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JUaguna .Marine 
Laboratory 



Lacuna BeacH 
California 



Pomona College 

Claremont. California 

May. 1912 



Complimentary 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

of 

THE LACUNA MARINE 
LABORATORY 

at 



LACUNA BEACH, ORANGE 
COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 




POMONA COLLEGE 
MAY, 1912 



f 



Published bv 

THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, POMONA COLLEGE 
CLAREMONT, CALIFORNIA 

DR. A. J. COOK 

STATE HORTICULTURAL COMMISSIONER 
SPONSOR 



THE LACUNA MARINE LABORATORY 



PERSONNEL FOR 1911 

'DR. A. J. COOK, Sponsor 
2 MISS C. K. RICE, Chaperon 

PROFESSOR C. F. BAKER, Director and Editor of Report 
CHARLES W. METZ, Manager 



"CHARLES W. METZ 'DAVID L. CRAWFORD 

'BLANCHE E. STAFFORD 6 VINNIE R. STOUT 

'MABEL GUERNSEY 

'HARRY V. M. HALL "JOHN GUERNSEY 

FRANK R. COLE LEON GARDNER 



1 Now California State Commissioner of Horticulture at Sacramento. 

2 Now Mrs. A. C. Dyer of Kinsley, Kansas. 

3 Later fellow-assistant under Dr. David Starr .Ionian at Stanford t'niversity ; now ap- 

pointee to fellowship in Columbia University under Dr. Bashford Dean. 

4 Of this group, lint with table for the summer of 1911 in Pomona College Biological 

Laboratory. Later fellow-assistant under Dr. Vermin L. Kellogg at Stanford Uni- 
versity, and assistant in State Horticultural Commission. Recently appointed an 
assistant in Cornell under Dr. J. G. Xeedham. 

5 Fellow-assistant, 1911-1.', Department of Biology of Pomona College and candidate for 
^H master's degree. Later appointed fellow-assistant in University of California under 

Dr. C. A. Kofoid. 

(i Fellow-assistant, 1911-15, Department of Biology of Pomona College and candidate 
for master's degree. Later appointed fellow-assistant in Cornell University under 
Dr. J. G. Xeedham. 

7 Appointed fellow-assistant for I91J-13 in Department of Biology, Pomona College. 

8 Appointed scholar-assistant for 191J-13 under Dr. Robt. H. Walcott in the University 

of Nebraska. 

9 Accepted candidate fellow-assistant for 191.M3 under Dr. W. A. Setchell in the 

University of California. 



As a matter of contemporaneous history, and of general interest to many who 
are deeply concerned in all that pertains to this work, it may be mentioned that during 
the years 1910-12 the following Pomona graduates also pass on into advanced biological 
work: Elizabeth Heald and Sarah R. Atsatt to fellowships in Zoology under Dr. Kofoid 
in Berkeley; A. S. Crawford, to a fellowship in Cornell Medical; John A. Prizer, to post 
of Entomological Expert to the San Diego Land and Town Company; R. S. Vaile, to 
Horticultural Commissionership of Ventura county, California; A. R. Baird, to Horti- 
cultural Commissionership of Inyo county, California; E. (). Essig, to Secretaryship of 
California State Horticultural Commission; H. A. Weinland, to an assistant in the 
State Horticultural Commission; John E. Graf, to an Assistantship-in-charge at the Gov- 
ernment Entomological Station at Compton, California; C. F. Stahl, to assist Graf; H. H. 
Warner, to student assitantship in plant breeding under Prof. Babcock at Berkeley; A. R. 
Davis, to a research fellowship in the Shaw School of Botany of Washington University 
at St. Louis. 




Iebicatebto tbementoho.habing seen 
a great, neto opportunity to bo / 
something toortb tohile in the toorlb, 
toasteb no time, but set^eb upon it 
toitJj abibitp anb stapeb toith it 
to the men toitf) tofjom originateb 
tfte ibea of a permanent Jtlarine s/ 
ILaboratorp at Ilaguna Jieacfj, anb 
totofjom is bue tfjt practical bebelop 
ment of tfje larger possibilities for 
tlje project: 

James QT. femi 
1L. fi. JSroobs 
31. &. 3scfj 



anb to these other pioneers, tofjo, 
accepting the challenge of a great 
public serbice. fjabe been the first 
in abbition to those mentioneb /=/ 
abobe, to gibe of their means sr^/ 
totoarbs the founbing of this instt= 
tution: 

dhe Haguna JUeach Co. 

i^. (6. fi?rialpr. <Srn. fHgr. 

Charles $ 

Srbine 
others 



Jfir0t annual Report 



OUR PROFESSION OF FAITH IN 
THIS WORK 



I. 

A man's education most perfectly adapts him for the greatest 
success in any phase of human endeavor only when it has included 
thorough training in scientific method accurate observing, truthful 
recording, and logical correlating. 

II. 

Biology the study of life as an clement in education (and 
so in the progress of the human race) represents one of man's most 
intimate and fundamental intellectual activities it is the study of 
his own life forces and of the myriad influences that determine his 
own setting in nature. 

III. 

The sea, that limitless fountain-head of immeasurable life, which 
without cultivation has yielded so much to the nurture of the human 
race, which with cultivation can yield as much food as our best agri- 
cultural lauds, and which, one day, when the laud is crowded with 
teeming millions, will go far toward feeding the then existing peoples 
the sea, I say, presents a multitude of pressing problems of infinite 
importance to the future of humanity, and is the preeminent bio- 
logical laboratory of earth, which every year is attracting an increas- 
ingly greater number of students, and enlisting an ever warmer and 
more active human interest. 

C. F. BAKER. 



ILagumi @arine ILaboratorp 



PROLOGUE 

HOB. many years groups of Pomona College students in 
Biology, had made annual visits with Dr. Cook, head of the 
Department of Biology, to the neighboring coast, usually to 
Deadman's Island at San Pedro. The single day spent there 
each year, among the rich displays of life accessible at low tide, had 
kept alive the intention of the Department, growing stronger year 
by year, to spend portions of each summer on the coast, with a 
selected group of interested Pomona students. After many attempts* 
to organize such a project, early in 1911, Dr. Cook, Professor Baker, 
and Mr. Charles W. Metz, at a final conference, decided to go, regard- 
less of obstacles, for one season's trial, and to take with them a group 
of students interested in the work solely for the work's sake, and to 
share with them alike in all expenses of whatever nature. The selec- 
tion of a location was left to Professor Baker and Mr. Metz, and 
these two, during the Spring of 1911, worked over, largely on foot, 
most of the coast from Bedondo to Laguna. The latter locality was 
settled upon without any question, as by all odds the most desirable 
for our immediate purposes studies on the fauna and flora of the 
tidal zone and its immediate neighborhood. The varied topograph- 
ical and ecological conditions the high promotories, the acres of 
rocky tide-pools exposed at low tide, the numerous small sand 
beaches, all equally accessible together with the varied beauty of 
all the natural surroundings, showed this to be a most uniquely 
favorable place. We immediately rented a large house from Mr. 
James T. Smith, and June 21 found us in possession with all the 
necessary outfit for the proposed work. 

Miss C. K. Bice (now Mrs. A. C. Dyer of Kinsley, Kansas) had 
kindly consented to serve as chaperon, and the following students 
joined the party: Blanche E. Stafford, Vinnie B. Stout, Harry V. 
M. Hall, Mabel Guernsey, John Guernsey, Leon Gardner, and some- 
what later, Frank B. Cole. David L. Crawford, who was also one 
of this group, carried on his work in the Claremont laboratory. With 



*In connection with these attempts, grateful acknowledgments should be made to 
Miss M. Hathaway and Mr. Llewellyn Bixhy. 



6 



JFir0t Annual Report 



the energetic assistance of Mr. Metz as business manager, and the 
active co-operation of all, everything was in readiness for house- 
keeping and laboratory work by the 26th of June. Three tents in 
addition to the house were found necessary to accommodate all the 
work proposed. 

Every day thereafter to the end of the summer was full. Low 
tide hours were used for collecting and work on the beach, and this 
often took a party out at five a. in. or earlier. Every foray yielded 




The 1911 Laguna Company 

On porch at back. Miss Rice and Mr. Guernsey. In front, left to right, Pro- 
fessor Baker, Mr. Hall, Mr. Cole, Mr. Metz, Mr. Gardner, Miss Baker, Miss Stafford, 
Mis-, Stunt, Mi^s Guernsey, and our host, Mr. James T. Smith. 



loads of valuable material that required all the remaining hours for 
study and preservation. Every day was rich in discovery and inci- 
dent, and every nightfall marked substantial progress in the work of 
everyone connected with the laboratory. An hour given every day 
to a plunge in the surf kept the health of all in prime condition. All 
the varied work of the laboratory and house was well organized and 
progressed with a rare smoothness and lack of friction. Sunday was 
given to rest, to writing letters, to reading, to strolls along the cliffs, 
and to regular but informal ethical and religious discussions. 



ILaguna S@artne JLaboratorp 



We consider that all accomplished in 1911 amounts merely to a 
cursory preliminary reconnoissance an effort to get acquainted 
with a few of the most salient features of the local field. Some work 
was done on the life of the fore-shore, more thorough work on the 
distribution of life between tides, and a good deal was accomplished 
in the tide-way with the tow-net. Mr. Metz was very active in the 
collecting of tide-pool and shore fishes, extending his operations a 
number of miles up and down the coast, working out the pools thor- 
oughly, and also getting a good many things by line and net. He 
also visited Newport, and through the marked kindness and interest 
of an expert power-boat fisherman, Mr. J. E. Souder, made several 
trips off-shore, for the purpose of visiting the gill nets and jigging, 
and also made arrangements for the saving of various rare things to 
l>e found in the fishermen's nets and traps. Mr. Souder also loaned 
to the laboratory a skiff for use at Laguna, a favor for which he has 
our heartiest acknowledgments. To him are due several of our most 
valuable finds during the summer. 

Of the many thousands of specimens gathered during the summer, 
and preserved in best of order, not one small part has as yet been 
worked up, though work is in progress along many lines, either by 
students on the Coast, or by well known specialists elsewhere who are 
co-operating with us. The results presented in this report are to us 
simply a beginning a breaking of the ground. We have to acknowl- 
edge the kindly assistance in this work of many specialists through- 
out the world, including Prof. J. M. Aldrich, of Idaho University, 
Prof. Walter K. Fisher of Stanford University, Dr. M. Bernhauer of 
Austria, Mr. J. H. Paine of Stanford University, Mr. S. S. Berry of 
Stanford University, Dr. W. A. Setchell of California University, 
Mr. Julius Hurter of the St. Louis Academy of Science, Dr. Wm. A. 
Hitter of the San Diego Marine Laboratory, and others. Large col- 
lections of marine worms and of sponges are still untouched, and will 
be at the disposal of interested special students. 

Acknowledgments should also be made to many friends at Laguna, 
notably our host, Mr. Smith, whose kind and helpful interest was 
with us always ; to Mr. Isch, our banker and merchant ; to Mr. Brooks, 
who gave us many a boost; to Mr. Trefern, on whose patience we 
drew heavily, and to others. Col. Coulter, whose untimely death has 
lately been announced, was a frequent visitor to the laboratory, and 



8 



Jfirst annual Report 



was one of Mr. Smith's first converts to the idea that the laboratory 
ought to be a permanent institution in Laguna. Our stay in Laguna 
was marked by this kindliness on every hand. Laguna, unlike any 
other place on the coast, possesses the rare charm of a quiet and 
homelike country village an unusual and valuable asset which in 
itself is much sought and highly prized by great numbers of people. 
Just this feature is doubly inviting, when the village happens to be at 




A view of the building used for Laboratory in 1911, with surroundings. Professor 
Baker's tent at left, with Mr. Metz's tent back of that. Mr. Guernsey and Mr. Hall 
had tables on the upper porch, others had tables in the larger room on the first floor. 
.Mr. Gardner's tent was placed back of the house to the right. 

the most desirable point on the coast. We are hoping that nothing will 
ever destroy that unique atmosphere. 

During the summer several hundred visitors went through the 
laboratory, expressing keenest interest in all they saw there, and to 
them we took pleasure in extending every courtesy. Among these 
visitors we were delighted to number many of the friends and alumni 
of Pomona College. We were also visited occasionally by men from 
government institutions, and from neighboring educational institu- 
tions. 



Laguna 



lU&oratorp 



Especially does the laboratory group feel deep gratitude for his 
constant, helpful, and inspiring influence as sponsor of the whole 
enterprise, to Dr. Albert J. Cook, now State Commissioner of Horti- 
culture, then Professor of Biology in Pomona College, an earnest 
friend of all who strive, an active laborer for all things good and true, 
and an ardent believer in the possibility of the ultimate realization 
of all the highest in human hopes. 

Within the laboratory group, perfect kindness and good fellow- 
ship was the great distinguishing feature. A spirit of interested 
helpfulness pervaded all, and this constant and watchful co-operation 
vastly increased the possibilities of the summer work. Indeed the 
future watchword for this enterprise might well be 

Co-operation! 

C. F. BAKER. 




The 

a magnifi 
rich in life. 



channels just north of Laguna. These channels are very deep and contain 
ficent display of kelps (Eisenia and Egregia). This whole area is exceedingly 

l< fa 



10 



JTirst annual Report 



REASON FOR BEING 

are now a large number of marine laboratories in the 
world. These include several on our own East Coast and 
also several on the West Coast. Almost without exception 
they have been established for purposes of advanced univer- 
sity research of the most formal order. Reference is here made only 
to those laboratories which are confessedly part of great educational 
enterprises. A number of others have been instituted wholly or in 





Showing one of numerous small bays with sand beaches. At low tide, between 
tlie rocks in foreground and the point at left, a large bed of Phyllospadix is 
accessible. 

part, in connection with fisheries investigations. We are now adding 
one to the interesting list of marine laboratories, though this one is 
organized on a somewhat different basis than any that we know of, 
and for somewhat different purposes. We purpose to maintain a 
number of unique features in connection with this laboratory, as long 
as it shall exist as an annex of Pomona. 



Laguna Ratine Laboratory n 

There have been constantly in our minds the possibilities that 
such a laboratory might have for advanced college students. Having 
become thoroughly convinced of the immense importance and useful- 
ness in the last years of a college course, of what we have been calling 
"junior research work," and having been long aware of the tremen- 
dous effectiveness of "living interest" as a pedagogical tool, we have 
done our utmost to give advanced students the opportunity to try out 
their several abilities and capacities in scientific methods of thought 
and work, on some simple little piece of live investigation that they 
might easily carry through by faithful effort. The response to these 
great opportunities among our students, has been little short of 
marvellous. Advanced students of some special ability and capacity 
have constantly sought these opportunities and given to them unlim- 
ited amounts of time and energy largely in their own outside free 
hours, and usually without college credits. Their results have, as a 
rule, been highly commendable. For instance, the work by Hall on 
Acarina, Crawford on the Psyllidae and Thysanoptera, and Metz on 
the bees, is (according to some of the best authorities in this country 
and Europe) as good as any work of the same sort ever done in this 
country, and in some respects better. 

Uniformly we have encountered a great purpose on the part of 
the students to make their work "as good or better than anything 
done before" this has been their working principle. Naturally there 
would never be time here to develop anything more than simply some 
promise of their possibilities. Even when their maiden efforts are 
not so admirable, every day sees great and steady growth with 
inevitable response to the great ideals of endeavor which seem to 
permeate everything at Pomona. One of our students who has been 
a constant contributor to the Pomona Journal of Entomology for 
several years, still shows striking improvement in every article pub- 
lished, and this spirit of "getting better all the time" the spirit of 
"going on," has characterized all of this "junior research work." 
In the face of such spirit as this, it may be imagined that our profes- 
sors have spared no effort to furnish opportunities where they were 
earnestly sought by capable students. Our college curriculum being 
a crowded one, we had early conceived the idea of a summer marine 
laboratory, and have worked steadily towards it, with the result of 
its partial materialization in 1911. 



12 



JTirst annual Report 



In all of this work there has been no idea of aping the university 
to the slightest degree. Many years of experience as student and 
teacher in a number of colleges and universities, have convinced me 
that the American college has a destiny uniquely its own. I believe 
that there are greater possibilities in the Christian college for the 
building of individual character, and for laying the broadest and 
soundest foundations for true culture and great scholarship, than 
anywhere else on earth. Just so, I also believe that tremendous 




Showing the tide pools at Mussel Point. Here are immense colonies of mussels, 
barnacles, sea urchins ami coralline algae. This place is exceedingly rich collecting 
ground. 

ideals of really adequate and sane high school work can easily be 
built up without overlapping the college in any way, and I came to 
this belief while associated in practical high school work with two 
masters of that subject Prof. Bryan, now Assistant Superintendent 
of the St. Louis schools, and Miss Ernst, now Principal of the Cote 
Brilliante School in St. Louis. 

Our work in Pomona College, and all connected with it, has been 
developed along strictly college lines, with all of the intimate indi- 
vidual interest and assistance, and all of the varied and endless sacri- 



ILaguna fig)arine JLafioratoq) 1:3 

lires for the sake of the students, that mark the best traditions of the 
Christian college. There is nothing' proposed or carried out in oiir 
work that does not articulate perfectly with real university work- 
mark my expression witli real university work! For it must be 
remembered that our universities in their present variedly undevel 
oped state, receive in their undergraduate courses students of exactly 
the same grade as those coming to Pomona or other real colleges 
with equally rigorous entrance requirements. Whether the univer- 
sity under university conditions is able to do true college work, 
is a very debatable question, and one not germane to the point at 
issue here. I have repeatedly made the statement, and have heard it 
made also by some of our best university men, that coming up through 
the well organized basic system used with such splendid effect at 
Pomona, together with this final chance at "junior research," stu- 
dents could be broadly fitted for graduate work at our American 
universities in real n>/ir<'rxiti/ irork who would give as fine results 
in certain lines at least, as students from any other possible sources, 
and this has worked out most conclusively in actual practice. Some 
of these considerations are of unusually great moment at Pomona, 
where, as recently shown by President Blaisdell some sixty-eight 
per cent, of our graduates are now "going on" into advanced train- 
ing. 

Our method of teaching in college biology has been one as free as 
possible from mechanical and minutely prescribed routine, rich in 
laboratory and field work, full of first-hand training and of personal 
discussion and guidance, in every phase of the work, for every stu- 
dent. This opens up that higher and better college possibility of 
handling students, not in groups, en masse, by the ordinary "class" 
system, but as individuals, each for his own sake, and with methods 
adapted to his own peculiar needs and capacities, and by this inviting 
avenue we shall pass onward and upward to some of the greatest 
possibilities in modern education. Finally, among our lines of 
"junior research," we have included a great deal of work in limited 
aspects of comparative anatomy which invariably furnishes great 
treasures of deep interest to all of our students, numerous simpler 
possibilities in ecology, life histories, economic relations, faunal, 
floral, and distributional studies, many of these being capable of the 
finest possible treatment at the hands of advanced college students 



14 Jfir0t annual Report 

who have had the necessary basic training. Of course, all subjects 
requiring extensive apparatus, complicated technique, great numbers 
of highly specialized courses, or more than ten to fifteen hours per 
week, are taboo here and belong to the real university. For such 
work as we undertake, our equipment is unusually adequate, and will 
lie so maintained. 

Some of the best students we have are earning their way through 
college, wholly or in part, and are desperately crowded for time 
throughout the semesters. For these and for others with a limited 
number of extra hours, a great opportunity in the summer is a God- 
send! The Marine Laboratory at Laguna Beach gives us exactly 
the fullness of possibility in this direction that we formerly lacked. 
The professorial staff gives unlimited time to this seaside enterprise 
without tuition charges, even standing on the same basis as the stu- 
dents in matters of running expenses, bearing their share of the 
burdens of support as well as of work, and thus placing the oppor- 
tunities within the reach of any who may desire them. This attitude 
has established an "esprit du corps" that is remarkable in its sin- 
cerity and intensity. When an educational enterprise is put on foot 
and carried forward on the strength of free-will interest and desire 
in a group of students, the success of its work will be assured. 

So we submit this report and the principles it involves to the 
kindly criticism of the world of science and of education, above all 
other things as a study in practical pedagogy and more natural 
methods of instruction. 

C. F. BAKER. 




JLagtina S@arine laboratory 15 



FOR THE FUTURE 

"CTING on the suggestion which originated with Mr. James T. 
Smith, a movement was started by the people of Laguna 
looking towards the permanent establishment of a marine 
laboratory at that place. This would involve, first of all, the 
erection of a suitable building, with aquaria, with facilities for the 
handling of a small stream of salt water, and with adequate labora- 
tory facilities for students. The Laguna Improvement Association 
took the matter up, and has pushed it along with most commendable 
perseverance. Their efforts were most generously met and sup- 
ported by the Laguna Beach Company this company offering to 
give a large plot of land and one thousand dollars towards a fund of 
four thousand to set the enterprise on foot and get the building 
started. The Laguna Improvement Association set out to raise the 
additional three thousand, and this has been partly subscribed. A 
tremendous effort is now being made to complete this amount. 

The matter of the publication of results was taken up at a joint 
meeting of the Laguna Improvement Association, representatives of 
the Laguna Beach Company (Mr. Bumstead and Mr. Jahraus) and 
representatives of the College (President Blaisdell, Dr. Cook 
and Professor Baker), and funds were at that time pledged, 
sufficient for the first year Dr. Cook, with his splendid 
optimism, assuming the heaviest share of this pledge. In 
the raising of his share of the pledge, Dr. Cook has had the sup- 
port of his friends, Mr. C. E. Harwood, Mr. N. W. Blauchard, Mrs. 
Eenwick, Mr. C. C. Eeynolds, the Kingsley, Mason and Collins Co., 
and three others. The Laguna contribution to the publication fund 
came from Mr. H. Gr. Heisler (for the Laguna Beach Company), Mr. 
L. N. Brooks, Mr. J. N. Isch, and Mr. James T. Smith. 

After a building becomes a reality, then we shall take up the fight 
for proper facilities especially aquaria, books and boats. More 
than any other one thing, we shall need a strong, large, power boat, 
for extending the radius of our activities up and down the coast, and 
for work in the deeper waters off shore. We shall need most urgent- 
ly a fuller equipment of nets, traps, tangles, and other collecting 
devices. We shall need a fuller equipment of aquaria than we can get 



16 jfim annual deport 

with funds in sight. An immediate necessity facing us is the need 
for books, the larger works of reference, standard works on marine 
exploration, the reports of other marine laboratories, and many 
special papers. All of these things we shall push hard for, and we 
are hoping that all friends of such work will stand witli us loyally in 
this great effort. 

We hope to establish important co-operative relations with other 
laboratories of the sort, exchanging publications and material with 
them, and perhaps also, table facilities. There is not a point on the 
whole coast where the great west coast lobster (Panulirus intcrrup- 
tiix) could lie better investigated, or where abalones are more 
abundant, and none better for investigations along many other lines 
of marine biology, so that we hope to interest the Fish Commission 
in our efforts, get them to contribute full sets of their invaluable 
reports and bulletins, and perhaps to co-operate in other ways. 

The future is big with possibilities for this enterprise, educational 
and otherwise. It will take energy and hard work to realize these 
possibilities, but we are confidently expecting that many who appre- 
ciate great effort in great educational enterprises, will participate 
in it with us. We invite all such to join us ! 

C. P. BAKER. 



Laguna 0arinc Laboratory 17 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

1. MKTX, C. W. Tlu> Fishes of Laguna Beach, California, I. 

'2. HUBTER, JULIUS Ain]iliil)ians and Reptiles collected at Laguna 
Beach. 

.'!. GUERNSEY, MAUEL Observations on Certain Mollusca of La- 
guna. 

4. BERRY, S. S. On a Cephalopod new to California with Note on 

Another Species. 

5. BAKER, C. F. Some Echinoderms collected at Tjaguna. 
(i. HALL, H. V. M. Studies in Pycnogonida, I. 

7. BAKER, C. F.^-Notes on Crustacea of Laguna, I. 

8. STAFFORD, BLANCHE E. Studies in Laguna Isopods. 

9. STOUT, VINNIE E. Studies in Laguna Amphipods. 

10. COLE, F. E. Some Diptera of the Beach at Laguna. 

11. DYAR, H. G. Lepidoptera collected at Laguna Beach, California. 

12. BUSCK, AUGUST Microlepidoptera from Laguna Beach. 

13. BAKER, C. F. Some Coleoptera of the Beach at Laguna, with 

descriptions of new species by Dr. M. Bernhauer. 

14. PAINE, J. IT. Mallophaga from Birds of Laguna Beach. 

15. HALL, IT. V. M. Some Marine and Terrestrial Acarina of 

Laguna Beach. 

IH. GARDNER, LEON Notes on Birds of Laguna Beach. 

17. GUERNSEY, JOT-IN Notes on the Marine Alga 1 of Laguna Beach. 



18 



Jfirst annual Ueport 




Showing region just north of pier 
are very accessible here. 



at Imv tide. A large area of rich tide pools 



ilaguna Marine ILaboratorp 



THE FISHES OF LACUNA BEACH, 
CALIFORNIA, I. 

CHARLES W. METZ 

The present paper is a result of a study of the tide-pool and in- 
shore fishes found in the vicinity of Laguna Beach and Newport 
Beach, Orange County, California. The material for the work was 
obtained during July and August, at the 1911 session of The Laguna 
Marine Laboratory. The main object of the study has been to make 
as complete as possible a survey of the local shore fishes, together 
with observations and dissections bearing on their ecological rela- 
tions. In the immediate vicinity of Laguna Beach is an unusual 
abundance of tide-pools, large, varied, and rich in aquatic vegeta- 
tion, offering exceptional opportunities for shore work. For this 
reason an especial effort was made to work the pools and in-shore 
waters exhaustively throughout the limited time of our stay. No 
attempt has been made to cover the deep water fishes, or fishes that 
are not typically shore forms. Occasionally, however, representa- 
tives of the deej > water species were brought in by fishermen or 
accidentally taken near the shore, and these have been mentioned in 
their places. Likewise a few notes on species taken at other locali- 
ties along the coast have been included when they were of especial 
interest. 

Most of the work in this study was done at the Laboratory in 
Laguna Beach, under the direction of Professor C. P. Baker, to whom 
the author is greatly indebted for assistance in many ways. Por- 
tions of it, however, have been since completed at Stanford Univer- 
sity; and I am indebted to Dr. Gilbert, and Professors Starks and 
Snyder, of that institution, for kindly suggestions and advice. It is 
with pleasure, also, that I take this opportunity of thanking Mr. J. E. 
Sender, owner of the fishing launch "Ruth" of Newport Beach, for 
his hospitality, and his active interest in the work of collecting during 
the summer. 

The nomenclature here followed is that of Starks and Morris, in 
"The Marine Fishes of Southern California," except in a few cases 
where changes have been made since this appeared (1907). Any 
such changes are noted in the text. 

During the course of the work at Laguna the author became con- 
siderably interested in the gross visceral anatomy of the local fishes, 
especially where this related to the food and habits of species. Time 
did not permit of extensive investigations along this line; nor did the 



20 



Jfirst annual Report 



available material allow comprehensive work on any one group. 
Consequently the accompanying notes and figures relate to many 
widely separated species, so that little comparison can be made ex- 
cept iu a general way. Since, however, none, or very few of these 
common forms have ever been studied or described from the point of 
view of internal structure it is thought well to include herewith all 
the information gathered. It is interesting to note, even in what is 
included, the many modifications and variations that arise. Some of 
these are easily explained by the habits or food of the species, as for 




Figures 1 and 2. Rhinobatus productus 

Fig. 1, Ventral view of entire viscera, in natural position. Fig. 2, Same with 
organs separated to show form. The liver is thrown back, the alimentary canal 
stretched out, and the uro-genital organs pulled to one side. J, Liver. O, Ovary. 
Q, Kidney. D, Oviduct. R, Rectal gland. X, Spleen. Y, Pancreas. Numbers 
refer to corresponding regions of the alimentary canal. 

Figures 3 and 4. Aetobatus californicus 

Fig. 3, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 4, Same with organs separated. 
A, Vent. D, Spleen. E, Pancreas. G, Pyloris. K, Kidney. L, Liver. M, Leydig's 
gland or Epididymis. O, Oesophagus. R, Rectal gland. S, Sperm sac. T, Testis. 
V, Vesiculae seminalis. W, Wolltian duct. Numbers relate to corresponding parts 
of the alimentary canal. 



JLaguna Q0arine Laboratory 



instance the similarity in internal structure of the "bat-fish" (Acto- 
batus californicus) and the "shovel nose shark" (Rhinobatus i>ro- 
ductus), whose viscera are correlated with bottom living habits and 
similarity of food, rather than bpdy structure or form. Other modi 
fications, on the other hand, such as that shown in the peculiar 
diverticulum or caeca! appendage of the stomach in Gymnothorax 
mordax, are not so readily understood, and offer interesting fields 
for speculation. 

In only one family, the Blennidae, were enough species obtained 
to allow any comparative study. But in this one alone some remark- 
able modifications are found, as shown in the accompanying figures. 
In this one family several extremes are typified, in regard to both 
form and structure of the visceral organs. The most peculiar of 
these is the great divergence from the comparatively short, compact 
viscera, with the long, coiled alimentary canal in such forms as 
Heterostichus or the Gibbonsias, to the extremely long, drawn out 
viscera and perfectly straight alimentary canal of the eel-like Xercr- 
pes fucorum. That this is not due solely to external form is shown 
by the intermediate visceral structure of Xiphidion rupestre, which 
in body form is extremely long and eel-like, just as is A'r rr //><. s- 
fucorum. 

Unfortunately only enough has been done to show a few of the 
extremes, and not enough to indicate relationships between genera. 
But even this indicates that a comprehensive study of this large 
and varied group in its entirety could not fail to bring out some 
important and interesting facts in regard, both to individual species 
and to their inter-relationships. 

Family EPTATRETIDAE 
Eptatretus stouti (Lockington). Hagfish. 

Not common. A few specimens taken on set lines, or brought in 
by fishermen at Laguna. 

Family CARCHARIIDAE 

Mustelus californicus Gill. Dog-shark, Oil-shark. 
Abundant at Newport and common at Laguna. 

Triakis semifasciatus Girarcl. Little Leopard Sharp. 

Found commonly in the vicinity of Laguna and Newport, but 
never abundant. Taken on set lines close to the shore at Laguna. 

Carcharias laminella Jordan and Gilbert. 
Two specimens seen at Newport are thought to be this species. 



99 



JFim annual deport 




Figure 2. Rhinobatus productus; female. (Explanation under Figure 1) 



lUgumi @arine ILabomtorp 23 

Family LAMNIDAE 

Lamna cornubica (Gmelin). Mackerel Shark. 
(Plate II, Figure H) 

One specimen, 4!/2 feet long, taken about ten miles southeast of 
Laguna in a barracuda drift net on July 26. This species is not re- 
corded by Starks and Morris, but is said to be, "not rare in Califor- 
nia," (Jordan and Evermann, Fishes of N. and Mid. America, Vol. 
I, p. 49). The specimen taken near Laguna was brought ashore and 
kept for some time, so there can be no question as to the identity. 
The accompanying photograph shows the general appearance of the 
fish. 

Family SQUATINIDAE 

Squatina squatina (Linnaeus). Angel Shark. 

Several specimens of this species were taken by the fishermen in 
rather deep water off Newport. 

Family RHINOBATIDAE 

Rhinobatus productus Ayres. Shovel-nose Shark, Guitar Fish. 
(Figures 1 and 2, and 2 A) 

This was the most common ray found in the vicinity of Laguna. 
At Newport Beach a favorite sport of the "Sunday fishermen" is 
catching these large rays from the pier, where numbers take the bait 
and are hauled up every day. 

The following notes were taken on a female specimen four feet 
long. Measurements in hundredths of body length. Snout to pos- 
terior apex of pectoral, 38 ; snout to ventrals, 18 ; snout to first dorsal, 
59 ; distance between dorsals, IQi/o ; tip of snout to vent, 41 ; breadth 
across pectorals, 34 ; height of first dorsal, 7.3 ; second dorsal same ; 
length of abdominal cavity, 19.5. The abdominal cavity is very broad, 
the anterior two-thirds being nearly square. Posteriorly it narrows 
decidedly, both dorso-ventrally and laterally, due to the intrusion of 
the vetebral column and pectoral fin cartilages. This shape is well 
shown by the outline of the viscera in the accompanying figure 
(Figure 1), which is taken from this specimen. Figure 1 shows the 
viscera entire, in its natural position as found in the body cavity. 
Figure 2 represents the same with the various organs separated from 
one another sufficiently to show their individual forms. The ali- 
mentary canal is severed just in front of the liver. In Figure 1 a 
somewhat distorted appearance is given to the viscera by the en- 
larged oviducts, each of which is swollen with a well developed egg. 
The liver is trilobate, the lateral lobes extending a short distance 



24 



JFirst Annual Report 



along the sides, partially covering the oviducts and ovaries, the 
middle lobe extending mesially an equal distance, then lapping over 
the left side, covering the stomach. The alimentary canal is very 
definitely divided into oesophagus, stomach, pyloric tract, spiral 
valve (or colon), rectum and cloaca. Both spleen and pancreas are 
well developed, the former lying along the right side of the stomach, 






Figure 2a. Young Rhinobatus productus 

the latter fastened to the intestine at the anterior end of the colon. 
The spiral valve in this species makes eleven complete turns, the bore 
in the first two or three being quite large, after which it is uniformly 
small to the end where it broadens out considerably in the rectum 
and still more in the cloaca. Exactly even with, and below the open- 
ing of the colon into the cloaca is the similar oviducal aperture, a 
single aperture since the two oviducts coalesce just before reaching 



ILaguna 



ILa&oratorp 



25 




Figure 4. Aetobatus calif ornicus; male. (Explanation under Figures 1 and 3) 



26 jFim annual Report 

the cloaca. Along the base of the oviducts on each side (dor sally) 
may be seen the kidneys ( Figure 2 A), each of which gradually 
diminishes in size, ending about the middle of the oviduct. Along the 
anterior and ventral side (appearing on top in figure) of the oviducts 
are the ovaries, attached throughout their anterior part to the ovi- 
ducts and posteriorly to the rectal gland, (Figure 2 R). The ovaries 
and oviducts appear entirely out of proportion in the figure on 
account of the large ova in the latter. Aside from this the relation- 
ships of the various organs may be seen from the figures. The 
oviducts, instead of being separated as shown, normally extend dor- 
sally over the stomach (as the fallopian tubes) and then down 
around the oesophagus in front of the liver, fusing below except for 
the common opening into the abdominal cavity. 

The male urogenital organs of Rhinobatus productus resemble in 
general those of the same sex of Aetolxttux c/iHforniciix, as noted 
under that species, except that in the specimen examined the testes 
are well separated and distinct throughout their length. 

On August 14th a female of this species was taken just as she 
was about to bear young. In fact, two of the latter were just emerg- 
ing from the cloaca. The brood consisted of four males and one 
female, all of the same size. The mother was a large specimen, 
measuring 119 cm. in length, and 38 1 /-; cm. across the pectorals. In 
addition to the five young she contained seven well developed ova, 
each as large as a hen's egg. It is possible that she had already 
given birth to some young in the water before being caught. 

The following notes were taken on the five young secured: All 
were alive and normal ; the tail of one and head of another were pro- 
truding from the cloaca at the time of capture, indicating that they 
may be born either head or tail foremost. Only this one individual, 
however, appeared tail foremost. All five were of the same stage 
of development, with no signs of yolk-sac or other embryonic attach- 
ments. One of the males gave the following characters, with which 
the others essentially agreed: Measurements in mm. Length, tip 
to tip, 238; to spiracles, 35; to eyes, 37; to base first dorsal, 145; to 
mouth, 47 ; to base second dorsal, 180 ; to posterior tip of pectoral, 
104; width mouth, 16; interorbital, 11; breadth across pectorals, 88; 
tip snout to first gill opening, 56; to vent, 112; length ventrals, 36; 
height first dorsal, 13; second, 13; length caudal, 34; distance be- 
tween two anterior gill openings, 39 ; two posterior, 26 ; length clasp- 
ers, 16, not quite reaching ventrals. Twenty-two spines along back 
in front of first dorsal ; seven more between dorsals, and two small 
ones behind second dorsal; two spines on each shoulder opposite 
fourth dorsal spine, about on a line with inner and outer borders of 
orbit respectively ; a row of six spines above inner margin of orbit, 



laguna 60arine Laboratory 



and tliree irregularly placed spines in front of these ; a row of 
twenty-two spines along each rostral cartilage, ending opposite orbit. 
Above tip of the snout is a broad flap or tentacle, with five short 
lobes on its apical margin. Skin smooth, and mostly mucus covered, 
except on inter-orbital where it roughened with minute prickles. 
Outer margin of pectorals translucent, the rays plainly visible; 
rostral cartilages converging for most of their length, then diverging 
at tip, but nowhere confluent. Claspers very small, not reaching tips 
of ventral rays. In the other specimens the number of dorsal spines 
along the back varied from twenty to twenty-five in the series before 
the first dorsal, and also varied a little in the series around the orbits. 

Food Stomachs of adults of this species all contained small 
Crustacea (crabs, shrimps, etc.), and a number of polychaet worms. 
No other food was found. 

Platyrhinoides triseriatus (Jordan and Gilbert). Hornback. 

Three specimens were secured in rather deep water off Newport, 
where it is reported common. 

Family RAJIDAE 

Raja inornata Jordan and Gilbert. Common Skate. 
A specimen seen at Newport was identified as this species. Its 
abundance could not be determined. 

Family DASYATIDAE 

Urolophus halleri Cooper. Round String Ray. 
Common at Newport and probably at Laguna, although no speci- 
mens were taken by us at the latter place. 

Pteroplatea marmorata Cooper. California Butterfly Ray. 
One specimen of this species was taken at Newport. No informa- 
tion could be obtained as to its abundance. 

Family AETOBATIDAE 
Aetobatus californicus Gill. Batfish. 

(Figures 3 and 4) 

Fairly common at Newport and Laguna. 

The following notes with accompanying figures were taken from 
a male specimen 470 mm. in length, and 790 mrn. across pectorals : 
Measurements in huudredths of length. Tip snout to base ventrals, 
81 ; to mouth, 12 ; to eye, 5.5 ; interocular space, 16 ; width mouth, 14 ; 
length abdominal cavity, 49 (230 mm.) ; breadth same 28 (130 mm.). 
The backbone makes a deep ridge in the posterior dorsal part of the 
abdominal cavity, leaving a deep groove on each side in which the 



28 jfirst annual deport 

kidneys lie. The general shape of the abdominal cavity may be seen 
from that of the viscera (Figure 3), which conforms to it in outline. 
As may also be seen, the shape quite closely resembles that of Rhino- 
bat us productus, in spite of the extreme difference in external form 
of these two species. It is interesting to note that in the batfish, 
having a breadth one and seven-tenths times its length, the abdom- 
inal cavity is even narrower and longer than in the "shovel nose" 
with a breadth of only one-third the length. Evidently the shape of 
the abdominal cavity is not determined by the external form in these 
species, but rather is coincident with the depressed body and similar 
habits of the two. 

The alimentary canal, liver, spleen and pancreas will be seen to 
closely resemble those of R. productus except that the liver is bilo- 
bate and somewhat larger. In Figure 4 the spleen is shown attached 
to the pyloric tract of the stomach, but in reality it lies between and 
against the two divisions, as it does also in R. productus. The spiral 
valve in this species has twenty-two turns (just double the number 
of R. pr//(/iictux), each being quite narrow, as shown in the figure. 
The pylori s is much farther in advance of the spiral valve than in 
the latter species, also. 

The urogenital organs are best shown in the figure (Figure 4). 
The testes in this specimen are united throughout the posterior half 
of their length, attaching at the common end to the rectal gland. 
Whether or not this is the normal condition of the species was not 
determined, as only one specimen was dissected. Dorsal of the 
middle of the testes extend the kidneys and Wolffian ducts, the 
former mainly developed posteriorly, as shown, the latter extending 
forward to the u'sophageal region, where they unite witli the vasa 
efferent ia from the testes. Posteriorly the Wolffian ducts (vesicula? 
seminalis) and the sperm sacs open into the cloaca by a single pore, 
the urogenital sinus, which is well beyond the anal opening of the 
alimentary canal. Other relationships may be seen from the figure. 

In the stomach of this specimen was found a considerable amount 
of meat, but so chewed up as to prevent identification, except that 
the remains of several polychaet worms were recognizable. No 
chitinous or bony remains were found, and apparently this specimen 
had eaten no crustacean or vertebrate food. 

Family CHIMAERIDAE 

Chimaera colliei Lay and Bennett. Chimaera, Ratfish. 
One specimen brought in by fishermen at Newport; presumably 
from deep water. 



Lagtina Cpirine Laboratory 



o 




Figures 5 and 6. Gymnothorax mordax 

No. 5, Ventral view of viscera in their natural relative positions. No. 6, Same, 
with organs separated. M. Liver. N, Air bladder. O, Gonads. Q, Spleen. R, 
Caecal pouch or diverticulum from stomach. Z, Gall bladder. 

Figures 7 and 8. Girella nigricans 

Fig. 7, Viscera entire, ventral view. Fig. 8, Alimentary canal removed. A, Heart. 
B, Liver, with gall bladder. C, Urinary bladder. Numbers refer to corresponding 
regions of the alimentary canal. 



so jfirst annual EUport 

Family MURAENIDAE 

Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres). Moray, Eel. 
(Figures 5 and 6) 

Very common along the shore, especially the rocky stretches. 
Specimens of this species were taken in tide-pools, were found under 
rocks both in and out of the water, were often caught by rod fisher- 
men and were occasionally taken on set lines at moderate depths. 

In visceral anatomy the "Moray" shows striking characteristics, 
when compared with the typical teleost forms. The most peculiar of 
these is probably the modification of the alimentary canal, produc- 
ing an extremely long extension of the stomach beyond the pyloris, 
so that the intestine connects with the stomach near the middle, 
instead of at the end of the latter. The pyloric connection is very 
distinct in both form and texture from either the stomach or the 
intestine, being a short, narrow "elbow-like" tube, thick walled and 
muscular. The stomach is comparatively thick walled, and definite 
in shape, while the intestine is thin walled and lax. Other characters 
may be seen from Figures 5 and 6. The organs shown as the base of 
the liver in Figure 5 are the divisions of the heart, and are not indi- 
cated in Figure 6. 

Family CLUPEIDAE 
Sardinella caeruleus (Girard). Sardine. 

Abundant at Newport and Laguna. Young individuals occasion- 
ally taken in tide-pools. 

Family ENGRAULIDAE 
Anchovia compressa (Girard). Anchovy. 
Very common at Newport, and probably off Laguna also. 
Engraulis mordax Girard. California Anchovy. 

Only one specimen taken at Newport, but reported by the fisher- 
men as being common. 

Family SYNODONTIDAE 
Synodus lucioceps (Ayres). Butter Fish. 
One specimen, seventeen inches long, taken at Newport. 

Family BELONIDAE 
Tylosurus exilis (Girard). Needle Fish. 

One specimen taken at Newport. Reported by the fishermen as 
being fairly common. 



Laguna 



Laboratorp 



Family EXOCOETIDAE 

Cypselurus californicus Cooper. Great Flying Fish. 
Common in the channel between Santa Catalina Island and the 
mainland. Seen occasionally along the coast near Laguna. One 
specimen, (photograph Figure 4a), caught in a drift net at Laguna. 




Figure 4a. Cypselurus californicus 

Family ATHERINIDAE 

Atherinops affinis (Ayres). Smelt, Pescadillo Del Ray. 
Abundant at Newport and Laguna throughout the summer. 

Family SPHYRAENIDAE 
Sphyraena argentea (iirard. Barracuda. 

Very common off the coast of Southern California, usually run- 
ning in schools. This is the main market fish taken at Newport dur- 
ing the summer, when it is caught in drift nets, and by trolling, or 
"jigging" as the fishermen call it. 



32 Jftr0t annual Report 

Family SCOMBRIDAE 
Scomber japonicus Houttuyn. Mackerel. 

Very common in deep water. Often taken by the barracuda fish- 
ermen. 

Thunnus thunnus (Linnaeus). Tunny, Tuna. 
Several taken by fishermen at Newport and Laguna. 

Germo alalunga (Gmelin). Long Finned Albacore. 
At certain times during the summer these were locally taken in 
abundance by the fishermen on "jigs," or troll lines. 

Scomberomorus sierra Jordan and Starks. Spanish Mackerel. 
Common. Often found in the market, but not valued as food. 

Family CARANGIDAE 
Seriola dorsalis (Gill). Yellow Tail. 

Often taken by the fishermen off Laguna and Newport, where it 
is prized as food. 

Trachurus picturata (Bowdich). Horse Mackerel. 
This, in company with the Spanish Mackerel, often found in the 
markets, but used even less than the Spanish Mackerel for food. 

Family STROMATEIDAE 

Peprillus simillimus (. \yres). California Pompano. 
A few specimens taken at Newport. Apparently not very common. 

Family SERRANIDAE 
Paralabrax nebulifer (Girard). Rock Bass. 

One specimen, twelve inches long, taken in deep water off New- 
port. Apparently not abundant. 

Paralabrax clathratus (Girard). Cabrillo. 

Caught by fishermen at Newport, where it, like P. iicln/Jifcr and 
others, is known as "Eock Bass." 

Family KYPHOSIDAE 

Girella nigricans (Ayres). Green-Fish. 

(Plate I, A, and Figures 7 and 8) 

This is the most common fish in the tide-pools near Laguna, 
especially those pools having little or no vegetation in them. In the 
high, shallow pools the young are often found by hundreds, and are 
easily distinguished as they swim about, because of the conspicuous 
light spot on each side of the back. In the larger, lower pools older 



LiUwnitnrp 



specimens are found, some ranging to over a foot in length. The 
older ones, however, do not commonly remain in the pools, but live 
in deeper water around the rocks and beds of alga?. In individuals 
over three or four inches in length the light spots on the sides arc 
obsolete. 

Many specimens of various sizes were taken. The accompanying 
figures and notes were made from a specimen 220 mm. in length. 
Figure 7 shows the contents of the body cavity with all the organs in 
their natural position. The great number of pyloric caeca, and the 
long convoluted alimentary canal are very conspiciious features, re- 
lating to the food habits of the species. Figure 8 (reduced to one- 
half the scale of Figure 7) is an outline of the alimentary canal, 
removed to show the nature of the convolutions. Corresponding 
numbers in the two figures refer to corresponding parts of the canal. 
The stomach is not so conspicuously differentiated from the rest of 
the canal as it is in many of the lower fishes previously noted. As 
seen by the figure, the oesophagus, stomach, spleen, etc., are all cov- 
ered ventrally by the intestine, which winds back and forth in a 
devious course below them. Instead of extending in a series of turns 
from the anterior to the posterior regions, the intestine appears well 
back (Figure 7 I) and after doubling across and back it makes a 
sharp turn (2 and 3) and then runs well forward around its last turn 
to (4) where it makes another sharp turn anteriorly (5), crossing 
over near the liver (6) and then down along the left side (8) to the 
anus. In Figure 8 the liver and gall bladder are shown separated 
from the rest. The gall bladder lies far back near the urinary 
bladder in the posterior part of the abdominal cavity, and is con- 
nected with the liver by its long, tube-like duct. 

The alimentary canal in this specimen measured 550 mm. in 
length, or two and one-half times the total body length of the fish. 
The food, as one would expect, is entirely vegetable, so far as known. 
Specimens dissected contain only pieces of kelp, red alga?, etc. One 
large specimen twelve inches long had eaten several large chunks of 
kelp several centimeters in length. 

Family SCIAENIDAE 
Seriphus politus Ayres. Queen-Fish, White Croaker. 

One specimen taken at Newport. No information as to its abund- 
ance was secured. 

Sciaena saturna (Girard). Black Croaker. 
Fairly comnian at Newport and Laguna. 



34 jfirst annual Report 

Genyonemus lineatus (Ayres). King-Fish. 

Many specimens of this species were taken at the Newport pier by 
rod fishermen during the summer. These were used for both food 
and bait. 

Umbrina roncador Jordan and Gilbert. Yellow-Fin, Yellow-Tailed Croaker. 

This species is taken in abundance at Newport, where it is valued 
for food. 

Menticirrhus undulatus (Girard). California Whiting. 
One specimen secured from Newport fishermen, who took it in 
deep water. 




Figure 4b. Cymatogaster aggregatus 

Family EMBIOTOCIDAE 
Abeona minima (Gibbons). Perch. 

This species was common at Laguna during the summer. Sev- 
eral young specimens were taken in the lower tide-pools. 

Cymatogaster aggregatus Gibbons. Viviparous Perch, Silver Perch, 

"Punkin Seed." 
(Figure 4 B) 

Abundant at both Newport and Laguna. Young occasionally 
found in tide-pools. 

Embiotoca jacksoni Agassiz. Black Perch, Red Perch. 

(Plate I, B) 

Very common in shallow water. Several large specimens of this 
species were taken in one of the larger tide-pools at Laguna. All 
were of the reddish brown variety. 



ILaguna Ratine La&oratorp 



Family POMACENTRIDAE 
Chromis punctipinnis ( Cooper ) 

Quite common at moderate depths around the kelp beds near 
Laguna, where it was easily caught with hook and line. 

Hypsypops rubicunda (Girard). Goldfish. 

The "Sunday fishermen" catch numbers of goldfish from the 
rocky points and coves along the coast. A few adult and young spec- 
imens were seen in the larger tide-pools near Laguna. 




Figure 8a. Sebastodes rastrelliger 

Family LABRIDAE 

Pimelometopon pulcher (Ayres). Sheep's Head. 
One of the commonest species taken by anglers fishing from the 
rocks along the shore. 






Halichoeres semicinctus (Ayres) 

Abundant near the rocks and in the kelp beds. Commonly taken 
by rod fishermen. It can be easily distinguished by the large black 
blotches, one on each side just behind the pectorals. 

Oxyjulis californica (Giinther). Kelp-Fish, Senorita. 
Abundant around the kelp beds near Laguua, where it is easily 
caught on hook and line. Occasionally young specimens get into 
the tide-pools, but normally the species is found beyond the pools. 



36 jfirst annual Report 

Family SCORPAENIDAE 
Sebastodes rastrelliger (Jordan and Gilbert). Rock-Fish, Sting-Fish. 

(Plate I, C, and Figure 8 A) 

Fairly common near the rocky shores. All the species of Scor- 
psenidae are eommonly known as "sting-fish," "spine-fish," or other 
names referring to the pungent dorsal spines. 

Sebastodes carinatus (Jordan and Gilbert). 
One specimen taken in moderately deep water off Laguna Beach. 

Sebastodes serriceps (Jordan and Gilbert) 
One very dark colored specimen taken near Laguna Beach. 

Scorpaena guttata Girard. Sculpin, Scorpene. 

Besides the mature fish, which are fairly common along the shore 
near Laguna, one young, brilliantly colored specimen about three 
inches long was taken in a tide-pool. The photograph shown in 
Figure E and the accompanying color notes are from this specimen. 

Ground color cream or grayish, but almost entirely concealed by 
the numerous markings. Chocolate colored markings appeared as 
follows: Large blotch or stripe on cheek below eye, another on pos- 
terior margin of opercle ; broad bar across base of pectoral, and 
another half way between this and tip; four broad irregular bands 
across body, extending on vertical fins, the last including caudal base; 
broad band, broken by darker spots near apex of caudal; large 
blotches covering basal half of anal and ventrals. Band across apex 
of all fins, and belly behind ventrals pink. Interorbital, and numer- 
ous spots on dark areas of fins, rufous. Caudal membrane yellow. 
Premaxillary, lower jaw, branchiostigals and throat spotted with 
silver. Membrane of ventrals blood red, except near apex. A large, 
irregular ocellus with black center and rufous border on base of 
4-fi rays of dorsal, extending down on back. Median light bands on 
pectorals and caudal, and light bands on body cream color. Dark 
areas more or less spotted with cream or gray, and light areas with 
brown or silver. The variegated pattern is shown by the figure. 

Family COTTIDAE 
Scorpaenichthys marmoratus (Ayres) 
One large specimen, twenty inches long, taken at Laguna. 

Clinocottus analis (Girard). Rock-Fish. 

(Figures 9, 10 and 10 A) 

Next to Girella iiigricaiis this is the most abundant fish in the tide- 
pools near Laguua, and in the darker pools, and those without vege- 
tation it is the most abundant. The pools within a quarter of a mile 



ILaguna 



Laboratory 



37 



of Laguna contain thousands of individuals, so that large numl)ers 
were taken at different times during the summer. Considerable in- 
terest attaches to this species because of its remarkable color varia- 
tions. In the open, lighter pools specimens are very light ; among 
the green algae in certain pools they have a greenish color; in pools 
containing a variety and abundance of plant life they are usually 
mottled and blotched, often with brilliant colors ; and in the deep, 
narrow pools they are almost invariably dark. It would be iuipos- 




9 



Figures 9 and 10. Clinocottus analis 

Fig. 9, Ventral view of visceral and branchial organs. Fig. 10, Alimentary canal 
removed. Showing pharyngeal teeth. H, Heart. L, Liver. T, Testis. O, Stomach. 
K, Kidney. F, Urinary bladder. V, Vent. P, Papilla. Numbers refer to correspond- 
ing regions in the alimentary canal. 



JFirst annual Report 



sible to describe all the various shades and markings found in a 
random series, but a few of the main color types are here given. 

Although the fishes vary in a rough way to correspond to the pool 
in which they live, yet it is by no means true that they all agree in 
any one place. The light and dark shades are almost uniformly 
found in the pools corresponding, but in color pattern and brilliancy 
of marking no particular correlation to surroundings holds consist- 
ently. Especially is this true in pools with luxuriant algae and cor- 
raline growths, where all sorts of color patterns are found inter- 
mingled. No evidence of a so-called voluntary change of color by 
individual specimens was observed. Change in surroundings seemed 
to have no immediate effect on the color of any individual. 






Figure lOa. Clinocottus analis 

The general body color pattern of this species consists of five or 
six dark bars extending down on the sides, and usually an irregular 
dark area covering the upper part of the head. The fins, except 
ventrals, are all barred with narrow, dark, transverse bands on the 
rays. Below the body is variously speckled. In other respects there 
is no uniformity in coloration. 

No. 1. Taken from a specimen three and one-half inches long. 
General color dark ; bands on dorsum not conspicuous, faded out in a 
few minutes. Ground color of under parts pale bluish green, broken 
by numerous round silver spots. Dorsal fin with an apical row of 
blood red spots on the membrane between the rays ; caudal salmon 
color with an apical row of red spots like that of dorsal; pectoral 
with a row of silver streaks on the base of rays, remainder streaked 
with brown. Cheeks with numerous dots and stripes of salmon pink. 



JLaguna eparine La&omtotp 39 

No. 2. Female, three and one-half inches long. Light; entire 
surface presenting a very speckled appearance. An apical band of 
yellow on spinous dorsal; no red spots; membrane of soft dorsal 
greenish; caudal faint salmon color. Spots on sides and belly salmon 
and silver mixed. 

No. 4. Very dark ; body bands almost black ; fins and entire body 
except region around pectorals dusky ; entire head, cheeks, and throat 
nearly black. (In other forms the throat is almost invariably light). 

Not only is this species extremely variable in coloration, but it 
shows the same tendency, though perhaps not to such an extent, in 
other characters. The following tables will indicate some of these: 

Fin Bays of Fifteen Specimens. 
D. IX-16; A. 13, (four specimens). 
D. IX-17; A. 14, (five specimens). 
D. IX-17; A. 13, (six specimens). 
Pyloric caeca usually 7-8, often 9 or even 10. 

Alimentary canal in length of fish in six specimens as follows: 
1, 1.12, 1.2, 1.24, 1.36, 1.45. In the last case it is seen to be almost 
one-half longer than in the first. In spite of the difference in length, 
however, the general position of the canal in the body cavity is fairly 
constant, the extra length being given by small kinks here and there. 
The other visceral organs are also quite stable in form and location. 
(Note the contrast with Gibbonsia elegaus, which, like this species, 
has many variable characters). 

Figure 9 shows a specimen in which the body walls, and most of 
the head have been removed, leaving the internal organs from the 
gills back. The relatively small liver, and relatively large stomach 
and pyloric cffica are most noticeable, the stomach occupying a large 
portion of the abdominal cavity. The real proportions of the stomach 
are better shown in Figure 10, which is an outline of the alimentary 
canal, including the pharynx with its peculiar patches of teeth. The 
pertinence of such a large stomach, a comparatively short intestine, 
and the peculiar pharyngeal teeth pads, is evident upon examination 
of the food taken. 

Food Mainly Mollusca, Crustacea, and annulate worms, especial- 
ly the first. Of Mollusca there were found principally limpets, and 
other small lamellibranchs, and various gasteropods; of Crustacea, 
many small crabs, and a few amphipods ; of worms, chaetopods. No 
traces of plant food were found. One specimen 82 mm. long contained 
among other things an abalone 15 mm. long, and a section of a chfeto- 
pod 8 mm. wide. 



40 



JFirst annual deport 



Note on Blennicottus recalvus Greely 
(Figures 11 and 12) 

It is of interest to notice here, another small, tide-pool cottid, 
Blennicottus recalvus, which is of much the same appearance, and 
is sometimes found in the same pools with Clinocottus analis farther 
north. The accompanying figures and notes were made from speci- 
mens taken by the author at Pacific Grove, California, in April, 1911. 

Blennicottus recalvus is especially interesting here because it 
appears to be almost or entirely herbivorous. The very different 
alimentary canal is evident at a glance (Figures 11 and 12), being 
in this species twice as long in proportion to the body length. The 
walls of the canal, especially the stomach, are very much thinner and 
more elastic. In location, however, the canal agrees with that of 
CliiiocottuN intnlix, in lying along the right side of the body cavity, 




11 



Figures 11 and 12. Blennicottus recalvus 

Fig. 11, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 12, Alimentary canal and uro- 
genital organs removed. E, Liver. F, Urogenital organs, male. 



ILaguna Sgarine Laboratory 



the left side being occupied by the urogenital organs. The details of 
arrangement and form may be best seen from the figures (11 and 12). 
The latter figure is drawn to a scale one-third smaller than the for- 
mer. In Figure 11, the vent is seen to be located some distance in 
front of the end of the cavity; a character not found in any other 
cottids examined. The food in the five or six specimens dissected 
was made up entirely of vegetable remains, principally foliose alga>, 
mixed with which were numerous grains of sand. 

Family GOBIIDAE 
Gillichthys mirabilis Cooper 

Morris and Starks record this species as "taken in abundance in 
a slough which received some fresh water near Old Town" (San 
Diego Bay), and, "in Newport Bay it was found more widely dis- 
tributed." In a small brackish slough in "Aliso Canyon" near 
Laguna large numbers up to two inches in length were found. The 
water in this slough was apparently derived mainly from the slight 
drainage down "Aliso Creek," but probably also received some salt 
water from the bay at the mouth of the canyon during the highest 
tides. 

Typhlogobius californiensis Steindachner. Blind Goby. 

(Plate III, P) 

One specimen, about two and one-half inches long, taken in the 
sand under a stone above low tide mark. The water was a few inches 
deep over the stone when the fish was taken, but a lower tide would 
leave it dry. Whether the fish remains under stones in such cases 
was not determined, as no other specimen was found. 

Family ECHENEIDIDAE 
Echeneis remora Linnaeus. Remora. 

One specimen brought in from deep water by fishermen at New- 
port. 

Family MALACANTHIDAE 

Caulolatilus princeps (Jenyns). Whitefish. Whiting. 
One specimen, thirteen inches long, taken in deep water off New- 
port. 

Family BATRACHOIDIDAE 
Porichthys notatus Girard. Midshipman. 

One specimen washed up on sand at Laguna Beach ; another taken 
by fishermen at Newport. Apparently not rare. 



42 jTirst annual Report 

Family GOBIESOCIDAE 

Rimicola eigenmanni (Gilbert) 

(Plate III, I, J) 

This species was found to be fairly common in a little cove near 
Laguna, where it lived in a growth of Phyllaspadix (eel grass), in 
shallow water. Jordan and Evermann in "Fishes of North and Mid- 
dle America" record two species of this genus, R. eigenmanni and R. 
niiixc/inini, the one greenish, the other brownish in color, and suppos- 
edly differing in fin rays. They have since been shown to be simply 
forms of one species (J. (). Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXXV; 
183, Oct. 1908). Both forms were found, presumably clinging to 
Plti/IIuxitddi.i', the green form resembling the living plants, the brown 
the dead ones. Whether or not the two forms actually selected the 
plants of their own color upon which to attach themselves could not 
be ascertained. A careful search was made to find individuals so 
attached, but it was unsuccessful. They detached themselves as soon 
as they were taken out of the water, if they were ever attached, and 
no specimens were seen in the water. The only way they could be 
taken at all was by means of a small hand net swept through the 
eel grass. Fifteen or twenty specimens were secured in this way. 
When put into vessels of water with live and dead Phyllospadix they 
seemed to show no preference in regard to color, attaching them- 
selves to either brown or green blades indiscriminately. In size the 
series ranged from one-half to one and one-half inches in total length. 
The following color notes were taken from fresh specimens: Green 
form: Upper parts translucent green, uniformly speckled with 
minute dark dots of brown ; head with two transverse rows of spots 
which intersect before the eyes and extend forward on the sides of 
snout, and backward to near the base of pectorals. A brown band 
extends from snout, through eye, to opercle; a similar one extends 
along the side of body through base of pectorals, becoming obsolete 
on tail and opercle. Caudal rays speckled like body, a dark band of 
spots across tip ; other fins white. Under parts before vent white, 
behind similar to dorsum. Some specimens have spots on head ir- 
regular, some have anterior and posterior lateral bars fused into 
one long one. 

Brown form : Quite similar to the green form in markings, but 
ground color brownish, like dead leaves, instead of green. One 
specimen is covered with olive green mottlings on a brown back- 
ground. Another has a row of large light spots on the posterior part 
of each side behind the pectorals. A wide range of variation is 
shown in even this small series of specimens. The two types of 
color, however, appear to be constant and equally common. After 



ILaguna Marine Laboratory 43 

death specimens change color in water, the green fading to white. All 
specimens examined have live dorsal and five anal rays. 

Arbaciosa rhessodon (Rosa Smith) 

(Plate III, M, N, 0) 

Quite common in the tide-pools throughout the range worked over. 
Nowhere found in large numbers, however. 

Family BLENNIDAE 

Heterostichus rostratus (lirard. Kelp-Fish. 
(Plate II, (!, and Figures 13 and 14) 

Very common in the kelp close to the rocky shores, and in the 
outlying beds. Taken commonly by rod fishermen, who dislike it 
because of its bait-stealing proclivities. 

There are two color types in this species. The one a plain dull 
olive or drab, as shown in the photograph (Figure G), the other 
distinctly marked with longitudinal or transverse bands, much as is 
Gibbonsio critics. The latter form is described by Starks and Morris 
(Marine Fishes of Southern California, p. 232), as having "ground 
color light green; yellow on belly and under parts. Back and sides 
with three or foiir longitudinal dark green stripes, more or less 
broken up into spots, darker toward the edges and outlined with 
white. A similar stripe running from snout through eye, to upper 
edge of gill opening. Dorsal and anal mottled with alternate 

dark green and translucent spots; tip of mandible dark." In the 
transversely banded form of this the colors are the same, but the 
longitudinal bands are obsolete, being broken into eight or nine sec- 
tions forming irregular bars, which extend on the vertical fins form- 
ing dark blotches. At a glance this form might be confused with the 
similar form of Gibbonxiii evides (Figure Z), but the forked caudal, 
pointed snout, etc., readily distinguish it. 

Viscera The abdominal cavity is long and compressed, conform- 
ing to the shape of the fish, as indicated by Figure 13. The liver, as 
shown, is very large, underlying the whole anterior half of the ali- 
mentary canal and associated organs. The gall bladder is closely 
attached, and conspicuous, showing in Figure 13 through the slit 
just in front of E. Posteriorly a large air bladder is present, closely 
adhering to the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity and extending 
two-thirds of its length. Perhaps the most conspicuous feature, how- 
ever, is the pair of gonads lying dorso-laterally, with posterior ear- 
shaped projections extending into a cavity behind the vent, as shown 
in the figure. The alimentary canal, which is shown diagrammatic- 
ally in Figure 14, is moderately elongate, (four-fifths length of fish), 



44 



jFirst Annual Hcport 




13 



Figures 13 and 14. Heterostichus rostratus 

Fig. 13, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 14, Alimentary canal of same. G, 
Liver. E, Spleen, J. Gonads. H, Heart. Numbers refer to corresponding regions 
of the alimentary canal. 

Figures 15 and 16. Gibbonsia elegans 

Fig. 15. Ventral view of viscera. Fig. 16, Alimentary canal removed. A. Liver. 

B, Spleen. D, Oviduct full of ova. Numbers refer to corresponding regions of 
alimentary canal. 



laguna Racine ILa&oratorp 



rather thin walled, and little differentiated into stomach and intes- 
tines. Other details may be seen from the figures. 

Food So far as observed the food consists principally of soft 
Crustacea, (amphipods and isopods). The evidence would indicate 
carnivorous habits, but not enough specimens were examined to 
show whether they are exclusively so. 

A Study of GIBBONSIA 

Specimens examined: elegans. evides. 

Fort Bragg, California 3 

Monterey, California .. ...160 65 

Laguna Beach, California ...130 27 

San Diego, California .. . 61 3 

San Martin Is., Mexico 1 



355 95 




17 

Figure 17. Gibbonsia elegans 
Diagrams to show variation in form and location of visceral organs. 

Measurements are as follows : 

Length : Tip snout to base caudal. 

Eye : Diameter. 

Snout to dorsal: Tip snout to base first spine. 

Eye to dorsal: Shortest distance between eye and first dorsal 
spine. 

Head : Tip snout to inner edge of notch on upper, posterior part 
of opercle. 

Scale counts : Three counts are used. One from anterior end of 
lateral line, along the lateral line until it curves down, then in a 
straight line to base of caudal; second from lateral line to base of 
dorsal just above axil of pectoral where the lateral line arch is high- 
est ; third above lateral line at the angle behind pectoral, the anterior 
end of straight portion. 



46 jfirst annual deport 

Ocellated spots behind pectorals present; soft dorsal of 6-8 
rays, very rarely 9; scales above lateral line (from lower 
angle) about 20-24; small, usually not over 100 mm. long'; 
color rich, usually variegated. cl 

No ocellated spots; soft dorsal of 11-10 rays, rounded; scales 
above lateral line, (counted as above) 32-36; larger, usually 
100-200 mm.; brilliant colors lacking. ev'nlc* 

Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper 1 ) 

(Plate IV and Figures 15, 16, 17) 

Length to base caudal 4.5 times depth at anus; head 5 in length; 
eye large, diameter almost or quite equal to distance from eye to 
dorsal, 2.7 in distance from snout to dorsal ; scales, counted along 
anterior part of lateral line and thence on a level to base caudal, about 
135; scales above lateral line at lower angle 20-24; scales above lateral 
line at middle of anterior, elevated portion 10-12; dorsal usually 
V-XXX. 7 or S in northern, and V XX VI II, 7 or 8 in southern speci- 
mens, but ranging from V-XXVII to V-XXXI in spines and 7-9 in 
rays ; anal 11-26 to TT-2S in northern, and 11-23 to 11-25 in southern 
specimens. (See charts). 

Body rather strongly compressed and deep, tapering rapidly 
behind; caudal peduncle slender; head short, upper outline convex, 
distance from snout to dorsal equal to depth at front of dorsal; mouth 
small, terminal, oblique; maxillary scarcely reaching pupil; lower 
jaw slightly projecting; teeth on vomer, none on palatines. Dorsal 
with first three spines elongate, graduated; first usually about 2.5 in 
head, but varying from 1.5-3; fourth, fifth, and sometimes sixth 
spines from one-third to one-half first, and shorter than following, 
but quite variable; third and fourth nearly twice as far apart as 
fourth and fifth ; remaining spines uniform, half to two-thirds length 
of first; soft dorsal short, high, abruptly truncate after third or 
fourth ray, first three or four rays (as the case may be) equal and 
close together, remainder abruptly shortened, and conspicuously 
farther apart ; membrane connecting them usually translucent. 

Body variously striped and barred, or mottled; always, so far as 
known, with one to seven ocellated spots along each side slightly 
above median line; first just above base of pectoral, remainder uni- 
formly separated and extending to base of soft dorsal ; first and last 
two most commonly found. Prevailing color variable, may be red, 
brown, olive, green, chocolate, or other rich shades. The typical 
color pattern is as follows: prevailing color chocolate brown, or dull 
red ; head dark above, broken by line running back from eye, through 
opercle to base of pectoral, and by irregular lines above this; head 
below lighter; cheeks spotted with silvery, lower half of iris silvery; 



JUgtimi Qfjarine Laboratory 47 

body transversely, irregularly barred by seven or eight cross bauds, 
all of which usually extend on dorsal, and last four or five on anal; 
these are usually heavier at base of dorsal and anal, and in middle of 
side, having broken irregularly in a line running parallel to dorsal 
and about half way between it and lateral line, and broken along 
similar space above base of anal. Over the sides, breast, and often 
lower part of head are irregular spots and blotches of all sizes ; these 
and the cross bars outlined with white. Pectorals and ventrals light 
red, dorsal and anal dark, corresponding to body color. Belly lighter, 
tinged with yellow; chin and throat pinkish white. First, and last 
two ocellated spots present, each black ringed with red and then 
again with white. Another form commonly found differs as fol- 
lows : General appearance mottled and spotted, but without red; 
body above lateral line almost wholly dark, except for light edging 
of blotches ; below conspicuously lighter, but irregularly spotted and 
speckled, and broken by five or six bars extending from above, be- 
tween each two of which is usually a rounded spot. Top of head 
dark, with continuation of body markings below; lower half silvery 
spotted, and lighter, similar to lower part of body. Other specimens 
show almost every conceivable modification of pattern and color. 
Some specimens are plain dull green, or olive (Figure V), almost 
unmarked except for the ocellated spots; others are similarly plain, 
but reddish brown; still others have the red, brown or green almost 
obliterated by silvery spots and blotches, (especially younger speci- 
mens). Very young individuals are usually uniform dark red, with 
faint traces of the adult markings and a conspicuous broad silvery 
baud extending in a median line backward from eye, becoming broken 
near tail. A great diversity of color and pattern is found in any 
series, and can only be appreciated by an examination of the speci- 
mens. Something of this diversity, however, may be seen from the 
accompanying cuts, which are taken from fresh specimens, and illus- 
trate a few of the many color variations. 

Gibbonsia evides (Jordan and Gilbert). 
(Plate V and Figures 18 and I 1 .)) 

Depth at anus 4.9 in length to base caudal; head 4.7-5 in length; 
eye smaller, almost 1.5 in distance from eye to dorsal, and 3.25 in 
distance from snout to dorsal; scales counted on level of anterior 
part of lateral line, about 185 ; scales above lateral line at posterior 
angle 30-36 ; scales above lateral line at middle of anterior, elevated 
portion 18-22. Dorsal usually Y-XXX, !) or 10 but ranging from 
V-XXIX to V-XXXII in spines and from 8 to 10 in soft rays, (very 
rarely 8) ; anal II, 2(5-11, 27, rarely II, 28. (See figures). 



48 



Jfirst Annual Report 



Body as in G. elegaus, but more slender, tapering gradually be- 
hind ; head usually more slender ; caudal peduncle deeper. First three 
spines of dorsal not usually so high as in G. elegans, but quite vari- 
able; soft dorsal longer, outline rounded, not conspicuously truncate; 
rays usually all equidistant from each other; pellucid area small and 
not terminal. Shade and color pattern usually quite unlike that of 
G. eli'f/diix, neither the rich colors nor the ocellated spots being 
found. Usual color greenish or yellowish, "kelp color"; sides each 
with three or four dark longitudinal stripes, the upper running from 
snout through upper part of eye and along base of dorsal to caudal, 




18 



Figures 18 and 19. Gibbonsia evides 

Fig. 18, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 19. Alimentary canal removed. 
L, Liver. S, Spleen. Numbers refer to corresponding regions in the alimentary 
canal. 



JLafftina e^arinc Laboratory 



4!) 




678 9 10 27 28 29 30 31 32 24 25 26 27 28 29 

H 




6 7 8 9 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 




8 9 10 29 30 31 32 26 27 28 

Diagram A. Variation of Gibbonsia 



so jFirst annual Report 

median sometimes appearing as two, extending from eye to tail ; 
lower one extending from base of pectoral toward tail. The dark 
hands are separated by lighter, sometimes silvery ones, and are often 
broken into blotches by a tendency toward cross-banding; distinct 
cross bands, however, are lacking except in rare cases. Belly and 
throat often bright yellow. The detail of color pattern is variable, 
but the general form is quite constant, much more so than in the 
preceding species ; and the fine, variegated, silvery or other bright 
colored mottlings are always lacking, although young specimens may 
have bright silvery bands. 

DIAGRAM A. Curves of Variation in Fin Bays of Gibbonxia 
riff/mix and GibboHsia evi(Jt <. 

A, B, C. Specimens collected at Monterey, California. 

Continuous lines Gibboiiftia elcgans, (curves plotted from 1(50 
specimens); broken lines Gibbonsia rriWr.s, (from (55 specimens). 

A. Rays of soft dorsal. 

B. Spines in spinous dorsal. 

C. Bays in anal. 

D, E, F. Variations in G. elegaux.* 

Continuous lines Monterey specimens, (!(>()) ; broken lines Laguna 
Beach and San Diego specimens, (190). 

D. Rays in soft dorsal. 

E. Spines in spiuous dorsal. 

F. Rays in anal. 

G, H. I. Variation in G. evides. 

Continuous lines Monterey specimens ((15) ; broken lines Laguna 
Beach and San Diego specimens, (30). 

G. Rays in soft dorsal. 

H. Spines in spinous dorsal. 
I. Rays in anal. 

Numbers at the bottom from left to right indicate fin rays. Num- 
bers at the side from bottom to top indicate percentage. The curves 
are plotted on a percentage basis. Not all are drawn to the same 
scale, however, as may be seen. 

Extuiipli' . In G. the continuous line shows that of the Monterey 
(northern) specimens, 37> have 8 rays, 63 r /< have 9 rays and 
.'!4'. have 10 rays. The broken line shows that of the Laguna and 
San Diego (southern) specimens, 10 '/ have 8 rays, 6.'5'/< have 9 rays 
and 277' have 10 rays. 

Gibboitxin I'li'f/aiis may usually be distinguished from G. evides at 
a glance, by its rich colors, variegated markings, and the presence 



'Specimens from Laguna Beach and San Diego are almost identical, i. e., show almost 
identical variation curves, so are here combined to represent the southern specimens. 



JLaguna 0arinc JLaftoratorp 



of ocellated spots. Otherwise the two species differ in the number 
and size of scales, G. elegant having fewer, larger scales than G. 
ecides; also in shape and in number of rays of the soft dorsal, in 
shape of caudal peduncle, in size of eye and its distance from dorsal, 
and in general shape of body. On the Southern California coast the 
two species may be readily separated by the difference in fin rays, 
G. elegans having a dorsal of V-XXVII to V-XXIX spines and 6-8 
rays, and an anal of 11-22 to 11-25, while G. evides has a dorsal of 
V-XXVIII to V-XXXI spines, and 9-10 rays, and an anal of 11-26 to 
11-28. Farther north, however, the species overlap, except in the 
rays of soft dorsal. In size both the average and full grown speci- 
mens of the two species differ greatly, G. evides being much the 
larger, averaging about 125 to 150 mm. in length, where G. elegans 
averages about 70 to 80 mm., and reaching a length of over 200 mm. 
while the largest specimens of G. elegans are less than 125 mm. 

Formerly these two species have been separated by the fin counts 
alone, which resulted in many northern specimens of G. elegans being 
included under G. evides. Such a distinction, however, will not hold. 
I have examined all the material in the Stanford University collec- 
tion, upon which nearly all reports on this species have been based, 
and find that northern specimens of both species having an increased 
number of fin rays have been called G. evides. Starks and Morris, 
(Marine Fishes of Southern California, p. 233), state that at Mon- 
terey Bay only one specimen of G. elegans was found among about 
a hundred of G. evides. An examination of 225 specimens from this 
locality, including the latter lot, shows both species present, and G. 
eli'f/ans represented by 160 specimens, to 65 of G. evides. 

Both of these species are very common in the tide-pools about 
Laguna Beach, and probably continue so along the coast in favorable 
localities from San Diego to San Francisco or farther. Apparently 
G. eli't/ans is always the more abundant of the two. This is certainly 
true on the southern coast, and judging from the material taken at 
Monterey it holds true in the north also. The species are commonly 
found associated in the same pools, living among the algaB, and other 
kinds of vegetation, where their singularly variegated markings 
render them inconspicuous. 

rise-era : G. elegans Internally, in the size, form and shape of the 
visceral organs, Gibbonsia elegans shows the same tendency toward 
wide variation that appears in external characters, but not in any 
way conformable to this. A typical specimen is shown in Figures 
15 and 16, but from this type there are all sorts of variations in form 
and arrangement of organs, a series of which are represented dia- 
gramatically in Figure 17. The liver in some specimens is twice as 
large as in others ; in some it is elongate, in others broad and short, 



52 Jfitst annual Report 

or intermediate. The alimentary canal is ordinarily as shown in 
Fig-ure 16, being about three-fifths the length of the fish, but in some 
specimens it is much longer. It lies mainly in the right side of the 
abdominal cavity, never in the left. The stomach is only slightly 
differentiated from the remainder of the canal, and has no pyloric 
ca?ca. 

The food of Gibbonsia elegans is both vegetable and animal, with 
perhaps a predominance of the latter. Many of the specimens con- 
tained small molluscs (especially limpets), crustaceans (crabs, am- 
phipods, etc.), and minute worms, while a few contained large 
amounts of foliose red alga?, which are common in the pools. 

Viscera : Gibbonsia critics In the larger species, G. evides, the 
viscera is little different from that of G. elegans, except that the ali- 
mentary canal is normally longer, being about nine-tenths the length 
of the fish. Figures 18 and 19 indicate the principal features of im- 
portance. The stomach in Figure lil is shown distended with food, 
which makes it appear quite different from that of G. elegans, a 
difference which is only apparent, however. The alimentary canal 
is very thin walled, and easily distended in both species. 

The food habits of this species are apparently not appreciably 
different from those of G. elegans. In the specimens examined about 
the same range of food materials was found, i. e. small molluscs, 
crustaceans, worms and bits of alga\ 

Neoclinus satiricus Giranl 
(Figures 20 and 21) 

One specimen, nine inches long, taken alive in a baited trap off 
Newport Beach. It was very pugnacious while alive in the rowboat, 
and would snap viciously at anything put near it. It would turn 
round and round in the water, always keeping its eye on any object 
moving close to it. The writer, while observing the fish, incautiously 
got his fingers a little too near the fish's head, with the result that 
they were savagely snapped and the fish was thrown several feet 
away on the beach by the backward jerk of his hand. The specimen 
is slate blue all over, without any bars or spots. 

The accompanying notes and figures were taken from this speci- 
men : Abdominal cavity placed far forward, extending in front of 
ventrals to between pectorals ; very short ; vent at posterior end. 
Liver very large, broad. Alimentary canal of large bore, short, (one- 
half length of fish), thick walled and muscular; stomach well differ- 
entiated from remainder; rectal portion thickened and tough, like a 
gizzard. No pyloric caeca. Figures XX and XXI show the gross 
characters of the viscera in their natural positions, and of the ali- 
mentary canal separated from the rest. From the latter figure the 



ILaguna Ratine Laboratory 



53 



differentiation into stomach, small intestine, and rectum may be 
plainly seen. 

Food The alimentary canal was empty except for one or two 
fish bones. This, and the fact that it was taken in a baited trap, 
would indicate that the species is carnivorous. A conclusion with 
which the visceral organs, teeth, etc., fully accord. 

Auchenopterus integripinnis (Rosa Smith) 

(Plate III, K, and Figures 22, 23) 

Not uncommon in the tide-pools about Laguna Beach. Females 
with fully matured ova were taken in July. A richly colored, varie- 
gated species, of one to three inches in length. The accompanying 
figures and notes were made from fresh specimens taken in July. 




r T 




21 



Figures 20 and 21. Neoclinus satiricus 

Fig. 20, Ventral view of viscera, entire. Fig. 21, Alimentary canal removed. 
H, Liver. G, Gonads. Numbers refer to corresponding regions in the alimentary 
canal. 



54 



Jfirst annual Eepoct 



No. 1. Ground color ochraceous, lighter on throat and belly ; 
sides with five fairly distinct transverse bands of brown extending on 
vertical fins; caudal peduncle with a similar bar; a dark narrow band 
across base of caudal, and a similar one across middle of pectoral. 
Caudal membrane yellow, rays spotted with rusty ; anal light at base, 
darker apically; apical half of pectorals similar to caudal. Cheeks 
and mandibles speckled with dark brown. Ocellated black spot with 
yellow margin at base of dorsal behind twentieth soft ray. 

Other specimens have pink where this had yellow, with ground 
color rosy. Some are very dark, with cross bars on sides indistinct. 
One specimen has pink between the cross bands on sides, and yellow 





22 



Figures 22 and 23. Auchenopterus integripinnis 

Fig. 22, Ventral view of viscera, entire. Fig. 23, Alimentary canal removed. 
A, Liver. E, Spleen. O, Oviduct. Numbers refer to corresponding regions of ali- 
mentary canal. 



JLaguna egarine laboratory 



55 



on fins as above. Another has neither yellow nor pink on body, but has 
a large livid purple spot on opercle and another at base of pectorals, 
and has belly and brancheostegals tinged with purple. The ocellated 
spot on all specimens begins behind the twentieth ray of soft dorsal. 

Ten specimens have dorsal rays as follows : 

111-28 (one specimen). 

111-29 (four specimens). 

111-30 (two specimens). 
IV -28 (one specimen). 

None has 27 soft rays as stated in Jordan and Evermann. 

Four specimens dissected, show almost no variation in the form 
and location of the visceral organs. All are essentially as shown in 




Figures 24 and 25. Hypsoblennius gilberti 

Fig. 24, Ventral view- of viscera, entire. Fig. 25, Alimentary canal removed. 
A, Liver. B, Spleen. C, Gall bladder. D, Oviduct. Numbers refer to correspond- 
ing regions of alimentary canal. 



56 .first annual deport 

Figures 22 and 23. The abdominal cavity is quite short, and de- 
pressed rather than compressed, except anteriorly, where it narrows 
decidedly, the liver extending well forward along the oesophagus. 
The spleen is very small, the liver large. No pyloric caeca are present. 
Food The specimens dissected contained only small crustaceans 
(amphipods, etc.), no traces of plant food being found. 

Hyposoblennius gilberti (Jordan) 
(Plate II, F, and Figures 24 and 25) 

One specimen taken in a tide-pool near Laguna Beach. This 
species is reported by Starks and Morris (Marine Fishes of Southern 
California, p. 238), as abundant in the tide-pools near Point Loma 
and at San Pedro. Our observations show a decided contrast to this 
in the region of Laguna Beach, however, as only one specimen was 
obtained during the summer's collecting. The following notes and 
figures are taken from this specimen, a female 27 mm. long : 

Abdominal cavity greatly compressed, over twice as high as broad 
in front; no pyloric caeca; liver greatly compressed, nearly as high 
as long, triangular in lateral view; its right side not developed 
apically, but stopping in a straight line back from tip, as shown in 
Figure 24. The gall bladder is not enveloped by the liver, but lies on 
the right side as indicated, being connected with the liver by a long 
neck. The alimentary canal (Figure 25) is long, being seven-eighths 
of the body length, and not distinctly differentiated into definite re- 
gions. The inner lining of the stomach is densely covered with rela- 
tively long papilla?, looking like minute tentacles. 

Food Only traces of food were found. These were evidently 
plant remains, but so disintegrated as to make further identification 
impossible. 

Hypsoblennius gentilis (Girard). 
(Plate III, E, G, and Figures 26 and 27) 

One specimen taken in a tide-pool near Laguna Beach, and about 
twenty-five specimens at Long Beach. The latter were found among 
green algae in some small pools at the base of a number of old piles. 
They were all livid green when taken, but soon faded to the normal 
white color with gray markings. The accompanying figures and notes 
are from the Laguna specimen, a female 37 mm. long. This individual 
contained mature ova when collected in July. 

Visceral organs and abdominal cavity much as in H. gilberti. The 
long gall bladder, peculiarly shaped liver, and the alimentary canal 
do not differ essentially from the latter, as may be seen from Figures 
26 and 27. Figure 26 gives a somewhat distorted view because of 



L.ujinni 



the swollen oviducts, which give a broadened appearance to the whole. 
Food Only decomposed vegetable matter was found in the in- 
testine. 

Xererpes fucorum (Jordan and Gilbert) 
(Plate II, D, and Figures 28 and 29) 

Several specimens taken at Point Firmin near San Pedro. None 
found around Laguna Beach although conditions almost identical 
with those of Point Firmin are found here. All of our specimens 
were taken at low tide from among the masses of eel-grass (Phyllo- 
xpadix) on the rocks above low water. About the roots of the grass 
and the irregularities of the rocks the fish can move with amazing 
ease, which, together with the slender, slippery body, makes it a diffi- 
cult object to capture. 

One specimen was found coiled aroiind a mass of eggs placed in 
a small depression in the rock, and well concealed by the matted grass 





Figures 26 and 27. Hypsoblennius gentilis 

Fig. 26, Ventral view of viscera, entire. Fig. 27, Alimentary canal removed. 
A, Liver. C, Gall bladder. D, Oviduct. Numbers refer to corresponding regions 
in alimentary canal. 



58 



jfirst annual IReport 



s 



w 



G 



H 




Figures 23 and 29. Xererpes fucorum 

No. 28, Ventral view of viscera, of male; separated to show the individual organs. 
No. 29, Similar view of female organs. G, Gall bladder. H. Heart. L, Liver. S, 
Spleen. T, Testis. V, Fat. O, Oviduct. 



LiiOoriUon> 



59 



above. The figure shows a photograph of the egg mass with the 
fish around it, (not in situ). 

Visceral anatomy: The abdominal cavity is long, slender and 
compressed, corresponding to the general shape of the fish. The 
alimentary canal is peculiar in being perfectly straight from mouth 
to vent, a condition not found in any other blennies examined. Three 
divisions, fore, mid and hind-gut are made evident by constrictions 
as shown in the figures, but no differentiated stomach, and no caeca 
are found. The gonads of each sex are apparently single, as shown. 
Lying along the alimentary canal are two characteristic, elongate 
bodies (v) which are apparent in all of our specimens, and which 
appear to be definite organs, but a histological examination shows 



30 




31 



Figures 30 and 31. Xiphidion rupestre 

Fig. 30, Ventral view of viscera entire. Fig. 31, Same, with organs separated. 
A, Liver. B, Spleen. C, Pyloric caeca. D, Urogenital organs. E, Pyloris. 



<JO jTirst annual Report 

them to be only fat bodies, united by connective tissue tbreads to 
the intestine. Other characters of the viscera may be seen from the 
figures. 

Note on Xiphidion rupestre (Figures 30 and 31), from specimens 
taken at Monterey, California : 

This species is interesting to note here because of its great simi- 
larity in external, and dissimilarity in internal form to Xererpes 
fucormn. The visceral anatomy in these two species is evidently not 
determined entirely by external form and habits. The two fishes are 
found side by side in the tide-pools, among identical surroundings, 
and so far as our observations extend are of similar food habits. 
They are not especially nearly related species, but are superficially 
very much alike. 

The alimentary canal of Xipliidion rupestre has no resemblance 
to that of Xererpes fucorum, being long and coiled, more like that of 
the JIi'lfn>st'n-luis group of blennies, and has pyloric cseca. The con- 
trast in general characters is best shown by the figures (30 and 31). 

Family PLEURONECTIDAE 
Hippoglossoides stomata Eigenmann and Eigenmann 

One specimen obtained from Newport Beach fishermen who took 
it in bottom nets near Newport. This species lias seldom been taken 
except in deep water, and is nowhere common so far as known, al- 
though it has been reported from several California ports. 

Paralichthys californicus (Ayres) 

Very common at Newport, as well as other Southern California 
fishing stations. 

Pleuronichthys ritteri Starks and Morris 

P. ritteri, Starks and Morris. Marine Fishes of Southern Cali- 
fornia 1907, p. 243. 

Commonly taken by the fishermen using bottom nets near New- 
port. 

Hypsopsetta guttulata (Girard) 
This species is also common on the sandy bottom near Newport. 



Laguna Qparine Haboratocg ci 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate I 

A, Girella nigricans. 

B, Embiotoca jacksoni. 

C, Sebastodes rastrelliger. 

Plate II 

D, Xerepes fucorum, coiled around egg mass. 

E, Scorpaena guttata, young. 
P, Hypsoblennius gilberti. 

G, Heterostichus rostratus. 
H, Lamna cornubica. 

Plate III 

I, Rimicola eigenmanni, dark form. 
J, Rimicola eigenmanni, light form. 
K, Auchenopterus integripinnis. 

L, Hypsoblennius gentilis, dorsal view. 

M, Arbaciosa rhessodon, light form, dorsal view. 

N, Arbaciosa rhessodon, light form, ventral. 

0, Arbaciosa rhessodon, dark form, dorsal. 

P, Typhlogobius californiensis. 

Q, Hypsoblennius gentilis. 

Plate IV. Gibbonsia elegans 
S, Very young. 

T, U. W, Progressive ages of the usual variegated form. 
V, Olive green, almost unmarked form. 
M, Chocolate colored, slightly marked form. 
X and Y, Odd forms. 

Plate V. Gibbonsia evides 

Z, Typical form, transverse markings emphasized. (Dorsal fin 
not extended). 

AA, Typical form with longitudinal marking emphasized. 
BB, Dorsal view. 
CC, Very young. 
DD, Somewhat older. 
EE, Odd form. 



62 



Jfirst Annual Report 




-A > / > . .:)'A^ 





c 



Plate I 



Plate I 

A, Girella nigricans. B, Embiotoca jacksoni. C, Sebastodes rastrelliger. 



Ctfurinr 1L allocator? 



63 




Plate II 

D, Xererpes fucorum and eggs. E, Scorpaena guttata, young. F, Hypsoblennius 
gilberti. G, Heterostichus rostratus. H, Lamna cornubica. 



64 



.first annual Report 






Plate III 

I, Rimicola eigenmanni, dark form. J, R. eigenmanni, light form. K, Auchen- 
opterus integripinnis. L, Hypsoblennius gentilis. M, N, O, Arbaciosa rhessodon. 
P, Typhlogobius californiensis. Q, Hypsoblennius gentilis. 



Laguna 



Laboratory 



65 





r 



J'/.,/c. IF 



Plate IV. Gibbonsia elegans 



66 



JFir0t annual 







/.-A 



Plate V. Gibbonsia evides 



ILaguna 6g)arine ILaboratorp <>7 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS 
OF LACUNA BEACH 

JULIUS HURTER, SR.* 
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, ST. LOUIS 

AMPHIBIA 

Bufo columbiensis Baird and Girard 
This large toad is quite common at Laguna. 

Hyla regilla Baird 

A number of specimens of this tree frog were taken one night 
after dark about the water tap behind the laboratory. 

REPTILIA 

Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard 
Common on the cliffs along the coast. 

Cnemidophorus stejnegeri VanDenburgh 
Occasional along the hills. 

Phrynosoma blainvilli Gray 
In the dry mountains back of Arch Beach. 

Eumeces skiltonianus Baird and Girard 
One specimen taken. 

Diadophis amabilis Baird and Girard 
One specimen of this small snake taken near the laboratory. 

Thamnophis hammondi Kennicott 
This water snake was taken in the slough at Aliso Creek. 

Rhinocheilus lecontei Baird and Girard 
One specimen taken just as it was entering a squirrel burrow. 

Crotalus spp. 

Rattlesnakes of perhaps several species certainly several marked 
color forms, are to be found in the hills about Laguna, as is indicated 
by numbers of fine skins in the possession of people living at Laguna. 
Good specimens of all these forms for study are great desiderata. 

Clemmys marmorata Baird and Girard 

This turtle was common in the brackish water slough at Aliso 
Creek, and eight good specimens were taken there. 



*Mr. Hurter spent a couple of days at the laboratory and used them most indus- 
triously, making in these two days a good beginning for a study of the amphibians and 
reptiles of the region. Especially interesting to us was the lizard, Uta, living practically 
within reach of the salt spray, and the turtle living in brackish water. Ed. 



68 jfirst annual deport 



SOME OF THE MOLLUSCA OF 
LACUNA BEACH 

MABEL GUERNSEY 

Wishing to study the gross anatomy of the soft parts of some 
of the common mollusks of our Coast, and spending some time at 
Laguna in the pursuit of this object, I improved the opportunity to 
bring together all such species as came in my way to serve as the 
beginning of a faunal list of the local mollusks of the tidal zone. A 
set of most of the shells collected was sent to Dr.Dall, who very 
kindly gave us the determinations. Some of my anatomical work is 
not at all complete, but I am hoping to continue it another season. 

GASTEROPODA 

AMPHINEURA 

Ischnochiton clathratus Roe 

Ischnochiton magdalensis Mds. 

(Figure 3'2) 

Mopalia hindsii Gray 

Mopalia muscosa Gld. 

Nuttallina scabra Roe 

All of the above five chitons are found clinging to rocks between 
tides. The second species is by far the most common, while the last 
is quite rare. 

PROSOBRANCHIATA 

Acmaea scabra Roe 

(Figure 33) 
Common in tide-pools. 

Acmaea persona Esch. 
Common on rocks covered only by the highest tides. 

Acmaea spectrum Roe 
Distribution the same as Acmaea persona but much rarer. 

Acmaea asmi Midd. 

Found on other shells, usually of other limpets in tide-pools, and 
fairly common. 

Lottia gigantea Gray 

( Figure 34) 

Found in a few channels where there is constant and violent wave 
action, and fairly numerous where found. 



Laguna egarine JLa&oratorp 



69 





B C 

Figure 32. Ischnochiton magdalencusis 
A, Alimentary canal. B, Reproductive organs. C, Alimentary canal and liver. 





Figure 33. Acmaea scabea 



70 



J7ir0t annual Ueport 



c 




Figure 34. Lottia gigantea 

A, Ventral view. B, Longitudinal section pharynx. C, Dorsal view after re- 
moving shell. D, Alimentary canal in liver (left side). E, Alimentary canal in liver 
(riijht side). F, Alimentary canal in liver (upper side). G, H, Alimentary canal. 
I, Radula. 



jtaguna Ratine Laboratory 



71 



Fissuridea volcano Roe 

Shells common to the beach in certain localities. Living animals 
sometimes found in the lower tide-pools. 



Evidently living 



Lucapina crenulata Sby. 

(Figure 35) 

A fine living specimen found at very low tide, 
mostly below low tide. 

Haliotis spp. 

Young specimens of several species are frequent in the lower tide- 
pools. Large specimens could only be found below low tide. Aba- 
lones have evidently been very abundant at Laguna Beach, but whole- 
sale gathering is depleting them very rapidly. One raid by Japanese 
fishermen who worked with diving suits, resulted in a very large 
catch. These fishermen were arrested and fined a nominal amount 
and were then allowed to depart with their entire catch a pure 
travesty. It seems probable that by protection, and breeding, a 
fisheries asset of great value might be built up on this coast. 





Figure 35. Lucapina crenulata. Dorsal and ventral views 

Tegula gallina Fbs. 

Tegula fuscescens Phil. 

Tegula aureotincta Fbs. 

Norrisia norrissii Sby. 

Pomaulax undosus \Yond 

(Figure 36) 

The above five species are common on the rocks between tides, 
and extend commonly into the upper limits of the fucus zone. 



72 



JFir0t annual deport 



Epiphragmophora arrosa Gld. 
A few specimens found on the cliffs at Arch Beach. 

Opalia insculpta Cpr. 

Scala hindsii Cpr. 

Only empty shells of these two species were taken, and these were 
inhabited by hermit crabs. 

Littorina planaxis Phil. 

The commonest shell of the beach, found in great numbers adher- 
ing to the rocks from those only wet by spray at high tide down to 
rocks uncovered only at low tide. 

Littorina scutulata Gld. 
Occurring with L. phma.ris, but far less common. 




Figure 36. Pomaulax undosus 

Cypraea spadicea Gray 
Rare among the rocks between tides. 

Murex gemma Sby. 

Among the rocks between tides, not common, but the most com- 
mon of the Muricidiv. 



Not common. 



Purpura nuttallii Con. 



Ocinebra gracillima Stearns 

Acanthina spirata Blv. 

Of the above two species, only shells inhabited by hermit crabs 
were found. 



ILaguna Sgarine ILafcoratorp 



73 




Figure 37. Aplysia californica 

A, Side view. B, Dorsal view. C, Shell. D, Pharynx (opened). E, Alimentary 
canal. F, Stomach (opened). G, H, Reproductive organs. I, Alimentary canal 
and liver. 



74 J?ir0t annual Ucport 

Thais ostrina Gld. 

While dead shells are fairly common between tides, living speci- 
mens appear to be rare here. 

Astyris hindsii Roe 
Fairly common on sea-weeds between tides. 

Amphissa versicolor Uall. 
Empty shells of this only, were encountered. 

Macron lividus A. Ads. 
Common attached to fucus. 

Volvarina varia Sby. 
Between tides, but not common. 

Olivella pedroana Conr. 
A few dead shells found. 

Conus californicus Con. 
Common, attached to fucus. 

OP1STHOBRANCHIATA 

TECTIBRANCHIATA 

Aplysia californica Cooper 

(Figure 37) 

These enormous purplish sea-slugs were occasionally encountered 
in the lower tide-pools. A good many specimens were dissected. 

NUDIBRANCHIATA 

Numerous species of remarkably beautiful nudibrauchiate mol- 
lusks are to be found at Laguna Beach, and they are among the most 
attractive objects of the tide-pools, never failing to call forth the 
most enthusiastic exclamations from both students and visitors. 
"Exquisite" is the only word that adequately described them. I 
determined the species so far as I could from MacFarlaud 's writings, 
but a large part of the species seem to be underscribed. In the works 
of Bergh and other writers on this group, our west coast species 
seem never to have been treated. 

Chromodoris porterae Cockerell 

(Figure 39 B) 

Color prussian blue, the dorsum of a deeper shade than the sides. 
Mantle narrowly white edged. On the dorsum is a median line of 
light blue running from between the rhinophores to the branchiae. 
On each side, half way between this line aud the mantle edge, a broad 



JLaguna 



laboratory 



75 



orange yellow band runs from the rhinophores to just beyond the 
branchiae In front of the rhinophores is an orange spot. Both 
rhinophores and tentacles are dark blue. A narrow light blue line 
runs down the middle of the tail. Length when in ordinary posture 
about 12 mm. 

Chromodoris sp. 
(Figure 39 C, D) 

Color prussian blue, the mantle and foot bordered with light blue. 
Body covered with numerous orange spots. Length 5.5 cm. The 
largest nudibranch seen at Laguna. 






A, Rostanga pulchra 
Doris sp. 



B C 

Figure 38 
McFarland). B, Doriopsis fulva (McFarland ) 



Ancula pacifica MacFarland 

(Figure 39 G) 

Color translucent whitish. Gills and tentacles tipped with red- 
dish orange. Back striped with orange. Papillae around branchiae 
tipped with pale yellow. Length 1 cm. Differs somewhat from 
Ancula pacifica as described by MacFarland in having eight instead 
of six processes around the branchiae, but this is a variable character. 

Aegires albopunctatus MacFarland 
(Figure 39 F) 

Color opaque white, spotted with dark brown. Length 12 mm. 
Two specimens taken. 



76 



Jfirst Annual Report 




K 



Figure 39 

A, Laila cockerelli. B, Chromodoris porterae. C, Chromodoris sp. (mantel 
removed). D, Chromodoris sp. E, Genus? F, Aegires albopunctatus. G, Ancula 
pacifica. H, Cuthonia sp. I, Hervia sp. J, Hermissenda opalescens. K, Spurilla sp. 



JLaguna S^arine Laboratory 77 

Laila cockerelli MacFarland 

(Figure 39A) 

Color translucent whitish. Branchiae and clavate papillae tipped 
with orange red. Rhinophores orange red with white bases. Numer- 
ous small orange red tubercles on the dorsum. Orange red marking 
also occur on the tail. The one specimen taken differed from Mac- 
Farlaud's description in having two instead of five branchial plumes, 
but this is of little moment since the branchiae are constantly subject 
to injury. 

Genus and Species? 
(Figure 39 E) 

Color white, with two black stripes from mouth to rhinophores, 
where they unite and pass as one to the branchiae. Sides irregularly 
marked with black stripes and spots. Tentacles yellow. Rhinophores 
black, tipped with yellow. Bordering the black stripes are various 
spots and stripes of yellow. Many of the yellow spots occur on small 
tubercles. The branchiae are black, tipped with yellow. 

Rhinophores foliate and retractile into small sheaths. Branchiae 
seven, and also foliate and retractile. Six short tentacle-like pro- 
cesses on the head, which are joined by a thin prolongation of the 
mantle edge, this being practically all of the mantle that is evident. 
Head large and truncated. Length about 7 mm. 

Doriopsis fulva MacFarland 

( Figure 38 B) 

Color lemon yellow. Mantle thickly covered with small white- 
tipped tubercles. Rhmophores brownish. Branchiae a paler yellow 
than dorsum. Front edge of foot deeply bilobed. No notch on upper 
lip. Rhinophores and branchiae retractile into small smooth edged 
sheaths. Tentacles rudimentary, attached to lateral folds on the 
sides of the mouth. Length 9 mm. Frequent under stones between 
tides. Doubtless the determination of this would not be sure with- 
out a comparison of the internal anatomy. 

Rostanga pulchra MacFarland 

(Figure 38 A) 

Color orange red, the foot pinkish. Rhinophores darker than 
mantle. Anterior margin of foot bilobed. Upper lip notched. Ten- 
tacles small. Rhinophores very short and completely retractile. 
Mantle covered with short spiculate papillae. Length 5 mm. Found 
under stones, thus differing in habit from the species as described 
by MacFarland for he records it from a red sponge. 



78 jfir0t annual Report 

Doris sp. 
(Figure 38 C) 

Mantle brown, bordered with yellow, and covered with small white 
tuberc-les more thickly in the center than on the edges. Foot yellow, 
branchiae light yellow. The branchiae and rhinophores are retractile 
into smooth bordered sheaths. Body deep, with the dorsum highly 
arched. Tentacles rudimentary. Length '27 mm. Common under 
stones during July and August but rare in September. 

Cuthonia sp. 
(Figure :'-! II) 

Color translucent whitish. Cerata translucent with a dark green 
core. A dark green spot in front of the rhinophores. Length 5 mm. 

Cutting edge of mandible strongly denticulate. Uadula consisting of a single row of 
plates. There are usually nine teeth on a plati . the mitral one not prominent, as short or 
shorter than the prominent laterals. 

Hervia sp.? 
(Figure :!! I) 

Color translucent whitish. Rhinophores orange, and with an 
orange spot in front of them. Cerata with greenish-black cores, and 
tipped with orange. Animal very slender, the body highest in the 
region of the rhiuophores. Rhinophores and tentacles slender and 
non-retractile. Length 7 mm. 

Cutting edge of mandible not toothed, strongly striated. Radula consisting of a single 
row of plates, rsuallv eleven tt-eth on :i plate, tin- i t-ntr:il nitt prominent, the laterals Imi^ 
. ;M I sli-inlpr. 

Hermissenda opalescens (1'noper). 

(Figure Mil J ) 

Color translucent whitish, with light brown stripes on tentacles 
and tail. Orange markings occur on the head. Cerata translucent, 
with brown cores and orange markings. Animal very slender. Cerata 
numerous and very easily detached. Anterior margin of foot pro- 
longed into two tentacle-like processes. Lips bilobed, the upper 
narrow, the lower large. Common during the early part of the sum- 
mer in tide-pools. 

Cutting edge of mandible with about thirty strong denticles. Radula consisting of a 
single SITH-S nf an^ulaily urchnd plates. Thr central tuoth is large and finely denticulated 
on the lower edge; the laterals are small, three to four on a side. 

Spurilla sp. 
(Figure 39 K) 

Color white. Back and top of head orange with a finely granu- 
lated appearance. Cerata near head orange with brown cores, those 
farther back becoming browner. Tentacles white. Rhinophores 
foliate, and red, with white tips. Animal slender, the foot large, 
anterior margin slightly prolonged into tentacle-like processes. 
Rhinophores and tentacles slightly contractile. Mouth large, under 
lip bilobed, upper smooth. Cerata in constant motion and very easily 
detached. Common in September. Length 15 mm. 

Cutting edge of mandible not toothed, strongly striated. Radula consisting of a single 
series of low-arched, pectinate plates, notched in the center. 



lUguna Sgarine Laboratory 




Figure 40. Limax rnaximus 

A, Left lobe of liver. B, Right lobe of liver. C, Reproductive organs. D, Ali- 
mentary canal. E, Abnormal jaw. F, Normal jaw. G, Shell. 



80 



Jfirst annual Heport 




Figure 41. Limax flavus 

A, Liver. B, Nervous system (ventral view). C, Reproductive system. D, Ali- 
mentary canal. E, Nervous system (dorsal view). F, Jaw. G, Shell. 



Liiijmui O^.uinr 



81 



PULMONATA 

Two species of Limax are common both at Lagima Beach and 
Claremont. They have been provisionally determined by Mr. 8. S. 
Berry, as Limax maximus Linn, and Limax flavus Linn. They differ 
in color, both being of a yellowish-gray, but Li mar nid.fi nuts is spot- 
ted and streaked with black, while Limax flavus has no black spots. 
There are also some anatomical differences. Limax maximus is, 
when fully grown, about two inches long; Limax flavus is somewhat 
smaller. 




Figure 42. Circulation of Limax flavus 

Limax maximus L. 
(Figure 40) 

Limax flavus L. 
(Figures 41 and 42) 



PELECYPODA 

FILIBRANCHIATA 

Mytilus californianus Conr. 

(Figure 43) 

The species is gregarious, forming extensive mussel-beds on flat 
rocks exposed to the surf. There are several large colonies of them 
at Lagima, notably the one at Mussel Point, which furnishes to the 
villagers endless supplies for food and for bait. 

Mytilus bifurcatus Conr. 

More generally distributed along this coast than M. ralifornianus. 
Sometimes very numerous on rocks uncovered at low tide. 



82 



jTirst Annual Report 



Septifer bifurcatus Roe 
Distribution same as Mi/tHux liifitrcatiix but rarer. 

PSEUDOLAMELLIBRANCHIATA 

Ostrea lurida Cpr. 

Found in lower tide pools and on rocks uncovered but a short 
time at low tide. Not at all common. 




Figure 43. Mytilus californianus 

EULAMELLIBRANCHIATA 

Phacoides californicus Cuiir. 

Semele rupium Sby. 
Tivela stultorium Mawe 

Chama pellucida Sby. 

The above four shells are found washed up on the beach, the last 
two quite common. 



JUftoratorp 



83 



ON A CEPHALOPOD NEW TO CALIFORNIA 

WITH A NOTE ON ANOTHER 

SPECIES 

S. S. BEREY 

The two species of cephalopod mollusks (one squid and one 
octopus) which are the subject of the following notes were obtained 
by Mr. C. W. Metz during the 1911 session of the Pomona College 
Marine Laboratory at Laguna, Orange County, California. Although 
so few of this class of animals were taken, one of the two specimens 
submitted to me represents a species new not only to California, but 
apparently to the entire western coast of North America as well. I 
am indebted to the gentleman named for the opportunity to examine 
and report upon the material. 




Figure 44. Funnel of Onychoteuthis banksii 

Laid open along the medio-ventral line to show the funnel organ (semi-dia- 
grammatic). 

Onychoteuthis banksii (Leach 1817) Ferussac 
1817 Loligo banksii Leach, Zool. Miseell., vol. 3, p. 141. 
1826 Onychoteuthis banksii Ferussac, in D'Orbiguy, Ann. Sci. 

Nat. (1), vol. 7, p. 151. 
1879 Onychoteuthis lanksii Tryon, Man. Couch. (1), vol. 1, p. 

168, pi. 73, figs 291-294. 
1908 Oin/chotriifhi* lifuiksii Pfeffer, Nord. Plankton, IV, Ceph., 

' p. 65, figs. 71-77. 

A single female specimen of this widespread oceanic species was 
obtained from J. H. Souder, who captured it in a seine off the en- 
trance to Newport Bay, S. S. B. No. 295. In a report written some 



84 



Jfirst annual deport 



months ago and now in press, the writer expressed the opinion that 
0. banksii would very likely be found to occur in the waters of our 
region, but so prompt a confirmation of the statement was scarcely 
to have been expected. 

From all other West American species excepting only the gigantic 
Moroteuthis of Alaska, 0. baiiksii is readily distinguishable by the 
double series of powerful hooks on the tentacle clubs as shown in the 
accompanying photograph (Figure 45). The curious "fixing appar- 
atus" at the base of the club (Figure 46) furnishes another con- 
spicuous character. This structure comprises a compact, rounded 




Figure 45 

Showing hooked tentacle clubs of 



Onychoteuthis banksii. 



group of suckers and pad-like organs so arranged that the suckers 
on one tentacle fit perfectly over the pads of its mate, securing a 
most powerful adhesion at a point where such support very greatly 
increases the prehensile power of the tentacles. The immense rhom- 
boid fins are also characteristic. 

So far as I have been able to determine from the literature the 
present individual is by far the largest specimen of the species which 
has happened to be placed on record. D'Orbigny* gives the total 
length of 0. bdiikxii as 310 mm., mantle length 130 mm.; of the 
identical 0. anyulatirf as 400 mm.; mantle 130 mm. Tryon gives the 

*Moll, viv. et. foss., 1845, p. 387. 

j-Voy, Amer. Merid., Moll., p 43, 1845. 



Haguna 



L.ilicmuorp 



85 





Figure 46 
Fixing apparatus of right and left tentacle clubs of Onychoteuthis banksii. 




Figure 47. Polypus bimaculatus 



86 



JTirst annual Report 



ordinary length of the body as six inches (i. e., about 150 mm.). 
Joubin* records a specimen having a total length of 195 mm., mantle 
110 nun. The body of our specimen is considerably over twice as 
long as the largest here cited. Its more important dimensions are 
therefore appended below : 




Figure 48. Anatomical details of Polypus bimaculatus 

A, Circulatory system (right kidney removed). B. Male reproductive organs. 
C, Jaw. D, Female reproductive organs. E, Alimentary canal and liver. F, Ali- 
mentary canal. From dissections by Miss Guernsey. 

Length to tail 680 mm. ; length, exclusive of arms, 353 mm. ; length, 
exclusive of tentacles, 488 mm.; length of mantle (dorsal) 313 mm.; 
width of mantle 80 mm. ; length of fins, total, 183 mm. ; length of fins 
along plane of attachment 164 mm.; width across fins, 215 mm.; 
length of head 40 mm.; width of head 49 mm.; length of dorsal arm 
101 mm. ; length of second arm 120 mm. ; length of third arm 116 nun. ; 

*Ceph. "Princ.-Alice," 1900, p. 63. 



Laguna Q9arine Laboratory 87 

length of ventral arm 135 imn. ; length of tentacle 327 mm. ; length of 
tentacle club 73 mm. 

Polypus bimaculatus (Verrill 1883) 
(Figures 47 and 48) 

A specimen of this species (S. S. B. No. 324) was taken by Mr. 
Metz in one of the lower tide-pools at Laguua, and numerous other 
specimens by other members of the laboratory. It is the common 
shore "octopus" of Southern California and has been previously 
reported from White 's Point, San Pedro and San Diego. The large, 
eye-like, lateral markings near the base of each arm of the third pair 
constitute its most conspicuous specific character. In the present 
specimen the usual bluish ring* surrounding the central spot is 
obscured or absent. 

A microscopic examination of a portion of the integument in the 
neighborhood of these markings shows that the outer ring of the 
oculation owes its pale color chietly to a diminution in the number of 
cliromatophores over this area.f Similarly the dark center is due 
to a great and sudden increase in their frequency. The exact number 
is somewhat variable, but a given space in the dark center appears 
to contain fully twice as many as an equal area in the paler border. 

Even when expanded, all the cliromatophores are excessively 
small. In the present material the dimensions of one of these organs 
is .09 x.l 6 mm. expanded, and .04 x .06 mm. in diameter contracted. 
Their detailed structure is correspondingly difficult to make out. 

The illustrations accompanying this paper were prepared by Mr. 
John Howard Paine of Stanford University, Mr. Metz and Miss 
Mabel Guernsey. 



'Berry, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. IS, p. 30.', 1911. 

(Whether the pigment within the chromatophores themselves is likewise differen- 
tiated either in color or qmmtity, cannot of course he determined without examining fresh 
material. 



88 j?ir0t Annual 



SOME ECHINODERMS COLLECTED 
AT LACUNA 

C. F. BAKER 

Starfish, serpent stars, sea-urchins, and sea cucumbers are very 
much in evidence between tides at Laguna, some species occurring 
in enormous numbers. As yet, no special effort has been made to 
collect the species thoroughly. Of most of those taken a set was de- 
termined by Prof. Walter K. Fisher of Stanford University, and he 
very kindly furnished the notes incorporated below under quotation 
marks. 

HOLOTHUROIDEA 

Synapta inhoerens (). F. Mull 

These beautiful pale-colored little holothurians are frequent in 
the sand under stones in tide-pools. Some of their movements are 
extraordinarily worm-like. The peculiar character of the dermal 
anchors and plates in this species are very distinctive. 

Stichopus californicus (Stimpson) 

The large brown sea cucumber is a common object in the tide- 
pools. Some grow to eight and ten inches in length and even more. 
We examined large numbers of them for commensals but did not 
happen to encounter any. 

ASTEROIDEA 
Linckia columbiae Gray 

The smooth red starfish is common in the tide-pools. Its capacity 
for arm motion is very limited compared to other starfishes here, and 
through frequent mutilations it is rarely normally armed. Prof. 
Fisher says of it: "This curious little starfish is a member of the 
Panamic fauna, the type having been taken on the west coast of 
Colombia. It has been recorded previously from California at La 
Jolla, San Clemente Island, Santa Catalina Island and San Pedro. 
Miss S. P. Monks carried on some interesting studies on the varia- 
bility and autonomy of this species. It is able to sever its arms, and 
not only to regenerate new arms, but also to regenerate new disks on 
the severed rays. The number of rays varies from one to nine, but 
there are usually five. There may also be more than one madreporic 
body, and as many as four anal apertures. Very rarely there are 
two mouths." 



liaguna Ratine laboratorp 89 

Coscinasterias sertulifera (Xantus) 

The "soft starfish" is very common in the tide-pools. It is oue 
of the most unpleasant starfishes to handle, due to its extraordinary 
sliminess. Its soft body gives a very wide range of possibilities in 
movement. Of this species Prof. Fisher remarks: "This is the 
species (under the name Asterias ferreri) upon which Prof. II. S. 
Jennings carried on a number of experiments at La Jolla. It is a 
member of the southern fauna, the type locality being Cape San 
Lucas. The true Coscinasterias ferreri belongs to the northern fauna 
and is not found along shore." 

Pisaster capitatus (Stimpson) 

Not common in the tidal pools, but evidently much more numerous 
just at and below low tide mark. Prof. Fisher says of it: "This 
species grows to a large size and is characterized by the heavy, well 
spaced tubercles of the back. It was formerly included in the genus 
Asterias." 

OPHIUROIDEA 

Ophioderma panamensis Lutken 

Apparently the largest serpent star at Laguua, and abundant in 
the lower tide-pools. Its smoothish body and commonly bright and 
varied shades of brown and yellow make it a very conspicuous species. 
Prof. Fisher remarks of it: "This is a common littoral serpent star 
from Panama to Catalina. It has a finely granulated disk and four 
genital openings on each interbrachial space." 

Ophioplocus esmarki Lyman 

As this species occurred to us at Laguna, it was smaller than the 
foregoing, and usually unicolored, instead of variegated. Prof. 
Fisher records this as occurring from San Diego to Monterey. 

Ophionereis annulata LeConte 

With a heavy vestiture and comparatively small, this serpent 
star occurs in great numbers under stones in tide-pools, sometimes 
dozens under a single stone. Prof. Fisher says: "This is a common 
form from Central America to Southern California. It has long, 
cross banded arms, short arm spines, and a disk covered with fine 
overlapping scales." 

Ophiothrix spiculata LeConte 

We found this species only in kelp holdfasts from three to six 
fathoms, and common in large sponge masses. It is common in these 
places and is doubtless common also under other conditions. Prof. 



90 jTirst Annual Report 

Fisher says of it : " This is one of the most beautiful of echinoderms, 
being characterized by many long thorny spines which are delicate 
and glassy. It ranges from Monterey Bay to Central America." 

ECHINOIDEA 

Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Agassiz 

This is the large, commonly blackish purple, long spined sea 
urchin, usually found singly in the lower tide-pools. As Prof. Fisher 
remarks, it is commonly bright purple or even reddish purple. It 
is far less common than the following. 

Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson) 

The bluish-purple gregarious sea urchin occurs in large colonies 
in some of the lower tide-pools. One such pool at Mussel Point con- 
tains a remarkable display of these urchins. Many of them are seated 
in deep, cylindrical bores in the rock from which it is frequently 
impossible to extricate them. They apparently do not favor pools 
that are beyond the reach of low tide spray. 

Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz) 

"The common sand dollar of the curio store. It was formerly 
included in the genus Echinarachnius" (Fisher). The shells of this 
species are occasional on the beach at Laguna. 



tagtina egarine Laboratory !i 



STUDIES IN PYCNOGONIDA, I 

HARRY V. M. HALL 

In all our collecting but twenty-two pycnogonids were taken, 
twenty of which belong to the same species and one of the others to a 
different species of the same genus. The commonest had a spread of 
legs of about three-fourths of an inch, while the other species was 
about three times as large. The latter were so nearly the color of the 
fucus on which they lived and so covered with debris that it is pos- 
sible that they may be much more numerous than the number taken 
would indicate. In working out this report I am indebted to Dr. 
Leon J. Cole for many kind suggestions and much valuable assist- 
ance. I have described the species found as follows : 

Anoplodactylus californicus n. sp. 

(Figure 4!)) 

Body rather short, lateral processes about as long as their own 
diameter, radiate, with bases contiguous. First two intersegmental 
lines barely visible. Proboscis cylindrical with rounded end, almost 
as long as the length of the body. Diameter of the proboscis one- 
half its length. Eyes not apparent, but a large conical eye tubercle 
(bent to the right in the cut as is also the abdomen) arises from the 
anterior edge of the body which projects over nearly the first half 
of the proboscis. The abdomen is much the same shape as the last 
joint of a man's middle finger and, like the eye tubercle is deeply and 
closely pitted. The rest of the body is pitted but less deeply. Cheli- 
fores large with well developed chela? and stout shaft, the whole 
reaching about half their length in front of the proboscis. (In my 
specimen the chelae are extended straight in front but there seems to 
be no reason why they might not be bent in front of the proboscis.) 
A few short spines on the chela 1 ; basal joints grown together and 
apparently supporting the eye tubercle. Palpi and ovigerous legs 
very rudimentary and wholly within the body (see plate for details). 
The legs are rather long but stout, sparsely set with short spines. 
First coxa shorter than its diameter, second coxa over twice the 
length of the first and enlarged at its distal end, third coxa one and 
one-half times the length of the first. Femur lunger than the com- 
bined length of the cox*. Tibial joints each about three-fourths the 
length of the femur. All joints of the legs stout. Tarsus about one- 
half the length of tibial joints; claw two-thirds the length of tarsus 



92 



jTirst Annual Report 




Figure 49. Anoplodactylus californicus 



ILaguna S^arine ILa&oratorp 



and folding down to rows of fine hairs. Auxiliary claws very small. 
Genital openings not apparent. Color straw. Measurements in mm. 
Proboscis 1.424; body (from anterior edge to insertion of abdomen) 
1.5; leg (approximately) 8; diameter of lateral (leg-bearing) pro- 
cesses .428. 

This specimen was swept from fucus at low tide and was put in 
a bottle with a small nudibrauch mollusk which we caught about the 
same time. About half an hour later we discovered this pycnogonid 
greedily feeding on the nudibrauch. This is of special interest as 
very little is known of the feeding habits of these interesting crea- 
tures. 

This species bears a superficial resemblance to Pallenopsis, how- 
ever it differs from that genus in the following respects, i. e. : The 
abdomen is neither long nor slender, there are no eyes apparent, 
and the ovigerous legs, instead of being ten-jointed and present in 
both sexes, are in my specimen reduced to the merest rudiments and 
are within the body wall so that externally they do not show. On 
the other hand it is not a typical Aiiuplodnctylus, the body being- 
more compact than is usual in that genus, though not nearly so 
compact as that of A. anarthrus (Loman). 

Ammothella bi-unguiculata var. californica n. var. 

(Figure 50) 

Body distinctly segmented, leg-bearing processes moderately 
separated and moderately developed. Their length is about one-half 
their diameter. Intersegmental lines all distinct. Proboscis slim, 
spindle shaped; in length two and one-half times the diameter, and 
four-thirds the length of the body; ending in front with a rounded 
obtuse angle as seen from above. Pour eyes in pairs on a very low 
eye tubercle ; well pigmented. Abdomen small, cylindrical, less than 
one-fourth the length of the body, with bluntly rounded tip. Anus 
in notch at the tip. Chelifores short, one-sixth the length of the 
proboscis, three-jointed; chelae undeveloped; first joint very short, 
shaft not quite as long as terminal joint which is nearly* spherical. 
Diameter of chelifores slightly less than that of the palpi. Palpi 
nine-jointed ; as long as the proboscis. First joint short and thicker 
than the others. Second joint four times as long as the third ; fourth 
joint almost as long as the second; fifth and sixth joints about the 
same length as the third. Terminal joints decrease in order. Very 
few hairs on the palpus except on the terminal joint. Ovigerous legs 
slightly longer and with slightly greater diameter than the palpi. 
The ten joints named in the order of their lengths (except the first 
which is short and much thicker than the rest) are, 4, 2, 5, 6, 3, 7, 
8, 9, 10. The terminal joints are spirally rolled and on the tip of the 



j?tr0t Annual Report 




Figure 50. Ammothella bi-unguiculata var. californica 



JLaguna figarinc Laboratory 



last are three stiffly plumose hairs. A similar hair is placed on each 
side of the eighth joint. Legs rather long but stout, no tibial pro- 
cesses, very few hairs except in double row on tarsus. First coxa 
as long as its own diameter; second twice as long; third coxa one 
and one-half tiroes the length of the first. Femur about as long as the 
combined length of the second and third COXJP. Second tibial joint 
about the same length as femur; first tibial joint slightly shorter. 
Tarsus is less than one-half as long as second tibial joint. Tarsus 
has a double row of fine hairs down the "sole" and a few slightly 
longer hairs on the end. Terminal claw is lacking, while the auxiliary 
claws are unusually developed. Color light brown ; the food was 
slightly darker making it easy to trace the branches of the stomach 
into the legs as shown in cut. Measurements in mm. Body 1.3; 
proboscis 1.05; abdomen .36; leg 4.2; diameter of leg-bearing pro- 
cesses .214. 

About twenty specimens of this species were found under stones 
at low tide, well down toward low water mark. The males bore on 
their ovigerous legs bunches of dark colored eggs. 

As pointed out to me by Dr. Cole, this species agrees closely with 
A. bi-unguiculata (Dohrn). As he says, "if we make the proper al- 
lowance for his specimen being an immature one" this specimen 
"agrees in detail with Dohrn's description." But to say that I had 
found in California the mature form of Dohrn's Naples species (de- 
scribed, as it was from an immature specimen), would be too much 
of a guess without comparing mature forms from both localities. 
This difference of location, the fact of Dohrn's specimen being im- 
mature, and the desire not to duplicate names, have led me to de- 
scribe mine as a variety of A. bi-unguiculata. 



Ammothella spinosissima n. sp. 

(Figure 51) 

Body with leg-bearing processes almost circular in outline. These 
processes are grown together for nearly their whole length, and at 
their distal ends are situated large tufts of spines. No interseg- 
mental lines, but on the back, between the second pair of legs, is a 
longitudinal row of three large upright spine-covered, finger-like 
processes. (Bent to the side in the cut as are also the eye tubercle 
and the abdomen). Proboscis shorter than the apparent length of 
the body, but if compared with the length of the body from the 
anterior margin to the base of the abdomen the reverse is true. This 
is owing to the abdomen being inserted between the last pair of leg- 
bearing processes which are the only two that are separated. The 
proboscis is bluntly rounded in front with a notch at the tip; its 
diameter is about half its length. Four eyes, not conspicuously pig- 



96 



jTirst annual Report 




Figure 51. Ammothella spinosissima 



ILaguna e@arine laboratory 97 

mented, situated at the top of a relatively small eye-tubercle, the 
length of which is about twice its diameter. The abdomen is about 
three-fourths the length of the body, (the latter measured from the 
anterior margin to the base of the abdomen). Along the top of the 
abdomen is a row of ringer-like, multi-sj due-bearing processes similar 
to those on the legs to which I will refer shortly, but much smaller 
than the three large ones previously mentioned as on the back. The 
diameter of the abdomen is about one-fifth its length. The chelifores 
are stout and slightly surpass the proboscis in length ; they are rudi- 
mentary in having the chela? undeveloped. The shaft is set with quite 
a few multi-spine bearing processes. The basal segment is about the 
same size as the terminal segment, but the shaft is one and one-half 
times as long as their combined lengths. The palpi are nine-jointed, 
surpassing the end of the proboscis by one-third their length. The 
first joint is shorter and broader than the rest; the second is the 
longest, being almost one-third the whole length of the palpus; third 
joint very short ; fourth joint not quite as long as second. A ridge 
across the fourth joint makes it appear like two joints as viewed 
from above. The terminal joints diminish in order. The first six 
joints have very few hairs, while the terminal joints are thickly set 
with hairs about as long as the diameter of the fourth joint. The 
second joint is thickened at the ends but the other joints are not 
noticeably so thickened. The average diameter of the palpus is 
about one-half that of the chelifores. The ovigerous legs are nine- 
jointed; their diameter about half way between those of palpus and 
chelifores. The joints in order of length (except the first, which is 
short and broad), 4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9. Legs are rather short and 
powerful with numerous, multi-spine-bearing, finger-like processes, 
especially on the coxa and two tibial joints. On the two tibial joints 
these processes are arranged in a double row down the back of the 
joint. The first and third coxal joint are sub-equal in length, the 
second one and one-half times as long. The femur is as long as the 
combined length of all three coxae ; the tibial joints two-thirds as long 
as the femur and but slightly longer than the tarsus. The claw is 
over three-quarters the length of tarsus, folding down between two 
rows of stout spines on tarsus. No auxiliary claws. Genital open- 
ings not apparent. Color light straw. Measurements in mm. : 
Proboscis 1.424; body 1.2; abdomen 1.1; leg 6.35; diameter of lateral 
processes .5. 

This single specimen was swept from fucus in July and when 
taken, was so covered with litter which was imbedded among the 
spines, that no idea of the real aspect of the creature could be ob- 
tained until after boiling in KOII. This litter rendered it very hard 
to find among bits of fucus even when we knew it was there and its 



98 



J?ir0t annual Report 




Figure 52. A, Ammothella bi-unguiculata californica, terminal joints of oviger- 
ous leg. B, Ammothella spinosissima, terminal joints of ovigerous leg. C, Anoplo- 
dactylus californicus, tarsus. D, Ammothella spinosissima, tarsus. E, Ammothella 
bi-unguiculata californica, tarsus. F, Ancplcdactylus californicus, chelifore-terminal 
joints. G, Ammothella bi-unguiculata californica, palpus. H, Ammothella spinos- 
issima, palpus. I, Anoplodactuylus californicus, palpus J, Anoplodactylus califor- 
nicus, ovigerous leg. K, Ammothella bi-unguiculata, chelifore. 



Lagtma Cgtorinc Laboratory 



discovery in the towings was almost accidental. We spent much 
time looking for others but with no success. The spine-hearing pro- 
cesses with which this species is covered serve to distinguish it from 
all other species of the genus. 

In placing these last two species in Ammothella, I have followed 
Cole, who raised the sub-genus Ammothella (Ammothea part), of 
Verrill, to generic rank because of the trunk being "usually propor- 
tionately broader and distinctly segmented, the chelifori three- 
jointed, and the palpi nine-jointed." I hope that this brief explana- 
tion will show why they are not Ammothea proper, and avoid con- 
fusion. The multi-spine bearing processes on A. spiitoxixxinid may 
remind one of those on a Nymphopsis figured by Loman, Plate XIII 
of Siboga-Expeditie XL, but the arrangement of these processes, as 
well as generic characters, show that there can be no possible con- 
nection. 



ioo jfirst annual Report 



NOTES ON THE CRUSTACEA OF LACUNA 

BEACH 

C. F. BAKER 

From the character of the coast at Laguna one would expect a 
rich representation of the crabs, shrimps, prawns, and their allies, 
and the richness of the crustacean fauna is most forcibly impressed 
upon one by a little collecting. We took a great number of specimens 
and species of crustaceans during this first summer, of which but a 
very small proportion have as yet been worked up, especially among 
the Entomostraca. A few of these latter I have examined in some 
detail in cases where they happened to be conspicuous or to occur 
in great numbers of individuals. Miss Stout lias done a considerable 
amount of work on the Amphipoda of this locality, and Miss Stafford 
on the Isopoda. They both accumulated a great wealth of material, 
indicating a littoral fauna of great richness in these groups. 

The crabs, but few of which I have determined, are extraordin- 
arily abundant. The tide-pools swarm with them, a stone turned 
over frequently revealing a half dozen species at one time. One 
small crab, apparently quite rare, was of peculiar interest because 
it seemed to be always covered with a dense forest of small simple 
sponges, perhaps indicating a symbiotic relationship. 

A number of species of parasitic copepods (three from one 
shark) and isopods were taken, but these are as yet undetermined. 

MALACOSTRACA 

Order DECAPODA 

Epialtus productus Randall 

The young of the kelp crab are very common in the tide-pools 
clinging to fucus and other brown algae, but mature specimens are 
only to be found in the kelp beds. 

Loxorhynchus grandis Stimp. 

Large carapace shells of this deeper water crab are commonly 
washed up on the beach. 

Cycloxanthops novemdentatus Lock. 
Frequent under stones between tides. 

Lophopanopaeus leucomanus (Lock.) 

(Figure 53) 

Occasional under stones between tides. Examination of the ap- 
pendages of the head of this species, in comparison with those of 



Lmjiimi 



ILaboratorp 



101 



Xanthias taylori reveals some interesting resemblances and differ- 
ences. The mandibles and maxillipeds are strikingly similar. The 
antennules, however, are very unlike and present some salient char- 
acters. The outer flagellum in this species is three-jointed while in 
X. taylori it appears to be seven-jointed. The large tuft of bristles 
opposite the outer flagellum is as long as the inner in this species, 
while in X. taylori it is only half as long. 




Figure 53. Lophopanopaeus leucomanus 

A, First maxilliped. B. Second maxilliped. C, Third maxilliped. D, mandible. 
E, antennule. 



102 jTirst annual Report 

Xanthias taylori Stimp. 

(Figure 54) 

Abundant under stones between tides and also in kelp holdfasts 
from deeper water. 

Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall 

This is the very abundant shore crab which is so common scuttling 
over the stones of the higher beach. It sometimes contains a large 
parasitic isopod in its branchial cavities. 

Randallia ornata (Randall) 
Occasional specimens from kelp holdfasts in deeper water. 

Eremita analoga (Stimp.) 

Exceedingly abundant, burrowing in sand between tides, and 
much used for bait. 

Blepharipoda occidentalis Randall 

This large species one of the most remarkable crustaceans on 
the coast is occasional on the sandy shores just below low tide. The 
boys locate them with their feet while in bathing and dive for them. 

Lepidopa myops Stimp. 
Occasional in the sand between tides, associated with Eranitii. 

Petrolisthes cinctipes (Randall) 
The "flat crab" is common under stones between tides. 

Pachycheles rudis Stimp. 

Abundant under stones between tides. This little crab with 
swollen tuberculated chelipeds is also common in kelp holdfasts. 

Callianassa longimana Stimp. 

Burrowing in the sand underneath stones in the tide-pools. Not 
common. This loosely built, ghostly looking animal reminds one 
strongly of certain cave-dwelling animals. 

Panulirus interruptus (Randall) 

Very common in the deeper waters off shore. This seems to be 
headquarters for this splendid lobster. We frequently saw large 
specimens just below low tide, and encountered young specimens 
frequently in the tide-pools. 

Crangon vulgaris L. 

Some specimens which cannot be distinguished from the current 
descriptions of this species, were taken in a bed of Phyllospadix just 
below low tide. 



ILaguna egjarinc Laboratory 



c 




Figure 54. Xanthias taylori 

A, mandible. B, First maxillipcd. C, Second mnxilliped. D. Third maxilliped. 
E, First maxilla. F, Second maxilla. G, Antennia. H. Antennule. 



104 



Jfir0t 3nnual 




Figure 55. Heptacarpus pictus 

A, Habit sketch, showing common attitude of body and antennules. B, C, Vari- 
ation in toothing of rostrum. D, Antenna. E, Antennule. F, Mandible. G, First 
maxilla. H, Second maxilla. I, Third maxilla. J, Maxilliped. 



ILaguna egarinc iLaboratorp 



105 




Figure 56. Heptacarpus pictus 

A, First peraeopods. B, Second peraeopods. C Third peraeopods. D, First 
pleopods. E, Second pleopods. F, Apical two-thirds of telson. G, Exopodite of 
uropod, showing teeth. 



106 jTirst annual Report 

Crangon nigromaculatus Sm. 

Under stones in sandy bottomed tide-pools. The color is trans- 
lucent white, peppered with black dots, a larger dot on either side 
of the fifth and sixth pleon segments. When this species is exposed 
by the turning over of a stone, it settles immediately into the surface 
of the sand, and is then almost indistinguishable. 

Hippolysmata californica St. 

This extraordinarily brilliant Hippolytid with its red stripes is 
certainly one of the finest things to be found in the tide-pools. We 
frequently pointed to it as one of the most beautiful marine animals 
to lie found at Laguna. 

Alphaeus clamator Luck. 
Common in sponge masses and kelp holdfasts. 

Betaeus longidactylus Lock. 
A very beautiful olive green species, abundant in tide-pools. 

Heptacarpus pictus (Stimp.) 

(Figures 55 and 5(5) 

This small and very beautiful Hippolytid is abundant in the tide- 
pools and also outside in the kelp beds. Its greenish semi-trans- 
parency, with oblique reddish marks on the pereion, make it wholly 
inconspicuous almost invisible in alga-filled tide-pools. The tow- 
net, however, quickly reveals it as a very abundant species. 

Order TANAIDACEA 

A number of species of these minute tube-dwellers were encoun- 
tered among the alga? lining tide-pools, and also in kelp holdfasts. 
They will be worked up later. 

Order CUMACEA 

Pseudocuma lagunae n. sp. 

(Figure 57) 

We were greatly interested to encounter in one of the lower tide- 
pools a minute Pscitdocuin<i. It appears to represent an undescribed 
form. 

I'Yniale. Length 1.5 mm. Carapace a little less than one-fifth the total length 
and nearly as deep as long. Pseudorostrum short, truncate, and not at all elevated. 
l',,u k of the large eyes is a deep vertical plica standing nearly at right angles to the 
dursuni and reaching lower border of carapace, giving a remarkable appearance of a 
separated head. Sides of carapace with three curved ridges. Entire cephalo- 
thnracic region about as long as remainder of body. Telson equalling basal joint 
of uropods, and narrowing at the tip to a subacute point. Appendages as illustrated 
in the figure. 

Order MYSIDACEA 
Mysis costata Holmes 

This species occurs in inconceivable myriads in the kelp beds just 
off shore, where Mr. Guernsey took it with the tow net. 



Lagiiiia 



Ldtummm' 



107 




Figure 57. Pseudocuma lagunae 

A, Third leg, with rudimentary exopodite. B, Third maxilliped. C, Fiftli leg. 
D, Superior antenna. E, First leg. F, Habit sketch of female. 



108 



jfirst annual deport 




Figure 58. Tisbe californica 

A, Antenna of male. B, Mandible, sutures in palp not distinct. C, antenna of 
female. D, Base of furca. E, Side view of carapace. F, Adult male. G, Antennule. 



Laguna Sgarine Laboratory 



109 




Figure 59. Tisbe californica 

A, First leg of male. C, First leg of female. D, Penultimate leg. E, Last leg 
of female. F, Antepenultimate leg. 



iio jTirst annual Report 

Subclass CIRRIPEDIA 

Nuinbers of species of barnacles occur at Laguna and the begin- 
nings of a study of them was made which will be continued later. 

Subclass COPEPODA 
Tisbe californica n. sp. 
(Figures 58 and 59) 

During a few weeks in July, some of the high tide-pools remained 
for days without change of water, and each day became very warm 
at noontime. Enormous numbers of an apparently red Copepod 
appeared in these pools. This species appears to me to be a Tisbe 
close to Tisbe furcata but differing as follows : The terminal flagel- 
lum of the female antenna appears to be five-jointed, the produced 
angle of the last joint of the basal portion being extended beyond the 
first joint of flagellum. The setae of the mandibular palpi are numer- 
ous and longer than the palpi. The longest caudal setae are much 
longer than abdomen. Other details are shown in the figures. 

Diaptomus stagnalis Forbes 

(Figure 60) 

Harry Hall used the tow-net industriously in the two small ponds 
in the canyon above Laguna, with rich results. Among other things 
he took specimens of a colossal Diaptomus, which fit the descriptions 
of i>t<i(/ii(il'tH very closely and which correspond with remarkable 
closeness to the figures of Herrick's Diaptomus giganteus, which is 
considered synonymous with $tii<iiniH*. The color in eastern speci- 
mens appears to be variable. Here it has a semi-transparent body, 
pale bluish veutrally as are also the feet, and with the antennae pale 
yellowish to colorless. DeGuerne and Richard complain that this 
species was never properly illustrated, so I have tried to prepare a 
plate for it. 

Subclass OSTRACODA 
Cyprinotus californicus n. sp. 

(Figure 61) 

This minute species (length .5 to .8 mm.) was taken by Mr. Hall 
in considerable numbers in the freshwater ponds with Diaptomus 
stagnalis. Color pale translucent greenish. The shell is thickly 
covered, especially distally in all directions from the hinge, with 
minute papillae bearing fine hairs, which are longer towards the 
margins. Eight valve armed anteriorly with small dark marginal 
teeth. The four weakly plumose natatory setae of the second antennae 
exceed the longest terminal claws by one-half the length of the 



JLaguna eparinc Laboratory 




Figure 60. Diaptomus stagnalis 

A, Habit sketch. B, First maxilla. C, Second maxilla. D, Maxilliped. E, End 
of abdomen. F, Mandible. G, Antennule. H, Antepenultimate leg of male. I, Last 
leg of female. J, Last leg of male. 



112 



jFitst Annual Report 




Figure 61. Cyprinotus californicus 

A, Habit sketch. B, Maxilla. C, Upper lip. D, Second antenna. E, First 
antenna. F, Second leg. G, First leg. H, Anterior border of right valve. I, Shell 
structure on outer margin. J, Mandible. K, Anal armature. 



ILaguna Ratine Laboratory 



113 




H 



Figure 62. Xestoleberis transversalis 

A, Adult, habit sketch. B, First antenna. C, Second antenna. D, Mandible 
with palpus turned backward. E, Maxilla. F, Branchial plate of maxilla. G, Sexual 
variation in shell outline. H, Second leg. I, Anal armature. 



Jfirst annual deport 



claws (which are not of equal length). The second legs with a cylin- 
drical third joint armed with a short claw, and a small, weak, 
scarcely longer, recurved seta, which is not shown in the drawing. 
First legs with the long curved claw nearly as long as the three pre- 
ceding joints. Branchial plate of mandibular palp with four stout 
seta?, the branchial plate of first maxilla? with about twenty-three. 
Other characters may be gathered from the figures. Nearest in 
general appearance, perhaps, to Cypris pelluci/l/i. 

Xestoleberis transversalis n. sp. 
(Figure 62) 

A small (.5 to .65 mm.), very pale greenish or brownish, white 
banded podocopous ostracod is very abundant in tide-pools at 
Laguna Beach. The characters of anal armature, mandibular palp, 
second antenna?, and shell structure seem to distinguish it from any- 
thing previously described. The shell is very slightly hairy except 
along distal margin. The disc of the shell is armed with numbers of 
distinct tubercles, and with a transverse white band at or slightly 
posterior to middle. First antennae six-jointed, the penultimate and 
antepenultimate joints of equal length, longer than third but shorter 
than the much slenderer last joint ; last joint with two spines, penul- 
timate with a tuft of spines at apical angle. Second antennae with 
fourth joint not distinctly separated, the outer branch with terminal 
claw as long as claw of inner branch. The tuft of spines on outer 
margin of third joint of inner branch nearer base than apex. Man- 
dibles at masticatory margin narrower than at insertion of palpus; 
palpus with respiratory plate distinctly separated to the base and 
with two slightly plumose spines, the terminal portion of palpus dis- 
tinctly two-jointed; two large spines at base of palpus. Second leg 
with basal joint longer than second, the fourth nearly twice the 
length of third. 

Both this species and the next are placed in Xestoleberis, though 
a new genus might easily be erected for each of them as Fsterly 
has done for Paracytheroma fH'tlrci/xix. These appear, however, to 
present only specific differences. 

Xestoleberis flavescens n. sp. 

( Figure 63) 

Another pndoropous ostracod occurs with X. transversalis, but 
is a slightly larger, and rarer, species. In shell structure, anal arma- 
ture, and other details it is entirely distinct. The shell is entirely 
covered with small rounded bosses of peculiar structure, and it is 
cream colored and translucent throughout. The legs are distinctly 
yellowish. First antennas four-jointed, penultimate joint far shorter 



Lmjmui 



115 




Figure 63. Xestoleberis flavescens 

A, Adult, habit sketch. B, Sexual variation in outline. C, First antenna. 
D, Maxilla. E, Second antenna. F, Margin of shell, edge above. G, Mandibbe 
H, Second leg. I, Dactyle of last leg. ], Anal armature. 



116 



jTitst annual Report 




Figure 64. Chydorus simplex 

A Adult, habit sketch. B, Postabdomen. C, Second foot. D, Antennule. 
F, Plumed hairs on posterior distal margin of shell, showing where plumed hairs 
pass into teeth of anterior angle. G, First foot. H, Mandible. 



Laguna C0anne Laboratory 117 

than antepenultimate and slightly shorter than last; last two joints 
very heavy and armed with stout spines. Second antenna? with 
fourth joint distinctly separated, the outer branch with terminal 
claw longer than claw of inner branch. The tuft of spines on outer 
margin of third joint of inner branch, nearer to apex than base. 
Mandibles at masticatory margin broader than at insertion of pal- 
pus; palpus with respiratory plate not distinctly separated, but its 
three spines are large, recurved and heavily plumose; the terminal 
portion of palpus distinctly one-jointed; one large spine at base of 
palpus. Second leg with basal joint shorter than second, the fourth 
but little longer than third. 

Subclass CLADOCERA 
Chydorus simplex n. sp. 

(Figure 64) 

With Diaptomus stagiialis and Cyprinotus calif ornicus, Mr. Hall 
took numbers of an exceedingly minute (length .4-.5 mm.) Chydorus. 
The anterior projection of the shell is long, very slender, and very 
sharp, and is frequently more closely incurved to the anterior margin 
of the shell than in the specimen drawn. The shell has a depth about 
three times the hind margin. The distal (lower) margin is edged 
with minute short plumed hairs to a point in front of the legs where 
the curve to the anterior angle begins, and from that point to the 
anterior angle they are replaced by small teeth. The postabdomen 
is long subrectaugular, the terminal claws shorter than its greatest 
width and these claws provided with a rather strong lateral tooth 
behind. Lower hind border of postabdomen with a number of small 
tufts of short hairs which are longer distally. Two long spines occur 
above the anal opening. Posterior intestinal coecum long and slender. 



118 jficst annual Report 



STUDIES IN LACUNA ISOPODA 

BLANCHE E. STAFFORD 

In these and other studies, Asellus coiininniix has been used more 
or less constantly as a basis of comparison, so that some drawings 
(Figures 65 and 66) of this species are presented in this paper. All 
of the other species were collected at Laguua Beach, California. 

The most robust and active Isopoda were found in the sand high 
up on the beach where they were driven out by the incoming water 
at high tide, and among the rocks at the high water mark. Of the 
former, the sand Isopod, AUoinxcti* peri'<n/r< .1 -it*, was a common type, 
and Lifji/tlti oci-idi'ittalix was the characteristic representative in the 
latter surroundings. Under dead seaweed on the border of a salt 
marsh two forms were collected in fair abundance, one of which, 
Philnxciti richardsonae, lias been described in this report. At the 
lower level, under the rocks which the low tide uncovered, various 
forms of the family Idotheidn? were found; of these Irlotltra recti 
lined was most numerous. Under these same rocks the species 
C/ru/di/d iHirfnrtli was exceedingly plentiful. Hardly a rock was 
turned over that did not abound in this form. 

Occasional specimens were brought in from holdfasts which had 
drifted to shore from the kelp beds. These were generally very 
minute forms. From the sponges many curious tube-dwelling Iso- 
pods were collected. Rarely a parasitic form was discovered. The 
tide-pools furnished interesting members of the family Janirida?. Of 
most of the latter and of the rarer species drawings and descriptions 
are not yet ready for publication. 

Asellus communis Say. 

Locality Fresh waters of Massachusetts. 

Body oblong and depressed, about three and a half times as long- 
as wide, 17 mm. by 5 mm. 

Head measures 1.25 mm. in length and about 1 mm. in width at 
upper margin and '2 mm. at posterior margin. Eyes small, composite, 
and placed at the middle of lateral margins. First pair of antennae 
have basal article of peduncle broader than those distal to it. Second 
and third are narrow, third shorter than second; flagellum composed 
of fifteen articles. Second antennae have a peduncle of six articles; 
first very small, wider than long; second, third and fourth subequal ; 
fifth and sixth long and narrower; sixth longer than fifth; flagellum 
multi-articulate, composed of about sixty-two articles. Maxillipeds 



ILaguna Ratine La&oratorp 



119 




Figure 65. Asellus communis Say 

A, Dorsal view. B, Mandible. C, First maxilla. D, First antenna. E, Maxilli- 
ped. F, Second maxilla. G, Lower lip. H, Uropod. I, First pleopod of male. J, 
Second pleopod of male. K, Second antenna. 



120 



jTirst Annual deport 




Figure 66. Asellus communis Say 

A, First leg. B, Second leg. C, Third leg. D, Fourth leg. E, Fifth leg. F, 
Sixth leg. G, Seventh leg. H, Fifth pleopod of male. I, Fourth pleopod of male. 
J, Third pleopod of male. 



ILaguna Ratine Laboratory 



provided with a palp of five articles ; mandibles have a palp of three 
articles. 

Thorax has first segment longer than those succeeding, but nar- 
rower ; remaining segments subequal. Small epimera occur on all 
the segments at the antero-lateral angles. Legs all ambulatory ex- 
cepting the first pair, which are prehensile. Propodus of first pair 
very much expanded ; its inferior margin has one long triangular 
process at the distal end, and one short process at the proximal end. 

Abdomen composed of two very short segments and one large ter- 
minal segment; latter is slightly wider than long, 5 mm. by 4 mm., is 
narrower at posterior margin than at anterior. Post-lateral angles 
rounded, posterior margin produced medially into a sharp lobe 
between the uropoda. Uropoda about as long as terminal abdominal 
segment, 5 mm. ; peduncle about as long as inner ramus ; both rami 
end sharply. First pair of female pleopoda are attached close to- 
gether and are unsegmented. First and second pleopoda of male are 
modified. Second pleopoda of female are lacking. 

Ligyda occidentalis (Dana) 
(Figures 67 and 68) 

Locality On the rocks at the high tide mark where they are very 
numerous, at Laguua Beach, California. 

Color Sordid gray and brown; sometimes checkered in gray; 
legs tipped with orange. 

Body ovate and elongate, about two and a half times as long as 
wide, 22 mm. by 9 mm. Surface covered with granules. 

Head twice as wide as long with anterior and lateral margins 
rounded. Eyes very large, composite and elongate. First antenna 
very minute and rudimentary, composed of three articles. Second 
antenna measures 16 mm. First and second articles of peduncle 
subequal ; third a little longer ; fourth and fifth elongated ; fifth longer 
and narrower than fourth ; flagellum composed of thirty-one articles. 
Maxilliped has a palp of five articles. 

First four segments of thorax subequal and longer than those 
succeeding; last three have their post-lateral angles produced further 
than the preceding four. The epimera are united to the segments 
and are only faintly perceptible. Legs all ambulatory; have the 
dactylus bi-ungniculate. Propodus of first leg in male more dilated 
than that of the other legs and has a process on the inner distal 
margin in the male. Carpus and merus of first and second and third 
legs more dilated in male and have striated margins. 

First and second abdominal segments short and subequal. Suc- 
ceeding segments longer and narrower. Last abdominal longest and 
narrowest of all the abdominal segments. Its post-lateral angles are 



jTirst annual Report 




Figure 67. Ligyda occidentalis (Dana) 

A, Dorsal view. B, Mandible. C, Second maxilla. D, First maxilla. E, Max- 
illiped. F, First antenna. G, First leg of male. 



Haguna egarine Ilaboratorp 




Figure 68. Ligyda occidentalis (Dana) 

A, Fourth leg of male. B, Fifth leg of male. C, Second leg of male. D, Third 
leg of male. E, Second antenna. V, Second pleopod of male. G, Third pleopod 
of male. H, First pleopod of male. I, Uropod. 



124 jTirst annual tteuort 

sharp and short. Uropoda about hall' the length of the body, 11 
mm. ; peduncle 3.5 mm., and about two-thirds as long as the outer 
ramus; outer ramus slightly shorter than inner, which is armed with 
a single spine. 

Alloniscus perconvexus Dana 
(Figure <i!>) 

Locality Abundant in sand of upper beach under kelp ; very 
abundant at high tides when driven out by the water. 

Color Dull gray mottled with black and white. 

Body ovate and convex, about twice as long as wide, 15 nun. by 
7 mm. Head has frontal margin produced in the middle into a 
rounded lobe; autero-lateral angles into an acute process extending 
slightly beyond the eyes. Eyes composite and situated close to 
lateral margins. First pair of antennas very small and rudimentary, 
consisting of three small articles. Second antennae composed of five 
articles and a flagelluni. First two articles short, third and fourth 
longer and subequal, fifth over one and a half times as long as fourth. 
Flagellum has three subequal articles. Second antennae thickly cov- 
ered with small spines. Maxillipeds have a palp of three articles. 
Palp of mandible wanting. 

First segment of thorax longer than the others, which are sub- 
equal. On the first segment of the thorax a faint suture line extends 
a short distance from the posterior margin and at an obtuse angle, 
indicating the epimeron. On the next three segments sutures extend 
the length of the segments. On the last three segments epimera are 
not visible. Legs ambulatory, thickly spined. 

Abdomen consists of six segments, five subequal in length, the 
sixth somewhat longer. First two are covered laterally by the last 
thoracic segment. Last abdominal segment triangular and narrower 
than all the preceding segments. Uropoda very short, about the 
length of last abdominal segment; inner branch about half as long- 
as outer. 

The whole surface of the body is covered with minute spines. 

Idothea rectilinea Lockington 

(Figure 70) 

Locality Abundant in pools, under rocks, on Phyllospadix and 
among fucus at low tide. 

Color Male usually a light brown; female usually a very dark 
brown with antenna? and legs of light brown. 

Body narrow and elongate; sides almost parellel and segments 
very closely articulated ; five times longer than wide, 20 mm. by 4 
mm. Dorsuni depressed longitudinally on either side of median line. 



Uujuiui 



laboratory 



125 




Figure 69. Alloniscus perconvexus (Dana) 

A, Dorsal view. B, Maxillipcd. C, First maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Seventh 
leg. F, First leg. G, Second maxilla. H, Third pleopod of male. I, Second 
pleopod of male. }, Mandible. K, First antenna. L, First pleopod of female M 
Second antenna. N, First pleopoda of male. 



126 



jTirst annual Report 




Figure 70. Idothea rectilinea (Lockington) 

A, Dorsal view. B, Maxilliped. C, Mandible. D, Second maxilla. E, Second 
antenna. F, First maxilla. G. First antenna. II, First leg. I, Second leg. J. 
Seventh leg. K, Posterior pleopod of male. L, First pleopod of male. M, Second 
pleopod of male. 



Laguna Ratine Laboratory 127 

Head wider than long; anterior margin broadly emarginate and 
slightly narrower than posterior margin. Eyes very small, com- 
pound and placed on the middle of the extreme lateral margin. First 
antenna 1 have four articles; basal article enlarged much broader 
than the other articles. Fourth article clavate and finely haired on 
the superior margin. Second antenna? composed of peduncle of five 
articles and a flagellum of twelve. Basal article of peduncle very 
small. Second slightly longer than wide; third somewhat longer 
than second and almost twice as long as wide; fourth and fifth about 
equal in length and longer than the third. The maxilliped has a palp 
of four articles. The mandible is without a palp. 

The first segment of the thorax is only half as long medially as 
laterally. The rest of the segments are more regular in shape and 
sub-equal in length ; last two slightly shorter than the others ; pos- 
terior margins of all slightly excavate. The epimera of second and 
third segments occupy slightly less than half the lateral margin; 
epimeron of fourth occupies about half and like the other two is very 
narrow ; epimeron of fifth segment is broader and occupies about 
two-thirds the lateral margin ; epimera of sixth and seventh seg- 
ments occupy the whole length of lateral margin. 

The legs are all similar in structure; propodus di-dactylous and 
slightly haired with short hairs ; the three preceding segments pro- 
vided with longer hairs which are more abundant except on the last 
two pairs of legs, where they are very scant. 

Abdomen consists of three distinct and one partially coalesced 
segment. First segments are very short, last is long and produced 
medially to a point. 

Philoscia richardsonae Holmes and Gay. 
(Figure 71) 

Locality Under old seaweed on the edge of a salt marsh, La- 
guua Beach, California. 

Color Brown, microscopic examination shows distinct pigment 
marking's over the whole surface. 

Body oblong ovate ; length slightly over twice the greatest width, 
6 mm. by 2.5 mm. Surface of body thickly covered with fine spines. 

Head twice as wide as long, with arched frontal margin and 
lateral angles subacute. Antenna long; first article of peduncle 
about half as long as second; second and third subequal in length; 
fourth twice as long as third and narrower; fifth somewhat longer 
than fourth; flagellum composed of three articles, of which the sec- 
ond is slightly shorter than the first or third; the latter ends in a 
large spine and the whole antenna is provided with numerous short 
spines, especially on the margins. Antennule rudimentary, only vis- 



128 



jfirst annual Report 




Figure 71. Philoscia richardsonae (Holmes and Gay) 

A, Dorsal view. B, Second maxilla. C, First maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Second 
antenna. F, Maxilliped. G, First pleopod of female. H, Second pleopod of female. 
I, Terminal segment of abdomen. J, First leg. K, Seventh leg. L, Third pleopod 
of female. M, Antennule. 



luigtum QDarinc Laboratory i-!> 

ible by dissection, composed of three small articles. Maxillipeds 
have a palp of three articles. Pal]) of mandibles wanting-. 

Segments of thorax subeqnal ; post-lateral angles of last three 
very marked and produced. Epimera not distinct. Legs all similar, 
ambulatory, very much spined and increasing in length from iirst 
to seventh. 

Abdomen abruptly narrower than thorax; first five segments sub 
equal. Post-lateral angles of third, fourth and fifth produced. Last 
abdominal segment produced medially. Median length about half 
the greatest width. Basal segment of uropod about as wide as long 
and extends beyond last abdominal segment; inner ramus a little 
less than half as long as the outer; both rarni are spiued. 

Dynamene glabra Richardson 
(Figure 72) 

Locality Found on Phyllospadix at Laguna Beach, California. 

Color Pale orange brown, somewhat mottled, with white spot 
on telson; become dark brown in alcohol. 

Body convex ovate, about twice as long as wide, 3 mm. by iy 2 
mm. ; surface smooth. 

Head small and rounded anteriorly. Eyes placed in the post- 
lateral angles. First pair of antenna with first article of peduncle 
less than twice as long as wide; second and third articles subequal 
and narrower that first. Flagellum composed of twelve articles. 
Second antenna with first article of peduncle about as long as wide, 
small; second twice as long as first; third about the same length as 
first ; fourth similar to second ; fifth one and a third times as long as 
fourth. Flagellum composed of sixteen articles. Maxilliped pro- 
vided with a palp of five articles. Mandible with a palp of three 
articles. 

Thorax has first segment longer than those succeeding, which 
are subequal. Post-lateral angles of last three are produced. Legs 
all ambulatory; dactylus bi-ungulate. 

Abdomen has the penultimate segment composed of several coal- 
esced segments, though the suture lines were not clear in the speci- 
mens at hand at the time of the drawing. Other specimens found 
later showed two short suture lines. Last abdominal segment trian- 
gular with a median fissure at the posterior extremity. Inner ramus 
of uropod about as long as telson and immovable; outer branch half 
as long as inner, and movable. 

Cirolana harfordi var. spongicola n. var. 

(Figure 7.'!) 

Locality Sponges at low tide mark, Laguna Bead), California. 
Color White, but marked with fine black dots. 



130 



jTirst annual Report 




E 



Figure 72. Dynamene glabra (Richardson) 

A, First leg. B, Second leg. C, Third leg. D, Fifth leg. E, First pleopod of 
male. F, Sixth leg. G, Seventh leg. H, Maxilliped. I, Second maxilla. J, Man- 
dible. K, Uropod. L, Telson. 



ILaguna C0arinc Laboratory 



Body very convex and oblong, about three times as long as wide, 
7 nim. by 2.5 mm. being the dimensions of a small specimen. 

Head twice as wide as long with frontal margin rounded. Eyes 
composite, occupying lateral margins of the bead. Second antenna 
has a peduncle of five articles ; the first three are small ; fourth about 
as long as first three ; fifth longer and narrower than fourth ; flagel- 
lum composed of twenty-two articles ; in five specimens examined the 
number of articles varied from twenty-two to twenty-nine, average 
twenty-four.. Anteuuule has a peduncle of three articles ; first two 
small and subequal; third half as wide and equal in length to the 
first two ; flagellum composed of twelve articles, average out of five 
specimens examined, ten articles ; maxillipeds composed of seven 
articles; last five provided with many long plumose spines; third 
article has two blunt hooks. Mandible robust, broad and strong 
distally where it ends in a trideutate margin. Mandibular palp has 
three articles. Frontal lamina short and broad and is sub-trian- 
gulate at the distal end. 

First segment of thorax longer .than the following three, which 
are subequal. Last three longer than the three preceding. Epiniera 
distinct on all but first segment. Last foi;r segments marked with 
an oblique, first two with a longitudinal carina. Epimera of last 
three, especially of last two, segments produced at post-lateral 
angles. First three legs prehensile, last four ambulatory. In the 
first pair the propodus has three spines on the inner margin which 
increase in size toward the distal end, where one long slender spine 
also occurs ; on the outer distal end there are one or two slender 
spines. The carpus usually has but one long spine ; the inerus has 
five or six thick, blunt spines on the inner margin and two or three 
sharp ones. On the outer distal end there are two long slender 
spines; the ischium has one blunt spine on the inner distal margin 
similar to the blunt spines on the nierus ; there is one long, stout one 
and one long, slender spine on the outer distal end. The propodus 
of the second and third legs has on the inner margin four spines 
increasing in length toward the distal end. The carpus has three 
blunt spines on the inner distal end. The merus has eight or nine 
large spines on the inner margin; one long and strong and from one 
to four shorter ones on the outer distal end. The ischium has two 
very blunt spines at the inner distal end, and two or three smaller 
spines at the outer distal extremity. Last four legs provided with 
many stout spines. 

Abdomen composed of six visible segments. Last, triangular, 
gradually narrows to a rounded apex which is provided with about 
eight teeth and numerous long hairs. Peduncle of uropod is pro- 
duced to two-thirds the length of the telson; inner ramus is wider 



132 



Jfirst annual Heport 



B 




N 



Figure 73. Cirolana harfordi var. spongicola 

A, Dorsal view. B, First maxilla. C, Mandible. D, Maxilliped. E, Frontal 
lamina, clypeus and labrum. F, Second maxilla. G, Second antenna. H, First an- 
tenna. I, First leg. J, Second leg. K, Fourth leg. L, Seventh leg. M, First pleopod 
of male. N, Second pleopod of male. O, Telson and uropod. 

Note: The extremities of both the inner and of the outer rami are very 
distinctly serrate, especially the outer. 



ILaguna cparine laboratory 133 

than the outer and somewhat longer, provided with spines and teeth. 
Outer branch is also thickly spined. Both the inner and outer rami 
are very markedly serrate, especially the outer, in which the extrem- 
ity is so sharply divided that it appears bifurcated. 

These specimens found in the sponges appear to be very closely 
related to Cirolana hoi'fordi (Lockington) but the marked difference 
in the number of spines at the extremity of the telson and the evident 
difference in the extremities of the uropod rami, which are more 
rounded and much less emarginate in Ciroldiia Intrfordi seems to 
warrant a varietal distinction. The lateral margins of the telson 
of Cirolana harfordi are curved near the base; in the specimens 
obtained from the sponges these margins are straight. These differ- 
ences, with those of size and habitat, allow at least a distinction in 
variety. 



134 jfirst annual Report 



STUDIES IN LAGUNA AMPHIPODA 

VINNIE E. STOUT 

Orchestia traskiana Stimpson 
(Figures 74 and 75) 

Numerous specimens taken agree very well with the description 
of 0. traskiana iu Das Tierreich, except in having the distance be- 
tween the eyes varying from considerably less to a little more than 
one diameter, also in having the flagellum of antenna II with the 
flagellum somewhat longer than peduncle and 16-18 jointed in male, 
all the female specimens observed having fourteen joints. Color, 
dull shades of grayish brown and green, with the appendages bluish. 

Very common under decaying algte about edges of a brackish 
water slough which is reached by salt water only at times of extreme 
high tides. Laguua Beach, California. Coll. V. R. Stout. 

Amphithoe corallina n. sp. 
(Figures 76 and 77) 

The color of the body varying from a fairly bright brownish 
green 282 (Valette) to dull orange-green 182 and 178; antennas about 
tone of green 203; other appendages light and transparent; back, 
sides, legs, and antennae spotted with white ; females carrying bright 
orange colored eggs. 

Body robust and smooth. Head very broad and deep. Eyes 
small, subrotund, black. Antennae one and two nearly the same in 
length, a little more than half as long as the body. First joint of 
peduncle of antenna one a little longer than the second joint and 
almost three times as long as the third ; flagellum about twenty-six- 
jointed and a little longer than the peduncle. Antenna two stouter, 
peduncle longer than the twenty-four-jointed flagellum ; ultimate 
joint of peduncle a little shorter than the penultimate. Lower lip 
similar to that of A. flindersi. Mandibular palp large, third joint 
longer than second and armed with six long spines. Maxilla two 
normal with inner plate fringed with compound hairs. Gnathopods 
one and two about the same length ; gnathopod two broader and more 
thickly setose. Second joint of perseopods one to five slightly expand- 
ed, joint of peraeopod three most strongly so. Propodus of 
perseopods one and two strongly narrowed distally ; propodus of 
peraeopod four expanded distally, and propodus of peraeopod five 
slightly expanded distally. Pleopods one to three thickly clothed 
with long setae; basal joint of raini about one-third as long as peduu- 



ILagtma 



laboratory 



135 




Figure 74. Orchestia traskiana 

A, Adult male. B, First maxilla. C. Second maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Lower 
lip. F, Upper lip. G, Maxillipeds. II, First antenna. I, Second antenna. J, First 
gnathopod of female. K, First gnathopod of male. L, Second gnathopod of female. 
M, Telson. 



136 



JFirst annual Report 



cle; rami subequal. Uropods one to three normal, two reaching not 
quite as far back as one and three ; none of the rami as long as their 
peduncles; outer rami in one and two shorter than inner, in three 
longer than inner. Telson somewhat broader than long, bluntly tri- 
angular, with several lateral spinules. Length 6-8 mm. 

Laguna Beach, California. Occasional in tufts of coralline algse 
between tides. Coll. V. R. Stout. 

Amphilochus litoralis n. sp. 
(Figure 78) 

Entire animal colored a delicate pink, varying from red 21 to 3B 
(Vallette). 

Body smooth, stout, and quite compact, the dorsum strongly 
arched. Rostrum long. Side-plate very small and convex in front. 
Antennas short and stout, less than one-fourth the length of the body. 
Antenna one with the six-jointed flagellum longer than the peduncle. 
Antenna two more setose, and with the peduncle nearly twice as long 
as the six-jointed flagellum. Upper lip incised, with somewhat un- 




Figure 75. Orchestia traskiana 

A, Second gnathopod of male. B, First peraeopod. 
D, Fifth peraeopod. E, Third uropod. F, First uropod. 
First pleopod. 



C, Third peraeopod. 
G, Second uropod. H, 



L.lijuiui 



137 




Figure 76. Amphithoe corallina 

A, Adult male. B, Second antenna. C, First antenna. D, First maxilla. E, 
Second maxilla. F, Lower lip. G, Maxillipeds. H, Mandible. I, First, second and 
third pairs of uropods, and telson. 



138 



jfir0t Annual Ueport 




Figure 77. Amphithoe corallina 

A, First gnathopoil. B, Second gnathopod. C, First peraeopod. D, Second 
peraeopod. E, Third peraeopod. F, Fifth peraeopod. G, Fourth peraeopod. H, 
Third pleopod. I, First pleopod. 



ILaguna 



Laboratory 




Figure 78. Amphilochus litoralis 

A, Adult male. B, Right mandible. C, Second maxilla. D, First maxilla. 
E, Left mandible. F, Maxillipeds. G, Inner plate of maxillipeds. H, First antenna. 
I, Second antenna. J, Second pleopod. K, First gnathopod. L, Palm and linger of 
first gnathopod. M, Second gnathopod. N, Palm and finger of second gnathopod. 
O, Fifth peraeopod. P, First peraeopod. Q, First, second and third pairs of uropoda, 
and telson. 



140 jTirst annual Report 

symmetrical front lobes. Lower lip without inner lobes ; outer lobes 
edged with long, slender spiuules. Mandibles with three-jointed 
palp; third joint of palp longer than both the first and second, and 
armed with short, scarcely discernible setules. Left mandible witli 
inner plate, which is more finely toothed than the outer ; molar obso- 
lete. First maxilla with small inner plate bearing a single spine at 
the slightly concave apex; outer plate with seven spines at the oblique 
apex, and a bunch of small seta? at the inner edge of the spine-row; 
two-jointed palp with three short spines at the apex. Outer plate of 
maxilla two-tipped with three compound spines, and fringed on the 
outer margin with slender seta?; inner plate tipped with six com- 
pound spines. Maxillipeds with slender inner plates reaching about 
to distal end of the first joint of the palp, and bearing three short 
spines at the apex; outer plate broader, extending a little beyond 
the first joint of the palp, the broadly rounded distal margin bearing 
one long spine, several small spines on the inner part, and finely 
serrate on the outer part ; the joints of the palp gradually diminish- 
ing in size from the first to the finger. 

Gnathopod one the smaller, fifth joint with spines extending 
almost to the palm, which bears ten slender spines. Second gnath- 
opod with the sixth joint widening to the oblique palm, the front 
margin of which bears a row of twelve small spines, and at the apex 
two strong spines; in neither one does the linger extend quite to 
the apex of the palm. Peraopods one and two slender, nearly equal. 
Perseopods three to five with second joint greatly expanded into a 
broad, flat plate, gradually increasing in size to the fifth. The rami 
of the subequal pleopods bear long, finely compound setse. Uropod 
one extending almost to distal end of uropod three, peduncle much 
longer than the subequal rami. Uropod two much shorter, the 
peduncle of equal length with the inner ramus; the outer ramus 
narrow and more than half as long as the inner. Uropod three 
extending beyond uropods one and two; peduncle much longer than 
the rami ; inner ramus the longer. Telson about half as long as the 
peduncle of uropod three, about twice as long as broad, and con- 
verging slightly to the pointed apex. Length '2 mm. 

This species resembles most closely ^4. iinirinitix, but differs 
especially in the characters of the mandible, maxillipeds, uropods, 
and telson. 

Laguna Beach, California. Common in Phyllospadix. Coll. V. 
E. Stout. 

Genus Dulichiella n. gen. 

Body slender; peraeon segment one the shortest, sixth and sev- 
enth not coalesced. Pleon of six segments beside the telson, third 
most elongate; some of the pleou segments toothed posteriorly. 



Laguna O^arinc ILa&oratorp 



141 



Head not produced in front. Antennae strong and setose; antenna 
one much longer than antenna two, flagellum longer than peduncle, 
accessory flagellum present; antenna two with peduncle about twice 
as long as flagellum. Mouth parts normal. Gnathopod one sub- 
chelate, fifth joint longer but not broader than sixth. Gnathopod 
two in female and left guathopod two in male similar to gnathopod 
one, though with the sixth joint longest and strongest. Right gnath- 
opod two in male with sixth joint very large and powerful. Perae- 
opods one and two long and slender. Peraeopods three to five stronger 
and very long; much alike, fifth slightly longest; second joint ex- 
panded, sixth joint longer than any other except second. Uropods 
one and two with rather strong, unequal rami. Uropod three a con- 
cave, spinose plate projecting over lateral margin of telson. Telson 
rectangular. 

This genus is evidently nearest the genus Duliclna, but differs 
from it particularly in the character of the first antenna, second 
right gnathopod of male, shape of peraeopods three to five, presence 
of rudimentary third uropods and shape of telson. 




Figure 79. Dulichiella spinosa. Adult male 

Dulichiella spinosa n. sp. 
(Figures 179 and 180) 

Body colored a pale, delicate green 228C (Valette), speckled 
with dark red 27. 

Body slender and smooth. Head longer than broad, but not 
greatly produced in front. Eyes large, black, and irregular. An- 
tenna one with thirty-eight-jointed flagellum, which is longer than 
the peduncle; accessory flagellum five-jointed; second joint of 



142 



jfirst Annual Report 




Figure 80. Dulichiella spinosa 

A, Second antenna. B. First antenna. C. Lower lip. D, First maxilla. E, Max- 
illipecls. F, Mandible. G, Second maxilla. H, Second right gnathppod of male. 
T, First gnathopod of male. J, Second left gnathopod of male. K, First paraeopod 
L, Fifth peraeopod. M, First pleopod. N, First uropod. O, Second and third pair 
of uropoda, and telson. 



ILaguna Marine Laboratory 143 

peduncle somewhat longer than the first joint and about three times 
as long as the third joint. Antenna two about two-thirds as long 
as antenna one; thirteen-jointed flagellum about one-half as long 
as peduncle. Upper lip slightly hi-lobed. Mandibular palp ([iiite 
large, second joint broader and longer than the third, both armed 
with long, slender spines. Maxilla one with rather large, triangular 
shaped inner plate, fringed with line seta? on the inner edge, and 
armed with one compound, apical spine. Maxillipeds with outer 
plates much larger than the inner, and carrying several compound 
seta? along the apical margin, finely toothed and setose along the 
inner margin ; palp long and strong. Pleopods rather large and 
very much alike, the sub-equal rami bearing long, compound setae. 
Tel son long. Pleon segments all toothed posteriorly. Length 5-7 
mm. 

Laguua Beach, California. Frequent in kelp holdfasts from deep 
water. Coll. V. B, Stout. 

Genus Acanthogrubia n. gen. 

Head without rostrum. Side-plates one to five well developed, 
fifth the broadest and deepest. Antenna one not as long as peduncle, 
with four-jointed accessory flagellum. Antenna two, two-thirds as 
long as antenna one, with peduncle slightly longer than flagellum. 
Mouth parts prominent. Upper lip broadly rounded. Lower lip 
with well developed inner lobes, and bifid outer lobes with prominent 
mandibular processes. Mandible normal, third joint of palp broadly 
rounded at apex, and armed with numerous long seta?. Maxilla one 
armed with ten apical spines, second joint of palp broad with several 
spines on the apex and inner margin. Maxilla two outer plate the 
broader; inner plate as long as outer and thickly fringed on inner 
margin. Maxillipeds, outer plates large. Gnathopods one and two 
subchelate, gnathopod two the larger. Pera?opods one and two long, 
slender, second joint slightly expanded. Pera?opod three, second 
joint expanded, broader than long. Peraxipods four airl five the 
longest. Uropod three, outer ramus with two hooks. Telson short 
and broad, armed only with set.T. 

This genus differs from Amphithoe in having an accessory flagel- 
lum on the first antenna. It also differs from Paraf/nihin in having 
a four-jointed instead of one-jointed accessory flagellum, in having 
the flagellum of the second antenna not elongate, and the second 
joint of the third peraeopod as broad as long. 



144 



jfirst annual Report 




Figure 81. Acanthogrubia uncinata 

A, Adult male, the lines separating the two lobes of side-plate 5 to be considered 
as a groove. B, Upper lip. C, Lower lip. D, First maxilla. E, Mandible. F, Second 
gnathopod. G, Maxillipeds. H, Third pair of uropoda, and telson. 



ILajjuna 



ILa&oratorp 



143 




Figure 82. Acanthogrubia uncinata 

A, First uropod. B, Second maxilla. C, Fir>t snathopod. D, First antenna. E, 
Second antenna. F, First peraeopod. G, Second uropod. 



JTicst annual Hcport 



Acanthogrubia uncinata n. sp. 
(Figures 81, 82 and 83) 

Entire body varying between tbe two tones of orange-green 152 
and 177 (Valette). Flagella of antenna? ringed witb white. Eyes 
bright rose. 

Body robust. Head produced in front of eyes. Side-plate one 
produced forward. Side-plate five with very deep front lobe and 
small hind lobe. Eyes small, subrotund. Antenna one, first joint of 
peduncle slightly longer than second, and four times as long as third; 
flagellum forty to sixty-jointed, accessory flagellum as long as first 
four joints of primary flagellum. Antenna two, stout, setose; sec- 
ond joint of peduncle longer than third, and about twice as long as 
lirst; flagellum thirty-one-jointed. Mandible, palp stout, third joint 
fringed with compound setae on the broadly rounded apex, principal 
and s ..... mdary plates dentate, toothed spines in spine-row, molar 
small. Maxilla one, outer plate with ten spines, second joint of palp 
broad with nine small spines around the apex and inner margin, 
with a diagonal row of slender setules around the whole joint. 
Maxilla two, both plates thickly fringed with compound setae. Maxil- 
lipeds, outer plates fringed with two rows of short spines; inner 
plate thickly fringed with long, compound setae. 

Gnathopod one, fifth joint long, but not so long as the oval 
sixth; sixth joint setose, palm not defined, finger faintly serrate. 
Gnathopod two in female thickly setose, similar to guathopod one, 
but with shorter and broader fifth joint; enlarged sixth joint, with 
palm distinct and curved, finger longer than palm and faintly 
serrate. Per.Topods one and two, second joint long and narrowly 
rectangular, sixth joint narrowing distally. Peraeopod three, second 
joint expanded, as broad as long, sixth joint with fine spines. Peraeo- 
pods four and five much longer and proportionately narrower; sec- 
ond joint somewhat expanded and narrowing towards the distal end ; 
sixth joint with six spines and not narrowing distally. Pleopods 
with unequal rami fringed with long compound spines. Uropods one 
and two, peduncle longer than the unequal rami. Uropod three, 
peduncle a little longer than the rami, with a transverse row of 
short spines on the apical margin; outer ramus with two spine-like 
hooks ; inner ramus broader with a transverse row of short spines, 
one apical spine, and a row of seta?. Telson as broad as long. Length 
8-23 mm. 

Laguna Beach, California. Occasional in tubes in kelp holdfasts 
from deep water. Coll. V. E. Stout. 



Laguna S@anne Laboratory 



147 




Figure 83. Acanthogrubia uncinata 

A, Fifth peraeopod. B, First pleopod. C, Third peraeopod. 



148 



JFirst annual Beport 




Figure 84. Hyalella azteca 

A, Adult female. B, Maxillipeds. C, First maxilla. D, Mandible. E, Second 
maxilla. F, Lower lip. G, Second gnathopod of male. H, Second gnathopod of 
female. I, First gnathopod. J, Second antenna. K, First antenna. L, Second 
peraeopod. M, Third peraeopod. N, Fifth peraeopod. O, First uropod. P, First 
pleopod. Q, Second uropod. R, Third uropod. S, Telson. 



ILaguna S^arine ILaboratorp 149 

Hyalella azteca (Sauss) 
(Figure 84) 

Body smooth, slightly compressed. Pleon segments one and two 
each produced into a small dorsal tooth. Side-plates one to four 
somewhat rectangular. Eyes nearly round. Antenna one, five to 
eight-jointed, flagellum longer than peduncle ; joints of peduncle suc- 
cessively diminishing in length. Antenna two, slightly longer, the 
seven to ten-jointed flagellum longer than peduncle; joints of 
peduncle successively increasing in length. Maxillipeds, inner plate 
tipped with three short, stout spines, and edged on the inner side 
with slender compound setae; outer plate with nine toothed spines 
and very small palp. Maxilla two, both plates apically fringed with 
fine spinules, which, on the inner plate, are edged with two plumose 
setae. Mandible normal, principal and secondary plates dentate, 
plumose spinules in spine-row, molar large, with compound seta. 

Gnathopod one, small, slender, fourth joint with small pellucid 
boss on the distal hind end ; fifth joint with bulging hind margin, 
fringed with row of spines and short teeth; sixth joint not so wide, 
but sub-equal in length, hind margin covered with fine, short hairs, 
curved finger reaching to end of the transverse, toothed palm. 
Gnathopod two in both male and female, with bulging fifth joint 
edged with spines, sixth joint in male very large and stout, longer 
than broad, oblique palm with two notches underneath the strong, 
curved finger. Finger not reaching to hinder margin of palm, but 
closing between two spines just in front of a third notch. Gnath- 
opod two in female, longer and stronger than gnathopod one, fifth 
joint considerably produced behind, sixth joint twice as long as 
widest part ; hind part produced somewhat beyond the small curved 
finger and the convex, transverse palm. Perseopods three to five, 
second joint broadly expanded, serrate; peraeopods four and five 
nearly equal in length. Pleopods plumose. Uropod three, ramus 
slender, tipped with setae, and subequal to peduncle. Telson, broad 
as long; rounded apical margin with slender seta on either side of 
tip. 

Specimens agreeing well with description of H. azteca in Da a 
Tierreich, except in being smaller, and in having, commonly, fewer 
joints in the antennae. They differ from the family description of 
Talitridae in having the inner plate of maxilla one tipped with three 
plumose setae, and in having the fine spinules of the inner plate of 
maxilla two edged with two plumose setae. 

Color varying from light bluish green to light green and brown. 

Frequent in fresh water pond about five miles inland from 
Laguna Beach, California. Coll. H. V. M. Hall. 



150 



Jfirst annual Report 



SOME DIPTERA OF LACUNA BEACH 

F. R. COLE 

Laguna Beach is an excellent collecting ground for Diptcra. The 
hills and inland vegetation extend almost to the ocean in many places, 
and with the varied topography and conditions, the insects are very 
varied. The beach with its rocks, sand stretches, beach plants, and 
decaying wrack, is swarming with Diptcra. A small, shallow brack- 
ish water lagoon at the inner edge of the beach gave some interesting- 
results in Diptcra, but Diptcra were collected on the rocks even to 
within reach of the salt spray. 

The collection of this year is but a mere beginning. I spent only 
a few weeks at Laguna, and a large part of this time was consumed 
iu anatomical studies. Most of the flies reported in the present 
paper are either peculiar to the beach itself, or are found in the 
varied vegetation of the upper beach. 

Without extensive assistance from Prof. J. M. Aldrich of the 
University of Idaho, it would have been impossible to present this 
paper at this time. Messrs. Knab and lliue have also kindly made 
determinations. The accompanying habit sketches of new species 
will be amplified by drawings of anatomical details, during the coin- 
ing summer. 




Figure 85. Scatcpse californiana n. sp. 

CULICIDAE 
Aedes squamiger Coq. 

This mosquito was common and occasionally annoying at Laguna. 
breeding in great numbers in the small brackish water lagoon. De- 
termination by Mr. Knab. 



Ilaguna Ratine Laboratory 



151 



BIBIONIDAE 
Scatopse californica n. sp. 

(Figure 85) 

This is a small, slender black fly with polished body. The abdo- 
men is about eight times as long as wide, and the head is long, narrow 
and flattened. The antenna? are large for the size of the head, and 
the eyes are long and narrow. The abdomen is thinly pilose, the 
hairs on the last segment and hypopygium longer than the rest. The 
tibia 1 and tarsi are slender and broadened at the apical ends. The 
body is spineless. Last joint of antenna longest. Proboscis entirely 
black. Wings clear hyaline. Length 3 mm. 

A single specimen collected by Prof. Baker. Apparently the first 
Scatopse noted as peculiar to the Pacific Coast. 




Figure 86. Euparyphus lagunae 

STRATIOMYIDAE 
Euparyphus lagunae n. sp. 

(Figure 86) 

A black, yellow marked fly, with a rather broad and flattened 
body. The last three joints of tarsi are black, the first two black on 
the distal ends. Body thinly pilose with long yellowish hair. Head 
flattened. Femora and tibia? orange yellow, with no bristles. Front 
black and very narrow. Base of antenna? with two yellow stripes, 



152 jfir0t Annual mepott 

wliich pass part way down the face. Four basal joints of the anten- 
nas with long dark bristle-like hairs. Last joint of antennae slender 
and twice as long as any other joint. Two longitudinal narrow yel- 
low stripes on the thorax do not quite reach the scutellnm. Halteres 
lemon yellow. This fly is much darker than E. bellus or E. ornatus. 
Thorax above the wing with a small yellow patch, and a round yellow 
patch on the lower corner of each abdominal segment as seen from 
above. Last segment with base only black, the remainder yellow. 
Ventrally the first segment of the abdomen is black, the rest sordid 
yellow. Thorax black ventrally ; there is a lateral narrow yellow 
stripe running from the base of the wing, the length of the thorax. 
Occiput convex and black. Mouth parts yellow. Most of the sub- 
costal, and the end of the costal cell, is brown, the rest of the wing 
hyaline. Length 5.5 mm.; length of wing 5 mm. 

A single specimen collected by Prof. Baker at Laguna Beach. 

BOMBYLIDAE 
Toxophora pellucida Coq. 
Several specimens. 

THEREVIDAE 

Psilocephala costalis Lw. 

Psilocephala laevigata Lw. 

Psilocephala marcida Coq. 

The above three flies were taken in vegetation just back from the 
beach. 

ASILIDAE 

Mallophora fautrix O. S. 
Not uncommon. This species was described from Mexico. 

Stichopogon trifasciatus Say. 

(Figure 87) 

This Asilid is widely distributed in the United States. At Laguna 
it was common on the beach sand. It is a silver gray fly, with black 
markings, and its colors blend with the sand perfectly. This pro- 
tective coloration makes it very hard to locate when at rest. In 
habits it is a typical robber-fly. Determined by Prof. Hine. 

EMPIDIDAE 
Drapetis nitida Melander 

This fly was very common on the beach sand. It is quite small 
and jet black, and runs rapidly here and there over the sand, seldom 
flying to any distance. It is also found on the edge of the lagoon 
and is very quick and hard to catch. 



Laguna Racine ILafioratorp 



153 




Figure 87. Stichopogon trifasciatus 




Figure 88. Parathalassius melanderi 



154 jTirst Annual deport 

Parathalassius melanderi n. sp. 
(Figure 88) 

A small black fly, silvery gray pruinose, with all the bristles white. 
The hypopygium is darker. The vertex is broad and concave, and 
the face below the antennae narrow, broadening again at the gray cly- 
peus. The antennae are dark brown, the first two joints small, the 
terminal arista slender and about twice as long as the third joint 
of the antennae. The lower half of eye covered with fine white 
pubescence. A fringe of bristles around the eye as in P. aldrichi. 
The proboscis is small and blackish. The abdomen has a transverse 
basal row of black pits on each segment. The hypopygium is large 
and globular, the top almost bare, and attached to the left side of 
the body as in P. /il/lricln. The legs are slender and covered with 
short white bristles, and with no apical spurs, as in P. aldrichi. Under 
side of front and hind femora with heavy white bristles, the knees 
and tarsi yellow. Halteres whitish. Three conspicuous black pits 
along the lower edge of each abdominal tergite. There are six pairs 
of long dorse-central bristles on the thorax, two scutellar bristles, 
but no pleural or supra-alar bristles. Anal vein not much longer 
than anal cross vein. The ends of the wings are broadly brownish. 
Length 2 mm. 

Two specimens collected at Laguna, on the wet sand at the very 
edge of the surf. 

PHORIDAE 

Trineura velutina Meig. 
Occasional about decaying kelp. 

PIPUNCULIDAE 

Chalurus spurius Fall. 

SYRPHIDAE 

Nausigaster unimaculatus Twns. 
Paragus tibialis Fall. 

Eristalis tenax L. 

The above four flies are frequent in the vegetation just back of 
beach. 

CONOPIDAE 

Occemyia baroni Will. 



Ilaguna Qfjarine JLa&oratorp 



i ;,:. 




Figure 89. Fucellia rufitibia 



156 JFirgt annual deport 

TACHINIDAE 

Clausicella setigera Thorn. 

Plagiprospherysa parvipalis V. d. W. 

Senotainia trilineata V. d. W. 

Goniochaeta plagioides Twos. 

Aldrich says of this: "New to me, and one of the few that 
Coquillet did not include in his Revision. This is a big find." Town- 
send described this from Las Cruces, N. M. 

MUSCIDAE 

Chrysemyia nigripes \\ heeler 

Pseudopyrellia cornicina Fab. 

Myiospila meditabunda Fab. 

Muscina stabulans Fall. 
The above four flies were very common. 

ANTHOMYIDAE 

Hylemyia alcathoe \Ylk. 
Pegomyia affinis Stein 

Caricea nana Zett. 
The above three flies are common in vegetation back of beach. 

Fucellia costalis Stein 

This species is quite common on decaying kelp. They are large, 
quick flies. They seem to be at least partially predaceous in habit, 
as I have seen them pounce upon weakened sand-hoppers and by 
their numbers soon overcome them. 

Fucellia rufitibia Stein 

(Figure 89) 

There are myriads of this fly swarming over the decaying kelp. 
They are found with F. coxttilis, which, however, they vastly out- 
number. They are slow of flight and easy to catch. 

PHYCODROMIDAE 

Coelops frigida Fall. 
Common on decaying kelp. 

SAPROMYZIDAE 
Sapromyza flaveola Coq. 
Abundant in vegetation near beach. 

Sapromyza fraterna Lw. 
Occasional with the last species. 



Hagtina S@artne laboratory 




Figure 90. Lauxania pacifica n. sp. 



158 jTir$t annual deport 

Lauxania pacifica n. sp. 
(Figure 90) 

A sliming black fly, with front arid face brownish red, base of 
antenna? lighter. Abdomen gray pruinose, and quite thickly covered 
with recliuate bristles. Antenna^ three-jointed, third joint about four 
times as long as wide; dorsal arista is slender and bare, and about 
the length of the antenna. Halteres yellowish. Legs light brown; a 
long spine on the under side of front femora, and a long spine on the 
mesopleura. There are four long scutellar bristles, and one sterno- 
pleural bristle. The lateral bristles of the abdomen are quite long. 
The length of the costal cell is about four times its width. The sub- 
costal cell reaches hardly half way to the tip of the wing, and the 
basal cells are very small. AVings yellowish hyaline. Length about 
4 mm. 

Collected at Laguua Beach by Prof. Baker. I have compared 
this with descriptions of variceps, longicornis, nigrimana, ciiterea, 
and lutca. 

ORTALIDAE 

Chaetopsis aenea \Yd. 

Euxesta compta n. sp. 

(Figure 111) 

Light reddish brown, gray pruinose, the abdomen more gray. 
Differs widely from nutata, nitidiventris, stigmatus, fascipennis, and 
ubdoiiiiiHilix, which are either black or bluish in general coloration. 
Antennae red brown, the arista and third joint at base darker. Tin- 
occiput is rather convex. Legs same color as body, the last four 
joints of the metatarsi darkened. Head quite large, front broad, 
bristles black. This species is perhaps closest to laticeps in color, 
but darker. Like laticeps, the body is thinly gray pruinose. The 
antenna? are not so bare as in laticeps. Four bristles on the vertical 
triangle, two in front and two behind. Abdomen well clothed with 
bristles. Costal cell and end of wing smoky. Length 4 mm. ; wing 
3.25 mm. 

Collected at Laguna Beach by Prof. Baker. 

TRYPETIDAE 

Eutreta sparsa YVied. 
Ensina humilis L\v. 
Euaresta abstersa Lw. 
Euaresta aequalis Lw. 
Urellia maverna \\'lk. 

All of the above Trypetids were frequent in the vegetation back 
from the beach. 



liaguna g)arine Laboratory 



159 




Figure 91. Euxesta compta n. sp. 



1GO 



jTirst annual Report 



EPHYDRIDAE 

Notiphila quadrisestosa Thorns. 

Allotrichoma litoralis n. sp. 

(Figure 92) 

A very small flark gray fly. Third joint of antennae hairy, and 
with a dorsal pectinate arista. The femora are quite stout. Eyes 
reddish. Halteres whitish. Front very broad and gray pruinose. 
The thorax with many reclinate spines. Lateral facial spines long. 
Proboscis large and fleshy. Two pairs of vertical bristles and two 
pair of ocellar bristles, one pair of the latter very small. The upper 
half of the eye is hairy. There are two metapleural spines, two 
sternopleurals, and one mesopleural spine. The wing is very simple, 
the basal cells small and not clear. The wings are smoky-hyaline. 
Length 1.25 mm. 

A number of specimens taken at Laguna on the edge of the small 
brackish lagoon not far from the ocean, usually consorting with 
Linioshia. Allotrichoma ultdominalis is reported from West Indies 
and Brazil. 




Figure 92. A, Allotrichoma littoralis n. sp. B, Face of Allotrichoma 



ILaguna 



ILaOoratorp 



101 




Figure 93. Lipochaeta slossonae 




Figure 94. Milichiella nigrella 



162 jrirst annual Report 

Psilopa atra Lw. 
Psilopa mellipes Coq. 
Both of these Psilopas were occasional about the lagoon. 

Ephydra gracilis Pack. 

Aldrich says of this : ' ' Described from Great Salt Lake, where it 
is inconceivably abundant, even stopping trains. I did not find it 
any where on my recent trip except at that lake, though the II. S. 
Nat. Museum has it from Salton Sea and Yuma, Arizona. The opaca 
of Jones is a synonym." 

Ephydra subopaca var. millbrae Jones 
Occurs with the above. 

Lipochaeta slossonae Coq. 

(Figure 93) 
Frequent on the beach at Laguna. 

OSCINIDAE 

Mosillus subsultans Fab. 

The aeneus of the Aldrich Catalog. Very common on the beach 
and in the vicinity of the brackish water lagoon. 

GEOMYZIDAE 

Scyphella flava L. 

AGROMYZIDAE 

Rhicnoessa parvula Lw. 
Milichiella nigrella n. sp. 

(Figure 94) 

A polished jet black fly, with black legs. Halteres white. Eyes 
gray. Antennae very short, the third joint rounded and covered with 
short fine gray hairs. The dorsal arista is bare and slender. The 
last four joints of the metatarsi very short. Last segment of abdo- 
men longest and with long lateral spines. One long supra-alar spine, 
and many short reclinate spines on thorax and abdomen. Scutellum 
small and rounded and with two long spines. Two pairs of vertical 
bristles, and one quite long heavy spine on the second joint of the 
antenna; two pairs of short fronto-orbital spines. The first vein 
of the wing is very heavy and brown in color. A dark spot at the 
tip of the costal cell; wings otherwise hyaline. Length 3 mm. ; length 
of wing 2.75 mm. 

A number of specimens were taken on the beach at Laguna but 
it is not common. 



Ilaguna Q^arinc La&oratorp 163 



LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED AT LAGUNA 
BEACH, CALIFORNIA 

HARRISON G. DYAR 

The following moths flew to light in Prof. Baker's tent at Laguua 
Beach the past summer. The character of these few accidental 
specimens indicates what very interesting work might be done at 
Lagnna Beach by a little systematic effort in this direction. It is 
to be hoped that active work in the Lepidoptera will be continued 
there. 

ARCTIIDAE 

Apantesis proxima autholea Boisduval 
One male specimen. 

NOCTUIDAE 

Copibryophila angelica Smith 
Nine specimens. 

Autographa brassicae Riley 
One specimen. 

GEOMETRIDAE 
Hydriomene custodiata Guenee 
Four specimens. 

Chlorechlamys chloroleucaria Guenee 
One specimen. 

Cosymbia serrulata Packard 
Six specimens. 

Eois ptelearia Riley 
One specimen. 

Sciagraphia californiaria Packard 
One specimen. 

Platea californiaria Herrich-Schaefrer 
One specimen. 

Animomyia morta Dyar 
Two specimens. 



164 jffrst annual Report 

PYRALID^ 

PYRAUSTINAE 

Nomophila noctuella Dennis and Schiffermuller 
Two specimens. 

Glaphyria reluctalis Hulst 
One specimen. 

PHYCITINAE 

Ephestiodes gilvescentella Ragonot 
Three specimens. 

Maricopa mirabilicornella Dyar 
One specimen. 

CRAMBINAE 

Dicymolomia metalliferalis Packard 
One specimen. 

Thaumatopsis lagunella n. s. 

Thorax and fore wing ochre yellow, the wing shaded with gray in 
a band below median vein and on terminal third ; medial vein nar- 
rowly white; discal venules also white; a black streak in lower part 
of cell, continued beyond to apex, where it is bent sharply upward; 
an oblique brown median line from end of cell to inner third of wing 
on inner margin, flexuous in the middle ; a submarginal gray line 
parallel to termen ; a terminal row of black dots ; a bright leaden line 
at base of fringe. Hind wing gray. Expanse 26 mm. 

One female specimen. 

Type No. 14349, IT. S. National Museum. 

Allied to fcnu/hlcUa Kearfott, but with the cross-lines more dis- 
tinct, the discal venules paler and relieved on a gray ground. 

The identification of this form leads me to make some passing 
comment on Mr. W. D. Kearfott 's article on Thaumatopsis (Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., XXXV, 386, 1909), to which I naturally turned for the 
identification of the specimen. An analytical key to the species is 
there given, but to me it proves worthless, for the characters given 
are quite contradictory to the actual species as I know them. For 
example, edonis Grote is given with a white median streak, which is 
in fact conspicuously absent; pexella Zeller is said to have no median 
streak, whereas it is always more or less evident, often distinctly 
white. Lest this be thought to be a transposition, due to the accidents 
of typography, we find gibsoueUa Kearfott and coloradella Kearfott 
also under the heading "median streak not white," which is certainly 



ILaguna Ratine laboratory 1G5 

true of gibsonella, a northern degraded form of edonis, and true also 
to a certain degree of color adella, a small degenerate form of pexella; 
but the separation of coloradella and pc fella is more apparent than 
real, coloradella being called "whitish brown," pexella, "pale 
ocherous." As a matter of fact they are of the same color, colora- 
della being only a smaller, less distinctly marked form. Pectinifer 
Zeller stand under the heading "fore wing chocolate brown," where- 
as Zeller says in his original description that it is "bleich ockergelb. " 
No mention is made of daeckeellus Kearfott (Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 
XI, 149, 1903), but this is not improbably due to the tacit acceptance 
of its reference to the synonymy of striatella Fernald, which I once 
made to Mr. Kearfott by letter. Mr. Kearfott 's article was pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, and is there- 
fore supposed to have been founded upon museum material. To 
comply with this requirement, the author of the paper deposited 
types of many of his species in the collection. What was my surprise 
to discover that of five cotypes of coloradella so deposited, two of 
them especially labelled by Mr. Kearfott, no less than four were 
spurious types, the localities from which they came not being men- 
tioned in the original description at all ! Moreover, two of them are 
true pexella, and not the form coloradella. 

However, it is not my purpose to write a hostile criticism of Mr. 
Kearfott 's paper, much as it failed me in an emergency. Perhaps 
if he had written by daylight instead of by electric light, he would 
have seen the specimens in the same colors that I do. The separation 
of repauda Grote and crenulatella Kearfott by the pectinations of 
the male antennas shows careful observation, while the description of 
fenialdella corrects a prevalent misidentification, this form being- 
still called "pectinifer Zeller," even recently in the British Museum. 

Diatraea epia n. s. 

White, silvery, the body parts grayish white; fore wing largely 
overwashed with pale ochre scales, in, below and beyond the cell and 
along submedian space; subterminally are ochre streaks between the 
veins, uniting to form a submarginal line, a powdering of dark brown 
scales about the yellow patch beyond the cell and throughout the sub- 
median fold, also subterminally on the veins and in diffuse patches 
terminally; fringe white with brown central line and brown tips. 
Hind wing pale gray outwardly. Expanse, 21 mm. 

One female. 

Type, No. 14351, U. S. National Museum. 

Diatraea prosenes n. s. 

White, silvery, the body parts grayish white; fore wing shaded 
with dull ocherous brown broadly between the veins, the streaks 



166 jfirst annual Report 

nearly filling the cell and subcostal region, but not strongly separ- 
ated or contrasted from the white ground ; a curved line of this color 
close to the outer margin ; some brown scattened scales on the veins, 
forming lines outwardly on veins five and seven and more diffused 
marks at the bases of veins three and four; some diffused marginal 
groups of brown scales ; fringe interlined and tipped with brown. 
Hind wing pale gray outwardly. Expanse, 22 mm. 

One female. 

Type, No. 14352, U. S. National Museum. 

These two specimens, though very much alike, represent distinct 
species, I think. The collection of series only will make the matter 
certain. 



ILaguna Marine Laboratory u>? 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA FROM LAGUNA 
BEACH, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

AUGUST BUSCK 

I am under obligation to Prof. C. F. Baker for some Microlepidop- 
tera, which flew into his tent last summer at Laguna Beach, Southern 
California. 

The collection has been deposited in U. S. National Museum and 
contained the following species : 

Platyptilia marmarodactyla Dyar 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 4938, 1903. 

Bactra lanceolana, Hiibner 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5006, 1903. 

Eucosma ridingsana Robinson 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5083, 1903. 

Eucosma pulveratana Walsingham 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5122, 1903. 

Phthorimaea operculella Zcller 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, No. 5616, 1903. 

Gnorimoschema henshawiella Busck 
Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus. XXV, p. 831, 1903. 

Gnorimoschema laguna n. s. 

Labial palpi light ochreous; extreme base and a small dot on 
terminal joint just below apex brown. Face light ochreous. Head 
and thorax light reddish ochreous; pata gina deer-brown. Fore- 
wings deer-brown with a large basal dorsal area light reddish 
ochreous; this area extends from base to apical third along dorsum 
and is produced up beyond the fold in a large triangular spur to 
the middle of the cell and in a smaller wave at basal third. Cilia 
ochreous, dusted with brown. Hindwings light silvery fuscous ; cilia 
light ochreous. Abdomen ochreous, lighter underneath, with velvety 
deep ochreous spots on upper side of basal joints. Legs brown with 
the joints ochreous. 

Alar expanse, 19 mm. 

Habitat Laguna Beach, Southern California; C. F. Baker, coll. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. Type, No. 14335. 



168 jfirgt annual Report 

This species belongs to the gallae-solidaginis group and is close to 
the type of the genus, but easily distinguished by the light ochreous 
head and the lighter general color. 

Gelechia figurella n. s. 

Labial palpi silvery white, dusted with stone-gray exteriorly; 
tuft on second joint well developed, furrowed, longer at base than 
at tip. Face silvery white. Head and thorax ochreous, thickly suf- 
fused with stone-gray and dark ochreous scales, which totally ob- 
scure the ground-color except on the veins, which stand forth as 
clear-cut thin whitish ochreous lines ; the entire venation even to the 
fork at base of vein I 1 ' is plainly pictured on the upper surface of 
the wings. Cilia silvery white. Hindwings silvery white. Abdomen 
and legs light ochreous. 

Alar expanse, 21 mm. 

Habitat Laguna Beach, Southern California. C. F. Baker, coll. 

U. S. Nat. HUB. Type, No. 14336. 

Allied to Gelechia striatella Busck, but a larger and much lighter 
and neater species. 

Scythris sponsella Busck 
Journ. N. York Ent. Soc. XV, p. 139, 1907. 

Paraneura simulella Dietz 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Phil. XXXI, p. 12, 1905. 

Amydria coloradella Dietz 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Phil. XXXI, p. 6, 1905. 

Setomorpha rutella, Zellcr 
Kongl. Svensk. Vet. Ak. Handl., p. 93, 1852. 

Setomorpha operosella Zeller 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull 52, No. 6549, 1903. 

Acrolophus occidens Busck 
Proc. Wash. Ent, Soc. XI, p. 186, 1909. 

Acrolophus flavicomus n. s. 

Labial palpi curved, ascending, short, hardly reaching vertex; 
loosely tufted on first joint and in less degree on second and third 
joint; light ochreous; terminal joint dark brown above. Head and 
thorax ochreous brown. Forewings light, ochreous brown with two 
dark ill-defined streaks, forming an irregular cross; one from the 
middle of dorsum to costa just before apex; the other from tornus 
to basal fourth of costa; the latter is often more or less broken up 



ILaguna agarine ILafaoratorp iro 

and is easily partly lost in rubbed specimens. Still more easily lost 
and in fact only preserved in perfect specimens is a series of five 
undulating lines of white raised scales across the wing; on the fold 
in the central one of these white lines is an ill-defined black dot and 
the outer crossline contains two or three small patches of black scales 
before the terminal edge. Cilia light ochreous. Hindwings dark 
fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous. Legs ochreous fuscous with faint- 
ly nnnulated tarsal joints. 

Alar expanse, 19 mm. 

Habitat Laguna Beach, Southern California. C. F. Baker, coll. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. Type, No. 14337. 

This species belongs to the group, described under the generic 
name Eulepiste Wlsm. and comes closest to cressoni Wlsm. and 
maculifer Wlsm., but is amply distinguished by the ornamentation. 
The various genera, erected in the family Acrolophidae on the sec- 
ondary sexual characters of the labial palpi can not be maintained. 
(See Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. XI, p. 186, 1909). 



170 jfirst annual Ucpott 



SOME COLEOPTERA OF THE BEACH 
AT LAGUNA 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES BY 
DR. M. BERNHAUER 

C. F. BAKER 

No thorough collecting of Coleoptera was done at Laguna during 
the first year. However, in all our work along the beach and near 
the beach, beetles were collected wherever possible. Masses of de- 
caying kelp on the upper beach commonly swarmed with myriads 
of Staphylinidae, Cercyou, and AcrittiH. Common on the sand of the 
upper beach and driven out in considerable numbers by unusually 
high tides occurred Dyschirins Hiai-hutx, P/mtoin/ilota opaca, Einphy- 
iixtcs fucicola and Phycocoetes tcxtm-nix. The Dyscliiriuv, Pontn- 
malota and Phycocoetes are remarkably protected on the sand, by 
their color. All four of these beetles appeared to be much more ac- 
tive in the late afternoon. 

Tiie vegetation of the upper beach included the usual array of 
maritime plants like SaJicnn/in, Hrl'mlni/iiuni, Atriplex, Fratikcina, 
etc., and at the mouth of a small stream, Cypcrus, Salix, Typlia, etc. 
A few beetles were also taken among these latter plants. The whole 
locality would doubtless yield rich returns by careful collecting, as 
Is evidenced by the new Lappus, the new Ei/flalus found commonly 
on Cypcrus, and by various new Staphylinida?. 

The determinations of species have mostly been made by Prof. H. 
C. Fall, to whom we are much indebted for this and other favors. 
Dr. Bernhauer has worked up the Staphylinidae, a task for which he 
is always very willing. 

CARABIDAE 

Dyschirius marinus Lee. 
Common on open sand areas of the upper beach. 

HYDROPHILIDAE 

Cercyon fimbriatum Mann. 
Occasional in masses of rotting kelp. 

STAPHYLINIDAE 
Pontomalota bakeri Ilernhaner nov. sp. 

" Rufotestacea, opaca, abdomine ad apicem minus opaco, segmento 
sexto parum obscuriore, thorace parum transverse, angulis posticis 
subrotundatis; abdomine autice opaco-reticulato, postice subtiliter 



ILagtina C0arine Laboratory 1/1 

dense punctate, segmento septimo maris asperato-punctata. Long. 
3 mm. 

Yon Dr. Fenyes in Snd-Kalifornieu (Redondo) entdeekt. Mit 
Pontomalota opaca Lee. sehr nahe venvandt nnd leielit mit ilir zu 
verwechseln, jedoch durch den vorn ganz maten, glanzlosen Ilinter- 
leib sowie welters nodi duroh folgende Merkmale leicht zu unter- 
schieden: breiter und kiirzer. Der Halsscbild ist um ein guter Stuck 
breiter als lang, die Hinterecken weniger angedeutet, verrundet. Der 
Hinterleih ist auf den vorderen 3 frei leigenden Tergiten gleicli- 
inassig dieht cliagriuiert matt, wahrend bei opaca Lee. diese Tergite 
deutlieh und diclit punktiert, sind, auch treten melir oder minur 
auffallig 2 dunklere Langsflecke zu beiden Seiten der cliite dieser 
Tergite auf, welche nach liinteu convergieren, wahrend solclie Makeln 
bei opaca nioht vorlianden sind. Ursprunglich hist ich, da ich einer- 
zeit die neue Art imter dem Namen opaca Lee. erhalten hatte, die 
echte opaca Lee. fur eine neue Art. Nach der Leconte'schen Besch- 
reihung kann aber als opaca nur die auf den vordereu Tergiten 
deutlieh punktierte Art, angeschen werden, da Leconte ausdruck, lieh 
nur den Vorderkorper als mattchagriniert bezeichnet. 

Pontomalota opaca Lee. wurde von Prof. Baker in S. Kalifornien 
(Laguna Beach) erbeutet. " 

Pontomalota opaca Lee. 
Common at Laguna running over the sand of the upper beach. 

Tarphiota pallidipes Casey 
Common in decaying kelp. 

Cafius canescens Alakl. var. 
Common in decaying kelp. 

Cafius lithocharinus Lee. 
In myriads in decaying kelp. 

Cafius luteipennis Morn. 
Common under decaying kelp. 

Cafius sulcicollis Lee. 
Abundant in kelp. 

Bledius albidipennis Bernhauer nov. spec. 

"Niger, subopacus, subsenescens, elytris praeter basins angustam 
suturam que albidis, autennis oreque jiiceis, pedibus la'te flavis, 
thorace subcordato, sat transverse canaliculate, dense alutaeeo, sub- 
tiliter minus dense punctato. Long. 4 mm. 



172 jTicst annual Report 

Sud-Kaliforuien : Laguna Beach (leg. Baker). Eine durch ihre 
farbuug und die Skulptur, namerlich des Halsschildes sehr ausge- 
zeichnete Art. Schwarz mit weisgelben flugeldecken, deren ausserste 
Basis und Nalit dunkel gefarbt siud, deutlich etwas erglanzend, die 
fuhler und der Mund schmutzig gelb, die ersteren gegen die Spitze 
schwarzlich, die seine blassgelb. Der Kopf ist ausserst dicht und 
fein cbagriniert, vollkommen matt und uber dies weitlaufig und 
ausserst zart kaum whr nehnibar punktiert. Halsscbild urn ein gutes 
Stuck schnialer als die flugeldecken, fast urn die Halfte breiter als 
lang, voru aus gescliuitteu mit spitzeu Vorderecken, naeli ruchwarts 
aus geschweift verengt die Hinterecken zahnformig vortreteud, in 
den Mittellinie scharf gefurcbt, uberall aussertst dicht, jedoch ziem- 
lich gron chragiuiert und uber dies fein und wenig dicht punktiert, 
mit sehr geringein Glanze. Flugeldecken fast doppelt so lang als 
der Halsschild, freu und sehr dicht punktiert, glanzender als der 
Halsschild. Hinterleib ziemlich fein und wenig dicht, an den Seiten 
dichter punktiert und daselbst lang begaart. 

Herr. Professor Baker fiend diese schone Art an der Meereskuste 
unter ausgeworfenem Tang." 

COCCINELLIDAE 

Hippodamia ambigua Lee. 

Coccinella californica Fab. 

Scymus marginicollis Mann. 

All these cocciuellids are common on the upper beach. 

HISTERIDAE 

Acritus maritimus Lee. 
Common under decaying kelp. 

MALACHIDAE 

Attalus trimaculatus Mots. 
Frequent on upper beach among plants. 

Trichochrous aenescens Lee. 
Common on upper beach. 

Trichochrous squalidus Lee. 
Frequent on upper beach. 

SCARABAEIDAE 

Cyclocephala villosa Burin. 
Frequent at light. 

Serica mixta Lee. 
Common at light. 



liaguna Ratine ILa&oratorp 173 

CHRYSOMELIDAE 

Pachybrachys punctatus Bowditch 
Common ou upper beach. 



Glyptoscelis squamulatus Cr. 
Occasional on upper beach. 

Trirhabda flavolimbata Mann. 
Common on willows. 

Psylliodes punctulatus Mels. 
Occasional on upper beach. 

Longitarsus livens Lee. 
Abundant on Heliotr opium curassavicum. 

ANTHICIDAE 
Notoxus constrictus Casey 
Common on upper beach. 

Lappus n. sp. 
Also common on upper beach. 

CURCULIONIDAE 

Emphyastes fucicola Mann. 

We found this but rarely in the masses of decaying kelp, but it 
was common crawling over open sand just above the upper tide limit. 

Endalus n. sp. 

Found resting in ripe seed heads of a Cyperus just back of the 
beach, sometimes several in a head. 

Phycocoetes testaceus Lee. 
Abundant crawling over sand. 

Epimechus mimicus Dietz 

Occasional on upper beach. Both this and the preceding species 
present, by reason of their pale yellowish color, a most remarkable 
adaptation to life on the sand. 



174 jrirst annual Report 



MALLOPHAGA FROM BIRDS AT LAGUNA 
BEACH, CALIFORNIA 

JOHN H. PAINE 
STANFORD UNIVERSITY. CALIFORNIA 

The following list of determinations, with one new species, was 
made from material collected at Laguna Beach, California, by Mr. 
Leon Gardner. 

Docophorus communis Nitzsch 

A number of specimens from Zuiinlntlui >iicl>n><-i>p]Kil<i, the 
Black-headed Grosbeak. 

Docophorus lari Denny 

Two specimens from Lanix ucciilt'iiidHtt, the common Western 
Herring Gull. 

Docophorus excisus var. major Kellogg 

One female of this species, with its curiously incised clypcus, 
from PetrocheUdon hnilfroiis, the Cliff Swallow. 

Nirmus foedus Kellogg and Chapman 

Specimens from Zenaidura inn/ nmr/i, Kui/on/i* ni<iric<nis xci\- 
u/>'</ and Tijrdiiiiitx ri'iiicnlis. 

Nirmus splendidus Kellogg 

A number of specimens from the California Thrasher, Tc>.rns1<nn<i 
ri'd/ririini, and from the Eoadrunner, (li'ucn, <//.< 



Nirmus maritimus Kellogg and Chapman 

A large number of specimens from Ptiiflioi-umplius (ilniticux, the 
Cassin Anklet. 

Nirmus fuscus Xitsch 

Two individuals from a Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparveriu* drm-rt- 
icola ) . 

Nirmus longus Kellogg 
Six specimens from PetrocheUdon 



Lipeurus baculoides n. sp. 

(Figure It.")) 

Numerous males and females from the mourning dove, 
macroura. This species resembles L. Ixiniliis, the common parasite 
of pigeons, possessing the two modified hairs on the clypeus, a char- 



ILaguna Ratine lU&oratorp 



175 



acteristic of L. baculiix. However, the male antenna? differ markedly 
in the new species, which is also much smaller, with shorter abdomen. 

Description of male: color pale with chestnut and black mark- 
ings; head resembling L. l><i<-ulnx, but with broader, rounded tem- 
ples; two peculiarly flattened, modified hairs on the clypeus. Length 
of segments of antennae similar to those in female, excepting second 
which is slightly longer; third segment with slight indication of an 
appendage. (Figure 95 D and E). 

Thorax pale in color with dark, often black, markings. Abdomen 
elongate, shorter and broader than in L. bacillus with pale median 
blotches and dark lateral bands. Last segment consisting of two 
rounded lobes; last segment in the female formed of two larger tri- 
angular lobes. 



MALE 



FEMALE 



Length 

Body 2.06 

Head .:>2 

Thorax . .38 

Abdomen . . 1.16 



Width 


Length 


Witltli 




2.24 




.30 


.56 


.32 


.28 


.38 


.30 


.36 


1.30 


.40 




Figure 95. Lipeurus baculoides Paine 

A, Adult male. B, posterior segments of male. C, Posterior segments of 
female. D, Antenna of male. E, Antenna of female. 



176 jfirst annual deport 

Colpocephalum timidum Kellogg 
Numerous specimens from Limosa fedoa, the Marbled Godwit. 

Colpocephalum kelloggi Osborn 
One male from a buzzard (Cathartes aurea), Aliso Canyon. 

Menopon malleus Nitzsch 

One female specimen of this rather rare species from the Cliff 
Swallow (Petrochelidon luuifruiis.) 

Menopon dissimile Kellogg 

Two specimens also from the Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon luni- 
frons). 

Menopon alternatum Osborn 

A small number collected from a buzzard (Cathartes aurea), 
Aliso Canyon. 

Menopon funereum Kellogg and Chapman 

Three specimens from Aphelocoma californica, the California 
Jay. 



ILaguna Ratine Laboratory 177 



SOME MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ACARINA 
OF LACUNA BEACH 

HABEY V. M. HALL 

During the summer we picked up quite a series of mites, many of 
them new species. From this material I describe the following mites 
which are mostly marine or littoral. Among them the Gamasidae 
are represented by a species that is parasitic on the large beach 
amphipods, a Sarcoptid was taken from one of the birds, the Trom- 
bidida? are represented by a large red Ehyncolophid common on the 
dry sand of the upper beach, the Hydrachnids by a new marine 
species and the Halicarida? by three new species. In the last two 
families good series were obtained but only by means of much towing 
and patient search. 

Seius orchestoideae n. sp. 

(Figure 96) 

Length without rostrum 641 micrrn., 542 micrrn. ; width 410 micrm., 
320 micrm. Length of legs one and four about 520 micrm. ; length of 
legs two and three about 400 micrm. Color of female light straw, 
that of male still lighter ; smooth but not polished. Dorsal plate en- 
tire and covering whole dorsum. Shape ovoid, the anterior end some- 
what sharper (especially so in the male) and the posterior end 
rather flattened (also most marked in the male). Body broadest one- 
third of the way from the posterior end. The outline form 'above 
runs to the rounded anterior point without any shoulder-like bulge 
in either sex. Dorsal surface evenly convex. Mandibles greatly 
retractile (shown extended in the figure but can be drawn wholly 
within the body). Both arms of chela? short, stout. The fixed arm 
with a terminal beak proximal to which is one other tooth; the 
movable arm has two teeth which fit between and proximal to those 
on the fixed arm. From the movable arm and pointing outward 
and forward is a cylindrical process slightly swollen at the end in 
the male but not so swollen in the female. This process is about 
the same diameter as one of the leg-spines measured at the base 
of such a spine. Coxa3 almost contiguous and legs long, without 
apophyses in either sex ; all legs sparsely set with short, stout spines 
and terminated by short caruncles with claws on all legs. Dorsal 
surface with a few very heavy spines, over twice the diameter of 
those on the legs and placed as follows: (except for the first pair 
at anterior margin and close together, all these spines are directed 



178 



jTirst annual 



backwards) : A doul)le row of four pairs of spines extends back 
through the medial section of the dorsum as far as back edge of 
coxa three. Beginning over the front edge of coxa two, a sub- 
marginal row of three, and a marginal row of three, extend back 
as far as hack edge of coxa three. The longest pair of spines in the 
dorsum are situated behind and equally distant from the terminal 
spines of the medial and sub-marginal rows of their respective sides. 
Around the posterior end of the abdomen on dorsal and ventral sides 
are scattering, fine, short spines. Peritreme long and only slightly 
bent around coxa two and extending forward past coxa one. Anal 
plate separate in both sexes, large, broad, and not pointed behind but 






Figure 96. Seius orchestoideae 



with the posterior margin straight across; all corners rounded. Anal 
opening in the center. Male genital opening on anterior margin of 
sternal plate ; no teeth on the legs. 

From the foregoing characters this species according to Banks's 
key belongs in the genus Seius, which however he says has been 
divided by Ribaga into four sub-genera. As I have not been able 
to obtain Ribaga 's paper, it seems best to place my specimens pro- 
visionally in the genus Seius sens. lat. This species was taken from 
the large aniphipod On licsinlilcn <-<ilifi>riii<ti/<t, which is common on 
the beach. The mites were fastened underneath the body and as 
many as twenty-seven were taken from one aniphipod, and great 



Haguna fi@arine La&oratorp 



IT:; 




Figure 97. Pteronyssus bifurcatus. Male at left, female at right. 



180 



jfirst annual Report 



numbers of the amphipods were infected. It also occasionally 
occurs on certain other large gammarids found near high-tide 
mark. 

Pteronyssus bifurcatus n. sp. 

(Figures 97 and 98) 

Integument strongly chitinized ; anterior legs without "thorns." 
No cuff-like projections on terminal joint of any leg. Male with 
anal suckers well developed ; first hind leg of male more developed 
than second. Tarsal sucker larger on this leg than on the others. 
Abdomen shortly bi-lobate, without leaf-like appendages ; two bristles 
on each lobe, the medial bristle short, the other one as long as two- 
thirds the width of the body and arising from a prominent tubercle. 




Figure 98. Pteronyssus bifurcatus 



181 



Anal suckers, while well defined, are small and separated by more 
than twice their diameter. A bristle projects laterally from the base 
of the first hind leg. This leg exceeds the end of the abdomen by 
the last three joints. The second hind leg does not reach the end of 
the abdomen. A bristle on the outer apex of the third and fourth 
joints of first hind leg. Length of the five males, 318 to 327 micrm. 
Width, 143 micrm. 






Figure 99. 
Copidognathus californicus 



Figure 100. 
Copidognathus californicus 



Legs of female all of approximately equal development and 
length. Abdomen without appendages, tapered behind and cleft 
half way from tip of abdomen to coxae four. Two stout bristles on 
each side of this forked abdomen ; the posterior pair situated near 
the tip, pointing directly back, and a little shorter than the other pair 
which are situated one-third of the way from the tip of abdomen to 
coxa four, and point to the side and about 30 degrees back. Length 
of the seven females, 410 to 450 micrm. Width, 143 micrm. 

Among the thirteen specimens which I took from Petrochelidon 
lunifrons, there was one female which differed from the others as 



182 jfirst annual Report 

follows: The two stout bristles 011 each side of the posterior part 
of the abdomen arise from tubercles which are situated at the end 
of the abdomen, which, while bifurcated, is not as pronouncedly so 
as in the other females. I have traced the outlines carefully with the 
camera lucida of all the tips of abdomens, male and female and as- 
sembled them, according to sex, with reference to their center lines. 
The variation of outline thus shown in Figure 98, is not pronounced 
enough to include the ontHne of this other, imusual form. In 
the latter, anal suckers are present, and the arrangement of the 
diitiuous plates running up toward the genital opening from the sides 
of the abdomen, is strikingly different. Length of this single speci- 
men, 400 ink-nil. Width, 143 micrm. Since this specimen occurred 




Figure 101. Copidognathus curtus 

on the same bird with the others of the species just described, it is 
probably best to consider it as an aberrant form of the same species. 
As this species does not agree with the generic description in regard 
to the bifurcated condition of the abdomen in the female, this varia- 
tion just described, in which the bifurcation is not so marked, may 
indicate a transition form. 

Copidognathus californicus n. sp. 

(Figures 99 and 100) 

Length of body, 610 micrm. "Schnabelteil" not apparent (prob- 
ably very short). First two pairs of legs stouter than the others but 
not greatly swollen. Armor not very strong. Eye-plates irregular 



ILaguna 0arine llaboratorp 183 

in shape with fairly sharp corner in front and to the outside of the 
body. Eye-spots lacking. Central back ribbon narrow and U- 
slinped, and fuses in back with outer ribbon. Outer ribbon also 
narrow, more broadly U-shaped and extending forward to a point 
half way between coxa? two and three. Body is ellipsoid in outline 
with bluntly wedge-shaped ends and is so much flattened dorso-ven- 
trally that it is very hard to tell even by careful focussing whether a 
feature is on the dorsum or venter. The figure shows the dorsal 
view; the dotted lines indicate sutures that show through from the 
venter. The plain line running across the body just anterior to the 
eye-plates is probably on the venter but the flatness of the body makes 
it uncertain. No hairs on body or legs. Claws furnished with combs 
and folding back into grooves, on all four legs. Mouth parts long. 
The smaller figure shows the serrate tip of the mandibles enlarged. 
One specimen, in tide-pool, Laguna Beach, July. 

Copidognathus curtus n. sp. 

(Figure 101) 

Length of body, 428 micrm. "Schnabelteil" not apparent (prob- 
ably very short). First and second pairs of legs stout and swollen, 
especially the third and fifth joints. Armor rather strong. Eye- 
plates poorly outlined but with strongly pigmeuted eye-spots. There 
is also a median, smaller, similarly pigmented spot between and 
above the coxae of legs one. Central back ribbon broad and U-shaped, 
the other thin and following approximately the outline of the ab- 
domen as far forward as coxa three. Body oval in outline and with- 
out hairs. Legs with a few stout spines. Claws with combs on all 
legs and folding back into grooves on the first two pairs of legs. 
Movable on other two pairs of legs but grooves not apparent. Three 
specimens in tide-pools, and towed among Phyllospadix, Laguna 
Beach, July. Nearest to C. spinula but differs in proportions of the 
legs, presence of combs on all the claws and in other important 
characters. 

Pontarachna cruciata n. sp. 

(Figure 102) 

Length 424-443 micrm. Body highly arched, globular; integu- 
ment smooth. Three pairs of bristles as shown in the side view, 
project in front of the eyes. Maxillary shield broad with rounded 
corners at back ; about twice the length of second joint of palpus. 
Epimera of legs one fuse behind maxillary shield with each other and 
with the genito-ventral plate. Epimera two and three fuse at the 
base and about half way to the edge of the body. Epimera three and 
four fuse at base. Genital opening a long narrow slit between bases 



184 



Jfirst annual deport 



of epimera four and a little behind. Anus at the posterior, ventral 
corner of the body, and has two lateral flaps. Mandibles project 
downward. First four joints of the palpus sub-equal in length and 
the fifth joint about half as long and somewhat dentate, as shown in 
the side view of the mouth-parts. Palpus not quite as strong as the 
legs. Color from orange to almost colorless, marked on the dorsum 
with a black cross as shown in the smaller figures. Three pairs of 
bristles project in front and one pair behind as shown in the side 
view. Legs without true swimming hairs but furnished with stout 
spines. Claws with rudimentary combs suggesting those of the 
HalicaridaB. 
tarsi. 



They also fold back into grooves in the end of their 




Figure 102. Pontarachna cruciata 

Habit sketch and detail of side view of mouth parts. 



Differs from P. punctulum in size of palpus, general arrangement 
of epimera, color, etc. The curved spur-like processes characteristic 
of the genus are entirely lacking as are also genital covers and hairs 
on the ventral surface. Leg four a little longer, and the other legs 
a little shorter than the length of the body. Differs from P. terges- 
tina in the shape of mandible, absence of swimming hairs; from P. 
lacazei in the proportions of the palpus, unenclosed condition of the 
genital opening, and other features. Many specimens in tide-pools 
and towed from PhyllusiJiidix, Laguna Beach, July. 



kaguna Sgarine Laboratory IBS 

Pontacarus californicus n. sp. 

(Figure 103) 

Length 428-542 micrm. Outline of abdomen gradually narrowing 
from broad shoulders to bluntly rounded end. Cephalothorax small 
and triangular. Palpi widely separated at the base, four-jointed, 
longer than the mandibles and movable. First two pairs of legs 
of equal diameter, the first a little the longer. Fourth joint of palpus 
with distal segment shorter than proximal. Armor very weak ; out- 
lines of the various plates too indistinct for good characters. Strongly 
pigmented eye-spots behind which a strong spine projects to the side ; 
another shorter and weaker spine arises in front of and medially from 
the eye. The mandible ends in a stout claw. No feathered hairs on 
the legs. Twelve long hairs project from the posterior margin of 
the abdomen. Claws on the legs without combs, and no grooves on 
end of tarsus. 




Figure 103. Pontacarus californicus 

Quite common under stones well down toward the low tide mark. 
Many were also found in towings from Pliyllospadix. Body of the 
female distended with eggs and consequently larger and more irreg- 
ular in outline than that of the male which is shown in the figure. 
This species differs from P. basidentatus in having a short proboscis 
and no feathered hairs on the legs. 

Rhyncholophus arenicola n. sp. 

(Figure 104) 

Length .785-1 mm. First three legs about the length of the body, 
the fourth pair about one-third longer. Usually bright red (one 
straw-colored specimen). Body variable in shape but usually broad- 
est in the middle and broadly rounded behind, thickly clothed with 



186 



Jfirst annual Report 



very fine feathered hairs. Eyes and dorsal groove not apparent. 
Last joint of leg one slightly longer than penultimate joint. On the 
other legs this condition is reversed. The last joint of leg four little 
more than half the length of the penultimate joint. Legs thickly 
set with fine hairs which are shorter than the diameter of the legs. 




Figure 104. Rhyncolophus arenicola. Palpus and dorsal hair. 

Palpi are short, similarly clothed with short hairs; last joint is a 
short thumb opposed to the preceding joint, the claw of which reach- 
es as far beyond the thumb as the length of the thumb. Mandibles 
are stiletto-shaped and retractile. Small figures show the left palpus 
and a body hair enlarged. Quite common running over the dry sand 
of the upper beach all summer. Laguna Beach. 



Laguna Ratine Laboratory 187 



A PARTIAL ACCOUNT OF THE BIRDS IN THE 
VICINITY OF LAGUNA BEACH 

LEON GARDNER 

The following ornithological observations were made from the 
last of June to the middle of August. The country about Laguna 
is mostly in the Lower Sonoran Zone with some Upper Sonoran, and 
a few Transition Zone forms. The region is composed mostly of low 
hills, either open, or covered with sage and chapparal. There are 
some few small wooded spots in the canyons, especially in Aliso 
Canyon. About four miles up Laguna Canyon there are two fresh- 
water ponds bordered with tules ; here many water birds were seen. 
Balboa Beach is a few miles up the coast, and at that point a good 
many water birds congregate about the bay. 

In connection with the preparation of this study, especial thanks 
are due Mr. Charles W. Metz, who assisted in the accurate determina- 
tion of various birds in doubt. Also several birds, the determinations 
of which were later questioned, were sent to the National Museum in 
Washington where they were identified by Mr. H. C. Oberholser, to 
whom acknowledgments are here made. 

Podilymbus podiceps ( Linn.) Lawr. Pied-billed Grebe. 
A grebe was seen in the tule lakes, which appeared to be this 
species. It was so quick to dive, that when shot at from a very short 
distance, it succeeded in eluding the shot. 

Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pall.) Brandt. Cassin Auklet. 
Professor Baker picked up a specimen of this species on the open 
beach. It had apparently met with some accident, as its head was 
crushed. Infested by Nirmus iinirilinius. 

Larus occidentalis And. Western Gull. 

These birds occur in great numbers along the coast, especially at 
Balboa. During this summer, no other gulls but occidentalis were 
seen. At Balboa, flocks of these gulls, to the number of several hun- 
dreds, congregate about the beach and pier. They are of great use- 
fulness as scavengers. These gulls are very vicious when wounded, 
and defend themselves with the greatest of vigor. Many of the darker 
colored young were observed in the flocks during the summer. In- 
fested by Docophorus lari. 



188 Jfir0t annual Report 

Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt) Heerm. Brandt Cormorant. 
These birds usually kept pretty well out from the shore, but 
occasionally one would be seen on the beach. They appeared to be 
common about the large off-shore kelp beds, and on the small islets 
near the shore. 

Pelecanus californicus Ridgw. California Brown Pelican. 
A few of these birds were seen at different times in the kelp beds, 
but seldom if ever came to the shore. In the evenings a few gathered 
on two small islets. 

Querquedula cyanoptera (Vieillot). Cinnamon Teal. 

A small flock seen at the tule lakes. Whenever disturbed they 

always circled the lake two or th ree times before settling again, but 

otherwise were not at all shy, and did not hide in the tules like the 

coots. They were eating the duck-weed in which these lakes abound. 

Ardea herodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. 

Several times during the summer these magnificent birds were 
observed passing overhead. A pair frequented the tule lakes. They 
would stand motionless among the tules, and in that position seemed 
actually to disappear, it being almost impossible to distinguish them 
in such a position unless they moved. 

Ardea virescens anthonyi Mearns. Anthony Green Heron. 
One specimen taken at the tule lakes. When approached it would 
slip away among the tules, and when pursued, flew up with loud, 
harsh croaking. 

Fulica americana Gmel. American Coot. 

These birds were very common in the tule lakes. They were very 
shy and cunning and hid in the tules at the first sight of a person on 
foot, though they paid little attention to vehicles. The only way to get 
a specimen was to hide until they had forgotten the presence of dan- 
ger, and had come out of their lurking places again. They were in 
friendly company with the teal, and were also feeding on duck-weed. 

Limosa fedoa (Linn.) Sabine. Marbled Godwit. 

Only one specimen of this fine bird was seen during the summer. 

It was exceedingly tame and would allow one to approach within 

twelve to fifteen feet before quietly flying a hundred yards or so down 

the beach. Its stomach was well filled with sand-crabs (Eretni/n 

), and it was infested with Colpocephalum thitlt<i. 



JLaguna Ratine Laboratory 189 

Numenius hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew. 
Two rather large flocks of curlew were seen at different times. 
They were usually found on long open stretches of sandy beach, and 
were exceedingly shy, not allowing one to approach within three 
hundred yards. When flying from the beach after being alarmed, 
they flew directly out to sea for some hundred yards, and then fol- 
lowed the coast, finally alighting a good half mile from the danger 
point. They seemed to be feeding on sand-crabs, for the whole flock 
would run down the beach after each receding wave, and then back 
in front of the approaching one. 

Aegialitis vocifera (Linn.) Bonap. Killdeer. 

Large numbers of these birds frequented the mud flats around the 
tule lakes. They were constantly moving and kept up a continual 
noise. These birds are not at all shy. 

Arenaria melanocephala (Vig.) Stejn. Black Turnstone. 
One specimen taken on the beach among piles of dried kelp. It 
was very bold, showing no fear. It, also, appeared to be feeding on 
sand-crabs. 

Lophortyx californicus vallicola (Ridgw.) Valley Quail. 
This quail was abundant, feeding throughout the hills and can- 
yons. Early in the mornings flocks of from fifty to a hundred were 
often seen. When flushed in some small gulch, the noise of their 
wings as they rise from the ground produces a most startling roar. 

Zenaidura macrura (Linn.) Mourning Dove. 

Abundant about all springs and water holes, especially those at a 
good distance from all houses. To one particularly lonely watering 
spot they came in great numbers and at all -hours; here they were 
especially easy to approach. On August 19th a dove was flushed 
from its nest, which contained one egg. Infested commonly with 
Nirmus foedus and Lipeurus bacnloides. 

Cathartes aurea ( Linn.) Spix. Turkey Vulture. 

These buzzards were very abundant through the hills and canyons, 
possibly on account of the cattle herds. One of these birds shot and 
placed in a conspicuous spot soon drew at least thirty others to the 
place. A certain eucalyptus grove appeared to serve as a regular 
roost for these birds. They are infested by Colpocephaluni keHoggi 
and Menopon alternatum. 

Circus hudsonicus (Linn.) Vieill. Marsh Hawk. 
Quite common about the bay at Balboa. One was seen devouring 
a freshly killed ground squirrel. They are not very shy and speci- 
mens are easily obtained. 



190 _ Jfirst annual Report _ 

Falco sparverius deserticola Mearns. Desert Sparrow Hawk. 
Abundant through the hills and canyons. Usually seen hunting 
in pairs. A pair of this species appeared to have a nest in a crevice 
on ;i rocky cliff, judging from the sound which frequently came from 
that point. Infested by Ninutis fuscus. 

Strix pratincola Ilnnap. I'.arn Owl. 

In the eucalyptus grove mentioned above as a buzzard roost, one 
Barn Owl was taken. 

Geococcyx californianus (Less.) I'.aird. RoadRunner. 
Quite common, all through the hills. One was seen on the beach, 
feeding at the water's edge. When frightened, they usually do not 
fly, but make for the nearest cactus patch or chapparal, at top speed, 
and their speed on foot is altogether remarkable. In a stomach 
examined were the remains of several cicadas, grasshoppers, and 
smaller insects. Infested by X inn UK x/> 



Dryobates nuttallii ((land).) Ridgw. Xuttall Woodpecker. 
Owing to the general absence of trees, very few woodpeckers 
were seen. One was taken in Aliso Canyon and proved to be this 
species. 

Colaptes cafer collaris (Vigurs). Red-shafted Flicker. 
Uncommon here, and shy, only one or two being seen, and several 
heard. 

Calypte anna (Less.) Gould. Anna Hummingbird. 
Very common wherever flowering plants occurred. Undoubtedly 
('. I'usttir occurs with this species. 

Tyrannus verticalis Say. Arkansas Kino-bird. 

( 'onimon everywhere. They were especially frequent about euca- 
lyptus groves. In the town they kept up a continual noise, and seemed 
to be very quarrelsome. Two of them easily drove away a sparrow 
hawk that seemed to be trespassing on their domain. Infested by 
Nlrnnis food its. 

Tyrannus vociferans Swains. Cassin Kingbird. 

More retiring than T. r<'iiic/ilis. Far up Aliso Canyon one speci- 
men was taken. Far inland, others also were seen. I did not notice 
them in company with T. vciiicttlis. 

Myriarchus cinerascens (Lawr.) Sel. and Salv. Ash-throated Flycatcher. 

Often in the company of the noisy kingbirds. Many times single 

specimens were noted sitting quietly on some stump or wire waiting 

.for a meal. They occasionally give a plaintive call that is very char- 

acteristic. 



ILagtum Qgarine Lti&oratori? 191 

Sayornis saya (Bonap.) Baird. Say Phoebe. 

On Jiine 25, nestlings of these species about three days old were 
found. These birds are common in all the canyons, often in company 
with the kingbirds, and occur occasionally on the beach. 

Sayornis nigricans semiatra (Vigors) Nelson. Western Black Phoebe. 

These little birds were commonly found along and near the beach, 
and about the cliffs. They do not seem to be at all gregarious. In- 
fested by Ninmts foedus. 

Empidonax difficilis Braid. "Western Flycatcher. 
Many of these little flycatchers were seen among the trees along 
the sides of Laguna Canyon. They often occurred in the company 
of wren-tits, vireos, and other birds. 

Otocoris alpestris actia Oberholser. California Horned Lark. 
Common in all the fields and meadows, moving in flocks. 

Aphelocoma californica (Vig.) Cab. California Jay 
Very common everywhere. Where the canyons are slightly wood- 
ed they congregate in the early mornings and set the hillsides ring- 
ing with their calls. Infested by Menopon funereum. 

Agelaius phoeniceus neutralis Ridgw. San Diego Red-wing. 
Quite common in all marshy lowlands. Often seen hunting along 
the beaches, sometimes in company with the Brown Blackbird. Quite 
young birds were common in the flocks as late as the first of July. 

Sturnella magna neglecta (And.) Allen. Western Meadow Lark. 
The ringing call of this bird is frequently heard at Laguna. They 
are not at all common although the locality is apparently a favor- 
able one for them. 

Icterus cucullatus nelsoni Ridgw. Arizona Hooded Oriole. 
These birds greatly exceeded I. bnllocki in numbers. They seemed 
to be common throughout the region, apparently preferring eucalyp- 
tus groves to other places. 

Icterus bullocki (Swains.) Bonap. Bullock Oriole. 
About Laguna these birds are rare and shy. Near Claremont, far 
inland, they are quite bold, and are common, even nesting about the 
houses. 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.) Cab. Brown Blackbird. 
Great flocks of these birds are common along the beaches. They 
assemble in great numbers about decaying vegetable matter, and 
seem to find a foul-smelling slough a specially desirable spot. 



jTirst annual deport 



Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say.) Ridgw. House Finch. 
This bird is abundant in Laguna as it is in most other towns. 
On July 6 a nest was found in one of the canyons with three young 
a few days old. This bird also, is to be commonly seen on the 
beaches. 

Astragalinus psaltria (Say.) Coues. Arkansas Goldfinch. 
Quite abundant among the hills, feeding on the seeds of many 
common plants. 

Chondestes grammicus strigatus (Swains.) Ridgw. Western Lark Sparrow. 
This is one of the most common sparrows at Laguna. They were 
especially common about barnyards. One specimen taken was almost 
an albino. 

Amphispiza belli (Cass.) Cones. Bell Sparrow. 

This species seems to be fairly common in the chaparral at 
Laguua. They were often in company with the song sparrows. 

Aimophila ruficeps (Cass.) Rufous-crowned Sparrow. 
Frequent in the chaparral. 

Melospiza melodia heermanni I'.uinl, Br. and Ridgw. Heerman Song 

Sparrow. 

These sparrows were very easily identified among others by their 
song and their sharper markings. They were very abundant in all 
the chaparral-covered hills. In the early morning the voices of great 
numbers of them could be heard. 



Pipilo maculatus megalonyx (Baird) Coues. Spurred Towhee. 
Very wild and exceedingly hard to obtain. Not many of these 
birds were seen near to Laguna, but in Aliso Canyon, where it is 
iiid re rarely disturbed, it is more common. 

Pipilo fuscus senicula Anthony. Anthony Towhee. 
Abundant through all the hills and valleys. 

Zamelodia melanocephala (Swains.) Coues. Black-headed Grosbeak. 

Not very common about the town of Laguna but further inland 
met with more often. They commonly sing from the tops of tall 
trees in the early morning. Infested by Docophorus communis, 

Guiraca caerulea lazula ( Less, i Ridg. \Yestern Blue Grosbeak. 
Rare in all localities. Only three were encountered during the 
summer. One was seen at Balboa near the bay, and the other 
two at the tule lakes in Laguna Canyon. Though rare, these birds 
did not seem to be at all shy. 



ILaguna Marine laboratory 193 

Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say.) Cassin. Cliff Swallow. 
Very abundant about overhanging cliffs bordering the valleys. 
They swarmed over the hills and along the beaches. At one place 
the under side of certain cliffs is completely covered with their nests. 
On July 1 two young birds were just about ready to fly. These birds 
are very lousy, being infested with Docophorus excisus var. major, 
Ninnus longus, Menopon malleus, and Meiiopon dissimilis. 

Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Ridgw. California Shrike. 
Abundant along all of the valley bottoms. Early in the morn- 
ings they were often heard singing a low sweet song, which rather 
belies their character. 

Vireo pusillus Coues. Least Vireo. 

These little birds were rather common in thickly wooded places. 
They were always very quiet and shy. 

Dendroica aestiva morcomi Coale. Western Yellow Warbler. 
Along the willow bottoms, and in the lower portions of the can- 
yons these birds appeared to be quite common. 

Mimus polyglottus leucopterus (Vigors) Mearns. Western Mockingbird. 
Very common in all the canyons and along the hills, and in those 
places very shy, which is surprising because they are quite bold in 
the towns. Seldom heard singing. 

Toxostoma redivivum pasadenense (Grinnell) Richmond. Pasadena 

Thrasher. 

Although this bird has been reported only from farther inland, 
a skin of certainly this form was taken here. 

Toxostoma redivivum (Gamb.) Baird. California Thrasher. 
These birds were very abundant everywhere. They are very 
bold, and set up a great clamor when disturbed. Seldom heard sing- 
ing. 

Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Ridgw. 

Although C. m. punctulatus is more commonly reported from here 
I took a skin of this subspecies. It was critically examined by Mr. 
Chas. Metz and unquestionably determined as this form. 

Thyromanes bewickii charienturus Oberh. Southwest Bewick Wren. 

Fairly common in the canyons and among the chaparral-covered 
hills. Often observed in company with wren-tits. 

Chamaea fasciata Gamb. Pallid Wren-tit. 

Very common in all the valley bottoms. They were very bold 
and allowed very close inspection. 



194 jfirst annual deport 

Psaltriparus minimus californicus Riclgw. Californian Bush-tit. 

These tiny birds occur iu great numbers, commonly ranging 
through the chaparral in large flocks. 

Polioptila caerulea obscura Ridgw. Western Gnatcatcher. 
Fairly common among bushes in the canyons. These are extra- 
ordinarily busy little birds. 



taguna Ratine ILaboratorp 



195 



NOTES ON THE MARINE ALG^ OF 
LACUNA BEACH 

JOHN GUERNSEY 

It was my intention during the first summer at Laguna Beach to 
make some beginning in anatomical and ecological studies of a few 
of the very numerous and interesting marine Algae occurring there. 
In the course of this work, large collections accumulated. A set of 
specimens was submitted to Dr. W. A. Setchell and he has very 
kindly given the determinations of them, calling especial attention 
to the fact that many of the names applied to our west coast Alga? 
are as yet uncertain in their application, and that the nomenclature 
is in need of careful revision, as some of the species themselves are 
in need, quite as urgently, of more detailed anatomical studies. I 




B 



Figure 105. Calothrix parasitica (Chauv.) Thurct 

have no desire to present this as a "mere list," since it means much 
more to me. It includes, however, a list of the commoner forms that 
any student will encounter at Laguna, and mostly in great abundance. 
We want to begin to know these things in their distribution and eco- 
logical relations, and this seems the logical and necessary first step. 

CYANOPHYCEAE 

Brachytrichia quoyi (Ag.) Bornet and Flahault 

One small colony of this species was taken on the holdfast of a 
Nereocystis coming from about four fathoms. Dr. Setchell says this 



196 



JTirst annual IReport 



collection "is a discovery, or rather rediscovery. This species was 
credited to our coast nearly forty years ago, but so far as I know has 
not been seen since." 

Calothrix parasitica (Chauv.) Thuret 

(Figure 105) 
Commonly parasitic in NciiKtlioi/ luliriciiin. 

Calothrix contarenii (Zau) 13. and F. 

Colonies of this species are occasional on exposed rocks almost 
to high tide mark. 






c 



Figure 106. Chaetomorpha aerea (Dilhv.) Kurtz 



Calothrix fasciculata Ag. 

Colonies common on exposed rocks almost to high tide mark. 
This and the preceding species form a slippery covering to the 
rocks that render them very treacherous for the pedestrian. During 
low tide on a hot day this little alga is seemingly completely dried 
out, and must be subjected to great heat, but always recovers prompt- 
ly with the next tide. 



llaguna 0artnc Laboratory 



197 



CHLOROPHYCE^ 

ULVACEAE 

Ulva californica \Yille 
Small tufts common on the rocks throughout the tidal zone. 

Ulva lactuca L. var. 

This "Sea Lettuce" is common on rocks and on other algae 
throughout the tidal zone. 

Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulf. ) J. Ag. 
Similarly distributed and about as common as the two Vivas. 




Figure 107 

A, C, D, E, Coclium mucronatum var. californicum. J, Ag. B, Coclium adliaerans 
(Cabr.) Ag. 

CLADOPHORACEAE 

Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillw.) Kuetz 

(Figure 106) 

Frequent on the rocks of the high tidal zone, especially in high 
tide-pools. Length of filament commonly 15 cm. ; cells .25 by .15 mm. 

Cladophora trichotoma (Ag.) Kuetz 

This and the preceding species are very commonly growing to- 
gether, the long slender filaments of the Chaetomorpha sometimes 
being attached to the more stocky Cladophora. 



198 



jTirst annual Report 



CODIACEAE 

Codium mucronatum var. californicum J. Ag. 

(Figure 107, A, C, D, E) 

Frequent on rocks of middle and lower tidal zone. Utricle .8 by 
.2 mm. 

Codium adhaerans (Cabr.) Ag. 

(Figure 107 B) 

My specimens taken from a holdfast of Nereocystis coming from 
about six fathoms. Utricle .6 bv .1 mm. 





Figure 108. Ectocarpus hemisphaericus Saunders 

PH^EOPHYCE.E 

ECTOCARPACEAE 

Ectocarpus hemisphaericus Saunders 

(Figure 108) 
Abundant epiphyte on Pelvetla fastigiata. Sporangia .08 by .04 



mm. 



Ectocarpus tomentosus (Huds.) Lyngb. 
Epiphytic on Hesperophycus harveyanus. 

Ectocarpus tomentosoides Farlow 
Frequent as an epiphyte on Hesperophycus Imrveyanus. 

Ectocarpus mitchellae Harv. 
A frequent epiphyte on Phyllospadix tm-reyi. 



ILaguna e@arine lu&oratorp 



1!)!) 



Ectocarpus globiger Knetz 

Colonies found growing on shells of Puuniiild.i'. Dr. Setcliell says 
of this determination: "I do not think that this species has been 
recognized on our coast before bnt I feel fairly certain of 

the identification." 

SPHACELARIACEAE 

Sphacelaria plumula var. californica Saund. 
A common epiphyte on Nereocystis. 




\ 



Figure 109. Eisenia arborea Habit sketch. 

ENCOELIACEAE 

Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth.) Derbes and Solier 
Epiphytic on Sargassum agardhianum. 

Scytosiphon lomentarius (Lyngb.) J. Ag. 
Frequent on rocks throughout the upper tidal zone. 



Endarachne binghamiae J. Ag. 
On rocks, more common through the middle tidal zone. 



200 



Jfirst annual Report 




Figure 110. 
Nereocystis gigantea Habit sketch. 





Figure 111. 
Macrocystis pirifera Habit sketch 




Figure 112. Figure 113. 

Egregia laevigata Setchell. Habit sketch. Chantransia dictyotae Collins 



ILaguna Ratine ILaboratorp 



201 



CHORDARIACEAE 

Cylindrocarpus berkeleyi (Grev.) Crouan 
Frequent on rocks and on shells in the middle tidal zone. 

RALFSIACEAE 

Ralfsia clavata (Carni.) Farlow 
Frequent on rocks of the high tidal zone. 

Hapterophycus canaliculatus A. and G. 
In large colonies on the rocks of the lower tidal zone. 

LAMINARIACEAE 
Eisenia arborea Areschoug 

(Figure 109) 

Abundant on rocks about the low tide mark, commonly growing 
on the borders of deep channels, and attaining a length of six feet. 



C 




E 



Figure 114. Nemalion lubricum Duby. 



202 



JTirst Annual Report 



Nereocystis gigantea 

(Figure 110) 

Occasionally found growing at Laguna in from four to six 
fathoms of water. This immense "bladder kelp" attracts a great 
deal of attention from visitors to the beach. The long, slender stems 
below the bladder often measure as much as thirty feet in length. 




Figure 115. Endocladia muricata (P. & R.) J. Ag. 




Figure 116. Laurencia virgata. Habit sketch. 

with a holdfast below which may be as large as a bushel basket, and 
the great "leaves" may measure twelve feet in length. In the 
extensive beds of Macrocystis just off shore, they may be located by 
the fact that the large hollow bladders are commonly used as perches 
by the sea-gulls. The name "Nereocystis gigantea" may not be its 
correct name, but it is certainly an apt one, although it does not 



Laguna Ratine Laboratory 



203 



equal in size the great bladder-kelp of northern waters, Nereocystis 
lutkeana. 

Macrocystis pyrifera (Turner) Agardh 

(Figure 111) 

Enormously abundant in about six fathoms of water. This is the 
common kelp forming the great off-shore beds along the Southern 
California coast. It becomes above fifty feet in length at Laguna 
Beach. Immense quantities of it wash up on the beach. Investiga- 
tions are being carried on elsewhere to determine its value as a 
fertilizer. 





B 



Figure 117. Polysiphonia verticillata Harv, 

Egregia laevigata Setchell 

(Figure 112) 

Abundant near the low tide mark. Length very variable but often 
reaching over twelve feet. Commonly found in company with 
Else ilia arborea, and very variable in the form of the fronds. 

FUCACEAE 
Hesperophycus harveyanus (Decaisne) Gardner 

(Fucus Harveyanus Decaisne) 

Common on the rocks of the high tidal zone, growing most com- 
monly along the lower limits of the zone of Pclrctia f 



204 



jTirst annual Report 




Figure 118. Pterosiphonia woodii (Harv.) Falk 



ILaguna 



Laboratory 



205 




Figure 119. Pterosiphonia woodii (Harv.) Falk. 



206 Jfirst Annual Heport 

Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) deToni 

In immense colonies on the rocks of the high tidal zone, forming 
a distinct zone which reaches almost to the upper limits of algal 
growth. 

Cystoseira osmundacea (Mentz.) Ag. 

A frequent component of the beach wrack. Dr. Setchell gives this 
determination with doubt. 

Halidrys dioica Gardner 
Common on the rocks of the lower tidal zone. 

Sargassum agardhianum Farlow 
Common on rocks near low tide mark. 

DICTYOTACEAE 

Zonaria tournefortii 

Dictyopteris zonarioides Farlow 

Dictyota binghamiae J. Ag. 

Dilophus flabellatus Collins 

The above four species are all frequent on rocks of the middle 
tidal zone. 



RHODOPHYCE^E 

BANGIACEAE 

Porphyra naiadum C. L. Anderson 
Commonly epiphytic on basal portions of Phyllospadir. 

HELMINTHOCLADIACEAE 
Chantrasia dictyotae Collins 

(Figure 113) 

Abundant as an epiphyte on Di< ti/n/n lih/f/Juiiniae. Sporangia .02 
mm. in diameter. 

Nemalion lubricum Duby. 

(Figure 114) 

Common on rocks of the lower tidal zone, especially on the faces 
of rocks exposed to the direct pounding of the heaviest surf. Stem 
commonly 1.4 mm. in diameter. 

Helminthocladia purpurea (ITarv.) J. Ag. 
Only seen twice, both times in the lower tidal zone. 



Lagtina S^arine Laboratory 



207 



GELIDIACEAE 

Gelidium crinale (Sum.) Lamour. var. 
Frequent on the rocks of the lower tidal zone. 

Gelidium amansii Kuetz 
Common on rocks of middle tidal zone. 




Figure 120. Strebdocladia camptoclada (Mont.) Falk. 



Gelidium coulteri Harv. 
Commonly forming colonies on the rocks of the middle tidal zone. 

Gelidium cartilagineum L. 
Frequent on rocks of middle tidal zone. 

Gelidium australe J. Ag. 
Also forming colonies on the rocks of the middle tidal zone. 



208 



Jfir0t annual deport 




Figure 121. Strebdocladia camptoclada (Mont.) Falk. 



Laguna Racine ilaboratorp 209 

GIGARTINACEAE 
Endocladia muricata (P. and R.) J. Ag. 

(Figure 115) 

Common on rocks near high tide mark. Length of plant common- 
ly 2 cm., diameter of stem .4 mm. 

Chondrus canaliculatus (Ag.) Grev. 
Common on the rocks of the middle tidal zone. 

Gigartina canaliculata Harv. 
With the above. 

Gigartina spinosa (Kuetz) J. Ag. 
Gigartina exasperata Harv. and Baill. 

Gigartina horrida Farlovv 

The above three species are frequent on rocks of the lower tidal 
zone. 

Gigartina microphylla Harv. 
Specimens of this species frequent in the wrack along the beaches. 

Stenogramma interruptum (Ag.) Mont. 

Occasional in beach wrack. Dr. Setchell expresses doubt as to 
this determination. 

SPHAEROCOCCACEAE 

Hypnea sp. 
Epiphytic on other algae throughout the tidal zone. 

RHODYMENIACEAE 

Cordylecladia andersonii Grunow 
Frequent on rocks between tides. 

Chrysemenia pseudodichotoma Farlow 
Occasional in beach wrack. 

Plocamium coccineum (Huds.) Lyngb 

Frequent on the rocks of the lower tidal zone, and abundant in 
the beach wrack. This is the common "red sea-moss" of the South- 
ern California coast. Collectors will find it growing most abund- 
antly and in finest specimens on the under side of rocky ledges of 
the lower tidal zone. 

DELESSERIACEAE 

Nitophyllum violaceum J. Ag. var. crispulum. 
Epiphytic on other algae of the lower tidal zone. 



210 



JFirst Annual Report 




Figure 122. Strebdocladia sp. 





Figure 123. Herposiphonia sp. 



lU&oratorp 




Figure 124. Hetercsiphonia subsecunda (Suhr.) Falk. 



212 



jTirst Annual Report 



BONNEMAISONIACEAE 
Ricardia montagnei Durbes and Solier 
Commonly epiphytic on Laurencia virgata. 

RHODOMELACEAE 
Laurencia virgata J. Ag. 

(Figure 116) 

This is a very variable species in both form and habits, growing 
either on rocks or on the basal portions of Phyllospadix. In the lat- 
ter case the stems usually exhibit a remarkable tendril action. Diam- 
eter of the stems is commonlv 1.5 mm. 




Figure 125. Dasya pacifica Harv. 

Laurencia pinnatifida (Gmel.) Lamx. 
On rocks of the lower tidal zone. 

Polysiphonia verticillata Harv. 

(Figure 117) 
Epiphytic on other alga? of the lower tidal zone. 

Pterosiphonia woodi (Harv.) Falk. 

(Figures 118 and 119) 

Commonly epiphytic on Nereocystis. Length of cells commonly 
2 mm. Diameter of cystocarps, .4 mm. ; tetraspores .12 in diameter. 



Laguna 



Labotatorp 



213 





D 



Figure 126. Spermothamnion snyderae Farlow. 




Figure 127. Griffithsia sp. 



214 



JFir0t annual deport 



Pterosiphonia bipinnata ( P. and R. ) Falk. 
Epiphytic on Nereocystix. 

Pterosiphonia baileyi (Harv.) Falk. 
Occasional on rocks of low tidal zone. 

Strebdocladia camptoclada (Mont.) Falk 
(Figures 120 and 121) 

Abundant as an epiphyte on other algae of the whole tidal zone. 
Cystocarps .3 mm. in diameter. 




Figure 128. Callithamnion rupicolum f. pygmaeum Collins. 

Strebdocladia sp. 

(Figure 122) 

Abundant on rocks and shells of the lower tidal zone. Of this 
plant, Dr. Setehell says: "Possibly a Strebdorltuliit ; perhaps, how- 
ever, a Polysiphonia. I have had it before, but as yet have not sat- 
isfactorily placed it." 



Laguna Ratine Laboratory 



'21 Z 



Herposiphonia sp. 

(Figure 123) 

This was found in tow-stuff from the tide-pools, so that it is prob- 
ably an epiphyte on other algse growing in such situations. 

Lophosiphonia obscura (Ag.) Falk. 

Common on low rocks of higher tidal zone, growing in dense col- 
onies and acting as a sand gatherer. 




Figure 129. Callithamnion rupicolum f. pygmaeum Collins. 

Lophosiphonia villum (J. Ag.) S. and G. 
Occurs intermingled with L. obscura. 

Heterosiphonia secunda (Suhr) Falk. 

Frequent as an epiphyte on various algae, especially corallines. 
Dr. Setchell remarks that "this is the plant which has passed in our 
lists under the name of Daxi/u snlisccmnla. The name given in the 
list is merely a synonym. There seems to be some reason for sus- 
pecting that our plant is not identical with the type of the species 
given, but belongs rather to 77. pulchra of the Japanese coast." 



216 jffrst annual Report 

Heterosiphonia subsecunda (Suhr) Falk. 

(Figure 124) 
Epiphytic on other algae. Stichidia .8 mm. in length. 

Dasya pacifica Harv. 

(Figure 125) 
Occasional in beach wrack. Stichidia .45 mm. in length. 

CERAMIACEAE 
Spermothamnion snyderae Farlow 

(Figure 126) 

Occasional in small colonies on the under side of ledges in the 
lower tidal zone. Sporangia .1 mm. in diameter. 

Griffithsia sp. 
(Figure 127) 

A common epiphyte on the algas of the lower tidal zone. Spor- 
angia .08 mm. in diameter. Dr. Setchell says of this plant: "The 
specimens all have tetraspores. I wish very much that it might be 
found with cyxtocnrps. Until then we shall be uncertain as to the 
genus. Griffithni(i is perhaps hardly to be applied to this plant. In 
all probability it is more likely to belong to one of the related genera, 
but it is impossible to decide this witli certainty until we have the 
cystocarpic fruit." 

Callithamnion rupicolum forma pygmaeum Collins 

(Figures 128 and 129) 

An occasional epiphyte on other algae of the lower tidal zone. 
Sporangia .07 mm. in diameter. Cystocarps .2 mm. in diameter. 

Antithamnion floccosum (Muell.) Klein 
An epiphyte on Nereocystis. 

Spyridia filamentosa ( \Yulf.) Harv. 
Rare in the beach wrack. 

Ceramium codicola J. Ag. 

(Figure 130) 
Common on Codium ntcro>iatni, length commonly 1 cm. 

Centroceras clavulatum (Ag.) Mont. 
Abundant on the rocks of the upper tidal zone. 

Microcladia coulteri Harv. 
Epiphytic on Prioititix. 



03iimic LtUuinitnrp 



GRATELOUPIACEAE 
Prionitis decipiens (Mont.) J. Ag. 
Occasional on rocks between tides. 

Grateloupia prolongata J. Ag. 
Common on the rocks of the entire between tide zone. 





Figure 130. Ceramnium codicola J. Ag. 

Polyopes bushiae Farlow 
One specimen found in wrack on beach. 

NEMASTOMACEAE 

Schizymenia sp. 
One specimen collected in wrack on beach. 



218 jTirst annual Report 

CORALLINACEAE 

Choreonema thuretii (Born.) Schmitz 
Common in the middle tidal zone. 

Lithothamnion sp. 

Apparently several species of this genus form a common coating 
on rocks throughout the tidal zone. Dr. Setchell remarks of them, 
"No one knows the species of the crustaceous corallines." 

Amphiroa tuberculosa forma typica S. and G. 
Amphiroa tuberculosa f. frondescens (Kuetz) S. and G. 
The above two forms are common on the rocks of the lower tidal 
zone. 

Corallina officinalis L. var. 
A common coralline among rocks of the middle tidal zone. 

Corallina gracilis Lamx. 
Frequent on roeks toward the lower tide mark. 

Jania crassa Lamx. 
Occasional on rocks about lower tide mark. 

Jania rubens ( L. ) Lamx. 
Occurs in middle tidal zone. 

Lithothrix aspergillum J. E. Gray 
Frequent on rocks of the middle tidal zone. 



I',:-. 

. :