FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
THE LACUNA MARINE
LACUNA BEACH, ORANGE
THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, POMONA COLLEGE
DR. A. J. COOK
STATE HORTICULTURAL COMMISSIONER
THE LACUNA MARINE LABORATORY
PERSONNEL FOR 1911
'DR. A. J. COOK, Sponsor
2 MISS C. K. RICE, Chaperon
PROFESSOR C. F. BAKER, Director and Editor of Report
CHARLES W. METZ, Manager
"CHARLES W. METZ 'DAVID L. CRAWFORD
'BLANCHE E. STAFFORD 6 VINNIE R. STOUT
'HARRY V. M. HALL "JOHN GUERNSEY
FRANK R. COLE LEON GARDNER
1 Now California State Commissioner of Horticulture at Sacramento.
2 Now Mrs. A. C. Dyer of Kinsley, Kansas.
3 Later fellow-assistant under Dr. David Starr .Ionian at Stanford t'niversity ; now ap-
pointee to fellowship in Columbia University under Dr. Bashford Dean.
4 Of this group, lint with table for the summer of 1911 in Pomona College Biological
Laboratory. Later fellow-assistant under Dr. Vermin L. Kellogg at Stanford Uni-
versity, and assistant in State Horticultural Commission. Recently appointed an
assistant in Cornell under Dr. J. G. Xeedham.
5 Fellow-assistant, 1911-1.', Department of Biology of Pomona College and candidate for
^H master's degree. Later appointed fellow-assistant in University of California under
Dr. C. A. Kofoid.
(i Fellow-assistant, 1911-15, Department of Biology of Pomona College and candidate
for master's degree. Later appointed fellow-assistant in Cornell University under
Dr. J. G. Xeedham.
7 Appointed fellow-assistant for I91J-13 in Department of Biology, Pomona College.
8 Appointed scholar-assistant for 191J-13 under Dr. Robt. H. Walcott in the University
9 Accepted candidate fellow-assistant for 191.M3 under Dr. W. A. Setchell in the
University of California.
As a matter of contemporaneous history, and of general interest to many who
are deeply concerned in all that pertains to this work, it may be mentioned that during
the years 1910-12 the following Pomona graduates also pass on into advanced biological
work: Elizabeth Heald and Sarah R. Atsatt to fellowships in Zoology under Dr. Kofoid
in Berkeley; A. S. Crawford, to a fellowship in Cornell Medical; John A. Prizer, to post
of Entomological Expert to the San Diego Land and Town Company; R. S. Vaile, to
Horticultural Commissionership of Ventura county, California; A. R. Baird, to Horti-
cultural Commissionership of Inyo county, California; E. (). Essig, to Secretaryship of
California State Horticultural Commission; H. A. Weinland, to an assistant in the
State Horticultural Commission; John E. Graf, to an Assistantship-in-charge at the Gov-
ernment Entomological Station at Compton, California; C. F. Stahl, to assist Graf; H. H.
Warner, to student assitantship in plant breeding under Prof. Babcock at Berkeley; A. R.
Davis, to a research fellowship in the Shaw School of Botany of Washington University
at St. Louis.
Iebicatebto tbementoho.habing seen
a great, neto opportunity to bo /
something toortb tohile in the toorlb,
toasteb no time, but set^eb upon it
toitJj abibitp anb stapeb toith it
to the men toitf) tofjom originateb
tfte ibea of a permanent Jtlarine s/
ILaboratorp at Ilaguna Jieacfj, anb
totofjom is bue tfjt practical bebelop
ment of tfje larger possibilities for
James QT. femi
1L. fi. JSroobs
31. &. 3scfj
anb to these other pioneers, tofjo,
accepting the challenge of a great
public serbice. fjabe been the first
in abbition to those mentioneb /=/
abobe, to gibe of their means sr^/
totoarbs the founbing of this instt=
dhe Haguna JUeach Co.
i^. (6. fi?rialpr. <Srn. fHgr.
Jfir0t annual Report
OUR PROFESSION OF FAITH IN
A man's education most perfectly adapts him for the greatest
success in any phase of human endeavor only when it has included
thorough training in scientific method accurate observing, truthful
recording, and logical correlating.
Biology the study of life as an clement in education (and
so in the progress of the human race) represents one of man's most
intimate and fundamental intellectual activities it is the study of
his own life forces and of the myriad influences that determine his
own setting in nature.
The sea, that limitless fountain-head of immeasurable life, which
without cultivation has yielded so much to the nurture of the human
race, which with cultivation can yield as much food as our best agri-
cultural lauds, and which, one day, when the laud is crowded with
teeming millions, will go far toward feeding the then existing peoples
the sea, I say, presents a multitude of pressing problems of infinite
importance to the future of humanity, and is the preeminent bio-
logical laboratory of earth, which every year is attracting an increas-
ingly greater number of students, and enlisting an ever warmer and
more active human interest.
C. F. BAKER.
ILagumi @arine ILaboratorp
HOB. many years groups of Pomona College students in
Biology, had made annual visits with Dr. Cook, head of the
Department of Biology, to the neighboring coast, usually to
Deadman's Island at San Pedro. The single day spent there
each year, among the rich displays of life accessible at low tide, had
kept alive the intention of the Department, growing stronger year
by year, to spend portions of each summer on the coast, with a
selected group of interested Pomona students. After many attempts*
to organize such a project, early in 1911, Dr. Cook, Professor Baker,
and Mr. Charles W. Metz, at a final conference, decided to go, regard-
less of obstacles, for one season's trial, and to take with them a group
of students interested in the work solely for the work's sake, and to
share with them alike in all expenses of whatever nature. The selec-
tion of a location was left to Professor Baker and Mr. Metz, and
these two, during the Spring of 1911, worked over, largely on foot,
most of the coast from Bedondo to Laguna. The latter locality was
settled upon without any question, as by all odds the most desirable
for our immediate purposes studies on the fauna and flora of the
tidal zone and its immediate neighborhood. The varied topograph-
ical and ecological conditions the high promotories, the acres of
rocky tide-pools exposed at low tide, the numerous small sand
beaches, all equally accessible together with the varied beauty of
all the natural surroundings, showed this to be a most uniquely
favorable place. We immediately rented a large house from Mr.
James T. Smith, and June 21 found us in possession with all the
necessary outfit for the proposed work.
Miss C. K. Bice (now Mrs. A. C. Dyer of Kinsley, Kansas) had
kindly consented to serve as chaperon, and the following students
joined the party: Blanche E. Stafford, Vinnie B. Stout, Harry V.
M. Hall, Mabel Guernsey, John Guernsey, Leon Gardner, and some-
what later, Frank B. Cole. David L. Crawford, who was also one
of this group, carried on his work in the Claremont laboratory. With
*In connection with these attempts, grateful acknowledgments should be made to
Miss M. Hathaway and Mr. Llewellyn Bixhy.
JFir0t Annual Report
the energetic assistance of Mr. Metz as business manager, and the
active co-operation of all, everything was in readiness for house-
keeping and laboratory work by the 26th of June. Three tents in
addition to the house were found necessary to accommodate all the
Every day thereafter to the end of the summer was full. Low
tide hours were used for collecting and work on the beach, and this
often took a party out at five a. in. or earlier. Every foray yielded
The 1911 Laguna Company
On porch at back. Miss Rice and Mr. Guernsey. In front, left to right, Pro-
fessor Baker, Mr. Hall, Mr. Cole, Mr. Metz, Mr. Gardner, Miss Baker, Miss Stafford,
Mis-, Stunt, Mi^s Guernsey, and our host, Mr. James T. Smith.
loads of valuable material that required all the remaining hours for
study and preservation. Every day was rich in discovery and inci-
dent, and every nightfall marked substantial progress in the work of
everyone connected with the laboratory. An hour given every day
to a plunge in the surf kept the health of all in prime condition. All
the varied work of the laboratory and house was well organized and
progressed with a rare smoothness and lack of friction. Sunday was
given to rest, to writing letters, to reading, to strolls along the cliffs,
and to regular but informal ethical and religious discussions.
ILaguna S@artne JLaboratorp
We consider that all accomplished in 1911 amounts merely to a
cursory preliminary reconnoissance an effort to get acquainted
with a few of the most salient features of the local field. Some work
was done on the life of the fore-shore, more thorough work on the
distribution of life between tides, and a good deal was accomplished
in the tide-way with the tow-net. Mr. Metz was very active in the
collecting of tide-pool and shore fishes, extending his operations a
number of miles up and down the coast, working out the pools thor-
oughly, and also getting a good many things by line and net. He
also visited Newport, and through the marked kindness and interest
of an expert power-boat fisherman, Mr. J. E. Souder, made several
trips off-shore, for the purpose of visiting the gill nets and jigging,
and also made arrangements for the saving of various rare things to
l>e found in the fishermen's nets and traps. Mr. Souder also loaned
to the laboratory a skiff for use at Laguna, a favor for which he has
our heartiest acknowledgments. To him are due several of our most
valuable finds during the summer.
Of the many thousands of specimens gathered during the summer,
and preserved in best of order, not one small part has as yet been
worked up, though work is in progress along many lines, either by
students on the Coast, or by well known specialists elsewhere who are
co-operating with us. The results presented in this report are to us
simply a beginning a breaking of the ground. We have to acknowl-
edge the kindly assistance in this work of many specialists through-
out the world, including Prof. J. M. Aldrich, of Idaho University,
Prof. Walter K. Fisher of Stanford University, Dr. M. Bernhauer of
Austria, Mr. J. H. Paine of Stanford University, Mr. S. S. Berry of
Stanford University, Dr. W. A. Setchell of California University,
Mr. Julius Hurter of the St. Louis Academy of Science, Dr. Wm. A.
Hitter of the San Diego Marine Laboratory, and others. Large col-
lections of marine worms and of sponges are still untouched, and will
be at the disposal of interested special students.
Acknowledgments should also be made to many friends at Laguna,
notably our host, Mr. Smith, whose kind and helpful interest was
with us always ; to Mr. Isch, our banker and merchant ; to Mr. Brooks,
who gave us many a boost; to Mr. Trefern, on whose patience we
drew heavily, and to others. Col. Coulter, whose untimely death has
lately been announced, was a frequent visitor to the laboratory, and
Jfirst annual Report
was one of Mr. Smith's first converts to the idea that the laboratory
ought to be a permanent institution in Laguna. Our stay in Laguna
was marked by this kindliness on every hand. Laguna, unlike any
other place on the coast, possesses the rare charm of a quiet and
homelike country village an unusual and valuable asset which in
itself is much sought and highly prized by great numbers of people.
Just this feature is doubly inviting, when the village happens to be at
A view of the building used for Laboratory in 1911, with surroundings. Professor
Baker's tent at left, with Mr. Metz's tent back of that. Mr. Guernsey and Mr. Hall
had tables on the upper porch, others had tables in the larger room on the first floor.
.Mr. Gardner's tent was placed back of the house to the right.
the most desirable point on the coast. We are hoping that nothing will
ever destroy that unique atmosphere.
During the summer several hundred visitors went through the
laboratory, expressing keenest interest in all they saw there, and to
them we took pleasure in extending every courtesy. Among these
visitors we were delighted to number many of the friends and alumni
of Pomona College. We were also visited occasionally by men from
government institutions, and from neighboring educational institu-
Especially does the laboratory group feel deep gratitude for his
constant, helpful, and inspiring influence as sponsor of the whole
enterprise, to Dr. Albert J. Cook, now State Commissioner of Horti-
culture, then Professor of Biology in Pomona College, an earnest
friend of all who strive, an active laborer for all things good and true,
and an ardent believer in the possibility of the ultimate realization
of all the highest in human hopes.
Within the laboratory group, perfect kindness and good fellow-
ship was the great distinguishing feature. A spirit of interested
helpfulness pervaded all, and this constant and watchful co-operation
vastly increased the possibilities of the summer work. Indeed the
future watchword for this enterprise might well be
C. F. BAKER.
rich in life.
channels just north of Laguna. These channels are very deep and contain
ficent display of kelps (Eisenia and Egregia). This whole area is exceedingly
JTirst annual Report
REASON FOR BEING
are now a large number of marine laboratories in the
world. These include several on our own East Coast and
also several on the West Coast. Almost without exception
they have been established for purposes of advanced univer-
sity research of the most formal order. Reference is here made only
to those laboratories which are confessedly part of great educational
enterprises. A number of others have been instituted wholly or in
Showing one of numerous small bays with sand beaches. At low tide, between
tlie rocks in foreground and the point at left, a large bed of Phyllospadix is
part, in connection with fisheries investigations. We are now adding
one to the interesting list of marine laboratories, though this one is
organized on a somewhat different basis than any that we know of,
and for somewhat different purposes. We purpose to maintain a
number of unique features in connection with this laboratory, as long
as it shall exist as an annex of Pomona.
Laguna Ratine Laboratory n
There have been constantly in our minds the possibilities that
such a laboratory might have for advanced college students. Having
become thoroughly convinced of the immense importance and useful-
ness in the last years of a college course, of what we have been calling
"junior research work," and having been long aware of the tremen-
dous effectiveness of "living interest" as a pedagogical tool, we have
done our utmost to give advanced students the opportunity to try out
their several abilities and capacities in scientific methods of thought
and work, on some simple little piece of live investigation that they
might easily carry through by faithful effort. The response to these
great opportunities among our students, has been little short of
marvellous. Advanced students of some special ability and capacity
have constantly sought these opportunities and given to them unlim-
ited amounts of time and energy largely in their own outside free
hours, and usually without college credits. Their results have, as a
rule, been highly commendable. For instance, the work by Hall on
Acarina, Crawford on the Psyllidae and Thysanoptera, and Metz on
the bees, is (according to some of the best authorities in this country
and Europe) as good as any work of the same sort ever done in this
country, and in some respects better.
Uniformly we have encountered a great purpose on the part of
the students to make their work "as good or better than anything
done before" this has been their working principle. Naturally there
would never be time here to develop anything more than simply some
promise of their possibilities. Even when their maiden efforts are
not so admirable, every day sees great and steady growth with
inevitable response to the great ideals of endeavor which seem to
permeate everything at Pomona. One of our students who has been
a constant contributor to the Pomona Journal of Entomology for
several years, still shows striking improvement in every article pub-
lished, and this spirit of "getting better all the time" the spirit of
"going on," has characterized all of this "junior research work."
In the face of such spirit as this, it may be imagined that our profes-
sors have spared no effort to furnish opportunities where they were
earnestly sought by capable students. Our college curriculum being
a crowded one, we had early conceived the idea of a summer marine
laboratory, and have worked steadily towards it, with the result of
its partial materialization in 1911.
JTirst annual Report
In all of this work there has been no idea of aping the university
to the slightest degree. Many years of experience as student and
teacher in a number of colleges and universities, have convinced me
that the American college has a destiny uniquely its own. I believe
that there are greater possibilities in the Christian college for the
building of individual character, and for laying the broadest and
soundest foundations for true culture and great scholarship, than
anywhere else on earth. Just so, I also believe that tremendous
Showing the tide pools at Mussel Point. Here are immense colonies of mussels,
barnacles, sea urchins ami coralline algae. This place is exceedingly rich collecting
ideals of really adequate and sane high school work can easily be
built up without overlapping the college in any way, and I came to
this belief while associated in practical high school work with two
masters of that subject Prof. Bryan, now Assistant Superintendent
of the St. Louis schools, and Miss Ernst, now Principal of the Cote
Brilliante School in St. Louis.
Our work in Pomona College, and all connected with it, has been
developed along strictly college lines, with all of the intimate indi-
vidual interest and assistance, and all of the varied and endless sacri-
ILaguna fig)arine JLafioratoq) 1:3
lires for the sake of the students, that mark the best traditions of the
Christian college. There is nothing' proposed or carried out in oiir
work that does not articulate perfectly with real university work-
mark my expression witli real university work! For it must be
remembered that our universities in their present variedly undevel
oped state, receive in their undergraduate courses students of exactly
the same grade as those coming to Pomona or other real colleges
with equally rigorous entrance requirements. Whether the univer-
sity under university conditions is able to do true college work,
is a very debatable question, and one not germane to the point at
issue here. I have repeatedly made the statement, and have heard it
made also by some of our best university men, that coming up through
the well organized basic system used with such splendid effect at
Pomona, together with this final chance at "junior research," stu-
dents could be broadly fitted for graduate work at our American
universities in real n>/ir<'rxiti/ irork who would give as fine results
in certain lines at least, as students from any other possible sources,
and this has worked out most conclusively in actual practice. Some
of these considerations are of unusually great moment at Pomona,
where, as recently shown by President Blaisdell some sixty-eight
per cent, of our graduates are now "going on" into advanced train-
Our method of teaching in college biology has been one as free as
possible from mechanical and minutely prescribed routine, rich in
laboratory and field work, full of first-hand training and of personal
discussion and guidance, in every phase of the work, for every stu-
dent. This opens up that higher and better college possibility of
handling students, not in groups, en masse, by the ordinary "class"
system, but as individuals, each for his own sake, and with methods
adapted to his own peculiar needs and capacities, and by this inviting
avenue we shall pass onward and upward to some of the greatest
possibilities in modern education. Finally, among our lines of
"junior research," we have included a great deal of work in limited
aspects of comparative anatomy which invariably furnishes great
treasures of deep interest to all of our students, numerous simpler
possibilities in ecology, life histories, economic relations, faunal,
floral, and distributional studies, many of these being capable of the
finest possible treatment at the hands of advanced college students
14 Jfir0t annual Report
who have had the necessary basic training. Of course, all subjects
requiring extensive apparatus, complicated technique, great numbers
of highly specialized courses, or more than ten to fifteen hours per
week, are taboo here and belong to the real university. For such
work as we undertake, our equipment is unusually adequate, and will
lie so maintained.
Some of the best students we have are earning their way through
college, wholly or in part, and are desperately crowded for time
throughout the semesters. For these and for others with a limited
number of extra hours, a great opportunity in the summer is a God-
send! The Marine Laboratory at Laguna Beach gives us exactly
the fullness of possibility in this direction that we formerly lacked.
The professorial staff gives unlimited time to this seaside enterprise
without tuition charges, even standing on the same basis as the stu-
dents in matters of running expenses, bearing their share of the
burdens of support as well as of work, and thus placing the oppor-
tunities within the reach of any who may desire them. This attitude
has established an "esprit du corps" that is remarkable in its sin-
cerity and intensity. When an educational enterprise is put on foot
and carried forward on the strength of free-will interest and desire
in a group of students, the success of its work will be assured.
So we submit this report and the principles it involves to the
kindly criticism of the world of science and of education, above all
other things as a study in practical pedagogy and more natural
methods of instruction.
C. F. BAKER.
JLagtina S@arine laboratory 15
FOR THE FUTURE
"CTING on the suggestion which originated with Mr. James T.
Smith, a movement was started by the people of Laguna
looking towards the permanent establishment of a marine
laboratory at that place. This would involve, first of all, the
erection of a suitable building, with aquaria, with facilities for the
handling of a small stream of salt water, and with adequate labora-
tory facilities for students. The Laguna Improvement Association
took the matter up, and has pushed it along with most commendable
perseverance. Their efforts were most generously met and sup-
ported by the Laguna Beach Company this company offering to
give a large plot of land and one thousand dollars towards a fund of
four thousand to set the enterprise on foot and get the building
started. The Laguna Improvement Association set out to raise the
additional three thousand, and this has been partly subscribed. A
tremendous effort is now being made to complete this amount.
The matter of the publication of results was taken up at a joint
meeting of the Laguna Improvement Association, representatives of
the Laguna Beach Company (Mr. Bumstead and Mr. Jahraus) and
representatives of the College (President Blaisdell, Dr. Cook
and Professor Baker), and funds were at that time pledged,
sufficient for the first year Dr. Cook, with his splendid
optimism, assuming the heaviest share of this pledge. In
the raising of his share of the pledge, Dr. Cook has had the sup-
port of his friends, Mr. C. E. Harwood, Mr. N. W. Blauchard, Mrs.
Eenwick, Mr. C. C. Eeynolds, the Kingsley, Mason and Collins Co.,
and three others. The Laguna contribution to the publication fund
came from Mr. H. Gr. Heisler (for the Laguna Beach Company), Mr.
L. N. Brooks, Mr. J. N. Isch, and Mr. James T. Smith.
After a building becomes a reality, then we shall take up the fight
for proper facilities especially aquaria, books and boats. More
than any other one thing, we shall need a strong, large, power boat,
for extending the radius of our activities up and down the coast, and
for work in the deeper waters off shore. We shall need most urgent-
ly a fuller equipment of nets, traps, tangles, and other collecting
devices. We shall need a fuller equipment of aquaria than we can get
16 jfim annual deport
with funds in sight. An immediate necessity facing us is the need
for books, the larger works of reference, standard works on marine
exploration, the reports of other marine laboratories, and many
special papers. All of these things we shall push hard for, and we
are hoping that all friends of such work will stand witli us loyally in
this great effort.
We hope to establish important co-operative relations with other
laboratories of the sort, exchanging publications and material with
them, and perhaps also, table facilities. There is not a point on the
whole coast where the great west coast lobster (Panulirus intcrrup-
tiix) could lie better investigated, or where abalones are more
abundant, and none better for investigations along many other lines
of marine biology, so that we hope to interest the Fish Commission
in our efforts, get them to contribute full sets of their invaluable
reports and bulletins, and perhaps to co-operate in other ways.
The future is big with possibilities for this enterprise, educational
and otherwise. It will take energy and hard work to realize these
possibilities, but we are confidently expecting that many who appre-
ciate great effort in great educational enterprises, will participate
in it with us. We invite all such to join us !
C. P. BAKER.
Laguna 0arinc Laboratory 17
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. MKTX, C. W. Tlu> Fishes of Laguna Beach, California, I.
'2. HUBTER, JULIUS Ain]iliil)ians and Reptiles collected at Laguna
.'!. GUERNSEY, MAUEL Observations on Certain Mollusca of La-
4. BERRY, S. S. On a Cephalopod new to California with Note on
5. BAKER, C. F. Some Echinoderms collected at Tjaguna.
(i. HALL, H. V. M. Studies in Pycnogonida, I.
7. BAKER, C. F.^-Notes on Crustacea of Laguna, I.
8. STAFFORD, BLANCHE E. Studies in Laguna Isopods.
9. STOUT, VINNIE E. Studies in Laguna Amphipods.
10. COLE, F. E. Some Diptera of the Beach at Laguna.
11. DYAR, H. G. Lepidoptera collected at Laguna Beach, California.
12. BUSCK, AUGUST Microlepidoptera from Laguna Beach.
13. BAKER, C. F. Some Coleoptera of the Beach at Laguna, with
descriptions of new species by Dr. M. Bernhauer.
14. PAINE, J. IT. Mallophaga from Birds of Laguna Beach.
15. HALL, IT. V. M. Some Marine and Terrestrial Acarina of
IH. GARDNER, LEON Notes on Birds of Laguna Beach.
17. GUERNSEY, JOT-IN Notes on the Marine Alga 1 of Laguna Beach.
Jfirst annual Ueport
Showing region just north of pier
are very accessible here.
at Imv tide. A large area of rich tide pools
ilaguna Marine ILaboratorp
THE FISHES OF LACUNA BEACH,
CHARLES W. METZ
The present paper is a result of a study of the tide-pool and in-
shore fishes found in the vicinity of Laguna Beach and Newport
Beach, Orange County, California. The material for the work was
obtained during July and August, at the 1911 session of The Laguna
Marine Laboratory. The main object of the study has been to make
as complete as possible a survey of the local shore fishes, together
with observations and dissections bearing on their ecological rela-
tions. In the immediate vicinity of Laguna Beach is an unusual
abundance of tide-pools, large, varied, and rich in aquatic vegeta-
tion, offering exceptional opportunities for shore work. For this
reason an especial effort was made to work the pools and in-shore
waters exhaustively throughout the limited time of our stay. No
attempt has been made to cover the deep water fishes, or fishes that
are not typically shore forms. Occasionally, however, representa-
tives of the deej > water species were brought in by fishermen or
accidentally taken near the shore, and these have been mentioned in
their places. Likewise a few notes on species taken at other locali-
ties along the coast have been included when they were of especial
Most of the work in this study was done at the Laboratory in
Laguna Beach, under the direction of Professor C. P. Baker, to whom
the author is greatly indebted for assistance in many ways. Por-
tions of it, however, have been since completed at Stanford Univer-
sity; and I am indebted to Dr. Gilbert, and Professors Starks and
Snyder, of that institution, for kindly suggestions and advice. It is
with pleasure, also, that I take this opportunity of thanking Mr. J. E.
Sender, owner of the fishing launch "Ruth" of Newport Beach, for
his hospitality, and his active interest in the work of collecting during
The nomenclature here followed is that of Starks and Morris, in
"The Marine Fishes of Southern California," except in a few cases
where changes have been made since this appeared (1907). Any
such changes are noted in the text.
During the course of the work at Laguna the author became con-
siderably interested in the gross visceral anatomy of the local fishes,
especially where this related to the food and habits of species. Time
did not permit of extensive investigations along this line; nor did the
Jfirst annual Report
available material allow comprehensive work on any one group.
Consequently the accompanying notes and figures relate to many
widely separated species, so that little comparison can be made ex-
cept iu a general way. Since, however, none, or very few of these
common forms have ever been studied or described from the point of
view of internal structure it is thought well to include herewith all
the information gathered. It is interesting to note, even in what is
included, the many modifications and variations that arise. Some of
these are easily explained by the habits or food of the species, as for
Figures 1 and 2. Rhinobatus productus
Fig. 1, Ventral view of entire viscera, in natural position. Fig. 2, Same with
organs separated to show form. The liver is thrown back, the alimentary canal
stretched out, and the uro-genital organs pulled to one side. J, Liver. O, Ovary.
Q, Kidney. D, Oviduct. R, Rectal gland. X, Spleen. Y, Pancreas. Numbers
refer to corresponding regions of the alimentary canal.
Figures 3 and 4. Aetobatus californicus
Fig. 3, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 4, Same with organs separated.
A, Vent. D, Spleen. E, Pancreas. G, Pyloris. K, Kidney. L, Liver. M, Leydig's
gland or Epididymis. O, Oesophagus. R, Rectal gland. S, Sperm sac. T, Testis.
V, Vesiculae seminalis. W, Wolltian duct. Numbers relate to corresponding parts
of the alimentary canal.
JLaguna Q0arine Laboratory
instance the similarity in internal structure of the "bat-fish" (Acto-
batus californicus) and the "shovel nose shark" (Rhinobatus i>ro-
ductus), whose viscera are correlated with bottom living habits and
similarity of food, rather than bpdy structure or form. Other modi
fications, on the other hand, such as that shown in the peculiar
diverticulum or caeca! appendage of the stomach in Gymnothorax
mordax, are not so readily understood, and offer interesting fields
In only one family, the Blennidae, were enough species obtained
to allow any comparative study. But in this one alone some remark-
able modifications are found, as shown in the accompanying figures.
In this one family several extremes are typified, in regard to both
form and structure of the visceral organs. The most peculiar of
these is the great divergence from the comparatively short, compact
viscera, with the long, coiled alimentary canal in such forms as
Heterostichus or the Gibbonsias, to the extremely long, drawn out
viscera and perfectly straight alimentary canal of the eel-like Xercr-
pes fucorum. That this is not due solely to external form is shown
by the intermediate visceral structure of Xiphidion rupestre, which
in body form is extremely long and eel-like, just as is A'r rr //><. s-
Unfortunately only enough has been done to show a few of the
extremes, and not enough to indicate relationships between genera.
But even this indicates that a comprehensive study of this large
and varied group in its entirety could not fail to bring out some
important and interesting facts in regard, both to individual species
and to their inter-relationships.
Eptatretus stouti (Lockington). Hagfish.
Not common. A few specimens taken on set lines, or brought in
by fishermen at Laguna.
Mustelus californicus Gill. Dog-shark, Oil-shark.
Abundant at Newport and common at Laguna.
Triakis semifasciatus Girarcl. Little Leopard Sharp.
Found commonly in the vicinity of Laguna and Newport, but
never abundant. Taken on set lines close to the shore at Laguna.
Carcharias laminella Jordan and Gilbert.
Two specimens seen at Newport are thought to be this species.
JFim annual deport
Figure 2. Rhinobatus productus; female. (Explanation under Figure 1)
lUgumi @arine ILabomtorp 23
Lamna cornubica (Gmelin). Mackerel Shark.
(Plate II, Figure H)
One specimen, 4!/2 feet long, taken about ten miles southeast of
Laguna in a barracuda drift net on July 26. This species is not re-
corded by Starks and Morris, but is said to be, "not rare in Califor-
nia," (Jordan and Evermann, Fishes of N. and Mid. America, Vol.
I, p. 49). The specimen taken near Laguna was brought ashore and
kept for some time, so there can be no question as to the identity.
The accompanying photograph shows the general appearance of the
Squatina squatina (Linnaeus). Angel Shark.
Several specimens of this species were taken by the fishermen in
rather deep water off Newport.
Rhinobatus productus Ayres. Shovel-nose Shark, Guitar Fish.
(Figures 1 and 2, and 2 A)
This was the most common ray found in the vicinity of Laguna.
At Newport Beach a favorite sport of the "Sunday fishermen" is
catching these large rays from the pier, where numbers take the bait
and are hauled up every day.
The following notes were taken on a female specimen four feet
long. Measurements in hundredths of body length. Snout to pos-
terior apex of pectoral, 38 ; snout to ventrals, 18 ; snout to first dorsal,
59 ; distance between dorsals, IQi/o ; tip of snout to vent, 41 ; breadth
across pectorals, 34 ; height of first dorsal, 7.3 ; second dorsal same ;
length of abdominal cavity, 19.5. The abdominal cavity is very broad,
the anterior two-thirds being nearly square. Posteriorly it narrows
decidedly, both dorso-ventrally and laterally, due to the intrusion of
the vetebral column and pectoral fin cartilages. This shape is well
shown by the outline of the viscera in the accompanying figure
(Figure 1), which is taken from this specimen. Figure 1 shows the
viscera entire, in its natural position as found in the body cavity.
Figure 2 represents the same with the various organs separated from
one another sufficiently to show their individual forms. The ali-
mentary canal is severed just in front of the liver. In Figure 1 a
somewhat distorted appearance is given to the viscera by the en-
larged oviducts, each of which is swollen with a well developed egg.
The liver is trilobate, the lateral lobes extending a short distance
JFirst Annual Report
along the sides, partially covering the oviducts and ovaries, the
middle lobe extending mesially an equal distance, then lapping over
the left side, covering the stomach. The alimentary canal is very
definitely divided into oesophagus, stomach, pyloric tract, spiral
valve (or colon), rectum and cloaca. Both spleen and pancreas are
well developed, the former lying along the right side of the stomach,
Figure 2a. Young Rhinobatus productus
the latter fastened to the intestine at the anterior end of the colon.
The spiral valve in this species makes eleven complete turns, the bore
in the first two or three being quite large, after which it is uniformly
small to the end where it broadens out considerably in the rectum
and still more in the cloaca. Exactly even with, and below the open-
ing of the colon into the cloaca is the similar oviducal aperture, a
single aperture since the two oviducts coalesce just before reaching
Figure 4. Aetobatus calif ornicus; male. (Explanation under Figures 1 and 3)
26 jFim annual Report
the cloaca. Along the base of the oviducts on each side (dor sally)
may be seen the kidneys ( Figure 2 A), each of which gradually
diminishes in size, ending about the middle of the oviduct. Along the
anterior and ventral side (appearing on top in figure) of the oviducts
are the ovaries, attached throughout their anterior part to the ovi-
ducts and posteriorly to the rectal gland, (Figure 2 R). The ovaries
and oviducts appear entirely out of proportion in the figure on
account of the large ova in the latter. Aside from this the relation-
ships of the various organs may be seen from the figures. The
oviducts, instead of being separated as shown, normally extend dor-
sally over the stomach (as the fallopian tubes) and then down
around the oesophagus in front of the liver, fusing below except for
the common opening into the abdominal cavity.
The male urogenital organs of Rhinobatus productus resemble in
general those of the same sex of Aetolxttux c/iHforniciix, as noted
under that species, except that in the specimen examined the testes
are well separated and distinct throughout their length.
On August 14th a female of this species was taken just as she
was about to bear young. In fact, two of the latter were just emerg-
ing from the cloaca. The brood consisted of four males and one
female, all of the same size. The mother was a large specimen,
measuring 119 cm. in length, and 38 1 /-; cm. across the pectorals. In
addition to the five young she contained seven well developed ova,
each as large as a hen's egg. It is possible that she had already
given birth to some young in the water before being caught.
The following notes were taken on the five young secured: All
were alive and normal ; the tail of one and head of another were pro-
truding from the cloaca at the time of capture, indicating that they
may be born either head or tail foremost. Only this one individual,
however, appeared tail foremost. All five were of the same stage
of development, with no signs of yolk-sac or other embryonic attach-
ments. One of the males gave the following characters, with which
the others essentially agreed: Measurements in mm. Length, tip
to tip, 238; to spiracles, 35; to eyes, 37; to base first dorsal, 145; to
mouth, 47 ; to base second dorsal, 180 ; to posterior tip of pectoral,
104; width mouth, 16; interorbital, 11; breadth across pectorals, 88;
tip snout to first gill opening, 56; to vent, 112; length ventrals, 36;
height first dorsal, 13; second, 13; length caudal, 34; distance be-
tween two anterior gill openings, 39 ; two posterior, 26 ; length clasp-
ers, 16, not quite reaching ventrals. Twenty-two spines along back
in front of first dorsal ; seven more between dorsals, and two small
ones behind second dorsal; two spines on each shoulder opposite
fourth dorsal spine, about on a line with inner and outer borders of
orbit respectively ; a row of six spines above inner margin of orbit,
laguna 60arine Laboratory
and tliree irregularly placed spines in front of these ; a row of
twenty-two spines along each rostral cartilage, ending opposite orbit.
Above tip of the snout is a broad flap or tentacle, with five short
lobes on its apical margin. Skin smooth, and mostly mucus covered,
except on inter-orbital where it roughened with minute prickles.
Outer margin of pectorals translucent, the rays plainly visible;
rostral cartilages converging for most of their length, then diverging
at tip, but nowhere confluent. Claspers very small, not reaching tips
of ventral rays. In the other specimens the number of dorsal spines
along the back varied from twenty to twenty-five in the series before
the first dorsal, and also varied a little in the series around the orbits.
Food Stomachs of adults of this species all contained small
Crustacea (crabs, shrimps, etc.), and a number of polychaet worms.
No other food was found.
Platyrhinoides triseriatus (Jordan and Gilbert). Hornback.
Three specimens were secured in rather deep water off Newport,
where it is reported common.
Raja inornata Jordan and Gilbert. Common Skate.
A specimen seen at Newport was identified as this species. Its
abundance could not be determined.
Urolophus halleri Cooper. Round String Ray.
Common at Newport and probably at Laguna, although no speci-
mens were taken by us at the latter place.
Pteroplatea marmorata Cooper. California Butterfly Ray.
One specimen of this species was taken at Newport. No informa-
tion could be obtained as to its abundance.
Aetobatus californicus Gill. Batfish.
(Figures 3 and 4)
Fairly common at Newport and Laguna.
The following notes with accompanying figures were taken from
a male specimen 470 mm. in length, and 790 mrn. across pectorals :
Measurements in huudredths of length. Tip snout to base ventrals,
81 ; to mouth, 12 ; to eye, 5.5 ; interocular space, 16 ; width mouth, 14 ;
length abdominal cavity, 49 (230 mm.) ; breadth same 28 (130 mm.).
The backbone makes a deep ridge in the posterior dorsal part of the
abdominal cavity, leaving a deep groove on each side in which the
28 jfirst annual deport
kidneys lie. The general shape of the abdominal cavity may be seen
from that of the viscera (Figure 3), which conforms to it in outline.
As may also be seen, the shape quite closely resembles that of Rhino-
bat us productus, in spite of the extreme difference in external form
of these two species. It is interesting to note that in the batfish,
having a breadth one and seven-tenths times its length, the abdom-
inal cavity is even narrower and longer than in the "shovel nose"
with a breadth of only one-third the length. Evidently the shape of
the abdominal cavity is not determined by the external form in these
species, but rather is coincident with the depressed body and similar
habits of the two.
The alimentary canal, liver, spleen and pancreas will be seen to
closely resemble those of R. productus except that the liver is bilo-
bate and somewhat larger. In Figure 4 the spleen is shown attached
to the pyloric tract of the stomach, but in reality it lies between and
against the two divisions, as it does also in R. productus. The spiral
valve in this species has twenty-two turns (just double the number
of R. pr//(/iictux), each being quite narrow, as shown in the figure.
The pylori s is much farther in advance of the spiral valve than in
the latter species, also.
The urogenital organs are best shown in the figure (Figure 4).
The testes in this specimen are united throughout the posterior half
of their length, attaching at the common end to the rectal gland.
Whether or not this is the normal condition of the species was not
determined, as only one specimen was dissected. Dorsal of the
middle of the testes extend the kidneys and Wolffian ducts, the
former mainly developed posteriorly, as shown, the latter extending
forward to the u'sophageal region, where they unite witli the vasa
efferent ia from the testes. Posteriorly the Wolffian ducts (vesicula?
seminalis) and the sperm sacs open into the cloaca by a single pore,
the urogenital sinus, which is well beyond the anal opening of the
alimentary canal. Other relationships may be seen from the figure.
In the stomach of this specimen was found a considerable amount
of meat, but so chewed up as to prevent identification, except that
the remains of several polychaet worms were recognizable. No
chitinous or bony remains were found, and apparently this specimen
had eaten no crustacean or vertebrate food.
Chimaera colliei Lay and Bennett. Chimaera, Ratfish.
One specimen brought in by fishermen at Newport; presumably
from deep water.
Lagtina Cpirine Laboratory
Figures 5 and 6. Gymnothorax mordax
No. 5, Ventral view of viscera in their natural relative positions. No. 6, Same,
with organs separated. M. Liver. N, Air bladder. O, Gonads. Q, Spleen. R,
Caecal pouch or diverticulum from stomach. Z, Gall bladder.
Figures 7 and 8. Girella nigricans
Fig. 7, Viscera entire, ventral view. Fig. 8, Alimentary canal removed. A, Heart.
B, Liver, with gall bladder. C, Urinary bladder. Numbers refer to corresponding
regions of the alimentary canal.
so jfirst annual EUport
Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres). Moray, Eel.
(Figures 5 and 6)
Very common along the shore, especially the rocky stretches.
Specimens of this species were taken in tide-pools, were found under
rocks both in and out of the water, were often caught by rod fisher-
men and were occasionally taken on set lines at moderate depths.
In visceral anatomy the "Moray" shows striking characteristics,
when compared with the typical teleost forms. The most peculiar of
these is probably the modification of the alimentary canal, produc-
ing an extremely long extension of the stomach beyond the pyloris,
so that the intestine connects with the stomach near the middle,
instead of at the end of the latter. The pyloric connection is very
distinct in both form and texture from either the stomach or the
intestine, being a short, narrow "elbow-like" tube, thick walled and
muscular. The stomach is comparatively thick walled, and definite
in shape, while the intestine is thin walled and lax. Other characters
may be seen from Figures 5 and 6. The organs shown as the base of
the liver in Figure 5 are the divisions of the heart, and are not indi-
cated in Figure 6.
Sardinella caeruleus (Girard). Sardine.
Abundant at Newport and Laguna. Young individuals occasion-
ally taken in tide-pools.
Anchovia compressa (Girard). Anchovy.
Very common at Newport, and probably off Laguna also.
Engraulis mordax Girard. California Anchovy.
Only one specimen taken at Newport, but reported by the fisher-
men as being common.
Synodus lucioceps (Ayres). Butter Fish.
One specimen, seventeen inches long, taken at Newport.
Tylosurus exilis (Girard). Needle Fish.
One specimen taken at Newport. Reported by the fishermen as
being fairly common.
Cypselurus californicus Cooper. Great Flying Fish.
Common in the channel between Santa Catalina Island and the
mainland. Seen occasionally along the coast near Laguna. One
specimen, (photograph Figure 4a), caught in a drift net at Laguna.
Figure 4a. Cypselurus californicus
Atherinops affinis (Ayres). Smelt, Pescadillo Del Ray.
Abundant at Newport and Laguna throughout the summer.
Sphyraena argentea (iirard. Barracuda.
Very common off the coast of Southern California, usually run-
ning in schools. This is the main market fish taken at Newport dur-
ing the summer, when it is caught in drift nets, and by trolling, or
"jigging" as the fishermen call it.
32 Jftr0t annual Report
Scomber japonicus Houttuyn. Mackerel.
Very common in deep water. Often taken by the barracuda fish-
Thunnus thunnus (Linnaeus). Tunny, Tuna.
Several taken by fishermen at Newport and Laguna.
Germo alalunga (Gmelin). Long Finned Albacore.
At certain times during the summer these were locally taken in
abundance by the fishermen on "jigs," or troll lines.
Scomberomorus sierra Jordan and Starks. Spanish Mackerel.
Common. Often found in the market, but not valued as food.
Seriola dorsalis (Gill). Yellow Tail.
Often taken by the fishermen off Laguna and Newport, where it
is prized as food.
Trachurus picturata (Bowdich). Horse Mackerel.
This, in company with the Spanish Mackerel, often found in the
markets, but used even less than the Spanish Mackerel for food.
Peprillus simillimus (. \yres). California Pompano.
A few specimens taken at Newport. Apparently not very common.
Paralabrax nebulifer (Girard). Rock Bass.
One specimen, twelve inches long, taken in deep water off New-
port. Apparently not abundant.
Paralabrax clathratus (Girard). Cabrillo.
Caught by fishermen at Newport, where it, like P. iicln/Jifcr and
others, is known as "Eock Bass."
Girella nigricans (Ayres). Green-Fish.
(Plate I, A, and Figures 7 and 8)
This is the most common fish in the tide-pools near Laguna,
especially those pools having little or no vegetation in them. In the
high, shallow pools the young are often found by hundreds, and are
easily distinguished as they swim about, because of the conspicuous
light spot on each side of the back. In the larger, lower pools older
specimens are found, some ranging to over a foot in length. The
older ones, however, do not commonly remain in the pools, but live
in deeper water around the rocks and beds of alga?. In individuals
over three or four inches in length the light spots on the sides arc
Many specimens of various sizes were taken. The accompanying
figures and notes were made from a specimen 220 mm. in length.
Figure 7 shows the contents of the body cavity with all the organs in
their natural position. The great number of pyloric caeca, and the
long convoluted alimentary canal are very conspiciious features, re-
lating to the food habits of the species. Figure 8 (reduced to one-
half the scale of Figure 7) is an outline of the alimentary canal,
removed to show the nature of the convolutions. Corresponding
numbers in the two figures refer to corresponding parts of the canal.
The stomach is not so conspicuously differentiated from the rest of
the canal as it is in many of the lower fishes previously noted. As
seen by the figure, the oesophagus, stomach, spleen, etc., are all cov-
ered ventrally by the intestine, which winds back and forth in a
devious course below them. Instead of extending in a series of turns
from the anterior to the posterior regions, the intestine appears well
back (Figure 7 I) and after doubling across and back it makes a
sharp turn (2 and 3) and then runs well forward around its last turn
to (4) where it makes another sharp turn anteriorly (5), crossing
over near the liver (6) and then down along the left side (8) to the
anus. In Figure 8 the liver and gall bladder are shown separated
from the rest. The gall bladder lies far back near the urinary
bladder in the posterior part of the abdominal cavity, and is con-
nected with the liver by its long, tube-like duct.
The alimentary canal in this specimen measured 550 mm. in
length, or two and one-half times the total body length of the fish.
The food, as one would expect, is entirely vegetable, so far as known.
Specimens dissected contain only pieces of kelp, red alga?, etc. One
large specimen twelve inches long had eaten several large chunks of
kelp several centimeters in length.
Seriphus politus Ayres. Queen-Fish, White Croaker.
One specimen taken at Newport. No information as to its abund-
ance was secured.
Sciaena saturna (Girard). Black Croaker.
Fairly comnian at Newport and Laguna.
34 jfirst annual Report
Genyonemus lineatus (Ayres). King-Fish.
Many specimens of this species were taken at the Newport pier by
rod fishermen during the summer. These were used for both food
Umbrina roncador Jordan and Gilbert. Yellow-Fin, Yellow-Tailed Croaker.
This species is taken in abundance at Newport, where it is valued
Menticirrhus undulatus (Girard). California Whiting.
One specimen secured from Newport fishermen, who took it in
Figure 4b. Cymatogaster aggregatus
Abeona minima (Gibbons). Perch.
This species was common at Laguna during the summer. Sev-
eral young specimens were taken in the lower tide-pools.
Cymatogaster aggregatus Gibbons. Viviparous Perch, Silver Perch,
(Figure 4 B)
Abundant at both Newport and Laguna. Young occasionally
found in tide-pools.
Embiotoca jacksoni Agassiz. Black Perch, Red Perch.
(Plate I, B)
Very common in shallow water. Several large specimens of this
species were taken in one of the larger tide-pools at Laguna. All
were of the reddish brown variety.
ILaguna Ratine La&oratorp
Chromis punctipinnis ( Cooper )
Quite common at moderate depths around the kelp beds near
Laguna, where it was easily caught with hook and line.
Hypsypops rubicunda (Girard). Goldfish.
The "Sunday fishermen" catch numbers of goldfish from the
rocky points and coves along the coast. A few adult and young spec-
imens were seen in the larger tide-pools near Laguna.
Figure 8a. Sebastodes rastrelliger
Pimelometopon pulcher (Ayres). Sheep's Head.
One of the commonest species taken by anglers fishing from the
rocks along the shore.
Halichoeres semicinctus (Ayres)
Abundant near the rocks and in the kelp beds. Commonly taken
by rod fishermen. It can be easily distinguished by the large black
blotches, one on each side just behind the pectorals.
Oxyjulis californica (Giinther). Kelp-Fish, Senorita.
Abundant around the kelp beds near Laguua, where it is easily
caught on hook and line. Occasionally young specimens get into
the tide-pools, but normally the species is found beyond the pools.
36 jfirst annual Report
Sebastodes rastrelliger (Jordan and Gilbert). Rock-Fish, Sting-Fish.
(Plate I, C, and Figure 8 A)
Fairly common near the rocky shores. All the species of Scor-
psenidae are eommonly known as "sting-fish," "spine-fish," or other
names referring to the pungent dorsal spines.
Sebastodes carinatus (Jordan and Gilbert).
One specimen taken in moderately deep water off Laguna Beach.
Sebastodes serriceps (Jordan and Gilbert)
One very dark colored specimen taken near Laguna Beach.
Scorpaena guttata Girard. Sculpin, Scorpene.
Besides the mature fish, which are fairly common along the shore
near Laguna, one young, brilliantly colored specimen about three
inches long was taken in a tide-pool. The photograph shown in
Figure E and the accompanying color notes are from this specimen.
Ground color cream or grayish, but almost entirely concealed by
the numerous markings. Chocolate colored markings appeared as
follows: Large blotch or stripe on cheek below eye, another on pos-
terior margin of opercle ; broad bar across base of pectoral, and
another half way between this and tip; four broad irregular bands
across body, extending on vertical fins, the last including caudal base;
broad band, broken by darker spots near apex of caudal; large
blotches covering basal half of anal and ventrals. Band across apex
of all fins, and belly behind ventrals pink. Interorbital, and numer-
ous spots on dark areas of fins, rufous. Caudal membrane yellow.
Premaxillary, lower jaw, branchiostigals and throat spotted with
silver. Membrane of ventrals blood red, except near apex. A large,
irregular ocellus with black center and rufous border on base of
4-fi rays of dorsal, extending down on back. Median light bands on
pectorals and caudal, and light bands on body cream color. Dark
areas more or less spotted with cream or gray, and light areas with
brown or silver. The variegated pattern is shown by the figure.
Scorpaenichthys marmoratus (Ayres)
One large specimen, twenty inches long, taken at Laguna.
Clinocottus analis (Girard). Rock-Fish.
(Figures 9, 10 and 10 A)
Next to Girella iiigricaiis this is the most abundant fish in the tide-
pools near Laguua, and in the darker pools, and those without vege-
tation it is the most abundant. The pools within a quarter of a mile
of Laguna contain thousands of individuals, so that large numl)ers
were taken at different times during the summer. Considerable in-
terest attaches to this species because of its remarkable color varia-
tions. In the open, lighter pools specimens are very light ; among
the green algae in certain pools they have a greenish color; in pools
containing a variety and abundance of plant life they are usually
mottled and blotched, often with brilliant colors ; and in the deep,
narrow pools they are almost invariably dark. It would be iuipos-
Figures 9 and 10. Clinocottus analis
Fig. 9, Ventral view of visceral and branchial organs. Fig. 10, Alimentary canal
removed. Showing pharyngeal teeth. H, Heart. L, Liver. T, Testis. O, Stomach.
K, Kidney. F, Urinary bladder. V, Vent. P, Papilla. Numbers refer to correspond-
ing regions in the alimentary canal.
JFirst annual Report
sible to describe all the various shades and markings found in a
random series, but a few of the main color types are here given.
Although the fishes vary in a rough way to correspond to the pool
in which they live, yet it is by no means true that they all agree in
any one place. The light and dark shades are almost uniformly
found in the pools corresponding, but in color pattern and brilliancy
of marking no particular correlation to surroundings holds consist-
ently. Especially is this true in pools with luxuriant algae and cor-
raline growths, where all sorts of color patterns are found inter-
mingled. No evidence of a so-called voluntary change of color by
individual specimens was observed. Change in surroundings seemed
to have no immediate effect on the color of any individual.
Figure lOa. Clinocottus analis
The general body color pattern of this species consists of five or
six dark bars extending down on the sides, and usually an irregular
dark area covering the upper part of the head. The fins, except
ventrals, are all barred with narrow, dark, transverse bands on the
rays. Below the body is variously speckled. In other respects there
is no uniformity in coloration.
No. 1. Taken from a specimen three and one-half inches long.
General color dark ; bands on dorsum not conspicuous, faded out in a
few minutes. Ground color of under parts pale bluish green, broken
by numerous round silver spots. Dorsal fin with an apical row of
blood red spots on the membrane between the rays ; caudal salmon
color with an apical row of red spots like that of dorsal; pectoral
with a row of silver streaks on the base of rays, remainder streaked
with brown. Cheeks with numerous dots and stripes of salmon pink.
JLaguna eparine La&omtotp 39
No. 2. Female, three and one-half inches long. Light; entire
surface presenting a very speckled appearance. An apical band of
yellow on spinous dorsal; no red spots; membrane of soft dorsal
greenish; caudal faint salmon color. Spots on sides and belly salmon
and silver mixed.
No. 4. Very dark ; body bands almost black ; fins and entire body
except region around pectorals dusky ; entire head, cheeks, and throat
nearly black. (In other forms the throat is almost invariably light).
Not only is this species extremely variable in coloration, but it
shows the same tendency, though perhaps not to such an extent, in
other characters. The following tables will indicate some of these:
Fin Bays of Fifteen Specimens.
D. IX-16; A. 13, (four specimens).
D. IX-17; A. 14, (five specimens).
D. IX-17; A. 13, (six specimens).
Pyloric caeca usually 7-8, often 9 or even 10.
Alimentary canal in length of fish in six specimens as follows:
1, 1.12, 1.2, 1.24, 1.36, 1.45. In the last case it is seen to be almost
one-half longer than in the first. In spite of the difference in length,
however, the general position of the canal in the body cavity is fairly
constant, the extra length being given by small kinks here and there.
The other visceral organs are also quite stable in form and location.
(Note the contrast with Gibbonsia elegaus, which, like this species,
has many variable characters).
Figure 9 shows a specimen in which the body walls, and most of
the head have been removed, leaving the internal organs from the
gills back. The relatively small liver, and relatively large stomach
and pyloric cffica are most noticeable, the stomach occupying a large
portion of the abdominal cavity. The real proportions of the stomach
are better shown in Figure 10, which is an outline of the alimentary
canal, including the pharynx with its peculiar patches of teeth. The
pertinence of such a large stomach, a comparatively short intestine,
and the peculiar pharyngeal teeth pads, is evident upon examination
of the food taken.
Food Mainly Mollusca, Crustacea, and annulate worms, especial-
ly the first. Of Mollusca there were found principally limpets, and
other small lamellibranchs, and various gasteropods; of Crustacea,
many small crabs, and a few amphipods ; of worms, chaetopods. No
traces of plant food were found. One specimen 82 mm. long contained
among other things an abalone 15 mm. long, and a section of a chfeto-
pod 8 mm. wide.
JFirst annual deport
Note on Blennicottus recalvus Greely
(Figures 11 and 12)
It is of interest to notice here, another small, tide-pool cottid,
Blennicottus recalvus, which is of much the same appearance, and
is sometimes found in the same pools with Clinocottus analis farther
north. The accompanying figures and notes were made from speci-
mens taken by the author at Pacific Grove, California, in April, 1911.
Blennicottus recalvus is especially interesting here because it
appears to be almost or entirely herbivorous. The very different
alimentary canal is evident at a glance (Figures 11 and 12), being
in this species twice as long in proportion to the body length. The
walls of the canal, especially the stomach, are very much thinner and
more elastic. In location, however, the canal agrees with that of
CliiiocottuN intnlix, in lying along the right side of the body cavity,
Figures 11 and 12. Blennicottus recalvus
Fig. 11, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 12, Alimentary canal and uro-
genital organs removed. E, Liver. F, Urogenital organs, male.
ILaguna Sgarine Laboratory
the left side being occupied by the urogenital organs. The details of
arrangement and form may be best seen from the figures (11 and 12).
The latter figure is drawn to a scale one-third smaller than the for-
mer. In Figure 11, the vent is seen to be located some distance in
front of the end of the cavity; a character not found in any other
cottids examined. The food in the five or six specimens dissected
was made up entirely of vegetable remains, principally foliose alga>,
mixed with which were numerous grains of sand.
Gillichthys mirabilis Cooper
Morris and Starks record this species as "taken in abundance in
a slough which received some fresh water near Old Town" (San
Diego Bay), and, "in Newport Bay it was found more widely dis-
tributed." In a small brackish slough in "Aliso Canyon" near
Laguna large numbers up to two inches in length were found. The
water in this slough was apparently derived mainly from the slight
drainage down "Aliso Creek," but probably also received some salt
water from the bay at the mouth of the canyon during the highest
Typhlogobius californiensis Steindachner. Blind Goby.
(Plate III, P)
One specimen, about two and one-half inches long, taken in the
sand under a stone above low tide mark. The water was a few inches
deep over the stone when the fish was taken, but a lower tide would
leave it dry. Whether the fish remains under stones in such cases
was not determined, as no other specimen was found.
Echeneis remora Linnaeus. Remora.
One specimen brought in from deep water by fishermen at New-
Caulolatilus princeps (Jenyns). Whitefish. Whiting.
One specimen, thirteen inches long, taken in deep water off New-
Porichthys notatus Girard. Midshipman.
One specimen washed up on sand at Laguna Beach ; another taken
by fishermen at Newport. Apparently not rare.
42 jTirst annual Report
Rimicola eigenmanni (Gilbert)
(Plate III, I, J)
This species was found to be fairly common in a little cove near
Laguna, where it lived in a growth of Phyllaspadix (eel grass), in
shallow water. Jordan and Evermann in "Fishes of North and Mid-
dle America" record two species of this genus, R. eigenmanni and R.
niiixc/inini, the one greenish, the other brownish in color, and suppos-
edly differing in fin rays. They have since been shown to be simply
forms of one species (J. (). Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXXV;
183, Oct. 1908). Both forms were found, presumably clinging to
Plti/IIuxitddi.i', the green form resembling the living plants, the brown
the dead ones. Whether or not the two forms actually selected the
plants of their own color upon which to attach themselves could not
be ascertained. A careful search was made to find individuals so
attached, but it was unsuccessful. They detached themselves as soon
as they were taken out of the water, if they were ever attached, and
no specimens were seen in the water. The only way they could be
taken at all was by means of a small hand net swept through the
eel grass. Fifteen or twenty specimens were secured in this way.
When put into vessels of water with live and dead Phyllospadix they
seemed to show no preference in regard to color, attaching them-
selves to either brown or green blades indiscriminately. In size the
series ranged from one-half to one and one-half inches in total length.
The following color notes were taken from fresh specimens: Green
form: Upper parts translucent green, uniformly speckled with
minute dark dots of brown ; head with two transverse rows of spots
which intersect before the eyes and extend forward on the sides of
snout, and backward to near the base of pectorals. A brown band
extends from snout, through eye, to opercle; a similar one extends
along the side of body through base of pectorals, becoming obsolete
on tail and opercle. Caudal rays speckled like body, a dark band of
spots across tip ; other fins white. Under parts before vent white,
behind similar to dorsum. Some specimens have spots on head ir-
regular, some have anterior and posterior lateral bars fused into
one long one.
Brown form : Quite similar to the green form in markings, but
ground color brownish, like dead leaves, instead of green. One
specimen is covered with olive green mottlings on a brown back-
ground. Another has a row of large light spots on the posterior part
of each side behind the pectorals. A wide range of variation is
shown in even this small series of specimens. The two types of
color, however, appear to be constant and equally common. After
ILaguna Marine Laboratory 43
death specimens change color in water, the green fading to white. All
specimens examined have live dorsal and five anal rays.
Arbaciosa rhessodon (Rosa Smith)
(Plate III, M, N, 0)
Quite common in the tide-pools throughout the range worked over.
Nowhere found in large numbers, however.
Heterostichus rostratus (lirard. Kelp-Fish.
(Plate II, (!, and Figures 13 and 14)
Very common in the kelp close to the rocky shores, and in the
outlying beds. Taken commonly by rod fishermen, who dislike it
because of its bait-stealing proclivities.
There are two color types in this species. The one a plain dull
olive or drab, as shown in the photograph (Figure G), the other
distinctly marked with longitudinal or transverse bands, much as is
Gibbonsio critics. The latter form is described by Starks and Morris
(Marine Fishes of Southern California, p. 232), as having "ground
color light green; yellow on belly and under parts. Back and sides
with three or foiir longitudinal dark green stripes, more or less
broken up into spots, darker toward the edges and outlined with
white. A similar stripe running from snout through eye, to upper
edge of gill opening. Dorsal and anal mottled with alternate
dark green and translucent spots; tip of mandible dark." In the
transversely banded form of this the colors are the same, but the
longitudinal bands are obsolete, being broken into eight or nine sec-
tions forming irregular bars, which extend on the vertical fins form-
ing dark blotches. At a glance this form might be confused with the
similar form of Gibbonxiii evides (Figure Z), but the forked caudal,
pointed snout, etc., readily distinguish it.
Viscera The abdominal cavity is long and compressed, conform-
ing to the shape of the fish, as indicated by Figure 13. The liver, as
shown, is very large, underlying the whole anterior half of the ali-
mentary canal and associated organs. The gall bladder is closely
attached, and conspicuous, showing in Figure 13 through the slit
just in front of E. Posteriorly a large air bladder is present, closely
adhering to the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity and extending
two-thirds of its length. Perhaps the most conspicuous feature, how-
ever, is the pair of gonads lying dorso-laterally, with posterior ear-
shaped projections extending into a cavity behind the vent, as shown
in the figure. The alimentary canal, which is shown diagrammatic-
ally in Figure 14, is moderately elongate, (four-fifths length of fish),
jFirst Annual Hcport
Figures 13 and 14. Heterostichus rostratus
Fig. 13, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 14, Alimentary canal of same. G,
Liver. E, Spleen, J. Gonads. H, Heart. Numbers refer to corresponding regions
of the alimentary canal.
Figures 15 and 16. Gibbonsia elegans
Fig. 15. Ventral view of viscera. Fig. 16, Alimentary canal removed. A. Liver.
B, Spleen. D, Oviduct full of ova. Numbers refer to corresponding regions of
laguna Racine ILa&oratorp
rather thin walled, and little differentiated into stomach and intes-
tines. Other details may be seen from the figures.
Food So far as observed the food consists principally of soft
Crustacea, (amphipods and isopods). The evidence would indicate
carnivorous habits, but not enough specimens were examined to
show whether they are exclusively so.
A Study of GIBBONSIA
Specimens examined: elegans. evides.
Fort Bragg, California 3
Monterey, California .. ...160 65
Laguna Beach, California ...130 27
San Diego, California .. . 61 3
San Martin Is., Mexico 1
Figure 17. Gibbonsia elegans
Diagrams to show variation in form and location of visceral organs.
Measurements are as follows :
Length : Tip snout to base caudal.
Eye : Diameter.
Snout to dorsal: Tip snout to base first spine.
Eye to dorsal: Shortest distance between eye and first dorsal
Head : Tip snout to inner edge of notch on upper, posterior part
Scale counts : Three counts are used. One from anterior end of
lateral line, along the lateral line until it curves down, then in a
straight line to base of caudal; second from lateral line to base of
dorsal just above axil of pectoral where the lateral line arch is high-
est ; third above lateral line at the angle behind pectoral, the anterior
end of straight portion.
46 jfirst annual deport
Ocellated spots behind pectorals present; soft dorsal of 6-8
rays, very rarely 9; scales above lateral line (from lower
angle) about 20-24; small, usually not over 100 mm. long';
color rich, usually variegated. cl
No ocellated spots; soft dorsal of 11-10 rays, rounded; scales
above lateral line, (counted as above) 32-36; larger, usually
100-200 mm.; brilliant colors lacking. ev'nlc*
Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper 1 )
(Plate IV and Figures 15, 16, 17)
Length to base caudal 4.5 times depth at anus; head 5 in length;
eye large, diameter almost or quite equal to distance from eye to
dorsal, 2.7 in distance from snout to dorsal ; scales, counted along
anterior part of lateral line and thence on a level to base caudal, about
135; scales above lateral line at lower angle 20-24; scales above lateral
line at middle of anterior, elevated portion 10-12; dorsal usually
V-XXX. 7 or S in northern, and V XX VI II, 7 or 8 in southern speci-
mens, but ranging from V-XXVII to V-XXXI in spines and 7-9 in
rays ; anal 11-26 to TT-2S in northern, and 11-23 to 11-25 in southern
specimens. (See charts).
Body rather strongly compressed and deep, tapering rapidly
behind; caudal peduncle slender; head short, upper outline convex,
distance from snout to dorsal equal to depth at front of dorsal; mouth
small, terminal, oblique; maxillary scarcely reaching pupil; lower
jaw slightly projecting; teeth on vomer, none on palatines. Dorsal
with first three spines elongate, graduated; first usually about 2.5 in
head, but varying from 1.5-3; fourth, fifth, and sometimes sixth
spines from one-third to one-half first, and shorter than following,
but quite variable; third and fourth nearly twice as far apart as
fourth and fifth ; remaining spines uniform, half to two-thirds length
of first; soft dorsal short, high, abruptly truncate after third or
fourth ray, first three or four rays (as the case may be) equal and
close together, remainder abruptly shortened, and conspicuously
farther apart ; membrane connecting them usually translucent.
Body variously striped and barred, or mottled; always, so far as
known, with one to seven ocellated spots along each side slightly
above median line; first just above base of pectoral, remainder uni-
formly separated and extending to base of soft dorsal ; first and last
two most commonly found. Prevailing color variable, may be red,
brown, olive, green, chocolate, or other rich shades. The typical
color pattern is as follows: prevailing color chocolate brown, or dull
red ; head dark above, broken by line running back from eye, through
opercle to base of pectoral, and by irregular lines above this; head
below lighter; cheeks spotted with silvery, lower half of iris silvery;
JUgtimi Qfjarine Laboratory 47
body transversely, irregularly barred by seven or eight cross bauds,
all of which usually extend on dorsal, and last four or five on anal;
these are usually heavier at base of dorsal and anal, and in middle of
side, having broken irregularly in a line running parallel to dorsal
and about half way between it and lateral line, and broken along
similar space above base of anal. Over the sides, breast, and often
lower part of head are irregular spots and blotches of all sizes ; these
and the cross bars outlined with white. Pectorals and ventrals light
red, dorsal and anal dark, corresponding to body color. Belly lighter,
tinged with yellow; chin and throat pinkish white. First, and last
two ocellated spots present, each black ringed with red and then
again with white. Another form commonly found differs as fol-
lows : General appearance mottled and spotted, but without red;
body above lateral line almost wholly dark, except for light edging
of blotches ; below conspicuously lighter, but irregularly spotted and
speckled, and broken by five or six bars extending from above, be-
tween each two of which is usually a rounded spot. Top of head
dark, with continuation of body markings below; lower half silvery
spotted, and lighter, similar to lower part of body. Other specimens
show almost every conceivable modification of pattern and color.
Some specimens are plain dull green, or olive (Figure V), almost
unmarked except for the ocellated spots; others are similarly plain,
but reddish brown; still others have the red, brown or green almost
obliterated by silvery spots and blotches, (especially younger speci-
mens). Very young individuals are usually uniform dark red, with
faint traces of the adult markings and a conspicuous broad silvery
baud extending in a median line backward from eye, becoming broken
near tail. A great diversity of color and pattern is found in any
series, and can only be appreciated by an examination of the speci-
mens. Something of this diversity, however, may be seen from the
accompanying cuts, which are taken from fresh specimens, and illus-
trate a few of the many color variations.
Gibbonsia evides (Jordan and Gilbert).
(Plate V and Figures 18 and I 1 .))
Depth at anus 4.9 in length to base caudal; head 4.7-5 in length;
eye smaller, almost 1.5 in distance from eye to dorsal, and 3.25 in
distance from snout to dorsal; scales counted on level of anterior
part of lateral line, about 185 ; scales above lateral line at posterior
angle 30-36 ; scales above lateral line at middle of anterior, elevated
portion 18-22. Dorsal usually Y-XXX, !) or 10 but ranging from
V-XXIX to V-XXXII in spines and from 8 to 10 in soft rays, (very
rarely 8) ; anal II, 2(5-11, 27, rarely II, 28. (See figures).
Jfirst Annual Report
Body as in G. elegaus, but more slender, tapering gradually be-
hind ; head usually more slender ; caudal peduncle deeper. First three
spines of dorsal not usually so high as in G. elegans, but quite vari-
able; soft dorsal longer, outline rounded, not conspicuously truncate;
rays usually all equidistant from each other; pellucid area small and
not terminal. Shade and color pattern usually quite unlike that of
G. eli'f/diix, neither the rich colors nor the ocellated spots being
found. Usual color greenish or yellowish, "kelp color"; sides each
with three or four dark longitudinal stripes, the upper running from
snout through upper part of eye and along base of dorsal to caudal,
Figures 18 and 19. Gibbonsia evides
Fig. 18, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 19. Alimentary canal removed.
L, Liver. S, Spleen. Numbers refer to corresponding regions in the alimentary
JLafftina e^arinc Laboratory
678 9 10 27 28 29 30 31 32 24 25 26 27 28 29
6 7 8 9 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
8 9 10 29 30 31 32 26 27 28
Diagram A. Variation of Gibbonsia
so jFirst annual Report
median sometimes appearing as two, extending from eye to tail ;
lower one extending from base of pectoral toward tail. The dark
hands are separated by lighter, sometimes silvery ones, and are often
broken into blotches by a tendency toward cross-banding; distinct
cross bands, however, are lacking except in rare cases. Belly and
throat often bright yellow. The detail of color pattern is variable,
but the general form is quite constant, much more so than in the
preceding species ; and the fine, variegated, silvery or other bright
colored mottlings are always lacking, although young specimens may
have bright silvery bands.
DIAGRAM A. Curves of Variation in Fin Bays of Gibbonxia
riff/mix and GibboHsia evi(Jt <.
A, B, C. Specimens collected at Monterey, California.
Continuous lines Gibboiiftia elcgans, (curves plotted from 1(50
specimens); broken lines Gibbonsia rriWr.s, (from (55 specimens).
A. Rays of soft dorsal.
B. Spines in spinous dorsal.
C. Bays in anal.
D, E, F. Variations in G. elegaux.*
Continuous lines Monterey specimens, (!(>()) ; broken lines Laguna
Beach and San Diego specimens, (190).
D. Rays in soft dorsal.
E. Spines in spiuous dorsal.
F. Rays in anal.
G, H. I. Variation in G. evides.
Continuous lines Monterey specimens ((15) ; broken lines Laguna
Beach and San Diego specimens, (30).
G. Rays in soft dorsal.
H. Spines in spinous dorsal.
I. Rays in anal.
Numbers at the bottom from left to right indicate fin rays. Num-
bers at the side from bottom to top indicate percentage. The curves
are plotted on a percentage basis. Not all are drawn to the same
scale, however, as may be seen.
Extuiipli' . In G. the continuous line shows that of the Monterey
(northern) specimens, 37> have 8 rays, 63 r /< have 9 rays and
.'!4'. have 10 rays. The broken line shows that of the Laguna and
San Diego (southern) specimens, 10 '/ have 8 rays, 6.'5'/< have 9 rays
and 277' have 10 rays.
Gibboitxin I'li'f/aiis may usually be distinguished from G. evides at
a glance, by its rich colors, variegated markings, and the presence
'Specimens from Laguna Beach and San Diego are almost identical, i. e., show almost
identical variation curves, so are here combined to represent the southern specimens.
JLaguna 0arinc JLaftoratorp
of ocellated spots. Otherwise the two species differ in the number
and size of scales, G. elegant having fewer, larger scales than G.
ecides; also in shape and in number of rays of the soft dorsal, in
shape of caudal peduncle, in size of eye and its distance from dorsal,
and in general shape of body. On the Southern California coast the
two species may be readily separated by the difference in fin rays,
G. elegans having a dorsal of V-XXVII to V-XXIX spines and 6-8
rays, and an anal of 11-22 to 11-25, while G. evides has a dorsal of
V-XXVIII to V-XXXI spines, and 9-10 rays, and an anal of 11-26 to
11-28. Farther north, however, the species overlap, except in the
rays of soft dorsal. In size both the average and full grown speci-
mens of the two species differ greatly, G. evides being much the
larger, averaging about 125 to 150 mm. in length, where G. elegans
averages about 70 to 80 mm., and reaching a length of over 200 mm.
while the largest specimens of G. elegans are less than 125 mm.
Formerly these two species have been separated by the fin counts
alone, which resulted in many northern specimens of G. elegans being
included under G. evides. Such a distinction, however, will not hold.
I have examined all the material in the Stanford University collec-
tion, upon which nearly all reports on this species have been based,
and find that northern specimens of both species having an increased
number of fin rays have been called G. evides. Starks and Morris,
(Marine Fishes of Southern California, p. 233), state that at Mon-
terey Bay only one specimen of G. elegans was found among about
a hundred of G. evides. An examination of 225 specimens from this
locality, including the latter lot, shows both species present, and G.
eli'f/ans represented by 160 specimens, to 65 of G. evides.
Both of these species are very common in the tide-pools about
Laguna Beach, and probably continue so along the coast in favorable
localities from San Diego to San Francisco or farther. Apparently
G. eli't/ans is always the more abundant of the two. This is certainly
true on the southern coast, and judging from the material taken at
Monterey it holds true in the north also. The species are commonly
found associated in the same pools, living among the algaB, and other
kinds of vegetation, where their singularly variegated markings
render them inconspicuous.
rise-era : G. elegans Internally, in the size, form and shape of the
visceral organs, Gibbonsia elegans shows the same tendency toward
wide variation that appears in external characters, but not in any
way conformable to this. A typical specimen is shown in Figures
15 and 16, but from this type there are all sorts of variations in form
and arrangement of organs, a series of which are represented dia-
gramatically in Figure 17. The liver in some specimens is twice as
large as in others ; in some it is elongate, in others broad and short,
52 Jfitst annual Report
or intermediate. The alimentary canal is ordinarily as shown in
Fig-ure 16, being about three-fifths the length of the fish, but in some
specimens it is much longer. It lies mainly in the right side of the
abdominal cavity, never in the left. The stomach is only slightly
differentiated from the remainder of the canal, and has no pyloric
The food of Gibbonsia elegans is both vegetable and animal, with
perhaps a predominance of the latter. Many of the specimens con-
tained small molluscs (especially limpets), crustaceans (crabs, am-
phipods, etc.), and minute worms, while a few contained large
amounts of foliose red alga?, which are common in the pools.
Viscera : Gibbonsia critics In the larger species, G. evides, the
viscera is little different from that of G. elegans, except that the ali-
mentary canal is normally longer, being about nine-tenths the length
of the fish. Figures 18 and 19 indicate the principal features of im-
portance. The stomach in Figure lil is shown distended with food,
which makes it appear quite different from that of G. elegans, a
difference which is only apparent, however. The alimentary canal
is very thin walled, and easily distended in both species.
The food habits of this species are apparently not appreciably
different from those of G. elegans. In the specimens examined about
the same range of food materials was found, i. e. small molluscs,
crustaceans, worms and bits of alga\
Neoclinus satiricus Giranl
(Figures 20 and 21)
One specimen, nine inches long, taken alive in a baited trap off
Newport Beach. It was very pugnacious while alive in the rowboat,
and would snap viciously at anything put near it. It would turn
round and round in the water, always keeping its eye on any object
moving close to it. The writer, while observing the fish, incautiously
got his fingers a little too near the fish's head, with the result that
they were savagely snapped and the fish was thrown several feet
away on the beach by the backward jerk of his hand. The specimen
is slate blue all over, without any bars or spots.
The accompanying notes and figures were taken from this speci-
men : Abdominal cavity placed far forward, extending in front of
ventrals to between pectorals ; very short ; vent at posterior end.
Liver very large, broad. Alimentary canal of large bore, short, (one-
half length of fish), thick walled and muscular; stomach well differ-
entiated from remainder; rectal portion thickened and tough, like a
gizzard. No pyloric caeca. Figures XX and XXI show the gross
characters of the viscera in their natural positions, and of the ali-
mentary canal separated from the rest. From the latter figure the
ILaguna Ratine Laboratory
differentiation into stomach, small intestine, and rectum may be
Food The alimentary canal was empty except for one or two
fish bones. This, and the fact that it was taken in a baited trap,
would indicate that the species is carnivorous. A conclusion with
which the visceral organs, teeth, etc., fully accord.
Auchenopterus integripinnis (Rosa Smith)
(Plate III, K, and Figures 22, 23)
Not uncommon in the tide-pools about Laguna Beach. Females
with fully matured ova were taken in July. A richly colored, varie-
gated species, of one to three inches in length. The accompanying
figures and notes were made from fresh specimens taken in July.
Figures 20 and 21. Neoclinus satiricus
Fig. 20, Ventral view of viscera, entire. Fig. 21, Alimentary canal removed.
H, Liver. G, Gonads. Numbers refer to corresponding regions in the alimentary
Jfirst annual Eepoct
No. 1. Ground color ochraceous, lighter on throat and belly ;
sides with five fairly distinct transverse bands of brown extending on
vertical fins; caudal peduncle with a similar bar; a dark narrow band
across base of caudal, and a similar one across middle of pectoral.
Caudal membrane yellow, rays spotted with rusty ; anal light at base,
darker apically; apical half of pectorals similar to caudal. Cheeks
and mandibles speckled with dark brown. Ocellated black spot with
yellow margin at base of dorsal behind twentieth soft ray.
Other specimens have pink where this had yellow, with ground
color rosy. Some are very dark, with cross bars on sides indistinct.
One specimen has pink between the cross bands on sides, and yellow
Figures 22 and 23. Auchenopterus integripinnis
Fig. 22, Ventral view of viscera, entire. Fig. 23, Alimentary canal removed.
A, Liver. E, Spleen. O, Oviduct. Numbers refer to corresponding regions of ali-
JLaguna egarine laboratory
on fins as above. Another has neither yellow nor pink on body, but has
a large livid purple spot on opercle and another at base of pectorals,
and has belly and brancheostegals tinged with purple. The ocellated
spot on all specimens begins behind the twentieth ray of soft dorsal.
Ten specimens have dorsal rays as follows :
111-28 (one specimen).
111-29 (four specimens).
111-30 (two specimens).
IV -28 (one specimen).
None has 27 soft rays as stated in Jordan and Evermann.
Four specimens dissected, show almost no variation in the form
and location of the visceral organs. All are essentially as shown in
Figures 24 and 25. Hypsoblennius gilberti
Fig. 24, Ventral view- of viscera, entire. Fig. 25, Alimentary canal removed.
A, Liver. B, Spleen. C, Gall bladder. D, Oviduct. Numbers refer to correspond-
ing regions of alimentary canal.
56 .first annual deport
Figures 22 and 23. The abdominal cavity is quite short, and de-
pressed rather than compressed, except anteriorly, where it narrows
decidedly, the liver extending well forward along the oesophagus.
The spleen is very small, the liver large. No pyloric caeca are present.
Food The specimens dissected contained only small crustaceans
(amphipods, etc.), no traces of plant food being found.
Hyposoblennius gilberti (Jordan)
(Plate II, F, and Figures 24 and 25)
One specimen taken in a tide-pool near Laguna Beach. This
species is reported by Starks and Morris (Marine Fishes of Southern
California, p. 238), as abundant in the tide-pools near Point Loma
and at San Pedro. Our observations show a decided contrast to this
in the region of Laguna Beach, however, as only one specimen was
obtained during the summer's collecting. The following notes and
figures are taken from this specimen, a female 27 mm. long :
Abdominal cavity greatly compressed, over twice as high as broad
in front; no pyloric caeca; liver greatly compressed, nearly as high
as long, triangular in lateral view; its right side not developed
apically, but stopping in a straight line back from tip, as shown in
Figure 24. The gall bladder is not enveloped by the liver, but lies on
the right side as indicated, being connected with the liver by a long
neck. The alimentary canal (Figure 25) is long, being seven-eighths
of the body length, and not distinctly differentiated into definite re-
gions. The inner lining of the stomach is densely covered with rela-
tively long papilla?, looking like minute tentacles.
Food Only traces of food were found. These were evidently
plant remains, but so disintegrated as to make further identification
Hypsoblennius gentilis (Girard).
(Plate III, E, G, and Figures 26 and 27)
One specimen taken in a tide-pool near Laguna Beach, and about
twenty-five specimens at Long Beach. The latter were found among
green algae in some small pools at the base of a number of old piles.
They were all livid green when taken, but soon faded to the normal
white color with gray markings. The accompanying figures and notes
are from the Laguna specimen, a female 37 mm. long. This individual
contained mature ova when collected in July.
Visceral organs and abdominal cavity much as in H. gilberti. The
long gall bladder, peculiarly shaped liver, and the alimentary canal
do not differ essentially from the latter, as may be seen from Figures
26 and 27. Figure 26 gives a somewhat distorted view because of
the swollen oviducts, which give a broadened appearance to the whole.
Food Only decomposed vegetable matter was found in the in-
Xererpes fucorum (Jordan and Gilbert)
(Plate II, D, and Figures 28 and 29)
Several specimens taken at Point Firmin near San Pedro. None
found around Laguna Beach although conditions almost identical
with those of Point Firmin are found here. All of our specimens
were taken at low tide from among the masses of eel-grass (Phyllo-
xpadix) on the rocks above low water. About the roots of the grass
and the irregularities of the rocks the fish can move with amazing
ease, which, together with the slender, slippery body, makes it a diffi-
cult object to capture.
One specimen was found coiled aroiind a mass of eggs placed in
a small depression in the rock, and well concealed by the matted grass
Figures 26 and 27. Hypsoblennius gentilis
Fig. 26, Ventral view of viscera, entire. Fig. 27, Alimentary canal removed.
A, Liver. C, Gall bladder. D, Oviduct. Numbers refer to corresponding regions
in alimentary canal.
jfirst annual IReport
Figures 23 and 29. Xererpes fucorum
No. 28, Ventral view of viscera, of male; separated to show the individual organs.
No. 29, Similar view of female organs. G, Gall bladder. H. Heart. L, Liver. S,
Spleen. T, Testis. V, Fat. O, Oviduct.
above. The figure shows a photograph of the egg mass with the
fish around it, (not in situ).
Visceral anatomy: The abdominal cavity is long, slender and
compressed, corresponding to the general shape of the fish. The
alimentary canal is peculiar in being perfectly straight from mouth
to vent, a condition not found in any other blennies examined. Three
divisions, fore, mid and hind-gut are made evident by constrictions
as shown in the figures, but no differentiated stomach, and no caeca
are found. The gonads of each sex are apparently single, as shown.
Lying along the alimentary canal are two characteristic, elongate
bodies (v) which are apparent in all of our specimens, and which
appear to be definite organs, but a histological examination shows
Figures 30 and 31. Xiphidion rupestre
Fig. 30, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 31, Same, with organs separated.
A, Liver. B, Spleen. C, Pyloric caeca. D, Urogenital organs. E, Pyloris.
<JO jTirst annual Report
them to be only fat bodies, united by connective tissue tbreads to
the intestine. Other characters of the viscera may be seen from the
Note on Xiphidion rupestre (Figures 30 and 31), from specimens
taken at Monterey, California :
This species is interesting to note here because of its great simi-
larity in external, and dissimilarity in internal form to Xererpes
fucormn. The visceral anatomy in these two species is evidently not
determined entirely by external form and habits. The two fishes are
found side by side in the tide-pools, among identical surroundings,
and so far as our observations extend are of similar food habits.
They are not especially nearly related species, but are superficially
very much alike.
The alimentary canal of Xipliidion rupestre has no resemblance
to that of Xererpes fucorum, being long and coiled, more like that of
the JIi'lfn>st'n-luis group of blennies, and has pyloric cseca. The con-
trast in general characters is best shown by the figures (30 and 31).
Hippoglossoides stomata Eigenmann and Eigenmann
One specimen obtained from Newport Beach fishermen who took
it in bottom nets near Newport. This species lias seldom been taken
except in deep water, and is nowhere common so far as known, al-
though it has been reported from several California ports.
Paralichthys californicus (Ayres)
Very common at Newport, as well as other Southern California
Pleuronichthys ritteri Starks and Morris
P. ritteri, Starks and Morris. Marine Fishes of Southern Cali-
fornia 1907, p. 243.
Commonly taken by the fishermen using bottom nets near New-
Hypsopsetta guttulata (Girard)
This species is also common on the sandy bottom near Newport.
Laguna Qparine Haboratocg ci
EXPLANATION OF PLATES
A, Girella nigricans.
B, Embiotoca jacksoni.
C, Sebastodes rastrelliger.
D, Xerepes fucorum, coiled around egg mass.
E, Scorpaena guttata, young.
P, Hypsoblennius gilberti.
G, Heterostichus rostratus.
H, Lamna cornubica.
I, Rimicola eigenmanni, dark form.
J, Rimicola eigenmanni, light form.
K, Auchenopterus integripinnis.
L, Hypsoblennius gentilis, dorsal view.
M, Arbaciosa rhessodon, light form, dorsal view.
N, Arbaciosa rhessodon, light form, ventral.
0, Arbaciosa rhessodon, dark form, dorsal.
P, Typhlogobius californiensis.
Q, Hypsoblennius gentilis.
Plate IV. Gibbonsia elegans
S, Very young.
T, U. W, Progressive ages of the usual variegated form.
V, Olive green, almost unmarked form.
M, Chocolate colored, slightly marked form.
X and Y, Odd forms.
Plate V. Gibbonsia evides
Z, Typical form, transverse markings emphasized. (Dorsal fin
AA, Typical form with longitudinal marking emphasized.
BB, Dorsal view.
CC, Very young.
DD, Somewhat older.
EE, Odd form.
Jfirst Annual Report
-A > / > . .:)'A^
A, Girella nigricans. B, Embiotoca jacksoni. C, Sebastodes rastrelliger.
Ctfurinr 1L allocator?
D, Xererpes fucorum and eggs. E, Scorpaena guttata, young. F, Hypsoblennius
gilberti. G, Heterostichus rostratus. H, Lamna cornubica.
.first annual Report
I, Rimicola eigenmanni, dark form. J, R. eigenmanni, light form. K, Auchen-
opterus integripinnis. L, Hypsoblennius gentilis. M, N, O, Arbaciosa rhessodon.
P, Typhlogobius californiensis. Q, Hypsoblennius gentilis.
Plate IV. Gibbonsia elegans
Plate V. Gibbonsia evides
ILaguna 6g)arine ILaboratorp <>7
REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS
OF LACUNA BEACH
JULIUS HURTER, SR.*
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, ST. LOUIS
Bufo columbiensis Baird and Girard
This large toad is quite common at Laguna.
Hyla regilla Baird
A number of specimens of this tree frog were taken one night
after dark about the water tap behind the laboratory.
Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard
Common on the cliffs along the coast.
Cnemidophorus stejnegeri VanDenburgh
Occasional along the hills.
Phrynosoma blainvilli Gray
In the dry mountains back of Arch Beach.
Eumeces skiltonianus Baird and Girard
One specimen taken.
Diadophis amabilis Baird and Girard
One specimen of this small snake taken near the laboratory.
Thamnophis hammondi Kennicott
This water snake was taken in the slough at Aliso Creek.
Rhinocheilus lecontei Baird and Girard
One specimen taken just as it was entering a squirrel burrow.
Rattlesnakes of perhaps several species certainly several marked
color forms, are to be found in the hills about Laguna, as is indicated
by numbers of fine skins in the possession of people living at Laguna.
Good specimens of all these forms for study are great desiderata.
Clemmys marmorata Baird and Girard
This turtle was common in the brackish water slough at Aliso
Creek, and eight good specimens were taken there.
*Mr. Hurter spent a couple of days at the laboratory and used them most indus-
triously, making in these two days a good beginning for a study of the amphibians and
reptiles of the region. Especially interesting to us was the lizard, Uta, living practically
within reach of the salt spray, and the turtle living in brackish water. Ed.
68 jfirst annual deport
SOME OF THE MOLLUSCA OF
Wishing to study the gross anatomy of the soft parts of some
of the common mollusks of our Coast, and spending some time at
Laguna in the pursuit of this object, I improved the opportunity to
bring together all such species as came in my way to serve as the
beginning of a faunal list of the local mollusks of the tidal zone. A
set of most of the shells collected was sent to Dr.Dall, who very
kindly gave us the determinations. Some of my anatomical work is
not at all complete, but I am hoping to continue it another season.
Ischnochiton clathratus Roe
Ischnochiton magdalensis Mds.
Mopalia hindsii Gray
Mopalia muscosa Gld.
Nuttallina scabra Roe
All of the above five chitons are found clinging to rocks between
tides. The second species is by far the most common, while the last
is quite rare.
Acmaea scabra Roe
Common in tide-pools.
Acmaea persona Esch.
Common on rocks covered only by the highest tides.
Acmaea spectrum Roe
Distribution the same as Acmaea persona but much rarer.
Acmaea asmi Midd.
Found on other shells, usually of other limpets in tide-pools, and
Lottia gigantea Gray
( Figure 34)
Found in a few channels where there is constant and violent wave
action, and fairly numerous where found.
Laguna egarine JLa&oratorp
Figure 32. Ischnochiton magdalencusis
A, Alimentary canal. B, Reproductive organs. C, Alimentary canal and liver.
Figure 33. Acmaea scabea
J7ir0t annual Ueport
Figure 34. Lottia gigantea
A, Ventral view. B, Longitudinal section pharynx. C, Dorsal view after re-
moving shell. D, Alimentary canal in liver (left side). E, Alimentary canal in liver
(riijht side). F, Alimentary canal in liver (upper side). G, H, Alimentary canal.
jtaguna Ratine Laboratory
Fissuridea volcano Roe
Shells common to the beach in certain localities. Living animals
sometimes found in the lower tide-pools.
Lucapina crenulata Sby.
A fine living specimen found at very low tide,
mostly below low tide.
Young specimens of several species are frequent in the lower tide-
pools. Large specimens could only be found below low tide. Aba-
lones have evidently been very abundant at Laguna Beach, but whole-
sale gathering is depleting them very rapidly. One raid by Japanese
fishermen who worked with diving suits, resulted in a very large
catch. These fishermen were arrested and fined a nominal amount
and were then allowed to depart with their entire catch a pure
travesty. It seems probable that by protection, and breeding, a
fisheries asset of great value might be built up on this coast.
Figure 35. Lucapina crenulata. Dorsal and ventral views
Tegula gallina Fbs.
Tegula fuscescens Phil.
Tegula aureotincta Fbs.
Norrisia norrissii Sby.
Pomaulax undosus \Yond
The above five species are common on the rocks between tides,
and extend commonly into the upper limits of the fucus zone.
JFir0t annual deport
Epiphragmophora arrosa Gld.
A few specimens found on the cliffs at Arch Beach.
Opalia insculpta Cpr.
Scala hindsii Cpr.
Only empty shells of these two species were taken, and these were
inhabited by hermit crabs.
Littorina planaxis Phil.
The commonest shell of the beach, found in great numbers adher-
ing to the rocks from those only wet by spray at high tide down to
rocks uncovered only at low tide.
Littorina scutulata Gld.
Occurring with L. phma.ris, but far less common.
Figure 36. Pomaulax undosus
Cypraea spadicea Gray
Rare among the rocks between tides.
Murex gemma Sby.
Among the rocks between tides, not common, but the most com-
mon of the Muricidiv.
Purpura nuttallii Con.
Ocinebra gracillima Stearns
Acanthina spirata Blv.
Of the above two species, only shells inhabited by hermit crabs
ILaguna Sgarine ILafcoratorp
Figure 37. Aplysia californica
A, Side view. B, Dorsal view. C, Shell. D, Pharynx (opened). E, Alimentary
canal. F, Stomach (opened). G, H, Reproductive organs. I, Alimentary canal
74 J?ir0t annual Ucport
Thais ostrina Gld.
While dead shells are fairly common between tides, living speci-
mens appear to be rare here.
Astyris hindsii Roe
Fairly common on sea-weeds between tides.
Amphissa versicolor Uall.
Empty shells of this only, were encountered.
Macron lividus A. Ads.
Common attached to fucus.
Volvarina varia Sby.
Between tides, but not common.
Olivella pedroana Conr.
A few dead shells found.
Conus californicus Con.
Common, attached to fucus.
Aplysia californica Cooper
These enormous purplish sea-slugs were occasionally encountered
in the lower tide-pools. A good many specimens were dissected.
Numerous species of remarkably beautiful nudibrauchiate mol-
lusks are to be found at Laguna Beach, and they are among the most
attractive objects of the tide-pools, never failing to call forth the
most enthusiastic exclamations from both students and visitors.
"Exquisite" is the only word that adequately described them. I
determined the species so far as I could from MacFarlaud 's writings,
but a large part of the species seem to be underscribed. In the works
of Bergh and other writers on this group, our west coast species
seem never to have been treated.
Chromodoris porterae Cockerell
(Figure 39 B)
Color prussian blue, the dorsum of a deeper shade than the sides.
Mantle narrowly white edged. On the dorsum is a median line of
light blue running from between the rhinophores to the branchiae.
On each side, half way between this line aud the mantle edge, a broad
orange yellow band runs from the rhinophores to just beyond the
branchiae In front of the rhinophores is an orange spot. Both
rhinophores and tentacles are dark blue. A narrow light blue line
runs down the middle of the tail. Length when in ordinary posture
about 12 mm.
(Figure 39 C, D)
Color prussian blue, the mantle and foot bordered with light blue.
Body covered with numerous orange spots. Length 5.5 cm. The
largest nudibranch seen at Laguna.
A, Rostanga pulchra
McFarland). B, Doriopsis fulva (McFarland )
Ancula pacifica MacFarland
(Figure 39 G)
Color translucent whitish. Gills and tentacles tipped with red-
dish orange. Back striped with orange. Papillae around branchiae
tipped with pale yellow. Length 1 cm. Differs somewhat from
Ancula pacifica as described by MacFarland in having eight instead
of six processes around the branchiae, but this is a variable character.
Aegires albopunctatus MacFarland
(Figure 39 F)
Color opaque white, spotted with dark brown. Length 12 mm.
Two specimens taken.
Jfirst Annual Report
A, Laila cockerelli. B, Chromodoris porterae. C, Chromodoris sp. (mantel
removed). D, Chromodoris sp. E, Genus? F, Aegires albopunctatus. G, Ancula
pacifica. H, Cuthonia sp. I, Hervia sp. J, Hermissenda opalescens. K, Spurilla sp.
JLaguna S^arine Laboratory 77
Laila cockerelli MacFarland
Color translucent whitish. Branchiae and clavate papillae tipped
with orange red. Rhinophores orange red with white bases. Numer-
ous small orange red tubercles on the dorsum. Orange red marking
also occur on the tail. The one specimen taken differed from Mac-
Farlaud's description in having two instead of five branchial plumes,
but this is of little moment since the branchiae are constantly subject
Genus and Species?
(Figure 39 E)
Color white, with two black stripes from mouth to rhinophores,
where they unite and pass as one to the branchiae. Sides irregularly
marked with black stripes and spots. Tentacles yellow. Rhinophores
black, tipped with yellow. Bordering the black stripes are various
spots and stripes of yellow. Many of the yellow spots occur on small
tubercles. The branchiae are black, tipped with yellow.
Rhinophores foliate and retractile into small sheaths. Branchiae
seven, and also foliate and retractile. Six short tentacle-like pro-
cesses on the head, which are joined by a thin prolongation of the
mantle edge, this being practically all of the mantle that is evident.
Head large and truncated. Length about 7 mm.
Doriopsis fulva MacFarland
( Figure 38 B)
Color lemon yellow. Mantle thickly covered with small white-
tipped tubercles. Rhmophores brownish. Branchiae a paler yellow
than dorsum. Front edge of foot deeply bilobed. No notch on upper
lip. Rhinophores and branchiae retractile into small smooth edged
sheaths. Tentacles rudimentary, attached to lateral folds on the
sides of the mouth. Length 9 mm. Frequent under stones between
tides. Doubtless the determination of this would not be sure with-
out a comparison of the internal anatomy.
Rostanga pulchra MacFarland
(Figure 38 A)
Color orange red, the foot pinkish. Rhinophores darker than
mantle. Anterior margin of foot bilobed. Upper lip notched. Ten-
tacles small. Rhinophores very short and completely retractile.
Mantle covered with short spiculate papillae. Length 5 mm. Found
under stones, thus differing in habit from the species as described
by MacFarland for he records it from a red sponge.
78 jfir0t annual Report
(Figure 38 C)
Mantle brown, bordered with yellow, and covered with small white
tuberc-les more thickly in the center than on the edges. Foot yellow,
branchiae light yellow. The branchiae and rhinophores are retractile
into smooth bordered sheaths. Body deep, with the dorsum highly
arched. Tentacles rudimentary. Length '27 mm. Common under
stones during July and August but rare in September.
(Figure :'-! II)
Color translucent whitish. Cerata translucent with a dark green
core. A dark green spot in front of the rhinophores. Length 5 mm.
Cutting edge of mandible strongly denticulate. Uadula consisting of a single row of
plates. There are usually nine teeth on a plati . the mitral one not prominent, as short or
shorter than the prominent laterals.
(Figure :!! I)
Color translucent whitish. Rhinophores orange, and with an
orange spot in front of them. Cerata with greenish-black cores, and
tipped with orange. Animal very slender, the body highest in the
region of the rhiuophores. Rhinophores and tentacles slender and
non-retractile. Length 7 mm.
Cutting edge of mandible not toothed, strongly striated. Radula consisting of a single
row of plates, rsuallv eleven tt-eth on :i plate, tin- i t-ntr:il nitt prominent, the laterals Imi^
. ;M I sli-inlpr.
Hermissenda opalescens (1'noper).
(Figure Mil J )
Color translucent whitish, with light brown stripes on tentacles
and tail. Orange markings occur on the head. Cerata translucent,
with brown cores and orange markings. Animal very slender. Cerata
numerous and very easily detached. Anterior margin of foot pro-
longed into two tentacle-like processes. Lips bilobed, the upper
narrow, the lower large. Common during the early part of the sum-
mer in tide-pools.
Cutting edge of mandible with about thirty strong denticles. Radula consisting of a
single SITH-S nf an^ulaily urchnd plates. Thr central tuoth is large and finely denticulated
on the lower edge; the laterals are small, three to four on a side.
(Figure 39 K)
Color white. Back and top of head orange with a finely granu-
lated appearance. Cerata near head orange with brown cores, those
farther back becoming browner. Tentacles white. Rhinophores
foliate, and red, with white tips. Animal slender, the foot large,
anterior margin slightly prolonged into tentacle-like processes.
Rhinophores and tentacles slightly contractile. Mouth large, under
lip bilobed, upper smooth. Cerata in constant motion and very easily
detached. Common in September. Length 15 mm.
Cutting edge of mandible not toothed, strongly striated. Radula consisting of a single
series of low-arched, pectinate plates, notched in the center.
lUguna Sgarine Laboratory
Figure 40. Limax rnaximus
A, Left lobe of liver. B, Right lobe of liver. C, Reproductive organs. D, Ali-
mentary canal. E, Abnormal jaw. F, Normal jaw. G, Shell.
Jfirst annual Heport
Figure 41. Limax flavus
A, Liver. B, Nervous system (ventral view). C, Reproductive system. D, Ali-
mentary canal. E, Nervous system (dorsal view). F, Jaw. G, Shell.
Two species of Limax are common both at Lagima Beach and
Claremont. They have been provisionally determined by Mr. 8. S.
Berry, as Limax maximus Linn, and Limax flavus Linn. They differ
in color, both being of a yellowish-gray, but Li mar nid.fi nuts is spot-
ted and streaked with black, while Limax flavus has no black spots.
There are also some anatomical differences. Limax maximus is,
when fully grown, about two inches long; Limax flavus is somewhat
Figure 42. Circulation of Limax flavus
Limax maximus L.
Limax flavus L.
(Figures 41 and 42)
Mytilus californianus Conr.
The species is gregarious, forming extensive mussel-beds on flat
rocks exposed to the surf. There are several large colonies of them
at Lagima, notably the one at Mussel Point, which furnishes to the
villagers endless supplies for food and for bait.
Mytilus bifurcatus Conr.
More generally distributed along this coast than M. ralifornianus.
Sometimes very numerous on rocks uncovered at low tide.
jTirst Annual Report
Septifer bifurcatus Roe
Distribution same as Mi/tHux liifitrcatiix but rarer.
Ostrea lurida Cpr.
Found in lower tide pools and on rocks uncovered but a short
time at low tide. Not at all common.
Figure 43. Mytilus californianus
Phacoides californicus Cuiir.
Semele rupium Sby.
Tivela stultorium Mawe
Chama pellucida Sby.
The above four shells are found washed up on the beach, the last
two quite common.
ON A CEPHALOPOD NEW TO CALIFORNIA
WITH A NOTE ON ANOTHER
S. S. BEREY
The two species of cephalopod mollusks (one squid and one
octopus) which are the subject of the following notes were obtained
by Mr. C. W. Metz during the 1911 session of the Pomona College
Marine Laboratory at Laguna, Orange County, California. Although
so few of this class of animals were taken, one of the two specimens
submitted to me represents a species new not only to California, but
apparently to the entire western coast of North America as well. I
am indebted to the gentleman named for the opportunity to examine
and report upon the material.
Figure 44. Funnel of Onychoteuthis banksii
Laid open along the medio-ventral line to show the funnel organ (semi-dia-
Onychoteuthis banksii (Leach 1817) Ferussac
1817 Loligo banksii Leach, Zool. Miseell., vol. 3, p. 141.
1826 Onychoteuthis banksii Ferussac, in D'Orbiguy, Ann. Sci.
Nat. (1), vol. 7, p. 151.
1879 Onychoteuthis lanksii Tryon, Man. Couch. (1), vol. 1, p.
168, pi. 73, figs 291-294.
1908 Oin/chotriifhi* lifuiksii Pfeffer, Nord. Plankton, IV, Ceph.,
' p. 65, figs. 71-77.
A single female specimen of this widespread oceanic species was
obtained from J. H. Souder, who captured it in a seine off the en-
trance to Newport Bay, S. S. B. No. 295. In a report written some
Jfirst annual deport
months ago and now in press, the writer expressed the opinion that
0. banksii would very likely be found to occur in the waters of our
region, but so prompt a confirmation of the statement was scarcely
to have been expected.
From all other West American species excepting only the gigantic
Moroteuthis of Alaska, 0. baiiksii is readily distinguishable by the
double series of powerful hooks on the tentacle clubs as shown in the
accompanying photograph (Figure 45). The curious "fixing appar-
atus" at the base of the club (Figure 46) furnishes another con-
spicuous character. This structure comprises a compact, rounded
Showing hooked tentacle clubs of
group of suckers and pad-like organs so arranged that the suckers
on one tentacle fit perfectly over the pads of its mate, securing a
most powerful adhesion at a point where such support very greatly
increases the prehensile power of the tentacles. The immense rhom-
boid fins are also characteristic.
So far as I have been able to determine from the literature the
present individual is by far the largest specimen of the species which
has happened to be placed on record. D'Orbigny* gives the total
length of 0. bdiikxii as 310 mm., mantle length 130 mm.; of the
identical 0. anyulatirf as 400 mm.; mantle 130 mm. Tryon gives the
*Moll, viv. et. foss., 1845, p. 387.
j-Voy, Amer. Merid., Moll., p 43, 1845.
Fixing apparatus of right and left tentacle clubs of Onychoteuthis banksii.
Figure 47. Polypus bimaculatus
JTirst annual Report
ordinary length of the body as six inches (i. e., about 150 mm.).
Joubin* records a specimen having a total length of 195 mm., mantle
110 nun. The body of our specimen is considerably over twice as
long as the largest here cited. Its more important dimensions are
therefore appended below :
Figure 48. Anatomical details of Polypus bimaculatus
A, Circulatory system (right kidney removed). B. Male reproductive organs.
C, Jaw. D, Female reproductive organs. E, Alimentary canal and liver. F, Ali-
mentary canal. From dissections by Miss Guernsey.
Length to tail 680 mm. ; length, exclusive of arms, 353 mm. ; length,
exclusive of tentacles, 488 mm.; length of mantle (dorsal) 313 mm.;
width of mantle 80 mm. ; length of fins, total, 183 mm. ; length of fins
along plane of attachment 164 mm.; width across fins, 215 mm.;
length of head 40 mm.; width of head 49 mm.; length of dorsal arm
101 mm. ; length of second arm 120 mm. ; length of third arm 116 nun. ;
*Ceph. "Princ.-Alice," 1900, p. 63.
Laguna Q9arine Laboratory 87
length of ventral arm 135 imn. ; length of tentacle 327 mm. ; length of
tentacle club 73 mm.
Polypus bimaculatus (Verrill 1883)
(Figures 47 and 48)
A specimen of this species (S. S. B. No. 324) was taken by Mr.
Metz in one of the lower tide-pools at Laguua, and numerous other
specimens by other members of the laboratory. It is the common
shore "octopus" of Southern California and has been previously
reported from White 's Point, San Pedro and San Diego. The large,
eye-like, lateral markings near the base of each arm of the third pair
constitute its most conspicuous specific character. In the present
specimen the usual bluish ring* surrounding the central spot is
obscured or absent.
A microscopic examination of a portion of the integument in the
neighborhood of these markings shows that the outer ring of the
oculation owes its pale color chietly to a diminution in the number of
cliromatophores over this area.f Similarly the dark center is due
to a great and sudden increase in their frequency. The exact number
is somewhat variable, but a given space in the dark center appears
to contain fully twice as many as an equal area in the paler border.
Even when expanded, all the cliromatophores are excessively
small. In the present material the dimensions of one of these organs
is .09 x.l 6 mm. expanded, and .04 x .06 mm. in diameter contracted.
Their detailed structure is correspondingly difficult to make out.
The illustrations accompanying this paper were prepared by Mr.
John Howard Paine of Stanford University, Mr. Metz and Miss
'Berry, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. IS, p. 30.', 1911.
(Whether the pigment within the chromatophores themselves is likewise differen-
tiated either in color or qmmtity, cannot of course he determined without examining fresh
88 j?ir0t Annual
SOME ECHINODERMS COLLECTED
C. F. BAKER
Starfish, serpent stars, sea-urchins, and sea cucumbers are very
much in evidence between tides at Laguna, some species occurring
in enormous numbers. As yet, no special effort has been made to
collect the species thoroughly. Of most of those taken a set was de-
termined by Prof. Walter K. Fisher of Stanford University, and he
very kindly furnished the notes incorporated below under quotation
Synapta inhoerens (). F. Mull
These beautiful pale-colored little holothurians are frequent in
the sand under stones in tide-pools. Some of their movements are
extraordinarily worm-like. The peculiar character of the dermal
anchors and plates in this species are very distinctive.
Stichopus californicus (Stimpson)
The large brown sea cucumber is a common object in the tide-
pools. Some grow to eight and ten inches in length and even more.
We examined large numbers of them for commensals but did not
happen to encounter any.
Linckia columbiae Gray
The smooth red starfish is common in the tide-pools. Its capacity
for arm motion is very limited compared to other starfishes here, and
through frequent mutilations it is rarely normally armed. Prof.
Fisher says of it: "This curious little starfish is a member of the
Panamic fauna, the type having been taken on the west coast of
Colombia. It has been recorded previously from California at La
Jolla, San Clemente Island, Santa Catalina Island and San Pedro.
Miss S. P. Monks carried on some interesting studies on the varia-
bility and autonomy of this species. It is able to sever its arms, and
not only to regenerate new arms, but also to regenerate new disks on
the severed rays. The number of rays varies from one to nine, but
there are usually five. There may also be more than one madreporic
body, and as many as four anal apertures. Very rarely there are
liaguna Ratine laboratorp 89
Coscinasterias sertulifera (Xantus)
The "soft starfish" is very common in the tide-pools. It is oue
of the most unpleasant starfishes to handle, due to its extraordinary
sliminess. Its soft body gives a very wide range of possibilities in
movement. Of this species Prof. Fisher remarks: "This is the
species (under the name Asterias ferreri) upon which Prof. II. S.
Jennings carried on a number of experiments at La Jolla. It is a
member of the southern fauna, the type locality being Cape San
Lucas. The true Coscinasterias ferreri belongs to the northern fauna
and is not found along shore."
Pisaster capitatus (Stimpson)
Not common in the tidal pools, but evidently much more numerous
just at and below low tide mark. Prof. Fisher says of it: "This
species grows to a large size and is characterized by the heavy, well
spaced tubercles of the back. It was formerly included in the genus
Ophioderma panamensis Lutken
Apparently the largest serpent star at Laguua, and abundant in
the lower tide-pools. Its smoothish body and commonly bright and
varied shades of brown and yellow make it a very conspicuous species.
Prof. Fisher remarks of it: "This is a common littoral serpent star
from Panama to Catalina. It has a finely granulated disk and four
genital openings on each interbrachial space."
Ophioplocus esmarki Lyman
As this species occurred to us at Laguna, it was smaller than the
foregoing, and usually unicolored, instead of variegated. Prof.
Fisher records this as occurring from San Diego to Monterey.
Ophionereis annulata LeConte
With a heavy vestiture and comparatively small, this serpent
star occurs in great numbers under stones in tide-pools, sometimes
dozens under a single stone. Prof. Fisher says: "This is a common
form from Central America to Southern California. It has long,
cross banded arms, short arm spines, and a disk covered with fine
Ophiothrix spiculata LeConte
We found this species only in kelp holdfasts from three to six
fathoms, and common in large sponge masses. It is common in these
places and is doubtless common also under other conditions. Prof.
90 jTirst Annual Report
Fisher says of it : " This is one of the most beautiful of echinoderms,
being characterized by many long thorny spines which are delicate
and glassy. It ranges from Monterey Bay to Central America."
Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Agassiz
This is the large, commonly blackish purple, long spined sea
urchin, usually found singly in the lower tide-pools. As Prof. Fisher
remarks, it is commonly bright purple or even reddish purple. It
is far less common than the following.
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson)
The bluish-purple gregarious sea urchin occurs in large colonies
in some of the lower tide-pools. One such pool at Mussel Point con-
tains a remarkable display of these urchins. Many of them are seated
in deep, cylindrical bores in the rock from which it is frequently
impossible to extricate them. They apparently do not favor pools
that are beyond the reach of low tide spray.
Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz)
"The common sand dollar of the curio store. It was formerly
included in the genus Echinarachnius" (Fisher). The shells of this
species are occasional on the beach at Laguna.
tagtina egarine Laboratory !i
STUDIES IN PYCNOGONIDA, I
HARRY V. M. HALL
In all our collecting but twenty-two pycnogonids were taken,
twenty of which belong to the same species and one of the others to a
different species of the same genus. The commonest had a spread of
legs of about three-fourths of an inch, while the other species was
about three times as large. The latter were so nearly the color of the
fucus on which they lived and so covered with debris that it is pos-
sible that they may be much more numerous than the number taken
would indicate. In working out this report I am indebted to Dr.
Leon J. Cole for many kind suggestions and much valuable assist-
ance. I have described the species found as follows :
Anoplodactylus californicus n. sp.
Body rather short, lateral processes about as long as their own
diameter, radiate, with bases contiguous. First two intersegmental
lines barely visible. Proboscis cylindrical with rounded end, almost
as long as the length of the body. Diameter of the proboscis one-
half its length. Eyes not apparent, but a large conical eye tubercle
(bent to the right in the cut as is also the abdomen) arises from the
anterior edge of the body which projects over nearly the first half
of the proboscis. The abdomen is much the same shape as the last
joint of a man's middle finger and, like the eye tubercle is deeply and
closely pitted. The rest of the body is pitted but less deeply. Cheli-
fores large with well developed chela? and stout shaft, the whole
reaching about half their length in front of the proboscis. (In my
specimen the chelae are extended straight in front but there seems to
be no reason why they might not be bent in front of the proboscis.)
A few short spines on the chela 1 ; basal joints grown together and
apparently supporting the eye tubercle. Palpi and ovigerous legs
very rudimentary and wholly within the body (see plate for details).
The legs are rather long but stout, sparsely set with short spines.
First coxa shorter than its diameter, second coxa over twice the
length of the first and enlarged at its distal end, third coxa one and
one-half times the length of the first. Femur lunger than the com-
bined length of the cox*. Tibial joints each about three-fourths the
length of the femur. All joints of the legs stout. Tarsus about one-
half the length of tibial joints; claw two-thirds the length of tarsus
jTirst Annual Report
Figure 49. Anoplodactylus californicus
ILaguna S^arine ILa&oratorp
and folding down to rows of fine hairs. Auxiliary claws very small.
Genital openings not apparent. Color straw. Measurements in mm.
Proboscis 1.424; body (from anterior edge to insertion of abdomen)
1.5; leg (approximately) 8; diameter of lateral (leg-bearing) pro-
This specimen was swept from fucus at low tide and was put in
a bottle with a small nudibrauch mollusk which we caught about the
same time. About half an hour later we discovered this pycnogonid
greedily feeding on the nudibrauch. This is of special interest as
very little is known of the feeding habits of these interesting crea-
This species bears a superficial resemblance to Pallenopsis, how-
ever it differs from that genus in the following respects, i. e. : The
abdomen is neither long nor slender, there are no eyes apparent,
and the ovigerous legs, instead of being ten-jointed and present in
both sexes, are in my specimen reduced to the merest rudiments and
are within the body wall so that externally they do not show. On
the other hand it is not a typical Aiiuplodnctylus, the body being-
more compact than is usual in that genus, though not nearly so
compact as that of A. anarthrus (Loman).
Ammothella bi-unguiculata var. californica n. var.
Body distinctly segmented, leg-bearing processes moderately
separated and moderately developed. Their length is about one-half
their diameter. Intersegmental lines all distinct. Proboscis slim,
spindle shaped; in length two and one-half times the diameter, and
four-thirds the length of the body; ending in front with a rounded
obtuse angle as seen from above. Pour eyes in pairs on a very low
eye tubercle ; well pigmented. Abdomen small, cylindrical, less than
one-fourth the length of the body, with bluntly rounded tip. Anus
in notch at the tip. Chelifores short, one-sixth the length of the
proboscis, three-jointed; chelae undeveloped; first joint very short,
shaft not quite as long as terminal joint which is nearly* spherical.
Diameter of chelifores slightly less than that of the palpi. Palpi
nine-jointed ; as long as the proboscis. First joint short and thicker
than the others. Second joint four times as long as the third ; fourth
joint almost as long as the second; fifth and sixth joints about the
same length as the third. Terminal joints decrease in order. Very
few hairs on the palpus except on the terminal joint. Ovigerous legs
slightly longer and with slightly greater diameter than the palpi.
The ten joints named in the order of their lengths (except the first
which is short and much thicker than the rest) are, 4, 2, 5, 6, 3, 7,
8, 9, 10. The terminal joints are spirally rolled and on the tip of the
j?tr0t Annual Report
Figure 50. Ammothella bi-unguiculata var. californica
JLaguna figarinc Laboratory
last are three stiffly plumose hairs. A similar hair is placed on each
side of the eighth joint. Legs rather long but stout, no tibial pro-
cesses, very few hairs except in double row on tarsus. First coxa
as long as its own diameter; second twice as long; third coxa one
and one-half tiroes the length of the first. Femur about as long as the
combined length of the second and third COXJP. Second tibial joint
about the same length as femur; first tibial joint slightly shorter.
Tarsus is less than one-half as long as second tibial joint. Tarsus
has a double row of fine hairs down the "sole" and a few slightly
longer hairs on the end. Terminal claw is lacking, while the auxiliary
claws are unusually developed. Color light brown ; the food was
slightly darker making it easy to trace the branches of the stomach
into the legs as shown in cut. Measurements in mm. Body 1.3;
proboscis 1.05; abdomen .36; leg 4.2; diameter of leg-bearing pro-
About twenty specimens of this species were found under stones
at low tide, well down toward low water mark. The males bore on
their ovigerous legs bunches of dark colored eggs.
As pointed out to me by Dr. Cole, this species agrees closely with
A. bi-unguiculata (Dohrn). As he says, "if we make the proper al-
lowance for his specimen being an immature one" this specimen
"agrees in detail with Dohrn's description." But to say that I had
found in California the mature form of Dohrn's Naples species (de-
scribed, as it was from an immature specimen), would be too much
of a guess without comparing mature forms from both localities.
This difference of location, the fact of Dohrn's specimen being im-
mature, and the desire not to duplicate names, have led me to de-
scribe mine as a variety of A. bi-unguiculata.
Ammothella spinosissima n. sp.
Body with leg-bearing processes almost circular in outline. These
processes are grown together for nearly their whole length, and at
their distal ends are situated large tufts of spines. No interseg-
mental lines, but on the back, between the second pair of legs, is a
longitudinal row of three large upright spine-covered, finger-like
processes. (Bent to the side in the cut as are also the eye tubercle
and the abdomen). Proboscis shorter than the apparent length of
the body, but if compared with the length of the body from the
anterior margin to the base of the abdomen the reverse is true. This
is owing to the abdomen being inserted between the last pair of leg-
bearing processes which are the only two that are separated. The
proboscis is bluntly rounded in front with a notch at the tip; its
diameter is about half its length. Four eyes, not conspicuously pig-
jTirst annual Report
Figure 51. Ammothella spinosissima
ILaguna e@arine laboratory 97
mented, situated at the top of a relatively small eye-tubercle, the
length of which is about twice its diameter. The abdomen is about
three-fourths the length of the body, (the latter measured from the
anterior margin to the base of the abdomen). Along the top of the
abdomen is a row of ringer-like, multi-sj due-bearing processes similar
to those on the legs to which I will refer shortly, but much smaller
than the three large ones previously mentioned as on the back. The
diameter of the abdomen is about one-fifth its length. The chelifores
are stout and slightly surpass the proboscis in length ; they are rudi-
mentary in having the chela? undeveloped. The shaft is set with quite
a few multi-spine bearing processes. The basal segment is about the
same size as the terminal segment, but the shaft is one and one-half
times as long as their combined lengths. The palpi are nine-jointed,
surpassing the end of the proboscis by one-third their length. The
first joint is shorter and broader than the rest; the second is the
longest, being almost one-third the whole length of the palpus; third
joint very short ; fourth joint not quite as long as second. A ridge
across the fourth joint makes it appear like two joints as viewed
from above. The terminal joints diminish in order. The first six
joints have very few hairs, while the terminal joints are thickly set
with hairs about as long as the diameter of the fourth joint. The
second joint is thickened at the ends but the other joints are not
noticeably so thickened. The average diameter of the palpus is
about one-half that of the chelifores. The ovigerous legs are nine-
jointed; their diameter about half way between those of palpus and
chelifores. The joints in order of length (except the first, which is
short and broad), 4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9. Legs are rather short and
powerful with numerous, multi-spine-bearing, finger-like processes,
especially on the coxa and two tibial joints. On the two tibial joints
these processes are arranged in a double row down the back of the
joint. The first and third coxal joint are sub-equal in length, the
second one and one-half times as long. The femur is as long as the
combined length of all three coxae ; the tibial joints two-thirds as long
as the femur and but slightly longer than the tarsus. The claw is
over three-quarters the length of tarsus, folding down between two
rows of stout spines on tarsus. No auxiliary claws. Genital open-
ings not apparent. Color light straw. Measurements in mm. :
Proboscis 1.424; body 1.2; abdomen 1.1; leg 6.35; diameter of lateral
This single specimen was swept from fucus in July and when
taken, was so covered with litter which was imbedded among the
spines, that no idea of the real aspect of the creature could be ob-
tained until after boiling in KOII. This litter rendered it very hard
to find among bits of fucus even when we knew it was there and its
J?ir0t annual Report
Figure 52. A, Ammothella bi-unguiculata californica, terminal joints of oviger-
ous leg. B, Ammothella spinosissima, terminal joints of ovigerous leg. C, Anoplo-
dactylus californicus, tarsus. D, Ammothella spinosissima, tarsus. E, Ammothella
bi-unguiculata californica, tarsus. F, Ancplcdactylus californicus, chelifore-terminal
joints. G, Ammothella bi-unguiculata californica, palpus. H, Ammothella spinos-
issima, palpus. I, Anoplodactuylus californicus, palpus J, Anoplodactylus califor-
nicus, ovigerous leg. K, Ammothella bi-unguiculata, chelifore.
Lagtma Cgtorinc Laboratory
discovery in the towings was almost accidental. We spent much
time looking for others but with no success. The spine-hearing pro-
cesses with which this species is covered serve to distinguish it from
all other species of the genus.
In placing these last two species in Ammothella, I have followed
Cole, who raised the sub-genus Ammothella (Ammothea part), of
Verrill, to generic rank because of the trunk being "usually propor-
tionately broader and distinctly segmented, the chelifori three-
jointed, and the palpi nine-jointed." I hope that this brief explana-
tion will show why they are not Ammothea proper, and avoid con-
fusion. The multi-spine bearing processes on A. spiitoxixxinid may
remind one of those on a Nymphopsis figured by Loman, Plate XIII
of Siboga-Expeditie XL, but the arrangement of these processes, as
well as generic characters, show that there can be no possible con-
ioo jfirst annual Report
NOTES ON THE CRUSTACEA OF LACUNA
C. F. BAKER
From the character of the coast at Laguna one would expect a
rich representation of the crabs, shrimps, prawns, and their allies,
and the richness of the crustacean fauna is most forcibly impressed
upon one by a little collecting. We took a great number of specimens
and species of crustaceans during this first summer, of which but a
very small proportion have as yet been worked up, especially among
the Entomostraca. A few of these latter I have examined in some
detail in cases where they happened to be conspicuous or to occur
in great numbers of individuals. Miss Stout lias done a considerable
amount of work on the Amphipoda of this locality, and Miss Stafford
on the Isopoda. They both accumulated a great wealth of material,
indicating a littoral fauna of great richness in these groups.
The crabs, but few of which I have determined, are extraordin-
arily abundant. The tide-pools swarm with them, a stone turned
over frequently revealing a half dozen species at one time. One
small crab, apparently quite rare, was of peculiar interest because
it seemed to be always covered with a dense forest of small simple
sponges, perhaps indicating a symbiotic relationship.
A number of species of parasitic copepods (three from one
shark) and isopods were taken, but these are as yet undetermined.
Epialtus productus Randall
The young of the kelp crab are very common in the tide-pools
clinging to fucus and other brown algae, but mature specimens are
only to be found in the kelp beds.
Loxorhynchus grandis Stimp.
Large carapace shells of this deeper water crab are commonly
washed up on the beach.
Cycloxanthops novemdentatus Lock.
Frequent under stones between tides.
Lophopanopaeus leucomanus (Lock.)
Occasional under stones between tides. Examination of the ap-
pendages of the head of this species, in comparison with those of
Xanthias taylori reveals some interesting resemblances and differ-
ences. The mandibles and maxillipeds are strikingly similar. The
antennules, however, are very unlike and present some salient char-
acters. The outer flagellum in this species is three-jointed while in
X. taylori it appears to be seven-jointed. The large tuft of bristles
opposite the outer flagellum is as long as the inner in this species,
while in X. taylori it is only half as long.
Figure 53. Lophopanopaeus leucomanus
A, First maxilliped. B. Second maxilliped. C, Third maxilliped. D, mandible.
102 jTirst annual Report
Xanthias taylori Stimp.
Abundant under stones between tides and also in kelp holdfasts
from deeper water.
Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall
This is the very abundant shore crab which is so common scuttling
over the stones of the higher beach. It sometimes contains a large
parasitic isopod in its branchial cavities.
Randallia ornata (Randall)
Occasional specimens from kelp holdfasts in deeper water.
Eremita analoga (Stimp.)
Exceedingly abundant, burrowing in sand between tides, and
much used for bait.
Blepharipoda occidentalis Randall
This large species one of the most remarkable crustaceans on
the coast is occasional on the sandy shores just below low tide. The
boys locate them with their feet while in bathing and dive for them.
Lepidopa myops Stimp.
Occasional in the sand between tides, associated with Eranitii.
Petrolisthes cinctipes (Randall)
The "flat crab" is common under stones between tides.
Pachycheles rudis Stimp.
Abundant under stones between tides. This little crab with
swollen tuberculated chelipeds is also common in kelp holdfasts.
Callianassa longimana Stimp.
Burrowing in the sand underneath stones in the tide-pools. Not
common. This loosely built, ghostly looking animal reminds one
strongly of certain cave-dwelling animals.
Panulirus interruptus (Randall)
Very common in the deeper waters off shore. This seems to be
headquarters for this splendid lobster. We frequently saw large
specimens just below low tide, and encountered young specimens
frequently in the tide-pools.
Crangon vulgaris L.
Some specimens which cannot be distinguished from the current
descriptions of this species, were taken in a bed of Phyllospadix just
below low tide.
ILaguna egjarinc Laboratory
Figure 54. Xanthias taylori
A, mandible. B, First maxillipcd. C, Second mnxilliped. D. Third maxilliped.
E, First maxilla. F, Second maxilla. G, Antennia. H. Antennule.
Figure 55. Heptacarpus pictus
A, Habit sketch, showing common attitude of body and antennules. B, C, Vari-
ation in toothing of rostrum. D, Antenna. E, Antennule. F, Mandible. G, First
maxilla. H, Second maxilla. I, Third maxilla. J, Maxilliped.
ILaguna egarinc iLaboratorp
Figure 56. Heptacarpus pictus
A, First peraeopods. B, Second peraeopods. C Third peraeopods. D, First
pleopods. E, Second pleopods. F, Apical two-thirds of telson. G, Exopodite of
uropod, showing teeth.
106 jTirst annual Report
Crangon nigromaculatus Sm.
Under stones in sandy bottomed tide-pools. The color is trans-
lucent white, peppered with black dots, a larger dot on either side
of the fifth and sixth pleon segments. When this species is exposed
by the turning over of a stone, it settles immediately into the surface
of the sand, and is then almost indistinguishable.
Hippolysmata californica St.
This extraordinarily brilliant Hippolytid with its red stripes is
certainly one of the finest things to be found in the tide-pools. We
frequently pointed to it as one of the most beautiful marine animals
to lie found at Laguna.
Alphaeus clamator Luck.
Common in sponge masses and kelp holdfasts.
Betaeus longidactylus Lock.
A very beautiful olive green species, abundant in tide-pools.
Heptacarpus pictus (Stimp.)
(Figures 55 and 5(5)
This small and very beautiful Hippolytid is abundant in the tide-
pools and also outside in the kelp beds. Its greenish semi-trans-
parency, with oblique reddish marks on the pereion, make it wholly
inconspicuous almost invisible in alga-filled tide-pools. The tow-
net, however, quickly reveals it as a very abundant species.
A number of species of these minute tube-dwellers were encoun-
tered among the alga? lining tide-pools, and also in kelp holdfasts.
They will be worked up later.
Pseudocuma lagunae n. sp.
We were greatly interested to encounter in one of the lower tide-
pools a minute Pscitdocuin<i. It appears to represent an undescribed
I'Yniale. Length 1.5 mm. Carapace a little less than one-fifth the total length
and nearly as deep as long. Pseudorostrum short, truncate, and not at all elevated.
l',,u k of the large eyes is a deep vertical plica standing nearly at right angles to the
dursuni and reaching lower border of carapace, giving a remarkable appearance of a
separated head. Sides of carapace with three curved ridges. Entire cephalo-
thnracic region about as long as remainder of body. Telson equalling basal joint
of uropods, and narrowing at the tip to a subacute point. Appendages as illustrated
in the figure.
Mysis costata Holmes
This species occurs in inconceivable myriads in the kelp beds just
off shore, where Mr. Guernsey took it with the tow net.
Figure 57. Pseudocuma lagunae
A, Third leg, with rudimentary exopodite. B, Third maxilliped. C, Fiftli leg.
D, Superior antenna. E, First leg. F, Habit sketch of female.
jfirst annual deport
Figure 58. Tisbe californica
A, Antenna of male. B, Mandible, sutures in palp not distinct. C, antenna of
female. D, Base of furca. E, Side view of carapace. F, Adult male. G, Antennule.
Laguna Sgarine Laboratory
Figure 59. Tisbe californica
A, First leg of male. C, First leg of female. D, Penultimate leg. E, Last leg
of female. F, Antepenultimate leg.
iio jTirst annual Report
Nuinbers of species of barnacles occur at Laguna and the begin-
nings of a study of them was made which will be continued later.
Tisbe californica n. sp.
(Figures 58 and 59)
During a few weeks in July, some of the high tide-pools remained
for days without change of water, and each day became very warm
at noontime. Enormous numbers of an apparently red Copepod
appeared in these pools. This species appears to me to be a Tisbe
close to Tisbe furcata but differing as follows : The terminal flagel-
lum of the female antenna appears to be five-jointed, the produced
angle of the last joint of the basal portion being extended beyond the
first joint of flagellum. The setae of the mandibular palpi are numer-
ous and longer than the palpi. The longest caudal setae are much
longer than abdomen. Other details are shown in the figures.
Diaptomus stagnalis Forbes
Harry Hall used the tow-net industriously in the two small ponds
in the canyon above Laguna, with rich results. Among other things
he took specimens of a colossal Diaptomus, which fit the descriptions
of i>t<i(/ii(il'tH very closely and which correspond with remarkable
closeness to the figures of Herrick's Diaptomus giganteus, which is
considered synonymous with $tii<iiniH*. The color in eastern speci-
mens appears to be variable. Here it has a semi-transparent body,
pale bluish veutrally as are also the feet, and with the antennae pale
yellowish to colorless. DeGuerne and Richard complain that this
species was never properly illustrated, so I have tried to prepare a
plate for it.
Cyprinotus californicus n. sp.
This minute species (length .5 to .8 mm.) was taken by Mr. Hall
in considerable numbers in the freshwater ponds with Diaptomus
stagnalis. Color pale translucent greenish. The shell is thickly
covered, especially distally in all directions from the hinge, with
minute papillae bearing fine hairs, which are longer towards the
margins. Eight valve armed anteriorly with small dark marginal
teeth. The four weakly plumose natatory setae of the second antennae
exceed the longest terminal claws by one-half the length of the
JLaguna eparinc Laboratory
Figure 60. Diaptomus stagnalis
A, Habit sketch. B, First maxilla. C, Second maxilla. D, Maxilliped. E, End
of abdomen. F, Mandible. G, Antennule. H, Antepenultimate leg of male. I, Last
leg of female. J, Last leg of male.
jFitst Annual Report
Figure 61. Cyprinotus californicus
A, Habit sketch. B, Maxilla. C, Upper lip. D, Second antenna. E, First
antenna. F, Second leg. G, First leg. H, Anterior border of right valve. I, Shell
structure on outer margin. J, Mandible. K, Anal armature.
ILaguna Ratine Laboratory
Figure 62. Xestoleberis transversalis
A, Adult, habit sketch. B, First antenna. C, Second antenna. D, Mandible
with palpus turned backward. E, Maxilla. F, Branchial plate of maxilla. G, Sexual
variation in shell outline. H, Second leg. I, Anal armature.
Jfirst annual deport
claws (which are not of equal length). The second legs with a cylin-
drical third joint armed with a short claw, and a small, weak,
scarcely longer, recurved seta, which is not shown in the drawing.
First legs with the long curved claw nearly as long as the three pre-
ceding joints. Branchial plate of mandibular palp with four stout
seta?, the branchial plate of first maxilla? with about twenty-three.
Other characters may be gathered from the figures. Nearest in
general appearance, perhaps, to Cypris pelluci/l/i.
Xestoleberis transversalis n. sp.
A small (.5 to .65 mm.), very pale greenish or brownish, white
banded podocopous ostracod is very abundant in tide-pools at
Laguna Beach. The characters of anal armature, mandibular palp,
second antenna?, and shell structure seem to distinguish it from any-
thing previously described. The shell is very slightly hairy except
along distal margin. The disc of the shell is armed with numbers of
distinct tubercles, and with a transverse white band at or slightly
posterior to middle. First antennae six-jointed, the penultimate and
antepenultimate joints of equal length, longer than third but shorter
than the much slenderer last joint ; last joint with two spines, penul-
timate with a tuft of spines at apical angle. Second antennae with
fourth joint not distinctly separated, the outer branch with terminal
claw as long as claw of inner branch. The tuft of spines on outer
margin of third joint of inner branch nearer base than apex. Man-
dibles at masticatory margin narrower than at insertion of palpus;
palpus with respiratory plate distinctly separated to the base and
with two slightly plumose spines, the terminal portion of palpus dis-
tinctly two-jointed; two large spines at base of palpus. Second leg
with basal joint longer than second, the fourth nearly twice the
length of third.
Both this species and the next are placed in Xestoleberis, though
a new genus might easily be erected for each of them as Fsterly
has done for Paracytheroma fH'tlrci/xix. These appear, however, to
present only specific differences.
Xestoleberis flavescens n. sp.
( Figure 63)
Another pndoropous ostracod occurs with X. transversalis, but
is a slightly larger, and rarer, species. In shell structure, anal arma-
ture, and other details it is entirely distinct. The shell is entirely
covered with small rounded bosses of peculiar structure, and it is
cream colored and translucent throughout. The legs are distinctly
yellowish. First antennas four-jointed, penultimate joint far shorter
Figure 63. Xestoleberis flavescens
A, Adult, habit sketch. B, Sexual variation in outline. C, First antenna.
D, Maxilla. E, Second antenna. F, Margin of shell, edge above. G, Mandibbe
H, Second leg. I, Dactyle of last leg. ], Anal armature.
jTitst annual Report
Figure 64. Chydorus simplex
A Adult, habit sketch. B, Postabdomen. C, Second foot. D, Antennule.
F, Plumed hairs on posterior distal margin of shell, showing where plumed hairs
pass into teeth of anterior angle. G, First foot. H, Mandible.
Laguna C0anne Laboratory 117
than antepenultimate and slightly shorter than last; last two joints
very heavy and armed with stout spines. Second antenna? with
fourth joint distinctly separated, the outer branch with terminal
claw longer than claw of inner branch. The tuft of spines on outer
margin of third joint of inner branch, nearer to apex than base.
Mandibles at masticatory margin broader than at insertion of pal-
pus; palpus with respiratory plate not distinctly separated, but its
three spines are large, recurved and heavily plumose; the terminal
portion of palpus distinctly one-jointed; one large spine at base of
palpus. Second leg with basal joint shorter than second, the fourth
but little longer than third.
Chydorus simplex n. sp.
With Diaptomus stagiialis and Cyprinotus calif ornicus, Mr. Hall
took numbers of an exceedingly minute (length .4-.5 mm.) Chydorus.
The anterior projection of the shell is long, very slender, and very
sharp, and is frequently more closely incurved to the anterior margin
of the shell than in the specimen drawn. The shell has a depth about
three times the hind margin. The distal (lower) margin is edged
with minute short plumed hairs to a point in front of the legs where
the curve to the anterior angle begins, and from that point to the
anterior angle they are replaced by small teeth. The postabdomen
is long subrectaugular, the terminal claws shorter than its greatest
width and these claws provided with a rather strong lateral tooth
behind. Lower hind border of postabdomen with a number of small
tufts of short hairs which are longer distally. Two long spines occur
above the anal opening. Posterior intestinal coecum long and slender.
118 jficst annual Report
STUDIES IN LACUNA ISOPODA
BLANCHE E. STAFFORD
In these and other studies, Asellus coiininniix has been used more
or less constantly as a basis of comparison, so that some drawings
(Figures 65 and 66) of this species are presented in this paper. All
of the other species were collected at Laguua Beach, California.
The most robust and active Isopoda were found in the sand high
up on the beach where they were driven out by the incoming water
at high tide, and among the rocks at the high water mark. Of the
former, the sand Isopod, AUoinxcti* peri'<n/r< .1 -it*, was a common type,
and Lifji/tlti oci-idi'ittalix was the characteristic representative in the
latter surroundings. Under dead seaweed on the border of a salt
marsh two forms were collected in fair abundance, one of which,
Philnxciti richardsonae, lias been described in this report. At the
lower level, under the rocks which the low tide uncovered, various
forms of the family Idotheidn? were found; of these Irlotltra recti
lined was most numerous. Under these same rocks the species
C/ru/di/d iHirfnrtli was exceedingly plentiful. Hardly a rock was
turned over that did not abound in this form.
Occasional specimens were brought in from holdfasts which had
drifted to shore from the kelp beds. These were generally very
minute forms. From the sponges many curious tube-dwelling Iso-
pods were collected. Rarely a parasitic form was discovered. The
tide-pools furnished interesting members of the family Janirida?. Of
most of the latter and of the rarer species drawings and descriptions
are not yet ready for publication.
Asellus communis Say.
Locality Fresh waters of Massachusetts.
Body oblong and depressed, about three and a half times as long-
as wide, 17 mm. by 5 mm.
Head measures 1.25 mm. in length and about 1 mm. in width at
upper margin and '2 mm. at posterior margin. Eyes small, composite,
and placed at the middle of lateral margins. First pair of antennae
have basal article of peduncle broader than those distal to it. Second
and third are narrow, third shorter than second; flagellum composed
of fifteen articles. Second antennae have a peduncle of six articles;
first very small, wider than long; second, third and fourth subequal ;
fifth and sixth long and narrower; sixth longer than fifth; flagellum
multi-articulate, composed of about sixty-two articles. Maxillipeds
ILaguna Ratine La&oratorp
Figure 65. Asellus communis Say
A, Dorsal view. B, Mandible. C, First maxilla. D, First antenna. E, Maxilli-
ped. F, Second maxilla. G, Lower lip. H, Uropod. I, First pleopod of male. J,
Second pleopod of male. K, Second antenna.
jTirst Annual deport
Figure 66. Asellus communis Say
A, First leg. B, Second leg. C, Third leg. D, Fourth leg. E, Fifth leg. F,
Sixth leg. G, Seventh leg. H, Fifth pleopod of male. I, Fourth pleopod of male.
J, Third pleopod of male.
ILaguna Ratine Laboratory
provided with a palp of five articles ; mandibles have a palp of three
Thorax has first segment longer than those succeeding, but nar-
rower ; remaining segments subequal. Small epimera occur on all
the segments at the antero-lateral angles. Legs all ambulatory ex-
cepting the first pair, which are prehensile. Propodus of first pair
very much expanded ; its inferior margin has one long triangular
process at the distal end, and one short process at the proximal end.
Abdomen composed of two very short segments and one large ter-
minal segment; latter is slightly wider than long, 5 mm. by 4 mm., is
narrower at posterior margin than at anterior. Post-lateral angles
rounded, posterior margin produced medially into a sharp lobe
between the uropoda. Uropoda about as long as terminal abdominal
segment, 5 mm. ; peduncle about as long as inner ramus ; both rami
end sharply. First pair of female pleopoda are attached close to-
gether and are unsegmented. First and second pleopoda of male are
modified. Second pleopoda of female are lacking.
Ligyda occidentalis (Dana)
(Figures 67 and 68)
Locality On the rocks at the high tide mark where they are very
numerous, at Laguua Beach, California.
Color Sordid gray and brown; sometimes checkered in gray;
legs tipped with orange.
Body ovate and elongate, about two and a half times as long as
wide, 22 mm. by 9 mm. Surface covered with granules.
Head twice as wide as long with anterior and lateral margins
rounded. Eyes very large, composite and elongate. First antenna
very minute and rudimentary, composed of three articles. Second
antenna measures 16 mm. First and second articles of peduncle
subequal ; third a little longer ; fourth and fifth elongated ; fifth longer
and narrower than fourth ; flagellum composed of thirty-one articles.
Maxilliped has a palp of five articles.
First four segments of thorax subequal and longer than those
succeeding; last three have their post-lateral angles produced further
than the preceding four. The epimera are united to the segments
and are only faintly perceptible. Legs all ambulatory; have the
dactylus bi-ungniculate. Propodus of first leg in male more dilated
than that of the other legs and has a process on the inner distal
margin in the male. Carpus and merus of first and second and third
legs more dilated in male and have striated margins.
First and second abdominal segments short and subequal. Suc-
ceeding segments longer and narrower. Last abdominal longest and
narrowest of all the abdominal segments. Its post-lateral angles are
jTirst annual Report
Figure 67. Ligyda occidentalis (Dana)
A, Dorsal view. B, Mandible. C, Second maxilla. D, First maxilla. E, Max-
illiped. F, First antenna. G, First leg of male.
Haguna egarine Ilaboratorp
Figure 68. Ligyda occidentalis (Dana)
A, Fourth leg of male. B, Fifth leg of male. C, Second leg of male. D, Third
leg of male. E, Second antenna. V, Second pleopod of male. G, Third pleopod
of male. H, First pleopod of male. I, Uropod.
124 jTirst annual tteuort
sharp and short. Uropoda about hall' the length of the body, 11
mm. ; peduncle 3.5 mm., and about two-thirds as long as the outer
ramus; outer ramus slightly shorter than inner, which is armed with
a single spine.
Alloniscus perconvexus Dana
Locality Abundant in sand of upper beach under kelp ; very
abundant at high tides when driven out by the water.
Color Dull gray mottled with black and white.
Body ovate and convex, about twice as long as wide, 15 nun. by
7 mm. Head has frontal margin produced in the middle into a
rounded lobe; autero-lateral angles into an acute process extending
slightly beyond the eyes. Eyes composite and situated close to
lateral margins. First pair of antennas very small and rudimentary,
consisting of three small articles. Second antennae composed of five
articles and a flagelluni. First two articles short, third and fourth
longer and subequal, fifth over one and a half times as long as fourth.
Flagellum has three subequal articles. Second antennae thickly cov-
ered with small spines. Maxillipeds have a palp of three articles.
Palp of mandible wanting.
First segment of thorax longer than the others, which are sub-
equal. On the first segment of the thorax a faint suture line extends
a short distance from the posterior margin and at an obtuse angle,
indicating the epimeron. On the next three segments sutures extend
the length of the segments. On the last three segments epimera are
not visible. Legs ambulatory, thickly spined.
Abdomen consists of six segments, five subequal in length, the
sixth somewhat longer. First two are covered laterally by the last
thoracic segment. Last abdominal segment triangular and narrower
than all the preceding segments. Uropoda very short, about the
length of last abdominal segment; inner branch about half as long-
The whole surface of the body is covered with minute spines.
Idothea rectilinea Lockington
Locality Abundant in pools, under rocks, on Phyllospadix and
among fucus at low tide.
Color Male usually a light brown; female usually a very dark
brown with antenna? and legs of light brown.
Body narrow and elongate; sides almost parellel and segments
very closely articulated ; five times longer than wide, 20 mm. by 4
mm. Dorsuni depressed longitudinally on either side of median line.
Figure 69. Alloniscus perconvexus (Dana)
A, Dorsal view. B, Maxillipcd. C, First maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Seventh
leg. F, First leg. G, Second maxilla. H, Third pleopod of male. I, Second
pleopod of male. }, Mandible. K, First antenna. L, First pleopod of female M
Second antenna. N, First pleopoda of male.
jTirst annual Report
Figure 70. Idothea rectilinea (Lockington)
A, Dorsal view. B, Maxilliped. C, Mandible. D, Second maxilla. E, Second
antenna. F, First maxilla. G. First antenna. II, First leg. I, Second leg. J.
Seventh leg. K, Posterior pleopod of male. L, First pleopod of male. M, Second
pleopod of male.
Laguna Ratine Laboratory 127
Head wider than long; anterior margin broadly emarginate and
slightly narrower than posterior margin. Eyes very small, com-
pound and placed on the middle of the extreme lateral margin. First
antenna 1 have four articles; basal article enlarged much broader
than the other articles. Fourth article clavate and finely haired on
the superior margin. Second antenna? composed of peduncle of five
articles and a flagellum of twelve. Basal article of peduncle very
small. Second slightly longer than wide; third somewhat longer
than second and almost twice as long as wide; fourth and fifth about
equal in length and longer than the third. The maxilliped has a palp
of four articles. The mandible is without a palp.
The first segment of the thorax is only half as long medially as
laterally. The rest of the segments are more regular in shape and
sub-equal in length ; last two slightly shorter than the others ; pos-
terior margins of all slightly excavate. The epimera of second and
third segments occupy slightly less than half the lateral margin;
epimeron of fourth occupies about half and like the other two is very
narrow ; epimeron of fifth segment is broader and occupies about
two-thirds the lateral margin ; epimera of sixth and seventh seg-
ments occupy the whole length of lateral margin.
The legs are all similar in structure; propodus di-dactylous and
slightly haired with short hairs ; the three preceding segments pro-
vided with longer hairs which are more abundant except on the last
two pairs of legs, where they are very scant.
Abdomen consists of three distinct and one partially coalesced
segment. First segments are very short, last is long and produced
medially to a point.
Philoscia richardsonae Holmes and Gay.
Locality Under old seaweed on the edge of a salt marsh, La-
guua Beach, California.
Color Brown, microscopic examination shows distinct pigment
marking's over the whole surface.
Body oblong ovate ; length slightly over twice the greatest width,
6 mm. by 2.5 mm. Surface of body thickly covered with fine spines.
Head twice as wide as long, with arched frontal margin and
lateral angles subacute. Antenna long; first article of peduncle
about half as long as second; second and third subequal in length;
fourth twice as long as third and narrower; fifth somewhat longer
than fourth; flagellum composed of three articles, of which the sec-
ond is slightly shorter than the first or third; the latter ends in a
large spine and the whole antenna is provided with numerous short
spines, especially on the margins. Antennule rudimentary, only vis-
jfirst annual Report
Figure 71. Philoscia richardsonae (Holmes and Gay)
A, Dorsal view. B, Second maxilla. C, First maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Second
antenna. F, Maxilliped. G, First pleopod of female. H, Second pleopod of female.
I, Terminal segment of abdomen. J, First leg. K, Seventh leg. L, Third pleopod
of female. M, Antennule.
luigtum QDarinc Laboratory i-!>
ible by dissection, composed of three small articles. Maxillipeds
have a palp of three articles. Pal]) of mandibles wanting-.
Segments of thorax subeqnal ; post-lateral angles of last three
very marked and produced. Epimera not distinct. Legs all similar,
ambulatory, very much spined and increasing in length from iirst
Abdomen abruptly narrower than thorax; first five segments sub
equal. Post-lateral angles of third, fourth and fifth produced. Last
abdominal segment produced medially. Median length about half
the greatest width. Basal segment of uropod about as wide as long
and extends beyond last abdominal segment; inner ramus a little
less than half as long as the outer; both rarni are spiued.
Dynamene glabra Richardson
Locality Found on Phyllospadix at Laguna Beach, California.
Color Pale orange brown, somewhat mottled, with white spot
on telson; become dark brown in alcohol.
Body convex ovate, about twice as long as wide, 3 mm. by iy 2
mm. ; surface smooth.
Head small and rounded anteriorly. Eyes placed in the post-
lateral angles. First pair of antenna with first article of peduncle
less than twice as long as wide; second and third articles subequal
and narrower that first. Flagellum composed of twelve articles.
Second antenna with first article of peduncle about as long as wide,
small; second twice as long as first; third about the same length as
first ; fourth similar to second ; fifth one and a third times as long as
fourth. Flagellum composed of sixteen articles. Maxilliped pro-
vided with a palp of five articles. Mandible with a palp of three
Thorax has first segment longer than those succeeding, which
are subequal. Post-lateral angles of last three are produced. Legs
all ambulatory; dactylus bi-ungulate.
Abdomen has the penultimate segment composed of several coal-
esced segments, though the suture lines were not clear in the speci-
mens at hand at the time of the drawing. Other specimens found
later showed two short suture lines. Last abdominal segment trian-
gular with a median fissure at the posterior extremity. Inner ramus
of uropod about as long as telson and immovable; outer branch half
as long as inner, and movable.
Cirolana harfordi var. spongicola n. var.
Locality Sponges at low tide mark, Laguna Bead), California.
Color White, but marked with fine black dots.
jTirst annual Report
Figure 72. Dynamene glabra (Richardson)
A, First leg. B, Second leg. C, Third leg. D, Fifth leg. E, First pleopod of
male. F, Sixth leg. G, Seventh leg. H, Maxilliped. I, Second maxilla. J, Man-
dible. K, Uropod. L, Telson.
ILaguna C0arinc Laboratory
Body very convex and oblong, about three times as long as wide,
7 nim. by 2.5 mm. being the dimensions of a small specimen.
Head twice as wide as long with frontal margin rounded. Eyes
composite, occupying lateral margins of the bead. Second antenna
has a peduncle of five articles ; the first three are small ; fourth about
as long as first three ; fifth longer and narrower than fourth ; flagel-
lum composed of twenty-two articles ; in five specimens examined the
number of articles varied from twenty-two to twenty-nine, average
twenty-four.. Anteuuule has a peduncle of three articles ; first two
small and subequal; third half as wide and equal in length to the
first two ; flagellum composed of twelve articles, average out of five
specimens examined, ten articles ; maxillipeds composed of seven
articles; last five provided with many long plumose spines; third
article has two blunt hooks. Mandible robust, broad and strong
distally where it ends in a trideutate margin. Mandibular palp has
three articles. Frontal lamina short and broad and is sub-trian-
gulate at the distal end.
First segment of thorax longer .than the following three, which
are subequal. Last three longer than the three preceding. Epiniera
distinct on all but first segment. Last foi;r segments marked with
an oblique, first two with a longitudinal carina. Epimera of last
three, especially of last two, segments produced at post-lateral
angles. First three legs prehensile, last four ambulatory. In the
first pair the propodus has three spines on the inner margin which
increase in size toward the distal end, where one long slender spine
also occurs ; on the outer distal end there are one or two slender
spines. The carpus usually has but one long spine ; the inerus has
five or six thick, blunt spines on the inner margin and two or three
sharp ones. On the outer distal end there are two long slender
spines; the ischium has one blunt spine on the inner distal margin
similar to the blunt spines on the nierus ; there is one long, stout one
and one long, slender spine on the outer distal end. The propodus
of the second and third legs has on the inner margin four spines
increasing in length toward the distal end. The carpus has three
blunt spines on the inner distal end. The merus has eight or nine
large spines on the inner margin; one long and strong and from one
to four shorter ones on the outer distal end. The ischium has two
very blunt spines at the inner distal end, and two or three smaller
spines at the outer distal extremity. Last four legs provided with
many stout spines.
Abdomen composed of six visible segments. Last, triangular,
gradually narrows to a rounded apex which is provided with about
eight teeth and numerous long hairs. Peduncle of uropod is pro-
duced to two-thirds the length of the telson; inner ramus is wider
Jfirst annual Heport
Figure 73. Cirolana harfordi var. spongicola
A, Dorsal view. B, First maxilla. C, Mandible. D, Maxilliped. E, Frontal
lamina, clypeus and labrum. F, Second maxilla. G, Second antenna. H, First an-
tenna. I, First leg. J, Second leg. K, Fourth leg. L, Seventh leg. M, First pleopod
of male. N, Second pleopod of male. O, Telson and uropod.
Note: The extremities of both the inner and of the outer rami are very
distinctly serrate, especially the outer.
ILaguna cparine laboratory 133
than the outer and somewhat longer, provided with spines and teeth.
Outer branch is also thickly spined. Both the inner and outer rami
are very markedly serrate, especially the outer, in which the extrem-
ity is so sharply divided that it appears bifurcated.
These specimens found in the sponges appear to be very closely
related to Cirolana hoi'fordi (Lockington) but the marked difference
in the number of spines at the extremity of the telson and the evident
difference in the extremities of the uropod rami, which are more
rounded and much less emarginate in Ciroldiia Intrfordi seems to
warrant a varietal distinction. The lateral margins of the telson
of Cirolana harfordi are curved near the base; in the specimens
obtained from the sponges these margins are straight. These differ-
ences, with those of size and habitat, allow at least a distinction in
134 jfirst annual Report
STUDIES IN LAGUNA AMPHIPODA
VINNIE E. STOUT
Orchestia traskiana Stimpson
(Figures 74 and 75)
Numerous specimens taken agree very well with the description
of 0. traskiana iu Das Tierreich, except in having the distance be-
tween the eyes varying from considerably less to a little more than
one diameter, also in having the flagellum of antenna II with the
flagellum somewhat longer than peduncle and 16-18 jointed in male,
all the female specimens observed having fourteen joints. Color,
dull shades of grayish brown and green, with the appendages bluish.
Very common under decaying algte about edges of a brackish
water slough which is reached by salt water only at times of extreme
high tides. Laguua Beach, California. Coll. V. R. Stout.
Amphithoe corallina n. sp.
(Figures 76 and 77)
The color of the body varying from a fairly bright brownish
green 282 (Valette) to dull orange-green 182 and 178; antennas about
tone of green 203; other appendages light and transparent; back,
sides, legs, and antennae spotted with white ; females carrying bright
orange colored eggs.
Body robust and smooth. Head very broad and deep. Eyes
small, subrotund, black. Antennae one and two nearly the same in
length, a little more than half as long as the body. First joint of
peduncle of antenna one a little longer than the second joint and
almost three times as long as the third ; flagellum about twenty-six-
jointed and a little longer than the peduncle. Antenna two stouter,
peduncle longer than the twenty-four-jointed flagellum ; ultimate
joint of peduncle a little shorter than the penultimate. Lower lip
similar to that of A. flindersi. Mandibular palp large, third joint
longer than second and armed with six long spines. Maxilla two
normal with inner plate fringed with compound hairs. Gnathopods
one and two about the same length ; gnathopod two broader and more
thickly setose. Second joint of perseopods one to five slightly expand-
ed, joint of peraeopod three most strongly so. Propodus of
perseopods one and two strongly narrowed distally ; propodus of
peraeopod four expanded distally, and propodus of peraeopod five
slightly expanded distally. Pleopods one to three thickly clothed
with long setae; basal joint of raini about one-third as long as peduu-
Figure 74. Orchestia traskiana
A, Adult male. B, First maxilla. C. Second maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Lower
lip. F, Upper lip. G, Maxillipeds. II, First antenna. I, Second antenna. J, First
gnathopod of female. K, First gnathopod of male. L, Second gnathopod of female.
JFirst annual Report
cle; rami subequal. Uropods one to three normal, two reaching not
quite as far back as one and three ; none of the rami as long as their
peduncles; outer rami in one and two shorter than inner, in three
longer than inner. Telson somewhat broader than long, bluntly tri-
angular, with several lateral spinules. Length 6-8 mm.
Laguna Beach, California. Occasional in tufts of coralline algse
between tides. Coll. V. R. Stout.
Amphilochus litoralis n. sp.
Entire animal colored a delicate pink, varying from red 21 to 3B
Body smooth, stout, and quite compact, the dorsum strongly
arched. Rostrum long. Side-plate very small and convex in front.
Antennas short and stout, less than one-fourth the length of the body.
Antenna one with the six-jointed flagellum longer than the peduncle.
Antenna two more setose, and with the peduncle nearly twice as long
as the six-jointed flagellum. Upper lip incised, with somewhat un-
Figure 75. Orchestia traskiana
A, Second gnathopod of male. B, First peraeopod.
D, Fifth peraeopod. E, Third uropod. F, First uropod.
C, Third peraeopod.
G, Second uropod. H,
Figure 76. Amphithoe corallina
A, Adult male. B, Second antenna. C, First antenna. D, First maxilla. E,
Second maxilla. F, Lower lip. G, Maxillipeds. H, Mandible. I, First, second and
third pairs of uropods, and telson.
jfir0t Annual Ueport
Figure 77. Amphithoe corallina
A, First gnathopoil. B, Second gnathopod. C, First peraeopod. D, Second
peraeopod. E, Third peraeopod. F, Fifth peraeopod. G, Fourth peraeopod. H,
Third pleopod. I, First pleopod.
Figure 78. Amphilochus litoralis
A, Adult male. B, Right mandible. C, Second maxilla. D, First maxilla.
E, Left mandible. F, Maxillipeds. G, Inner plate of maxillipeds. H, First antenna.
I, Second antenna. J, Second pleopod. K, First gnathopod. L, Palm and linger of
first gnathopod. M, Second gnathopod. N, Palm and finger of second gnathopod.
O, Fifth peraeopod. P, First peraeopod. Q, First, second and third pairs of uropoda,
140 jTirst annual Report
symmetrical front lobes. Lower lip without inner lobes ; outer lobes
edged with long, slender spiuules. Mandibles with three-jointed
palp; third joint of palp longer than both the first and second, and
armed with short, scarcely discernible setules. Left mandible witli
inner plate, which is more finely toothed than the outer ; molar obso-
lete. First maxilla with small inner plate bearing a single spine at
the slightly concave apex; outer plate with seven spines at the oblique
apex, and a bunch of small seta? at the inner edge of the spine-row;
two-jointed palp with three short spines at the apex. Outer plate of
maxilla two-tipped with three compound spines, and fringed on the
outer margin with slender seta?; inner plate tipped with six com-
pound spines. Maxillipeds with slender inner plates reaching about
to distal end of the first joint of the palp, and bearing three short
spines at the apex; outer plate broader, extending a little beyond
the first joint of the palp, the broadly rounded distal margin bearing
one long spine, several small spines on the inner part, and finely
serrate on the outer part ; the joints of the palp gradually diminish-
ing in size from the first to the finger.
Gnathopod one the smaller, fifth joint with spines extending
almost to the palm, which bears ten slender spines. Second gnath-
opod with the sixth joint widening to the oblique palm, the front
margin of which bears a row of twelve small spines, and at the apex
two strong spines; in neither one does the linger extend quite to
the apex of the palm. Peraopods one and two slender, nearly equal.
Perseopods three to five with second joint greatly expanded into a
broad, flat plate, gradually increasing in size to the fifth. The rami
of the subequal pleopods bear long, finely compound setse. Uropod
one extending almost to distal end of uropod three, peduncle much
longer than the subequal rami. Uropod two much shorter, the
peduncle of equal length with the inner ramus; the outer ramus
narrow and more than half as long as the inner. Uropod three
extending beyond uropods one and two; peduncle much longer than
the rami ; inner ramus the longer. Telson about half as long as the
peduncle of uropod three, about twice as long as broad, and con-
verging slightly to the pointed apex. Length '2 mm.
This species resembles most closely ^4. iinirinitix, but differs
especially in the characters of the mandible, maxillipeds, uropods,
Laguna Beach, California. Common in Phyllospadix. Coll. V.
Genus Dulichiella n. gen.
Body slender; peraeon segment one the shortest, sixth and sev-
enth not coalesced. Pleon of six segments beside the telson, third
most elongate; some of the pleou segments toothed posteriorly.
Laguna O^arinc ILa&oratorp
Head not produced in front. Antennae strong and setose; antenna
one much longer than antenna two, flagellum longer than peduncle,
accessory flagellum present; antenna two with peduncle about twice
as long as flagellum. Mouth parts normal. Gnathopod one sub-
chelate, fifth joint longer but not broader than sixth. Gnathopod
two in female and left guathopod two in male similar to gnathopod
one, though with the sixth joint longest and strongest. Right gnath-
opod two in male with sixth joint very large and powerful. Perae-
opods one and two long and slender. Peraeopods three to five stronger
and very long; much alike, fifth slightly longest; second joint ex-
panded, sixth joint longer than any other except second. Uropods
one and two with rather strong, unequal rami. Uropod three a con-
cave, spinose plate projecting over lateral margin of telson. Telson
This genus is evidently nearest the genus Duliclna, but differs
from it particularly in the character of the first antenna, second
right gnathopod of male, shape of peraeopods three to five, presence
of rudimentary third uropods and shape of telson.
Figure 79. Dulichiella spinosa. Adult male
Dulichiella spinosa n. sp.
(Figures 179 and 180)
Body colored a pale, delicate green 228C (Valette), speckled
with dark red 27.
Body slender and smooth. Head longer than broad, but not
greatly produced in front. Eyes large, black, and irregular. An-
tenna one with thirty-eight-jointed flagellum, which is longer than
the peduncle; accessory flagellum five-jointed; second joint of
jfirst Annual Report
Figure 80. Dulichiella spinosa
A, Second antenna. B. First antenna. C. Lower lip. D, First maxilla. E, Max-
illipecls. F, Mandible. G, Second maxilla. H, Second right gnathppod of male.
T, First gnathopod of male. J, Second left gnathopod of male. K, First paraeopod
L, Fifth peraeopod. M, First pleopod. N, First uropod. O, Second and third pair
of uropoda, and telson.
ILaguna Marine Laboratory 143
peduncle somewhat longer than the first joint and about three times
as long as the third joint. Antenna two about two-thirds as long
as antenna one; thirteen-jointed flagellum about one-half as long
as peduncle. Upper lip slightly hi-lobed. Mandibular palp ([iiite
large, second joint broader and longer than the third, both armed
with long, slender spines. Maxilla one with rather large, triangular
shaped inner plate, fringed with line seta? on the inner edge, and
armed with one compound, apical spine. Maxillipeds with outer
plates much larger than the inner, and carrying several compound
seta? along the apical margin, finely toothed and setose along the
inner margin ; palp long and strong. Pleopods rather large and
very much alike, the sub-equal rami bearing long, compound setae.
Tel son long. Pleon segments all toothed posteriorly. Length 5-7
Laguua Beach, California. Frequent in kelp holdfasts from deep
water. Coll. V. B, Stout.
Genus Acanthogrubia n. gen.
Head without rostrum. Side-plates one to five well developed,
fifth the broadest and deepest. Antenna one not as long as peduncle,
with four-jointed accessory flagellum. Antenna two, two-thirds as
long as antenna one, with peduncle slightly longer than flagellum.
Mouth parts prominent. Upper lip broadly rounded. Lower lip
with well developed inner lobes, and bifid outer lobes with prominent
mandibular processes. Mandible normal, third joint of palp broadly
rounded at apex, and armed with numerous long seta?. Maxilla one
armed with ten apical spines, second joint of palp broad with several
spines on the apex and inner margin. Maxilla two outer plate the
broader; inner plate as long as outer and thickly fringed on inner
margin. Maxillipeds, outer plates large. Gnathopods one and two
subchelate, gnathopod two the larger. Pera?opods one and two long,
slender, second joint slightly expanded. Pera?opod three, second
joint expanded, broader than long. Peraxipods four airl five the
longest. Uropod three, outer ramus with two hooks. Telson short
and broad, armed only with set.T.
This genus differs from Amphithoe in having an accessory flagel-
lum on the first antenna. It also differs from Paraf/nihin in having
a four-jointed instead of one-jointed accessory flagellum, in having
the flagellum of the second antenna not elongate, and the second
joint of the third peraeopod as broad as long.
jfirst annual Report
Figure 81. Acanthogrubia uncinata
A, Adult male, the lines separating the two lobes of side-plate 5 to be considered
as a groove. B, Upper lip. C, Lower lip. D, First maxilla. E, Mandible. F, Second
gnathopod. G, Maxillipeds. H, Third pair of uropoda, and telson.
Figure 82. Acanthogrubia uncinata
A, First uropod. B, Second maxilla. C, Fir>t snathopod. D, First antenna. E,
Second antenna. F, First peraeopod. G, Second uropod.
JTicst annual Hcport
Acanthogrubia uncinata n. sp.
(Figures 81, 82 and 83)
Entire body varying between tbe two tones of orange-green 152
and 177 (Valette). Flagella of antenna? ringed witb white. Eyes
Body robust. Head produced in front of eyes. Side-plate one
produced forward. Side-plate five with very deep front lobe and
small hind lobe. Eyes small, subrotund. Antenna one, first joint of
peduncle slightly longer than second, and four times as long as third;
flagellum forty to sixty-jointed, accessory flagellum as long as first
four joints of primary flagellum. Antenna two, stout, setose; sec-
ond joint of peduncle longer than third, and about twice as long as
lirst; flagellum thirty-one-jointed. Mandible, palp stout, third joint
fringed with compound setae on the broadly rounded apex, principal
and s ..... mdary plates dentate, toothed spines in spine-row, molar
small. Maxilla one, outer plate with ten spines, second joint of palp
broad with nine small spines around the apex and inner margin,
with a diagonal row of slender setules around the whole joint.
Maxilla two, both plates thickly fringed with compound setae. Maxil-
lipeds, outer plates fringed with two rows of short spines; inner
plate thickly fringed with long, compound setae.
Gnathopod one, fifth joint long, but not so long as the oval
sixth; sixth joint setose, palm not defined, finger faintly serrate.
Gnathopod two in female thickly setose, similar to guathopod one,
but with shorter and broader fifth joint; enlarged sixth joint, with
palm distinct and curved, finger longer than palm and faintly
serrate. Per.Topods one and two, second joint long and narrowly
rectangular, sixth joint narrowing distally. Peraeopod three, second
joint expanded, as broad as long, sixth joint with fine spines. Peraeo-
pods four and five much longer and proportionately narrower; sec-
ond joint somewhat expanded and narrowing towards the distal end ;
sixth joint with six spines and not narrowing distally. Pleopods
with unequal rami fringed with long compound spines. Uropods one
and two, peduncle longer than the unequal rami. Uropod three,
peduncle a little longer than the rami, with a transverse row of
short spines on the apical margin; outer ramus with two spine-like
hooks ; inner ramus broader with a transverse row of short spines,
one apical spine, and a row of seta?. Telson as broad as long. Length
Laguna Beach, California. Occasional in tubes in kelp holdfasts
from deep water. Coll. V. E. Stout.
Laguna S@anne Laboratory
Figure 83. Acanthogrubia uncinata
A, Fifth peraeopod. B, First pleopod. C, Third peraeopod.
JFirst annual Beport
Figure 84. Hyalella azteca
A, Adult female. B, Maxillipeds. C, First maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Second
maxilla. F, Lower lip. G, Second gnathopod of male. H, Second gnathopod of
female. I, First gnathopod. J, Second antenna. K, First antenna. L, Second
peraeopod. M, Third peraeopod. N, Fifth peraeopod. O, First uropod. P, First
pleopod. Q, Second uropod. R, Third uropod. S, Telson.
ILaguna S^arine ILaboratorp 149
Hyalella azteca (Sauss)
Body smooth, slightly compressed. Pleon segments one and two
each produced into a small dorsal tooth. Side-plates one to four
somewhat rectangular. Eyes nearly round. Antenna one, five to
eight-jointed, flagellum longer than peduncle ; joints of peduncle suc-
cessively diminishing in length. Antenna two, slightly longer, the
seven to ten-jointed flagellum longer than peduncle; joints of
peduncle successively increasing in length. Maxillipeds, inner plate
tipped with three short, stout spines, and edged on the inner side
with slender compound setae; outer plate with nine toothed spines
and very small palp. Maxilla two, both plates apically fringed with
fine spinules, which, on the inner plate, are edged with two plumose
setae. Mandible normal, principal and secondary plates dentate,
plumose spinules in spine-row, molar large, with compound seta.
Gnathopod one, small, slender, fourth joint with small pellucid
boss on the distal hind end ; fifth joint with bulging hind margin,
fringed with row of spines and short teeth; sixth joint not so wide,
but sub-equal in length, hind margin covered with fine, short hairs,
curved finger reaching to end of the transverse, toothed palm.
Gnathopod two in both male and female, with bulging fifth joint
edged with spines, sixth joint in male very large and stout, longer
than broad, oblique palm with two notches underneath the strong,
curved finger. Finger not reaching to hinder margin of palm, but
closing between two spines just in front of a third notch. Gnath-
opod two in female, longer and stronger than gnathopod one, fifth
joint considerably produced behind, sixth joint twice as long as
widest part ; hind part produced somewhat beyond the small curved
finger and the convex, transverse palm. Perseopods three to five,
second joint broadly expanded, serrate; peraeopods four and five
nearly equal in length. Pleopods plumose. Uropod three, ramus
slender, tipped with setae, and subequal to peduncle. Telson, broad
as long; rounded apical margin with slender seta on either side of
Specimens agreeing well with description of H. azteca in Da a
Tierreich, except in being smaller, and in having, commonly, fewer
joints in the antennae. They differ from the family description of
Talitridae in having the inner plate of maxilla one tipped with three
plumose setae, and in having the fine spinules of the inner plate of
maxilla two edged with two plumose setae.
Color varying from light bluish green to light green and brown.
Frequent in fresh water pond about five miles inland from
Laguna Beach, California. Coll. H. V. M. Hall.
Jfirst annual Report
SOME DIPTERA OF LACUNA BEACH
F. R. COLE
Laguna Beach is an excellent collecting ground for Diptcra. The
hills and inland vegetation extend almost to the ocean in many places,
and with the varied topography and conditions, the insects are very
varied. The beach with its rocks, sand stretches, beach plants, and
decaying wrack, is swarming with Diptcra. A small, shallow brack-
ish water lagoon at the inner edge of the beach gave some interesting-
results in Diptcra, but Diptcra were collected on the rocks even to
within reach of the salt spray.
The collection of this year is but a mere beginning. I spent only
a few weeks at Laguna, and a large part of this time was consumed
iu anatomical studies. Most of the flies reported in the present
paper are either peculiar to the beach itself, or are found in the
varied vegetation of the upper beach.
Without extensive assistance from Prof. J. M. Aldrich of the
University of Idaho, it would have been impossible to present this
paper at this time. Messrs. Knab and lliue have also kindly made
determinations. The accompanying habit sketches of new species
will be amplified by drawings of anatomical details, during the coin-
Figure 85. Scatcpse californiana n. sp.
Aedes squamiger Coq.
This mosquito was common and occasionally annoying at Laguna.
breeding in great numbers in the small brackish water lagoon. De-
termination by Mr. Knab.
Ilaguna Ratine Laboratory
Scatopse californica n. sp.
This is a small, slender black fly with polished body. The abdo-
men is about eight times as long as wide, and the head is long, narrow
and flattened. The antenna? are large for the size of the head, and
the eyes are long and narrow. The abdomen is thinly pilose, the
hairs on the last segment and hypopygium longer than the rest. The
tibia 1 and tarsi are slender and broadened at the apical ends. The
body is spineless. Last joint of antenna longest. Proboscis entirely
black. Wings clear hyaline. Length 3 mm.
A single specimen collected by Prof. Baker. Apparently the first
Scatopse noted as peculiar to the Pacific Coast.
Figure 86. Euparyphus lagunae
Euparyphus lagunae n. sp.
A black, yellow marked fly, with a rather broad and flattened
body. The last three joints of tarsi are black, the first two black on
the distal ends. Body thinly pilose with long yellowish hair. Head
flattened. Femora and tibia? orange yellow, with no bristles. Front
black and very narrow. Base of antenna? with two yellow stripes,
152 jfir0t Annual mepott
wliich pass part way down the face. Four basal joints of the anten-
nas with long dark bristle-like hairs. Last joint of antennae slender
and twice as long as any other joint. Two longitudinal narrow yel-
low stripes on the thorax do not quite reach the scutellnm. Halteres
lemon yellow. This fly is much darker than E. bellus or E. ornatus.
Thorax above the wing with a small yellow patch, and a round yellow
patch on the lower corner of each abdominal segment as seen from
above. Last segment with base only black, the remainder yellow.
Ventrally the first segment of the abdomen is black, the rest sordid
yellow. Thorax black ventrally ; there is a lateral narrow yellow
stripe running from the base of the wing, the length of the thorax.
Occiput convex and black. Mouth parts yellow. Most of the sub-
costal, and the end of the costal cell, is brown, the rest of the wing
hyaline. Length 5.5 mm.; length of wing 5 mm.
A single specimen collected by Prof. Baker at Laguna Beach.
Toxophora pellucida Coq.
Psilocephala costalis Lw.
Psilocephala laevigata Lw.
Psilocephala marcida Coq.
The above three flies were taken in vegetation just back from the
Mallophora fautrix O. S.
Not uncommon. This species was described from Mexico.
Stichopogon trifasciatus Say.
This Asilid is widely distributed in the United States. At Laguna
it was common on the beach sand. It is a silver gray fly, with black
markings, and its colors blend with the sand perfectly. This pro-
tective coloration makes it very hard to locate when at rest. In
habits it is a typical robber-fly. Determined by Prof. Hine.
Drapetis nitida Melander
This fly was very common on the beach sand. It is quite small
and jet black, and runs rapidly here and there over the sand, seldom
flying to any distance. It is also found on the edge of the lagoon
and is very quick and hard to catch.
Laguna Racine ILafioratorp
Figure 87. Stichopogon trifasciatus
Figure 88. Parathalassius melanderi
154 jTirst Annual deport
Parathalassius melanderi n. sp.
A small black fly, silvery gray pruinose, with all the bristles white.
The hypopygium is darker. The vertex is broad and concave, and
the face below the antennae narrow, broadening again at the gray cly-
peus. The antennae are dark brown, the first two joints small, the
terminal arista slender and about twice as long as the third joint
of the antennae. The lower half of eye covered with fine white
pubescence. A fringe of bristles around the eye as in P. aldrichi.
The proboscis is small and blackish. The abdomen has a transverse
basal row of black pits on each segment. The hypopygium is large
and globular, the top almost bare, and attached to the left side of
the body as in P. /il/lricln. The legs are slender and covered with
short white bristles, and with no apical spurs, as in P. aldrichi. Under
side of front and hind femora with heavy white bristles, the knees
and tarsi yellow. Halteres whitish. Three conspicuous black pits
along the lower edge of each abdominal tergite. There are six pairs
of long dorse-central bristles on the thorax, two scutellar bristles,
but no pleural or supra-alar bristles. Anal vein not much longer
than anal cross vein. The ends of the wings are broadly brownish.
Length 2 mm.
Two specimens collected at Laguna, on the wet sand at the very
edge of the surf.
Trineura velutina Meig.
Occasional about decaying kelp.
Chalurus spurius Fall.
Nausigaster unimaculatus Twns.
Paragus tibialis Fall.
Eristalis tenax L.
The above four flies are frequent in the vegetation just back of
Occemyia baroni Will.
Ilaguna Qfjarine JLa&oratorp
Figure 89. Fucellia rufitibia
156 JFirgt annual deport
Clausicella setigera Thorn.
Plagiprospherysa parvipalis V. d. W.
Senotainia trilineata V. d. W.
Goniochaeta plagioides Twos.
Aldrich says of this: "New to me, and one of the few that
Coquillet did not include in his Revision. This is a big find." Town-
send described this from Las Cruces, N. M.
Chrysemyia nigripes \\ heeler
Pseudopyrellia cornicina Fab.
Myiospila meditabunda Fab.
Muscina stabulans Fall.
The above four flies were very common.
Hylemyia alcathoe \Ylk.
Pegomyia affinis Stein
Caricea nana Zett.
The above three flies are common in vegetation back of beach.
Fucellia costalis Stein
This species is quite common on decaying kelp. They are large,
quick flies. They seem to be at least partially predaceous in habit,
as I have seen them pounce upon weakened sand-hoppers and by
their numbers soon overcome them.
Fucellia rufitibia Stein
There are myriads of this fly swarming over the decaying kelp.
They are found with F. coxttilis, which, however, they vastly out-
number. They are slow of flight and easy to catch.
Coelops frigida Fall.
Common on decaying kelp.
Sapromyza flaveola Coq.
Abundant in vegetation near beach.
Sapromyza fraterna Lw.
Occasional with the last species.
Hagtina S@artne laboratory
Figure 90. Lauxania pacifica n. sp.
158 jTir$t annual deport
Lauxania pacifica n. sp.
A sliming black fly, with front arid face brownish red, base of
antenna? lighter. Abdomen gray pruinose, and quite thickly covered
with recliuate bristles. Antenna^ three-jointed, third joint about four
times as long as wide; dorsal arista is slender and bare, and about
the length of the antenna. Halteres yellowish. Legs light brown; a
long spine on the under side of front femora, and a long spine on the
mesopleura. There are four long scutellar bristles, and one sterno-
pleural bristle. The lateral bristles of the abdomen are quite long.
The length of the costal cell is about four times its width. The sub-
costal cell reaches hardly half way to the tip of the wing, and the
basal cells are very small. AVings yellowish hyaline. Length about
Collected at Laguua Beach by Prof. Baker. I have compared
this with descriptions of variceps, longicornis, nigrimana, ciiterea,
Chaetopsis aenea \Yd.
Euxesta compta n. sp.
Light reddish brown, gray pruinose, the abdomen more gray.
Differs widely from nutata, nitidiventris, stigmatus, fascipennis, and
ubdoiiiiiHilix, which are either black or bluish in general coloration.
Antennae red brown, the arista and third joint at base darker. Tin-
occiput is rather convex. Legs same color as body, the last four
joints of the metatarsi darkened. Head quite large, front broad,
bristles black. This species is perhaps closest to laticeps in color,
but darker. Like laticeps, the body is thinly gray pruinose. The
antenna? are not so bare as in laticeps. Four bristles on the vertical
triangle, two in front and two behind. Abdomen well clothed with
bristles. Costal cell and end of wing smoky. Length 4 mm. ; wing
Collected at Laguna Beach by Prof. Baker.
Eutreta sparsa YVied.
Ensina humilis L\v.
Euaresta abstersa Lw.
Euaresta aequalis Lw.
Urellia maverna \\'lk.
All of the above Trypetids were frequent in the vegetation back
from the beach.
liaguna g)arine Laboratory
Figure 91. Euxesta compta n. sp.
jTirst annual Report
Notiphila quadrisestosa Thorns.
Allotrichoma litoralis n. sp.
A very small flark gray fly. Third joint of antennae hairy, and
with a dorsal pectinate arista. The femora are quite stout. Eyes
reddish. Halteres whitish. Front very broad and gray pruinose.
The thorax with many reclinate spines. Lateral facial spines long.
Proboscis large and fleshy. Two pairs of vertical bristles and two
pair of ocellar bristles, one pair of the latter very small. The upper
half of the eye is hairy. There are two metapleural spines, two
sternopleurals, and one mesopleural spine. The wing is very simple,
the basal cells small and not clear. The wings are smoky-hyaline.
Length 1.25 mm.
A number of specimens taken at Laguna on the edge of the small
brackish lagoon not far from the ocean, usually consorting with
Linioshia. Allotrichoma ultdominalis is reported from West Indies
Figure 92. A, Allotrichoma littoralis n. sp. B, Face of Allotrichoma
Figure 93. Lipochaeta slossonae
Figure 94. Milichiella nigrella
162 jrirst annual Report
Psilopa atra Lw.
Psilopa mellipes Coq.
Both of these Psilopas were occasional about the lagoon.
Ephydra gracilis Pack.
Aldrich says of this : ' ' Described from Great Salt Lake, where it
is inconceivably abundant, even stopping trains. I did not find it
any where on my recent trip except at that lake, though the II. S.
Nat. Museum has it from Salton Sea and Yuma, Arizona. The opaca
of Jones is a synonym."
Ephydra subopaca var. millbrae Jones
Occurs with the above.
Lipochaeta slossonae Coq.
Frequent on the beach at Laguna.
Mosillus subsultans Fab.
The aeneus of the Aldrich Catalog. Very common on the beach
and in the vicinity of the brackish water lagoon.
Scyphella flava L.
Rhicnoessa parvula Lw.
Milichiella nigrella n. sp.
A polished jet black fly, with black legs. Halteres white. Eyes
gray. Antennae very short, the third joint rounded and covered with
short fine gray hairs. The dorsal arista is bare and slender. The
last four joints of the metatarsi very short. Last segment of abdo-
men longest and with long lateral spines. One long supra-alar spine,
and many short reclinate spines on thorax and abdomen. Scutellum
small and rounded and with two long spines. Two pairs of vertical
bristles, and one quite long heavy spine on the second joint of the
antenna; two pairs of short fronto-orbital spines. The first vein
of the wing is very heavy and brown in color. A dark spot at the
tip of the costal cell; wings otherwise hyaline. Length 3 mm. ; length
of wing 2.75 mm.
A number of specimens were taken on the beach at Laguna but
it is not common.
Ilaguna Q^arinc La&oratorp 163
LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED AT LAGUNA
HARRISON G. DYAR
The following moths flew to light in Prof. Baker's tent at Laguua
Beach the past summer. The character of these few accidental
specimens indicates what very interesting work might be done at
Lagnna Beach by a little systematic effort in this direction. It is
to be hoped that active work in the Lepidoptera will be continued
Apantesis proxima autholea Boisduval
One male specimen.
Copibryophila angelica Smith
Autographa brassicae Riley
Hydriomene custodiata Guenee
Chlorechlamys chloroleucaria Guenee
Cosymbia serrulata Packard
Eois ptelearia Riley
Sciagraphia californiaria Packard
Platea californiaria Herrich-Schaefrer
Animomyia morta Dyar
164 jffrst annual Report
Nomophila noctuella Dennis and Schiffermuller
Glaphyria reluctalis Hulst
Ephestiodes gilvescentella Ragonot
Maricopa mirabilicornella Dyar
Dicymolomia metalliferalis Packard
Thaumatopsis lagunella n. s.
Thorax and fore wing ochre yellow, the wing shaded with gray in
a band below median vein and on terminal third ; medial vein nar-
rowly white; discal venules also white; a black streak in lower part
of cell, continued beyond to apex, where it is bent sharply upward;
an oblique brown median line from end of cell to inner third of wing
on inner margin, flexuous in the middle ; a submarginal gray line
parallel to termen ; a terminal row of black dots ; a bright leaden line
at base of fringe. Hind wing gray. Expanse 26 mm.
One female specimen.
Type No. 14349, IT. S. National Museum.
Allied to fcnu/hlcUa Kearfott, but with the cross-lines more dis-
tinct, the discal venules paler and relieved on a gray ground.
The identification of this form leads me to make some passing
comment on Mr. W. D. Kearfott 's article on Thaumatopsis (Proc. U.
S. Nat. Mus., XXXV, 386, 1909), to which I naturally turned for the
identification of the specimen. An analytical key to the species is
there given, but to me it proves worthless, for the characters given
are quite contradictory to the actual species as I know them. For
example, edonis Grote is given with a white median streak, which is
in fact conspicuously absent; pexella Zeller is said to have no median
streak, whereas it is always more or less evident, often distinctly
white. Lest this be thought to be a transposition, due to the accidents
of typography, we find gibsoueUa Kearfott and coloradella Kearfott
also under the heading "median streak not white," which is certainly
ILaguna Ratine laboratory 1G5
true of gibsonella, a northern degraded form of edonis, and true also
to a certain degree of color adella, a small degenerate form of pexella;
but the separation of coloradella and pc fella is more apparent than
real, coloradella being called "whitish brown," pexella, "pale
ocherous." As a matter of fact they are of the same color, colora-
della being only a smaller, less distinctly marked form. Pectinifer
Zeller stand under the heading "fore wing chocolate brown," where-
as Zeller says in his original description that it is "bleich ockergelb. "
No mention is made of daeckeellus Kearfott (Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc.,
XI, 149, 1903), but this is not improbably due to the tacit acceptance
of its reference to the synonymy of striatella Fernald, which I once
made to Mr. Kearfott by letter. Mr. Kearfott 's article was pub-
lished in the Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, and is there-
fore supposed to have been founded upon museum material. To
comply with this requirement, the author of the paper deposited
types of many of his species in the collection. What was my surprise
to discover that of five cotypes of coloradella so deposited, two of
them especially labelled by Mr. Kearfott, no less than four were
spurious types, the localities from which they came not being men-
tioned in the original description at all ! Moreover, two of them are
true pexella, and not the form coloradella.
However, it is not my purpose to write a hostile criticism of Mr.
Kearfott 's paper, much as it failed me in an emergency. Perhaps
if he had written by daylight instead of by electric light, he would
have seen the specimens in the same colors that I do. The separation
of repauda Grote and crenulatella Kearfott by the pectinations of
the male antennas shows careful observation, while the description of
fenialdella corrects a prevalent misidentification, this form being-
still called "pectinifer Zeller," even recently in the British Museum.
Diatraea epia n. s.
White, silvery, the body parts grayish white; fore wing largely
overwashed with pale ochre scales, in, below and beyond the cell and
along submedian space; subterminally are ochre streaks between the
veins, uniting to form a submarginal line, a powdering of dark brown
scales about the yellow patch beyond the cell and throughout the sub-
median fold, also subterminally on the veins and in diffuse patches
terminally; fringe white with brown central line and brown tips.
Hind wing pale gray outwardly. Expanse, 21 mm.
Type, No. 14351, U. S. National Museum.
Diatraea prosenes n. s.
White, silvery, the body parts grayish white; fore wing shaded
with dull ocherous brown broadly between the veins, the streaks
166 jfirst annual Report
nearly filling the cell and subcostal region, but not strongly separ-
ated or contrasted from the white ground ; a curved line of this color
close to the outer margin ; some brown scattened scales on the veins,
forming lines outwardly on veins five and seven and more diffused
marks at the bases of veins three and four; some diffused marginal
groups of brown scales ; fringe interlined and tipped with brown.
Hind wing pale gray outwardly. Expanse, 22 mm.
Type, No. 14352, U. S. National Museum.
These two specimens, though very much alike, represent distinct
species, I think. The collection of series only will make the matter
ILaguna Marine Laboratory u>?
MICROLEPIDOPTERA FROM LAGUNA
BEACH, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
I am under obligation to Prof. C. F. Baker for some Microlepidop-
tera, which flew into his tent last summer at Laguna Beach, Southern
The collection has been deposited in U. S. National Museum and
contained the following species :
Platyptilia marmarodactyla Dyar
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 4938, 1903.
Bactra lanceolana, Hiibner
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5006, 1903.
Eucosma ridingsana Robinson
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5083, 1903.
Eucosma pulveratana Walsingham
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5122, 1903.
Phthorimaea operculella Zcller
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5616, 1903.
Gnorimoschema henshawiella Busck
Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus. XXV, p. 831, 1903.
Gnorimoschema laguna n. s.
Labial palpi light ochreous; extreme base and a small dot on
terminal joint just below apex brown. Face light ochreous. Head
and thorax light reddish ochreous; pata gina deer-brown. Fore-
wings deer-brown with a large basal dorsal area light reddish
ochreous; this area extends from base to apical third along dorsum
and is produced up beyond the fold in a large triangular spur to
the middle of the cell and in a smaller wave at basal third. Cilia
ochreous, dusted with brown. Hindwings light silvery fuscous ; cilia
light ochreous. Abdomen ochreous, lighter underneath, with velvety
deep ochreous spots on upper side of basal joints. Legs brown with
the joints ochreous.
Alar expanse, 19 mm.
Habitat Laguna Beach, Southern California; C. F. Baker, coll.
U. S. Nat. Mus. Type, No. 14335.
168 jfirgt annual Report
This species belongs to the gallae-solidaginis group and is close to
the type of the genus, but easily distinguished by the light ochreous
head and the lighter general color.
Gelechia figurella n. s.
Labial palpi silvery white, dusted with stone-gray exteriorly;
tuft on second joint well developed, furrowed, longer at base than
at tip. Face silvery white. Head and thorax ochreous, thickly suf-
fused with stone-gray and dark ochreous scales, which totally ob-
scure the ground-color except on the veins, which stand forth as
clear-cut thin whitish ochreous lines ; the entire venation even to the
fork at base of vein I 1 ' is plainly pictured on the upper surface of
the wings. Cilia silvery white. Hindwings silvery white. Abdomen
and legs light ochreous.
Alar expanse, 21 mm.
Habitat Laguna Beach, Southern California. C. F. Baker, coll.
U. S. Nat. HUB. Type, No. 14336.
Allied to Gelechia striatella Busck, but a larger and much lighter
and neater species.
Scythris sponsella Busck
Journ. N. York Ent. Soc. XV, p. 139, 1907.
Paraneura simulella Dietz
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Phil. XXXI, p. 12, 1905.
Amydria coloradella Dietz
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Phil. XXXI, p. 6, 1905.
Setomorpha rutella, Zellcr
Kongl. Svensk. Vet. Ak. Handl., p. 93, 1852.
Setomorpha operosella Zeller
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull 52, No. 6549, 1903.
Acrolophus occidens Busck
Proc. Wash. Ent, Soc. XI, p. 186, 1909.
Acrolophus flavicomus n. s.
Labial palpi curved, ascending, short, hardly reaching vertex;
loosely tufted on first joint and in less degree on second and third
joint; light ochreous; terminal joint dark brown above. Head and
thorax ochreous brown. Forewings light, ochreous brown with two
dark ill-defined streaks, forming an irregular cross; one from the
middle of dorsum to costa just before apex; the other from tornus
to basal fourth of costa; the latter is often more or less broken up
ILaguna agarine ILafaoratorp iro
and is easily partly lost in rubbed specimens. Still more easily lost
and in fact only preserved in perfect specimens is a series of five
undulating lines of white raised scales across the wing; on the fold
in the central one of these white lines is an ill-defined black dot and
the outer crossline contains two or three small patches of black scales
before the terminal edge. Cilia light ochreous. Hindwings dark
fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous. Legs ochreous fuscous with faint-
ly nnnulated tarsal joints.
Alar expanse, 19 mm.
Habitat Laguna Beach, Southern California. C. F. Baker, coll.
U. S. Nat. Mus. Type, No. 14337.
This species belongs to the group, described under the generic
name Eulepiste Wlsm. and comes closest to cressoni Wlsm. and
maculifer Wlsm., but is amply distinguished by the ornamentation.
The various genera, erected in the family Acrolophidae on the sec-
ondary sexual characters of the labial palpi can not be maintained.
(See Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. XI, p. 186, 1909).
170 jfirst annual Ucpott
SOME COLEOPTERA OF THE BEACH
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES BY
DR. M. BERNHAUER
C. F. BAKER
No thorough collecting of Coleoptera was done at Laguna during
the first year. However, in all our work along the beach and near
the beach, beetles were collected wherever possible. Masses of de-
caying kelp on the upper beach commonly swarmed with myriads
of Staphylinidae, Cercyou, and AcrittiH. Common on the sand of the
upper beach and driven out in considerable numbers by unusually
high tides occurred Dyschirins Hiai-hutx, P/mtoin/ilota opaca, Einphy-
iixtcs fucicola and Phycocoetes tcxtm-nix. The Dyscliiriuv, Pontn-
malota and Phycocoetes are remarkably protected on the sand, by
their color. All four of these beetles appeared to be much more ac-
tive in the late afternoon.
Tiie vegetation of the upper beach included the usual array of
maritime plants like SaJicnn/in, Hrl'mlni/iiuni, Atriplex, Fratikcina,
etc., and at the mouth of a small stream, Cypcrus, Salix, Typlia, etc.
A few beetles were also taken among these latter plants. The whole
locality would doubtless yield rich returns by careful collecting, as
Is evidenced by the new Lappus, the new Ei/flalus found commonly
on Cypcrus, and by various new Staphylinida?.
The determinations of species have mostly been made by Prof. H.
C. Fall, to whom we are much indebted for this and other favors.
Dr. Bernhauer has worked up the Staphylinidae, a task for which he
is always very willing.
Dyschirius marinus Lee.
Common on open sand areas of the upper beach.
Cercyon fimbriatum Mann.
Occasional in masses of rotting kelp.
Pontomalota bakeri Ilernhaner nov. sp.
" Rufotestacea, opaca, abdomine ad apicem minus opaco, segmento
sexto parum obscuriore, thorace parum transverse, angulis posticis
subrotundatis; abdomine autice opaco-reticulato, postice subtiliter
ILagtina C0arine Laboratory 1/1
dense punctate, segmento septimo maris asperato-punctata. Long.
Yon Dr. Fenyes in Snd-Kalifornieu (Redondo) entdeekt. Mit
Pontomalota opaca Lee. sehr nahe venvandt nnd leielit mit ilir zu
verwechseln, jedoch durch den vorn ganz maten, glanzlosen Ilinter-
leib sowie welters nodi duroh folgende Merkmale leicht zu unter-
schieden: breiter und kiirzer. Der Halsscbild ist um ein guter Stuck
breiter als lang, die Hinterecken weniger angedeutet, verrundet. Der
Hinterleih ist auf den vorderen 3 frei leigenden Tergiten gleicli-
inassig dieht cliagriuiert matt, wahrend bei opaca Lee. diese Tergite
deutlieh und diclit punktiert, sind, auch treten melir oder minur
auffallig 2 dunklere Langsflecke zu beiden Seiten der cliite dieser
Tergite auf, welche nach liinteu convergieren, wahrend solclie Makeln
bei opaca nioht vorlianden sind. Ursprunglich hist ich, da ich einer-
zeit die neue Art imter dem Namen opaca Lee. erhalten hatte, die
echte opaca Lee. fur eine neue Art. Nach der Leconte'schen Besch-
reihung kann aber als opaca nur die auf den vordereu Tergiten
deutlieh punktierte Art, angeschen werden, da Leconte ausdruck, lieh
nur den Vorderkorper als mattchagriniert bezeichnet.
Pontomalota opaca Lee. wurde von Prof. Baker in S. Kalifornien
(Laguna Beach) erbeutet. "
Pontomalota opaca Lee.
Common at Laguna running over the sand of the upper beach.
Tarphiota pallidipes Casey
Common in decaying kelp.
Cafius canescens Alakl. var.
Common in decaying kelp.
Cafius lithocharinus Lee.
In myriads in decaying kelp.
Cafius luteipennis Morn.
Common under decaying kelp.
Cafius sulcicollis Lee.
Abundant in kelp.
Bledius albidipennis Bernhauer nov. spec.
"Niger, subopacus, subsenescens, elytris praeter basins angustam
suturam que albidis, autennis oreque jiiceis, pedibus la'te flavis,
thorace subcordato, sat transverse canaliculate, dense alutaeeo, sub-
tiliter minus dense punctato. Long. 4 mm.
172 jTicst annual Report
Sud-Kaliforuien : Laguna Beach (leg. Baker). Eine durch ihre
farbuug und die Skulptur, namerlich des Halsschildes sehr ausge-
zeichnete Art. Schwarz mit weisgelben flugeldecken, deren ausserste
Basis und Nalit dunkel gefarbt siud, deutlich etwas erglanzend, die
fuhler und der Mund schmutzig gelb, die ersteren gegen die Spitze
schwarzlich, die seine blassgelb. Der Kopf ist ausserst dicht und
fein cbagriniert, vollkommen matt und uber dies weitlaufig und
ausserst zart kaum whr nehnibar punktiert. Halsscbild urn ein gutes
Stuck schnialer als die flugeldecken, fast urn die Halfte breiter als
lang, voru aus gescliuitteu mit spitzeu Vorderecken, naeli ruchwarts
aus geschweift verengt die Hinterecken zahnformig vortreteud, in
den Mittellinie scharf gefurcbt, uberall aussertst dicht, jedoch ziem-
lich gron chragiuiert und uber dies fein und wenig dicht punktiert,
mit sehr geringein Glanze. Flugeldecken fast doppelt so lang als
der Halsschild, freu und sehr dicht punktiert, glanzender als der
Halsschild. Hinterleib ziemlich fein und wenig dicht, an den Seiten
dichter punktiert und daselbst lang begaart.
Herr. Professor Baker fiend diese schone Art an der Meereskuste
unter ausgeworfenem Tang."
Hippodamia ambigua Lee.
Coccinella californica Fab.
Scymus marginicollis Mann.
All these cocciuellids are common on the upper beach.
Acritus maritimus Lee.
Common under decaying kelp.
Attalus trimaculatus Mots.
Frequent on upper beach among plants.
Trichochrous aenescens Lee.
Common on upper beach.
Trichochrous squalidus Lee.
Frequent on upper beach.
Cyclocephala villosa Burin.
Frequent at light.
Serica mixta Lee.
Common at light.
liaguna Ratine ILa&oratorp 173
Pachybrachys punctatus Bowditch
Common ou upper beach.
Glyptoscelis squamulatus Cr.
Occasional on upper beach.
Trirhabda flavolimbata Mann.
Common on willows.
Psylliodes punctulatus Mels.
Occasional on upper beach.
Longitarsus livens Lee.
Abundant on Heliotr opium curassavicum.
Notoxus constrictus Casey
Common on upper beach.
Lappus n. sp.
Also common on upper beach.
Emphyastes fucicola Mann.
We found this but rarely in the masses of decaying kelp, but it
was common crawling over open sand just above the upper tide limit.
Endalus n. sp.
Found resting in ripe seed heads of a Cyperus just back of the
beach, sometimes several in a head.
Phycocoetes testaceus Lee.
Abundant crawling over sand.
Epimechus mimicus Dietz
Occasional on upper beach. Both this and the preceding species
present, by reason of their pale yellowish color, a most remarkable
adaptation to life on the sand.
174 jrirst annual Report
MALLOPHAGA FROM BIRDS AT LAGUNA
JOHN H. PAINE
STANFORD UNIVERSITY. CALIFORNIA
The following list of determinations, with one new species, was
made from material collected at Laguna Beach, California, by Mr.
Docophorus communis Nitzsch
A number of specimens from Zuiinlntlui >iicl>n><-i>p]Kil<i, the
Docophorus lari Denny
Two specimens from Lanix ucciilt'iiidHtt, the common Western
Docophorus excisus var. major Kellogg
One female of this species, with its curiously incised clypcus,
from PetrocheUdon hnilfroiis, the Cliff Swallow.
Nirmus foedus Kellogg and Chapman
Specimens from Zenaidura inn/ nmr/i, Kui/on/i* ni<iric<nis xci\-
u/>'</ and Tijrdiiiiitx ri'iiicnlis.
Nirmus splendidus Kellogg
A number of specimens from the California Thrasher, Tc>.rns1<nn<i
ri'd/ririini, and from the Eoadrunner, (li'ucn, <//.<
Nirmus maritimus Kellogg and Chapman
A large number of specimens from Ptiiflioi-umplius (ilniticux, the
Nirmus fuscus Xitsch
Two individuals from a Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparveriu* drm-rt-
icola ) .
Nirmus longus Kellogg
Six specimens from PetrocheUdon
Lipeurus baculoides n. sp.
Numerous males and females from the mourning dove,
macroura. This species resembles L. Ixiniliis, the common parasite
of pigeons, possessing the two modified hairs on the clypeus, a char-
ILaguna Ratine lU&oratorp
acteristic of L. baculiix. However, the male antenna? differ markedly
in the new species, which is also much smaller, with shorter abdomen.
Description of male: color pale with chestnut and black mark-
ings; head resembling L. l><i<-ulnx, but with broader, rounded tem-
ples; two peculiarly flattened, modified hairs on the clypeus. Length
of segments of antennae similar to those in female, excepting second
which is slightly longer; third segment with slight indication of an
appendage. (Figure 95 D and E).
Thorax pale in color with dark, often black, markings. Abdomen
elongate, shorter and broader than in L. bacillus with pale median
blotches and dark lateral bands. Last segment consisting of two
rounded lobes; last segment in the female formed of two larger tri-
Thorax . .38
Abdomen . . 1.16
Figure 95. Lipeurus baculoides Paine
A, Adult male. B, posterior segments of male. C, Posterior segments of
female. D, Antenna of male. E, Antenna of female.
176 jfirst annual deport
Colpocephalum timidum Kellogg
Numerous specimens from Limosa fedoa, the Marbled Godwit.
Colpocephalum kelloggi Osborn
One male from a buzzard (Cathartes aurea), Aliso Canyon.
Menopon malleus Nitzsch
One female specimen of this rather rare species from the Cliff
Swallow (Petrochelidon luuifruiis.)
Menopon dissimile Kellogg
Two specimens also from the Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon luni-
Menopon alternatum Osborn
A small number collected from a buzzard (Cathartes aurea),
Menopon funereum Kellogg and Chapman
Three specimens from Aphelocoma californica, the California
ILaguna Ratine Laboratory 177
SOME MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ACARINA
OF LACUNA BEACH
HABEY V. M. HALL
During the summer we picked up quite a series of mites, many of
them new species. From this material I describe the following mites
which are mostly marine or littoral. Among them the Gamasidae
are represented by a species that is parasitic on the large beach
amphipods, a Sarcoptid was taken from one of the birds, the Trom-
bidida? are represented by a large red Ehyncolophid common on the
dry sand of the upper beach, the Hydrachnids by a new marine
species and the Halicarida? by three new species. In the last two
families good series were obtained but only by means of much towing
and patient search.
Seius orchestoideae n. sp.
Length without rostrum 641 micrrn., 542 micrrn. ; width 410 micrm.,
320 micrm. Length of legs one and four about 520 micrm. ; length of
legs two and three about 400 micrm. Color of female light straw,
that of male still lighter ; smooth but not polished. Dorsal plate en-
tire and covering whole dorsum. Shape ovoid, the anterior end some-
what sharper (especially so in the male) and the posterior end
rather flattened (also most marked in the male). Body broadest one-
third of the way from the posterior end. The outline form 'above
runs to the rounded anterior point without any shoulder-like bulge
in either sex. Dorsal surface evenly convex. Mandibles greatly
retractile (shown extended in the figure but can be drawn wholly
within the body). Both arms of chela? short, stout. The fixed arm
with a terminal beak proximal to which is one other tooth; the
movable arm has two teeth which fit between and proximal to those
on the fixed arm. From the movable arm and pointing outward
and forward is a cylindrical process slightly swollen at the end in
the male but not so swollen in the female. This process is about
the same diameter as one of the leg-spines measured at the base
of such a spine. Coxa3 almost contiguous and legs long, without
apophyses in either sex ; all legs sparsely set with short, stout spines
and terminated by short caruncles with claws on all legs. Dorsal
surface with a few very heavy spines, over twice the diameter of
those on the legs and placed as follows: (except for the first pair
at anterior margin and close together, all these spines are directed
backwards) : A doul)le row of four pairs of spines extends back
through the medial section of the dorsum as far as back edge of
coxa three. Beginning over the front edge of coxa two, a sub-
marginal row of three, and a marginal row of three, extend back
as far as hack edge of coxa three. The longest pair of spines in the
dorsum are situated behind and equally distant from the terminal
spines of the medial and sub-marginal rows of their respective sides.
Around the posterior end of the abdomen on dorsal and ventral sides
are scattering, fine, short spines. Peritreme long and only slightly
bent around coxa two and extending forward past coxa one. Anal
plate separate in both sexes, large, broad, and not pointed behind but
Figure 96. Seius orchestoideae
with the posterior margin straight across; all corners rounded. Anal
opening in the center. Male genital opening on anterior margin of
sternal plate ; no teeth on the legs.
From the foregoing characters this species according to Banks's
key belongs in the genus Seius, which however he says has been
divided by Ribaga into four sub-genera. As I have not been able
to obtain Ribaga 's paper, it seems best to place my specimens pro-
visionally in the genus Seius sens. lat. This species was taken from
the large aniphipod On licsinlilcn <-<ilifi>riii<ti/<t, which is common on
the beach. The mites were fastened underneath the body and as
many as twenty-seven were taken from one aniphipod, and great
Haguna fi@arine La&oratorp
Figure 97. Pteronyssus bifurcatus. Male at left, female at right.
jfirst annual Report
numbers of the amphipods were infected. It also occasionally
occurs on certain other large gammarids found near high-tide
Pteronyssus bifurcatus n. sp.
(Figures 97 and 98)
Integument strongly chitinized ; anterior legs without "thorns."
No cuff-like projections on terminal joint of any leg. Male with
anal suckers well developed ; first hind leg of male more developed
than second. Tarsal sucker larger on this leg than on the others.
Abdomen shortly bi-lobate, without leaf-like appendages ; two bristles
on each lobe, the medial bristle short, the other one as long as two-
thirds the width of the body and arising from a prominent tubercle.
Figure 98. Pteronyssus bifurcatus
Anal suckers, while well defined, are small and separated by more
than twice their diameter. A bristle projects laterally from the base
of the first hind leg. This leg exceeds the end of the abdomen by
the last three joints. The second hind leg does not reach the end of
the abdomen. A bristle on the outer apex of the third and fourth
joints of first hind leg. Length of the five males, 318 to 327 micrm.
Width, 143 micrm.
Legs of female all of approximately equal development and
length. Abdomen without appendages, tapered behind and cleft
half way from tip of abdomen to coxae four. Two stout bristles on
each side of this forked abdomen ; the posterior pair situated near
the tip, pointing directly back, and a little shorter than the other pair
which are situated one-third of the way from the tip of abdomen to
coxa four, and point to the side and about 30 degrees back. Length
of the seven females, 410 to 450 micrm. Width, 143 micrm.
Among the thirteen specimens which I took from Petrochelidon
lunifrons, there was one female which differed from the others as
182 jfirst annual Report
follows: The two stout bristles 011 each side of the posterior part
of the abdomen arise from tubercles which are situated at the end
of the abdomen, which, while bifurcated, is not as pronouncedly so
as in the other females. I have traced the outlines carefully with the
camera lucida of all the tips of abdomens, male and female and as-
sembled them, according to sex, with reference to their center lines.
The variation of outline thus shown in Figure 98, is not pronounced
enough to include the ontHne of this other, imusual form. In
the latter, anal suckers are present, and the arrangement of the
diitiuous plates running up toward the genital opening from the sides
of the abdomen, is strikingly different. Length of this single speci-
men, 400 ink-nil. Width, 143 micrm. Since this specimen occurred
Figure 101. Copidognathus curtus
on the same bird with the others of the species just described, it is
probably best to consider it as an aberrant form of the same species.
As this species does not agree with the generic description in regard
to the bifurcated condition of the abdomen in the female, this varia-
tion just described, in which the bifurcation is not so marked, may
indicate a transition form.
Copidognathus californicus n. sp.
(Figures 99 and 100)
Length of body, 610 micrm. "Schnabelteil" not apparent (prob-
ably very short). First two pairs of legs stouter than the others but
not greatly swollen. Armor not very strong. Eye-plates irregular
ILaguna 0arine llaboratorp 183
in shape with fairly sharp corner in front and to the outside of the
body. Eye-spots lacking. Central back ribbon narrow and U-
slinped, and fuses in back with outer ribbon. Outer ribbon also
narrow, more broadly U-shaped and extending forward to a point
half way between coxa? two and three. Body is ellipsoid in outline
with bluntly wedge-shaped ends and is so much flattened dorso-ven-
trally that it is very hard to tell even by careful focussing whether a
feature is on the dorsum or venter. The figure shows the dorsal
view; the dotted lines indicate sutures that show through from the
venter. The plain line running across the body just anterior to the
eye-plates is probably on the venter but the flatness of the body makes
it uncertain. No hairs on body or legs. Claws furnished with combs
and folding back into grooves, on all four legs. Mouth parts long.
The smaller figure shows the serrate tip of the mandibles enlarged.
One specimen, in tide-pool, Laguna Beach, July.
Copidognathus curtus n. sp.
Length of body, 428 micrm. "Schnabelteil" not apparent (prob-
ably very short). First and second pairs of legs stout and swollen,
especially the third and fifth joints. Armor rather strong. Eye-
plates poorly outlined but with strongly pigmeuted eye-spots. There
is also a median, smaller, similarly pigmented spot between and
above the coxae of legs one. Central back ribbon broad and U-shaped,
the other thin and following approximately the outline of the ab-
domen as far forward as coxa three. Body oval in outline and with-
out hairs. Legs with a few stout spines. Claws with combs on all
legs and folding back into grooves on the first two pairs of legs.
Movable on other two pairs of legs but grooves not apparent. Three
specimens in tide-pools, and towed among Phyllospadix, Laguna
Beach, July. Nearest to C. spinula but differs in proportions of the
legs, presence of combs on all the claws and in other important
Pontarachna cruciata n. sp.
Length 424-443 micrm. Body highly arched, globular; integu-
ment smooth. Three pairs of bristles as shown in the side view,
project in front of the eyes. Maxillary shield broad with rounded
corners at back ; about twice the length of second joint of palpus.
Epimera of legs one fuse behind maxillary shield with each other and
with the genito-ventral plate. Epimera two and three fuse at the
base and about half way to the edge of the body. Epimera three and
four fuse at base. Genital opening a long narrow slit between bases
Jfirst annual deport
of epimera four and a little behind. Anus at the posterior, ventral
corner of the body, and has two lateral flaps. Mandibles project
downward. First four joints of the palpus sub-equal in length and
the fifth joint about half as long and somewhat dentate, as shown in
the side view of the mouth-parts. Palpus not quite as strong as the
legs. Color from orange to almost colorless, marked on the dorsum
with a black cross as shown in the smaller figures. Three pairs of
bristles project in front and one pair behind as shown in the side
view. Legs without true swimming hairs but furnished with stout
spines. Claws with rudimentary combs suggesting those of the
They also fold back into grooves in the end of their
Figure 102. Pontarachna cruciata
Habit sketch and detail of side view of mouth parts.
Differs from P. punctulum in size of palpus, general arrangement
of epimera, color, etc. The curved spur-like processes characteristic
of the genus are entirely lacking as are also genital covers and hairs
on the ventral surface. Leg four a little longer, and the other legs
a little shorter than the length of the body. Differs from P. terges-
tina in the shape of mandible, absence of swimming hairs; from P.
lacazei in the proportions of the palpus, unenclosed condition of the
genital opening, and other features. Many specimens in tide-pools
and towed from PhyllusiJiidix, Laguna Beach, July.
kaguna Sgarine Laboratory IBS
Pontacarus californicus n. sp.
Length 428-542 micrm. Outline of abdomen gradually narrowing
from broad shoulders to bluntly rounded end. Cephalothorax small
and triangular. Palpi widely separated at the base, four-jointed,
longer than the mandibles and movable. First two pairs of legs
of equal diameter, the first a little the longer. Fourth joint of palpus
with distal segment shorter than proximal. Armor very weak ; out-
lines of the various plates too indistinct for good characters. Strongly
pigmented eye-spots behind which a strong spine projects to the side ;
another shorter and weaker spine arises in front of and medially from
the eye. The mandible ends in a stout claw. No feathered hairs on
the legs. Twelve long hairs project from the posterior margin of
the abdomen. Claws on the legs without combs, and no grooves on
end of tarsus.
Figure 103. Pontacarus californicus
Quite common under stones well down toward the low tide mark.
Many were also found in towings from Pliyllospadix. Body of the
female distended with eggs and consequently larger and more irreg-
ular in outline than that of the male which is shown in the figure.
This species differs from P. basidentatus in having a short proboscis
and no feathered hairs on the legs.
Rhyncholophus arenicola n. sp.
Length .785-1 mm. First three legs about the length of the body,
the fourth pair about one-third longer. Usually bright red (one
straw-colored specimen). Body variable in shape but usually broad-
est in the middle and broadly rounded behind, thickly clothed with
Jfirst annual Report
very fine feathered hairs. Eyes and dorsal groove not apparent.
Last joint of leg one slightly longer than penultimate joint. On the
other legs this condition is reversed. The last joint of leg four little
more than half the length of the penultimate joint. Legs thickly
set with fine hairs which are shorter than the diameter of the legs.
Figure 104. Rhyncolophus arenicola. Palpus and dorsal hair.
Palpi are short, similarly clothed with short hairs; last joint is a
short thumb opposed to the preceding joint, the claw of which reach-
es as far beyond the thumb as the length of the thumb. Mandibles
are stiletto-shaped and retractile. Small figures show the left palpus
and a body hair enlarged. Quite common running over the dry sand
of the upper beach all summer. Laguna Beach.
Laguna Ratine Laboratory 187
A PARTIAL ACCOUNT OF THE BIRDS IN THE
VICINITY OF LAGUNA BEACH
The following ornithological observations were made from the
last of June to the middle of August. The country about Laguna
is mostly in the Lower Sonoran Zone with some Upper Sonoran, and
a few Transition Zone forms. The region is composed mostly of low
hills, either open, or covered with sage and chapparal. There are
some few small wooded spots in the canyons, especially in Aliso
Canyon. About four miles up Laguna Canyon there are two fresh-
water ponds bordered with tules ; here many water birds were seen.
Balboa Beach is a few miles up the coast, and at that point a good
many water birds congregate about the bay.
In connection with the preparation of this study, especial thanks
are due Mr. Charles W. Metz, who assisted in the accurate determina-
tion of various birds in doubt. Also several birds, the determinations
of which were later questioned, were sent to the National Museum in
Washington where they were identified by Mr. H. C. Oberholser, to
whom acknowledgments are here made.
Podilymbus podiceps ( Linn.) Lawr. Pied-billed Grebe.
A grebe was seen in the tule lakes, which appeared to be this
species. It was so quick to dive, that when shot at from a very short
distance, it succeeded in eluding the shot.
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pall.) Brandt. Cassin Auklet.
Professor Baker picked up a specimen of this species on the open
beach. It had apparently met with some accident, as its head was
crushed. Infested by Nirmus iinirilinius.
Larus occidentalis And. Western Gull.
These birds occur in great numbers along the coast, especially at
Balboa. During this summer, no other gulls but occidentalis were
seen. At Balboa, flocks of these gulls, to the number of several hun-
dreds, congregate about the beach and pier. They are of great use-
fulness as scavengers. These gulls are very vicious when wounded,
and defend themselves with the greatest of vigor. Many of the darker
colored young were observed in the flocks during the summer. In-
fested by Docophorus lari.
188 Jfir0t annual Report
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt) Heerm. Brandt Cormorant.
These birds usually kept pretty well out from the shore, but
occasionally one would be seen on the beach. They appeared to be
common about the large off-shore kelp beds, and on the small islets
near the shore.
Pelecanus californicus Ridgw. California Brown Pelican.
A few of these birds were seen at different times in the kelp beds,
but seldom if ever came to the shore. In the evenings a few gathered
on two small islets.
Querquedula cyanoptera (Vieillot). Cinnamon Teal.
A small flock seen at the tule lakes. Whenever disturbed they
always circled the lake two or th ree times before settling again, but
otherwise were not at all shy, and did not hide in the tules like the
coots. They were eating the duck-weed in which these lakes abound.
Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron.
Several times during the summer these magnificent birds were
observed passing overhead. A pair frequented the tule lakes. They
would stand motionless among the tules, and in that position seemed
actually to disappear, it being almost impossible to distinguish them
in such a position unless they moved.
Ardea virescens anthonyi Mearns. Anthony Green Heron.
One specimen taken at the tule lakes. When approached it would
slip away among the tules, and when pursued, flew up with loud,
Fulica americana Gmel. American Coot.
These birds were very common in the tule lakes. They were very
shy and cunning and hid in the tules at the first sight of a person on
foot, though they paid little attention to vehicles. The only way to get
a specimen was to hide until they had forgotten the presence of dan-
ger, and had come out of their lurking places again. They were in
friendly company with the teal, and were also feeding on duck-weed.
Limosa fedoa (Linn.) Sabine. Marbled Godwit.
Only one specimen of this fine bird was seen during the summer.
It was exceedingly tame and would allow one to approach within
twelve to fifteen feet before quietly flying a hundred yards or so down
the beach. Its stomach was well filled with sand-crabs (Eretni/n
), and it was infested with Colpocephalum thitlt<i.
JLaguna Ratine Laboratory 189
Numenius hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew.
Two rather large flocks of curlew were seen at different times.
They were usually found on long open stretches of sandy beach, and
were exceedingly shy, not allowing one to approach within three
hundred yards. When flying from the beach after being alarmed,
they flew directly out to sea for some hundred yards, and then fol-
lowed the coast, finally alighting a good half mile from the danger
point. They seemed to be feeding on sand-crabs, for the whole flock
would run down the beach after each receding wave, and then back
in front of the approaching one.
Aegialitis vocifera (Linn.) Bonap. Killdeer.
Large numbers of these birds frequented the mud flats around the
tule lakes. They were constantly moving and kept up a continual
noise. These birds are not at all shy.
Arenaria melanocephala (Vig.) Stejn. Black Turnstone.
One specimen taken on the beach among piles of dried kelp. It
was very bold, showing no fear. It, also, appeared to be feeding on
Lophortyx californicus vallicola (Ridgw.) Valley Quail.
This quail was abundant, feeding throughout the hills and can-
yons. Early in the mornings flocks of from fifty to a hundred were
often seen. When flushed in some small gulch, the noise of their
wings as they rise from the ground produces a most startling roar.
Zenaidura macrura (Linn.) Mourning Dove.
Abundant about all springs and water holes, especially those at a
good distance from all houses. To one particularly lonely watering
spot they came in great numbers and at all -hours; here they were
especially easy to approach. On August 19th a dove was flushed
from its nest, which contained one egg. Infested commonly with
Nirmus foedus and Lipeurus bacnloides.
Cathartes aurea ( Linn.) Spix. Turkey Vulture.
These buzzards were very abundant through the hills and canyons,
possibly on account of the cattle herds. One of these birds shot and
placed in a conspicuous spot soon drew at least thirty others to the
place. A certain eucalyptus grove appeared to serve as a regular
roost for these birds. They are infested by Colpocephaluni keHoggi
and Menopon alternatum.
Circus hudsonicus (Linn.) Vieill. Marsh Hawk.
Quite common about the bay at Balboa. One was seen devouring
a freshly killed ground squirrel. They are not very shy and speci-
mens are easily obtained.
190 _ Jfirst annual Report _
Falco sparverius deserticola Mearns. Desert Sparrow Hawk.
Abundant through the hills and canyons. Usually seen hunting
in pairs. A pair of this species appeared to have a nest in a crevice
on ;i rocky cliff, judging from the sound which frequently came from
that point. Infested by Ninutis fuscus.
Strix pratincola Ilnnap. I'.arn Owl.
In the eucalyptus grove mentioned above as a buzzard roost, one
Barn Owl was taken.
Geococcyx californianus (Less.) I'.aird. RoadRunner.
Quite common, all through the hills. One was seen on the beach,
feeding at the water's edge. When frightened, they usually do not
fly, but make for the nearest cactus patch or chapparal, at top speed,
and their speed on foot is altogether remarkable. In a stomach
examined were the remains of several cicadas, grasshoppers, and
smaller insects. Infested by X inn UK x/>
Dryobates nuttallii ((land).) Ridgw. Xuttall Woodpecker.
Owing to the general absence of trees, very few woodpeckers
were seen. One was taken in Aliso Canyon and proved to be this
Colaptes cafer collaris (Vigurs). Red-shafted Flicker.
Uncommon here, and shy, only one or two being seen, and several
Calypte anna (Less.) Gould. Anna Hummingbird.
Very common wherever flowering plants occurred. Undoubtedly
('. I'usttir occurs with this species.
Tyrannus verticalis Say. Arkansas Kino-bird.
( 'onimon everywhere. They were especially frequent about euca-
lyptus groves. In the town they kept up a continual noise, and seemed
to be very quarrelsome. Two of them easily drove away a sparrow
hawk that seemed to be trespassing on their domain. Infested by
Nlrnnis food its.
Tyrannus vociferans Swains. Cassin Kingbird.
More retiring than T. r<'iiic/ilis. Far up Aliso Canyon one speci-
men was taken. Far inland, others also were seen. I did not notice
them in company with T. vciiicttlis.
Myriarchus cinerascens (Lawr.) Sel. and Salv. Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Often in the company of the noisy kingbirds. Many times single
specimens were noted sitting quietly on some stump or wire waiting
.for a meal. They occasionally give a plaintive call that is very char-
ILagtum Qgarine Lti&oratori? 191
Sayornis saya (Bonap.) Baird. Say Phoebe.
On Jiine 25, nestlings of these species about three days old were
found. These birds are common in all the canyons, often in company
with the kingbirds, and occur occasionally on the beach.
Sayornis nigricans semiatra (Vigors) Nelson. Western Black Phoebe.
These little birds were commonly found along and near the beach,
and about the cliffs. They do not seem to be at all gregarious. In-
fested by Ninmts foedus.
Empidonax difficilis Braid. "Western Flycatcher.
Many of these little flycatchers were seen among the trees along
the sides of Laguna Canyon. They often occurred in the company
of wren-tits, vireos, and other birds.
Otocoris alpestris actia Oberholser. California Horned Lark.
Common in all the fields and meadows, moving in flocks.
Aphelocoma californica (Vig.) Cab. California Jay
Very common everywhere. Where the canyons are slightly wood-
ed they congregate in the early mornings and set the hillsides ring-
ing with their calls. Infested by Menopon funereum.
Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgw. San Diego Red-wing.
Quite common in all marshy lowlands. Often seen hunting along
the beaches, sometimes in company with the Brown Blackbird. Quite
young birds were common in the flocks as late as the first of July.
Sturnella magna neglecta (And.) Allen. Western Meadow Lark.
The ringing call of this bird is frequently heard at Laguna. They
are not at all common although the locality is apparently a favor-
able one for them.
Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgw. Arizona Hooded Oriole.
These birds greatly exceeded I. bnllocki in numbers. They seemed
to be common throughout the region, apparently preferring eucalyp-
tus groves to other places.
Icterus bullocki (Swains.) Bonap. Bullock Oriole.
About Laguna these birds are rare and shy. Near Claremont, far
inland, they are quite bold, and are common, even nesting about the
Scolecophagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.) Cab. Brown Blackbird.
Great flocks of these birds are common along the beaches. They
assemble in great numbers about decaying vegetable matter, and
seem to find a foul-smelling slough a specially desirable spot.
jTirst annual deport
Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say.) Ridgw. House Finch.
This bird is abundant in Laguna as it is in most other towns.
On July 6 a nest was found in one of the canyons with three young
a few days old. This bird also, is to be commonly seen on the
Astragalinus psaltria (Say.) Coues. Arkansas Goldfinch.
Quite abundant among the hills, feeding on the seeds of many
Chondestes grammicus strigatus (Swains.) Ridgw. Western Lark Sparrow.
This is one of the most common sparrows at Laguna. They were
especially common about barnyards. One specimen taken was almost
Amphispiza belli (Cass.) Cones. Bell Sparrow.
This species seems to be fairly common in the chaparral at
Laguua. They were often in company with the song sparrows.
Aimophila ruficeps (Cass.) Rufous-crowned Sparrow.
Frequent in the chaparral.
Melospiza melodia heermanni I'.uinl, Br. and Ridgw. Heerman Song
These sparrows were very easily identified among others by their
song and their sharper markings. They were very abundant in all
the chaparral-covered hills. In the early morning the voices of great
numbers of them could be heard.
Pipilo maculatus megalonyx (Baird) Coues. Spurred Towhee.
Very wild and exceedingly hard to obtain. Not many of these
birds were seen near to Laguna, but in Aliso Canyon, where it is
iiid re rarely disturbed, it is more common.
Pipilo fuscus senicula Anthony. Anthony Towhee.
Abundant through all the hills and valleys.
Zamelodia melanocephala (Swains.) Coues. Black-headed Grosbeak.
Not very common about the town of Laguna but further inland
met with more often. They commonly sing from the tops of tall
trees in the early morning. Infested by Docophorus communis,
Guiraca caerulea lazula ( Less, i Ridg. \Yestern Blue Grosbeak.
Rare in all localities. Only three were encountered during the
summer. One was seen at Balboa near the bay, and the other
two at the tule lakes in Laguna Canyon. Though rare, these birds
did not seem to be at all shy.
ILaguna Marine laboratory 193
Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say.) Cassin. Cliff Swallow.
Very abundant about overhanging cliffs bordering the valleys.
They swarmed over the hills and along the beaches. At one place
the under side of certain cliffs is completely covered with their nests.
On July 1 two young birds were just about ready to fly. These birds
are very lousy, being infested with Docophorus excisus var. major,
Ninnus longus, Menopon malleus, and Meiiopon dissimilis.
Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Ridgw. California Shrike.
Abundant along all of the valley bottoms. Early in the morn-
ings they were often heard singing a low sweet song, which rather
belies their character.
Vireo pusillus Coues. Least Vireo.
These little birds were rather common in thickly wooded places.
They were always very quiet and shy.
Dendroica aestiva morcomi Coale. Western Yellow Warbler.
Along the willow bottoms, and in the lower portions of the can-
yons these birds appeared to be quite common.
Mimus polyglottus leucopterus (Vigors) Mearns. Western Mockingbird.
Very common in all the canyons and along the hills, and in those
places very shy, which is surprising because they are quite bold in
the towns. Seldom heard singing.
Toxostoma redivivum pasadenense (Grinnell) Richmond. Pasadena
Although this bird has been reported only from farther inland,
a skin of certainly this form was taken here.
Toxostoma redivivum (Gamb.) Baird. California Thrasher.
These birds were very abundant everywhere. They are very
bold, and set up a great clamor when disturbed. Seldom heard sing-
Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Ridgw.
Although C. m. punctulatus is more commonly reported from here
I took a skin of this subspecies. It was critically examined by Mr.
Chas. Metz and unquestionably determined as this form.
Thyromanes bewickii charienturus Oberh. Southwest Bewick Wren.
Fairly common in the canyons and among the chaparral-covered
hills. Often observed in company with wren-tits.
Chamaea fasciata Gamb. Pallid Wren-tit.
Very common in all the valley bottoms. They were very bold
and allowed very close inspection.
194 jfirst annual deport
Psaltriparus minimus californicus Riclgw. Californian Bush-tit.
These tiny birds occur iu great numbers, commonly ranging
through the chaparral in large flocks.
Polioptila caerulea obscura Ridgw. Western Gnatcatcher.
Fairly common among bushes in the canyons. These are extra-
ordinarily busy little birds.
taguna Ratine ILaboratorp
NOTES ON THE MARINE ALG^ OF
It was my intention during the first summer at Laguna Beach to
make some beginning in anatomical and ecological studies of a few
of the very numerous and interesting marine Algae occurring there.
In the course of this work, large collections accumulated. A set of
specimens was submitted to Dr. W. A. Setchell and he has very
kindly given the determinations of them, calling especial attention
to the fact that many of the names applied to our west coast Alga?
are as yet uncertain in their application, and that the nomenclature
is in need of careful revision, as some of the species themselves are
in need, quite as urgently, of more detailed anatomical studies. I
Figure 105. Calothrix parasitica (Chauv.) Thurct
have no desire to present this as a "mere list," since it means much
more to me. It includes, however, a list of the commoner forms that
any student will encounter at Laguna, and mostly in great abundance.
We want to begin to know these things in their distribution and eco-
logical relations, and this seems the logical and necessary first step.
Brachytrichia quoyi (Ag.) Bornet and Flahault
One small colony of this species was taken on the holdfast of a
Nereocystis coming from about four fathoms. Dr. Setchell says this
JTirst annual IReport
collection "is a discovery, or rather rediscovery. This species was
credited to our coast nearly forty years ago, but so far as I know has
not been seen since."
Calothrix parasitica (Chauv.) Thuret
Commonly parasitic in NciiKtlioi/ luliriciiin.
Calothrix contarenii (Zau) 13. and F.
Colonies of this species are occasional on exposed rocks almost
to high tide mark.
Figure 106. Chaetomorpha aerea (Dilhv.) Kurtz
Calothrix fasciculata Ag.
Colonies common on exposed rocks almost to high tide mark.
This and the preceding species form a slippery covering to the
rocks that render them very treacherous for the pedestrian. During
low tide on a hot day this little alga is seemingly completely dried
out, and must be subjected to great heat, but always recovers prompt-
ly with the next tide.
llaguna 0artnc Laboratory
Ulva californica \Yille
Small tufts common on the rocks throughout the tidal zone.
Ulva lactuca L. var.
This "Sea Lettuce" is common on rocks and on other algae
throughout the tidal zone.
Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulf. ) J. Ag.
Similarly distributed and about as common as the two Vivas.
A, C, D, E, Coclium mucronatum var. californicum. J, Ag. B, Coclium adliaerans
Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillw.) Kuetz
Frequent on the rocks of the high tidal zone, especially in high
tide-pools. Length of filament commonly 15 cm. ; cells .25 by .15 mm.
Cladophora trichotoma (Ag.) Kuetz
This and the preceding species are very commonly growing to-
gether, the long slender filaments of the Chaetomorpha sometimes
being attached to the more stocky Cladophora.
jTirst annual Report
Codium mucronatum var. californicum J. Ag.
(Figure 107, A, C, D, E)
Frequent on rocks of middle and lower tidal zone. Utricle .8 by
Codium adhaerans (Cabr.) Ag.
(Figure 107 B)
My specimens taken from a holdfast of Nereocystis coming from
about six fathoms. Utricle .6 bv .1 mm.
Figure 108. Ectocarpus hemisphaericus Saunders
Ectocarpus hemisphaericus Saunders
Abundant epiphyte on Pelvetla fastigiata. Sporangia .08 by .04
Ectocarpus tomentosus (Huds.) Lyngb.
Epiphytic on Hesperophycus harveyanus.
Ectocarpus tomentosoides Farlow
Frequent as an epiphyte on Hesperophycus Imrveyanus.
Ectocarpus mitchellae Harv.
A frequent epiphyte on Phyllospadix tm-reyi.
ILaguna e@arine lu&oratorp
Ectocarpus globiger Knetz
Colonies found growing on shells of Puuniiild.i'. Dr. Setcliell says
of this determination: "I do not think that this species has been
recognized on our coast before bnt I feel fairly certain of
Sphacelaria plumula var. californica Saund.
A common epiphyte on Nereocystis.
Figure 109. Eisenia arborea Habit sketch.
Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth.) Derbes and Solier
Epiphytic on Sargassum agardhianum.
Scytosiphon lomentarius (Lyngb.) J. Ag.
Frequent on rocks throughout the upper tidal zone.
Endarachne binghamiae J. Ag.
On rocks, more common through the middle tidal zone.
Jfirst annual Report
Nereocystis gigantea Habit sketch.
Macrocystis pirifera Habit sketch
Figure 112. Figure 113.
Egregia laevigata Setchell. Habit sketch. Chantransia dictyotae Collins
ILaguna Ratine ILaboratorp
Cylindrocarpus berkeleyi (Grev.) Crouan
Frequent on rocks and on shells in the middle tidal zone.
Ralfsia clavata (Carni.) Farlow
Frequent on rocks of the high tidal zone.
Hapterophycus canaliculatus A. and G.
In large colonies on the rocks of the lower tidal zone.
Eisenia arborea Areschoug
Abundant on rocks about the low tide mark, commonly growing
on the borders of deep channels, and attaining a length of six feet.
Figure 114. Nemalion lubricum Duby.
JTirst Annual Report
Occasionally found growing at Laguna in from four to six
fathoms of water. This immense "bladder kelp" attracts a great
deal of attention from visitors to the beach. The long, slender stems
below the bladder often measure as much as thirty feet in length.
Figure 115. Endocladia muricata (P. & R.) J. Ag.
Figure 116. Laurencia virgata. Habit sketch.
with a holdfast below which may be as large as a bushel basket, and
the great "leaves" may measure twelve feet in length. In the
extensive beds of Macrocystis just off shore, they may be located by
the fact that the large hollow bladders are commonly used as perches
by the sea-gulls. The name "Nereocystis gigantea" may not be its
correct name, but it is certainly an apt one, although it does not
Laguna Ratine Laboratory
equal in size the great bladder-kelp of northern waters, Nereocystis
Macrocystis pyrifera (Turner) Agardh
Enormously abundant in about six fathoms of water. This is the
common kelp forming the great off-shore beds along the Southern
California coast. It becomes above fifty feet in length at Laguna
Beach. Immense quantities of it wash up on the beach. Investiga-
tions are being carried on elsewhere to determine its value as a
Figure 117. Polysiphonia verticillata Harv,
Egregia laevigata Setchell
Abundant near the low tide mark. Length very variable but often
reaching over twelve feet. Commonly found in company with
Else ilia arborea, and very variable in the form of the fronds.
Hesperophycus harveyanus (Decaisne) Gardner
(Fucus Harveyanus Decaisne)
Common on the rocks of the high tidal zone, growing most com-
monly along the lower limits of the zone of Pclrctia f
jTirst annual Report
Figure 118. Pterosiphonia woodii (Harv.) Falk
Figure 119. Pterosiphonia woodii (Harv.) Falk.
206 Jfirst Annual Heport
Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) deToni
In immense colonies on the rocks of the high tidal zone, forming
a distinct zone which reaches almost to the upper limits of algal
Cystoseira osmundacea (Mentz.) Ag.
A frequent component of the beach wrack. Dr. Setchell gives this
determination with doubt.
Halidrys dioica Gardner
Common on the rocks of the lower tidal zone.
Sargassum agardhianum Farlow
Common on rocks near low tide mark.
Dictyopteris zonarioides Farlow
Dictyota binghamiae J. Ag.
Dilophus flabellatus Collins
The above four species are all frequent on rocks of the middle
Porphyra naiadum C. L. Anderson
Commonly epiphytic on basal portions of Phyllospadir.
Chantrasia dictyotae Collins
Abundant as an epiphyte on Di< ti/n/n lih/f/Juiiniae. Sporangia .02
mm. in diameter.
Nemalion lubricum Duby.
Common on rocks of the lower tidal zone, especially on the faces
of rocks exposed to the direct pounding of the heaviest surf. Stem
commonly 1.4 mm. in diameter.
Helminthocladia purpurea (ITarv.) J. Ag.
Only seen twice, both times in the lower tidal zone.
Lagtina S^arine Laboratory
Gelidium crinale (Sum.) Lamour. var.
Frequent on the rocks of the lower tidal zone.
Gelidium amansii Kuetz
Common on rocks of middle tidal zone.
Figure 120. Strebdocladia camptoclada (Mont.) Falk.
Gelidium coulteri Harv.
Commonly forming colonies on the rocks of the middle tidal zone.
Gelidium cartilagineum L.
Frequent on rocks of middle tidal zone.
Gelidium australe J. Ag.
Also forming colonies on the rocks of the middle tidal zone.
Jfir0t annual deport
Figure 121. Strebdocladia camptoclada (Mont.) Falk.
Laguna Racine ilaboratorp 209
Endocladia muricata (P. and R.) J. Ag.
Common on rocks near high tide mark. Length of plant common-
ly 2 cm., diameter of stem .4 mm.
Chondrus canaliculatus (Ag.) Grev.
Common on the rocks of the middle tidal zone.
Gigartina canaliculata Harv.
With the above.
Gigartina spinosa (Kuetz) J. Ag.
Gigartina exasperata Harv. and Baill.
Gigartina horrida Farlovv
The above three species are frequent on rocks of the lower tidal
Gigartina microphylla Harv.
Specimens of this species frequent in the wrack along the beaches.
Stenogramma interruptum (Ag.) Mont.
Occasional in beach wrack. Dr. Setchell expresses doubt as to
Epiphytic on other algae throughout the tidal zone.
Cordylecladia andersonii Grunow
Frequent on rocks between tides.
Chrysemenia pseudodichotoma Farlow
Occasional in beach wrack.
Plocamium coccineum (Huds.) Lyngb
Frequent on the rocks of the lower tidal zone, and abundant in
the beach wrack. This is the common "red sea-moss" of the South-
ern California coast. Collectors will find it growing most abund-
antly and in finest specimens on the under side of rocky ledges of
the lower tidal zone.
Nitophyllum violaceum J. Ag. var. crispulum.
Epiphytic on other algae of the lower tidal zone.
JFirst Annual Report
Figure 122. Strebdocladia sp.
Figure 123. Herposiphonia sp.
Figure 124. Hetercsiphonia subsecunda (Suhr.) Falk.
jTirst Annual Report
Ricardia montagnei Durbes and Solier
Commonly epiphytic on Laurencia virgata.
Laurencia virgata J. Ag.
This is a very variable species in both form and habits, growing
either on rocks or on the basal portions of Phyllospadix. In the lat-
ter case the stems usually exhibit a remarkable tendril action. Diam-
eter of the stems is commonlv 1.5 mm.
Figure 125. Dasya pacifica Harv.
Laurencia pinnatifida (Gmel.) Lamx.
On rocks of the lower tidal zone.
Polysiphonia verticillata Harv.
Epiphytic on other alga? of the lower tidal zone.
Pterosiphonia woodi (Harv.) Falk.
(Figures 118 and 119)
Commonly epiphytic on Nereocystis. Length of cells commonly
2 mm. Diameter of cystocarps, .4 mm. ; tetraspores .12 in diameter.
Figure 126. Spermothamnion snyderae Farlow.
Figure 127. Griffithsia sp.
JFir0t annual deport
Pterosiphonia bipinnata ( P. and R. ) Falk.
Epiphytic on Nereocystix.
Pterosiphonia baileyi (Harv.) Falk.
Occasional on rocks of low tidal zone.
Strebdocladia camptoclada (Mont.) Falk
(Figures 120 and 121)
Abundant as an epiphyte on other algae of the whole tidal zone.
Cystocarps .3 mm. in diameter.
Figure 128. Callithamnion rupicolum f. pygmaeum Collins.
Abundant on rocks and shells of the lower tidal zone. Of this
plant, Dr. Setehell says: "Possibly a Strebdorltuliit ; perhaps, how-
ever, a Polysiphonia. I have had it before, but as yet have not sat-
isfactorily placed it."
Laguna Ratine Laboratory
This was found in tow-stuff from the tide-pools, so that it is prob-
ably an epiphyte on other algse growing in such situations.
Lophosiphonia obscura (Ag.) Falk.
Common on low rocks of higher tidal zone, growing in dense col-
onies and acting as a sand gatherer.
Figure 129. Callithamnion rupicolum f. pygmaeum Collins.
Lophosiphonia villum (J. Ag.) S. and G.
Occurs intermingled with L. obscura.
Heterosiphonia secunda (Suhr) Falk.
Frequent as an epiphyte on various algae, especially corallines.
Dr. Setchell remarks that "this is the plant which has passed in our
lists under the name of Daxi/u snlisccmnla. The name given in the
list is merely a synonym. There seems to be some reason for sus-
pecting that our plant is not identical with the type of the species
given, but belongs rather to 77. pulchra of the Japanese coast."
216 jffrst annual Report
Heterosiphonia subsecunda (Suhr) Falk.
Epiphytic on other algae. Stichidia .8 mm. in length.
Dasya pacifica Harv.
Occasional in beach wrack. Stichidia .45 mm. in length.
Spermothamnion snyderae Farlow
Occasional in small colonies on the under side of ledges in the
lower tidal zone. Sporangia .1 mm. in diameter.
A common epiphyte on the algas of the lower tidal zone. Spor-
angia .08 mm. in diameter. Dr. Setchell says of this plant: "The
specimens all have tetraspores. I wish very much that it might be
found with cyxtocnrps. Until then we shall be uncertain as to the
genus. Griffithni(i is perhaps hardly to be applied to this plant. In
all probability it is more likely to belong to one of the related genera,
but it is impossible to decide this witli certainty until we have the
Callithamnion rupicolum forma pygmaeum Collins
(Figures 128 and 129)
An occasional epiphyte on other algae of the lower tidal zone.
Sporangia .07 mm. in diameter. Cystocarps .2 mm. in diameter.
Antithamnion floccosum (Muell.) Klein
An epiphyte on Nereocystis.
Spyridia filamentosa ( \Yulf.) Harv.
Rare in the beach wrack.
Ceramium codicola J. Ag.
Common on Codium ntcro>iatni, length commonly 1 cm.
Centroceras clavulatum (Ag.) Mont.
Abundant on the rocks of the upper tidal zone.
Microcladia coulteri Harv.
Epiphytic on Prioititix.
Prionitis decipiens (Mont.) J. Ag.
Occasional on rocks between tides.
Grateloupia prolongata J. Ag.
Common on the rocks of the entire between tide zone.
Figure 130. Ceramnium codicola J. Ag.
Polyopes bushiae Farlow
One specimen found in wrack on beach.
One specimen collected in wrack on beach.
218 jTirst annual Report
Choreonema thuretii (Born.) Schmitz
Common in the middle tidal zone.
Apparently several species of this genus form a common coating
on rocks throughout the tidal zone. Dr. Setchell remarks of them,
"No one knows the species of the crustaceous corallines."
Amphiroa tuberculosa forma typica S. and G.
Amphiroa tuberculosa f. frondescens (Kuetz) S. and G.
The above two forms are common on the rocks of the lower tidal
Corallina officinalis L. var.
A common coralline among rocks of the middle tidal zone.
Corallina gracilis Lamx.
Frequent on roeks toward the lower tide mark.
Jania crassa Lamx.
Occasional on rocks about lower tide mark.
Jania rubens ( L. ) Lamx.
Occurs in middle tidal zone.
Lithothrix aspergillum J. E. Gray
Frequent on rocks of the middle tidal zone.