 

Aids to navigation — Continued. „ 

1 age. 

Equipment 2Qg 

Ilhimiuants and illumination 109 

General J09 

Exhibit 1.— List of uncompleted contracts— First division— as of July 1 

1913 : 110 

APPENDIX B. 

Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division HI 

Division office HI 

Division designing force 112 

West breakwater quarry 112 

Detailed statement of work done and cost 113 

Water transportation 113 

West breakwater — Colon 113 

Comparative statement — Porto Bello large rock ] 14 

Gatun locks H^ 

Excavation H^ 

Piling 117 

Concrete work H/^ 

Comparative statement of costs — locks masonry 119 

Concrete material 12o 

Unloading plant 12i 

Handling and mixing plant 12i 

Gate erection 12i 

Fixed steel 12i 

Back fill J21 

Miscellaneous work 192 

Control house 122 

Power plant 122 

Gatun Dam and spillway 122 

Gratun Dam 192 

Statement of progress of construction 123 

Material handled, place measurement 123 

Dry fill deposited I25 

Output of steam shovels I25 

Material handled by dredges, borrow-pit measurement 126 

Comparative statement of costs 127 

Gatun spillway ] 28 

Progress in excavation 19q 

Permanent power plant 130 

Comparative statement of costs 130 

Municipal engineering 131 

Agua Clara filters and reservoir 132 

Agua Clara reservoir 133 

Roads, sewers, and drains I33 

Cristobal and Colon I33 

Waterworks 133 

Mount Hope filter and Brazos Brook reservoir 134 

Brazos Brook reservoir 13g 

Colon improvements 13g 

Transportation 13^ 

Exhibit 1.— Progress report, fiscal year 1912-13 I37 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX C. 

Page. 

Report of the division engineer, central division 139 

Excavation 139 

From canal prism .• 139 

From Obispo diversion 139 

Outside work 140 

Total, including accessory work 140 

Monthly, for fiscal year 140 

Re\'ised estimate of the quantity of material yet to be removed 141 

Blasting 142 

Steam shovels 143 

Class 143 

Highest daily, monthly, and annual records 144 

Average performance for each month, fiscal years 1908, 1909, 1910, 

1911, 1912, and 1913 144 

Plant 146 

Transportation 147 

Average number of locomotives working per day 147 

Average number of cars loaded daily 147 

Largest number of cars handled in one day 147 

Trains in service at close of fiscal year 147 

Tracks 148 

Location and distribution 148 

Dumps 149 

Disposition of material excavated 149 

Average amount of material dumped per day 150 

Amount of trestle driven. 151 

Diversions 151 

Hand excavation by contract. 152 

Clearing channel 152 

Noas Island dike 152 

Slides and breaks 153 

Estimate outside of slope line 154 

Cost of excavation , 155 

Coal and fuel oil consumed 155 

Air and water service 155 

Municipal work - 156 

Road building 150 

Waterworks 157 

Labor conditions 159 

Changes in organization 159 

Changes in personnel 160 

APPENDIX D. 

Report of the resident engineer, fifth division 161 

Division organization 161 

Principal items of work performed 161 

First district 162 

Locks, dams, spillway, and dry excavation 162 

Pedro Miguel locks and dams 162 

Lock excavation 1 62 

Lock and dam excavation 162 

Lock foundations 163 

Excavation 163 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. VD 

Report of the resident engineer, fifth division — Continued. 
First district — Continued. 

* Locks, dams, spillway, and dry excavation — Continued. 

Pedro Miguel locks and dams — Continued. Page. 

Construction tracks 1G3 

Placing concrete 163 

Amount placed 164 

Performance of auxiliary plant 164 

Miscellaneous lock work 165 

Back filling 165 

Filling west dam 165 

Miraflores locks, dam, and spillway 166 

Construction tracks 166 

Lock foundations 166 

Excavation 167 

Concrete-handling plant 167 

Placing concrete 167 

Performance of berm cranes 168 

Performanc.e of chamber cranes 169 

Performance of auxiliary concrete plant 170 

Amount of concrete placed 170 

Concrete forms 171 

Miscellaneous lock work 171 

West dam 171 

Back filling 172 

Spillway dam 172 

Excavation 173 

Concrete work, Miraflores spillway 173 

Amount of concrete placed 173 

Performance of auxiliary concrete plant 174 

Dry excavation 174 

In canal prism 175 

Performance of steam shovels at Pedro Miguel 175 

Performance of steam shovels at Miraflores 176 

Mining 176 

Third district 176 

Municipal and sanitary work 176 

Municipal engineering 176 

Ancon pumping and filtration station 176 

Details of work and cost 177 

Cocoli pumping plant 177 

Details of work and cost 173 

Rio Grande and Cocoli reservoirs 178 

Water consumption 178 

Rio Grande reservoir 178 

Cocoli reservoir 178 

Consumption of water by districts I79 

Panama improvements 180 

New town site and administration building — Balboa 180 

Zone waterworks 181 

Construction I8I 

Cost of maintenance and repairs 182 



Vm TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Report of the resident engineer, fifth division — Continued. 
Third district — Continued. 

Municipal and sanitary work — Continued. Page. 

Zone sewer system 182 

Work performed 182 

Maintenance 182 

Zone roads 182 

Maintenance and repairs 183 

Macadamizing and oiling 183 

Sanitary work 183 

Work performed 183 

Foiirth district 184 

Ancon quarry and crushers 184 

Mining 184 

Explosives used 184 

Hydraulic excavation 185 

Designs, maps, and office work 186 

APPENDIX E. 

Report of resident engineer, sixth division 187 

Division organization 187 

First district 187 

Operations 187 

Dredges in operation 187 

Yardage removed 188 

Subaqueous rock excavation 188 

Location of rock shoals worked and volume removed 189 

Balboa shops and shipways 189 

Clearings and diversions 189 

Miscellaneous 190 

Surveys and mapping 190 

Second division 190 

Operations 190 

Dredges in operation 190 

Monthly output of dredges 191 

Dredging, ocean to Gatun locks 191 

Subaqueous rock excavation 191 

Cristobal terminals 191 

Miscellaneous 192 

Surveys and mapping 192 

Office 192 

APPENDIX F. 

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the 

oflBce of the chief engineer 193 

Quantity of work performed 193 

Terminals 194 

General 194 

Pacific terminals 194 

Atlantic terminals 195 

Construction — Pacific terminals 195 

Clearing site 195 

Relocation of highway and main tracks to old French pier 195 

Excavation 196 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, etc. — Continued. 
Termi nals — Continued . 

Construction — Pacific terminals — Continued. Page. 

Dry Dock No. 1, entrance basin, and coaling plant 196 

Monthly excavation 197 

Performance of steam shovels 197 

Auxiliary Dry Dock No. 2 198 

Cofferdam 198 

Quay walls and Pier No. 1 198 

Permanent shops 199 

Clearing site 199 

Fill 199 

Foundations 199 

Number of piles driven 200 

Concrete 200 

Operating tunnel 200 

Foundations for shop tools, machinery, etc 201 

Inner harbor excavation 201 

Tracks 201 

Highway and ditches 201 

General 201 

Statement of work done 201 

Excavation 201 

Drilling 202 

Filling and embankment 202 

Reenforcing 203 

Concrete 203 

Construction tracks 204 

Contract work 204 

Buildings authorized and floor area 205 

Roofing 205 

Construction — ^Atlantic terminals 205 

Wharves, piers, and dredging 205 

Main coaling plant 205 

Office work — terminals 205 

Permanent shops 205 

General description 206 

Interior arrangements, power and Light 207 

Rated horsepower of all motors 207 

Contracts 208 

Material 208 

Equipment 208 

Dry docks, coaling plants, and floating cranes 209 

General description of dry docks 209 

Dry Dock No. 1, principal dimensions 209 

Miter gates and gate-moving machinery 210 

Dry Dock No. 2, principal dimensions 211 

Floating cranes 212 

General description 213 

Other floating equipment 215 

Coaling plants 215 

General description 217 

Fuel-oil plants 218 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Report ot the assistant to the chief engineer, etc. — Continued. 

Terminals — Continued. Page. 

Quay walls and Pier No. 1 219 

General description, quay wall section "g-h-i " 219 

Pier No. 1 219 

Small boat landings 220 

Quay wall, section " e-f " 220 

Permanent settlements 220 

Meteorological and hydrograpliic section 220 

General 220 

Office work : 221 

Meteorology 221 

Weather 221 

Precipitation 221 

Tem]>erature 222 

Means and extremes 223 

Absolute temperatures of record 223 

Winds 223 

Maximum velocity 224 

Atmospheric pressure 224 

Relative humidity 224 

Cloudiness 224 

Evaporation 224 

Fogs 224 

Sea temperature 225 

Tidal conditions 225 

Seismology 225 

Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama 226 

Monthly rainfall, by sections, year 1912 and averages 228 

Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone 228 

Hourly distribution of rainfall in the Canal Zone 228 

Monthly meteorological data — Ancon, year 1912 229 

Monthly meteorological data — Culebra, year 1912 230 

Monthly meteorological data — Colon, year 1912 231 

Comparative wind records — Ancon and Sosa 232 

Monthly evaporation — Canal Zone, years 1912, 1913, and averages 232 

Sea temperatures, 1912 233 

Tidal conditions, 1912 233 

Seismograph records, Ancon, fiscal year 234 

Hydrology 235 

Station equipment and field work 236 

Freshets 237 

Special work 238 

Run-off at Alhajuela and Gatun 238 

Monthly discharge of Chagres River, 1912, at Alhajuela, Gamboa, 

and Gatun 239 

Monthly discharge at Alhajuela and monthly yield at Gatun, Jan- 
uary to June, 1913 240 

Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean elevations for 1912 and 

to June 30, 1913 241 

Gatun Lake water supply 242 

Principal freshets 243 

Data on slopes of Chagres River during freshet period November 

28-29,1912 243 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

Report of the assistant to the chief engineer, etc. — Continued. Page. 

Section of general surveys 244 

Mechanical work 244 

Total cost of repairs per service day 245 

Total cost of repairs to equipment 245 

Average cost of dry excavation 245 

Average cost of concrete laid 246 

Cost of repairs to marine equipment 246 

Traveling engineer 247 

Inspection of lubricants and equipment 247 

Consumption and cost 248 

Fuel consumed 249 

Statement of rolling stock owned by the commission 250 

Statement of floating equipment on the Isthmus 251 

Statement of equipment owned by the Panama Railroad 252 

Office engineer 253 

APPENDIX G. 

Report of the inspector of shops, department of construction and engineering.. 255 

Personnel 255 

Total pay roll 257 

Total overtime 257 

Shop-expense per cent 258 

Hostling 259 

Cristobal shops 259 

Porto Bello, Toro Point, and spillway shops 259 

Dry-dock shops 259 

Gatun shop 260 

Gamboa shop 260 

Gold Hill 260 

Las Cascadas shop 260 

Pedro Miguel shop 260 

Empire shop 261 

Ballaoa shop 261 

Gorgona shop 261 

Output and cost of iron castings 262 

Output and cost of steel castings 262 

Output and cost of brass castings 263 

Mechanical division 263 

Volume of work performed 264 

Repairs to locomotives 264 

Shop and field repairs 265 

Repairs to equipment other than locomotives and cars 265 

Number of employees on pay roll 265 

Shop-expense percentage 265 

Operation of electric-light plants 266 

Output and cost of compressed air 267 

APPENDIX H. 

Report of the chief engineer, Panama Railroad relocation 269 

Riprapping submerged embankments 269 

Bascule Bridge, Monte Lirio 269 

Automatic signals ,....,... ,.,...,.,, , 270 



Xn TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX I. 

Page. 

Report of cost-keeping accountant 273 

Exhibit A.— Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913 274 

Total division cost for various units of work 275 

Exhibit B. — Detailed cost per unit of work 276 

Table 1. — Dry excavation 276 

Table 2. — Dredging excavation 276 

Table 3. — Hydraulic excavation 277 

Table 4.— Masonry 278 

Table 5.— Dry filling 279 

Table 6.— Hydraulic filling 280 

Table 8. — Breakwaters 280 

Table 9. — Stone production 281 

Table lO.^Sand production 281 

Table 12.— Power plants 282 

Exhibit C— Detailed cost to June 30, 1913 282 

Exhibit D. — Performance sheets 286 

Table 4. — Rock crusher 286 

Table 3. — Unloading plant 286 

Tables 1, 5, 6, and 7. — Mixing plants 286 

Tables 2, 7, and 8. — Placing plants 286 

Exhibit E. — Administrative and general expenses 287 

Exhibit F. — Salary disbursements by departments and divisions 288 

Exhibits to report (for Table of Contents, see p. 289) 290 

APPENDIX J. 

Report of the chief quartermaster, in charge of quartermaster's department 371 

Organization 371 

Personnel - 372 

Labor 372 

Quarters 373 

Zone sanitation 374 

Corrals 374 

Building construction 375 

Material and supplies 376 

Receipts 376 

Issues 377 

Stocks 377 

Operation of docks 378 

Scrap 378 

Sales 380 

Exhibit 1. — Force actually at work on June 30, 1913 382 

Exhibit 2. — Force report, by months (including contractor's force), fiscal 

year 383 

Exhibit 3. — High and low force records, December, 1906, to June 30, 1913. . 383 

Exhibit 4. — Contract laborers brought to the Isthmus by commission 384 

Exhibit 5. — Analysis of transportation from the Isthmus, fiscal year 384 

Exhibit 6. — Occupants of commission quarters, June 30, 1913 386 

Exhibit 7. — Applications for married quarters on file June 30, 1913 386 

Exhibit 8. — Animals in corrals, June 30, 1913 386 

Exhibit 9. — Number of buildings on the Canal Zone, June 30, 1913 387 

Exhibit 10. — New construction, fiscal year 387 

Exhibit 11. — Buildings sold and demolished, fiscal year 388 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XTTT 

Report of the chief quartermaster, etc. — Continued. Pa„e 
Exhibit 12. — Value of material received, fiscal year, on requisitions of the 

various departments 389 

Exhibit 13. — Freight statement, fiscal year 391 

Exhibit 14.— Important items due on United States requisitions, fiscal 

year 391 

Exhibit 15. — Important items of material purchased from inception of canal 

work, 1904, to June 30, 1913 392 

Exhibit 16. — Important items of material received, fiscal year 393 

Exhibit 17. — Classification of material in stock at storehouses 393 

Exhibit 18. — Values of stock on hand at storehouses 394 

Exhibit 19.— Material returned to stock by departments and divisions, 

fiscal year 394 

APPENDIX K. 

Report of the subsistence officer in charge of subsistence department 395 

Relative value of food consumed per meal in line hotels 396 

Relative value of ration supplied European lalwrers' messes 396 

Relative value of ration supplied common laborers' kitchens 397 

Quantities and gross costs of principal articles consumed in line hotels, res- 
taurants, messes, and kitchens 397 

Comparative statement of profits and losses of Hotel Tivoli 398 

Quantities and gross values of principal articles consumed at Hotel Tivoli. . 398 

Profits resulting from department's operations 399 

Repairs to Hotel Tivoli 399 

Table 1. — Statement of operations, line hotels, restaurants, messes, and 

"kitchens 400 

Table 2. — Statement of operations, line hotels and restaurants 402 

Table 3. — Statement of operations, European laborers' messes 404 

Table 4. — Statement of operations, common laborers' kitchens 406 

Table 5. — Statement of operations. Hotel Tivoli 407 

Table 6. — Summary of operations 408 

Table 7. — Summary of operations, Hotel Tivoli 409 

APPENDIX L. 

Report of the examiner of accounts 411 

Canal Zone government accounts 414 

Claims for injury and death 415 

Accounting system for the permanent organization 418 

Canal appropriations and expenditures 418 

Tables submitted with report (for index see p. 420) 421 

APPENDIX M. 

Report of the disbursing officer 457 

Meal tickets and coupon books issued during fiscal year 458 

Payments made by the disbursing department on the Isthmus 458 

APPENDIX N. 

Report of the head of the department of civil administration 459 

Legislation ■ 459 

Relations with Panama and foreign representatives 461 

Executive office, 461 

Steamboat-inspection service 462 



XrV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Report of the head of the department of civil administration — Continued. Page. 

Division of posts, customs, and revenues 463 

Postal service 463 

Customs service 465 

Lands and biuldings 465 

Taxes and license fees 466 

Administration of estates 467 

Summary of revenues and collections 467 

Division of police and prisons 467 

Division of fire protection 469 

Division of public works 471 

Division of schools 474 

Canal Zone treasury and zone fimds 475 

Courts 475 

Appendices to report (for table of contents see p. 476) 478 

APPENDIX O. 

Report of the head of the department of law 511 

Prosecuting attorney's office 514 

Criminal cases in the circuit courts « 514 

Criminal cases in the supreme court 517 

Civil cases 517 

In the first circiut 517 

In the second circuit 517 

In the third circuit 518 

Land matters of the commission 518 

Panama Railroad Co. matters 520 

Circuit courts 520 

In the first circuit 520 

In the second circuit 521 

In the third circuit 521 

In the second circuit 522 

In the third circuit 522 

In the first circuit 522 

Supreme court 523 

Panama Railroad lands 523 

Panama Raihoad leases in effect 525 

APPENDIX P. 

Report of the chief sanitary offi.cer, head of the department of sanitation 527 

Letter of transmittal 527 

Vital statistics: 

Deaths of employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Rail- 
road 629 

Deaths in the cities of Panama and Colon, and the Canal Zone 529 

Deaths by age, color, and sex 530 

Deaths by nationality 530 

Causes of deaths of employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Pan- 
ama Railroad Co 531 

Deaths of white employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Pan- 
ama Railroad Co 532 

Deaths of white women and children from the United States 533 

Death rate among Americans on the fsthmus 533 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV 



Causes and places of deaths of employees and civil population 534 

Discharges and deaths of employees in hospitals of the commission 537 

Consolidated hospital report 541 

Consolidated sick-camp report 542 

Consolidated report of employees sick in quarters 542 

Consolidated hospital, sick camp, and sick-in-quarters report 542 

Consolidated dispensary report 543 

Average number of employees constantly sick in hospitals, sick camps, and 

quarters 543 

Average number of days' treatment per employee in hospitals, sick camps, and 

quarters 544 

Subsistence and operating expenses 544 

Outside patients treated in hospitals, and amounts collected for their treatment . 545 

Surgical operations performed in hospitals 545 

Operations and work performed in eye, ear, nose, and throat clinics 546 

Consolidated ward laboratory report of all hospitals 547 

Report of — 

Ancon Hospital 547 

Colon Hospital 548 

Culebra Hospital 549 

Palo Seco Leper Asylum 549 

Taboga Sanitarium 55O 

Santo Tomas Hospital 550 

Board of Health Laboratory 55I 

Issues of quinine 552 

Sanitation: 

Panama 552 

Colon (including Cristobal, Mount Hope, Toro Point, and Margarita Point) . 552 

Canal Zone 553 

Quarantine service: 

Panama-Ancon and Colon-Cristobal 553 

Bocas Del Toro 553 

Personnel report 553 

Hospital-cases of malaria among employees 554 

APPENDIX Q. 

Report of the superintendent of club houses 555 

Change in buildings 555 

Membership 555 

Entertainments 556 

Bowling, billiards, and pool 556 

Physical work and athletics 557 

Religious work 557 

Educational work 557 

Refreshment counters 558 

Visitation of the sick 558 

Boys' department 558 

Clubs 558 

Visit of the Atlantic fleet 559 

Finances 559 

11834°— 13 -u 



XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX R. 

Page. 

Report of the general purchasing officer and chief of the Washington office 561 

APPENDIX S. 
Report of the geologist (for table of contents see p. 565) 565 

APPENDIX T. 

Tables showing increases in salaries and personnel 583 

Department of construction and engineering 583 

Department of civil administration 600 

Department of sanitation 602 

Quartermaster's department 603 

Department of disbursements 603 

Department of law 603 

Washington office 604 

APPENDIX U. 

Acts of Congress affecting the Isthmian Canal and Executive orders relating 
to the Canal Zone (for index see p. 605) 607 

APPENDIX V. 

Cliarts showing organization of the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama 
Raihoad Co., July, 1913 (for index see p. 633) 633 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispiece : Map showing Isthmus with completed canal. 

APPENDIX A. 

[Report of the assistant chief engineer, in charge of first division of the office of the chief engineer.] 

Plate 1. Gatun lower locks. Lower guard gates, west chamber, ready for entrance of 
Atlantic Ocean water. June 14, 1913. 

2. Gatun lower locks. North entraTi.ce to west chamber, showing sea gates 

under full pressure, keeping locks free from water. June, 1913. 

3. Gatun lower locks. Looking north, showing west sea gates under pressure. 

July 2, 1913. 

4. Miter gate recess cover. 

5. Hydroelectric plant, Gatun. General view of location and status of wx)rk. 

From west wall of tailrace, looking southeast. June 27, 1913. 

6. Gatun upper locks. Final test of east emergency dam . Dam swung across 

lock, and wicket girders being lowered. May 20, 1913. 

7. Gatun upper locks. Final test of east emergency dam. Dam swung across 

lock, and third horizontal tier of gates being lowered. May 20, 1913. 

8. Gatun upper locks. Final test of east emergency dam. Dam in closed 

position across lock. May 20, 1913. 

9. Gatun upper locks. East emergency dam in act of swinging across lock. 

June 20, 1913. 

10. Pedro Miguel Lock. East emergency dam. Driving pin for eye bar of 

top chord. May 2, 1913. 

11. Special milling machine for correcting fixed irons of rising stem valves. 

Miraflores lower lock, east wall, looking upstream. 

12. High tension oil switch group, transformer room equipment. Pedro Miguel 

Lock. 

13. Low-tension switchboard, transformer room equipment. Miraflores lower 

lock. 

14. Cylindrical valve machine No. 717, and control panel. Middle waU, 

upper locks, Miraflores. Chamber walls, floor, and panel partially 
completed. June 20^ 1913. 

15. Range Tower No. 17, Gatun Lake section, showing submarine foundation. 

16. Range Tower No. 18, Gatun Lake section. 

17. Beacon No. 5, Pacific division. Typical concrete beacon marking limits 

of channel between Balboa and Miraflores. Photograph taken at about 
mean tide. 

18. Typical unlighted beacon, two of which form a range marking the axes of 

the shorter tangents in Gatun Lake. 

Following plates, 78 to 87, in portfolio. 

78. Mitering lock gates. Diagram showing progress in manufacture and erec- 

tion. 

79. Chain fender for locks. General assembly. All pits except Nos. 852, 853, 

854, and 855. Lower approach to Miraflores Locks. 

xvn 



XVin LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. 

Plate 80. Chain fender for locks. General assembly of fenders in lower approach at 
Miraflores Locks. 

81. Lock entrance caisson. General drawing. 

82. Lock entrance caisson. Typical cross frames, and cross frames at center 

line No. 6 and No. 12. 

83. Upper guard valves. Machinery for all locks. Assembly. 

84. LTpper guard valves. Machinery for all locks. Assembly. 

85. Towing tests. Limon Bay, April and May, 1913. 

86. Typical sketch of erection tracks for emergency dam, all locks. 

87. Lighting and buoying canal. West breakwater light and fog signal, ele- 

vation and section. 

APPENDIX B. 

[Report of the division engineer, Atlantic division.] 

Plate 19. Gatun lower locks, north end. The slide in the east bank, looking west 
from top of slide. January 25, 1913. 

20. Gatun lower locks. Placing iron girders on north approach wall. May 
23, 1913. 

21. Gatun lower locks. Interior \dew of north approach wall. May 26, 1913. 

22. Gatun locks. North approach wall, looking northwest. Dredge grounded 

55 feet below sea level. June 14, 1913. 

23. Gatun Locks, looking north, showing intermediate and lower locks. June 

25, 1913. 

24. Sea-level section, north of Gatun Locks, showing causeway for track lead- 

ing to dam. Atlantic entrance in the distance. July 18, 1913. 

25. Gatun Locks, looking south, showing emergency dams and lake. June 20, 

1913. 

26. Gatun Dam and lake approach to locks. View from water tovrer, looking 

west. July 13, 1913. 

27. Gatun Dam. General view from west hill. May 26, 1913. 

28. Gatun Dam. Paving lake elope. July 2, 1913. 

29. Gatun Spillway Dam, showing all crest gates in position, water running 

through temporary openings. June, 1913. 

30. Toro Point Breakwater. View from lighthouse, showing derrick barges, 

placing armor rock from Porto Bello. July 12, 1913. 

31. Toro Point Breakwater. View from station 3500, looking toward shore. 

Breakwater practically completed to this point. July 12, 1913. 

Follotving plates, SS to 92, in portfolio. 

88. General map of territory between Caribbean Sea and Gatun Lake. 

89. Plan showing methods of construction, north end of Gatun Locks. 

90. General plan of Gatun Locks and Dam. 

91. Sections of Gatun Dam. 

92. Section of Gatun Dam, showing progress to July 1, 1913. 

APPENDIX C. 

[Report of the divLsion engineer, central division.] 

Plate 32. Canal channel. Looking north from Point No. 1, near Gamboa Bridge. 
Width of channel 500 feet, surface of water 55 feet above sea level, 
October, 1912. 

33. Culebra Cut, north end, shofl'ing dike across the canal at Gamboa, and 

the Chagres River. June, 1913. 

34. Culebra Cut, Bas Obispo. Looking south from east bank. June, 1913. 



LIST OF ILLUSTJIATIONS. XTX 

Plate 35. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Completion of bottom pioneer cut, Bteam shovils 
No8. 230 and 222 meeting at grade, looking north from west bank. May 
20, 1913. 

36. Culebra Cut. Looking north from one-quarter mile south of Suspension 

Bridge at Empire. Cut completed at bridge. All tracks on completed 
bottom of canal. June 16, J913. 

37. Culebra Cut, Empire. liOoking north from Suspension Bridge, showing 

cut completed, except toe of slide on right. Drainage ditch is below 
bottom of canal. June 16, 1913. 

38. Culebra Cut, Empire. Looking south from Suspension Bridge, showing 

terracing on upper levels of east bank to prevent slides. Lower shovels 
are working on bottom of canal. June 16, 1913. 

39. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Deepest excavated portion of Panama Canal, show- 

ing Gold Hill on the right and Contractors Hill on the left. June, 1913. 

40. Culebra Cut, Las Cascadas. Looking north from east bank. June, 1913. 

41. Culebra Cut, Empire. Break in east bank at La Pita (station 1651), tak- 

ing in Obispo Diversion Channel, looking north. August 21, 1912. 

42. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Break in east bank between stations 1746-1758. 

Steam shovel No. 201 in midst of upheaved material and displaced 
tracks, looking south. February 6, 1913. 

43. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Break in the east bank between stations 1746- 

1758. Top view of rear portion of slide, looking north. February 6, 
1913. 

44. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Bottom of canal, steam shovel No. 260 overturned 

by slide from east slope. June 12, 1913. 

45. Culebra Cut, Culebra. Looking north from west bank, south of Contrac- 

tors Hill, showing shovel No. 256 caught in Cucaracha Slide. February 
7, 1913. 

46. Dump in Pacific Ocean, at Balboa, made from material taken from Culebra 

Cut. 

Following plates, 93 to 96, in portfolio. 

93. Diagram of yardage and rainfall, central division. 

94. Diagram of performance of steam shovels, central division. 

95. Profile and yardage estimate. 

96. Plan of Balboa dumps and Naos Island breakwater, showing location of 

permanent townsites and proposed shops, dry docks, etc. 

APPENDIX D. 

[Report of the resident engineer, fifth division.) 

Plate 47. Bird's-eye view Pedro Miguel Locks. June, 1913. 

48. North guide wall and west dam, Pedro Miguel. June, 1913. 

49. Miraflores lower locks. View looking north from west bank, showing 

upper locks in the distance. April 16, 1913. 

50. Miraflores lower locks. South guide wall, looking north. June, 1913. 

51. Miraflores spillway dam, looking toward locks. July 5, 1913. 

52. Hydraulic sluicing north of Gold Hill. July 22, 1913. 

53. Sea level section. Blowing up the second dike south of Miraflores locks 

to enable dredges to enter and complete excavation to last dike between 
Pacific Ocean and Miraflores Locke. Amount of dynamite used was 
]6| tons, in about 120 holes, 60 to 70 feet deep. May 18, 1913. 

54. Beginning the erection of steel frames for the permanent administration 

building at Balboa. Canal and Balboa terminal shops at the right. 
June, 1913. 



XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Following plates 97 to 102 in portfolio. 

Plate 97. Concrete progress sheet. Pedro Miguel Locks. 

98. Diagram showing monthly progress of sinking caissons. Foundation of 

north approach wall Miraflores Lock. 

99. Concrete progress sheet. Miraflores Locks. 

100. Performance of plant. Concrete placed in the Miraflores and Pedro 

Miguel locks and dams. June 30, 1913. 

101. Performance of chamber cranes at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks, to 

June 30, 1913. 

102. Map showing conditions as of Jun.e 30, 1913. Fifth division. 

APPENDIX F. 

[Report of the assistant to the chief engineer in charge of second division of the office of the chief engineer.] 

Plate 55. General view of excavation for dry -dock approach and coaling plant, 
Balboa. 

56. Balboa new shops. Planing mill looking east, showing operating tunnel 

in foreground. June 16, 1913. 

57. Balboa new shops. Pattern storage, looking northwest. Foundry yard 

crane running at right. Planing mill at left. June 17, 1913. 

58. Operating tunnel, Balboa shops, for pipes and cables, showing how joints 

in adjoining sections are made water tight by means of yellow metal 
strips. 

59. Forty-five-ton steam shovel on skids, rigged up to excavate for conduit 

tunnel, Balboa shops, "moving up." 

60. Reiuforced concrete caissons for Pier No. 1, Balboa, taken from inshore 

end, looking toward canal. 

61. Sinking reinforced concrete caissons for wharf at Balboa by weighting 

them with concrete and cast-iron blocks. 

Following plates 103 to 122, in portfolio. 

103. Chart showing excavation and expenditures. 

104. Balboa terminal docks. Manufacturing and sinking of caissons. 

105. Balboa terminal docks. Standard section of concrete pier shell. 

106. Balboa terminal docks. Bottom section of concrete pier shell. 

107. Balboa terminal docks. Plant for manufacturing pier shells. 

108. Annual rainfall along canal location, years 1911, 1912, and station averages, 

109. Wind roses, year 1912. 

110. Hydrograph of Gatun Lake. July to December, 1912, showing regulation 

of sluice gates. 

111. Hydrograph of Gatun Lake. January to June, 1913, showing regulation 

of sluice gates. 

112. Chagres drainage basin. Mass curves of net yield at Alhajuela. 

113. Chagres drainage basin. Mass curves of net yield at Gamboa. 

114. Chagres drainage basin. Mass curves of net yield at Gatun. 

115. Chagres drainage basin. Curve of discharge duration. Alhajuela, 1912. 

116. Chagres drainage basin. Curve of discharge duration. Gamboa, 1912. 

117. Chagres drainage basin. Curve of discharge duration, 23 years, 1890-1912, 

inclusive, by months. Alhajuela. 

118. Chagres drainage basin. Curve of discharge duration, 23 years, 1890-1912, 

inclusive, by months. Gamboa. 

119. Chagres drainage basin. Curve of discharge duration, 23 years, 1890-1912, 

inclusive, by months. Gatun. 

120. Cross sections, Chagres River at Gamboa gauging station. 

121. Profiles of Chagres River. 

122. Rainfall, run-off, and retention curves, Gatun Lake watershed, river year 

1912, 1913. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XXI 

APPENDIX H. 

[Beport of the chief engineer of the Panama Raih'oad relocation.] 

Plate 62. Gatun River Bascule Bridge No. 140, looking east. Lift span just starting 
to open. 

63. Automatic signal No. 1054, looking north. 

64. Automatic signals Nos. 654 and 655, at north end of Gatun passing track, 

looking south. 

APPENDIX S. 

[Report of geologist.] 

Plate 65. Hill type of topography, looking southward from Zion Hill, Culebra. 

66. Hill type of topography, looking northward from Zion Hill, Culebra. 

67. Coastal plain type of topography. 

68. Geological section across the Isthmus. 

69. Generalized section — Canal Zone formations. 

70. Shows character of volcanic agglomerate. 

71. Bedded rocks of Culebra formation. 

72. Basalt dike cutting Cucaracha formation, in Culebra Cut.^ 

73. Emperador limestone beds, near Las Cascadas. " 

74. Ancon Hill and quarry. 

75. Gold Hill, showing northern fault contact. 

76. Contractors Hill, showing fault contact. 

77. Fault on west side of Culebra Cut south of Las Cascadas. 

Plate in portfolio. 
Plate 123. Geological cross sections of Culebra Cut showing sliding ground. 

APPENDIX V. 

[Charts showing organization of Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Co., July, 1913.] 

Plate 124. General organization of the Isthmian Canal Commission. 

Isthmian offices. 

Plate 125. Office force of chairman and chief engineer, assistant chief engineer, and 
assistant to the chief engineer. 

126. First division of chief engineer's office. 

127. Second division of chief engineer's office. 

128. Central division. 

129. Atlantic division. 

130. Fifth division of chief engineer's office. 

131. Sixth division of chief engineer's office, and eecretary o^ the commissio.n.. 

132. Mechanical division. 

133. Cliie"f quartermaster. 

134. Subsistence officer. 

135. Civil administration. 

136. Chief sanitary officer. 

137. Disbursing officer, examiner of accounts, and department of law. 

138. Panama Railroad Co., including New York offices. 

Washington offixx, 
Plate 139. General piirchasing officer. 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 

Office of the Chairman, 
Culebra^ Canal Zone^ September 15^ 1913. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the annual report for the Isthmian 
Canal Commission for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The organization continued as outlined in previous annual re- 
ports, with but minor changes, until January 1, 191S. Mr. S. B. 
Williamson, division engineer of the Pacific division, concluding 
that the work of his division had advanced to such a state that the 
commission was not warranted in continuing his position, tendered 
his resignation, effective December 11, 1912; and it was reluctantly 
accepted. This action necessitated a reorganization of the work on 
the Pacific side. That part of it relating to the terminals, which 
during the previous fiscal year had been assigned to the Pacific divi- 
sion, was transferred to the second division, which had charge of 
preparing the designs for the shops, dry docks, and coaling stations. 
The locks, dams, spillway, dry excavation between and below the 
locks, the quarry, and the municipal engineering work was organized 
into the fifth division of the chief engineer's office and placed in 
charge of Mr. H. O. Cole as resident engineer. The dredging and 
the operations for the procurement of sand were constituted the 
sixth division of the chief engineer's office, under Mr. W. G. Comber 
as resident engineer. 

The jurisdiction of the quartermaster's department extended from 
Porto Bello to Balboa, and the timekeeping was centralized in the 
chief quartermaster's office. To this force was later assigned the 
timekeeping for the various offices at headquarters. When the first 
division undertook the installation of the machinery at the locks 
the timekeeping of this division was also turned over to the time- 
keeping force of the quartermaster's department. The same was 
done when the fortifications division was organized, and the results 
U834°— 13 1 1 



2 EEPOKT ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSION. 

obtained from this consolidation were so satisfactory as to lead to 
the conclusion that economy, without any impairment of accuracy, 
would result by consolidating all the timekeeping under one head. 
Accordingly this was done gradually under the examiner of accounts, 
in order that it might be properly started, and when all work of 
this kind for all the departments and divisions, except the central 
division, was combined, the timekeeping force was turned over as a 
part of the organization of the fourth division of the chief engineer's 
office on July 1, 1913. 

For similar reasons the cost keeping that had formerly been done 
by the various divisions of the work w-as gradually consolidated 
under the chief accountant, so that at the close of the year he had 
charge of all work of this character, with the exception of that of 
the central and mechanical divisions. 

An architectural force was organized under Mr. Austin W. Lord, 
architect, July 1, 1912, to draw up the plans of the administration 
building, a general scheme for the establishment of the new town 
that is to be created at Balboa, near the Pacific entrance of the canal, 
and to prepare designs for the houses for the permanent operating 
force. 

IVhen it was finally decided to turn the water into Culebra Cut 
in October, 1913, and to complete the remaining excavation by 
dredges, all the dredging on the Isthmus was combined under one 
head, with a view to organizing the work so that the equipment 
could be used to the best advantage. Effective May 1, 1913, the 
dredging work under the Atlantic division was transferred to the 
sixth division of the chief engineer's office, thus consolidating it with 
the dredging organization of the Pacific side. On this same date 
the dry-dock shops at Cristobal were transferred to the mechanical 
division. n» 

Effective May 1, 1913, a change was made in the offices of the 
examiner of accounts and the disbursing officer by which the system 
formerlj^ in vogue of separate checking of vouchers and pay rolls in 
each office was eliminated, thereby conforming to the provisions of 
the act of August 23, 1912, making appropriations for the legislative, 
executive, and judicial expenses of the Government. The examiner 
of accounts is now held responsible for the accuracy of the accounts 
in all details. 

CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING. 
FIRST DIVISION. 

The first division of the chief engineer's office, under Col. H. F. 
Hodges, United States Army, assistant chief engineer, continued in 
charge of the design of the locks, dams, regulating works, and acces- 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 3 

scries ; the design and construction of aids to navigation ; the inspec- 
tion of the manufacture and erection, under contract or otherwise, 
of the lock gates, operating machinery, gates and valves, emergency- 
dams, and chain fenders ; and of the placing of such concrete in the 
locks as was omitted until the installation of the machinery. 

The designing work for the locks, including all detail drawings 
needed by the working force in the field, as well as for the spillways, 
approach piers, and wing walls, was completed. After performing 
some work for the second division on the coaling plants and canal 
terminals, the force in charge of these designs was disbanded on 
June 1, 1913. 

The complete installation for a set of rising stem valves requires 
setting the valves, placing the stems, roller trains, crossheads, motors, 
and control panels. It developed that the fixed ironwork for guid- 
ing the valves and for forming the water seals required correction 
before installation could be begun. For all the valves at Gatun and 
all but two at Pedro Miguel the corrections were made by chipping 
and grinding with pneumatic hand tools; for the two at Pedro 
Miguel and all the valves at Miraflores it was done by a specially de- 
signed milling machine. Ninety-four per cent of the fixed irons had 
been corrected at the close of the year. During the year 102 rising 
stem valve chambers were prepared, including 50 at Gatun, 28 at 
Pedro Miguel, and 24 at Miraflores, and 104 valves, including trains 
and sealing devices, were placed in position in the locks. Of this 
latter number, 48 were at Gatun, 28 at Pedro Miguel, and 28 at 
Miraflores. 

Tests were made, with satisfactory results, on 39 rising stem gate- 
valve machines at Gatun, 20 at Pedro Miguel, and 8 at Miraflores. 
All machines were given a preliminary and an acceptance test, the 
latter consisting of 10 cycles made at five-minute intervals. The 
thrust screws must run silently ; the temperature of the crosshead nuts 
must not exceed 50° C., and no heavy vibration is permissible. 

Six side-wall intake screens were placed at Gatun and the bulk- 
heads to the center-wall intakes were removed and placed in the 
outlet. At Gatun the four lower side-wall bulkhead gates were also 
placed. 

Guard valves were provided as duplicates to the upper rising stem 
valves in emergency, or for use in closing the intakes in the side- wall 
culverts for unwatering the culverts to permit access to other valves 
for painting and repairs. The design of the machineiy for these 
valves was completed in August, 1912. The design was determined 
by the cramped position in which the machines had to be placed; 
because of the infrequency of operation, as well as their slow speed, 
it is simpler and cheaper than for the rising stem valve. On Novem- 
ber 14, 1912, a contract was awarded for 18 complete machines^ 



4 REPOBT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

excepting the motors, limit switch, counterweight bases, and counter 
weights, and 50 per cent of the machines were delivered before the 
close of the year. 

The last of the cylindrical valve machines purchased under con- 
tract was delivered January 15, 1913. The mechanical installation 
of the 120 cylindrical valves was completed June 1, 1913, and the 
electrical work of installing control panels and cables with necessary 
conduits for these machines was 41.6 per cent complete for all locks. 
As the result of tests made to determine the leakage of the cylindrical 
valves, it Avas decided to regrind all valves so as to allow a maximum 
average opening around the seat of 0.004 of an inch. The operating 
machinery is the same for both cylindrical valve and auxiliary culvert 
valve machines, except that 60-inch and 36-inch strokes are required 
for the 60-inch and 36-inch auxiliaiy culvert valves, respectively, 
instead of the 32-inch stroke of the cylindrical valve. Tests were 
made to determine the time required to open the various types of 
valves, with the result that the cylindrical valves required 10 seconds, 
the 60-inch auxiliary culvert valve 16 seconds, and the 36-inch auxil- 
iary valve 10 seconds. 

Tests of discharge were made on the cylindrical valve and the three 
rising stem gate valves in the spillway. The first series of observa- 
tions, with heads varying from 8.94 to 29 feet above the center of 
the valve, gave values of the coefficient of discharge for the cylindri- 
cal valve of 0.445 as the mean of three observations, and for the gate 
valves of 0.592 as the mean of six observations. These observations 
were complicated by the screens at the culvert entrances, which became 
clogged with dirt and debris. After the screens had been removed 
a considerably increased coefficient of discharge resulted for the 
rising stem valves; the average of 58 observations, with an average 
head of 29.81 feet above the middle point of the valve, gave a value 
of the coefficient of 0.68. It is probable that a less favorable value 
will be obtained in operating the lock culverts on account of the fric- 
tion and changes of direction in the stream after it passes the valve. 
The cylindrical valve was removed before the later and more reliable 
observations were made. 

During the year, 14 gates and 1 cnisson for the spillway at Gatun 
and 8 gates and 1 caisson for the spillway at Miraflores were erected 
complete, under contract, and the contract closed. The gates at 
Gatun were installed in position on the dam. The Miraflores spill- 
way was under construction and not ready for them. The draft 
tubes for the hydroelectric station, which are placed on the east side 
of the spillway dam at Gatun, were completed. 

All the spillway gate machines and pirnips for unwatering the 
counterweight pits, purchased under contract, were delivered during 
the year and a satisfactory test was made of the first machine erected. 



BEPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 5 

The device for shifting the gate upstream a slight distance after it is 
clear of the water and the mechanism for raising the roller train out 
of the water after the pressure on the gate is relieved operated 
properly. At the close of the year the mechanical work had been 
started on 12 of the 14 machines at Gatun and 71 per cent of the 
mechanical work on all machines was completed. 

The construction and erection of the lock gates was continued dur- 
ing the year under contract with the McClintic-Marshall Construc- 
tion Co. dated June 21, 1910. All shop drawings were completed, as 
was the manufacture of all material for the gates, aggregating 57,500 
tons ; the final shipment was made in April. In addition, about 2,100 
tons of structural work for spare parts were built and delivered on the 
Isthmus, completing this part of the contract with the exception of a 
few castings, bolts, and rivets. The spare parts comprise sufficient 
material for partly or completely rebuilding any two-gate leaves on 
the canal in case of accidental injury. The work of erecting the lock 
gates proper began at Gatun May 17, 1911, at Pedro Miguel August 
7, 1911, and the first work at Miraflores was done on September 10, 

1912. At the beginning of the fiscal year work was in progress on 
half the total number in all the locks, but none of them had been en- 
tirely completed. The total amount of steel assembled was only 
19,361 tons or about 34 per cent of the total, and much of this was only 
partly reamed and riveted. The total number of field rivets was 
about 963,000, or about 18 per cent of a total of over 5,700,000. The 
work had been allowed to drag so that the task of completing it 
within a reasonable time seemed hopeless. The contractors decided 
upon a change in their local management and, beginning about Sep- 
tember 1, installed much additional machinery, largely increased 
their force, and arranged for more efficient supervision. Within a 
few months the improvements in the organization became manifest; 
a high degree of efficiency was reached, with a correspondingly large 
increase in the work done. Some idea of the improvement may be 
judged from the fact that during the month of March a maximum 
of 660,000 rivets were driven, while the highest number driven in any 
one month prior to September 1, 1912, was 213,000. On June 30, 

1913, over 97 per cent of all material was assembled in the gates. All 
the leaves in the west chamber at Gatun and in the east chamber at 
Pedro Miguel had been stepped on their pintles, and all the leaves in 
the west chamber at Miraflores, excepting the two leaves of the oper- 
ating gate in the lower chamber. All the guard gates were complete 
except those at the lower end of Miraflores locks, and the guard gates 
at both ends of the Gatun locks had been permanently closed at the 
end of the fiscal year. Those at the upper end were put in service 
about July 20, 1912, and the lower guard gates were closed June 11, 



6 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

1913 ; the latter sustain the maximum working head of about 40 feet 
without appreciable leakage. 

A supplemental contract was entered into with the contractors 
under date of January 14, 1913, by which certain restrictions gov- 
erning pajanents were modified, as the original provisions proved to 
be unnecessarily severe and it was clear that a more speedy com- 
pletion would be assured by relaxing. The modification provides 
for successive ])artial payments on each gate when the assembling, 
riveting, finishing, and painting have been completed and accepted. 
A further supplemental agreement was signed May 20, 1913, which 
gave an extension of time for completing the gates. A number of 
delays occurred for which, according to the terms of the contract, the 
contractors could not be held responsible. These were in part due 
to shipwrecks and strikes, as well as delays caused by the commis- 
sion. The rate under which the liquidated damages are to be com- 
puted was increased, while, on the other hand, new and later dates 
were fixed for the completion of the several gates. June 1, 1913, 
was the date fixed for the upper guard gates at Pedro Miguel, and 
June 15 for the guard gates at the lower approaches to Gatun and 
Pedro Miguel and the upper approach to Miraflores Locks. The 
lower guard gates at Miraflores are to be finished by September 1, 
1913, and all the other gates necessary to permit the lockage of 
vessels through one side of each flight, from ocean to ocean, must be 
completed not later than October 1, 1913, while the date of final 
completion for all the remaining gates is fixed at January 1, 1914, 
for Gatun and Pedro Miguel, and March 1, 1914, for Miraflores. 
From the progress being made by the contractors these dates will 
be anticipated unless some unforeseen contingency should arise. The 
total weight of all gates on the canal, excluding pumps, floats and 
float switches, motors and conduits, and other electrical apparatus, 
the castings for attaching the oi^erating struts, and the miter forc- 
ing machines, is 57,552 tons. The castings and structural parts to 
be embedded in the masonry were in part furnished under the con- 
tract for the lock gates and were erected by tlie commission in con- 
nection with the concrete construction. The total amount thus far 
expended is $4,820,019.32, of which $4,065,392.01 was paid under the 
contract, and the balance of $754,627.31 was for inspection and 
division charges. 

The entire shipment of miter gate-moving machines was completed 
during May, 1913, but the work has been handicapped by the non- 
receipt of parts that it is necessary to embed in the concrete and about 
which the erection of the whole machine hinges. At the end of the 
fiscal year 86 per cent of all machines had been installed. The elec- 
trical work in connection with these machines was 24.2 per cent 
completed at the close of the year. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 7 

The miter gate-moving machines had been in^itallecl complete on 
the upper guard gates at Gatun, and a test was made of this ma- 
chinery on- July 31, 1912. The gate-moving machine was adjusted 
so that when the strut arm was at dead center on the crank gear 
the gates were closed with a compression of the strut for one leaf 
of five-thirty-seconds inch and for the other leaf of nine-thirty- 
seconds inch. The limit switches were adjusted so that the gate 
traveled from its full miter position to the opposite position in the 
recess, at which point the machine was again on dead center. The 
gates were started from a miter position and opened to their full 
position in the recess and again closed. The time of operation of 
one leaf Avas 1 minute and 51 seconds and for the other 1 minute 
and 50-| seconds. The operation was completed a second time. Dur- 
ing both operations the mitering of the leaves was perfect. The gates 
also had installed a miter-forcing machine which had been pur- 
chased under contract, and this was tested out on the same date, under 
approximately actual operating conditions. One leaf was left in its 
closed position and the other opened a distance of 2 inches. The 
miter-forcing machine was then operated and it brought the gate to 
within three-fourths inch of perfect miter. Another trial, with an 
opening of 3| inches, brought the gate to a point five-eighths inch from 
miter. During these tests the miter- forcing machine was operating 
against the resistance imposed by the strut. As the result of the 
test several changes were made and the option under the contract of 
purchasing the remainder of the miter-forcing machines required for 
all the locks was allowed to lapse and new proposals invited. Under 
the new contract all the machines required have been delivered. The 
work of installation, however, was delayed on account of noncom- 
pletion of the work on the structural gate parts. 

An account of the studies made to determine the most desirable 
type of chain fender, together with a description of the design se- 
lected for the construction of a trial unit, was given in the annual 
report for 1911. Under the contract entered into on November 4, 
1911, all material for the trial fender was delivered on the Isthmus 
by December, 1912. The erection was begun about January 1 and 
practically completed by March 1, 1913. During the months of 
March and April a number of tests were made. The first series con- 
sisted of raising and lowering the chain by operating the centrifugal 
pumps, and the generaf operation of the machine, including the ac- 
tion of the moving cylinders, girders, and the passing of the chain 
over the sheaves, was satisfactory from the beginning. The pumps 
and their motors were of sufficient capacity to raise and lower the 
chain injthe specified time — one minute. The chain dropped uni- 
formly from both lock walls and, in its final position, rested at the 
bottom for the full width of the lock chamber, with its vertical parts 



8 EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

entirely within the chases in the walls. A second series of experi- 
ments was made by use of a Lidgerwood imloader to test the opera- 
tion of the fender under conditions somewhat similar to those that 
will preA'ail when the chain is struck by a moving vessel. Under 
such circumstances the chain will gradually pay out, touching the 
curved surface of the hawsepipe castings in the walls, over a con- 
stantly increasing arc of contact. The movement will be resisted in 
part by the friction of the chain along the hawsepipes. in part by the 
internal friction of the machinery, but mainh^ by the hydrostatic 
pressure which acts against the upper surface of the moving cylinder. 
In the final tests made the maximum pressure reached 630 pounds 
per square inch, when the chain parted near or on one of the lower 
sheaves. This pressure corresponded to a stress on the chain of less 
than one-half the breaking strength obtained in the shop tests. The 
results obtained seem to warrant the belief that a vessel, unless of 
very great size or moving at excessive speed, can be checked or 
stopped without breaking the chain, provided the latter is struc- 
turally sound. The great tidal range below Miraflores locks made a 
modified design necessary. The same system of cylinders is used 
and the machinery in all its parts is practically the same, but the 
chain is stretched across the lock at either of two levels, according 
to the stage of the tide. The chain is endless and, by a stop mecha- 
nism, may be operated electrically from the central control house. 
The chain that passes through either hawsepipe is connected with 
the operating machinery and is raised or lowered, that which passes 
through the other hawsepipe remaining at rest. 

Plans and specifications for the floating caissons, referred to in 
previous annual reports, were completed and invitation for proposals 
issued on May 23, 1913. The caissons will be used for closing the 
upper and lower entrances to the lock chambers when unwatering 
them, and will contain a pumping plant of sufficient capacity for 
pumping out the locks. They are ship caissons, with vertical ends 
and curved surfaces throughout. Their extreme length is 113 feet 10 
inches, molded breadth 36 feet, breadth of the top deck 18 feet, and 
depth at the side 65 feet. With fixed ballast only, the caissons will 
float at a draft of 32 feet, which will be increased to a maximum of 
61 feet by flooding them when they are put in place on the deepest 
sills. Trinuning tanks are provided to keep the caissons on even keel. 
The pumping system Avill include 4 centrifugal pimips of the volute 
type with a 20-inch discharge, besides a small auxiliary pump. The 
capacity of each of the large pumps is specified at 13,000 gallons per 
minute, which will insure the unwatering of any of the locks within 
25 hours. The flooding of the caissons will be done by grjjvity and 
two of the four large pumps are arranged for pumping them out. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. ^ 

The punips and ventilating fan will be electrically driven, while the 
cranes and windlasses will be operated by hand. 

All the remaining parts of the towing track material to be furnished 
under contract were delivered on the Isthmus before the close of the 
year. The total amount delivered aggregated approximately 53,950 
linear feet and at the close of the year 3G,908 linear feet had been 
installed complete with concrete, and 11,168 linear feet had been 
distributed and bolted up ready to be aligned and concreted. The 
installation of most of the return track has been performed by the 
Atlantic and Pacific divisions during their construction work. 

Bids were invited for towing locomotives on design prepared by 
the electrical subdivision, and a contract was entered into for furnish- 
ing 1 locomotive with the option of purchasing 39 more, or of substi- 
tuting for this locomotive one built according to the design submitted 
by the successful bidder. The locomotive was delivered on the 
Isthmus January 25, 1913, and ready for operation February 7, after 
which it was tested. The result of the test developed defects, so that 
changes and improvements were necessary in order to fulfill the con- 
ditions required. While the contract provided for making minor 
changes if found necessary, the changes and improvements which it 
was decided should be made in order to make the machine satis- 
factory could not be classed as minor ones. As a result, advantage 
was taken of the option in the contract and an order was placed for 
the required number of locomotives on the design submitted by the 
General Electric Co., abandoning the design of the commission. 

A series of tests was made in Limon Bay on ships of the Panama 
Eailroad fleet, at various speeds and rates of acceleration, to serve as 
a check on the basis used for the design of the towing locomotives. 
The size of the ships ranged from 3,500 tons to 10,400 tons displace- 
ment at actual draft at the time of the tests, A tug was used which 
could exert a maximum pull at standstill of about 15,000 pounds. 
A manila towrope of 7-inch girth indicated a pull on a dynamometer 
consisting of spiral springs working between circular end plates with 
a steel scale for indicating the compression of the springs. The start 
was made from rest, in position alongside the dock, and the ship 
accelerated to the desired speed as quickly as the power of the tug 
permitted. The speed was then held constant until a sufficient num- 
ber of readings had been obtained to insure representative results. 
Headings were taken of dynamometer pull, tug speed, angle of tow 
line with center line of tug, angle of tow line with ship, and ship's 
bearings, at intervals of 30 seconds throughout the run. 

The total amount of insulated cable on order to date for all classes 
of work on locks and hydroelectric station, including the under- 
ground lines from the hydroelectric station to the locks, aggregates 
2,372,110 feet, of which 1,394,600 feet are lead-sheathed cable and the 



10 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSIOlJ. 

remainder, 977,510 feet, rubber-covered double-braided wire and 
cable. About 93 per cent of the total amount required has been 
delivered complete. A total of 462,729 feet of lead-sheathed cable 
has been pulled into the ducts, and a large part of the remaining 
ducts has been rodded and cleaned and is wired with fish wires for 
pulling in the remainder of the cable as needed. All cable is pulled 
in ducts by a special winch made on the Isthmus and driven by a 
small motor. The cable is greased and pulled through the ducts at 
the rate of 70 feet per minute. A few lengths as long as 900 feet, 
where duct conditions were favorable, were pulled without undue 
strain on the cable or appreciable abrasion of the lead sheath. A 
large number of observations were taken to determine the amount 
of pull for various lengths and combinations of different cables. 

During the year the control scheme for the various locks was 
completed and contemplates the control of every piece of machinery 
in the lock walls from a central station, situated on the center wall 
of the upper locks, where an uninterrupted view of the entire lock 
or flight of locks may be had. In this house is located a control 
switchboard connected with every local control panel and indicating 
mechanism. The switchboard is so arranged that the indicator and 
control switch of each gate or valve machine is placed in the same 
relative position to other indicators and control switches as that 
occupied by the actual machines, so that by means of red and green 
lights and small models of gates and valves operated by synchronous 
transmitting mechanisms the operator in the control tower is able 
to tell at a glance the condition in any part of the locks from the 
SAvitchboard indications. It is expected that the first board will be 
shipped b}^ August 1. 

The general features of the illumination of the locks were described 
in the last annual report. A hollow concrete pole with concrete 
bracket arms and reflectors was designed by the architect for sup- 
porting the lamps for exterior illumination of the locks and grounds. 
The center-wall poles carry a single bracket and lamp projecting 
toward the chamber, and the side-wall poles carry double bracket 
lamps, so as to give a broad illumination over the lock chambers and 
the ground surrounding the locks. The poles are arranged in 4 rows 
along the wliole length of the locks, 1 row on each side wall and 2 
on the center wall. They are spaced approximately 100 feet apart, 
with the lamps 30 feet above the coping level. The lighting units 
used are 110- volt, 500- watt Mazda lamps. 

The generating equipment for the hydroelectric plant was deliv- 
ered during the year, including the main generators and turbines, 
with exciter sets, traveling crane, penstocks, head gates, and oper- 
ating machinery. The steelwork for the hydroelectric station was 
purchased under contract, and the delivery was completed before 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 11 

the end of the year. The erection of the penstocks is complete and 
all turbines have been set. The balance of the work of installation 
is dependent upon the completion of the building for housing the 
electrical equipment. 

During the year it was decided to install for the transmission line 
an overhead system of 44,000 volts, extending from Balboa to Cris- 
tobal, and connecting the Gatun hydroelectric power station with 
the present Miraflores steam power station, so that they may be 
operated separately or in parallel, as necessary. Four substations 
are provided, and located at Cristobal, Gatun, Miraflores, and Balboa. 
The complete line consists of duplicate three-phase lines, one of which 
is carried on each side of track-span bridges spaced 300 feet apart on 
tangents and 200 feet on curves along the whole length of the 
Panama Railroad. The bridges are of structural steel, with a clear 
track span of 36 feet, and an over-all height of 40 feet. The con- 
ductors are to be 2/0 stranded copper wire spaced with a clearance of 
5 feet. They are supported from brackets outside of towers, with 
three-part suspension insulators, with noncorroding connecting links 
to allow a maximum life and a minimum of line troubles. 

During the year the remaining shop drawings for the emergency 
dams were completed and approved. Full-sized tests were made 
upon the gates prior to shipment, as required under the specifica- 
tions, the object being to insure that the friction upon the rails will 
not be so great as to prevent the lowering of the gates by their weight 
alone, and that no objectionable distortions or permanent sets will be 
produced by the maximum pressure to which the gates will be sub- 
jected. Practically all structural material for the turning and wedg- 
ing machinery for the emergency dams was shipped to the Isthmus 
and, with a few exceptions, has arrived in excellent condition. The 
assembling of the east dam at Gatun was begun July 1, 1912, and was 
practically completed on March 1, 1913. Erection of the west dam 
was begun on November 9, 1912, and was practically completed in 
five and a half months, or March 1, 1913. The material for the west 
dam at Pedro Miguel was received in time to begin erection on 
February 1, 1913, and practically all of the material has been assem- 
bled. Work was begun on April 1, 1913, on the east dam, and by 
June 30 over 50 per cent of the material had been assembled in the 
structure and 30 per cent of the riveting had been completed. De- 
livery of material for the east and west dams at Miraflores began on 
May 1, 1913, and up to the end of the fiscal year about 840 tons had 
been received. The erection of the east dam was begun on June 1, 
1913, and of the west dam on June 13, 1913. On May 20 the con- 
tractor began the final tests of the dam on the east side at Gatun, 
the total time for closing in the first test being 1 hour 1 minute and 



12 REPORT ISTHMIAliT CANAL COMMISSION. 

30 seconds. After three complete operations of the dam, as required 
by the contract, the second part of the test was started, consisting of 
operating the turning and wedging machinery for 20 days, at inter- 
vals depending upon the heating of the motors. These tests were 
made principally for the purpose of limbering up the turning and 
wedging machinery. After completing the second part of the tests, 
three additional complete operations were made in accordance with 
the contract ; the last completely closed the passage in 42 minutes and 
17 seconds, which was 19 minutes and 13 seconds less than the time 
occupied in the first test. 

Under the aids to navigation 12 range towers were completed, with 
some minor exceptions in the Gatun Lake section. These towers are 
of reenforced concrete, with heights from base to focal plane varying 
from 28 feet 10 inches to 87 feet 10 inches. Three skeleton tower 
beacons, marking the edges of the channel between Balboa and 
Miraflores, were completed. Eighteen concrete-steel reference and 
range targets were completed in the Gatun Lake section. There will 
be approximately 32 of this type, by means of which gas buoys may 
be located from previously determined angles. At Bohio, Pena 
Blanca, Caimito, Mamei, Juan Grande, and Bas Obispo these refer- 
ence targets also form unlighted ranges which mark the axes of the 
short tangents at those places. The reenforced concrete caisson for 
the west breakwater light and fog signal, which was begun in June 
of last year, was completed up to a height of 25 feet and was sunk 
at the inner end of Limon Bay in 20 feet of water, where it will re- 
main until its riprap foundation at the outer end of the breakwater 
has reached its final settlement. The plans for the west breakwater 
light and fog signal were revised under the supervision of the archi- 
tect and the revised structure supersedes the one shown in the last 
annual report. Fifty-one concrete buoj^ sinkers 48 by 48 by 2G inches 
and forty-five 24 by 24 by 18 inches were constructed at the Balboa 
plant of the lighthouse subdivision. A reenforced concrete wharf 70 
feet long and 30 feet wide, adjoining the small boat landing at 
Gatun, was built for use of the lighting establishment of the canal by 
the Panama Railroad. It will he used for storing, painting, and re- 
pairing gas and spar buoys belonging to the Gatun Lake section. 
Experiments were made with Tungsten lamps having a spirally 
wound filament concentrating the light source to spheres of one-half 
inch for 100-watt and five-eighths inch for 150-watt lamps and, as 
these proved successful, that type of lamp will be used throughout 
for all electrically lighted range towers and beacons. Experiments 
were also made for special flashing devices and lamp shifters for 
electrically lighted towers and beacons and bids for their manufac- 
ture will be asked for in the near future. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 13 

Approximately 250 acres of canal prism from San Pablo to Pena 
Blanca were cleared of trees and brush, and approximately 180 acres 
of land were cleared of trees in the vicinity of Mamei for the dredg- 
ing division. 

For detailed information concerning the operation of this division, 
attention is invited to Appendix A. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION, 

The work of this division embraces the construction of the locks 
and dam at Gatim, the quarry at Porto Bello, the sand supply, the 
breakwater for the shelter of shipping and protection of the chan- 
nel at Limon Bay, the municipal improvements in Colon and the 
various settlements embraced within the territorial limits of the 
division, and such sanitary engineering work within the same limits 
as is prescribed by the sanitary department. The work of excavat- 
ing the channel between the Gatun locks and deep water in the 
Caribbean was in charge of this division until May 1, 1913, when it 
was transferred to the sixth division of the chief engineer's office. 
On this same date the dry dock and shops were transferred to the 
mechanical division. The work of the division is in charge of Lieut. 
Col. William L. Sibert, United States Army, as division engineer. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year dredges were at work excavat- 
ing an area north of the caisson sills of the locks, within which the 
flare or wing walls and the north approach pier were to be con- 
structed. The wing walls are built on rock and the approach pier 
partly on rock, but for the greater part on piling. For the former it 
was necessary in some places to remove material to a depth of 70 
feet below sea level in order to uncover the rock; and as the dredges 
could excavate only to a depth of 41 feet, the level of the pool had 
to be lowered for them to perform the work. To accomplish this 
a clay dam was built across the cut excavated by the dredges to 
reach the area, and, when completed, the water in the resulting 
inclosure was lowered by pumping with the dredges. The excava- 
tion for the flare walls was carried well to the rear and made suf- 
ficiently wide for the walls and for a rock fill which was to sustain 
the material back of it from sliding as the water was lowered. This 
fill also formed a foundation on which to carry the cableway tracks. 
It was anticipated that by extending the rock fill to the north the 
cableway tracks could be laid, so that the construction plant could 
be used to build the entire length of the center approach wall; be- 
cause of the softness of the material, which, as the water receded, 
assumed a slope of 1 on 13 in some portions, this plan had to be 
abandoned. 



14 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

For the approach pier the dredges removed material to a 
depth of 55 feet below sea level and for a width of 140 feet along 
the center of the excavated area. On completion of the dredging 
in November, 1912, the pit was filled with water, the clay dam re- 
moved, a dipper dredge and one suction dredge taken out, and one 
suction dredge, a pump barge, and two coal barges left inside the 
area. The clay dam was then rebuilt and water pumped out, ex- 
posing the foundations. The dredge was grounded at 55 feet below 
sea level and was used to keep the water below the foundations. 
Two steam shovels worked over that portion of the center wall 
foundations where rock appeared, and also excavated such material 
from the approach to the west locks as could be handled by them. 
The channel excavation and the preparation of the foundations were 
accomplished by shovel, crane, cableways, and by hand. 

The flare walls are built solid. The north approach wall or pier 
is 58 feet wide and consists of a series of piers placed 50 feet centers 
longitudinally and 40 feet laterally, in which direction they are 
connected by arches of 22-foot span, while longitudinally they are 
spanned by steel girders incased in concrete. In plan the piers are 
therefore 10 feet by 18 feet. The piers rest upon a slab of con- 
crete, heavily reenforced with old rails near the top and bottom, 
built on the piling. The first six of the openings north of the locks 
are closed by curtain walls to prevent objectionable cross currents 
while the locks are emptying. The plan originally contemplated 
a pier 1,200 feet in length, measured from the angle of the flare walls. 
In December, 1912, the division engineer recommended that the wall 
be shortened 200 feet, A slide had occurred at the north end of the 
pit when it was dewatered, covering the foundation of this portion of 
the wall, and the removal of this slide, which would have to be done 
largely by hand, would be tedious and require considerable time; 
furthermore, this would make the north approach wall correspond 
more nearly to the one at the south, which is 994.5 feet long. The 
local conditions where the south wall was terminated were such 
as to make the cost of building the additional length prohibitive; 
however, as a considerable saving in time of completion would re- 
sult, the recommendation was approved and the length of the north 
approach pier was therefore fixed at 1,000 feet. The foundation for 
the pier required the driving of 5,000 piles, aggregating 200,549 
linear feet, at a cost of $0.5504 per foot. For the curtain walls 
5,657 feet of sheet piling were driven. On January 25, 1913, while 
this work was in progress, a slide occurred on the east side, which 
covered a large part of the foundation with from 6 to 18 feet of 
material, largely mud, destroying two of the pile drivers and delay- 
ing the work. The material was partly removed by crane and hand, 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 15 

but largely by sluicing and pumping, the dredge handling the 
material from the sump into which it was washed. 

The concrete in the flare walls was laid by the cableways, which 
were also used for so much of the center pier as could be reached by 
them. The remaining portion of the latter was laid by cranes and 
by means of dump cars operated by construction locomotives, the 
concrete being supplied by the cableways through hoppers and chutes. 
The total amount of concrete laid in the locks proper aggregated 
164,750 cubic yards; of this amount 137,218 cubic yards were classed 
as plain concrete, and cost $6.5383 per cubic yard; the balance was 
reenforced, and cost $10.5762 per cubic yard. In addition, 5,530 
cubic yards of concrete were used for the construction of lamp-posts 
and their bases, snubbing-button bases, machinery-room covers, con- 
trol house, paving between the upper lock and the Panama Railroad 
station, under the emergency dams, and for the work of the first 
division, making the total handled by the Atlantic division 170,280 
cubic yards. The total amount of concrete laid in the locks by the 
Atlantic division up to the close of the fiscal year therefore aggre- 
gated 2,040,715 cubic yards, at an average division cost of $7.1220 
per cubic yard. 

Last fall it was estimated that the concrete work of the locks would 
be completed by July 1, 1913. By shortening the north approach 
pier 200 feet, all the concrete, except miscellaneous finishing, was 
completed on June 14, 1913. The miscellaneous work consists of 
lamp-post bases, snubbing-button bases, mooring-post bases, stair- 
well parapets, paving, and the closing of a few openings which were 
left for construction purposes. Of the amount of concrete laid dur- 
ing the year, 2,742 cubic yards were produced by auxiliary mixers, 
1,944 cubic yards were mixed by hand, and the balance by the 2-yard 
mixers installed in the construction plant. 

In addition to handling sand from the barges to the stock pile, 
the unloading cableways were used for transferring sand and rock 
from the stock piles to the tunnel hoppers and for loading rock for 
sale to outside parties. There was sufficient broken stone in storage 
so that none was crushed during the year. A total of 171,866 cubic 
yards was taken from the storage pile for use by the division, 1,568.5 
cubic yards for issue to other divisions and sale to outside parties. 
To the storage pile on hand at the beginning of the year 43,851 cubic 
yards of sand were added, secured from the Chagres River by means 
of a suction dredge. This sand cost $0.5188 per cubic yard delivered 
in stock. Cement delivered in bags, amounting to 225,000 barrels, 
was received and handled, partly by barges from the ship and crane 
into the cement shed, and partly by car transfer, then by hand into 
the shed. Of the amount on hand, 287,000 barrels were^ issued for 



16 BEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The back filling of the side walls and the filling of the center wall 
was made of material obtained from borrow pits and from the canal 
prism, aggregating 637,226 cubic yards, all of it removed by steam 
shovels. Of this amount, 565,756 cubic yards were placed behind the 
side walls at a cost of $0.3805 per cubic yard, and 15,872 cubic yards 
in the center wall by the cableways at a cost of $0.8320 per cubic 
yard. The total amount of material used for back fill up to June 
30, 1913, aggregated 2,027,830 cubic yards placed behind the side 
walls at an average cost of $0.4586 per cubic yard, and a total of 
113,163 cubic yards placed in the center wall at a cost of S0.7780 per 
cubic yard. Teams and scrapers were put to work in March, 1913, 
and continued to the end of the fiscal year bringing the back fill to 
final grade and for the construction of a wagon road along the east 
side of the locks. About 1,500 cubic yards of material were handled 
in this way, at a total expenditure for this purpose of $9,296.82. It 
was decided to pave the exposed surface of the back fill between the 
locks and the Panama Railroad station with concrete slabs 5 feet by 
5 feet by 6 inches, extending from elevation 78 to the top of the slope, 
and laid on from 4 to 6 inches of broken stone from Ancon quarry. 
Below this concrete paving the slope was to be covered with riprap 
stone down to elevation 74. The concrete paving was estimated to 
cost $8,000. On June 30, 1913, the surfacing of broken stone 
was completed and 125 square yards of the concrete paving hpd been 
finished at a total cost for the latter to that date of $1,172.91. 

The lamp-posts and bases for illuminating the locks were con- 
structed by this division, the bases erected in place, and the lamp 
standards cast; of the latter, 211 were made at a cost of $149.4299 per 
lamp-post. 

The construction of the control house, designed by the first division, 
in conjunction with the architect, for the Gatun locks was begun in 
April, 1913. At the close of the year the three floors and the walls 
for the first and second stories of the building were completed; the 
total amount expended was $20,287.51. 

At the close of the previous fiscal year the Gatun Dam had been 
raised to an elevation of 103.35 feet for a length of 1,000 feet east of 
the spillway, and for the balance of this portion of the dam the dry 
fills had reached a general elevation of 96 feet and the hydraulic fill 
between them a general elevation of 85 feet. On the portion of the 
dam west of the spillway the north and south fills had reached a gen- 
eral elevation of 98 feet and the hydraulic fill an elevation of 87 feet 
at the spillway and 78 feet at the drains located in the northwest 
corner of the dam. 

At the close of the fiscal year just ended sufficient material had 
been added to raise the dam to practically its full height, with 3 to 5 
feet additional along the axis to allow for settlement. The dry 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 17 

fill was secured from the borrow pit which had been opened during 
the previous fiscal year, beyond the west end of the dam, and the 
clay used to top off the hydraulic fill from borrow pits north of the 
dam and in the vicinity of the locks. From two to six steam shovels 
were engaged in procuring this material and removed 2,159,159 cubic 
yards, borrow-pit measurement, of which 922,877 cubic yards were 
designated as rock. The hydraulic fill was supplied by three pipe- 
line suction dredges operated in borrow pits upwards 1| miles dis- 
tant, the maximum lift being 100 feet. The total amount handled, 
borrow-pit measurement, was 493,145 cubic yards. The hydraulic 
fill was stopped in September, 1912. No complete survey was made 
during the fiscal year, but partial cross sections were run monthly 
until February, 1913, from which the material in place was calcu- 
lated, and for the following months, estimates were based on borrow- 
pit measurement. Under these circumstances it is estiraat-ed that the 
dry fill deposited aggregated 1,714,367 cubic yards, or a loss of 21 
per cent of the borrow-pit measurement, due to consolidation. Of 
the hydraulic fill, it was estimated that there was a loss of 324,141 
cubic yards Or 65.8 per cent due to waste through drain pipes, leak- 
age, and consolidation. The total consolidated fill for the year ag- 
gregated 1,967,841 cubic yards. The cost of the dry fill in place 
amounted to $0.3755 per cubic yard and of the hydraulic fill $0.2654 
per cubic yard. Levels were run monthly with a view to determin- 
ing settlement, observations being taken on hubs placed about 250 
feet apart longitudinally and about 100 feet apart transversely. 

On the morning of August' 29 a bulging and sliding movement 
began along the north slope of the dam near the west end. At 7 
o'clock in the morning of this date the track which was at the top of 
the dry fill, elevation 101, settled vertically about 3 feet over a length 
of about 200 feet, while the track at elevation 63, down the sl(3pe, 
showed slight indications of movement. In tlie afternoon of the 
same day a lateral displacement of 8.8 feet had occurred on tlie 
85-foot contour and 5.1 feet on the 50-foot contour; there was no 
movement on the 30-foot contour. On the morning of August 30 a 
further settlement and bulging had occurred, giving an additional 
lateral movement of 3.4 feet on the 85-f9ot contour, 3.2 feet on the 
50-foot contour^ while the toe of the slope still remained undis- 
turbed. By the morning of August 31 a still greater displacement 
had occurred, adding 8.6 feet to the lateral movement on the 85-foot 
contour, 9- feet on the 50-foot contour, wliile the foot of the slope was 
pushed out laterally 6.2 feet on the 30-foot contour. The movement 
continued through September 1 and ceased September 2. The maxi- 
mum vertical settlement of the track at elevation 101 was 20 feet, 
extending for a distance of 750 feet along the crest, affecting not only 
the hydraulic fill but the north slope of the dry fill to the south of it. 
11834°— 13 1 



18 KEPOET I&THMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The total lateral displacement along the 85-fooit contour was 33.9 
feet, on the 50-foot level 31.2 feet, and on the 30-foot contour 18.1 
feet. The south slope of the dam remained undisturbed. The slope 
of the portion of the dam which moved was originally fixed at 1 on 5 
(section DD, plate 19, annual report, 1909), and this was authorized 
" because the rock is near the surface and fairly horizontal. The 
only thing to be provided against in this slope is the slipping of the 
dam material on itself." Because of the character of the material 
along this portion underlying the structure there could be no question 
that the movement was within the dam itself, consequently test pits 
were not resorted to as in the case of the movement on the east part 
of the dam, reported a year ago. A line of wash borings with drive 
samples was made. These borings clearly indicated that the relative 
proportions of hydraulic fill and dry fill which would bring about the 
desired section of hydraulic fill — wedge shape, with the point down — 
had not been secured, but that on the contrary the hydraulic fill in 
section was the opposite of this. Furthermore, it was evident that 
provision had not been made against the slipping of the dam 
material on itself. As in the case of the movement on the north 
face of the east portion of the dam, the toe was heavily reenforced 
and the slope flattened to an average of about 1 on 7.67. 

To prevent injury to the dam that might result from wash of the 
south slope by waves in the lake caused by strong south winds, which 
prevail at times, it was necessary to pave such portion of this slope 
as is liable to such action. Concrete paving was at first considered, 
but because of settlement, due to consolidation and the irregularity of 
the surface, it was decided to use riprap laid on broken stone. It was 
estimated that waves 5 feet in height might at times exist, so that 
the paving was extended over that portion of the slope lying between 
elevations 74 and 92. A layer of crashed stone, supplied by Ancon 
quariy, was laid over the dam within these limits to a thickness of 
about 4 inches. Over this a sufficient thickness of riprap was placed 
to protect the broken stone from the action of the waves. The ripr'ap 
■was at first procured from a quarry in the vicinity of Quebrancha 
and was estimated to cost $1 per cubic yard in place on the dam. As 
the cost, however, after a trial of two months, amounted to $2.1027 
per cubic yard in place, and as the stone was mixed with a consider- 
able amount of clay, this quarry was abandoned and the stone was 
furnished from the excavation for the dry dock at Sosa Hill. An 
area of 115,740 square yards was covered with crushed stone, of which 
15,740 cubic yards were used, completing this portion of the work in 
April at a cost of $2.4536 per cubic yard in place. The riprap stone 
placed at the close of the fiscal year aggregated 68,730 cubic yards, 
covering an area of 102^030 square yards, at a cost in place of $0.6574 
per cubic yard. 



REPORT OP CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 19 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the spillway dam had been 
completed, including the abutments, ogee, and crest piers, to eleva- 
tion C9, while the central portion, about 370 feet in length measured 
along the crest, had been practically completed to elevation 50. As 
previousl.y noted, four sluices had been left — three closed by Stoney 
gates and one by a cylindrical valve — to permit control of the water 
during the construction of the dam. During the fiscal year the 
flanks were carried to completion, while the central portion, which 
had been finished to elevation 50, was left at this height to allow the 
flood waters to escape' during the rainy season. Work on the closing 
of these openings was commenced as soon as the level of the lake 
could be dropped below elevation 50 and the work pushed. A trestle 
was erected on the flanks at elevation 95 and was extended entirely 
around the dam when the full height of 69 feet was reached. From 
it the west abutment and part of the crest piers were built to eleva- 
tion 115, or full height, and the 14 crest gates were installed. On 
the completion of the west abutment the trestle beside each gate was 
dismantled in succession and the upstream side of the pier, inter- 
fered with by the trestle, was constructed. In February the sluice 
operated by the cylindrical valve was closed, but it was impracticable 
to complete the remaining crest piers and east abutment until the 
three remaining sluices could be closed. The water in the lake, con- 
trolled by the sluices, was held at about elevation 32 until the last 
week in August, when the completion of the guard gates and caisson 
sills of the locks permitted it to be raised. During November and 
the early part of December the water reached a maximum elevation 
of 56.3, notwithstanding the flow through the opening left in the 
central part of the dam and through the sluices. After the rainy 
season the water was lowered to elevation 48 so that work might be 
resumed on the spillway, and the sluices were finally closed on June 
27, as the plans contemplated raising the lake to full height during 
the present rainy season, starting with the water at Gatun at eleva- 
tion 50 on July 1, 1913. The elevation of the lake at Gatun on this 
date was 49.15. Advantage was taken of the flow over the spillway 
to dispose of a number of floating islands, snags, and old timbers 
which the rising waters had brought into existence and which the 
wind and current had brought down to the locks and dam. The 
anchorage basin to the east of the channel and the channel itself 
for a distance of about 6 miles south of Gatun were cleared. These 
obstructions in the channel were in places 14 feet thick and con- 
sisted of matted snags, sticks, and roots of living vegetation that had 
apparently floated upward from the floor of the swamp below. Such 
aggregations were broken into small sections by a floating pile 
driver. 



20 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Concrete laid in the spillway for the year aggregated 21,719 cubic 
yards, at a cost of $8.1227 per cubic yard. The excavation amounted 
to 175 cubic yards and cost $2.3913 per cubic yard. The total amount 
of concrete thus far placed in the spillway w^as, therefore, 224,132 
cubic yards, at an average cost of $7.4838 per cubic yard. 

Architectural features were added to the plans prepared by the 
first division of the chief engineer's office for the hydroelectric power 
plant to be constructed below the spillway at an estimated cost of 
$147,950 and its construction undertaken by the Atlantic division. 
The excavation was completed and during the year 14,948 cubic yards 
of material were removed — rock and earth — at a cost of $0.4022 per 
cubic yard; in the preparation of the foundations 11,684 cubic yards, 
costing $1.7973 per cubic yard, were removed; the total excavation 
to date, therefore, including the preparation of foundations, was 
98,751 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.5486 per cubic yard. The 
steel work for the structure was advertised, and the lowest bid 
amounted to $25,456.37. The successful bidder offered to erect the 
steel structure in 45 days and at an additional cost of $6,496.74. As 
the Atlantic division estimated that the erection could be done in 42 
days by its own forces and completed at a cost of $4,643, this work 
was assigned to the Atlantic division. The erection of the steel work 
was commenced on May 16, and at the close of the year about 65 per 
cent had been erected and 90 per cent of the field rivets driven. The 
amount thus far expended was $6,154.36. The penstocks were encased 
with concrete, except for the curved portions near the head gates. 
The forebay walls with trash-rack and stop-plank grooves are about 
95 per cent completed. 

Work on the west breakwater for Limon Bay was continued 
throughout the year. A length of 599 feet of trestle, single track, 
was added, making the total length of trestle 11,526 feet. The total 
amount of rock received from Porto Bello and placed on the break- 
water was 183,762 cubic yards, of which 102,508 cubic yards were 
handled from barges to Lidgerwood cars by locomotive cranes and 
subsequently plowed off. The balance was placed by derrick barges. 
In addition to this source of supply about 220,433 cubic yards of 
rock removed from the channel by the dredges were dumped on the 
breakwater. A small pile wharf was built for handling rock by 
cranes to cars, and 3,000 cubic yards of sand were dredged by derrick 
barge for the barge berth. The cost of Porto Bello rock placed on 
the breakwater averaged $4.8250 per cubic yard. 

The quarry at Porto Bello was worked during the year for sup- 
plying the large rock required for the breakwater. It was intended 
to develop the quarry in two benches, each with a height of at least 
60 feet at the highest point and approximately 1,700 feet long. 
Because of the peculiar formation of the hill it \vas found that suflS,- 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 21 

cient large rock could not be secured from the two benches to complete 
the breakwater, so that this development was temporarily suspended, 
and in November, 1912, operations were resumed by one steam shovel 
in the old crushed-rock quarry, above the two benches ; after the first 
of the year two more shovels were put to work on this higher level. 
The broad-gauge equipment, which was substituted for the narrow 
gauge previously in service, was placed in operation on October 5, 
1912, and in October the output was increased from two to three 
barges per day. In securing rock of proper size about 60 per cent 
of the output was wasted. 

As previously noted, the Toro Point breakwater is intended for the 
protection of the harbor and the shelter of vessels against northers, 
and its line of direction is nonnal to the prevailing wind during these 
storms. It is not intended to give protection against the waves pro- 
duced by the trade winds, which generally are from north to north- 
east and which are not dangerous to shipping that will use the canal. 
The waves from the trade winds have been washing the shores of 
Limon Bay in the vicinity of the canal entrance, and survey made in 
March, 1913, showed that the channel in the vicinity of the shore line, 
which had been dredged to full depth, had filled so as to giv^ an. 
available depth of only 27 feet and that in the center of the channel. 
It was also estimated that the silt deposited in the channel during 
the previous 12 months was 2,213,082 cubic yards. As the result of 
investigation it is believed that this silting is largely clue to wave 
action disturbing the soft material of the bottom of the bay, which 
is taken up and carried in suspension and subsequently deposited in 
the deeper channel. The deposit is generally uniform except in that 
part near the shores of the bay. The Atlantic Fleet during its visit 
to the canal last winter anchored under the lee of the west break- 
water, and at times the trade winds made it difficult for small boats 
to reach the ships, and, as a consequence, the General Board of the 
Navy advocated the construction of a detached breakwater for the 
protection of the anchorage area, stating that at times it would be 
dangerous and, at times, impossible for small boats and barges en- 
gaged in coaling battleships to lie alongside. Under these circum- 
stances, and as such a breakwater will protect the channel to some 
extent against the wave action causing the silting, by breaking up the 
waves, the construction of a detached breakwater on the east side is 
contemplated. Investigations were undertaken in an endeavor to 
find a quarry more accessible than Porto Bello. To still further 
protect the channel against material washed from the shores of the 
bay exjjerimental stone dikes are to be constructed. 

As previously reported, the existing water supply for Colon was not 
adequate and plans were submitted for the construction of a modem 
filtration plant and pumping station to take the place of the present 



22 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

plant. This project was approved on July 12, 1912, at a total cost of 
$193,768. It contemplates a tunnel through the divide separating 
the Gatun Lake from the Brazos Brook Reservoir within which is to 
be laid a 20-inch main, with its inlet at an elevation of approximately 
5 feet below the extreme low water level in Gatun Lake. This pipe- 
line, 600 feet in length, extends to the Brazos Brook Reservoir, and by 
means of a control house the water in the reservoir is maintained at a 
minimum low level of 1 foot below the spillway crest, so that any ad- 
ditional amount of water required over that furnished by the water- 
shed will be taken from Gatun Lake. An additional 20-inch main 
was laid from Brazos Brook Reservoir to Mount Hope, the site of the 
new purification plant and pumping station. In connection with 
these there are included an aeration basin, sedimentation basin, and 
filters after passing which the water enters a clear-water basin having 
a capacity of approximately 650,000 gallons. This basin is connected 
by an underground conduit to the pump sump beneath the floor of the 
pumping station. The pumps will be operated electrically. Work 
was commenced in October, 1912, and at the close of the fiscal jenr all 
work between Gatun Lake and Brazos Brook Reservoir was practi- 
cally complete. The pumping station was completed ready for the 
installation of the machinery ; the filter building was completed up to 
and including the operating floor; the sedimentation basin was 75 
per cent completed; and the foundations and floors of the mixing 
chambers and aeration basin were laid. In addition to the operation 
of the purification plant at the Agua Clara Reservoir, the usual main- 
tenance work was carried on during the year. 

Approximately 70,000 square yards of macadam were laid and re- 
paired, 44,000 linear feet of road ditches cleaned and dug, 9,500 
linear feet of curb and gutter laid, and 4,600 feet of sewers installed. 
In addition, municipal improvements were carried on in Colon under 
an appropriation by Congress for the purpose. Of the appropriation 
of $800,000 made by the act of March 4, 1909, for extending the 
municipal improvements in Colon and Panama, there were expended 
during the year in the former locality $53,939.15, making a total ex- 
pended in Colon to the end of the fiscal year of $505,909.54. In ad- 
dition to completing improvements previously undertaken, the 
money was expended in replacing curbs and gutters which had 
settled, resurfacing, and in extending the improvements to include 
G Street between Second and Ninth Streets, and in the extension of E 
Street to its inte^ection with the Mount Hope Road. 

Sanitary work consisted of cleaning and grading 237,000 linear feet 
of ditches; constructing approximately 53,000 linear feet of ditches, 
and lining with concrete approximately 26,000 linear feet of ditches. 
In addition, approximately 6,800 linear feet of pipe and tile drains 
were laid and cleaned. 

For further details, attention is invited to Appendix B. 



EEPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 23 

CENTRAL DIVISION. 

The work of this division embraces the excavation between the 
Gatiin Dam and Pedro Miguel Locks, including diversion channels, 
the construction of the Naos Island Breakwater, municipal improve- 
ments in the various settlements included within the division limits, 
and such sanitary engineering work in the same area as is prescribed 
by the sanitary department. The work is in charge of Lieut. Col. 
D. D. Gaillard, United States Army, as division engineer. 

Excavation for the canal prism during the year was confined to 
Culebra Cut, and 12,582,124 cubic yards were removed. In addi- 
tion to this, 155,376 cubic yards were excavated in changing portions 
of the Obispo diversion and 35,888 cubic yards outside of the canal 
prism for auxiliary work; the total amount of material handled by 
the central division, therefore, aggregated 12,773,388 cubic yards, of 
which 10,098,099 cubic yards were classed as rock. The estimated 
amount removed because of slides was 5,899,200 cubic yards and of 
this amount 1,593,070 cubic yards of material were taken from the 
upper reaches of the banks to reduce the quantity to be taken from the 
bottom, or as a preventive measure against slides and breaks. In 
other words, 46.67 per cent removed from the Cut was due to slides, 
as against 35.90 per cent during the previous fiscal year. The amount 
remaining to be removed was again increased at the close of the 
year, and aggregates for the Culebra Cut 8,200,000 cubic yards; in 
other words, there will be an increase for the central division of 
9,280,237 cubic yards over the estimate submitted in the last annual 
report. Of this total remaining, 1,324,944 cubic yards were inside 
the canal prism lines and 6,860,500 cubic yards estimated for slides, 
which estimate includes the amount for benching back of the banks 
so as to relieve the pressure which, crushing the underlying strata, 
may either increase the extent of existing slides or cause new ones. 
The total amount of material due to slides so far removed aggre- 
gates 22,570,200 cubic yards, or an increase of 2,304,200 cubic yards 
over that estimated in the last annual report. Slides and breaks in- 
creased as the Cut was deepened. No treatment has proven effective 
for slides when once developed except that of excavating and hauling 
away material from the moving mass until the slide comes to rest or 
until the angle of repose for the particular material in motion is 
reached. 

The predictions of the geologist in the last annual report, with 
reference to the Cucaracha slide, that " the end of the activity of this 
slide is now well in sight, however, because all loose surface stone and 
clay has almost slid off, exposing several large dikes and flows of 
basalt which would successfully maintain in place most of the re- 
maining material," have not been realized. The bottom grade of the 



24 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

canal had been reached and the widening cuts had progressed satis- 
factorily until within approximately 60 feet of the line of the prism 
was reached on the east side, when on January 20 the basalt rocks 
broke and there slid into the Cut approximately 2,000,000 cubic yards 
of material extending completely across the Cut, topping the tracks 
on the 67-foot level and completely stopping the passage of trains 
from the north. Bottom grade was subsequently reached for suffi- 
cient width to put in drainage pipes for handling the water from the 
north, but the rains saturating the loosened material occasioned a 
flattening of the slope, thus causing another movement, and the 
weight of the superimposed mass broke the pipes. Work was con- 
tinued on the slide during the year, but principally for the purpose 
of maintaining the tracks on the 67-foot level open for the passage 
of trains. This slide at the close of the fiscal year covered an area 
of approximately 50 acres. The total amount removed thus far since 
July, 1905, when it began moving, is 3,859,500 cubic yards, leaving 
approximately 1,500,000 cubic yards still to be removed. The mate- 
rial on the south side of the slide is practically all clay, the middle 
of it consists of clay and spalls, and the north side of it rock with a 
mixture of clay. The clay and the clay and spalls can be easily 
handled by suction dredges, while the material on the north side can 
be handled by dipper and ladder dredges. 

From the West Culebra slide 1,922,700 cubic yards were removed 
during the year, including material taken from the upper benches, 
making a total from the time this slide developed in October, 1907, 
of 8,687,600 cubic yards, leaving approximately 2,390,000 cubic yards 
to remove, if all the material on the top of the bank is taken out. 
This slide covers an area of 68 acres. 

From the slide at East Culebra 1,676,300 cubic yards were removed 
during the year, making a total of 5,966,200 cubic yards removed 
since the slide first developed in January, 1907, and it is estimated 
that 2,000,000 cubic yards remain. This slide covers an area of 
approximately 55 acres and extends from the north side of Gold Hill 
for approximately 5,500 feet. 

The shovels on the upper reaches of the East Culebra slide were 
taken out in August, 1912, and replaced in January, 1913. One 
shovel was taken from the upper reaches of the West Culebra slide in 
October, 1912, and replaced in July, 1913 ; there was at no time less 
than 1 shovel working at this point. 

A break occurred on August 20, 1912, north of the one previously 
reported at La Pita Point, which turned the Obispo diversion into the 
canal, flooding it and effectually stopping all steam-shovel work to 
the north. These shovels were removed, an earth dam built across 
the Cut south of the break to protect the Cut between it and the 
summit, which area was then freed from water by pumps ; and a tern- 



KEPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 25 

porary channel constructed for the diversion. The shovels were con- 
centrated on the summit stretch and continued there and on the 
upper banks until the dry season. After a new channel had been 
excavated for the Obispo diversion the slide was attacked and 181,100 
cubic yards removed during the remainder of the year. 

On the east side of the Cut, north of Gold Hill, there is a French 
dump included within the East Culebra slide. A crack developed 
about April 1, 1913, parallel to the Cut and 635 feet distant from its 
edge, but it does not join the Cut at any point, beginning and ending 
on the flat in which it appeared. Steps were taken, by means of 
steam shovels, to bench this portion of the bank and arrangements 
made for sluicing as much as possible into the valley to the east. 

The summit of drainage in the Cut continued about opposite Cule- 
bra until the two shovels cutting to grade on the bottom produced one 
cut through at grade on June 28, 1913. The water south of the 
summit Avas drained into the Pacific through the central culvert of 
the Pedro Miguel Locks. The dike separating the Cut on the north 
side from the Chagres River remained intact and the pumping plant 
previously described continued in service to handle the water which 
drains to the north from the summit, with the addition of two French 
centrifugal pumps, 17-inch discharge, added after the break north of 
La Pita Point. 

With the opening in the spillway at plus 50, with the upper gates 
at Pedro Miguel not complete, it was feared that a heavy freshet 
might top the dike at Gamboa and do injury to the locks. It was 
therefore decided to raise the Gamboa dike to elevation 78.2, carry- 
ing this elevation along the west dike which separates the west 
diversion channel from the Cut. The amount of material utilized for 
this purpose aggregated 37,080 cubic yards. 

As cracks developed in the sides of the Obispo diversion, giving 
the appearance of additional slides which, if they occurred, would 
let the water of the diversion into the Cut, it was decided to relocate 
the diversion farther to the east and this was done in tliree places, 
one opposite Whitehouse, another opposite the division office at 
Empire, and another around the break north of La Pita Point. This 
necessitated the handling of 128,076 cubic yards. 

The Lirio drainage channel was changed farther to the west, as 
the old channel ran so near the Cut that it was liable to break through, 
and in making this change 27,300 cubic yards were handled. 

All trains loaded in the Cut were hauled out at either end to the 
dumps. On account of the grades that had developed due to deepen- 
ing the Cut, it was necessary to use an average of seven engines per 
day as pusher engines to get these trains out in carrying the loaded 
trains up the inclines at either end. With a contracted area of opera- 



26 BEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

tion, the steam shovels were placed closer together and necessitated an 
average of six locomotives daily to handle the trains to and from the 
shovels, besides those used in hauling the trains to the dumps. 

Due to the development of slides and beginning February 20, 1913, 
the split-shift system was inaugurated on shovels working in the 
slides and on the upper benches, so as to secure 12 hours' work per 
day. While this increased the cost to some extent, it was more than 
justified, after the decision had been reached to admit the water into 
the Cut in October, in order to remove as much of the remaining rock 
in the dry as possible. 

The dumps in use during the year were those at Miraflores, Balboa, 
along the line of the railroad relocation north of Gamboa, swamp 
lands in the vicinity of Ancon, and a new dump opened along the 
line of the Panama Railroad south of Pedro Miguel. It was neces- 
sary to abandon the old line of the Panama Railroad in the vicinity 
of Miraflores Locks, to permit the construction of the spillway, and 
subsequent to March 4 trains had to be operated over the single track 
through the tunnel. This reduced the number of trains that could be 
operated to the south and caused the opening up of the Pedro Miguel 
dump. Material taken from the upper benches on the east side of 
the Cut was wasted partly in extending the dump north of Gold Hill 
that was started two years ago, and the remainder was dumped at 
Miraflores, Ancon, and Balboa, operating over the Gold Hill cut-off 
of the Panama Railroad. That taken from the upper benches on 
the west side was wasted on the old dump at Culebra and on the 
dumps to the south. A total of 284,755 cubic yards were dumped on 
the east side of the Cut. At Miraflores 1,288,262 cubic yards were 
wasted; 3,985,129 cubic yards were used for reclaiming swamps at 
Balboa and wasted on the Balboa dump; 440,725 cubic yards were 
used for filling swamp lands northeast of Ancon Hill ; and 4,376,080 
cubic yards on the Panama Railroad relocation dumps between 
Caimito and Gamboa. During the year 90 acres were filled in at 
Balboa, making a total of 474 acres in all reclaimed at this point. 
Between Balboa Y and Sosa Hill 54 acres of marshy land that it was 
impossible to drain properly were filled during the year. In addi- 
tion, 487,108 cubic yards of waste material were furnished other divi- 
sions and the Panama Railroad. 

As previously stated, the Naos Island Breakwater, extending from 
the shore at East Balboa to Naos Island — a distance of 3.29 miles — is 
constructed for the purpose of cutting off silt-bearing currents that 
would fill the excavated channel in the Pacific and make navigation 
of the channel more difficult by reason of cross currents. As noted 
in the last annual report, considerable difficulty was experienced by 
the method of construction then in vogue, which consisted of dumping 
material from a single trestle extended in advance of the dump. A 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 27 

plan suggested by Mr. W. G. Comber was considered by a board and 
adopted. The plan consists of the building of a double trestle ex- 
tending to Naos Island, dumping to be done on either side, thereby 
spreading the fill over the treacherous bottom, and carrying it to 
mean tide as far as the island. When this was done, filling was to 
commence at the island carrying it to full height. Should the trestle 
fail, ample length would be left for dumping between the break and 
the end of the finished portion, while the broken portion was being 
repaired by pile drivers. On June 30, 1913, the trestle had been 
entirely completed and filled, with the exception of a stretch about 
600 feet long. The total amount of material used for this purpose 
aggregated 653,242 cubic yards. The soft material was pushed out 
and up forming a ridge of mud, intermixed with stones that had been 
dumped in and carried up by the soft material, parallel to the break- 
water and at a distance of approximately 100 feet from it. The 
total amount expended on the dike by the central division and the 
Pacific division up to June 30, 1913, was $384,540.89, or about $22.14 
per linear foot. 

The average division cost of excavation for the year, including 
plant charges and all items which entered into its accomplishment, 
was $0.5525 per cubic yard. The total amount removed from the cen- 
tral division since American occupation up to the close of the fiscal 
year was 107,139,181 cubic yards at an average cost of $0.7105 per 
cubic yard. Of this total, 93,305,975 cubic yards were removed from 
Culebra Cut. 

Actual construction work on the Empire-Chorrera Road was com- 
pleted, the convict labor employed on it was transferred to other 
work, and a small force of paid labor was established for the pur- 
pose of placing screenings and doing other work necessary for the 
completion of the road to the Zone boundary. On November 27, 
1912, the construction of a 16-foot macadam road from Gamboa 
to a point on the Las Cascadas plantation road, about 3,600 feet from 
the east end of the Empire suspension bridge, was undertaken. 
This road will have a total length of a little over 5 miles. A stock- 
ade was erected at Gamboa to house the prison labor which is en- 
gaged on it. The Empire-Paraiso Road was relocated and rebuilt 
for a distance of 5,608 feet, due to slides along the east bank of the 
canal. In the village of Culebra 2,370 feet of road were recon- 
structed on account of slides on the west bank of the canal. At 
Lirio camp 253 feet of road were constructed. For the preservation 
of the roads and the comfort of the traveling public the oiling of 
the highways during the dry season was authorized, and this treat- 
ment was applied to approximately 27,000 linear feet of road in the 
villages of Empire and Culebra. It was necessary to resurface 
16,323 linear feet of the Gorgona-Bas Obispo Road. 



28 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

For the maintenance of water supply to the shops and for other 
construction purposes, additional pumps were installed and oper- 
ated at Lirio, Sardanilla Eiver, Gamboa, and Gorgona shops. 

Sanitary work consisted in digging 4,698 linear feet of ditches, 
regrading 602,578 linear feet of ditches, cleaning 1,327,676 feet of 
ditches, laying 6,426 linear feet of tile drains, constructing 3,852 
linear feet of concrete gutters, cleaning 847,852 linear feet of con- 
crete ditches, and clearing 908,331 square yards of brush and grass. 

For further information concerning the operations of the central 
division, attention is invited to Appendix C. 

FIFTH DIVISION. 

As already noted, on the resignation of Mr. S. B. Williamson, the 
Pacific division was abolished, effective December 12, 1912, and the 
fifth and sixth divisions of the chief engineer's office organized. 
The fifth division has charge of the construction of the locks, dams, 
spillway, excavation in the dry in the canal prism between and 
below the locks, the operation of Ancon quarry, municipal engi- 
neering work within the area covered by the works of the division, 
and such sanitary engineering work as may be prescribed by the 
sanitary department within the same area. The work is in charge 
of Mr. H. O. Cole as resident engineer. 

Excavation in connection with the Pedro Miguel Locks was com- 
pleted during the year by the removal of 3,044 cubic yards from the 
locks proper at a cost of $0.4078 per cubic yard. The bulk of the 
excavation consisted of the removal of the French dump east of the 
lock site, and the material was utilized for back fill. In addition to 
the excavation necessary for completing the locks, 2,190 cubic yards 
were removed for the construction of the northeast core w\ill built 
to prevent the passage of water back of the east wall, which might 
otherwise occur. This excavation was done by hand, and extended 
under the tracks of the old Panama Eailroad which are in use by the 
central division; the cost was $3.4297 per cubic yard. To prevent 
•flooding the locks, a cofferdam had been left to the south until com- 
pletion of the concrete work of the locks, and the subsequent increase 
in the length of the south approach pier to 1,200 feet prevented its 
completion until after this cofferdam could be removed. In prepar- 
ing the foundations for this gTiide pier and for the wing walls 15,366 
cubic yards of material were removed, of which 10,701 cubic yards 
were rock. The average cost was $2.3885 per cubic yard. The total 
amount of excavation for the locks, approach piers, and guide walls, 
including the preparation of foundations, was 1,319,742 cubic yards, 
and cost on an average $1.0248 per cubic yard. The total amount of 
concrete placed during the year was 58,367 cubic yards, mixed entirely 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 29 

by auxiliary mixers consisting of two 2-cubic-yard niixers at the 
north end of the locks on the west side and of an average of 3.05 
half-cubic yard mixers which were moved about as necessity required. 
The concrete was handled either by derricks and locomotive cranes 
or dumped direct into place through chutes. Of this total 39,465 
cubic yards were plain concrete at a cost of $6.5432 per cubic yard 
and 18,902 cubic yards were reenforced concrete at a cost of $9.7989 
per cubic yard. The total amount of concrete placed prior to July 1, 
1913, in the Pedro Miguel Locks was 906,293 cubic yards at an average 
cost of $5.5061 per cubic yard. 

The back filling of the lock, wing walls, and center wall was com- 
pleted during the year, and the riprap finish at the ends of the south 
wing walls was partially placed. The amount used in the back fill 
was 367,150 cubic yards, of which 193,212 cubic yards were in the 
center wall at a cost of $0.3895 per cubic yard, and the balance behind 
the side walls at a cost of $0.4642 per cubic yard. The total amount 
of back fill placed up to June 30, 1913, was 806,538 cubic yards back 
of the lock walls at an average cost of $0.3889 per cubic yard, and 
215,149 cubic yards in the center wall at a cost of $0.4480 per cubic 
yard. 

The west dam at Pedro Miguel, consisting of rock-filled sides and 
puddled-clay core, was completed and the top finished at elevation 107 
with clay. The north face was riprapped with hard stone at the 
85-foot level. During the year 114,117 cubic yards of fill were added, 
making the total in the dam 696,558 cubic yards. The average divi- 
sion cost during the year was $0.3312 per cubic yard; the average 
division cost for the entire dam was $0.4471 per cubic yard. 

The Miraflores Locks, including excavation for foundations and 
the placing of concrete, were carried to completion during the year. 
The foundation work for the lower west wall was seriously inter- 
fered with and retarded by slides and by the water-bearing strata of 
the banks. In some places it was necessary to build retaining walls 
to prevent mud from flowing onto the foundation areas, and the slides 
which occurred carried away the berm-crane tracks, necessitating 
the use of auxiliary concrete mixers for laying the wall bases suffi- 
ciently high to secure a bearing for the berm-crane tracks. Similar 
difficulty was experienced with the south guide walls, especially on 
the east side of the locks, which could be built only in small sections. 
The concrete would be pushed as far as possible, then stopped until 
another portion of the slide could be removed, and in this way the 
slide was gradually encroached upon until the guide or flare wall was 
completed. 

The north flare walls are founded on piles ; for that on the west side 
of the locl« the piles are driven in a marsh and the weight supported 
entirely by friction on the piles. While back filling this the portion 



30 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

of the wall constituting the return bulged slightly, but further move- 
ment was checked by depositing material along the face of the return, 
thus adding a counterweight. 

The center approach piers were constructed to the full length of 
1.200 feet each from the angle of the flare walls. The north wall 
is of cellular reenforced concrete construction and is founded on 
concrete caissons sunk to rock. These caissons consist of reenforced 
concrete shells 7^ feet in diameter and 1 foot thick, built up in sec- 
tions 6 feet long and sunk progressively, the bottom shell being fitted 
with a steel shoe for a cutting edge. The caissons were sunk to bed- 
rock at an average depth of 29.43 feet and filled with concrete, thus 
forming solid columns to rock. They were spaced 15-foot centers 
longitudinally and 27-foot centers transversely. The wall was then 
supported on heavily reenforced concrete girders spanning the cais- 
sons in both directions. The south approach wall is of massive con- 
crete and is founded on natural rock. 

The construction plant, consisting of four berm and four cham- 
ber cranes, supplied concrete in the manner described in the last 
annual report. The total amount of concrete laid in the Miraflores 
Locks during the year was 450,792 cubic yards, of which 402,607 cubic 
yards were plain concrete at an average cost of $5.0273 per cubic 
yard and 48,185 cubic yards of reenforced concrete at an average cost 
of $10.8023 per cubic yard. Of the total amount, 308,914 cubic yards 
were laid by the four berm cranes. The chamber cranes handled 
218,135 cubic yards of concrete and 92,359 cubic yards of fill for 
the center wall. The concrete was furnished in part by the mixers 
on the berm cranes and by the 2-yard mixers installed on the east 
wall which operated from July 1, 1912, to October 26, 1912, producing 
97,603 cubic yards. In addition to the regular plant, an average of 
3.12 half -yard portable mixers were used throughout the year. 

The total amount of concrete laid in the Miraflores Locks up to 
the close of the year was 1,476,895 cubic yards at an average cost of 
$5.0224 per cubic yard. The concrete work in the locks proper was 
completed on May 17, except the reenforced concrete floor and stair- 
way in the middle wall at the junction of the upper and lower locks, 
which were completed on June 10. There remain to be completed 
lamp-post bases, snubbing-button bases, parapets around the stair- 
ways, and the nosing at the end of the south center approach pier 
which was added during the year to the completed plans. 

The total amount of concrete laid in the Pacific Locks July 1, 
1913, aggi-egated 2,382,983 cubic yards at an average cost of $5.2033 
per cubic yard. 

Back filling the lock walls was continued with material from the 
locks and prism excavation and aggregated 1,128,769 cubic yards, 
of which 149,301 cubic yards were in the center wall. The fill back 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 31 

of the lock walls proper was placed at an average cost of $0.4068 per 
cubic yard and that in the center wall and the center approach piers 
at an average cost of $0.5973 per cubic yard. 

The total amount of the back fill placed behind the walls up to 
June 30, 1913, was 2,006,054 cubic yards at an average cost of $0.3466 
per cubic yard, and in the center wall 157,213 cubic yards at an 
average cost of $0.6182 per cubic yard. 

During September and October, 1912, 9,896 cubic yards were ex- 
cavated for the spillway dam by the hydraulic method. Owing to 
the limited space and excessive rainfall this method had to be 
abandoned and no work was done until the beginning of the dry 
season, when excavation was resumed by the use of steam shovels 
and also by hand loading into skips which were handled by derricks 
and locomotive cranes. The situation was complicated due to the 
fact that the central division tracks for hauling spoil from the Cut 
to the south passed through the spillway site, and it was desired 
to give the central division as much advantage during the dry season 
as possible. It was assumed that the spillway must be completed by 
September 1, 1913, and to meet this required the removal of the 
central division tracks from the site by March 1, 1913 ; this was not 
accomplished until March 4, and when the excavation of the entire 
site could proceed it was found that more material had to be re- 
moved than was anticipated and consequently a greater amount of 
concrete was needed. Difficulty was also experienced due to the 
fact that the Rio Grande passed through the site of the dam and had 
to be diverted twice. After the concrete for the west end of the 
dam was brought up to the elevation of the bottom of the river, a 
dike was constructed confining the water to a space sufficient to 
enable it to discharge through an opening that was left in the 
concrete of the dam, and another dike built on the south side to con- 
fine the water after passage through the opening. After these 
were finished further trouble from this source was avoided. To 
the credit of those engaged in the construction, the structure was 
completed, notwithstanding the natural difficulties and the delays 
for which they were not responsible, on September 1, 1913, includ- 
ing the placing of the gates and the erection of the steel work for 
the walkway on top. The opening for the passage of the Rio Grande 
must be left until the gates at Pedro Miguel are completed. In 
addition to the material removed by the hydraulic method, 124,775 
cubic yards were excavated by steam shovels, hand, derricks, and 
cranes, completing the excavation for the spillway dam at an average 
cost of $1.6835 per cubic yard. 

The total amount of concrete laid in the spillway was 64,142 
cubic yards, of which 63,707 cubic yards were plain concrete at ai) 



32 EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

average cost of $5.7556 per cubic yard and 435 cubic yards were 
reenforced concrete at an average cost of $19.60 per cubic yard. In 
laying this concrete narrow-gauge tracks were laid from the berni 
cranes located on the east side of the locks to the south toe of the 
dam, ending in various spurs leading to derricks which liandled 
the concrete mixed by the berm cranes and delivered on transfer 
cars in 2-yard buckets. The berm cranes mixed for use at the spill- 
way 27,619 cubic yards, bucket measurement. In addition, an aver- 
age of 1.43 1-yard mixers and one half-yard mixer supplied 38,551 
cubic yards, bucket measurement. 

The west dam at Miraflores was completed during the year, with 
the exception of the junction of the dam with the back fill along the 
west lock wall. The hydraulic fill in the west dam was completed 
during the previous fiscal year and the total amount of dry fill added 
was 418,375 cubic yards at a cost of $0.4076 per cubic yard. As this 
dry fill was advanced over the hydraulic fill the softer material was 
crowded to the center and increased in height and, as it was not 
sufficiently hard to bear the tracks, an outlet was cut on the west 
side of the dam through which as much of the soft material as 
possible was crowded out, assisted by a water jet. ^^'liat remained 
was pushed over on the west slope of the dam by raising and crowd- 
ing the east dry fill. In this way a complete covering was made to 
full grade, leaving relatively little of the soft material within the 
dam. 

Excavation in the dry between Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks 
and south of the locks was continued throughout the year, the spoil 
being used for back filling the lock walls, for the dams, and filling 
in swamp areas on the east and west sides of the canal. The total 
amount removed during the year was 379,626 cubic yards, car meas- 
urement. 

In order to divide more equally the excavation between steam 
shovels and dredges, so as to keep the latter at work, a new dike was 
built across the canal approximately 3,300 feet north of the old one. 
After closing down the hydraulic excavating plant which had exca- 
vated the area between these dikes to rock at elevation approximately 
minus 20, the area was drilled to minus 45 and blasted preparatory 
to being excavated by dredges after the area was rewatered. Steam 
shovels, prior to turning in the water, took out 59,000 cubic yards of 
rock. The lower dike was drilled to grade and blown up on May 
18, advancing the water to the new dike. The total amount removed 
below Miraflores Locks by steam shovels was 2,949,943 cubic yards, 
car measurement. 

The total amount of dry excavation in the ]H-ism, as shown by 
cross-section measurements, was 3,120,851 cubic yards, at an average 
division cost of $0.6622 per cubic yard. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 33 

The Ancon quarry was operated throughout the year with a com- 
paratively small amount of time lost for repairs. It had been in 
operation for about three years without a general overhauling until 
May 16, 1913, when it was shut down for 10 days for the putting in 
of various repair parts, including shaft in main crusher, general 
overhauling of the four No. 6 crushers, lining up of screens, motors, 
driving shafts, etc. A small No. 5 gyratory crusher taken from the 
old Rio Grande quarry was installed on the floor of the south end 
of the rock bins for the purpose of crushing a portion of the larger 
rock in order to supply the increased demand for smaller sized stone. 
The total amount produced was 688,301 cubic yards, of which 424,860 
cubic yards were placed in storage, 21,301 cubic yards supplied to the 
municipal subdivision, and 161,311 cubic yards supplied to other 
divisions and departments. The total cost of the rock delivered in 
storage at the locks was $0.7795 per cubic yard ; that furnished other 
divisions and departments was supplied at a cost of $0.7853 per cubic 
yard. 

The hydraulic excavating plant continued at work until December 
1, 1912, when it was taken out of service owing to the fact that most 
of the remaining excavation was hard rock. The material removed 
by this method was used for reclaiming tidal swamp lands east of 
and adjacent to the canal prism. The total amount removed during 
the year was 451,631 cubic yards, at a cost of $1.0113 per cubic yard, 
making a total removed by this method of 1,549,904 cubic yards, at 
an average cost of $0.6959 per cubic yard. At this cost the entire 
plant charge, $432,841.92, was absorbed. 

This plant was still in serviceable condition, and the suggestion 
was made by Assistant Engineer W. L. Thompson that at least a part 
of it be utilized in sluicing the soft material which was found on 
the north side of Gold Hill and on the top of the east bank of the 
Culebra Cut. This bank had been to a certain extent stepped back 
by steam shovels in the process of lightening the loads on the upper 
part of the bank, but this work was stopped in August, 1912, on the 
score that Lidgerwood cars could not be spared for this service and 
that the material could not be handled economically with steel side- 
dump cars during the wet season. The rain had cracked the bank 
badly and part of it had sloughed off and fallen into the Cut. To 
the north and east of Gold Hill lies the valley of the Obispo, and the 
material excavated by steam shovels on this upper bench has been 
deposited on the dump extending almost across the valley of the river. 
By continuing this dump entirely across the valley and by placing 
culvert pipes through the dam that would result, the water could be 
allowed to flow through its former channel and the Obispo diversion 
to the Chagres River. By tilting these pipes upward on the south 
side of the dam they would form a spillway to any pool that the dam 
11834°— 13 3 



34 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

might make, and calculations indicated that a sufficient pool could 
be created to furnish water for the pumps to sluice back into the 
depression to the east some of the clay that would otherwise fall into 
the Cut. The proposition did not appeal to the officials of the central 
division, but after the renewed activity of Cucaracha slide it was 
decided to make use of the sluicing plant for this purpose. The loca- 
tion selected for the pumps and pipe line was such that the rear of 
Cucaracha Hill could be taken off and washed back into the valley 
to the east by the use of relay pumps and, further, whatever material 
remained on the Cut side of Cucaracha Hill could be washed down to 
the dredges, thereby finishing up Cucaracha slide for good and all. 
These considerations led to the adoption of this method of sluicing, 
and the work was placed in charge of the resident engineer of the 
fifth division. Work on the installation of the hydraulic pumping 
mains and flumes was started on February 1, 1913. Two boilers and 
two of the Worthington pumps were erected, with the necessary 
flumes. The dam has created a lake of approximately 180 acres, with 
a drainage area of 4 square miles. The elevation at the bottom of 
the suction at the pumping plant is 214 feet above sea level, and the 
elevation of the pipes forming the spillway is 228. The material is 
washed back into the depression which forms the lake, and discharges 
at such a distance from the pumping plant that the water used in 
sluicing is returned to the lake and used over again, thus requiring 
only a small inflow to keep the lake at constant elevation. Sluicing 
was begun on June 17, 1913, and 57,274 cubic yards were removed by 
this method at an average cost of $0.1835 per cubic yard. Booster 
pumps have been ordered, and when received operations for attacking 
the rear of Cucaracha Hill will be begun. 

To meet an increased demand for water at Ancon and Panama two 
pressure filters were removed from the Miraflores power house and 
installed in the Ancon filtration plant. On account of future inun- 
dation the 16-inch Rio Grande water main was taken up between 
Pedro Miguel and the Miraflores power house, and the work of 
relaying it along the Panama Railroad line was partially completed 
at the close of the year. Constmction work on the locks made it 
necessary to relay portions of the 10-inch main between the Cocoli 
pumps and the junction with the 16-inch main at the Miraflores 
power house. 

Grading was completed on the new road from Diablo to Ancon 
and the macadam was partly placed and rolled at the close of the 
year. Work on this road included the construction of a 20- foot-span 
concrete bridge over the Corundu River. 

The improvements in the extension of sewer, water, and streets in 
the city of Panama under the appropriation made by the act of 
March 4, 1909, of $800,000, were completed by the expenditure during 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 35 

the year of $3,323.95, of which $2,879.80 was for the purchase of a 
road roller. The total amount expended in Panama for the improve- 
ments up to June 30, 1913, was $226,289.91. 

Work was started on the permanent town site at Balboa in March 
and included the installation of 750 linear feet of reenforced-concrete 
storm sewer and 1,222 linear feet of reenforced-concrete drains, filling 
hydraulically of a portion of the town site with material pumped from 
the inner harbor excavation, laying out of the permanent laborers' 
barracks, and the location of the permanent administration building. 
In connection with the latter, approximately 36,500 cubic yards of 
material were excavated preparatory to the installation of founda- 
tions, concrete piers for the columns were placed, and the erection of 
The steel frame for the superstructure was begim. 

Sanitary work consisted of cleaning 593,127 linear feet of earth 
drains, excavating 5,079 cubic yards of new earth drains, sweeping 
1,023,382 linear feet of cement drains, filling 2,862 cubic yards of 
holes and swamps, laying 2,520 linear feet of tile drains, construct- 
ing 10,566 linear feet of cement drains, and clearing 131 acres of 
vegetation. 

For further information concerning the operations of the fifth 
division^ attention is invited to Appendix D. 

SIXTH DIVISION. 

As already noted, on the abolition of the Pacific division the 
dredging and the procuring of sand from Chame for construction 
purposes were organized into a separate district reporting to the 
chief engineer. It was decided in February, 1913, to flood Culebra 
Cut in October, 1913, by removal of the dike at Gamboa, which at 
present keeps out the waters of the lake. It was estimated that 
about 350,000 cubic yards had to be removed from the lake section 
north of Gamboa and that this could be done most economically by 
dredging; the Cucaracha slide, which consists largely of clay and 
small spalls, could not be removed economically by steam shovels 
after the heavy rains had set in, but could be handled efficiently by 
suction dredges; the conclusion was reached, therefore, that subse- 
quent to the admission of water into the Cut in October the work 
remaining could be handled most expeditiously and economically 
by use of the dredging fleet. To get the fleet in condition to handle 
the work by that time and to take care of what may remain at the 
entrances, it naturally followed that best results could be accom- 
plished by concentrating all dredging under one head ; consequently, 
effective May 1, this was done, and the division organized with Mr. 
W. G. Comber in charge as resident engineer. 



36 BEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The fleet available on the Atlantic side of the canal consists of the 
seagoing dredge Garibhean, 5-yard dipper dredges Chagres and 
Mindi, French ladder dredges Nos. 1 and 5, and five pipe-line suc- 
tion dredges. One of the pipe-line dredges, after finishing the 
hydraulic fill in the dam, was overhauled and laid up in Gatun Lake 
until the water in the lake was of a sufficient depth for it to begin 
operations north of Gamboa, the other dredges operated within the 
canal prism north of about milepost 6, covering a length of about 
5 miles of the channel, removing therefrom during the year 5,730,379 
cubic yards of earth and 753,029 cubic yards of rock, at an average 
cost of $0.2093 per cubic yard. On July 1, 1913, there remained to 
be removed from the prism 1,837,000 cubic yards of earth and 99,600 
cubic yards of rock. Of the rock excavated from the channel, 
680,176 cubic yards were dumped in the vicinity of the west break- 
water, making a total to date furnished by the dredges for this pur- 
pose of 1,810,108 cubic yards. Of this amount, 651,000 cubic yards 
were dumped within the breakwater section proper. In the removal 
of rock from the channel the drill boat Terrier drilled 43,062 linear 
feet in the prism, breaking a total of 394,526 cubic yards of material. 
At the end of the fiscal year 40 feet of water could be carried through 
approximately the first mile and a half of the channel, 35 feet through 
the next 5 miles, and between this and the locks the depth varied 
from 10 to 30 feet. The siltage in the canal prism for the year 
amounted to 2,084,000 cubic yards. 

In addition to work in the channel and in the excavation for the 
wing walls and north center approach pier of the locks already re- 
ported, the dredges operated in the vicinity of the new docks at 
Cristobal, of the dry dock at the same locality, of the mouth of the 
Mindi in the French canal, and of Margarita Island. In the ap- 
proach channel to the new docks at Cristobal 665,018 cubic yards of 
earth were removed at an average cost of $0.0614 per cubic yard, and 
from the slip between Piers 16 and 17 on the new terminals 155,693 
cubic yards of earth and 189,284 cubic yards of coral rock were 
dredged at an average cost of $0.3089 per cubic yard. The Terrier 
also drilled 4,511 feet at the site of the permanent bridge across the 
French canal for railroad connection with the coaling plant, and 
34,448 cubic yards of material were broken up by blasting. From 
the dry-dock basin, to provide mooring berth for the suction dredge 
Caribhean, 3,851 cubic yards were removed, from the French canal 
at Mindi 295,535 cubic yards of earth were excavated, and 100,957 
cubic yards were dredged from Margarita Bay and used for parapet 
and swamp fill in that locality. The site was cleared for the proposed 
coaling station on Telfer Island. 



BEPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 37 

At the Pacific entrance of the canal there were employed the sea- 
going suction dredge Culehra^ 5-yard dipper dredge Cardenas^ four 
French ladder dredges, the seagoing ladder dredge Corozal^ and one 
pipe-line suction dredge. The pipe-line suction dredge was trans- 
ferred from the Atlantic end when it had completed its work on the 
hydraulic fill for the Gatun Dam. It was dismantled, the hull cut in 
sections and moved over by railroad to Balboa, and after reerection 
was put in commission on November 16, 1912. For the remainder 
of the year it was employed principally in dredging material from 
the site of the proposed inner harbor and terminal basin at Balboa, 

The total amount removed from the canal prism during the year 
aggregated 4,321,956 cubic yards, of which 1,047,929 cubic yards were 
rock. The average cost during the year was $0.3238 per cubic yard. 
At the close of the fiscal year there remained to be removed from the 
prism 1,847,774 cubic yards of earth and 1,600,000 cubic yards of 
rock. Of the total amount of rock removed from the canal prism, 
121,161 cubic yards were drilled and blasted by the drill barge 
Teredo and 65,953 cubic yards broken by the rock breaker Vulcan. 
The remainder includes rock which had been broken by Star drill 
operations in previous years and material which could be handled 
by the dredges without drilling and blasting. 

Auxiliary dredging outside of the canal prism aggregated 1,457,- 
342 cubic yards, of which 3,695 cubic yards were of rock. Of this 
auxiliary work, 1,453,647 cubic yards of earth and 3,695 cubic yards 
of rock were removed from the inner harbor and terminal basin site. 
At the close of the year there remained to be removed from the inner 
harbor and terminal basin, 6,363,240 cubic yards of earth and 372,062 
cubic yards of rock. The clearing of this site extended over an area 
of 1,050,988 square feet and consisted of cutting brush and trees and 
blasting stumps. An orange-peel dredge excavated 7,800 feet of 
diversion channel, for draining swamp lands at Balboa to be re- 
claimed by hydraulic filling. 

During the year, 445,658 cubic yards of sand, bucket measurement, 
were procured from Chame by dredging and transferred to the sand 
bins at Balboa at a cost of $0.5378 per cubic yard in the bins. Of 
this amount, 435,758 cubic yards were transferred to the stock piles 
for use in concrete construction for the fifth division at a cost of 
$0.7111 per cubic yard in the stock pile. The sand bins had a total 
length of 260 feet and were provided with 3 rapid unloading cranes 
until early in May, 1913, when, because the site of the bins encroached 
upon the terminal work, 1 unloader was removed and the bins short- 
ened to 175 feet. It is proposed to reerect this crane at Gamboa for 
use in procuring gravel from the Chagres River for various parts of 
the work. 



38 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Arrangements were made by which two suction dredges and the 
Corozal will be moved into Culebra Cut as soon as the locks will 
permit of their passage and the depth of water is sufficient, with a view 
to attacking Cucaracha slide. The suction dredges will remove the 
clay and, assisted by relay pumps located on the 95-foot level on the 
west bank, will discharge into the Rio Grande Valley. The Corozal 
will handle the heavier material, depositing it in the low areas of 
Gatun Lake. Anticipating the necessity for completing the Cut by 
dredges, a contract was entered into on January IG, 1913, for the 
construction and delivery at Colon of two dipper dredges of the 
largest and most powerful type in use. They are to be equipped 
with 15-yard buckets or dippers for dredging soft material and 10- 
yard buckets for rock. Deliveries are expected at tidewater in the 
United States, ready for shipment to the Isthmus, December 1, 1913, 
and January 1, 1914. To serve these dredges six dump scows of 1,000 
cubic yards capacity were contracted for under date of June 13, 1913 ; 
two of these scows are to be delivered on or before December 12, 1913, 
two on or before January 27, 1914, and the remaining two on or 
before March 13, 1914. 

For further details attention is invited to Appendix E. 

SECOND DIVISION. 

This division has charge of the design and construction of the 
terminal facilities, meteorological work, supervision of the mechani- 
cal division, and of expenditures and allotments for the work. It is 
in charge of Mr. H. H. Eousseau, United States Navy, as assistant 
to the chief engineer. 

The act approved August 28, 1902, authorizing the construction of 
the canal directed the President to " also construct such safe and 
commodious harbors at the termini of said canal as shall be necessary 
for the safe and convenient use thereof." The estimate of the cost 
of the canal, prepared in December, 1908, made provision for the 
construction of the necessary breakwaters, but did not include any- 
thing for such harbor improvements as may be classed as terminal 
facilities, which had been operated and provided heretofore by the 
Panama Railroad Co. in connection with the handling of its com- 
mercial and other business. Early in the progress of the work it 
was apparent that the terminal facilities required by the Panama 
Railroad Co. would not be adequate for the probable needs of ship- 
ping that would use the canal, and, in view of the fact that the sav- 
ings on the estimates would probably enable their constniction as a 
part of the canal work, this was advocated in 1910. Action was taken 
by Congress in the act approved August 24, 1912, authorizing the 
President to " establish, maintain, and operate, through the Panama 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 39 

Railroad or otherwise, dry docks, repair shops, yards, docks, wharves, 
warehouses, storehouses, and other necessary facilities for the purpose 
of providing coal and other materials, labor, repairs, and supplies 
for vessels of the Government of the United States and, incidentally, 
for supplying such at a reasonable price to passing vessels." The 
sundry civil act approved August 24, 1912, made the necessary appro- 
priations for the work. While, in anticipation of favorable action by 
Congress, some preliminary work was undertaken, active operations 
could not be begun until last fall ; consequently the terminal facilities 
can not be completed by the time the canal is ready for passing vessels. 

The Pacific terminals, which are being constructed by the commis- 
sion, will consist of a main dry dock capable of docking any vessel 
that can utilize the locks, a smaller dry dock for the use of smaller 
craft, a plant for supplying coal and fuel oil to vessels, the necessary 
wharves and piers for commercial purposes, and the permanent sliops 
for use in connection with the dry docks. 

The Atlantic terminals consist of wharves and piers at Cristobal, 
including the Cristobal mole, all of which are being constructed by 
the Panama Railroad at its own expense, and the main plant for 
supplying coal and fuel oil to vessels; the cost of the coaling plant 
will be divided between the commission and the Panama Railroad 
Co., while the commission will furnish facilities for oil. General 
drawings showing the layout of these terminals will be found in the 
annual report for 1912. 

As already noted, the larger dry dock will be able to dock a vessel 
1,000 feet long and will have an entrance width of 110 feet. The 
depth of water over the top of the blocks at mean sea level will be 
35 feet, at mean high water 41.5 feet, and at mean low water 29.3 
feet. This dock will rest on rock and for a considerable portion of 
its depth will be in solid rock. The general design of the dry docks 
has been worked out and the preparation of detail drawings com- 
menced. Mitering lock gates, similar to those for the canal locks 
and operated in the same manner, will form the closure to the dock, 
and beyond the gates proper a seat for the floating caisson which 
will be constructed for general canal use. The dock will be flooded 
by means of longitudinal ducts in the side walls communicating with 
the dock body through grated openings in the floor along the bottom 
of the walls. The flow of water will be controlled by four metal 
" wagon-body " valves operated by suitable machinery. The time 
required for flooding at extreme high water is estimated at 25 
minutes. The pumping plant for emptying the dock will consist of 
four vertical shaft centrifugal pumps driven by electric motors. 
The discharge from the pumps will be carried through a concrete 
duct entirely separate from the flooding ducts. The time required 
for pumping out is estimated at 2 hours and 20 minutes at mean high 



40 REPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

water. Suitable tracks for a 50-toii locomotive jib crane will be 
provided entirely around the dock. All necessary capstans and bol- 
lards will be installed and a pipe tunnel, with suitable outlets, will 
be constructed around the dock. Stairways leading to the floor will 
be built on each side at the entrance, on each side at the head, and at 
two points along the length of each side wall. At the intermediate 
points arrangements will be made by which material can be passed 
into the dock. A contract was entered into October 22, 1912, for one 
pair of steel mitering leaves and fixed irons to be fabricated and 
delivered on the Isthmus. These gates differ from those for the 
canal locks in that the miter and quoin ends are to be fitted with 
green heart bearing pieces, rather than with the metal bearing pieces 
provided for lock gates. This change was adopted in the interest of 
increased water-tightness, as the dock will stand dry for the greater 
portion of the time, and the amount of metal exposed to the action 
of sea water will be reduced. 

The smaller dry dock will have sufficient length to dock a ship 350 
feet long, a width at entrance of 71 feet, with a depth of water over 
the top of the keel blocks at mean sea level of 16 feet 10 inches, at 
mean high water of 23 feet 4 inches, and at mean low water of 11 feet 
2 inches. This dock was substituted for two marine railways 
originally contemplated, the Navy Department having expressed a 
preference for such a dock and local conditions favoring it. This 
dock will be founded on rock, but the greater part of its walls will be 
of gravity section. The dock will be closed by a floating steel caisson 
bearing against granite sills when in place. The method of flooding 
will be similar to that for the larger dock and the flow of water will 
be similarly controlled. For emptying the dock the pumping plant 
of the larger dock will be utilized. Access to the floor of the dock 
will be by means of four stairways, two at the entrance and two at the 
head; alongside each of the latter two material slides will be con- 
structed. It will be provided with the same accessories as the larger 
dock. 

The wharves and docks contemplated will consist of a quay wall 
1,238 feet long between the head of Slip No. 1 and the northeast end 
of the new Panama Kailroad concrete dock, and 1 pier 1,000 feet long 
by 201 feet wide. Permanent walls will be built at the ends of the 
slips, each 303 feet wide, and so constructed that part of the length 
of each will afford landing places for small boats. Including the 
length of the wharf constructed for the Panama Railroad Co. and 
completed during the previous fiscal year, the total water frontage 
under construction will be about 4,650 feet long. The quay walls and 
all of Pier No. 1, excepting a center section 50 feet wide, will be sup- 
ported on circular reenforced concrete piers sunk to rock; the 50-foot 
center section of Pier No. 1 will be rock fill. The slips will be ex- 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 41 

cavated to 45 feet below mean tide. The elevation of Pier No. 1 and 
the adjoining wharves at the head of the slips has been placed at 16 
feet 6 inches. The level of the quay wall adjoining the Panama Rail- 
road Dock has been fixed at elevation 17, the same level as the Panama 
Railroad Dock. 

The coaling station on the Pacific side will be adjacent to the site 
of the dry dock and will be capable of handling and storing 100,000 
tons of coal, with a possible increase of 50 per cent. Subaqueous 
storage will be provided for 50,000 tons. Specifications were issued 
for the coal-handling plants at the two terminals and proposals asked 
for plants in accordance with the general specifications. These plants 
are to be delivered and erected in place by the contractor, the sub- 
structure and all other work in connection therewith to be performed 
by the commission with its own forces. Bids were opened on June 
14, and when the award is determined plans conforming with the 
machinery will be prepared for the substructure. The specified rate 
for unloading coal from vessels into the storage piles has been fixed 
at 250 tons per hour for each machine, and the desire is to unload two 
vessels at one time at the Atlantic plant, with two unloading machines 
to each vessel, and one vessel at the Pacific plant with two machines. 
The reloading capacity — that is, transferring coal from storage into 
collier or barge — has been fixed, after consideration of the reloading 
capacity of modern commercial plants in the United States, at the 
rate of 500 tons per hour for each machine. It is proposed to equip 
the Atlantic plant so that two vessels can be loaded at one time, with 
two machines serving each vessel, and on the Pacific side so that one 
vessel can be loaded with two machines. 

The main machine shops were located at Gorgona, which will be 
flooded by the lake as the waters rise. The shops at Balboa and Cris- 
tobal, in connection with the shipways and dry docks at these locali- 
ties, were generally adequate for the maintenance and repair of the 
dredging fleet. With the adoption of the policy of giving repair 
facilities to any vessel that could use the locks, as well as to the Navy, 
the construction of new shops near the dry docks became necessary. 
The permanent shops proper will consist of 18 buildings for the ma- 
chine, erecting, and tool shops ; forge shop ; steel storage shed ; boiler 
and shipfitter shop; general storehouse; paint shop; car shop; plan- 
ing mill; galvanizing plant; lumber and equipment shed; pattern 
storage; foundry; coke shed; boiler house; roundhouse; gas house; 
paint house ; and sand house. In addition to an office building, there 
will be 9 auxiliary buildings. 

On the Pacific terminals preparatory work was begim as indicated 
in the last annual report and, when funds became available, opera- 
tions were pushed as rapidly as possible. The site was cleared by 
the removal of the settlement at Balboa, as well as the buildings 



42 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

which formed the old town. The Panama Railroad yard was aban- 
doned after a new yard and track facilities were provided for tem- 
porary use. Considerable difficulty was experienced in carrying on 
the work expeditiously and economically because of the interests of 
other divisions and departments whose work and operations could 
not be interrupted. To provide room around the head of the location 
of the main dry dock for tracks and a highway leading to the old 
French pier, the northwest slope of Sosa Hill was removed, 184,682 
cubic yards of rock and 181,729 cubic yards of earth, or a total of 
366,411 cubic yards being excavated. The total quantity excavated in 
preparing the site was 389,567 cubic yards at a cost of $0.5447 per 
cubic yard. The greater part of this material was used to fill in the 
adjacent swamp to bring the area up to the adopted grade, and some 
of the rock was furnished the Atlantic division for paving the south 
slope of Gatun Dam. The original surface elevation of the dry-dock 
site was 18; the deepest general excavation for the foundation will 
therefore be about 74 feet. The lowest shovel cut on June 30 was 
at 12 feet below sea level, on the coaling-plant site at the southwest 
end of the excavation. From this site 203,699 cubic yards of material 
were removed, at an average cost of $0.8461 per cubic yard, of which 
56,900 cubic yards were rock. The site for the smaller dry dock is 
at present occupied by the shipways and shops of the dredging divi- 
sion, which can not be abandoned until other repair facilities for 
floating equipment are available elsewhere. To protect the entrance 
of the main dry dock and the entire area to be occupied by the smaller 
dock, and to enable the removal in the dry of as much rock as pos- 
sible from the entrance basin of the main dry dock, as well as to 
facilitate the construction of the coaling-plant quay wall and liasin, 
a cofferdam composed of clay riprapped with rock around these 
various works was begim on April 1, 1913. When complete it will 
be about 1,000 feet in length. 

For the construction of the quay walls and pier the rock is found 
at an average elevation of 60 feet below mean tide, in some cases be- 
ing as high as 33 feet and in others as low as 66 feet below this level. 
The elevation of the original swamp was about 9 and the material 
through which the concrete cylinders are to be sunk is a fine, sticky, 
black clay with thin strata of sand. The cylinders are sunk by the 
open-caisson method. They consist of sections of reenforced con- 
crete shell in 6-foot lengths, 1 foot thick, and 74 feet outside diameter. 
About 4,750 sections are required and a special plant for their manu- 
facture was built. Steel collapsible forms are used. The bottom 
section of each cylinder is 8 feet outside diameter and 6 inches thick, 
with a cutting shoe on the bottom. Excavation was done by hand 
and by orange-peel buckets. When the cylinders would not sink of 
their own weight, their descent was facilitated by the use of cast 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 43 

iron and concrete weights in conjunction with the water jet. It was 
not considered advisable at this late date to increase the plant, so 
that the progress of sinking the cylinders depended on the crane 
service available. After the cylinders were sunk several feet into 
rock they were filled with concrete. They are to be capped by reen- 
forced concrete beams for supporting the floor. The area within 
which the quay walls and pier are to be constructed was inclosed by 
a dike which was begun in July of 1912. During the year, of the 
28,500 feet of cylinders that will be required to complete the work, 
12,435 feet were placed. Of this amount, 8,450 feet were for the 
main quay wall, 289 feet for the walls at the head of Slips 1 and 2, 
and 3,696 feet for Pier No. 1. The cost of these cylinders in place 
averaged $18.4708 per linear foot. 

During the year the greater portion of the area to be occupied by 
the shops was brought up to grade by filling the low swampy 
land with material made available by excavating operations. The 
natural surface of the ground was not sufficiently stable to hold up 
the buildings, so it was found necessary to reach rock for the founda- 
tions by excavating to it where sufficiently near the surface, or by 
driving piles to the rock, which in places was as low as 56 feet below 
sea level. Near the water front it was necessary to use 4-foot steel 
cylinders, filled with concrete and sunk to rock, as foundations. 
During the year the number of piles driven was 3,750 at an average 
cost of $0.4820 per linear foot, and 7,787 cubic yards of concrete at a 
cost of $9.2091 per cubic yard were placed in the footings and in the 
tunnel. 

An operating tunnel, running through the center and at right 
angles to the length of the main shop buildings, is under construction 
for carrying and making accessible all pipe and cable conduits. The 
main trunk will have a clear height of 6 feet and a width of 4 feet 
6 inches, and with branches of the same height and a width of 3 
feet 6 inches. The tunnel will contain all power, light, telephone, and 
fire-alarm cables, and water, steam, fuel-oil, and compressed-air 
mains, and the main sewer. Rain water will be carried off the area 
occupied by the shop buildings by means of surface gutters and 
drains. For its construction a steam shovel mounted on skids, with 
a special boom, commenced work on March 20, 1913. Where hard 
rock is not deeper than about mean sea level the tunnel was built on 
piers excavated to rock. At all other points it is carried on wooden 
piles driven to rock and cut off below the mean elevation of ground 
water. It is built in sections 15 feet in length, special means being 
provided to make the tunnel as water-tight as practicable. 

Work was started on June 5, 1913, on the foundations for ma- 
chines for the planing mill; a considerable portion of the concrete 



44 REPOBT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

necessary for these and for the floor of the building; was completed 
during the year. 

A little more than 25 miles of track were laid during the year, of 
which amount 9,212 feet were permanent tracks for the use of the 
Panama Railroad, the remainder for construction purposes. The 
road at the foot of Sosa Hill, which had to be reconstructed, was 
3,300 feet long. 

The steel framework for the shop buildings, aggregating about 
6,000 tons, is being furnished and erected under contract dated 
October 22, 1912, at $0,036 per pound for the main buildings. A 
supplemental order was given on January 25, 1913, for the steel for 
nine toilet buildings and one paint house. The rolling of the steel 
began the last week in February and the first shipment left Balti- 
more on March 30. On June 30 the status of the work was about as 
follows: All the material had been rolled in the mill, 66.5 per cent 
finished in shops, 56.5 per cent shipped to tidewater, and 43 per cent 
shipped to the Isthmus. 

A contract was made October 24, 1912, for 6,500 squares of reeii- 
forced cement tile roofing for all quarter-pitched roofs of the ma- 
chine shops at $10.25 per square delivered and $13.25 per square 
erected in place, the commission furnishing certain materials, such 
as sand and cement, and facilities, such as suitable buildings, power, 
and water. All tile is being manufactured on the Isthmus, at Paraiso. 
The contract required all plant to be on the Isthmus by January 25, 
1913, and the completion of manufacture by June 25, 1913. At the 
close of the year 49.12 per cent had been manufactured and 7.9 per 
cent had been laid. 

For the Atlantic terminals the quay wall and one pier were prac- 
tically completed by the Panama Railroad during the year, the 
material purchased for the steel work for the sheds, and a subsequent 
contract made for its erection. The Panama Railroad also made 
diamond-drill borings at the site of the coaling station, and work 
was begun by the dredging division in June, 1913, on drilling and 
blasting preparatory to dredging alongside the proposed coaling pier. 

In designing the permanent shops the principle was aimed at to 
reduce to a minmum the cost of repairs and renewals, without exceed- 
ing a reasonable first cost. Steel was therefore adopted for the main 
structural material, for which the only cost for maintenance will be 
repainting from time to time. The roofing, consisting of reenforced 
cement tile on the quarter-pitched roofs, sliould last indefinitely, with 
practically no cost for maintenance and repairs, and presents a pleas- 
ing appearance. Such buildings as have flat reenforced concrete 
roofs will be waterproofed with first-quality composition roofing. 
There will be practically no gutters or down spouts, except for drain- 
age of valleys, in which cases copper and similar permanent construe- 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 45 

tion will be employed. Buildings which require it will be closed in 
with walls of hollow terra-cotta tile, plastered with cement mortar; 
other buildings, such as the main metal and wood working shops, 
which do not require to be closed in, will be surrounded with a con- 
crete wall 3 feet 6 inches high, above which there will be movable 
metal shutters or louvers as protection against wind and rain. The 
pattern shop and storehouse will have a second floor consisting of a 
reenforced concrete slab resting on steel beams and girders incased 
in concrete. The lumber shed and steel-storage shed will have the 
first floors surfaced with cinders^ sand, or gravel. In the main shops 
the floor will consist of a concrete base covered with 3*-inch creosoted 
wooden blocks. 

The selection and location of equipment in the different shops was 
practically completed during the year. The greater number of the 
machines and tools for the permanent shops will be taken from the 
present shops. While many of them have seen hard service and are 
less efficient than those of recent design, it is considered economical 
to install and use them until ihe character and quantity of work to 
be performed by the new plant become definitely known, so as to 
enable the types and sizes of machines best adapted to the work to be 
selected. Electric power at 44,000 volts is to be delivered by the 
transmission line to a substation adjacent to the pump well of Dry 
Dock No. 1, where the voltage will be reduced to 2,200 volts for dis- 
tribution. The shops have been arranged in four groups as regards 
electric distribution and each group provided with transformers and 
switchboards for reducing the voltage. All power used in the plant 
will be 3-phase, 25-cycle, 220-volt, except 220-volt direct current in 
the machine shop for variable-speed tools. Duplicate motor-genera- 
tor sets will be installed in the machine shop for furnishing the 
current required. 

In anticipation of requirements that will develop after the com- 
pletion of the canal, investigations and inspections were made dur- 
ing the past two years of the principal floating cranes in the United 
States and Canada, as well as abroad, with a view to determining the 
type of crane that will best meet canal requirements. The con- 
clusion was reached that two floating cranes of the largest size would 
be necessary to meet the conditions that might arise in handling lock 
and dock gate leaves. These cranes will also be required, as regards 
lifting capacity, to meet the requirements of the Navy Department. 
On October 30, 1912, proposals were invited for the delivery of two 
floating cranes of the revolving type, having a maximum lifting 
capacity of 250 gross tons. Award was made April 17, 1913, to the 
Deutsche Maschinen Fabrik, A. G., for approximately $827,550 for 
the two cranes, to be delivered in 580 days. 



46 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

An investigation and inspection of the most modern and largest 
harbor tugs in use on the Atlantic coast of the United States and in 
the leading ports of England was also made during the last two 
years, and the estimates for the fiscal year 1913-14 included an 
amount considered sufficient for the purchase of four such tugs. 
Arrangements were made at the close of the past year for the prep- 
aration of plans and specifications for suitable tugs for the purpose. 

Numerous applications have been received from coal dealers for 
loading space for the handling of their coal in supplying vessels that 
will use the canal. No authority exists for leasing any land or land 
under water in the Canal Zone, except the act of February 27, 1909, 
which provides for the leasing of land for agricultural purposes only. 
It was never intended that the Government should exercise a mo- 
nopoly of the coal business on the Isthmus, but to utilize the coal 
stored here for the use of the Navy in maintaining uniform prices of 
this product to shipping. In order to encourage individuals and 
companies in the business of furnishing coal to vessels which use the 
canal, the policy has been adopted of providing storage in connection 
with both coaling plants for the coal piles of individuals and com- 
panies who desire to participate in the business. There will be a 
certain rental charge for the areas and, in addition, a real estate tax 
of 1 per cent of the value of the improvements, should any be made, 
and a merchandise tax of 5 cents for each 2,000 pounds of coal sold. 
The Government will do all the handling and charges for putting the 
coal into storage and taking it out, charges for the use of coal barges, 
and other labor in connection with this service will be fixed at cost 
price to the Government for such service. The same policy was 
adopted with reference to oil. It is proposed to equip the wharf in 
the vicinity of the coaling station at the Pacific terminus and docks 
13 and 14 at Mount Hope on the Atlantic side with fuel-oil supply 
and delivery mains in duplicate, together with the necessary pumps, 
so that the Government will be able to handle satisfactoril}^ all fuel 
oil, including fuel oil of individuals and companies who may wish to 
participate in the fuel-oil business on the Isthmus, on the same gen- 
eral terms as those applying to the coal business. 

A contract was entered into on October 1, 1912, for four storage 
tanks 93 feet in diameter and 35 feet in height, each having a 
capacity of 40,000 barrels, to be erected complete at a total cost of 
$G2,800. At the end of the year these tanks had peen practically 
completed, two at Mount Hope and two at Balboa dump, southeast of 
Sosa Hill, and plans are under way to connect them with the 
water front. 

Three first-class meteorological stations at Ancon, Culebra, and 
Colon were continued throughout the year, each with a full comple- 
ment of instruments and in charge of a skilled observer. Wind 



BEPORT OF CHAIKMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 47 

records were kept at Gatun, Pedro Miguel, Sosa, and Miraflores. 
Twenty-six rainfall stations were in operation, 15 of which were 
equipped with standard and 11 with automatic rain gauges. Evapo- 
ration stations were maintained at Ancon, Rio Grande, Gatun Lake, 
Brazos Brook reservoir and Colon. Seismograph stations were in 
operation at Ancon and Gatun. Duplicate automatic tide registers 
were located at Colon and Balboa. For use by the Fortification 
Board, maximum and minimum temperatures were recorded on the 
Miraflores dumps. Eegular gauging work was discontinued on the 
smaller streams at the end of the year 1912, the work being interfered 
with by backwater from Gatun Lake. 

The most important hydrological change during the year was the 
rise of Gatun Lake. On July 1, 1912, the elevation was 31. The 
stage of the water fluctuated, as regulated at the spillway, reaching 
an extreme height of 56.28 feet above sea level on November 29. 
From studies made it appears that the lake basin is subject to very 
little seepage or other underground losses. The records of the 
Chagres River and its tributaries show the calendar year, 1912, to be 
second in order of dryness since American occupation in 1904. The 
largest freshet since December, 1910, occurred on November 28 and 
29, 1912, when there was a rise of 19.6 feet at Vigia and of 12.3 feet 
at Alhajuela, the discharge at the latter point being 54,000 cubic feet 
per second. 

The average temperature for the calendar year 1912 was well 
above normal, especially during the dry season. March was the 
warmest month at Ancon and April at Culebra and Colon. The 
highest temperatures recorded in April — 97° F. at Ancon and 96° F. 
at Culebra — established new high temperature records at these sta- 
tions. November was the coolest month at all stations, the minimum 
recorded being 65° F. at Culebra. 

The rainfall during 1912 was below normal everywhere except 
immediately along the Pacific coast, although generally heavier than 
the annual rainfall for 1911. The heaviest precipitation was 147.61 
inches, at Porto Bello, and the minimum rainfall was 71.78 inches, 
at Ancon. 

There was a notable excess in wind movement during 1912. The 
average velocities were abnormally high during the dry season; a 
maximum velocity of 49 miles an hour from the east was recorded at 
Gatun. The prevailing direction was from the northwest at Ancon 
and Culebra and from the north at Colon. The relative humidity 
was generally below normal, the mean being 81 per cent at Ancon, 
82 per cent at Culebra, and 83 per cent at Colon. 

A number of seismic disturbances were registered, but none was so 
violent as to be sensibly felt in the Canal Zone. 



48 KEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COM*MISSION. 

Surveys were made of the Miraflores Lake watershed, Corozal 
Hospital farm, Darien Radio Station reservation for the Navy De- 
partment, Chagres River from Gamboa to the Zone boundary to locate 
gravel banks, and the area in the vicinity of Mount Hope proposed 
for oil storage. The boundary line between the city of Panama and 
the Canal Zone was run out and monuments located. An error of 
100 meters was found in the recorded distance between triangulation 
stations Gamboa and Obispo, the recorded distance being 1,093.34 and 
the correct distance 1,193.34 meters. Considerable survey work was 
also done for the department of law and the joint land commission. 

Further details concerning the work of the second division will be 
found in Appendix F. 

The mechanical work, performed by the mechanical division and 
elsewhere on the Isthmus, will be found in report of Lieut. Col. T. C. 
Dickson, United States Army, forming Appendix G. 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW PANAMA RAILROAD. 

The construction of the new line of the Panama Railroad was 
practically completed on May 25, 1912, when the portion of the line 
from Gamboa to Pedro Miguel and back of Gold Hill was turned 
over to the railroad company and accepted. Work during the year 
consisted of riprapping the slopes of the embankments through the 
Gatun Lake section, building a lift span of the bascule type in the 
bridge spanning the Gatun River at Monte Lirio, and installing 
automatic signals throughout the line. The work was in charge of 
Lieut. Frederick Mears, United States Army, chief engineer of the 
Panama Railroad. 

Material from Culebra Cut was utilized during the year in strength- 
ening the embankments near mile posts 20, 21, and 24, and also the 
embankment in the Brazos Valley. The total amount of material 
used for the purjDOse was 257,831 cubic yards. 

The bridge across the Gatun River at Monte Lirio consists of the 
three plate-girder spans formerly used on the old line of the railroad 
for crossing the Chagres River at Barbacoas. The center span, a 
103-foot jDlate girder, was converted into a lift span by the addition 
of lifting trusses, lifting mechanism, and counterweight. It will 
provide a channel 80 feet wide in the clear, with a depth of 45 feet 
of water, thus giving ships access to the large area of the lake which 
lies east of the railroad. The necessary materials were purchased 
under contract for the sum of $24,390, and the bridge was erected by 
the forces of the Panama Railroad at a cost of $59,G11.20, including a 
combined operator's house, block office, and interlocking cabin. 

Automatic signals were installed from Mindi to Corozal, with the 
exception of about 4 miles between Caimito and Gamboa cabin, where 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 49 

the main tracks are not on permanent grade and alignment. The 
signals placed between Pedro Miguel and Corozal were removed 
when it became necessary to use the new line of the railroad for the 
passage of dirt trains to enable the cutting of the old line for the 
construction of the Miraflores spillway. 
For further details, attention is invited to Appendix H. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

By the act approved August 24, 1912, an appropriation of 
$1,000,000 was made for the gun and mortar batteries for the defense 
of the canal against naval attack, making the total appropriated 
$3,000,000, which is sufficient for the completion of this portion of 
the work. In addition, $200,000 were appropriated for land de- 
fenses. 

Work was continued during the year on the gun and mortar bat- 
teries. The detailed surveys necessary for the location of land 
defenses were well advanced to completion and arrangements made 
to begin work on July 1, 1913, on the construction of redoubts in 
accordance with plans prepared by a board appointed for the pur- 
pose and approved by the Secretary of War. 

During the year 416,542.5 cubic yards of excavation, at an average 
cost of $0.9225 per cubic yard, were done; 131,952.8 cubic yards of 
concrete, at an average cost of $7.0670 per cubic yard, were laid; 
93,808 linear feet of piling, at a cost of $0.4311 per linear foot, were 
driven; and 100,957 cubic yards of filling, at a cost of $0.1720 per 
cubic yard, were done by one of the dredges. The amount expended 
for gun and mortar batteries was $1,432,767.01, for surveys 
$41,790.95. 

The work was in charge of Lieut. George R. Goethals, United States 
Army, assisted by Lieut. A. H. Acher, United States Army, and Mr. 
E. M. Elder and Mr. H. P. Warren as superintendents of con- 
struction. 

COST KEEPING. 

The methods of cost keeping adopted on January 1, 1910, were 
continued throughout the year. In addition to those reported a year 
ago, cost accounts were initiated for the erection of permanent build- 
ings, the construction of the electric - transmission line across the 
Isthmus, and the preparation of permanent town sites. The cost 
accounts of the first division, which include the erection of the lock 
gates, emergency dams, lock-operating machinery, and aids to navi- 
gation, were revised so as to furnish better information. Super- 
vision of cost data for the construction of a concrete dock at Gatun 
and of a bridge across the French canal at Mount Hope to connect 
with the site of the Cristobal coaling plant were added to the duties of 
11834°— 13 4 



50 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

the office. These projects, as well as the construction of the dock at 
Cristobal and of the new Washington Hotel at Colon, are in charge 
of the Panama Railroad Co., and their costs are not included in this 
report. The costs are made up of the labor engaged in and the 
material applied to the work, an arbitrary to absorb the cost of the 
plant, and a proper proportion of the division overhead charges. 
The general expenses of the commission are prorated to the different 
parts of the work and must be added to the division costs in order to 
determine the total costs. As the division engineers do not neces- 
sarily have control over the items which make up these general 
expenses, the costs reported are the division costs, except where noted 
to the contrary. The cost-keeping accountant, Mr. Ad. Faure, re- 
ports directly to the chief engineer. His duties consisted, up to 
October 1, 1912, in supervising and verifying the statements of costs 
furnished by the division engineers, establishing accounts for new 
work, and preparing statistical data. On October 1 the prepara- 
tion of the detail costs for the aids to navigation was transferred 
to his office; on January 1 that for the reorganized divisions of the 
former Pacific division and for the first division of the chief en- 
gineer's office; and on April 1 that for the Atlantic division. Al- 
though the details of costs furnished have greatly increased in the 
past year, the expense of securing this data has decreased from about 
$3,600 per month to $3,000 per month. 

In the distribution of general expenses, the central division con- 
tinues to carry the larger proportion, due to the fact that prior to 
1907 but little work was done except in this division, so that all the 
overhead charges were properly added to it. 

Excavation by steam shovels in the central division shows an in- 
creased cost over last year of $0.0410, the principal item of increase 
being in the cost of repairs to equipment — $0.0297. 

In the Atlantic division the costs for dredging in the prism were 
lower this year than last, due to the larger ratio of material exca- 
vated by pipe-line suction dredges. In the Pacific division the cost 
was higher than last year, due to the larger ratio of rock excavation 
and the increased depth, which is attended with additional expense 
because of the great tidal variations. 

Hydraulic excavation in the channel below Miraflores Locks was 
concluded in November, 1912, and the plant reerected at a point 
north of Gold Hill to sluice the top banks in order to relieve the 
pressure. Operations began on June 16, and to the close of the fiscal 
year 57,274 cubic yards of material had been removed, at a division 
cost of $0.1835 per cubic yard, including an arbitrary of $0.1000 per 
cubic yard for plant. This work is being performed by the fifth 
division, chief engineer's office. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 51 

There was a total of 771,907 cubic yards of masonry laid in the 
locks and spillways during the year, as against 1,443,570 cubic yards 
during the previous year. This is inclusive of masonry laid by the 
first division in connection with the installation of operating ma- 
chinery. The costs per cubic yard for the masonry were: Gatun 
Locks, $7.2794; Gatun spillway, $8.1227; Gatun power house, $8.5739; 
Pedro Miguel Dam, $5.0240; Pedro Miguel Locks, $7.5976; Miraflores 
West Dam, $4.3330; Miraflores spillway, $5.8497; Miraflores Locks, 
$5.6445. Plain concrete shows increased cost over last year in all 
projects, except Gatun Locks, due to reduced quantities of concrete 
laid and to the use of a larger ratio of auxiliary mixers. At Gatun 
Locks plain concrete shows a decrease of $0.5934, principally in the 
cost of sand and stone, in the expense for steel forms and in the 
arbitrary for plant, the decrease in the cost of sand and stone being 
due to readjustment of stock prices (revised cross-section measure- 
ment of the stock piles having shown more stone in storage than was 
carried on the books), and to securing sand from the borrow pit at 
Gatun instead of from Nombre de Dios. At Miraflores Locks plain 
concrete shows an increase of $0.4406 per cubic yard, principally in 
cement, mixing, wood forms, and placing. Fluctuations in the cost 
of reenforced concrete are due to the different classes of reenforced 
concrete laid during the two years. 

The dam at Gatun was increased by 1,714,367 cubic yards of dry 
fill at a division cost of $0.3755 per cubic yard, and 169,114 cubic 
yards of hydraulic fill at a division cost of $0.2654 per cubic yard. 
At the close of the year there were in place at Gatun Dam 11,578,268 
cubic yards of dry fill at a cost of $0.4063 per cubic yard, and 
10,124,082 cubic yards of hydraulic fill at a cost of $0.2933 per cubic 
yard. 

During the fiscal year 1913 no filling for the Colon Breakwater 
was secured from Toro Point; 183,762 cubic yards of large rock se- 
cured from Porto Bello quarry were placed in the breakwater at an 
average division cost of $4.8250 per cubic yard. This yardage is the 
volume of rock in the bank. Last year 65,133 cubic yards of this 
rock were placed in the breakwater at a division cost of $4.3064 per 
cubic yard. 

The Ancon quarry alone was operated during the fiscal year and 
produced 688,301 cubic yards of crushed stone at an average cost of 
$0.7795 delivered in storage. To the close of the fiscal year this 
quarry had produced 2,558,578 cubic yards of crushed rock at an 
average cost of $0.8572 per cubic yard delivered in storage. The 
Porto Bello quarry, which began operations in March, 1909, and 
closed down in April, 1912, produced 1,921,929 cubic yards of crushed 
rock at an average cost of $2.4337 per cubic yard delivered in storage. 
There was secured from the Chame sand pit 445,658 cubic yards of 



52 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

sand at an average cost of $0.7111 per cubic yard delivered in storage. 
To the end of the fiscal year there has been secured from this source 
1.741,196 cubic yards of sand at an average cost of $0.7666 per cubic 
yard. From the pit at Nombre de Dios on the Atlantic side, wliich 
was opened in March, 1909, and closed in November, 1911, there was 
secured 785,893 cubic yards of sand at an average division cost of 
$1.9176 per cubic yard delivered in storage. During the year there 
was secured from the borrow pit near Gatun dam 43,851 cubic yards 
of sand at an average cost of $0.5188 per cubic yard. 

To the close of the year the following amounts had been expended : 
On spillway gates and caissons at Gatun, $73,732.22; at Miraflores, 
$40,625.69. On spillway gate machines and their erection, at Gatun, 
$91,122.95; at Miraflores, $64,299.22. On lock gates and their erec- 
tion, at Gatun, $2,225,084.30; at Pedro Miguel, $1,373,537.13; at Mira- 
flores, $1,233,845.37. On fender chains, at Giitun, $3,836.95 ; at Pedro 
Miguel, $21.37. On emergency dams, at Gatun, $816,184.77; at 
Pedro Miguel, $512,480.47; at Miraflores, $38,803.75. On lock op- 
erating machinery, including towing-track system, coiicrete used in 
the installation of machines, etc., at Gatun, $2,592,232.64; at Pedro 
Miguel, $1,361,873.92; at Miraflores, $1,561,817.40. For the towing- 
track system the following number of linear feet of return track were 
laid by the construction divisions at the various locks : Gatun, 10,527, 
average division cost $1.3261 ; Pedro Miguel, 4,333, average division 
cost $1.1065 ; Miraflores, 5,925, average division cost $2.5637 ; and by 
the first division at Gatun, 1,449, average division cost $1.9273; at 
Pedro Miguel, 2,043, average division cost $2.3678; at Miraflores, 
1,082, average division cost $0.6085 per linear foot. The number of 
linear feet of track, with rack installed by the first division, and the 
average cost per linear foot were: At Gatun, 21,000, average division 
cost $2.3128; at Pedro Miguel, 12,199, average division cost $2.0180; 
at Miraflores, 14,137, average division cost $1.2291. 

In connection with the erection of operating machinery, installa- 
tion of towing tracks, and decking, the first division had laid to 
June 30, 1913, 36,710 cubic yards of concrete as follows: At Gatun 
locks, 16,706 cubic yards, average division cost $13.4124 per cubic 
yard; at Pedro Miguel Locks, 10,190 cubic yards, av-erage division 
cost $12.1460 per cubic yard; at Miraflores locks, 9,814 cubic yards, 
average division cost $11.3013 per cubic yard. 

The total expenditures for aids to navigation to the close of the 
fiscal year had been $377,041.63. 

For the Cristobal terminals $14,488.14 had been expended, and for 
the terminal facilities at Balboa $1,943,971.09. There had been exca- 
vated in preparation of site 412,707 cubic yards of material at an 
average cost of $0.5620 per cubic yard. In filling, 505,419 cubic 
yards of material had been used at an average cost of $0.3992 per 



REPORT OP CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER, 53 

cubic yard. There had been di-edged in preparation of the inner 
harbor at the latter point 1,771,814 cubic yards at an average cost 
of $0.1547 per cubic yard. For the main dry dock there had been 
excavated 145,478 cubic yards of material, and for the coaling sta- 
tion 58,221 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.8461 per cubic yard. 
In preparing the foundations for the shops 29,684 cubic yards of ma- 
terial had been removed at an average cost of $1.5607 per cubic yard ; 
7,787 cubic yards of concrete had been placed at an average cost of 
$9.2091 per cubic yard; 135,442 linear feet of wood piles and 3,060 
linear feet of concrete piles had been driven, at an average cost of 
$0.4820 and $3.2358 per linear foot, respectively. In constructing 
the docks 12,435 linear feet of concrete caissons were placed at an 
average cost, including excavation, of $18.4708 per linear foot. 

There had been expended in the preparation of permanent town- 
sites $52,458.77 and in the construction of permanent buildings 
$55,918.76. In the preparation of foundations for the administration 
building 38,073 cubic yards of material had been excavated, at an 
average cost of $0.5654 per cubic yard, and 770 cubic yards of con- 
crete had been laid in the foundations at an average cost of $12.8646 
per cubic yard. 

The amount paid for salaries of clerks and supervisory forces 
during the fiscal year was 19.75 per cent of the total amount dis- 
bursed for salaries. Last year it was 20.55 per cent, indicating a 
saving in clerical and supervisory forces of about $185,000. 

For further details concerning the cost of the various parts of the 
work and the performance of the different plants, attention is in- 
vited to Appendix I. 

QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT. 

The quartermaster's department is charged with the recruitment 
of labor ; care, furnishing, and assignment of quarters ; distributing 
fuel, commissary supplies, and distilled water; construction and re- 
pair of all buildings ; requisitioning for supplies of all kinds, together 
with the receipt and distribution of them on arrival ; cutting of grass 
and disposal of night soil and garbage as prescribed by the sanitary 
department; and the auditing of all property returns. The depart- 
ment was in charge of Brig. Gen. C. A. Devol, United States Army, 
until April 17, 1913, when, on account of ill health, it was necessary 
for him to relinquish his position with the commission. On May 27, 
1913, Capt. R. E. Wood, United States Army, was appointed chief 
quartermaster and continued in charge for the rest of the year. 

The force employed increased steadily during the first nme months 
of the year, until on March 26 the number reached the highest iDoint 
in the history of the canal work ; on that date the effective working 
force was 44,733, of which 39,089 were on the pay rolls of the com- 



54 BEPOBT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

mission aiid the Panama Railroad and 5,644 on the pay rolls of the 
contractors handling the work on the lock gates, emergency dams, 
and other contracts in connection with the work. The force fluc- 
tuated between 34,957 on June 30, 1912, to the maximum on the date 
specified, and numbered 43,350 at the close of the fiscal year. In 
December, 1912, it became necessary to recruit laborers, and 528 
were received from Barbados during January and February, 1913. 
There was a decided decrease in immigration to the Isthmus as com- 
pared with previous years, the excess of arrivals over departures 
amounting to but 3,510. The average number of American em- 
ployees on the rolls of the commission during the year was 4,340 and 
on the rolls of the Panama Railroad 870, or a total of 5,110. Dur- 
ing the same period there were 2,495 separations from the service of 
the commission, 1,010 persons employed in the United States and 
1,331 employed on the Isthmus, indicating that more than 57 per 
cent of the gold force was changed. 

The commission has 2,618 buildings in the Canal Zone, of which 
1,856 were constructed by the Americans and 762 by the French. 
This is a decrease of 121 from the total of the preceding year. The 
buildings located at Nombre de Dios, which had been abandoned 
when this locality ceased to be used as a source of sand supply, were 
sold. In addition, 122 were demolished and 4 blown down or de- 
stroyed by fire. Those demolished were located at Bas Obispo, 
Culebra, Balboa, and Naos Island, and the destruction was necessary 
by reason of the work or on account of slides. Those demolished 
were small and of no value. New construction during the year was 
less than at any previous time; 20 new buildings were put up and 
15 additions made to existing ones. The buildings were small and 
only two cost over $2^000. The additions as a rule were chargeable 
to the Hotel Tivoli. Due to the slides at Culebra and the necessity 
of transferring buildings from Gorgona and old Balboa, the work of 
removal and reconstruction was on a large scale. Sixty-two build- 
iners were taken down in sections and reconstructed in new locations. 
The cost of the completed work amounted to $142,000, not including 
buildings in the course of reconstruction on June 30, 1913, on which 
$33,000 had already been expended. Up to April 1 the new» con- 
struction, moving, and part of the maintenance work were handled 
by five traveling gangs of carpenters. All the American buildings 
in Gorgona had to be removed and reerected by September 1, 1913, 
so that nine new gangs were formed in order to complete this work 
on schedule time. The average cost of taking the buildings down 
in sections and reconstructing them in new locations during the year 
was a trifle less than one-third the original cost of the buildings, or 
a saving over the cost of similar work done during the previous year. 
It was found on reerection that the buildings were fully equal in 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 55 

value to the original investment, as all unsound lumber was replaced, 
new pliunbing connections put in, and the houses entirely repainted. 

On June 30, 1913, there were 23,184 men, women^ and children 
occupying commission quarters, practically the same as during the 
previous year. Of these, 9,173 were in gold quarters, 4,295 were in 
European quarters, and 9,716 were in West Indian quarters. Over 
90 per cent of the American and European employees occupy com- 
mission quarters, but less than 25 per cent of the West Indians take 
advantage of them. The problem of housing employees properly 
was a difficult one. Because of the opening up of the terminal work 
there was a congestion, especially in bachelor quarters, in this terri- 
tory. To meet the conditions it was necessary to move and reerect a 
large nmnber of houses for use as quarters. The demolition of the 
old settlements of Balboa and Gorgona complicated the situation. 
In moving Gorgona it was necessary to care for 200 American fami- 
lies, 600 American bachelors, and several hundred West Indians who 
occupied commission quarters, and these were provided for at other 
points. This movement began in March and was almost completed 
at the close of the year. 

The value of material received from the United States durin^ the 
year was greater than for any preceding year; it amountea to 
$13,980,071, not including $2,535,860 paid to the McClintic-MarshaU 
Construction Co. or the value of local purchases on the Isthmus 
amountiQg to $2,733,867. The consumption of cement decreased from 
1,600,000 barrels in 1912 to 1,200,000 barrels in 1913 ; the total con- 
sumption to date amounted to 5,797,910 barrels. During the year all 
cement was purchased in sacks, of which 33,475,408 were received 
and 29,882,968 were returned to the United States ; of those returned, 
269,775 sacks were rejected, or less than 1 per cent of those returned. 
The consumption of lumber was approximately 27,000,000 feet board 
measure, about the same as the preceding year, and the total receipts 
of lumber since the inception of the work have been 231,000,000 feet 
board measure. The stock on hand at all storehouses on June 30 
amounted to $3,436,995, a decrease of $284,217 from the stock on 
hand June 30, 1912. The actual reduction was greater than the net 
decrease would indicate, as approximately $638,000 worth of material 
was returned to stock by the various divisions. The problem of 
supply was especially difficult during the year. As the work draws 
to completion it is considered advisable to keep the stock on hand at 
as low a figure as possible and operate on a close margin. This 
necessitates sending a large number of rush and cable orders, increas- 
ing the work of the supply department on the Isthmus and of the 
purchasing agency in the United States. It is hoped that the spare 
parts now in stock can be worked off, particularly car, steam shovel, 
and locomotive repair parts, before final completion of the work. 



56 KEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Under the contract for the sale and removal of the French scrap 
on the Isthmus, entered into in September, 1911, 21,730 tons were 
collected from points along the line and shipped to the storage yard 
at Cristobal. The purchase price was $215,000. The time allotted 
for the removal of the material was three years; almost two years 
have elapsed and the commission has received but $13,473. A con- 
tract was entered into with the Chicago House Wrecking Co. cover- 
ing all American iron and steel scrap already accumulated or that 
would accumulate during the fiscal year. This scrap totaled 12,109 
tons. Payment was to be made on ship's bill of lading as shipped 
from the Isthmus; the commission has received only $18,571, as but 
2,466 tons have been shipped. The sale of scrap screenings removed 
from buildings netted $6,866 and scrap rope* and hose were sold to 
the value of $4,693. Approximately $75,000 were realized from the 
sale of copper and brass scrap that had accumulated in the operation 
of the Gorgona brass foundry. 

Besides the regular issues to departments and divisions of the com- 
mission and the Panama Railroad a number of sales were made to 
employees, contractors, private individuals, and companies, the total 
amount aggregating $106,037.77. The value of stock on hand at the 
obsolete storehouse on June 30 was $431,916, an increase of $70,000 
over the total on hand at the close of the previous fiscal year. Invi- 
tations for bids were issued offering for sale a large amount of mate- 
rial in the obsolete storehouse on Februaiy 23, 1912 ; of the 24 classes 
advertised awards were made on but 6, as either no bids were received 
on the other classes or the bids were below the upset price of the ma- 
terial. Under the circular issued on February 1, 1913, satisfactory bids 
were received on only four of the 27 classes advertised. Results from 
these sales demonstrate that this method of sale of the entire equipment 
and material is not satisfactory. Firms or contractors desiring ma- 
terial buy only when they need it, and their necessities may not coin- 
cide with the particular time when advertisement is made, so that 
only the scrap dealer or middleman is benefited. It is believed that 
best results would be obtained by placing a fair upset price on such 
material and equipment and selling it when opportunity offers. A 
board of appraisal was appointed to place values on all articles that 
may be offered for sale. Under this arrangement equipment to the 
value of $32,000 was sold and paid for. In addition, $18,670 worth 
of equipment so appraised was sold to the United Fruit Co. in June, 
3913, but delivery has not yet been effected. 

The quartermaster's department attends to all purchases on the 
Isthmus, and the amount expended aggregated $2,733,867, of which 
$1,492,322.52 were for the purchase of coal from the Panama Rail- 
road Co., $995,408.92 for the purchase of crude oil from the Union 
Oil Co., and $223,208.26 for miscellaneous purchases from the Panama 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 57 

Railroad Co., leaving $22,672.81 for the purchase of miscellaneous 
supplies from local merchants. The balance was used for postage 
stamps. 

The work done for the sanitary department, consisting of grass 
and brush cutting, disposal of night soil and garbage, continued as 
heretofore. All grass was cut on request from the sanitary depart- 
ment. The total amount cut was 7,356 acres, of which 4,822 acres 
were cut by scythe, at an average cost of $9.05 per acre, and 2,534 
acres by horse mower, at an average cost of $1.77 per acre. The 
area covered by this sanitary work was approximately 2,980 acres. 
The cost of the sanitary work done by the quartermaster's depart- 
ment amounted to $125,983.21. 

The supply of animal transportation was inadequate to meet the 
demands, and 50 mules were purchased at a cost of $10,562, reaching 
the Isthmus May 26. These scarcely replaced the animals which were 
condemned or which died during the year. Six horses and 20 mules 
were condemned and destroyed and 5 horses and 4 mules died, a total 
of 35 animals. 

For further information concerning the operations of this depart- 
ment attention is invited to Appendix J. 

SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT. 

The subsistence department is charged with the operation of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission hotels, messes, and kitchens, and is in 
charge of Lieut. Col. Eugene T. Wilson, United States Army, as 
subsistence officer. 

On June 30, 1913, the department was operating the Hotel Tivoli, 
17 line hotels, 3 night restaurants, 15 European laborers' messes, 
and 16 common laborers' kitchens — a decrease of 2 hotels, 3 messes, 
and 2 kitchens from last year. The hotel at Balboa was closed on 
July 16 and consolidated with the one at East Balboa. The hotel 
near the spillway at Gatun was closed March 31, and the messes at 
Cerro, Haut Obispo, Gatun (No. 68), and Naos Island were closed 
during the year, and one at Bas Obispo opened. A new kitchen was 
also opened at Bas Obispo, while those at Ancon, Cerro, and Haut 
Obispo were closed. The total revenue from the line hotels, restau- 
rants, messes, and kitchens was $1,235,077.84, a decrease of $28,791.97 
from last year, while the total cost of operations was $1,205,800.76, 
a decrease of $20,551.40, making the profit $29,277.08, a decrease of 
$8,240.57 from that of last year. The total number of meals served 
in line hotels was 2,340,644, an increase of 265,309 over last year. 
The total number of rations served in European laborers' messes was 
935,516, or 172,659 less than last year. The total number of rations 
served in common laborers' kitchens was 461,456, a decrease from 



58 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

last 3'ear of 123,001. The net expense for salaries and wages was 
$166,398.65, an increase of $4,391.88 as compared with the previous 
fiscal year. As the result of the year's operations the line hotels and 
restaurants showed a loss of $3,837.71, an increase of $8,247.66 over 
last year; European laborers' messes showed a profit of $26,845.24, 
a decrease of $11,610.54, and common laborers' kitchens showed a 
profit of $6,269.55, a dcrease of $4,877.69. 

A laundry was installed in the Hotel Tivoli to handle guests' work, 
and was opened in December, 1912. The hotel was operated at a 
profit of $76,256.55. 

For further particulars concerning the operation of the subsistence 
department attention is invited to Appendix K. 

EXAMINATION OF ACCOUNTS AND DISBURSEMENTS. 
EXAMINATION OF ACCOUNTS. 

The duties of the examiner of accounts were outlined in detail in 
the annual report of 1909 and continued with but little change dur- 
ing the year just ended. The department is in charge of Mr. H. A. 
A. Smith. 

In the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation act ap- 
proved August 23, 1912, a provision was inserted relative to the ad- 
ministrative examination of public accounts and stated that " dis- 
bursing officers shall make only such examination of vouchers as may 
be necessary to ascertain whether they represent legal claims against 
the United States." After discussing the meaning of this provision 
with the Committee on Appropriations of the House, instructions 
were issued, effective May 1, 1913, by which the greater part of the 
detail check made by the disbursing officer of every voucher, pay roll 
and pay receipt was discontinued, and the responsibility formerly 
carried by the clerks of the disbursing office for such check was trans- 
feiTcd to the clerks in the pay roll and voucher division of the 
examiner of accounts' office. 

Effective January 1, 1913, the timekeeping division was organized 
by consolidating the work of preparing time and pay rolls for various 
departments and divisions, and continued under this department 
until July 1, 1913, when, with the approval of the Secretary of War, 
it was transferred to the fourth division of the chief engineer's office. 

The only change made in the accounting system during the year 
was the extension of the classified expenditure accounts to provide 
for new operations, including the construction of new buildings, the 
electric transmission line, and clearing the lake, and a further separa- 
tion of the accounts for tilie construction and maintenance of water- 
works and sewers to care for the permanent water supply. The 
material and supply account was closed at the end of the year and a 



REPOBT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 59 

new account opened which is designed to provide a more exact record 
of material and supplies on hand and issued. The continuance of 
the method of absorbing plant and equipment charges resulted in 
distributing plant charges to the amount of $27,550,635.24 to the con- 
struction divisions to June 30, 1913, leaving a balance to be absorbed 
on that date of $1,941,488.61. As far as appeared practicable, cash 
payments for materials and supplies furnished and services rendered 
was adopted during the year. The work involved in the collection of 
money due the commission from employees and others was consider- 
ably reduced and the liability of loss due to giving credit was 
removed. 

Under the agreement with the Republic of Panama for reimbusing 
the United States for expenditures incurred in connection with the 
construction and maintenance of waterworks, sewers, and pavements 
in the cities of Panama and Colon, the total amount expended in the 
city of Panama was $1,626,267.58, and in the city of Colon $1,550,- 
030.46, or a total of $3,176,298.04, including accrued interest to date at 
the rate of 2 per cent per annum. This interest has aggregated 
$270,733.72. At the close of the fiscal year $975,439.71 has been re- 
imbursed. Included in this amount is $32,785.01, representing the 
value of water used by the commission in the two cities. 

The duty of purchasing and issuing commissary coupon books was 
transferred to the Panama Railroad Co., but, as the method con- 
tinued of issuing coupon books to employees of the commission and 
making collections therefor by deductions on the pay roll, the work 
of the department was reduced but little; 60,790 hotel books and 
1,363,100 meal tickets were issued, for which collections were made on 
the pay rolls. In addition, $3,235,122 worth of commissary books 
were issued and collected on the pay rolls. 

The administrative examination of the disbursing officer's accounts 
was made monthly, and the periodical examination of all fiscal 
officers' records of financial transactions and the auditing of their 
accounts were continued, involving a complete check of the records 
and cash and cash values in the hands of over 200 financially re- 
sponsible officers. There were passed to the disbursing officer for 
payment audited vouchers amounting to $9,022,000 and pay rolls 
amounting to approximately $20,700,000. At the close of business on 
June 30 there were unaudited claims on hand amounting to $57,197, 
the greater portion of which were in favor of the Panama Railroad 
Co. The force assigned to the inspection of time books and the work 
of timekeepers in the field was reduced, due partly to reduction in 
operations at certain points and partly to cooperation between depart- 
ments and divisions. A few cases of padded time books were dis- 
covered toward the end of the year and five or six negro timekeepers, 
foremen, and laborers were convicted. 



60 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Under the provisions of the injury compensation act of May 80, 
1908, as amended by section 5 of the act of March 4, 1911, 1,809 
claims for compensation on account of injuries received in the course 
of employment were filed during the year, and 41 claims were filed on 
account of deaths — a total of 1,850; of these, 1,452 claims for injuries 
were allowed, and 130 were disallowed for the reason that the em- 
ployees claiming compensation were incapacitated for less than 15 
days, in which cases payments were made as meritorious sick leave 
under the act of February 24, 1909 ; in addition to these, 185 claims, 
including 25 claims pending from the previous year, were disallowed 
for some one of the following reasons : On account of negligence and 
misconduct of the employees; because the employees were not in 
course of employment, or not employees of the commission; because 
the accident described was not the cause of incapacity; because of 
lack of sufficient evidence to establish connection between the alleged 
injury and the incapacity; and because of failure to secure proper 
medical treatment. Of the death claims 21 were allowed, while 8 
were disallowed for the reason that in 6 of them the claimants were 
not considered dependent parents within the meaning of the act, and 
in 2 of them death was due to negligence. Under the act of February 
24, 1909, authorizing meritorious sick leave to injured employees for 
not exceeding 30 days in any one year, 4,715 cases were allowed. The 
average duration of disability of cases for which injury compensation 
claims were filed was 58 days, whereas in meritorious sick leave cases 
the average duration was 5 days. The total amount expended during 
the year in settlement of these claims was $224,071.72, making a total 
from August 1, 1909, to June 30, 1913, of $915,824.79. 

Congress has appropriated a total of $349,505,223.14 for canal con- 
struction, including appropriations contained in the act of June 23, 
1913. Of this amount, $10,076,950 were for fortifications, of which 
$1,870,000 were appropriated by the act of June 23, 1913, and 
$21,411.56 were for the relief of private persons. The balance, 
$338,806,861.58, including $16,265,393 appropriated by the act of 
June 23, 1913, was appropriated for the construction of the canal and 
is a charge against the total authorized bond issue of $375,200,900. 
This leaves available for appropriation a balance of $36,394,038.42. 
The actual cash balance on hand June 30, 1913, for the construction 
of the canal, excluding the amount available for fortifications, Avas 
$20,673,904.79. Up to June 30, 1913, $5,856,838.35 were collected and 
returned to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. This item repre- 
sents the total amount appropriated by Congress which, after being 
used for miscellaneous purposes in connection with the canal work, 
was covered back into the Treasury and lost to canal appropriations. 

The examiner of accounts is also auditor for the Canal Zone gov- 
ernment. He receives, examines, and settles all accounts pertaining 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 61 

to the revenues of the Canal Zone government and expenditures 
therefrom. The amount of revenues derived from rentals and taxa- 
tion decreased from $259,759.68 in 1912 to $212,266.83 in 1913. The 
disbursement of Canal Zone revenues increased from $214,000 in 1912 
to $233,000 in 1913, the increase being principally due to sanitaiy 
work in native villages and increased expenditure for maintenance of 
Canal Zone roads and trails. 
For further particulars, attention is invited to Appendix L. 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

The work of this department embraces the securing of and dis- 
bursing the necessary fimds and the accounting for all moneys paid 
out or collected, as well as the issuance of hotel and commissary books 
and meal tickets to the various departments of the commission. It 
was in charge of Mr. E. J. Williams, disbursing officer. 

The total amount paid out by the disbursing officer on pay rolls 
aggregated $20,524,705.75, in addition to which $9,035,630.18 were 
paid out in settlement of public bills and on reimbursement vouchers. 
The value of hotel books, commissary books, and meal tickets issued 
totaled $1,305,405. 

For further details, attention is invited to Appendix M. 

DEPARTMENTS OF CIVIL ADMINISTRATION AND LAW. 
CIVIL ADMINISTRATION. 

The organization of the department of civil administration re- 
mained substantially as described in former annual reports and con- 
tinued in charge of Mr. Maurice H. Thatcher until June 14, 1913, 
when he entered on leave of absence, at the expiration of which his 
ser\dces were terminated by resignation. . 

Seven acts of Congress and four joint resolutions affecting the 
Panama Canal and the Canal Zone were enacted during the year, the 
most important being the Panama Canal act, approved August 24, 
1912, providing for the opening, maintenance, protection, and opera- 
tion of the Panama Canal and the sanitation and government of the 
Canal Zone. Four ordinances were enacted by the Isthmian Canal 
Commission and approved by the Secretary of War, the most im- 
portant of which amended certain of the rules governing the naviga- 
tion of the Panama Canal and the approaches thereto. At a meeting 
of the commission held April 24, 1913, a resolution was adopted that 
no further licenses be granted for the sale of intoxicating liquors on 
the Canal Zone. 

Negotiations carried on with the officials of the Republic of Panama 
included the following subjects: Arrest by Panamanian police of 
commission employees while engaged in the performance of their 



62 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

duties in the cities of Colon and Panama; the reciprocal licensing of 
carts and wagons used in the transportation of merchandise in the 
Eepublic and the Canal Zone ; municipal and sanitary improvements 
in Colon and Panama ; the superior right of the United States under 
the treaty to use the rivers and streams of the Republic ; the deporta- 
tion to the Republic of ex-convicts who have served terms of imprison- 
ment in the Canal Zone ; the admission of merchandise shipments con- 
signed to the commission, the Marine Corps, the Tenth Infantry, and 
the wireless stations, without the intei'vention of Panamanian customs 
officials; delay in customs release covering shipments consigned to 
commission and Panama Railroad employees; collection of customs 
duties on parcel-post packages coming through the post offices of the 
Canal Zone; establishment of a uniform schedule of rates to be 
charged for transporting passengers by automobile between points 
in the Canal Zone and the cities of Colon and Panama ; the collection 
of a tax by Panama upon steamship tickets covering passage to 
foreign ports; and the tax upon steamship agencies doing business 
in the Canal Zone and in the Republic of Panama. The relations of 
the commission with the Republic of Panama and with foreign repre- 
sentatives continued satisfactory. 

During the year the board of local inspectors issued 88 licenses to 
pilots; 41 to masters, 19 of which were issued as joint master-pilot 
licenses; 22 to mates; and 58 to engineers — a total of 209 licenses. 
Under the provisions of the Executipe order of July 21, 1911, certifi- 
cates were issued to 94 vessels, of which 18 were over 100 gross tons 
burden. One hundred and sixty-two licenses as navigators of motor 
boats were granted. Licenses were also issued to 120 chauffeurs. 

Postage sales for the fiscal year amounted to $100,804.38, an increase 
of $13,109.97 over the previous year. There were 160,742 registered 
letters and parcels handled, of which 41 per cent was official matter. 
Money orders to the number of 238,316, having a total value of 
$4,883,624.13, were issued, on which the fees amounted to $23,347.12. 
Of the money orders issued during the year, orders amounting to 
$3,917,899.30 were made payable without and $965,724.83 within the 
limits of the Canal Zone. At the close of the fiscal year there was 
on deposit in the postal savings banks a total of $645,690. There were 
in the post offices of the Canal Zone on the same date unpaid money 
orders aggregating $156,928, drawn to the order of the remitters and 
payable at the offices of issue. 

During the year 281 vessels entered the port of Ancon, with a total 
tonnage of 553,767, and 283 vessels cleared, with a total tonnage of 
556,306. At Cristobal 280 vessels entered, with a tonnage of 849,702, 
and 283 vessels cleared, with a tonnage of 858,703. 

On June 30, 1913, there were in force 319 leases, of which 312 were 
for building lots, 1 for land, and 6 for buildings. Rents collected 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 63 

during the year amounted to $4,792.95. A total of $53,855.95 was 
collected from general taxes and licenses; of this amount, $9,130.55 
were for distillation taxes, $43,800 for licenses for the sale of liquor 
at retail, $1,180.38 for license fees from insurance companies doing 
business in the Canal Zone, and $2,240.50 for licenses for motor 
vehicles. 

During the year 470 estates were settled, and on June 30, 1913, 
there were 78 estates in the course of settlement. The money handled 
on account of the administration of estates was $30,124.24. 

^ reorganization of the division of police and prisons was effected 
on September 1, 1912, as a result of which the authorized strength of 
the force was reduced from 274 to 247. There were 6,827 arrests 
made, of which number 6,079 were males and 748 females. Of the 
total number of persons arrested 77 per cent were convicted. On 
June 30, 1913, there were 133 convicts confined in the penitentiary; 
practically all of these were kept at work on the public roads, and 
the value of their work was $26,561.75. The cost of guarding, sub- 
sisting, and clothing the convicts was $30,178.23. The stockade on 
the Mandingo River was closed during the year and all convicts were 
transferred to a new stockade erected near Gamboa bridge ; the pris- 
oners will be housed here during the construction of the wagon road 
leading from Gamboa to connect with the Panama-Empire Road. 

Although no change was made in the authorized strength of the 
division of fire protection, there was actually a reduction of 15 men 
as compared with the number in service at the close of the previous 
year; the reduction was made necessary by a cut in the appropria- 
tions for the department. Purchase of two automobile fire engines, 
mentioned in the last annual report, made possible the discontinuance 
of the one-man stations at Balboa and Mount Hope, the consolidation 
of the two Ancon stations, and the sale of six fire horses. All fire 
equipment installed in the buildings at Gorgona was removed upon 
the abandonment of that settlement and most of it has been installed 
in the buildings reconstructed at Corozal and Balboa. There were 
220 alarms of fire responded to, 18 of which were false. Of the 202 
fires, 1 was in the city of Panama and 7 in the city of Colon; 104 
were in Government property and 20 in property of the Panama 
Railroad Co. The value of Government and railroad property in- 
volved was reported to be $834,077.44; the total loss was estimated 
at $12,173.77 for Government property and $501.75 for the property 
of the Panama Railroad Co. The largest and most serious fire in 
the Canal Zone occurred at Toro Point, causing a loss to the commis- 
sion of $11,326.98. The year's fires resulted in five injuries from 
burns: no loss of life occurred. 



64 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The authorized organization of the division of public works re- 
mained unchanged throughout the year, although the deficiency in 
the department's appropriations made it necessary to dispense with 
two inspectors. All municipal improvements in the city of Panama 
undertaken under the appropriation of $800,000 which were com- 
pleted were turned over to this division for maintenance. On June 
30, 1913, 2,101 water connections had been made in the city of 
Panama and on that date 22 applications were pending. The col- 
lections of water rents from private consumers for the first three 
quarters of the year in the city of Panama were $81,727.75, and bills 
rendered for the last quarter aggregated $32,583.75. For the first 
three quarters of the year the water collections exceeded requirements 
by $13,219.69, which was applied to the reduction of the cost of 
waterworks, sewers, and pavements. In the city of Colon 866 con- 
nections had been made with water mains and on that date there 
were 55 applications pending. Collections in Colon from private 
consumers and from the commission and Panama Railroad Co. dur- 
ing the first three quarters amounted to $64,058.15, and the net 
amount of bills rendered for the fourth quarter was $21,168.80. For 
the city of Colon the Republic of Panama paid $9,675.05 in order to 
liquidate its proportionate share of the cost of water, sewer, and 
street systems for the first three quarters of the fiscal year. In the 
Canal Zone 695 water connections have been made. From the eight 
public markets in operation during the year a revenue of $3,805.50 
was derived in rent. 

The organization of the division of schools consisted of 1 superin- 
tendent, 1 supervisor of upper grades and high schools, 1 supervisor 
of primary grades, 2 clerks, 2 supervisors of children, 1 principal of 
high school, 6 principals of grammar schools, and 72 teachers. The 
school year opened October 1, 1912, with an enrollment of 2,199 
children — 1,157 whites and 1,012 blacks. At the close of the fiscal 
year 29 school buildings were in use — 14 for whites and 15 for blacks. 
Medical inspection of all pupils was continued and 1,044 pupils were 
treated during the school year. 

The supreme court held 26 sessions during the year. It aiErmed 
decisions of the circuit courts in two and reversed the decisions of 
those courts in two criminal cases. At the beginning of the year 
two civil cases were pending in the supreme court, 22 were filed, and 
18 were disposed of. In the circuit courts, 533 criminal cases were 
instituted, out of which number there were 369 convictions, 93 ac- 
quitals, and 67 dismissals, leaving 4 cases pending at the close of the 
year. There Avere 585 civil actions brought, 750 of which were 
settled and 108 pending on June 30, 1913. 



EEPOKT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 65 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were $259,102.16 in the 
Zone Treasury, and during the year collections amounted to 
$336,603.33. Expenditures for the year totaled $374,868.04. 

For further particulars concerning the work of this department, 
attention is invited to Appendix N. 

DEPARTMENT OF LAW. 

The department continued in charge of Judge Frank Feuille and 
the duties are as outlined in previous annual reports. 

In anticipation of the inundation of the Gatun Lake area, a num- 
ber of towns along the line of the old Panama Railroad between 
Gorgona and Gatun were cleared of their population ; as a result, the 
administrative district of Gorgona was abolished and its territory 
added to the district of Empire for judicial, administrative, and po- 
litical purposes, by an Executive order issued September 2, 1912, 
The order also abolished the office of senior district judge and re- 
duced the number of district judges to 3. 

The Panama Canal act^ approved August 24, 1912, authorized the 
President to declare that all land and land under water within the 
limits of the Canal Zone are necessary for the construction, main- 
tenance, operation, sanitation, and protection of the Panama Canal. 
Pursuant to these provisions an Executive order was issued under date 
of December 5, 1912, directing that all land and land under water 
within the limits of the Canal Zone be taken possession of on behalf 
of the United States and to extinguish, by agreement when prac- 
ticable, all claims and titles of adverse claimants to the occupancy 
of land and land under water. Due to the additional work that was 
thrown upon the department by reason of this order, and also for 
the purpose of representing the United States before the joint land 
commission which had been appointed in compliance with the pro- 
visions of the treaty, the personnel of the department was increased 
by one clerk and a land inspector during the latter part of the fiscal 
year. As negotiations have been pending between the United States 
and the Republic of Panama for the exchange of lands known as 
Las Sabanas, lying contiguous to the city of Panama, in the Canal 
Zone, for certain harbor areas in the city of Colon, an Executive 
order of Febiiiary 18, 1913, was issued, modifying the provisions of 
the Executive order of December 5, 1912, exempting privately owned 
lands in the territory under negotiation from being acquired by the 
United States. On March 19, 1913, an Executive order was issued 
protecting from wanton killing or injury the birds of the Canal Zone. 
By Executive order of March 20, 1913, amending the Executive order 
of February 5, 1912, the collector of revenues was authorized to ad- 
minister upon estates which consisted of personal property only, 

11834°— 13 5 



66 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

regardless of the value of the estates, the maximum value previously 
fixed being $1,000. Under existing law, therefore, the estates of de- 
ceased or insane employees of the Canal Commission, the Canal Zone 
government, and the Panama Railroad Co. are administered by the 
collector of revenues free of cost. The actions of the collector are 
subject to the supervision and approval of the Circuit Court of the 
First Judicial Circuit of the Canal Zone. 

Complaints had been made from time to time that the agents of 
foreign corporations whose financial condition was doubtful were 
doing business in the Canal Zone, to the exploitation of our em- 
ployees. To prevent this as far as possible an Executive order 
was issued on March 20, 1913, requiring foreign corporations or 
joint stock companies to file their articles of incorporation with the 
collector of revenues for the Canal Zone, together with such informa- 
tion as will enable the collector of revenues to base a conclusion as 
to the solvency of the concern. In addition to this, foreign corpora- 
tions are required to file authorization with the collector of revenues 
to represent them in all suits and legal proceedings in the Canal 
Zone^ and to pay an annual tax of $50. The order has had a salutary 
effect in keeping out undesirable concerns. 

On April 15, 1913, maritime quarantine regulations for the Canal 
Zone and the harbors of the cities of Panama and Colon in the 
Republic of Panama were established by Executive order, the regu- 
lations to take effect upon the date on which the Panama Canal is 
officially and formally opened for use and operation by proclamation 
of the President of the United States. The regulations were pro- 
mulgated in advance in order that shipping interests and the travel- 
ing public may have information in regard to the quarantine require- 
ments of the canal and the Canal Zone. 

Due to the fact that the prosecuting attorney devoted his time 
almost exclusively to the adjustment of land claims, especially those 
coming before the joint land commission, the prosecution of all 
criminal cases was conducted by the assistant prosecuting attorney 
and 621 criminal cases were disposed of in the three circuits; of the 
total number of defendants tried, 449 were convicted. 111 were 
acquitted, the charges against 54 were dismissed, and in 7 cases the 
defendants are fugitives from justice. One disbarment proceeding 
was brought in the supreme court against an attorney of the Canal 
Zone, and the defendant was disbarred from practice in the Zone 
courts. 

A total of $27,606.50 was paid by the commission in settlement of 
claims presented by squatters and occupants of Zone lands. Several 
tracts of land were acquired from private persons by deed. In addi- 
tion to the above, quitclaim deeds were obtained for the United States 
for holdings at Santa Isabel, El Encanto, Victoriano, and Paja. On 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 67 

March 31, 1913, all unexpired Canal Commission leases for building 
lots and agricultural property were terminated; on that date there 
were 174 leases, covering 99 hectares of agricultural land and 108 
building lots, which would have remained in force until June 30, 
1913, had it not been for the order of cancellation. 

Kevocable licenses to the number of 312, covering 347 building lots, 
were in force on June 30, 1913, calling for an annual rental of 
$2,816.96. 

For further details concerning this department, attention is invited 
to Appendix O. 

DEPARTMENT OF SANITATION. 

This department has charge of sanitary work in the cities of Colon 
and Panama and of oiling ditches and other water in the Canal Zone. 
It designates the remaining sanitary work to be done in the Canal 
Zone and exercises such supervision as may be necessary to insure 
proper performance of the work. In addition, the department has 
charge of the hospitals and quarantine. It is in charge of Col. 
William C. Gorgas, United States Army, as chief sanitary officer. 

The work in the terminal cities consists in cutting grass and brush, 
oiling pools, constructing and maintaining ditches for drainage pur- 
poses, removal of garbage and night soil, fumigation, and street 
cleaning. On account of the juxtaposition of Cristobal, Mount Hope, 
and Toro Point to Colon these are included in the Colon area, and 
for the same reason Ancon Hospital grounds are included with 
Panama. According to the report submitted, the work done in 
Panama consisted in cleaning 200 miles of ditches, digging 1.2 miles 
of ditches, and clearing 114 acres of weeds and grass, in addition to 
filling and cleaning cesspools and wells, oiling, disinfecting, and 
fumigating. In the Colon district, from the same source, 72 miles 
of ditches were maintained, 77 miles of ditches were constructed, and 
29 acres were cleared of vegetation, in addition to oiling, disinfect- 
ing, and fumigating. 

The total expense for sanitary work in the Canal 2k)ne and in 
the cities of Panama and Colon was $510,529.17, of which $62,955.06 
was for sanitation proper in the two cities, $371,844.90 for sanita- 
tion proper in the Zone, $10,627.60 for removal of garbage and street 
cleaning in the two cities, and $65,101.61 for removal of garbage and 
street cleaning in the Zone. Of the amount expended for sanitation 
proper in the Zone the construction divisions expended $91,877.98, 
principally in the maintenance of existing ditches and the construc- 
tion of new ones for drainage purposes; the quartermaster's depart- 
ment, $50,533.13 for grass and brush cutting. The sanitary depart- 
ment used in the Zone 674,662 gallons of oil, costing $17,669.69, and 
120,092 gallons of larvacide, costing $21,759.9^; the labor expense 



68 EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

for distributing was $21,320.39 and $19,567.39, respectively. All 
work performed by the construction divisions and the quartennaster's 
department was done under the direction of the sanitary department. 
The removal of garbage and night soil in the Zone was done by the 
quartermaster's department. 

Admissions to hospitals and sick camps during the year, including 
those sick in quarters, totaled 33,779; the daily average number of 
employees sick was 19.04 out of every thousand, as against 22.91 for 
1911-12 and 24.77 for 1910-11— this on the basis that the total num- 
bers employed during the years mentioned were 54,000, 50,008, and 
49,129, respectively. The total number of deaths among employees 
was 483, of which 36 were Americans, 58 were white employees of 
other nationalities, and 389 were blacks. The total number of deaths 
from violence among all employees was 164, as against 154 for the 
preceding j^ear. In addition, on the recommendation of the medical 
examining board, 183 deportations were made — 134 for disease and 
49 on account of injuries. 

For further details concerning this department attention is invited 
to Appendix P. 

RECREATION OF EMPLOYEES. 

On June 30, 1913, clubhouses were in operation at Corozal, 
Empire, Gorgona, Gatun, and Cristobal in the Canal Zone, and at 
Porto Bello, about 20 miles down the Atlantic coast. 

The clubhouse at Culebra was removed because of slides and a 
portion of the building was reerected at the rear of the administra- 
tion building annex at a cost of about $1,700, paid from clubhouse 
funds. Bowling allej'^s, pool and billiard tables, soda fountain, bar- 
ber shop, and a reading room were thus provided in thisi new loca- 
tion. Entertainments were given in the second story of the school- 
house. 

The average monthly membership for the year was 2,023, as 
against 1,944 for the previous year. The largest membership for 
any given month was 2,127, the largest since organization. 

The total expenditures from commission funds for the support of 
these clubhouses aggregated $49,925.96. 

For further details concerning the operation of the clubhouses, 
see Appendix Q. 

WASHINGTON OFFICE. 

The work of the Washington office continued in charge of Maj. 
F. C. Boggs, United States Army. The scope of the work was as 
previously reported, but was made more difficult and arduous by the 
fact that, in the desire to reduce the amount of stock on hand, the 
number of rush orders was increased. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 69 

During the year 2,065 persons within the United States were 
tendered employment for duty on the Isthmus in grades above that 
of laborer ; 1,183 accepted and were appointed, covering 59 different 
positions. 

The total amount of purchase orders placed for the fiscal year was 
$12,335,973.12. The most important contracts were for permanent 
equipment: For structural material for locks and spillways, $241,- 
326.33; machinery for their operation, $740,302.02; electric locomo- 
tives and tracks, $548,732.67; hydroelectric station, $72,540.34; dock 
material, $571,723.48; shop buildings and machinery, $593,649.51; 
transmission line, $688,503.38; and two 250-ton revolving floating 
cranes, $837,500. Other principal items of purchase included two 
15-yard dipper dredges, 6,310,000 pounds of dynamite, and 23,505,695 
feet of lumber. A supplemental contract was entered into September 
13, 1912, covering the additional quantity of cement necessary to com- 
plete the work. During the year 1,303,762 barrels of cement were 
purchased. 

For further details, attention is invited to Appendix R. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Since the submission of the last annual report the concrete work of 
the locks has been completed, and but for slides which developed ex- 
cavation in the central division would also have been finished. In the 
last annual report the completion of the canal by the close of the 
fiscal year was predicated on the completion of the lock gates by the 
contractor and the slides. As already noted, the contract for the 
completion of the gates has been extended and contemplates finish- 
ing up all work on one flight throughout by October 1, 1913. Work 
on the installation of the operating machinery was concentrated so as 
to meet this condition of the lock gates, and it is believed that one 
flight of locks throughout will be ready for operation October 1, 1913, 
except the fender chains and the control houses, but electrical cur- 
rent from existing power plants will be usable until the completion 
of the hydroelectric station. Assuming the lake level at elevation 
50, July 1, with an average rainy season the lake should reach eleva- 
tion 85 by December 1, 1913. The rainfall during the month of May 
was excessive and above the average; the rainfall during July was 
below the average, so that the lake has not reached the elevation that 
it should have at this time by about 3^ feet. 

The slides which occurred to prevent completion of the Cut as an- 
ticipated a year ago are at Cucaracha, the east side opposite Culebra, 
two in the vicinity of the Empire suspension bridge, relatively small, 
and one opposite Wliitehouse. With the exception of the Cucaracha 
slide, these could probably be removed in the dry by January 1, 
1914, but the removal of Cucaracha slide in the dry would require 



70 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

until April, 1914. The material can not be handled expeditiously 
b}^ steam shovels during the wet season, but lends itself to economical 
removal hj hydraulic dredges. Except at Cucaracha, the existing 
channel by the slides is to full depth and of a width of at least 200 
feet at the bottom. Assuming that all the slides were removed by 
steam shovels in the dry, the water in the lake could not be raised 
above elevation 00 and still be kept out of the Cut by the dike at Gam- 
boa, so that after the advent of the dry season it would not be pos- 
sible, under normal conditions, to secure full lake level until October 
or November, 1914. The material in all the slides can be handled 
advantageously by the dredging fleet augmented as it will be later 
by the two 15-yard dipper dredges under contract. They will operate 
against banks in every case and will not be excavating for the full 
depth of 45 feet. The sea level sections by the time the dredges can 
be moved into the Cut will be in condition for the passage of ships 
of the heaviest draft. 

It has been the general belief that the effect of the water in the 
Cut would tend to retard slides and the experience below the Gatun 
locks in the sustaining power of water against slides fulh^ justifies 
this belief; on the other hand, the geologist is of the opinion that 
the water may to some extent develop new slides. Again, much 
ado was made in 1909 over the seamy character of rock on the 
Isthmus, through which water flows quite rapidly, in consequence of 
which the question was raised that the lake might leak out through 
seams and crevices. If these things are liable to occur, the sooner 
the better, if the official opening of the canal is to occur January 1, 
1915; for if water were not admitted this fall but were deferred until 
May 1, 1914, the full height could not be reached until October, 1914, 
leaving little time for the determination of these questions. These 
considerations led to the conclusion that the water should be turned 
into the Cut at the earliest date practicable for getting the dredges 
to work on the slides. Dredges can be passed through into the Cut 
as soon as the lock gates of one flight are completed, and this is 
reasonably certain to be the case by October 1. With the average 
rainfall, the lake should reach elevation approximately 70 by Oc- 
tober 10, and a greater height of water against the dike which ex- 
cludes the lake from the Cut at present would not be safe. The 
present plans, therefore, are based upon the blowing up of Gamboa 
Dike on October 10, its removal by dredges immediately thereafter, 
the transfer of two suction dredges and the ladder dredge Corozal to 
the Cucaracha slide, the smaller dipper dredges to work on the other 
slides until the full width of the channel is attained, and the passage 
of vessels through the canal as soon as channels of full depth and of 
sufficient width have been secured. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 71 

An erroneous impression has been caused by the announcement 
that the water will be turned into the Cut October 10, as it seems to 
have been assumed that the canal will be practically finished on that 
date. Before boats can be passed it will be necessary to remove the 
Gamboa dike by dredges and to remove the slides as already out- 
lined. The passage of commercial vessels is dependent, therefore, 
upon the time when proper channels can be dredged through the 
slides; should additional ones occur, they will necessarily advance 
the date when this will be accomplished. 

The following appendixes are herewith: 

Report of the geologist, Appendix S. 

Increase in salaries and increase in numbers of employees, submitted in com- 
pliance with law, Appendix T. 

Laws affecting the canal recently enacted, and executive orders issued during 
the fiscal year, Appendix U. 

The organization in effect July 1, 1913, Appendix V. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Geo. W. Goethals, 
Colonel, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, 

Chairman and Chief Engineer. 
The Hon. Lindley M. Garrison, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D, C. 



APPENDIX A. 

REPORT OF COL. H. F. HODGES, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, UNITED 
STATES ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, 
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE FIRST DI- 
VISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER. 



Isthmian Canai. Commission, 
Office of the Chief Engineer, First Division, 

Cidebra, Cannl Zone, July 22, 1913. 

Sir : I have the honor to make the following report of operations 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, of the first division of the 
office of the chief engineer: 

The division is charged with the design of locks, dams, regulating 
works, and accessories; with the design and construction of aids to 
navigation ; with the erection of the operating machinery at the locks 
and spillways; and of the power transmission line. In addition, it is 
responsible for the inspection of the manufacture and for the erection, 
under contract or otherwise, of certain of the stmctures and machines 
designed in its different subdivisions. 

During the fiscal year the division has been organized in subdi- 
visions in charge of designs and work as follows: {a) Design of ma- 
sonry and lock structures, including spillways and valves; (b) design 
of lock gates and protective devices, including the inspection of con- 
struction and of erection under contract; {c) design of operating 
machinei-y and electrical installation, including inspection and erec- 
tion; {d) design of movable dams, including inspection of construc- 
tion and of erection under contract; and {e) design and construction 
of aids to navigation. On June 30, 1913, the subdivision having 
charge of the masonry and lock structures was discontinued, its work 
having been completed. 

A chart of the approved organization is herewith (plate No. 126.) 

Masonry and Lock Structures. 

This subdivision has been under charge of Mr. L. D. Cornish, de- 
signing engineer, assisted by Mr. T. E. L. Lipsey, assistant engineer, 
and the necessary draftsmen, and for part of the time by Messrs. 
L. B. Fay and F. J. Severy, assistant engineers. 

LOCKS. 

At the end of the fiscal year 1912 the general designs for all the 
locks, including both upper and lower approach and wing walls at 
Gatun. Pedro Miguel, and Miraflores. also practically all the detailed 
plans for all the locks, including decking drawings showing details of 

73 



74 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

construction over rising stem gate valve machinery chambers, miter 
gate moving machinery chambers, intake valve machinery chambers, 
and other miscellaneous deckings had been adopted, approved, and 
issued. Practically all detailed drawings needed by the working 
force in the field had been made and issued from time to time. 

During the fiscal year 1913 the following designs were finished: 
Track supports on the low^er middle approach walls and upper and 
lower wing walls at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores ; reenforced con- 
crete piles under the above tracks, new north wing wall at Miraflores 
spillway; fenders for protection at upper and lower ends of middle 
approach walls at all locks; railings for upper approach and lower 
wing walls at Gatun and Miraflores spillways ; doors for entrances to 
operating tunnels from top of lock walls; parapet walls around stair 
walls to operating tunnels ; and miscellaneous designing for other sub- 
divisions. The last item includes, among important features, certain 
work done for the second division of your office on the coaling plants 
at the canal terminals. 

VALVES AND FIXED IRONS. 

Design and contract. — At the end of the fiscal year 1912 the designs 
for the lock valves, fixed irons, and accessories had been completed 
and approved. 

During the fiscal year 1913 the erection of this ironwork has been 
under the supervision of this subdivision. 

At the instance of the second division of your office, designs were 
prepared for the valves of the dry dock at Balboa. 

Installation. — At the end of the fiscal year 1912, 14 chambers (12 
at Gatun and 2 at Pedro Miguel) had been prepared for the installa- 
tion of valves, and 12 valves, including trains and sealing devices, 
had been placed in position in the locks at Gatim. Six bulkhead 
gates in side-wall intakes and six bulkhead gates in center-wall 
intakes had been placed at Gatun. Three rising-stem gate valvCvS and 
one cylindrical valve had been placed in the spillway at Gatun. All 
cylindrical valves had been placed in the locks. 

During the fiscal year 1913, 102 rising-stem valve chambers (50 
at Gatun, 28 at Pedro Miguel, and 24 at Miraflores) were prepared, 
and 104 valves, including trains and sealing devices (48 at Gatun, 
28 at Pedro Miguel, and 28 at Miraflores), were placed in position 
in locks. Six side-wall intake screens were placed at Gatun, four 
center-wall screens have been placed; the bulkheads to center-wall 
intakes have been removed, and the same have been placed in the 
outlet ; the four lower side-wall bulkhead gates have been placed, all 
at Gatun. 

FIXED IRONS FOR SPILLWAYS, SPILLWAY GATES, CAISSONS, FOOTBRIDGES, 

AND RAILINGS. 

Design and contract. — At the end of the fiscal year 1912 the designs 
had been practically completed, and contracts had been let for this 
material. 

During the fiscal year 1913 designs were made for additional rail- 
ings for the spillways, and the erection of the ironwork has been 
under the supervision of this subdivision. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 75 

Erection and installation. — At the end of the fiscal year 1912 the 
work of erection had not been begun. During the fiscal year 1913 
the entire number of 14 gates and 1 caisson for Gatun and 8 gates 
and 1 caisson for Miraflores have been erected complete and contract 
closed. The gates at Gatun have also been installed in position on 
the dam. The erection of the draft tubes for the hydroelectric station 
at Gatun has been completed, the inspection of the work having 
been under the supervision of this subdivision. 

DRAWINGS. 

During the fiscal year 1911, 133 drawings were made, approved, 
and issued, covering the features hereinbefore mentioned. During 
the fiscal year 1912, 181 drawings were made, approved, and issued, 
and 10 new spillway drawings were made and issued; a drawing of 
Pedro Miguel Lock was made for the Post Office Department, and 
work was begun on final drawing of Pedro Miguel Lock for record. 
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, about 87 drawings were 
made, approved, and issued. A drawing of Gatun Dam and Culebra 
Gut were made for the Post Office Department. Work on the final 
drawing of Pedro Miguel Lock was continued and is now about 75 
per cent completed. Work on final drawing of Gatun Lock was 
begun, but very little was done. 

Summari/ of d rawing a. 

Spillway masonry plans 91 

Spillway caissons, footbridges, railings, etc 20 

Spillway gates, fixed irons, etc : 7 

Valves, fixed irons, and miscellaneons ironwork 79 

Locks and details 305 

Sketches 4 

Total 506 

A number of sketches and designs for coaling docks at Balboa and 
Cristobal, permanent shops at Balboa, terminal docks at Cristobal, 
and valves for dry docks w^ere made, also about 14 drawings covering 
valves. 

CONTRACTS. 

During the fiscal year 1913, tjlie following contracts have been com- 
pleted : 

Dated September 11, 1911, with the McClintic-Marshall Construc- 
tion Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., for 22 spillway gates, 2 steel caissons, 
and material for 22 footbridges, 132 rising-stem gate valves (2 
spares), 12 guard-gate valves, 6 lateral culvert valves, 12 bulkhead 
gates to middle wall culverts, 27 bulkhead headgates at intakes, and 
36 screens at intakes. Total contract price. $342,681.88, 

Dated September 2, 1911, with the Excelsior Tool & Machine Co., 
of East St. Louis, 111., for 515 tons of fixed irons for spillways at 
Gatun and Miraflores. Total contract price, $25,724.12. 



76 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Dated September 11, 1911, with the Westinghoiise Machine Co., of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., for 264 roller trains (4 spares), 292 sealing devices 
(32 spares) for rising-stem gate valves in all locks, 46 roller trains 
(2 spares), 52 sealing devices (8 spares), rocker bearings and tracks 
for spillways at Gatun and Miraflores. Total contract price, 
$177,147.58. 

Dated August 21, 1911, with the Vulcan Rail & Construction Co., 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., for material required for 22 sets of railings for 
Gatun ancl Miraflores spillways. Total contract price, $5,665. 

Dated December 26, 1911, 'with the United States Steel Products 
Co., of 30 Church Street, New York, N. Y., for material for four 
intake bridges at upper end of Pedro Miguel and Miraflores Locks 
and structural material for deckings over rising stem gate valve 
machinery chambers and miter gate moving machinery chambers of 
all locks. Total cost, estimated, $21,414.97. 

Dated November 23, 1911, with the Standard Foundry Co., of 743 
Hartel Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y., for snubbing posts and washers for 
all locks. Total contract price, $5,518.09. 

Dated November 23, 1911, with the American Car & Foundry Co., 
of 165 Broadway, New York, N. Y., for bolts, links, anchor rods, etc., 
for buffers on all lock walls. Total contract price, $6,257.02. 

Dated December 21, 1911, with the Railway Spring & Steel Co., of 
New York City, N. Y., for 25,608 helical springs for spring buffers on 
approach walls of locks. Total contract price, $13,572.24. 

Dated November 11, 1911, with J. B. Kendall Co., of Washington. 
D. C, for cold-twisted square steel bars for reenforcing deckings over 
miter gate moving machinery and rising stem gate valve machinery 
chambers for all locks Total contract price, $1,059.35. 

Dated January 5, 1912, with the United States Steel Products Co., 
of 30 Church Street, New York, N. Y., for triangular mesh slab reen- 
forcement for deckings over rising stem gate valve and miter gate 
moving machinery chambers for all locks. Total contract price, 
$891.44. 

Dated December 13, 1912, with the Carbolineum Wood Preserving 
Co., of New York, for carbolineum for treating the buffer timbers 
on all approach walls of locks. Total contract price, $3,090. 

Dated November 14, 1912, with W. R. Grace & Co., of New York, 
N. Y., for timbers for buffers on all the approach walls of locks. 
Total contract price, $18,910. 

During the fiscal year 1913 the following contracts were let and are 
still pending: 

Dated May 21, 1913, with Oliver Iron & Steel Co., of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., for drift bolts for protection cribs at the ends of middle approach 
walls of all locks. Total contract price, $3,660.91. 

Dated May 19, 1913, with W. R. Grace & Co., of New York, for 
timber for protection cribs at ends of middle approach walls to all 
locks. Total contract price, $41,456.79. 

Dated April 26, 1913, with Vulcan Rail & Construction Co., of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., for railings for spillway dams at Gatun and Mira- 
flores. Total contract price, $3,312. 

Dated Mav 23, 1913, with Mesker Bros. Iron Co., of St. Louis. Mo., 
for 99 steel" galvanized doors for entrances to operating tunnels of 
all locks. Total contract price, $4,398. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 77 

CASTINGS MADE ON ISTHMUS. 

In addition to the ironwork made in the United States, the com- 
mission's foundry has made or fabricated, in accordance with designs 
of this subdivision, amounts or weights as follows: Material fur- 
nished during fiscal year 1910-11, about 954 tons; material furnished 
during fiscal year 1911-12, about 4,407 tons; material furnished dur- 
ing fiscal year 1912-13, about 39 tons. Total tonnage to date, ap- 
proximately, 5,400 tons. 

TESTS. 

Tests of discharge were made on the cylindrical valve and the three 
rising stem gate valves in the spillway. The first series of observa- 
tions, with heads varying from 8.94 to 29 feet above the center of 
the valve, gave values of the coefficient of discharge^ for the cylin- 
drical valve of 0.445 as the mean of three observations, and for the 
gate valves of 0.592 as the mean of six observations. The observa- 
tions were complicated by the presence of screens in the culvert 
entrances, which gave free discharge when clear, but became clogged 
with drift and debris after being exposed to a continuous flow for 
some time. After this clogging the discharge decreased considerably. 
Later observations, made after the screens had been removed from 
the culvert entrances, gave a considerably increased coefficient of dis- 
charge for the rising stem valves. The average of the second series 
of 58 observations, with average head of 29.81 feet above the middle 
point of the valve, gave a Aalue of coefficient of 0.G80. This figure is 
undoubtedly reliable for the valves under the conditions in which they 
were operated in the spilhvay. It is probable that a somewhat less 
favorable value will be obtained in operating the lock culverts, on 
account of the friction and changes of direction in the stream after it 
passes the valve. The cylindrical valve was removed before the later 
and more reliable observations were recorded. 

Upon discontinuance of this subdivision at the close of the fiscal 
year the unfinished part of its work, which is of minor importance, 
was divided among other subdivisions of the office. 

Lock Gates and Pkotective Devices, 

This subdivision has been under the immediate charge of Mr. 
Henry Goldmark, designing engineer, assisted in the office by Mr. 
Lewis A. Mason, assistant engineer, and the necessary draftsmen and 
clerk. The force organized for inspection of lock gates in the 
United States was under the immediate charge of Mr. Johannes 
Hammer, assistant engineer. The inspection of the chain fenders in 
the LTnited States, was carried on by Mr. Jacob Soderberg, assistant 
engineer, until March 1, 1913, when it was turned over to Mr. Ham- 
mer. Mr. Frank Price assisted Mr. Hammer as chief inspector. 
On the Isthmus, Mr. George F. Guynn was the chief inspector for 
the erection of the lock gates, with Messrs. B. B. Dumville, C. H. 
Matthews, and William Howe as principal assistants, and Mr. E, H. 
Baughman was chief inspector on the chain fenders. 

1 c in formula Q=A c V 2 g h 



78 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

LOCK GATES. 

The construction and erection of the lock gates was continued dur- 
ing the fiscal year under the contract with the McClintic-Marshall 
Construction Co., dated June 21, 1910. All shop draAvings had been 
completed previously, so that the office work in connection with the 
lock gates was confined to the preparation of some minor plans. 

By the beginning of the fiscal year all the steel plates and shapes 
had been rolled, and 39,000 tons of structural steel parts, equivalent 
to 76 per cent of the total, had been fabricated at the contractors' 
works and shipped to the Isthmus, besides the necessary castings and 
minor parts. 

During the present year the manufacture of all material for the 
gates (aggregating 57,500 tons) was completed, the final shipment 
being made in April. 

In addition to this, about 2,100 tons of structural work for the 
spare parts were built and delivered on the Isthmus, completing this 
part of the contract with the exception of a few castings, bolts, and 
rivets. 

The spare parts comprise sufficient material for partly or com- 
pletely rebuilding any two gate leaves on the canal in case of acci- 
dental injury. 

The work of erecting the lock gates proper began at Gatun May 17, 
1911, and at Pedro Miguel August 7, 1911. The first work was done 
at Miraflores on September 10, 1912. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year work was in progress on 23 
gates, or exactly half the total number in all locks, but none of them 
had been entirely completed. The only gates stepped on their pintles 
and attached to the anchorages were the upper guard gates at Gatun, 
and even on these two gates much important work remained to be 
done. The total amount of steel assembled was only 19,361 tons, or 
about 34 per cent of the total, and much of this was only partly 
reamed and riveted. The total number of field rivets driven was 
about 963,000 out of over 5,700,000, or only 18 per cent of the total. 

As the contract called for the completion by June 1, 1912, of no 
less than 24 gates out of a total of 46, the work had clearly fallen far 
behind the program, and a decided increase in the rate of progress 
was manifestly necessary. Realizing this the contractors decided 
upon a change in their local management, and beginning about Sep- 
tember 1 installed much additional machinery, largely increased the 
force employed, and arranged for its more efficienti supervision. 

Within a few months the improvements in the organization became 
manifest, a high degree of efficiency being reached with a corre- 
spondingly large increase in the work done. 

The gradual increase in the output from month to month may be 
followed on the diagrams given on drawing 5090, attached to this 
report (plate No. 78), which show in detail, from the beginning of 
the contract to the end of the present fiscal year, the rate of prog- 
ress made in the manufacture of material in the United States, as 
well as in the field erection. 

The number of white mechanics and colored laborers reached a 
total of over 4,600. As many as 165 rivet gangs were employed at 
one time, and the number of field rivets driven in one month reached 



CONSTEUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 79 

a maximum of 660,000 during March, compared with 213,000, the 
hio-hest number driven in any month prior to September 1, 1J12. 
The riveters were nearly all West Indian negi-oes, trained by white 
foremen on the lock gates. 

By June 30, 1913. over 97 per cent of all material was assembled 
in the ^ates. Of the finishing, i. e., the work which remains to be 
done on each leaf after the riveting is completed, about 57 per cent 
had been accomplished at the end of the fiscal year , , , 

All the leaves in the west chambers at Gatun and the east chamber 
at Pedro MigTiel had been stepped on their pintles, and all the leaves 
in the west chamber at Miraflores, excepting the two leaves ot the 
operating gate in the lower chamber. As the guard gates m both 
chambers of all the locks were also in place, the work which remained 
to be done, in order to permit the locking of vessels through all the 
locks, consisted mainly of the adjusting of the bearing plates, the 
testing for water-tightness, the painting, and the attaching ot various 

minor parts. ,, , _ ^ i ,^ 

At the end of the fiscal year all the guard gates were complete, 
except those at the lower end of Miraflores Locks. The guard gates 
at Gatun had been permanently closed. on inio 

Those at the upper end were put in service about July 20, ULZ, 
although the depth of water at the sill has never exceeded 19 teet. 
The lower guard gates were closed about June 11, 1913, and sustain 
the maximum working head, about 40 feet, without appreciable 

The original lock gate contract provides for the payment of 50 
per cent of the contract price on all fabricated material ready for 
shipment at the contractors' works. A further 45 per cent becomes 
due on each pair of leaves when their erection is practically com- 
plete, while the final 5 per cent is withheld until all gates in a lock 
are entirely finished. 

These provisions proved to be very onerous to the contractors, 
and it seemed clear that a more speedy completion of the gates would 
be ensured by relaxing these provisions where found unnecessarily 
severe. In consideration of certain concessions by the contractors, 
a supplementary agreement was signed January 14, 1913, which pro- 
vides for successive partial payments on each gate, when the assem- 
bling, riveting, finishing, and painting of the same have been ac- 
ceptably completed. 

A further supplementary agreement, modifying some ot the pro- 
visions of the lock-gate contract, was signed May 20, 1913. By its 
terms the contractors were given an extension of time for completing 

the 2rates 

The principal reason for granting this concession was the fact 
that a number of delays had occurred, for which, according to the 
terms of the contract, the contractors could not be held responsible. 
These delays were due in part to shipwrecks and strikes, in part to 
other unavoidable causes. 

In the new agreement the commission received some minor con- 
cessions from the contractors in connection with the lock gate and 
other contracts, the rate under which the liquidated damages are 
to be computed was increased, while, on the other hand, new and 
later dates were fixed for the completion of the several gates. 



80 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



These dates as now fixed are June 1, 1913, for the upper guard 
gates at Pedro Miguel, and June 15 for the guard gates at the lower 
approaches to Gatun and Pedro Miguel and the upper approach 
to Miraflores Locks. The lower guard gates at Miraflores are to be 
finished by September 1, 1913. All other gates necessary to permit 
the lockage of vessels through one side of each flight from ocean to 
ocean must be completed not later than October 1, 1913, while the 
date of final completion for all remaining gates is fixed at January 
1, 1914, for Gatun and Pedro Miguel and March 1, 1914, for Mira- 
flores. 

The total weight of all the gates on the canal and also the weights 
of the different leaves are shown in the table given below. 

This gives for each leaf the weight of metal as stated in Circular 
No. 576, inviting proposals, and the corresponding weights calcu- 
lated from the shop drawings as well as the average scale weight of 
the leaves as built. 

The total tonnage shipped is 57,552, as compared with 56,612 tons, 
computed from the general plans that accompanied the specifications, 
and 57,212 tons, calculated from the shop drawings. 

The weight in tons of 2,000 pounds of a leaf of any given height 
may be quite closely expressed by the following formula : 

W=10H-87. 

in which H equals the height in feet of the leaf from the top of the 
coping on the lock wall to the top of the sill. 

Weights of mitcring lock gates. 

[Exclusive of fixed parts.] 





Height of 
leaves, top of 
coping to sill. 


Weight, in tons, of all metal, exclusive of fixed 
parts. 


Total 
weight 

from 
contract 

draw- 

iiigs, 

I. c. c. 

Circular 
576. 


Total 
weight 
from 
shop 
draw- 
ings. 




Num- 
ber 
of 

leaves. 


Esti- 
mates 
from con- 
tract 
draw- 
ings. 

I.e. c. 

Circular 

576. 
Weight 
per leaf. 


Varia- 
tion 
from 
ship- 
ping 

weight. 


Esti- 
mate 
from 
shop- 
drawings. 
Weight 
per leaf. 


V'lria- 

tion 

from 

shipping. 

Weight. 


Actual 
ship- 
ping 

weights 
per 
leaf. 


Total 
shipping 
weights. 


8 

4 

8 
4 

40 

8 


47 feet 4 
inches lower 
guard gates. . 

47 feet 4 
inches upper 
guard gates.. 

54 feet 8 
inches 

66 feet 
inches lower 
guard gates.. 

77 feet 

7 7 feet 10 
inches 


382 

375 
444 

559 
671 


Per cent. 
2.8 

2.9 
3.1 

0.7 
1.3 


389 

382 
452 

504 
676 

682 
704 
735 


Per cent. 
1.0 

1.0 
1.3 

0.2 
0.5 

0.0 
0.8 
0.3 


393 

386 
458 

56.'^ 
680 

682 
710 
733 


Tons. 
3,056 

1,500 
3,552 

2,236 
26,840 

5,392 
11,120 
2,916 


Tons. 
3,112 

1,528 
3,616 

2,256 
27,040 

5,456 

11,2(>4 

2,940 


Tons. 
3, 144 

1,544 
3,664 

2,2.52 
27,200 

5, 456 


16 
4 


79 feet 

82 feet 


695 
729 


2.1 

0.5 


11,360 
2,932 


92 














56,612 


57,212 57.. W2 





















CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 



81 



The weights in the above table include all metallic parts that swing 
with the leaf, except the pump, float and float switch, motors, and 
conduits and other electrical apparatus, the casting for attaching the 
operating strut, and the miter- forcing machine. The concrete in the 
footwalks, the coke and cement filling on the bottom girder, and the 
timber fenders and sill pieces are also omitted. 

The weights of these additional parts aggregate 27 tons per leaf 
for those leaves of the lower-guard gates which carry the miter- forc- 
ing machines themselves, and 24 tons for the companion leaves in 
those gates. The corresponding weights for all other gates are 20.5 
and 18 tons. 

The fixed parts, i. e., the castings and structural parts to be em- 
bedded in the masonry, were, in part, furnished under the contract 
for the lock gates, but were mainly furnished under an earlier con- 
tract (Circular 513) and erected by the commission in connection 
with the concrete construction. 

Their weights are given in the table below, which show that these 
parts for all the gates weigh about 15 per cent as much as the metal 
work in the gates themselves. 

The weight of the fixed parts in tons may be expressed by the fol- 
lowing equation : 

W=.T21H+39.4; 

H being, as before, the height in feet of the gate from coping to sill. 
Weight of fixed irons emhedded in concrete for mitering lock, gates. 





Weight per leaf, in tons. 


Total 
number 

of 
leaves. 




Height of leaves, coping to sill. 


Sill 
reinforce- 
ment. 


Parts 
support- 
ing gate. 


Anchor- 
age and 
yoke. 


ReactioQ 
castings 

in hol- 
low 

quoin. 


Total 
per 
leaf. 


Total 
weight 
(tons). 


47 feet 4 inches 


21.2 
21.2 
21.2 
21.2 
21.2 
21.2 
21.2 


7.6 
7.6 
7.6 
7.6 
7.6 
7.6 
7.6 


23.4 
23.4 
23.4 
23.4 
23.4 
23.4 
23.4 


21.3 
25.8 
34.3 
42.2 
42.7 
44.1 
46.3 


73.5 
78.0 
86.5 
94.4 
94.9 
96.3 
98.5 


12 
8 
4 

40 
8 

16 
4 


882. 


m fp.pt. J^inchpt; 


624.0 


66 feet 


346.0 


77 feet 


3, 776. 


77 feet 10 inches 


759.2 


79 feet 


1,540 8 


82 feet 


394.0 








92 


8,322.0 



CHAIN FENDERS. 

A somewhat detailed account of the studies made to determine 
the most desirable type of chain fender, with a description of the 
design selected for the construction of a trial unit, was given in the 
annual report for 1911. 

This design was for a fender of the hydraulic type, consisting 
essentially of ar heavy chain made from iron 3 inches in diameter, 
and the necessary machineiy for raising and lowering it. The chain 
is normally stretched across the lock chamber at about high-water 
level and arranged to pay out under a constant stress when struck 
by a vessel, so as to bring the same to rest gradually. 

11834°— 13 6 



82 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The machinery for raising the chain and for lowering it to the 
lock floor to permit the passage of vessels consists of a system of 
sheaves and hydraulic C3dinders, with the necessary piping and aux- 
iliaries. It is operated by an electrically driven centrifugal pump. 

The resistance to the pajdng out of the chain is produced by re- 
sistance valves, wdiich are designed to maintain a constant prede- 
termined pressure in the upper cylinder, so that the strain on the 
chain may never exceed the desired maximum. 

A contract was let to the United Engineering & Foundry Co., 
of Pittsburgh, Pa., in accordance with their bid submitted November 
4, 1911, for the construction of the principal parts of a sample 
fender. Under this contract the commission reserved the right to 
order the material for the other 23 fenders required at prices named 
in the bid. 

The pumps and the electrical equipment were ordered of the 
General Electric Co., while the heavy steel anchor frames embedded 
in the masonry and the suction tanks were built by the commission 
at its own shops. The United States navy yard at Boston furnished 
the chain. 

All material for the trial fender was delivered on the Isthmus by 
December, 1012 ; the erection was begun about January 1 and prac- 
tically completed by March 1, 1913. 

During March and April a number of tests were made with this 
fender. These experiments, which were made by the testing depart- 
ment of the electrical and mechanical subdivision, included two dis- 
tinct kinds of tests. 

In the first series the chain was raised and lowered, as it would be 
in actual practice, by operating the centrifugal pumps by means of 
the motors connected to them. The general operation of the machine, 
including the action of the moving cylinders, the girders, and the 
passing of the chain over the sheaves, was satisfactory from the 
beginning. The pumps and their motors proved of ample capacity 
for raising and lowering the chain in about one minute, the time 
originally specified. The mechanism for starting and stopping the 
travel of the moving cylinder, at the beginning and end of the stroke, 
also fulfilled its requirements perfectly. 

A slight difficulty was experienced in the earlier tests from the 
leakage of air into the piping, which interfered somewhat with the 
proper operation of the pumps. This trouble was easily remedied by 
raising the suction tank so that practically all parts of the piping 
are always under at least a small hydrostatic head. A further im- 
provement adopted consists in the addition of a by-pass controlled 
by a gate valve to that part of the piping which connects the bottom 
of the cylinder with the pump. A tee had been provided in the 
original plans to permit this addition. As now arranged, the main 
pipe is fitted with a check valve, which opens wide when the cylinder 
is being raised, while the valve in the by-pass is pennanently set with 
a very small opening, which insures a slow motion on the down stroke 
and obviates the danger of producing a vacuum in the upper cylinder 
or the piping. 

After these changes had been made the operation of the fender 
machinery was entirely satisfactory as far as raising and lowering the 
chain is concerned. The pressure in the upper and the lower cylin- 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 83 

ders was recorded by indicators at all parts of the stroke, both when 
raising and lowerino^ the chain. 

The fact should also be mentioned that the chain, when being low- 
ered, dropped very uniformly from both lock walls, and, apparently, 
in its final position, rested at the bottom for the full w^dth of the lock 
chamber with its vertical part entirely within the chases in the walls. 

The object of the second series of experiments was to test the opera- 
tion of the fender under conditions similar to those that will prevail 
when the chain is struck by a moving vessel. 

As may be seen by reference to the plans (see drawing No. 5224B, 
plate Xo. 79), the chain at such times will gradually pay out, touch- 
ing the curved surface of the hawse-pipe castings in the walls over a 
constantly increasing arc of contact. 

The movement of the chain will be resisted in part by its friction 
along the hawse pipes, in part by the internal friction of the ma- 
chinery, but mainly by the hydrostatic pressure which acts against 
the upper surface of the moving cylinder. The function of the 
resistance valves is to maintain the last-named pressure at a constant 
magnitude. The vah^e selected is made by the Koss Valve Manu- 
facturing Co., of Troy, N. Y. The tests made of the resistance 
valves and the assembled mechanism are described as follows by De- 
signing Engineer Goldmark : 

An extended series of comparative tests was made in the United States during 
May, 1912, on three valves of different types especially designed for service in 
these fenders. 

Through the courtesy of the Prudential Life Insurance Co. these experiments 
were made at its power plant at Newark, N. J. While they were undertaken 
merely as a preliminary to the tests to be made with the completed fenders, 
they proved of great value in giving greater assurance that this type of fender 
could be counted upon to operate successfully in practice. 

An 8-inch pipe was connected to the resistance valve on the high-pressure 
side and fitted with a quick-opening valve for regulating the amount of flow, 
while the discharge pipe below the resistance valve leads to a 12-inch Yenturi 
meter for measuring the rate of flow. 

Water under pressure was supplied by three high-pressure pumps and regu- 
lated by three accumulators, the pressure at the accumulators being about 750 
pounds per squ;ive inch, while the discharge varied from to as much as 3,400 
gallons per minute. 

By means of three gas-engine indicators, the drums of which were arranged 
so as to be revolved imiformly by a small electric motor, the pressures above the 
valve, above the Yenturi, and at its throat were continuously recorded. 

From the cards taken on the high-pressure side of the valve the exact pres- 
sure that prevailed at that point throughout the stroke of the cylinder can be 
studied, while the pressures at the Yenturi enabled the rate of flow to be accu- 
rately determined. 

Of the three valves tested two were obtained from commercial sources and 
one was made after a design prepared in this office. The first two gave very 
satisfactory results, even for discharges of over 3.000 gallons per minute. The 
high pressure curves obtained in the numerous tests were quite free from 
irregularities and surges, the pressures being comparatively constant through- 
out the whole period of discharge. The pressures recorded for rates of flow 
exceeding l.S(K> gallons per minute were, however, fi'om 10<.) to 150 pounds 
per square inch lower than those obtained when the discharge was less. This 
drop was. without much doubt, due to the greater friction in the pipe line 
between the accumulators and the valve, when the flow was increased. 

The third valve, which was of the piston type, gave equally good results for 
rates of discharge up to 750 gallons per minute, but was not satisfactory in its 
operation for higher flows, which caused objectionable oscillations in the valve. 

The shortness of the time during which the high pressure was maintained was 
due to the limited accumulator capacity. The first one of the valves tested is 



84 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

practically a reducing valve of the spring type. It has a disk 44 inches in 
diameter, with a conical seat which is attached to a stem that extend;? upwai-d 
through the valve cover. Its lifting is resisted by an outside spring connected 
to the stem by a system of levers. The spring pressure, which is about double 
the total pressure on the disk, is adjusted by turning the nuts on three rods 
connected to the top yoke which holds down the spring. 

The second valve tested is more complex. The main valve has a disk 5ii} 
inches in diameter, a lower piston 6 inches in diameter, and an upper plunger 
2 inches in diameter, all rigidily connected. The valve is almost comiilotely 
balanced, but there is a slight excess in area on the high-jn-essin-e side, so that 
it remains closed except v/hen pressure is admitted to the lovrer chamber b.v 
an auxiliary valve. The movement of the main valve depeiids on a rate of 
flow through the auxiliary valve into the lower chamber below the main valve, 
and the rate of discharge from this chamber through the needle valve. The 
spring in this valve is much smaller than in the first valve and is readily ad- 
justed by a hand wheel. All the forces acting in the valve are decidedly 
smaller. 

As noted above, both valves gave excellent I'esults in the preliminary tests. 

Only the first two types were selected, for working test in chain fender room. 
One valve of each type was installed in both machinery chambers, Nos. 812 
and 813, each valve being inserted on an independent pipe leading from the 
top of the upper cylinder to the suction tank. During the tests one of the 
valves was used at a time, the other being shut off entirely by gate valves. 
The tests were made in room 813 on the middle wall. 

For the tests a Lidgerwood uuloader, consisting essentially of a 60-ton wind- 
ing engine mounted on a flat car, was placed on the opposite lock wall about 
600 feet downstream from the chain fender machines. The uuloader was made 
fast by cable anchorages in the nearby back fill and masonry, and was supplied 
with steam from a locomotive on the track in the rear of the uuloader. The 
chain of the machine under test was then disconnected from the stud link chain 
composing the span across the lock and connected to the inch and a half steel 
rope on the winding drum of the unloader. The required tension in the chain 
of the machine under test was then produced by winding in on the uuloader. 
thus causing the plunger of the fender machine to rise against the pressure in 
the upi>er cylinder. This pressure was controlled by the resistance valve. For 
the first set of tests the cable from the unloader made a direct line to the 
hawespipe of the machine. In these tests the chain was pulled out of the 
hawespipe at an angle of about 12^° to the axis of the lock. 

The cylinder pressures were recorded by the indicators which had been used 
in the preliminai-y tests in the United States, the valves being set, by trial, for 
gradually increasing pressures. 

In this first set of tests the chain was in contact with the hawsepipe, and 
the pressure curves throughout showed small periodic fluctuations, due to the 
successive links passing across the hawsepipe. 

A number of runs were made with both valves at pressures varying from 
170 pounds to 350 pounds per square inch. The power of the unloader was 
apparently insufficient to overcome the hydraulic resistance and the hawsepipe 
frictions when the pressure at the valve exceeded 350 pounds. 

After the valves were satisfactorily adjusted the pi-essure curves for both 
valves were very uniform, with practically constant pressures throughout the 
stroke, except for the small oscillations due to chain friction. The plunger 
speed varied from 6 to 25 feet per minute (equivalent to flows of 350 to 1,470 
gallons per minute), being limited by the capacity of the unloader; the low 
speeds correspond to the highest pressures. 

In the second set of tests a snatch block was placed at the opposite wall, so 
that the chain entered the hawsepipe at an angle practically normal to the face 
of the wall, eliminating the hawsepipe friction and permitting higher pressures 
to be reached. 

Four runs had been made with this arrangement when the cable parted. The 
pressures ranged from 310 to 370 pounds per square inch. The cards showed 
perfectly constant and steady pressures, without any of the small A-ariations 
due to hawsepipe friction. 

For the third set of tests the line was reeved around a three-ply system of 
sheaves, making the pull again practically normal to the lock wall.' A series 
of runs was then made, using the valves alternately with pressures running 
up to about 550 pounds per square inch, at the plunger speeds as high as 8.4 
feet per minute. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGlNEERlNcl — EIRST DIVISION. 85 

In the final test made the maximum pressure reached 630 pounds per square 
Inch when the chain parted near or on one of the lower sheaves. This pressure 
corresponded to a stress on the chain of less than one-half the hreakui^' strengtn 
obtained in the shop tests. The pressure curves obtained in this last set of 
tests were also entirely satisfactory. k,. ^, , 

The conditions, when the fender is used in stoppuig a vessel, will undoubtedly 
vary considerably from those prevailing in the tests. _ 

The results obtained are thought, however, to offer good ground for believing 
that in actual practice the chain can be counted upon to pay off under a fairly 
uniform stress, so that by setting the valves to a suitable pressure, a ves^sel, 
unless it is a veiy great size or moving at excessive speed, may be checked or 
stopped without breaking the chain. 

In order to determine the most suitable pressure for setting the valves, it is 
proposed to make an additional set of tests for determining the hawsepipe 
friction. In these experiments the total pull in the cable near the unloader is 
to be measured by means of a hj^draulic dynamometer, the pressures in which 
will be recorded on indicator cards. From these cards and those taken at the 
upper cylinder of the fender machine, the proportion of the total pull absoroea 
by friction is to be computed. u -^^ 

Both valves tested gave very good results in the tests, making the choice 
between them difficult. It is believed, however, that there are certain ad- 
vantages in the type in which the pressure is regulated by an auxiliary valve, 
which make it more desirable for use in the chain fenders. The spring is 
much smaller, making it easier of adjustment and probably less likely to breajc 
under strain, while the main valve, not being under heavy stress, can be moved 
up and down by hand at any time, ensuring it against sticking fasr. Finally, 
the inlet to the auxiliary valve can be connected directly with the cylmdei, 
thus measuring the pressure at that point instead of in the piping just above 

The tests indicated that there will be a decided drop in pressure between the 
cylinder and the resistance valve. Its magnitude is, however, uncertain and 
will vary with the rate of flow. The advantage is apparent of being able to 
set the valves for a definite pressure in the cylinder itself. For the above 
reasons the type of valve permitting this adjustment was selected for use m 
the fenders. .,„-, ,,i i •• „j 

As the experiments with the trial fender, both when raising and 
lowering the chain and when paying off under strain, seemed entirely 
satisfactory, a contract was entered into with the United Engineer- 
ing & Foundry Co. for the machinery parts for the remaining 23 
units and the pumps ; the electrical and other subsidiary equipment 
were also ordered. 

In the lower approach to Miraflores locks, the great tidal range 
made a modified design necessary, which is shown on drawing 5351 
(plate No. 80) . In this plan the same system of cylinders is used as m 
the other fenders, and the pumps, piping, electric equipment, etc., are 
also practically the same. The chain is stretched across the lock 
for stopping vessels at either of two different levels according to the 
stage of the tide. The chain itself is endless, and there are two 
separate haw-sepipes, idlers, and recesses in the walls and floor. By 
a simple chain-stop mechanism, which may be operated electrically 
from the central control house, the part of the chain that passes 
through either ha^vsepipe may be connected with the operating ma- 
chinery and raised and lowered, the part which passes through the 
other hawespipe remaining at rest, with its central portion lying 
across the bottom of the lock. 

LOCK ENTRANCE CAISSONS. 

The plans and specifications for floating caissons, referred to in 
previous annual reports, were completed during the fiscal year, and 
an invitation for proposals (Circular 779) was issued on May 21, 
1913. Bids under this circular are to be opened July 21, 1913. 



86 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

These two caissons, which are identical in design, will be used for 
closing the upper and lower entrances to the lock chambers when 
unwatering them, and will also contain a pumping plant of large 
capacity for pumping out the locks. 

They are ship caissons, with curved surfaces throughout and verti- 
cal ends. Their extreme length is 113 feet 10 inches, the molded 
breadth 36 feet, the breadth of the top deck 18 feet, and the depth 
at the side 65 feet. 

Transverse stability will be insured by the use of some 850 tons 
of concrete and iron ballast and by subdividing the interior by a 
continuous longitudinal bulkhead and numerous transverse bulk- 
heads. 

With fixed ballast only the caissons will float at a draft of 32 feet, 
which will be increased to a maximum of 61 feet by flooding when 
they are put in place on the deepest sills. To assist in keeping the 
caissons on an even keel, trimming tanks are provided at each end. 

The longitudinal elevation and section and typical cross sections 
of the caissons are shown on drawings 7903 and 7904 (plates Nos. 
81 and 82). 

There will be five decks in all, the one next to the top being an open 
truss, the others of solid plate construction. To avoid all danger of 
accidentally scuttling the caisson, the deck which carries the operat- 
ing machinery will be made water-tight. The freeboard will be 
1 foot, with the water inside up to this deck. The transverse bulk- 
heads are spaced at intervals of 12 feet, with smaller intercostal 
frames spaced 2 feet apart. The hydrostatic pressure will be carried 
to the ends by the decks and by intermediate breast hooks. The 
cushion timbers will be of green heart. 

The total weight of each caisson, exclusive of ballast, is estimated 
at 1,570 tons, of which 140 is the weight of the pumping equipment. 

The pumping system will include four centrifugal pumps of the 
volute type, with a 20-inch discharge, besides a small auxiliary pump. 
The average capacity of each of the large pumps, when pumping 
out the locks, is specified to be at least 13,000 gallons per minute, 
which would insure the unwatering of any of the locks within 25 
hours. 

The arrangement of the pumps and piping is such as to permit 
drawing the water from either side of the caisson and discharging 
it through the opposite side. This will allow the caissons to be 
cleaned and painted on both sides, when in place at the lock entrances, 
without special docking. After the water level in the lock has been 
lowered to about 3 feet of the lock floor through the regular suction 
pipe, the remaining water will be pumped out through a removable 
auxiliary inlet pipe, which will be temporarily connected to the 
caisson at a lower elevation. 

The flooding of the caissons will be done by gravity, while two of 
the four large pumps are arranged for pumping them out. 

The pumps and ventilating fan will be driven by electric motors, 
while the cranes and windlasses are to be operated by hand. Three- 
phase alternating current at 25 cycles will be used, the voltage to be 
2,200 for the main pumps, 220 for the smaller pump and the fan, and 
110 for the lighting. 

The current will be carried from the lock walls by removable 
cables, leading to outlets at both sides at either end of the caissons. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — FIRST DIVISION. 87 

Operating Machinery and Electrical Installation. 

This subdivision has been under the immediate charge of Mr. 
Edward Schildhauer, electrical and mechanical engineer. The de- 
signing and drafting has been carried on with the assistance of 
INIessrs. C. B. Larzelere and C. C. Coppin, assistant engineers, and 
the necessary draftsmen and clerks. Mr. Frank A. Browne, assistant 
engineer, has directed the inspection in the United States. The erec- 
tion force on the Isthmus has been directed by Mr. E. E. Lee, super- 
intendent of erection, and Mr. F. C. Clark, assistant superintendent 
of erection, with the assistance of Messrs. C. P. Fortney and T. H. 
Jordan, mechanical supervisors, Messrs. G. A. Balling and W. E. 
Holloway, electrical supervisors, and Mr. W. R. McCann, supervisor 
of hydroelectric station and transmission lines. Messrs. S. H. Grau- 
ten and R. H. Whitehead were employed as testing engineers, and 
Mr. E. C. Smith, jr., as local inspector. 

RISING stem valve MACHINES. 

Under the contract with the "Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co. ship- 
ment was completed January 25, 1913, with the exception of thrust 
screws, which were manufactured abroad under subcontract. At the 
end of the fiscal year 94 per cent of the valves proper had been in- 
stalled and the operating machinery was 92 per cent complete in 
mechanical erection, while the electrical installation of control panels, 
cables, and conduits was 40 per cent complete. 

FIXED IRONS FOR RISING STEM GATE VALVES. 

The fixed ironwork arrangement for guiding the rising stem valve 
and forming the water seals was shown on plate 3 of the annual 
report of 1909. 

When these irons were checked preparatory to installing the valves 
they were found to require correction. The work was done for all 
the valves at Gatun and all but two at Pedro Miguel by chipping 
and grinding with pneumatic hand tools. For all valves at Mira- 
flores and the balance at Pedro Miguel the correction was performed 
-with a milling machine especially designed by this office and manu- 
factured by the mechanical division. 

At the end of the fiscal year 94 per cent of the fixed irons had been 
corrected. 

TEST ON RISING STEM GATE-VALVE MACHINES. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1913 tests had been made with satis- 
factory results on 39 rising stem gate-valve machines at Gatun, 20 
at Pedro Miguel, and 8 at Miraflores Locks. 

All machines are given a preliminary and an acceptance test. 
The latter consists of 10 cycles, made at five-minute intervals. The 
thrust screws are required to run silently, the temperature of the 
crosshead nuts must not exceed 50° C, and no heavy vibration is 
permissible. The power consumption must be normal and the parts 
in correct alignment, and all seals correctly adjusted. 



88 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 
Operation of valve in the dry. 



Opening 
valve. 



Closing 
valve. 



(a) Weight of valve and accessories, crosshead, and equivalent weight of roller 

trains pounds. . 

(6) Side seal friction due to initial tension do 

(c) Valve, stem, and roller train friction do 

(d) Equivalent weight on crosshead (a±(6+c) do 

(e) Coefficient thrust screw friction 

(/) Thrust screw sliding friction pounds. . 

(g) Binding friction between nuts and screws do 

(h) Losses in gearing between motors and screws do 

(0 Total machine and valve friction (b+c+f+g+h) do 

(?') Total force to move valve (j±a) do 

(k) Corresponding motor torque ' (pounds at 1-foot radius) 



31,500 

1,000 

8,000 

40,500 

0.073 

23,900 

2,100 

19,000 

54,000 

85,500 

510 



31,500 
1,000 
8,000 

22,500 
0.083 

14, 700 
2,100 

12, 400 

38.200 

6,700 

40 



1 480 revolutions of motor gives an 18-foot movement of the valve. Motor synclironous speed is 500 revo" 
lutions per minute. It takes 03 seconds to open valve and 58 seconds to close it. 

CYLINDRICAL VALVE MACHINES. 

Under contract with the A^'lieeling Mold & Foundry Co., the last 
shipment of these machines was received January 15, 1913. 

The mechanical installation of the 120 cylindrical valves was com- 
pleted June 1, 1913 ; at the end of the fiscal year the electrical work 
of installing control panels and cables with necessary conduits for 
these machines was 41.6 per cent complete for all locks. 

AUXILIARY CULVERT VALVE MACHINES. 

These are furnished under contract with the Wlieeling Mold & 
Foundry Co. During the fiscal year 1913 the delivery and erection 
of all auxiliary culvert valve machines was completed and all control 
panels were erected for these machines. (For tests, see cylindrical 
valve machine tests. ) 

TEST AND CORRECTION FOR LE^ KAGE OF CYLINDRICAL VALVES. 

The cylindrical valves were placed at the time of concrete construc- 
tion by the construction divisions. When several valves were tested 
for leakage, under a 60-foot head in the condition in which they were 
installed, they were found to have an excessive leakage. The worst 
valve had an average opening around the seat of 0.038 inch, and in 
addition to this the leather seals at the top of the valves were not 
seated properly. 

After correction of the seals, as described in the last annual report, 
the valve seats were ground by hand to a closer fit and tests were 
continued after successive grindings of the valve seat until the total 
leakage was reduced to a satisfactory value. 

The results of the tests of leakage are tabulated below, together 
with the opening at the valve seat : 



Successive grinding. 


Average 
opening. 


Maximum 
opening. 


Leakage at 
GO-foot 
head. 




Inch. 
0. 038 
.010 
.011 
.0003 
.00.34 
.0005 


Inch. 
0.110 
.009 
.047 
.031 
.014 
.003 


Second-feet. 
(') 
(') 
0.99 


First 


Second 


Third 


.455 


Fourth 


060 


Fifth 


.0075 







1 Excessive at low head. 



CONSTRUCTlOlsr AND ENGINEERING — ElRST DIVISION. 



89 



As a result of the above tests it was decided to regrind all valves 
so as to allow a maximum average opening around tire seat of 0.004 
inch. 

The leather seals and cast iron segment rings were installed after 
all grinding had been finished. 

TESTS or CYLINDRICAL VALVE AND AUXILIARY CULVERT VALVE MACHINES. 

The operating machinery is the same for both cylindrical valve and 
auxiliary culvert valve machines, except that 60-inch and 36-inch 
strokes are required for the 60-inch and 36-inch auxiliary culvert 
valves, respectively, instead of the 32-inch stroke of the cylindrical 
valve. 

In order to allow for slight over-travel of the machine after the 
valve has seated without injury to the machine, the valve stem is 
allowed to rise through the driving gear by means of the spline, and, 
to give the valve a seating pressure, the limit switch is adjusted to 
make this rise about one-fourth inch. 

The motor torques and time required for opening the various types 
of valves are as follows : All machines of this class overhaul when 
closing, and usually reverse a small amount of power in the line. 



Type of valve. 




Time to 
open valve. 



Semisteel cylindrical valve 

Cast-steel cylindrical valve 

60-inch auxiliary culvert valve 
36-inch auxiliary culvert valve 



Seconds. 



The first 40 cylindrical valves were made of cast steel and the 
remaining 80 of semisteel. 



GUARD VALVE MACHINERY. 

The designs for the operating machinery of the guard valves were 
completed in August, 1912. The guard valves are to be used as dupli- 
cates to the upper rising stem valves in emergency or for use in clos- 
ing the intakes in the side wall culverts for unwatering the culverts 
to permit access to other valves for painting and repairs. The design 
was determined largely by the cramped position in which the ma- 
chines had to be placed. On account of the infrequency of operation, 
as well as their slow speed, the machine is simpler and cheaper than 
that for the rising stem valve. 

The following are the essential features of the machine: The 
driving shaft, which carries three driving sprocket sheaves, is driven 
through a train of gears, consisting of a spur gear and pinion and a 
worm wheel and worm, by a 27.5-horsepower, 220-volt, 3-phase, 25- 
cycle motor, electrically a duplicate of the miter-gate moving ma- 
chine. The main sprocket sheave on the driving shaft carries the 
gate hoisting chain which^ after passing over another sprocket sheave 
on an idler shaft, goes to the gate counterweight in the counterweight 



00 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

pit. The other two driving sprocket sheaves on the driving shaft 
drive the shafts carrying the sprocket sheaves, which in turn carry 
the two chains wliich operate the hoisting of the roller trains. These 
chains also carry small counterweights, which are suspended in the 
main countei*\\^eight pit. The roller train speed reduction of one-half 
the gate speed is obtained by having smaller sprocket sheaves for the 
roller train chains than the driving sprocket. (See drawings 6450 
and 6451, plates Nos. 83 and 84.) 

On November 14, 1912, contract for 18 complete machines, with the 
exception of motor, limit switch counterweight base, and counter- 
weights, was awarded to the Earle Gear & Slachine Co., of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., for the sum of $26,900. The price of the machines as 
awarded was $0.0845 per pound. The counterweights and counter- 
weight bases are being furnished by the mechanical division at a 
cost of $0.0175 per pound. 

At the end of the fiscal year the shipment was 50 per cent complete, 
but deliveries from the contractor were behind schedule from two to 
four months. 

The work of correcting the fixed irons, assembling roller trains, 
assembling valves and seals, installing the babbitt seals and placing 
valves is about 75 per cent complete. Erection of machinery has been 
held up due to nonreceipt of material^ and to date the shafts and 
pedestals of 33 per cent have been placed and the anchor bolts set in 
concrete for the balance. 

MITER-GATE MOVING MACHINES. 

Under the contract for miter-gate ]noving machines with the 
Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co., of Wheeling, W. Va., shipments with 
a complete delivery at Colon by May 1, 1913, were promised. The 
entire shipment was completed during May, 1913, but during the 
year the work has been handicapped by the nonreceipt of the parts 
that it was necessary to embed in concrete, and about which the erec- 
tion of the whole machine hinged. At the end of the fiscal year 86 
p€r cent of all machines had been installed. 

The delivery of electrical equipment for these machines has been 
completed except indicating devices. The electrical work at the close 
of the fiscal year is 24.2 per cent completed. 

MITER-GATE FORCING MACHINE. 

At the close of the fiscal year the sample machine had been manu- 
factured under contract with the Pichard Manufacturing Co., of 
Bloomsburg, Pa., and shipped to the Isthmus for final test. As soon 
as the structural work of the gates would permit it was installed and 
given a test under approximately actual operating conditions. As 
a result several changes were made, and in consequence it was decided 
to allow the option for the remaining machines to lapse and to invite 
new bids. In all eight manufacturers submitted bids, of which the 
lowest, submitted by the A^Hieeling Mold & Foundry Co., was 
$37,771.65 for the remaining 45 machines. The award was accord- 
ingly made to that company on November 23, 1912. 

At the end of the fiscal year 100 per cent of the machines had been 
delivered. On account of the noncompletion of the work on the 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 9l 

structural gate parts the work of installation has been seriously de- 
layed. 

TEST or MITER-GATE MACHINERY. 

Test was made on July 31, 1912, on the upper guard gates at Gatun. 
These gates were practically completed as to all the main features. 
The miter-gate moving machines were installed complete, as was the 
miter-forcing machine. During the tests the machines were con- 
trolled from the machinery room in the center wall. The machines 
were adjusted so that when the strut arm was at dead center on the 
crank gear the gates were closed with a compression of the strut for 
gate Xo. 37 of live thirty-seconds inch and for gate No. 38 of nine 
thirty-seconds inch. 

The limit switches of the machines were adjusted so that the gate 
traveled from its full miter position to the opposite position in the 
recess, at which point the machine w^as again on dead center. 

The gates were started from the miter position and opened to their 
full position in the recess and again closed. They were then locked 
by the miter-forcing macliine, although the gates were already in 
perfect miter. The lock was then removed. The time of operation 
of gate No. 37 was 1 minute and 51 seconds, and the time for gate No. 
38 was 1 minute and 50| seconds, the difference in time being prob- 
ably due to error in observation. The whole operation was re- 
peated a second time. During both operations the mitering of 
the gates was perfect. The machines had been adjusted separately, 
and although there was a noticeable small lead on one gate over the 
other, the gates came properly to closed position. Had there been 
time to adjust the gates simultaneously they could have been made to 
close with exact synchronism. The variation was, however, very 
slight. 

Gate No. 38 was then left in its closed position and gate No. 37 
opened a distance of 2 inches. The miter-forcing machine was then 
operated and gate No. 37 was forced to a point within three-fourths 
inch of perfect miter. This operation was repeated with gate ^o. 37 
3J inches from miter and was closed to a point five-eighths inch from 
miter. During these tests the miter-forcing machine was operating 
against the resistance imposed by the strut. The effect of these forces 
on the strut was measured at the slip joint and indicated the com- 
pression or elongation of the strut springs. 

MITER-FORCING TESTS. 

Start : Gate No. 38, against sill, t^-iuch compression. 
Finish : Gate No. 38, against sill, ^2-incli compression. 
Start: Gate No. 37, 3^ inches out, no compression. 
Finish : Gate No. 37, f inch out, flinch compression. 

During tests the operation of the miter-forcing machine was en- 
tirely satisfactory. 

TOWING TRACK MATERIAL, 

The status of the material furnished under Circular 619 to date is 
as follows: 

Class 1. — This includes all rolled-steel track material, and was 95 
per cent complete on deliveries up to the beginning of the fiscal year 
1913. During the year the delivery on this class was completed. 



92 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Class 2. — Under this class are the cast-steel towing track rack sec- 
tions. The delivery, which was 44 per cent completed at the begin- 
ning of the fiscal year, was completed during February, 1913, includ- 
ing spare parts. The total linear feet, exclusive of spare parts, was 
npproximately 53,950. Up to the end of the fiscal year, 36,908 linear 
feet of rack track had been installed complete with concrete, and 
11,168 linear feet had been distributed and bolted up ready to be 
aligned and concreted. 

Class 3. — This class covers malleable-iron supporting brackets for 
conductor-slot cover plates. At the beginning of the fiscal year 60 
per cent had been delivered on the Isthmus and were reported as 
rejected in the last annual report. Later arrangements were made 
with the Ross-Meehan Foundry Co., the contractors, whereby they 
agreed to stand the expense of straightening the castings. Accord- 
ingly, a die was desired in this office and the castings straightened 
by the mechanical division with a steam hammer, at a unit cost of 
approximately 0.4 cent per bracket, so as to be acceptable. During 
the year the shipment of brackets was completed. 

Class If.- — Copper T rails and splice bars for conductor rails. 
The delivery for this class was completed at the end of the last fiscal 
year. 

Class 5. — ^This class includes crossovers and turnouts. During 
the fiscal year all deliveiy was completed, and on June 30, 1913, 25 
per cent of single crossovers and 33 per cent of double crossovers 
had been installed. 

The installation of conductor rails, insulators, cover-plate brackets, 
and cover plates has kept pace with the installation of completed 
track. 

The installation of most of the return tracks has been performed 
by the Atlantic and Pacific divisions during their construction work. 

TOWING LOCOMOTIVES. 

Under Circular 650, bids were invited for the towing locomotive. 
The'circular asked for bids on 1 locomotive and 39 locomotives, the 
idea being to give the first a thorough test before exercising the 
option to purchase the balance. The award was made to the Gen- 
eral Electric Co., the lowest bidder. The tests on the sample loco- 
motive showed that improvements were necessary to fulfill the con- 
ditions specified. As a result, order was placed for the required 
number of locomotives with alterations found necessai-y to overcome 
the defects made apparent by the test. 

The first shipment is to be made on or before January 15, 1914, 
with a delivery of 4 locomotives per month thereafter until the ship- 
ment of 40 locomotives is complete. 

TOWING TESTS PANAMA RAILROAD STE^VMSHIPS. 

A series of tests were made in Limon Bay on ships of the Panama 
Kailroad fleet at various speeds and rates of acceleration to serve as 
a check on the basis used for the design of the towing locomotives. 

Tests were made on five ships, the size of which ranged from the 
steamship Advance^ of 3,580 tons, to the steamship Ciistobal., of 
10,420 tons displacement, at actual draft at time of test. The tests 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERIN( 



-FIRST DIVISION. 



93 



were made by the use of the tugboat Empire^ length 120 feet, beam 
24 feet, and depth 14 feet 6 inches, with a gross tonnage of 288 tons. 
The tug could exert a maximum pull at standstill of about 15,000 
pounds. A manila towline of 7-inch girth was used, with a dynamom- 
eter consisting of spiral springs working between circular end 
plates with a steel scale for indicating the compression of the springs. 
It was calibrated several times during the tests and remained fairly 
constant. 

The speed of the tug was measured by means of a Price current 
meter, mounted on the bow of the tug. This meter proved to be 
cjuite satisfactory in smooth water, but the accuracy to be obtained 
in rough water is doubtful on account of the severe end thrust on 
the meter pivots resulting from the pitching of the tug. 

The start was made from rest in position alongside the dock, and 
the ship accelerated to the desired speed as quickly as the power of 
the tug would permit. The speed was then held constant until a 
sufficient number of readings had been obtained to insure representa- 
tive results. Eeadings were taken of dynamometer pull, tug speed, 
angle of towline with center line of tug, angle of towline with ship, 
and ship's bearings. These readings were taken at intervals of 30 
seconds throughout the run. 

The results of the tests are shown on the curve sheet (plate No. 
85), where the speed resistance curves are plotted for each of the 
ships tested on common axes of coordinates. These curves represent, 
with a fair degree of accuracy, the resistance which the various ships 
offer when being towed in open water. It is to be noted that each 
curve represents only a single test on a given vessel, and further that 
the runs were made in deep water without side walls. 

The following tabulation gives necessary data covering Panama 
Railroad steamships and dates of test. These correspond to attached 
curves. 



Date of test. 



Vessel. 



Mar. 13, 1913 
Apr. 18, 1913 
Apr. 24, 1913 
May 1, 1913.. 
May 5, 1913.. 



Cristobal 
Allianca. 
Colon. . . 
Advance 
Panama. 



Length. 



Feet. 
505.0 
358.3 
374.8 
314:7 
374.8 



Beam. 



Feet. 
58.0 
42.0 
50.0 
38.3 
50.0 



Mean 
draft. 



Feet. 
17.75 
18.25 
18.25 
16.55 
18.84 



Displace- 
ment. 



Tons. 

10, 420 
5,210 
5,750 
3,580 
5,965 



Wetted 
sm-fb,ce. 



Sq.ft. 
42,182 
25,084 
27,666 
19,040 
28,000 



SPILLWAY GATE MACHINES. 



The report for 1912 contained a description of the design and 
award of the contract for 22 spillway gate-operating machines and 
pumps for unwatering the counterweight pits. 

During the year ending June 30, 1913, the delivery of all the ma- 
chines was completed and a satisfactory test of the first machine 
erected was made. Up to the end of the year, mechanical work had 
been started on 85 per cent of the 14 machines at Gatun, and 71 per 
cent of the machines were practically completed. At Miraflores the 
work has not begun as the concrete construction is not far enough 
advanced as yet to permit it. The delivery of the electrical equip- 
ment for all spillway control is complete excepting the indicating 



94 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

devices and remote control panels to be installed in hydroelectric 
plant at Gatun and in the control house at Miraflores. The con- 
tactor panels have been partially installed on six machines to date. 

TEST OF SPILLWAY-GATE MACHINES. 

Test made on the first machine to be installed in its position in 
the Gatim spillway indicated that the machine Avas very satisfactory. 
The device for shifting the gate upstream a slight distance after it is 
clear of the water, and the mechanism for raising the roller train 
out of the water after the pressure on the gate is relieved operated 
properly. The friction of the machine amounted to 30 pounds-foot 
at the motor, being approximately the same for raising and lowering 
the gate when 44,000 pounds are used on each counterweight. 

TRANSFORMER ROOM EQUIPMENT. 

The annual report of 1912 gave a description of the principal fea- 
tures embodied in the transformer and distributing rooms for the 
power and lighting of the locks. Up to the end of the last fiscal 
year the design had been completed and bids invited. After canvass 
of the bids the award w^as made on the general classes as follows : 

General Electric Co., all lighting and power transformers, all oil 
switch banks, all gronncl plates, all insulating varnish, all 
control house lighting switchboards $106,670.00 

Westinghouse Electric & ^Manufacturing Co., 16.060 pounds copper 
busses, cable-room equipment, varnished cambric tape 13, 369. 86 

G. & W. Specialty Co., cable bells 23,320.00 

Standard Underground Cable Co., cable bells 5,385.15 

At this time award was also made for the item of low-tension 
switchboards for the transformer rooms, but on account of a mis- 
understanding of the quality of material to be furnished on the part 
of the contractors, the commission readvertised. The result of the 
readvertisement and canvass was the award of 36 switchboards to the 
General Electric Co. on their original combination bid for $59,086 in 
September, 1912. 

At the end of the fiscal year 95 per cent of the complete equip- 
ment for the transformer rooms had been received. The erexi'tion of 
the transformer-room equipment is progressing satisfactorily, and 
jit the end of the year 35 per cent of transformer rooms had been 
practically completed and work had been begun on 30 per cent more. 
This gives an approximate total of about 65 per cent of all rooms on 
which work has been started. 

INSULATED CABLE. 

The total amount of insulated cable on order to date for all classes 
of work on locks and hydroelectric station, including the under- 
ground lines from the hydroelectric station to locks, is given below 
in schedule. Of the total amount of 2,372,110 feet, there are 1,394,600 
feet of lead sheathed cable and 977,510 feet of rubber covered double- 
braided wdre and cable. 

The delivery on the above is approximately 93 per cent complete 
for all classes. To date, 462,729 feet of lead sheathed cable have 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERINC 



-FIRST DIVISION. 



95 



been pulled into the ducts. and a large part of the remaining ducts 
have been redded and cleaned and are wired with fish wires for 
rapidh^ pulling in the remainder of the cable as needed. 

The rubber covered wire for lighting and telephones will be in- 
stalled later as the concrete work permits. 

Wire and cable on order. 

Feet. 

3-conductor 4/0 varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed 319,000 

3-condnctor 2/0 varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed 63, 800 

5-condiictor #10 rubber insulated lead sheathed 238,500 

8-conductor #10 rubber insulated lead sheathed 420, 000 

1-conductor 2/0 varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed 30,000 

1-conductor #2 varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed 51,000 

1-conductor #6 varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed 4, 000 

1-conductor #6 rubber insulated lead sheathed 50,000 

1-conductor #6 rubber insulated double braid 134,000 

1-conductor #10 rubber insulated lead sheathed 41,300 

1-conductor #10 rubber insulated double braid 164,000 

1-conductor #2 rubber insulated lead sheathed 88,000 

1-conductor #12 rubber insulated lead sheathed 62,000 

1-conductor #12 rubber insulated double braid 360, 000 

2-conductor #12 rubber insulated lead sheathed 39, 000 

2-conductor #12 rubber insulated double braid 73, 000 

1-conductor #23-61 stranded rubber insulated double braid 106, 000 

1-conductor #23-19 stranded rubber insulated double braid 120, 000 

1-conductor 1,000,000 c. m. stranded varnished cambric insulated lead 

sheathed 1,050 

1-couductor 750,000 c. m. stranded varnished cambric insulated lead 

sheathed 1, OOO 

1-conductor #4/0 stranded varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed- 3, 800 

3-conductor 500,000 c. m. varnished cambric insulated lead sheathed 2, 660 

Total 2, 372, 110 

All cable is pulled in ducts by a special winch made up on the 
Isthmus and driven by a small motor. The cable is greased and 
pulled through the ducts at the rate of 70 feet per minute. 

A few lengths as long as 900 feet, where duct conditions have been 
favorable, were pulled without undue strain on the cable or appreci- 
able abrasion on the lead sheath. A large number of observations 
have been taken to determine the amount of pull for various lengths 
and combinations of the different cables. 

The severest conditions that have been encountered are as follows : 



Kind of cable. 



3-conductor 4/0 

3-conductor 4/0 

5 or 8 conductor control 

2 control cables, any combination in one duct 

3 control cables, any combination excepting 3-8 conductor in one duct 
3 8-conductor cables in one duct 



Feet of 

cable in 

duct. 



830 
850 
550 
500 
500 
500 



Maximum 
pull (in 

pounds) re- 
quired. 



3,000 
2,000 
1,300 
1,300 
1,800 
3,600 



In the case of two or more cables in a duct, the pull shown is di- 
vided up among the cables. 

The low pulls given for the severest conditions show that none of 
the cables have been excessively strained during process of instal- 
lation. 



96 ■ EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

LOCK CONTROL AND INDICATIIJG EQUIPMENT. 

At the end of June, 1912, the study for lock control had been 
completed and tentative award had been made to the General Elec- 
tric Co. for the whole of Circular 679, with the exception of the 
local chain-fender indicators. Upon the completion of drawings 
which showed the required features the final award was made to 
the above company. 

The first two local indicators for chain fenders were manufac- 
tured, and as they were not entirely satisfactory the commission re- 
fused to exercise its option for remaining indicators. It has been 
decided to design mechanically operated signals and use standard 
railway-signal apparatus. 

During the year a great amount of work has been done at the 
works of the contractor toward perfecting the complex interlocking 
system of the main control board and perfecting the indicating de- 
vices and the indicator transmitters. 

The control scheme as completed wdll allow the control of every 
piece of machinery in the lock walls from a central control house 
situated on the center wall of the upper lock, wdiere an uninter- 
rupted view of the entire flight of locks may be had. 

In this control house is located a control switchboard connected 
with every local control panel and indicating mechanism. The 
control board is so arranged that the indicator and control switch of 
each gate or valve machine is placed in the same relative position 
to other indicators and control switches as that occupied by the 
actual machines, so that by means of red and green lights and small 
models of gates and valves operated by synchronous transmitting 
mechanisms, the operator in tlie control tower will be able to tell 
at a glance the conditions in any part of the locks from the switch- 
board indications. These plans have been perfected during the year 
and the manufacture is going on rapidly, so that the first board will 
be ready to ship probably by August 1, which is as soon as the con- 
trol houses will be completed. To date 38 per cent of indicator trans- 
mitters have been received. 

ILLUMINATION. 

The general features of the illumination of the locks were de- 
scribed in the last annual report. During the year specifications 
were written and bids invited on miscellaneous lighting material. 
After canvass of the first lot of bids all were rejected, except that for 
distributing lighting panels, award for which w^as made to H. Krantz 
Manufacturing Co. for sixty 14-circuit and six 6-circuit panels, at a 
total cost of $5,490. 

On readvertisement for remainder of material award was made 
to the General Electric Co. to furnish snap switches for $800 and 
to H. Krantz Manufacturing Co. to furnish 525 bronze outlet boxes 
for telephones and portable lamps in lamp-posts for $10,925. The 
remainder of bids were rejected as the material proposed did not 
suit requirements and such material as is suitable is to be bought in 
open market. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 97 

A hollow concrete pole with concrete bracket arms and reflectors 
has been designed for supporting the lamps for exterior illumina- 
tion of the locks and grounds. 

The center-wall poles carry a single bracket and lamp projecting 
toward the chamber, and the side-wall poles carry double-bracket 
lamps so as to give a broad illumination over the lock chambers 
and the ground surrounding the locks. 

The poles are arranged in four rows along the whole length of the 
locks, one row on each side wall and two on the center wall. The 
poles are spaced approximately 100 feet apart with a mounting 
height of 30 feet above coping level for the lamps. The lighting 
units used are 110- volt, 500-w^att Mazda lamps. 

In a preliminary test of lighting, with the inside of the reflectors 
painted with white enamel and using 400-watt lamps, the illumina- 
tion was very satisfactory in the vicinity of the two lamp standards 
under test. 

Designs have been prepared by this division for cast-iron molds 
for making ceiling and side-wall reflectors for tunnel and machine 
room illumination. None of these molds have been finished to date, 
but an early delivery is expected, after which the work of manu- 
facture of interior reflectors will proceed. 

The reenforcement of the exterior lamp reflectors is made of seven 
pieces of |-inch steel rod, consisting or a rim for the top of the 
reflector, one for the bottom, and five rods connecting the two rims. 
The pieces are first bent to correct shape then welded together by 
a " spot " welding machine especially made on the Isthmus for that 
purpose. 

HYDROELECTRIC PLANT. 

The specifications and awards for generating equipment for the 
power house were included in the report of 1912. During the fiscal 
year 1913 all the above equipment was delivered, including the main 
generators and turbines, with exciter sets, traveling crane, penstocks, 
head gates, and operating machinery. 

Bids were invited on auxiliary equipment for the hydroelectric 
station during the fiscal year, and award was made to the General 
Electric Co. to furnish the electric parts for $39,216, and to the 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co. to furnish certain crane accessories for $115. 

The steel work for the hydroelectric station was advertised in 
September, 1912, and award made to the United States Steel Prod- 
ucts Co. for fabrication and delivery at Colon. The contract in- 
cluded all steel for hydroelectric station complete, with steel for 
gatehouse, gatehouse stairway, stop logs, and small miscellaneous 
steel. The consideration w^ill be about $27,500. The delivery has 
been completed. 

At the end of the fiscal year erection of the steel in penstock was 
100 per cent complete, and all turbines had been set. The balance of 
the work of the installation of machinery is dependent upon the 
completion of the building for housing the electrical equipment. 
The work of erecting the building is being done by the Atlantic 
division. 

The delivery of the equipment of the gatehouse and generating 
station is practically complete. 

11834°— 13 7 



98 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

TRANSMISSION LINE. 

During the fiscal j^ear it was decided to install for the transmission 
line an overhead system for 44,000 volts. This line is to extend 
from Balboa to Cristobal, and acts as a tie between the Gatim hydro- 
electric power station and the present Miraflores steam plant, so 
that they may be operated separately or in parallel, as necessary. 
Operating with this line are four substations, located at Cristobal, 
Gatun, Miraflores, and Balboa. The complete line consists of dupli- 
cate three-phase lines, one of which is carried on each side of track- 
span bridges spaced 300 feet apart on tangents and 200 feet on curves 
along the whole length of the Panama Railroad. 

The bridges are of structural steel, with a clear track span of 36 
feet, a clearance of 26 feet over the tracks, and an overall height of 
40 feet. 

The conductors are to be 2/0 stranded copper wire spaced with a 
clearance of 5 feet. They are supported from brackets outside of 
towers, with three-part suspension insulators, with noncorroding 
connecting links to allow a maximum life and a minimum of line 
troubles. 

Contract has been made with the United States Steel Products 
Co. to furnish 777 double-track spans at $541 each, and for 1,500,000 
feet of 2/0 stranded copper wire at a unit price of $0.0803 per foot 
($0.18 per pound), and 500,000 feet of five-sixteenths-inch copper 
clad ground wire at a unit price of $0.0515 per foot ($0,165 per 
pound). The total price for the above items, including anchors for 
towers, was approximately $585,265. 

The suspension insulators of three units each, of which there are 
4,000, and the strain insulators of three units each, of which there 
are 2,500, are furnished by the Locke Insulator Co., at a cost of 
$16.83 and $18.88 each, respectively, with a total contract price of 
$114,520. 

At the close of the fiscal year no track spans have been delivered on 
the Isthmus, No insulators have been delivered, but 499,154 feet of 
copper wire has been received. 

COVER SEATS FOR CRANK GEAR MACHINERY ROOMS. 

At the end of the last fiscal year the contract for 92 complete cover 
seats had been let to the Standard Foundry Co., of Buffalo, N. Y., 
and 32 per cent of the total of 719,152 pounds of cast-iron and cast- 
steel cover seats had been delivered. During the year the remainder 
of the complete shipment has been received and approximately 71 
per cent of the cover seats have been installed and concreted in place. 

CONCRETE. 

In connection with the installation of machinery, it has proved 
necessary for the erection force under this division to install approxi- 
mately 65,000 cubic yards of concrete. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEEEING FIRST DIVISION. 99 

REDESIGN OF CARGO-HANDLING CRANES BALBOA — ^PANAMA RAILROAD 

DOCKS. 

At the request of the Panama Railroad Co. this division undertook 
the designing work in connection with the changing of the cargo 
cranes at Balboa from direct current to alternating current. The 
drawings covering the redesign are about 90 per cent complete. 

INSPECTION OF MACHINERY AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. 

The force handling technical matters relating to inspection of 
electrical and mechanical equipment for permanent operation of 
locks, dams, and spillways has been continued throughout the year, 
with some reduction in comiection with the contracts for lock ma- 
chinery, transmission line, and hydroelectric station material herein- 
before described under the heading " Operating machinery and 
electrical installation"; also contracts for equipment for Balboa 
shops, Balboa Dry Docks, Balboa cranes, and Bascule bridge for the 
Panama Railroad Co., besides various minor contracts. The head- 
quarters of this force remained at Wheeling, W. Va., during the year. 
The inspection work under the jurisdiction of this force has required, 
so far, a maximum of 60 men (during July, 1912), and at the close 
of the fiscal year this organization consisted of 25 men, 19 of whom 
are inspectors at an average salary of $135. 

During the year inspection has, at various times, been carried on at 
the works of 426 different main and subcontractors on completed and 
uncompleted contracts aggregating $6,496,603.65. Of this total, 2 per 
cent was assigned to them by the general purchasing officer for inspec- 
tion. Inspection of uncompleted contracts, at an aggregate price of 
$3,547,302.73, was carried out during the year. The remaining un- 
completed contracts are under inspection. 

The inspection of the valve st^ms for rising-stem gate- valve ma- 
chines at the Mannesmanrohren-Werke (Mannesmann Tube Works), 
Dusseldorf, Germany, subcontractor to the A\^ieeling Mold & Foun- 
dry Co. for valve machines, was satisfactorily completed during the 
3^ear. 

The inspection of thrust screw^s for rising-stem gate- valve machines, 
at the works of Nydquist & Holm, Trollhattan, Sweden, subcontractor 
to the "Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co., was completed during the fiscal 
year. 

Inspection has been performed by this force for the general pur- 
chasing officer on contracts amounting to about 3 per cent of the com- 
pleted contracts. In connection with the contracts, 4,074 drawings 
have been submitted, checked, and approved, and 6,036 determinations 
made in the chemical laboratory connected with this branch of the in- 
spection service. The average unit cost of determinations has been 
53.4 cents, against 43 cents in 1912, owing to a smaller number of de- 
terminations made in 1913, Of the total determinations made ap- 
proximately 5^ per cent were made for and at the request of other 
branches of the inspection service. 

The total cost of maintaining this inspection force has been well 
within the estimate made for the fiscal year. 



100 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The total value of contracts inspected as of June 30, 1913, was 
$5,059,058.16, this being the value of material inspected from the 
time of organization of this force. The total expenditure for inspec- 
tion, including salaries, traveling expenses, nonexpendable property, 
and expendable property is $155,688.38 since organization of the 
force. The percentage cost of inspection, therefore, for the entire 
time this organization has been in operation is 3.08 per cent. 

General. 

The designing and drafting for the year has consisted principally 
of the following : 

A large number of drawings and sketches has been necessary for 
the use of the field in installing machinery, control apparatus for 
the various machines, cable ducts, cable-end bells, etc. Thirty-eight 
drawings were necessary for cable runs alone in the operating 
tunnels. 

A design and specifications were prepared in this office for the end 
bells of the multiple conductor control cable. The specifications for 
these were issued under Circular No. 734, and included miscellaneous 
material for cable splicing. 

Specifications were prepared for lighting material and issued un- 
der Circular No. 732, On account of the high prices bid on lamp 
reflectors, designs were prepared for lamp reflectors of concrete, to 
be manufactured on the Isthmus. 

The guard-valve machinery drawings were completed and specifi- 
cations prepared and issued under Circular No. 737. 

Designs of many special tools were prepared for use in the field, 
including such items as the milling machine for milling the fixed 
irons of the rising-stem valves, a cable-pulling machine, and many 
smaller tools, jigs, and templets. A design was jDrepared for a rotary 
planer for the McClintic-Marshall Construction Co., for planing the 
end plates of the miter-gate leaves, but it was decided not to pur- 
chase same on account of time of delivery and cost. 

Drawings and specifications were prepared for the steelwork of 
the hydroelectric station building and gatehouse. Specifications were 
issued under Circular No, 736. 

Steel for roof trusses for the three control houses was purchased 
as an addition to Circular No. 736. 

The design of the transmission line and substation equipments was 
prepared and specifications covering the material were issued under 
Circular No. 752. Drawings were also prepared for the cable duct 
lines across the Gatun Dam and from the Miraflores power station 
to the Pedro Miguel Locks. 

Drawings were prepared for the foundations of the hydroelectric 
station building and machinery; also lighting and drainage plans and 
many other details. 

General plans and elevations were prepared for the control houses 
and also details for steel beams and roof trusses; also lighting plans, 
sketches, and studies were made of the method of caring for the largo 
number of cables which are to enter the control houses. 

Specifications were prepared in this subdivision for the electrical 
equipment for the lock caissons. 



consteuction and engineering first division. 101 

Emergency Dams. 

This work has been under the immediate charge of Mr. T. B, Mon- 

niche, designing engineer, assisted in the inspection on the Isthmus 
during the whole or part of the year by Messrs. L. W. Tazewell, jr., 
E. E. Sexton, F. C. Purchase, and Lee Hooper. The inspection in 
the United States has been under the immediate charge of Mr. F. H. 
Moore, chief inspector. 

INSPECTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

During the fiscal year the inspection of material for the emergency 
dams was continued at the plants of the various subcontractors by an 
average of eight inspectors, one assistant inspector, and one clerk. 

In addition to the 53 different plants of subcontractors mentioned 
in the last annual report, inspection was performed during the year 
at nine other plants. 

During the month of January, 1913, the chemical laboratory at 
Munhall was abolished, and the material distributed between the 
chemical laboratories on the Isthmus and those of other subdivisions 
of the commission in the United States. 

During the fiscal year the remaining shop drawings for the dams 
were approved. The total number of drawings required for Gatun 
and Peclro Miguel Dams is 1,084 and for Miraflores 1,009, but this 
does not include the drawings for girder and gate-hoisting machines, 
nor for electrical equipment. 

The principal part of the structural material was fabricated at the 
Ambridge plant of the American Bridge Co. 

At the Pencoyd plant of the American Bridge Co. the inspection 
of the gates and the machinery for turning and wedging of the dams 
has continued satisfactorily, and at this date practically all material 
has been shipped. 

During the year full-sized tests upon the gates were made at the 
Pencoyd plant of the American Bridge Co. The requirements for 
these tests, as called for in the specifications, were as follows : 

The gates shall be placed with their flanged wheels bearing upon 
150-pound Cambria section crane rails, rolled of nickel steel. They 
shall then be loaded with pig iron uniformly distributed over their 
surface, and each test shall consist of three parts, as follows : 

First test. — ^When loaded to the amount equivalent to the sum of 
the kinetic water pressure and the static water pressure while lower- 
ing, as given in Isthmian Canal Commission contract drawing No. 
5505, the horizontal force required to start the gate rolling on the rails 
and keep it in motion shall in no case exceed 50 per cent of the total 
weight of the gate itself, not including pig iron. 

Second test. — The load of pig iron on the gate shall then be in- 
creased to an amount equivalent to the maximum static water pres- 
sure, as given on drawing No. 5505. The flanged wheels and roller 
bearings of the gates must be able to resist this loading without in- 
jury to the material and without causing depressions or permanent 
sets, that would increase the friction and resistance in lowering the 
gates. 



102 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Third test. — The load upon the gate shall then be decreased to an 
amount equal to the sum of the kinetic water pressure and the static 
water pressure while lowering, as for test No. 1, and the horizontal 
force then required to roll the gate upon the rails must in no case be 
greater than was required under the first test. 

The object of the tests is to insure that the friction upon the rails 
will not be so great as to prevent the lowering of the gates by their 
weight alone, and that no objectionable distortions or permanent sets 
will be produced by the maximum pressure to which the gates will be 
subjected. 

The forces recorded during the first and the third tests for rolling 
the gates on the rails are listed below, same being expressed in per- 
centage of the weight of each respective gate : 



No. of gate. 


First test. 


Third test. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 


4.2 


2.6 


2 


3.4 


3.4 


3 


4.2 


3.5 


4 


4.3 


3.4 


5 


1.6 


1.5 



In comparing the results obtained from the first and the third tests 
it will be noted that the forces required for rolling the gates on the 
rails during the third test are in each instance less than during the 
first test. It is evident, therefore, that neither the wheels nor the 
roller bearings suffered any injury by imposing the heavy load upon 
the gates as required by the second test. The reason for a smaller 
force being sufficient for moving the gates by the third test may be 
attributed to coating of the rollers and better distribution of the 
grease in the bearings, owing to the gates having been rolled under 
load during the first test. 

Full-sized tests for the gate yokes were also made at Pencoyd Iron 
Works. All these tests were satisfactory. 



SHIPMENTS. 

Practically all structural material and turning and wedging ma- 
chinery for the emergency dams was shipped to the Isthmus from 
Baltimore, Md., the pig iron for the counterweights from New Or- 
leans, and several small items from New York. 

With very few exceptions, material has arrived on the Isthmus in 
excellent condition. 

METHOD OF ERECTION. 

The method of erection of the emergency dams varied slightly for 
each dam, due to local conditions at the different sites. The typical 
manner of erection is described by Designing Engineer Monniche as 
follows : 

Prior to erection the commission constructed three traclis. 32 feet center to 
center, leading up to the center pier of the emergency dam, as shown on 
plate No. SO. From these traclis all foundation castings, such as center pivot, 
wedge seats, rack and track castings, etc., were put in position. From the 



CONSTRUCTION ANt) ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 103 

middle track the wicket girders were placed iu the pit provided for them, those 
nearest the center pier being placed first, and the track was then extended on 
top of the wicket girders. 

Directly after the completion of this track, marked " B " on the accompanying 
sketch (plate No. 86), track A was extended on wooden bents from the center 
pier to the end of the long arm of the dam. As the extended position of track B 
served only for placing the wicket girders in temporary position and was of no 
further use, this track was torn up, and track C was extended from the center 
pier to the end of the long arm, this track also resting on the wicket girders. 
All the tracks were extended from the center pier by the contractor at his 
expense. 

Bents and blocking to support the bottom chords of the vertical trusses were 
then placed directly upon the wicket girders, which served as a foundation for 
supporting the vertical trusses, as well as for the extension of track C. The 
wicket gii'ders had been placed on heavy cribbing, so as to reduce the load per 
square foot on the underlying fill and to prevent the underpinning of the ver- 
tical trusses from settling. Notwithstanding this precaution it was necessary 
for the contractor at intervals during erection to wedge up the supports for 
these trusses. 

The actual raising of structural steel was begun by placing the two heavy 
cross girders on the center pivot. These girders, weighing approximately 40 
tons each, are to carry the whole load of the structure. They were put into 
position by means of two locomotive cranes traveling on tracks A and C. 
From these tracks the bottom chords of the vertical trusses were then placed 
in position upon the bents and blocking previously mentioned, which blocking 
was raised slightly above the calculated camber elevations. All chord splices 
were brought into perfect contact by the use of ship's jacks, after which the 
splices were riveted. When the full length of the bottom chords were riveted 
together the bottom lateral system was assembled from track B, the laterals 
on the long arm being placed in position by lifting them over the two center 
girders and lowering them into place with a crane. The bottom laterals of the 
short arm were then put in position, those nearest the center girders being 
placed first, and track B was torn up as the work on the laterals progressed 
toward the end of the short arm. 

From the two remaining erection tracks, A and C, the two intermediate 
diagonals for the inclined center posts on each side of the cross girders were put 
into place, after which the main inclined center posts were assembled in the 
structure, being supported by the intermediate diagonals. After the inclined 
posts had been erected the hangers from their upper ends were assembled, 
serving as a further support for the inclined posts. The center posts of the 
vertical trusses were then erected, and all floor beams and sway bracing re- 
quired for the members so far erected were put into place, after which the 
riveted diagonals for the trusses at the extreme end of the short arm, as well 
as all posts, floor beams, and sway framing for the short arm, were assembled. 
The I-bars of the top chords and those of the second diagonals of the long arm 
were erected, thus completing that part of the triangular system of the verti- 
cal trusses, which is pin connected. 

The extreme end of the short arm was then let down to the calculated camber 
elevation, and the rest of the vertical trusses, the top lateral system, and sway 
frames, and the floor beams of the long arm were assembled, continuing the 
erection of these members toward the end of the long arm. Care was taken 
in maintaining the calculated camber elevations for each panel point as the 
assembling proceeded and in riveting the principal members of the vertical 
trusses directly after assembling. By this method of erection the load on the 
camber blocking was reduced and the desired shape of the vertical trusses, as 
well as the proper alignment of the horizontal truss, were obtained. 

After completing the riveting of the vertical trusses, the extension of track 
C was removed, and the wicket girder booms, with their vertical framing, were 
erected on the upstream side of the dam, these being put into place by a loco- 
motive crane traveling on the unloading track D. Simultaneously with this 
work from track A, the horizontal truss was assembled into the structure, 
starting nearest the end of the long arm. Each member of the horizontal truss 
was supported at one end by placing blocking under the tension chord of the 
truss near the edge of the lock wall, and at the other end by bolting it to the 
vertical truss. As the erection of this truss progressed, the booms and required 
framing supporting it were put into place, piece by piece, and not in the man- 
ner adopted for the erection of the wicket girder booms, which were bolted to 



104 KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

their framing on the ground and then assembled into the structure. As the 
erection of the horizontal truss continued toward the end nearest the center of 
the dam, the extension of track marked A was removed, and the placing of con- 
crete and pig iron in the counterweight on the short arm was begun. 

The floor stringers and plates were then assembled in the structure, and the 
erection of the hoisting machinery for the wicket girders and gates was started. 
After completing this work, and during the riveting of the various members 
already erected in the dam, one end of the wicket girders was raised until 
pin connection could be made with the compression chord of the horizontal 
truss. This was accomplished by means of a block and tackle attached to 
timbers laid across the floor beams. The other end of the wicket girders was 
also raised by block and tackle attached to the booms, and was held temporarily 
in place by cables. 

The gates were then rolled along the wicket girders to a position directly 
beneath the hangers, which are attached to the floor beams. Four tiers of 
gates were hoisted to the hangers by means of block and tackle ; the fifth tier 
of gates remaining in its final position on the wicket girders. 

For transversal balance of the dams, concrete was placed in the tension 
chord of the horizontal truss for its whole length and extending part of the way 
in each of the inclined end posts. 

The erection of the turning and wedging machinery was begun by bolting the 
various castings to their structural supports on the ground. Holes for these 
few bolts had been drilled previous to erection, while the remaining holes were 
drilled after assembling. The assembling of shafts, couplings, and gears, and 
the placing of the various parts of this machinery was carried on during the 
entire period of erection of the dams. 

The conduits for the electrical equipment and the various electrical appur- 
tenances were put into place as soon as the structural supports were erected, 
and this work also continued during almost the entire period of erection of the 
structural steel. Motors for the turning machinery, switchboards, etc., located 
in the operator's house and in the switchboard house, were erected immedi- 
ately after the forms for these houses were removed. These houses were built 
as soon as the counterweight block was completed, and the work on the motors 
was completed simultaneously with the completion of these houses. 

PROGRESS OF THE WORK FOR EACH DAM. 

East dam — Gatun. — The first material shipped to the Isthmus was 
for the east emergency dam at Gatun, and arrived on the Isthmus on 
March 15, 1912. The shipments of material for this dam progressed 
slowly; delivery on the Isthmus was not completed until December, 
1912. 

The assembling of this material was begun about July 1, 1912, and 
was practically completed on March 1, 1913. More than 75 per cent 
of the material^ however, was assembled by October 1, 1912. 

Field riveting for this dam was carried on in a different manner 
from that of all the other dams, as the riveting was not begun for 
over two months after erection commenced, at which time the con- 
tractor had assembled over one-half of the material required. Eivet- 
ing progressed at a uniform rate and was practically completed by 
February 1, 1913. Five months was required for riveting the prin- 
cipal parts of this dam, and two months more for riveting a few 
minor parts required for the completion of the dam. 

AY est dam — Gatun. — The first shipment of material for the west 
emergency dam at Gatun was made about one month later than the 
first shipment for the east dam, but tlie shipments were completed at 
practically the same time, and delivery of this material at the site 
was also completed about December 1, 1912. 

Erection began on November 9, 1912, and was practically completed 
in five and one-half months, or about March 1, 1913. Kiveting was 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — FIRST DIVISION. 105 

started 20 days after erection beo:an, at which time only about 170 
tons of material had been assembled, and the riveting followed the 
erection so closely that both were comnleted at about the same time — 
May 1,1913. 

West dam — Pedro Miguel. — Delivery of material for this dam on 
the Isthmus befran on November 1, 1912, and by March 1, 1913, 85 
per cent of the material had arrived on tlie site, the remaining 15 per 
cent not having been delivered before the end of the fiscal year. 

Erection of this dam began on February 1, 1913, and has proceeded 
uniformly up to this date, when practically all material received has 
been assembled. Riveting began on March 1, 1913, when only about 
200 tons of material had been erected, and has progressed at a uni- 
form rate. Practically all the riveting was completed by June 1, 
1913, or three months after it was begun. 

East dam, — Pedro Miguel. — Delivery of material for this dam on 
the Isthmus began about December 1, 1912, and 85 per cent had 
arrived by March 1, 1913. 

Placing the necessary castings on the masonry began on April 1, 
1913, and by June 30 over 50 per cent of the material for this dam had 
been assembled in the structure and 30 per cent of the riveting had 
been completed. From June 1 to June 30 of this year the progress 
made in assembling and riveting has been slow on account of the 
contractor's shortage of workmen. 

EaM and west dams — Mirafores. — Delivery of the material for 
these dams began on May 1, 1913, and up to the end of the fiscal 
year about 860 tons had been received. 

Erection of the east dam began on June 1, 1913, and up to the end 
of the fiscal year about 160 tons had been erected. 

Erection of the west dam began on June 13, 1913, and up to the 
end of the fiscal year 20 tons had been erected. 

Riveting has not commenced for either of these dams. 

FINAL TESTS OF THE EAST DAM AT GATUN. 

For the purpose of adjusting the wedges of the emergency dams 
prior to the final tests, the contractor on April 17, 1913, swung the 
east dam at Gatun by hand about 10 feet on the rack quadrant with 
16 men. On May 3 the dam was swung also by 16 men across the 
lock chamber, the wedge-operating machinery being operated by 
hand, requiring 6 men. The wicket girders and gates were then 
lowered, and all necessary adjustments were made. 

On May 20, the contractor began the final tests of this dam, the 
total time for closing the dam in the first test being 1 hour 1 minute 
and 30 seconds. 

After three complete operations of the dam were made, as required 
by the contract, the contractor started the second part of the tests, 
consisting of operating the turning and wedging machinery for 20 
days, at intervals, depending upon the heating of the motors. This 
part of the tests was made principally for the purpose of limbering 
up the turning and wedging machinery. After completing the sec- 
ond part of the tests, three additional complete operations were made 
in accordance wath the contract. The last of these tests was made 
in 42 minutes and 17 seconds, which is 19 minutes and 13 seconds less 
than the time occupied in the first test. 



106 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION". 

The results of all tests made show that the time used for the actual 
operation of the various parts of the dam varies but little for the 
different tests, the largest variation beijig in no instance more than 
5 seconds. The onl}^ exception to this was the turning of the dam 
into position across the lock chamber, the minimum recorded time 
for which was 1 minute and 29 seconds and the maximum time 2 
minutes and 22 seconds. The reason for the large variation is due 
to the necessity for restarting the motors after the limit switch has 
been brought into action; this limit switch serving as a safeguard 
against faulty operation. 

The time recorded for the actual operation of the various parts of 
the dam in the last test was as follows : 

Minft. Sees. 

Drawing wedges 19 

Turning dam 1 44 

Driving wedges 20 

Lowering wicket girders 4 40 

Lowering gates No. 1 3 02 

Throwing clutches for gate No. 2 49 

Lowering gates No. 2 3 25 

Throwing clutches for gate No. 3 49 

Lowering gates No. 3 3 03 

Throwing clutches for gate No. 4 49 

Lowering gates No. 4 2 32 

Throwing clutches for gate No. 5 49 

Lowering gates No. 5 2 02 

Total 24 23 

As the total time required in bringing the dam into position was, 
as stated above, 42 minutes and 17 seconds, the time lost between the 
various operations was 17 minutes and 54 seconds. This lost time 
can probably be reduced by the employment of skilled workmen in 
operating the dam. 

The minimum time in which the dam was brought back to its 
original position was 1 hour 27 minutes and 59 seconds. 

Aros TO Navigation. 

This subdivision has been under the immediate charge of Mr. 
Walter F, Beyer, assistant engineer, assisted by Mr, Charles Stubner, 
supervisor, and the necessary draftsmen, clerk, and field force. 
Lieut. A. H. Acher, United States Army, junior engineer, assisted 
on this work during part of the year. 

The following work was performed during the fiscal year: 

Range towers Nos. 13, Pacific division, and 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 
16, 17, 18, and 27, Gatun Lake section, were completed except that 
exterior stair railings must be erected at three of the towers, interior 
stair railings set up in one of them, lantern glass set in place in six, 
painting done, and permanent lights installed in all the towers. 

The towers are of reenforced concrete, as described in the last 
annual report, and the heights from base to focal plane vaiy from 
28 feet 10 inches to 87 feet 10 inches. Tower No. 2, Gatun Lake 
section, which is 87 feet 10 inches from base to focal plane, is located 
on the rock fill in the rear of the northerly end of the west wall of 
the upper locks at Gatun, In order to secure a good foundation it 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION, 107 

was necessary to go down to bed rock. A cylindrical reenforced-con- 
crete open-caisson foundation 18 feet external diameter and 15 feet 
6 inches internal diameter was sunk to a depth of 65 feet below 
grade, after which the caisson was back filled with clay and spoil. 
The total concrete in the caisson amounted to 184.5 cubic yards and 
the total excavation to 534 cubic yards. 

In order to obtain the necessary horizontal distance between the 
pairs of towers forming ranges, the front towers, Nos. 3, 5, 11, and 17, 
were founded on reenforced-concrete cylinders from 18 to 20 feet 
diameter and from 14 to 24 feet high, which, when the water of 
Gatun Lake rises to elevation 85 feet will form submarine founda- 
tions. Towers Nos. 17 and 18 are shown on plates Nos. 15 and 16. 

Three skeleton tower beacons, Nos. 5, 7, and 8, Avhich mark the 
edges of the channel between Balboa and Miraflores, were completed. 
They are founded on clusters of five concrete piles, and are 12 feet 
6 inches square at the base, tapering to 4 feet 4 inches at the top. 
The total height of the beacons is 38 feet 4 inches from base to focal 
plane. Beacon No. 5 is shown on plate No. 17. 

The reenforced-concrete foundation for the beacon at Santa Cruz 
was completed. It is 12 feet in diameter and 8 feet high, and when 
the water of Gatun Lake rises to elevation 85 feet will be a submarine 
foundation. 

Eighteen concrete-steel reference and range targets were completed 
in the Gatun Lake section. A typical target is shown on plate No. 18. 
There will be approximately 32 such targets in the lake region, by 
means of which the gas buoys may be located from previously de- 
termined angles. At Bohio, Pena Blanca, Caimito, Mamei, Juan 
Grande, and Bas Obispo these reference targets also form unlighted 
ranges which mark the axes of the short channels at those places. 

The reenforced-concrete caisson for the west breakwater light and 
fog signal, which was begun in June of the last fiscal year, was com- 
pleted up to a height of 25 feet, after which it was sunk at the inner 
end of Limon Bay in 20 feet of water, where it will remain until its 
riprap foundation at the outer end of the west breakwater has 
reached its final settlement. The riprap foundation which was con- 
structed in 42 feet of water, by the Atlantic division, is in the form 
of a truncated pyramid, the top of which is 22 feet below mean sea 
level. 

The plans for the west breakwater light and fog signal have been 
revised, and the structure as shown on plate No. 87 will supersede the 
one shown in last year's annual report. It is expected that work on 
this structure will be begun before the next dry season sets in. 

An electric-light line was installed from the Aguadulce pumping 
station to range towers Nos. 1 and 2, and beacons Nos. 5 and 7, 
Pacific division. The line is about 2^ miles long, and consists of 
75 three-inch galvanized-iron poles set in concrete foundations, with 
the necessary cross arms and insulators to carry two No. 6 copper 
wires. Electric lights are exhibited from all the foregoing structures. 
A trench was dug and cables were laid from the Miraflores power 
station to the rear range tower of range No. 12-13, Pacific division, 
about 1,600 feet distant, and temporary electric lights have been in- 
stalled in both towers. 



108 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Fifty-one concrete buoy sinkers 48 by 48 by 26 inches, and 45, 24 by 
24 by 18 inches were fabricated at the Balboa phmt of the li2:ht- 
house subdivision and, as that completed all the work contemplated 
at this j)lant, work there was discontinued and a new casting plant 
established at Gatun, where this subdivision has begun to cast 304 
single arm and 207 double arm reenforced concrete lamp brackets, 
511 concrete balls and 511 collars for the electrical and mechanical 
subdivision of this office. At the close of the fiscal year 30 single 
arm and 20 double arm brackets and 69 balls and 49 collars were 
completed. 

A reenforced concrete wharf 70 feet long and 30 feet wide, adjoin- 
ing the small boat landing at Gatun, was built for this subdivision by 
the Panama Railroad. This wharf will be used for storing, painting, 
and repairing gas and spar buoys belonging to the Gatun Lake 
section. 

CLEARING AND SURVEYS. 

Approximately 250 acres of canal prism from San Pablo to Pena 
Blanca, P. I., were cleared of trees and brush by this subdivision for 
the central division; and approximately 180 acres of land VNere 
cleared of trees in the vicinity of Mamei for the sixth division. 

The necessary surveys and reconnaissances in the Gatun Lake 
region were made for the construction of range towers, reference 
targets, and beacons. 

GAS BUOYS, 

During the fiscal year a contract was made with the American 
Gasaccumulator Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., for furnishing 57 gas 
buoys. The contract price was $164,970. All the buoys have been 
delivered on the Isthmus, and six of these were placed on their 
stations at the Pacific entrance to the canal. These buoy lights were 
exhibited for the first time on April 1, 1913. 

The Goodyear gas buoy which has been in use at Porto Bello has 
been withdrawn from that station, overhauled and painted at Dock 
No. 13, and will be permanently placed on station in Limon Bay to 
mark a 22-foot shoal spot about halfway between the end of the 
west breakwater and Colon. 

EQUIPMENT. 

Drawings and specifications were prepared and prices asked from 
various firms for the following material and supplies : 

Cedar logs i-anging in length from 20 to 50 feet, for spar buoys 102 

VIQ watt focusing Tungsten lamjis 50 

TOO watt focusing Tungsten lamps (which it is estimated will be a year's 

supply for all electrically lighted range towers and beacons) 400 

-Itb-order range lenses and frames 2 

Pressed glass semaphore lenses, 12 inches diameter 36 

Pi'essed glass sectors, 120 degrees each 134 

Si)herical mirrors for lens lanterns 67 

300 mm. lens lanterns for electrically lighted beacons 50 

300 mm. lens lanterns for acetylene lighted beacons 5 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIRST DIVISION. 109 

ILLUMINANTS AND ILLUMINATION. 

Experiments were made with Tungsten lamps having a spirally 
wound filament concentrating the light source to spheres of one-half 
inch for 100- watt and five-eighths inch for 150- watt lamps, and as 
these proved successful, that type of lamp will be used throughout 
for all electrically lighted range towers and beacons. Experiments 
have also been made with special flashing devices and lamp shifters 
for electrically lighted towers and beacons, and bids for their manu- 
facture will be asked for in the near future. 

The candlepowers of the various lights which will be used will be 
as follows : 

Range No. 5-6, Atlantic section, and No. 1-2, Pacific section, which 
mark the sea channels at the Atlantic and Pacific entrances to the 
canal, respectively, will be equipped with fourth-order range lenses 
and 150 candlepower focusing Tungsten lamps, and each light will 
give approximately 300,000 candlepower. 

The other ranges marking the various channels throughout the 
canal will be equipped with 12-inch semaphore lenses, and in those in 
which 100-watt electric lamps are used the resulting candlepower will 
be approximately 45,000 candles; those in which 60-watt lamps are 
used. 30,000 candlepower. Where it is necessary to use spherical. mir- 
rors in conjunction with the lenses the candlepower will be increased 
about 35 per cent. 

Where 100-watt lamps are used in the beacon-lens lanterns the 
resulting candlepower will be approximately 1,200 candlepower, and 
with 60-watt lamps about 750 candlepower. 

In the range towers equipped with acetylene gas and 12-inch sema- 
phore lenses the resulting candlepower will vary from about 12,000 
to 21,000, according to the size of burner used. 

In the gas buoys and beacons equipped with 300 m. m. lense lan- 
terns burning acetylene gas the resulting candlepower will be from 
350 to 450, according to the size of burner used. 

During the fiscal year fourth-order range lenses were installed in 
range No. 1-2, Pacific section, 12-inch semaphore lenses in range No. 
12-13, Pacific section, and range No. 5-6, Atlantic section; and 300 
m. m. lens lanterns on beacons Nos. 5 and 7, Pacific section. Electric 
lights are maintained in all the foregoing for use in connection with 
dredging operations. 

GENERAL. 

In carrying out the work of constructing the range towers and 
reference targets in Gatun Lake section, the working forces were 
quartered in camps near the several sites, and the material was de- 
livered on barges towed by a steam launch. As a number of the 
sites are very inaccessible, the handling of material became a very 
expensive item in the construction of the structures, in some cases 
being in excess of the total cost of labor for construction. 

During the fiscal year, general and detail drawings and sketches 
were made for the West Breakwater light and fog signal. Range 
Tower No. 2, Gatun Lake, submarine foundations for towers Nos. 3, 5, 
11, and 17, Gatun Lake section, 300 m. m. lens lanterns for gas and 



110 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



electrically lighted beacons, fourth-order range lenses, stair railings, 
steel platform for beacons, submarine bells, flashing and occulting de- 
vices, etc. 

CONTRACTS. 

Exhibit 1, attached, is a list of uncompleted contracts which have 
been let on specifications prepared by this division. 
Respectfully, 

H. F. Hodges, 
Colonel, Corps of Engineers^ U. S. Army, 

Assistant Chief Engineer. 

Col. George W. Goethals, United States Army, 

Chairman and Chief Engineer, Cidehra, Canal Zone. 



Exhibit 1. 



List of uncompleted contracts— First (livision, chief engineer's office, as of July 

1, 1913. 



[Erection or installation performed by contractors.] 



Circular 
No. 


Contractor. 


Material. 


A— t- d^li^^^e"! 


Per cent 
erected. 


576 
616 


McClintic-Marshall Construc- 
tion Co. 
U. S. Steel Products Co 


Mitering lock gates 


$5,762,615.00 
2,243,068.38 


100 
70 


85 


Emergency dams 


62 













[Erection or installation performed by commission. ^ 



649 

650 
679 
681 

695 

695 

705 

705 

715 

732 
732-A 

732-A 

736 
737 
752 

752 
752 

765 

765 

709 



United Engineering & Foun- 
dry Co. 

General Electric Co 

....do 

....do 



.do. 



National India Rubber Co. 
General Electric Co 



Standard Underground Cable 

Co. 
General Electric Co 



H. Krantz Manufacturing Co 
General Electric Co 



F. Bissell Co. 



U. S. Steel Products Co 

Earle Gearing & Machine Co., 
U. S. Steel Products Co 



.do. 
.do. 



Mesker Bros. Iron Co 

Vulcan RaO & Construction 

Co. 
U. S. steel Products Co 



Chain fenders . 



Towing locomotives 

Lock control equipment 

Motors, pumps, compensa- 
tors, and float switches. 

1,045,300 feet control wires 
and cables. 

539,300 feet control wires and 
cables. 

Electrical equipment for 
transformer rooms. 

Cable and bells 



Hydroelectric station switch- 
boards. 

Telephono outlet boxes 

86,S50 feet control wires and 
cables. 

135,000 feet control wires and 
cables. 

Roof steel for control houses. 

Guard valve machines 

2,000,000 feet copper conduc- 
tor wire. 

777 towers, double-track span 

6, 500 high-tension strain and 
suspension insulators. 

99 steel doors for entrances to 
operating fuimels. 

Spillway raOings 



40,000 feet triple braid rub- 
ber and varnished cambric 
cable. 



S428,005.00 

523,680.00 
202, 152. 56 
144,522.88 

460,868.95 
20, 569. 05 

237, 194. 50 

9, 134. 95 

40,339.50 

11,477.50 
13, 529. 97 

6,680.33 

11,136.00 
26,900.00 
132,055.03 

437, 002. 50 
114,520.00 

4,398.00 

3,312.00 

24,080.00 




SPECIAL MILLING MACHINE FOR CORRECTING FIXED IRONS OF RISING STEM 
VALVES. MIRAFLORES LOWER LOCK, EAST WALL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. 



PLATE 15. 




RANGE TOWER NO. 17, GATUN LAKE SECTION, SHOWING SUBMARINE 

FOUNDATION. 



PLATE 16. 




RANGE TOWER NO. 18, GATUN LAKE SECTION. 




I HI 
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K 

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2 CQ 

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APPENDIX B. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. WILLIAM L. SIBERT, CORPS OF ENGI- 
NEERS, UNITED STATES ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL 
COMMISSION, DIVISION ENGINEER, ATLANTIC DIVISION. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 
Department of Construction and Engineering, 
Atlantic Division, Office of the Division Engineer, 

Gatun^ Canal Zone^ July 31, 1913. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of work 
done by the Atlantic division, department of construction and engi- 
neering, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913 : 

The work assigned to the division remains as described in the re- 
port for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, with the exception 
that the work of excavating the channel between the Gatun Locks 
and the Atlantic Ocean was transferred to the sixth division of the 
chief engineer's office on May 1, 1913, and the dry dock and its shops 
to the mechanical division on the same date. 

The construction work comprised within the division is shown on 
the accompanying draAving 12-1-4-40 (plate No. 88), and is divided 
into four parts as follows : 

First. That comprising procuring and transporting stone from 
Porto Beilo ; the construction of the west breakwater in Colon Har- 
bor, and the transportation of cement from Cristobal to Gatun; 
Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army, assistant division engineer, in local charge until February 
27, 1913; Lieut. Col. "William V. Judson, Corps of Engineers, 
United States Army, assistant division engineer, in local charge 
from March 8, 1913, until June 30, 1913. 

Second. That comprising the construction of the Gatun Locks, 
with the exception of the installation of the gates and machinery, 
Maj. James P. Jervey, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, 
resident engineer, in local charge. 

Third. That comprising the construction of the Gatun Dam and 
spillway, Maj. George M. Hoffman, Corps of Engineers, United 
States Army, resident engineer, in local charge. 

Fourth. That comprising municipal engineering work, Mr. Geo. 
M. Wells, office engineer, in local charge. 

Division Office. 

The usual clerical duties were performed in connection with mis- 
cellaneous correspondence, reports, cost accounting, pay rolls, prop- 
erty accounting, and other routine papers. The timekeeping work 

111 



112 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

of the division was transferred to the office of the examiner of ac- 
counts on April 1, 1913. The cost accounting work was transferred 
to the office of the cost-keeping accountant on the same date. 

Division Designing Force. 

[Mr. George M. Wells, oflBce engineer, in local charge.] 

The following is a summary of the work done by the division 
designing force during the fiscal year: 

Preparation of drawings to accompany the annual report of the 
division engineer for the fiscal year 1912-13. 

Studies for permanent dock in Gatun Lake immediately west of 
the Panama Railroad station. 

Classification of materials in the Gatun Dam. 

Studies for the finished slopes and drainage of terreplein adjacent 
to the lock walls. 

Progress plans and sections of the Gatun Dam. 

Construction details of walls and excavation of the north forebay. 

Detailed drawings of 66-foot lead-skid pile drivers. 

Construction details for 10-foot, 15-foot, and 20-foot highway 
bridge spans. 

Seventy-five drawings showing construction details for the new 
Colon waterworks. 

Details of gravel washing and separating plant. 

Computations for adjustment of costs for the Colon improvements. 

Details of construction for new gate house, Brazos Brook. 

Details of construction of 30-foot span concrete footbridge across 
the Brazos Brook spillway. 

Details of construction of 10,000-gallon concrete wash-water tank 
at Agua Clara filtration plant. 

Details of construction for building containing Gatun Lake-Brazos 
Brook controlling apparatus. 

Miscellaneous details of spare and repair parts for miscellaneous 
plant. 

Studies and preliminary drawings for stnictures involved in the 
proposed new waterworks for the southern end of the Panama Canal. 

During the year approximately 6,500 blue prints were made. 

West Breakwater Quarry. 

[Lieut. Col. Chester Harding, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, assistant division 
engineer, in local charge until February 27, 1013. Lieut. Col. William V. Judson, Corps 
of Engineers, United States Army, assistant division engineer, in local charge from 
March 8, 191:5, until June :!0, 1i»i:!.] 

The breakwater quarry at Porto Bello was originally being devel- 
oped in two benches, each to have a breast of at least 60 feet at the 
highest point and an approximate length of 1,700 feet, but on account 
of the peculiar formation of the hill it was found there would not be 
rock enough on the two lower benches to complete the breakwater. 
The development of the tAvo lower benches was, therefore, temporarily 
suspended, and in November, 1912, operations were commenced on 
the old crushed-rock quarry level, above the two benches last men- 
tioned, when one shovel was placed there, and after the first of the 
year two more were added. It is expected that by September 1, 1913, 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 113 

the remainder of the armor rock can be secured from the two lower 
levels. 

On Aiio:iist 5, 1912, broad-ijaiige equipment was placed in service, 
and in October, 1912^ the output was increased from two to three 
barges per da3^ 

The equipment in service at this station for the producing of armor 
rock includes three 91-ton Marion steam shovels, one 70-ton Bucyrus 
steam shovel, two 300-class locomotives, seven 400-class locomotives, 
one 500-class locomotive, four locomotive cranes, and one 70-ton steam 
shovel converted into a crane, unloader, plow, and spreader, and 62 
Lidgerwood flat cars. 

The following is a detailed statement of the work done at Porto 
Bello, and the cost, by months, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1913: 



Month. 



Monthly 
output. 



ITnit cost per cubic yard, solid 
measurement. 



Opera- 
tion. 



Plant. 



TotaL 



1912 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Tune 



Cu. ydx. 
8.678 
9,332 
8,711 
14,313 
12,389 
16,034 



18,383 
17, 633 
19,321 
19,515 
19,772 
19,681 



$2.9141 
3.1975 
3.2957 
2.3755 
2.3490 
2.9899 



2.2395 
1.9106 
1.9954 
2.3696 
2.1141 
2.4362 



.3010 
.3010 
.3010 
.3010 
.3010 
.3010 



.3320 
.3320 
.3320 
.3320 
.3320 
.3320 



$3.2151 
3.4985 
3.5967 
2.6765 
2.6500 
2.3909 



2.5715 
2. 2426 
2.3274 
2.7016 
2.4461 
2.7682 



Average cost of armor rock per ton for the year, $1.1939. 
About 60 per cent of quarry output is Avasted in procuring pieces 
of suitable size. 



WATER TRANSPORTATION. 



In connection with this service the plant steamed about 24,250 
miles, handled about 1,650 barges, and carried approximately 22,500 
passenfifers. 

From March 1, 1913, to May 22, 1913, about 3,220,000 gallons of 
water were hauled from Mindi to Toro Point. 

Regidarly employed in the transportation service are one tug and 
seven stone barges, while others are available in case of breakdown 
or necessity for repairs. 

West Breakwater, Colon. 

During the year 599 linear feet of single-track trestle were built, 
the totariength of double or single trestle being now 11,526 feet. 

The total amount of Porto Bello armor rock placed on the break- 
water was 183,762 cubic yards, of which 102,508 cubic yards were 
removed from barges to Lidgerwood cars by locomotive cranes and 
plowed off. The balance was placed by derrick barges, and by self- 

11834°— 13 8 



114 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSIOISr. 



dumping barge (225 yards). At the end of the fiscal year 248,895 
cubic yards o¥ armor rock were in place. About 220,433 cubic yards 
of dredged rock were dumped on the breakwater. 

For more than half the length of the breakwater the sea slope is 
completed, and the armor is well above the water surface from end to 
end, not including the ell. 

A small pile wharf was built for the handling of rock by cranes, 
and 3,000 cubic yards of sand were dredged by derrick barge for the 
barge berth. 

The usual maintenance work was done on pipe lines, reservoir, and 
sewers. 

The plant in service includes 3 locomotive cranes, 2 locomotives, 
16 Lidgerwood cars, 1 unloader, 1 plow, 1 pile driver, and 2 derrick 
barges. A third derrick barge is approaching completion. 

The following table shows details of costs of quarry operation, 
water transportation, and placing of large rock in the breakAvater : 

Comparative statement — Porto Bello large rock. 





1912 




July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Quarrying: 


$0. 7505 
.1841 
.3739 
.1888 
.1833 
.4540 
.1848 
.1919 
.4028 
.3010 


$0. 5348 
.1521 
.3145 
.1804 
.2009 
.4756 
.2791 
.1755 
.8846 
.3010 


$0. 7437 
.1817 
.3929 
.1723 
.1391 
.0818 
.7127 
.1891 
.6824 
.3010 


$0.4649 
.1287 
.2255 
.1064 
.0978 
.4037 
. 1621 
.1256 
.6608 
.3010 


$0. 5729 
. 1298 
.3063 
.1182 
.1105 
.4287 
.1787 
.0930 
.4109 
.3010 


$0.3588 




.0794 




.2241 




.1114 




.1223 


Tracks 


.3418 




.1572 




.1194 


Maintenance of equipment 
Plant arbitrars' 


.5755 
.3010 






Total 


3.2151 


3. 4985 


3.5967 


2.6765 


2.6500 


2.3909 






Towing: 

Operation tugs and barges 
Maintenance of equipment 
Plant arbitrary 


.6324 
.2731 
.4040 


.3720 
.2153 
.4040 


.4687 
.2189 
.4040 


.3089 
.3664 
.4040 


.3405 
.4454 
.4040 


.2504 
.1372 
.4040 






Total 


1.3095 


.9913 


1.0916 


1.0793 


1. 1899 


.7916 


Placing large rock — Toro 
Point: 
Operation floating der- 


.7593 

.0966 
.2506 
.1175 
.1253 
.2658 
.1641 


.6639 

.1707 
.3429 
.2048 
. 0349 
.2875 
.1640 


.5583 

. 1679 
.3778 
.1798 
.0327 
.4411 
.1640 


.2915 

.4913 
.2755 
.1324 
.0274 
.4570 
.1640 


.3708 

.1490 
.2850 
.1710 
.0218 
.2738 
.1640 


.2614 


Maintenance floating der- 


.0904 


Operation cranes on dock.. 


.2569 
.1390 




.0161 


Maintenance of equipment 
Plant arbitrary 


.3343 
.1640 






Total 


.9496 


1.0161 


1.0392 


.9936 


.8156 


.7382 




.3490 


.3303 


.3161 


.3271 


.3191 


.1938 








5.8232 


5.8362 


6. 0436 


5.0765 


4. 9746 


4. 1145 


Miscellaneous tug ser\'ice. 




.2006 

.0390 
.3911 

.6340 


.1569 

.0569 
.2293 

.6422 


.0854 

.0765 
.2412 

.2106 


.1545 

.1079 
.1934 

.5208 


. 0833 


Maintenance, equipment, 




.0411 


Tre^tlas 


.7612 
.4688 


.1680 


Administration and gen- 


.4021 






Total 


7.0532 


7.1009 


7. 1289 


5.6902 


5.9512 


4. 8090 








8,678 


9,3.32 


8,711 


14,313 


12,389 


16,034 







CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 115 

ComparaMve statement — Porto Bella large rock — Continued. 





1913 




January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Quarrying: 


$0. 2955 
.1026 
.2440 
.1249 
.1385 
.2170 
.1365 
.1182 
.8623 
.3320 


80. 3179 
.1370 
.2375 
.1111 
.1294 
.2436 
.1475 
.1233 
.4633 
.3320 


$0. 3327 
.0907 
.1674 
.1301 
.1580 
.3756 
.1480 
.0918 
.5011 
. 3320 


$0. 3562 
.0814 
.1468 
.1104 
.1271 
.4831 
.1521 
.1144 
.7981 
. 3320 


$0. 3363 
.0514 
.2034 
. 1270 
.1658 
.4736 
.1599 
.1156 
.4811 
.3320 


$0. 4177 




.1014 




.1266 




.1246 




.1613 




.3714 


Loading on barges 


.2225 
.1344 


Maintenance o f equipment 
Plant arbitrary 


.7763 
.3320 


Total 


2.5715 


2.2426 


2.3274 


2. 7016 


2. 4461 


' 2. 7682 


Towing: 

Operation tugs and barges. 
Maintenance of equipment 
Plant arbitrary 


.1599 
.0570 
.3840 


.2912 
.2516 
.3840 


.1573 
.0681 
.3840 


.2907 
.1456 
.3840 


.2883 
.0420 
.3840 


.2558 
.1797 
.3840 


Total 


.6009 


.9268 


.6094 


.8203 


.7143 


.8195 


Placing large rock — Tore 
Point: 

Operation floating der- 


.3750 

.0473 
.2304 
.1220 
.0133 
.2142 
.1500 


.3369 

.1435 
.2487 
.1260 
.0101 
.3206 
.1500 


.2976 

.4954 
.2680 
.1241 
.0124 
.1284 
.1500 


.3779 

.3668 
.2733 
.1164 
.0138 
.1642 
.1500 


.3970 

.0316 
.3354 
.1391 
.0277 
.2152 
.1500 


.3692 


Maintenance floating der- 


.2638 


Operation cranes on dock . 


.3242 
.0928 




.0261 


Maintenance of equipment 
Plant arbitrary 


.1500 


Total 


.6697 


.7753 


.7799 


.7836 


.6954 


.8038 


Division expense 


.1487 


.1400 


.0897 


.1658 


.1553 


.1900 




3. 9908 


4. 0847 


3.8064 


4.4713 


4.0110 


4.5815 


Miscellaneous tug service. . 
Maintenance, equipment, 


.0782 

.0281 
.0823 

.3855 


.0620 

.0542 
.1110 

.4244 


.0499 

.0244 
.1236 

.3748 


.0522 

.0316 
.1081 

.4208 


.0593 

.0004 
.0732 

.3464 


.0409 
.0082 


Trestles 


.1008 


Administration and gen- 
eral expense 


.3137 


Total 


4.5649 


4. 7363 


4.3791 1 5.0840 


4.4904 


5.0451 




18,383 


17,633 


19,321 


19,515 


19,772 


19,681 







1 Cost per solid yard of rock suitable for armoring breakwater, 60 per cent of rock handled wasted on 
account of size. 

Gatun Locks. 

[Maj. James P. Jervey, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, resident engineer, in 

local charge.] 

EXCAVATION. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year 1912-13 all excavation necessary 
for the construction of the locks proper had been completed, and the 
excavation north of the north caisson sills necessary for the construc- 
tion of the flare walls and middle approach wall was well under way. 
As described in the report for the year 1911-12, this material was too 
soft to support steam shovels, and the work was done by dredges cut 
in from the sea-level section of the canal. During the fiscal year a 
total of 384,526 cubic yards was taken out at a cost of 47.09 cents per 
cubic yard. This cost, as previously stated, includes a proportional 
cost of the reenforced concrete dam at the north end of the locks, of 
the Mindi Levee, and of plant. A part of the material removed 
extended to a depth of TO feet below sea level, and as the dredges 



116 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION". 

could only excavate to a depth of 41 feet, it was necessary to lower 
the level of the pool in which floated the dredges in order to com- 
plete the excavation. This lowering of the pool level was accom- 
plished by building a clay dam across the channel through which the 
dredges had entered the excavation pit, and then loAvering the water 
by pumping it out with the dredges. (See plate No. 89, showing plan 
or construction, north end of Gatun Locks.) The pool level was 
regidated by the discharge water from the regular pumping plant 
in the locks and by a supply furnished by an additional l:2-inch pump 
which was installed near the east diversion. The excavation for the 
flare walls was extended behind such walls, as shoAvn on plate referred 
to above, until the dredges encountered bedrock before the water was 
lowered sufficiently to cause the banks to slide. 

This excavation was made wide enough for the flare walls, for a 
rock fill of sufficient width to act as a retaining wall as the water 
was lowered, and for the cableway tracks. A trestle, using shod 
piles, was driven into the soft rock from which the overlving mud 
had been dredged, and a rock fill paralleling the foundations of the 
flare walls was made from this trestle. As the dredges Avere low- 
ered in order to complete the excavation, the rock fill was extended 
as fast as the underlying bedrock was uncovered. By this means 
all serious sliding into the excavation for the flare walls was pre- 
vented. The extreme depth to rock on the east side of the excava- 
tion prevented a continuation of this method for the approach wall. 
This latter wall was in the center of the excavation, where the 
dredges made a cut 110 feet wide at 55 feet below sea level. The 
side slopes, from this maximum depth, were stepped up on a 1 on 
5 slope, in the hope that the banks would remain stable, it being 
intended to extend the cableway tracks for the full length of the 
north approach wall provided the banks were sufficiently firm to 
carry them. When the dredging was completed a slope of 1 on 13 
existed in places on the east side of the excavation, and after the 
slide of January 25, 1913, at some points the slope Avas flattened 
to 1 on 20. The final dredging was completed in November, 1912, 
the dredges floating as low as 32 feet below sea level. The exca- 
vated space was then filled from the sea, the clay dam removed, a 
dipper dredge and one suction dredge taken out, and dredge No. 83^ 
a pump barge, and two coal barges left inside the excavated space. 
The clay dam was then rebuilt and the final unwatering commenced. 
The dredge was successfully grounded Avithoiit ]:)articular diff.culty, 
at 55 feet below sea level. Two steam shovels were then put to 
work over that portion of the center wall foundation where rock 
appeared. These shovels also accomplished channel excavation on 
the west side where the material was sufficiently firm to su])port 
them. The channel excavation and preparing foundations were 
continued by shovel, crane, cableways, and by hand successfully, and 
the pile foundation for the approach wall was about half completed 
when, on January 25, 1913, the east bank gave way, at point marked 
" C " on plate No. 89, and a slide covered the greater part of the foun- 
dation for the approach wall with mud from G to 18 feet deep and 
destroyed two ]:»ile drivers. (See photograph, plate No. 19.) In order 
to remove this mud it was necessary to drive a pile trestle to rock 
for supporting a crane along the axis of the approach wall. The 
mud brought in by the slide was removed partly by crane, partly 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGlNEEfiING — ATLANTIC DIVISION. 117 

by hand, and partly by sluicing and pumping with dredge No. 83. 
The entire foundation was finally cleared in March, 1913. This 
slide caused a delay of approximately six weeks in the completion 
of the north center approach wall, and rendered it impossible to 
utilize the cableways for the entire length of this wall. 

PILING. 

In order to drive the piles for the north approach wall, it was 
necessary to construct four turntable skid drivers with 60-foot leads. 
To assist in the construction of these drivers a guy derrick was 
erected on the center wall near the lower guard gates. The drivers 
were completed in December, 1912, and commenced work driving 
piles for the center approach wall. The four drivers continued work 
until January 25, 1913, when two of them were destroyed by the 
slide referred to above. The work of driving was delayed for four 
weeks and then resumed with the two skid drivers and one track 
driver. This work was completed in March, 1913. Five thousand 
piles, aggregating 200,549 linear feet, were driven at a total division 
cost of 55.04 cents per foot. In addition to the round piles, 5,657 
feet of sheet piling were driven under the curtain wall which closes 
the first six spans of the north center approach wall. 

CONCRETE WORK. 

At the begining of the fiscal year the total amount of concrete in 
place was 1,875,965 cubic yards. A recalculation of the amount to 
be placed by the Atlantic division increased the estimate to a total 
of 2,043,730 cubic yards. This increase was due to the fact that a 
continuous bottom slab was placed under the piers of the north 
center approach wall, and the north flare walls were carried to a 
lower level than expected. The total of 170,280 cubic yards of con- 
crete which was mixed by mixer No. 1, portable mixers, and by 
hand was distributed as follows : 

Placed in the locks proper (plain concrete) 137,218 

Placed in the locks proper (reenforced concrete) 27,532 

Used in the construction of lamp-posts, lamp-post bases, and snnbbing- 

button bases 1, 900 

Placed in control house 568 

Used for concrete paving of back fill between the upper locks and the 

Panama Railroad station 139 

Total, Atlantic division work 167, 357 

Mixed concrete supplied to the first division 1, 375 

Supplied to first division for emergency dams 1,548 

Total mixed by locks subdivision 170, 280 

The grand total placed by the locks subdivision and applying on 
locks masonry to the end of the fiscal year is 2,040,715 cubic yards. 

In the summer of 1912 it was estimated that the concrete work 
for the Gatun Locks proper would be completed by July 1, 1913, pro- 
vided there were no uftforeseen delays. As previously stated, the 
slide of January 25, 1913, caused a delay of about six weeks. The 
concrete work, excepting miscellaneous finishing, was, however, com- 
pleted on June 14, 1913. The concrete remaining to be placed at the 
close of the fiscal year consisted of a few lamp-post bases, snubbing- 



118 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSIOK. 

button bases, mooring-post bases, stair-well parapets, paving, and 
the concrete necessary to close a few openings which have been left 
for construction purposes. In addition to this concrete, the Atlantic 
division is completing the concrete work for the first division con- 
nected with the towing and return tracks on the north center 
approach and north flare walls. 

As the slide of January 25 rendered it impracticable to extend 
the cableway tracks north of the end of the north flare walls, it be- 
came necessary to devise auxiliary means for placing the concrete 
in the remainder of the north center approach wall. After con- 
siderable thought, it was decided to construct the bottom or founda- 
tion slab for this work by delivering the concrete with the cableways 
into a hopper placed at the bottom of the excavation. From this 
hopper the concrete was delivered into 4-yard Western dump cars, 
which were hauled out by steam locomotives over a narrow-gauge 
framed trestle, supported by the foundation piles, along the longi- 
tudinal axis of the wall. From this trestle the concrete was dumped 
to the east and west, completing approximately three-fourths of the 
foundation. The track was then shifted to the top of the completed 
concrete, the trestle was removed, and the remaining space in the 
center filled. The bottom slab was heavily reenforced with old 
French rails and unserviceable American, rail. This reenforcement 
extended continuously, both longitudinally and transversely, through 
the foundation, a layer being placed near the top and another near 
the bottom of the slab. After a section of the bottom slab was 
completed, two locomotive cranes, with 70-foot wooden booms, which 
were designed and constructed at Gatun, were placed on a standard 
gauge track laid along the longitudinal axis of the wall, on the 
foundation slab. As the lower portions of the piers consisted of 
detached parts, each 10 feet by 18 feet in cross section, connected at 
the top by a full-centered arch, it was possible to run these cranes 
freely up and down for the full length of the wall. The long booms 
of the cranes rendered possible the construction of the piers to full 
height in an economical and rapid manner. 

After the completion of the piers one of the same cranes was used 
for placing the steel girders which support the decking for the tow- 
ing and return tracks. The heaviest of these girders exceed 5 tons 
in weight. (See photograph, plate No. 20.) 

The decking, as far north as the end of the flare walls, was placed 
directly by the cableways. Beyond the limits which could be reached 
by the cableways, it was placed with narrow-gauge steam equipment 
in a manner similar to that used in the construction of the founda- 
tion slab, the tracks being supported on the permanent girders. The 
use of two small electric hoists, designed and constructed by the 
locks forces and driven by 7^ horsepower motors taken from the 
automatic cars, greatly expedited and cheapened the placing of the 
heavy timbers for supporting the decking forms. 

Tlie average division cost for the year, for taking concrete ma- 
terial from storage, mixing, and placing in the lock walls, including 
plant charge, has been as follows: 

Cost per 
cubic yard. 

Forms $0.8416 

Mixing . 2399 

Placing and finishing .5847 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEEEING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 119 



Cost per 
cubic yard. 

Reeuforcemeut $0.0075 

Pumps .0814 

Power .0697 

Maiutenauce of equipment .2144 

Plant arbitrary .7730 

Division expense . i^go 

Total 2.9504 

Mixing includes a haul of 2,000 feet and a lift of 63 feet for practically all 
of the concrete placed. 

Attached are given comparative costs of concrete for the year. 

It may be noted that the entire cost of the transportation plant, 
unloading plant, concrete mixing and placing plant, has been 
absorbed and charged against the construction of the Gatun Locks. 

Comparative statement o/ costs — Locks masonry. 

MASS. 





1912 




July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Concrete (cubic yards) 


3,735 


3,222 


1,926 


2,685 


5,114 


4,043 


Cement 


$2. 1120 
1.7641 
.6832 
.5499 
.1542 
.3696 
.9324 
.2082 


$1.9304 

1.8648 

.6920 

.9035 


$1. 5537 
1. 5759 
.6947 
1.2632 


$1.3733 
1. 2810 
.5995 

1.6778 


$1. 3265 

1.5921 

.5781 

2. 5876 


$1.3884 

1.8371 

.6308 

1. 8776 




Sand 


Wood forms 


Steel forms 




.3327 
.5764 
.0366 


.6469 

2.2071 

.2178 


.8430 

1.3668 

.3069 


.6144 
.8366 
.1891 


.6768 
.8408 
.4246 




Finishmg 


Reen forcemeats 




.0763 
.0820 
.2755 
.9380 
.2104 


.0719 
.0840 
.2463 
.9377 
.3468 


.1513 
.2233 
.6020 
.9380 
.4126 


.1130 
.1892 
.7312 
.9380 
.5529 


.1187 
.1181 
.5506 
.9380 
.3971 


.5059 
.1824 
.0360 


Power 


Maintenance of equipment — 


Division expense 


.2196 




Total division cost 

Administration and general 
expense 


8. 0474 
.4748 


7.9499 
.8629 


10. 4865 
1. 1570 


9. 9726 
1.9543 


9. 8469 
1. 1801 


9. 5580 
.8510 




Total cost 


8. 5222 


8. 8128 


11. 6435 


11.9269 


11.0270 


10.4090 











1913 








January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Concrete (cubic yards) 


28, 689 


30, 680 


33,424 


18,501 


5,634 


96 


Cement 


$1.2807 
1.9956 
.6110 
.5527 


$1.3192 

2.0328 

.6205 

.6487 


$1.2612 
1. 4369 
.3770 
.6386 
.0016 
.1594 
.2985 
.0720 
.0201 
.0584 
.0458 
.1641 
.9380 
.0616 


$1. 2437 

1. 6802 

.3011 

.9911 


$1.2160 

1. 5301 

.2756 

1.3349 


$1.9532 


Stone 


Sand 


.7406 

.2850 

9. 0955 


Wood forms 


Steel forms 


Mixing 


.1248 
.2905 
.0689 
.0084 
.0616 
.0623 
.1732 
.9380 
.0796 


.1707 
.2777 
.0728 
.0017 
.0460 
.0477 
.1629 
.9380 
.0700 


.2608 
.6676 
.1001 
.0035 
.0523 
.0661 
.3025 


.3901 
.8561 
.2161 




Placing 


1.3762 


Finishmg 


Reenforcements 


12. 4418 


Pumps 


.2381 
.1087 
.1741 




Power 


.0996 


Maintenance of equipment 

Plant arbitrary 


4.1485 


Division expense 


.1818 


.3263 









Total division cost 

Administration and general 
expense 


6. 2473 
.2696 


6.4087 
.2072 


5.5300 
.2640 


5.8508 
.3244 


6. 6661 
.7734 


26. 1539 




.4273 


Total cost 


6.5169 


6.6159 


5.7940 


6. 1752 


7.4395 






26. 5812 



120 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CAiSTAL COMMISSION. 

Comparative statement of costs — Locks masonry — Continued. 

REENFORCED, 





1912 




July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Concrete placed (cubic yards). 


4,358 


4,164 


1,236 


567 


915 


1,049 


Cement 


$2. 2758 

2.2910 

.6678 

.5124 

2.4981 

.0137 

1.0726 

.7113 

.1272 

.3199 

.9380 

.4621 


$2. 2476 
1.9081 
.5728 
.4608 
2.4280 
.0019 
.9663 
.3570 
.1202 
.2858 
.9382 
.3584 


$2. 2391 

1. 4552 

.5897 

.4735 

2.7802 


$1.6114 

1.2774 

.6594 

1.4188 

7.5541 


$1.5117 

1. 1808 

.5647 

.8602 

3.4310 


$2. 1506 


Stone 


.9508 


Sand 


.6187 




.7976 




3.6257 








1.9922 
1.2592 
.0495 
.3781 
.9380 
.4951 


2. 5873 
2. 3664 

.2573 
1.1458 

.9380 
1.3472 


2.3539 
.0372 
.1340 

1.0072 
.9380 

.4876 


3.2531 


Reenforcements 


.0193 




.1579 


Maintenance of equipment 


. 7013 
.9380 




.6706 






Total division cost 

Administration and general 
expense 


11.8899 
.9891 


10.6451 
1.0727 


12.6498 
1.4407 


21.1631 
3.3904 


12.5063 

1.2886 


13. 8836 
2. 1579 






Total cost 


12.8790 


11.7178 


14.0905 


24.5535 


13.7949 


16.0415 









1913 




January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Concrete placed (cubic yards) . 


101 




1,504 


2,466 


6,390 


4,782 






Cement 


$1.8812 

.3285 

.6096 

1.52-29 

43.2581 

.2247 

6.3826 

1. 4572 

.3224 




$1.3049 

1.4068 

.3969 

.1078 

2. 1337 


$1.8704 

1.6663 

.2997 

.1571 

5.5931 


$1.8750 

1.5295 

.2760 

.1797 

3.3832 


$1.8734 


Stone 




.7441 


Sand 




.2864 






.2697 






2.0708 








Placing . . 




.4802 
2. 0600 
.0101 
.5303 
.5247 
.9380 
.2198 


.8878 
.7156 
.0146 
.2013 
.1398 


.5960 
.3590 
.0091 
.0418 
.2451 


.5471 






.0536 






.1646 






.0002 


Maintenance of equipment 


.7654 

.9380 

2.0437 




.2088 










.3363 


.3020 


.3404 








Total division cost 


56. 2391 
5.6483 




10.1132 
1.0669 


11.8820 
1.3838 


8. 7964 
.8169 


6. 5591 


Administration and general 




.9781 








Total cost 


61.8874 




11.1801 


13.2658 


9.6133 


7. 5372 









CONCRETE MATERIAL. 

During the year a total of 171,8GG cubic yards of crushed stone was 
issued from the storage pile. Forty-three thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-one cubic yards of sand were unloaded on the storage pik'. 
and 85,452 cubic yards were issued for concrete. Two hundred and 
twenty-five thousand barrels of cement in bags have been received 
and 227,000 barrels issued. 

UNLOADING PLANT. 

During the year the unloading cableways have been used princi- 
pally for reclaiming sand and rock for concrete purposes and for 
loacling rock for sale to outside parties. The sand supplied from 
suction dredge, amounting to 10,883 cubic yards, was handled by the 
cableways from barges and placed in storage pile. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 121 

HANDLING AND MLXING PLANT. 

The handling and mixing plants have been operated satisfactorily 
during the year. The automatic railroad has handled 301.381.08 
tons of material and the industrial railway 331,188 tons. Mixing 
plant No. 1 has mixed a total of 165,594 cubic yards of concrete. In 
addition to the concrete mixed in plant No. 1 there were mixed by 
portable mixer 2,742 yards and by hand 1,944 yards, making a total 
of 170,280 cubic yards of concrete mixed by the locks subdivision. 

GATE ERECTION. 

The work of the Atlantic division in connection with the gate erec- 
tion consisted in setting the fixed steel for the sills, quoins, and an- 
chorages and in preparing the necessary storage grounds, erection 
tracks, etc., for the erection of the gates. The tracks connected with 
the gate construction have been kept in repair during the year. 

FIXED STEEL. 

The erection of fixed steel during tlie year included the placing of 
material for Stoney gate valves, snubbing posts, anchorage bolts, and 
steel girders, towing and return tracks, etc. A total of 2,446i tons 
of fixed steel has been placed at a cost of $16.0204 per tonf All 
Stoney gate valves have been turned over to the first division for 
installation of the machinery. 

BACK FILL. 

Back filling behind the side walls of all locks and in the center wall 
of the lower lock has been continued during the year. The back fill 
m all center walls has been completed. That on the east side walls 
is practically completed, but the west back fill can not be entirely 
completed until the concrete mixing plant and the incline leading 
thereto have been removed. In connection with the back-fill work 
a total of 637,226 cubic yards of material was removed by steam 
shovel from borrow pits and from the canal prism. All of this ma- 
terial was placed in the back fill with the exception of small quan- 
tities used from time to time for construction tracks. A total of 
2,02 (.830 cubic yards, at an average cost of 50.40 cents per cubic 
yard, has been placed behind the side walls up to June 30, 1913, and 
a total of 113,163 cubic yards has been placed in the center walls 
at a cost of 81.08 cents per cubic yard. In addition, 5,500 cubic vards 
excavated by dredge No. 4 were dumped as back fill. 

The work of bringing the back fill to final grade was commenced 
m the month of March, 1913, by teams and scrapers and continued 
to the end of the fiscal year. Grading for the proposed wagon road 
on the east back fill was commenced early in June by crane and 
scraper and continued to the end of the month. About 1,500 cubic 
yards of material were excavated by this method and placed at other 
points on the back fill. 

The concrete paving of the slope on the fill between the Panama 
Kailroad station and the east wall of the upper locks was commenced 
on June 24, and 125 square yards of surface had been finished up to 
June 30. The paving of this slope consists of a layer of heavy riprap 



122 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION". 

rock 12 feet wide at the bottom, and above the elevation of this rip- 
rap a 6-inch concrete pavement resting on 4 to 6 inches of broken 
stone. A locomotive crane, equipped with a long boom, is utilized to 
place the concrete from track at the crest of the slope. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORK. 

Two hundred and eighty-four thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
four and one-half linear feet of tile duct were laid at a cost of 11.77 
cents per foot. 

Four hundred and thirty-three thousand seven hundred and thirty- 
seven linear feet of reenforcing rods and 683 tons of old rails were 
used for reenforcing concrete. 

Four thousand three hundred and fifty-eight linear feet of return 
track were constructed. 

Two thousand four hundred and thirty linear feet of buffer tim- 
bers were placed. 

Two hundred and eleven lamp standards and bases were manu- 
factured at a cost of $149.4299 per lamp-post. This cost, however, 
includes a part of the cost of erection, as the majority of the lamp- 
post bases and foundations for these bases were constructed by the 
Atlantic division in place. 

CONTROL HOUSE. 

The construction of the control house for the Gatun Locks was 
started in April, 1913. The concrete for this building is being mixed 
in a small portable mixer, and is lifted to the upper elevation by an 
(jlectric hoist and then distributed horizontally by Decauville cars. 
On July 1 the three floors and the Avails for the first and second 
stories of the building had been completed, at a total cost of 
$20,287.51. 

POWER PLANT. 

The operation of the power plant during the year has been satis- 
factory. 

The total production of electrical energy was 10,315,790 kilowatt 
hours, at a cost of 1.46 cents per kilowatt hour. 

The average fuel consumption was 0.00733 barrels of oil per kilo- 
watt hour. 

In computing the cost of electrical energy, the entire cost of ma- 
chinery and building in the Gatun power plant is being absorbed. 
In view of the fact that it is probable that this plant may be used 
for a year or more to come, and possibly will remain in permanent 
use in connection with the operation of the canal, it is believed that 
a credit should be given the lock-construction plant for the cost of 
the building and a proportional share of the cost of the machinery. 

Gatun Dam and Spillway. 

[Maj. George M. Hofifman, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, resident engineer, 

in local charge.] 

GATUN DAM. 

Construction during the year increased the embankment by 
1,967,841 cubic yards, making the total net fill in place 21,786,820 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — ATLANTIC DIVISION. 123 

cubic yards. Reductions from car and borrowpit measurement were 
made, amounting: to 28.5 per cent, or 784,835 cubic 3'ards, to allow for 
consolidation and waste; so that the gross amount of material handled 
amounts to 2,752,676 cubic yards. Of the amount placed this year, 
1,714,367 cubic yards was dry fill, 169,004 cubic yards was wet fill, 
and 84,470 cubic yards was broken stone and heavy riprap, used for 
paA'ing the lake side slope. To complete the embankment in accord- 
ance with the approved plan will require the placing of about 220,000 
cubic yards. 

Statement of the progress of construction by fiscal years is as 
follows, showing the dam to be 99 per cent completed : 





Embankment in place. 


Year. 


Dry flU. 


Wet flU. 


Paving 
material. 


Total. 


Prior to July 1, 1908 


Cubic yards. 
462,297 
1,781,325 
2, 577, 234 
2, 060, 186 
2,982,859 
1,714,367 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
462, 297 


1908-9 


720, 047 
2,933,075 
3,758,870 
2,543,086 

169, 004 




2,501,372 


1909-10 




5, 510, 309 


1910-11 




5, 819, 056 


1911-12 




5, 525, 945 


1912-13 


84, 470 


1,967,841 






Total 


11,578,268 


10,124,082 


84,470 


21,786,820 



On the basis of net embanlmient the cost for the fiscal year is 
44.62 cents per cubic yard, and for the period since the beginning of 
construction the cost of same is 39.14 cents per cubic yard. 

In calculating the above amounts of material in place, the surface 
of reference is that shown by original elevations taken on 50-foot 
squares over the foundation of the dam. Due, however, to the com- 
pression of the underlying strata, an excess amount of material has 
iDeen required to be handled, estimated at 1,600,000 cubic yards. A 
further great increase in material required to be handled, estimated at 
4,000,000 cubic yards, was caused by wasting through the drain pipes 
a large percentage of the clayey parts of the hydraulic fill considered 
too soft for the purpose intended. Normal losses due to consolida- 
tion, clay naturally carried in suspension, and leakage from pipe 
joints accounts for a further amount of 1,167,985 cubic yards, making 
a total of 6,767,985 cubic yards handled but not included in the figures 
of embankment in place. Place measurement of material handled is 
shown by fiscal years in the following table : 





Material for embankment. 


Period. 


Dry and 
paving 
rock. 


Wet. 


Total. 


Prior to July 1, 1908 


Cubic yards. 
541,066 
1,425,060 
2,061,787 
2,726,094 
3, 012, 370 
2,259,531 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
541,066 
2, 225, 112 
5,791,970 
8,457,990 
8,785,991 
2, 752, 676 


1908-9 


800, 052 
3,730,183 
5,731,896 
5,773,621 

493, 145 


1909-10 


1910-11 


1911-12 


1912-13 






Total 


12,025,908 


16, 528, 897 


28,554,805 





124 RiSPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

On the basis of material handled the cost for the fiscal year is 31.90 
cents per cubic yard, and for the period since the beginning- of con- 
struction the cost is 29.86 cents per cubic yard. 

To check the amount of embankment in place, four complete cross- 
section surveys of the dam have been made, one in 1910, two in 1911, 
and one in 1912. No complete survey was made this fiscal year, but 
partial cross sections were run monthly until February, from which 
material placed was calculated. For the following months car and 
borrow pit measurement has been accepted. 

The dam has been carried to the full construction grade for the 
entire length except at two places where a lower level obtains of 
barely sufficient width to accommodate construction tracks. Con- 
struction grade is 105 feet above sea level plus from 4 to 5 feet to 
allow for consolidation. Some additional material may be required 
in the future to maintain full grade. To provide for the placing of 
this, permanent tracks will be left running up the north slope and 
thence along the top of the dam, both east and west of the spillway. 

Levels have been nni monthly over the regular construction hubs 
driven on both slopes about 250 feet apart parallel to the axis and 
about 100 feet apart transverse thereto. Since the completion of the 
hydraulic fill the data thus obtained shows an extremely slow rate of 
consolidation considering that the embankment rises to 110 feet above 
sea level, that- material below sea level for a depth of 200 feet in 
places is compressible, and that the hydraulic fill near the axis, com- 
posed of the finer and more impervious material, was comparatively 
soft when the red clay extension to the top of the dam was made. 
Along the completed slopes the percentage of shrinkage is much less 
than generally obtains in ordinary embankments, probably due to the 
large percentage of rock in the dry fill and the great tamping effect 
of the hea^y trains used in construction. 

On Augiist 29, 1912, while the hydraulic fill was still under way 
and the slopes were thoroughly saturated by seepage water, a move- 
ment of material occurred near the west end of the dam on the north 
slope. Here rock foundation is found above sea level and a slope of 
1 : 5 had first been adopted, later changed to 1 : T.67, but the reenforce- 
ment thus provided had just been started on the lower part of the 
slope below the 60-foot contour. A heavy fill was at once made along 
the foot of the section affected extending well out on to several small 
hills; the slope was then completed to the adopted grade and the 
embankment built up 30 feet liigher to the top without any further 
movement after September 2. 

Wash borings, located as shown on the general plan, Gatun Locks 
and Dam, plate No. 90, have been made to determine the condi- 
tion of the material as to solidity and water-tightness, the line of 
demarcation between wet and dry fills, and the present elevation of 
the original surface. The holes Avere cased throughout with 2 J -inch 
pipe and drive samples were obtained at intervals of 5 to 10 feet and 
filed in boxes. That portion of the sample affected by the wash 
water was rejected, so that the portion preserved shoAvs the actual 
condition of the material in place. From time to time the casing 
was filled with water and the rate of lowering recorded, and in addi- 
tion to this indication of water-tightness the point at which lowering 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING— ATLANTIC DIVISION. 125 

ceased was in some cases obtained. In driving the If-inch barrel for 
a sample the number of blows of a lOO-pound weight fallino- 3 feet 
required for various penetrations were counted as an indication of 
the solidity of the material. A few repeat holes were drilled after 
periods up to a year, showing marked improvement in the sol'iditv 
of the softer portions of the hydraulic fill. Plate No. 91 is a section 
of the dam showing the limits of dry and wet fills, and plate No 92 
shows the progress of construction bv fiscal years 

Dry fill deposited was received 'as follows, quantities beino- in 
accordance with car measurement : 



Locality. 



Borrow pits 

Locks 

Balboa (earth). 

Total 



Cubic 
yards. 



2, 135, 753 

30, 981 

4,369 



2, 171, 103 



Allowance of 456,736 cubic yards, or 21 per cent of the above 
malves the net amount m place 1,714,367 cubic yards ' 

The cost of net dry fill in place for the fiscal year was 40.84 cents 
per cubic yard, and for the yardage handled in the same period the 
cost was 32.25 cents per cubic yard. For all the net dry fill in place 
the cost was 44.95 cents per cubic yard, and for the total yardage 
handled to date the cost was 43.55 cents per cubic yard 

Practically all the material for dry fill came from the main borrow 
pit beyond the west end of the dam and from other borrow pits north 
of the dam and m the vicinity of the locks. From two to six steam 
shovels ha^;e been engaged m excavating this material, their output 
being as lollows: ^ 



July 

August 

September.. 
October. . . . 
November.. 
December. . 



January.. 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



1913. 



Earth. 



Cubic yards 
87, 354 
140, 879 
163, 125 
194,218 
164, 479 
104, 270 



64,709 
45, 155 
75, 208 
68, 969 
50,074 
71, 842 



1, 236, 282 



Rock. 



Cubic yards. 


174,854 


132, 843 


96,440 


118,659 


58, 815 


96,966 


78, 920 


47, 170 


21, 165 


36,941 


33, 771 


26, 333 



Total. 



Cubic yards 
262, 208 
273, 722 
259, 565 
312, 877 
223, 294 
201, 236 



143, 029 
92,325 
96, 373 

105, 910 
89, 845 
98, 175 



Output per shovel— 



Per day. Per month. 



922,877 2,159,159 



Cubic yards. 
1,929 
2,028 
1,938 
1,993 
1,744 
1,649 



1,842 
1, 232 
1, 580 
1,961 
1,728 
1,964 



' 1, 829 



Cubic yards. 
50, 135 
54, 744 
40,517 
53, 944 
41,785 
41,232 



47, 873 
28, 320 
39, 497 
52, 955 
44,923 
49,087 



1 46, 354 



1 Average for the year. 



126 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Wet fill was pumped into the dam. by three pipe-line dredges work- 
ing in borrow pits upward of 1^ miles distant, the maximmn lift 
being 100 feet. For the longer j^ipe lines and higher lifts two relay 
pumps were inserted in the discharge line to assist the dredges. 
Material handled by borrow-pit measurement was as follows: 



Dredge 
No. 83. 



Dredge 
No. 85. 



Dredge 
No. 86. 



Total. 



1912. 



July 

August 

September. 

Total. 



Cubic yards, 
11(3, 156 
68,059 



Cubic yards. 
66, 959 
55,869 



Cubic yards. 
66, 135 
28, 367 
91,600 



Cubic yards. 
249, 250 
152, 295 
91,600 



122, 828 



186, 102 



493, 145 



Measured in place in the dam, wet fill shows a loss of 324,141 
cubic yards, or 65.8 per cent, due to waste through drain pipes, leak- 
age from pipe joints, and consolidation. The net wet fill, therefore, 
amounted to 169,004 cubic yards. 

The cost of the above wet fill, on the basis of net embankment in 
place, was 32.19 cents per cubic yard; and on the basis of yardage 
handled the cost was 11.03 cents per cubic yard. For the total com- 
pleted wet fill the corresponding costs were 31.64 cents per cubic yard 
and 19.38 cents per cubic yard. 

Early in the year filling with the dredges was completed. Three 
of them were transferred to other work, and the fourth was laid up 
after thorough repair to make it ready for excavating the deposits of 
gravel and sand in the prism near Gamboa. Dredge No. 85 was dis- 
mantled, the hull pulled out on the extemporized ways where it was 
cut into sections by the oxy-acetylene process ; all parts and machin- 
ery were shipped by rail to Balboa to be reconstructed for work in 
that vicinity. 

In connection with furnishing wet fill for the dam, dredge No. 86 
also loaded barges with wa.shed sand for concrete from May to 
August, 1912, furnishing 32,968 cubic yards after July 1. In March, 
1913, there was still a deficiency of sand and the dredge was again 
placed in this service, excavating 10,883 cubic yards from the 13th 
to the 25th. The cost of this sand in storage pile was 51.88 cents per 
cubic yard. As excavated from the borrow pit, the material con- 
tained at times as much as 50 per cent of silt, clay lumps, rotten wood, 
and bowlders. A simple but extremely effective method was used 
to eliminate such foreign matter. A small pile dock was built along 
which a barge was placed and to which a branch of the dredge pipe 
was brought discharging into a chute 4 feet wide extending across 
the breadth of the barge. The chute being hinged at the dock end 
supported by a small derrick was adjustable for slope, its bottom was 
pierced by three openings, 1 by 4 feet, in Avhich gratings of bars 
with three-fourth inch intervals were set. All of the bulky debris 
was thus passed to the end of the chute where it dropped into deep 
water, while the sand, silt, and nearly all the water passed through 
the grated openings into the sand compartment of the barge; this 
promptly filled with water, and an overflow over the coaming being 
established carried off practically all the silt. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 127 

Paving of the lake side slope of the dam for a width of 139.2 feet, 
extending between the 74-foot and the 92-foot contours, was begun 
in February, 1913. Broken stone from the Ancon crusher was first 
spread to a depth of about 4 inches, over which was roughly placed 
heavy riprap armor, obtained at first from a quarry opened at 
Quebrancha Hill, and later from excavations at Sosa Hill and the 
Balboa Dry Dock. The broken stone layer was completed in April, 
15,740 cubic yards of crushed stone being placed, covering the total 
area of 115,740 square yards. Riprap stone in place amounts to 68,730 
cubic yards, covering an area of 102,030 square yards, and making 
this item 88.2 per cent completed. 

In finishing up the completed slopes of the dam, the inequali- 
ties left by the dumps are being graded ojff to a sufficient degree of 
smoothness to permit the operation of a horse or power mower for 
cutting weeds. The area surfaced in this manner has amounted to 
225,460 square yards, at a unit cost of 2.36 cents. Experience has 
shown that if the weeds are cut off about twice a year, the slopes of 
the dam will naturally grass over, eventually forming a sod that will 
shed the rainfall from the extremely porous dry fill beneath, and will 
revet the slopes against the gullying effects of rain wash. 

Comparative statement of costs — Gatun Dam. 



Gatun dam construction. 






1912 






July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Dry fill (cubic yards) 


207,405 


201,029 


184, 300 


258, 999 


184, 485 


142,245 




Excavation 


$0. 0678 
.0886 
.0009 
.0752 
.0357 
.0376 
.0212 


SO. 0625 
.1197 
.0010 

.0917 
. 0484 
. 0306 
.0247 


$0. 0787 
.1122 
. 0030 
.0*40 
.1256 
.0622 
.0292 


SO. 1171 
.0698 
.0003 
.0758 
.0714 
.0524 
.0318 


$0. 0763 
.1045 
.0001 
.0930 
.1222 
.0364 
.0326 


$0. 0771 
.0855 


Tracks 


Trestles 


Transportation 


.0776 
.1067 
.0577 
.0268 


FiUing 


Maintenance of equipment 

Division expense 




Total division cost 

Administration and general 
expense 


.3270 
.0239 


.3766 
.0298 


.4949 
.0469 


.4186 
.0305 


.4651 
.0456 


.4314 
.0419 




Total cost 


.3509 


.4064 


.5418 


.4491 


.5107 


.4733 




Hydraulic fill (cubic yards) . . . 


108, 463 


43,589 


62, 666 








Clearing for dredges 


.0142 
.1577 
.0214 
.0149 
.0957 
.0028 
.0034 
.0476 
.0129 


.0336 
.2364 
.0384 
.0435 
.1911 
.0038 
.0113 
.1535 
.030.T 


.0050 
.0585 
.0078 
.0206 
.0238 
.0013 
.0245 
.05.34 
.0092 








Operation of dredges 








Relay pumps 








Pile lines 








Power 








Flumes 








Small boats 








Maintenance of equipment 








Division expense 
















Total division cost 


.3706 
.0215 


.7419 
.0502 


.2041 
.0200 








Administration and general 
expense 








Total cost 


.3921 


.7921 


.2241 

















128 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Comparative statement of costs — Gatun Dam — Continued. 



Gatun dam construction. 


1913 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Dry fill (cubic yards) . 


149, 609 


88, 792 


96,101 


106,862 


93,449 


99,457 




Excavation. . . . 


SO. 0329 
.0210 
.0001 
.1874 

.0568 
.0297 
.0139 


$0. 1049 
.0605 
.0001 
. 0133 
.0920 
.0807 
.0151 


SO. 1097 
.0791 


SO. 0786 
.0374 
.0008 
.0474 
.0650 
.0506 
.0086 


SO. 0807 
.0668 


SO. 0300 
0648 


Tracks 


Trestles 




Transportation 


.0485 
.0927 
.0487 
.0121 


.0587 
.0802 
.0597 
.0169 


0504 


Filling 


0691 


Maintenance of equipment 

Division expense 


.0096 
0194 






Total division cost 

Administration and general 
expense 


.0330 

.0203 


.3666 
.0475 


.3908 
.0259 


.2884 
.0128 


.3630 
.0209 


.2363 
0148 






Total cost 


.0127 


.4141 


.4167 


.3012 


.3839 


2511 







GATUN SPILLWAY. 

Construction of the spillway dam proceeded in accordance with 
the approved schedule which provided for carrying the flanks toward 
completion as rapidly as possible, but holding the central section at 
elevation plus 50 so as to give an escape weir about 370 feet wide 
for the heavy floods of November and December, thus insuring 
against an excessive rise of the lake which might overtop the Gamboa 
Dike and flood the Culebra Cut. The closure of this gap was under- 
taken as soon as the level of the lake had dropped below the 50-foot 
level, and the work was advanced as rapidly as possible by increasing 
the force and continuing o]3erations on Sundays, holidays, and af 
night. As sections of the ogee were completed the trestle erected on 
the flanks at elevation 95 was extended, and from it the crest piers 
were constructed to the full height, elevation 115. The 14 crest 
gates, weighing 42 tons each, were placed in position between the 
piers by two wrecking cranes operating from this high trestle. At 
the erecting yard east of the locks the wrecking cranes loaded a gate 
in a vertical position on a flat car; the car was slowly hauled to the 
spillway and spotted between the cranes opposite the gate's position 
on the dam; attachment was then made, and the gate lifted, swung 
to an exact position alx)ve the fixed iron guides, and lowered into 
place. From two to six gates were placed in a day, and the work was 
completed on April 15. After the completion of the west abutment 
the high trestle opposite each gate in succession was dismantled, and 
the upstream side of the respective piers encroached on by the trestle 
could then be built. It Avill be impracticable to do this at the three 
central piers and eastward until the control sluices under these piers 
are no longer needed, when the sluices Avill ha filled with concrete, 
the piers and east abutment finished, and the dismantling of the 
trestle completed. 

Originally there was a fourth sluiceway left under Pier No. 9, 
in which was installed for experimental purposes a cylindrical valve 
similar to those in the center lock wall. This sluiceway was closed 
off early in February, the valve removed, and the opening filled 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 129 

with concrete. Closure on the hike side was effected by a timber 
gate loAvered in stop grooves and made ahiiost water-tight with a 
stiff mixture of cement and sawdust plastered around the gate by 
a diver, A heavy block of concrete was first built next the timber 
gate, the small amount of leakage being carried through same in a 
pipe; after this concrete had tlioroughly set the pij^e was closed 
with a valve and the remainder of the opening filled with concrete. 
On completion of the closure no seepage could be detected. 

At the beginning of the year Gatun Lake had filled to elevation 
30.2. In order to complete the guard gates and caisson sills at the 
locks, the sluice gates were opened and the lake held at about ele- 
vation 32 until the last week in August. After elevation 48 was 
reached, in September, the gates were again opened, so as not to 
interfere with concrete construction on the spillway dam; but in 
November and the first half of December the water was allowed to 
rise to a maximum elevation of 56.3, in spite of the heavy outflow 
over the weir and through the open sluices. After the subsidence 
of the flood the water was allowed to drop to elevation 48 to permit 
resumption of work on the spillway dam, and was held at about 
this elevation until June 27, when the valves were closed to allow 
the lake to fill to its final level. 

Advantage was taken of the flow over the spillway in Novem- 
ber and December to dispose of a large number of islands, snags, 
and old timber floating on the lake surface. Excellent results were 
accomplished by the tug Balboa and a gasoline launch, which pushed 
about 2 square miles of the floating islands over the crest and thor- 
oughly cleared the anchorage basin and the north end of the channel 
of all obstructions. The Balboa^ with the assistance of a floating 
pile driver, also clenrod 1^ miles of the 1.000-foot channel, about 
6 miles south of Gatun, of heavy masses of floating island, breaking 
same into pieces and stranding them among the standing timber off 
the channel. This obstruction completely blocked the channel, was 
in places 14 feet thick, and apparentlv floated directl}^ upward from 
the floor of the old swamp below. So thoroughly matted was it with 
snags, sticks, and roots of living vegetation that it was immovable 
until broken up into small sections by the powerful tackle of the 
floating pile driver. 

Excavation for the spillway clam is completed, and c(mcrete work 
97.9 per cent completed. Progress by fiscal years has been as follows : 



Year. 


Excava- 
tion. 


Concrete. 


Prior to July 1, 1907 


Cu. yds. 

3,832 

938, 901 

359, 821 

127,610 

157, 62S 

7,123 

175 


Cu. yds. 


1907-08 




1908-09 


30, 404 
53,632 
59,651 
58 6G6 


1909-10 


1910-11 


1911-12 


1912-13 


21 719 








Total 


1,595,090 


224,132 





11834°— 13- 



130 



REPORT ISTHMIAIST CANAL COMMISSION. 



PERMANENT POWER PLANT. 

Preparation of the foundation was completed and the masoniy 
substructure ahnost completed. Erection of the superstructure steel 
was commenced on May 10. At the end of the year 65.3 per cent of 
the steel had been erected and 90 per cent of the field rivets driven. 
The penstocks have been cased with concrete except for the curved 
portions near the head gates. The forebay walls, with trash-rack 
and stop-plank grooves, are about 95 per cent completed. 

Comparative statement of costs — Gatun siriUnaij. 

MASS CONCRETE. 





1912 




July. 


August., 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Concrete (cubic j-ards) 


1,357 


1,111 


976 


1,303 


8.55 


3,017 


Cement . 


SI. 5298 
1.9703 

. 59::5 

1.9796 
. 7380 
.7919 
. 6559 
. 10S6 
.0016 


SI. 5972 
1.9998 

.5382 

2. 0555 

1.0765 

.6191 

.7128 


SI. 5523 

1. 9987 

.5914 

2.6318 

1. 1368 

1.0772 

.6953 

.0849 

.0222 


$1.4435 
1.8037 
. 5976 
1.2S02 
.7469 
.3467 
.5131 


SI. 6194 

2. 0035 

.5965 

1.4602 

.9704 

. 7980 

1.2331 


SI. 4637 


Stone 


1.8.325 


Sand 


.5500 




1.8278 


Mixing 


. 4663 


Transportation from mixer 


.3840 
. 4696 








.0040 












.3()39 

.2724 
.5340 
.2002 




Maintenance of equipment 


1.0706 
.5340 
.4124 


. 6983 
.5340 
.3686 


.6822 
.5340 

.4577 


.2388 
.5340 
.3244 


. 2184 
.5340 


Division expense 


.1812 






Total division cost 

.\dininistration and general 
expense 


10. 3852 
1.0300 


10.2046 
1.3218 


11.4645 
1.2055 


7. 8289 
.8697 


9. 3838 
.89&3 


7. 9275 
.0566 


Total cost 


11.4152 


11.5264 


12. 6700 


S. G9S6 


10.2821 


S.5S41 





1913 




January. 


Fet)ruary. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Concrete (cubic yards) 


3,817 


3,028 


2,669 


1,358 


717 


455 


Cement 


.SI. 3371 
1.0882 
.4741 
1.2332 
.2400 
.3226 
. 4100 
. 0469 


SI. 2863 
. 9562 
.5939 
1.5645 
. 33.54 
.3914 
. 7037 
.1182 


SI. 4597 
.9955 
.3681 
1.4952 
.3283 
.1949 
.7812 
.0017 
.0101 


.?1.5031 
1.0484 
. 2984 
2.5117 
.4387 
.3890 
. 5312 
.2292 


SI. 6067 
1.1116 

.3490 
2. 4600 

.8382 

.6329 
l.a825 

.0058 


SI. 8352 


Stone 


.7151 


Sand 


.4027 




4. &S19 


Mixing 


. 8872 


Transportation from mixer 

Placing 


.5070 
. 8641 














.0157 
.3481 
.2540 
.1417 


.0994 
. 3616 
. 2540 
.3194 


.5002 
. 2066 
.2540 
.4739 


1.7.531 


Maintenance of equipment 


. 1798 
.2540 
.1511 


.2890 
.2540 
.1234 


.0263 
.2540 


Division expense 


. 8236 


Total division cost 

Administration and general 
expense 


5. 7370 
.4505 


6. 7091 
.5179 


6.3011 
.5875 


7.9841 
2. 0498 


10.3814 
1.6662 


12.1802 
2.3853 






Total cost 


0. 1875 


7. 2270 


6.8886 


10. 0339 


12.0476 


1 4. 5655 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 131 

Comijaratire statement of costs— Gatun s pill wut/—Conthiuea. 
REENFORCED CONCRETE. 





1912 




July. 


-August. 


September 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Concrete placed (cubic yards). 




112 


112 


311 




49 


Cement 




$2. 2500 

2.0003 

.5383 

1.0570 

5. 4806 

.7130 

16.6386 

.6193 

.6985 

.5340 

.5650 


$1.5536 

2.0089 

.5937 

.6969 

1.4729 

.6712 

2.5053 

1.0717 

.6819 

.5340 

.4710 


$1.4414 
1.8020 
.5996 
.7538 
.0475 
.0847 
.2012 
.3491 
.2414 
.5340 
.1684 








Stone 








Sand 






1 . 8280 


Mixing 






. 5484 
.5933 


Placing 






37. 1786 


Reenforcements 






. 9829 

32.0088 

.38.38 

.2302 


Transportation from mixer 






Maintenance of equipment. . 






Plant, arbitrary 






Division expense .' 






. 5340 
2. 4493 


Total division cost 




31.0946 
4.2853 


12.2611 
1.3574 


6.2231 
.3168 




78.2049 
16.0018 


Administration and general 
expense 






Total cost 




35.3799 


13.6185 


6.5399 












94.2067 




1913 




January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 




369 










110 


Stone 

Mixing 


$1.3381 
1.0906 
.4716 
.3826 
3.1144 
.6605 
.3224 
.2364 
.2540 
.2990 










$1.8497 
.7522 
.2925 
.8965 
2.2141 
.8425 
.5124 
.0266 
.2568 


Placing 

Transportat ion from inixer! '. '. " 

Maintenance of equipment 

Plant, arbitrary 

Division expense 


















Total division cost 


8. 1696 

.8804 











.4963 
8.1.396 
1.3724 


Administration and general 
expense 










Total cost 


9.0500 










9.5120 






1 




1 



Excavation amounted to 14,948 cubic yards, costing 43.82 cents per 

v^rrlV^'f- J'f^^S^'^'' of foundations amounted to 11,684 cubic 
yaids, costmg $1.9^94 per cubic yard. Total excavation to date, in- 
cluding preparation of foundations, amounts to 98,751 cubic yards. 

poh' n? Iq nlf'i' '"^•'' •^^'^'^^.' ^^ concrete was placed at an average 
cost ot 1^9.0463 per cubic yard. 

Plans for the underground duct line to the locks and the steam- 
power plan were received and work was begun the last week in 
June, 8 yards of concrete being laid as foundation for ducts. 

Municipal Engineering. 

[Mr. George M. Well.'^, ofHce engineer, in local charge.] 

The new purification plant at Agua Clara, constructed during the 
previous fiscal ye..r, was successfully operated throughout the f elr 
Ihis plant consists principally of raw- water mixing chambers; 'sedi- 



132 



KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



mentation basin; four filter units, each having a capacity at 125,- 
000,000 gallons per acre per day rate, of 750,000 gallons per day of 
24 hours; a clear-water basin having a capacity of 225,000 gallons; a 
wash-water tank having a capacity of approximatel}^ 10,000 gallons; 
an electric-pump station containing two multistage electric-driven 
pumps, each having a capacity of approximately 1,100 gallons per 
minute ; and two motor-driven air compressors for furnishing air for 
assisting in cleaning the filters. 

The water from the Agua Clara Reservoir is fed by gravity to the 
mixing chambers, where there is introduced a dose of aluminum sul- 
phate varying from 0.5 to 1.5 grains of chemical per gallon of water. 
After passing through these mixing chambers, the treated water 
passes on to the sedimentation basin, where sedimentation takes place, 
varying from three to eight hours. The water then passes onto the 
filter beds, consisting of a IG-inch layer of gravel on the bottom sup- 
porting a 30-inch depth of specially prepared sand having a mean 
etfective size of approximatel}'' 0.4 mm. The water then passes from 
these filters to the clear-water basin, from Avhich point the pumps 
force it into the mains leading to the 450,000-gallon high-pressure 
tower tank located at Gatun. The results obtained from these filters 
for the period from July, 1912, are given in the table submitted here- 
with. 

The last three months of the fiscal year are not included in the 
statement because of the fact that experiments had indicated that 
even more successful results could be obtained by installing an inde- 
pendent wash-water supply fed by gravity from a tank located im- 
mediately above the filters on the adjacent hill. During the time 
that this change was being made the sand and gravel from each 
filter was removed, washed, and replaced, and the gravel bed in- 
creased in depth to take care of the increased wash rate that would 
result from the new wash supply. 

[f/ua Vhini /iltcrN innl ic.srrroir. 



Month. 


Rainfall. 


Elevation 
reservoir. 


Alkalinity (per 
million). 


Coagulant 
aluminum 
sulphate. 


Turbidity (per 
mUlion). 




Raw. 


Filtered. 


Raw. 


Filtered. 


1912. 
.Tulv 


Inches. 
13.50 
12.60 

8.62 
17.64 
17.65 

8.10 

5.53 
3.70 
.20 
3.75 
14.54 
10.87 


Feel. 
59.2 
61.8 
63.3 
67.7 
68.0 
68.1 

66.5 
64.4 
61.1 
58.3 
58.8 
60.2 


35.0 
29.0 
28.0 
28.0 
33.0 
32.9 

31.0 
29.0 
29.2 


26. 
17.0 
17.0 
18,0 
19.1 
18.8 

14.0 
14.0 
14.1 


Pounds. 
4,500 
4,800 
4,700 
5,210 
5,280 
5,992 

o,(X)0 
0,045 
6,920 
7, 750 
8,250 
6,375 


5.0 
2.5 
2.5 
10.0 
10.0 
10.0 

10.0 
20.0 
20.0 










September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 
January 











March 

April 

May 

June 





25.0 
26.0 


8.0 
10.0 


20.0 
20.0 








116.70 








70, 822 












i 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — ATLANTIC DIVISION. 183 
Agua Clara filters and reservoir — Continued. 





Month. 


Color (per 
million). 


Odor (per 
million). 


Bacteria (per 
c. c.). 


Monthly 
consiunplion. 




Raw. 


Filtered. 


Raw. 


Filtered. 


Raw. 


Filtered. 


July 


1912. 


25 
15 
15 
20 
25 
25 

20 
35 
35 
























S. veg. 














1,005 
961 

1,006 
S53 


96 
82 
42 
23 


Gnllon/t. 
22,948,000 




23,721,000 


September 
October 




19,302,000 




20,188,000 


November . 


721 53 


20,595,000 


December . 


839 

825 
632 
509 
1,261 
. 1,026 
829 


69 

71 
105 

81 
423 
196 
1S3 


23,038,000 


January 


1913. 


25,996,500 


February- 


24,119,000 


March . 


28,314,000 




24,421,000 


May 


50 
40 






Veg. 
Veg. 






1:7, 101, 000 


June 


26,361,500 




' 












[ 1 




286,104,000 






1 1 1 







During the period March 1 to May 12, 1913, 3,225,000 gallons of 
water were transported from Mindi to Toro Point. 

The average daily consumption exchisively for use at Gatun 
amounted to approximately 2,335,000 gallons per day. During the 
time it was necessary to transport water to Toro Point this amount 
was increased to approximately 2,380,000 gallons per day. 

The usual work of shifting, relaying, and maintaining the miscel- 
laneous pipe lines of the water system was carried on throughout 
the year. 

AGUA CLARA RESERVOIR. 

The regular maintenance of the banks of the reservoir was con- 
tinued throughout the year. 

The water in the reservoir began to fall on January 10, 1913, and 
continued to fall until May 12, 1913, when it reached its lowest ele- 
vation of 57.2. 

ROADS, SEWERS, AND DRAINS, 

The usual maintenance work on roads, sewers, and drains was 
carried on throughout the year, and the entire sewer system was 
flushed on an average of twice each month. 



CRISTOBAL AND COLON. 



Waterworks. 



The operation of the pump station and pressure filtration plant 
at Mount Hope was continued during the year more or less continu- 
ously. Considerable difficulty was experienced from time to time in 
the operation of the filters, due to their being excessively overloaded 
and to the fact that the sedimentation basin Avas of such size that the 
necessary length of time for sedimentation was not possible. This 
resulted in putting heavy pressures on the filters, causing rapid clog- 



134 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



ging and the breaking down of the strainer systems to such an extent 
that comj^aratively large quantities of sand escaped into the mains 
leading to Colon. The filters were thrown out of service three dif- 
ferent times, the sand and gravel removed and washed, and a total 
of 1,000 strainers replaced. 

In order to obviate the possibility of a shortage of water during 
the dry season, such as occurred during the last fiscal year, the tem- 
porary pump station at the Mindi diversion was thrown into service 
on December 28, 1912. From that date until April 27, 1913, this 
station furnished approximately 1,000.000 gallons of water per day. 

The following table gives the results of the operation of the filters 
and the action of the Brazos Brook reservoir during the year. 

Mount Hope filters and Brazos Brook reserroir. 





Month. 


Rainfall. 


Elevation 


Alkalinity (per 
million). 


Coagulant 
aluminum 


Tiu-bidity (per 
million). 








Raw. 



5 

2 
3 



(1 


Filterec 


1. 

2 


1 


» 

u 

f) 


sulphate. 


Raw." 


FHtered. 


July 

August 

September 
October... 
November. 
December . 

January . . . 


1912. 


1913. 


Inches. 
16.87 
14.42 

9.11 
17.86 
19.86 

9.03 

5.72 
4.29 


Feci. 
39.1 
41.6 
42.3 
44.9 
48.8 
47.8 

45.7 
43.2 


19. 
25. 
25. 
25. 
25. 
25. 

25. 
25. 


9. 
1-). 
15. 
I'l. 

18 
17 

10. 
10. 


Pounds. 
15,945 
16,295 
17,160 
19,231 
18,000 
19,210 

25,178 
29,840 
30,121 
30, 240 



5 
10 
15 
15 
18 

20 
25 
35 













March 

April 

May 

June 




.71 39.9 
5.08 37.1 
18.57 39.5 
9. 73 40. 5 


25.1 


10.2 





24.2 
22.0 






20 1 


8.0 


27,000 


25 1 










131.25 




248,220 


1 




1 1 


1 




Month. 


Color (per 
million). 


Odor (per 
million). 


Bacteria (per 
c. c). 


Monthly 
ionsumpt ion. 




Raw. 


Filtered. 


Raw. 


Filtered. 


Raw. 


Fil 


tcrcd. 


July 


1912. 


35 
25 
30 
40 
35 
40 

40 
40 
40 









5 
5 
8 


S 
S 






O 
. earth. 

.swpy. 
Veg. 
Veg. 









S.swpy. 
S.veg. 
S. veg. 


983 
925 

1,028 
935 
929 

1,021 

1,126 

1,031 

699 

1,690 


299 
165 
215 
187 
121 
198 

201 
396 
329 


Gallons. 
SI, 995, (WO 


August 


87,099,000 


September 
October . . . 




80,2tiO,tX)0 




85,196,000 


November. 


84,855,000 


December. . . 


86,490,000 


January . . . 


1913. 


85,718,000 


February . 


77,616,000 


March 


82,438,000 




76,415,000 


Mav 


60 
50 






Veg. 
Veg. 




998 




"321" 


68,944,000 


June - - 





6 


1,126 


73,174,000 






















970.206.000 










1 









As stated in the last annual report, general plans and estimates 
of cost were submitted for the construction of a modern filtration 
plant and pump station to take the place of the present plant. This 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENOINEERIXO ATLANTIC DIVISION. J?j6 

project was approved on July 12, 1912, at an estimated cost of 
$193,768. The project, in general, involves the following: 

A tunnel through the divide separating the Gatun Lake from the 
Brazos Brook reservoir, within which was laid a 20-inch main hav- 
ing its inlet at an elevation of approximately 5 feet below the ex- 
treme low-water level of Gatun Lake. This pipe line, after passing 
through the tunnel, a distance of 600 feet, extends down onto the 
surface of the Brazos Brook reservoir, ending in a control house 
through the mechanism of which the level of water on the Brazos 
Brook reservoir is maintained at a minimum low level of 1 foot 
below the spillway crest. By this arrangement, when the run-off 
from the Brazos Brook watershed is not sufficient to meet the de- 
mands of consumption the additional amount required is auto- 
mat ically allowed to run into the reservoir from the Gatun Lake. 
An additional 20-inch main was laid from the Brazos Brook reser- 
voir to Mount Plope, the site of the new purification plant and pump 
station. The v\'ater from the reservoir will flow^ by gravity through 
these two 20-inch mains to an aeration basin, where, by means of 
specially designed sprinkling nozzles, it will be thrown up into 
spray, thus aerating it as it passes to the head house and mixing 
chambers. At this latter point the water will receive a dose of 
ahnninum sulphate, and after thorough mixing by means of over- 
flow and submerged weirs, combined with compressed air agitation, 
it will flow into the sedimentation basin, having a capacity of ap- 
proximately 2.500,000 gallons. This capacity is such as will give 
a minimum of eight hours sedimentation for the maximum ca- 
pacity of the plant. After sedimentation the water passes into 
the filter building and into six filter units, each having a nomi- 
nal rated capacity of 1,250,000 gallons per day of 24 hours. The 
Tvater passes from these filters through a specially designed auto- 
matic rate controller and discharges through the floor of the pipe 
gallery into a clear-water basin forming the basement of the filter 
building. This basin has a capacity of approximately 650,000 gal- 
lons. By means of an underground conduit the water passes from 
this basin into a pump sump beneath the floor of the pump station, 
and from this point it is pumped by means of electrically driven 
pumps into the main leading to Cristobal and Colon. 

The nominal capacity of this plant, with five filters in operation, 
is approximately 6,000.000 gallons per day, but by increasing the 
rate per acre per day the plant can be made to furnish 7,500,000 
gallons of filtered water per day of 24 hours. 

Work was commenced on this plant in October, 1912, and by the 
end of the fiscal year all work between Gatun Lake and Brazos Brook 
reservoir had been practically completed; the additional 20-inch 
main from Brazos Brook to INIount Hope was 90 per cent completed; 
the pump station was completed ready for the installation of the 
machinery; the filter building was completed up to and including the 
operating floor; the sedimentation basin was 75 per cent completed; 
and the foundations and floors of the mixing chambers and aeration 
basin have been laid. 

The existence of a concrete drain beneath the Panama Railroad 
leading to the old French canal fixed the lowest drainage point for 
this plant at approximately 10 feet above sea level. This necessi- 
tated carrying the floor of the clear-water basin to approximately 



136 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

5 feet below sea level. The excavation for this building developed 
the fact that the site chosen for the plant had originally been a 
swamp upon the surface of which had been dumped at some time 
from 3 to 6 feet of red clay. The excavation of this material to 5 
feet below sea level during the three rainiest months of the year 
resulted in slides and other difficulties that seriously delayed the 
progress of construction work. In addition to this, small running 
springs Avere uncovered beneath the site of the sedimentation basin 
Avhich resulted in the necessity for driving concrete piles beneath a 
portion of the basin in order to insure no future settlement taking 
place. The equipment for this plant was placed under contract in 
the United States on November 20, 1912, and this contract called for 
complete delivery on or before April 19, 1913. Very little of this 
material had been delivered up to that date, and at the end of the 
fiscal year a large amount still remained undelivered. The delay in 
the receipt of this material also seriously handicapped the progress 
of the work. 

It is expected that this plant will be ready for operation in No- 
vember, 1913. 

BKAZOS 15ROOK KESERVOIR. 

In addition to the work outlined abo\e, the usual maintenance 
work was carried on during the year. 

Colon Improvkments. 

Up to May 20, 1913, all work in connection with the Colon im- 
provements had been completed and turned over for maintenance to 
the department of public works, with the exception of a certain por- 
tion lying between Ninth and Second Streets, extending from G 
Street west on the cross streets a varying distance of from 30 to 300 
feet. Work in this area was suspended for six months to allow the 
fill to stop settling. Work was again commenced in February, 1913, 
and at the same time authority Avas given to fill and macadamize G 
Street. At the end of the fiscal year there remained a comparatively 
small amount of gutter and macadam Avork to be completed on the 
cross streets between Ninth and Second; the gutter on both sides of 
G Street had been completed, and the macadam AV(>rk on G Streoi 
had been carried from Ninth to Seventh. It is expected to have 
(his entire project completed Avithin the next 45 days. 

Authority Avas granted on May 5, 1913, to extend the west side of 
Fi Street to its intersection Avith the Mount Hope Iload. This Avork 
was 85 per cent completed at the end of the fiscal year. 

During the year the usual maintenance Avork Avas performed in 
connection Avitli the Avater lines and seAver systems. 

Tr A N SPORTATION . 

The following is a list of the equipment in the transportation 
service of the Atlantic division on June 30. 1913: 

StaiKlai-d Kauge equipment : 

American locomotives Ki 

French. Rojjers type, and old Panama Railroad locomotives 11 

WrecliinK crane (No. 64) 1 

Track shifter 1 



CONSTEUCTION AND ENGINEERING ATLANTIC DIVISION. 187 

Standnrd gauge equipment — Continued. 

Steel tint cars 13 

Li(lger\v()(Ml flat cars, without sides 17 

Lidgonvood flat cars, with sides 62 

Oliver dump cars (19-yard) ITS 

Western dump cars (12-.vard) (i 

Western dump cars (IS-yard) 7 

Roger ballast cars 1 

Lidgerwood plow unloaders 3 

Lidgerwood unloaders 2 

Pile drivers P, 

Spreaders .S 

I>abor cars 14 

Box cars, used as cabooses 8 

Camp cars 2 

Motor car 1 

Narrow-gauge equipment : 

Locomotives (3-foot gauge) 8 

Steel dump cars 8 

Wooden dump cars 27 

Steel flat cars 16 

Steel flat cars in concrete service 22 

Respectfully submitted. 

Wm, L. Sibert, 

Lieutenant Colonel, Corps of Engineers, V . S. Army; 

Member of the Isthmian Canal Commission ; 

Division Engineer, Atlantir Dirislon. 
Col. George W. Goethals, United States Amiy, 

Chairnfian and Chief Engiii£er^ Culehra, Canal Zone. 



Exhibit 1. 

Proffrcfif: report for fiKcul ]/rar W12-1S. 





Locks. 


Dam and 
spillway. 


Dredg- 
ing. 


Porto 
Bello. 


Munici- 
pal en- 
gineering. 


Break- 
water. 


Total. 


Steam-shovel excavation: 

In prism cubic vards. 


322, lfi7 

18,549 
125,277 

2,569 

160,346 












322 167 


Crane and cal)leways, prism, 
cubic yards 












18 549 


Auxiliary cubic yards. . 


396,457 




404.251 






925,985 
9,500 


Crane, hand, and sluicing, 
auxiliary cubic vards.. 




6,931 




Dredge excavation, in prism, 
cubic yards 




160 346 
















Total excavation, cubic 
yards 


628,908 


396,457 




404,251 


6,931 




1,436,547 
183 762 


Breakwater rock placed, cubic 
vards 




183,762 
.63 


Explosives used, tons, 2,240 
pounds 


39.90 
64,151 
25,164 


177.20 
69,633 
66,938 
2, 108, 201 
30,234 
26,665 




104. 93 
111,510 

63,824 




322 66 


Rock drilled feet.. 




60 


245 354 


New track laid do 




2,135 


158 064 


Material placed in dams. yards. . 






2,108,201 
253 996 


Cement used barrels.. 


220,009 
166,284 






3,753 
4,264 
5,753 
19,328 
19,958 
4,484 

348,072 




Concrete placed yards . . 

New roads built feet. . 








187,213 
5 753 








Roads resurfaced linear feet. . 












19 328 


Water main5 laid feet. . 










8,665 


28 623 


Sewers laid do 










4 484 


Open drains and ditches dug 
and cleaned, feet 













348 072 
















LU un 

I ^ 

I- > 

z < 

- 3 

Q ^ 



PLATE 21. 




WM^ 



GATUN LOWER LOCKS. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH APPROACH WALL. 

MAY 26, 1913. 



, r-*"!^ 



u ^^ .. i ^ •■^,''- 



'»S-c 






ry'i 








-"'A^ 









^aV^^ 








■'(**. 



i,^»;. 








APPENDIX C. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. D. D. GAILLARD, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, 
UNITED STATES ARMY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COM- 
MISSION, DIVISION ENGINEER, CENTRAL DIVISION. 



Isthmian Canal Co:\rMissiON, 
Office or Division Engineer, Central Division, 

Empire^ Canal Zone^ July 21, 1913. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of operations 
in the central division for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913 : 

The central division extends from the south toe of Gatun Dam to 
the north end of the lock site at Pedro Miguel, a total distance along 
the axis of the canal of 31.69 miles, and embraces the entire extent 
of the former Culebra and Chagres divisions, which are now known 
as the Culebra and Chagres sections of the central division. 

The total amount of material excavated in the above territory 
during the fiscal years ended June 30 from 1904 to 1913 is given in 
the following tables : 

FROM CANAL PRISM. 



Fiscal year ended June 30— 



1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



Total 29, 056, 970 



Earth. 



Cubic yards. 

24,024 

397,043 

764,327 

2, 288, 199 

5,078,864 

6,151,152 

4,570,728 

4,530,568 

2, 702, 228 

2,549,837 



Rock. 



Cubic yards. 

36,083 

344,601 

742, 235 

3,282,233 

8,380,514 

12,291,472 

13,235,383 

13,949,074 

14,335,050 

10,089,561 



Total. 



Cubicynrds. 
60, 107 
741,6-14 
1,506,562 
5,570,432 
13,459,378 
18,442,624 
17,806.111 
18,749,642 
17,037,278 
12, 639, ,398 



6,686,206 105,743,176 



Per cent 
rock. 



60.03 
46.46 
49.27 
58.92 
62.27 
66.65 
74.33 
75.49 
84.14 
79.83 



72.52 



FROM OBISPO DIVERSION. 



1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

Total 



128,001 

240.063 

293,745 

26,066 

25,684 

26, 168 

152, 376 



892, 103 



45, 221 

73, 448 

329,535 



17,366 
"'3,066' 



468,570 



173, 222 
313,511 
623,280 
26,066 
43,050 
26, 168 
155,376 



1,360,673 



26.11 
23.43 
52.87 



40.00 
"i.'93 



34.44 



139 



140 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 
OUTSIDE WORK. 



Fiscal year ended June 30— 


Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


Per cent 
rock. 


1907 . . 


Cubic yards. 
13,520 
64.233 


Cubic yards. 

10,840 

2.140 

1,873 


Cubic yards. 
24.360 
66.373 
1.873 
33.631 
29.952 
79.621 
35,888 


44 50 


1908 


3.22 


1909 


100.00 


1910 


33.631 
27.467 
71.269 
30. 350 




1911 


2,485 
8.352 
5.538 


8.30 


1912 


10.00 


1913 


15 43 






Total 


240, 470 31 . 228 


271,698 


11.49 











TOTAL EXCAVATION INCLUDING ACCESSORY WORK. 



1904 


24,024 
397,043 
764,327 
2,429,720 
5,383.160 
6,444.897 
4.630.425 
4.583.719 
2,799,665 
2,732.563 


36,083 
344,601 
742, 235 
3,. 338. 294 
8.456.102 
12.622.880 
13.235.383 
13,968.925 
14.343.402 
10.098,099 


60. 107 
741.644 
1.506.562 
5,768.014 
13,839.262 
19.067.777 
17,865.808 
18.552.644 
17.143.067 
12,830.662 


60.03 


1905 


46.46 


1906 ... ... 


49.27 


1907 


57.88 


1908 


61.10 


1909 . 


66.29 


1910 


74.08 


1911 


75.29 


1912 .. 


83.67 


1913 


78.80 






Total 


30,189,543 


77,186,004 


107,375.547 


71.88 







The amount of material removed during each month since the 
Ignited States assumed control, in ^lay, 1904, is shown graphically 
on plate No. 93. 

The following table shows the amount (place measurement) of 
material excavated monthly in the central division during the fiscal 
vear ended June 30, 1913: 



Month. 


From canal prism. 


Total, including accessory works. 


Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


Earth. 


Rock. 


Tola!. 


1912. 
July 


Cubic yards. 
253,067 
170, 765 
139,542 
146,583 
145,497 
95.372 

167, 771 
186,827 
259.571 
352.546 
329,661 
302,635, 


Cubic yards. 
1,077,219 
896,535 
770,314 
966,837 
799.822 
949. 246 

949,449 
803,669 
924.329 
825, 454 
566. 939 
559,748 


Cubic yards. 
1,330,286 
1,067.300 

909.8.56 
1,113.420 

945,319 
1.044.618 

1,117,220 

990. 496 

1.183.900 

1.178.000 

896,600 

862,383 


Cubic yards. 
259, 147 
197,. 597 
104.742 
153.010 
173. 249 
125. 264 

186. 131 
190, 131 
259.571 
353,646 
354.061 
316.014 


Cubic yards. 
1.077.219 
890.535 
770.314 
966. 837 
S02. 822 
949.246 

949,449 
,S06.669 
924.329 
825,451 
566,939 
562. 286 


Cubic yards. 
1,336,366 




1.094,132 




935,056 




1.119.847 




976.071 




1,074.510 


1913. 


1.135,5.80 




996.800 




1.1,S3.900 




1. 179.100 


May 


921.000 


June 


878.300 






Total 


2,549,837 


10,089,561 


12,639,398 


2,732,563 


10,098,099 


12,830.662 







The total amount of material excavated in the central division 
during the fiscal vear, 12,830,()C)2 cubic vards, has been exceeded 
during five previous fiscal years, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, aiid 1912. 

The maximum monthly amount of material excavated in the cen- 
tral division during the fiscal year ju.st closed was 1.336,360 cubic 
yards, removed in Jidy, 1912. As .stated in the last annual report, 
the output of March, 1909, will undoubtedly remain the highest 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 141 

reached during the construction of the canal, as the work has now 
reached such a stage that the Chagres section is completed, except 
for a small amount of dredg^ing, and the north half of the Culebra 
section is practically completed, so all operations Avill soon be con- 
fined to the south half of this section. 

The maximum monthly amount of material removed from the canal 
prisui since the commencement of operations was 2,012,409 cubic 
yards, excavated in March, 1911. The maximum yearly amount of 
material removed from the canal prism was excavated during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1911, amounting to 18,479,642 cubic yards. 

Of the total amount of material excavated during the fiscal year, 
12,828,086 cubic yards were removed by steam shovels, 1,800 cubic 
yards by locomotive cranes equipped with orange-peel buckets, 776 
cubic yards by hand. 

The material excavated by steam shovels is carried by dirt trains 
to dumps situated from 1 to 36 miles from the place of loading, the 
average haul varying from 10 to 12 miles. 

REVISED ESTIMATE OE THE QUANTIIT OE MATERIAL YET TO BE REMOVED. 

A revised estimate of the quantity of material to be excavated in 
the central division after June 30, 1913, in order to complete the 
canal is given in the table below. Deducting the quantity of ma- 
terial excavated during the fiscal year 1912-13 (12,794,f74 cubic 
yards), this estimate gives an increase of 9,280.237 cubic yards over 
the estimates submitted in the last annual report. The details of the 
new estimate are given in the following table: 



Location. 



Districts. 



Chagres. 



Empire. 



Culebra. 



Pedro 
Miguel. 



Total. 



Inside prism lines 

Slides 

Drainage cut 

Silting, Chagres River. 
Obispo diversion 



Cubic yards. 
56,000 



244, 000 



Cubic yards. 

4.32, 895 

2, 040, 000 

7,700 



Cubic yards. 

836,049 

4,820,500 

48, 000 



Cubic yards. 



14,856 



Cubic yards. 

1,324,944 

6, 860, 500 

55, 700 

244,000 

14,856 



Total. 



300,000 



2,480,595 



5,704,548 



8, 500, 000 



This very considerable increase is due to the development of new 
slides as the depth increased and to increased activity of slides 
already existing at the beginnino; of the fiscal year. In addition all 
excavation along the upper portion of the banks of the canal where 
slides had developed or were anticipated, being entirely outside of 
the canal prism, has been properly included in material removed on 
account of breaks and slides. This work was vigorously prosecuted 
during the fiscal year by from five to seven steam shovels and the 
quantity of material removed by them, as a preventive measure 
against slides and breaks, was 1,593,070 cubic yards. 

Although the estimated yardage remaining has been materially 
increased by the new estimate, yet there is no reason to believe that 
either the ultimate time of completion of excavation in the central 
division or the ultimate cost of all excavation in this division, as sub- 



142 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

mitted in the estimate of September, 1908, will be increased, for the 
reason that since that estimate was submitted the unit cost of excava- 
tion in the central division has been materially decreased and the 
average montlily output has been in excess of the quantity then 
estimated. 

Taking the revised estimate of July 1, 1913, as a basis, there have 
been removed up to and including June 30, 1913, within the limits 
of the central division 107,196,455 cubic yards, and there remained 
to be removed 8.500.000 cubic yards, or less than 8 per cent, to com- 
plete all excavation within the limits of the central division. Of 
this amount, 8,200,000 cubic yards are in the Culebra section anrl 
300,000 cubic yards in Chagres section. 

BLASTING. 

The total amount of blasted material excavated during the fiscal 
year was 8.621,833 cubic yards, which was 4,241,135 cubic yards less 
than in the previou.s year. 

Durino- tlie vear 150 well or mechanical churn drills and 195 tripod 
rock drills were in operation. 

The number of linear feet of holes drilled during the year was as 
follows : 



Kind of drilling. 


Linear feet. 


Miles. 




2,142,300 

1,650,759 

213,139 


405.74 


Well drills 


312.64 




40.35 








Total 


4,006,098 


758.73 







The average number of feet drilled per day per tripod rock drill 
was 47 feet at an average of operating labor cost of 8.92 cents per 
linear foot. 

The average number of feet drilled per day per well drill was 28 
feet at an average of operating labor cost of 6.89 cents per linear 
foot. 

The quantity of explosives used during the year amounted to a 
total of 1,652.34 gross tons, which was 947.96 gross tons less than the 
amount used during the previous fiscal year. Of this amount 484,100 
pounds were saltpeter dynamite of 60 per cent nitroglycerine, 2,372,- 
950 pounds saltpeter dynamite of 45 per cent nitroglycerine, 318,150 
pounds Trojan powder of 60 per cent strength, and 526,050 pounds of 
45 per cent strength. 

The average number of vertical holes fired per day during the 
year Avas 483, having an average depth of 18.3 feet. An average of 
J 8.6 pounds of explosives was used per hole. 

The average number of toe holes, i. e., holes drilled horizontally 
or nearly so, at the foot of a bank to secure greater breaking of 
material above, was 61, having an average depth of 15 feet. An 
average of 24 pounds of explosives Avas used per hole. 

During the year 16,169 " dobe " shots or " mud caps " were fired in 
blasting material ahead of steam shovels not broken by the explosives 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 143 

used in the drill holes, and in grading for track work, for which pur- 
pose 122,049 pounds of explosives were used. 

The aA^erage number of pounds of explosives used in_each " dobe " 
shot was 7.55, at an average cost per shot for explosives and blasting 
material of 90 cents. 

The average number of cubic yards of material broken up per 
pound of explosive w^as 2.33. 

The following blasting materials were used in connection with the 
djniamite and Trojan powder: 

Detonators 177, 475 

Tape fuse feet__ 492,225 

Electric fuses : 

10-foot 1. 200 

16-foot 14, 350 

20-foot 42. 475 

24-foot 72. 575 

30-foot SIS. 700 

35-foot 129, 830 

40-foot 1 93. 130 

50-foot 9. 5(50 

60-foot 1. 2S0 

80-foot 368 

Tape, insulating pounds 3, 490| 

Wire, connecting do 195 

Wire, lead feet— 615, 388 

The same stringent rules covering the handling, storing, and use of 
explosives, in elfect during previous fiscal years, were followed during 
the last year, the distribution of explosives being under the direct 
charge of a supervisor and always handled by the same engine and 
train crew. 

All shooting, with the exception of " dobe " shots, is done by ex- 
perienced blasting wiremen using current from the electric-power 
station at Empire. Occasionally " dobe " shots are fired by the cur- 
rent, but a majority are exploded by the use of detonators and safety 
fuse. 

During the past year 3,701,250 pounds of explosives were used and 
no men were killed wdiile handling dynamite. 

Owing to the great care taken to prevent accidents but eight men 
in all have been killed by dynamite in the central division during the 
last four fiscal years, although during that period nearly 23,000,000 
pounds of explosives were used. 

stea:m shovels. 

The total number of steam shovels assigned to the central division 
at the close of the year was 42. These shovels were of the following 
sizes: 



Class of shovel. jCaparityof 

dipper. 



Number in 
service. 



Cubic yards. 

45-ton Bueyrus i la 

70-ton Bueyrus 3 

95-ton Buevrus i 5 

Do . . . .". ; ; 4 

Model 91, Marion •. 5 



144 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



The highest daih% monthly, and annual records for shovels of 
each class are given in the table below : 



Record. 


45-ton 
Bucyrus. 


70-ton 

BUCJTUS. 


95-ton 
Bucyrus. 


Model 60, 

Marion. 


Model 91, 
Marion. 


Date of high daily record . . . 

Yardage, high da"ilv 

ShovelNo 

Date, high monthly record. . 

Yardage, high moiitlilv 

Shovel No ". 

Number of days at work 

High annual record . 


Feb. 5, 1908 

1,356 

5S 

Julv, 1908 

25,713 

59 

26 

105, 740 

54 

131 


Mar. 14,1912 

2,900 

128 

March, 1909 

53,043 

122 

27 

300, 872 

122 

254 


Mar. 22,1910 

4,465 

213 

March, 1910 

70,290 

213 

20 

543,481 

208 

295 


Apr. 18,1908 

1,704 

152 

March, 1908 

41,219 

152 

26 


Jan. 21, 1909 

3,485 

265 

August, 1908 

55,419 

256 

25 

441,927 


Shovel No 




264 


Number of days at work 




299 







The following table shows the average performance of steam 
shovels for each month of the fiscal years ended June 30, 1908. 1909. 
1910. 1911, 191-2. and 1913: 





ilonth. 


Num- 
ber 

work- 
ing 

days. 


Cubic yards output per shovel. 


Inches rainfall ;it — 


1 


Per day. 


Per 
month. 


Per hour. 


Bas 
Obispo. 


F.mpire. 






Under 
steam. 


At 
work. 


Culebra. 


July 


1907. 


26 
27 
24 
27 
24 
25 

26 
24 
26 
25 
25 
26 


683.1 
719.5 
818.2 
791.9 
773.3 
922.3 

1,039.5 
1,112.1 
1,159.4 
1.191.1 
905.7 
1.011.2 


17,670 
19,428 
19.636 
21,385 
18,562 
23,057 

27,031 
26,690 
30, 146 
29.780 
22,618 
26. 294 


89.5 
93.6 
105.9 
100.5 
89.9 
120.7 

131.2 
142.2 
147.2 
152.9 
115.2 
130.6 


167. 8 
164.6 
184.7 
176. 8 
170.6 
192.2 

208. 4 
215.6 
221.6 
230.6 
201.4 
210.5 


8.25 
12.69 
14.71 
13.62 

9.85 
2.26 

.20 
.11 
.41 

1.81 
13.18 

6.55 


9.89 
11.24 
10.86 
15.44 
10.40 

1.47 

.75 
.00 
.41 
1.36 
12.91 
8.21 


9.31 




11.81 


September 


11.38 


October 


15.27 




6.91 


December - 


2.30 




1908. 


.91 




.01 


March .'. 


.13 




1.67 


May 


12.43 


June ... 


8.86 




year 190S 




Fiscal 


305 


931.9 


23.685 


121.4 


199.1 


83.64 


82.94 


80.99 




1908. 




July 


26 
• 26 
25 
27 
23 
26 

25 
23 
^ 27 
25 
25 
26 


1.073.2 
1.119.6 
1,180.2 
1,185.3 
1.154.8 
1.210.5 

1,183.0 
1,260.4 
1,327.2 
1.283.7 
1,182.9 
1,242.9 


27,902 
29,300 
29,585 
32, 228 
26.693 
31.474 

29,575 
29.342 
35,835 
32, 120 
29.507 
32,315 


137.9 
144.7 
140.8 
148. 3 
145. 8 
151.8 

148.3 
157.7 
167.5 
160.9 
148.5 
156.3 


206.9 
216.2 
202.9 
214.1 
222.5 
232.4 

225.8 
246.8 
258.5 
242.5 
229.3 
240.5 


9.14 
10.23 
5.76 
9.42 
6.95 
6.63 

2.59 
4.72 
.45 
5.90 
12. 98 
11.71 


11.79 
8.11 
9.75 
8.85 
4.46 
5.09 

2.28 
1.50 
.21 
3.33 
7.84 
7.72 


13.23 
7.58 




15.18 




8.91 




5.26 


December 


4.40 


January 


1900. 


2.96 
2.46 


March 


.15 


April 


2.56 




9.44 


June 


7.36 




year 1909 




Fiscal 


304 


1,198.9 


30,371 


150.4 


227.6 


86.48 


70.94 


79.49 




1909. 




July 


26 
26 
25 
26 
24 
26 

25 
23 
26 


1,206.9 
1,132.8 
1.248.3 
1.2.30.1 
1,161.3 
1,114.6 

1.252.3 
1.272.8 
1,388.0 


31.379 
29,668 
31.208 
32, 679 
27,875 
28.982 

31.. 307 
29.271 
36,090 


152.1 

142.0 
156. 3 
154.1 
147.8 
141.9 

159.5 
161.6 
176.8 


238.8 
218. 9 
239.8 
237.0 
223.9 
224.9 

238.5 
224.1 
260.2 


11.59 
7.03 
7.90 
16.98 
28.41 
12.33 

1.24 
1.80 
3.12 


8.27 
7.20 
7.22 
21.13 
21.08 
9.44 

.70 
.76 
1.60 


7.95 


August 


8. .32 


September 


8.40 


October 


17.70 




24.46 


December 


10.58 




1910. 


1.31 


February 


.93 


March 


1.36 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION, 145 



Month. 



Num- 
ber 

work- 
ing 

days. 



Cubic yards output per shovel. 



Per day. 



Per 
month. 



Per hour. 



Under 
steam. 



. At 
work. 



Inches rainfall at— 



Bas 
Obispo 



Empire. 



Culebra. 



1910. 

AprU 

May 

June 

Fiscal year 1910 

1910. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1911. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Fiscal year 1911 

1911. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1912. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Fiscal year 1912, 

1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Jime 

Fiscal year 1913 



304 



304 



304 



27 

24 

27 

23.5 

25 



303.5 



1,295.2 
1,263.8 
1,229.2 



33,674 
31,596 
31,962 



ia3.8 
172.3 
156.2 



291.5 
276.8 
238.2 



3.85 
11.09 
12.08 



4.24 
11.08 
10.17 



1,231.0 



31,185 



117.42 



1,231.4 
1,330.1 
1,340.2 
1,294.2 
1,225.2 
1, 170. 2 



1,330.0 
1,436.8 
1,434.6 
1,370.6 
1,293.0 
1,316.2 



30, 786 
30, 224 
33,505 
33,649 
29,403 
30, 424 



33,251 
33,059 
36, 743 
32,895 
33, 482 
34, 200 



156.8 
168.1 
169.7 
163.3 
153.6 
149.4 



167.7 
180.5 
181.0 
172.3 
161.6 
164.4 



231.4 
242.5 
244.2 
237.0 
228.4 
228.3 



236.7 
253.1 
258.5 
248.1 
235.4 
249.2 



17.00 
10.66 
12.24 
12.90 
16.90 
13.11 



.11 
.71 

.38 
4.01 
14.53 
6.98 



12.60 
10.08 
8.99 
12.57 
8.85 
9.06 



.02 

.55 

.20 

3.93 

13.74 

5.92 



1,314.4 



32, 635 



165.7 



241.1 



109.53 



86.51 



1,314.8 
1,313.6 
1,275.6 
1,226.9 
1,215.2 
1,300.9 



1,303.8 
1,348.9 
1,414.9 
1,414.3 
1,340.0 
1,355.8 



32, 871 
35, 475 
31,891 
31,908 
29,180 
32,525 



33,901 
32, 174 
36, 786 
31,128 
34,839 
33,855 



164.3 
164.0 
159.4 
153.4 
152.0 
162.6 



163.0 
168.6 
176.9 
176.9 
167.2 
169.1 



241.5 
237.5 
233.7 
229.7 
237.3 
250.0 



241.0 
252.1 
258.3 
260.2 
252.7 
263.8 



7.26 
7.68 
5.20 
12.75 
10.09 
.97 



.06 
1.11 
.10 

.77 
7.94 
11.64 



4.00 
5.98 
5.46 
14.97 
11.73 
.20 



.01 

.34 

.01 

2.64 

6.21 

8.50 



1,318.7 



33,038 



164.8 



246.5 



65.57 



60.05 



1,327.0 
1,188.0 
1,191.0 
1,161.0 
1,140.0 
1,254.0 



1,232.0 
1,117.0 
1,229.0 
1,108.0 
873.0 
858.0 



34,500 
32,765 
28,586 
31,346 
26, 783 
31, 345 



32,042 
25,691 
30, 734 
28,803 
22, 718 
21,448 



165.9 
148.5 
147.3 
145.1 
142.5 
153.8 



154.0 
139.6 
153.7 
138.6 
109.2 
107.2 



254.2 
242.2 
243.0 
244.6 
238.2 
240.1 



249.9 
244.3 
242.9 
231.6 
197.4 
202.8 



14.27 
16.64 
12.75 
13.60 
6.56 
3.63 



1.07 
15.13 
8.02 



9.15 
10.53 
13.78 
12.44 
7.24 
3.71 



1.67 

.79 

.22 

.90 

11.74 

11.48 



1,142.5 



28,897 



142.1 



235.9 



83.65 



5.35 
10.50 
11.16 



108. 02 



16.38 
10.11 
10.09 
13.51 
10.81 
11.86 



.02 
.74 
.05 

4.89 
14.86 
4.25 



97.57 



5.95 
8.36 
5.97 
17.06 
12.37 
.31 



.00 

.33 

.02 

3.14 

8.15 

7.57 



9.23 



10.12 
12.88 
14.12 
10.15 
7.59 
4.87 



1.57 
.78 
.57 
.71 
11.74 

9.10 



84.20 



The number of cubic yards per shovel per hour under steam aver- 
aged as follows: 

Fiscal year ended June 30 — 

1908 121.40 

1909 150. 46 

1910 ^ 155. 80 

1911 165. 72 

1912 164. 78 

1913 142. 11 

11834°— 13 10 



146 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSION. 



During the last fiscal year, on account of the practical completion 
of the north end of the central division and to the increased depth 
and lesser width in the Culebra Cut, the steam shovels ^^ere neces- 
sarily spaced more closely together and a decrease in individual 
efficiency therefore resulted. 

In comparing the averages, daily and monthly, shown in the tables 
above it should be borne in mind that these averages are based on 
8 hours per day, while work in most other places where steam 
shovels operate is carried on at least 10 hours per day. 

The average output per shovel per day within the limits of the 
central division for each day since the commencement of operations 
by the United States is shown on i3late No. 94. 



PLANT. 



The following table shows the motive power, rolling stock, and 
construction equipment of the central division on June 30, 1913. 



Item. 



Transferred 

to division 

during fiscal 

year. 



Transferred 
from division 
during fiscal 



In service 

June 30, 

1913. 



Cars: Decauville (industrial) 

Dumps, steel — 
Western — 

10-yard 

17-yard 

Oliver — 

10-yard 

17-yard 

Goodwin, 24-yard 

Dumps, wooden, Ingoldsby, 31-yard. 
Flat— 

Lidgerwood 

Steel 

Motor 

Pay 

Locomotive cranes: 

15- ton 

25-ton 

100-ton 

Locomotives: 

Decauville, 0-4-0 type 

Porter, 12 by 18, 0-4-2 type 

Belgian, 15i by 19i, 0-6-0 type 

Chiriqui, lOJ tiy 23'|, 0-6-0 type 

Baldwin — 

16 by 24, 4-4-0 type 

19 by 24, 2-6-0 type 

Cooke, 19bv24, 2-6-0 type 

Brooke, 20 by 26, 2-6-0 tjT)e 

Pile drivers: 

Moonbeam 

Swing circle 

Plows, unloading: 

Right-hand 

Left-hand 

Spreaders: 

Jordan 

Mann-McCann 

Steam shovels: 

45-ton Bucyrus 

70-ton BucyTUS 

95-lon Bucyrus 

Model 91-Marion 

Track shifters 

Unloaders: 60-ton Lidgerwood 



86 



1S8 
113 

196 
18 
12 
12 

1,531 

63 

1 

1 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 147 



TRANSPORTATION. 



The average number of locomotives working per day, and the total 
locomotive davs during the year, were as follows: 



Class of work. 



Total 

number 

days. 



Handling spreaders 

Handling unloaders , 

Handling track shifters 

Handling dirt and miscellaneous trains 

A verage per day and total 




2,007 

2,837 

953 

32,163 



37,960 



Of the locomotives shown as handling dirt and miscellaneous trains, 
an average of seven locomotives per day were used as pusher engines 
for getting the loaded trains up the inclines at either end of the 
Culebra Cut, as the depth of the canal having increased, these inclines 
are necessarily longer and steeper than in previous years. An aver- 
age of six locomotives per day were used as helper engines in the 
canal in assisting the road engines in handling trains at steam shovels 
placed close together in excavating slides, and where gi'ades required 
the service of more than one locomotive per train. The total number 
of locomotive days for the above work was 3,945. 

The average number of cars loaded daily Avith excavated material, 
and the total number hauled during the year, were as follows : 



Class of cars. 



Lidgerwood flats 

Large steel dumps 

Small steel dumps 

Average per day and total 



Average 
per day. 



2,064.30 
159. 46 
545. 43 



2, 769. 19 



Total 
number 
handled. 



626,514 
48,396 
165,538 



840,448 



The largest number of cars handled in one day during the year 
was on July 11, 1912, when the following number were handled:' 

Lidgerwood flats 2,448 

Large steel dumps 161 

Small steel dumps 1.039 

Total 3,G48 

At the close of the fiscal year the following trains were in service 
for the transportation of excavated material : 

Car trains. 

65 Lidgerwood 20-21 

6 large steel dump 27 ; 

5 small steel dump 35 ' 

A total of 76 trains, or less than two trains per shovel. 



148 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



TRACKS. 

The amount of trackage in the central division was decreased by 
81.4 miles during the year, making a total trackage in this division 
on June 30, 1913, of 156,06 miles. To provide running tracks and 
loading tracks for the steam shovels, approximately 163.65 miles of 
track were laid, 84.13 miles of track removed, and 1,233.08 miles of 
track were shifted on the dumps and in the Cut by manual labor and 
track-shifting machinery. In addition 796 frogs and switches were 
laid and 447 frogs and switches removed during the year. Of the 
above amount of tracks laid and removed it is estimated that from 
35 to 40 miles of track, including the necessary frogs and switches, 
had to be taken up and relaid on account of the action of slides at 
various points in the canal, the pressure from which caused the bot- 
tom of the canal to heave and also caused lateral movement of the 
bottom, thus throwing the tracks out of alignment. 

At least 10 miles of track in the division was buried by slides, so 
that it was impossible to recover the material in such condition as to 
be used for relaying. 

The location and distribution of the track in the central division is 
given in the following table: 



Name and location. 



1910 



1911 



In canal prism (total feet). 



Tabemilla to Chagrecito 

TaberniUa yard 

Barbacoas-Caimito Junction 

Caimito 

East Mamei 

Powderhouse Line-Santa Cruz 

Santa Cniz Gravel 

Gamboa yard 

Bas Obispo 

Old GamDoa and Las Cascadas 

High Line-Obispo diversion 

Cotton Tree yard 

Gold Hill 

Paraiso 

Old Panama R. R. Paraiso to Corozal. 

Pedro Miguel 

Pedro Miguel-Corozal main line 

Miraflores third track 



Total east of canal . 



Juan Grande 

Alligator curve 

Gorgona 

Gorgona yard 

Matachin 

Bas Obispo 

Las Cascadas and bridge No. 52. . 

Whitehouse 

Hi^h Line — Whitehouse to Lirio. 
Whitehouse and Empire j'ard. . . 

Cunctte 

Empire yard 

Lirio 

Culebra 

Rio Grande 

Cucaracha 

Paraiso 



Total west of canal. 

Tabemilla prism dumps. 

Tabemilla 

fan Pablo 

Caimito 

Mamei 



385, 8S4 



402, 256 



6, 529 



2,750 
9,860 



13, 914 
'29,472 



22,150 



46,980 



3,005 



134, 660 



10, 201 
6,700 
1,800 

37,172 
9,219 
4,670 

22,300 

18,400 
7,273 



3,118 
44,518 
26,100 
11,083 
16,855 
5, 850 
5,346 



230, 605 



3,225 

R2, 895 

1,120 

985 

5,300 



7,250 
10, 870 
3,840 



10,890 
2,480 
11,700 



31,442 



19,565 
46,214 
52,537 



10,600 

1,100 

11,700 



23,700 



19,100 
45,400 
55,000 



3,005 



3,000 



199,793 169,600 



9,700 
8,800 
2,230 
2:3,300 
19,511 



5,950 



33,923 
22,325 
8,220 
17.425 
3,800 
5,346 



160,530 



12,900 

5,800 

900 

23,400 

16,700 



7,700 



41,000 

20, 400 

4,500 

7,400 



5,300 



146,000 



55,400 
1,120 



10,600 

1,000 

11,700 



23,400 
7,900 
17,900 
23,400 
20,000 
49,700 
15,200 
3,000 



183,800 



9,400 

3,700 

1,300 

21,100 

700 



1,500 



31,000 
17,400 
4,700 
10,900 



5,300 



107,000 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 149 



Name and location. 


1910. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


New Panama R. R.: 

North of Juan Grande 


8,028 
45,866 
10,560 


129,580 

1 88, 700 

9,600 

2,700 


17,800 
91,000 


16,100 
03,800 


South of Juan Grande 


Gorgona 


Gorgona River dumps 






Point No. 3 


13,500 
1,068 
2,850 
3,725 






Matachin, west of canal 








Santa Cruz, east of canal 








Lirio 








Culebra 


7,174 
13,450 


7,200 
18,300 




Gold Hill 


11,730 




Pedro Miguel 


11 500 


Power House 








3 000 


Miraflores 


39,343 
76,800 


40,860 
93,230 


34,500 
120,300 


6,000 
125 200 


Balboa- Panama dumps-Ancon 






Total dump tracks 


306,995 


341,814 


289, 100 


255,600 




Total track used by central division exclusive of Pan- 


1,058,144 


1,104,393 


989,800 


824,000 






200.41 


209.16 


187.46 


156.06 





J 24,740 feet of this track owned by Panama R. R. but used and mamtained by the central division. 



DUMPS. 



The following table shows the disposition of all material exca-' 
vated from the central division since the inception of work by the 
United States, including 12,830,G62 cubic yards of material exca- 
vated during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913 : 



Name of dump. 


Wasted 

prior to 

July 1,1913. 


Wasted 
during fis- 
cal year 
1912-13. 


Total 
wasted. 


Gatun 


5,374,300 

177,928 

147,718 

16,099,027 

2,210,425 

1,701,414 

967,287 

1,275,642 

778,612 

1,823,006 

9,229 

997,582 

18,177 

184,792 


45,441 


5,419,741 
177 928 


Bohio 


Chagrecito 




147 718 


Tabernilla 




16,099,027 

2,210,425 

1,701,414 

967,287 

1,275,642 

778,612 

1,823,006 

9 229 


San Pablo 




Caimito 




Mamei 




Juan Grande 




Gorgona 




Matachin 




Incline No. 1 




Santa Cruz 




997 582 


Point No. 3 




18 177 


Gamboa 




184 792 


Gamboa Dike 


37,080 


37,080 
434 086 


Chagres 


434,086 


Mandingo Dike 


5,460 


5,460 

338,802 

920 

5 174 


Bas Obispo 


338,802 


Camacho D ike 


920 


Bas Obispo Dike 


5,174 

61,890 

1,152,1% 

4,054 

35,525 

314,127 

55,254 

74,045 

101,806 

32, 756 

152,215 

82, 222 

176,998 

1,356 

1,298,745 

1,860,003 

678,854 

48,438 

262,369 


Tunnel diversion 




61 890 


Obispo diversion 


49,269 


1,201,465 

4,054 

35,525 

314 127 


Sardinilla 


Haut Obispo 




Bridge No. 53 




Las Cascadas 




55^254 
74 045 


Buena Vista 




White House 




101 806 


White Yard-Camacho diversion 




32, 756 
152,215 

82,222 

176,998 

1 356 


Cunette 




E mpire 




Cerro 




Cableway 




Culebra 


354,358 
284, 755 


1,653,103 
2,144,758 

678,854 
48,438 

262,369 


Gold Hill and Lirio 


Rio Grande 


Cucaracha 




Cartagenita 





150 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Name of dump. 



Wasted 

prior to 

July 1,1913. 



Wasted 
during fis- 
cal year 
1912-13. 



Total 

wasted. 



Paraiso 

Pedro Miguel town site 

Pedro Miguel 

Double-track south tunnel. 

Miraflores 

Miraflorcs north incline 

Corozal 

Power-house fill 

Sosa. 



74,885 



543,846 



607, 851 



16,318 

319,905 

8,201 

1,288,262 

15, 545 



Balboa 

Bas Obispo crusher 

Naos Island Breakwater 

Panama II. R.: 

Relocation, Caimito to Gamboa 

Relocation, Paraiso to Corozal 

Relocation dumps 

East Mamei 

Culebra Swamp 

Point No. 4 

Pacific division 

Balboa Y fill 

Sosa HUl fill 

Ancon So.sa fill 

Ancon Diablo fill 

Cristobal Mole 

Panama R. R., relocation for riprapping. 
Miscellaneous 



667, 493 
,792,360 
184, 234 
781,931 

,394,572 
972, 783 

, 783, 194 
180, 432 
713,290 
611,240 
175, 125 
350,835 



84,760 
'3,"985,"i29' 
""653," 242 



4,376,080 



671,756 



56, 384 

90,783 

,641,046 



8,364 
440, 725 

17, 545 
392,699 

25,998 
175, 572 
257,731 



74, 885 

16, 318 

863, 751 

8,201 

14,603,053 

15,545 

607,851 

84,760 

667, 493 

21,777,489 

184,234 

1,435,173 

12,394,572 

972, 783 

6, 159, 274 

180,432 

713,290 

611,240 

183,489 

791,560 

17,545 

1,064,455 

25, 998 

231,956 

348, 514 

3,641,046 



Total 94, 544, 855 



12,843,359 n07,388,244 



^Xutc. — The total quantity of spoil disposed of by the central division exceeds the quan- 
tity excavated by 12,097 cubic yards. This amount is spoil hauled to central division 
dumps from Pedro Migiiel Locks, fifth division. 

All loaded trains from the canal are hauled out at either end of 
the Culebra Cut. The only central diA'ision dumps now beinc; used 
for wasting material from the canal proper are those at Pedro 
Miguel, Miraflores, and Balboa, for trains run from the south end of 
the Cut, and the relocation dumps for trains run from the north end 
of the Cut over the Chagres River Bridge. 

The average amount of material dumped per day at the larger 
dumps W'as as follows: 

Cubic yards. 

:\Iir;ifloi-es G, 400 

Balboa 13,152 

Relocation, Gamboa to Caimito 14,444 

The material deposited at Balboa is serving a useful purpose in 
reclaiming from the ocean land which in time will be very valuable. 
The material dumped on the Naos Island Dike serves the twofold 
purpose of forming a protective dike for the ship channel and pro- 
viding a means of rail and wagon road connection with the islands 
in Panama Bay. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, 90 acres were filled in, 
making a total of 474 acres in all reclaimed from the ocean at this 
point. 

Between Balboa Y and Sosa Hills 54 acres of marshy land that 
it was impossible to drain properly were filled in during the year, 
87C),9()7 cubic yards of material from the canal being u.sed for that 
purpose. According to present plans 13 acres more will be filled, 
making a total area of 139 acres of sanitary filling, which land will 
doubtless be utilized in connection with the operation of the canal. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 151 

It will be noted from the foregoing table that of the total amount 
excavated during the fiscal year, 12,343,554 cubic yards were wasted 
on central division dumps, the balance, 487,108 cubic yards, having 
been furnished other divisions and the Panama Railroad, as follows : 

Cubic yards. 

Atlantic division, Gatun, for constructing toes of Gatun Dam 4r>. 441 

Panama R. R. relocation, for fills and riprapping embankment 257, 731 

Pacific division, for back fill of Pedro Miguel Locks, etc 8. 364 

Panama II. R., for construction of mole, Colon docks 175,572 

Total 487.108 

The following table shows the amount of trestle driven in the 
central division in connection with dumping operations during the 
fiscal years 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, and 1913: 



Name and location. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Balboa (I.a Boca) dumps 


6,539 


4,074 


6,273 


1,360 




Pedro Miguel, left 


178 


Culebra dumps 






920 






Gold Hill dumps 






1,450 




Cardenas River dumps (Miraflores) 


1,742 
395 

1,256 
178 
780 

1,330 

1,361 

136 

439 

15 








Haut Obispo to Bas Obispo 










B as Obispo 










Near Bridge 52 










Canal connection, Matachin 










Santa Cruz 










Powder-house line, Santa Cruz 










Matachin to Santa Cruz 










Point No. 3 








Gorgona dump 




"4,' 645" 
no 

""m 

456 
"2,' 260" 


448 

4,740 

868 

679 

'""462' 
260 






Relocation dumps 






Caimitn tn Tnhpmillq. 


505 
897 






Tabemilla dumps 






Trestles in cut 


828 
52 




Obispo diversion 


1,923 
1,131 

882 




Miscellaneous 




Redriven and repaired 




100 










Totalfeet 


19,509 
3.69 


11,114 
2.10 


14,659 

2.78 


3,690 
.70 


278 


Total mUes 


.05 







Grand total, 49,250 feet (9.32 miles). 

Note.— Of the trestle driven at Balboa dumps daring the fiscal year 1912, 1,300 feet was double-track 
trestle for the Naos Island Dike. 

During the fiscal year, work was in progress at a number of dif- 
ferent places in the central division, and the names of the localities 
and the amount of work accomplished in each place during the fiscal 
year, together with the amount j^et to be done, are given in what 
follows. 

DIVERSIONS. 



_ Due to the appearance of cracks in the sides of the Obispo diver- 
sion, which threatened to develop into slides which would break 
into the diversion at several points, it was decided to relocate the 
diversion farther to the east, which was done in three places. 

In April. 1913, work was begun on a drainage ditch to carry off 
the rain water which accumulates at the old Culebra dumps, near 
Lirio. This work was completed June 26, 1913. 



152 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The following" table shows the amount of material excavated at 
the ditferent points of the relocated diversion, and also from the 
ditch to drain the old Culebra dumps : 

Cubic yards. 

Relocated diversion around powder house slide 13, 05G 

Relocated diversion opposite the division office 39,016 

Relocated diversion around La Pita Point break 76.004 

Diversion to drain old Culebra dumps 27,300 

Total 155,376 

HAND EXCAVATION liY CONTRACT. 

A contract was entered into between the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion and Llewellyn Swain on December 6, 1910, which contract was 
transferred by Llewellyn Swain to B. B. Duncan, as subcontractor. 
This contract was for the excavation of about 112,450 cubic yards 
in the canal prism between stations 28 plus 1,000 and 28 plus 2,300, 
at a cost of 21^ cents per cubic yard. In May, 1912, a subsequent 
asfreement was entered into between the contractor and the Isthmian 
Canal Commission establishing the price of 31^ cents per cubic yard 
on material excavated subsequent to March 22, 1912. On May 16, 
1912, the contractor had removed 103,088 cubic yards, on which date 
the contractor signified his inability to complete the work, the re- 
maining excavation to be done by the central division, any excess 
over and above 3H cents per cubic yard to be paid for from the 
bond furnished by the contractor at the time of signing the contract. 
The central division removed in all 12,972 cubic yards remaining 
after the contractor relinquished the work, completing the work in 
July, 1912. For work done by the Isthmian Canal Commission for 
the completion of the Llewellyn Swain contract, the contractor is 
indebted to the commission to the amount of $1,886.22. 

CLEARING CHANNEL. 

During the present fiscal year, it was noticed that portions of the 
canal channel which passes through the lake area between Gatun 
and Gamboa was, in portions, overgrown by bushes and small trees 
which had sprung up since the completion of the excavation in that 
territory. As the first division of the office of the chairman and 
chief engineer had forces employed in the construction of range 
lights in the lake area, and had the necessary floating and other 
equipment for performance of this work, the chairman assigned the 
work of clearing the channel to that division. This work w^as com- 
pleted on June 17, 1913, a total of 250 acres having been cleared. 

NAGS ISLAND DIKE. 

This dike will extend from the shore at East Balboa to Naos Island, 
a distance of 3.29 miles from the mainland, and is being con.structed 
for the purpose of shutting off the swift currents, which at flood tide 
flow across the canal channel nearly at right angles, causing a heavy 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 153 

deposit of silt and tending to curry vessels out of the canal to the 
westward. 

To construct this dike a pile trestle over 3 miles long was driven 
from the shore toward the island. From this trestle material from 
Culebra Cut was dumped, and as the trestle became filled the tracks 
were shifted laterally and the dike widened and used as a dump. 

Up to June 30, 1913, the trestle had been entirely completed and 
filled, except for one stretch of a little over 600 feet. Great trouble 
has been experienced during the past year by the slipping of the rock 
filling. This movement has been the cause of much of the trouble 
during the last three years and resulted in continual settling of the 
stone filling for several months, when it gradually diminished and 
finally ceased. The total settlement at one locality on the dike during 
the past fiscal year aggregated over 125 feet. 

Not a single foot of the trestle constructed during the last three 
years remains at present under the track for which it was intended, 
having moved to one side laterally as much as 300 feet. 

Owing to the large tidal range the pressure on the bottom of the 
stone fill varies with the degree of submersion. The fluctuation of 
tidal levels aggregates at times as much as 16 to 18 feet a day, and this 
is a constant source of trouble, as the dike almost always " goes out " 
when the surface of the water is at the lowest elevation, at which time 
the pressure, as stated above, on the bottom of the dike is a maximum. 

So large is the movement that actual observations have shown in 
recent months that the quantity of stone required to complete the dike 
up to the present height was at least 10 times the theoretical quantity 
which would have been required had the bottom been unyielding. 

The photographs taken during the present fiscal year indicate 
more clearly than words can do the character of the bottom on which 
this breakwater is being constructed. 

The construction of this dike has proved to be one of the most 
difficult pieces of construction work ever attempted in the central 
division, yet owing to the fact that a very large supply of suitable 
material has been available up to the present time the cost has not 
been excessive, amounting to about $17.29 per linear foot from the 
commencement of operations up to Julv 1, 1913. 

The total cost of the dike up to July 1, 1913, has been $398,529.70, 
or about $22.94 per linear foot. Of this amount $70,558.01 has been 
charged to the Pacific division. 

SLIDES AND BREAKS. 

The progress of excavation in the Culebra Cut during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1913, has been rendered more difficult on ac- 
count of slides and breaks in the banks of the canal, than ever be- 
fore. It was anticipated that this trouble would increase as the 
depth of the Cut increased, and that this anticipation was realized 
is shown by the total amount of material removed on account of 
breaks and slides for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, which was 
5,899,200 cubic yards. 

^ The only method of treatment for slides, which has proven effec- 
tive once they have developed, is to excavate and haul away the mov- 
ing material, until the slide comes to rest at the angle of repose for 



154 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



the particular material then moving. This angle of repose varies 
greatly in different parts of the Cut, depending not only on the 
character of the material involved in the slide, but also upon the 
inclination of the strata and the angle at which the formation 
crosses the canal. 

At the southern part of Cucaracha slide the angle of repose equals 
one vertical on two horizontal, while on the west bank of the Cut, 
near the town of Culebra, the argillaceous sandstone is still moving 
slightly on a slope a little steeper than one vertical to five horizontal. 
The flat slopes of the banks in the deepest part of the Cut explain the 
large amount of material added by slides and breaks, as the original 
estimates made by the International Board of Consulting Engineers 
are based on side slopes in the deepest parts of the Cut of three ver- 
tical on two horizontal. 

Of the number of slides and breaks described in the last annual 
report one of the most noteworthy is the Cucaracha slide, which 
began to give trouble to the Americans in July, 1905, and from which 
about 4,000,000 cubic j^ards have been excavated to date. It covers 
a total area of 47.1 acres, but has been less active in recent weeks than 
was the case some months previously. 

Details regarding all of the principal slides in the central division, 
all of which are confined to the Culebra section of this division, 
are given in the following table : 

Estimate of slides outsirle of slope lines for jicnr ending July 1, 1913, showing 
total estimates of material to date. 



Location. 



Date when slide 
first developed. 



Oubie yards 
excavated 
year end- 
ing July 
1, 1913. 



Cubic yards 

of material 

excavated 

to date. 



Cubic yards 
of material 
remaining. 



Area of 
slide in 
acres. 



East side: 

Bas Obispo 

Haut Obispo 

West side, Buena Vista 

East side: 

Buena Vista 

Las Cascadas 

Whitehouse 

West side, Whitehouse yard. 
East side: 

Powder house 

North La Pita 

Lower La Pita 

Upper La Pita 

West side, Cunette 

East side. Empire 

West side: 

Division office 

Lirio 

Culebra 

East side: 

Culebra 

Cucaracha 

West side, Contractors Hill . . 
East side: 

Cucaracha village 

Paraiso 

Pedro Miguel 



September, 1910. 
September, 1908. 
November, 1908. 



May, 1912 

February, 1908. 
October, 1908... 
Jime, 1912 



October, 1909.... 
Septemlier, 1912. 

Mav, 1910 

December, 1909. . 
September, 1910. 
May, 1912 



May, 1910 

April, 1912 

October, 1907... 

January, 1907... 

Julv, 1905 

July, 1908 



September, 1911. 

March, 1907 

January, 1913.... 



48,000 



29, 400 
45,000 



97,000 
181, 100 



539.500 

48,000 

209,000 

1,922,700 

1,676,300 

1,006,900 

5,a)0 

88,000 



3.;300 



117,000 

18.000 

162, 000 

48,000 
503,000 
509,000 

45,000 

543,000 
181,100 
30,000 
20,000 
67, 000 
933,700 

258,000 

221,200 

8, 687, 600 



,966,200 
,,s.59,. ')()() 
221,000 

231,100 

385,000 

3,300 



70,000 



20,000 
80.000 
100.000 
30.000 

70,000 
30.000 



280,000 

20.000 

60,000 

2,390,000 

2,000,000 

1,500.000 

200,000 



10,500 



2.8 

.6 

3.3 

1.2 

11.5 

6.0 

1.0 

5.8 
1.7 

.3 
1.7 

.9 
20.0 

2.6 
3.6 
68.0 

55.0 

50.0 

2.0 

4.0 

5.7 

.2 



Total. 



5,899,200 



23,009,700 



6,860,500 



247.9 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 155 

COST OF EXCAVATION. 

The average cost of the various items of expense in connection with 
excavation is shown in the following table, giving comparison with 
the fiscal years 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, and 1913: 



(lass of work. 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 




$0.1150 


$0. 1001 
.3993 
.1149 
.1452 
.0911 
.08:58 
.0114 
.0001 
.0048 
.0012 


$0. 0888 
.3442 
.1190 
.1522 
.0657 
.1001 
.0150 
.0003 
.0046 
.0013 
.0052 


$0.0717 
.2567 
.1048 
.1414 
.0541 
.1014 
.0120 
.0002 
.00005 
.0005 
.0038 


$0. 0681 
. 3056 
.1157 
. 1331 
.0479 
. 0885 
.0142 


.?0. 0863 




.3150 




.1413 
.1854 
.1344 
.1190 
.0163 
.0008 
.0004 
.0002 


.1069 




.1740 




.0645 


Tracks 


.0966 




.0128 








.0001 
.0003 
.0041 




Division structures 


.0003 




.0091 












.7128 

.1882 
.1300 


.5517 

.1049 
.1.300 


.5416 

.0646 
.1300 


.4880 

.0457 
.1000 


.4707 

.0361 
.0395 


.5505 


General expense and administrative ex- 


.0355 




.0040 






Total 


1.0310 


.7866 


.7362 


.6337 


.5463 


.5900 







It will be noted that the cost is higher than in previous years, but 
it is not considered excessive. The increased depth of the canal and 
the heavier grades over which the transportation department has 
liad to work, as well as the unusually heavy rains, has caused a ma- 
terial increase in the cost. 

COAL AND rUEL OIL CONSUMED. 

The total quantity of coal used during the fiscal year amounted to 
153,923 long tons. Coal is the only fuel used on the division except 
at the following pumping stations, at which points 15,271.63 barrels 
of fuel oil were used during the fiscal year: Cucaracha, Camacho, 
and Gorgona. 

AIR AND WATER SERVICE. 



During the fiscal year, in furnishing air connection for drills and 
other purposes, 2,593,416 feet of pipe were laid, while 2,069,250 feet 
of pipe were removed. The central division maintained the air 
mains leading from the air compressors and paralleling the canal 
on the east and west banks. 

In furnishing water connections for steam shovels, orange peel 
and clam shell cranes, locomotives, and for other purposes 1,755,995 
feet of pipe were laid, while 1,858,111 feet of pipe were removed. 



156 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

MUNICIPAL WORK. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, municipal work was 
carried on as in the past, the principal items of work performed 
being as follows: 

Water : 

Pipe Laid feet— 5,433 

Pil>e removed do 6.990 

Pipe relaid do 6.665 

House connections made do 21 

Meters : 

Installed do 9 

Removed do 1 

Oil pipe installed do 3,969 

Sewer : 

Pipe laid do 3,543 

Pipe removed do ISS 

Pipe relaid do 785 

House connections made do 4 

Sanitary work : 

Regrading ditches linear feet-_ 602, 578 

Ditches dug feet_. 4,698 

Ditches cleaned do 1.327,676 

Tile drains laid do 6.426 

Concrete gutters made do 3, 852 

Concrete ditches cleaned do 847. 852 

Clearing square yards__ 908, 331 

Miscellaneous: Cleaning around reservoirs do 123,462 

ROAD BUILDING. 

The construction of what is known as the Empire-Chorrera Road 
was continued during the fiscal year. As soon as the actual construc- 
tion was accomplished, the convicts engaged in this work were trans- 
ferred to other work, and a small force of paid labor established to 
continue the crushing and laying of rock, placing of screenings, roll- 
ing, and other work necessary for the completion of the road to the 
Zone boundary. The work accomplished was as follows : 

Clearing acres 6 

Cubic yards of excavation 20. 752 

Cubic yards of earth placed In fills 17,317 

Cubic yards of masonry in culverts and bridges 413 

Linear feet of 18-inch concrete pipe manufactured 470 

Linear feet of Telford base laid 6. 128 

Linear feet of crushed rock placed 19.432 

Linear feet of extra screenings placed 7. 562 

On November 27, 1912, work was begim on a IG-foot macadam road 
from Gamboa to a point on the Las Cascadas Plantation Road about 
3,()00 feet from the east end of the Empire Suspension Bridge, a 
total distance of approximately 5 miles and 380 feet. Prison labor is 
to be used in the construction of this road, and for the purpose a 
stockade was erected at Gamboa for housing the convicts previously 
engaged in the construction of the Empire-Chorrera Road, who were 
transferred to this work, 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 157 

The follo\ving work Avas performed on the construction of the Em- 
pire-Ganiboa Road during the fiscal year 1913 : 

Clearing acres__ 11. 65 

Excavation cubic yards__ 26. 484 

Masonry do 547.5 

18-iuch pipe linear feet__ 534 

Berniing for Telford do 4, 075 

Telford do 2,925 

Subgradiug and ditching complete for 7,600 linear feet. 

The Empire-Paraiso Road was relocated for a distance of 5,008 
feet and constructed. This Avas necessary on account of slides along 
the east bank of the canal. 

In the village of Culebra 2,370 feet of road were reconstructed on 
account of slides on the west bank of the canal. 

At Lirio camp 253 feet of road were constructed. 

For the protection of the roads and for the comfort and conveni- 
ence of employees during the dry season, the oiling and rolling oi 
roads was authorized by the acting chairman and chief engineer on 
December 3, 1912. The length of road oiled and rolled in the dif- 
ferent towns is as follows : 

Empire linear feet__ 14, 398 

Culebra do 12, 700 

During the fiscal year, 16,323 linear feet of the Gorgona-Bas- 
Obispo Road were rolled and 12,240 linear feet of this road resur- 
faced. 

The community closets heretofore in use at Golden Green village 
Avere discontinued and servers substituted therefor. In this w^ork 
1,940 feet of sewer pipe was used. 

For fire protection at bridge 57^, 390 feet of 3-inch water pipe was 
laid and four fire plugs installed. 

The following work was accomplished in connection with the 
maintenance of roads, the maintenance of cinder paths having re- 
mained under the supervision of the quartermaster's department : 

General repairs square yards__ 813,421 

Ditches cleaned linear feet__ 629, 509 

Ditches excavated do 15, 200 

The above includes the resurfacing and rolling of the Empire- 
Paraiso Road and the resurfacing, reditching, and rerolling of the 
Las Cascadas Plantation road. 

WATERWORKS. 

In connection w^ith the water supply to the different settlements 
the use of Rio Grande, Camacho, and Carabali reservoirs and the 
operation of pumps at Paraiso, Cucaracha, Gorgona, and Gamboa 
was continued throughout the year. Water was also condensed at the 
above stations and at the condensing plants at Las Cascadas and Bas 
Obispo. 

In addition to the above, pumps were operated at Lirio, Sardanilla 
River, Gamboa, and Gorgona shops throughout the year; these pumps 
supply water for the operation of shops and for other canal construc- 
tion purposes. Approximately 550,000,000 gallons of water were 



158 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



consumed by the central division from the Eio Grande Reservoir, 
which is operated by the fifth division. The following table shows 
in detail the quantity of water consumed, pumps in operation, etc. : 





Water pumped. 


Pump stations. 


Number of pumps— 


Total gallons. 


Number 
days in 
opera- 
tion. 


Daily 
average 
gallons. 




In 

service. 


At work, 

daily 
average. 




2 
3 
■2 
3 
2 
4 
2 
3 


1 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 


49,760,000 
156,919,898 
229,849,413 
146,000,000 
219,000,000 
29.5,404.614 

52, 000, 000 
633,500,000 


365 
365 
365 
365 
365 
365 
104 
304 


136 300 


Cucaraeha . 


429,918 


Camacho 


629, 724 




400,000 




600 000 


Gorgona . 


809,328 




500, 000 


Gamboa 


2,083,881 




Total : 


21 


13 


1,782,433,925 
1550,000,000 


325 
365 


5,588,823 


Consumed from Rio Grande Reservoir direct. 


1,056 849 
















2,332,433,925 




6,390,320 















Water condensed. 


Pump stations. 


Numberof pumps— 


Total gallons. 


Number 
days in 
opera- 
tion. 


Daily 
average 
gallons. 




In 

service. 


At work, 

daily 
average. 


Cucaraeha 


1 

1 
1 

1 
1 


1 

1 
1 

1 

1 


300,365 

603, 771 

1,131,734 

704,050 
396, 870 


365 
365 
365 

365 
365 


826 
1,654 


Gorgona 


3,100 


Condensers. 
Las Cascadas . 


1,929 




1,086 






Total 


5 


5 


3,136,790 


365 


8,595 







1 The total quantity of water consumed from Rio Grande Reservoir was 756,679,898 gallons; 550,000,000 
gallons were used direct from main and 206,679,898 gallons were pumped at Paraiso and Cucaraeha stations. 

During the fiscal year 23,120,679 gallons of water were pumped 
and 171,312 gallons of condensed water furnished to Camp E. S. 
Otis, and 19,020,470 gallons pumped and 74,073 gallons of condensed 
water furnished to Camp Elliott. 

During the fiscal year the summit of drainage in the Cut was at 
a point in the canal opposite station 1750. Water south of this point 
is drained into the Pacific Ocean by gravity through a culvert in the 
Pedro Miguel Locks. 

The gravity drainage south of summit was interrupted on account 
of slides to such an extent that it was necessary to pump water over 
summit to north drainage ditch. For this purpose one centrifugal 
pump, 17-inch discharge, capacity 12,000 gallons per minute, and one 
centrifugal pump, 12-inch discharge, capacity 5,000 gallons per min- 
ute, were installed, and commenced operation just north of station 
1804 on May 3, 1913. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING CENTRAL DIVISION. 159 

The sump pumps installed at the north end of the Pedro Miguel 
Locks were continued in operation during the year. All water 
entering the Cut north of this drainage summit is pumped into the 
Chagres Kiver by sump pumps at the Bas Obispo Dike. 

At the close of the fiscal year the following pumps were in service 
for this purpose : 

Three duplex pumps, 16 by 22 by 18 inches; capacity, 4,200 gallons 
per minute each. 

Two Wagner pumps, 16 by 8 by 12 inches; capacity, 445 gallons 
per minute. 

One Worthington centrifugal pump, 24-inch discharge; capacity, 
18,000 gallons per minute. 

Two French centrifugal pumps, 17-inch discharge ; capacity, 7,000 
gallons per minute each. 

Two French centrifugal pumps, 17-inch discharge; capacity, 7,000 
gallons per minute each, W'Cre installed during August, 1912. 

LABOR CONDITIONS. 

During the fiscal year the labor situation was entirely satisfactory, 
the supply of laborers equaling the demand during the year. The 
majority of the laborers employed in the central division are West 
Indian negroes. The average number of laborers at work during 
the fiscal year just ended was 6,701. 

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION. 

On July 1, 1912, Empire shops, including the gold and silver per- 
sonnel, was transferred to the mechanical division. These shops 
performed repairs to steam shovels, drills, etc., together with sundry 
other repair and maintenance work necessary in the central division. 

On July 1, 1912, the Las Cascadas wrecking outfit was transferred 
to the mechanical division at Gorgona, the central division retaining 
the wrecking outfit at Pedro Miguel as heretofore. 

On August 19, 1912, the Chagres district was abolished; the posi- 
tion of superintendent of construction having jurisdiction over this 
section was likewise abolished, through resignation, and the title of 
this section was changed to the relocation dumps and placed in charge 
of a general foreman at $225 per month. 

On October 1, 1912, the following changes in the dividing line 
between districts were put into effect : 

Empire district to extend from the Chagres River to station 1760. 

Cidebra construction district from station 1760 to Pedro Miguel 
Locks, including incline tracks at Paraiso and the Isthmian Canal 
Commission main line adjacent thereto, as far south as a point 
opposite the north face of the northeast wing wall at the Pedro 
Miguel locks. 

Pedro Miguel construction district to comprise the central division 
tracks south from a point opposite the north face of the northeast 
wing wall of Pedro Miguel Locks and the Miraflores and Balboa 
dumps. 



160 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Owing to the program outlined for excavation work in Culebra 
Cut, it was deemed advisable to extend the limits of Empire district 
on the west side of the canal to include the large slide west of Cule- 
bra, which was done under date of September 26, 1912. 

On November 1, 1912, the jurisdiction of the general yardmasters 
in the canal was changed to correspond with the limits of the con- 
struction districts — i. e., Empire and Culebra. 

On November 16, 1912, it was found necessary in the interest of 
efficiency and econoni}^ to concentrate the timekeeping of the Culebra 
and Empire construction districts in the office of the division engi- 
neer, and the district time offices were abolished in these two districts. 

On January 15, 1913, the above program was extended to include 
the timekeeping force of the relocation dumps, one man being 
assigned to look after routine work in that office. 

CHANGES IN PERSONNEL. 

On July 1, 1913, Mr. W. H. Bates, superintendent of steam shovel 
repairs, and J. H. Moriarty, assistant superintendent of steam shovel 
repairs, were transferred to the mechanical division. 

On August 19, 1912, J. W. Sneed, superintendent of construction, 
Chagres district, resigned. 

On August 26, 1912, J. M. McNeill, assistant superintendent of 
transportation, resigned. 

On August 6, 1912, Fred L. Huff, assistant superintendent of con- 
struction, Pedro Miguel district, resigned. 

On August 19, 1912, Ranee Fergiison was appointed general fore- 
man in charge of the relocation dumps, vice J. W. Sneed, resigned. 

December 1, 1912, George W. Morrell, chief dispatcher, was 
appointed assistant superintendent of transportation. 

On December 1, 1912, W. T. Snyder was appointed chief dis- 
patcher, vice George W. Morrell, promoted. 

On October 20, 1912, W. M. McCoy, chief accountant, resigned. 

On December 23, 1912, Rufus K. Booth was appointed chief ac- 
countant, vice W. M. McCoy, resigned. 

On February 2, 1913, Joseph Little, superintendent of construc- 
tion, Culebra district, resigned. 

Februai-y 3, 1913, M. W. Tenny, assistant engineer, was appointed 
superintendent of construction, vice Joseph Little, resigned. 

March 1, 1913, Wilbor D. Stanton was appointed assistant engi- 
neer, vice M. W. Tenny, promoted. 

March 30, 1913, George W. Morrell, assistant superintendent of 
transportation, resigned. 

Respectfully submitted. 

D. D, Gaillard, 
Lieutenant Colonel., Corps of Engineers., 
U. S. Army, Member Isthmian Canal Commission., 

Division Engineer., Central Division. 

Col. Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. Army, 

Chairman and Chief Engineer., Culehra, Canal Zone. 








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APPENDIX D. 
REPORT OF H. 0. COLE, RESIDENT ENGINEER, FIFTH DIVISION. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 
Department of Construction and Engineering, 

Fifth Division, Chief Engineer's Office, 

Office of the Kesident Engineer, 

Corozal^ Canal Zone, July 31, 1913. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of opera- 
tions in the fifth division of the chief engineer's office during the 
fiscal j'^ear ending June 30, 1913 : 

Division Organization. 

Mr. S. B. Williamson, division engineer, and Mr. J. M. G. Watt, 
assistant division engineer, of the Pacific division, having resigned, 
the Pacific division was abolished and the fifth and sixth divisions 
created in accordance with your Circular No. 183-S, effective Decem- 
ber 12, 1912, at which time the writer, who was formerly in direct 
charge of the construction of locks, dams, spillways, and transporta- 
tion under the division engineer of the Pacific division, was ap- 
pointed resident engineer in charge of the fifth division, including 
the construction of the Miraflores and Pedro Miguel Locks, dams, 
and spillway; dry excavation of the canal prism south of Pedro 
Miguel; municipal and sanitary work in that territory; hydraulic 
excavation; electrical department; Ancon quarry; transportation; 
and division office. 

Outside of the above administrative changes the personnel of the 
forces has not changed materially, the organization and equipment 
varying from time to time as the progress and conditions in the 
work required. The electrical department was absorbed by the 
mechanical division, effective May 1, 1913. 

A summary of the principal items of work performed in the above 
departments during the fiscal year is given in Table No. 1. 

Table No. 1. — Principal items ofivork performed in the year ended June 30, 1913. 



Class of work. 



Dry excavation: 

Work 

Plant 

Hydraulic excavation: 

Work 

Plant 

Explosives used 

Rock drilling: 

By tripod drills 

By well drills 

By hand drills 

Construction tracks laid. 

Trestle bents framed 

Piles driven 1 

Dam filling, dry 

Cacife filling 



Cubic yards. 
do 



....do 

do 

Gross tons.. 



Linear feet . . 

do 

do 

Miles 

Number 

do 

Cubic yards. 
do 



Quantity. 



11834°— 13 11 



3, 415, 471. 00 
738,963.00 

461,527.00 

15, 422. 00 

673.60 

875, 286. 00 

234,877.00 

400.00 

29.22 

54.00 

812.00 

532,492.00 

1,495,919.00 

161 



162 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 1. — Principal items of work performed in the year ended June 30, 1913 - Con. 



Class of work. 



Unit. 



Quantity. 



Concrete placed in locks: 

Work 

Plant 

Concrete placed in dams, work 

Concrete placed in spillway, work 

Rock crushed 

Return tracks laid 

Coping drain covers 

Lamp standards manufactured 

Vitrified ducts laid 

Fiber ducts laid 

Roads maintained 

Drains and ditches dug 

Drains and ditches cleaned and graded. 

Water pipe laid 

Sewer pipe laid 

Clearing and grubbing 

Daily average force employed: 

Pacific division 

Fifth division 



Cubic yards. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Linear feet . . 

do 

Number 

Linear feet . . 

do 

Miles 

Cubic yards. 
Linear feet . . 

do 

do 

Acres 



Number. 
do... 



509,159.00 

6, 487. 00 

5,970.00 

64,142.00 

688,301.00 

6,406.00 

27,467.00 

301.00 

394,451.00 

7,723.00 

21.70 

5,079.00 

1,616,509.00 

44,960.00 

13,908.00 

131.00 

7, 489. 00 

5, 946. 00 



First District. 



LOCKS, DAMS, SPILLWAY DAM, AND DRY EXCAVATION. 

[J. A. Walker, superintendent, lock construction.] 

[R. B. Tinsley, assistant engineer.] 

[J. A. McCulloch, superintendent on e.xcavation.] 

[J. H. Adams, supervisor on excavation.] 

[W. J. Holmes, trainmaster.] 

Pedro Miguel Locks and Dams. 

The work consisted in excavating; preparing the lock foundations; 
fabricating and erecting forms; making and placing concrete for the 
lock, wing, and guide walls; the placing of fixed irons in masonry; 
the back filling of lock walls; the filling in of north and south guide 
walls and west dam — this work reaching the stage of practical com- 
pletion during the fiscal year. 

LOCK excavation. 

The excavation consisted principally of the excavation of French 
dump east of the lock site and excavation for the south guide wall 
extension, increasing the total for lock excavation to 1,102,165 cubic 
yards. 

Table No. 2. — Lock and dam excavation, Pedro Miguel. 





Lock excavation. 


Dam excavation. 


Month. 


Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


East core 
wall. 


West dam 
core. 


1912. 
July 


Cubic yards. 
3,044 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
3,044 


Cubic yards. 


Ctibic yards. 
274 


September 




956 

220 

45 

665 

304 




October 










November 




:::::::::::i;:;;::::::: 




December . . 










1913. 
January 




















Total this vcar 


3,044 




3,044 
1,099,121 


2,190 


274 


Previous to Julyl, 1912.. 
















Total to date 






1,102,165 












1 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — FIFTH DIVISION. 



163 



LOCK FOUNDATIONS. 



The preparation of foundations for the guide and wing walls con- 
sisted of pick and shovel work of cleaning up after steam shovels had 
gotten all they could take, below the floor level. 

Table No. 3. — Excavation for fowndatKyns, Pedro Miguel. 



Month. 


Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


July 


1912. 


Cu. yds. 


Cu. yds. 

1,094 

3,650 

593 

517 

945 

1,867 

270 
448 
800 
390 
127 


Cu. yds. 
1,094 




1,216 
64 

520 
1,407 

250 

978 


4,866 




657 




1,037 




2, 352 




2,117 




1913. 


1,248 




448 






800 




230 


620 


May . ... 


127 










Total this vear 


4,665 


10, 701 


15, 366 


Previous to July 1 1912 


179, 757 














195, 123 











CONSTRUCTION TRACKS. 



All construction tracks were maintained, constructed, and relocated 
as required; 5.61 miles of new tracks were laid. 



PLACING CONCRETE. 



The total amount of concrete placed in the Pedro Miguel Locks 
during the fiscal year was 58,262 cubic yards, mixed entirely by auxil- 
iary mixers consisting of two 2-cubic yard mixers located in the south 
end of storage trestle in the forebay; also an average of 3.05 half- 
cubic yard mixers were used, and were moved about as the necessities 
required. The concrete was either handled by derricks and loco- 
motive cranes or dumped into place direct by means of chutes. The 
total yardage is made up of 39,465 cubic yards of plain concrete and 
18,797 cubic yards of reenforced concrete. The amount of concrete 
placed m the lock and dam at Pedro Miguel is shown in Table No. 4, 
and the performance of the auxiliary concrete plant is given in Table 
No. 5. 

The total amount of concrete placed prior to June 30, 1913, in the 
Pedro Miguel Locks is 906,187 cubic yards, shown progressively on 
plate No. 97. 



164 KEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 4. — Concrete placed, lock and dam, Pedro Miguel. 



July 

August 

September . 
October. . . 
November. 
December., 



January.. 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Month. 



1913. 



Total this year. . . 
Previous to July 1, 1912. 

Total to date 



Lock. 



Plain. Reenforced 



Cubic yards. 
6.142 
3,911 
2,384 
6,362 
7,541 
5,508 



4,950 

2,362 

123 

62 

106 

14 



39, 465 



Cubic yards. 
5,340 
2,103 
669 
240 
124 
274 



1,210 
1,935 
4,678 
1,597 
488 
244 



18,902 



Dam 

(plain). 



Total. 



Plain. 



Work. 



Cubic yards. Cubic yards.\Cubic yards 



479 
418 



630 



316 
1,179 



545 
55 



2,148 



11,961 
6,432 
3,053 
6,642 
7,665 
5,782 



6,790 
4,297 
4,801 
1,659 
594 
258 



59,934 
847,926 



907,860 



Table No. 5. — Performance of auxiliary concrete plant, Pedro Miguel, 1912-13. 





Mixers used. 


Work- 
ing 
days. 


Working time 
(mixer hours). 


Concrete placed (cubic yards). 


Month. 


"^-'^-- yards). 


Total. 


Per day. 


Total. 


Per day. 


Per 

mixer 
hour. 


1912. 
July 


1.00 
4.85 
1.00 
3.81 


2' 

2* 

I 

2 
\ 

2 
J 



"i 

2 

t 

'I 

i 

i 


26 
26 
17 
27 


114.50 

709. 25 

65.00 

700.50 


4.40 
27.27 

3.82 
25.92 


4,486 
7,368 
1,373 
4,910 


172.54 

283.38 

80.76 

181.85 


39.2 




10.4 
21.1 




7.0 




2.71 


24 


339.50 


14.15 


2,932 


122.16 


8.6 




2.93 


28 


593.25 


21.18 


5,609 


200.32 


9.5 




4.38 


24 


777.75 


32.41 


7,819 


325. 79 


10.0 


1913. 


4.68 


25 


815.50 


32.61 


7,485 


299.40 


9.1 




4.19 


26 


731.50 


28.13 


7,083 


272.42 


9.7 




3.19 


21 


4.50.00 


21.40 


4,468 


212.76 


9.9 


April 


2.08 


25 


428.00 


17.12 


5,0&3 


202.52 


11.8 




1.26 


19 


162.00 


8.53 


1,627 


85.63 


10.0 




1.27 


22 


127.00 


5.77 


1,001 


45.50 


7.9 




1.20 


5 


37.75 


7.55 


225 


45.00 


6.0 


Totals: 

2-yard mixers 

One-half yard mixers. 


1.00 
3.05 


2 


43 
272 


179..^0 
5,872.00 


4.17 
21., 59 


5,859 
55,590 


136.2.5 
204.37 


.32.7 
9.5 



Note.— Quantities in above table are "bucket measurements;" 1,567 cubic yards of concrete mixed at 
this plant were placed in Pedro Miguel dams. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 165 

MISCELLANEOUS LOCK WORK. 

Miscellaneous work done in connection with Pedro Miguel Locks is 
compiled in Table No. 6. 

Table No. 6. — Miscellaneous lock work at Pedro Miguel. 





Trestle 
bents 
framed 
(num- 
ber). 


Fiber 
ducts 
laid 
(linear 
feet). 


Vitri- 
fied 

ducts 
laid 

(linear 

feet). 


Piles 
driven 
(num- 
ber). 


Water 
gauges 

set 
(linear 
feet). 


Return 

track 

laid 

(linear 

feet). 


Cooping 
drain 
covers 
(linear 
feet). 


Steel placed. 


Month. 


Reenforc- 
ing bars 
(pounds). 


Fixed 
lock iron 
(pounds) . 


1912. 
July 






3,594 
16, 278 
28,808 
24, 224 
14,170 

5,469 

9,845 
9,845 
17,903 
7,853 
876 






352 
461 
130 


216 
3,105 
2,833 
3,005 
2,021 

241 

296 
95 


285,477 

16,939 

696 

1,163 

9,188 

168,994 

182,412 
151,923 
171,155 
158, 278 
6,670 


150,014 










97 


84,296 




6 


""i"656" 

525 

1,058 

126 
658 
210 














13 


















36,342 


1913. 




























ie' 


73 














392,838 


May 












128,751 










i 
























Totals 


19 


3,633 


138,865 


16 


170 


943 


11,812 


1,152,895 


792,241 







BACK FILLING. 



The back filling of the lock and wing walls was carried to completion 
and the hard rock riprap finish for ends of wing walls was partly 
placed at the close of the fiscal year, as shown in Table No. 7. 

Table No. 7. — Back filling lock walls, Pedro Miguel. 



July 

August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December. . 



January... 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June , 



Month. 



Total this year 

Previous to July 1, 1912. 



Total to date. 



East wall. 



Cubic yds. 

9,704 
12,741 

8,096 
13,059 

4,659 
10, 996 



11,023 
13,335 
19,400 
20, 984 
12, 496 
• 6,780 



143, 273 



Center waU. 



Cubic yds. 
3,404 
9,890 
597 
16, 897 
14,597 
3,420 



15, 448 
26,416 
32,000 
39,318 
19, 950 
11,275 



193, 212 



West wall. 



Cubic yds. 

480 

2,670 

9,200 



4,768 

""•iso' 



Total. 



Cubic yds. 
13, 588 
25,301 
17, 893 
29, 956 
19, 256 
14, 416 



26, 471 
52, 818 
51,400 
65, 070 
32, 446 
18, 535 



367, 150 
654, 537 



1,021,687 



FILLING WEST DAM. 



The west dam at Pedro Miguel, consisting of rock-filled sides and 
puddled clay core, was completed and the top finished at elevation 
plus 107 with clay. The north face was liprapped with hard rock 
at the 85-foot level; 114,117 cubic yards of fill were added during the 
year, making a total fill of 696,558 cubic yards in the dam. 



166 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 
Table No. 8. — Filling of west dam, Pedro Miguel. 



Month. 



1912 

July 

August , 

September , 

October 

November 

December 



Dam fill. 



Cubic yards. 
16, 150 
12, 481 
13,615 
16,267 
18,030 
11,696 



Month. 



1913. 

January 

March 

May 

June 

Total this year... 
Previous to July 1, 1912 

Total to date 



Dam filL 



CuMc yards, 

20, 198 

2,000 

100 

1 3, 580 



114,117 
582, 441 



696,558 



1 The 3,580 cubic yards placed during the month of June, 1913, consisted of hard rock riprap. 
MiRAPLORES Locks, Dam and Spillway. 

The lock excavation, preparing foundations, and placing concrete 
for the Miraflores Locks proper were carried to completion during 
the fiscal year. The construction of west dam was completed except 
a small portion at the junction with the core wall and back fill of 
the lock walls at the point where the west side main-line tracks pass 
over. 

The east dam and spillway excavation was completed and about 
90 per cent of the concrete placed at the end of the fiscal year. 

CONSTRUCTION TRACKS. 

In addition to maintaining and moving tracks as required, 23.61 
miles of new construction tracks were built in connection with the 
work at Miraflores. 

LOCK FOUNDATIONS. 

The lock foundation work for the lower west wall was rendered very 
difficult owing to slides and water-bearing strata of banks. It became 
necessary in places to build retaining walls to prevent mud and water 
from flowing in onto the foundation areas, the slides in the banks 
often reacliing back to and carrying the berm crane tracks away, 
thus necessitating the use of auxiliary concrete mixers for laying 
concrete in wall bases to an elevation that would ])erniit back filling 
to support berm crane tracks. The total amount of excavation taken 
out for the main lock foundations during the fiscal year was 49,048 
cubic yards. 

The north guide wall is supported entirely on concrete caissons 
sunk to bedrock. These caissons consisted of reenforced concrete 
shells, 7^ feet in diameter and 1 foot thick, ])uilt up in sections 6 feet 
long and sunk progressively, the bottom shell having a steel shoe 
for cutting ed^e. The interior excavation was loaded into buckets 
of about 5 cubic feet capacity by hand and hoisted by handling 
plants consisting of eight units operated b}^ one engine, the units 
being joined by continuous sprocket chain. 

The caissons were sunk to bedrock and filled with concrete, forming 
solid columns, and were spaced 15-foot centers longitudinally and 
27-foot centers transversely. The cellular guide wall was then sup- 
ported on heavily reenforced concrete girders spanning the caissons 
in both directions. The progress in sinking foundation caissons for 
the north guide wall is shown on plate No. 98. 



CONSTKUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 

Table No 9, — Excavation for foundations, Mirafiorcs Locks. 



167 





Month. 


Dam core 
(earth). 


Lock excavation. 




Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


July 


1912. 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
356 
166 
455 
520 
2,274 
22 


Cubic yards. 
5,086 
6,044 
3,404 
3,944 
3,320 
9,980 

7,632 

2,355 

3,100 

390 


Cubic yards. 
5,442 






6,210 




1,333 


3,S59 




4,464 




530 


5,594 




10,002 




1913. 




7,632 








2,355 








3,100 




8,060 




390 










Total 


9,923 


3,793 


45,255 


49,048 







CONCRETE-HANDLING PLANT. 



The construction plant consists of four berm and four chamber 
cranes, as described in previous annual reports. Two berm cranes 
are located on the west side and two on the east side, which were used 
in the construction of the side walls. The chamber cranes were used 
in the concrete construction of the middle and south guide walls, and 
also for back fiUing the same with earth and rock. The concrete was 
delivered to these chamber cranes by the narrow-gauge equipment, 
supplied principally by two 2-yard mixers located in the side wall 
and partly by the berm cranes deUvering concrete to the buckets on 
the transfer cars by means of hoppers and chutes. The back filling 
was supplied on both narrow-gauge and standard-gauge cars, in 
2 cubic yard skips, which were loaded direct by steam shovels excavat- 
ing in the canal prism. The concrete-handUng cranes were also used 
in handUng forms and irons which were placed in the masonry. After 
the lock gate construction in the lower east chamber started one cham- 
ber crane was confined to the upper east chamber, one to the lower 
east chamber, and two along the east side of the south guide wall. 

The concrete in the locks proper was completed on May 17, except 
reenf orced concrete fioor and stairway in the middle wall at the j unc- 
tion of the upper and lower locks, which was completed on June 10. 
On account of the shdes, the concrete in the southwest wall was fin- 
ished last, the east berm cranes completing their work of construct- 
ing the east wall some two or three months prior, but were continued 
in use by supplying concrete to the chamber cranes for the construc- 
tion of a portion of the south guide wall, and, as will be noted, were 
subsequently used for supplying concrete in the construction of the 
spillway dam. 

PLACING CONCRETE. 

The total amount of concrete placed in the Miraflores Locks during 
the past fiscal year is 450,655 cubic yards, made up of 402,607 cubic 
yards of plain and 48,048 cubic yards of reenforced concrete. The 
total amount of concrete placed in the Miraflores Locks to July 1, 
1913, is 1,476,758 cubic yards. The progress of concrete construc- 
tion work is shown graphically on plate No. 99, and the perform- 
ance records of the permanent and auxifiary concrete construction 
plants are given in the following tables: 



168 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



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CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEEEING — FIFTH DIVISION. 



169 



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170 EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 12. — Performance of auxiliary concrete plant at Miraflores, 1912-13. 





Mixers used. 


Work- 
ing 
days. 


Working time 
(mixer hours). 


Concrete placed. 


Month. 


Average 
number. 


Size 
(cubic 
yards). 


Total. 


Per day. 


Total. 


Per day. 


Per 
mixer 
hour. 


1912. 
July 


2.48 
6.15 
2.00 
6.04 
' 1.68 
1.59 
4.91 
1.57 
1.81 
5.04 
1.61 
3.29 
1.75 
2.80 

1.00 
2.58 
1.00 
1.70 


2 

\ 
2 

2^ 

1 
i 
2 

1 
i 

1 

1 

i 
1 

1 

i 
1 

J 
1 

i 


27 
26 
27 
27 
22 
17 
24 
21 
26 
27 
13 
24 
16 
25 

22 
23 


467.96 
1,096.60 
483. 54 
1,132.50 
289. 60 
143. 50 
896.00 
197.23 
295.00 
997.00 
123.50 
520.50 
177.00 
472.50 

147.50 

567. 00 

16.00 

281.00 


17.33 
42.18 
17.91 
41.94 
13.16 

8.44 
37.33 

9.39 
11.34 
36.93 

9.27 
21.70 
11.06 
18.90 

6.70 
21.81 

5.33 
12.22 


Cu. yds. 

31,443 

10,620 

34, 784 

11,551 

19, 128 

2,221 

7,996 

12, 248 

5,413 

9, 253 

2,100 

4,550 

1,9.53 

3,822 

1,731 

4,723 

157 

2,458 


Cu. yds. 

1,164.55 
408. 46 

1,251.26 
427.81 
869. 45 
130. 65 
333. 17 
583.24 
208. 19 
342. 70 
161.54 
189. 58 
122.06 
152.88 

78.68 
181.65 

52.33 
106. 87 


Cu. yds. 
67.2 


August 

September 


9.6 
69.9 
10.2 
66.0 


October 


12.5 

8.9 

62.1 




18.4 
9.3 
17.4 


December 

1913. 
January 


8.7 
11.0 
8.1 

11.7 

8.4 
9.8 




8.7 




1.69 


26 


322.00 


12.38 


2,630 


101.15 


8.1 




1.29 


21 


162. 75 


7.75 


1,257 


59.86 


7.7 




1.00 


19 


134.00 


7.05 


803 


42.26 


6.0 




1.00 


11 


64.00 


5.82 


479 


43.55 


7.5 


Totals: 

2-yard mixers 

1-yard mixers 

One-lialf-yard mixers. 


1.93 
1.46 
3.12 


2 

1 
i 


97 
97 
279 


1,438.33 

902.50 

6, 645. 85 


14.83 
9.30 
23.82 


97,603 
13,575 
60, 142 


1,006.22 
139.95 
215. 56 


67.8 
15.0 
9.0 



Note. — Quantities in above table are "bucket measurements." 



The complete records of the performances of the permanent con- 
crete plant, at both Pedro Miguel and Miraflores, are shown diagram- 
matically on plates Nos. 100 and 101. 

Table No. 13. — Concrete placed tn locls and west dam at Miraflores. 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total this year... 
Previous to July 1, 1912 

Total to date 



Lock concrete. 



Plain. 



Cubic 

yards. 
60,857 
68, 184 
41,178 
49, «)3 
34,784 
42,763 



45,. 501 

31,692 

15, 742 

9,350 

3,447 

106 



402, 607 
1,003,659 



Reen- 
forced. 



Cubic 
yards. 
5,171 
7,229 
4,962 
5,807 
5, 102 
4,986 



4,973 
3,292 
3,. 5.30 
1,930 
012 
591 



Plant. 



Cubic 
yards. 
7S 
CO 
58 
97 
(iO 



50 

'862' 
9()0 
652 
747 



48, 185 
22,444 



1,406,266 



70,629 



Reen- 
forced. 



Cubic 
yards. 



60 
123 



49 
235 
248 



715 



West 
Dam 

(plain). 



Cubic 
yards 
150 



2,628 
755 
430 



4,403 



Cubic 

yards. 
06, 256 
75,473 
46, 198 
54,907 
39,946 
48, 189 



53,212 
35,862 
20,564 
12,289 
4,946 
1,692 



459,534 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — FIFTH DIVISION. 

CONCRETE FORMS. 



171 



The wooden forms used in the concrete construction are similar 
to those described and illustrated in previous annual reports. 



MISCELLANEOUS LOCK WORK. 



Miscellaneous work performed in connection with the Miraflores 
locks is compiled in Table No. 14. 

Table No. 14. — Miscellaneous lock work at Mirafiores. 



Month. 



Trestle 
bents 
framed 
(num- 
ber). 



Fiber 
ducts 
laid 
(linear 
feet). 



Vitri- 
fied 

ducts 
laid 

(linear 

feet). 



Piles 
driven 
(num- 
ber). 



Piling 
founda- 
tions 
(linear 
feet). 



Return 
tracks 

laid 
(linear 
feet). 



Coping 
drain 
covers 
(linear 
feet). 



Steel placed. 



Reenforc- 
ing bars 
(pounds). 



Fixed 
lock iron 
(pounds). 



July 

August 

September. 
October . . . 
November . 
Decenber.. 



January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



450 
260 

l,7b0 
584 

1,016 



19,910 
27, 140 
14, 020 
IS, 336 
13,500 
36,852 



10,542 
10,542 
32,976 
48, 456 
17,056 
6,256 



525 
5,740 
5,040 
1,295 
12,145 



206 
131 
264 
115 
60 



2,605 
3,950 
6,825 



480 
330 
420 
3"0 
172 
870 



900 
835 
766 
230 
90 



4,090 



255,586 



38, 125 



5,463 



4,115 
3,755 
3,983 
2,679 
320 



493 
26 



15,655 



595, 018 
477, 584 
354, 175 
309, 453 
356,995 
256, 168 



99, 343 
77, 770 
69,919 
52, 636 
74, 377 
9,179 

2, 732, 617 



452,494 
825, 613 
1,436,729 
582, 145 
436, 735 
529, 148 



981, 702 
203,380 
215, 263 
550, 175 
386, 880 
209,818 

6, 810, 182 



WEST DAM. 

The method of constructing the west dam at Miraflores with 
hydraulic core filling is described in previous annual reports* 

The dry fiUing and finishing work of this dam has continued 
throughout the year, and at the close of the fiscal year was com- 
pleted with the exception of a small part of the junction to the back 
filling of the west wall, at which point it is left low on account of the 
crossing of the west side main-line tracks. 

During the year a complete covering has been made to the hydraulic 
clay core. Much difficulty was experienced in making this dry fill over 
the core on account of the hydraulic fill being soft and deep, per- 
mitting the dry fill to arch, until sufficient weight was added ; then 
the fill would sheer off almost vertically and subside, carrying tracks 
with it,' necessitating great care while dumping, lest trains be carried 
down also. 

As shown in Table No. 15, 418,375 cubic yards were added during 
the past fiscal year. 



172 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Tablk No. 15. — Filling of west dnm, Miraflorcs (dry fll). 



Month. 



1912 

July 

Aujrust 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913, 

Jamiary 

February 



Fill. 



Cubic yards. 
37,820 
45,140 
17, 970 
67, 265 
46, 115 
42,485 



52, 195 
35,000 



Month. 



1913— Continued 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total this year 

Previous to July 1, 1912 

Total to date 



Fill. 



Cubic yards. 
43,800 
16,215 
12.570 
11,800 



418,375 
1,241,624 



1,659,999 



BACK FILLING. 



Back filling the lock walls has been continued throughout the year 
with material from the prism excavation, and was approximately 98 
per cent completed at the close of the fiscal year. The amount of 
back filling placed during the year is shown in the following table: 

Table No. 16. — Back filling lock walls, Miraflorcs. 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December., 



January... 
February. 

March 

April , 

May 

June 



Month. 



1912. 



1913. 



Total this year 

Previous to July 1, 1912. 



Total to date. 



East wall. Center wall. West wall. Total. 



Cubic yards. 
54,680 
63, 874 
30,410 
29, 770 
17,704 
35,289 



12,800 

10,059 

1,700 

4,680 

3,930 



264,896 



Cubic yards, 
6,211 



1,996 

925 

1,414 

1,554 



352 
314 

8,800 
26, 856 
24,214 
76,665 



149,301 



Cubic yards. 
18,396 
14,815 
13,974 
40,415 
49, 793 
59, 796 



99,142 
67,578 
88,500 
85,118 
62,260 
114,785 



714,572 



Cuoic yards. 
79,287 
78, 689 
46,380 
71,110 
68,911 
96,639 



112,294 
77,951 
99,000 

116,654 
90, 404 

191,450 



1,128,769 
1,034,498 



2,163,267 



SPILLWAY DAM, MIRAFLORES. 

During September and October, 1912, 9,896 cubic yards of exca- 
vation were made for the spillway dam by the hydraulic method. 
Owing to the limited space in the vicinity of rivers and railroad tracks 
this method was abandoned and the excavation was continued by 
the use of steam shovels, also by hand excavation loading skips, 
wliicli were handled by derricks and locomotive cranes. The central 
division tracks passing through the spillway site, and over which 
Lidgerwood trains operated from the Culebra Cut, were removed on 
March 1, thus permitting full access for excavating the foundations 
of the dam from east to west. 

More or less diiliculty was experienced owing to the fact of the Rio 
Grande passing through the site of the dam, which had to be diverted 
from time to time as the excavation work progressed. The concrete 
in the west ond of the dam was finally })r()ught up to the elevation 
of the bottom of the river and an opening left in the concrete through 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — FIFTH DIVISION. 



173 



which to divert the river. The river was diked off and confined to 
this space, which ehminated further particular trouble from this 

source. . . , , , -n , • i 

The amount of excavation reqmred for the spillway dam is shown 

in the following table: 

Table No. 17. — Excavation for Miraflores spillway dam. 



Month. 



September . 

October 

November . 
December. . 



1912. 



Januar}-.. 
Febniary . 

March 

April 

May 



Total . 



Steam shovel. 



Earth. 



Cubic yards. 



1,555 
1,567 



3,122 



Rock. 



Cubic yards. 



9,333 
20, 814 
13,993 



12, 476 



22,300 
11,158 



Hand. 



Earth. 



Cubic yards. 
796' 



90,074 



790 



Rock. 



Cvibic yards. 
3i6' 

4,' 769' 



4,808 
10, 177 
3,300 
3,647 

3,778 



30,789 



Hydraulic, 



Cubic yards. 
3,000 
6,896 



9,896 



Total. 



Cubic yards. 
3,000 
16, 539 
21,604 
20,317 



18, 851 
10, 177 
25,600 
14, 805 
3,778 



134,671 



CONCRETE WORK, MIRAFLORES SPILLWAY. 

In order to facilitate the construction of both the excavation and 
concrete work, a trestle was driven along the north face of the spill- 
way dam with a spur track leading off and connecting with the 
main-Hne tracks north of the spillway. From this trestle locomotive 
cranes were operated in handhng concrete and materials to the wall. 
Narrow-gauge tracks were built from the berm cranes located on the 
east side of the locks to the south toe of the dam, ending in various 
spurs leading to derricks which handled the concrete, mixed by the 
berm cranes and delivered on transfer cars in 2-cubic-yard buckets- 
similar to the deUvery to chamber cranes. The concrete work in the 
dam was approximately 90 per cent completed at the close of the 
fiscal year. 

The amount of concrete placed in the spillway dam is shown in the 
following table: 

Table No. IS. — Concrete placed m Miraflores spillway dam. 



Month. 


Plain. 


Reenforced. 


Total. 


1913. 


Cubic yards. 
1,077 
3,653 
12,432 
6,222 
18,607 
21, 716 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
1,077 






3,653 






12,432 




62 
130 
243 


6,284 


M^y 


18, 737 




21,959 






Total 


63, 707 


435 


64,142 







174 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 19. — Performance of auxiliary concrete plant, Miraflores Spillway Dam. 



Month. 



1912. 
December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Totals: 

1-yard mixers 

One-half-yard mixers, 



Mixers used. 



Average 
number. 



1.00 
1.41 
1.00 
1.80 
1.00 
1.41 



Size. 



Cu. ijds. 
1 



1.54 
1.00 
1.84 
1.00 



1.43 
1.00 



Work- 
ing 
days. 



147 

48 



Mixer hours. 



Total. 



169.00 
160.00 

31.00 
i'ig. 50 

30.00 
154. 50 



268. 25 
138.25 
360. 75 
119.00 



1,386.50 
318. 25 



Per 

dav. 



6.76 
7.27 
6.20 
10.38 
5.00 
7.02 



10.32 
6.91 

14.41 
7.00 



9.43 
6.63 



Concrete placed. 



Total. 



Cu. yds. 
315 



3,641 
3,457 

346 
5, 705 

266 
2,853 



6,415 
2, 813 
9.537 
3,203 



31,923 
6,628 



Per dav. 



Cu. yds. 
157.50 



145.64 
157.14 

69.20 
228. 20 

44.33 
129.68 



246. 73 
140.60 
381.48 
188.41 



217.16 
138. 08 



Per mixer 
hour. 



Cu. yd.t. 
21.7 



21.5 
21.6 
11.2 
21.9 
8.9 
18.5 



23.9 
20.3 
26.5 
26.9 



23.0 
20.8 



Dry Excavation. 

The excavation by steam shovels in the canal prism, south of the 
Miraflores Locks, and also between the Pedro Miguel and Miraflores 
Locks, was continued throughout the year, the spoil being used for 
the back fiUing of the lock waUs, filling dams, and the filling in of 
swamp areas on the east and west sides of the canal. 

In order to more equaUy divide the excavation by steam shovels 
and by dredges, a new dike was built across the canal prism at station 
2111, or approximately 3,300 feet north of the old dike. After 
closing down the hydraulic excavating plant on December 1, 1912, 
which had excavated the area between these dikes to rock at elevation 
approximately minus 20, the area was drilled to grade, or minus 45 
feet below mean sea level, and blasted, preparatory to being excavated 
by dredges after the area was rewatered. After the area was blasted 
and previous to turning the water in, steam shovels took out 59,000 
cubic yards in the dry. Tlie south dike was then drilled to grade and 
blown up on May 18, using 33,000 pounds of 60 per cent dynamite, 
permitting the water to enter between the dikes, after which the 
dredges proceeded with the excavation. Prior to blowing up of 
dike, however, water was brought up to mean sea level by the use of 
pumps, siphons, etc., to prevent injury to new dike by the inrush of 
water. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 

Table No. 20. — Dry excavation in canal prism. 



175 



Month. 



1912 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913, 

January 

Febniary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Steam shovels. 



Earth. Rock 



Cubic yds. 
72, 05.5 
89, 576 
95, 253 
52,323 
62, 466 
81,352 



114,787 
106, 752 
134,300 
140, 597 
81,536 
67,084 



1,098,081 



Cubic yds. 
80,500 
93,994 

47, 755 
167,636 
17,5,112 
221,1,96 



293, ISO 
225,026 
231,700 
234, tS? 
179, 478 
162,810 



2,112,770 



Plant. 



Cubic yds. 



1,522 
5,700 



7,222 



Total 
(work). 



Cubic yds. 
152, 5.55 
1&3,570 
143,008 
219,959 
237, 578 
302, 448 



407,967 
331,778 
366,000 
375,080 
201.014 
229, 894 



3,210,851 



The details showing the performance of steam shovels during the 
fiscal year are given in the lollowing tables: 

Table No. 21. — Performance of steam shovels at Pedro Miguel. 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

AprU 

May 

June 

Total... 



Average 
number 

of 
shovels 
working. 



2.61 
2.66 
2.21 
1.41 
1.95 
2.00 



2.62 
2.87 
3.96 
3.88 
1.58 
1.00 



2.40 



Hours 
under 
steam. 



544 
592 
432 
304 
280 
400 



544 
528 
792 
808 
328 
200 



5,752 



Hours 
working. 



106.75 
131.00 
117.92 
123. 75 
83.25 
174. 33 



277. 42 
262.25 
479. 58 
500.83 
166. 08 
128.25 



2,551.41 



Material loaded per month. 



Earth. 



Cubic 
yards. 
27,419 
32,047 
18,028 
17,252 
20,096 
26, 152 



42, 470 
40, 719 
69,000 
50,051 
21, 711 
12,814 



377, 759 



Rock. 



Cubic 



1,867 



1,867 



Total. 



Cubic 
yards. 
27,419 
32,047 
18, 028 
17,252 
20,096 
28,019 



42, 470 
40, 719 
69,000 
50,051 
21,711 
12,814 



379, 626 



Average 

per hour 

under 

steam. 



Cubic 
yards. 
50.40 
54.13 
41.73 
56.75 
71.77 
70.05 



78.07 
77.12 
87.12 
61.92 
66.13 
64.07 



66.00 



Rainfall. 



Inches. 
11.54 
9.51 
10.76 
10.48 
8.43 
3.91 



1.10 
.07 
.00 

1.04 
13.48 

9.00 



79.32 



176 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 22. — Performance of steam shovels at Miraflores. 



Month. 



Average 
number 

of 
shovels 
working. 



ITours 
under 
steam. 



Hours 
working. 



Material loaded per month. 



Earth. 



Koek. 



Total. 



Average 

per hour 

under 

steam. 



Rainfall. 



1912 

July 

August 

September... 

October 

November. . . 
December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March . ." 

April 

May 

June 

Total . . 



6.19 
7.96 
9.67 
9.33 
10.51 
10.84 



10.84 
11.26 
11.88 
11.81 
9.46 
8.76 



1,849 
2,524 
2,604 

2,989 
2,8.54 
3, 158 



3,384 
3,108 
3,564 
2,998 
2,047 
1,832 



496.58 
573. 42 

887. 95 

994.00 

979. 58 

1,317.08 



1,556.33 
1,401.17 
1,539.08 
1,490.75 
1,231.34 
1,013.75 



Cubic 
yards. 
48,500 
58, 745 
77, 289 
35,071 
43,777 
56, 755 



74,862 
67,555 
68,100 
98, 606 
59,825 
54,270 



Cubic 
yards. 
80,500 
94,838 
47, 755 
176,969 
195,926 
235,089 



305,656 
225,026 
256,900 
245,641 
179.478 
162, 810 



Cubic 
yards. 
129,000 
153,583 
125,044 
212, 040 
239, 703 
291,844 



380,518 
292,581 
325.000 
344,247 
239.303 
217,080 



Cubic 
yards. 
69.76 
60.42 
48.02 
70.94 
83.98 
92.41 



112.45 
94.14 
91.19 
114.82 
116.90 
118. 49 



9.88 



32,911 



13, 481. 03 



743, 355 



2,206,588 



2,949,943 



89.63 



Inches. 

8.37 
11.-35 
14.45 
15.44 
11.89 

6.75 



2.65 
2.49 
.00 
0.79 
12.33 
9.49 



96.00 



The following mining work was performed in connection with the 
dry excavation at Miraflores and Pedro Miguel: 

Table No. 23. — Mining. 



Item. 



Drilling with power drills 

Drilling with hand drills 

Average number of feet drilled per cubic yard 

of material excavated. 

Explosives used 

Average number of pounds of dynamite used 

per cubic yard of material e.xcavated. 



Unit. 



Linear feet. 

do 

do 



Gross tons. 
Pounds ... 



Pedro 
Miguel. 



15, 232 



0.04 



2.13 
0.013 



Miraflores. 



1,049,642 



0.359 



579. 33 
0.437 



Total. 



1,064,874 



0.320 



581.460 
0.391 



Third District, 
municipal and sanitary work. 

[W. G. Spalding, assistant engineer.] 

Municipal Engineerinc 

This department operates and maintains certain permanent plants 
and makes all municipal improvements within the division, including 
the city of Panama. The permanent plants are the Ancon pumping 
and filtration station, Cocoli pumping station, and the Rio Grande 
and Cocoli reservoirs. 



ANCON PUMPING AND FILTRATION STATION. 



The only change made in this station during the year was the mov- 
ing of the two 8 by 20 foot pressure filters from the basement of the 
IVIiraflores power house and instaUing the same at the Ancon filtration 
plant, thus increasing the filter units at this plant to five. By this 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — FIFTH DIVISION. 



177 



arrangement the water from the Rio Grande and Cocoli reservoirs 
was served for domestic use to Pedro Miguel, Miraflores, and Corozal 
vvdthout filtering, but the change was necessary on account of the 
increased consumption at Ancon and Panama overrunning the ca- 
pacity of the filters. 

This plant was maintained and operated at a cost shown in Table 
No. 24. 



Table No. 24. — Details of work and cost: Ancon pumping and filtration station. 



Montb. 



1912 

July 

August < 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

Febraary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Water 
pumped. 



Oallons. 

14,195,000 

12,754,000 

15,656,000 

14,426,000 

13,218,000 

15,817,000 



18,691,000 
29,699,000 
35,613,000 
35,393,000 
36,853,000 
32,859,000 



275,174,000 



Cost of pumping. 



Labor. 



$369.09 
423.87 
380. 18 
488. 36 
341.90 
261. 82 



280. 43 
263.72 
305.42 
324. 02 
337. 81 
417.11 



4, 193. 73 



Material. 



$699.41 
690. 48 
720.62 
729. 14 
573. 34 
638.45 



406.76 
398. 46 
589. 80 
629.20 
748. 85 
525.49 



7, 350. 00 



Total. 



$1,068. .50 

1,114.35 

1,100.80 

1,217.50 

915. 24 

900.27 



687. 19 
662. IS 
895. 22 
953. 22 
1,086.66 
942. 60 



11.543.73 



Per 1,000 
gallorLS. 



. 07.53 
. 0890 
.0703 
.0844 
.0692 
.0570 



.0367 
.0222 
.0251 
.0269 
.0294 
.0287 



.0419 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October . * 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March . .' 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Water 
filtered. 



Oallons. 
55, 606, 750 
65, 770, 500 
62,524,000 
64, 194, 750 
61,458,250 
70,142,000 



77,330,000 
85,778,000 
96,800,000 
91,374,000 
86,365,000 
84,780,000 



902, 123, 250 



Cost of filtering. 



Labor. Material. 



$42. 78 
15.47 
12.39 
13.92 

103.77 
28.41 



43.76 
49.35 
63.28 
79.90 
61.83 
58.89 



573. 75 



$10.31 

153.28 

6.22 

89. 04 
453.38 

83.51 



110.38 
.26 
183.52 
180.53 
584.03 
141.67 



1,996.13 



Total. 



$53.09 
168. 75 
18. 61 
102. 96 
557.15 
111.92 



154.14 
49.61 
246.80 
260.43 
645. 86 
200.56 



Per 1,000 
galloiLS. 



■SO. 0(M9 
.0026 
.0003 
.0016 
.0090 
.0016 



.0019 
.0005 
.0025 
.0028 
.0074 
.0024 



.0028 



COCOLI PUMPING PLANT. 



This station was operated throughout the year, supplying water 
from the Cocoli Reservoir to the Rio Grande supply main through 
two 10-inch discharge lines. The plant was described in the last 
annual report. 

The cost of operation is given in Table No. 25. 
11834°— 13 12 



178 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 25. — Details of work and cost: Cocoli pumping station. 



Month. 



Water 
pumped. 



Cost of pumping. 



Labor. 



Material. 



Total. 



rer 1,000 
gallons. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Gallons. 
178,560,000 
178,560,000 
65,371,800 
41,144,000 
27,216,000 
113, 180, 000 



163, 285, 500 
166, 288, 500 
173,365,500 
161,390,000 
172,647,300 
141,186,500 



1,582,195,100 



S479. 89 
441.38 
399. 39 
465.07 
305.51 
318.08 



499,64 
655.72 
736. 31 
531.90 
090.06 
468. 27 



$4,423.88 

4,553.51 

291.61 

267. 79 

43.52 

2.23 



1,889.86 
370.55 
177.60 
243. 27 
838.84 

2,065.20 



S4, 903. 77 
4, 994. 89 
691.00 
732. 86 
349.03 
320.31 



2,389.50 
1, 026. 27 
913. 91 
775. 17 
1,528.90 
2, 533. 47 



5,991.22 



15,167.86 



21, 159. ( 



SO. 0219 
.0280 
.0106 
.0177 
.0128 
.0028 



.0140 
.0062 
.0052 
.0048 
.0088 
.0179 



0. 0134 



RIO GR.\NDE AND COCOLI RESERVOIRS. 



These reservoirs supply Culebra and all points south, including 
the city of Panama, with water for both domestic and construction 
purposes. The consumption during the fiscal year from these 
reservoirs has been greater than in any previous year, and is shown 
in Table No. 26. 

T.^BLE No. 26. — Water consumption from Rio Grande and Cocoli Reservoirs. 



Fiscal year. 


Reservoirs. 


Total. 


Rio Grande. 


Cocoli. 


1905 1 


Gallons. 

942,200,000 
1,104,421,000 
1,259,771,000 
1,410,057,000 
1,184,&H1,370 
1,360,224,700 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


1906 1 






1907 3 






1908 •. 




942,200,000 


1909 




1,104,421,000 


1910 


38,179,000 

327,733,000 

871,045,000 

1,582,195,100 


1,297,950,000 
1,737,790,000 
2,055,726,370 
2,942,419,800 


1911 


1912 


1913 





1 Water first turned into main to Ancon on June 26, 1905, and into Panama on July 4, 1905. 

2 No record. 

3 Venturi meter installed January, 1907. No record of water consumption between date of installa- 
tion of meter and July 1, 1907. 

RIO GRANDE RESERVOIR. 

The Rio Grande Reservoir has been maintained at a total cost of 
$3,630.47 for the year, and has furnished 1,360,224,700 gallons of 
water. 

COCOLI RESERVOIR. 

The Cocoli Reservoir is a temporary water supply formed by the 
west dam at Miraflores and fed by the Cocoli Kiver; it will subse- 
quently be a portion of the Miraflores Lake. 

The cost of maintaining' this reservoir has been $333.02, a.ad it has 
supplied 1,582,195,100 gallons of water during the year. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 179 

The following is general information pertaining to the reservoirs : 

Table No. 27. — Reservoirs. 



Detail. 



Unit. 



Rio Grande. 



Cocoli. 



Total. 



Drainage area. 



Maximum lake area 

Elevntion of spillway -witli flashboards 

Maximum depth of water 

Total capacity 

Storage at lowest elevation, 1912-13 

Average daily consumption, 1912-13 

Average daily consumption, city of Panama 



S q u ar ( 
miles. 

Acres 

Feet 

..do 

Gallons. . 

..do 

..do 

..do 



3.15 

72.77 

238.17 

52.77 

490,667,000 

94, .504, 000 

3,753,4.52 



17.00 

129. 51 

43.00 

33.64 

798,700,000 

373,235,000 

4, 600, 720 



20. 15 
202.28 



,289,367,000 

467,739,000 

8,354,172 

1,745,058 



The total amount of water consumed in the past year was 2,942,- 
419,800 gallons, including 626,949,250 gallons used in the city of 
Panama. 

Table No. 28. — Consumption of water by dtstncts, 1912-13. 



Month. 



Panama. 



Ancon high 
service. 



Balboa (6- 
inch and 10- 
inch mains). 



Cucaracha 
pump. 



1912 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Gallons. 
41,411,750 
53,016,500 
46, 868, 000 
49, 768, 750 
48, 240, 250 
54,325,000 



58,639,000 
56,079,000 
61,187,000 
55,981,000 
49,512,000 
51,921,000 



Gallons. 

14,195,000 

12,754,000 

15,656,000 

14,426,000 

13,218,000 

15,817,000 



18,691,000 
29,699,000 
35,613,000 
35,393,000 
36,853,000 
32,859,000 



626,949,250 



275,174,000 



Gallons. 
16, 739, 100 
18,747,400 
17,251,100 
17, 210, 800 
19, 726, 80O 
22,854,300 



23,918,300 
18, 169, 700 
22, 208, 000 
23,465,200 
24, 516, 800 
29,551,900 



Gallons. 
14,340,400 
13,850,000 
13,040,000 
13,332,000 
16,475,900 
13,848,000 



12,746,000 
10,1.56.000 
13,875,000 
14,600,000 
15,200,000 
13,723,000 



254,359,400 



165,186,300 



Month. 



Pedro Miguel, 

Paraiso, 

Cucaracha, 

Miraflores, 

Corozal, and 

Ancon low 

service. 



Source of supply. 



Rio Grande 
Reservoir. 



Cocoli Res- 
ervoir. 



Total. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February , 

March , 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Gallons. 
150, 118, 750 
162, 402, 100 
139,318,200 
117,644,750 
102,413,950 
131,437,700 



138,905,200 
139, 186, 800 
130,024,500 
138,873,800 
143,506,500 
126,918,600 



Gallons. 
58, 245, 000 
82,210,000 
166,761,500 
171,238,300 
172,858,900 
125,102,000 



89,614,000 
87,002,000 
89,542,000 

106,923,000 
96,941,000 

113,787,000 



Gallons. 
178,560,000 
178,560,000 
65,371,800 
41,144,000 
27,216,000 
113,180,000 



163, 285, 500 
166, 288, 500 
173,-365,500 
161,390,000 
172,647,300 
141,186,500 



Gallons. 

236, 805, 000 

260,770,000 

232,133,300 

212,382,300 

200,074,900 

238,282,000 



252,899,500 
253,290,500 
262,907,-500 
268,313,000 
269,588,300 
254,973,500 



1,620,750,850 



1,360,224,700 



1,582,195,100 



2,942,419,800 



Note.— The consumption given for Pedro Miguel, Paraiso, Cucaracha, Miraflores, Corozal, and Ancon 
low service is the difference between the total consumption of the various other districts (which are 
metered) and the total supply. 



180 EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



PANAMA IMPROVEMENTS. 



The following municipal and sanitary improvements in the city of 
Panama have been made by the commission during the fiscal year: 

One thousand two hundi'ed and forty-four linear feet of 6-inch 
sewers were installed in the Chorillo district, and two concrete man- 
holes constructed, for JVIr. Ora Miller, at a total cost for labor, material, 
and supervision of $717.15. 

Damage to street work at the junction of C and Seventeenth Streets, 
caused by flood, was repaired by making 77 cubic yards of fill, laying 
52 Unear feet of 8-inch vitrified sewer pipe and 271 linear feet of con- 
crete curb and gutter, at a cost of $412.89. 

New streets were built and paved with 2,562 square yards of mac- 
adam and 2,114 linear feet of concrete curbs and gutters laid in the 
vicinity of the new Panama Railroad station; also 12 catch basins 
were installed. The street grading required 2,035 cubic yards of 
excavation. The total cost of these improvements was $4,127.82. 

A 6-inch sewer lateral was installed to the property of Mr. Domingo 
Diaz, at the corner of I Street and the Zone Lme Road, at a cost of 
$10.31. 

Five hundred and sixty linear feet of 8-inch and 33 linear feet of 
6-inch vitrified sewer pipe were laid and two manholes constructed 
connecting the Panama Government stables on the Caledonia Road 
with the sewer main on Neveria Road, at a cost of $233.80. Exca- 
vation and back fill amounted to 167 cubic yards. 

An artesian well, 200 feet in depth, was drilled for the Panama 
Brewing & Refrigerating Co., at a cost of $86.17. 

Four hundred and seventy-one linear feet of concrete curbs and gut- 
ters were built along the south side of C Street from West Fourteenth 
to West Sixteenth Streets, also on the north side of C Street from West 
Fourteenth to West Fifteenth Streets, and C Street was macadamized 
with 522 square yards of paving between West Fourteenth and West 
Sixteenth Streets. Total cost, $1,130.81. 

One hundred square yards of vitrified brick paving was removed, 
850 linear feet of cable ducts were installed and 5 manholes con- 
structed, and pavement replaced, in connection with the construc- 
tion of an underground conduit for the cables of the Central & South 
American Cable Co., from their office on Central Avenue to the beach. 
Cost of work, $2,714.96. 

West Sixteenth Street lying between B and C Streets was improved 
by the laying of 571 linear feet of concrete curb and gutter and 551 
square yards of macadam paving, at a total cost of $1,631.39. 

NEW TOWN SITE AND ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, BALBOA. 

Work in connection with the layout of the permanent town site and 
administration building was started in March. Surveys were also 
made for the JMarine reservation, adjacent to the new town site and 
in the vicinity of the Ancon quarry. 

After the general plans of the town site were made and the drainage 
areas determined outfall storm sewers were designed and construction 
work started as follows: Seven hundred and fifty linear feet of 5^ 
by 8 foot reenforced concrete storm sewer from the old iron bridge 
southward to the sea; also 1,222 hnoar feet of 3 by 3 foot reenforced 
concrete drain from the electric light plant in a southeasterly direction, 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 



181 



which wiU subsequently be a branch of the main outfall storm sewer, 
was practically completed. 

A new 20-foot macadam highway was partially constructed around 
the south side of Sosa Hill to the Panama Raih-oad docks, and the 
portion from the Union Oil Co.'s plant to the docks was graded and 
the metal placed and practically completed for a total length of 
approximately 2,050 feet. 

A portion of the town-site district, on the north side of Sosa Hill 
and between the Balboa Road and the Panama Railroad yard, was 
filled hydraulically with material pumped by dredge No. 85 from the 
Balboa inner harbor excavation, which brought this territory up from 
elevation approximately plus 14 to plus 20. 

A layout for the permanent laborers' barracks on the south side of 
Sosa Hill was made and the construction work for sewer systems 
started. 

The location of the new administration building on a knoll on the 
west side of the Ancon Hill was approved, and excavation by steam 
shovel of approximately 36,500 cubic yards was required in order to 
grade the site preparatory to the installation of foundations. The 
concrete piers for the columns were installed, and the contractors 
began the erection of the steel frame of the superstructure on June 18 



ZONE WATERWORKS. 



The water mains were patrolled and maintained and all necessary 
house connections, standpipes, and fire hydrants installed. 

On account of the future inundation it was necessary to take up 
the old 16-inch Rio Grande water-supply main between Pedro Miguel 
and the Miraflores power house and relay the same along the Panama 
Railroad line, which is above the future level of the Miraflores Lake. 
This main was taken up and partially relaid at the close of the fiscal 
year. 

On account of the construction work of the locks and spillway dam, 
it was necessary to relay portions of the 10-inch supply mains between 
the Cocoli pumps and the junction with the 16-mch main at the 
Miraflores power house. 

_ Water-supply mains were constructed and changed from time to 
time, as required, for construction purposes. 

Water connections were made to 83 houses during the year at a 
total cost of S4, 992.98. 

A detailed statement of waterworks construction is shown in Table 
No. 29. 

Table No. 29. — Zone, waterworks construction . 



Item (class of pipe). 


Unit. 


Item (class of pipe). 


Unit. 


20-inch cast iron 


Linearfeet. 

228 
7,631 
4,820 

120 
2,560 

340 
3,656 


6-inch black iron 


Linearfeet. 
5 680 


16-inch cast iron 


6-inch galvanized iron 


2 465 


10-inch cast iron 




430 


10-inch black iron 




2,065 
13, 145 


8-inch cast iron 




7-ineh black iron 


3-inch galvanized iron 

2-ineh galvanized iron 


1,380 
440 


6-ineh cast iron 




Total 




Total 


19,355 


25 605 




Grand total 








44,960 







182 REPORT ISTHMIAN C.^NAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 30. — Cost of maintenance and repairs, Zone luaterworks. 





Labor. 


Material.' 


Total. 


Balboa district 


$835. 62 

1,054.48 

258.93 

677. 26 

5,053.83 

681.12 

1,886.00 


$223.66 
388.22 
33.88 
81.58 
884.11 
18.12 
601.51 


$1,059.28 
1,442 70 


Ancon district ... 


Corozal district 


292 81 


Miraflores district 


758 84 


Pedro Miguel district 


5,937.94 
699. 24 




Water analyses 


2,487.51 




Total 


10, 447. 24 


2,231.08 


12,678.32 





1 Materials have been reclaimed and second-hand material used in many instances. 
ZONE SEWER SYSTEM. 

The work performed during the year consisted in laying new sewer 
mains, making extensions, and general maintenance, as shown in 
Tables Nos. 31 and 32. 

Table No. 31. — Statement of ivork 'performed on sewers, fiscal year 1912-13 — Sewers 

installed. 



District. 


Linear 
feet. 


Size. 


Labor. 


Material. 


Total. 


Balboa district 


{ 
1 


1,567 

1,178 

160 

1,017 

1,419 

.=1.447 

1,785 

566 

769 


Inches. 
6 

8 
4 
6 
8 
6 
8 
6 


1 $295.02 
I 766.37 

\ 1,846.05 

56.91 
43.83 


$525.03 
335.80 

1,132.18 

38.32 
27.18 


$820.05 
1,102.17 


Corozal district 

Miraflores district 

Pedro Miguel district 


2,978.23 

95.23 
71.01 






Total 




13,908 




3,008.18 


2,058.51 


5,066.69 



Table No. 32. — Seioer maintenance. 





Labor. 


Material. 


Total. 


Balboa district 


$414.67 

473.87 

64.71 

41.01 

602.05 


$8.19 
24.97 
5.12 
30.58 
48. 46 


$422.86 




498.84 




69.83 




71 . 59 


Pedro Miguel district 


G-W. 51 






Total 


1,596.31 


117.32 


1,713.63 







ZONE ROADS. 



Existing roads, including the Savanas Road from the Caledonia 
Bridge to outer Zone line, have been maintained and repaired through- 
out the division, as required. 

A new macadam road is being constructed from Diablo to Ancon, 
and is being partially built by Zone prison labor. Tliis road follows 
for some distance the old roadbed of the Panama Railroad, thence 
along the east side of the Panama Railroad main line on a fill, crossing 
the main line at the blockhouse, and thence to the junction with the 
Tivoli Road at Ancon. A 20-foot span reenf orced concrete bridge for 



CONSTRUCTION" AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 



183 



this highway is being constructed across the Curundu River. The 
gi'ading was completed and the macadam partially placed and rolled 
at the close of the fiscal year. 

T.\.BLE No. 33. — Maintenance and repairs, Canal Zone roadways. 





Labor. 


Material. 


Total. 


Balboa district 


S3, 904. 73 
2, 597. 69 
1,800.81 
2,569.17 
4,424.31 
2,265.56 
616.31 


$3,783.62 
2,056.74 
7, 657. 00 
3,833.60 
3,438.64 
1,803.54 
270. 26 


$7, 688. 35 
4,654.43 
9, 457. 81 
6, 402. 77 
7,862.95 
4,069.10 
886 57 


Ancon district 


Savanas Roa«l 


Tumba Muerta Road 


Corozal district 










Total 


18,178.58 


22, 843. 40 









MACADAMIZING AND OILING ROADS (MAINTENANCE). 





Labor. 


Material. 




Roads. 


Macadam and oil. 


Other tlian 
macadam 
and oil. 


To(al. 




Macadam. 


Oiling. 






$973.07 
306.33 
478. 62 


$1,361.82 
365.59 
391. 81 


$469. 28 
543.74 
241.07 


$1,277.59 
816.17 
921.35 


•$4,081.76 
2,031.83 
2,032.85 


Zone Line Road 


Balboa Road 




Total 


1,758.02 


2,119.22 


1,254.09 


3,015.11 


8, 146. 44 



SANITARY WORK. 



The sanitary work consisted of digging and cleaning ditches, laying 
concrete and tile drains, filUng swamp lands, and other work of 
similar character, by the request of and in accordance with plans 
prepared by the sanitary department. The work performed during 
the fiscal year is shown in Table No. 34. 

Table No. 34. — Statement of sanitary ivork performed, 1912-13. 



Class of work. 


Unit. 


Quantity. 


Labor. 


Material. 


Total. 


Unit 
cost. 


Cleaning earth drains 

Excavating new earth 

drains. 
Sweeping cement drains... 
Filling holes and swamps. . 


Linear feet 

Cubic yards 

Linear feet 

Cubic yards 

Linear feet 

...do 


593,127 
5,079 

1,023,382 

2,862 

2,520 

10,566 


$13,872.65 
4,519.66 

2,913.13 

2,343.51 

967.22 

1,973.61 

516.69 
185.13 
36.41 
35.23 
596.59 
3,186.39 


$81.64 
29.35 

94.30 


$13,954.29 
4,549.01 

3,007.43 
2,343.51 
1,198.04 
2, 432. 28 

615.94 

217.42 

46.67 

79.07 

892.90 

3,323.28 


$0.0234 
.893 

.0029 
.819 
.475 
.230 


Laying tile drains 

Constructing cement 


230.82 
458.67 

99.25 
32.29 
10.26 
43.84 
296.31 
136.89 


drains. 
Repairing cement drains . . 




Cleaning culverts 








Repairing tile drains 








Installing pipe culverts... 








Maintaining oil tanks 








Clearing land of vegetation 


Acres 


131 


' 24.32' " 


(reservoir banks, etc.). 




Total 




31,146.22 


1,513.62 


32,659.84 













184 report isthmian canal commission. 

Fourth District, 
ancon quarry and crushers. 

[J. A. I/Oulan, superintendent.] 

The Ancon quarry has been operated throughout the year with a 
comparatively small amount of tune lost for repairs. 

This plant has been operated for about three years without a shut- 
down for general overhauling, until May 16. The plant was shut 
down for 10 days, during which time the various repair parts were 
put in, including shaft in main crusher, general overhauling to the 
foiu' No. 6 crushers, Uning up of screens, motors, driving shafts, etc. 
New floors were put in around crushers, and new bracmg put into 
bins, wliich had almost completely worn out. 

One of the small No. 5 gyratory crushers was brought from the old 
Rio Grande quarry and installed on the floor of the south end of the 
rock bins, for the purpose of crushing a portion of the No. 1 grade of 
rock in order to supply the increased demand for No. 2 rock. 

The quarry was run a portion of the year 12 hours a day in order 
to supply the demand. The performance of the plant is given in 
Table No. 35. 





Table No. 35. 


— Performance of Ancon quarry and crushers. 






Num- 
ber of 
8-hour 
shovel 
days. 


Average 
number 

of 
shovels. 


Material excavated . 


Number 


of cubic yards of rock crushed (car 
measurement) . 


Month. 


Stripped. 


Quarried. 


Placed in 
storage. 


SuppUed other work. 




Municipal 
depart- 
ment. 


Other 

fifth 

di\nsion 

work. 


Other 
divisions, 
depart- 
ments, 
etc. 


Total 
pro- 
duction. 


1912. 
Julv 


73 

54 
48 
54 
49 
50 

52 
46 
51 
52 
44 
64 


2.73 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 

2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 
1.69 
2.46 


Cubic yds. 

12, 870 

150 

1,300 

40 

975 

1,200 

270 

2,040 

1,600 

760 

22,855 

10,125 


Cubic yds. 
64,770 
71,175 
45, 525 
58, 2:50 
51,390 
54,990 

71,895 
61,544 
65,400 
.50, 100 
29,274 
52,515 


46,706 
62,8.56 
30, 241 
45,240 
32, 460 
41,037 

44,122 
37, 120 
36, 662 
17,175 


1,137 
712 
928 
2,372 
1,355 
1,273 

925 
1,650 
1,162 
1,667 
3,571 
4,549 


6,993 
3,100 
3,084 
5,404 
11,055 
7,576 

5, 722 
3,055 
6,848 

10,329 
6,578 

12,085 


6,217 
3,715 

7, 120 
8, 5SS 
9,178 
7, 734 

19,419 
19,719 
21,071 
20,921 
19,125 
18,498 


61,053 


August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 


70,383 
41,379 
61,604 
.54,048 
5(i, 620 

70, 188 
61,544 
65,743 


.\pril 


50,092 




29,274 


June 


31,2:n 


66,37:5 






Total.... 


637 


2.07 


54,185 


676,808 


424,850 


21,301 


80,829 


161,311 


688,301 



MINING. 

The following amount of drilling was done during the fiscal year: 

Drilling with power drills linear feet. . 45, 289 

Drilling with hand drills do 400 

Total 45, 689 

EXPLOSIVES USED. 

Dynamite gross tons. . 91. 75 

Black powder do. . . . 0. 39 

Total , 92.14 

Average number of linear feet drilled per cubic yard 0. 067 

Average number of pounds of explosives used per cubic yard 0. 305 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING FIFTH DIVISION. 



Hydraulic Excavation. 



[W. L 



185 



Thompson, assistant engineer.] 

The hydraulic excavating plant was in operation in the canal 
prism, south of Miraflores Locks, until December 1, 1912, at which 
time it was taken out of service owing to the fact that the remainder 
of the excavation was mostly hard rock, and also in order to provide 
additional space for steam-shovel and dredging operations. The 
excavated material was used for reclaiming tidal swamp land east 
of and adjacent to the canal prism. During the fiscal year 476,949 
cubic yards were excavated. 



Table No. 3G. — Hydraulic excavation, 


Miraflores 






Month. 


Plant. 


Prism. 


Spillway. 


Total. 


1912. 
July 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
85,000 
75,031 
117,337 
88,963 
85,300 


Cubic yards. 


Cubic yards. 
85,000 








75, 031 


September . . . 


is, 422 


3,000 
6,896 


135, 759 


October 


95, 859 






85,300 


December 




















Total this year 


15,422 


451,631 
1,098,273 


9,896 


476, 949 


Previous to July 1, 1912 












Total to date 




1,549,904 















After preliminary studies and estimates had been made in connec- 
tion with the slides in the vicinity of Gold Hill, the chief engineer 
decided to move a portion of the hydraulic plant and install the same 
for the purpose of removing the high ground in the vicinity of slides 
just north of Gold Hill, by sluicing it back into the Obispo swamp. 
This project being approved, work on the installation of the hydrauhc 
pumping mains and flumes was started on February 1, 1913. Two 
of the boilers and two of the Worthington pumps, having a combined 
capacity of 15,000 gallons per minute, were dismantled and moved 
to the site and installed ready for operations on June 17, 1913. 

In order to provide sufficient water for pumping and sluicing opera- 
tions a lake was formed by damming the Obispo River, thus forming 
a swamp lake of approximately 180 acres with a drainage area of 4 
square miles. The elevation at the bottom of the suction at the 
pumping plant is plus 214, and the elevation at the spillway crest is 
plus 228. Owing to the distance of the pumping plant from the dis- 
charge of the flumes into the lake area, the water used in the sluicing 
work is returned to the lake and used over again, thus requiring a 
small inflow in order to keep the lake at a constant elevation. In 
view of the fact that the Obispo River never goes dry, it is contem- 
plated that sluicing operations may be continued throughout the dry 
seasons if desired. 

Six thousand five hundred feet of discharge mains were laid from 
the pumping plant to the sluicing district, and supply the water at 
approximately 80 pounds pressure for the operation of one 7-inch 
and one 4-incn monitor. 

Preluninary operations began on June 17, 1913, consisting of wash- 
ing out the flumes and getting the monitors worked into position, 
after which seven days' actual sluicing work was carried on during 
the month, excavating 57,000 cubic yards, or an average of 8,000 
cubic yards per day. 



186 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Booster pumps have been ordered and will subsequently be installed 
on the extended mains in order to boost the pressure for the purpose 
of sluicing the high ground in the rear of Cucaracha slide and carrying 
the material back into the swamp. When operating in this vicinity 
it is contemplated that the sluicmg plant may be used in order to 
assist moving material of the Cucaracha shde into the Cut after the 
water has been let in, thereby assisting the suction dredges in the 
quick and complete removal of the slide. 

Designs, Maps and Office Work. 

In addition to the routine work on progress records, estimates, 
specifications, requisitions, etc., for the various districts of the di^d- 
sion, there have been prepared, when necessary, designs for numerous 
minor structures, detail work drawings for lock construction, me- 
chanical designs for new apparatus and repair parts for the same, 
work request drawings for shop orders, building permit plans, etc. 

For the annual report all necessary figures were compiled and 
arranged; nine plates were made. 

There were prepared maps showing the sanitary ditches and grass- 
cutting areas for Pedro Mguel, Miraflores, Corozal, Balboa, and 
Ancon; a topographical map of Rio Grande Reservoir and surround- 
ings; map showing Schubert property; map of liigh tide contour 
from Diablo to Rio Curundu, and map showing proposed dumps at 
Pedro Miguel with relocated houses and sewers. 

The following plans were made: For dam and core wall at site of 
old spillway west of Cocoli Hill; reenforced concrete footings for 
columns of shop buildings, Balboa terminals; arrangement for stor- 
ing crushed rock at Ancon quarry; trestle across northwest lock 
chamber at Miraflores; trestle across northwest lock chamber at 
Pedro Miguel; Gold Hill sluicing project, and Cucaracha extension 
of pipe Hne; spur track for handhng building material at Corozal; 
erection of auxiliary rock crusher inside of rock bin at Ancon quarry; 
concrete girder support for lamp and snubbing posts on the lock 
walls. Studies were made of a layout for a concrete tile manufac- 
turing plant. 

For the municipal department, plans were prepared for an addi- 
tional span to the Cardenas River highway bridge, for the founda- 
tions of the permanent administration building; plans and estunates 
for sewer and water systems for the Bella Vista estate; a layout of 
the new town of Balboa, and 12 plans in connection with the per- 
manent Rio Grande water supply, showing layout profile of the 
whole system, hydraulic gradient for different conditions of discharge, 
and details of filter pipe connections and filter house. 

For the sanitary department plans were made of a mosquito trap, 
of a device to determine the direction of flight of mosquitoes, and 
various diagrams and profiles. 

One hundred and sixty-nine complete drawings were made, and 
3,673 blue and white prints issued. 

Very respectfully, H. O. Cole, 

Resident Engineer, Fifth Division. 

Col. Geo. W. Goetiials, United States Army, 
Chairman and Chief Engineer, 

Culebra, Canal Zone. 




on < 



z < 



APPENDIX E. 

REPORT OF W. G. COMBER, RESIDENT ENGINEER, SIXTH 

DIVISION. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 
Office of the Resident Engineer, 
Sixth Division, Chief Engineer's Office, 

Balboa, Cajial Zone, July 23, 1913. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of operations 
in the sixth division during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913: 

Division Organization. 

The division is divided into two districts, the first district embrac- 
ing all dredging operations south of the Gamboa Bridge and extending 
to deep water in the Pacific Ocean, the second district all dredging 
operations north of the Gamboa Bridge and extending to deep water 
in the Caribbean Sea. Up to the close of the year no dredging had 
been carried on north of Station 2095 on the Pacific side, or south of 
the Gatun Locks on the Atlantic side. 

First District. 

operations. 

The following dredges were in operation during the year: 



Name. 



Type. 



Remarks. 



Culebra. . 
Cardenas 
Marmot . 
Gopher.. 
Badger.. 

Mole 

Corozal.. 
No. 85... 



Sea-going suction dredge 

Five-yard dipper dredge 

French ladder dredge 

French ladder dredge (marine) 

French ladder dredge 

French ladder dredge (marine) 

Seargoing ladder dredge 

Pipe-line suction dredge 



Out 
Out 
Out 
Out 
Out 
Out 
Out 
Out 



of commission 
of commission 
of commission 
of commission 
of commission 
of commission 
of commission 
of commission 



70 days for 
27 days for 
36 days for 
18 days for 
43 days for 
10 days for 
38 days for 
15 days for 



repairs, 
repairs, 
repairs, 
repairs, 
repairs, 
repairs, 
repairs, 
repairs. 



The Culehra was engaged throughout the year in deepening the 
canal channel between stations 2110 and 2510, and maintaining 
depths in channels to shipways basin, inner harbor, and berths at 
Panama Railroad docks. 

The Cardenas was engaged in channel excavation between stations 
2175 and 2280, the greater portion of the time being employed in 
cleaning rock shoals and removing rock broken by the roct breaking 
equipment; this dredge was also detailed to maintain depths in 
berths at the Balboa sand dock, and the excavation of channel and 
berth for material wharf at station 2150. 

The Marmot operated during entire year in channel excavation 
between stations 2155 and 2235, dredging time being equally divided 
between earth and rock removal. 

187 



188 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



The Goyher was engaged during entire year procuring sand for 
construction purposes. 

The Badger was employed throughout the year in channel excava- 
tion between stations 2146 and 2253, also dredging a portion of the 
inner harbor and terminal basin at Balboa and assisting in mainte- 
nance of berths at Balboa sand dock. 

The Mole was engaged in channel excavation between stations 2189 
and 2270, the greater portion of dredging time being occupied in 
cleaning rock shoals ana removing rock broken by the rock breaking 
equipment; this dredge was also detailed for relief work at Punta 
Cname, procuring sand for construction purposes, during overhauling 
and repair of regular sand dredge. 

The Corozal operated during the entire year dredging rock and hard 
clay from the Canal channel between stations 2129 and 2230, remov- 
ing 680,579 cubic yards of stiff clay and 649,935 cubic yards of rock; 
487,451 cubic yards of rock were dredged without having been drilled 
and blasted. 

Dredge No. 85 was put in commission on November 16, 1912, and 
for remainder of the year was employed dredging material from site 
of the proposed inner harbor and terminal basin at Balboa. 

YARDAGE REMOVED. 

The following table shows the monthly output of all dredges, 
exclusive of the sand handling plant: 



Month and 


Canal prism. Auxiliary. 


Grand 
total. 


Unit 


year. 


Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


cost. 


1912. 

July 

August 

September. 


Cubic yards. 
232,809 
291,750 
275, 577 
272, 862 
347,347 
250,762 

122, 750 
157, 776 
297,358 
284,323 
316, 103 
424,619 


Cubic yards. 
74, 702 
74,863 
62, 145 
73,901 
101,626 
98,985 

92,275 
81,256 
82, 487 
72, 619 
53,600 
179,461 


Cubic yards. 
307,511 
366, 613 
337, 722 
346, 763 
448, 973 
349, 747 

215,025 
239,032 
379, 845 
356,942 
369, 703 
604,080 


Cubic yards. 
88,323 

131,111 
16,257 
43, 132 
16,477 

191,968 

216, 540 
175,225 
166, 800 
182,125 
194,510 
31,179 


Cubic yds. 
3,495 


Cubic yards. 
91,818 

131,111 
16,457 
43, 132 
16, 477 

191,968 

216,540 
175,225 
166,800 
182, 125 
194,510 
31,179 


Cubic yards. 
399,329 
497, 724 
354, 179 
389, 895 
465, 450 
641,715 

431,565 
414,257 
546, 645 
539, 067 
564,213 
635, 259 


$0.2052 
.1723 


200 


.3607 
.3532 






.2769 






.2446 


1913. 

January 

February . . 
March 




.3897 
.3754 




.2627 


AprU 

May 




.2938 




.2627 




.2907 








Total... 


3, 274, 036 


1,047,920 


4,321,956 1,453,647 


3,695 


1,457,342 


5,779,298 





At the close of the fiscal year there remained to be removed from 
the canal prism, south of station 2110, including siltage, 1,847,774 
cubic yards of earth and 1,600,000 cubic yards of rock. 



SUBAQUEOUS ROCK EXCAVATION. 

One million forty-seven thousand nine hundred and twenty 
cubic yards of hard and soft rock were removed from the canal prism 
during the year. Of this amount 121,161 cubic yards wore drilled and 
blasted by the drill barge Teredo, and 65,953 cubic yards broken by 
the rock breaker Vulcan. The remainder includes rock which had 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SIXTH DIVISION. 



189 



been broken by star drill operations in previous years, and material 
whicli could be handled by the dredges without drilling and blasting. 
Four hundred and eleven thousand nine hundred and eighty-two 
pounds of dynamite were used on this work during the year. 

The followmg table shows locations of rock shoals worked and 
monthly statement of volume removed: 



Month and year. 


Station and method of breaking. 


Area cov- 
ered. 


Amount 


Teredo. 


Vulcan. 


dredged. 


1912. 
.Tuly 


2175,2270 


2250, 2250- A. 


Sqtiarefeet. 
44,515 
61,287 
61,839 
58, 775 
76, 764 
60,042 

63,194 
43,597 
48, 717 
87, 108 
100,671 

80,942 


Cubic yards. 
74 702 


August 


2175,2198 


2250-A, 2200, 2195 


74 863 


September 


2197,2198,2270 


2192,2195,2220... 


62 145 


October 


2260,2270 


2195,2200,2235 


73,901 
101 626 


November 


2260 


2200.. 


December 


2176,2260 


2200, 2250. 


98 985 


1913. 
January 


2176,2191,2192 


2250 


92,275 
81, 256 


February 


2192, 2193, 2194 


2160,2250 


March 


2194, 2195, 2196,2191, 2192,2193. 
2194, 2195, 2196, 2199, 2200.. . . 
2199, 2200, 2206, 2198, 2197, 

2214, 2215, 2216, 2229, 2230. 
2229, 2230, 2224, 2223, 2225, 

2248, 2249. 


2160 


82, 487 


April 


2160 


72, 619 


May 


2160, 2185. . . 


53 600 


June 


2185 


179,461 








Total 






787, 451 


1,047,920 












Note.— The above total includes 860,806 cubic yards of rock dredged without drilling and blasting. 

On July 1, 1912, 45 feet of water could be carried from station 2510 
to station 2290; 42 feet from station 2290 to station 2280; 45 feet 
from station 2280 to station 2242 plus 882 feet ; 42 feet from station 
2242 plus 882 feet to station 2185; 35 feet from station 2185 to station 
2168; 30 feet from station 2168 to 2147 (dike). 

On July 1, 1913, 45 feet of water could be carried from station 
2510 to station 2170; 40 feet from station 2170 to station 2147; 35 
feet from station 2147 to station 2130; average depth of 27 feet could 
be carried from station 2130 to station 2115 (dike). 

BALBOA SHOPS AND SHIPWAYS. 

Maintenance repairs were made to all floating plant, shop and yard 
tools and equipment, and various repair work performed for the 
Panama Railroad Co., other divisions, departments, and commercial 
companies. 

Pipe-line dredge No. 85, which was received, knocked down from 
the Atlantic division was reassembled at Balboa shops and put into 
commission in November, 1912. 

CLEARINGS AND DIVERSIONS. 

A force of men has been steadily engaged cutting brush and trees 
and blasting stumps from dredging site for the inner harbor and 
terminal basin at jBalboa; clearing was extended over an area of 
1,050,988 square feet during the year; 25,316 pounds of dynamite 
was expended on this work. 

Seven thousand eight hundred feet of diversion channels were 
excavated by orange-peel dredge during the year to take care of the 
drainage of swamp lands at Balboa reclaimed by hydraulic fill. 



190 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Four hundred and fifty-six thousand eight hundred cubic yards of 
sand were dredged during the year and delivered to various di^dsions, 
departments, and outside companies for construction purposes. 

One million four hundred and fifty-three thousand six hundred and 
forty-seven cubic yards of earth and 3,695 cubic yards of rock were 
removed from inner harbor and terminal basin site ; a portion of this 
excavation was also useful for the maintenance of shipways and lum- 
ber-dock channels and berths at sand and repair dock. On July 1, 
1913, there remained to be removed from mner harbor and terminal 
basin site 6,363,240 cubic yards of earth, and 372,062 cubic yards of 
rock. 

SURVEYS AND MAPPING. 

Usual monthly cross sections were taken behind the dredges and 
yardage estimates prepared ; general surveys over entire dredging area 
were made every four months and progress maps and records pre- 
pared ; all working ranges and tide gauges were kept up for dredgmg 
fleet; surveys and maps made for proposed siphon crossing of canal 
for handling of pipe-line dredge spoil ; relay pump locations ; hydraulic 
dump areas. Surveys and maps made for salvage of sunken steam- 
ship Newport. Usual routine field work was performed. 

Second District. 



OPERATIONS. 

The following dredges were in operation during the year: 





Name. 


Type. 


Remarks. 




Caribbean 

Charges 




Out of commission .51 days for repairs. 


2 
3 




Out of commission 10 days for repairs. 




Out of commission 79 days for repairs. 


No 1 


French ladder dredge 


Out of commission 19 days for repairs. 


5 
6 

7 


No 5 


French ladder dredge 


Out of commission 18 davs for repairs. 


Sandpiper 

No 4 




Out of commission 104 days for repairs. 


Pipe-line suction dredge 


Out of commission 64 days for repaiis. 


g 


No 83 




Out of commission — days for repairs. 


9 


No. 86 


Pipe-line suction dredge 


Out of commission 3 davs for repairs. 











The Carihhean was engaged during entire 3^ear deepenmg canal 
channel between stations 82 and 256, and maintaining depth in chan- 
nel to Cristobal docks. 

The Chagres operated deepening channel between stations 284 and 
334, and excavating for lock wing and guide walls. 

Dredge No. 1 worked entire year deepening channel between sta- 
tions 186 and 283. 

Dredge No. 5 was engaged during the year in channel excavation 
between stations 253 and 301. 

The Mindi was engaged in channel excavation between stations 
286 and 322, and dredging at Panama Railroad Piers Nos. 16 and 17, 
Cristobal. 

The Sandpiper operated entii-e period deepening canal channel 
between stations 243 and 341, and excavating for lock wing and 
guide walls. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SIXTH DIVISION. 



191 



Dredge No. 4 was employed on excavation for lock wing and guide 
walls, berths at Piers Nos. 16 and 17, and channel excavation 
between stations 286 and 351. 

Dredge No. 86 was employed in channel excavation between sta- 
tions 162 and 336; also dredging I'or swamp fill at Margarita Bay. 

Dredge No. 83 worked during entire year deepening canal channel 
between stations 343 and 352 and excavating for lock wing and guide 
walls. 

The foUoAving table shows the monthly output of all dredges: 



Month and year. 



1912, 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913, 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Canal prism. 



Earth. Rock. Total 



Cu. yds. 
501,780 
446, 816 
434, 264 
609, 671 
609,480 
746, 285 



467,720 
250, 491 
329,077 
377, 739 
563,173 
722, 785 



6,059,281 



Cu. yds. 

62, 788 
67, 157 
62, 858 
69,090 
60, 767 
68, 088 



40,618 
53,458 
51,166 
58, 866 
121,990 
91,807 



808,653 



Cu. yds. 
564, 568 
513,973 
497,122 
678, 761 
670,247 
814,373 



508,338 
303,949 
380, 243 
436,605 
685, ia3 
814, 592 



6,867,934 



Auxiliary. 



Earth. Rock. Total 



Cu. yds. 
24,321 



27, 070 



318,041 
248, 873 
277,833 
52, 190 
272, 726 



1,221,054 



Cu. yds. 
14,575 
48, 552 
39,183 
34, 248 
36, 432 
16, 294 



189, 284 



Cu. yds. 
38, .896 
48, 552 
39, 183 
34,248 
36, 432 
43,364 



318,041 
248, 873 
277,833 
52, 190 
272, 726 



1,410,338 



Grand 

total. 



Cu. yds. 
603, 464 
562, 525 
536,305 
713,009 
706, 679 
857,737 



826,379 
552, 822 
658, 076 
488,795 
957, 889 
814,592 



8,278,272 



Unit 
cost. 



$0. 2413 
.2396 
.268:5 
.2529 
.18.39 
.1639 



.1710 
.2265 
.1754 
.2685 
.1436 
.2123 



DREDGING, OCEAN TO GATUN LOCKS. 

Harbor and cJiannel section. — 5,634,122 cubic yards of earth and 
768,051 cubic yards of rock were removed from the canal prism 
during the year: On July 1, 1913, there remained to be removed 
from the prism 1,837,000 cubic yards of earth and 99,600 cubic 
yards of rock. 

Gatun LocTcs section. — 425,159 cubic yards of earth and 40,602 
cubic j^ards of rock were dredged from the chamber for lock wing 
and guide walls during the year. 



SUBAQUEOUS ROCK EXCAVATION. 



During the year the drill boat Terrier drilled 43,062 linear feet in 
the prism, breaking a total of 394,526 cubic yards of material; 4,511 
feet were drilled and 34,448 cubic yards of material broken at site 
of permanent bridge across the French Canal to connect with the 
coahng plant on TeKer Island; 357,785 pounds of dynamite were 
used on this work. 



CRISTOBAL TERMINALS. 



One hundred and fifty-five thousand six hundred and ninety three 
cubic yards of earth and 189,284 cubic yards of coral rock were 
removed from the slip between Piers 16 and 17 of the new terminals 
during the year, in addition to 665,018 cubic yards of earth from the 
approach channel. 



192 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



MISCELLANEOUS . 

On July 1, 1912, 40 feet of water could be carried from MP-0 to 
MP-0 plus 2,200 feet; 37 feet to MP-1 plus 4,200 feet; 35 feet to 
MP-4 plus 3,050 feet; 30 feet to MP-4 plus 3,150 feet; 25 feet to 
I^lP-5 plus 5,100 feet; 20 feet to MP-5 plus 5,200 feet. 

On July 1, 1913, 40 feet of water could be carried from MP-0 to 
MP-0 plus 2,100 feet; 35 feet to MP-6 plus 2,300 feet; 30 feet to 
MP-6 plus 2,320 feet; 20 feet to MP-6 plus 2,350 feet; 10 feet to 
MP-6 plus 2,800 feet. 

The siltage in the canal prism for the year amounted to 2,084,000 
cubic yards. 

Three thousand eight hundred and fifty-one cubic yards of earth 
were removed from the dry-dock basin to provide mooring berth 
for the suction dredge Caribbean; 295,535 cubic vards of earth from 
the French Canal at Mindi; 100,957 cubic yards oi earth were dredged 
from Margarita Bay and used for parapet and swamp fill at that 
point. 

A site was cleared for proposed coaling station on Telfer Island. 

Six hundred and eighty thousand one hundred and seventy-six 
cubic yards of rock were dumped in the vicinity of the west break- 
water during the year, making a total to date of 1,810,108 cubic 
yards; of this amount 651,000 cubic yards were dumped wdthin the 
breakwater section proper. 

One hundred and sixty-seven borings were taken under the wing 
and guide walls of Gatun Locks. 

SURVEYS AND MAPPING. 

Surveys and charts were made of the French Canal, approach 
channel, and berths at Piers 16 and 17 of the new terminal layout; 
a survey and chart was made of Limon Bay between the canal 
prism and the west shore, and Sweetwater and the west breakwater; 
a scour survey was made around the south shore of Limon Bay. 
Usual routine fieldwork was performed in connection Avith the dredg- 
ing operations and progi^ess maps and records prepared. 

OFFICE. 

Routine clerical work, preparation of progi-ess records, estimates, 
requisitions, etc., was satisfactorily performed during the year. 



Dredge excavation. 



Unit. 



Amount. 



In prism. . 
Auxiliary . 



Total. 



Explosives used 

Cement used 

Kock drilled (submarine) . 



Cubic yards. 
do 



-do. 



Tons. . . 
Barrels. 
Feet... 



11,189,880 
2,867,680 



14,057,560 



413 
178,350 



Respectfully submitted. 



Col. Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. Army, 



W. G. Comber, 

Resident Engineer. 



Chairman and Chief Engineer, Culelra, Canal Zone. 



APPENDIX F 

REPORT OF CIVIL ENGINEER H. H. ROUSSEAU, UNITED STATES 
NAVY, MEMBER OF ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, ASSIST- 
ANT TO THE CHIEF ENGINEER, IN CHARGE OF THE SECOND 
DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 
Office of the Chief Engineer, Second Division, 

Culehra, Canal Zone, August 15, 1913, 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the folio wuig report for the second 
division of the office of the chief engineer for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1913. 

The total specific appropriations by Congress available to June 30, 
1913, not including fortifications or private claims, amounted to 
$322,541,468.58, or 86 per cent of the total estunate of December, 
1908, of $375,201,000. By act approved June 23, 1913, additional 
appropriations were made for the fiscal year 1914 amounting to 
$16,265,393, exclusive of fortifications, leavmg $36,394,138.42 of the 
total estimated cost of the canal to be appropriated hereafter, or 9.7 
per cent. 

To June 30, 1913, the classified expenditures, i. e., expenditures 
under general account No. 1 which have been charged into the work, 
amounted to $295,871,455.38, or about 79 per cent of the total esti- 
mated cost. Of this amount $36,218,218.64 were expended during 
the fiscal year 1913, or about 9.7 per cent of the total estimated cost 
of the canal. The difference between the appropriations available 
to June 30, 1913, and the classified expenditures to June 30, 1913, 
amounting to $26,670,013.20, represents such items as unexpended 
balances of appropriations, unexpended material and supplies in 
storehouse, and other items reported as "Unclassified expenditures," 
under general accounts other than general account No. 1, which are 
not yet properly chargeable against construction work. They are 
listed in Table No. 2 of the examiner of accounts annual report. 

The quantity of work performed to June 30, 1913, for the three 
principal items of excavation, concrete, and fill in dams, the total 
quantity to be performed, and the amount performed during the year 
1913 are as follows: 



Item of work. 


Estimated 
total quan- 
tity as of 
July 1, 1913. 


Completed to June 30, 
1913. 


Performed during fiscal 
year 1913. 


Q^^-tity. P--f 


Quantity. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Excavation: 

Dry 


Cubic yards. 
134,795,000 
97,558,000 


Cubic yards. 
125,207,928 
78,175,611 


92.89 
80.13 


Cubic yards. 
16,978,077 
13,135,647 


12.60 


Wet 


13.47 






Total 


232,353,000 
5,208,800 
25,858,000 


203,383,539 

4, 786, 253 

25,617,523 


87.53 
91.89 
99.07 


30, 113. 724 

827,609 

2,556,363 


12.96 


Concrete 


15.89 


Fill in dams 


9.89 



11834°— 13- 



-13 



193 



194 REPORT ISTHMIAN u MISSION. 

The accompanying chart (phite iso. 103) shows grapliically the 
excavation, concrete, and fill and the total expenditures to June 30, 
1913, together with the montlily rate of progress of the work and 
expenditures. 

Of the total classified expenditures to June 30, 1913, S33, 108,132.37 
or about 11 per cent, was for plant and equipment for construction 
and for the purchase of four steamships, of which amount $560,438.62 
was expended during the fiscal year 1913. 

Terminals. 

General. — Act of Congress approved June 28, 1902, authorizing the 
construction of the canal, called the Spooner Act, directed the Presi- 
dent to "also construct such safe and commodious harbors at the 
termini of the said canal as shall be necessary for the safe and con- 
venient use thereof." The estimate of December, 1908, of the cost of 
the canal, of $375,201,000 therefore made provision for the construc- 
tion of the necessary breakwaters, but did not include anything for 
such harbor improvements as may be classed as "terminal facilities." 
Terminal facilities on the Isthmus have been provided and operated 
heretofore by the Panama Raih-oad Co. in connection wdth the hand- 
ling of its commercial and other business. It was early seen that the 
canal would require terminal facilities of greater extent than the 
Panama Railroad Co. would be warranted or able to furnish solely to 
meet its own requirements. It has also been apparent for several 
years that the savings accomplished in construction work, as com- 
pared with the estimate of December, 1908, would enable the com- 
mission to provide at its own expense the greater part of these facili- 
ties wdthout exceeding the estimated cost of the canal. In last year's 
annual report the general characteristics of the terminal facilities 
proposed were described, and the necessary authority for their con- 
struction was granted by act of Congress approved August 24, 1912, 
known as the "Panama Canal act," authorizing the President to 
"establish, maintain, and operate, through the Panama Railroad or 
otherwdse, dry docks, repair shops, yards, docks, wharves, ware- 
houses, storehouses, and other necessary facilities for the purpose of 
providing coal and other materials, labor, repairs, and supplies for 
vessels of the Government of the United States, and incidentaUy for 
suppl}T.ng such at a reasonable price to jiassing vessels." The sundry 
civil bill, also approved August 24, 1912, making appropriations for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, made available the necessary 
sums to undertake terminal construction. 

Pacific terminals. — The Pacific, or Balboa, terminals include the 
permanent shops and auxiliary buildings; the main dry dock. No. 1, 
and one subsidiary dry dock, No. 2; a subsidiary plant for supplying 
coal and fuel oil to vessels; the necessary wharves and piers for repair 
purposes, as well as for commercial use. The construction of a new 
ireight yard in connection with the relocation of the Panama Railroad 
permanent main line from Diablo to Panama via Balboa and the new 
docks and wharves will also be necessary. It has been proposed that 



CONSTRUCTION" AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 195 

all of this work be paid for from canal appropriations, except sucli 
track work, etc., in connection with the new freio;ht yard and tracks 
for the Panama Railroad as will be borne by the latter. 

Grouped around the Pacific terminals, and conveniently located 
with reference thereto, will be the permanent Pacific settlements 
for the gold and silver employees and the general administration 
building. 

Atlantic terminals. — So far as projected to date these consist prin- 
cipally of the necessary permanent wharves and piers in Cristobal, 
including the Cristobal mole and additional yard tracks, which arc 
being constructed by the Panama Railroad at its own expense, and 
the main plant for supplying coal and fuel oil to vessels. The fuel-oil 
facilities are being furnished by the commission. It is proposed that 
the cost of the main coaling plant shall be divided between the com- 
mission and the Panama Railroad Co. 

CONSTRUCTION — PACIFIC TERMINALS. 

Up to December 12, 1912, construction work on Pacific terminal 
facilities was under the Pacific division. Upon the resignation of Mr. 
S. B. Williamson, division engineer, on that date, this construction 
work, not including dredging, was transferred to this office and has 
since been carried on thereunder. From August 1, 1912, Mr. H. D. 
Hinman has been in local charge as assistant engineer. The work 
accomplished during the year has been as follows : 

Clearing site. — This involved the removal of the commission set- 
tlement at Balboa, as well as the buildings which formed the old town 
of La Boca, and the abandonment of the Panama Railroad yard. A 
considerable quantity of old scrap iron and spare parts for floating 
equipment had to be removed to new locations. Certain old tracks 
of the Panama Railroad were taken up and new yard and track facili- 
ties furnished for temporary use until the permanent yards and 
tracks can be built on the area which is being filled in the rear of the 
permanent piers. Considerable difficulty has been experienced in car- 
rying on construction work expeditiously and economically in this 
whole area without causing serious inconvenience to other divisions 
and departments whose work and operations could not be interrupted, 
and the cost of construction work to this division has been unavoid- 
ably increased thereby by an appreciable amount. 

Relocation of highway and mam trades to old French Pier. — One hun- 
dred and eighty-four thousand sLx hundred and eighty-two cubic yards 
of rock, 181,729 cubic yards of earth, a total of 366, 411 cubic yards, were 
removed from the northwest slope of Sosa Hill to obtain room around 
the head of Dry Dock No. 1 for crane and railroad tracks and the 
highway leading to the old French pier. The greater part of this 
material was used to fill in the adjacent swamp to bring this area up 
to yard grade; some of the rock was furnished the Atlantic division 



196 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



for use in paving the south slope of Gatun Dam. This excavation, by 
months is contained in the following table, No. 1 : 



Table No. 1. 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Material excavated (cubic 
yards). 



Earth. 



53,354 
44,854 
20, 670 
10, 137 
10, 761 
4,512 



14,458 

3,526 

730 

1,463 

3,280 

13,984 



181, 729 



Rock. Total. 



6,860 
12, 140 
26, 150 
34,113 
23, 577 
15,258 



3,615 
8,298 
17,534 
16, 151 
13, 120 
7,866 



184,682 



60, 214 
56,994 
46, 820 
44,250 
34, 338 
19, 770 



18,073 
11,824 
18,264 
17,614 
16,400 
21,850 



366,411 



Dry Dock No. 1 , entrance hasin, and coaling plant. — No other work than 
clearing the site and excavation has been carried on during the j-car. 
Panama Railroad and other yard tracks were removed from the site 
and the relocated line around the toe of Sosa HUl was ready for opera- 
tion on November 1, 1912. Lack of locomotives and cars prevented 
excavation from starting until December 27, when one large shovel 
was started on the site of the coalmg plant to work northeast over 
the entrance basm and dry dock site. On account of the cramped 
working space and the condition of the ground the incline leading out 
of the dry dock was located at its head. The original surface eleva- 
tion of the dry dock site averaged + 18, the deepest general excavation 
for the foundation will be about - 56 ; the lowest shovel cut on June 
30, 1913, was —12, on the coaling plant site at the southwest end of 
the excavation. No trouble has been experienced in keeping the 
excavated pit dry. 

Fifty-sLx thousand nme hundred cubic yards of rock and 146,799 
cubic yards of earth were removed during the year. Rock, a fine- 
graineci andesite, lies comparatively near the surface of the dry dock 
site. It is the intention to shoot thc^ rock from the sides of the exca- 
vation with such care as will carry the solid rock walls as vertical and 
unbroken as possible. Monthly excavation figures for Dry Dock No. 1 , 
entrance basm, and coalmg plant are given in the f oUowing table. No. 2 : 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION, 197 
Table No. 2. 



Month. 


Material excavated- 
yards. 


-cubic 




Earth. 


Rock. 


Total. 


1913. 
Dry Dock No. 1: 


8,342 
2,900 
8,850 
6,223 
9,156 
18, 703 


5,017 


13,359 




2,900 




12,313 
12,243 

8,817 
16, 129 


21,163 




18,466 


May 


17,973 




34, 832 






Total 


54, 174 

6,905 
8,829 
1,873 
5,696 
1,391 
9,710 


54,519 


108, 693 


Entrance basin: 


6,905 






8,829 


March 


881 


2,754 




5,696 


May 




1,391 


June . . 


1,500 


11,210 






Total ... . 


34,404 

3,210 
2,764 
13,076 


2,381 


36,785 
3,210 


Dry -dock incline: 




1,185 


3,949 


May 


13,076 










19,050 

3,751 

9,245 
3,843 
555 
6,621 
6,790 
27, 4.1 « 


1,185 


20,235 


Coaling basin: 


3,751 


1913. 
January 




9,245 


February 




3,843 


March 




555 


April 




6,621 


Mav 




6,790 


JllTlfi 




27,416 






Total 


58, 221 




58,221 








165, 849 


58,085 


223 934 







The performance of steam shovels, by months, i& given in the follow- 
ing table, No. 2a: 

Table No. 2a. 



Month. 



Average 
number 
of shovels 
working. 



Hours 
iinder 
steam. 



Hours, 
working. 



Earth. 



Rock. 



Total. 



Average 

per hour 

under 

steam. 



Rainfall. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December.. 

1913. 

January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



1.81 
1.96 
2.04 
1.96 
1.95 
2.08 



2.15 
2.50 
2.34 
3.92 
4.03 
4.56 

2.61 



376. 00 
424.00 
392.00 
416.00 
500.00 
408. 00 



441.25 
456. 00 
649. 91 
784.00 
852. 33 
912. 00 

6,611.49 



131.17 
154. 58 
240.50 
259. 58 
267.00 
196. 50 



251.67 
229.58 
268. 17 
368. 98 
394. 16 
428.00 



51,430 
44,854 
20, 670 

9,639 
10, 104 

8,494 



41.560 
23,083 
16, 636 
31,868 
37,413 
69, 813 

364,564 



6,860 
12,140 
26,150 
35,763 
23,577 
15, 258 



8,632 
8,298 
31,913 
28,394 
22,217 
25, 495 

244,697 



58, 290 
56,994 
46, 820 
45, 402 
33, 681 
23, 752 



50, 192 
31,381 
47, 549 
60, 262 
59, 630 
95, 308 

609,261 



155.00 
134.42 
119.44 
109. 14 
67.36 
58.21 



113.75 

68.82 
73.16 
76.86 
69.96 
104.50 

105. 36 



Inches. 
9.76 
6.79 
10.01 
15.75 
6.14 
4.94 



.06 
8.04 
7.15 



198 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Auxiliary Dry Dock No. 2. — This dock is for the use of smaller 
vessels. It will be founded on rock and its construction will be 
undertaken in conjunction with main Diy Dock No. 1. The site of 
this dock has been occupied during the year by the shipways and 
certain shops of the sixth division that can not be abandoned until 
other repair facilities for floating equipment are available elsewhere. 
This site will also have to be cofferdammed before any considerable 
amount of excavation can be performed; for these reasons no work 
has been possible during the year. 

Cofferdam. — To protect the entrance of Dry Dock No. 1, and the 
entire area to be occupied by Dry Dock No. 2, and to enable as much 
rock in the dry-dock entrance basin as possible to be removed in the 
dry, as well as to facilitate the construction of the coaling plant quay 
wall and the basin for storage of coal, a cofferdam composed of clay 
riprapped with rock will be constructed around the foregoing works. 
Work on tliis cofferdam started on April 1, 1913, and its construction 
has necessitated a rearrangement of the Panama Railroad tracks 
leading to the new concrete wharf, the fifth division sand service 
tracks, and tracks used by the sixth division and quartermaster's 
department. Eighty feet of the sand bins were removed. The coffer- 
dam, when completed^ will be about 1,000 feet in length. 

Quay walls and Pier No. 1. — Tliis includes a 1,238-foot length of 
quay wall between the head of Slip No. 1 and the northeast end of 
the new Panama Railroad concrete dock; Pier No. 1, 1,000 feet long 
by 201 feet wide; and 606 feet of permanent wall at the head of Slips 
Nos. 1 and 2, of which about 484 feet will be constructed as a landing 
for small boats, making a total water frontage of about 4,045 feet. 
The quay walls and all of Pier No. 1 excepting a center section of 50 
feet wide will be supported on circular reenforced concrete piers sunk 
to rock. The 50-foot center section of Pier No. 1 will consist of a 
rock fill. Dredging will be carried to —45 alongside of all wharves 
and piers. The level of Pier No. 1 and the adjoining wharves at the 
heaa of the slips has been fixed at +16.5. The level of the quay 
wall adjoining the Panama Railroad dock has been fixed at +17, the 
same level as the Panama Railroad dock. 

Over this entire area rock is found at an average elevation of about 
— 60, in a few cases being as high as — 33 and in other cases being as 
deep as —66. The average level of the original swamp was about +9 
and the material througn which the concrete cylinders are being 
sunk is a fine, sticky, black clay, in which are found thin strata of 
sand. The cylinders are being sunk by the open caisson method; 
intermediate sections consist of a reenforced concrete shell 1 foot 
thick, 7^ feet outside diameter, in 6-foot lengths; about 4,750 sections 
are required and a special plant for their manufacture has been built. 
Steel collapsible forms are used. The bottom section of each cylinder 
is 8 feet in outside diameter and 6 inches thick, with a cutting shoe 
on the bottom. Excavation was performed by hand and by orange- 
peel buckets. When the cylinders would not sink through the 
excavation by their own weight, their descent was facilitated by the 
use of cast-iron and concrete weights in conjunction with a water jet. 
The progress of sinking the cylinders has depended upon the crane 
service available. The cylinders are sunk several feet into rock 
before being filled with concrete. The construction of the dike 
necessaiy to inclose the area occupied by the quay walls and pier so 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION. 



199 



that they can be constructed in the dry was started in July, 1912. 
The phxcing of the concrete cyUnders began in October, 1912. The 
estimated number of Unear feet of concrete cylinder required for this 
work is 28,500, of which 12,435 feet was placed during the year. 
Of this amount 8,450 feet was for the main quay wall, 289 feet for 
the walls at the head of Slips Nos. 1 and 2, and 3,696 for Pier No. 1. 
The following table, No. 3, shows the progress of caisson sinking 
during the year: 

Table No. 3. 





Month. 


Penetration (linear feet). 


Number of caissons 
rock. 


sunk to 




Quay wall 
"ghi." 


Pier No. 
1. 


Bulk- 
head. 


Total. 


Quay wall 
"ghi." 


Pier No. 
1. 


Total. 


October. . . 


1912. 


229 
606 
970 

1,267 
846 
620 
1,528 
1.343 
1,041 






229 
606 
970 

1,267 
1,106 
1,918 
2,162 
1,875 
2,302 








November 


























1913. 






4 
15 
22 
21 
26 
27 




4 


Febniary 


260 
1,298 
634 
532 
972 







15 


March . . 




22 


April 




8 
5 
12 


29 


May 




31 


Tiinp.. . . 


289 


39 








Total 


8,450 


3,696 


289 


12,435 


115 


25 


140 



Plate No. 104 accompanying this report shows graphically prog- 
ress in manufacture and sinking caissons to July 1, 1913. Plates 
Nos. 105, 106, and 107, accompanying this report show details of the 
forms used in casting the concrete cylinders, and also show the layout 
of the plant required for their manufacture. 

Permanent sfiops — Clearing site. — Work of clearing site began in 
August, 1912, and included the removal of Panama Kailroad tracks 
and commission construction tracks, making a new connection to the 
Panama Kailroad concrete dock, removing several small buildings, 
and material stored in the open under the quartermaster's department 
and the removal to another site of the blacksmith shop and several 
other smaller shops of the sixth division. 

Fill. — During the year the greater portion of the area occupied 
by the shops was brought up to grade by filling the low swampy bot- 
tom with material made available by excavating operations. 

Foundations. — It was desired to found buildings on the natural 
soil, the load being transmitted directly to the concrete footings from 
the steel columns, in order to avoid the expense of either supporting 
the piers on piles driven to hard bottom, or of carrying the concrete 
footing down to rock where the depths to same was not excessive. 
Full size tests of the bearing power of the natural soil showed that 
this would not be generally satisfactory except for the smaller build- 
ings, where the unit loads could be made insignificant. When rock 
was not lower than about +1 it was found practicable and most 
economical to excavate down to rock and build the concrete piers 
thereon. Where hard bottom was lower than about +1 wooden 
piles were ordered and driven down to rock, which in some places 



200 



KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



was as low as — 56. Tliese wooden piles were cut off below the level 
of ground water and concrete piers built up therefrom; the general 
elevation of the top of piers is +17. Where the conditions were not 
favorable to carry the excavation down to the level of ground water, 
reenforced concrete piles were used. To meet the special conditions 
found at the water front, under the machine shop and the crane run- 
way extension of the forge shop, it was necessary to use 4-foot steel 
cylinders filled with concrete after being sunk to rock as foundations 
for 29 columns. 

Table No. 4, following, gives a record by months of piles driven 
and the concrete placed in the foundation of each building: 

Table No. 4. 
number of piles driven. 





Shop building No. 


1912 


1913 


Total. 




Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


1 












214 
68 
67 
382 
137 








214 


2 












43 

75 

161 

290 


9 
9 




120 


3 












151 


4 












543 


5 




117 

68 


162 


295 


654 






1,655 


6 


77 






145 


7 










3 


177 




180 


8 
















9 








13 

162 












13 


10 


144 
















306 


11 . . 








24 
206 








24 


12 








72 


63 








331 


13 
















14 






















151 
















43 


25 


68 




Total 




















221 


185 


162 


542 


707 


1,098 


572 


238 


25 


3.750 









1 Concrete piles. 
CONCRETE IN SHOP-BUILDING FOOTINGS (CUBIC YARDS). 



1 











14 
3 


110 

48 

28 

7 


212 
64 
92 

i,'366' 
10 


305 
12 
166 
517 
257 


63 
221 
64 
62 
60 


704 


2 










348 


3 










350 


4 








27 


10 


623 


5 








1,677 


6 






135 


232 






377 


7 










27 


8 


35 


8 ... 




153 


115 










268 


9 




82 
100 


6 
235 


"ios 

850 
22 


19 
25 






107 


10 


244 


167 








771 


11 .. ... 






108 


12 












2 






852 


13 










14 






36 


14 


















15 






















16 


















11 


11 






















Total 


244 


320 


250 


441 


282 


1,173 


1,784 


1,284 


489 


6,267 







Operating tunnel. — Work on the reenforced concrete operating 
tuimel running at right angles to the length of the main shop buildings 
thi"ough then' center, for carrying and making accessible all pipe and 
cable conduits, has been carried on as fast as practicable; the neces- 
sary excavation was performed by a steam shovel, mounted on skids, 
with a special boom. This shovel commenced w^ork on March 20, 
1913. Where hard rock is not deeper than about mean sea level the 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



201 



tunnel has been built on piers excavated to rock; at all other points 
the tunnel is carried on wooden piles driven to rock and cut off below 
the mean elevation of ground water. The tunnel is being built in 
sections 15 feet in length; special means have been taken to make the 
tunnel as water-tight as practicable by care in the mixing and placing 
of concrete, by coating the exterior of the tunnel with two coats of 
alum solution, and by making water-tight joints between the adjacent 
sections by means of 5-inch strips of 26-gauge Muntz metal, half of 
each strip being built into each adjacent section. 

Foundations for shoy tools, machinery, etc. — Work was started on 
June 5, 1913, in building No. 8, planing miU, on the foundations for 
the machines. During June the excavation for the concrete floor for 
builchng No. 8 was made, and a considerable portion of the concrete 
base was placed. 

Inner harhor excavation. — This excavation was performed by the 
dredges of the sixth division. A large part of the material was 
pumped into the low swamp land north and east of Sosa Hill. 

Traclis. — One hundred and thirty-three thousand two hundred and 
forty-six linear feet, or a httle more than 25 miles, of track were laid 
during the year. Of this amount 9,212 feet were permanent tracks 
and the remainder was for construction work. 

Highway and ditches. — Tliree thousand three hundred hnear feet of 
highway was built at the foot of Sosa Hill to replace that destroyed 
by dry-dock excavation. Twenty-five thousand nine hundred and 
ninety-one hnear feet of ditches were dug during the year. 

General. — Tables Nos. 5 to 10, inclusive, herewith, show details of 
work accomphshed during the year, by months : 

Table No. 5. — Statement of work done, Balboa terminals, July 1, 1912, to June SO, 1913. 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September., 

October 

November. . 
December.. 

1913. 

January 

February... 

March 

April 

May , 

June 

Total. 



Excavation (cubic yards). 



Preparing site. 



Steam shovel. 



51,430 
44,854 
20, G70 

9,6.39 
10, 104 

3,993 



14,45S 

2,341 

730 

1,463 

3,280 

13,984 



176, 946 



6,860 
12,140 
26, 150 
35, 763 
23,577 
15, 258 



3,615 
8,298 
17,534 
16,151 
13, 120 
■ 7,866 



186,332 



Hand. 



Dry Dock 
No. 1 , coal- 
ing basin, 
entrance. 



Steam 
shovel. 



8,780. 
7,969,. 
3, 918' , 
2,727. 
657. 
1,053 



53 
1,185 



3,751 



In- 
cline 



24,492 5,017 

18, 782 

14,042!l4,379 
18,540 12,243 
30,4131 8,817 
55,829' 17, 629' 



Shop foun- 
dations. 



2,610 
1,960 



2,600 



165, 849)58, 085 7,920|15,621 



626 
49' 
853 



1,388 
1,174 
3,951 
3,487 
2,640 
1,005 



Shops 
tunnel. 



864 
9,265 



10, 129 



Sinking wharf 
piers. 



4,000 



567 4,000 



426 
1,081 
1,940 



2,300 
1,873 
2,212 
3,769 
3,297 
4,062 



20, 960 



234 
340 
,624 
556 
454 
541 



3,874 



Total. 



67,070 
64,963 
50, 738 

49,181 
36, 041 
27, 598 



54, 167 
35, 953 
55, 336 
68, 296 
66, 291 
100,991 



676,625 



202 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 6.— Statement ofivork done, Balboa terminals, July J, 1912, to June 30, 1913. 



Month. 



1912. 
July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Drilling (linear feet). 



Tripod 
drills. 



,196 
,521 

,786 
,568 
,192 
,676 



13,856 
11,939 
12,698 
15,440 
30, 196 
29,750 



164, 818 



WeU drills. 



1,149 
619 



1,768 



Total 



8,196 
9,670 
9,405 
9,568 
9,192 
6,676 



13,856 
11,939 
12, 698 
15,440 
30, 196 
29,750 



166,586 



Dynamite 
(gross 
tons). 



4.46 
15.22 
16.27 

4.46 
10.28 



7.43 
7.97 
11.96 
10.03 
10.21 
11.30 



109. 59 



Table No. 7. — Statement of work done, Balboa terminals, July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913. 



Month. 



Filling and embankment (cubic yards). 



Preparing 
site. 



Yards 

and 

tracks. 



Backfill. 



Shops. 



Tunnel. 



Dikes, 
plant. 



Total. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



64,860 
37,770 
37, 704 
41,847 
27,861 
27,803 



34,575 
32,274 
33,384 
37,263 
35,430 
71,508 



5,683 
10, 503 



3,457 
11,450 



6,274 

1,796 

120 



1,206 



2,0(i3 
1,310 



1,405 
1,058 
1,755 



120 

275 



7,871 
7,767 
9,086 
10,400 
10,421 
15,620 



482,279 



42, 656 



4,218 



395 



73,898 



64,860 
54,980 
48,207 
41,847 
32, 524 
39,253 



48, 720 
41,837 
42,590 
49,068 
49,092 
90,468 



603, 446 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION. 203 

Table No. 8. — Statement of work done, Balboa terminals, July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913. 





Reenforcing steel (pounds). 


Fixed steel (pounds). 


Month. 


Caissons 

(shells and 

filler). 


Tunnel. 


Shops. 


Total. 


Tunnel. 


Shops. 


Total. 


1912. 
July 






. . 










August 
















September 
















October 


51,299 
57,140 
92,148 

124,196 
195,838 
180,074 
430, 796 
501,069 
2 411,514 






51,299 
57,140 
92,148 

124,650 
196,428 
200, 745 
448,336 
563,809 
452, 166 








November 








716 
1,913 

454 

1,120 

8,408 

13,2.38 

8,187 

< 25, 844 


716 


December 








1 913 


1913. 
January 




454 

590 

20,671 

110,350 

10,500 

3 7,205 




454 


February 






1 120 


March . .". 






8,408 
13 238 


April 


7,190 
52,240 
33,387 




May 




8;i87 
29 724 


June 


3,840 






Total 


2,044,074 


92,817 


49,a30 


2, 186, 721 


3,840 


59,920 


63, 760 





1 Machine footings, 7,360 pounds. 

2 Beams and girders, 112,778 poimds. 

3 Machine footings, 2,529 pounds. 

< 4-foot cylinders in buUdmg No. 1, 34,500 poimds. 

Table No. 9. — Statement ofioork done, Balboa terminals, July 1. 1912, to June 30, 1913. 





Concrete (cubic yards). 


Month. 


Caissons. 


Piers. 


Shops. 


Tunnel. 


SosaHill. 






SheUs. 


Filler. 


Beams. 


Machine 
footings 
and floor. 


Total. 


1912. 
October 


212 
292 
817 

1,193 
1,277 
1,299 
1,578 
1,189 
1,589 




244 
320 
251 

442 

282 

1,173 

1,784 

1,284 

489 










456 


November 












612 


December 












1 068 


1913. 
January 












1 635 


February 


85 

232 

1,012 

1,351 

1,234 










1 644 


March 










2,704 
4,829 
4 534 


April 




Ill 
30 
164 


185 
633 
765 


159 
147 
62 


May 




-TuTiP. , . 


37 


4,340 




Total 


9,446 


3,914 


6,269 


37 


305 


1,483 


368 


21 822 







Note.— Eleven cubic yards placed in test piers not included in the above. 



204 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. W.— Statement of work done, Balboa terminals, July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913. 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February , 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Construction tracks. 



Laid. 



Linear ft. 

10, 264 
4,483 
3,462 
3,800 
6,192 

10, 438 



7,976 
9,404 
18,519 
16, 696 
12,293 
20,709 



124, 236 



Re- 
moved. 



Linearft. 



14, 102 
6,480 
9,752 
5,307 



35, 641 



Shops. 



Piles. 



Trestles. 



Number. 



221 
185 
162 



542 
707 
1,098 
572 
238 
25 



Number. 



103 
400 
471 



3,750 



1,073 



Tunnel. 



Number. 



177 
172 



Ditches 
dug. 



Linearft. 



300 
500 



1,900 



2,804 
4,625 
900 
8,012 
3,700 
3,250 



25,991 



Contract work. — In addition to work performed by conunission 
forces, other construction work performed by contractors includes 
the following: 

The steel framework for the shop buildings amounting to about 
6,000 tons is being furnished and erected by the United States Steel 
Products Co.; award was made on October 22, 1912, at 3.6 cents per 

Eound for the 16 main buildings. The contract required erection to 
e started May 15 and to be completed by October 8, 1913. A sup- 
plemental order was given January 25, 1913, for the steel for nine 
toilet buildings and one paint house, buildings Nos. 17 to 26. Tliis 
contractor is also furnisliing the framework for the sand house, 
building No. 27, and the structural steel for shafting supports in 
building No. 1. The rolUng of the steel be^an the last week in Feb- 
ruary and the first shipment, of 227 tons, left Baltimore on March 30. 
On June 30 the status of the work was as follows: 

Per cent. 

Rolled, ill mills 100 

Finished, in shops 66. 5 

Shipped to tidewater 56. 5 

Shipped to Isthmus 43 

Contract required that all material shall be given one coat of red 
lead in shops and two coats wliite lead after erection. The following 
is a list of the buildings and their floor areas that have been authorized 
to date: 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 205 



Building No. 



Shop. 



Floor area. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 



Machine, erecting, and tool shops 

Forge shop 

Steel storage shed 

Boiler and shipfll ter shop 

General storehouse 

Paint shop 

Car shop 

Planing mill 

Galvanizing plant - 

Lumber and equipment shed 

Pattern storage 

Foundry 

Coke shed 

Boiler house 

Roundhouse 

Gas house 

Toilet building, gold employees 

do • 

Toilet building, silver employees 

do - 

Toilet building, gold and silver employees. 

do 

do 

do 

do. 

Paint house 

Sand house 

Office 



Total. 



Square feet. 

67,420 

31,650 

18,080 

46,940 

89,920 

12,760 

38,800 

48, 240 

5,620 

67, 180 

6,960 

37.060 

3.070 

2,380 

25,343 

649 

1,057 

1,057 

699 

699 

1,755 

1,755 

1,755 

1,039 

1,039 

1,157 

498 

26, 148 



539,830 



Roofing.— A contract was made on October 24, 1912, with the 
American Cement Tile Manufacturing Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., for 
6 500 squares, more or less, of reenforced cement tile roofing for all 
quarter-pitched roofs of the shop buildings at $10.25 per square 
delivered, and $13.25 per square erected in place, based on certam 
materials, such as sand and cement, and certain faciUties, such as use 
of suitable building, power, water, etc., being furnished by the com- 
mission without charge. All tile is bem^ manufactured on the 
Isthmus at Paraiso. The contract required all plant to be on the 
Isthmus by January 25, 1913, and for the completion of manufacture 
by June 25, 1913. At the close of the fiscal year 49.12 per cent of 
the tile had been manufactured and 7.9 per cent had been laid. 

CONSTRUCTION ATLANTIC TERMINALS. 

Wharves, piers, and dredging. — All work under tliis heading, except 
dredging, has been performed hj the Panama Railroad Co. Dredg- 
ing was done by the Atlantic division. ^ , 

Main coaling plant— On request of the commission, the Panama 
Railroad Co. has made diamond-drill borings at the site of the coal- 
ing pier and submitted data thereon. Work was started by the sixth 
division in June, 1913, on drilling and blasting preparatory to dredg- 
ing alongside the proposed coahng pier. 

OFFICE WORK — TERMINALS. 

Permanent shops. — Designing work in connection with the perma- 
nent shops and the inspection of erection of the steel work and roofing 
has been under the immediate direction of Lieut. Col. T. C. Dickson, 
Ordnance Department, United States Army, inspector of shops, and 
at the end of^the year the force of engineers, draftsmen, and: assist- 



206 EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

ants numbered 18. During the year, 212 drawings were completed, 
including 41 dramngs, showing motorizing of macliines. 

Before this force was organized the structural steel drawings and 
specifications had been prepared under the immediate direction of 
Assistant Engineer G. I. Finley, who, upon the award of contract, went 
to the States, where he remained until 463 worldng drawings and 278 
bills of material for the steelwork had been checked and approved. 
The designing work accomplished and the tracings which had been 
approved during the year include foundations, walls, windows, doors, 
steel rolling doors, movable and fixed louvers, etc., for inclosing the 
buildings; the floor plans of the shops office building; roof drainage 
system; piping system for water, steam, compressed air, fuel oil, and 
sewerage; layout of conduits, etc., for electric power and lighting 
systems ; foundations for machines, etc. ; details for applying motors 
to machines; stringers, shafting, etc., for groups of machines driven 
by motors; work benches and tables; wire-screen partitions for offices 
and tool rooms; engine pits and transfer table; racks for patterns; 
illumination system; distribution of power to motors and location of 
control apparatus. 

General description. — The principle aimed at in the design of the 
permanent shops has been to reduce to a minimum the cost of repairs 
and renewals, mthout exceeding a reasonable first cost. To_ attain 
this steel was adopted for the main structural material, for which the 
only cost for maintenance will be repainting from time to time. 
There is less humidity at Balboa than elsewhere on the Isthmus. 
The roofing, consisting of reenforced cement tile on the quarter-pitched 
roofs, shoidd last indefinitely with practically no cost for maintenance 
and repairs, and presents a pleasing appearance. Such buildings as 
have a flat reenforced concrete roof will be waterproofed with first 
quality composition roofing. There will be practically no gutters or 
down spouts, except for drainage of valleys, in which cases copper and 
similar permanent construction vnll be em})loyed. California red- 
wood, which has liigh resisting powers to decay and is immune to 
attacks of white ants, is being used for all millwork. 

Buildings that require it will be closed in with walls of hollow terra- 
cotta tile plastered with cement mortar; other buildings, such as the 
main metal and woodworking shops, which do not require to be closed 
in, will be surrounded with a concrete wall 3 feet 6 inches high, above 
which there will be movable metal shutters or louvers as protection 
against wind and rain. Buildings such as the pattern shop and store- 
house will have a second floor consisting of a reenforced concrete 
slab resting on steel beams and girders encased in concrete. For such 
buildings as the lumber shed, steel storage shed, etc., the first floor 
will be surfaced with cinders, sand, or gravel. For the main shops the 
floor will consist of a concrete base covered with 3^-inch creosoted 
wooden blocks. To permit convenient access at all times, and to pre- 
vent cutting into the floors of the buildings and the pavements outside, 
an underground tunnel, with main truck having a clear height of 6 
feet and wid,th of 4 feet 6 inches, and with branches of same height 
and a width of 3 feet 6 inches, is being constructed of reenforced con- 
crete to connect with the principal buildings and the substation and 
air-compressor plant. This tunnel will contain all power, light, tele- 
phone, nre-alarm, etc., cables, and water, steam, fuel-oil, and com- 
pressed air mains, and the main sewer. Rain water will be carried 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



207 



off the area occupied by the shop buildings by means of surface gut- 
ters and drains. 

Interior arrangements, vow er, and light.- — The selection and location 
of equipment in the different shops has been practically completed 
during the year. Electric power at 44,000 volts is to be delivered by 
the trans-Isthmian transmission line to a substation adjacent to the 
pump well of Dry Dock No. 1, where the voltage will be reduced to 
2,200 volts for d.istribution. The shops have been arranged in four 
groups as regards electric distribution, and each group provided with 
transformers and switchboards for reducing the voltage from 2,200 to 
230 for power and from 2,200 to 230-115 single-phase, three-wire, for 
lighting. All power used in the plant will be three-phase, 25-cycle, 
220-volt, except 220-volt direct current in the machine sliop for 
variable-speed tools. 'Duplicate motor-generator sets will be in- 
stalled in the machine shop for generating the direct-current power 
required. 

The following table shows the rated horsepower of all motors in 
each group and building for driving cranes, individual machines, and 
groups of machines : 





Build- 
ing. 


Alternating current. 


Direct 

current 

(individual). 


Total 
alter- 
nating 
current 
horse- 
power. 


Circuit No. 


Cranes. 
Horse- 
power. 


Groups. 


Individual. 




Num- 
ber. 


Total 
horse- 
power. 


Num- 
ber. 


Total 
horse- 
power. 


Num- 
ber. 


Total 
horse- 
power. 


1 


1 

2 
? 

4 
16 

8 
5 


336 


20 


225 


17 


157 


37 


527 


748 






2 


92J 
57 
199 


2 


40 


6 

4 

20 

1 


60 

30 

205 

7i 


















2 


22J 
































348i 


4 


62i 


31 


312J 






723i 








3 




5 


70 


28 
4 


627| 
60 


































5 


70 


32 


687i 






757^ 




12 
10 

7 

15 
9 










1.......... ,. 


168 


2 


15 


12 
3 

1 


181 
120 
20 














































168 


2 


15 


16 


321 






504 










Extension of No. 4 








2 
3 


85 
60 










25J 


























25i 






5 
3 


145 
1,832 






170i 
1 832 


Air compressors 


























Total 














527 


4. 735 J 



















The designs for the individual motorizing of 45 machines were 
completed during the year. 

One air compressor having a capacity of 5,000 and two having a 
capacity of 2,400 cubic feet of free air per minute, each driven by 
synchronous motors, will be installed, to improve the power factor. 

The greater number of the machines and tools for the permanent 
shops will be taken from the present shops. While many of those 
machines have seen hard service and are less efficient than those of 



208 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

recent design, it is considered economical to install and use them 
until the character and quantity of work to be performed by the new 
plant becomes known with sufficient definiteness to enable the types 
and sizes of machines best adapted to the work to be selected. Among 
the macliines to be purchased are one open-side, extension planer, 
96 by 132 inches by 24 feet, one double-head lathe with a swing of 
ways of about 75 inches and between centers of 65 feet, and one 
506-ton forging press. 

A general ilhimination system, supplemented with additional local 
lights where necessary, has been adopted and the details for the 
lighting of the planing mill and foundry were completed. Tungsten 
lamps will be used. 

CONTRACTS. 

Contracts for the following material and equipment for the new 
shops were made during the year: 

Material. — Seventy thousand feet single-duct vitrified tile to 
American Sewer Pipe Co., for $5,950. 

Channels, I beams, and angles for stringers to Belmont Iron Works, 
for $5,250. 

Composition roofing to Barrett Manufacturing Co., for $3,709.94. 

Trilby rail for building No. 1 to United States Steel Products Co., 
for $441.58. 

Steel for 4-foot diameter cylinders to J. B. Kendall Co., at $10,343.14. 

Steel for 3-foot diameter cylinders, girders, etc., for engine pits and 
transfer table to J. B. Kendall Co., at $11,696.98. 

Seventy-pound and 90-pound rails for crane runways to United 
States Steel Products Co., at $2,471.92. 

Twenty cloth pinions to General Electric Co., at $227. 

Hollow tile to National Fheproof Roofing Co., at $7,632.80. 

Trolley whe to United States Steel Products Co., at $569.25. 

Strain insulators to General Electric Co., at $22.68. 

Insulating spools to Globe Porcelain Co., at $220. 

Channels, angles, etc., for footwalks in trusses to R. C. Hoffman & 
Co., at $2,008.87. 

Creosoted wood blocks sufficient for pavmg 14,600 square yards of 
floor space to Republic Creosoting Co., at $28,470. 

Equipment. — Three 60-ton overhead electric cranes to Ndes- 
Bement-Pond Co., for $36,015, delivery before December 22, 1913. 

Two 25-ton overhead electric cranes, and two 20-ton electric cranes, 
to Cleveland' Crane & Engineering Co., for $25,700, delivery before 
November 25, 1913. 

Fifty-six induction motors, squirrel-cage type, including control 
apparatus, at $21,737.52; 43 autostarters, at $3,064.98; and three oil 
switches, at $100, to General Electric Co., delivery before October 27, 
1913. 

Five reversing planer motor equipments to General Electric Co., at 
$5,620, delivery September 27, 1913. 

Twenty-six slip-rmg, polar-wound rotor motors and 23 direct-cur- 
rent motors to General Electric Co., at $40,040.60, delivery to begin 
October 9, 1913, and to be completed January 2, 1914. 

Five 2-horsepower motors to Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Co., for $973, delivery December 6, 1913. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 209 

One annealing furnace, one mold oven, and four core ovens, to 
Tate-Jones Co. (Inc.), for $13,740. 

Sand-blast plant equipment to Thomas W. Pangborn Co., for 
$6,754.90, delivery September 19, 1913. 

Dry docks, coaling 'plants, and floating cranes. — Designing work in 
connection with the dry docks, coaling plants, and floating cranes 
has been under the immediate charge oi Civil Engineer F. II. Cooke, 
United States Nav}^ with a force of engineers, draftsmen, and assis- 
tants that numbered 12 at the end of the fiscal year. The services of 
the first division have been used in the design and preparation of con- 
tract plans and specifications of the miter gates for Dry Dock No. 1 
and accessories, and of the floating caisson for Dry Dock No. 2, in 
connection with similar work of the first division, on which Mr. 
Henry Goldmark, designing engineer, has been in immediate charge; 
and in the design of the wagon-body valves for the dry docks, by 
Assistant Engineer T. E. L. Lipsey. 

General description of dry docTcs. — The general design of dry docks 
at Balboa has been worked out during the year so that the prepara- 
tion of the detail drawings may proceed. 

Drij Dock No. 1, principal dimensions. 

Feet. 

Len^h over all 1, 110. 

Maximum length of ship dockable 1, 000. 

Width of entrance, clear 110. 

Width of body of dock at coping ] 40. 

Width of body of dock at floor 117. 

Depth, coping to floor 56. 

Height of keel blocks 4. 5 

Depth of water over top of blocks: 

Mean sea level .35. 

Mean high water 41 . 5 

Mean low water 29. 3 

This dock will rest on rock, and for a considerable portion of its 
depth ^\'ill be in solid rock. It will be constructed practically wholly 
of concrete, the only cut-stone work being the caisson seat and the 
miter sill and quoins. Normally the closure will be a pair of mitering 
gate leaves, very similar to those for the canal locks, and operated 
by machines practically identical to those operating lock gates. 
Beyond the gate proper there wiU be provided a seat for the floating 
caisson that mil be constructed for general canal use, at a sufficient 
distance from the gate to enable it to be painted and repaired in the 
dry when the caisson is in place. 

The dock wiU be flooded by means of longitudinal ducts formed in 
the concrete side walls, communicating with the dock body through 
grated openings in the dock floor along the bottom of the side walls. 
The flow of water will be controlled by four metal wagon-body valves 
operated by suitable machinery. The flooding intakes will be pro- 
tected by metal screens, and chases for emergency valves wiU be 
provided whereby the wagon-body valves may be inspected, painted, 
and repaired, either in place or by being wholly withdrawn. The 
time required for flooding at extreme high v/ater should not exceed 
about 25 minutes with all valves open. 

The pumping plant for emptying the dock wiU consist of four verti- 
cal shaft centrifugal pumps, driven by electric motors. The diameter 
11834°— 13 14 



210 BEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

of the discharge of these pumps will be approximately 54 inches. 
There wiU further be provided two drainage pumps of approximately 
20-inch discharge diameter, and one small bilge pump for dealing 
with seepage into the pump weU itself. AU these pumps will be 
located in a suitable well, the motors and other electrical parts being 
protected by a house provided with the necessary cranes, etc. The 
discharge from the pumps will be carried through a concrete duct 
entirely separate from the flooding ducts, and all necessary screens, 
nonreturn valves, etc. , wiU be provided. The time required for pump- 
ing out should not exceed 2 hours and 10 minutes at mean high water, 
under wliich circumstances approximately 5,900,000 cubic feet of 
water must be removed from tne dock against an average head of 
approximately 22.5 feet. 

Suitable tracks for a 50-ton locomotive jib crane, as well as tracks 
of the standard gauge of the Panama Railroad, will be provided 
entirely around the dock. All necessary capstans and bollards are 
to be installed and a pipe tunnel with suitable outlets to body of dock 
will be constructed around the dock. There will be stairways leading 
to the floor of the dock on each side at the entrance, on each side at 
the head, and at two points along the length of each side wall, at 
which latter points material slides will also be provided. 

The docking keel blocks mil be adjustable to fit the ship to be 
docked, and this adjustability will be attained by means of noncor- 
rosive metal sockets located at proper intervals in the dock floor. 

Miter gates and gate-moving machinery. — Contract dated October 
22, 1912, was entered into with the McCUn tic-Marshall Construction 
Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa., for one pair of steel miter-gate leaves and fixed 
irons, to be fabricated and delivered on the Isthmus within 425 days 
of date of contract. The McClintic-MarshaU Construction Co. was 
the only bidder under Circular No. 725, which was issued for the pur- 
chase of these leaves and under wliich proposals were opened Sep- 
tember 26, 1912. The bidder made an "original" item with four 
alternates thereto, the latter deaUng with reduced time of delivery 
at increased cost and recUiced price on account of omitting the erec- 
tion of one leaf at the shops prior to shipment. As erection on the 
Isthmus was not required, it was considered advisable to retain the 
provision for erecting one leaf in the shop to insure accurate and 
speedy erection later on, and the contract was accordingly awarded 
on the ''original" item at an approximate price of $105,000, the 
exact price being determined by applying the contract unit prices 
to the actual scale weights of the finished parts. 

Tills gate closes an opening 110 feet wide, of a height of 56 feet 
from sill to coping. There are approximately 1,900,000 pounds of 
metal in the two leaves, and 115,000 pounds of metal in the fixed 
parts forming the anchorage. 

The gate for Dry Dock No. 1 differs from those for the canal locks 
in that the miter and quoin ends are to be fitted with green-heart 
bearing pieces, rather than \\dth the metal bearing pieces provided for 
the canal gates. This change was adopted in the interest of water- 
tightness, as the dock will stand dry for the greater portion of the 
time, and to reduce the amount of metal exposed to the action of sea 
water. The timber quoin posts will bear against granite hollow quoins 
and the "clapping sill" at the bottom of tiie gate will bear against a 
granite miter sill. These changes necessitated certain structural 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 211 

changes in the ends of the metal gate structure, but aside from this the 
gates are practically identical with those for the locks, except that the 
footwalk on the top is the full width of the gate, and no miter forcing 
machine wdllbe provided, as such seems unnecessary for dry dock use. 

The mill and shop inspection of the gate leaves is being made by the 
same force as for the lock gates; and at the close of tlie fiscal year 
50 per cent of the structural steelwork had been completed, 90 per 
cent of the castings had been cast, and 15 per cent of the latter had 
been machined and completed. . 

The gate-moving machines are being purchased under the mcrease 
clause of contracts for similar material for the locks. There have thus 
been purchased the following: 
Two crank eear recess cover seats, ordered July 24, 1912, from the Standard 

Foundry Co., of Buffalo, N. Y., at 1330.67 each yy ^^^^- ^ 

Two miter gate moving machines, one right hand, one left hand, ordered on 

Dec 13, 1912, from the WTieeling Mold & Foundry Co., of WTieehng, W. 

Va., W. 0. 27467-C y ^^' '^^^- ^^ 

Two 35 h. p. motors, ordered from the General Electric Co., Schenectady, 

N. Y., Dec. 10, 1912, W. O. 27762-C - - - 956. 08 

Starting panels, switches, controls, etc., for the above, ordered from the 

General Electric Co., Dec. 10, 1912, W. O. 32230-C 872. 64 

16, 242. 72 

The foregoing material after receipt on the Isthmus will be stored 
and protected until needed. 

Dry Dock No. 2, principal dimensions. 

^ ' r- x- Ft. in. 

Length over all "^^^ ^ 

Maximum length of ship dockable 350 

Width of entrance, clear '1 

Width of body of dock at coping 92 

Width of body of dock at floor »0 

Depth, coping to floor 37 4 

Height of keel blocks 4 

Depth of water over top of blocks: 

Mean sea level 1^ ^^ 

Mean high water -^ ^ 

Mean low water ^^ 

This dry dock is in Ueu of the two marine railways originally 
contemplated, the Navy Department having expressed a preference 
for such a dock and the local conditions having rendered its construc- 
tion more advisable. This dry dock wiU also be founded on rock, but 
the greater part of its walls will be of gravity section. The dock will 
be closed by a floating steel caisson bearing against granite sills when 
in place. The dock will be flooded normally by means of concrete 
ducts and floor gratings similar to those for Dock No. 1, but of 
reduced dimensions. The flow of water will be controlled by one 
metal wagon-body valve similar to those for Dry Dock No. 1. An 
auxiUary means of flooding will be provided by pipes and valves in the 
caisson. The dock will be emptied by means of the pumping plant of 
Dry Dock No. 1, the necessary valves and gratings being provided. 
Access to the floor of the dock will be by means of four stairways, two 
at the entrance and two at the head, and alongside each of the latter 
two a material shde will be constructed. This dock will be served bv 
the locomotive jib crane mentioned under Dry Dock No. 1, and will, 
in general, be provided with the same accessories as Dry Dock No. 1. 



212 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

The caisson for closing the entrance has presented an unusual 
problem, for in order to take advantage of the dock at low stages of 
tide, at which time there will still be sufficient depth over the blocks 
to accommodate shallow draft canal craft such as barges, dredges, etc., 
the floating caisson must be capable of operation with a proper margin 
of stabiUty at such low stages of tide. 

The dimensions of this structure will be approximately as follows: 

Ft. in. 

Length molded 74 6 

Height molded 40 

Beam, maximum 25 

Approximate weight (including permanent ballast), 638 tons. 

For pumping out the caisson there will be provided two 15-inch 
electrically driven centrifugal pumps. The top deck of the caisson 
will form a roadway of sufficient width to accommodate vehicles. 

Floating cranes.— In anticipation of requirements that will develop 
after the completion of the canal, investigation has been made by 
representatives of the Isthmian Canal Commission, reports submitted 
and inspection made, during the past two years, of the principal 
floating cranes in use in the United States and Canada, as well as 
abroad, and the experience and facilities of different manufacturers 
have been ascertained, with a view to determining the type of crane 
that will best meet canal requirements. The conclusion was early 
reached that two floatmg cranes of the largest size would be necessary 
to meet conditions that might arise in handling lock and dock gate 
leaves. These cranes will also have to meet the requirements, as 
regards reach and lifting capacity, of the Navy Department; they 
must be able to handle the heaviest guns and armament in connection 
with canal fortifications, and they must be capable of performing 
suitable lifting operations in comiection with commercial freight 
and repairs to commercial vessels, as well as the performance of 
wrecking service both from a mifitary and commercial standpoint. 
To meet these conditions Circular 743 was issued October 30, 1912, 
calling for the construction and delivery of two floating cranes, of 
the revolving type, having a maximum lifting capacity of 250 gross 
tons. 

The following proposals were opened under this circular on January 
13, 1913: 

1. Neumeyer & Dimond, as agents for the Deutsche Maschinen Fabrik, A. G., of 

Duisburg, Germany: 
Two cranes, $820,350; time 580 days. 
One crane, $420,175; time 550 days. 

2. Werf Gusto, Schiedam, near Rotterdam, Holland: 

Two cranes, $920,000; no time. 
One crane, $400,000; no time. 

3. Cowans, Sheldon Co. (Ltd.), Carlisle, England: 

Two cranes, £230,000; time 548 days. 
One crane, £115,250; time 548 days. 

4. Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., Cleveland, Ohio: 

Two cranes, $1,450,000; time 690 days. 
One crane, $745,000; time 690 days. 

Award was made April 17, 1913, to the lowest bidder, the Deutsche 
Maschinen Fabrik, A. G., in the approximate amount of $827,550, 
based on delivery of two similar cranes in 580 days. The difference 
between the above approximate amount and the bid price of $820,350 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION. 213 

is due to certain alternate items and to modifications in some minor 
details, all such modifications having been defuiitely agreed upon 

STior to formal contract. These cranes are now under construction. 
Ir. Henry Schoellhorn, formerly mechanical engmeer of the mechani- 
cal division, was sent to Duisourg as the local inspector under the 
Washington office of the commission. 

The manufacture of large floating cranes is a specialty in which 
very few firms have had experience. It will be noted that of the four 
bidders one was from the United States, one from England, one from 
Holland, and one from Germany, and these four firms manufacture 
the best types of large cranes that are in existence. The only Ameri- 
can bidder was about 77 per cent higher in cost than the low bidder. 
This difference in price, however, is largely accounted for by the 
increased weight of material offered by the American bidder. Award 
was made to the foreign bidder under authority of act of June 25, 
1906, providing "that purchase of material and equipment for use 
in the construction of the Panama Canal shall be restricted to articles 
of domestic production and manufacture, from the lowest responsible 
bidder, unless the President shall, in any case, deem the bids or 
tenders therefor to be extortionate or unreasonable." 

Under date of March 2, 1909, this joint resolution was interpreted 
by the President, so far as it refers to bids on foreign material, as 
follows: 

The following Executive instructions in furtherance of joint resolution No. 35 of 
June 25, 1906 (34 Stat. L., 835), will hereafter control in comparing bids for materials 
to be used in connection with the construction of the Panama Canal and in determining 
awards thereon: 

When bids submitted on material of foreign production are lower than on material 
of domestic production and manufacture preference will be given to the article of 
domestic production and manufacture, unless the bid for the latter exceeds the former 
by an amount equal to the duty of the imported article. Where an article of domestic 
manufacture is made up, in part, of imported ingredients or components the presence 
of such components will be ignored, if duty has been paid. If, however, the article 
is manufactured in bond, or if the bid is based on a drawback being paid or allowed, 
the amount of such duty or drawback should be similarly considered in making the 
award. 

General description. — Each crane consists essentially of a steel 
pontoon 150 feet long, 88 feet wide, and 16 feet 3 inches average 
depth, containing a power-generating plant, and supporting the fixed 
and revolving superstructure. The power is "steam-electric," steam 
being supplied by a Scotch marine boiler, coal fired. Electric energy 
is generated at 220 volts direct current by steam generators. Ail 
motions of the hooks are controlled by one operator. The pontoon 
is not self-propelling, but is fitted with a powerful steam capstan 
at each of the four corners for warping the crane into any desired 
position, and is further fitted with suitable towing bits, cleats, etc., 
and with two 3,000-pound anchors handled by steam. 

The fixed and revolving superstructure is centered at a point 39 
feet distant from one end of the pontoon and midway of its width. 
The fixed superstructure consists of a truncated steel framed pyramid 
supporting at its top the revolving superstructure. This latter con- 
sists of two parts, the "bell" which surrounds the pyramid, and which 
sujjports the jib, machinery room, and operator's cab, and the jib 
which is hinged to the bell at its top and carries the mam and aux- 
iliary hoist. Rotation about the vertical axis is had by power appHed 



214 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

between the bell and pyramid near the foot of the latter. Movement 
of the jib in a vertical plane is had by means of two Unks attached to 
the jib and to carriages driven by vertical screw spindles, these latter 
being at the rear of the bell and vertically over the machinery house. 

Tms desim of superstructure eliminates virtually all uncertainty as 
to how the Toads are carried. All vertical loads, dead and live, of the 
revolving superetructure are concentrated at the top of the pyramid. 
The overturning moment of the live, dead, and wind loads of the 
revolving superstructure is resisted by horizontal forces apphed at 
the top and bottom of the pyramid. The clearances are such that no 
part of the revolving superstructure, except the jib, overhangs the 
pontoon in any position, and the heights of superstructure are such 
that unencumbered passage around it is provided in all positions. An 
area 20 feet by 60 feet on the deck of the pontoon is made especially 
strong, being capable of carrying a supeiimposed load of 2,000 
pounds per square foot, this area being intended for the reception of 
loads up to a total of 300 gross tons. The cranes can, therefore, carry 
very heavy and bulky loads on their decks when it is necessary to 
transport them anywhere on the canal, thus rendering unnecessary 
the use of barges, etc., for this purpose. 

The jib is provided with two hoists designated the "main hoist" 
and "auxiliary hoist," respectivelv. The main hoist is fixed at the 
point of the jib and will consist of two equal blocks, each of a rated 
capacity of 125 gross tons. These two blocks can be linked together 
by means of an "equalizer bar," whereby they may be made to form 
substantially one hoist of 250 tons capacity. Each block of tne main 
hoist will be suspended in 10 parts of 2-inch wire rope. 

The auxiliary hoist will have a rated capacity of 15 gross tons and 
will consist of a two-part block swung from a traveling trolley run- 
ning on a runway secured to the lower side of the jib in such manner 
that the auxiliary hoist can be operated at any point of this runway 
in any position of the jib. The main hoist can handle its rated loads 
at any point in a full circumference of 360°. It can revolve com- 
pletely under maximum loads and can in addition be luffed in or out 
by means of the above-mentioned links and screw spindles. The 
main hoist will have the following capacities at the reacnes stated for 
each. By "reach" is meant the horizontal distance from face of 
pontoon fender to center of block. 



100 tons. 



150 tons. 



Loaded reach over end . 
Loaded reach over side. 



Feet. 
80.1 
81.6 



Feet. 
59.0 
62.4 



Feet. 
21.0 
22.3 



From any of these reaches the main load can be luffed in sufficiently 
far to enable the crane to deposit such load on its own deck. 
The time of hoisting main loads is as follows: 

Tons per minute. 

Ft. in. 

250 3 (i 

125 7 

62.5 14 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION. 21 5 

The unloaded blocks are raised or lowered at not less than 20 feet 
per minute. The crane can make one complete revolution in from 5 
to 8 minutes, depending on the load and the wind, the lower figure 
being the most favorable condition without wind. The jib loaded 
with 100 tons can be luffed in from its maximum to minimum reach 
in not more than 17 minutes and luffed out in not more than 13 min- 
utes. Without load the jib can be fully luffed in from maximum to 
minimum reach in not more than 10 minutes and luffed out in not more 
than 8 minutes. The speed of hoisting the fully loaded auxiliary 
block will be not less than 40 feet per minute, and the unloaded aux- 
iliary block can be raised or lowered at not less than 80 feet per 
minute. The speed of troUeying the auxiUary hoist along the runway 
will be from 40 to 80 feet per minute, depending upon the degree of 
inclination of the jib. 

Each crane will be safely stable in a wind exerting a pressure of 40 
pounds per square foot, even with full 300-ton deck load on the pon- 
toon. Of course the operation of the cranes would not be attempted 
in a gale. The pontoon wiU have a freeboard of not less than 3h feet 
when handling maximum capacity loads in any position without deck 
load ; if the deck load be present tliis freeboard will be reduced to not less 
than 2 feet. The maxmium longitudinal incUnation of the pontoon 
will not exceed 2^° and the maximum transverse inchnation will not 
be greater than 5°. Each crane will be provided with ladders, stairs, 
gangways, etc., for convenient communication, inspection, and repair; 
will be equipped with all necessary signals and means of communica- 
tion; and will be electric lighted throughout. 

Other floating equipment. — In order that the canal may be equipped 
with harbor tugs of suitable design and sufficient power so that not 
more than two of them will be required to handle the largest vessels 
using the canal for docking and undocking, as well as towing through 
any portion of the canal, investigation and inspection of the most 
modem and largest harbor tugs in use along the Atlantic coast of the 
United States and in the leading ports of England has been made by 
representatives of the Istlimian Canal Commission during the past 
two years and reports have been submitted with full data in regard 
to the present practice, and recommendations have been made con- 
cerning the characteristics of the proposed tugs. An estimate for the 
purchase of four of these tugs was included in the estimates for the 
fiscal year 1913-14, and at the close of the fiscal year 1913 it was 
expected to proceed at once with the preparation of plans and specifi- 
cations for these tugs, to be known as "Type A" tugs, in order that 
they can be ready for use by January 1, 1915. These tugs will be 
supplemented by a number of commission tugs as soon as they are 
needed and can be spared from the construction work on which they 
are now engaged. 

No steps were taken during the year toward fitting up any of the 
commission sand and rock barges for use after completion of the canal 
as coal barges. This work will be taken in hand when the barges 
can be spared from construction use and before any coal barges are 
required for the new coahng plants. 

Coaling plants. — Work has proceeded during the year on plans and 
specifications for the main coahng plant at the Atlantic terminus and 
for the subsidiary coahng plant at the Pacific terminus, along the fines 
described in the annual report for 1912. The procedure adopted has 



216 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

been to invite proposals on the coal handling machinery, as described 
in general specifications, the substructure and all other work in con- 
nection with the plants to be performed by the commission with its 
own forces, and the latter to be designed to fit the machinery for 
which contracts are to be made. 

In general, the Pacific plant wiU be half the size, as regards storage 
and handling capacity, of the Atlantic plant. The storage capacities 
of the plants will be sufficient to meet the miUtary needs as recom- 
mended by the Navy Department. The specified rates of unloading 
coal from vessels into the storage piles have been fixed by the capacity 
of standard unloading machines, and the desire to be able to unload 
two vessels at one time at the Atlantic plant, with two unloading 
machines to each vessel, and one vessel at the Pacific plant with two 
machines. The reloading capacity of the Atlantic plant, that is, 
transferring coal from storage into coUier or barge, has been fixed 
after consideration of the reloading capacity of modern commercial 
plants in the United States. The capacity of each reloading machine 
and the desire to equip the Atlantic plant so that two vessels can be 
loaded at one time with two machines serving each vessel, and the 
Pacific plant so that one vessel can be loaded with two machines, 
has determined the capacity specified for each plant and the num- 
ber of macliines to be furnished. 

During the year the policy has been adopted of providing storage 
in connection with both plants for coal piles of individuals and 
companies who desire to participate in the business of supplying 
vessels that use the canal with coal; and the plants have been so 
designed that these private coal piles can be served conveniently with 
the same machinery that handles the Government coal. It is desired 
to encourage individuals and companies in the business of furnishing 
fuel to vessels that use the canal. Until legislation is secured per- 
mitting it, the Isthmian Canal Commission has no authority to 
lease any land, or land under water, in the Canal Zone, except in 
accordance with act of February 27, 1909, which permits the leas- 
ing of land for agricultural purposes. Until contractual relations 
with individuals and companies are therefore authorized there will 
not be sufficient inducement offered to make the investment of capi- 
tal in coaling wharves, piers, dredging, etc., attractive, as leases may 
be granted at present only under a revocable Hcense, terminable at 
the pleasure of the Government, without fiability for reimbm*se- 
ment on account of any improvements made. 

The amount of rental of the areas for the storage of coal under 
revocable license has not yet been fixed. In addition to rent there 
will be, in the case of improvements made on the area in question by 
the licensee, a real-estate tax of 1 per cent per annum oi the value 
of the improvements and a merchandise tax of 5 cents for each 2,000 
pounds 01 coal sold. The handling charges for putting coal into 
storage and taking it out, charges for the use of coal barges, and 
other labor in connection with this service will be reasonable, and 
it is expected that coal belonging to individuals and companies will 
be subject to practically the same charges as the Government coal. 

Circular 763 was issued February 1.3, 1913, inviting proposals on 
coal-handhng machinery and accessories for the Atlantic and Pacific 
plants. The Atlantic plant will lie on the north end of Mindi Island, 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 217 

between the French and American Canals, onposite Dock 11, Cristo- 
bal. Railroad connection to this plant will be secured by a spur 
from the Panama Railroad main line crossing the French Canal oppo- 
site Mount Hope, which work was well under way at the end of the 
fiscal year. The Pacific plant has been located at the outer end of the 
approach wall, southeast of the dry-dock entrance. Circular 763 
was accompanied by general plans snowing the general location and 
character of each plant. 

General description. — The Atlantic plant was specified to consist 
of not less than 1,000 linear feet of unloading wharf, not less than 
1,000 linear feet of reloading wharf, and a coal pile 1,000 feet long by 
250 feet wide, the coal being stored to a maximum depth of 50 feet, 
of which the bottom 20 feet will be permanently under salt water. 
Coal is to be taken from water carrier into storage by means of four 
unloading towers having a combined normal capacity of 1,000 tons 
per hour. It is to be reclaimed from storage and reloaded to colliers 
or barges by means of two reclaiming bridges and four movable 
reloaders, these units having a combined normal capacity of 2,000 
tons per hour. A conveying system will transport the coal between 
the various operating units in use. The storage capacity of the origi- 
nal pile, 1,000 by 250 feet, was as follows: 

Tons. 

Wet 125, 000 

Normal dry 121, 000 

Emergency dry 52, 800 

Total 298, 800 

The location adopted permits the extension of this pile in length of 
about 700 feet. 

The terms ''wet," "normal dry," and ''emergency dry," are 
applied to the lowest 20 feet (in salt water), the next 20 feet, and the 
top 10 feet, respectively. Tons are short tons of 2,000 pounds each, 
40 cubic feet of coal bemg considered equivalent to 1 ton. 

For the Pacific plant the circular specified two alternate plans, 
designated as "N" and "O," respectively. In plan "N" the length 
of unloading and reloading wharf, length of coal pile, and number of 
operating units were specified as half that for the Atlantic plant in 
each case, thus the normal unloading capacity was 500 tons per hour 
and the normal reclaiming and reloading capacity was 1,000 tons per 
hour. Although the width of coal pile was specified to be the same 
as that at the Atlantic plant, i. e., 250 feet, the storage capacity will 
be somewhat greater than one-half that for the Atlantic plant, as the 
"wet " storage is 24 feet deep at Balboa, making the total 54 feet deep 
instead of 50 feet. The increased depth of ' ' wet " storage results from 
the elevation at which rock is found on the site, together with the 
greater tidal oscillation. Under plan " O " Balboa, it is contemplated 
to utilize the four berm cranes which were used in the Pacific division 
for handling concrete at Pedro Miguel and Mirafiores Locks, these 
cranes making it unnecessary to purchase new stocking and reclaiming 
bridges to span the coal pile. At the same time a somewhat gi'eater 
storage capacity is obtamed with the greater reach of these berm 
cranes. Tne number of unloaders and reloaders and the handUng 
capacity are the same as for plan "N" Balboa, the necessary changes 
bemg made in the conveying system to serve the berm cranes. The 



218 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



relative storage capacities for the two designs at Balboa are shown in 
the following table : 



Wet 

Normal dry 

Emergency dry 

Total 



Plan "O.' 



Tons. 

100, 000 
80,000 
30,000 



210, 000 



Plan"N.' 



Ton.1. 
75,000 
60,000 
25,000 



160,000 



Proposals under Circular 763 were opened in the Washington office 
June 14, 1913, and were received on the Isthmus for canvass just 
prior to the close of the fiscal year. These proposals were accom- 
panied by plans, specifications, information, and other data. Five 
proposals were received, each of which is listed below: 



Bidder. 



David Duncan, 17 Battery Place, New York City 
Himt Construction Co., 45 Broadway, New York 

Augustus Smith, Bayoime, N.J 

W. L. Bull, jr.. Inc., 135 Front St., N. Y 

WeUman-Seaver-Morgan Co., Cleveland, Ohio 



Cristobal 
only. 



$2,121,660 

2,111,813 

1,413,689 

2,313,750 

960, 260 



Balboa 
onlv, plan 



SI, 140, 830 
1,361,285 

901,373 
1,581,000 

631, 130 



Both com- 
plete. 



Time of 
delivery. 



$3,262,490 
3,350,497 
2,300,000 
3,894,750 
1, 573, 390 



Months. 



There were 19 items listed in the circular whereby the work might 
be subdivided if advantageous, but for convenience as a general indi- 
cation of the price received, the bids for Cristobal only, for Balboa 
plan ''N" only, and for both complete, are shown. But one bidder, 
Augustus Smith, submitted a proposal under plan "O," his bid being 
$570,000 for tliis design, time of completion both plants, with plan 
"O" Balboa, 34 months. The proposal of the Wellman-Seaver- 
Morgan Co. is based on a completely alternate design from that de- 
scribed in the specifications accompanying Circular 763. These pro- 
posals were being canvassed at the close of the fiscal year. 

Fuel-oil plants. — Work has proceeded during the year on the fuel- 
oil plants as described in the annual report for 1912. October 1 , 1912, 
contract was made with the Petroleum Iron Works Co., of Sharon, Pa., 
for four storage tanks 93 feet in diameter by 35 feet high, capacity 
40,000 barrels, erected complete, at a total cost of $62,800. At the 
end of the year these tanks had been practically completed, two at 
Mount Hope and two on Balboa dump southeast of Sosa Hill, and 
plans were under way to connect them up ^^^th the water front. 

During the year the policy has been adopted for the Government to 
retain complete control of the terminals, water frontage, and trans- 
portation across the Isthmus by land and water. Tliis would include 
all pipe lines across the Isthmus. It is proposed to equip the wharf 
in the vicinity of the coaling station at the Pacific terminals, and 
Docks 13 and 14 at Mount Hope on tlie Atlantic side, with fuel-oil 
supply and delivery mains, in chiplicate, together witli the necessary 
pumps so that the Government will be able to satisfactorily handle all 
luel oil, including fuel oil of individuals and companies who may wish 
to participate in the fuel-oil business on the Isthmus. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING— SECOND DIVISION. 219 

The general terms wiW. be the same as those applying to the coaling 
business. At the close of the year sites for the fuel-oil tanks at each 
terminus, of individuals and companies, were under consideration. 
It seems that the most available and desirable area on the Atlantic 
side lies east and south of Mount Hope Cemetery, between the Mount 
Hope Road and the east diversion canal. On the Pacific side the most 
suitable area is on Balboa dump southeast of Sosa Hill. 

In addition to the rental charge for the land to be occupied by oil 
tanks, individuals and companies will be subject to a tax of 1 per 
cent of the value of improvements made by them and to a merchan- 
dise tax of li cents per barrel on all sales of fuel oil. The rates to be 
charged individuals and companies for piping oil will be practically 
the same rates that will be charged against oil owned by the Govern- 
ment. On March 31, 1913, the contract with the Union Oil Co., for 
fuel oil used by the commission, expired, and this contract was 
renewed for a period of 15 months. The price of oil is $1.10 per 
barrel of 42 gallons, pumped into commission tanks. The con- 
truction of an oil pipe line across the Isthmus had not been 
authorized up to the end of the fiscal year. 

Quaij walls and Pier No. 1. — The design and the preparation of 
working drawings for the quay walls adjacent to the Panama Railroad 
new concrete dock at Balboa, for Pier No. 1, including the pier shed, 
and for quay wall construction and the landings for small boats at the 
head of the sHps on each side of Pier No. 1 have been under the im- 
mediate direction of Mr. W. Rowland, junior engineer. The general 
plan of the section of the quay wall northeast of the Panama Rail- 
road new concrete dock Qsnown as section "g-h-i") and of Pier 
No. 1 had been prepared and approved by Division Engineer S. B. 
Wilhamson prior to his resignation on December 12, 1912. Since that 
time the detail drawings of this work have been completed, and work 
has started on quay wall section "e-f," southwest of Panama Rail- 
road new concrete dock, and on the quay waUs at the head of Shp 
No. 1 and Shp No. 2. 

General description, quay wall section ^'g-h-i." — ^This section ex- 
tends between the northeast end of the Panama Railroad new con- 
crete dock and the head of Shp No. 1, a distance of about 1,238 feet. 
The substructure consists of rows of reenforced concrete cylinders 7 
feet 6 inches in diameter sunk to rock, three cylinders to a row, with 
rows spaced about 35 feet apart. The superstructure consists of a 
7^-incn floor slab of reenforced concrete supported by reenforced con- 
crete longitudinal stringers framed between reenforced concrete cross 
girders. The wearing surface wiU be vitrified brick, laid on edge, 
with a |-inch sand cushion between the brick and floor slab. The 
floor is 60 feet wide, with one railroad track along the water front. 
This wharf has a live load capacity of 680 pounds per square foot. 

Pier No. 1. — ^The substructure consists of the same type of con- 
crete cyhnders as used on quay wall section "g-h-i." The pier will 
be 201 feet wide by 1,000 feet long, will have one raih-oad track along 
each side, and two depressed railroad tracks through the center. 
The pier consists of two concrete wharves, each supported on rows 
of cylinders, three cylinders to a row, with rows spaced 29 feet 6 
inches apart. For a width of 50 feet in the center the floor will be 
supported on a rock fill. Comparative estimates on reenforced con- 



220 BEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Crete and steel incased in concrete led to the adoption of reenforced 
concrete for the floor girders and stringers as being more economical. 

The pier will be paved with vitrified brick, laid on edge, and it 
will have a live-load capacity of 750 pounds per square foot. The 
pier will be covered with a steel frame shed 160 feet wide and 1,000 
leet long. 

Small boat landings. — At the head of Shp No. 1 and Shp No. 2, on 
each side of Pier No. 1, there wiU be a landing for small Doats, con- 
sisting of about 303 feet of quay wall. In each shp there wiU be a 
floating landing about 242 feet long, composed of two reenforced con- 
crete pontoons each about 121 feet by 27 feet, with two inclined 
bridges 90 feet long and 5 feet wide in the clear. 

Quay wall, section * ' e-fJ^ — This section of quay wall lies immediately 
southwest of the Panama Railroad new concrete dock, and wiU be 
about 775 feet in length and 60 feet in width. This quay wall will 
be buUt in water. The substructure will consist of 6-foot reenforced 
concrete cylinders, three in a row, with rows about 21 feet center to 
center. In order to make the excavation and to place concrete in 
the dry, steel forms will be used. Above mud Une it is proposed to 
use special bolted-up forms that can be removed by a diver. This 
wharf will be subjected to unusually heavy loads, as it will form the 
main repair wharf, and, in addition, a portion of the wharf will be 
fitted up with two of the sand cranes now in use at Balboa, and sand 
will be regularly transferred from barges to cars on it as long as it is 
necessary to maintain the sand service of the sixth division. A por- 
tion of the wharf can be used for the temporary storage of sand in 
bins if desired. 

As this wharf will be built over the water, the longitudinal and 
transverse girders will be of steel encased in concrete. The reen- 
forced concrete floor slab will have a thickness of 7 inches, on which 
will be laid vitrified paving brick. The five load which the wharf 
will be capable of carrying wiU be 1,000 pounds per square foot. 

Permanent Settlements. 

During the latter part of the year an area along the edge of Balboa 
dump, south of Sosa Hfll, was set aside for a permanent settlement 
for silver employees at the Pacific terminus; aside from this, there 
has been no change in the permanent settlements described in the 
annual report for 1912, which include Cristobal at the Atlantic 
terminus, Gatun and Pedro Miguel at the Atlantic and Pacific locks, 
respectively, and Balboa and Ancon at the Pacific terminus. 

Meteorological and Hydrographic Section. 

The work of this section during the fiscal year has been under the 
immediate charge of Supervisor F. D. Willson, with Mr. H. G. Com- 
thwaite, principal meteorologist, and Mr. H. T. Critchlow, principal 
hydrographer. 

General. — The three first-class meteorological stations — ^Ancon, 
Culebra, and Colon — were continued in operation throughout the year, 
each with fuU complement of instruments, and in charge of a sloUed 
observer. Wind records were continued at Gatun, Pedro JMi^uel, 
Sosa, and Miraflores. The records at the latter station were obtained 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 221 

for use by the department of sanitation in the study of mosquito 

Twenty-six rainfall stations are maintained, 15 equipped with 
standard and 11 with automatic rain gauges. 

Evaporation records are obtained from the following stations: 
Ancon, Rio Grande Reservoir, Gatun Lake, Brazos Brook reservoir, 
and Colon. 

Duplicate tide registers are in operation at Colon and Balboa, 
where automatic records of the sea temperature are also obtained. 

Seismograph stations are maintained at Ancon and Gatun. 

Maximum and minimum temperatures, from instruments exposed 
to the direct rays of the sun, were obtained at Miraflores dumps for 
the use of the Fortification Board. Hydrographic stations were 
continued at Vigia, Alhajuela, Gamboa, Gatun, and Trinidad. 
Regular field work has been cairied on by the hydrographers at 
different stations. 

All current meters used on discharge measurement work were 
cahbrated at the Gamboa rating station. Twenty-three ratings 
were made during the fiscal year. 

Regular gauging work was discontinued on the smaller streams at 
the end of the year 1912, the work being interfered with by backwater 
from the lake. 

Special hydrographic survey was made of the lower end of the 
Gatun spillway channel from the lower end of the concrete channel 
to a point 50 feet below the present cable station. A contour map 
was plotted from the data obtained. 

The gauge rods in Gatun Lake were checked from precise level 
bench marks in the vicinity of each station, and small adjustments, 
found necessary from continuous water-level observations obtained 
during the dry season of 1912, were made. 

Office work. — Daily meteorological and hydrographic reports have 
been received from the various stations and pubfished for the infor- 
mation of the various divisions. All observations and gaugings have 
been computed, checked, tabulated, and filed. Monthly discharge 
curves have been constructed, and discharge tables made. Data 
from current meter ratings have been calculated, checked, and 
rating tables compiled. Monthly reports ot meteorological and hydro- 
^aphic conditions have been submitted. The work of flood predic- 
tions and warnings was handled in the central office. 

METEOROLOGY. 

Weather. — The weather experienced on the Isthmus during the 
calendar year 1912 was in many respects similar to that which pre- 
vailed during the preceding year. The rainfall, relative humicnty, 
and atmospheric pressure were generally deficient, while the air 
temperature and wind movement were above normal. 

Precipitation. — The rainfall on the Isthmus during the calendar 
year 1912 was everj^where below normal except along the immediate 
Pacific coast, but it was generally heavier than the annual rainfall in 
1911. The 1912 precipitation exceeded the values for the previous 
year at all stations except Rio Grande, Camacho, Alhajuela, Monte 
Lirio, and Porto Bello. The annual totals ranged from 71.78 inches 
at Ancon to 147.61 inches at Porto Bello. Balboa reported the least 



222 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



number of rainy days, 148, and Brazos Brook the greatest number, 
282. The monthly rainfall records for 1912, 1913, and the station 
averages are shown in Table No. 1. 

The maximum 24-hour precipitation recorded during the year 1912 
was 7.23 inches at Ancon on ]\Iay 12-13. Daily quantities in excess 
of 4 inches were recorded as follows : 



stations. 


Date. 


Amount. 


Stations. 


Date. 


Amount. 




May 12 
...do .... 


Inches. 
7.06 
7.00 
6.41 
6.15 
4.10 


Porto Bello 


Sept. 14 
Sept. 22 
Nov. 11 
Dec. 30 


Inches. 
4.02 




Camacho 


4.17 


Porto Bello 


May 21 
July 17 
Aug. 19 


Miraflores 


4.70 




Do 


4.04 













A large part of the 1912 deficiency in rainfall occurred during the 
dry-season months — ^January to April, inclusive. The dry-season 
rainfall amounted to but 5 per cent of the annual total in the Pacific 
section and 4 per cent in the Central and Atlantic sections. The fol- 
lowing table presents the average section rainfall and the total num- 
ber of rainy days for the year 1912 : 



Section. 


Average 
rainfall, 
year 1912. 


Rainy 
days. 


Paciiic 


Inches. 
76.59 
89.68 
125. 36 


161 




203 


Atlantic. . . 


251 







Table No. 2 presents the monthly rainfall records by sections for 
the year 1912, while the maximum rainfall of record for periods of 5 
minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours at the stations equipped vdth. auto- 
matic registers is shown in Table No. 3. Table No. 4 gives the hourly 
distribution of rainfall at selected stations during the year 1912. 
From this table it may be seen that the heaviest rains usually occur 
between the hours of 2 and 3 p. m., and that the percentage of rain- 
fall during working hours is much higher in the Pacific section than 
in the Atlantic section, where a relatively large percentage of the 
annual rainfall occurs during the night. 

During the first six months of 1913 the rainfall has continued 
generally below normal, although the deficiencies as a rule have been 
small. 



TEMPERATURE. 



The average air temperatures for the year 1912 were well above 
normal, especially during the dry season months. The maximum 
temperatures recorded at Ancon and Culebra in April, 1912, estab- 
lished new high temperature records for these stations. ]\Iarch was 
the warmest month at Ancon, and April at Culebra and Colon, wliile 
November was the coolest month at all stations. 

The means and extremes in temperature for the year 1912 are pre- 
sented in the following: table: 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



223 



Station. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 




"F. 


Date. 


°F. 


Date. 


mean. 


Ancon 


97 
96 
91 


Apr. 7 ' 
Apr. 171 
Mav 5 


66 
65 
71 


Feb. 1 
Feb. 2 
Feb. 10 


80.7 
79.6 
80.7 


Culebra 


Colon 





' Same temperature recorded on May 5. 

The absolute maximum and minimum temperature of record at 
the three first-class meteorological stations are shown below: 

Absolute temperatures of record. 
[Revised to June 30, 1913.] 



Station. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


°F. 


Date. 


°F. 


Date. 


Ancon 


97 
96 
92 


Apr. 7, 1912 
Apr. 17,19121 
June 3 1909 


63 
61 


Jan. 27 1910 


Culebra 


Mar. 21 191 n 


Colon 


66 TtPO .•? 1009 













1 Same temperature recorded on May 5, 1912. 

Notes.— The lowest temperature of record on the Isthmus is 59° F. observed at 15as Obispo on Feb. 9, 
1907. The maximum temperature record at Ancon — 97° F. — was equaled at the Naos Island station on 
Feb. 13, 1906. 

Practically normal conditions of air temperature prevailed during 
the first six months of 1913. 

Monthly temperature records and other weather data for the year 
1912 at the principal stations are presented in Tables Nos. 5, 6, and 7. 



There was a notable excess in wind movement during the year 1912. 
The average velocities were abnormally high during the dry season 
months. The prevailing direction was from the northwest at Ancon 
and Culebra, and from the north at Colon. March was the windiest 
month at all stations, and June the month of least wind movement. 
No unusually high velocities were recorded at any of the first-class 
stations, although a maximum velocity of 49 miles an hour from the 
east was recorded at the Gatun station on August 7, 1912, during a 
local rain squall. 

Wind records on Sosa Hill were continued throughout the year 
for comparison with the Ancon records. The average wind move- 
ment for the fiscal year 1912-13 was 43 per cent greater at Sosa 
than at Ancon, due to the higher elevation and better exposure of the 
Sosa instruments. The prevailing direction was from the northwest 
at each station. Northwest wind prevailed 80 per cent of the ti5ne 
at Sosa and 58 per cent of the time at Ancon. The maximum veloci- 
ties recorded during the fiscal year were 48 miles an hour from the 
south on June 1 1 at Sosa and 32 miles from the south on the same date 
at Ancon. Comparative monthly wind records for these stations are 
presented in Table No, 8. 



224 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



The following table, revised to June 30, 1913, shows the maximum 
wind velocities of record at the first-class stations: 

Maximum velocity. 



station. 


Miles 
per hour. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Date. 




59 
39 
40 


S 

N 

S 


Julv 10,1909 




July 20,1910 




Julv 16,1908 







ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. 



The annual mean atmospheric pressure for 1912 was slightly below 
normal. April was the month of highest mean pressure, and Decem- 
ber the month of lowest pressure at all stations except Colon, where 
the lowest pressure occurred in September. 



RELATIVE HUMIDITY. 



The relative humidity was also below normal during the year 1912. 
The lowest average humidity occurred in March and the highest in 
October and November. The annual means for 1912 (from bi- 
hourly readings) were 81 per cent at Ancon, 82 per cent at Culebra, 
and 83 per cent at Colon. 

CLOUDINESS. 

Approximately normal conditions of cloudiness prevailed during 
the year 1912. The daytime cloudiness was somewhat heavier along 
the Pacific coast than over the central and Atlantic sections. The 
average cloudiness for the first six months of 1913 was generally 
deficient except during the month of May. 

EVAPORATION. 

Weather conditions during 1912 favored a high rate of evaporation 
and the annual totals were the highest of record at all stations. 
Evaporations during the first haK of 1913 continued abnormally- 
heavy. The monthly records are shown in Table No. 9._ The fol- 
lowing table gives the 1912 and average annual evaporation at the 

various stations : 

Annual evaporation. 



Station. 


1912 


Average. 




Inches. 
57.428 
58. 501 
61. 184 
60.929 


Inches. 
46. 877 




53.137 




61.032 




54. 547 







Night fogs were of frequent occurrence at the interior stations in 
the Canal Zone durmg the rainy season, 1912, but less frequent during 
the dry-season months. Few fogs wore observed at either coast sta- 
tion. Practically all fogs lifted or were dissipated by 8.30 a. m. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



225 



SEA TEMPERATURE. 



The average surface temperature of the sea water for the year 1912 
was normal at Colon, but 2° F. below normal at Balboa. The maxi- 
mum sea temperature recorded durmg the year at Balboa was 86° F. 
in June and the mmimum 67° F. m February and March, The max- 
imum at Colon was 87° F. in May and June and the minimum 78° in 
March. The monthly means and extremes at each station are shown 
in Table No. 10. 



TIDAL CONDITIONS. 



Tide registers were continued in operation at Balboa and Colon. 
The tide extremes of record at these stations are given below (length 
of record, six years), table revised to June 30, 1913. 



station. 


Maximum high water. 


Extreme low water. 


Maximum daily 
range. 1 


Minimum daily 
range.' 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Date. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Date. 


Feet. 


Date. 


Feet. 


Date. 


Balboa 

Colon 


+ 11.2 
+ 1.65 


Oct. 2, 1909 
Nov. 27, 1909 


-10.6 
- 1.01 


Apr. 11,1910 
June 9, 1910 


20.8 
2.17 


Apr. 11,1910 
June 28,1911 


5.1 


Mar. 24,1911 







1 For consecutive tides. 2 One tidal fluctuation often entirely absent at Colon. 

Note.— Elevations in feet referred to mean sea level. 

Tide conditions on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for the year 1912 
are shown in Table No. 11, 



SEISMOLOGY. 

A number of seismic disturbances were registered at Ancon and 
Gatun during the fiscal year 1912-13. Most of these disturbances 
were slight tremors due to quakes of distant origin. All were shocks 
of msufficient intensity to be sensibly felt in the Canal Zone, and no 
damage resulted from them. A complete list of the seismic disturb- 
ances recorded at Ancon during the year is presented in Table No. 12. 
The records at Gatun agree in most respects with the Ancon records. 

The following plates and tables accompany the report of the mete- 
orological section: 

Plates: 

No. 108. Annual rainfall along canal location. 

No. 109. Wind roses, year 1912, dry and rainy seasons. 
Tables: 

1. Monthly rainfall on the Isthmus of Panama. 

2. Monthly rainfall by sections, year 1912, and averages. 

3. Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone. 

4. Hourly distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone. 

5. Monthly meteorological data — Ancon, year 1912. 

6. Monthly meteorological data— Culebra, year 1912. 

7. Monthly meteorological data — Colon, year 1912. 

8. Comparative Ancon and Sosa wind records. 

9. Monthly evaporation— Canal Zone, 1912, 1913, and averages. 

10. Sea temperatures— year 1912. 

11. Tidal conditions— year 1912. 

12. Seismograph records, Ancon, year ended June 30, 1913. 

11834°— 13 15 



226 



EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION.' 






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CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



227 



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228 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Table No. 2. — Monthly rainfall by sections, Canal Zone — Year 1912 and averages. 

[Values in inches.] 



Month. 


Pacific section. 


Central section. 


Atlantic section. 


1912 


Average. 


1912 


Average. 


1912 


Average. 




0.01 
.23 
.01 
3.52 
8.39 
7.10 
9.81 
9.43 
11.74 
13.80 
7.97 
4.58 


1.30 
.97 
.66 
3.55 
9.37 
9.32 
9.48 
8.70 
9.08 
11.82 
10.78 
6.33 


0.44 
MO 
.09 
1.51 
9.45 
11.65 
11.11 
12.45 
12.16 
14.81 
11.03 
3.88 


1.62 
1.69 
1.21 
3.65 
12.29 
10.99 
11.22 
11.89 
11.37 
13.99 
15.54 
7.90 


0.62 
2.02 
.58 
1.58 
13.49 
17.34 
16.51 
12.60 
11.05 
16.79 
22.17 
10.61 


4.79 




2.68 


March 


2.64 


April 


4.46 


May 


14.11 


June 


15.14 


July 


16.31 


August 


15. 42 


September 


11.86 


October 


14.34 




24. 64 


December 


15.55 






Year 


76.58 


81.36 


89.68 


103. 36 


125.36 


141.94 







Note.— Means are based on the records from 5 stations in the Pacific section, 11 in the Central section, 
and 4 in the Atlantic section. All available records are used in computing averages. 

Table No. 3. — Maximum rainfall in Canal Zone Oct. 1, 1905, to June 30, 1913. 





Maximum rainfall. 


Stations. 


5 minutes. 


1 hour. 


24 hours.i 




Inches. 


Date. 


Inches. 


Date. 


Inches. 


Date. 


Ancon (Oct. 1, 1905) 


0.64 


Aug. 7,1908 


3.98 


Oct. 9,1911 


7.23 


May 12-13,1912. 


Balboa (June 10, 1906) 


.90 


May 12,1912 


5.86 


June 2, 1906 


7.57 


Nov. 16-17, 1906. 


Pedro Miguel (Jan. 1, 1908). 


.60 


Nov. 11,1908 


3.30 


Aug. 27,1908 


4.56 


Sept. 30-Oct. 1, 1909. 


Rio Grande (Dec. 29, 1905). 


.75 


July 24,1908 


3.10 


Sept. 21, 1912 


6.00 


Dec. 2-3, 1906. 


Culebra (July 1, 1906) 


.64 


May 2, 1908 


3.69 


Oct. 16,1907 


5.55 


Dec. 3, 1906.2 


Empire (July 18, 1906) 


.(iO 


July 25,1906 


3.63 


Oct. 1,1909 


6.15 


Do. 


Gamboa (Nov. 18, 1905)... 


.59 


July 27,1908 


3.32 


May 11,1911 


6. 56 


Dec. 2-3, 1906. 


Alhajuela (Mar. 31, 1907).. 


.60 


July 20,1909 


3.40 


Dec. 28,1909 


8.19 


Dec. 3, 1906.2 


Gatun (Aug. 24, 1907) 


.62 


Aug. 3, 1912 


3.82 


May 26,1910 


10.48 


Do. 


Colon (Oct. 1, 1905) 


.64 


Aug. 25,1909 


4.90 


Oct. 8, 1909 


8.53 


Dec. 2-3, 1906. 


Porto Bello (May 1, 1908). 


8 2.48 


Nov. 29, 1911 


4.53 


Nov. 29, 1911 


10.86 


Dec. 28-29, 1909. 



1 Maximum fall in any 24 consecutive hours. 

2 No automatic record on this date; total for 24 hours ending at noon. 

' Approximate; automatic record indistinct, due to unusually excessive rate of fall. 
Note.— Dates in parentheses opposite station names refer to installation of automatic rainfall registers. 

Table No. 4. — Hoicrly distribution of rainfall in Canal Zone, year 1912. 
[Values in inches.) 



Station. 



Total 
annual 
rainfall. 



Rainfall during 
working hours, 7 
a. m. to 5 p. m. 



Amount. 



Per cent 
of total. 



Hourly rainfall. 



Maximum. 



Hour of 

maximum. 



Accumu- 
lated 
amount. 



Minimum. 



Hour of 

minimum. 



Accumu- 
lated 
amount. 



Ancon 

Balboa 

Pedro Miguel 
Rio Grande.. 

Culebra 

Gamboa 

Alhajuela 

Gatun 

Colon 

Porto Bello. . 



71.78 
71.89 
75.71 
75.14 



78.99 
89.07 
83.73 
111.8;< 
117.59 
147.61 



45.37 
44.34 
57.95 
53.13 



43.45 
68.14 
(«. 70 
48.28 
44.26 
72.58 



2-3 p.m. 
2-3 p.m. 
2-3 p.m. 
2-3 p.m. 



2-3 p.m. 
3-4 p.m. 
2-3 p.m. 
3-4 p.m. 
5-6 a.m. 
2-3 p.m. 



10.27 
10.69 
14.88 
15.15 



14.51 
16.20 
15.44 
8.50 
8.25 
12.51 



1-2 a.m... 
1-2 a.m... 
2-3 a.m... 
4-5 a. m., 

and 11 p. 

m. 

11 p.m 

10-11 p.m. 
1-2 a.m... 
9-10 a.m.. 
8-9 p. m . . . 
6-7 p.m... 



0.32 
.29 
.16 
.28 



.27 
.27 
.34 
2.56 
1.91 
2.65 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 229 

Table No. 5. — Monthly vuteorological data — Ancon, Canal Zone, year 1912. 





Atmospheric 






. 












i 


2 


•a 




pressure 




Air temperature (degrees Fahrenheit). 




3 


a . 




(inches). 


















a 

OI 


OS . 

aa 


© 9 


Month. 




1 

i 




6 

1 


a 




s 

'a 


ca' 


5 . 

a 3 




1^ 

C3 p, 

'3-.' 




M 


t» 


s 


S 





)S 


S 


Q 


a 


S 


s 


a 


a 


Januarj- 


29.742 


29. 838 


80.6 


93 


22 


91 


68 


26 


71 


23 


72 


70 


82 


Februarj- 


29. 702 


29. 858 


81.3 


94 


19 


91 


66 


1 


71 


26 


72 


70- 


82 


March 


29. 749 

29. 770 


29.844 
29. 865 


83.0 

82.1 


96 

97 


7 
7 


94 
92 


69 
69 


12 
2 


72 
72 


24 
26 


73 

74 


71 
72 




April 


78 


May 


29. 732 


29. 828 


82.0 


96 


7 


90 


71 


20 


74 


21 


76 


75 


87 


June 


29.742 
29. 728 


29. 837 
29. 823 


80.8 
80.6 


94 
94 


21 
27 


89 

88 


70 
70 


16 
14 


73 
73 


23 
19 


76 
75 


75 
74 


90 


July 


91 


August 


29. 728 


29. 824 


80.2 


94 


31 


88 


69 


7 


72 


21 


75 


75 


90 


September 


29. 726 


29. 822 


79.4 


92 


9 


87 


68 


24 


72 


20 


75 


74 


91 


October 


29. 735 


29. 830 


79.0 


92 


5 


86 


69 


29 


72 


19 


75 


74 


93 


November. . . 


29.736 


29.831 


79.0 


91 


26 


86 


69 


17 


74 


21 


74 


74 


92 


December 


29. 722 


29. 818 


80.8 


93 


5 


90 


69 


18 


72 


21 


74 


73 


89 


Year 


29.739 


29.835 


80.7 


97 


<7 


89.3 


66 


51 


72.3 


26 


74.2 


73.1 


86.8 




Precipitation (inches). 


Wind. 


Number of days. 












g 


t 


1 

: Maximum veloc- 










g- 










§ 


.h 




ity. 










m 


a 


Month. 




5^ 




1? 

a 












>> 




o 


■o 






c 
o 




•3 




O 


o 

iz; 


.S 


3 

o 


i 

Ah 


3 


o 




o 


"3 


>> 

§ 




> 
< 


January . . 


T. 


1.02 





8,564 
7,705 


NW 


24 


NW 


3 


17 


14 




I 


3.8 
6.1 


February 


0.08 


.86 


2 


NW. 


29 


NW. 


23 


3 


17 


9 





March 


.01 


.78 


1 


8,965 


NW. 


30 


NW. 


1 


3 


26 


2 





5.6 


April 


2.68 


2.76 


5 


6,390 


NW 


25 


N. 


5 


g 


16 


g 




5.1 
7.7 
7.4 
7.8 
7.3 


May 


10.71 


8.98 


14 


4,999 


NW. 


23 


NW. 


2 





15 


16 


14 


June 


5.80 


8.15 


13 


4,118 


NW. 


34 


S. 


15 





18 


12 


20 


July 


10.25 


8.16 


20 


5,176 


NW. 


24 


SE. 


14 


1 


10 


20 


18 


August 


6.33 


7.53 


20 


5,024 


NW. 


24 


N. 


IS 


1 


14 


16 


18 


September 


8.38 


7.46 


20 


4,451 


NW. 


31 


NK. 


23 





14 


16 


20 


7.6 


October 


17.89 


10.92 


23 


4,538 


NW. 


23 


S. 


28 


1 


11 


19 


14 


7.5 


November 


6.38 


10.45 


22 


5,105 


NW. 


25 


NW. 


17 


2 


13 


15 


5 


6.9 


December 


3.27 


4.18 


13 


5,007 


NW. 
NW. 


20 


NW. 

S. 


16 


6 


16 


9 


9 


5.8 


Year 


71.78 


71.25 


153 


70,042 


34 


8 15 


42 


184 


140 


125 


6.6 



1 Elevation of barometer 92 feet above sea level. 
* Average for 14 years' record. 
3 Tenths of sky. 



* April. 
6 February. 
'June. 



230 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 6. — Monthly meteorological data — Culebra, Canal Zone, year 1912. 



Month. 



January... 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December. 

Year, 



Atmospheric 
pressure 
(inches). 



29.438 
29.460 
29.442 
29.464 
29.430 
29. 436 
29.420 
29. 423 
29.422 
29. 430 
29.428 
29.414 



29. 434 



29.851 
29.874 
29.854 
29.874 
29.840 
29. 848 
29.832 
29.836 
29.834 
29. 844 
29.842 
29.828 



29.846 



Air temperature (degrees Fahrenheit). 



>> 






, 






So 


s 

3 




H 


s 




Sd 


C3 


03 


%.i 


.s 




s 


>. 


Q 


s 


s 


c 


79.0 


90 


8 


87 


68 


27 


79.2 


91 


10 


88 


65 


2 


80.4 


92 


7 


89 


68 


12 


81.4 


96 


17 


91 


67 


2 


81.2 


96 


5 


89 


70 


20 


80.2 


91 


21 


88 


70 


16 


79.8 


91 


12 


86 


70 


17 


79.5 


92 


8 


87 


69 


12 


78.7 


90 


1 


86 


67 


24 


7S.6 


90 


5 


86 


68 


29 


7S. 


88 


22 


84 


69 


17 


78.8 


88 


1 


86 


67 


18 


79.6 


96 


<5 


87.2 


65 


62 



ia l«. 



72.1 



27 



73.2 



03 & 



S ft 



88.3 





Precipitation (inches). 


Wind. 


Number of days. 




Month. 


o 

§ 


1 
o 


1 

.g 

03 


i 
i . 

a 

O 


•a 

Mo 


Maximum veloc- 
ity. 


i 


§ 


§ 


1 

•o 

a 

3 


1 
'■5 






o 

■•§ 

.§ 


ft 


03 
< 


January 


0.05 

.33 

.02 

3.14 

8.15 

7.57 

10.12 

12.88 

14.12 

10.15 

7.59 

4.87 


1.75 
.56 
.68 

3.80 
11.16 

8.86 

9.52 
10.58 
11.23 
11.54 
12.30 

7.68 


2 

4 
1 
4 
IS 
21 
22 
19 
20 
25 
24 
15 


7,697 
7,864 
8,893 
7,059 
5,538 
3,715 
4,962 
4.592 
3,975 
3,505 
5,039 
5,567 


NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 

NW. 


28 
30 
35 
30 
27 
25 
36 
33 
32 
21 
27 
24 


NW. 
NW. 

N. 

N. 
SW. 
SE. 
NE. 
NE. 
NE. 

N. 
NW. 

N. 

NE. 


31 

24 

4 
25 

8 
15 
30 
12 
23 

7 
17 

9 


17 
9 
9 
6 



2 
1 


6 


14 
20 
22 
21 
11 

9 
13 
12 
10 

9 
15 
20 








3 

20 

21 

18 

17 

19 

22 

16 

5 








2 

15 

21 

14 

23 

22 

22 

11 

7 


3.5 


February 

March. 


4.3 
4.1 


April 


4.9 


May 


7 4 




7 8 


July .. . 


7.7 


August 


7 3 


September 

October 


7.5 
7 6 


November 

December 


7.4 
5.2 


Year 


78.99 


89.66 


172 


68,406 


36 


•30 


50 


176 


140 


137 


6.2 



> Elevation of barometer 404 feet above sea level. 

2 Average for 22 years' record. 

3 Tenths of sky. 



«May. 

' February. 

« July. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION. 231 

Table No. 7. — Monthly vieteorological data — Colon, Republic of Panama, year 1912- 





Atmospheric 
pressure 
(inches). 


Air temperature (degrees Fahrenheit). 


e 

o 

a 

A . 
1 


£ 

D 

ia 

1 




Month. 




i 


is 


a 

1 

1 




a| 
is 


a 

1 

.s 
1^, 


03 


'is 

is 


T3 W fc- 


So. 
1= 


January 


29. 802 
29.880 
29. 870 
29. 880 
29. 844 
29. 849 
29. 841 
29. 830 
29. 829 
29. 834 
29. 840 
29.834 


29. 872 
29. 892 
29. 882 
29. 897 
29.854 
29. 800 
29. 852 
29. 840 
29. 840 
29. 840 
29.850 
29. 845 


82.2 
80.8 
82.4 
82.8 
82.0 
80.2 
80.0 
80.2 
79.4 
79.0 
78.6 
80.4 


88 
88 
88 
90 
91 
89 
89 
89 
89 
88 
88 
87 


22 
27 
29 
20 

5 

9 
27 

9 
17 
12 

5 
20 


86 
85 

87 
88 
87 
84 
84 
84 
84 
84 
82 
84 


76 
71 
76 
74 
73 
73 
71 
72 
71 
72 
73 
73 


8 
10 
11 

18 
21 
16 
1 
7 
25 
29 
14 
17 


78 
77 
78 
78 
77 
76 
77 
76 
75 
75 
75 
76 


11 
15 
11 
15 
14 
15 
14 
14 
15 
14 
14 
12 


74 
75 
75 
75 
77 
77 
77 
76 
76 
75 
76 
70 


72 
73 
73 
73 
76 
76 
76 
75 
75 
74 
74 
74 


77 


February 

March 


82 
79 


April 


78 


May 


85 


June 


88 


July 


88 




87 


September 

October 


87 

88 


November 

December 


89 
84 


Year 


29.850 


29.861 


80.7 


91 


<5 


84.9 


71 


5 10 


76.5 


15 


75. 8 


74.2 


84.3 





Precipi 

% 
o 

>> 
3 

1 


tation (inches). 






Wind. 






Number of days. 




Month. 


•3 

a 

o 

2; 


cS 

.a 


i 
>^ 

s.-s 
a, 

B 
o 
H 


al 


Maximum veloc- 
ity. 


1 






o 


g 
'•o 


• 


® 
ft . 


i 


>> 


o 
u 

CD 

> 


January 


0.28 

1.81 

0.60 

0.75 

12.03 

15.90 

13.13 

9.87 

12.23 

17. C5 

21.81 

11.47 


3.96 

1.47 

1.67 

4.08 

12.41 

13.35 

16.38 

15.01 

12.53 

14.29 

21.86 

12.31 


9 
15 
11 

6 
17 
24 
26 
20 
22 
26 
27 
21 


ID, 772 
H),066 
12,550 
10, 020 
7,614 
5,165 
7,574 
6,892 
5,473 
5,490 
7,519 
8,992 


N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
W. 
N. 
N. 
SE. 
SE. 
W. 
NE. 


32 
32 
33 
33 
26 
20 
26 
29 
37 
38 
34 
29 


NE. 

N. 
NE. 
NE. 
NE. 
NE. 
NE. 
W. 
W. 

sw. 

NW. 

NE. 


5 

8 

5 

24 

18 

17 

28 

19 

2 

23 

17 

13 


7 
5 
13 
16 
2 
1 
3 
1 
3 
1 

9 


23 
21 
10 
12 
17 
15 
12 
18 
10 
12 
10 
17 


1 

3 

2 

2 

12 

14 

10 

12 

17 

18 

20 

5 










12 

19 

8 

21 

10 

14 

10 

1 


4.9 


February 

March 


5.5 

4.4 


April 


3.7 


May 


0.6 


luiie 


7.3 


July 


7.1 


August 


6.8 


September 

October 


7.0 
7.5 


November 

December 


8.4 
5.3 


Year 


117.59 


129. 32 


224 


98, 727 


N. 


38 


SW. 


8 23 


61 


183 


122 


101 


6.2 



1 Elevation of barometer 10 feet above sea level. 

2 Average for 42 years' record. 

3 Tenths of sky. 



<May. 

* February. 

8 October. 



232 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 8. — Corn-par alive ivind records — Ancon and Sosa, fiscal year 1912-lS. 





Ancon. 


Sosa. 


Excess 
wind 
move- 


Month. 


Aver- 
age 
hourly 
wind 
move- 
ment. 


Per 
cent 
NW. 
wind. 


Maximum velocity. 


Aver- 
age 
hourly 
wind 
move- 
ment. 


Per 

cent 
NW. 
wind. 


Maximum velocity. 




Miles 
per 
hoiu-. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Day. 


Miles 
per 
hour. 


Direc- 
tion. 


Day. 


(per 
cent).' 


1912. 
July 


7.0 
6.8 
6.2 
6.1 
7.1 
6.7 

7.3 
9.3 
10.6 
9.7 
6.7 
5.5 


70 
55 

48 
37 
47 

58 

64 
68 
77 
69 
63 
43 


24 
24 
31 
23 
25 
20 

21 
26 
26 
24 
20 
32 


SE. 

N. 
NE. 

S. 
NW. 
NW. 

N. 

N. 

NW. 

N. 
N. 
S. 

S. 


14 

18 
23 
28 
17 
16 

29 

10 

23 

2 

1 
11 


10.5 
9.9 
8.9 
7.6 
9.7 
9.8 

10.7 
13.3 
15.6 
13.5 
9.4 
8.0 


(6 
71 
59 
66 

88 

89 
94 
98 
88 
79 
61 


44 

40 
39 
28 
36 
27 

30 

36 
36 
36 
34 

48 


SE. 
NE. 
SE. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 

NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 

NW. 

S. 

S. 


14 
23 
14 
22 
17 
16 

7 
17 
23 

5 

1 
11 


50 


August . 


46 


September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 


44 
25 
37 
46 

45 
44 
47 


April . 


40 


May 


40 


June 


45 






Year 


7.4 


58 


32 


2 11 


10.6 


80 


4S 


2 11 


43 



Sosa records compared with Ancon. 



2 June. 



Note.— Elevation of Ancon anemometer 69 feet above groimd and approximately 160 feet above mean 
sea level. Sosa anemometer 25 feet above ground and approximately 220 feet above mean sea level. 

Table No. 9. — Monthly evaporation — Canal Zone, years 1912, 1913, and averages. 

[Value in inches.] 





Ancon. 


Rio Grande. 


Gatun. 


Brazos Brook. 


Month. 


1912 


1913 


Aver- 
age. 


1912 


1913 


Aver- 
age. 


1912 


1913 


Aver- 
age. 


1912 


1913 


Aver- 
age. 


January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December.. 


7.370 
6.755 
7.795 
5.721 
3.746 
3.098 
3.386 
3.648 
3.395 
3.458 
3.723 
5.333 


5.935 
6.439 
7.816 
6.465 
3. 963 
3.615 


4.889 
5.384 
6.480 
4.813 
3.149 
2.708 
3.018 
3.021 
3.120 
3.314 
2.956 
4.025 


6.363 
6.134 
77.099 
6.732 
5.350 
3.836 
3.908 
3.983 
3.335 
3.763 
3.275 
4.723 


5.392 
5.844 
6.762 
6.436 
4. 033 
3.812 


5.577 
5.605 
6.832 
5.454 
4.372 
3.388 
3.715 
3.749 
3.719 
3.590 
3. 010 
4. 126 


7.208 
6.048 
7.649 
7.394 
5.335 
3.263 
3.889 
4.316 
3.799 
4.123 
3.351 
4.809 


5.435 
6.889 
8.602 
7.333 
4.606 
5.083 


6.322 
6. 468 
8.126 
7.364 
4.970 
3.031 
4.224 
4. .362 
4. 191 
3.866 
3.016 
5.092 


6.066 
5.572 
7. OSl 
7.321 
5. 707 
3.729 
4.425 
4.611 
4.487 
3.970 
3.100 
4.860 


6.387 
6.616 
8. 455 
7.466 
4.167 
4.500 


5.842 
5.493 
7.140 
5.663 
4.474 
3.492 
3.710 
3.906 
4.140 
4.063 
2.834 
3.790 


Year. 
Daily mean 


57.428 
.157 




46.877 
.128 


58. 501 
.160 




53.137 
.146 


61.184 
.167 


....... 


61.032 
.167 


60. 929 
.166 




54.547 
.149 



Note.— Averages at Rio Grande and Brazos Brook are based oA four years' record; Ancon five years' 
record; and Gatun two years' record. 

Evaporation measurements are from floating pans 4 feet in diameter and 10 inches deep at Rio (Jrande, 
(iatiui ami lirazos Brook, and insulated tank 10 inches in diameler at Ancon. 

For monthly evaporation during past years, see previous amiual reports. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 233 



Table No. 10. — Sea temperatures, 1912. 
[Temperatures of water in degrees Fahrenheit.] 





Pacific Ocean (Balboa). 


Atlantic Ocean (Colon). 


Month 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Date. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Date. 


Month- 
ly mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Date. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Date. 


Month- 
ly mean. 


January 


82 
70 
74 
82 
85 
86 
84 
84 
83 
83 
82 
S3 


1 

'0 

112 

1 22 

12 

19 

15 

14 

11 

15 

12 

120 


72 
G7 
07 
68 
73 
81 
80 
81 
80 
80 
79 
79 


114 

120 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 

1 15 
11 

127 

127 

18 

1 


75.5 
71.2 

70.6 
74.4 
80.4 
83.3 
82.0 
82.1 
81.9 
81.8 
80.0 
81.6 


84 
83 

84 
SO 
87 
87 
86 
80 
,85 
85 
84 
84 


26 
11 

111 

1 18 
9 
7 

1 11 
18 
1 1 

1 11 
11 
14 


79 
80 

78 
80 
80 
SO 
80 
80 
80 
80 
79 
79 


16 

12 

15 

16 

I 22 

30 

117 

113 

18 

12 

128 

1 16 


80.9 


February 


SO. 7 




81.1 




82.8 




83.4 




83.7 


July 


82.7 




82.6 




82.0 




82 2 




81.3 


December 


81.5 




86 


29 


07 


(5) 


78.8 


87 


(^) 


78 


{') 


82.1 







1 Same temperature recorded on other dates also. 

"June. 

s Several dates. 



< May and June. 
s March . 



Table No. 11. — Tidal conditions, year 1912. 

[Elevations in feet referred to mean sea level.] 

PACIFIC COAST (BALBOA). 



Month. 


Maximum high 
water. 


Extreme low 
water. 


Maximum daily 
range.i 


Minimum daily 
range.i 




Elevation. 


Date. 


Elevation. 


Date. 


Elevation. 


Date. 


Elevation. 


Date.2 


January 

February 

March 

April 


+ 9.6 
+ 9.7 
+ 9.4 
4- 8.7 
+ 8.9 
+ 9.0 
+ 9.5 
+ 10.0 
+ 10.2 
+ 10.2 
+ 8.8 
+ 9.2 


7 
5 
5 
2" 
19 
17 
17-18 
15 
13 
12 
8-9 
28 


-9.6 
-9.8 
-9.9 
-9.5 
-8.7 
-8.7 
-9.1 
-9.4 
-9.4 
-8.9 
-8.4 
-8.6 



4 
5 
3 
1 

17 
16 
14 
12 
11 
9 
26 


18.9 
19.4 
19.3 
18.1 
17.3 
17.7 
18.5 
19.4 
19.6 
19.0 
17.2 
17.5 


6-7 
5 
5 
2 

18 
17 
16 
15 
13 
11 
9 
26 


7.3 
6.0 
5.2 
5.3 
5.9 
6.8 
7.8 
6.4 
5.8 
5.4 
5.6 
6.6 


14 
12 
13 
11 


May 


10 


June 


8 


July 


10,24 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November. . . 
December 


23 
21 
20 

IS 
18 


Year... 


+ 10.2 


(') 


-9.9 


<5 


19.6 


M3 


5.2 


< l.'^ 



ATLANTIC COAST (COLON). 



January 


+ 1.34 


3 


-0.82 


5 


1.99 





0.23 


30 


February 


+ 1.26 


27 


- .73 


1 


1.71 


1 


.21 


23 


March 


+ 1.10 


1 


- .72 


26 


1.59 


25 


.21 


62 


April 


+ .87 
+ 1.22 
+ 1.27 
+ 1.30 
+ 1.48 


21 
28 
17 
12 
11 


- .89 

- .82 

- .03 

- .00 

- .37 


23 
7 
16 
14 
21 


1.66 
1.77 
1.90 
1.82 
1.65 


21 
20 
17 
13 

9 


.21 
.24 
.22 
.24 
.20 


23 


Mav 


13 


June . ... 


/ 


July 


6 17 


August 


31 


September . . . 


+ 1.37 


6 


- .44 


16 


1.59 


1 


.20 




October 


+ 1.31 


4 


- .51 


30 


1.55 


4 


.20 


14 


November. .. 


+ 1.34 


11 


- .67 


17 


1.67 


27 


.23 


20 


December 


+ 1.42 


26 


- .56 


7 


1.67 


26 


.24 


1 


Year... 


+ 1.48 


Ml 


- .89 


8 23 


L99 


96 


.20 


('") 



1 For consecutive tides. 

2 One tidal fluctuation is often entirely absent at Colon. 

3 Sept. 13 and October 12. 
< March. 

i Sept<^mber. 



« Other dates also. 
' August. 
"April. 

9 January. 

10 Several dates 



23^ 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Table No. 12. — Seismograph records, Ancon, Canal Zone {latitude, 8° 51' north: lon- 
gitude, 79° 32' west), year ended June SO, 1913. 

[lOO-K. Bosh-Omori seismographs. Greenwich mean time, midnight to midnight.] 



Date. 



1912. 
July 7 

July? 

July 18 

July 24 

July 27 

July 27 

Nov. 2 

Nov. 7 

Nov. 7 , 

Nov. 17 

Nov. 19 

Nov. 24 

Dec. 7 

Dec. 9 

1913. 
Jan. 15 

Feb. 23 

Mar. 6 

Mar. 8 , 

Mar. 9 , 

Mar. 14 

Apr. 12 

Apr. 20 

Apr. 30 

May 27 

June 14 

June 19 

June2C , 



Compo- 
nent. 



/ N-S. 
\ E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 

N-S. 

E-W. 



Time of beginning. 



Prelimi- 
nary 
tremors. 



8.09 

8.11 

22.52 

Absent. 

21.30 

(?) 

12.03 

12.03 

(?) 

(?) 

(?) 

(?) 

1.18 

1.18 

16.47 

16.47 

17.32 

17.32 

11.34 

11.35 

14.00 

14.00 

10.22 

10.22 

22.54 

22.54 

8.36 

8.36 



Second 
prelimi- 
nary 
tremors. 



Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 
Absent. 

Absent. 



Long 

waves. 



8.32 
8.32 
22.53 
(?) 
21.39 
21.39 
12.08 
12.08 
11.58 
11.58 
12.43 
12.43 
1.19 
1.19 
16.49 
16.48 
17.34 
17.34 
11.37 
(?) 
14.04 
(?) 
10.23 
10.23 
22.59 
22.59 
8.39 
8.40 



Time of— 



Maxi- 
mum. 



8.44 
8.43 
22.53 
22.43 
21.42 
21.41 
12.06 
12.04 
11.58 
11.58 
12.44 
12.44 
1.19 
1.19 
16.50 
16.50 
17.34 
17.34 
11.38 
11.38 
14.10 
(?) 
10.23 
10.23 
22.59 
23.03 
8.41 
8.41 



End. 



9.17 
9.09 
23.07 
(?) 
22.00 
21.55 
12.40 
12.38 
12.00 
12.00 
12.52 
12.47 
1.25 
1.23 
17.09 
17.08 
18.00 
17.50 
11.54 
11.45 
14.33 
(?) 
10.24 
10.24 
23.13 
23.11 
9.10 
9.06 



2.57 


Absent. 


3.00 


2.57 


Absent. 


3.00 


1.48 


Absent. 


1.49 


1.48 


Absent. 


1.49 


15.55 


Absent. 


15.59 


15.56 


Absent. 


15.59 


16.02 


Absent. 


16.03 


16.02 


Absent. 


16.03 


9.05 


Absent. 


9.16 


9.05 


Absent. 


9.16 


6.54 


Absent. 


6.54 


6.54 


Absent. 


6.54 


18.01 


Absent. 


IS. 02 


18.01 


Absent. 


IS. 02 


15.18 


Absent. 


15. 19 


15.18 


Absent. 


15.19 


(?) 


Absent. 


2.26 


(?) 


Absent. 


2.26 


8.42 


Absent. 


8.49 


(?) 


Absent. 


S.50 


1.23 


Absent. 


1.24 


1.23 


Absent. 


1.24 


5.21 


Absent. 


5.38 



18.57 19.00 19.41 

Record missing, clock stopped. 



Maxi- 
mum am- 
plitude. 



2.57 


3.15 


1.5 


3.02 


3.08 


.2 


1.49 


1.50 


1.5 


1.49 


1.50 


1.0 


15.59 


16.18 


2.5 


16.02 


16.13 


1.0 


16.04 


16.17 


3.0 


10. 04 


16.12 


1.0 


9.10 


10.30 


1.5 


9.16 


10.14 


1.0 


0.54 


6.56 


1.0 


6.54 


6.55 


1.0 


18.02 


18.11 


2.5 


18. 02 


18.10 


2.0 


15.19 


15.21 


2.0 


15.19 


15.21 


2.0 


2.44 


2.58 


5.0 


2.42 


2.50 


1.5 


8.50 


9.18 


.5 


8.50 


8.53 


.1 


1.25 


1.44 


1.5 


1.25 


1.40 


.2 


5.39 


5.44 


1.6 



No record on this instrument. 
I I 



Mm. 

1.5 

1.0 

.6 

.2 

1.0 

.3 

11.0 

3.0 

.2 

.2 

.4 

.2 

1.5 

.5 

3.0 

1.0 

2.5 

1.0 

1.0 

.1 

.8 

.1 

1.0 

1.0 

5.0 

3.0 

1.5 

.5 

2.0 



Approxi- 
mate dis- 
tance of 
epicenter. 



Miles. 
4,700 



(?) 

""2,' 666 



800 



(?) 



(?) 
'(?)" 



575 
'575 



(?) 

"'i,'256 

"225 



1,500 

'"966 



550 

750 

""i26 

'""840 

"""ieo 
"2,176 

Local. 
" " '256 

90 

'(?)"■* 
"'2," 300 
'""356 
""3,' 566 



Notes. — Period of pendulum, 25 seconds; magnification, 10; damping, medium. The amplitude indi- 
cates half of the complete range of maximum motion. Laska's formula used in computing distances in 
the case of remote earthquakes (620 miles or more) and Omori's formula for earthquakes less than 620 
miles distant. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — SECOND DIVISION. 



235 



HYDROLOGY. 

The most important change drn-iug the year was the rise in Gatun 
Lake. On July 1, 1912, the elevation was +31 being due to storage 
following closing of Gatun spillway sluice gates on April 30, 1912, 
when lake was +16.5. The level was controlled around +32 by 
the sluice gates (east (E), center (C), west (W), and cyUndrical 
valve (Cyl.) until August 17, 1912, when all gates were closed, the 
eleVation being +32. The following rise continued until Septem- 
ber 30, 1912, reaching elevation +48 when the gates were opened. 
These fluctuations, as well as those for the balance of the fiscal 
year, including the regulations of the sluice gates, are shown in 
plates Nos. 110 and 111. From October 20 to December 18 the level 
was above +50, causing the water to flow over the temporary crest 
of the spiUway dam. The maximum elevation reached was +56.28 
on November 29, 1912. This extreme level was caused more by the 
formation of a jam, consisting of "floating islands" and driftwood, 
in front of the dam than by excessive discharge, although the maxi- 
mum flow for the year occurred at the same time. During the six 
months of 1913 the level was kept between +48 and +50, as shown by 
plate No. 111. The gates were closed on June 27, 1913, at elevation 
+ 48.22, beginning the rise to final operating level (mean + 85) . With 
a normal flow this will be reached about the middle of December, 1913. 

The yield of the Chagres River system at Alhajuela, Gamboa, and 
Gatun for the calendar year 1912 was the second in order of dryness 
since the American occupation in 1904, Plates Nos. 112, 113, and 114 
show mass curves for years 1905, 1908, 1911, 1912, and the mean for 
show 23-year period at each station. It will be seen that the year 1905 
was the dry est year, although the dry-season flow for 1912 was the 
minimum for all stations. These plates give also the percentage of the 
23-year mean for each year shown, as summarized in the following 
table : 





Calendar year. 


station. 


1905 


1908 


1911 


1912 


23-year 
mean. 


Alhajuela 


59.3 
58.5 
62.0 


101.6 

104.3 

78.3 


85.6 
79.5 
70.2 


82.5 
77.5 
66.9 


100 


Gamboa 


100 


Gatun 


100 







Plates Nos. 115 and 116 show discharge duration curves for Alha- 
juela and Gamboa for calendar year 1912 by days, and also by 
months, in order of dryness. Plates Nos. 117, 118, and 119 show 
discharge duration curves for Alhajuela, Gamboa, and Gatun for 23 
years by months. 

Accompanying Table No. 13 gives maximum, minimum, and mean 
discharges by months for calendar year 1912 at Alhajuela and Gam- 
boa, also the monthly run-off into Gatun Lake. Table No. 14 gives 
the same data for period January to June, inclusive, 1913, except for 
Gamboa, gauging work being discontinued at that station in Decem- 
ber, 1912. 



236 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



STATION EQUIPMENT AND FIELD WORK. 



At AlhaJTiela the work has consisted of 104 current-meter gaugings 
on the Chagres River and the keeping of continuous records of river 
heights. The gaugings have been made to cover the total fluctuations 
of the river, or from 91.2 to 108.4. There has been practically no 
change in the cross section of the river at this station, so that the dis- 
charge-estimate work has been very satisfactory. The measurements 
at this station were checked by 18 sets of gaugings on the upper 
Chagres, Pequeni, and La Puente Rivers, near Vigia. In addition to 
this work the observer at this station has had charge of gaugings on 
the GatunciUo, ChiUbre, and Chilibrillo Rivers, on which streams 49, 
51, and 19 measurements, respectively, were made. 

Regular gauging work at Gamboa was discontinued at the end 
of 1912, although a few measurements were made on extreme low 
water and during all freshets of any moment. Eighty-one gaugings 
were taken, 70 being made up until the end of December, 1912. Con- 
tinuous water elevations were recorded. The backwater from Gatun 
Lake was felt appreciably at this station about the 1st of September. 
Gauging work was further complicated ^y the filling in of the river 
channel alon^ the north bank following the gravel excavation of the 
dry season of 1912. Plate No. 120 shows the changes in the cross sec- 
tion at the cable gauging station. From June to December, 1912, the 
observer at Gamboa made 35 current-meter gaugings on the Obispo 
diversion just above the junction with the Chagres. From the 20th 
of August to the 8th of September, the flow of the Obispo diversion 
was interrupted by a sUde on the east bank of the cut. 

Gauge readings were taken twice a day on the Chagres River at 
Juan Mina, also crest elevations and time of same were taken on the 
larger freshets. 

The discharge of the Gatun spillway was regulated by the sluice 
gates in the concrete dam, as mentioned above. Ninety-eight 
current-meter measurements were made during the year, and these 
were combined with the continuous record of elevations at the spill- 
way water gauge in obtaining discharge estimates. The discharge 
measurements gave some data on the capacity of the sluice-gate 
openings, but only for lake elevations around +32 and +49, and 
many of these did not agree closely, probably due to conditions 
affecting the inflow, that is, submerged driftwood and other obstruc- 
tions at entrances. Continuous records of elevation of Gatun Lake 
were obtained. 

Since Gatun Lake was raised to elevation +48 the automatic 
water gauges at Bohio, Frijoles, San Pablo, Gamboa, and Trinidad 
have recorded lake levels at the various points. All of these mstru- 
ments were in operation throughout the fiscal year except the San 
Pablo register, which was installed on October 5, 1912. Table No. 15 
gives maximum, minimum, and mean elevations, by months, from 
January, 1912, to June, 1913, for all stations on Gatun Lake drainage 
basin. 

Gaugings were made on the following streams tributary to Gatun 
Lake below Gamboa: Trinidad (35), Siri Grande (31), Siricito (10), 
Gatun (12), Cano (11), Azules (2), Mandingo (12), Agua Salud (13), 
Frijoles (13), Frijoles Grande (1), and Friiol (10). Most of this 
work was done by the field hydrographer. The observers stationed 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 237 

at Triiiidad took weekly g^ugings on the Trinidad, Siri, and Siricito 
until the end of 1912. Table No. 16 gives the water supplied to 
Gatun Lake by the various tributaries for the months of 1912. This 
table also attempts to balance the inflow and outflow by the following 
formula : 



Inflow: 

Discharge of streams. 

Rainfall on lake surface. 

Ground water, included in "Inflow 

not accounted for." 
Storage decrease. 



Outflow: 

Discharge of spillway. 

Evaporation loss. 

Seepage, included in "Inflow not 

accounted for." 
Storage increase. 



A study of this table would seem to indicate that the Gatun Lake 
basin is subject to very little seepage or other underground losses, 

Gaugings were taken on the streams tributary to Miraflores Lake 
basin as follows: Pedro Miguel (26), Caimitillo (18), Camaron (19), 
Cocoli (12), and Rio Grande (1). 

Daily gauge readings were taken throughout the fiscal year on the 
foUowmg streams mentioned below: Agua Salud, Frijolito, Frijol, 
Pedro Miguel, Caimitillo, Camaron, and Rio Grande. Maximum 
gauges were observed on the following streams when visited for 
daily gauge readings or on gau^ig work, viz: Chihbre, Agua Salud, 
Frijohto, Frijol, Obispo diversion, Mandingo, Pedro Miguel, CocoH, 
and Gatun River. From these readings monthly discharges were 
estimated as well as maximum flow on freshets. 



FRESHETS. 



Vigia, Alhajuela, and Gamboa have been used as warning stations 
during freshet stages of the river. During the river year ended 
April 30, 1913, there were 17 freshets which had a rise of more than 
5 feet at Vigia. The rise in Gatun Lake checked the force of freshet 
rises at Gamboa. Up untd September the average ratio between 
Gamboa and Vigia rise was 0.73 for 12 freshets, the maximum being 
0.82 and the minimum 0.60. For the balance of the river year the 
average ratio was 0.28 for 5 freshets, the maximum being 0.46 just 
after the lake had reached elevation +50, and the minimum was 
0.14 with the lake at elevation +55. This ratio varies with the 
rise at Vigia and the elevation of the lake. Special formulae and 
curves were used in prediction work for elevations at Gamboa and 
Gatun. Table No. 17 gives summary of principal freshets for 1912, 
including maximum momentary discharge at Alhajuela and Gamboa, 
also 24-hour maximum flow into Gatun Lake. The largest freshet 
since Decernber, 1910, occurred on November 28 and 29, 1912, and 
is included in above-mentioned table. Table No. 18 gives complete 
data on slopes of the Chagres River during various stages of this 
flood. Plate No. 121 shows the profiles of water surface for freshets 
of December, 1909, December, 1910, and November, 1912, also low 
water 1909 and April, 1912, and bottom of river in 1909. This 
diagram shows clearly the effect of the Gatun Lake in checking 
these floods. It will also be noticed that the river bottom has been 
lowered at Gamboa since 1909, due to excavation work and increased 
velocity due to greater slope. 



238 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



SPECIAL WORK. 

Studies were continued on the relation between rainfall and run-off 
for Gatun Lake watershed, Miraflores Lake watershed, and Eio 
Grande reservoir watershed, Plate No. 1 22 shows rainfall, run-off, and 
percentage run-off for Gatun Lake basin for river year 1912-13 by 
months and accumulated for the year. The following summary 
gives the percentage run-off at Alhajuela and Gatun for river years 
1911-12 and 1912-13, and calendar years 1911 and 1912: 

Table showing percentage of run-off at Alhajuela and Gatun. 
ALHAJUELA. 



Calendar 
year. 


Rainfall. 


Run-off. 


Percentage 
run-ofl. 


River year. 


RainfaU. 


Run-off. 


Percentage 
nm-off. 


1911 

1912 


Inches. 
119.51 
109.87 


Inches. 
69.65 
67.04 


58.2 
61.0 


1911-12 

1912-13 


Inches. 
109.70 
113.41 


Inches. 
58.08 
72.66 


53.0 
64.1 



GATUN. 



Calen- 
dar 


Raiu- 

faU. 


Run-off, inches. 


Percentage 
nin-off. 


River 
year. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Ruii-off,inches. 


Percentage 
run-ofl. 


year. 


Net. 


Total. 


Net. 


Total. 


Net. 


Total. 


Net. 


Total. 


1911.... 
1912.... 


Inches. 
98.41 
102.83 


53.67 
51.16 


54.08 
53.17 


54.5 
49.7 


54.9 
51.6 


1911-12.. 
1912-13.. 


Inches. 
93.17 
106.09 


47.84 
52.80 


48.73 
56.35 


51.4 
49.8 


52.3 
53.1 



Investigation of the currents in Colon Harbor was made by this 
section during January and February, 1913, and was continued during 
June, 1913, the work being in progress at this writing. The general 
scheme followed was to trace the courses taken hj floats placed in 
the water at various points in Limon Bay. A few timber floats were 
tried at first, but double floats made of copper were used for most of 
the work. These consisted of two parts connected by a hght chain 
or wire so that the distance between the surface and the submerged 
float could be varied to suit depth of water, sea, and weather condi- 
tions at time of observations. The surface float consisted of a 
cylindrical air-tight copper can 6 inches in diameter and 20 inches 
long, having a socket on one end for holding a small mast. The sub- 
merged float was made up of two sheet-copper \Yings, 6 by 48 inches, 
set one below the other at right angles, in a suitable wooden center 
post. The surface floats, i. e., submerged float within 8 inches of 
surface, indicated in general surface currents in the direction of the 
prevailing winds, while the deeper floats showed underciirrents in 
the direction of the heavy sea swells when the latter prevailed. ^ The 
stage of the tide seems to have very little effect on the direction of 
the currents except in shallow areas along the shores and at times in 
the shallow sections of the old French canal. The combination of 
these various forces produces a rather indefinite surging of the waters 
in the bay and channels, being more violent in time of heavy sweUs, 
which stir up the fine silt on the bottom. This material tends to 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERINC 



-SECOND DIVISION. 



239 



settle in the deeper areas, especially the channels and slips between 
the piers, on account of the quieter condition of the deep waters. 

Special observations were taken on the current in the canal channel 
at Gamboa, Juan Grande, and Mamei during rises on the Chagres 
River of large moment. The maximum velocities recorded were 7.33, 
3.05 and 2.05 miles per hour, respectively, during the freshet of 
November 29, 1912, with the lake elevation +56. 

The following diagrams and tables accompany this report: 
Plates : 

110. Gatun Lake hydrograph June-December, 1912. 

111. Gatun Lake hydrograph January-June, 1913. 
Mass run-off curves, Alhajuela, 1912. 
Mass run-off curves, Gamboa, 1912. 
Mass run-off curves, Gatun, 1912. 
Discharge duration curve, Alhajuela, 1912. 
Discharge duration curve, Gamboa, 1912, 
Discharge duration curve, Alhajuela, 23-year period. 
Discharge duration curve, Gamboa, 23-year period. 
Discharge duration curve, Gatun, 23-year period. 
Cross sections, Chagres River at Gamboa. 

121. Profiles of Chagres River, low water and freshets. 

122. Cui-ves shovmig rainfall, run-off, and percentage run-off for 
Gatun Lake watershed for river year 1912-13. 

Tables: 

13. Monthly discharge of Chagres River, 1912, at Alhajuela, 
Gamboa, and Gatun. 
Monthly discharge at Alhajuela and monthly yield at Gatun 

from January to June, 1913. 
Maximum, minimum, and mean elevations, by months, at all 
stations from January, 1912, to June, 1913. 

16. Gatun Lake water supply, by months, for 1912. 

17. Principal freshets for 1912. 

18. Data on slopes of Chagres during freshet of November 28-29, 
1912. 



112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120. 



14. 



15. 



Table No. 13. — Monthly discharge — Chagres River. 

ALHAJUELA. 

[Drainage area=427 square miles.] 



Month. 



Discharge in second-feet. 



Maximum. 



Minimum. 



Mean. 



Per square 
mUe. 



Run-off 

(depth in 

inches on 

watershed). 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

The year 



968 

1,360 
500 

2,530 
25,300 
11,890 
31,500 
14,320 
19, 920 

9,850 
54,000 

9,560 



560 

400 

320 

250 

275 

970 

1,170 

1,335 

1,730 

1,730 

2,163 

2,093 



54,000 



250 



734 

516 

382 

371 

1,682 

1,857 

2,592 

2,580 

2,853 

3,040 

5,541 

3,058 



1.72 

1.21 

.89 

.87 

3.94 

4.35 

6.07 

6.04 

6.68 

7.12 

12.98 

7.16 



1.983 
1.305 
1.031 
.970 
4.542 
4.853 
6.998 
6.963 
7.453 
8.209 
14.482 
8.255 



2,100 



4.92 



67.044 



240 KEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table No. 13. — Monthly discharge— Chagres River — Continued. 

GAMBOA. 
[Drainage area=559 square miles.] 





1,020 

1,400 
470 

1,940 
22,900 
11,600 
30,940 
15, 400 
18, 180 

9,400 
51,300 

7,900 


600 

400 

320 

250 

260 

1,145 

1,290 

1,490 

2,040 

2,050 

2,748 

2,265 


801 

542 

366 

372 

1,777 

2,161 

3,131 

3,190 

3,594 

4,249 

6,934 

3,309 


1.45 

.97 

.66 

.67 

3.18 

3.87 

5.60 

5.71 

6.43 

7.60 

12.40 

5.92 


1.672 




1.045 




.755 


April 


.743 


May 


3.666 


June 


4.319 


July 


6.456 




6.583 


September 


7.174 




8.762 




13.935 




6.825 








51,300 


250 


2,536 


4.54 


61.834 







GATUN LAKE. 
[Drainage area=l,320 square miles.] 



1. 

Month. 


2_ 

Mean 

elevation 

(feet above 

mean sea 

level). 


3. 

Area 
for mean 
elevation. 


4. 

Spillway 
discharge. 


5. 

Storage 
(+ increase; 
—decrease). 


6. 

Evapo- 
ration 
from 
lake 

surface. 


7. 

Run-off 

net yield 

(4+5). 


8. 

Total 
yield 

(4+5+6). 


January 


14.38 
14.42 
17.07 
17.08 
19.33 
27.48 
31.40 
33.86 
43.64 
49.73 
55.51 
50.93 


Sq. miles. 
20.0 
20.1 
24.2 
24.2 
28.2 
44.6 
52.8 
57.6 
77.8 
90.0 
101.9 
92.3 


Sec-feet. 

1,351 

310 

000 

722 

000 

1,347 

4,945 

2,260 

61 

4,235 

12,181 

12,840 


Sec-feet. 

- 106 
+ 615 
+ 482 

- 366 
+2,692 
+ 2,999 
+ 426 
+ 4,420 
+ 7,561 
+5,955 
+ 1,886 
-7,505 


Sec-feet. 
126 
113 
161 
161 
130 
131 
177 
216 
266 
330 
306 
386 


Sec-feet. 

1,245 

925 

482 

356 

2,692 

4,346 

5,371 

6,700 

7,622 

10,190 

14,067 

5,335 


Sec-feet. 
1,371 




1,038 




643 




517 




2,822 


June 


4,477 


July 


5,548 




6,916 


September 


7,888 


October 


10,520 




14,373 




5,721 






The year 


31.24 


52.23 


3,356 


+ 1,589 


208 


4,945 


5,153 







Table No. 14. — Monthly yield at Alhajuela and Gatun, January to June, 1913: 1912. 

CHAGRES RIVER AT ALHAJUELA. 
[Drainage area, 427 square miles.] 



Month. 


Year 1913. 


1912 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Mean. 


Mean. 


January 


Sec.-ft. 
5,260 
2,770 
1,980 
950 
26,300 
9, 120 


Sec.-ft. 

1,270 
745 
.535 
380 
520 

1,070 


See.-ft. 
1,795 
1,177 
695 
501 
2,051 
1,995 


Sec.-ft. 

734 


February 


516 

382 




371 


Mav . . 


1,682 


June 


1,857 








26,300 


380 


1,369 


924 







CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



241 



Table No. 14. — Monthly yield at Alhajuela and Gatun, January to June, 1913: 

J9J^— Continued. 

GATUN LAKE WATERSHED. 
[Drainage area, 1,320 square miles.] 



1 


2 

Mean 
elevation. 


3 

Area for 

mean 
elevation. 


4 

Spillway 
discharge. 


5 

Storage 
(+ increase, 
— decrease). 


li 

Evapora- 
tion from 
lake sur- 
face. 


Yield of watershed. 


9 
Total. 


Montli. 


7 
Net, 4+5. 


8 
Total, 

4+5+6. 


yield of 
water- 
shed for 
1912. 


January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 


Feet. 

48.22 
48.34 
48.25 
48.77 
49.06 
48.61 


Sq. miles. 
87.1 
87.3 

87.2 
87.8 
88.5 
87.7 


Sec.-fcet. 
2,542 
1,827 
1 17 
> 15 
5, 630 
4,823 


Sec-feet. 
+ 41 
-529 
+ 661 
+ 5.52 
-638 
+289 


Sec-feel. 
417 
580 
651 
580 
355 
355 


Sec-feet. 
2, 583 
1,298 
578 
567 
4,992 
5,112 


Sec.-fcet. 
3,000 
1,878 
1,329 
1,147 
5, 347 
5,407 


Sec.-fcet. 
1,371 
1,038 
643 
517 
2,822 
4,477 


6 months. 


48.54 


87.6 


2,476 


+ 62 


490 


2, .538 


3,028 


1,811 



> Sluice gate leakage, gates closed. 

Table No. 15. — Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean elevations for 1912 and to 

June. 1913. 





Gatun. 




Bohio. 






Frijoles 




San Pablo. 


Month. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Mean. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Mean. 


1912. 
January 


15.48 
16.05 
17.84 
17.90 
24.68 
30.80 
32.85 
38.69 
48.00 
54.27 
56.28 
56.02 


13. 50 
13.10 
16.05 
16.46 
16.55 
24.68 
30.41 
31.58 
38.69 
47.75 
54.27 
48.23 


14.38 
14.42 
17.07 
17.08 
19.33 
27.48 
31.40 
33.86 
43.64 
49.73 
55.51 
50.93 


15.50 
16.05 
17.95 
18.00 
24.70 
30.75 
32.75 
38.69 
47.99 
54.23 
56.26 
55.96 


13.50 
13.10 
16.05 
16.55 
16.65 
24.70 
30.40 
31.60 
38.69 
47.74 
54.23 
48.19 


14.45 
14.44 
17.17 
17.16 
19.43 
27.46 
31.36 
33. 82 
43.65 
49.67 
55.46 
50.85 














February 














March 














April 


i7.8i 
24.67 
30.80 
33.88 
38.67 
48.00 
54.40 
56.48 
56.05 


16.55 
16.60 
24.67 
30.29 
31.54 
38.67 
47.74 
54.40 
48.29 


1 16. 98 
19.46 
27.48 
31.42 
33.87 
43.71 
49.75 
55.57 
50.98 








May 








June 








July 








August 








September 








October 

November 

December 


54.48 
57.02 
56.07 


47.78 
54. 48 
48.26 


50.01 
55.58 
50.96 


Year 


56.28 

48.73 
48.69 
48.55 
49.14 
49.55 
49.46 


13.10 

47.84 
47.78 
47.80 
48.51 
48.43 
48.11 


31.24 

48.22 
48.34 
48.25 
48.77 
49.06 
48.61 


56.26 

48.68 
48.63 
48.49 
49.11 
49.50 
49.38 


13.10 

47.78 
47.76 
47.78 
4S.49 
48.38 
48.09 


31.24 

48.18 
48.29 
48.20 
48.72 
49.01 
48.56 














1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April. . . . 


48.77 
48.73 
48.59 
49.20 
49.69 
49.50 


47.88 
47.82 
47.84 
48.59 
48.48 
48.17 


48.26 
48.36 
48.29 
48.81 
49.11 
48.65 


48.79 
48.71 
48.57 
49.20 
49.56 
49.43 


47.84 
47.82 
47.82 
48.55 
48. 48 
48.14 


48.23 
48.34 
48.26 

48 78 


May 


49 21 


June 


48 63 







11834 °^13 16 



242 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION". 



Table No. 15. — Monthly maximum,, viinimum, and m,eo.n elevations for 1912 and to June, 

JS»i5— Continued. 



Month. 



1912. 

January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November - 
Deoomber. . 

Year. 



1913. 
January. . . 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

Jiuie 



Trinidad. 



Maxi- 
mum. 



16.20 
16.45 
18.20 
18.30 
25.05 
31.00 
33.10 
38.90 
48. 25 
54.55 
56. 55 
56.30 



56. 55 



48. 95 
48. 95 
48. 81 
49.40 
49. 82 
49.70 



Mini- 
mum. 



14.30 

13.85 
16.45 
16.90 
16.90 
25.08 
30.70 
31.90 
38. 90 
48.00 
54.55 
48.50 



13.85 



48.10 
4.8.00 
4S.00 
48.81 
48.70 
48. 39 



Mean. 



Gamboa. 



Maxi- 
mum. 



15.27 
15.03 
17.47 
17.49 
19.73 
27. 78 
31.67 
34.10 
43.91 
49.98 
55.77 
51.20 



31.62 



48. 47 
48.58 
48.51 
49.04 
49.32 
48.87 



43.95 
44.30 
43. 00 
44.60 
52.80 
49.40 
55. 35 
50.70 
51.70 
55. 30 
61.75 
56. 40 



61.75 



49.18 
48.72 
48.60 
49.25 
53.65 
50.34 



Mini- 



Mean. 



43.20 

42. 85 
42. 60! 
42.05| 
42. 10 
43. 25 
43.45 
43. 70, 
44.30 
47.85 
54.70 
48.28 



42.05 



47.91 

47. 78 
47.80 
4S.51 
48.52 
48.24 



43.54 
43.14 

42. 74 
42.40 

43. 89 
44.38 
44.92 
45.19 
46.21 
50.04 
55.90 
51.03 



Alhajuela. 



Ma.xi- 
mum. 



92.16 
92.58 
91.50 
93.52 

101.0 
97.50 

102.9 
98. 35 
99.80 
96.82 

108. 4 
90. 70 



46.12 



48. 30 
48.33 
48.24 
48.74 
49.25 
48.74 



108. 4 



94. 98 
93.56 
93.00 
92.05 
101.8 
96.60 



Mini- 
mum. 



91.60 
91.35 
91.14 
91. 00 
91.05 
92.10 
92.30 
92.46 
92.80 
92. SO 
93.14 
93.09 



91.00 



92 

92.85 

91.44 

91.20 

91.48 

92.20 



Mean. 



91.86 
91.51 
91.26 
91.22 
92.52 
92.86 
93.28 
93.39 
93.55 
93. 68 
94.77 
93.73 



92.80 



92.84 
92.29 
91.66 
91.43 
92.94 
92.82 



Vigia. 



Ma-xi- 
mum. 



125. 70 
126. 20 
125. 10 
127. 05 
138.00 
132. 80 
140. 95 
134. 20 
136.00 
132. 00 
150.00 
131.95 



150. 00 



129. 55 
127. 50 
126. 70 
125.80 
V.ixK m 
132. 10 



Mini- 
mum. 



125. 20 
125.00 
124. 75 
124. 60 

124. 65 

125. 60 

125. 75 
126. 00 
126. 30 

126. 30 
126. 90 
126. 80 



Mean. 



124. 60 



126. 15 
125. 70 
125. 45 
125. 3(1 
125. 45 
125.65 



125. 46 
125. 16 
124. 88 
124. 79 
126. 18 

126. 33 

126. 95 
127. 08 

127. 34 
127.51 

128. 96 
127. 61 



126. 52 



126. 61 
126. 05 

125. 62 
125. 44 

126. 77 
126. 41 



1 5-30 inclusive. 

Table No. 16. — Gatnn Lake water supply. 1912. 
[Values in second-feet. Watershed area, 1,320 square miles.] 



Month. 



Cha- 
gres at 
Gam- 
boa. 



Siri 
River. 



Trini- 
dad 
River. 


Gatun 
River. 


Cano 
River. 


Man- 
dtngo 
River. 


Agua 
Salud. 


Frijo- 

lito 

River. 


Fri- 

joles 

Grande. 


118 


142 


62 


4.6 


15 


11.5 


0.9 


70 


100 


35 


1.4 


8 


/ 


.3 


44 


62 


16 


1 


5 


a 


.3 


30.9 


37.2 


9.1 


.2 


2.3 


3 


. 2 


59 


128 


41 


2 


5.4 


4.3 


1.1 


108 


216 


74 


10 


16.3 


12.3 


2 


106 


286 


94 


19 


32 


19 




340 


400 


225 


22 


37 


16 




244 


393 


255 


50 


51 


28 


'(') 


595 


650 


380 


75 


66 


38 




675 


950 


500 


75 


104 


100 




380 


533 


250 


20 


38 


20 





Fri- 

jol 

River. 



January... 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November. 
December. 



801 

542 

366 

372 

1,777 

2,161 

3,131 

3,190 

3,594 

4,249 

6,934 

3,309 



182 

96 

57 

55.5 
122 
336 
269 
640 
788 
867 
985 
525 



.8 
3.2 
18.4 
29 
36 
56 
76 
134 
31 



Month. 



January . . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

Juno 

July 

August 

September 
October... 
November. 
December. 



Rain- 
fall 
on lake. 



26 
43 
8 

53. 
275 
535 
515 
517 
726 
1,405 
1,6.38 
529 



Inflow 

not ac- 

coimted 

for. 



129.8 

77 



404 
988 
1,045 
1,493 
1,703 
2,119 
2,278 
86 



Storage 

de- 
crease. 



366.4 



Total. 



1,481 

1,038 

643 

931. 

2,822 

4,477 

5, 548 

6,016 

7.888 

10,520 

14,373 

13,226 



Dis- 
charge 
ofspUl- 

wav. 



1,351 
310 



722 



1,347 
4,945 
2,280 
61 
4,235 
12,181 
12,840 



Evapo- 
ration. 



126 

113 

161 

160.8 

130 

131 

177 

216 

266 

330 

306 

386 



Storage 

in- 
crease. 



615 
482 



2,692 
2,999 
426 
4,420 
7,. 561 
5,9.')5 
1,886 



Out- 
flow 
not ac- 
counted 
for. 



48.4 



Total. 



1,481 

1,038 
643 
931.2 

2,822 

4,477 

5,548 

6,916 

7,888 
10,520 
14,373 
13,226 



Gauging work discontinued. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING— SECOND DIVISION. 
Table No. 17. — Principal freshets of year 1912. 



243 





Vigia. 


Alhajuela. 


Date of beRinning. 


Elevation 
of crest. 


Rise. 


Elevation 
of crest. 


Rise. 


Hours after 
Vigia. 


Maximum 
discharge. 


May 21 


138.0 
141.0 
159.8 
150.0 
141.8 


Feet. 
12.1 
14.6 

8.6 
19.6 

7.4 


101.0 
102.9 
102.4 
108.4 
103.7 


Feet. 
8.6 
9.7 
5.9 
12.3 
4.8 


li 


Cubic feet 
per second. 
25, 300 


Julv 2 


31,500 


Nov. 27 


28,500 


Nov. 28 


54, 000 


Nov. 29 


33,500 





Date of beginning. 



May 21 . 
July 2.. 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 28 
Nov. 29 



Gamboa. 



Elevation 
of crest. 1 



53.6 
56.2 
58.4 
62.4 
59.6 



Rise. 



Feet. 



10.9 
2.2 
6.4 
1.0 



Hours after 
Vigia. 



Per cent of 
Vigia rise. 



Per cent of 
Alhajuela 



102 
112 
37 
52 
21 



Maximum 
discharge. 



Cubic feet 
per second. 
22,900 
30,940 
27,500 
51,300 
29,800 



Date. 



Gatun Lake. 



Elevation 
24 hours 
after Gam- 
boa crest. 



Rise. 



Maximum 

rise in 24 

hours. 



Maximum 
storage in 
24 hours. 



Maximum 
discharge 
in 24 hours. 



Yield of 
watershed 
in 24 hours. 



May 21 i 20. 88 

July2 32.85 

Nov. 27 1 55.46 

Nov. 28 1 56.28 

Nov. 29 1 56.17 



(^) 



0.94 

1.02 

.14 

.65 



Feet. 
1.02 
1.29 
.37 
.84 



Second-feet. 
10,400 
22,200 
12, 150 
27,800 



Second-feet. 
(2) 
(2) 

17,350 
23,000 
24, 500 



Second-feet. 
10,400 
22,200 
29,500 
50,800 
24,500 



• At Fluviograph. 2 Spillway closed. - Stationary. 

Table No. 18. — Data on slopes of Chagres River during freshet period of Nov. 28-29, 1912. 





MUes 
from 
Gatun. 


Elevation at various stations when crest was at— 


Maxi- 
mum 
eleva- 
tion. 


Station. 


Low 
water. 


Vigia, 
12.30 
p. m. 


Alha- 
juela, 
1.30 
p. m. 


Gam- 
boa, 
9 p. m. 


San 
Pablo, 
Up. m. 


Fri- 
joles, 
1 a. ra. 


Bohio, 
4 p. m. 


Gatun, 
9 p. m. 


Vigia 


45.75 
40.0 
38.5 
34.0 
27.75 
20.25 
12.10 
10.0 
0.0 


125.0 


150.0 


149.4 


136.1 


134.55 


1135.8 


1133.0 


1132.05 


150 


Cjfia Larga 


118.4 


Alhajuela 


91.0 


107.5 


108.4 


101.3 


99.6 


98.9 


197.75 


197.0 


108 4 


.Tnan Mir) ft 


81.0 


Gamboa (Fluv) 

San Pablo 


44.0 

"'io.o' 


57.7 

55.7 

55.64 

55.37 

55.38 


58.3 

55.85 

55.67 

55.43 

55.4 


62.45 
56.96 
56.15 
55.76 
55.67 


61.8 

57.02 

56.30 

55.89 

55.77 


60.5 

56.93 

56.33 

55.96 

55.87 


157.9 

156.63 

1 56. 45 

56.27 

56.25 


157.2 

■56.43 

1 56. 36 

56.25 

56.28 


62.45 
57 02 


Frijoles 


56.33 


Bohio 


56.27 


Gatiin 


56 28 







1 Above normal on account of another freshet; crest at Vigia, 141.8, 5 a. m., 29th. 



244 eeport isthmian canal commission. 

Section of General Surveys. 

Assistant Engineer O. E. Malsbury has been in immediate charge 
of the work mider this section since August 1, 1912. From July 1, 
1912, to August 1, 1912, Junior Engineer R. C. Jones was in charge 
of the general survey work, and Junior Engineer O. E. Malsbury m 
charge of the field work and special surveys for the land department 
of the Panama Railroad. The following are the principal items of 
work performed during the year: 

Three hundred and thirty lots were staked out. 

Surveys were made of the Miraflores Lake watershed, which in- 
cluded the watersheds of the Cocoli and Caimitillo Rivers; Corozal 
Hospital farm; Darien radio station reservation for the Navy Depart- 
ment; Chagres River from Gamboa to the Zone boundary line to locate 
gravel banks; and the area in the vicinity of Mount Hope which is 
proposed for oil storage. 

Work performed for the Joint Land Commission includes surveys 
in connection with the following estates: Alba, Guanabano, Las 
Cascadas Plantation Co., La Isceca and General Aispuru, Mata 
Redonda, Palenquillo y Frijol Grande (Linczer-Smith) , Bosque, Juan 
Grande, Cardenas and Lo De Caceras, Juan Diaz Caballero, San Jose, 
and Guayaval. 

Numerous surveys have been made for the department of law. 
All necessary maps in connection with the surveys have been made. 

The boundary line between the city of Panama and the Canal Zone 
has been run out and monuments located, correcting slight errors 
found therein. 

Sixteen primary and 18 secondary stations on the Isthmus have 
been repaired and cleared. Canvas banners were placed on the sta- 
tions, and new targets provided. Ninety-five acres of land were 
cleared in connection with this work. 

An error of 100 meters was found in the recorded distance between 
triangulation stations Gamboa and Obispo; the recorded distance was 
1,093.34; the correct distance is 1,193.34. 

Precise level bench marks were reset as foUows: No. 5 at Mindi, 
No. 41 at Miraflores, No. 41A at Miraflores, and No. 35 at Lirio. 

Numerous other surveys and miscellaneous work was carried out 
and completed. 

During the year the miles of line run by this section requiring 
clearing, and not including check line are as follows: 

Miles. 

Stadia traverse 210. 8 

Stadia side shots 186. 1 

Transit and chain 30. 

Transit, chain and Y-level 10. 8 

Hand level 8.8 

Total 446. 5 

Mechanical Work. 

The details of the conduct of mechanical work performed in the 
mechanical division, and elsewhere on the Isthmus, by the commis- 
sion and the Panama Railroad Co., are covered by report of Lieut. 
Col. T. C. Dickson, Ordnance Department, United States Army, 
which is attached hereto as Appendix G. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGTNEEETNC SECOND DIVISION. 



245 



The efforts to reduce the cost of repair work have continued. The 
total cost of repairs per service day duriiif]; the year, compared with 
the previous year, is given in the following table: 





Fiscal year 1912. 


Fiscal year 1913. 


Item of equipment. 


Ser\'ice 
days. 


Total ex- 
pense. 


Average 

cost per 

.service 

day. 


Ser^'ice 
days. 


Total ex- 
pense. 


Average 

cost per 

service 

day. 




65,305 
20, 303 
3,375 
2,517 
1,592 
7,093 
1,902 
3,124 


$559,766.23 
465, 883. 49 
48, 773. 98 
35,846.37 
4.415.11 
53, 822. 23 
16,082.02 
7,678.98 


$8.57 
22.95 
14.45 
14.24 
2.77 
7.59 
8.46 
2.46 


72, 159 
20,235 
3,421 
2, 939 
1,536 
7,031 
1,049 
2,839 


$593,362.27 
551, 458. 13 
43,348.49 
36, 451. 54 
4, 729. 11 
42.909.67 
18, 125. 19 
14, 188. 08 


$8.22 




27.25 


Unloaders 


12.67 


Spreaders 


12.40 




3.08 




6 10 


Pile drivers 


17.28 
4 99 






Car repairs, 1912, $807,782.29, or $C 
Car repairs, 1913, $896,109.37, or $( 


.748 per ca 
).848 per ca 


r per working day. 
r per working day. 









The total cost of repairs to equipment and the cost per cubic yard 
during the past year as compared with the previous year are given 
in the following table: 



Item of work. 



Excavation 

Dry.... 

Wet.... 
Concrete . . . 

Sand 

Stone 

Fill: 

Dry.... 

Wet.... 



Fiscal year 1912. 



Amount of 
work ac- 
complished 
in cubic 
yards. 



19, 459, 071 
10,539,628 

1,443,570 
749, 491 

1,279,692 

3,354.787 
3, 199, 127 



Total cost of 
repaii's. 



, 603, 513, 19 
720, 533. 24 
252, 268. 92 
140, 250. 91 
251,654.71 

145,231.16 
125, 630. 82 



Cost per 
cubic 
yard. 



,0824 
.0684 
. 1748 
. 1871 
.1967 

.0433 
. 0393 



Fiscal year 1913. 



Amount of 
work ac- 
complished 
in cubic 
yards. 



16, 890, 819 

13,119,816 

760, 664 

489, 509 

872, 063 

5, 163, 425 
214,718 



Total cost of 
repairs. 



■SI. 777, 836. 10 

818,372.58 

136, 328. 85 

83,037.17 

235, 840, 53 

263,064,96 
815.85 



Cost per 
cubic 
yard. 



$0. 1053 
.0624 
.1792 
.1696 
.2704 

.0509 
.0038 



The average cost of dry excavation in the central division and of 
wet excavation in the Atlantic and Pacific divisions, for all work 
accomphshed to June 30, 1913, is as follows: 





Item of work. 


Cost per cubic yard. 


Division. 


Work. 


Plant. 


General 
expenses. 


Total. 


Central 




$0. 6159 
.1645 
.1763 


$0.0952 
.0580 
.0759 


$0.0718 
.0211 
.0212 


$0. 7829 
2436 


Atlantic 


Wet excavation 


Pacific 


....do 


2734 









246 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



The average cost of concrete laid in the Atlantic and Pacific di- 
visions to June 30, 1913, is as follows: 





Cost per cubic yard. 


Division. 


Work. 


Plant. 


General 
expenses. 


Total. 


Atlantic 


$6.0905 
4. 6507 


$0. 6607 
.5725 


$0.3189 
.3404 


$7. 0701 


Pacific 


5.5636 







The cost of repairs to the marine equipment of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission and the Panama Railroad Co. during the fiscal year is 
shown in the following table : 



Item of equipment. 


Quantities 
excavated. 


Total cost 
of repairs. 


Cost per 
cubic yard. 


Cost per 

month per 

unit. 


ATLANTIC DIVISION. 

Seagoing suction dredges: 


Cubic yards. 
2, 664, 850 


862,588.39 


$0. 0235 


55, 215. 70 






Dipper dredges: 

2. Mindi 


333,539 
443, 843 


47, 592. 20 
33, 430. 24 


.1427 
.0753 


3,966.02 




2, 785. 85 






Total 


777,382 


81,022.44 


.1042 


3,375.93 






Ladder dredges: 
4. No. 1 


356,969 
271,991 


11,230.05 
17,403.77 


.0315 
.0640 


935. 84 


5. No. 5 .• 


1,450.31 






Total 


628, 960 


28, 633. 82 


.0455 


1,193.07 






Tugs: 

6. Bohio. ... 




13,048.44 

7,595.95 

9,207.35 

22, 623. 04 

13,414.54 

799.87 




1,087.37 


7. Gatun. 




632.99 






767. 28 


9. Porto Belio 


* 




1,885.26 






1, 117. 88 








66.65 










Total 




66,689.19 




926. 24 










PACIFIC DmsiON. 

Seagoing suction dredges: 

12. Culebra 


1,793,488 
248, 080 


69,106.41 
35,016.28 


.a385 
.1411 


5, 758. 87 


Dipper dredges: 

13. Cardenas 


2,918.02 






Ladder dredges: 


326, 408 

1,121,196 

122,615 

445, 658 

1,340,514 


20,968.99 
23,531.25 
22,397.58 
21,778.86 
75,048.00 


.0642 
.0210 
. 1826 
.0489 
.0560 


1,747.42 


15. Badger 


1,960.94 


16. Mole . . 


1,866.46 


17. Gopher ' 


1,814.90 




6,254.00 






Total 


3,356,391 


163,724.68 


.0488 


2, 728. 74 






Tugs: 

19. Cocoli 




21,461.35 
5, 229. 69 
5,921.12 
10,766.11 
20, 137. 17 
4,676.38 




1,788.45 


20. Chame 






435. 81 








493. 43 


22. La Boca 






897. 18 


23. Reliance 






1,678.10 


24. Bolivar 2. . . 
















Total. 




68, 190. 82 




'1,058.59 











1 Engaged in dredging sand at Chame. 

2 This tug was transferred l)y the Panama Railroad on June 24, 1913. 
in preparing tug for the service of the commission. 

3 Does not include repairs to tug Bolivar. 



The^e expenses were incurred 



constructio^r and exgineeeing — second division. '247 
Traveling Engineer. 

Mr. James G. Craig has continued as senior traveling engineer, and 
since the resignation of Mr. Don E. Irwin, junior traveUng engineer, 
July 8, 1912, he has assumed the duties of the latter in addition to 
those of his own position. The average number of engines ricklen 
per day has been 14; the average number of inspections has been 18. 

The number of Isthmian Canal Commission locomotives put 
through Gorgona shops for general repairs was 48; Panama Raih'oad, 
10; making a total ol 58. Shopped lor renewal of defective flues and 
broken stay bolts. Isthmian Canal Commission, 53 ; Panama Railroad, 
1 in Gorgona and 12 in Cristobal shops; making a total of 66 locomo- 
tives receiving repairs of this nature. During the year 4,401 broken 
stay bolts and 16,807 flues were renewed in various locomotives. 
The stay bolts have reached a period when renewals will necessarily 
be very rapid, for the original ones have more than performed their 
duty. One hundred and fifteen investigations into accidents in 
wliich the equipment of the Isthmian Canal Commission and the 
Panama Raili'oad was concerned, were attended and reports and 
recommendations were made thereon. 

The Panama Railroad has in main-hne service 15 oil-burning loco- 
motives and 1 burning coal. These locomotives are in excellent 
condition in every particular. Only two engine failures ar^ charge- 
able against tliis power during the fiscal year. During the year 66 
hostlers passed a satisfactory examination and were promoted to 
locomotive engineers. Forty-three Isthmian Canal Commission and 
14 Panama Railroad locomotives were shopped at various times on 
account of casualties received in service. 

Inspection of Lubricants and Equipment. 

Mr. J. E. Johnson has performed the duties of inspector of lubri- 
cants and equipment during the year. During the year all lubricants 
have been obtained under amiual contract and lubrication has been 
generally satisfactory. Comparative cost statement of lubricants 
and oils used by the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama 
Railroad Co. is given in the following table: 



Lubricating . . 
Miscellaneous 
Illuminating. 
Gasoline 



Isthmian 
Canal 

Commis- 
sion, 
1908-9 



862,014.25 
5,304.00 
14,804.50 
18,380.00 



Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama 
Railroad. 



1909-10 



$88,916.03 

7,511.62 

24,387.02 

16, 750. 00 



Total 100,502.75 137,564.07 80,641.04 75,906.37 73,273.83 



1910-11 



$46,884.29 

549. 12 

26,f,07.63 

6, 600. 00 



1911-12 



843,027.81 

515.20 

20,760.03 

9,903.33 



1912-13 



$37, 150. 13 

1,398.50 

20, 59 J. 79 

14,125.48 



1912-13 shows a reduction of 3.59 per cent over 1911-12. 



248 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



The consumption of lubricants, etc., during the past fiscal year 
and the cost of same has been as folio vvs : 



Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission and Panama 
Railroad. 



Consump 

tion, 

1912-13 

gallons 

and 
pounds). 



Total cost, 
1912-13. 




Oils and greases: 

Valve 

Air cylinder 

Marine engine 

Stationary 

Locomotive engine. 

Turbine engine 

Gas engine 

Car 

Nonliquid 

Cup grease 

Gear grease 

Cable oil 

Cable grease 



Total. 



Miscellaneous, krd. 

Uluminating: 

Signal 

Mineral seal 

Kerosene 



Total 

Gasoline 

Grand total . 



73,273.88 



The cost cf lubrication of marine equipment has been appreciably 
reduced by installing reclaiming systems and filters wherever prac- 
ticable and by using the cheapest class of lubricants that will render 
satisfactory service. On dredges and other nonself-propellin^ craft 
the use of marine engine oil has been discontinued, and stationary 
and locomotive oils have been substituted. Good results have 
been obtained issuing monthly competitive sheets to the marine 
engineers, by placing all marine equipment on a fixed monthly lubri- 
cant allowance, and by close supervision. As a result the average 
cost of lubrication of equipment in service has been lowered during 
the year from about 75 cents per service day per vessel to about 45 
cents per service day. 

For tug boats the cost of lubrication per service day was reduced 
from about 90 cents at the beginning of the year to about 50 cents 
at the close of the year. 

The same methods have been followed in reducing the cost of lubri- 
cants consumed on locomotives. Each engineer is on a daily allow- 
ance, and comparative sheets are c()mpiled monthly and posted in 
every oflicc, engine house, and yard office. Tlie cost per service day 
for lubricating commission locomotives during the year was 8.3 cents 
per service day, as compared with 11 cents during the pifevious year, 
showing a reduction of about 25 per cent. 



CONSTRUCTION AND KN(;INEERIN(5 SECOND DIVISION. 



240 



There has been an appreciable re(hiction ckiring the year in the 
cost of hibricating steam shovels. The average cost per day per 
steam shovel during the year has been 34.8 cents. All stationary and 
portable equipment has likewise been placed on a monthly allowance, 
and close supervision has been exercised in regard to the use of lubri- 
cants. Comparative montlily tabulations are made and posted, and 
there has been a substantial reduction in cost per service day during 
the past year. Supervision has been exercised not only for lubri- 
cants, but on equipment as well, such as spreaders and unloaders, 
with satisfactory results as regards reduced cost. The number of 
standard hand oilers and oil containers has been reduced. All oilers 
and containers are marked with their standard number and wath the 
name of the oil contained. No oils or lubricants are requisitioned 
for unless the same are in accordance ■v\'ith the standard Ust. 

The following is a statement of the fuel consumed by the Isthmian 
Canal Commission and the Panama Kailroad Co. during the year, 
compared with the three previous years: 





Fiscal year 1909-10. 


Fisccl year 1910-11. 




Coal. 


Oil. 


Total. 


Coal. 


Oil. 






Quan- 
tity. 


Equiv- 
alent in 
coal. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Equiv- 
alent in 
coal. 


Total. 


Isthmian Canal Commission., 
ranama Railroad Co 


Tons. 

365,329 

33,390 


Barrels. 
463, 186 
103,177 


Tons. 
115, 797 
25, 495 


Tons. 
481,126 

58,885 


Tons. 

364,40:5 

50, 796 


Barrels. 
679,928 
104,714 


Tons. 
169,982 
26,178 


Tons. 
534,385 
76,974 


Total 


398,719 


566,363 


141,292 


540,011 


415, 199 


784, 642 


196,160 


611 359 








Fiscal year 1911-12. 


Fiscal year 1912-13. 




Coal. 


Oil. 


Tota'. 


Coal. 


Oil. 






Quan- 
tity. 


Equiv- 
alent in 
coal. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Equiv- 
alent in 
coal. 


Total. 


Isthmian Canal Commission.. 
Panama Railroad Co. . 


Tons. 

3.56,557 

44, 828 


Barrels. 
769,921 
106, 404 


Tons. 
192, 408 
26, 601 


Tons. 

538, 965 

71,429 


Tons. 

343, 853 

27,911 


Barrels. 
777,604 
127,313 


Tons. 
194,401 
31,828 


Tons. 
538,254 
59 739 






Total 


401,385 


876 325 ^10 nnq 


610,394 


371,764 


904,917 


226,229 


597,993 









Note.— Four barrels of oil assumed to equal 1 ton of coal. Reduction for the fiscal year endin? June 
30, 1913, 2.75 i)er cent, compared with 1911-12. 



250 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Table A. — Statement of roJlinq yincl: owned by the Isthmian Cnnal Commission in use 
by the different departments as of July 1, 1913. 



Description. 


o 
o 
c3 
t-. 

d 
o 
O 


d 
_o 

'> 

•3 

o 

a 
< 



o 

3 

1 
a 

o 


d 
o 

> 

-3 

•a 

1 


d 


> 

s 


a 


d 
. 

M 

Si 

8 




l| 

la 


1 


.g 
i 




> 

- d 

g-2 

a" 

03 


a 

_o 

03 
.1 


d 


■3 
.1 





Cars: 


12 13 

78 


63 
1,531 




25 

25 

27 
143 
238 
102 


376 
115 








3 

10 


5 
3 

2 
164 
55 
29 
20 

7 


3 

7 

'21' 

5 


500 


40- ton wood flats ( Lidgerwoods) 
NaiTow-gauge flats— 








1.769 




38 

.56 

6 

7 








67 


Dec-auville J-meter gauge. . 




25 
188 
135 


48 
12 


27 

31 

5 




45 
3 






460 






590 










295 














20 






35 


:::;::::: 




1 






42 
















31 






31 








196 
IS 




3!0 
69 


26 








20 
33 


3 


594 


18-yard Oliver dump 




178 
12 
12 










298 
















12 


























12 


















1 








1 


Electroautomatic Railway 




45 
13 

5 

3 

8 
3 




















45 






2 

76 

18 
1 
3 

19 
1 


5 

2 

3 

1 
10 

"i' 


10 

16 

13 

1 

14 

1 

6 

12 


5 

1 




7 




11 


2 


10 


65 


Locomotives: 

201 class, American Locomo- 




100 


301 class, Baldwin Locomotive 
Works 






1 


1 

2 

1 


2 

4 




40 


400 cla.ss 




1 




3 -.-- 

4 .... 


21 


500 class 




40 






20 








1 




10 






3 
3 




22 


800 class (3 and 3* foot gauge) . . 




8 


8 
1 
2 
1 








31 


2 

1 










1 
4 


4 




















7 




















1 


Electrical Industrial Railway 




12 

1 




















12 






1 


i 


1 

2 




3 












6 














1 


4 


Steam shovels: 












1 
5 








1 












1 
7 

'"'9' 














6 






3 
1 


5 

1 

6 

30 


"2" 














15 






1 

1 




3 
4 










8 










2 




29 










30 










1 

6 
2 
















1 






3 
2 

1 
3 


12 

21 

5 

3 


"'3' 


2 




2 

2 






1 
1 




26 










28 












9 
















2 




11 






















CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 



251 



T.\BLE B. — Statement nf Isthmian Canal Commission floatim/ equipment on the Isthmus 

as of July 1. 1913. 



Description. 


Second 
divi- 
sion. 


Sixth 
divi- 
sion. 


Atlan- 
tic 
divi- 
sion. 


Quar- 
termas- 
ter 
de- 
part- 
ment. 


De- 
part- 
ment 
of sani- 
tation. 


De- 
part- 
ment 
of civil 
admin- 
istra- 
tion. 


First 
di\'i- 
sion, 
lights 
and 
buoys. 


Forti- 
fica- 
tions. 


Total. 


Dredges: 




2 
3 

7 
7 
1 

9 
1 














2 


















3 


















7 


















7 


Clam-shell 
















1 


Tugs: 




1 












10 


Other 














1 


Towboats stem wheel... 






1 










1 






11 
1 

7 
9 

1 

5 

5 
3 













11 


Tenders 








1 

1 
2 








2 


Launches: 

Steam 




2 
1 




4 


1 


2' 


11 




1 


19 


Electric 


1 


Barges: 

Single-deck lighters, 110- 
foot 














1 


6 


Deck barges— 

75-foot 














5 


40-foot 




1 

4 
11 












4 


Dump barges— 

168-foot 














4 


156-foot 




3 
4 










2 


16 


154-foot 












4 


150-foot 




1 












1 


122-foot 




3 

6 
9 
2 
2 
2 












3 


Sand barges, 127.5-foot... 
















6 


Mud scows, 126-foot 




1 










9 


Oil barges 














2 


House boats 














2 


Drill barges 














2 


Derrick barges 




2 










2 


Wrecking barges 




2 










1 


Coal barges, 110- foot 














2 


Water barges 










1 




1 


Diving barges 














1 


Machine barge at shop 














1 


Disinfecting barge 








1 






1 


Pile drivers 














2 


Crane boats 












1 


Coal hoist 












1 


Rock breakers 












1 


Yawl, gasoUne 








1 




1 










1 







252 REPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Table C. — Statement of equipment owned by the Panama Railroad Co. as of July 1. 1913. 





In 
Pan- 
ama 
R. R. 
ser- 
vice. 


In service of Isthmian Canal Commission. 


In serv- 
ice of 
Fortifi- 
cation 
Board. 




Rolling equipment. 


Atlan- 
tic 
divi- 
sion. 


Central 
divi- 
sion. 


Fifth 
divi- 
sion. 


Quar- 
termas- 
ter's 
depart- 
ment. 


Me- 
chani- 
cal 
divi- 
sion. 


First 
divi- 
sion. 


Total. 


Locomotives: 


19 
16 


7 
1 


5 


12 

1 










43 












IS 














Total 


35 


8 


5 


13 










61 


Cars, passenger: 


2 
2 
1 
21 
21 
2 
8 
















2 


















2 


















1 


Coaches, first class 

Coaches, second class 
















21 
















21 
















2 


Baggage and mail 
















8 


















Total 


61 
















61 


Cars, freight: 

Box 


898 
37 
15 
19 

2 
20 

2 


18 


39 


14 


6 

1 


4 
1 

2 


1 


9 


989 




39 


Flat 




3 


2 




i 


23 




19 


















2 


















20 


















2 




















Total 


993 


18 


42 


16 


7 


7 


1 


10 


1,094 


Cars, service: 


15 

3 

199 

82 

22 
















15 


















3 


Ballast (Rodger) 


1 














200 








1 




2 


85 













22 




















Total 


321 


1 








1 




2 


325 


Miscellaneous: 


1 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
















1 


















1 


















1 


















1 


















2 


















2 


Ditching machine 
















1 


















Total 


9 

1 

8 
5 

1 

1 
2 
















9 


Floating equipment: 

Floating pile driver 
















1 
















8 


















5 


Launch, gasoline 

Pontoon diving appara- 
















1 
















1 


Rowboats 
















2 




18 
















18 





















CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING SECOND DIVISION. 253 

Office Engineer. 

Mr. A. B. Nichols has been in immediate charge, as oflEice engineer, 
of the general drafting work, the engineering files, and the blue print- 
ing of the chief engineer's office. The usual routine work has been 
accomplished, mcluding the compiling and recording of various sta- 
tistics, etc., and the making of maps, charts, and diagrams. The 
general map of the Canal Zone, scale 1:20000, has been completed 
during the year. The blue-print force turned out about 375,000 
square feet of blue print. 
Very respectfully, 

H. H. Rousseau, 
Civil Engineer, U. S. Navy, 
Member, Isthmian Canal Commission, 

Assistant to the Chief Engineer. 
Col. George W. Goethals, U. S. Army, 
Chairman and Chief Em/ineer 

Isthmian Canal Commission, Culehra, Canal Zone. 

Inclosure: Report of inspector of shops, marked Appendix G. 



PLATE 61. 




SINKING REINFORCED CONCRETE CAISSONS FOR WHARF AT BALBOA BY 
WEIGHTING THEM WITH CONCRETE AND CAST-IRON BLOCKS. 



APPEND IX G 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. T. C. DICKSON, ORDNANCE DEPART- 
MENT, UNITED STATES ARMY, INSPECTOR OF SHOPS, 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 
Office of the Chief Engineer, Second Division, 

Culebra, Canal Zone, July 31, 1913. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the work 
under my jurisdiction during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913: 

The inspections made have included day and night shifts in the 
different shops and hostling estabhshments and the principal me- 
chanical apparatus used on construction work; the results thereof, 
with recommendations, were submitted monthly on form 276-1 C. E. 
Tliree hundred and three inspections of shops were made during the 
year, of which fifty-nine were made at night. 

The investigating and recommending action to be taken on re- 
quests for transfer of equipment was assigned to me by Circular No. 
370D, dated September 27, 1912. 

The table following shows for each shop the number of superin- 
tendents, general foremen, and foremen constituting the supervisory 
force, the pay per month of the supervisory force, the number of 
gold and silver employees, and total number of employees on June 30, 
1912, December 31, 1912, and June 30, 1913. 

Number and pay per month of supervisors and number of gold and silver employees and 
total number of employees in each shop on June SO, 1912, December 31, 1912, and June 
30, 1913. 



Shop. 



June 30, 1912. 



Supervisory force. 



Number 



Pay per 
month. 



Number of employees in shop. 



Golci. 



Silver. 



Total. 



Dry dock 

Porto Bello 

Spillway and dam 

Toro Point 

Car department ' , 

Empire 

Gamboa 2 

Gatim 

GoldHill3 

Gorgona 

Las Cascadas , 

Pedro Miguel , 

Balboa 

Panama Railroad at Cristobal . 
Panama Railroad at Panama. . 



$1, 760. 60 
175. 00 
300.00 
200.00 



105 
20 
3 
6 



2,400.00 
200.00 
550.00 
175.00 

7, 718. 68 
375. 00 

1,205.00 

1,445.60 
865. 00 
112. 50 



116 
5 

24 

3 

743 

16 

61 

63 

27 

1 



Total. 



96 17,482.38 



1,193 



304 
81 
41 
18 



274 

16 

98 

11 

1,197 

30 

192 

213 

311 

19 



2,805 



409 
101 
44 
24 



390 

21 
122 

14 
1,940 

46 
253 
276 
338 

20 



3,998 



1 Established May 1, 1913. 

s Closed Sept. 4, 1912. 

3 Closed between Aug. 12, 1912, and Jan. 3, 1913. 



255 



256 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Number and pay per month of sxipervisors and number of gold and silver employees and 
total number of employees in each shop on June SO, 1912, December 31, 1912, and June 
30, 1913— Continued. 



Shop. 



Dry dock 

Porto Bello 

vSpilhvay and dam 

Toro Point 

Car department i 

Empire 

Gamboa^ 

Gatun 

GoldHills 

Gorgona 

Las Casf^adas 

Pedro Miguel 

Balboa 

Panama Railroad at Cristobal. 
Panama Railroad at Panama. . 



Total. 



Dec. 31, 1912. 



Supervisory force. 



Number. 



Pay per 
month. 



$1,420.60 
220. 60 
325. 00 
200.00 



1,700.00 



675.00 



8,151.96 

375.00 

1,060.00 

1,470.60 

865. 00 

112.50 



Number of employees in shop. 



Gold. 



106 

17 

1 



16,476.26 



1,147 



Silver. Total. 



162 

84 
33 

18 



85 



1,312 
33 
183 
433 
260 
19 



2,794 



234 

100 
35 
24 



110 



2,071 

48 

240 

539 

277 

20 



3,941 





Jime30, 1913. 


Shop. 


Supervisory force. 


Number of employees in shop. 




Number. 


Pay per 
month. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 




6 
2 

2 

1 

12 

8 


$1,110.00 

280. 80 

350. 00 

1/5.00 

1,925.00 

1 , 700. 00 


68 

IS 

2 

7 

197 

90 


234 
103 
14 
22 
623 
271 


302 


Porto Belio 


121 




16 


Toro Point 


29 




820 




361 








3 
1 

32 
2 
6 

1 
1 


550.00 

175. 00 

6, 146. 08 

375. 00 

1,060.00 

1,295.60 

225.00 

112.50 


36 
1 

757 
20 
70 

87 
7 

1 


101 

3 

1,012 

62 

2S5 

313 

49 

19 


137 


Gold Hills 


4 




1,769 




82 




353 




400 




56 




20 






Total 


84 


15,479.98 


1,361 


3, 109 


4.470 







I Established Mav 1, 1913. 

s Closed Sept. 4. 1912. 

3 Closed between .\ug. 12, 1912, and Jan. 3, 1913. 



The net decrease in supervisory force in all shops during the year 
was 12; in monthly pay of supervisors, $2,002.40. The total force 
in all shops increased 11.8 per cent during the year. 

The total monthly pay roU in each shop during the year, as taken 
from form 222 C. E., is shown in the following table: 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING MECHANICAL DIVISION. 257 

Total pay roll of each shop and total pay roll of all shops per month during the fiscal year 

ended June ,30, 1913. 









1912 








July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 




$26,471.98 

3,512.18 

3, 292. 44 

1,892.91 

22,117.85 

200, 736. 15 

22, 696. 15 


$26, 735. 69 

3,923.95 

1,990.85 

2,056.81 

26,264.19 

200, 756. 27 

19,030.95 


$25, 535. 15 
2,967.21 
2, 149. 33 
1,860.89 
32, 208. 94 
195, 930. 68 
16,469.10 


$27, 128. 67 

3, 302. 07 

2.295.41 

1,868.89 

35,020.38 

217,244.07 

18, 646. 35 


$19, 210. 87 
3,825.91 
2, 208. 48 
1,938.58 
28, 802. 87 
200,314.51 
16,201.20 


$19,925.63 


Porto Bello 


3,832.90 




1,403.72 




2,0.54.73 




29,81.3.03 




198,251.25 




17,591.20 






Total 


2S0, 719. 66 


280, 758. 71 


277,121.30 


305,505.84 


272, 502. 42 


272,932.46 








1913 




January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 




$19,490.04 

4, 035. .52 

1,740.13 

2,264.&S 

28, 740. 57 

204, 982. 06 

17,554.35 


$18,899.42 

3, 526. 45 

1,590.48 

2,008.52 

27, 788. 31 

180,250.31 

17,348.10 


$18, 133. 43 

4,308.01 

1,5.35.59 

1,942.00 

28,816.57 

200, 349. 03 

17,502.70 


$21,671.87 

4,611.47 

1,985.21 

1,921.97 

28, 520. 74 

197,811.58 

18,351.90 


$18,165.97 

4, 507. 14 

2, 752. 45 

2, 078. 06 

28, 948. 96 

220,918.58 
4, 772. 05 


$17,413.87 
4, 793. 58 
3,471.71 


Porto Bello . .... 


Spillvvav and dam 


Toro Point 


1,763.02 




30, 952. 48 




202, 956. 15 


Panama Railroad 


4, 404. 65 




Total 


278,807.55 


251,411.59 


272, 587. 33 


274, 874. 74 


282, 143. 21 


265, 755. 46 



The total pay roll in all shops was $47,070.59 less than during the 
previous fiscal year and $40,890.26 less than during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1911. 

The follo"\ving table shows the cost of overtime work done in all 
shops for each month during the year: 



Total overtime of each shop and total overtime of all 'hops per month during the fiscal 

year ended June SO, 1913. 



Shop or division. 


1912 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Dry dock 


$425. 01 

81.09 

163. 48 

43.90 

1.8,55.46 

8, 725. 39 

240. 15 


$401.36 

175. 45 

42.47 

13.50 

2,015.73 

9, 922. 53 

253. 98 


S655. 77 
97.71 
87.74 
55.92 
3,877.86 
15,751.91 
158. 16 


?886. 58 

197. 76 

154. 18 

61.09 

3,729.64 

12,658.02 

262. 02 


$684. 00 

141.87 

202. 95 

39.15 

2, 247. 09 

11,542.28 

266. 55 


$1 573 62 


Porto Bello 


81 18 


Spillway and dam 


15 37 


Toro Point 


53 17 


Balboa 


3 284 96 


Mechanical division 


11 342 20 


Panama. Tiailrnad . 


286. 98 






Total 


11,534.48 
4.11 


12, 825. 02 
4.05 


20, 686. 07 
7.46 


17, 949. 29 

5.88 


15,123.89 

5.55 


16,637.48 
6 10 


Percentajre overtime to total 
pay roil 






11834°— 13— 17 















258 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Total overtime of each shop and total overtime of all shops per month during the fiscal 
year ended June SO, 1913 — Continued. 



Shop or division. 



Dry dock 

Porto Bello 

Spillway and dam 

Toro Toint 

Balboa 

Mechanical division 

Panama Railroad 

Total 

Percentage overtime to total 
pay roll 



1913 



Januarj'. 



$1,004.05 

1.33. 69 

26.18 

135.63 

2,067.15 

13, 182. 61 

305. 34 



16,854.65 
6.05 



February. 



§1,210.49 

88.76 

39.68 

60.11 

2,360.18 

14, 062. 40 

221.07 



18, 042. 69 
7.18 



March. 



SI, 834. 27 

294. 52 

1.66 

42.38 

3, 277. SO 

14, 783. 77 

545. 10 



20, 779. 50 
7.62 



April. 



S3, 376. 28 

199. 25 

32.13 

42.08 

2,414.61 

9,211.91 

397. 92 



15,674.18 
5.70 



May. 



S887. 73 

387. 97 

46.23 

29.57 

2,090.84 

11,203.24 

346.42 



15,082.00 
5.35 



Jmie. 



§1,133.08 

482. 64 

89. 33 

39.03 

4,140.26 

10, 24.3. 49 

286. 09 



16,413.92 
6.18 



The total amount paid for overtime during the year was 
$197,603.17, which was $43,492.31, or 28.22 per cent, greater than 
the amount paid for overtime during the previous year. 

The overtime constituted 5.96 per cent of the total shop pay roll 
during the year. In the previous fiscal year this percentage was 4.58, 
and for the last six months of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911, it 
was 3.75. 

The increase in overtime was due to the insistence of construction 
ofiicials that equipment be kept out of service a minimum length of 
time for repairs and to construction work on the Balboa terminals 
interfering with repairs to the dredging and towing fleets at the Pacific 
end. Construction officials order overtime work, the shops having no 
control over its amount. 

The following table shows the shop expense percentage effective in 
each shop during the year under Circular No. 169-E: 



Division or shop. 



Shop-expense per cent. 



Mavl, 
1912 



Aug.l, 
1912 



Dec. 1, 
1912 



Apr. 1, 
1913 



Mechanical division 

Dry dock shop 

Balboa shop 

Porto Bello shop 

Toro Point shop 

Panama Railroad shop 



37.5 

40 

40 

45 

50 

30 



50 
65 
25 
60 
30 
130 



' Shop expense revoked by circular letter of June 12, 1913, on account of transfer of car department to 
mechanical division of the commission, effective May 1, 1913. 



The shop-expense percentage of the mechanical division and of the 
dry-dock shops is being retained from 10 to 15 per cent above the 
average to accumulate sufficient reserve for paying leave with pay 
accumulated by employees until the permanent organization is put 
into effect. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING MECHANICAL DIVISION. 259 

Hostling. — The amount of equipment hostled and cost, exclusive 
of overhead expense, were as follows: 



Month. 



Amount. 



Direct 
labor. 



Material 



Total. 



Average 

cost of 

direct 

labor per 

hostling. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



7,232 
7,281 
7,314 
7,601 
7,372 
7,846 



8,059 
7,271 
7,868 
7,091 
7,535 
6,908 



89, 378 



$6,439.80 
6, 477. 24 
6, 170. 78 
5,710.84 
5,546.76 
5,299.16 



5,322.62 
5, 760. 84 
5,420.49 
5,589.35 
5,814.83 
5,349.59 



.?1,366.19 
1,900.06 
2,436.07 
1,681.35 
1,879.69 
1,412.65 



2,116.05 
1,043.85 
1,209.74 
2, 166. 25 
2, 237. 13 
1,304.57 



$7,805.99 
8,377.30 
8,606.85 
7,392.19 
7,426.45 
6,711.81 



7,438.67 
6, 804. 69 
6,630.23 
7, 755. 60 
8,051.96 
6,654.16 



68,902.30 



20,753.60 



89,655.90 



.8905 

.9006 

.844 

.7513 

.7524 

.675 



.6604 

.792 

.6889 

.7882 

.7717 

.7744 



The average cost of direct labor per hostling for standard-gauge 
equipment hostled by the mechanical division was $0.7709, which 
was $0.1855, or nearly 20 per cent less than during the previous year. 
The lowest average cost of direct labor per hosthng in a month during 
the year at any hosthng establishment under the mechanical division 
was $0,606, at Las Cascadas during the month of December, 1912; 
this was also the lowest cost since such records have been kept on 
the Isthmus. 

Cristobal shops. — Circular No. 349-B transferred the car depart- 
ment of the Panama Railroad Co. to the mechanical division of the 
commission on May 1, 1913. This consolidated all car inspection 
and repair work of the commission and Panama Railroad Co., except 
at Toro Point and Porto Bello. 

During the year 445 cars were given general repairs, 462 were given 
heavy repairs, and 715 were given light repairs in this shop. 

The manufacture of steel cylinders for the Cristobal docks of the 
Panama Railroad Co., which was commenced in October, 1911, was 
completed in December, 1912, and the force disbanded. The two 
72-inch power riveters used on the work were transferred to Gorgona 
boiler shop. 

Porto Bello, Toro Point, and spillway shops. — These three small 
shops continued under the jurisdiction of the division engineer of the 
Atlantic division. 

Dry-dock shops. — These shops were operated under the division en- 
gineer of the Atlantic division until May 1, 1913, on which date they 
were transferred to the mechanical division by Circular No. 183-U. 

Seventy-seven boats of various kinds were docked during the year. 
The average daily working force consisted of 80 gold and 230 silver 
employees. The total expenditures during the year amounted to 
$413,051.83, which was $174,003.74 less than during the previous 
fiscal year. A 40-horsepower motor was installed in place of the 
steam engine for driving the machine tools in the carpenter shop. 



260 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

As a result of an investigation of the amount of work on hand and 
that anticipated, the division engineer of the Atlantic division ap- 
proved my recommendation that the night shift be abohshed on 
October 26, 1912. 

The average shop expense per month from July to October, both 
inclusive, was $10,674.40 and from November to June, both inclusive, 
was $7,443.93. The abolishing of the night shift and other economies 
effected an average saving in shop expense of $3,230.47 per month. 

Mr. C. J. ReiUy, general foreman, is in charge of this shop. 

Gatun shop. — Tliis shop, under the mechanical division, continued 
without material change throughout the year, except that as construc- 
tion work in the vicinity decreased the force was correspondingly re- 
duced. The blacksmith shop maintained by the Gatun Locks sub- 
division was closed in July, 1912, and the work transferred to this 
shop. Light repairs to the dredges working north of the Gatun Locks 
are made by this shop. Mr. C. S. Perry, general foreman, is in charge 
of the shop. 

Garnboa slwp. — This shop continued to hostle engines for the cen- 
tral division until September 4, 1912, when it was permanently aban- 
doned and the locomotives sent to Las Cascadas for hostUng and run- 
ning repairs. 

Gold Hill. — ^An outdoor hostling estabhshment was maintained by 
the mechanical division at Gold Hill until August 12, 1912, when 
excavation on the high level was suspended until the dry season; it 
was reopened on January 3, 1913, and has continued in operation to 
date. The work done in this place w4U be transferred to the hosthng 
establishment being erected on Cottontree dump for repairing and 
hostUn^ the equipment to be kept in service for terracing the east 
bank of the canal between Gold Hill and Las Cascadas. The engine 
shed was moved from Gamboa to this place. 

Las Cascadas shop. — ^The engine house maintained at this place by 
the mechanical division has continued to hostle locomotives at the 
lowest average cost of labor of any hostling establishment on the 
Isthmus. Mr. J. M. Abston, general foreman, is in immediate 
charge. 

Pedro Miguel shop. — The number of locomotives hostled at Pedro 
Miguel continually increased during the year, on account of the ex- 
tension of work on the Balboa terminals and increase in dry exca- 
vation at the Miraflores Locks. 

By changing the working hours of the day shift and sending more 
cars to Gorgona, it was practicable and economical to abolish the 
night shift in the car shop at this place on November 30. 

This shop is under the charge of Mr. G. J. Gunn, general foreman. 

The number of engines hostled at East Balboa dump, which is 
under the supervision of the general foreman of the Pedro Miguel 
engine house, increased during the year. To care for the locomo- 
tives used in the Balboa terminals by the second division, the instal- 
lation was approved of a hostling yard, washout pit, and shed at 
this place. These additional facilities were nearly completed at the 
end of the year. The machine-shop car for repairing steam shovels 
was moved from Miraflores to provide facilities for making light 
repairs, and a foreman was put in charge. After the abandoning of 
Pedro Miguel engine house m October next all locomotives at the 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING MECHANICAL DIVISION. 261 

Pacific end will be hostled at this place until the roundhouse and 
yards of the permanent shops are ready for use. 

Empire shop. — As noted in my last annual report, Circular No. 
349-A transferred this shop to the mehanical division on July 1, 1912. 
The work done in this shop during the fiscal year was Hmited prin- 
cipally to minor repairs to steam shovels and pumps and all repaii-s 
to rock drills, track jacks, and drills, etc. 

The saving in shop expense that would result from the transfer of 
this shop to the mechanical division and the transfer of manufacturing 
work and heavy repairs to Gorgona was estimated to be $3,900 per 
month; the average monthly shop expense during the fiscal year was 
$4,181.54 less than during the previous fiscal year. 

After August, 1912, repairs to steam shovels in the Empire district 
of the central division during the day were made by mechanics sent 
from the Empire shop, which reduced the cost of repairs. 

Mr. W. H. Bates, superintendent of steam shovel repairs, super- 
vised repairs to all steam shovels. Mr. J. H. Moriarty, general fore- 
man, was in charge of the Empire shops during the year. 

BaTboa shop.—'This shop was operated by Mr. W. G. Comber, resi- 
dent engineer, and the work therein continued throughout the year 
%vith httle change in quantity or character. The construction of 
terminal facilities and the dry dock necessarily handicapped the 
work of this shop, and contracted its available shop and wharf space. 
The blacksmith shop was moved into the shipways. 

Gorgona shops. — Upon the resignation of Mr. J. Belt, general fore- 
man of the car department, effective July 8, 1912, the car and loco- 
motive departments were consohdated under general foreman J. J. 
Eason; Mr. A. O. Herman was appointed assistant general foreman, 
and put in charge of the car department, and Mr. F. B. Ferebee was 
appointed assistant general foreman, and put in charge of the foun- 
dry, planing mill, carpenter shop, and pattern shop. These changes 
effected a saving of $225 per month in supervision. 

The principal additional work assigned to these shops during the 
year consisted of heavy repairs to steam shovels and their parts. 

The wrecking outfit maintained by the central division at Las 
Cascadas was transferred to the mechanical division on July 1, 1912; 
the outfit was stationed at Gorgona and the crew was used on shop- 
work when not engaged in wrecking. 

The average number of gold employees at work in these shops on 
the last day of each month during the year was 735 and of silver 
employees 1,250. The force in this plant was increased 9.8 per cent 
during the year. 

Under the system of inspecting finished work before shipment, 
which has proved highly advantageous to the shops as well as to 
construction di\dsions, 14,490 finished repair and manufacturing jobs 
were inspected during the year, at an average cost of 27^ cents each; 
314 jobs rejected by the inspector for minor errors were accepted 
without change by construction officials, 578 jobs were passed after 
completing omitted work or correcting errors, and 200 jobs w^ere 
finally rejected. 

During the year 14,019 orders covering manufacturing work were 
received and 13,938 were completed, leaving 669 on hand unfinished 
on June 30, 1913. The increase over the rnunber unfinished on 
June 30, 1912 (588), being due to the receipt of orders for delivery 



262 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



of material for use during the period required to transfer work to the 
permanent plant. 

Reduction in quantity of work enabled the night shift in the plan- 
ing mill to be taken off August 31, 1912. Increase in quantity of 
work necessitated putting the night shift on again on March 10, 1913. 

The output and cost of iron castings for each month during the 
year is shown in the following table : 



Month. 



Output 
(pounds). 



Total cost 
per pound. 



Number of 

patterns 

made. 



Number of 
castings 
made. 



1912 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913 

January 

February 

March 

AprU 

May 

June 

Total 



682,269 
563, 780 
511,445 
626, 351 J 
610,327 
539,002 



537,615 
509, 735 
549,574 
625,529 
741,787 
553,845 



7,051,2594 



. 02708 

.0317 

. 02971 

.02859 

.02964 

.0323 



.0329 
.0317 
. 03354 
. 02863 
.02678 
.02963 



92 
94 
97 
101 
84 
78 



87 
75 
81 
83 
122 



982 



13,379 
21,506 
18,840 
22, 118 
24,307 
17, 700 



17,452 
13,531 

16,558 
15, 231 
16,651 
12,502 



209, 775 



The average total cost per pound during the year was 3.13 cents. 
Orders estimated to require 440,000 pounds remained unfinished at the 
end of the year. 

The output and cost of steel castings for each month during the 
year were as follows : 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April , 

May 

June 

Total 



Output 
(pounds). 



38,840 
47, 902i 
25,507§ 
62, 339 
65,040i 
65, 481 i 



59, 030 
61,821 
106,040 
92, 770 
75,912 
93, 310 



794,5931 



Total cost 
per pound. 



$0. 1143 
.0884 
. 10395 
. 05775 
.0608 
. 08494 



. 09872 
. 07952 
. 06G53 
. 06762 
.0873 
.07668 



Number of 

patterns 

made. 



Number of 
castings 
made. 



371 
693 
666 
536 
426 
2,077 



2,752 
2,342 
2,399 
3,097 
2,970 
4,029 



22, .358 



The average total cost per pound during the year was 7.84 cents. 
Orders for 81,127 pounds remained unfinished at the end of the year. 
The charge to divisions and departments for steel castmgs was 
reduced from 10 to 8 cents per pound on April 1, 1913. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING — MECHANICAL DIVISION. 263 

The output and cost of brass castings for each month durmg the 
year were as follows: 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January 

February 

March , 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



Output 
(pounds). 



19, G60J 
19, 639 
16,849i 
25,310i 
25, 9051 
32, 743 J 



32, 767i 
33, 702 
25,443* 
34,433' 
36, 569 
17, 652 



324, 675f 



Total cost 
per pound. 



.1783 
. 18726 
. 21859 
.167 
.1616 
. 18923 



. 25837 
. 20785 
. 22548 
. 22389 
.2299 
. 15803 



Number of 

patterns 

made. 



Number of 
castings 
made. 



1,377 
1,302 
1,798 
925 
1,861 
2,074 



2,045 
2, .350 
2,547 
2,207 
3,097 
1,236 



22,819 



The average total cost per pound during the year v/as 20.52 cents. 
The quartermaster's department increased the cost of copper from 12 
to 18 cents per pound on January 1, 1913. 

The abandoning of Gorgona shops, necessitated by the filUng of 
Lake Gatun, was started on May 1, 1913, by the transfer ot all coach, 
labor-car, and steel flat-car work — including the paint shop — to the 
Cristobal shops and of all Lidgerwood flat and steel dump-car repair 
work to Empire. The instrument-repair shop was transferred to 
Empire on June 30, 1913. Plans for the transfer of the other classes 
of work were completed and announced in Circular No. 349-E. The 
foundry, planing mill, pattern shop, carpenter shop, and oxy- acetylene 
plant will be transferred to the permanent plant at Balboa; the 
laboratory to the Balboa power plant; the remaining classes of work 
will be transferred to Empire shops until the permanent shops at 
Balboa are ready for occupation. 

Mechanical division. — ^At the beginning of the fiscal year this divi- 
sion operated the Gorgona shops, the engine houses, and minor 
repair shops at Gatun, Las Cascadas, Gamboa, Gold Hill, Pedro 
^Iiguel, and Balboa Dump, the air-compressor plants at Las Cascadas, 
Empire, and Rio Grande, and the electric-Ught plant at Empire. 
During the year the Gamboa engine house was abandoned; and the 
Empire shops on July 1, 1912, the dry-dock shops on May 1, 1913, 
and the Miraflores power plant and electric work m the fifth division 
on May 1,1913, were transferred to it. 

Mr. A. L. Robinson was superintendent of the mechanical division 
throughout the year. 



^64 



REPORT ISTHMIAI? CANAL COMMISSION. 



The volume of work performed monthly during the year by the 
mechanical division is shown by the following abstract of expendi- 
tures : 



Month. 



Labor. 



Material. 



Services ren- 
dered by 
other divi- 
sions and 

departments. 



Total. 



1912. 

July 

August , 

September , 

October 

November 

December 

1913. 

January , 

February 

March..! 

April , 

May 

June 

Total 



S200, 736. 15 
200, 756. 27 
195,930.68 
217,244.07 
200,314.51 
198,251.25 



204, 982. 06 
180,250.31 
200,349.03 
197,811.58 
220,918.58 
202, 956. 15 



$175,672.01 
169,824.99 
149,261.71 
194, 640. 40 
165,077.13 
173,379.57 



190,386.54 
191,788.15 
192,870.39 
222,567.09 
195, 072. 84 
176,029.54 



2,420,500.64 



2,196,570.36 



B12, 737. 45 
12, 744. 10 
13,483.54 
14,995.67 
15,507.22 
17,385.29 



13, 924. 63 
13,500.06 
12,851.32 
16, 432. 84 
7, 553. 36 
15,045.13 



166, 160. 61 



$389, 145. 61 
383, 325. 36 
358, 675. 93 
426,880.14 
380, 898. 86 
389, 016. 11 



409. 293. 23 
385,538.52 

406. 070. 24 
436,811.51 
424, 545. 78 
394,030.82 



4,783,231.61 



The number of repairs to locomotives made each month during the 
year was as follows: 



Running. 


Heavy. 


3,277 


57 


3,296 


56 


2,946 


47 


3,009 


56 


3,111 


49 


3,409 


42 


3,590 


43 


3,355 


35 


3,418 


37 


3,439 


48 


3,352 


35 


3,044 


12 


39,246 


517 


3,270.5 


43 



Total. 



July 

August 

September. 
October . . . 
November. 
December. 



1912. 



January.. 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



1913. 



Total 

Average per month. 



3,334 
3,352 
2,993 
3,065 
3,160 
3,451 



3,633 
3,390 
3,455 
3,487 
3,387 
3,056 



39,763 
3,313.5 



Cost of repairs to locomotives: 

Labor $459, 296. 27 

Material 157, 202. 84 



Total 616, 499. 11 



Average cost per month: 

Labor 38,358. 02 

Material • 13, 016. 90 

Total 51 , 374. 92 

Average cost per locomotive with 314 locomotives in service: 

Labor 

Material 



Total . 



1,221.59 
414. 55 

1,636.14 



In view of the approaching completion of construction work, all 
locomotives were inspected and the 1 02 in best condition were placed 
on a long-service list and the remainder on a short-service Ust. No 
repairs were made to locomotives on the latter Ust except those nec- 
essary for safety. 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING MECHANICAL DIVISION. 265 

The number of shop and field repairs made to the different classes 
of cars during the year were as follows: 



Equipment. 


Number 
of shop 
repairs. 


Number 
of field 
repairs. 


Total. 




15,980 

3,385 

2,516 

46 

19 

239 

217 

218 


104,483 

43,380 

46,645 



2 

1,139 

433 

3,695 


120,403 




46, 765 




49, 161 




46 




21 




1,378 




650 




3,913 






Total 


22,620 


199, 777 


222,397 







The following table shows repairs made during the year to equip- 
ment other than locomotives and cars : 



Month. 


Cranes. 


Track- 
Shifters. 


Un- 
loaders. 


Spread- 
ers. 


Narrow- 
gauge 
loco- 
motives. 


Others. 


Total. 


1912. 
July 


13 

7 
10 
16 
19 
14 

17 
8 
16 
32 
20 
30 


9 
6 
5 
10 

8 
8 

4 
3 
2 
2 
6 
9 


44 
61 
17 
33 
23 
45 

46 
53 
34 
44 
15 
8 


26 
25 
17 
34 
34 
35 

42 
51 
37 
33 
25 
20 


7 
17 



3 
11 

8 

2 
4 
8 

18 
19 
6 


18 
14 
21 
25 
19 
11 

11 
10 
10 
16 
11 
9 


117 




130 




70 


October 


121 


November 


114 




121 


1913. 


122 




129 


March 


107 




145 


May 


96 


June 


82 






Total 


202 


72 


423 


379 


103 


175 


1,354 







The number of employees on the pay rolls of the mechanical divi- 
sion on the last day of each month was as follows: 



Month. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September. 
October — 
November.. 
December.. 



Gold. 



1,048 
1,192 
1,146 
1,153 
1,136 
1,002 



Silver. 



2,104 
2,230 
2,218 
2,334 
2,137 
1,834 



Total. 



3,152 
3,422 
3,364 
3,487 
3,273 
2,836 



Month. 



1913. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Average per 
month 



Gold. 



990 

992 

1,037 

1,081 

990 



1,063 



Silver. 



1,851 
1,872 
1,846 
2,253 
2,443 
2,461 



2,132 



Total. 



2,837 
2,862 
2,838 
3,290 
3,524 
3,451 



3,195 



The actual shop expense percentage of the mechanical division 
each month was as follows: 

1912: Percent. 1913: Percent 

July 48. 36 January 39. 13 

August 40. 41 February 38. 39 

September. . . ; 49. 91 March 37. 32 

October 44. 50 April 39. 91 

November 39. 68 May 36. 47 

December 40. 38 June 39. 83 



266 



REPOET ISTHMIAN CAKAL COMMISSION. 



Circular No. 384 requires that report be made of each case of unsat- 
isfactory work performed, and the following reports in regard to work 
done by the mechanical division were received during the year, viz: 

Six sheaves, made under requisition No. 736, bored 3^ instead of 
4 inches. Complaint unjustified. 

Points not properly welded on dogs, made under work requests 
Nos. A-2025/446, A-2705/6, and No. 3745. Part of complaint 
justified. 

Shore pipe, made under work request No. A-2552, would not tele- 
scope. Complaint justified. 

tJnloader No. 25 not properly repaired. Complaint justified. 

Cost of two steel forms for pier shells, made under work request 
No. P-1931, excessive. Complaint not justified. 

Eccentric core hole in spud point, cast under work request No. 
P-2067. Complaint justified. 

Pistons, cast under work requests Nos. P-2137 and P-2199, too 
hard. Complaint unjustified. 

Five justified complaints out of the total number of different 
articles that were made and the total number of different pieces of 
equipment that were repaired during the year constitute an excellent 
record. 

The electric-hght and air-compressor plants and electrical installa- 
tions and distributions under the mechanical division were under the 
charge of Mr. H. Rowe, electrical superintendent. 

The operation of the electric-light plants during the year was as 
follows : 



Month. 



Mechanical division 
plants. 



Output, 
Kw. hours. 



Cost 

per Kw. 

hour. 



Gatun-C r i s t o b a 1 
plants, Atlantic 
division. 



Output, 
Kw. hours. 



Cost 

per Kw. 

hour. 



Miraflores plant. 



Output, 
Kw. hours. 



Cost 

per Kw. 

hour. 



Total dis- 
tributed. 



1912. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



January. 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



1913. 



Total output. 
Average cost , 



436, 554 
441,328 
432, 532 
415, 931 
396, 969 
405, 701 



376, 815 
360, 051 
372, 931 
379, 418 

457, 823 
296, 588 



.0316 
.0323 
.03004 
. 03322 
.033 
. 03931 



. 04139 
. 03167 
.03511 
. 02106 
.01741 
.03146 



270, 173 
287, 144 
272, 529 
293,423 
302, 773 
297, 399 



285, 401 
257, 958 
281,565 
275, 820 
269,710 
297, 845 



.0276 

.0219 

.0203 

.02345 

.02918 

. 02376 



.02232 

.0191 

.02314 

.02433 

.01289 

.01877 



979, 390 
995, 265 
837,630 
978,090 
776, 500 
722, 150 



911, 720 
873, 430 
909,020 
858, 570 
964, 720 
811,470 



.0198 
.0206 
.0209 
. 0203 
.0213 
.0214 



.018 
.0191 
. 0185 
.0188 
.0128 
. 01820 



4, 772, 641 



3,391,740 



10, 617, 955 



1,686,117 
1,723,737 
1, .542. 691 
1,687,444 
1, 476, 242 
1, 425, 250 



1,573,936 
1,491,439 
1,51)3,516 
1, 513, 808 
1, 692, 253 
1, 405, 903 



. 0190G 



18, 782, 336 



CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEERING MECHANICAL DIVISION. 267 

The output and cost of compressed air during the year were as 
follows, viz: 



Month. 


Cubic feet. 


Cost. 


Cost per 
thousand 
cubic feet. 


1912. 
July 


745,959,040 
763,241,800 
099, 408, 670 
823,019,150 
683, 624, 055 
695,096,470 

680, 424, 260 
627,268,954 
673,839,330 
647,672,405 
696,265,197 
714, 950, 536 


$23,533.89 
23,604.78 
20,905.06 
23,364.99 
20,468.94 
21,934.02 

20, 488. 67 
21,922.95 
22,519.10 
26, 588. 02 
28, 653. 54 
26,015.36 


$0. 03153 




. 03092 




. 02987 




.02838 




.02994 




.03152 


1913. 


.03099 




.03494 




.03341 


April 


. 04105 


May 


.04115 




.0363 






Total 


8,4.50,769,867 
704, 230, 823 


279,999.32 
23,333.28 






.03313 







The decreased demand for compressed air at the north end of 
Culebra Cut and the increased demand at Balboa caused the transfer 
from Las Cascadas of two compressors and three boilers to the Balboa 
plant. The Las Cascadas plant was closed on November 17, 1912. 

Padlocks that were broken or the keys for which had been lost were 
scrapped; such locks are now repaired or fitted with new keys. 

On June 1, 1913, the making up of the pay rolls and the issuing of 
coupon books and pay certificates in the mechanical division were 
transferred to the examiner of accounts. 

The employment of 257 applicants for work in shops was approved 
during the year; among these were 88 boilermakers, 73 machinists, 
and 30 hostlers. 

During the year the mechanical division submitted rec[uisitions for 
the employment by the Washington office of 410 artisans, clerks, 
and draftsmen, of which 105 were machinists, 90 boilermakers, 51 
hostlers, 42 blacksmiths, 33 car carpenters, 25 molders, and 10 clerks. 

The meetings of the mechanical committee were continued until 
abolished by Circular No. 383-B, in May, 1913, when it was consid- 
ered that the committee had fulfilled the purpose for which it was 
organized. 

Respectfully submitted. 

T. C. Dickson, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Ordnance Department, 

U. S. Army, Inspector of Shops. 

Civil Engineer H. H. Rousseau, United States Navy, 
Assistant to the Chief Engineer, 

Isthmian Canal Commission, Culehra, Canal Zone. 



APPENDIX H. 

REPORT OF LIEUT. F. MEARS, UNITED STATES ARMY, CHIEF 
ENGINEER, PANAMA RAILROAD RELOCATION. 

Panama Railroad Co., 
Office of Chief Engineer, 
Colon, Panama, June 30, 1913. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations 
of the relocation, Panama Railroad, during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1913. 

The construction of the relocated line was practically completed 
on May 25, 1912, upon which date the last section of the new Une 
(Gold Hill division) was formally turned over to the Panama Rail- 
road Co., and accepted. 

The work accompUshed during the year to which this report per- 
tains consisted of riprapping the submerged embankments through 
the Gatun Lake section, building bascule bridge at Monte Lirio, and 
instalUng automatic signals throughout the Une. 

Riprapping Submerged Embankments. 

Spoil material from the Culebra Cut was furnished in small quan- 
tities during the year, and the embankments at mile post 24, mile 
post 21 (Rio Frijoles), and mile post 20 (Agua Salua), were reen- 
forced by dumping this material along the side slopes, which will 
soon be submerged. Some of the spoil material was also used to 
strengthen the large embankment in the Brazo Valley, mile post 12. 
This work has been carried on by the track department forces under 
Mr. M. B. Connolly, roadmaster, and very httle remains to be done 
during the coming year. 

Bascule Bridge, Monte Lirio. 

A bascule, or bridge movable in a vertical plane, was installed at 
Bridge 140, Monte Lirio, during the year. Bridge 140 is 317 feet 
long, and consists of three plate girder spans removed from old 
Bridge 44 at Barbacoas on the abandoned Une. The center span, a 
103.6-foot plate girder, was converted into a lift span by the addition 
of Ufting trusses, lifting mechanism, and counterweight. This bridge 
was designed by the Strauss Bascule Bridge Co., of Chicago, 111., and 
is a patented movable bridge of the heel trunnion type. The con- 
tract for supplying the necessary material was let to the Penn Bridge 
Co., of Beaver Falls, Pa., for $24,390, and the bridge was erected by 
the bridge department forces of the Panama Railroad Co., under Mr. 
J. D. Tysinger, a special superintendent being furnished by the 
contractor. 

269 



270 BEPORT ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSION". 

This bridge provides for an 80-foot width of channel, 45-foot depth 
of water at normal lake level, and an unobstructed overhead clear- 
ance. It gives ships access to the large area of Gatun Lake, which 
lies east of the railroad and within the Canal Zone boundaries in 
this section. The attached photograph, plate No. 62, shows this bridge 
after the Uft span has started to open. 

A combined operator's house, block office, and interlocking cabin 
has been constructed on the west side at the south end of the bridge, 
from which point the telegraph operator on duty can perform all 
functions of settino^ signals, opening and closing bridge, etc. The 
cabin has been built of pemianent material, hollow blocks and reen- 
forced concrete being used throughout. 

Automatic Signals. 

During the year automatic signals have been installed from Mindi 
to Corozal, with the exception of 4.18 miles between Caimito and 
Gamboa cabin, where the main tracks are not exactly on permanent 
grade and ahgmnent. 

The building of additional tracks between Pedro Miguel and Co- 
rozal and abrupt changes in Isthmian Canal Commission traffic 
through this territory caused the removal of all automatic features 
between these points in February. 

Within the territory between Mindi and Corozal there are now in 
service 58 automatic and 4 semiautomatic signals, with track circuit 
controls ranging from 0.48 to 2.78 miles. These signals are three- 
position of the type sho"wn in plates Nos. 63 and 64, and operate in the 
upper right-hand c[uadrant. The current is furnished from gravity 
and caustic-soda batteries. The night indications are given through 
red, yellow, and green roundels in the spectacle casting. 

There are also in service within this territory 9 power-operated 
home signals and 13 power-operated train order and manuiu block 
signals; these operate two-position from horizontal to vertical only 
and night indications are red and green. Current is furnished from 
caustic-soda battery and the controls are actuated by circuit breakers 
on levers through special apparatus when required. 

Power-operated signals are of two types, designated as bottom-post 
and top-post signals. The bottom-post signal is self-contained, hav- 
ing two compartments with sufficient space to accommodate the 
relays, battery, and mechanism. The top-post signal is clamped to 
an existing signal mast and separate shelter must be provided for 
relays and batteries. Of the 84 power-operated signals in service on 
the relocated line, 68 are bottom-post and 1 6 top-post signals. 

The general design of apparatus and tj^ical circuit schemes are in 
accordance with the latest standards and recommendations of the 
Railway Signal Association of the United States. The usual scheme 
of control has been carried further in this installation as trains are 
brought up to all stop aspects, including train-order signals, at limited 
speed at all times when traffic is operating under normal conditions. 

Some deviations were made in aspects from the general practice in 
the United States in order to simplify both the night and day indi- 
cations and to meet local conditions peculiar to the Isthmus. 

In certain territory where traffic is exceedingly heavy during cer- 
tain intervals it is possible to inaugurate a manual-block: system and 



PANAMA RAILROAD RELOCATION. 271 

use the automatic signals as an adjunct to this method of handUng 
trains. In this event their most restrictive aspect is hmited speed, 
allowing the spoil trains to follow each other at the minimum spacing. 

The entrance of trains to the main track from crossovers and turn- 
outs (other than passing track) is governed by switch indicators; 
these are miniature signals inclosed wdthin a cast-iron case and sten- 
ciled northward and southward. 

Interlocking cabins are equipped with a similar device which en- 
ables the signalman to know the condition of the main track on either 
side of his cabin for a certain determined distance. 

During the fiscal year manual-block stations equipped with me- 
chanical upper right-hand quadrant-block signals were installed on 
the relocated line at Caimito, Gamboa Cabin, tower R, Obispo, New 
Culebra, Gold Hill, Pedro Miguel, Turniel Dumj), and North Cabin. 

A high-speed absolute staff system with indicators and master 
levers was installed between North Cabin and South Cabin for 
handling traffic through the Miraflores Tunnel. 

Interlocking plants were built at Caimito, Pedro Miguel, North 
Cabin, and South Cabin. The interlocking plant at Corozal was 
rearranged to accommodate the track and traffic changes made in 
March. These plants are mechanical, with such electric features as 
are necessary, and contain 51 active levers. Plans have been ap- 
proved and material ordered for the installation of interlocking 
on Gatun River Bridge (No. 140) and the Isthmian Canal Commission 
connection at Obispo. 

Plate 63 shows the type of automatic signal used on single track 
between stations and plate No. 64 shows automatic signal at end of 
passing track. 

This work has been in charge of Mr. W. H. Fenley, signal engineer, 
for the past year. 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. Mears, Chief Engineer. 

Col. Geo. W. Goethals, U. S. Army, 
Chairman and Chief Engineer, 

Isthmian Canal Commission, Culebra, Canal Zone. 



APPENDIX I„ 

REPORT OF AD. FAURE, COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT IN 
OFFICE OF CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF ENGINEER. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, 
Office of Chairman and Chief Engineer, 

Culehra, Canal Zone, August 31, 1913. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report for this 
office for the fiscal year 1913: 

At the close of the last fiscal year this office was charged with the 
supervision of the cost data prepared by the construction divisions 
and by the engineering department of the Panama Railroad Co., and 
with the preparation of detailed cost data for the work on the forti- 
fications. On October 1, 1912, the preparation of the detailed cost 
data for the aids to navigation was transferred to this office. On 
January 1 the work of preparing the detailed cost data for the reor- 
ganized divisions of the former Pacific division was transferred to 
this office, as was the preparation of the cost data for the first divi- 
sion of the chief engineer's office, which had heretofore been under 
the super\dsion of the superintendent of erection, and on April 1, 
1913, the Atlantic division accounts were transferred, so that at the 
close of the fiscal year all the cost accounting for construction work 
was being done in this office, with the exception of that for the 
central division. 

During the year cost accounts were estabhshed for the construc- 
tion of permanent buildings, the electric transmission line across the 
Isthmus, and the i:)ennanent town sites. The accounts for the con- 
struction of terminal faciUties were revised, so as to secure the infor- 
mation in more detail, as were those for the work of the first division. 
For the Panama Railroad cost accounts were estabhshed for the 
construction of a concrete dock at Gatun and of a bridge across the 
French Canal at Mount Hope to connect with the site of the coaling 
station. The assistant engineer in charge of fortifications has been 
furnished cost data in connection -with his annual report, as has the 
chief engineer of the Panama Railroad Coo 

With the transfer of the detailed work of cost keeping to this 
office, 14 employees were transferred, and in spite of the great 
increase in cost-keeping work (over 60 per cent in May as compared 
with December) the force was only increased after the close of the 
fiscal year by two employees. With this increase in force the monthly 

11834°— 13^18 273 



274 



REPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



expense is S2,937.50, as compared with an expense of $3,612.50 for 
corresponding work at the same time last year. 

On account of the various changes in organization since January 
1, 1913, the exliibits submitted no longer represent the expenses of 
the divisions, but rather the expenses in tne geographical subdi- 
visions of the canal. 

EXHIBIT A. STATEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES TO JUNE 

30, 1913. 

These statements show the total expended to June 30, 1913, for 
the actual construction of the canal, segregated by construction 
divisions and by units of work, the division cost (including plant 
and equipment), and general expenses. The total by divisions 
follows : 





Division cost. 


General expenses. 


Total. 


Divisions. 


Amoimt. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Amount. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Amount. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Atlantic 


$49,778,393.62 
7«, 256, 181. 54 

44,207,429.26 

537,341.22 


29.15 
44.65 

25.89 

.31 


$3,727,274.12 
7,686,337.91 

3,097,152.42 

25,985.66 


25.64 

52.88 

21.30 

.18 


$53,505,667.74 
83,942,519.45 

47,304,581.68 

563,326.88 


28.87 


Central 


45.30 


Pacific (including termi- 
nals) 


25.53 


Miscellaneous items of 


.30 






Total 


170,779,345.64 


100.00 


14,536,750.11 


100. 00 


185,316,095.75 


100. 00 







Included under ''Miscellaneous items of construction" are such 
projects as the aids to navigation, electric transmission line, etc., 
which can not be charged to any of the geographical divisions of the 
canal. The construction divisions have but remote control over the 
"General expenses," details of which appear under Exhibit E; and in 
this report aU comment on costs is based on the division cost. The 
following table shows by periods the percentage of surcharge over 
division cost, which has resuhed from apportioning the general 
expenses among the construction divisions: 



Divisions. 


To 
June 

30, 
1909. 




Fiscal 


year— 




Total. 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 




13. 34 
12.30 
10.99 


8.07 
9.54 
9.76 


6.74 

7.78 

7.76 

19.23 


6.70 

7.07 
6.07 
9.04 


5.63 
6.49 
6.57 
3.70 


7.56 


Central 


7.24 


Pacific . 


10.07 




5.16 












12.27 


9.08 


7.36 


6.61 


6.24 


8.61 







BEPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 275 

The total division cost to the end of the fiscal year 1913 for the 
various units of canal work was : 

Atlantic division: 

Prism excavation — 

Dry $1, 310, 484. 54 

Hydraulic 10, 318. 87 

Dredging 7, 774, 247. 28 

Gatun spillway 3, 018, 509. 31 

Gatun Dam : 7, 516, 552. 33 

Gatun Locks 26, 833, 538. 03 

Gatun permanent power house 344, 281. 09 

Gatun, Mindi Levee 65, 244. 69 

Colon Breakwater 2, 885, 063. 23 

Clearing drift in Gatun Lake 5, 666. 11 



Total 49, 763, 905. 48 

Central division: 

Prism excavation — 

Dry 76, 077, 694. 77 

Hydraulic 10, 511. 46 

Dredging 8, 251. 19 

Masonry 11, 467. 28 

Clearing canal line without excavation 148, 256. 84 

Total 76, 256, 181. 54 

Pacific division: 

Prism excavation — 

Dry 3, 160, 940. 28 

Hydraulic 1, 078, 529. 11 

Dredging 9, 358, 754. 30 

Pedro Miguel Dams 338, 330. 66 

Pedro Miguel Locks 10, 645, 321. 55 

Miraflores East Dam and spillway 728, 374. 54 

Miraflores West Dam 836, 161. 26 

Miraflores Locks 14, 879, 535. 73 

Mii'aflores permanent power house 146, 561. 86 

La Boca Locks and Dams (abandoned) 565, 684. 33 

Naos Island Breakwater 384, 540. 89 

Temporary electric power plant (balance) 27, 923. 74 

Ancon quarry (balance) 109, 046. 68 

Chame sand plant (balance) 3, 753. 24 

Total 42, 263, 458. 17 

Terminal facilities : 

Cristobal 14, 488. 14 

Balboa 1, 943, 971. 09 

Total 1, 958, 459. 23 

Miscellaneous: 

Permanent town sites 52, 458. 77 

Permanent buildings 61, 191. 95 

Aids to navigation 377, 041. 63 

Electric transmission line 14, 597. 23 

Trans- Isthmian oU line 32, 051. 64 

Total 537, 341. 22 

Total division expenses 170, 779, 345. 64 



276 



KEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



EXHIBIT B. DETAILED COST PER UNIT OF WORK. 

TABLE NO. 1. DRY EXCAVATION. 

The quantities and average division cost of dry excavation during 
the fiscal years 1913 and 1912 were: 



Nature of work and location. 



1913 



Quantities. 



Average 

division 

cost. 



1912 



Quantities. 



Average 

division 

cost. 



Excavation in canal prism: 
Atlantic division 



Central division — 

By division forces. 
By contractors 



Total 

Pacific division 

Excavation in spDlways, locks, dams, etc.; 

Gatun Locks 

Gatun power house 

Pedro Miguel Dam 

Pedro Miguel Locks 

Miraflores West Dam 

Miraflores Spillway 

Miraflores Locks 

Preparing foundations for masonry: 

Gatim SpUlway 

Gatun Locks 

Gatim power house 

Pedro Miguel Locks 

Miraflores Locks 



Cubic yards. 



12,737,500 



12,737,500 
3,210,851 

104,660 
14,948 
2,464 
3,044 
9,923 

134,671 



175 
33,063 
11,648 
15, 366 
49,048 



Cubic yards. 

424, 872 



16,917,662 
145,784 



.5525 
.6622 

.6041 
. 4022 

2. 8233 
.4078 
.5374 

1.6101 



17,063,446 
864, 475 



72,119 

3,937 

95,156 



2. 3913 
1.7012 
1.7973 
2. 3885 
2. 2356 



624,747 

7,123 

8,888 



38,826 
165,145 



$0.5952 



.5115 
.3494 



.5101 
.7527 



.3767 

1.5026 

.3018 



.6566 



2.6400 
2. 9598 



2.1715 
1.5677 



With a decrease of 4,180,162 cubic yards in the quantity excavated 
in the central division by the division forces, the cost per cubic yard 
increased $0.0410, principally in the cost of repairs, which increased 
$0.0297. 



TABLE NO. 2. DREDGING EXCAVATION. 



The dredges in service, quantities dredged, and average division 
cost for operation and repairs during the fiscal years 1913 and 1912 
were: 



Class of dredge. 



Num- 
ber. 



Quantity 
dredged. 



Average 
cost per 
cubic yard 
for opera- 
tion and 
repair. 



Num- 
ber. 



Quantity 
dredged. 



Average 
cost per 
cubic yard 
for opera- 
tion and 
repair. 



Atlantic division: 

Seagoing suction 

Dipper 

French ladder 

Pipe-line suction: 

In prism 

In Gatun Lock site. 
Pacific division: 

Seagoing suction 

Dipper 

French ladder 

5-yard ladder 

Pipe-line suction 



Cubic yards, 

2,288,676 

467,065 

628, 960 

3,098,707 
384,526 

1,685,193 
227,981 
953,042 

1,330,514 
125,226 



$0. 0579 
.1960 
.1866 

.0896 
.2400 

.0981 
.3167 
.1602 
.1386 
.0811 



Cubic yards, 

2, 755, 255 

595, 667 

1,004,118 

515,787 
883,918 

2,376,505 
362, 164 
991,992 
153,626 



$0. 0637 
.2548 
.1562 

.1129 
.1749 

.0732 
.2143 
.1103 
.2272 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 277 

The above table does not include work done in inner harbor at 
Balboa, which is commented on under Exhibit C, Table No. 7. In 
the Atlantic division this year the average cost per cubic yard for 
pipe lines in connection with the pipe-line suction dredges was $0.0180 
for dredging in prism and $0.0186 for dredging in Gatun Locks, as 
against $0.0127 and $0.0121, respectively, last year. The charge for 
retaining dikes was $0.0002 for dredging in prism this year and $0.0125 
last year. These costs represent the expenses of disposing of material 
excavated by pipe-line dredges. 

The cost of disposing of material excavated by ladder and dipper 
dredges was: Atlantic division, $0.1672 per cubic yard, as against 
$0.1509 last year; Pacific division, $0.1092 per cubic yard, as against 
$0.0907 last year. In the Atlantic division 753,029 cubic yards of 
rock were dredged from the prism, being 11.61 per cent of total quan- 
tity dredged. The cost of breaking this rock for the dredges was 
$0.1536 per cubic yard. Last year there was dredged 574,837 cubic 
yards of rock, being 11.80 per cent of total quantity dredged, with a 
cost of $0.2218 per cubic yard for breaking. In the Pacific division 
1,047,929 cubic yards of rock were dredged from the prism, being 
24.25 per cent of total quantity dredged. The cost of breaking this 
rock for the dredges was $0.3357 per cubic yard. Last year 410,216 
cubic yards of rock were dredged, being 10.56 per cent of total quan- 
tity dredged, with a cost of $0.3300 per cubic yard for breaking. 

The total quantity of material dredged and the division cost per 
cubic yard for all dredges, including auxihary expenses, were: 

Atlantic division. — In prism, 6,483,408 cubic yards, at an average 
cost of $0.2093, in Gatun Locks, 384,526 cubic vards, at an average 
cost of $0.4329, as against 4,870,827 cubic yards, average cost $0.2481, 
and 883,918 cubic yards, average cost $0.3129, last year, respectively. 
The decreased cost was principally due to the larger ratio of excava- 
tion by pipe-line suction dredges. 

Pacific division.— in prism, 4,321,956 cubic yards, at an average 
cost of $0.3238, as against 3,884,287 cubic yards last year, at an 
average cost of $0.19. The increase is due mainly to" the larger 
ratio of rock excavation and to increased depth of excavation neces- 
sitating some dredges working only a portion of the day, owing to 
heavy tide fluctuations. 

TABLE NO. 3. HYDRAULIC EXCAVATION. 

The hydrauhc plant, formerly operated in the canal prism below 
Miraflores Locks, was reerected at a point north of Gold Hill to sluice 
the clay on the top banks. Operations began on June 16, and up to 
the close of the fiscal year 57,274 cubic yards of material had been 
removed at a division cost of $0.1835 per cubic yard, including an 
arbitrary of $0.10 per cubic yard for plant. This work is in the 
Central division, but is being performed by the fifth division, chief 
engineer's office. 

In the Pacific division 451,631 cubic yards of material were removed 
by hydraulic excavation, at an average division cost of $1.0113 per 
cubic yard, including an arbitrary of $0.7144 per cubic yard for plant, 
as against 900,596 cubic yards last year, at an average division cost 
of $0.5564 per cubic yard, including a charge for plant of $0.1027 
per cubic yard, so tliat the average operating cost this year was 



278 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



$0.2969 per cubic yard, as against $0.4537 last year. The high charge 
for plant this year is due to absorbing the balance remaining in the 
account into a smaller yardage than was originally contemplated. 
Operations ceased in November, 1912. 

TABLE NO. 4. MASONRY. 

There was a total of 771,907 cubic yards of masonry laid in the 
locks, dams, and spillways this ^''ear, as against 1,443,570 cubic j^ards 
last year, exclusive of the masonry laid by the first di\dsion in con- 
nection with the installation of machines, etc., and that laid in shop 
foundations at the Balboa terminals, which appear in another part 
of this report. The subjoined table shows location, quantities, kind 
of concrete, and average division cost per cubic yard for the two 
years : 





1913 


1912 


Location. 


Quantities. 


Unit cost. 


Quantities. 


Unit cost. 


Atlantic di\ision: 
Gatun Spillway- 


Cubic yards. 

20, 653 

1,0G6 


$7.8224 
13. 9401 


Cubic yards. 

58,048 

618 


$7. 0133 




15. 1631 






Total 


21,719 


8. 1227 


58, 666 


7.0988 






Gatun Locks: 

Plain concrete 


137,749 
28, 100 


6.5383 
10. 8230 


390,611 
59,883 


7. 1317 


Reenforced concrete . 


11.8228 






Total 


165,849 


7. 2794 


450,494 


7. 7552 






Gatun power house ... 


5,008 


8. 5739 












Total Atlantic di vision 


192, 636 


7. 4086 


509. 160 


7. 6797 






Pacific division: 


1,507 


5.0240 












Pedro Miguel I^ocks: 


39,465 
18,902 


6. 5432 
9. 7989 


134, 193 
48,677 


5. 7183 


Reenforced concrete . 


8. 5195 






Total 


58,367 


7. 5976 


182,870 


6.4640 






Miraflores West Dam 


4,403 


4. 3330 












Miraflores Spillway: 

Plain concrete 


63,707 
435 


5. 7550 
19. 6000 






Reenforced concrete 












Total 


64,142 


5.8497 












Miraflores Locks: 

Plain concrete 


402,607 
48, 185 


5. 0273 
10.8023 


729,090 
22, 444 


4. 5867 




10.6388 






Total 


450,792 


5.6445 


751,540 


4. 7675 






Total Pacific division 


579,271 


5.8529 


934,410 


5.0995 






Total construction divisions 


771,907 


6.2411 


1,443,570 


6. 0095 







There is included in the above table, in this year's quantities, 531 
cubic yards of plain concrete used in the installation of tile ducts at 
Gatun Locks, which were reported last year by the division engineer, 
Atlantic division. 

Plain concrete, with the exception of Gatun Locks, shows increase 
over last year, due principally to reduced quantities and the use of 



tlEPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



279 



a larger ratio of auxiliary mixers. At Gatun Locks, with a decrease 
in quantity laid of 252,862 cubic yards, there is a decrease in cost of 
$0.5934, principally in cost of stone and sand, in the cost of steel forms 
(none were used this year), and in arbitrary for plant, while there is 
an increase in the cost of wood forms and of placing. The decrease 
in the cost of stone is due to readjustment of price, as revised cross 
section of the stock piles showed more stone in storage than was 
carried on the books. The decrease in the cost of sand is due to 
securing sand from the Pacific division and from the borrow pits at 
Gatun instead of at Nombre de Dios. At Miraflores Locks, with a 
decrease in quantity laid of 326,489 cubic yards, there is an increase 
in cost of plain concrete of $0.4406 per cubic yard, principally in 
cement $0.0666, mixing $0.0301, wood forms $0.1297, and placing 
$0.2172 per cubic yard. The increase in cost of plain concrete placed 
in Gatun Spillway ($0.8091) and in the Pedro Miguel Locks ($0.8249) 
is accounted for by the relatively small quantity placed tliis year as 
compared with the previous year. 

There is included in reenforced concrete at Gatun Locks 568 cubic 
yards, average division cost $27.2175 per cubic yard, and at Pedro 
Miguel 205 cubic yards, average division cost $39.9884 per cubic yard, 
used in the construction of the control houses at these locks. 

The cost of reenforced concrete is shown in detail on table No. 4, 
and owing to the diversified character of such work explanations of 
fluctuations would not be of interest. 

TABLE NO. 5. DRY FILLING. 

The quantities of dry fiUing placed in the various projects and 
the average division cost per cubic yard for the fiscal years 1912 and 
1913 were: 



Nature of work and location. 



1913 



Quantities. 



Average di- 
vision cost, 
per cubic 
yard. 



Quantities. 



Average di- 
vision cost, 
per cubic 
yard. 



Atlantic division: 

Gatun Dam 

Gat-iju Spillway, back fill 

Gatun Locks- 
Back fill 

Center wall fill 

Fill at south approach wall. 
Pacific division: 

Pedro Miguel Dam 

Pedro Miguel Locks — 

Backfill 

Center wall fill 

Miraflores Dam 

Miraflores Locks — 

Backfill 

Center wall fill 



Cm. ydx. 
1,812,733 



SO. 3551 



565, 756 
15,872 



.3805 
.8320 



114,117 

173,938 
193,212 
418, 375 

979,468 
149, 301 



.3312 

.4642 
.3895 
.4076 

.4068 
.5973 



Cu. yds. 

2,626,447 

10,062 

922,215 
94,574 
7,072 

321,589 

349.275 

21,937 

425, 125 

442, 774 
7,912 



SO. 5165 
.3898 

.4615 
.7607 
.5092 

5040 

.3535 
.9633 
.4044 

.4174 
1. 0126 



Based on the quantities reported monthly, the cost of the dry fill 
for Gatun Dam shows a decrease of $0.1614 per cubic yard, princi- 
pally in the cost of trestles $0.0034, transportation $0.0709, filling 
$0.0218, and plant arbitrary $0.0690, no charge appearing this year 
for the last item, as all plant had been absorbed into the work at the 



280 BEPOKT ISTHMIAN" CANAL COMMISSION. 

close of the last fiscal year. The division engineer, however, reports 
that the dam has been increased during the year by only 1,714,367 
cubic yards of dry fill, which would give a division cost for the year 
of $0.3755 per cubic yard; and that there was in place at the end of 
the fiscal year a total of 11,578,268 cubic yards of dry fill, with a divi- 
sion cost of $4,703,697.35, or $0.4063 per cubic yard, instead of 
11,914,944 cubic yards, at an average cost of $0.3948 per cubic yard, 
shown on Exhibit A, Table No. 1. 

With a decrease of 356,459 cubic yards in quantity of back fill 
placed at Gatun Locks, there is a decrease of $0.0810 in the average 
cost per cubic yard, principally in tracks and plant arbitrary, no 
charge appearing for plant this year, it having been previously 
absorbed. The comparatively small quantity of fiUing placed in the 
center wall at Gatun this year as compared with last year accounts 
for the increase of $0.0713 per cu])ic yard. 

Filling at Pedro Miguel Dam, with a decrease of 207,472 cubic 
yards in quantity placed, shows a decrease of $0.1728 in average cost 
per cubic yard. Tlfis decrease is wholly in charge for plant, which 
shows reduction of $0.2608 per cubic yard. At Pedro Miguel Locks, 
backfilUng shows a decrease of 175,337 cubic yards, and an increase in 
cost of $0.1107 per cubic yard, principally in tracks, transportation, 
and filHng; and filling center wall, with an increase in quantity of 
171,275 cubic yards, shows a decrease of $0.5738, last year having 
included heavy charges for preparatory work. 

At Miraflores, the cost of dry filHng the dam and back filHng the 
locks fluctuated but slightly, and the decrease in cost of fiUing the 
center wall is due to charges for preparatory work last year, fiUing 
having only been started in May, 1912. 

TABLE NO. 6. HYDRAULIC FILLING. 

Based on quantities reported monthly, there was placed in Gatun 
Dam 214,718 cubic yards of hydrauhc fill, at an average division cost 
of $0.2090 per cubic yard, a decrease in quantity of 2,389,914 cubic 
yards, and in cost of $0.1754 per cubic yard, due entirely to credits 
for material recovered on completion of the work in September, 1912. 
The division engineer, however, reports that the hydrauhc fill has 
been increased during the year by only 169,114 cubic yards, on which 
basis the cost per cubic yard is $0.2654; and that there was in place 
at the close of the fiscal year 10,124,082 cubic yards of hydraulic 
fill, with a division cost of $2,969,716.45, so that the cost of hydraulic 
fill in place at the close of the year is $0.2933 instead of $0.2768, as 
shown in Exliibit A, Table No. 1. 

TABLE NO. 8. BREAKWATERS. 

During the fiscal year 1913, no filUng for the Colon Breakwater was 
secured from Point Toro, that portion of the work having been com- 
pleted in June, 1912. There was placed in the breakwater 183,762 
cubic yards of large armor rock secured from the Porto Bello quarry, 
at an average division cost of $4.8250 per cubic yard. This yardage 
is the volume of rock in the bank, as it is ascertained by measuring 
the tonnage displacement of the barges in which it is transported. 
In 1912, 65,133 cubic yards of this rock was placed in the breakwater, 
at an average division cost of $4.3064 per cubic yard. The increased 



EEPORT OF COST- KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



281 



division cost of $0.5186 per cubic yard is due to increased expense for 
placino; $0.2718, and to charging Porto Bello rock with expenses for 
trestles and for transportation facilities to Point Toro $0.2986, which 
had in previous years been charged to the cost of the rock secured 
from Point Toro. 

In the Naos Island Breakwater, the central division placed 653,137 
cubic yards of material at an average cost of $0.2934 per cubic yard, 
which represents the extra cost of dumping material at that point, 
and the cost of maintaining the trestle. 



TABLE NO. 9. STONE PRODUCTION. 



The Ancon quarry alone was operated during the year. The quan- 
tity of crushed rock produced and the average cost, during the fiscal 
years 1913 and 1912, were: 





1913 


1912 


Crushed stone produced 


cubic yards. . 


688,301 


839,279 




$0. 5035 
.1232 
.0208 


$0. 5222 


Crushing 


. 1314 




.0184 










. 6475 
. 1320 


. 6720 




.1276 








Total cost in storage 


.7795 


.7996 







With a decrease of 150,978 cubic yards in quantity produced, the 
average cost of production per cubic yard shows a decrease of $0.0245 
per cubic yard, due to decrease in charge for plant owing to increase 
m estimates of (quantity to be produced, while drilling and blastmg in 
quarry shows increases over last year's costs. Operations at this 
quarry were begun in February, 1910, and to the end of the fiscal 
year 1913 had produced 2,558,578 cubic yards of crushed rock, at an 
average cost of $0.8572 per cubic yard delivered m storage. It is 
estimated that about 750,000 cubic yards of crushed rock must stUl 
be secured from this quarry. The Porto Bello quarry, which began 
operation in March, 1909, and closed down in April, 1912, produced 
1,921,929 cubic yards of crushed rock at an average division cost of 
$2.4337 per cubic yard delivered m storage at Gatun. 



TABLE NO. 10. SAND PRODUCTION. 



The quantity of sand secured by the Pacific division at Chame, and 
average cost per cubic yard, for the fiscal years 1913 and 1912, were: 





1913 


1912 


Quantity of sand secured 


cubic yards. . 


445,658 


564,837 


Dredging 


$0. 1775 
.1758 
.1845 


SO 1647 


Towing 


.1738 


Unloading 


1722 








Cubic yards transported 


435, 758 


564 837 








Rail transportation.*o storage 


$0. 1733 


$0. 1918 








Total cost in storage 


.7111 


.7025 







282 KEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

With a decrease of 119,179 cubic yards m quantity secured, there 
was an increase of SO. 0271 in cost of production, due principally to 
heavier repairs to the dredge, the tugs, and the barges. Dredging for 
sand at Chame was commenced in September, 1909, and to the close 
of the fiscal year 1913, 1,741,196 cubic yards had been secured, at an 
average cost of $0.7666 per cubic yard delivered in storage. It is 
estimated that about 125,000 cubic yards must still be secured from 
this source. The pit at Nombre de Dios, on the Atlantic side, was 
closed in November, 1911, operations there havmg commenced in 
March, 1909. During the period of its operation there was secured 
785,893 cubic ^^ards of sand, at an average cost of $1.9176 per cubic 
yard delivered in storage at Gatun. 

The Atlantic division secured durmg the year 43,851 cubic yards of 
sand from the borrow pit for the hydraulic fill at Gatun Dam, at a 
division cost of $0.5188 per cubic yard. 

TABLE NO. 12. POWER PLANTS. 

The power plant at Gatun generated this year 10,315,790 kilowatt 
hours, at an average division cost of $0.0146 per kilowatt hour, as 
against 16,263,510 kilowatt hours last year, at an average division 
cost of $0.0220 per kilowatt hour, a decreased cost of $0.0074 per kilo- 
watt hour, due to lower arbitrary for plant, the estimated output of 
the plant having been exceeded. 

The power plant at Miraflores generated to April 30, when the 
operation of the plant was transferred to the mechanical division, 
8,841,765 kilowatt hours, at an average division cost of $0.0198 per 
kilowatt hour. During the same period last year there was generated 
7,526,290 kilowatt hours. Durmg the fiscal year 1912 the plant 
generated 9,522,400 kilowatt hours, at an average division cost of 
$0.0229 per kilowatt hour, the decreased cost m 1913 being due to 
the larger amount generated, and to a reduction of $0.0018 in charge 
for plant, owing to output exceeding original estimates. 

EXHIBIT C. DETAILED COST TO JUNE 30, 1913. 

These tables show the cost to date of the following projects: 

Work done by first division: 

Table No. 1. Spillway gates, caissons, and macliinery, lock gates and fender 
chains, emergency dams, lock-operating macliinery. 

Table No. 2. Masonry. 

Table No. 3. Operating machinery — permanent power house, Gatun. 

Table No. 4. Electric transmission line and accessories. 

Table No. 5. Lighting and buoying the canal. 
Work done by second division: 

Table No. 6. Cristobal terminals. 

Table No. 7. Balboa terminals. 
Miscellaneous: 

Table No. 8. Permanent town sites. 

Table No. 9. Permanent buildings. 

The cost of these various projects is being carried from year to 
year, and these tables give the total costs from the inception of the 
work to date. 

Attention is invited to the heavy charge for construction tracks 
under "Lock gates, Gatun," as compared with a similar charge at 
Pedro Mguel and JVIiraflores. This is in a measure due to the fact 



REPORT OF COST- KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 283 

that when the erection of the gates was commenced at the former point 
tlie Athmtic division was further advanced with its construction work 
than was the Pacific division at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores, so that 
the gates at Gatun bore a heavier proportion of expenses for general 
tracks than at the other two points, where construction work was at 
its height. 

The items "Mechanical erection" and "Installation" under "Erec- 
tion of lock and spillway operating machines, etc.," are the direct 
labor and material costs, exclusive of the contract price of the ma- 
chines, etc., which is shown as a separate item. Incidental expenses, 
such as freight charges, handling, power, tools, etc., are included under 
caption "mscellaneous expenses." Wlien the work is completed the 
total cost under each class of machine, divided by the number of 
machines erected, will give the average cost per machine, but as 
long as the work is in progress direct labor cost alone is of value, as 
the contract payments cover more machines than those on which 
work is in progress, and expenses under "Miscellaneous expenses" 
are common to machines whose erection has not been started. The 
number of each class of machines to be erected at each lock and the 
percentage completed on June 30 is shown in Table No. 4. No 
machine was completed, tested, and accepted on that date. 

The number of linear feet of return track laid by the construction 
divisions at the various locks and the average cost per linear foot 
have been as follows: At Gatun 10,527, average cost $1.3261 ; at Pedro 
Miguel 4,333, average cost $1.1065; at Miratiores 5,925, average cost 
$2.5637. The number of linear feet of return track laid by the first 
division at the various locks and the average cost per linear foot 
have been: At Gatun 1,449, cost $1.9273; at Pedro Miguel, 2,043, 
cost $2.3678; at Mii-aflores 1,082, cost $0.6085. 

The number of linear feet of track with rack installed by the first 
division and the average cost per linear foot have been: At Gatun 
21,000, cost $2.3128; at Pedro Miguel 12,199, cost $2.0180; at Mu-a- 
flores 14,137, cost $1.2291. There was expended at Gatun $3,480.92 
for chipping rack teeth ; no similar work was done at the other locks. 

The number of linear feet of cable pulled through the conduits at 
the various locks and the average cost per linear foot for direct labor 
have been: At Gatun 329,387, cost $0.0312; at Pedro Miguel 106,168, 
cost $0.0596; at Mkaflores 59,605, cost $0.0235. 

Concrete laid by the first division in connection with the erection/ 
of operating macliines, towing tracks, and decldng totaled on June 30, 
1913, 36,710 cubic yards, as follows: At Gatun Locks 16,706 cubic 
yards, average di\dsion cost $13.4124 per cubic yard; at Pedro Miguel 
Locks 10,190 cubic yards, average division cost $12.1460 per cubic 
yard; at Miraflores Locks 9,814 cubic yards, average division cost 
$11.3013 per cubic yard. 

Work on the electric transmission line and accessories was only 
started in May, and was not sufficiently advanced at the close of the 
year to furnish unit costs. 

The classification for the erection of the aids to navigation was 
revised during the year, and cost of each tower and project is shown 
in detaU in table No. 5. The large amount carried under "Material 
on hand" covers the cost of gas buoys which have not yet been placed 
in position. 



284 REPORT ISTHMIAlSr CANAL COMMISSION. 

For the Cristobal terminal facilities the only projects commenced 
were the fuel-oU storage tanks at Mount Hope, on which $13,063.59 
had been expended to the close of the fiscal year; and preliminary 
work for dredging site of coal-handling plant at CVistobal, such as 
clearing, drilling, and blasting, on which $1,424.55 was expended 
during the month of June. 

Work on the terminal facilities at Balboa was commenced during 
the fiscal year 1912, and the following is a summary of the quantities 
accomplished, division cost and unit cost, up to the close of the fiscal 
year 1913: 

In preliminary work, general surveys, etc., there had been expended 
$28,428.69; in preparing the site, removal of buildings, tracks, etc., 
there had been expended $167,627.26. There had been excavatecl 
412,707 cubic yards of material, at a cost of $231,957.57, or $0.5620 
per cubic yard. In filling and grading 505,419 cubic yards of mate- 
rial had been used, at a cost of $201,764.07, or $0.3992 per cubic yard, 
and in arrangements of yards and tracks $15,051.61 had been ex- 
pended. 

During the fiscal year 1912, 370,607 cubic yards were dredged from 
the inner harbor, at an average division cost of $0.1580 per cubic 
yard; in 1913, 1,401,207 cubic yards were dredged, at a division cost 
of $0.1538 per cubic yard, a total to date of 1,771,814 cubic yards, 
at an average division cost of $0.1547 per cubic yard. Of the above 
quantity 1,080,700 cubic 3^ards were handled by a pipe-line suction 
dredge and used in reclaiming land between Diablo Hill, Ancon, and 
Balboa, necessitating the use of a relay pump and extra pipe line, at 
an additional expense of $46,957.65, or $0.0435 per cubic yard, which 
is included in total division cost above quoted. 

On main dry dock there had been expended $19,660.27 for pre- 
liminary work, such as designing, surveys, etc., and 145,478 cubic 
yards of material had been excavated, at a cost of $123,087.95, or 
$0.8461 per cubic yard, and $756.25 had been expended on ironwork. 

On the coaling plant $2,272.75 had been expended for designing, 
survevs, etc., and 58,221 cubic yards of material had been excavated, 
at a cost of $49,260.40, or $0.8461 per cubic vard. 

On the sea wall $2.73 had been expended in surveys. 

On the permanent shops $40,402.13 had been expended in prehmi- 
nary work, such as clearing, designing, surveying, etc.; $201,757.21 
on foundations; $4,781.69 on floors;"$15,706.86 on steel erection; 
$1,959.80 on superstructure and roofs; $5,467.55 on installation of 
machinery; and $5,176.81 on miscellaneous items. In preparing 
the foundations 29,684 cubic yards of excavation had been accom- 
plished, at a division cost of $1.5607 per cubic yard; 7,787 cubic yards 
of concrete had been placed, at a division cost of $9.2091 per cubic 
yard; 135,442 hnear feet of wood piles and 3,060 linear feet of con- 
crete piles had been driven, at a division cost of $0.4820 and $3.2358 
per hnear foot, respectively; 315 feet of 4-foot steel cylinders had been 
driven, at a division cost of $14.9252 per linear foot; and 4,338 cubic 
yards of back fill had been placed, at an average division cost of 
$0.7619. The expenditures by buildings had been: 



EEPOKT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 285 

Preliminary work, general $30, 579. 91 

Steel erection, general 14,450. 25 

Machine and erecting shop 34, 627. 76 

Forge shop 8, 492. 48 

Steel storage shed 8, 974. 95 

Boiler and ship fitters' shop 18, 665. 57 

General storehouse 43, 693. 34 

Paint shop 9, 869. 00 

Car shop 4, 000. 37 

Planing mill 9, 738. 08 

Galvanizing building 1, 810. 24 

Lumber and equipment shed 15, 174. 99 

Pattern-storage room 6, 671. 04 

Foundry 22, 555. 26 

Coke shed 1, 580. 26 

Boiler house 75. 93 

Roundhouse 10, 163. 70 

Gas house 185. 70 

Toilets 128.36 

Paint house 11. 53 

Main office 171. 01 

Tunnel 33,632.32 

Total 275, 252. 05 

The steel for these buildings is being erected by the contractors, 
and when the work is completed the cost will be apportioned to the 
various buildings on the basis of tonnage. 

In constructing the docks there had been expended for preliminary 
work, such as surveys, borings, etc., $29,113.77; there had been exca- 
vated for the concrete piers 28,834 cubic yards of material, at a cost 
of $79,807.36, or $2.7678 per cubic yeard; 9,446 cubic yards of con- 
crete caissons had been manufactured and placed on site, at a cost 
of $121,124.81, or $12.8228 per cubic yard; and 3,914 cubic yards of 
concrete had been placed in these caissons, at a cost of $28,752.54, 
or $7.3461 per cubic yard. At the close of the fiscal year 12.435 linear 
feet of caissons were in place, at a cost, including excavation, of 
$18.4708 per hnear foot. In preliminary work in connection with 
the concrete floor system $30,379.91 had been expended for forms, 
reenforcements, etc., though no concrete had yet been placed, and 
$1,977.26 had been expended for miscellaneous items. On fu-el-oil- 
storage tanks $2,676.18 had been expended. 

In preparing the permanent town site at Balboa $45,807.55 had 
been expended, and on that at La Boca for silver employees $6,651.22. 
At the close of the fiscal year 1913 the administration building was 
the only permanent building in course of construction, except the 
shop buildings, which are carried under "Terminal faciUties." There 
had been expended on this building $32,976.61. In preparation of 
foundations and in grading site 38,073 cubic yards of material had 
been excavated, at an average division cost of $0.5654, and 770 cubic 
yards of concrete had been laid in the foundations, at an average 
division cost of $12.8646 per cubic yard. There had also been charged 
to the account ''Permanent buildings" $20,445.51 for architects' fees 
and for designing, and $2,496.64 for value of wooden buildings trans- 
ferred from Gorgona to La Boca for use of silver employees. 



286 KEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

EXHIBIT D. PERFORMANCE SHEETS. 



TABLE NO. 4. ROCK CRUSHER. 



A comparative summary of tlie performance of the rock-crushing 
plant at Ancon for the fiscal years 1913 and 1912 is given in the fol- 
lowing table: 



Hours in service 

Hours at work 

Cubic yards stone produced 

Average number cubic yards per hour in service 
Average number cubic yards per hour at work. . 
Per cent of working time to hours in service 



2,988.00 

2,278.11 

676,374.00 

226. 36 

296.90 

76.24 



1912 



3,315.00 

2,383.78 

837,908.00 

252. 76 

351.50 

71.91 



The Porto Bello quarry was not operated during the year. 



TABLE NO. 3. UNLOADING PLANT. 



The unloading cableways at Gatun were only operated to unload 
sand secured from the hydraulic fill borrow pits and to reclaim sand 
at the stock pile, and no reports of performance were prepared. A 
comparative statement of the work of the unloading cranes at Balboa 
for the fiscal years 1913 and 1912 follows: 



1913 



Average number operated 

Total unit hoius la service •. 

Total unit hours at work 

CubiQ yards material handled 

Average number of cubic yards material handled per hour in service 
Average number of cubic yards material handled per hour at work. . 
Per cent of working time to hours in service 



1.96 

4,698.00 

2,938.00 

445,658.00 

94.86 

151.69 

62.54 



1912 



2.00 

4,872.00 

3,499.50 

564,837.00 

115.94 

161.41 

71.83 



MIXING PLANTS. 



A comparison of the work done by the mixing plants in the Atlantic 
and Pacific divisions durmg the fiscal years 1913 and 1912 follows: 

Atlantic division, Table No. 1. 



Construction plant. 



Average number mixers in use 

Total hours in service 

Total hours at work 

Cubic yards concrete mixed — 

Average number of cubic yards of concrete mixed yvt hour in service. 
Average number of cubic yards of concrete mixed per hour at work. . . 
Per cent of working time to hours in service 



2.50 

6,522.94 

2,765.91 

165,839.00 

25.42 

59.95 

42.40 



4.30 

13,453.06 

5,794.30 

343,364.00 

25.52 

59.26 

43.07 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 
Pacific division, Tables Nos. 5, 6, and 7. 



287 



Pedro Miguel Locks, 
auxiliary plant. 



Average number of mixers m use 

Total hours in service 

Total hours at work 

Cubic yards concrete mixed 

Average number cubic yards concrete 

mixed per hour in service 

Average number cubic yards concrete 

mixed per hour at work 

Per cent working time to hours in 

service 



19131 



1.00 

390. 00 

177. 50 

5,835 

14.94 

32. 8V 

45. 45 



2.14 

5, 844. 50 

3, .391. 67 

122, 497 

20.96 

36.12 

58.03 



Miraflores Locks. 



Berm cranes. 



1913 



6.07 

17, 280. 26 

8, 163. 19 

308,914 

17.88 

37.84 

47.24 



6.55 

19, 287. 99 

10, 763. 85 

409,651 

21.24 

38.06 

55.80 



Auxiliary mixers. 



19132 



2.06 

2, 180. 50 

1, 423. 56 

97,603 

44.76 

68.56 

65.29 



1912 



2.09 

6,291.00 

3,820.85 

253,450 

40.29 

66.33 

60.74 



■ To Aug. 17 only. 



2 To Oct. 26 only. 



The above tables do not include the performance of small mixers, 
which worked intermittently during the year. 

TABLES NOS. 2, 7, AND 8. PLACING PLANTS. 

A comparative statement of the work done by the placing plants 
m the Atlantic and Pacific divisions follows: 



Atlantic division, 
cableway strands. 



Pacific division, Miraflores. 



Chamber cranes. 



Berm cranes. 



Average number operated 

Total number hours in service 

Total number hours handling con- 
crete 

Total number hours handling steel, 
forms, etc 

Cubic yards concrete and other ma- 
terial handled 

Average number of cubic yards of 
concrete and material handled per 
hour in that work 

Per cent of working time to hours in 
service 



1913 



7.83 
21,381.01 

5, 530. 15 

4, 738. 69 

158, 262 

28.62 
48.03 



8.00 
25, 404. 60 

9,840.53 

4,514.33 

309,534 

31.46 
56.51 



1913 



3.83 
11,937.50 

6,025.02 

876.24 

310,494 

51.53 
57.81 



2.48 
7,486.96 

4, 143. 23 

674. 17 

241, 862 

58.38 
64.34 



1913 



3.24 
9, 275. 50 

4, 362. 85 

252.83 

308,914 

70.81 
49.76 



1912 



3.58 
10,502.00 

5, 827. 31 

683.86 

409,651 

70.30 
62.00 



EXHIBIT E. ADMINISTRATIVE AND GENERAL EXPENSES. 

Administrative and general expenses were : 

During the fiscal year 1913 ^o' ^o?' ?S" S 

During the fiscal year 1912 2, ZZ7, 157. b» 

An increase of 11^' ^1'^- ^^ 

Or 5.10 per cent. 

The principal items of increase were: General expenses on the 
Isthmus, $19,282.76, due principally to transfer of cost-keepmg 
accounts to Chief Engineer's office and to additional expense for 
permanent files division; canal record, S3,254.35, due to increase in 
size of certain issues; disbursing officers on Isthmus and in the Umted 



288 REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

States, $2,609.86 and $2,799.87, respectively; examiner of accounts 
on Isthmus, $35,411.59, principally due to expenses of time keeping 
from January to June, formerly borne by the divisions; operation of 
stores, $41,326.31, in switching and crane service from other depart- 
ments and in freight charges; recruiting and repatriating, $11,862.04, 
there being more employees recruited m the United States, and greater 
expenditures for repatriating employees who had served two years or 
more; quarters, $32,966.94, due to shifting of force from one station 
to another, freight charges, and to larger number of persons in quar- 
ters; operations docks and wharves, $17,612.40, due to handling over 
dock a large quantity of heavy material for locks, operating machinery, 
etc. These increases are partially offset by decreases in the following 
items: General administrative expenses, $9,723.27, expenses of draft- 
ing and designing forces formerly charged to this account being now 
charged dii'ectly to project benefited; Isthmian Canal Commission 
band, $3,713.15, the band being abolished February 28; miscellaneous 
general expenses in the United States, $5,940.39, there being heavy 
charges last year for services of Special Commissioner Emory R. 
Johnson; telegraph and telephones, $38,335.52, due to decrease in 
monthly payments to the Panama Railroad Co. for this service; pur- 
chasing expenses in the United States, $2,447.74. 

EXHIBIT F. SALARY DISBURSEMENTS BY DEPARTMENTS AND DIVISIONS. 

The Congress appropriates separately for ' ' Pay of officers and em- 
ployees" and for "Skilled and unskilled labor." Disbursements from 
these appropriations by the department of construction and engmeer- 
ing for the year 1913 totaled $18,393,000.15, against $17,673,385.61 
in 1912. During 1913, 19.75 per cent of the amount disbursed was 
from the appropriation "Officers and employees" and 80.25 per cent 
from the appropriation for "Skilled and unskilled labor," the pro- 
portion for 1912 having been 20.55 per cent and 79.45 per cent, 
respectively. 

From the appropriation ''Pay of officers and employees" are paid 
the salaries of the clerical and supervisory forces, so that the dis- 
bursements therefrom are in the nature of a surcharge on the pro- 
ductive salary expenditures, represented by the disbursements from 
the appropriation "Skilled and unskilled labor." In 1913 the dis- 
bursements from appropriation "Officers and employees" equaled a 
surcharge of 24.61 per cent on the disbursements from appropriation 
"Skilled and unskilled labor"; and in 1912 of 25.86 per cent, indi- 
cating a saving in clerical and supervisory forces of $184,779.53. 

Appended hereto are the exhibits referred to in this report. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Ad. Faure, 
Cost Keeping Accountant, 

Col. George W. Goethals, U. S. Army, 

Chairman and Chief Engineer, Culehra, Canal Zone. 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 289 

EXHIBITS SUBMITTED WITH ANNUAL REPORT OF COST-KEEPING 

ACCOUNTANT. 

INDEX. _ 

Page. 

Exhibit A. Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913: 

Table 1. Atlantic division - 

Table 2. Central division 298 

Table 3. Pacific division.. . 

Table 4. Terminal tacilities, Balboa ^" 

Table 5 Miscellaneous and total - - - - I'/'y-'^-' ''' 

Exhibit B Detail cost per unit of work by months for construction divisions, 

fiscal year 1913: 

Table 1. Dry excavation— 

Atlantic division — .,-,.• on? 

Gatun Spillway— Preparing foundations ^u/ 

Gatun Locks— Excavation _. ^"^ 

Gatun Locks— Preparing foundations ^^^ 

Permanent power house, Gatun— Excavation . ....... 6m 

Permanent power house, Gatun— Preparing foundations. 308 

Central division— Prism 

Pacific division — oqq 

Pedro iiiguei Locks— Excavation. ---.--. 310 

Pedro Miguel Locks— Preparing foundations 6i\J 

Miraflores Locks— Preparing foundations ^|y 

Pedro Miguel Dam— Excavation ^|| 

Miraflores West Dam— Excavation -. ^!^^ 

Mh-aflores East Dam and Spillway— Excavation 6i^ 

Table 2. Dredging excavation — 

Atlantic division — „, „ 
Prism ......-.--•--------•-""*"*"■*""■**"'*"'*' 

Gatun Locks— Dredging _- ^12 

Gatun Locks— Preparing foundations ^|^ 

Pacific division— Prism 

Table 3. HydrauUc excavation — „,„ 

Central division— Pnsm ^|^ 

Pacific division— Prism "^^^ 

Table 4. Masonry- 
Atlantic division— „,, 

Gatun Spillway ^|^ 

Gatun Locks ^, „ 

Permanent power house "'■'•" 

Pacific division — 01 ^ 

Pedro Miguel Dam ^j^ 

Pedro Miguel Locks ^|' 

Miraflores Locks ^,^ 

Mu-aflores West Dam ^|^ 

Miraflores Spillway "^^^ 

Table 5. Dry filling- 
Atlantic division — ^-i 

Gatun Dam ^^| 

Gatun Locks— Backfill - ^^| 

Gatun Locks— Filhng center wall <3^i 

Pacific division — 099 

Pedro Miguel Dam - ^^f, 

Pedro Miguel Locks— Backfill - ^^^ 

Pedro Miguel Locks— Filhng center wall ^^^ 

Miraflores Dam ^^^ 

Miraflores Locks— Backfill - ■ ^;^ 

Miraflores Locks— Filhng center wall -^"^ 

Table 6. Hydraulic filhng— oo. 

Atlantic division— Gatun Dam , '^^^ 

Table 7. Piling for foundations — „^c 

Atlantic division— Gatun Locks ^-^ 

Pacific division— Mh-aflores Locks -^^'^ 

11834°— 13 19 



290 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit B. Detail cost per unit of work by months for construction divisions, 
fiscal year 1913 — Continued. 
Table 8. Breakwaters — Page. 

Atlantic division — Colon Breakwater 326 

Table 9. Stone production — 

Pacific division — Ancon quarry 327 

Table 10. Sand production — 

Atlantic division — Gatun 328 

Pacific division — Chame 329 

Table 11. Operation power plants '. 330 

Exhibit C. Detailed cost of work done by first and second divisions, and on 
permanent town sites and buildings, to June 30, 1913: 
First division — 

Table 1. Gates, emergency dams, and operating machinery 331 

Table 2. Masonry 340 

Table 3. Operating machinery — Permanent power house, Gatun 342 

Table 4. Electric transmission lines and accessories 342 

Table 5. Lighting and buoying the canal 343 

Second division — 

Table 6. Terminal facihties, Cristobal 353 

Table 7. Terminal facihties, Balboa 354 

Miscellaneous — • 

Table 8. Permanent town sites 360 

Table 9. Permanent buildings 361 

Exhibit D. Performance of crushed rock, sand, and concrete producing and 
handhng plants: 
Atlantic division — 

Table 1. Construction plant mixers, Gatun 362 

Table 2. Locks, cableway, towers, Gatun 363 

Pacific division — 

Table 3. Sand unloading cranes, Balboa 364 

Table 4. Ancon qrarry 365 

Table 5. Auxihary mixers, Pedro Miguel 366 

Table 6. Ai:xihary mixers, Mrraflores 366 

Table 7. Berm cranes, Miraflores 367 

Table 8. Chamber cranes, Miraflores 368 

Exhibit E. Comparative statement of administrative and general expenses. . . 369 
Exhibit F. Statement of salary disbursements by departments and divisions, 
and by appropriations 369 

Exhibit A.— Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913. 

Table 1.— Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 1913. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Dry excavation— Prism: 
May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


Cu. yd.1. 
1, 152, 105 

324, 7ir. 

280,305 

424,872 


$673, 330. 97 
201,916.36 

168.440.60 

2.52,886.45 

13,910.16 


$0. 5844 
.6218 
.6010 
.5952 


$102,017.26 
24, 985. 55 
13,946.79 
17, 265. 97 


80. 0886 
.0770 
.0497 
.0406 


$775,348.23 

226,901.91 

182,387.39 

270, 152. 42 

13,910.16 


80. 6730 


Fisral voir 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal vcar 191? 

FisfalVcar 1913 


.6988 
.6507 
.(i358 














Total to June 30, 1913 


2,181,998 


1,310,484.54 


.6006 


158,215.57 


.0725 


1,468,700.11 


.6731 


Hydraulic excavation- 
Prism: 

Fiscal vcar 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 


28,605 
1,000 


7,721.28 
2,597.59 


. 2699 
2. 5976 


1,143.49 
208. 96 


.0400 
.2090 


8,864.77 
2,806.55 


.3099 
2. 8066 


Total to June .■!0,191.'l 


29, 605 


10,318.87 


.3485 


1,352.45 

^ : 


.0457 


11,671.32 


.3942 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



291 



Exhibit A. — Statement op Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 1 . — Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Dredging excavation, 
prism: 
May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


Cu. yds. 
13, 188, 123 
4,955,660 
5,828,-345 
4,870,827 
6,483,408 


82,654,951.70 
1, 169, 667. 60 
1,291,257.03 
1,208,226.15 
1,356,771.78 


$0. 2013 
.2.360 
.2215 
.2481 
.2093 


$273, 425. 93 
131,370.17 
126,902.35 
100,928.48 
108, .556. 23 


$0. 0207 
.0265 
.0218 
.0207 
.0107 


$2,928,377.63 
1,301,0.37.77 
1,418,159.38 
1,309,154.63 
1,465,328.01 


$0. 2220 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


.2625 
.2433 

.2(i88 
.2260 


Total to June 30,1913 
Plant, amount to be 
absorbed after June 
30 1913 


35,326,363 


7,680,874.26 
93,373.02 


.2174 


741, 183. 16 


.0210 


8,422,057.42 
93,373.02 


.2384 














Total 




7,774,247.28 




741, 183. 16 




8,515,430.44 










GATUN SPILLWAY. 

Dry excavation: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


1,296,3.32 

122,487 
125,383 


778,514.20 
117,945.47 
51,014.89 


.6006 
.9629 
.4069 


127,355.38 
15,460.31 
5,890.34 


.0982 
.1262 
.0470 


905,869.58 
133,405.78 
56,905.23 


.6988 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 


1. 0891 
. 4539 


Total to June .30,1913 


1,544,202 


947,474.56 


.6136 


148,706.03 


.0963 


1,096,180.59 


.7099 


Preparing; foundations: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal vear 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


4,723 

32,245 

7, 123 

175 


18, 632. 78 

48,521.10 

18,804.83 

418. 48 


3. 9451 
1. 5048 
2.6400 
2. 3913 


2, 732. 07 

5,893.94 

1,882.79 

132. 54 


.5785 
.1828 
.2643 
.7574 


21,364.85 

54,41.5.04 

20,687.62 

551.02 


4. 5236 
1. 6876 
2. 9043 
3.1487 


Total to June 30,1913 


44,260 


86,377.19 


1. 9513 


10,641.34 


.2404 


97,018.53 


2. 1917 


Masonry: 

Concrete, plain- 
May 4, 1904, to 
June .30, 1909.... 
Fiscal year 1910... 
Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


30,464 
53,632 
59,651 
58,048 
20,653 


223,203.73 
461,338.27 
399,925.98 
407, 108. 10 
161,556.53 


7.3268 
8. 6019 
6. 7044 
7. 0133 
7. 8224 


20,565.26 
27,380.14 
16,875.75 
23,825.85 
17,838.63 


. 6751 
.5105 
.2829 
.4105 
.8637 


243,768.99 
488,718.41 
416,801.73 
430,933.95 
179,395.16 


8. 0019 
9. 1124 
6. 9873 
7. 4238 
8.6861 


Total to June 
30,1913 


222,448 


1,653,132.61 


7. 4315 


106, 485. 63 


.4787 


1,759,618.24 


7.9102 


Concrete, reenforced— 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


618 
1,066 


9,370.80 
14,860.14 


15. 1631 
13. 9401 


704.30 
2,033.54 


1. 1396 
1. 9076 


10,075.10 
16,893.68 


16. 3027 
15.8477 


Total to June 
30,1913 


1,684 


24,230.94 


14.3889 


2,737.84 


1.6258 


26,968.78 


16. 0147 


Total masonry. 


224, 132 


1,677,363.55 


7.4838 


109,223.47 


.4873 


1,786,587.02 


7.9711 


Ironwork: 

Fiscal year 1910 




346. 26 
16,869.54 
80,153.39 
33,921.54 




41.60 
2,573.79 
14, 133. 29 
6,996.03 




387.86 
19,443.33 
94,286.68 
40,917.57 




Fiscal vear 1911 






Fiscal year 1912 . 






Fiscal year 1913... 












Total to June 30,1913 




131,290.73 




23,744.71 




155,035.44 








Gates: 

Fiscal year 1912 




29,981.71 
43,750.51 








29,981.71 
46, 489. 12 




Fiscal year 1913 






2,738.61 












Total to June 30,1913 




73,732.22 




2,738.61 




76, 470. 83 











292 EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 

Exhibit A. — Statement or Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 1. — Statevient of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quajati- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amormt. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit. 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


GATUN SPILLWAY— contd. 

Operating machinery: 
Fiscal year 1913 (total).. 


Cu. yds. 


$91, 122. 95 




$1,641.34 




,1592,764.29 










Back fillinf;: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 


1,781 
12,873 
10,062 


1,005.69 
6,220.54 
3,921.88 


$0. 5(i47 
. 4832 
.3898 


93. 55 
773. 45 
441. 07 


$0. 0525 
. 0601 
.0438 


1, 099. 24 
6, 993. 99 
4,362.95 


$9. 0172 
.5433 
.4336 


Total to June 30,1913 


24,716 


11, 148. 11 


.4511 


1,308.07 


.0529 


12,456.18 


.5040 


Total Gatun Spill- 
way 




3,018,509.31 




298,003.57 




3,316,512.88 










GATUN DAM. 

Dredging excavation: 
May 4, 1904, to June 30, 
1909 (total) 


38,425 


18,322.71 


.4769 


1,718.48 


.0447 


20, 041. 19 


.5216 






Dry filling: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


2,244,622 
2,555,197 
2,67.5,945 
2,626,447 
1,812,7.33 


927,319.57 

757,828.15 

1,018,351.43 

1,356,471.78 

643,726.42 


.4131 
. 2966 
.3806 
.5165 
.3551 


181,339.46 
87,078.24 
76,382.58 
94,331.18 
56,392.04 


.0808 
.0340 
.0285 
.0359 
.0311 


1,108,659.03 

844,906.39 

1,094,7.34.01 

1,450,802.96 

700,118.46 


.4939 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


. 3306 
.4091 
.5524 
.3862 


Total to June 30,1913 


11,914,944 


4,703,697.35 


.3948 


495,523.50 


.0416 


5,199,220.85 


.4364 


Hydraulic filling: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


720,047 
2, 933, 175 
4,256,393 
2,604,632 

214,718 


162,553.19 

786, 641. 96 

974,230.44 

1,001,405.34 

44,885.52 


.2258 
.2682 
.2289 
.3844 
.2090 


34,540.85 
59.910.57 
771572.23 
52,407.82 
9,521.55 


.0479 
.0204 
.0182 
.0201 
.0444 


197,094.04 

846,552.53 

1,051,802.67 

1,053,813.16 

54,407.07 


.2737 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


.2886 
.2471 
.4045 
.2534 


Total to June 30,191:; 


10,728,965 


2,969,716.45 


.2768 


233,953.02 


.0218 


3, 203, 669. 47 


.2986 


Paving: 

Excavation, fiscal year 
1913 (total) . . . 


15,078 
68,730 

15,740 


31,704.98 
45, 181. 42 

38, 620. 09 


2. 1027 
.4429 

2. 4536 


3,850.80 
2,204.24 

2,032.83 


. 2554 
.0215 

.1292 


35,555.78 
47,385.66 

40,652.92 


2. 3581 


Placing riprap, fiscal 
year 1913 (total).... 

Placing broken stone, 
fiscal year 1913 
(total) 


.4644 
2. 5828 






Total paving 




115,506.49 




8,087.87 




123,594.36 










Surfacing (square 
yards), fiscal year 
1913 (total) 


225,460 


4,756.90 


.0211 


570. 40 


. 0025 


5,327.30 


. 0236 






Total Gatun Dam.. 




7,811,999.90 




739,853.27 




8,551,853.17 










Total Gatun Dam 
and Spillway 




10,830,509.21 




1,037,850.84 




11, 868, .366. 05 










Plant, overcharge to be 
adjusted on comi)le- 




296,447.67 








296,447.67 
















Total 




10,535,061.64 




1,037,856.84 




11,572,918.48 











REPORT OP COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



298 



Exhibit A. — Statement op Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 1. — Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


GATUN LOCKS. 

Dry excavation: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


Cu. yds. 

3, 240, 218 
839,302 
475,875 


$1,729,279.35 
087, 602. 40 
338, 332. 43 
3,337.87 

63,229.80 


$0.5337 
.8193 
.7110 


$217,726.78 
73,991.47 
37,019.15 


$0. 0072 
.0881 
.0778 


$1,947,006.13 

701,593.87 

375,351.58 

3,337.87 

68,217.19 


$0.6009 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 


.9074 

.7888 


Fiscal year 1913 


104,660 


. 0041 


4,987.33 


.0477 


. 6518 


Total to June 30,1913 


4,660,055 


2,815,106.17 


.6041 


333,724.73 


.0716 


3,148,830.90 


.6757 


Drecle;in? excavation: 
May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


488,533 


79,978.05 

2, 999. 32 

276,568.07 

166,461.53 


.1637 

'".'3129 
.4329 


9,427.51 

305.94 

11,570.12 

14,600.71 


.0193 

"".'oisi 

.0380 


89,406.16 

3,305.26 

288, 144. 19 

181,01 8. 24 


. 1830 


Fiscal vear 1911 




Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


. 883,918 
384, 526 


. 3200 
.4709 


Total to June 30,1913 


1,756,977 


526,007.57 


.2994 


35,916.28 


.0204 


561,923.85 


.3198 


Preparing foundations: 
Excavation- 
Fiscal year 1910... 
Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912. . . 
Fiscal year 1913... 


33,843 

152,582 

8,888 

33,0*33 


85,109.77 

237,098.48 

26,307.20 

56,246.52 


2.5148 
1.5540 
2.9598 
1.7012 


13,392.73 

27, 640. 92 

2,207.51 

5,995.89 


0.3957 
.1811 
.2484 
.1813 


98,502.50 

204,739.40 

28,514.71 

62,242.41 


2.9105 
1.7351 
3.2082 
1. 8825 


Total to June 30, 
1913 


228,376 


404,761.97 


1.7723 


49,237.05 


.2156 


453,999.02 


1 9879 






Dredging, fiscal year 
1913 (total) .... 


19,814 


36,581.03 


1.8462 


3, 139. 47 


.1585 


39,720.50 


2 0047 






Filling, approach 
walls- 
Fiscal year 1910... 


17,883 

22,234 

1,544 


10,607.43 
4, 239. 79 
1,161.41 


.5932 
.1907 
.7522 






10,607.43 
4, 619. 30 
1,287.74 


.5932 


Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


379.51 
126.33 


.0171 
.0818 


.2078 
.8340 


Total to June 30, 
1913 


41,661 


16,008.63 


.3843 


505.84 


.0121 


16,514.47 


3964 






Concrete piling, ap- 
proach walls (linear 
feet)— 

Fiscal year 1911... 

Fiscal year 1912... 

Fiscal year 1913... 


8,190 
75, 474 


18, 129. 46 

113,389.34 

3,833.00 


2. 2120 
1.5032 


635.29 
2,418.27 


.0775 
.0320 


18,764.75 

115,807.61 

3,833.00 


2.2895 
1.5352 














Total to June 30, 
1913 


83,670 


135,351.80 


1.6177 


3,053.56 


.0365 


138,405.36 


1 6542 






Wooden piling, ap- 
proach walls (linear 
feet)— 

Fiscal year 1912... 

Fiscal year 1913... 


51,450 
200,549 


33,525.15 
110,389.05 


.6516 
.5504 


4,345.26 
16,353.33 


.0845 
.0816 


37,870.41 
126, 742. 38 


.7361 
.6320 


Total to June 30, 
1913 


251,999 


143,914.20 


.5711 


20,698.59 


.0821 


164,612.79 


6532 






Masonry: 

Concrete, plain- 
May 4, 1904, to 
June 30, 1909 




15,093.59 

3,779,163.81 

5,952,003.08 

2,785,709.13 

900,643.05 


"'7.' 3553 
6.5919 
7.1317 
6.5383 


2,054.67 
204,596.95 
199,380.61 
103,230.79 
55,186.28 


'"."3983 
.2208 
.2643 
.4006 


17, 148. 26 

3,983,760.76 

6,151,383.69 

2,888,939.92 

955,820.33 




Fiscal year 1910. . . 
Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913. . . 


513,803 
902,926 
390,611 
137,749 


7. 7535 
6. 8127 
7. 3960 
6.9389 


Total to June 30, 
1913 


1,945,089 


13,432,612.66 


6.9059 


564,449.30 


.2902 


13,997,061.96 


7 1961 







294 



BEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Ejxhibit a. — Statement op Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 1. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


GATUN LOCKS— contd. 

Masonry— Continued . 

Concrete, leenforced— 

Fiscal year 1911... 

Fiscal year 1912. . . 

Fiscal year 1913. . . 


Cu. yds. 
8,211 
59,883 
27,532 


$102,216.13 
707,983.96 
291,183.85 


$12.4487 
11.8228 
10.5762 


$9,261.28 
50,105.37 
32, 140. 82 


$1. 1279 
.8367 
1. 1674 


$111,477.41 
758,089.33 
323,324.67 


$13.5766 
12. 6595 
11.7436 


Total to June 30, 
1913.. 


95,626 


1,101,383.94 


11.5176 


91,507.47 


.9569 


1,192,891.41 


12 4745 






Total masonry. . 


2,040,715 


14,533,996.60 


7. 1220 


655,956.77 


.3214 


15,189,953.37 


7.4434 


Ironwork: 

Fiscal year 1910 




226,554.37 

593,807.35 

337,786.43 

76,202.24 




26,112.31 

87,802.13 

42,566.42 

38,640.85 




252,666.68 
681,609.48 
380,352.85 
37,561.39 




Fiscal year 1911 






Fiscal year 1912 






Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30,1913 




1,234,350.39 




117, 840. 01 




1,352,190.40 










Gates and fender chains: 
Fiscal year 1911 




40,586.48 

868,144.22 

1,320,190.55 




5,999.82 
107, 052. 85 
47,180,95 




46,586.30 

975,197.07 

1,273,009.60 




Fiscal year 1912 






Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30,1913 




2,228,921.25 




65,871.72 




2,294,792.97 










Emergency dams, fiscal 
year 1913 (total) 




816, 184. 77 




6,493.97 




822,678.74 










Operating machinery: 
Fiscal year 1912 




531,793.93 
1,836,370.15 




22,043.38 

72,778.48 




553,837.31 
1,909,148.63 




Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30,1913 




2,368,164.08 




94,821.86 




2,462,985.94 










Concrete in machinery 
installation, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 


16,706 


224,068.56 


13.4124 


21,632.01 


1.2949 


245,700.57 


14 7073 






Control house: 

Masonry, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 


568 


15,459.54 

3,511.28 

20.84 


27.2175 


1,254.40 
62.29 


2.2085 


16,713.94 

3,573.57 

20.84 


29 4260 


Ironwork and miscel- 
laneous, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




Machinery installa- 
tion, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 


















Total control 
house 




18,991.06 




1,316.69 




20,308.35 










Buffer timbers, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




8,946.40 
10,479.86 




614.25 
817.22 




9,560.65 
11,297.08 




Crib fenders, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 












Back flU: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


4,190 
5a5,669 
922,215 
565,756 


4,811.52 
284,221.51 
425,013.92 
215,314.33 


1.1483 
.5307 
.4615 
.3805 


388.29 
29,446.89 
36, 760. 53 
25,498.27 


.0927 
.0549 
. 0399 
.0451 


5, 199. 81 
313,668.40 
462,380.45 
240,812.60 


1.2410 
.5856 
.5014 
.4256 


Total to June 30,1913 


2,027,830 


929,961.28 


.4586 


92,099.98 


.0454 


1,022,061.26 


.5040 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



295 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 1. — Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 191S — Continued. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION— Continued. 



• 


Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 


. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit. 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


GATUN LOCKS— contd. 

Filling center wall: 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


Cm. yds. 
2,717 
94,574 
15,872 


$2,889.16 
71,946.90 
13,205.65 


$1. 0634 
.7607 
.8320 


$212.09 

2,809.91 

689. 38 


$0. 0780 
.0297 
.0434 


$3,101.25 
74, 756. 81 
13,895.03 


$1. 1414 
.7904 

.8754 


Total to June 30,1913 


113,163 


88,041.71 


.77S0! 3,711.38 
1 


.0328 


91,753.09; .8108 


Filling around south ap- 
proach wall, fiscal year 
1912 (total): 
Dry 


7,072 
594, 495 


3, 600. 90 

91,847.98 


.5092 
.1545 


176. 71 
2,229.51 


.0250 
.0037 


3,777.61 
94,077.49 


.5342 




.1582 






Total 




95,448.88 





2,406.22 




97.855.10 






' 


Total Gatun Locks 




26,635,286.81 
198,251.22 





1,509,857.60 




28,145,144.41 
198,251.22 




Plant, amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June 30, 1913 


















Total 




26,833,538.03 





1,509,857.60 




28, 343, 395. 63 










GATUN PERMANENT POWER 
PLANT 

Dry excayation: 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


72, 119 
14,948 


27,163.41 
6,012.12 


.3767 
.4022 


1,596.61 
538. 31 


.0221 
.0360 


28, 760. 02 
6.550.43 


.3988 
.4382 


Total to June 30,1913 


87,067 


33, 175. 53 


.3811 


2,134.92 


.0245 


35,310.45 


.4056 


Preparing foundations, fis- 
cal year 1913 (total) 

Masonry substructure, fis- 
cal year 1913 (total) 

Masonry superstructure, 
fiscal year 1913 (total).. 


11,684 
5,068 


20,999.20 

43,452.32 

1,983.29 

40,953.30 


1.7973 
8.5739 




2,127.99 

2,394.21 

192. 60 

7,284.67 


.1821 
.4724 


23, 127. 19 
45,846.53 
2, 175. 89 

48,237.97 


1. 9794 
9.0463 


Miscellaneous construc- 
tion, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 












Operating machinery: 
Fiscal year 1912 




8,855.00 
192,666.91 








8,855.00 
2nn. .=549. 85 




Fiscal year 1913 






7,882.91 














Total to Jime 30,1913 




201,521.91 




7,882.91 


209, 404. 82 










Total Gatun power 
plant 




342,085.55 
2,195.54 




22,017.30 




364,102.85 
2, 195. 54 




sorbed after Jime 30, 1913 




















Total 




344,281.09 




22,017.30 


366,298.39 










GATUN-MtNDI LEVEE. 

Dry filling: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 


126,002 
51,156 


51,789.04 
10, 128. 74 


.4110 
.1979 


6, 125. 69 
941. 68 


1 

.0486 57,914.73 
.0184 11,070.42 


.4596 
.2163 


Totalto June 30,1913 

Hydraulic filling, fiscal 

year 1911 (total) 


177, 158 
20,398 


61,917.78 
3,326.91 


.3495 
.1631 


7,067.37 
156.41 


.0399 
.0077 


08,985.15 
3,483.32 


.3894 
.1708 


Total Gatun-Mindi 
Levee 




65,244.69 




7,223.78 




72,468.47 















296 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 1. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

ATLANTIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitrarios for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


COLON BREAKWATER. 

Dry filling: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


Cu. yds. 


$7,436.72 

43.773.31 

522,084.39 

916,821.49 

896,512.68 








$7,436.72 

48, 684. 14 

609,261.79 

998,58.5.69 

972,210.51 




Fiscal year 1910 




'$i."456o 

1. 7457 
4.8787 


$4 910 S3 






Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


359,890 
525,173 
183,762 


87,177.40 
81,764.20 
75,697.83 


$0.2423 
.1557 
.4119 


$1.6929 
1.9014 
5.2906 


Total to June 30,1913 
Plant, amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June 30, 1913 


1,068,825 


2,386,628.59 
6,941.03 


2.2329 


249,550.26 


.2335 


2,636,178.85 
0,941.03 


2. 4664 














Total Colon Break- 
water 




2,393,569.62 




249,550.26 




2,643,119.88 










TERMINAL FACILITIE.S, 
CRISTOBAL. 

Coaling plant, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




1,424.55 
13,063.59 








1,424.55 
13,063.59 




Fuel-oil tanks, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 
























Total terminal facil- 
ities, Cristobal 




14,488.14 
5,666.11 








14,488.14 
5,083.27 




CLEARING DRIFT IN GATUN 
LAKE. 

Fiscal year 1913 (total) 






17. 16 














MANUFACTURING PLANTS. 

Amounts to be absorbed 
after June 30, 1913: 

Porto Bello quarry . . . 




185,627.32 
305,866.29 








185,627.32 
305,866.29 




Sea transportation 
























Total 




491,493.61 








491,493.61 
















Total Atlantic di- 




49,778,393.62 




3,727,274.12 




53,505,667.74 












KEPOKT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



297 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 2. — Statement of constniction expenditures to June 30, 1913. 



CENTRAL DIVISION. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Dry excavation, prism: 
May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


Cu. yds. 
40,983,366 
17,832,177 
18,522,692 
17,063,446 
12, 737, 500 


$37, 540, 874. 34 
11,945,261.93 
10,891,360.70 
8, 705, 143. 72 
7,037,306.05 


$0. 9160 
.6699 
.5880 
.5101 
.5525 


$4,615,073.19 

1,152,810.58 

847, 225. 78 

615,611.56 

451,826.25 


SO. 1126 
.0646 
.0457 
.0361 
. 0355 


§42,1.55,947.53 
13, 098, 072. 51 
11,738,586.48 
9,320,755.28 
7,489,132.30 


$1.0286 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


.7345 
.6337 
.5462 
.5880 


Total to June 30,1913 


107, 139, 181 


76,119,946.74 


.7105 


7,682,547.36 


.0717 


83,802,494.10 


.7822 


Dredging e x c a v a tion, 
prism: 
May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 




8,067.72 
183.47 




1, 730. 68 




9, 798. 40 
183.47 




Fiscal year 1913 


















Total to June 30,1913 




8, 251. 19 
10, 511. 46 


.1835 


1,730.68 




9,981.87 
10,511.46 




Hydraulic e x c a vation, 
prism, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 


57, 274 


.1835 










Clearing canal line (acres): 
Fiscal year 1910 


2,098 
182 


134,857.24 
3,991.79 
2, 029. 51 
7,378.30 


64.2789 
21. 9329 

'29."5i32 






134,857.24 
4,459.17 
2,110.34 
7,924.47 


64. 2789 


Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 


467. 38 

80.83 

546. 17 


2. 5680 

"2."i847 


24.5009 


Fiscal year 1913 


250 


31. 6979 


Total to June 30,1913 


2,530 


148,256.84 


58. 5995 


1,094.38 


.4326 


149,351.22 


59. 0321 


Masonry: 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 


1,020 
251 


5,639.35 
2,000.96 


5.5288 
7. 9719 


585.09 
128. 26 


.5736 
.5110 


6,224.44 
2, 129. 22 


6.1024 

8.4829 


Total to June 30,1913 

Masonry facing (square 

yards), fiscal year 1912 

(total) 


1,271 
4,250 


7,640.31 

3,826.97 

42,251.97 


6.0113 
.9005 


713. 35 
252.14 


.5612 
.0593 


8,353.66 

4,079.11 

42,251.97 


6.5725 
.9598 


Plant, overcharge to be 
adjusted on completion 
of work 
















Total central divi- 
sion 




76,256,181.54 




7,686,337.91 




83,942,519.45 











298 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 3. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913. 

PACIFIC DIVISION. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Dry excavation, prism: 
Mav 4, 1901, to June 
30, 1909 


Cm. yds. 

139,470 

99,703 

198, 770 

864,475 

3,210,851 


$119, 747. 16 

63,266.48 

138,349.00 

650,658.11 

2,126,300.10 


SO. 8586 
.6345 
.6960 
.7527 
.6622 


$21,514.28 

6,622.63 

12, 662. 38 

37,383.22 

148,889.65 


$0. 1542 


8141961 44 


$1 0128 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


.0664 69,889.11 
.0637' 151,011.38 
.0432 688,041.33 
.0464, 2,275,189.75 


.7009 
.7597 
.7959 
.7086 


Total to June 30,1913 
Plant, amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June 30, 
1913 


4,513,269 


3,098,320.85 
62,619.43 


.6865 


227,072.16 


.0503 


3,325,393.01 
02, 619. 43 


.7368 














Total 




3,160,940.28 




227, 072. 16 


1 3,388,012.44 










Hydraulic e x c a vation, 
prLsm: 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


197,677 
900,596 
451, 631 


120, 714. 14 
501,065.72 
456, 749. 25 


.6106 
.5564 
1. 0113 


9,088.12 

25, 560. 51 

7, 729. 61 


. 0460 129, 802. 26 
. 0284 526, 626. 23 
.0171 464,478.86 


. 6566 

.5848 

1.0284 


Total to June 30,1913 


1,549,904 


1,078,529.11 


.6959 


42,378.24 


.0273 1,120,907.35 


.7232 


Dredging e x c a v a tion, 
prism: 
May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


16, 180, 107 
6,857,223 
5, 549, 642 
3,884,287 
4,321,956 


3, 427, 748. 61 
1,650,894.38 
1,308,087.35 
738, 025. 36 
1,399,473.68 


.2118 
.2408 
.2519 
.1900 
.3238 


277,360.96 
156, 092. 09 
136,071.78 
68,519.58 
131,561.14 


.0172 .■? 7a'i 109.57 


.2290 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


.0227 
.0245 
.0176 
.0304 


1,806,986.47 

1,534,159.13 

806,544.94 

1,531,034.72 


.2635 
.2764 
.2076 
.3542 


Total to June 30,1913 
Plant, amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June 30, 
1913 


36,793,215 


8, 614, 229. 28 
744,525.02 


.2341 


769,605.55 


.0209 


9,383,834.83 
744,525.02 


.2.550 














Total 




9, 358, 754. 30 




769, 605. 55 




10,128,359.85 










PEDRO MIGUEL DAMS. 

Dry excavation: 

Mav 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


4,074 


5,241.81 

925. 47 

5,915.97 

6,956.46 


1. 2866 






5,241.81 

925. 47 

6,361.32 

7,596.57 


1. 2866 


Fiscal year 1910 








Fiscal vear 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


3,937 
2,464 


1. 5026 
2. 8233 


445. 35 
640.11 


.ii32 
.2598 


i.cios 

3. 0831 


Total to June 30,1913 


10,475 


19,039.71 


1. 8177 


1,085.46 


.1036 


20, 125. 17 


1. 9213 


Drv filling: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30, 1909 


167,061 
93, 791 


71,275.77 

36,205.63 

4, 058. 42 

162,084.64 

37, 793. 84 


.4266 
.3860 

'"'.'5646 
.3312 


9,985.14 
3,892.31 
584.55 
4, 107. 42 
3, 087. 98 


. 0598 
.0415 

"".'6i28 
.0270 


81,260.91 
40,097.94 
4,642.97 
166, 192. 06 
40,881.82 


4864 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 


.4275 


FLscalyear 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


321,589 
114,117 


.5168 
.0582 


Totalto June 30,1913 


696,558 


311,418.30 


.4471 


21,657.40 


.0311 


333,075.70 


.4782 


Masonrv, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 


1,567 


7,872.65 


5.0240 


569. 17 


.3632 


8,441.82 


5 3872 






Total Pedro Miguel 
Dams. 




338,330.66 




23,312.03 




361,642.69 











KEPOKT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



299 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 3. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

PACIFIC DIVISION— Continued. 



Quanti- 
ties. 



Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 



Amount. 



Unit 
cost. 



Administrative and 
general expenses. 



Amount. 



Unit, 
cost. 



Total cost. 



Amount. 



PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS. 

Dry excavation: 

May 4, 1904, to June 

30, 1909 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 



Total to June 30,1913 

Preparing foundations: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal vear 1911 

Fiscal vear 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 



Total to Jione 30,1913 

Masonry: 

Concrete, plain — 
Fiscal year 1910... 
Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 

Total to June 30, 
1913 



Concrete , reenforced — 
Fiscal vear 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 

TotaltoJuneSO, 
1913 



Total masonry.. 

Ironwork: 

May 4, 1904, to June 

30,1909 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 



Total to June 30, 1913 



Gates: 

Fiscal year 1911. 
Fiscal year 1912. 
Fiscal year 1913. 



Total to June 30, 1913 

Emergency dams, fiscal 

yearl913 (total) 



Operating machinery: 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913.... 



TotaltoJuneSO, 1913 
Concrete in machine in- 
stallation, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 



Cm. yds. 

720, 157 

298,500 

16, 423 

• 95,156 

3,044 



$508, 834. 12 

354, 524. 81 

9, 83S. 84 

28, 714. 09 

1,241.40 



10. 7066 

1. 1876 

.5991 

.3018 

.4078 



$76, 019. 61 

48, 521. 87 

966. 86 

2, 699. 30 

61.96 



.1055 
.1626 
.0589 
.0283 
.0204 



$584, 853. 73 

403,046.68 

10, 805. 70 

31,413.39 

1,. 303. 36 



1,133,280 



903, 153. 26 



7969 



128, 269. 60 



,1132 



1,031,422.86 



44,948 
76,84 
38, 826 
15,366 



126, 722. 55 
182, 477. 38 
84,311.91 
36, 702. 18 



2. 8193 
2. 3746 
2. 1715 
2. 3885 



14, 916. 60 
22, 073. 06 

8,314.88 
3, 888. 78 



.3319 
. 2872 
.2142 
.2531 



141,639.15 

204, 550. 44 

92, 626. 79 

40,590.96 



175, i 



430, 214. 02 



2.4446 



49, 193. 32 



.2795 



479,407.34 



166, 869 
497, 802 
134, 193 
39, 465 



1,016,107.42 

2,341,652.75 

767,363.31 

258,228.58 



6. 0892 
4. 7042 
5.7183 
6. 5432 



86, 704. 98 
138, 716. 42 
41,391. 
19, 109. 65 



.5196 
.278' 
.3085 
.4842 



1,102,812.40 

2,480,369.17 

808, 755. 24 

277,338.23 



4,383,352.06 



.3411 



4,669,275.04 



385 
48,677 
18, 697 



6, 830. 91 
414, 705. 14 
177,022.08 



17. 7426 
8. 5195 
9. 4679 



773. 16 
31,361.01 
20,424.19 



2.0082 

.6443 

1. 0924 



7,604.0' 
446,066.15 
197,446.27 



67, 759 



598,558.13 



.8336 



52,558.36 



.7757 



651, 116. 49 



906,088 



4,981,910.19 



5.4983 



338,481.34 



108, 843. 27 
143,491.51 

227. 470. 23 

100. 906. 24 
45, 120. 38 



8, 190. 96 
3, 834. 93 
20, 665. 80 
19,821.24 
7,123.29 



5,320,391.53 



117,034.23 
147,326.44 
248, 136. 03 
120, 727. 48 
37, 997. 09 



625, 831. 63 



45,389.64 



671,221.27 



6,025.59 
776, 718. 78 
590, 814. 13 



878. 77 
20, 434. 97 
12,632.57 



6,904.36 
797, 153. 75' 
578, 181. 56! 



1,373,558.50 
512, 480. 47 



8,681.17 
382.02 



1,382,239.67 
512, 862. 49 



168,096.64 
1,070,009.31 



6, 232. 82 
39, 285. 60 



174,329.46 
1,109,294.91 



10,190 



1,238,105.95 



123, 767. 97 



12. 1460 



45,518.42 
11,389.03 



1. 1177 



1,283,624.37 
135, 157. 00 



300 



REPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 3. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

PACIFIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


PEDEO MIGUEL LOCKS— 

continued. 

Control house: 

Masonry, fiscal year 
1913 (total)... 


Cu. yds. 
205 


$8,197.62 

5,661.90 

3.46 


$39. 9884 


$371.34 


$1.8114 


$8,568.96 

5, 661. 90 

3.46 


841 799 


Ironwork and miscel- 
laneous, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




Machinery installa- 
tion, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 
























Total control house . 




13,862.98 




371.34.. 




14,234.32 














Bufler timbers, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




9,365.08. 




448.53 




9,813.61 














BackfiU: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


9,616 
273,709 
349,275 
173,938 


2,737.77 
106, 753. 75 
123,456.12 
80,738.23 


.2847 
.3900 
.3535 
.4642 


278. 81 
8,619.21 
7,944.35 
7,187.30 


.0290 
.0315 
.0227 
.0413 


3,016.58 
115,372.96 
131,400.47 
87,925.53 


.3137 
.4215 
.3762 
.5055 


Total to June 30, 1913 


806, 538 


313,685.87 


.3889 


24,029.67 


.0298 


337,715.54 


.4187 


Filling center waU: 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


21,937 
193,212 


21,131.29 
75,259.22 


.9633 
.3895 


1,677.84 
5,717.30 


.0765 
.0296 


22,809.13 
80,976.52 


1.0398 
.4191 


Total to June 30, 1913 


215, 149 


96,390.51 


. 4480 


7,395.14 


.0344 


103,785.65 


.4824 


Total Pedro Miguel, 
locks 




10,622,326.43 
10, 960, 657. 09 

22, 995. 12 




659,549.22 
682,861.25 




11,281,875.65 
11,643,518.34 

22,995.12 




Total Pedro Miguel 
locks and dams. . . 






Plant: 

Amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June 
30,1913 


















Total 




10,983,652.21 




682,861.25 




11,666,513.46 










MIKAFLORES EAST DAM 
AND SPILLWAY. 

Dry excavation: 
Fiscal year 1912.. 




9,874.07 
216,835.99 


"i.'eioi 


962.67 
15,982.70 


""."iis7 


10,836.74 
232,818.69 




Fiscal year 1913 


134,671 


i.7288 


Total to June 30, 1913 


134,671 


226,710.06 


1.6835 


16,945.37 


.1258 


243,655.43 


1.S093 


Masonry: 

Concrete, plain, fiscal 

year 1913 (total) 

Concrete, reenforced, 
fiscal year 1913 (to- 
tal) 


63,707 
435 


366,672.90 
8,536.26 


5. 7556 
19.6000 


25,084.02 
619.07 


.3937 
1.4214 


391,756.92 
9,155.33 


6.1493 
21.0214 






Total masonry 


64,142 


375,209.16 


5. 8497 


25, 703. 09 


.4007 


400,912.25 


6.2504 


Ironwork: 

Fiscal year 1912 




19,282.32 
2,248.09 




1,404.89 
1,387.49 




20,687.21 
3,635.58 




Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30, 1913 




21,530.41 




2,792.38 




24,322.79 











BEPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



301 



Exhibit A.— Statement op Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913— Con td. 

Table 3.— Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 29^5— Continued. 

PACIFIC DIVISION— Continued. 



MIRAFLORES EAST DAM 
AND SPILLWAY— COntd. 

Gates and caissons, fiscal 
year 1913 (total) 

Operating machinery, fis- 
cal year 1913 (total) 

Total Miraflores 
East Dam and 
Spillway 

MIRAFLORES WEST DAM. 

Dry excavation: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30,1909 

Fiscal year 1910 
Fiscal year 1913 

Total to June 30, 1913 



Masonry: 

Fiscal year 1910 
Fiscal year 1912 
Fiscal year 1913 

Total to June 30,1913 

Dry flUiag: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30,1909 

Fiscal year 1910 
Fiscal year 1911 
Fiscal year 1912 
Fiscal year 1913 

Total to June 30, 1913 

Hydraulic filling: 
Fiscal year 1910 
Fiscal year 1911 
Fiscal year 1912 
Fiscal year 1913 

Total to June 30, 1913 

Total Miraflores 
West Dam 

MmATLORES LOCKS. 

Dry excavation: 

Diversions, fiscal year 
1910(total) 



In lock site: 

May 4, 1904, to 
June 30, 1909.... 
Fiscal year 1910... 
Fiscal year 1911 
Fiscal year 1912 
Fiscal year 1913 



Total to June 30, 
1913 

Dredging excavation: 
May 4, 1904, to June 

30,1909 '. 

Fiscal year 1910 



Total to June 30, 
1913 




309,647 129,192.56! 



13, 187. 10 



.4598 



302 



REPORT ISTHMIAIT CANAL COMMISSIOlSr. 



ExHiBrr A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 3. — Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 

PACIFIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


MraAFLORES LOCKS— COn. 

Hydraulic excavation, 
fiscal year 1911 (total)... 


Cu. yds. 
332, 703 


$182,526.79 


$0. 5486 


$12,772.23 


$0.0384 


$195,299.02 


$0. 5870 


Preparing foundations: 
Excavation- 
Fiscal year 1910... 
Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


64,036 
137,752 
165, 145 

49, 048 


124,669.74 
221,569.09 
258,894.68 
109,653.13 


1.9469 
1.6085 
1.5677 
2. 2356 


15,952.08 
27,351.80 
23, 853. 75 
11,172.19 


.2491 
.1985 
.1444 

.2278 


140,621.82 
248,920.95 
282, 748. 43 
120,825.32 


2. 1960 
1.8070 
1.7121 
2. 4634 


Total to June 
30,1913 


415,981 


714, 786. 64 


1.7183 


78, 329. 88 


.1883 


793,116.52 


1.9066 


Wooden piling (linear 
feet)— 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


6,580 
38, 125 


50,264.36 
5,988.22 


7.6390 
.1571 


3,582.18 
663. 92 


.5444 
.0174 


53,846.54 
6,652.14 


8. 1834 
.1745 


Total to June 
30,1913 


44,705 


56,252.58 


1.2583 


4,246.10 


.0950 


60,498.68 


1.3533 


Masonry: 

Concrete, plain- 
Fiscal year 1910... 
Fiscal year 1911... 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


1,630 
272, 933 
729,096 
402, 607 


12,050.56 
1,278,048.03 
3,344,155.62 
2,024,007.36 


7. 3929 
4. 6826 
4.5867 
5.0273 


1,173.62 
85,998.07 
163,2,85.44 
148, 806. 91 


.7200 
.3151 
.2240 
.3096 


13,224.18 
1,364,046.10 
3,507,441.06 
2,172,814.27 


8.1129 
4.9977 
4.8107 
5. 3969 


Total to June 
30,1913 


1,406,266 


6,658,261.57 


4.7347 


399,264.04 


.2839 


7,057,525.61 


5.0186 


Concrete, reenforced— 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


22,444 

48,185 


238,776.94 
520,508.01 


10.6388 
10.8023 


18,341.91 
50,962.64 


.8172 
1.0576 


257,118.85 
571,470.65 


11.4560 
11.8599 


Total to June 
30,1913 


70,629 


759,284.95 


10. 7503 


69,304.55 


.9813 


828,589.50 


11.7316 


Total masonry 


1, 476, 895 


7,417,546.52 


5. 0224 


468,568.59 


.3173 


7,886,115.11 


5. 3397 


Ironwork: 

Fiscal year 1910. . . 




92,950.46 
413,153.74 
232,241.41 
123,017.79 




2,490.41 

34,4.33.35 

29,325.29 

634.49 




95,440.87 
447,587.09 
261,566.70 
123,652.28 




Fiscal year 1911 






Fiscal year 1912 






Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30. 
1913 




861,363.40 






66,883.54 




928,246.94 










Gates: 

Fiscal year 1912 




129,400.09 
1,104,445.28 




22,899.20 
5,253.34 




152,299.29 
1,099,191.94 




Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30,1913 




1,233,845.37 
38,803.75 




17,645.80 
553.69 




1,251,491.23 
39,357.44 




Emergency dams, fiscal 
year 1913 (total) 












Operating machinery: 
Fiscal year 1912 




160,565.32 
1,290,340.70 




6,494.50 
38,737.52 




167,059.82 
1,329,078.22 




Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30,1913. 




1,450,906.02 




45,232.02 




1,496,138.04 










Concrete in machinery in- 
stallation, fiscal year 
1913 (total)... 


9,814 


110,911.38 
6, 169. 10 


11.3013 


8,747.01 
816.03 


.8913 


119,058.39 
6,985.13 


12. 1926 


Buffer timbers, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 











EFFORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



303 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 3. — Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 

PACIFIC DIVISION— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amoimt. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


MmAFLORES LOCKS— COn. 

Back fill: 

May 4, 1904, to June 
30,1909 


Cm. yds. 
409,211 
121,080 
53,521 

442,774 
979,408 


$36,801.83 
52, 170. 32 
22,970.42 
184,794.90 
398, 448. 50 


SO. 0899 
.4309 
.4293 
.4174 
.4068 


$6,246.87 
0,741.18 
2, .557. 17 
11,574.39 
32,474.60 


$0. 0158 
.0557 
.0478 
.0261 
.0362 


$43,048.70 
58,911.50 
25,533.59 
196, 369. 29 
430,923.10 


$0. 1052 


Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


.4866 
.4771 
.4435 
.4400 


Total to June30,1913. 


2,006,054 


695,191.97 


.3466 


59,594.21 


.0297 


754,786.18 


.3763 


Filling center wall: 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


7,912 
149, 301 


8,011.43 

89,174.58 


1.0126 
.5973 


403.09 
6,027.48 


.0509 
.0404 


8,414.52 
95,202.06 


1.0635 
.6377 


Total to June 30, 
1913 


157,213 


97,186.01 
14,804,466.77 


.6182 


6,430.57 
1,038,539.58 


.0409 


103,616.58 
15,843,006.35 


.6591 


Total Miraflores 










Total Miraflores 
locks and dams . . 




16,309,002.57 




.1,155,604.28 




17,524,606.85 














LA BOCA LOCKS AND DAMS.l 

Dry excavation, May 4, 
1904, to June 30, 1909 
(total) 


78,233 


131,254.40 

288,601.56 
145,828.37 


1.6777 


27,088.89 

26,748.51 
13,478.03 


.3463 


1.58,343.29 

315,350.07 
159,306.40 


2.0240 


Construction: 

Dam, May 4, 1904, to 
June 30, 1909 (total). 




Locks, May 4, 1904, to 
June 30, 1909 (total) 












Total La Boca 
locks and dams. 




565,684.33 




67,315.43 




632,999.76 










Total lower locks 
and dams Pacific 
entrance 




16,934,686.90 
75,068.96 




1,222,919.71 




18, 157, 606. 61 
75,068.96 




Plant: 

Amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June 30, 
1913 


















Total 




17,009,755.86 




1,222,919.71 




18,232,675.57 










NAOS ISLAND BREAK- 
WATER. 2 

Dry filling: 

Fiscal year 1910 

Fiscal year 1911 


I 782,021 
653,137 


f 36,847.73 

{ 21,238.30 

[ 134, 839. 41 

191,615.45 


I .2467 
.2934 


1 20.03 




36,867.76 
21,238.30 
134,839.41 
212,155.41 


I .2467 


Fiscal year 1912 


i::;::::::::: 






Fiscal year 1913 


20,539.96 


.0314 


.3248 


Total toJune 30,1913. 


1,435,158 


384,540.89 


.2680 


20,559.99 


.0143 


405, 100. 88 


.2823 


MANOTACTURrNG PLANTS. 

Amounts to be absorbed 
after June 30, 1913: 
Electric power plant. 




174,485.60 

109,046.68 

3,753.24 








174,485.60 

109,046.68 

3,753.24 




Ancon rock quarry.. 












Chame sand plant . . . 


























Total 




287,285.52 








287,285.52 
















Total Pacific divi- 
sion 




42,263,458.17 




2, 965, 396. 90 




45,228,855.07 











1 Subsequently abandoned owing to change of plans. 

2 Constructed by central division. Charges represent extra cost of dumping material at this point. 



304 



KEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 

Table 4. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913. 

BALBOA TERMINAL FACILITIES. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Preliminary work: 
Fiscal year 1911.. 


Cu. yds. 


S$16,277.26 
1,175.16 

13, 326. 59 




$2, 114. 44 

257. 48 

1,476.67 




$18, 391. 70 








917.68 


Fiscal year 1913 




14, 803. 26 










TotaUoJuiieSO, 1913. 




28, 428. 69 




3,848.59 




32, 277. 28 










Preparing site: 
Miscellaneous — 




4, 547. 08 
27, 200. 94 
135,879.24 




478. 49 
1,004.22 
7,914.80 




5,025.57 
28,205.16 
143, 794. 04 










Fiscal year 1913... 












Total toJime30, 
1913 




167, 627. 26 




9, 397. 51 




177,024.77 










Excavation- 
Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


23,140 
389, 567 


19, 785. 26 
212,172.31 


$0. 8550 
.5447 


1, 687. 36 
15,554. 56 


$0. 0729 
. 0399 


21,472.62 
227, 726. 87 


$0.9279 
.5846 


Total to June 30, 
1913.. 


412, 707 


231,957.57 


.5620 


17,241.92 


.0418 


249, 199. 49 


.6038 






Filling— 

Fiscal year 1912... 
Fiscal year 1913... 


23, 140 

482,279 


10, 739. 54 
191,024.53 


.4641 
.3961 


826. 56 
12,207.7s 


.0357 
.0253 


11,566.10 
203,232.31 


.4998 
.4214 


TotaltoJuneSO, 
1913.. 


505, 419 


201,764.07 


.3992 


13,034.34 


.0258 


214, 798. 41 


.4250 






Total preparing 




601,348.90 




39,673.77 




641,022.67 










Yards and tracks: 

Fiscal year 1912 




6, 421. 98 
8, 629. 63 




601. 57 
790. 64 




7,023.55 
9, 420. 27 




Fiscal year 1913... 












Total toJune30, 1913. 




15,051.61 




1,392.21 




16, 443. 82 










Dredging inner basin: 

Fiscal year 1912 

Fiscal year 1913 


370, 607 
1,401,207 


58,549.14 
215,567.78 


.1580 
.1538 


5, 594. 70 
19, 887. 36 


.0151 
.0142 


64, 143. 84 
235, 455. 14 


. 1731 
.1680 


Total to June 30, 1913. 


1,771,814 


274, 116. 92 


.1547 


25, 482. 06 


.0144 


299,598.98 


.1691 


Main dry dock: 

Preliminary work- 
Fiscal year 1911... 




1,563.65 

10, 157. 81 

7. 938. 81 




192. 16 
921. 13 

84.73 




1,755.81 
11,078.94 
8, 023. 54 




Fiscal year 1912... 






Fiscal year 1913... 












TotaltoJuneSO, 
1913 




19,660.27 

12.3,087.95 

756. 25 


.8461 


1,198.02 

7,049.93 

97.01 


.0485 


20, 858. 29 

130, 137. 88 

853. 26 




Excavation, fiscal 
year 1913 (total) 

Gates, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 


145, 478 


.8946 








Total maindrydock. 




143, 504. 47 




8,344.96 




151,849.43 










Coaling plant: 

Preliminary work — 
Fiscal year 1912... 




1,237.89 
1.034.86 




124. 16 
58. 39 




1,362.05 
1,093.25 




Fiscal year 1913... 












TotaltoJuneSO, 
1913 




2,272.75 




182. 55 




2, 455. 30 










Excavation, fiscal 

year 1913 (total) 

Total coaling 
plant 


58,221 


49,260.40 
51,53.3.15 

2.73 


.8461 


2,821.42 
3,003.97 

.26 


.0485 


52,081.82 
54,537.12 

2.99 


.8946 


Sea wall, preliminary 
work, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 













REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



305 



Exhibit A.— Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913— Contd. 

Tablk i.-- Statement of constmclion expenditures to June 30, 19/^— Continued. 

BALBOA TERMINAL FACILITIES— Continued. 



PERMANENT SHOPS. 



Preliminary work: 
Fiscal year 1912. 
Fiscal year 1913. 



Total to JuneSO, 1913, 



Quanti- 
ties. 



Cu. yds. 



Foundations: 

Excavation, fiscal 
year 1913 (total) 

Masonry, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 

Wooden piles (linear 
feet), fiscal year 1913 
(total) 

Concrete piles (Linear 
feet), fiscal year 1913 
(total) 

4-foot caissons (linear 
feet), fiscal year 1913 
(total) 

3-foot caissons, fiscal 
year 1913 (total).... 

9-inch steel tubing, 
fiscal year 1913 
(total) 

Back filling, fiscal 
year 1913 (total).... 

Total foundations. 

Floors, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 

Steel erection, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 

Superstructure, fiscal year 
1913(total) 

Roofs, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 

Machine installation, fis- 
cal year 1913 (total) 

Miscellaneous, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 



Total permanent 
shops 



Preliminary work: 
Fiscal year 1912 . 
Fiscal year 1913. 



Total to June.30, 1913. 

Excavation for piers, fiscal 

year 1913 (total) 



Concrete: 

Caisson shells, fiscal 

year 1913 (total). .. 

Caisson filling, fiscal 

year 1913 (total)... 



Total concrete 

Concrete floor system, fis- 
cal year 1913 (total) 

Miscellaneous, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 



Total docks 

1183-1°— 13- 



Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 



.Vdministrative and 
general expenses. 



Amount. 



29,684 

7,787 

135, 442 

3,060 

315 



4,338 



28,834 



9,446 
3,914 



13,360 



$3, 653. 35 

36, 748. 78 



Unit 
cost. 



40,402.13. 



46, 327. 41 1 $1.5607 
71,711.24 



65,279.78 

9, 901. 53 

4, 701. 45 
422. 08 

108. 56 
3, 305. 16 



9. 2091 

.4820 

3. 2358 

14.9252 



Amount. 



Unit, 
cost. 



$1,565.92 



1,565.92 



201,757.21 

4, 781. 69 
15, 706. 86 
1,511.55 
448. 25 
5, 467. 55 
5, 176. 81 



.7619 



275,252.05 



3, 653. 35 
25, 460. 42 



29,113.77 
79, 807. 36 



121,124.81 
28, 752. 54 



4, 862. 25 
6, 829. 40 

8, 559. 43 

226.21 

170. 03 



Total cost. 



Amount. 



Unit 
cost. 



$3, 653. 35 
38,314.70 



41,968.05 



$0. 1638 
.8770 

.0632 

.0739 

.5398 



20, 742. 21 



1,357.98 



332. 59 
276. 62 

24, 275. 32 



.0219 



2. 240. 68 



2. 7678 



12. 8228 
7. 3461 



149, 877. 35 

30,379.91 

1,977.26 



291,155.65 



11.2184 



2, 240. 68 
6,386.41 



10, 855. 85 
2, 173. 56 



13,029.41 
4,053.47 



.2215 



51, 189. 66 
78,540.64 

73, 839. 21 

10, 127. 74 

4, 871. 48 
422.08 

108. 56 
3,400.05 



$1. 7245 
10. 0861 

.5452 

3.3097 

15.4650 



,7838 



222, 499. 42 

4, 781. 69 
17, 064. 84 
1,511.55 
448.25 
5,800.14 
5, 453. 43 

299, 527. 37 



3, 653. 35 
27, 701. 10 



31,354.45 
86, 193. 77 



2. 9893 



1. 1493 
.5553 



.9752 



25,709.971 



131,980.66 
30,926.10 



162, 906. 76 

34,433.38 

1,977.26 



316,865.62 



13.9721 
7.9014 



12. 1936 



-20 



306 



KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit A. — Statement of Construction Expenditures to June 30, 1913 — Contd. 
Table 4. — Statement of construction expenditures to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 
BALBOA TERMINAL FACILITIES— Continued. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division ex- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


AdministratiA-e and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit, 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


DOCKS— continued. 

Fuel-oil tanks, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




$2,676.18 




$24.41 




$2,700.59 










Total terminal fa- 
cilities, Balboa . 




1,683,070.35 
260, 900. 74 




131,755.52 




1,814,825.87 
260,900.74 




Plant, amount to be ab- 
sorbed after June30, 1913 


















Total 




1,943,971.09 




131,765.52 




2,075,726.61 











Table 5. — Statement of construction expenditures to June 30, 1913. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 





Quanti- 
ties. 


Total division e.x- 
penses, including 
arbitraries for 
plant. 


Administrative and 
general expenses. 


Total cost. 




Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit. 
cost. 


Amount. 


Unit 
cost. 


Permanent town sites, 
Balboa, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 




$45,807.55 




$3,535.70 




$49,343.25 










Permanent buildings: 
Designing, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 




20,445.51 

32,976.61 

9,147.86 








20,445.51 

34,295.92 

9,147.86 




Administration build- 
ing, fiscal year 1913 
(total) 






1,319.31 






Laborers' quarters, 
Balboa, fiscal year 
1913 (total) 


















Total permanent 
buildings 




62, 569. 98 
5,273.19 




1,319.31 




63,889.29 
5,273.19 




Plant, amount to be 
absorbed after Juno 
30, 1913 


















Total 




67,843.17 




1,319.31 





69,162.48 










Lights and buoys: 

Fiscal year 1011 




12,055.85 
102,364.12 
235,738.81 




2,319.03 
9,255.81 
8,751.46 





14,374.88 
111,619.93 
244,490.27 




Fiscal year 1912 






Fiscal year 1913 












Total to June 30, 
1913 




350,158.78 
26,882.85 




20,326.30 




370,485.08 
26, 882. 85 




Plant, amount to be 
absorbed after June 
30 1913 




















Total 




377,041.63 




20,326.30 


397,367.93 








, 


Power transmission line, 
fiscal year 1913 (total) 




13,214.33 
1,382.90 




801.30 




14,015.63 
1,382.90 




Plant, amount to he 
absorbed after June 
30, 1913.. 


















Total 




14,597.23 
32,0,51.64 




801.30 
3.05 





15,398.53 
32.054.69 




Trans-fsthmian oil line, 
fiscal year 1913 (total). . . 













Total construction 
costs 




170,779,345.64 




14,536,750.11 




185,316,095.75 











Note. — Quantities shown are cubic yards, except where noted. 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



307 



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309 



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310 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



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REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



311 



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REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, 



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Exhibit B. — Detail Cost per Unit of Work by Months — Fiscal Year 1913 — Continued. 
Table 2. — Dredging excavation — Continued. 
PACIFIC DIVISION. 



July. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



August. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



September. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



October. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



November. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



December. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



Clearing 

Operation, seagoing suction dredge. 

Repairs, seagoing suction dredge 

Operation, small ladder dredges 

Repairs, small ladder dredges 

Operation, 5-yard ladder dredge 

Repairs, 5-yard ladder dredge 

Operation, dipper dredges 

Repairs, dipper dredges 

Dikes 

Operation, tugs, clapets, and scows. 

Repairs, tugs, clapets, and scows 

Drilling 

Blasting 

Operation, drill barges 

Repairs, drill barges 

Operation, rock breakers 

Repairs, rock breakers 

Small boats 

Repairs, miscellaneous equipment . . 

Plant arbitrary 

Division expense 



Cubic 
yards. 



Cubic 
yards. 



Cubic 
yards. 



Cubic 
yards. 



Cubic 
yards. 



198,372 

198,373 

16, 772 

16, 772 

73,817 

73, 817 

18,550 

18,5,50 

74,702 

109, 139 

109, 139 

74, 702 

74,702 

74, 702 

74,702 

74,702 

74,702 

307,511 

307,511 

307,511 

307,511 



«0.0509 
.0059 
. 1366 
.04.58 
.0971 
.0951 
.1581 
.0501 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expeiLse. 

Total cost 



307,511 
307,511 



307,511 



Earth excavation per cent. 

Rock excavation do. . . 



232, 809 
74, 702 



.0701 
.0243 



.1163 
.0203 
. 0165 
.0098 
.0048 
.0037 
.0246 
.0062 



.2176 
.0162 



75. 71 
24.29 



189, 200 

189, 200 

54,786 

54, 786 

105, 477 

105,477 

17, 150 

17, 150 

74, 863 

177,413 

177,413 

74,863 

74,863 

74, 863 

74, 863 

74, 863 

74,863 

366,613 

366,613 

366,613 

366,613 



.$0. 0526 
.0066 
.0748 
.0720 
.0917 
.0248 
.1951 
.0627 



.0456 
.0282 



.1654 
.0057 
. 01.55 
.0014 
. 0035 
.0049 
.0070 
.0045 



134, 130 

134, 130 

88,367 

88,367 

105,000 

105,000 

10, 225 

10, 225 

62, 145 

203, 592 

203, 592 

62, 145 

62, 145 

62, 145 

62, 145 

62, 145 

62, 145 

337, 722 

337, 722 

337, 722 

337, 722 



0.0611 
.0342 
.0709 
.1244 
.0957 
.0428 
. 2579 
.0558 
.0608 
.0709 
.0347 
.2370 
.1756 
.1575 
.0052 
.0226 
.0009 
.0067 
.0180 
.0076 
.0096 



188,414 

188,414 

51,115 

51,115 

87, 609 

87, 609 

19,625 

19, 625 

73,901 

158, 349 

158,349 

73, 901 

73,901 

73,901 

73, 901 

73,901 

73, 901 

346, 763 

346, 763 

346, 763 

346, 763 



3. 0468 
.0020 
.1166 
.1797 
.0898 
.0882 
.2190 
.0942 
.0381 
.0918 
.0949 
.1221 
.1785 
.1047 
.0131 
.0161 
.0497 
.0074 
.0214 
.0074 
.0133 



174,779 
174,779 
84,728 
84,728 
1.56,946 
156,946 
32,520 
32,520 



.0565 
.0025 
.0973 
.0619 
.0605 
.0210 
.1205 
.1104 



Cubic 

yards. 

349, 747 

158, 465 

158, 465 

68, 304 

68, 304 

112,200 

112,200 

10, 778 

10, 778 



$0.0013 
.0542 
.0011 
.1277 
.0936 
.0750 
.0443 
.1389 
.0683 



274, 194 
274, 194 
101,626 
101,626 
101,626 
101,626 
101,626 
101,626 
448, 973 
448,973 
448,973 
448,973 



.6600 
.0288 
.0976 
.1440 
.0897 
.0066 
.0130 
.0006 
.0042 
.0179 
.0057 



191,282 
191, 282 
98,985 
98,985 
98,985 
98,985 
98,985 
98,985 
349, 747 
349,747 
349, 747 
349, 747 



.0948 
.0227 
.1341 
.1369 
.0813 
.0033 
.0140 
.0021 
.(646 
.0130 
.0074 
-.0076 



366, 613 
366,613 



.1920 
.01.55 



337, 722 
337,722 



.3700 
.0355 



346, 763 
346, 763 



.3789 
.0257 



448,973 
448,973 



.2577 
.0288 



349, 747 
349, 747 



.3163 
.0349 



366, 613 



337,722 



.4055 



346, 763 



.4046 



448,973 



.2865 



349, 747 



.3512 



291, 750 

74, 863 



79. 58 
20.42 



275, 577 
62, 145 



81.60 
18.40 



272, 862 
73,901 



78.69 
21.31 



347,347 
101,626 



77.36 
22.64 



250, 762 
98,985 



71.70 
28.30 



Items. 



January. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



February. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



March. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



April. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



Mav. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



June. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



Total. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Unit 
cost. 



Clearing 

Operation, seagoing suction dredge. 
Repairs, seagoing suction dredge . . . 

Operation, small ladder dredges 

Repairs, small ladder dredges 

Operation, 5-yard ladder dredge 

Repairs, o-yard ladder dredge 

Operation, dipper dredges 

Repairs, dipper dredgas 

Operation, pipe-line dredges 

Repairs, pipe-line dredges 

Pipe lines 

Operation, tugs, clapets, and scows . 

Repairs, tugs, clapets, and scows 

Drilling 

Blasting 

Operation, drill barges 

Repairs, drill barges 

Operation, rock breakers 

Repairs, rock breakers 

.'^mall boats 

Repairs, miscellaneous equipment. . 

Plant arbitrary 

Division expense 



Cubic 
yards. 
215,025 



$0.0006 



Cubic 
vrds. 
239, 032 



$0. 0010 



98, 357 
98, 3.57 
94,660 
94,660 
22,008 
22,008 



.0948 
.0516 
.1017 
.0840 
.1743 
.1942 



79, 606 
79, 606 
133, 561 
133, 561 
25, 865 
25, 865 



.1128 
.0308 
.0690 
.0246 
.1259 
.0543 



Cubic 
yards. 
379, 845 
176,054 
176,054 
69,967 
69, 967 
124,674 
124,674 
9,150 
9,150 



Cubic 
yards. 



Cubic 
yards. 



Cubic 
yards. 



.0484 
.0229 
.1113 
.1180 
.0827 
.0414 
. 1795 
.7795 



160, 352 
160,352 
77, 637 
77, 437 
108, 403 
108, 403 
10, 5.50 
10,550 



3. 0554 
.0163 
.1140 
.0586 
.0893 
.0942 
. 3454 
.5425 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense . 



Total cost. 



Earth excavation per cent . 

Rock excavation do. . . 



215,025 
215,025 
92, 275 
92, 275 
92, 275 
92, 275 
92, 275 
92, 275 
215,025 
215,025 
215,025 
215,025 



.0894 
.0175 
.1830 
.2272 
.1159 
.0107 
.0861 
.0215 
.0056 
.0104 
.0120 
.0091 



239,032 
239,032 
81,256 
81,256 
81,256 
81,256 
81,256 
81,2.56 
2.39,032 
239, 032 
239, 032 
239,032 



.0795 
. 01.56 
.1000 
.1331 
.0745 
.0417 
.0142 
.0088 
.0073 
.0063 
.0298 
.0148 



203, 791 
203, 791 

82, 487 

82, 487 

82, 487 

82, 487 

82, 487 

82, 487 

379, 845 

379, 845 

379, 845 

379,845 



.0755 
.0280 
.0884 
.1339 
. 1258 
.0140 
.0100 
.0160 
.0079 
.0198 
.0168 
.0112 



215,025 
215,025 



.7039 
.0585 



239,032 
239, 032 



.5459 
.0565 



379, 845 
379, 845 



.3344 
.0231 



215,025 



.7624 



239,032 



379, 845 



.3575 



122,750 
92, 275 



57.09 
42.91 



157, 776 
81,256 



66.01 
33.99 



297, 358 
82, 487 



78.28 
21.72 



196, 590 

196, 590 

72, 619 

72,619 

72, 619 

72,619 

72,619 

72, 619 

356, 942 

356, 942 

356,942 

356,942 



. 0855 
.0372 
.1150 
.2630 
.1950 
.0077 
.0264 
.0014 
.0073 
.0171 
.0172 
.0111 



356, 942 
356,942 



. 3958 
.0337 



356,942 



369 



284,323 
72,619 



79.66 
20.34 



0.0.549 
.0068 
.1014 
.0642 
.1167 
.0853 
.1474 
.1812 
.0316 
.0090 
.0016 
.0835 
.0607 
.0798 
. 2767 
.0326 
.0089 
.0279 
.0018 
.0052 
.0145 
.0177 
.0121 



138,316 

1.38, 316 

192,211 

192,211 

148,314 

148,314 

26,029 

26,029 

99,210 

99, 210 

99,210 

366, 554 

366, 554 

179,461 

179,461 

179,461 

179, 461 

179, 461 

179, 461 

604,080 

604,080 

604,080 

604,080 



$0.0679 
.0166 
.0551 
.0128 
.0559 
.0793 
.1207 
.0910 
.0,544 
.0372 
.0032 
.0564 
.0384 
I 0072 
1.1257 
.0498 
.0084 
0)79 
.0015 
.0039 
.0070 
.0159 
.0087 



Cubic 

yards. 

4,321,956 

1,685,193 

1,685,193 

953, 042 

953,042 

1,330,514 

1,330,514 

227,981 

227,981 

125, 226 

125, 226 

125, 226 

2,511,537 

2,511,537 

1,047,929 

1,047,929 

1,047,929 

1,047,929 

1,047,9'^9 

1,047,929 

4,321,956 

4,321,956 

4,321,956 

4,321,956 



O.OOOl 
.0571 
.0410 
.0932 
.0670 
.0820 
.0566 
.1663 
.1504 
.0497 
.0314 
.0029 
.0744 
.0348 
.0864 
.1016 
.1130 
.0118 
.0157 
.0072 
.0055 
.0891 
.0136 
.0096 



.3384 
.0383 



604,080 
604,080 



.1725 
.0228 



4,321,956 
4,321,956 



.3238 
.0304 



703 



604,080 



4,321,956 



.3542 



85. .50 
14.50 



424,619 
179, 461 



70.29 
29.71 



3,274,027 
1,047,929 



75.75 
24.25 



11834"— 13 (To face page 312) No. 2. 



' Bold-face type indicates credit. 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



313 






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REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



315 



>oo>e<i«et-"5-*h-3;oc^ 



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318 



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KEPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



319 



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REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION, 



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321 



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330 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



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O, OfePSOnQ 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



331 



Exhibit C. Detailed Cost op Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc., including installation, to June 30, 1913. 

CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE, FIRST DIVISION. 



Amount. 



Gatun. Pedro Miguel. Miraflores. 



Spillway gates and caisson: 
Inspection on Isthmus. . 

Gates — 

Contract payments . 

Installation 

Division expense. . . 



Total gates. 



Caisson — 

Contract payments. 

Ballast 

Installation 



Total caisson 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total spillway gates and caisson. 



SpUlway-gate machines: 

Number of machines 

Per cent complete- 
Mechanical erection . . . 
Electrical installation. 



Inspection in the United States. 

Inspection on the Isthmus 

Contract payments 



Installation expenses — 

Surveys 

Mechanical erection 

Electrical installation. . . 

Testing 

Miscellaneous expenses . 
Division expense 



Total installation expenses 

Preliminary maintenance and operation. 
Administrative and general expense 



Total spillway-gate machines . 



Lock gates: 

Inspection in the United States. 

Inspection on the Isthmus 

Contract payments 

Extra payments to contractors. 



Fixed steel 

Gate recess covers — 

Material 

Installation 

Construction tracks 

Power, fuel, and water. 
Freight and handling. . 

Miscellaneous 

Painting 

Spare parts 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total lock gates 



Fender chains: 

Inspection in the United States. 

Installation ' 

Testing 



Total fender chains. 



$1,906.28 



49,509.20 

15,371.86 

769. 16 



65,650.22 



5,690.00 

388. 41 

97.31 



$1,955.25 
41.32 

77,588.26 



660. 86 
5,502.41 

330. 74 

482. 94 
3, 835. 25 

628. 04 



11,440.24 

97.88 

1,641.34 



92,764.29 



230. 88 
374. 29 
444.95 
517.16 
986. 91 
960. 66 

301. 33 
682. 14 
086. 84 
444.84 
168.91 
683. 10 
757. 36 



$42, 629. 30 

11,615.67 

1,097,026.06 

160.00 

1,413.70 

884.01 

35,332.45 
6,707.07 
8,752.67 
51,431.23 
7, 767. 13 
322.42 
3,344.71 
104,646.23 



$408.51 



34,364.87 
26.21 



34,391.08 



5,690.00 

130. 83 

5.27 



6,175.72 




5,826.10 


2, 738. 61 












76, 470. 83 




40, 625. 69 








14 




6 


65.00 






2.00 







S304. 44 

33.48 

62,082.54 



1,735.00 
143. 76 



1,878.76 
i, 346.' 32 



65,645.54 



33,609.24 

9,134.24 

1,105,921.00 



164. 34 

36,366.27 
1,224.00 
8,843.22 

26,880.77 
7,243.69 
1,359.33 
2,177.06 



5, 444. 93 


1,504.48 


922. 21 


2,225,084.30 
65,871.72 


1,373,537.13 
8,681.17 


1,233,845.37 
17,645.86 


2,290,956.02 


1,382,218.30 


1,251,491.23 


760.00 






2, 922. 95 


21.37 




154.00 










3,836 95 


21.37 









332 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc., including installation, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 



Emergency dams: 

Inspection in the United States 

Inspection on the Isthmus 

Contract payments 

Spare parts 

Foundations and fixed steel 

Concrete counterweight 

Operator's house 

Switchboard house 

Electrical installation 

Construction tracks 

Freight and handling 

Power 

Grouting material 

Painting 

Division expense 

Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense 

Total emergency dams 

Operating machinery: 

Inspection in the United States 

Inspection on the Isthmus 

Testing 

Miter-gate machines — 

Miter-gate moving machines, mechanical — 

Numljer of machines 

Per cent complete — 

Mechanical erection 

Electrical installation 

Contract payments 

Installation expenses: 

Surveys 

Erection 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 

Total installation expenses 

Total miter-gate moving machines, me- 
chanical 

Miter-forcing machines, mechanical- 
Number of machines 

Per cent complete — 

Mechanical erection 

Electrical installation 

Contract payments 

Installation expenses: 

Surveys 

Erection 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 

Total installation expenses 

Total miter-forcing machines, mechanical. . 

Handrail machines, mechanical — 

Number of machines 

Per cent complete: 

Mechanical erection 

Electrical installation 

Contract payments 



Amount. 



Gatun. 


Pedro Miguel. 


Miraflores. 


$32,223.16 

9,964.79 

699,254.89 

529.00 

47,005.63 

10,686.40 

605. 94 

739.01 

178.20 

4,872.13 

3,560.12 

1,658.06 

563. 80 

1,829.39 

2,454.25 


$23,283.06 

3,576.27 

466,678.53 


$19,805.20 
1,487.43 




10, 878. 78 

3,572.02 

156. 61 


8,356.62 






38.40 

1,348.49 

1,195.63 

958. 12 

321.36 

429.00 

44.20 


38.40 

8,287.14 

411.47 

359.29 

52.88 


5.32 


816,184.77 
6,493.97 


512, 480. 47 
382. 02 


38,803.75 
553. 69 


822,678.74 


512,862.49 


39,357.44 


55,578.35 
5,250.46 
34,662.65 

40 

92.00 
16.00 


19,967.97 
1,752.55 
11,594.64 

24 

86.00 
38.00 


38,612.06 
4,165.35 
2,649.75 

28 
77.00 




$313,101.46 


$187,769.05 


$206,270.02 


1,970.94 
20,844.47 
22, 795. 78 

3,331.77 


948. 83 

13,048.05 

10,745.51 

1,980.76 


429. 14 

6.454.39 

11,185.83 

1,186.41 


48,942.96 


26,723.15 


19,255.77 


362,044.42 


214, 492. 20 


225,525.79 


20 

10.00 
21.00 


12 

5.00 
15.00 


14 






$13,796.15 


$10,072.44 


$6.77 


2.01 

1,333.60 

1,808.21 

209. 43 




5,036.22 


1.52 

1,314.42 

73.04 




448. 77 
21.99 


3,353.25 


1,388.98 


5,500.98 


17,149.40 


11,461.42 


5,513.75 


40 

50.00 
35.00 


24 


28 


13.00 






54,810.75 


$2,474.08 


$8,567.00 



BEPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



333 



■c^ r^n ■n^-TiTTPr. Cost OF Work Done BY First AND Second Divisions AND 
^^oT?ehmInen"town SiT^s TO JUNE 30, 1913-Continuecl. 

Table l.-Detailed cost of gates, caissons emergency dams ««^ «^^;«f ^S' machmery, 
etc. , including installation, to Jxtne 30, 1913— i ontinuecl . 



Operating machmery— Continued. 

Miter-gate machines— Contmuea. , ^ ^. , 
Handrail machines, mechanical— Contmued. 
Installation expenses: 

Erection 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 



Total installation expense 

Total handrail machines, mechanical . 



Gate sump pumps, mechanical- 
Number of machines 

Per cent complete: 

Mechanical erection 



Contract payments. 



Installation expenses: 

Erection 

Miscellaneous expenses. 
Division expense 



Total installation expense 

Total gate sump pumps, mechanical. 

Electrical installation, all gate machines- 
Contract payments 



Installation expenses : 

Installation (uncompleted) . 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 



Total installation expenses. 



Total electrical installation 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total miter-gate machines. 



Rising stem valves — 
Contract payments. 



Installation expenses— 

Survevs 

Adj ustment fixed irons 

Installation valves and seals. 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 



Total mstallation expenses 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total rising stem valves. 



Rising-stem valve machines — 

Number of machines 

Per cent complete: 

Mechanical erection. . . 

Electrical installation. 



Contract payments. 



Amount. 



Gatun. 



Pedro Miguel. Miraflores 



$706. 12 

474. 66 

87.20 



1,267.! 



6,078.73 

40 
45.00 
$6,691.00 



921.51 

599. 94 

97.01 



S74. 43 
6.74 



81.17 



2,555.25 



1,618.46 



8, 309. 46 




286. 52 

205. 24 

30.32 



522. 08 



3, 705. 03 



$55,693.08 $21,007.74 



10, 278. 78 
4,588.57 
1,050.18 



15,917.53 



71,610.61 
15,925.16 



481, 117. 78 



$123, 120. 99 



3, 464. 75 

3, 025. 69 

420. 70 



6,911.14 



27,918.88 
7, 936. 15 

268,068.93 



$62,824.46 



261.53 
23, 203. 80 

8,930.60 
22,357.35 

4,011.67 



58, 764. 85 
11,817.12 

193, 702. 96 



99.00 
48.00 



92,579.20 



166. 15 

18,896.82 

5,967.00 

7, 468. 08 

2,498.69 



34,996.74 
5,174.26 

102,995.46 



100.00 
65.00 



$165,317.22 



$321.56 



321.56 



8,888.56 



28 



$7,914.45 



317.77 
17.27 



335.04 



8, 249. 49 



$39,844.06 



358.14 

1,634.86 

125.87 



2,118.87 



41,962.93 
7,419.31 



297,559.83 



5,212.42 



218.53 
17, 579. 25 
14,351.46 

11,738.58 
2, 850. 66 



46, 738. 48 
7, 739. 25 

149, 690. 15 

62 

76.00 
7.00 

$239,915.42 



334 



REPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913— Continued. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gat^s, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc., including installation, to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 





Amount. 




Gatun. 


Pedro Miguel 


Miraflores. 


Operating machinery— Continued. 

Rising-stem valve machines— Continued. 
Installation expenses— 

Survevs 


$1,668.26 
34,584.66 

5,678.40 
33,012.60 

5,688.43 


$1,214.50 
29, 167. 67 

1,901.39 
14,587.64 

4,206.52 


$606.06 

14,193.98 

419 27 


Mechanical erection 


Electrical installation 


Miscellaneous expenses 


16,285.51 
2 135 13 


Division expense 






Total installation expenses.. . 


80,632.35 


51,077.72 


33,639.95 




Administrative and general expense 


20,086.76 


9, 640. 01 


10 783 35 






Total rising-stem valve machines 


493,298.31 


226,034.95 


284,338.72 




Cylindrical valves: These valves were installed by the 
constniction divisions at the time of construction of the 
locks and charged to "Ironwork." The following ex- 
penses were incurred by the First Division in adjusting 
them for operation — 
Contract payments 




205.00 


4 "'94 11 








Installation expenses- 
Adjustment fixed irons 


1,896.53 

1,349.34 

802.56 

968. 54 

399. 59 




1 645 99 


Adjustment of valves 


2,044.06 
215.11 
597. 45 
251.83 


<> 203 84 


Painting 


'401 78 


Miscellaneous expenses . . . 


1 441 35 


Division expense 


433 29 








5,416.56 
749. 15 


3, 108. 45 
388.62 


6 fe 25 


Administrative and general expense . 


1 86'' 82 






Total cylindrical valves 


6,165.71 


3,702.07 


19 9S3 18 






Cylindrical valve ihachines — 

Number of machines 


60 

100.00 
40.00 


20 

100. 00 
75.00 


40 


Per cent complete- 
Mechanical erection 


100 00 


Electrical installation 


28 00 






Contract payments 


$80,504.87 


$31,747.93 


$50,137.73 




Installation expenses— 

Survevs 


150. 24 
7,070.66 
3,959.97 
7,322.53 
1,461.67 


222. 03 
2,810.84 
2,373.43 
2,268.43 

630. 83 


62.64 


Mechanical erection 


3, 789. 04 


Electrical installation (uncompleted) 


1,810.87 




3 416 96 


Division expense 


719. 47 






Total installation expenses 

Administrative and general expense 


19,965.07 
5,064.21 


8,305.56 
1,616.87 


9,798.98 
3,505.38 




Total cylindrical valve machines 


105,534.15 


41,670.36 


63,442.09 


Auxiliary culvert valve machines- 
Number of machines 


4 

100.00 
37.00 


4 

100.00 
72.00 


4 


Per cent complete— 


100.00 


Electrical installation 


30.00 






Contract payments 


$5,378.26 


$5, 384. 74 


$5,276.28 




Installation expenses- 
Surveys 


1.42 
746. 79 
141.46 
523. 02 
119.02 


74.22 
582.05 
495. 95 
534. 47 
132. 54 


10.40 


Mechanical erection (completed) 


1,003.21 


Electrical installation (uncompleted) 


195. 87 


Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 


790.87 
146.34 


Total installation expenses 

Administrative and general e.xpense 


1,531.71 
364.05 


1,819.23 
319. 46 


2,146.69 
423.81 






Total auxiliary culvert valve machines 


7,274.02 


7,523.43 


7,846.87 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



335 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc.; including installation, to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 





Amount. 




Gatun. 


Pedro Miguel 


Miraflores. 


Operating machinery— Continued. 
Chain fender machinery — 

Chain fender machines, mechanical- 
Number of machines 


16 

$44.00 
5.00 


16 
$35.00 


16 


Per cent complete- 
Mechanical erection 


$15.00 


Electrical Installation 








Contract payments 


$27,277.50 


$24,138.94 


$17,193.68 




Installation expenses- 
Surveys 


411.47 
9,550.47 
4,286.02 
1,184.48 


382. 31 
3,640.09 
1,808.17 

527.56 


8 14 


Erection 


1 406 34 


Miscellaneous expenses 


1 42'' 13 


Division expenses 


181 86 






Total installation expenses 


15,432.44 


6,358.13 


3 018 47 






Total chain fender machines, mechanical... 


42,709.94 


30,497.07 


20,212.15 


Chain fender pit pumps, mechanical- 
Number of machines 


16 
12.00 


16 


16 


Per cent complete— Mechanical erection 










Contract payments 


$2,965.60 


$2,965.59 


$2,965.61 




Installation expenses — 

Erection 


306.17 
144.83 
29.79 






Miscellaneous expenses 


89.33 

8.41 


83 68 


Division expense 


7.96 




Total installation expense 


480. 79 


97.74 


91 64 






Total chain fender pit pumps, mechanical . 


3,446.39 


3,063.33 


3,057.25 


Electrical installation (all chain fender machines)— 
Contract payments 


3,999.25 


3,723.00 


3,712.00 




Installation expenses- 
Installation (uncompleted) 


582.15 

502.69 

74.79 






Miscellaneous expenses 


360. 96 
20.64 


156 59 


Division expense 


9 59 






Total installation expenses 


1,159.63 


381.60 


166 18 






Total electrical installation 


5,158.88 
3,301.66 


4,104.60 
1,497.90 


3 878 18 


Administrative and general expenses 


1 089 98 






Total chain fender machinery 


54,616.87 


39, 162. 90 


28,237.56 




Culvert pumps- 
Number of pumps 


1 

100.00 


1 


I 


Per cent complete— Mechanical erection 










Contract payments 


$2,808.92 


$2,903.91 $2,903.92 




Installation expenses- 
Erection, mechanical 


291.07 
170.09 
29.66 






Miscellaneous expenses 


191.78 
13.42 


105.60 

7.92 


Division expense 




Total installation expense 


490.82 
81.41 


205.20 
97.03 


113.52 
83.16 


Administrative and general expense 




Total culvert pumps 


3,381.15 








'""•"" 


Drainage sump pumps- 
Number of pumps 


3 

100.00 


3 


3 


Per cent complete- 
Mechanical erection 






Contract payments 




909 00 1 











336 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc., including installation, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 





Amount. 




Gatun. 


Pedro Miguel. 


Miraflores. 


Operating machinery — Continued. 

Drainage sump pumps— Continued. 
Installation expenses- 


$26.83 

259. 65 

53. 88 

21.12 












Miscellaneous expenses 


$100. 59 
6.24 




Division expenses 








Total installation expenses 


361. 48 
11.53 


106.83 
40.43 




Administrative and general expenses 








Total drainage sump pumps 


373. 01 


1,056.26 








Cable-pit pumps — Number of pumps 


3 

1,091.04 

48.34 

3.51 

35.81 


2 

727. 11 

68.14 

4.37 

29. 28 


2 


Contract payments 


8727. 11 




26.55 




.23 




20.55 








1,178.70 


828. 90 


774.44 






Cable vaults- 
Installation expenses- 
Mechanical installation 




4.46 
.67 
.33 






















Total cable vaults 




5.46 










Foot bridges- 




96.64 
L71 


237.26 


Administrative and general expense 












Total foot bridges 




98.35 


237.26 








Electric locomotives- 


25,085.15 











Installation expenses- 


354.11 

853.82 

1,351.90 

166. 76 






Testing and preliminary operation 




















1 


Total installation expense 


2, 726. 59 
781. 38 


















Total electric locomotives 


28,593.12 












Transformer-room equipment- 
Contract payments 


95, 405. 50 

8.82 

355. 75 

6, 208. 53 

6,396.21 

900.43 


49,869.53 


69, 708. 25 


Installation expenses- 




Mechanical erection 


39.97 

2, .547. 00 

5,257.68 

486. 60 


133. 63 




1,256.26 




4,393.06 


Division expense 


332. OS 








13,869.74 
3,555.00 


8,331.25 
1,693.47 


6,115.03 


Administrative and general expenses 


1,071.43 








112,830.24 


59,894.25 


76, 894. 71 






Towing track system- 
Contract payments, mechanical 


224,220.27 
3,797.50 
13,643.04 


142,920.19 
3,964,59 
5,684.50 


175,085.26 


Survev 


1, 782. 19 




7,819.27 






Tracks without rack- 
Mechanical installation- 
Installation 


2,151.23 
449. 17 
192. 31 


3,675.42 
756. 79 
405. 31 


365.93 




166. 97 


Division expense 


125. 51 






Total . . . 


2, 792. 71 
13,9.59.32 


4,837.52 
4,794.54 


658.41 




15,189.66 






Total tracks without rack 


16,752.03 1 9.632.06 


15,848.07 











REPORT OP COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



337 



Exhibit 0. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc., including installation, to June SO, 1913 — Continued. 



Gatim. 



Pedro Miguel 



Miraflores. 



Operating machinery— Continued. 
Towing track system — Continued. 
Tracks without rack— Continued. 

Linear feet of track without rack installed by con- 
struction divisions 

Average cost per linear foot 

Linear feet of track without rack installed by first 

division 

Average cost per linear foot 

Total linear feet of track without rack installed. . 
Average cost per linear foot 

Tracks with rack — 

Mechanical installation — 

Installation 

Chipping-rack teeth 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 

Total tracks with rack 

Linear feet of rack track installed 

Average cost per linear foot 

Electrical installation, all tracks — 

Contract payments 

Installation expenses — 

Installation , 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 

Total installation expenses 

Total electrical installation— all tracks 

Total tracks , 

Crossovers — 

Contract payments 

Installation expenses— j. 

Surveys , 

Mechanical installation , 

Electrical installation 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 

Total installation expenses 

Total crossovers 

Bumping posts- 
Contract payments 

Installation expenses — 

Installation 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expenses 

Total installation expenses 

Total bumping posts 

Administrative and general expenses 

Total towing track system 

Screens — 

Contract payments 

11834°— 13 '22 



10,527 
SI. 3261 

i,449 

81.9273 

11,976 

SI. 3988 



34,044.98 
3, 480. 92 
7, 493. 82 
3,548.35 



48,568.07 



21,000 
$2. 3128 

75,548.76 



12, 755. 98 
7, 284. 40 
1,423.33 



21,463.71 



97,012.47 



403, 993. 32 



7,633.00 



28.76 
769. 25 

93.43 
960. 70 
137. 78 



1,989.92 



9,622.92 



135.00 



23.14 
12.06 
3.23 



38.43 



173.43 



13,226.35 



427,016.08 



4,678.40 



4,333 
$1. 1065 

2,043 
S2. 3678 

6,376 
$1. 5106 



19,392.11 



3,359.60 
1, 866. 32 



24, 618. 03 



12, 199 
$2. 0180 



46, 8.50. 29 



7, 781. 49 

3, 0S7. 39 

945. 07 



11,813.95 



58, 664. 24 



245,483.61 



4,021.00 



724. 88 
27.84 
457.86 
111.53 



1,322.11 



5,343.11 



270.00 



22.85 
1.85 



24.70 



294. 70 



6,592.92 



257,714.34 



4,821.96 



5,925 
$2. 5637 



$0. 6085 

7,007 

$2.2617 



13, 671. 55 



2, 588. 74 
1,116.05 



17, 376. 34 



14, 137 
$1. 2291 



3, 707. 08 

2, 837. 63 

491.54 



7,036.25 



286,629.11 



9, 794. 00 



83.40 
188. 04 



426.44 
50.08 



747.96 



10,541.96 



5,390.68 



302,561.75 



3,706.62 



338 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 1. — Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency darn, and operating machinery, 
etc., including installation, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 





Amount. 




Gatim. 


Pedro Miguel. 


Miraflores. 


Operating machinery— Continued. 
Screens— Continued. 

Installation expenses- 


$163. 52 
320. 65 
35.68 


$1,831.07 
675.04 
160. 41 


$5.03 




135.68 




10.72 








519. 85 


2,666.52 


151.43 






Administrative and general expenses 


183.28 


132. 50 


102.06 






Total screens 


5,381.53 


7,621.04 


3,960.11 






Decking machinery chambers- 


47,413.87 


37,781.27 


15,219.26 






Installation expenses — 

Surveys 


50.39 

7,846.24 

5,465.05 

808. 96 


182. 58 
3,941.15 
3,170.59 

308. 95 




Setting and riveting . 


3,102.25 




1,490.33 




135.55 






Total installation expenses 


14.170.64 


7,663.27 


4, 728. 13 








2,399.74 


879. 99 


407. 10 






Total decking machinery chambers 


63,984.25 


46,324.53 


20, 354. 49 






Decking approach walls- 




25,596.06 










Installation expenses- 
Surveys 


67.04 


542. 63 
10,716.12 
3,056.04 
1,127.48 


193.39 




1,830.68 


Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 


13.65 

5.58 


471.73 
196. 03 






Total installation expenses 


86.27 


15,442.27 


2,691.83 








7.40 


1,997.05 


440.62 








93.67 


43,035.38 


3,132.45 






Recess covers — 

Per cent completed 


100.00 


95.00 


74.00 






Contract payments 


$8,437.33 


$3,975.71 


$10,224.31 






Installation expenses- 
Surveys 


283.36 
2, 500. 01 
1,236.79 

297. 95 


238. 39 
2,837.59 
1,412.98 

348. 53 


69.57 




7,090.76 




561.28 




92.05 






Total installation expenses 


4,318.11 


4,837.49 


7,813.66 






Administrative and general expenses 


866.42 


706.04 


448. 21 








13,621.86 


9,519.24 


18,486.18 






Machinery chambers (refacing)— 
Refacing— 


6,473.91 

1,179.24 

551.23 


564.83 
153.84 
39.06 
















Total . . ' 


8,204.38 
1,083.96 


757. 73 
85.15 














9,288.34 


842.88 








Power cables- 
Contract payments 


263,328.45 


60,987.72 


123,995.71 



KEPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



339 



Exhibit O.-Detailed Cost of Work Dome by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913-Contmued. 

Table 1— Detailed cost of gates, caissons, emergency dams, and operating machinery, 
etc., includmg installation, to June 30, JPi-i— Continued . 







Amount. 






Gatun. 


Pedro Miguel. 


Miraflores. 


Operating machinery— Continued. 
Power cables— Continued. 
Installation expenses- 


$1.80 
12,972.46 
10, 277. 83 
17,890.97 
3,034.25 


'"$4 ,'687. 86 
6, .323. 08 
6,964.02 
1,381.98 






S2,422.05 




1,399.18 




30, 158. 40 


Division expense 


649.17 


Total installation expenses 


44,177.31 


19,356.94 


34,628.80 


Administrative and general expenses 


10,649.01 


3,502.90 


3,770.15 


Total power cables 


318, 154. 77 


83, 847. 56 


162,394.66 


Linear feet of cable pulled 


329,387 


106, 168 


59,605 


Cost of pulling and splicing per linear foot 


$0. 0312 


$0. 0596 


$0. 0235 


Lighting- 
Contract payments 


§7,465.37 


S4, 56.3. 97 


$9,014.47 


Installation expenses- 


575. 77 
98.41 

793.55 
99.18 


937. 79 

201.84 

1,213.23 

179.31 










532. 38 


Division expense 


29.01 




1,. 566.91 


2,532.17 


561.39 


Administrative and general expenses 


245. 76 


314.99 


166. 90 


Total Ughting 


9,278.04 


7,411.13 


9, 742. 76 


Lamp-posts— 

Installation expenses- 


191.95 

2,133.65 

3, 348. 40 

176.25 

647.95 

146. 77 








739. 12 
15.48 
12.37 

118.61 

59.85 


479.92 




.34 








77.20 


Division expense 


47.23 




6, 644. 97 
214.04 


945. 43 
65.19 


604.69 




84.87 






Total lamp-posts 


6,859.01 


1,010.62 


689. 56 


Caisson sills, adjustment- 
Installation expenses- 


16.63 
8,462.35 

579. 43 
4,301.79 

450.22 






Surveys 


2,485.04 
601.57 

3,5.39.32 
278.43 


632.89 




136.17 




3,085.75 


Division expense 


71.31 




13,810.42 
1,023.87 


6,904.36 
542.19 


3,926.12 




56.61 






Total caisson sills, adjustment 


14,8.34.29 


7,446.55 


3,982.73 


Buffer timbers, material on hand 


5,839.34 


2,130.51 




Preliminary maintenance and operation- 


3,684.94 
577. 98 
293. 60 
520. 76 


3,884.74 
758. 48 
348. 88 

1,109.38 


731.76 




97.94 




53.92 


Administrative and general expenses 


112. 76 


Total preliminary maintenance and operation 


5,077.28 


6,101.48 


996. 38 


Spare parts, material on hand 




23,056.49 


4.49 




. 2,462,985.94 


1,283,624.37 


1,496,138.04 




^_ 



340 



EEPOET ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



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REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



341 




342 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost op Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 3. — Hydroelectric power house, Gatun — Operating machinery. 
[Detailed cost to June 30, 1913.] 



Amount. 



Inspection in the United States 

Inspection on tiie Isthmus 

Contract payments 

Installation expenses: 

Sm^-eys 

Mechanical erection — 

Penstocks 

Turbines 

Gatehouse 

Draft tubes 

Air-compressor system 

Oil system ! 

Overhead crane 

Lighting transformers 

Ground busses 

Conduits 

Lighting fixtures and wiring 

Electrical Installation — 

Lighting transformers 

Ground busses 

Testing 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Division expense 

Total Installation expenses 

Administrative and general expenses 

Total operating machinery, Gatun powerhouse 



$273.36 

16. 11 

162,941.48 



1,625.72 

18,825.21 

2,051.91 

195. 10 

2,985.89 

16. .32 

113.81 

40.13 

1.70 

335.36 

3G7.76 

40.56 

26.40 

120.21 

298. 28 

9.974.86 

1.271.74 



38,290.96 
7,882.91 



209,404.82 



Table 4. — Electric transmission line. 
[Detailed cost to June 30, 1913.1 





Quantities. 


Amount. 


Unit cost. 




Cubic yards. 


S735.44 
3,60.5.67 




Survevs 












Construction cable ducts, Gatun: 

Excavation 


195 

8 


131.06 
52.12 
18.56 


$0.6751 


Concrete 


6.5150 












Total cable ducts, Gatun 




202.34 










Foundations for bridges: 
Mile 34 




1.0.58.66 

2,104.03 

5.04 

5-12.43 




Mile 35 .... 






Mile .36 ... 






















3,710.16 










Transformer substation, Gatun: 

Excavation 


1,612 
1,612 


183.34 
14.62 


.1137 


Division expense 


.0091 










197. 96 














1,675.95 

3,086.81 

801.30 


























14,015.63 











REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



343 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913. 

[Detail cost per unit of work.] 





Quantities. 


Amount. 


Unit cost. 


Preliminary work: 


Cubic yards. 


$17,131.91 
3,338.80 
















Total division cost 




20, 470. 71 
3,084.08 
















Total cost 




23,554.79 














24,599.02 
3,804.10 




















28, 403. 12 
4,466.35 




Administrative and general expense 












Total cost 




32,869.47 










Total preliminary work 




56, 424. 26 










West breakwater light: 




10,548.65 

89.81 

1, 194. 65 

2,522.49 




Structure, stairway 












Division expense 












Total division cost 




14,355.60 
1,730.11 
















Total cost 




16,085.71 










Tower 5, Atlantic, 74 feet 10 inches: 
Foundations- 


26.00 
24.7 

65.97 


45.06 
462.81 

1,760.04 
545. 13 
603.10 
104. 96 
6.00 
9.03 
806. 15 
572. 42 


$1 7331 


Masonry 


18 7369 


Structure- 
Masonry 


26 6795 






Metal work 












Illumination 






Lantern glass 






Handling material 


















Total division cost 




4,914.70 

447.38 




Administrative and general expense 












Total cost 




5,362.08 










Tower 6, Atlantic, 46 feet 4 Inches: 
Foundations- 
Excavation 


19 
14.2 

40.5 


24.23 
156.52 

919. 47 

303.33 

671. 47 

78.38 

13.96 

9.03 

344.56 

285. 90 


1 2752 


Masonry 


11. 0225 


Structure- 
Masonry 


22. 7029 


Stairway 




Metal work 






Carpenter work 






Illumination 






Lap tern glass 












Division expense 












Total division cost 




2, 806. 85 
239.98 
















Total cost 




3,046.83 










Foundations- 
Excavation 


400 

77 

22.1 


560. 27 
1,757.59 

862. 68 
129.61 
609.35 
8.13 
36.40 


1 4007 


Masonry 


22 8268 


Structure — 

Masonry 


35 6782 






Metal work 






Painting 






Carpenter work 







344 



EEPOKT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 191.3 — Continued. 





Quantities. 


Amount. 


Unit cost. 


Tower 1, lake, 28 feet 10 Inches— Continued. 


Cubic yards. 


$43. 17 
636.49 
540. 44 






















Total division cost 




5,184.13 
365. 64 
















Total cost 




5,549.77 










Tower 2, lake, 87 feet 10 inches: 




20.43 

901. 46 
2,655.16 

2, 849. 76 

477.99 

642. 71 

23.22 

187. 21 

2.14 

20.70 

1,653.09 

1,816.67 




Foundations- 


612.4 
1S6 

87. 96 


$1.4720 




14. 2569 


Structure— 


32. 3984 






Metal work 






Painting 
























Handling material 


















Total division cost 




11,250.54 
938. 40 
















Total cost 




12, 188. 94 










Tower 3, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 
Foundations- 


35 
53 

10.92 


57.96 
681. 45 

521. 13 

67.57 

1.60 

80.60 

4.29 

717. 02 

306. 08 


1.6560 




12. 8575 


Structure— 

Masonry 


47. 7225 














































2,437.70 
227. 70 
















Total cost 




2,665.40 










Tower 4, lake: 




67.57 
80.61 
4.29 

.77 










Lantern glass 






















153.24 
9.07 




Administrative and general expense 












Total cost 




162.31 










Tower 5, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 

E.xcavation 


35 

77 

10.92 


67.62 
1,813.85 

488. 59 

83.09 

1.60 

SO. 61 

4.29 

2,310.73 

717.17 


1.9320 




23. 5564 


Structure- 


44. 7426 


Metal work . . 








































Total division cost 




.5,567.55 
504.34 
















Total cost 




6,071.89 












REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



345 



Exhibit C —Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildincs, to June 30, 1913— Oontmued. 

Table b.— Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year ^.9/.^— Continued. 



Tower 6, lake: 
Stnicture — 

Metal work 

Carpenter work. 

Lantern glass 

Division expense . . . 



Quantities. 



Cubic yards 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Tower 7, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 
Foundations — 

Excavation 

Masonry 

Structxu-e— 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



31.00 
10.48 



10.92 



Amount. 



Tower 8, lake: 

Surveys and clearing. 

Structure- 
Metal work 

Carpenter work . . 

Lantern glass 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Tower 9, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 

Foundations — 

Excavation 

Masonry 

Structure- 
Masonry 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expease. 



Total cost. 



Tower 10, lake: 

Surveys and clearing. 
Stnicture— 

Metal work 

Carpenter work.., 

Lantern glass 

Handling material — 
Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



30.00 
10.48 



$67. 55 

80.62 

4.29 

.77 



153.23 
9.08 



162.31 



47.44 
99.21 

648.99 

67.57 

1.59 

80.60 

4.29 

645. 13 

213.31 



Unit cost. 



1,808.13 
136. 00 



1,944.13 



344. 73 

67.57 
80.61 
4.29 
46.46 



543. 66 
16.75 



560. 41 



2.33 

34.21 
37.17 

615.93 

67.55 

1.59 

80.60 

4.28 

859. 91 

252. 03 



1,955.60 
123. 93 



2,079.53 



160. 52 

67.55 
80.61 
4.28 
25.86 
50.54 



389.36 
33.89 



423. 25 



$1.5303 
9. 4666 



59. 4316 



1.1403 
3. 5467 



56. 4038 



346 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913 — Continued. 





Quantities. 


Amount. 


Unit cost. 


Tower 11, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 


Cubic yards. 


$121.61 

124.47 
486. 52 

360. 54 

145. 74 

1.69 

146.21 

4.28 

1,992.98 

878. 75 




Foundations- 
Excavation ... 


42.00 
79.50 

11.00 


$2 9636 


Masonry 


6.1197 


Structure—. 

Masonry 


32. 7764 


Metal work 




Painting 






Carpenter work 






Lantern glass 






Handling material 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




4,262.69 
441.32 




Administrative and general expense 












Total cost 




4,704.61 










Tower 12, lake: 

Surveys and clearing 




390. 02 
.50 

22.27 
68.33 

1.59 
80.60 

4.28 
20.83 
98.59 




Foundations — masonry 






Structure- 
Masonry 












Painting 






Carpenter work 






Lantern glass 






Handling material 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




687.01 
56.88 
















Total cost 




743. 89 










Surveys and clearing 




211.85 

68.32 

80.61 

4.28 

27.46 




Metal work 












Lantern glass 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




392. 52 
13.12 




Administrative and general expense 












Total cost 




405. 64 










Tower 14, lake: 

Surveys and clearing 




135. 89 

68.32 

80.60 

4.28 

36.32 




Structure- 






Carpenter work 






Lantern glass 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




325. 41 
32.32 
















Total cost 




357. 73 










Tower 15, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 




328. 72 

37.01 
55. 28 

398. 98 

91.59 

113.61 

101.13 

4.28 

1,768.24 

685.24 




Foundations- 
Excavation 


28.00 
10.50 

11.00 


1 3218 


Masoru-y 


5. 2648 


Structure- 
Masonry 


3. 6271 


Metal work 




Painting 












Lantern glass 












Division expense 












Total division cost 




3.584.08 
220. 58 
















Totalcost .... 




3,804.66 











REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



347 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913 — Continued. 



Quantities. 



Amount. 



Unit cost. 



Tower U), lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 

Foundations- 
Excavation 

Masonry 

Structure — 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



CvMc yards. 



28 
10.5 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Tower 17, lake, 30 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 

Foundations- 
Excavation 

Masonry 

Structure — 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



63 
67.5 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost . 



Tower 18, lake, 50 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 

Foundations — 

Excavation 

Masonry 

Structure — 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expraise . 



Total cost. 



P.eacon 19, lake: 

Surveys and clearing. 
Division exi)ense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



m^. 59 

22.09 
114.44 

515. 07 

69.35 

12.20 

140. 48 

4.28 

1,175.90 

661.02 



3,050.42 
254. 47 



3, 304. J 



156. 42 

49.80 
798. 02 

422. 07 

91.76 

8.42 

114.27 

4.28 

2, 358. 61 

723. 98 



4,727.63 
349. 42 



5,077.05 



75.44 

45.52 
158. 05 

622. 79 

88.76 

21.85 

133. 15 

4.28 

1,090.66 

528. 58 



2, 769. 08 
276.28 



3,045.36 



19.60 
4.36 



23.96 
2.56 



Total cost. 



Heacon 20, lake: 

Surveys and clearing. 
Division expense 



19.60 
4.36 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expanse. 

Total cost • 



23.96 
2.56 



$0. 7889 
10. 8990 



46. 8245 



.7905 
11.8225 



38. 3700 



.9685 
12. 1577 



27. 6796 



348 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913 — Continued. 





Quantities. 


Amount. 


Unit cost. 


Tower 22, lake , 30 feet 7 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 


Cubic yards. 


$18.56 

37.59 
158.35 

644.59 
154.35 
82.10 
4.28 
526.57 
222.67 




Foundations — 

Excavation 


35 
10.48 

10.9 


$1.0740 


Masonry 


15.1097 


Structure- 
Masonry 


59. 1366 


Metal work 




Carpenter work 






Lantern glass 






Handling material • 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




1,849.06 
167.52 




Administrative and ffinernl RxppnsR , 












Total cost 




2,016.58 










Tower 23, lake: 

Survevs and clearing 




18.54 

65.88 
55.11 

4.28 
7.24 




Structure- 
Metal work 






Carpenter work 






Lantern glass 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




151.05 
11.58 


- 


Administrative and general expense . . 












Total cost 




162.63 










Tower 24, lake, 28 feet 10 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 




1.03 

14.51 
113. 15 

414.33 
134. 84 
761.81 
28.31 
36.56 
1.93 
9.03 
99.76 
191.25 




Foundations- 
Excavation 


10 
5.7 

22.1 


1. 4510 


Masonry 


19.8508 


Structure- 
Masonry 


18. 7479 


Stairway 




Metal work 






Painting 






Carpenter work 






Illumination 






Lantern glass 






Handling material 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




1,806.51 
169.24 




Administrative and general expense, . 












Total cost 




1,975.75 










Tower 25, lake, 46 feet 4 inches: 

Survevs and clearing 




3.10 

63.52 
206.49 

1,008.79 

247.06 

719.65 

30.24 

68.26 

1.93 

9.03 

686.14 

427. 14 




Foundations- 
Excavation 


35 
14.2 

40.5 


1.8149 


Masonry 


14.5415 


Structure- 
Masonry 


24.9085 


Stairwav 




Metal work 






Painting 






. Carpenter work 






Illumination 






Lantern glass 






Handling material 






Division expense 












Total division cost 




3,471.35 
338.51 




Administrative and general expense 
















3,809.86 











REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



349 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913— Contmned. 



Quantities. 



Amount. 



Unit cost. 



Tower 27, lake, 42 feet 4 inches: 

Surveys and clearing 

Foundations — 

Excavation 

Masonry 

Structure- 
Masonry 

Stairway 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Cubic yards. 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Tower 28, lake: 

Surveys and clearing . 

Structure- 
Metal work 

Carpenter work.., 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expenses. 



Total cost. 



Beacon, Santa Cruz: 
Surveys and clearing . 
Foundations- 
Excavation 

Masonry 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense . 



Total cost. 



Beacon, Bas Obispo: 

Surveys and clearing. . 
Foundations, masonry. 
Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Tower 1, Pacific, 42 feet 4 inches: 
Foundations — 

Excavation 

Masonry 

Structure- 
Masonry 

Stairway 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Illumination 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



170 
14.2 



40.7 



$38. 35 

295. 06 
203. 29 

810. 71 
160. 43 
498. 69 
3.18 
52.87 
702. 90 
352. 49 



3,117.97 
185. 57 



81 
110 



38.6 



3,303.54 



339. 76 

105. 56 

5.97 

4.28 

22.49 

60.50 



538. 56 
39.37 



577. 93 



52.57 

22.88 
92.16 
113. 43 
39.21 



320.25 
9.72 



329.97 



65.72 
4.17 
18.37 



88.26 
14.24 



140. 28 
2, 389. 24 

990. 52 

127.12 

612. 12 

19.00 

64.44 

631. 12 

9.03 

1,415.88 

736. 70 



7, 135. 45 
559. 29 

7,694.74 



$1.7356 
14.3162 



19. 9192 



1.7319 
21. 7203 



25.6611 



350 



KEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C— Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 191S — Continued. 



Quantities. 



Amount. 



Unit cost. 



Tower 2, Pacific, 46 feet 4 inchae: 
Foundations — 

E xcavation 

Masonry 

Structure- 
Masonry 

Stairway 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Illumination 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Cubic yards. 
28 
14.2 

40.5 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense . 
Total cost 



Tower 3, Pacific, 28 feet 10 inches: 

Foundations— masonry 

Structure — 

Masonry 

Stairway 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Illumination 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense . 

Total cost 



Tower 4, Pacific, 46 feet 4 inches: 

Foundations— masonry , 

Structure — 

Masonry 

Stairway 

Metal work 

Painting 

Carpenter work 

Illumination 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



Beacon 5, Pacific: 
Foundations — 

Piles in place... 

Masonry 

Structure — 

Steel frame 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Carpenter work. 

Illumination 

Handling material. . 
Division expense. . . 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



149 
21.3 



68.2 
40.5 



S26.40 
205.44 

1,037.33 

139. 43 

649. 62 

26.20 

87.69 

645. 67 

9.03 

1,208.58 

468. 01 



4, 503. 40 

389. 01 

4,892.41 



2,908.78 

1,002.07 

74.36 

605. 76 

64.23 

37.22 

1,575.12 

9.03 

969. 00 

612.53 



7, 858. 10 
404.46 



8, 262. 56 



1, 190. 48 

1,745.58 

139. 43 

642.71 

34.07 

72.08 

1,575.12 

9.03 

875. 93 

642. 47 



6, 926. 90 
449. 84 



7,376.74 



264.05 
196.96 

407.43 

880.09 

18. 03 

31.01 

4.95 

302. 79 

308. 99 



2,414.30 
162. 69 



2,576.99 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



351 



Exhibit C —Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913— Continued. 

Table b.— Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year /9i5— Continued. 



Beacon 6, Pacific: 

Foundations, piles in place . 
Siracture — 

Steel frame 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Handlins material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



Beacon 7, Pacific: 
Foimdations— 

Piles in place . . . 

Masonry 

Structure — 

Steel frame 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Carpenter work. 

Illumination 

Handling material. . 
Division expense. . . 



Quantities. 



Cubic yards. 



Amount. 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Beacon 8, Pacific: 
Foundations — 

Piles in place... 

Masonry 

Structure — 

Steel frame 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Carpenter work. 

TUumuiation 

Handling material. . 
Division expense. . . 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Beacon 9, Pacific: 

Foundations, piles in place. 
Structure — 

Steel frame 

Masonry 

Metal work 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

.Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



Beacon 10, Pacific, fomidations, piles in place. 

Tower 12, Pacific, 28 feet 10 inches: 

Foundations, masonry 

Structure — 

Masonry 

Stairway 

Metal work 

Carpenter work 

Lantern glass 

Handling material 

Division expense 



Total division cost. .• 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost .......... r -.•..•••-".. . 



5.7 
22.1 



$198. 00 

277.74 

140.39 

9.17 

3.61 

7.79 



636.60 
5.90 



642. 50 



264.06 
218. 70 

277.74 

653.16 

29.77 

43.58 

4.95 

168. 79 

178. 74 



Unit cost. 



1,839.49 
120.34 



1,959.83 



309.79 
138.09 

277.74 

660.75 

23.70 

21.26 

1.13 

172.19 

161.20 



1,765.85 
110. 46 



1,876.31 



198.00 

277.74 

140.86 

9.16 

3.50 

7.79 



637. 05 
5.90 



642. 95 



198.00 



148.32 

698. 26 
114.00 
639.14 
46.92 
17.53 
178. 89 
286. 08 



2, 129. 14 
219.35 



2,348.49 



$21. 8700 



26. 0210 
31.5955 



352 



EEPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit 0. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913 — Continued. 





Quantities. 


Amount. 


Unit cost. 


Tower 13, Pacific, 28 feet 10 inches: 

Foundations, masonry 


Cubic yards. 
5.7 

22.1 


$57.66 

451.42 
74.36 

596.04 

37.61 

9.03 

466. 70 

194.80 


$10. 1157 


Structure- 


20. 0190 














































1,887.62 
184.63 




















2,072.25 










Reference targets: 


Number. 
1 

2 

1 
2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 

2 
2 


243. 29 

429. 80 
322.82 
394.62 
97.45 
147.05 
603. 14 

379.98 
168. 17 
260. 64 
362. 17 

285.97 
786.20 
654. 53 
116. 47 

50.51 

261.86 

1,134.02 


243. 2900 


Bohio— 

North 


214. 9000 


P.I 


322. 8200 


South 


197.31(X) 




97. 4500 


Frijoles, P. I 


147. 0500 




603. 1400 


San Pablo- 


379. 9800 


Middle 


168. 1700 




260. 6400 


Caimito 


181. 0850 


West 


142. 9850 




393. 1000 




327. 2650 




58. 23o0 


Bas Obispo— 


25. 2550 


South 


130. 9300 
















6,698.69 
599. 72 




















7.298.41 










Transmission lines: 

Poles in place 


Linearfeet. 
15,600 
15, 600 
15,600 
15,600 


1,537.16 

1,294.70 

178. 19 

473.49 


.0985 




.0830 




.0114 




.0304 








15,600 
15,600 


3,483.54 
306.57 


.2233 


Administrative and general expense 


.0197 








15,600 


3,790.11 


.2430 






Bas Obispo conduit- 




90.22 
9.38 
15.61 


























115. 21 
3.19 




Administrative and general expense 












Total cost 




118. 40 










To tower 28, lake- 




213. 66 
7.43 
















Total division cost 




221.09 














100.22 











EEPOET OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



353 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 5. — Lighting and buoying canal, fiscal year 1913 — Continued. 



Quantities. 



Gas buoys. Pacific entrance: 
Unloading upon delivery . 

Assembling 

Painting 

Assembling chain 

Sinkers 

Cnains 

Placing on station 

Contract payments 

Division expense 



I 

! Number. 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost 

Gas buoys, Porto Bello: Placing on station. 

Miscellaneous expenses: 

Lighting ranges and beacons — 

Pacific entrance 

Atlantic entrance 

Illumination— experimental 



Total miscellaneous 

Material on hand and unapplied 

Total construction expenditures . 



Amount. 



$90.63 

211.54 

53.24 

59.45 

98.00 

662.87 

496. 75 

17,370.00 

205. 63 



19,248.11 
1,878.96 



21,127.07 



Unit cost. 



275.00 



$15. 1050 

35.2567 

8. 8733 

9.9083 

16. 3333 

110. 4783 

82. 7917 

2, 895. 0000 

34. 2717 



3,208.0183 
313. 1600 



275.0000 



1,127.29 

546. 96 

1,057.82 

2,732.07 

147,776.49 

370,485.08 



Table 6.^ — Cristobal terminals. 
[Detailed cost to June 30, 1913.] 



Coaling plant: 

Designing 

Dredging — 

Clearing site 

Blasting 

Division expense 

Total 

Total coaling plant . . 

Fuel-on tanks: 

Inspection on Isthmus 

Land damages 

Roadways 

Foundations 

Painting 

Pipe lines 

Division expense 

Total fuel-oil tanks 

Total Cristobal terminals 

11834°— 13 23 



Amount. 



$439. 89 


474.28 
474. 79 
35.59 


984.66 


1,424.55 


621.06 
2,415.00 
3, 765. 70 
4,505.85 

201.34 
1, 452. 64 

102.00 


13,063.59 



14,488.14 



354 



REPORT ISTHMIAN CANAL COMMISSION. 



Exhibit C. — Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913 — Continued. 

Table 7. — Terminal facilities Balboa, fiscal year 1913. 
[Detail cost per unit of work.] 



Preliminary and general work: 

Surveys 

Clearing site 

Boring and test pits 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



Preparing sites, general: 
Miscellaneous work — 

Removal of buUdings 

Removal of landing stage for Union Oil Co 

Removal and rearrangement of Panama R. R. tracks. 

General tracks 

Removal and reconstniction Balboa- Ancon road 

Removal and construction of water mains 

Concrete drain ditch, Sosa Hill 

Removal of quartermaster's material yard 

Line to Diablo HiU 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Excavation- 
Clearing 

Drilling 

Blasting 

Excavation by steam shovel. 

Excavation by hand 

Tracks 

Transportation 

Dumps 

Drainage 

Maintenance of equipment . . 

Plant arbitrary 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 



Total cost. 



Filling- 
Transportation 

Trestles 

Tracks 

Filling and grading 

Maintenance of equipment. 

Plant arbitrary 

Division expense 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



Yards and tracks- 
Filling 

Installation 

Division expense. 



Total division cost 

Administrative and general expense. 

Total cost 



Total preparing site, general. 



Quantities. Amount. Unit cost 



Cubic yards. 



368 



412, 
412, 
412, 
395, 
17, 
412, 
412, 
412, 
412, 
412, 
412, 
412, 



412,707 
412, 707 



412,707 



505,419 
505,419 
505, 419 
505, 419 
505, 419 
505, 419 
505, 419 



505,419 
505, 419 



23,283 



822,028.77 

6, 992. 90 

2,296.91 

1,703.93 



28,428.69 
3,848.59 



32, 277. 28 



60,955.17 
10,615.05 
56, 435. 10 
2,418.57 
5,142.57 
11,725.46 
5,003.12 
4,944.95 
7, 772. 03 
2,615.24 



167, 627. 26 
9,397.51 



177,024.77 



51.61 
31,541.65 
35, 672. 20 
30,418.09 

4,338.80 
31,788.94 
14,694.74 

8,481.59 

2,340.43 
23,815.19 
39,241.52 

9,572.81 



231,957.57 
17,241.92 



249, 199. 49 



23,125.81 
2, 459. 07 
72, 439. 88 
47,034.77 
12,679.52 
37,960.48 
6,064.54 



201,764.07 
13,034.34 



214,798.41 



5,620.64 

8,691.15 

739. 82 



15,051.61 
1,392.21 



REPORT OF COST-KEEPING ACCOUNTANT. 



355 



Exhibit C— Detailed Cost of Work Done by First and Second Divisions and 
ON Permanent Town Sites and Buildings, to June 30, 1913— Continued. 

Table 7.— Terminal facilities Balboa, fiscal year 19 IS— Continued. 



Dredging inner basin : 
Dredging harbor- 
Clearing - • ■ ■ ■ 

Operation seagoing suction dredge. 
Repairs seagoing suction dredge . . . 

Operation small ladder dredge 

Repairs small ladder dredge 

Operation large ladder dredge 

Repairs large ladder dredge 

Operation dipper dredge 

Repairs dipper dredge 

Operation pipe-line dredge 

Repairs pipeJine dredge 

Dikes -.• 

Pipe lines 

Ditching 

Operation tugs, clape