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Full text of "Annual report of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society"

Tfiirty-Sixtli A^iiMil Report 



Of the Nebraska 



Stale Herticiiitural Soeiety 



I^S. 



4ie-4«&- 



L.M. RUSSELL 



'(i»'i^mmfiymv^m6mmf'i!^^<^>»>'i!>^Mmmwm'f<^^^^^^^ 



Thirty-Sixth Annual Report 



OP THE 



NEBRASKA 



State 



Horticultural Society 



Containing all the Proceedings of the Summer Meeting 
Held at Aurora, July 28 and 29, 1904, and the 
Annual Meeting Held at Lincoln, Jan- 
uary 17, 18 and 19, 1905. 



LIBI^ARY 
NEW YORK 
«OTANICAL 



By L. M. RUSSELL, Secretary 

Lincoln, Nebraska 



LINCOLN, NEB. 

PUBLISHED BY THE STATE 

1905 



/ n-o 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



To His Excellency, John H. Mickey, Governor of Nebraska: 

Sir : In compliance with legal requisition, the annual report 
of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society for the year 1905, 
with accompanying papers, is respectfully submitted. 

L. M. Russell, 

Secretary Nebraska State Ho7'ticultural Society. 
Lincoln, August 1, 1905. 



CONTENTS. 



Letter of transmittal. 

Officers. 

Standing committees. 

Membership list. 

Constitution. 

By-Laws. 

Proceedings Summer meeting. 

Proceedings Annual meeting. 

Fruit districts. 

Secretary's report. 

Treasurer's report. 

Index. 



OFFICERS. 

President G. S. Christy, Johnson 

First Vice-President H. S. Harrison, York 

Second Vice-President E. M. Pollard, Nehawka 

Secretary • L. M. Russell, Lincoln 

Treasurer Peter Youngers, Geneva 



DIRECTORS. 

Chas. L. Saunders Omaha 

W. G. Swan Tecumseh 

C. H. Green Fremont 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SOCIETY. 

SYNONYMS. 

E. M. Pollard, Nehawka, 

A. J. Brown, Geneva, 

C. H. Barnard, Table Rock. 

METEOROLOGY. 

Prof. G. D. Sweezy, Lincoln. 

ENTOMOLOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY. 

Prof. L. Bruner, Lincoln. 

VISITING COMMITTEE TO THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA 
EXPERIMENT STATION. 

E. F. Stephens, Crete. 

GEOLOGY. 

Prof. E. H. Barbour, Lincoln. 

FORESTY. 

Prof. E. T. Hartley, Lincoln. 

VEGETABLE CULTURE. 

Prof. R. A. Emerson, Lincoln. 

ORNAMENTAL GARDENING. 

J. H. Hadkinson, Omaha. 

LEGISLATION. 

Peter Youngers, Geneva, 

L. C. Chapin, Lincoln, 

C. H. Barnard, Table Rock. 



MEMBERSHIP LIST. \\ 



MEMBERSHIP LIST. 



HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS. 

*Budd, J. L Ames, Iowa 

Brackett, B. B Denmark, Iowa 

Bruner, L Lincoln 

CampbeU, G. W Delaware, Ohio 

Crounse, Lorenzo Fort Calhoun 

Earle, P Ocean Springs, Mississippi 

Garfield, C. W Grand Rapids, Michigan 

Van Deman, H. E Parksley, Virginia 

ACTIVE LIFE MEMBERS. 

Albert, U. G Normal 

Aldrich, Benton. ' Johnson 

Aldrich, Karl Johnson 

Alexander, G. W Julian 

Allen, Geo. L. Spicer, Oregon 

Atkinson, J. E Pawnee City 

Barnard, C. H Table Rock 

Beltzer, L. A. Osceola 

Bessey, Charles E. Lincoln 

Blystone, W.J Lincoln 

Bowers, W. B. Post Office Unknown 

Brown, A. J Geneva 

Brown, Frank P, Florence 

Brown, J. L. Kearney 

Bruning, W. H Cedar Bluffs 

Camp, Charles B Cheney 

Card, F. W Kingston, R. I. 

Carpenter, G. J Grand Junction Colo. 

Chapin, H. A Lincoln 

Chapin, L. C Lincoln 

Chowins, Chas. E. Lincoln 

Christy, G. S Johnson 

Christy, S. W Brownville 

♦Deceased 



12 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Colvin, W. E. Post Office Unknown 

Coppoc, J. L. Chambers 

Corbin, E. E. .^ Grand Island 

*Craig, Hiram Fort Calhoun 

Crist, J. W Box 761, Lincoln 

Cross, T. B Lincoln 

Damrow, Chas. F : Post Office Unknown 

Davey, R. H. i Omaha 

Davidson, J. R Aurora 

Davies, Wm. Brownville 

Davis, W. H FuUerton 

De France, C. Q. Lincoln 

Deweber, H. N. Pawnee City 

Dillon, J. W Greeley, Colo. 

Dole, E. W Beatrice 

Dunkin, J. M Ravenna 

Dugan, John Papillion 

Dunlap, N. C. Kearney 

Dunlap, J. P Dwight 

Emerson, R. A. Lincoln 

Erfling, E. C. 1150 Sherman Ave., Omaha 

Floth, Paul Omaha 

Fox, B. C. - : Lincoln 

Fredenburg, B Johnson 

Frey, C. H i ; - Lincoln 

Frey, H. H : Lincoln 

*Furnas, R. W. Brownville 

Gage, J. A Beatrice 

Gaiser, A Friend 

Galbraith, G. B. Fairbury 

Godfrey, A. S. Lincoln 

Green, Charles H. Fremont 

Grennell, E. N Fort Calhoun 

Gurney, C. W. Yankton, S. D. 

Hadkinson, J. H. Omaha 

Hale, C; A. University Place 

Harris, W. R. Forest Grove, Oregon 

Harris, W. T. Blackfoot, Idaho 

Harrison, C. S York 

♦Deceased 



MEMBERSHIP LIST. 



13 



Harrison, H. S York 

Harrison, W. A York 

Hartley, E.T jj^^^ 

H®^th'H.E ; Omaha 

Helin, J. F 1612Farnam St., Omaha 

Henderson, Lewis Omaha 

Hess, Jacob Omaha 

Hesser, W. J. Pasadena, California 

Hogg, J. A Ly^g 

Hurlburt, C. M Fairbury 

Jackson, T. C Purdum 

Jenkins, W.F Arcadia 

Kent, H. J Box 961, Lincoln 

Keyser, Val Lincoln 

Langdan, J. N Seward 

Leonard, I. N gan Jose, Cal. 

Link, Harvey MiUard 

Loughry, James Geneva 

MarshaU, G. A Arlington 

Marshall, C. C Arlington 

Marshall, H. W. Arlington 

Marshall, C. G Arlington 

Field, B. E Fremont 

Field, R. B Fremont 

Masters, J. H Syracuse 

Masters, J. W Lincoln 

Martin, F. R 4622 Boulevard Ave., Omaha 

McComb, H. A Lincoln 

Mcintosh, H. F Alda 

Meek, John UnadiUa 

Meek, James UnadiUa 

Mergen, Phillip Omaha 

Morsch, C. H Greeley Center 

Mosher, D. C Colorado City, Colo. 

Mosher, P. C Kearney 

Murphey, P. A .'. Exeter 

Neff, J. G ...Davey 

Nemechek, Paul Humboldt 

Nownes, Charles Papillion 



14 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Parker, C. B. Brock 

Paulson, Paul Omaha 

Perin, L. W. Lincoln 

Perry, T. H Elk Creek 

Peterson, Frank Post Office Unknown 

Peterson, John Omaha 

Pollard, E. M Nehawka. 

Pollard, Isaac Nehawka 

Randell, J. C. :. Hamburg, la. 

Reed, M. H Blue Springs 

Reed, Mrs.' J. H. Blue Springs 

Riley, Alfred Greeley, Colo. 

Roberts, B. A Albion 

Russell, J. M. Lincoln 

Russell, L. M. Lincoln 

Russell, Don. L Lincoln 

Russell, Dale ; Lincoln 

Sandoz, Jules A Colclesser 

Saunders, Chas. L 211 S. 18th St., Omaha, 

Schamp, L. D Lincoln 

Schumacher, A , York 

Slayton, Geo. A 192 HiUsdale St., Hillsdale, Mich. 

Smith, H. C , ....^ FaUs City 

Smith, H. L Geneva 

Smith, O. F .' Blackfoot, Idaho 

Smith, E. E. Lincoln 

Stephens, E. F Crete 

Stephens, Frank G Crete 

Stevenson, J. W North Bend 

Stilson, L. D ; York 

Stouffer, B. R Bellevue 

Strand, G. A Minden 

Swan, W. G. _ Tecumseh 

Swezey, G. D Lincoln 

Tanahill, Wm Post Office Unknown 

Taylor, Fredrick W St. Louis, Mo. 

Tiffany, M. D Lincoln 

Titus, G. N Nemaha City 

Van Metre; C. M Valentine 



MEMBERSHIP LIST. 15 

Walker, J. W Crete 

Warren, G. P Harvard 

Wheeler, D. H Omaha 

Whitford, C. A Arlington 

Williams, Theodore .....Benson 

Wilson, W. H Post Office Unknown 

Woods, A. P Washington, D. C. 

Yager, J. A Fremont 

Youngers, Peter, Jr. Geneva 

HONORARY ANNUAL, MEMBERS. 

Green, Prof. Sam'l B. University of Minnesota 

Jackson, J. P Glenwood, Iowa 

Welsh, E. S. Shenandoah, Iowa 

ANNUAL MEMBERS. 

Anderson, A. N Shickley 

Denny, P. E Lincoln 

Howard, T. M Scotts Bluff 

lury, E. G Tecumseh 

Watts, James R. P. D. 5 Lincoln 

Williams, John Tecumseh 



16 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CONSTITUTION. 



Article I. Name. This association shall be known as the 
Nebraska State Horticultural Society. 

Article II. Object. This society shall have for its object 
the promotion of pomology, arborculture, floriculture, and 
gardening. 

Article III. Membership. The membership of this society 
shall consist of four classes, viz., active, associate, annual hon- 
orary, and life honorary. The active membership shall consist 
of persons practically engaged in fruit culture, forestry, flori- 
culture, or gardening, who shall be admitted to life membership 
on the payment of a fee of $5 at one time; to associate member- 
ship, by the payment of a fee of $1 annually. The honorary 
members shall consist of such persons as may be elected at 
any meeting of the Society by a two-thirds vote of the members 
present, and shall have all the privileges and benefits of the 
Society except those of voting and holding office, which privi- 
leges shall belong exclusively to active members. 

Article IV. 0,fficers. The officers of this society shall be 
a president, first and second vice-presidents, secretary, treas- 
urer, and board of directors of eight members, said board con- 
sisting of the officers enumerated in this article and three ad- 
ditional members. These officers shall be elected by ballot at 
the annual meeting of the society in January, and the term of 
office shall be for one year, commencing on the first day of June 
following. 

Article V. Duties of President. It shall be the duty of 
the president to preside at all meetings of the society, appoint 
all committees not otherwise provided for, countersign all 
orders drawn on the treasurer by the secretary; in conjunction 
with the secretary he shall arrange all programs for the meet- 
ings of the society, and perform such other duties as the 
society or board of directors may require. 

Article VI. Duties of Vice-Presidents. The vice-presi- 
dents shall superintend all exhibits of the society, and in case 



CONSTITUTION. ]^7 

of vacancy in the office of president at any meeting of the 
society or board of directors, shall perform all the functions of 
that office in the order of their rank. 

Article VII. Duties of Secretary. The secretary shaU 
keep an accurate record of the proceedings of all meetings of 
the society and board of directors, draw all warrants on the 
treasurer, and keep an accurate record of the same as counter- 
signed by the president, prepare for publication and edit all 
reports of the society requiring publication by the statutes of 
the state; in conjunction with the president prepare all pro- 
grams and make all other necessary arrangements for all meet- 
ings of the society. 

Article VIII. Duties of Treasurer. The treasurer shaU 
be the custodian of aU moneys belonging to the society, and 
shall pay from such funds all warrants drawn on him by the 
secretary and countersigned by the president. 

Article IX. Duties of Board of Directors. The board of 
directors shall have general management of aU the affairs of the 
society, for which no specific directors are otherwise provided 
in the constitution and by-laws. 

Article X. Bonds of Officers. The president and secretary 
shall each give a bond in the sum of $5,000, and the treasurer in 
the sum of $12,000 for the proper performance of his duties, 
which bond must be approved by the board of directors. 

Article XI. Salaries of Officers. The president, vice- 
president, treasurer, and members of the board of directors 
shall receive such per diem pay for their services in attendance 
upon the meetings of the society as the society or board of di- 
rectors may from time to time determine. The secretary shall 
receive an annual salary of $500. 

Article XII. Reports of Officers. The president, secre- 
tary and treasurer shall each present an annual report in writ- 
ing at the January meeting of all the business matters pertain- 
ing to their respective offices during the annual term expiring 
at that time. 

Article XIII. Meetings. The society shaU hold two or 
more meetings each year. The annual meeting shaU be held in 
Lincoln on the first Tuesday after the second Monday in Jan- 



18 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

uary, as provided by statute, and the other meetings shaU be 
held at the same time and place as the annual exhibition of the 
Nebraska State Board of Agriculture. 

Article XIV. By-Laws. By-laws not in conflict with the 
provisions of this constitution may be enacted by the society at 
any regular meeting. 

Article XV. Amendments. This constitution may be 
amended at January meetings of the society by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present, such amendment having been 
presented in writing and read before the society at a session 
preceding the one in which the vote is taken. 



BY-LAWS. 

1. All the officers of this society shall be elected at the Jan- 
uary meeting. 

2. All officers of this society shall assume the duties of their 
respective offices on the first day of June following their elec- 
tion, and continue in office for the period of one year, or until 
their successors are elected and qualified. 

3. The officers elected at the January meeting, 1895, shall 
hold their respective offices until the first day of June, 1896. 

4. The amount allowed the secretary for express, postage, 
and stationery shall not exceed $150 per annum,, and it shall be 
the duty of the board of directors to employ a competent sten- 
ographer to report the proceedings of the meetings of the 
society, whose fees shall be paid by the society. 

5. The first business of the society shall be on each morning 
the reading of the minutes of the previous day's proceedings, 
and submitting the same to the approval of the meeting. 

6. There shall be elected at each winter meeting nine district 
directors, one from each horticultural district in the state. 

Also a standing committee of three on synonyms. 

Also a standing committee of one in each of the following: 
Meteorology in its relation to Horticulture, Entomology, Orni- 
thology, Geology, Forestry, Vegetable Culture, and Ornamental 
Gardening. 

7. These by-laws may be amended at any general meeting of 
the society by a majority of the members present. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



Proceedings of the Summer meeting of the Nebraska State 
Horticultural Society, held at Aurora, July 28 and 29, 1904. 



PROCEEDINGS. 21 



SUMMER MEETING 
PROCEEDINGS. 



The Summer meeting of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society convened at the Court House, Aurora, Hamilton county, 
Nebraska, on Thursday, July 28, 1904, at 9 o'clock a. m. with 
President G. S. Christy in the chair. Following is a copy of 
the program carried out : 

PROGRAM. 



Thursday, July 28th, 9:00 a. m. 

Invocation. 
Music. 

Address of Welcome Mayor Joseph Neptune 

Response Rev. C. S. Harrison 

Greeting W. W. Tatum, Pres. Columbian Club 

2:00 P. M. 
Music. 

Address, "Value of Horticultural Education" 

Hon. E. von PoreU, Regent University 

Address, "How I Grow Cherries" Prank Harris 

Paper, "A Trip Through the Southern Orchards" 

Peter Younger s 

Paper, "Apple Scab and Cedar Rust" 

Prof. R. A. Emerson, State University 

8:00 P. M. 

Music Philharmonic Orchestra 

Music Wood Bros. Quartette 

Solo Mrs. J. G. Alden 

Recitation Miss Allie Manning 

Paper, "Fruit for the Home" G. A. Marshall 



22 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Music : Philharmonic Orchestra 

Music Wood Bros. Quartette 

FRffiAY, July 29th, 9:00 a. m. 
Music. 
Paper, "Orcharding in South-Eastern Nebraska" 

T. E. Snodgrass 

Address, "Fruit Raising" J. R. Davidson 

Paper, "Hardy Ornamentals" ...., Rev. C. S. Harrison 

Paper, "Commercial Orcharding in Central and Western 

Nebraska" E. F. Stephens 

2:00 P. M. 
Music. 

Paper, "Diseases of Fruit Trees" Val. Keyser 

Address, "Gardening in Aurora" H. G. Cass 

Paper, "Strawberries for Home Use" G. S. Christy 

8:00 P. M. 

Music Philharmonic Orchestra 

Music Wood Bros. Quartette 

Paper, "Roses" C. H. Green 

Music, Solo Mrs. C. A. Jones 

Recitation Miss Cecil Baldwin 

Paper. 

Music ;... Philharmonic Orchestra 

Music Wood Bros. Quartette 

Parties having flowers and fruit are requested to bring them 
and make a good display. Everybody welcome. 

THEPRESroENT: The time has come for the opening of our 
Summer meeting of the State Horticultural Society. 

We will first have an invocation by Rev. John Gallagher, of 
Aurora. 

INVOCATION. 

Oh God, our Heavenly Father, Thou art the author of every 
good and perfect gift. And at this time, as we meet together, 
we would return unto Thee our thanks for the bounties of Thy 
providence. We bless Thee that Thou hast made the grass to 
grow and the herbs to bring forth their seed and the fruit trees 
to bear fruit. We thank Thee for the early and plenty of rain. 
We bless Thee for the bounteous harvest fields and for the 



PROCEEDINGS. 23 

orchards laden with fruit. We do thank Thee that Thou hast 
blessed us and placed us in such a world as this; that there are 
so many things to make us happy and comfortable. And we 
thank Thee that Thou hast put before us the opportunity of im- 
proving in all things. And we have come together in this 
session for the purpose of interchange of thought, for mutual 
improvement, to gather unto ourselves the hel^DS that will 
enable us better to do our work in life. We thank Thee, our 
Father, for this interest, and we pray that Thou will be in these 
sessions from beginning to close. Oh grant, our Father, that 
there may come to us thoughts that will do us good, and we 
may gain an inspiration, and as we see what has been done by 
effort, may it be an incentive to us to put forth our energies in 
stronger effort that we may do greater good in the future than 
we have in the past. Bless us now, help us to honor Thee in all 
the things that we enjoy, and when Thou art done with us, re- 
ceive us unto your Jesus Christ. Amen. 

The President: The address of welcome was to be given by 
Mayor Neptune, but he is out of the city and necessarily de- 
tained, and so we will have the pleasure of listening to Mr. F. 
A. Bald, who will give us the address: 

Mr. Chairman, Members of the Nebraska Horticultural Society, 
Ladies and Gentlemen: The development of Nebraska has 
been along rapid but well defined lines. Our people have never 
been slow to take up and put in force the large numbers of new 
and useful improvements that speak for the advancement of our 
state. There are few men and women who, having lived in this 
locaUty for any length of time, are unable to look back and re- 
call the day when Nebraska was in a far more primitive con- 
dition than it is at present. 

Why Nebraska has outgeneraled all other states along this 
line has often been presented to me in the nature of a query; 
and, i^pon reflection, the only possible reason that can be as- 
signed is, that our people are of broad mind and keen intellect. 
They readily see an opportunity to elevate and have no feeling 
of hesitancy in forming opinions and expressing beUef s concern- 
ing any subject or matter that may be presented for contro- 
versy. 

This broadness of mind, this keenness of intellect and this 



24 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

freedom from all personal restraint are the qualities which, 
above all others, are essential to the industrial growth of our 
nation. 

As a farming community our state is second to none, and a 
short drive along any of our country roads is sufficient to con- 
vince any reasonable mind that our assertion is not without 
foundation. 

Development along agricultural lines has probably been more 
rapid during the past few years than at any time prior thereto, 
and we are compelled to look upon the farmer in a true light 
and realize that he is the mightiest factor in the development of 
our state and the upbuilding of the nation. 

But before we proceed further it will not be inconsistent to 
look for a few moments at the earlier history of this region. 

Its invasion by white men was unlike that of the lake region. 
Our first explorers came from the south and long antedates the 
arrival of explorers in what is commonly known as the north- 
west. Although Nebraska forms the geographical center of 
the United States, the phenomenon of settlement and civiliza- 
tion has made it appear far to the west; and when one first 
glances at the history of this region without first preparing 
ones mind for the truth, it is reasonable to expect to trace the 
march of civilization either from the early settlements in the 
east, or from the early highways which furnished passage alike 
to the devout missionary and the avaricious seeker after gold. 
But modern research dispels the obscuring mists which for 
centuries have hidden from view the fact that the southwestern 
and middle portions of the United States were visited by white 
men nearly a century before commercial relations were estab- 
lished with the Indians of Wisconsin, and while yet the "great 
water to the west" was known to those eastern tribes merely as 
a matter of tradition. 

We are apt to look upon Nebraska as a young state. Young 
in its geological formation, young in its political existence, and 
young in its historical records. For descriptions of its soil, its 
climate, its production or its inhabitants, few are compelled to 
look farther back than the beginning of the present century, 
and its pubhshed memorials prior to the advent of the French 



PROCEEDINGS. 25 

traders and trappers have been considered too meager as a 
basis for any exact account. But hidden away in the lumber 
rooms of wealthy Spanish and French families, and piled on the 
shelves of national libraries in Paris, Madrid and Mexico are 
hosts of letters, journals and reports, "which are gradually 
emerging from their seclusion and undergoing the scrutiny of 
acute and practical eyes. 

The documents edited by M. Margry and published by the 
United States Government in the year 1882, throw a flood of 
light upon early French discoveries and explorations in the 
west. And when the vast libraries of all the nations that took 
part in these adventurous travels shall give up their dead treas- 
ures, we have reason to hope that we will be able to add many 
years to the authentic history of our state. 

I have recently read an article which presented sufficient 
reason for us to believe that — fourscore years before the Pil- 
grims landed on the venerable coast of Massachusetts; sixty- 
eight years before Hudson discovered the ancient and beautiful 
river which still bears his name; sixty-six years before John 
Smith, with his cockney colonists, sailed up the summer stream 
which they named after James I of England, and commenced 
the settlement of what was afterward to be Virginia; twenty- 
three years before Shakespeare was born; while Queen Eliza- 
beth was a little girl and Charles V sat upon the united throne 
of Germany and Spain, Nebraska was discovered; the peculi- 
arities of her soil and cHmate noted, her fruits and productions 
described, and her animals and inhabitants depicted. 

We catch our earlier glimpses of this region from one who 
had enlisted in the service of God instead of the service of 
mammon. There was found about thirty years ago in the 
archives of St. Mary's college, in Montreal, the identical map 
which Father Marquette prepared of his voyage down the 
Mississippi, executed by his own hand, and bearing all the 
marks of authenticity. Upon this map, drawn in the year 
1673, appears the territory which now forms the state of Ne- 
braska. The general course of the Missouri is given to a point 
far north of this lattitude; the, Platte river is laid down in 
almost its exact position, and among the Indian tribes which 
he enumerates as scattered about this region we find such 



26 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

names as the Pawnees, Omahas and Otoes. It is not without a 
thrill of interest that a Nebraskan can look upon the frail and 
discolored parchment upon which for the first time in the 
history of the world these words were written. 

But let us return to the development of our state. We are 
prone to view with a feeling of regret the thought that our ad- 
vancement will not, in the future, be as rapid as it has been in 
the past. Prima facie this is the case, but in reality our feel 
ing of regret is utterly without foundation. If the world of 
agriculture has been conquered, why not look for more worlds 
to conquer instead of becoming indolent and reclining on 
flowery beds of ease. In the year 1885, as I understand it, 
occurred the first meeting of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society. Since that time our interest in the growing and pro- 
duction of various kinds of fruit has greatly increased, until we 
are at present in a position to look for rapid development along 
Horticultural lines. That development, when once begun, may 
reasonably be expected to increase and continue for a great 
period of time, and the interest of Nebraskans in Nebraska 
will never have cause to wane. If we are true to our duty we 
can make our state in Horticulture what it has been as regards 
our school systems, the greatest state in our nation. For if we 
judge the various states in the scale of a ladder, we see among 
the topmost such names as Iowa; but far above them aU, and 
upon the topmost round, is Nebraska, and from that round 
there floats a penant, upon which is inscribed in letters of non- 
perishable gold, the greatest motto a state can have, "Equality 
before the Law." 

It is with a feehng of mingled pride and pleasure that we 
welcome you to our city. Our earnest hope is that before this 
meeting shall close there shall be much good accomplished, 
that you who are present will carry back to those who were 
unable to attend, our feelings of sincerest friendship, that in 
some manner the good done here will go abroad, that it will 
cause our sister states to look to Nebraska and say, there is a 
people, just and fearless, whose interest in life is the edification 
of man, the development of their state, and the upbuilding of 
our nation. [Applause.] 



PROCEEDINGS. 27 

The PREsroENT : Our response by Rev. C. S. Harrison is next 
on the program, but he is sick this morning. However, it is with 
great pleasure I am able to call upon a gentleman who is a son 
of one of our charter members, one of the best known men in 
the state, ex-Governor Saunders, Charles L. Saunders, who 
will give the response. 

RESPONSE. 

Mr. Charles L. Saunders: 3Ir. President, Members of the 
State Horticultural Society, Gentlemen from Aurora, and Ladies 
and Gentlemen: 

I am sorry the substitute for Mr. Harrison cannot address 
you in the brilliant language that the gentleman before me has 
done. I can only say that I wish I might be able to express 
myself as I feel the society desires to thank the citizens of Aurora 
for this entertainment. This is a beautiful place to meet in, and 
I know that we shall derive a great deal of good from our meet- 
ing in this part of the state. It is particularly pleasing to me, 
for I have been a resident of Nebraska all my life, and one of my 
earliest recollections is that this part of the state was on the 
prairie, and no one ever dreamed that it would be the garden it is 
today, or that we would be out here talking about horticulture. 

I desire to say in behalf of the society, that it is an institution 
for the people; that it has an appropriation of $2,500, $1,000 of 
which shall go as premiums for the exhibit of fruit and flow- 
ers. That it brings together the representative workers in 
the field of agriculture, and that it has its stated meetings, 
one of which must be held in Lincoln, at the capital, in January 
of each year, where we are put in touch with the scientific 
developments of the University, and at these meetings all of 
the results from the hard work occur, and the experiments of 
the horticulturists are brought before the people. It is at these 
meetings that the discussions bring out the results of labor. 
Having known twenty years ago what we know today through 
these experiments, Nebraska would be far in advance of what 
it is today in its horticulture and its agriculture. And I believe 
that there is nothing that tends more to the development of our 
state than the horticultural societies of the state. We have 
divided the state into districts and receive reports, from the 



28 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

managers of each of the districts. Our chmate is varied, our soil 
is varied, and it is through these reports that the citizens are 
able to determine w^hat variety of fruit is best adapted, and at the 
meetings when these papers are read w^hat is particularly in- 
teresting to me is the questions asked by the members, the 
informal discussions, the things that we never would expect to 
find in a written report, and I am probably as much of a kinder- 
garten student in horticulture as any you may have in the society 
and interested in it; but it does me good, and I have learned 
more in my attendance upon these meetings than all the read- 
ing I have done, or been able to do. 

We have divided this state into experimental stations, I be- 
lieve seven, from Hay Springs and Mindenand over intothebetter 
settled portions. In these divisions the society furnish us a 
competent man with material, that he may determine for his dis- 
trict what is adapted to as a suitable product. And it is these re- 
ports and the discussions of them that make time for the 
citizen. Because it is impossible to raise in certain portions 
under certain conditions the same fruit that may be in others, 
and it is through the work and the soil, and money spent in this 
way that the citizens in that vicinity may go to work and reap 
their rewards from the first. If we had had the same know ledge 
twenty years ago of what might be done, that would be done to- 
day, and this all been brought about by the work and the 
meetings and discussions, we would have done away with a 
great many evils. In many instances we have orchards that were 
put out under theold systems that were brought down from the 
New England states. We don 't have to deal with that at pre- 
sent. We are dealing with our own ideas and experiments. 

I want to say that this society was started backin 1871 by a few 
of the old time citizens, I believe seven. Gov. Furnas, Mr. Martin, 
Mr. Masters and Judge Mason, Mr. Dahlman, Mr. Eldridge and 
my good father, Gov. Saunders. The society at that time was 
entirely a volunteer gift to the people. There was no appro- 
priation. 

The meetings were among those who were interested solely 
because they believed in the future growth of the state. During 
those years, these meetings were held in connection with the 
agricultural society, and what little we had to report was print- 



PROCEEDINGS. 29 

ed in a pamplet from the agricultural society. But in about 
1885 the society was divorced and begun to publish its own re- 
ports, and since then it has been on its own resources, and I 
believe there is nothing that has gained better results to the 
citizens than the reports and workings of this society. 

I am a great believer in horticulture. I believe in having the 
fruit furnished in our midst. Every farmer should have his own 
orchards. I believe it is to the health of the community. I be- 
leive that where you find a good horticultural region that the 
doctors suffer. 

I want to say I am very sorry Mr. Harrison is not here. He 
is an old timer. I know he could have given this subject so 
much better that I regret that he is not here. I can say for the 
society that we appreciate what is here from the citizens of 
Aurora. We are surprised at their beautiful buildings and 
surrounding country, and we will try to make them believe 
that some of their citizens will receive benefit from our good 
advice. (Applause.) 



The President: We would like to have a few words of 
greeting from Mr. W. W. Tatum, President of the Columbian 
Club of Aurora. 

GREETING. 

Mr. W. W. Tatum : Mr. President, Members of the State Horti- 
cultural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I have been led to believe that no one is allowed to speak here 
by proxy. Had I known the truth I would have gotten my 
brother Bald to speak for me. They limit me to two minutes; 
they thought I would get wound up. 

Nevertheless, I am glad to greet you this morning. It looks 
as if you were well off. I should judge from your looks you 
were fed on peaches and cream. I am especially glad to extend 
an invitation to this association to our club room to an enjoyable 
time while sojourning in our city. Our club is also a social club, 
and each member has been appointed a committee of one to 
give you any courtesy in their power, and we hope you will take 
advantage of this opportunity; The subject of horticulture is 



30 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

very near to the heart of the average person, but as to its relative 
merits, of the different fruits commercially, or their production, 
I will leave it to those who are prepared to discuss it. 

Again, I would extend to you a very cordial welcome, and a, 
very jcordial invitation to the club room at any time, and the 
room is as free to you as it is to any menber (Applause). 

Mr. Marshall: One thing ought to be thought of, and that 
is the fruit districts which Mr. Saunders spoke of. The state is 
divided into nine fruit districts; I believe formerly, it was divid- 
ed into six districts some years ago, when the districts were 
considered too large. At that time the state was again divided, 
making nine districts. And now we fully realize that the 
districts are too large. I believe the state ought to be divided 
into twenty or twentyfive, and it seems to me it would be a 
good time to discuss this matter now, and if thought advisable, 
have the chairman appoint a committee to take this matter up, 
and report on it at the annual meeting. But if we never take it 
up we will never get it divided. I believe the old members real- 
ize that it should be divided into smaller districts. There is 
Mr. Youngers at Geneva, and Mr. Swan, who lives at Tecumseh, 
I believe are in the same district. No. 1. Thus, we can take the 
same list of fruit that Mr. Swan wants to grow at Tecumseh, 
and that which the president (Mr. Christy) would want to grow 
in Nemaha county, and if we ask Mr. Youngers if that was a good 
fruit for his district, he should say no. That is the reason we 
make these districts. I believe it would be well to consider 
them at this time and see if it is not possible to divide them up 
into 20 or 25 districts. The eastern part of the state certainly 
needs to be divided into smaller districts. And in order to get 
this question properly before the house, I will make a motion 
that the chair be authorized to appoint a committee to investigate 
the matter of dividing the districts again, or readjusting them. 

Mr. Youngers: I think it would be well to appoint a com- 
mittee of 10, which should be well scattered. I think the com- 
mittee should be at least 10 in number. I know the larger you 
get the committee the more unwieldy it is to get together to do 
business, yet at the same time I think it ought to cover at least 
that many. I think it would be well to let the chairman appoint 
that committee, and let the secretary send out this informa- 



VALUE OF HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION. 31 

tion that we expect them to do some work in their district, 
and come to the winter meeting prepared to help divide the 
state properly. I think that is the best way we can get good 
results. 

Mr. Marshall: With the consent of the second I will in- 
clude that in the motion, that the committee be composed of nine. 

Motion adopted. 

The chair stated that he would announce the members of the 
committee at a later time. Meeting took recess to 2 P. M. 



SECOND SESSION. 

Thursday, July 28th, 2:00 p. m. 

The President : I will announce the names of the Committee 
on Redistricting the State, as follows : 

1. G. A. Marshall, Chairman. 

2. G. A. Strand. 

3. A. J. Brown. 

4. C. H. Barnard. 

5. W. G. Swan. 

6. G. N. Titus. 

7. E. F. Stephens. 

8. H. S. Harrison. 

9. W. F. Jenkins. 

The first thing on the program this afternoon will be an 
address, 

VALUE OF HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

BY HON. E. VON FORRELL, REGENT UNIVERSITY. 

Mr. Forrell: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: "The 
value of horticultural education." Now, I am going to make 
the best speech that has been made, or that is going to be 
made, during this meeting, if you cut out George Marshall and 
Pete Youngers, and am going to begin now. 

We aU recognize the value of agricultural education in the 
common schools, and for all persons. You will appreciate the 
value of horticultural education more as you see what it does. 



32 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

for the home, and for the people of the west especially, in cren- 
eral. The question first arises, when should it be taught, and 
the answer would be, very early in life. If we take the nature 
of the child and the things the child naturally desires, you will 
find the child giving attention, first, to action and location. 
For instance the tree that is grown does not appeal to the 
child only momentarily. But the little child will plant a seed 
and watch the development as it grows; and the corn stalk 
would appeal more to the child than the tree that grows 
slowly. After a while the child begins to give attention to 
form; and then after that, to color, and so on. Tliese things 
come to the child naturaUy early in hfe. It has been said that 
the child is a born naturahst, and I beheve the saying is true, 
for it is an unusual thing for a child to be inattentive to the 
things that they see about them. The little child wishes to 
plant twigs. Nothing interests the child more than the plant- 
ing of seed and the watching of these seeds as they grow, and 
as they develop. It is this time in hfe when the child ought to 
be taught these things, but too frequently we discourage these 
by giving no attention to it ourselves, and thus discouraging 
the child because of our own lack of interest. For instance, if 
the little child takes an interest in the growing twig in the 
yard, and if that is in the way just a little, why we cut it off. 
Tlie little fellow may cry and carry on a little while, but we 
don't care much about that. It didn't suit us; we didn't want 
it there, and therefore, we don't care what Johnnie or Susie 
might think about it. The twig is cut off ruthlessly. It takes 
just a httle of this kind of action to discourage the little boy or 
girl either. If they have a httle box in which they plant some 
seeds and watch them growing, as children oft do, and gladly 
do it, we are thoughtless about helping to protect it, or giving 
it no attention whatever, soon teaches the child that these 
things are of httle consequence, and that as they grow older 
they win naturally discard these things. But if we would take 
an interest in these things the child would continue also to take 
an interest, and that interest would develop until the results 
would be horticulturists of no mean capabilities. 

Tlie question of where it should be taught, it seems to me, 
would be easily answered from what has been said. I know 



VALUE OF HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION. 33 

the colleges are making preparations for this kind of instruc- 
tion. In fact, many of them have made very extensive prepara- 
tions to teach the young men and also the young women who 
will matriculate in the institutions of learning. But it seems 
to me in that we are wrong; not in equipping our colleges for 
this line of education, but waiting until they reach that age, be- 
cause they have passed the period in life when they take an in- 
tense interest in these things. For instance, the child, by 
nature, likes this; she likes the plants, likes to see the insects 
and watch them. They like to see the birds. They take an 
interest in the things that have motion and that are active, and 
in the plants first that show a degree of growth that is rapid; 
that they can see the changes that take place. So the little 
child by nature likes to watch the bud, if it is only a brief time, 
until that bud developes into a full blown flower. That is the 
nature of the child— the natural child; the unnatural child is 
the one who has grown up to manhood or womanhood and gives 
but a passing notice to these things. And it is because they 
have been trained to it because they don't like it. Now the 
truth is, we give a good deal of attention to mathematics when 
the child is small. Tliey must learn to count the combination 
of numbers; learn to compute early in life. That is the first 
thing in life. The three R's was the first thing that must be 
given the child. Now it seems to me that when the child is 
young in years and wishes to handle bugs and living things, 
either in plant or animal life, we ought to give most attention to 
the development of these things which are natural to the child; 
but instead of that we give the child abstract things, and the 
child deals with abstract propositions. 

Now after a while we reach that age of the child when we 
wish to reason from the known to the unknown. We wish to 
study philosophy, chemistry and such sciences as that, and we 
take an interest in geology possibly, and all that. Now when 
they have reached that age of development, when they naturally 
take hold of these sciences, we say to them, you must go back 
and study plants, must study insects, and so we give them 
college names, and we say you will study botony and plant 
structure; you will study entomology and biology and those 
sciences that the child by nature is prepared in early life to 



34 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

study. It does not require a man whose locks are silvered to 
know a f?reat deal about the bugs, animals and plants, but the 
child's desires to know these things. Take a four-year-old 
child, or five-year-old child, and at this time just stimulate the 
interest that is already awake; at this time you develope those 
instincts that are alive in the child, and after a while you will 
find that he is fond of nature, a man who lives close to nature. 
It does not make him the less of a mathematician. It does not 
dwarf his instincts for phylosophical research, but it makes 
him a better philosopher, a better mathematician. He knows 
more about these things simply because they have come in 
their logical order. He is not bound, dwarfed and stunted 
upon physical things, not at all, but when he has reached the 
age when these studies should be considered, he will take hold 
of them readily and they will unfold in their natural order. 
We have reversed the thing. We have taught them mathe- 
matics and phylosophy. Tried to stimulate the instincts of 
men and women in things already lost; we tried to bring them 
back to that day when they might again enjoy to wander in the 
grass and look at the leaves on the trees and watch the insects 
as they crawl in the grass, and observe nature's things. We 
have reversed the order and therefore have incapacitated men 
from their childhood from the highest usefulness that they 
might have obtained because of this reverse in the natural 
order of things. But the college is doing a great deal in this 
line, and so the societies are doing a great deal in this line. I 
used to think if I bought a lot and I was permitted to build, and 
ever had money enough to build a house, I used to think I 
wanted an east front, a southeast corner best of all. I have 
changed my mind. I think I would rather have a west front 
and have the shade in the back yard in the afternoon. The 
term horticulture means, hortus— garden, and cultra— culture, 
to cultivate, from which we get this word. It means cultiva- 
tion of garden hterally, while agriculture means the cultivation 
of a field, and gives us an impression of a larger service. At 
least horticulture has the idea of a cultivation of the garden. I 
think if we live more in our back yards than on the front 
porches we would be a more domestic and better people. I 
think a nice lawn is beautiful. There is nothing in that seclu- 



VALUE OF HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION. 35 

sion, there is nothing of that domestic relationship that seems 
to be suggested by the standard backyard, and so I think I 
would hke in the evening, when the sun is set in the west, to 
take the family in the backyard and there have the trees that I 
planted there, and the flowers that have been growing there, 
and the arbor that has been fixed there, and all that one might 
enjoy, all the pleasing things one could enjoy. I think I would 
rather have my backyard in the best place I could find. Why 
should we try to imitate the bleakness of our prairies in an at- 
tempt to beautify our homes? I think a httle more shrubbery 
and those things cultivated in the backyard make it the most 
pleasant place to spend your evenings with your family. The 
arrangement of things might be reversed from the conventional 
idea for a pleasant home. 

The value of this education too would satisfy the youth and 
make him feel more at home in its surroundings. While horti- 
culture is generally attributed to the man who is growing fruit, 
and is becoming to incorporate the individual who is growing 
the fruit for commercial purposes, it also appeals to the indi- 
vidual who lives in the cities and towns, where the cultivation 
of flowers and plants is the consideration. And it is valuable 
because it developes the aesthetic and finer sensibilities of the 
individual. I think for a man who comes home from the busi- 
ness of the day, when his mind has been kept occupied with the 
deahngs of the counting room or in any different business he 
might be engaged in, when he comes home and sits among lots 
of flowers and shrubs and trees and plants that are growing 
about him, it seems to be a rest. It will recreate him and make 
him prepared and fitted for another day's work. Now it is well 
understood, it is certainly well known, that man's rest has 
much to do with his honesty; that a man must have the proper 
kind of recreation in order that he might live right with his 
fellow men. It is said that from eight to twelve hours is neces- 
sary for a man to rest. It is not sufficient by the best educa- 
tors who have studied this question for the average, and so one 
day in the week is set apart for rest. And I tell you why I 
think it ought to be observed — from humanitarian standpoint, 
from the standpoint of sociability, from every standpoint that 
we may consider today, that twelve, eight or nine hours a day 



36 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is not sufficient to bring about that rest that is necessary. For 
the men who liave studied this question have come to this con- 
clusion, that a man may be trusted on Monday but cannot be 
trusted on Saturday night — the nervous force has been ex- 
pended — and the men are different on Saturday night because 
of this than on Monday morning. The result has been con- 
siderable advance, that one day's rest has brought them back 
to a normal condition. Where could that rest be more complete 
than when you find it where the flowers grow and the trees are 
growing and the birds are singing. My little boy has been 
planting all l^inds of trees in a box, and he enjoys it. He had 
some little beds in the house in which he germinated the seed, 
and there was scarcely a day he did not call my attention to 
these plants. And one day he set a little tree out and the wind 
broke it off, and it nearly broke his little heart at the same time. 
I was glad he felt bad about it. (I think it developes the boy's 
sensibilities in the child to give attention to the things that 
grow.) That a child, when a tree is broken or a shrub is 
injured, has much the same feeling as when a pet bird or cat 
has been hurt, and when you get the feeling stirred up in that 
way the finer sensibilities are cultivated and it is a good thing 
for the child, and when he grows up to manhood you will not be 
surprised to know he is a humanitarian. 

The horticulturalists of this country had not given attention 
to these things to so very large an extent until probably about 
fifty years ago, when we began to do things in earnest. And it 
is in the past century that horticulture has had its highest de- 
velopment in the United States — especially along the line of 
fruit growing. And it is said no country in the world has 
made the advancement that America has made along these 
lines. If this is true, and I think it is, we can justly feel proud. 
There may have been men who have discovered great things, 
made inventions that benefitted mankind, but I believe the man 
who made two spears of grass to grow where one grew before, 
the men who braved the dangers of this western country, 
braved the dangers of the hot winds and the adverse conditions 
and again began planting the apple, plum and cherry tree and 
improve the fruit of these, have done the world a great deal of 
good, and humanity will call them blessed for the efforts they 



VALUE OF HORTICULTURAL EDUCATION. 37 

have put forth. When in the beginning, in this state, men 
came to this country and said we cannot grow apple trees. A 
gentleman said to me this morning he had been here for thirty- 
five years; he lived in Nemaha county; he said we had no idea 
we could grow an apple in that country, 

I came here twenty-one years ago, and I think that the only 
place they could grow apples was in Richardson, Nemaha and 
Johnson counties, in the southeastern portion of our state. 
About ten years ago they discovered that the northeast part of 
the state was the real place where orchards could grow, it was 
a great apple country. They told me up at Sioux City they 
could grow better apples there than any where in the state of 
Nebraska, and they were filled with hope that these things 
could be done. I know it is only a short time ago that they 
said fruit could not be grown here, and yet we find there beau- 
tiful orchards. A man brought some to my house a few days 
ago; and if any apples made any better sauce than those I 
never saw them. 

The value of horticultural education cannot be over estimated 
for the general welfare of this country. There is nothing in 
the world that advertises a country as a good, substantial farm- 
ing country any better than the plants, flowers and trees that 
you see growing in that country. There is nothing that speaks 
better for a class of people in the world than to see the orchards 
and the meadows and the gardens and the flowers that are in 
blossom. If you show me a community where every home is 
adorned with trees, shrubs and plants, I will show you a com- 
munity where civilization has reached the highest point, it has 
the completest farm. And if you will show me a community 
where the ornaments in the front and back yards are the swine; 
if a man upon his lot will say that he has saved the price of a 
lawn mower by permitting his cow and horse to eat the grass, 
I will show you a condition of retrogression that this country 
should not tolerate. 

We are speaking for better things. I think we depend too 
much upon our lawn mowers and not enough upon cultivation. 
We don't think all our lawns in our villages should be grass 
plots. I think there ought to be a large part of it planted to 
shrubs, trees and flowers of every description, and the children 



38 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that grow up in a place of this kind will have real enjoyment, 
and they will begin to study these things in their natural way. 
Tlie plant as it grows, and the child as it grows, have a kind of 
an affinity one for another. They seem to thrive well together, 
and as they grow one may shead its leaves and the other grow 
in knowledge and wisdom, untill finally by a natural order of 
things he will not forget the plant or love it less; he will not for- 
get the orchard and meadow, he will not love them less but he 
will, possibly because of these things, love his philosophy more, 
not because he does not know of these others but because he 
does know of them, and appreciate them, 

I think this horticultural society means much good where- 
ever these sessions are held in the community in which they 
meet. I only hope and only trust that we can enjoy more of the 
association of men who give this their thought, give this their 
attention, because certainly if their is one thing that speaks 
well for humanity it is the growing of trees, of shrubs and of 
beautiful flowers in general (Applause). 



The President : We are pleased to listen to such an address. 
We are glad to know that it is not only the people that are here 
today who will receive the benefits of these proceedings, but re- 
member we are speaking to an audience of 10,000 people through 
our reports, so that every thing said here is reported in short- 
hand and goes to a larger audience than what we now see. This 
that we have just listened to should be published in every educa- 
tional paper in the United States; school teachers throughout the 
United States ought to hear that as well as horticulturists. I 
hope they will. The next address will be by Frank Harris, on 

"HOW I GROW CHERRIES." 

Mr. HarrlS: Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: My talk 
is on "How I Grow Cherries". I suppose all of you know how 
to grow cherries. Thousands of them have been trying it, and. 
I suppose they know as much as I do. 

The first thing to do is to prepare your ground in order that 



HOW TO GROW CHERRIES. 39 

you may grow cherries. Have your ground plowed from seven 
to eight inches deep and mulch that ground throughly. Then 
order your trees. Put out your trees as they should be. See 
that the roots of those trees are not broken. Cut your limbs off 
all excepting two or three runners, train your tree pro- 
perly and keep it that way. There are many who think when 
they order trees from the nursery that the tree should 
be attended to in the nursery. But it is like a pig in the pen. 
There are those who will put a pig in a pen, and then say we have 
got him in the pen, and we have got nothing more to do until 
we get ready to sell him. But trees are not that way. In order 
to get anything out of trees you have got to keep them grow- 
ing. The tree after it once gets bark bound, becomes as 
a runty pig, it will not produce its fruit its natural size. It 
stands there and the bark gets hard on it; the leaves look sickly 
and very small. But I will tell you the way to prevent it, the 
way I do, everybody else don't do that way. 

When I see a tree that is that way, I make up a bucket of 
strong soap suds and go at that tree and rub it thoroughly with 
it, and let it dry. And then I take about three table spoonfuls 
of salt and have half a quart of flour and mix that with white- 
wash, about 8 quarts, then I go over that tree. I do so with all 
my trees. That keeps the bark tender, the tree growing, and 
it produces fruit as nice as you ever saw. That is the way I do. 
I find that I have better luck that way than I do other ways. 

I have also tried other trees, just put them in the ground and 
let them grow like other people would. But it was not a suc- 
cess. The tree soon becomes grown up with ordinary sprouts 
on the sunny side and they will soon take the strength from the 
tree and don't let the sap circulate in the tree as it should; then 
the tree will have very small leaves and small fruit and hence 
does not produce its natural size. In order to have any thing 
you have got to attend to it. If you plant corn and leave it there 
until gathered, it wiU be a mistake. The corn has to be tended 
to; the same with trees. Then you can see what the tree will 
do. I have six trees that are sixteen years old. There 
shows the fruit in the can (indicating to can of fruit.) Seven 
bushels and eighteen quarts on one tree; and that was not the 
largest tree. I intend to get the amount that grew on the largest 



40 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tree, but I had a party picking it and they got them mix- 
ed up, therefore, I kept track of the next largest tree, and 
all the same size as you see there. (Those are the smallest 
cherries I raised there.) Off of twenty trees I raised seventy- 
two bushels of cherries and sold all for a $1.50 a bushel and 
gave a good round measure. If there is anybody here who got 
some I would like to see their faces (applause.) I dont believe 
in cheating a man. If I cheat a man out of a dollar, I believe I 
will lose $10. I believe in being honest with a man. That is 
the way my cherries are, as you see them, the whole orchard 
that I have. Out of twenty trees, seventy two bushels of cherr- 
ies came off the trees, and that is the size they are. I would 
like to have you all see my orchard. Of course it is just smaU, 
but my trees are not trained like other people train theirs. I 
trim my trees up so that the tree may devlope the fruit its nat- 
ural size, and you can see there what it is. But by letting it 
grow up in ordianary sprouts it will make a weak and sickly tree 
and will not produce its fruit as it ought to. Therefore, I find that 
I have better luck by doing that than I would to let it grow. 
Lots of people want their trees to bush down to the ground so 
that the limbs will protect the body of the tree from the sun. 
I say trim your tree up and scrub it— it does a person good 
lots of times (laughter) and I say do your trees the same. Then 
after you do that put that whitewash on it, that is a great pro- 
tection from the sun, and also keeps the bark tender, and the 
tree wiU then grow and produce its fruit right. But of all the 
growing cherries here I will take the Early and Late Richmond 
for Nebraska. When a tree grows seven bushels and eighteen 
quarts of cherries that is good enough for me. I came here in 
an early day, and when I came here the people told me you 
could not raise fruit in this country. Of course I brought a lot 
of seed with me that I planted, and thought I would try it that 
way, and I found out that you could get trees from the nursery- 
men that would do a great deal better. So I had a little means, 
and I bought me a little place here in town and bought a few 
trees. My wife says, "What do you want to put out those little 
bushes for, they will not amount to anything. " But I find today 
that she is very glad to receive the money that has come from 
them. 



DISCUSSION. 41 

Now in raising cherries, they want to be cultivated, and keep 
the ground around the tree pretty loose; the looser the better, 
and the faster then the tree wiU grow. When the tree becomes 
hidebound and grows up around it and packed around the tree 
it is not good for the tree; it becomes sickly and dies out in a 
few years. My trees today sixteen years old are as nice and 
green as those I put out a year ago. I see trees set out since mine 
of the same kind of cherry; they are dead, limbs sawed off and 
tops broken, all like that. Of course, last year my trees were 
all full of bloom when the sleet came, and they all bent down to 
the ground. If I hadn't tended my trees, the limbs would have 
been dry and then would have broken off. I keep my trees ten- 
der and they bent to the ground and they didn't break off, and 
you see the result of what I got off from them here. I have six 
acres south of town that I planted in fruit trees, and my cher- 
ries and other trees that I put out have made a growth of three 
feet this season. And cherries I put out a year ago this spring 
had from each a quart of cherries on, as nice as I ever saw, and 
I ordered the trees from Harrison Bros, of York, and I find 
that that nursery suits me; and my old trees that I got, came 
from that nursery, and I am very well satisfied with it. And I 
have also got half a block that is planted into fruit from Shennan- 
doah, Iowa. That is pretty nice fruit, but my trees are quite as 
nice. I beheve, of course, in getting trees as near home as pos- 
sible, and they suit the soil and climate better, and I think you 
will do a great deal better to do that. I believe that is all I have 
to say. (Applause). 

DISCUSSION. 

A Member: Did you say you cultivated, and did they in- 
crease? 

Mr. Harris: My .old trees, I cultivate them every year, but 
this is the first year I have not spaded around them because I 
had too much to do. 

A Member: You spade around them every year? 

Mr. Harris: Yes sir. 



42 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A Member: What have you in the ground now around the 
old trees? 

Mr. Harris: Grass which is in my lawn; blue grass in the 
lawn. 

A Member: In regard to that late Richmond. Mr. Harris 
might be right about that, but the trees are hard to get. Tlie 
horticulturists know how difficult it is to get together to compare 
these specimens, therefore, we have no way of learning about 
them. From our experience with the Late Richmond, I believe 
he must have something else than the Late Richmond. I could 
not say a good thing for the Late Richmond. For the early 
Richmond I could not say too much. Was that Late Richmond 
light or dark? 

Mr. Harris: Light cherry. 

A Member: Does it have heavy foliage? 

Mr. Harris: Yes sir. 

A Member: Is it about ten days later than the Early Rich- 
mond ? 

Mr. Harris: Yes sir. 

A Member: I wonder if you didn't have Montmorency in- 
stead of Late Richmond? 

Mr. Harris: Wlien I bought my trees I got them for the 
Late Richmond. 

A Member: Did they come in bearing as soon as the Early 
Richmond? 

Mr. Harris: No sir. 

A Member: Couple of years later? 

Mr. Harris: Yes sir. 

A Membp]R: Did you get them from Harrison Bros? 

Mr. HAiiRiS: Yes sir. 

Mr. Williams: I would like to ask Mr. Harris how he meas- 
ured his cherries. I cannot imagine his getting seven bushels 
of cherries from one tree. I think I never saw a tree with over 



DISCUSSION. 43 

three bushels. The question with me is how did he measure 
them? 

• 

Mr. Harris: I measured my cherries in half bushels, and 
gave two half bushels for a bushel. (Applause). 

Mr. Williams: Did you leave the stems on? 

Mr. HLA.RRIS: Yes sir, just as you see them there (indicat- 
ing). If there is anybody here that bought cherries from me, 
they can rise and speak about it. 

Mr. Harrison: Referring to the question of the kind of 
trees these are, I don't think there is any doubt but the tree as 
described, is the Late Richmond; that has fruit that ripens 
ten days after the Early Richmond. 

Mr. Youngers: I wish to state in regard to the Late Rich- 
mond. Thirty years ago all the Montmorency through this 
country were called Late Richmond. We have since discovered 
that they are Mortmorency instead of Late Richmond. I had 
the Montmorency that have been disseminated all through. 

President: The nurserymen are about as ignorant about 
the variety as the people. 

Mr. Youngers: Among the Montmorency, the large one, 
there is a great variety, and there are several types of Mont- 
morency* that all ripen at about the same time, within four or 
five days, but they vary in shape and in size and productiveness, 
and also the growth of the tree; but all of the Montmorency type 
--and we come to the conclusion that the Montmorency ordi- 
narily, as it is known, in the east of New York, is one of the 
most productive Montmorency we have in this state. 

Mr. Swan: Do you ever spray your trees? 

Mr. Harris: No sir. 

Mr. Swan: Just depend on soap? 

Mr. Harris: Yes sir. 

Mr. C. S. Harrison: I was over to Father Dorr's place this 
summer, and he had a large number of Late Richmond trees, 
which he had been growing for years, yet they are shy of cher- 



44 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ries, a little larger than the Early Richmond; they are dark col- 
ored and exceedingly rich, and sweeter cherry. I think there 
is that type of cherry, but we don't want to mix them with the 
Montmorency. I don't think we have got a live Enghsh Morello 
in York County. 

Mk. Youngers: I wish to say that the Terry has stood it as 
good as any tree we have had — equal to the Early Richmond or 
Montmorency. 

Mr. Marshall: I am getting tired of bobbing up and down. 
I want to say something about that cherry. We had some ex- 
perience. Tlie Terry in the nursery will stand a whole lot of 
grief. I remember the greatest we have here to speak of in the 
cherry hne is cold weather. The reason Nebraska has been 
such a good cherry country is because of the glorious sunshine. 
But when we get fifty instead of twenty-two or twenty-nine in- 
ches of rain fall, then the cherry is going to suffer. Now the Terry 
will stand that in the nursery; I cannot explain why it will stand 
that in the orchard while it is young, but about the time it comes 
in bearing it, will turn up its toes. That is the way ours did. 
Now in the nursery they didn't die but Hved and seemed all 
right, but we cannot explain the difference; but it is there 
and shows for itself. 

In regard to that Enghsh Morello, it will out-bear an^^ cherry, 
Early Richmond and all; but it will not stand the amount of cold 
weather w^e have had in the last two years, but if we don't have 
that I will say it will out-bear any of them— even the Early 
Richmond. We have proved it for years and years. It is the 
heaviest bearer we have had. This very sort, the Montmorency 
that Harrison speaks of, I think he will testify, it is the quahty 
that is the best. I don't like the Enghsh Morello. The Enghsh 
MoreUo will be aU right if we have the normal weather and it 
will fruit heavy. But anybody growing it in large quantities 
must expect it to die if we have much rain. 

Mr. Stephens: We are accustomed to regard the horticul- 
tural portion of Nebraska, as confined to the eastern half of the 
state; but there is a western portion of the state, and there the 
Engilsh Morello is a very good fruit. There is one point I wish 



DISCUSSION. 45 

to bring before the meeting, cultivation. Perhaps you all know 
that we have had enthusiasism from the subject of cultivation. I 
have some times thought of the English Morello that cultiva- 
tion was like whiskey; in winter a man takes it to keep warm, 
and in summer time to keep cool or rather guard againts heat. 
The English Morello — we have had two or three very wet sea- 
sons, and it has been very hard on all of the roots of these 
cherries, but the thorough cultivation has carried our English 
Morello cherries through and saved nearly all of them, and gave 
us a greater growth this year, somewhat heavy growth. We 
have succeeded in carrying them through the last two years, 
and kept on enough foliage to keep the trees in a fair condition, 
and carry them forward for the future. In what way does cul- 
tivation assist these trees? We believe that cultivation will not 
only conserve moisture in dry seasons, but if there is an excess 
of rainfalls, it prepares the surface and gives them a better 
growth, and that cultivation is very valuable in wet seasons, and 
we should do a great deal more of it. This particular orchard 
was kept in health by cultivating it twenty-fiv-e times. 

Mr. Harris: You bought your original trees? 

Mr. Stephens: Never got any good out of them. 

Mr. HjlRRIS: a few years ago I got fourteen kinds when I 
was out in Franklin county. They did remarkably well; they 
were very large. I put out a plantation in Colorado under 
ditch, and they out-sold every thing else. I got some seeds of 
late ones. They had them out in September, and I planted, 
but I found like the English Morello they will not stand our 
wet weather. I don't know but in the extreme west they 
might be all right. As soon as these wet seasons come on, 
there are a very few cherries that will stand it. I am speaking 
about these original trees. 

Mr. Bates: I have handled as many kinds of cherries in 
Hamilton county as any other man. The Montmorency does 
fairly weU, next to the Early Richmond. For Hamilton county 
the Early Richmond is the standard cherry. I have had ex- 
perience of thirty years. I would state heavy mulching is just 
as good in my judgment from my experience in raising of fruit 



46 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

trees of over one hundred varieties. For three years cultivate 
them. Mulch heavy until the trees get well set is the proper 
thing. 

Mr. H. S. Harrison: The mulching question may be all 
right when well protected, but there is one objection. That 
is, it brings the roots too near the surface. 

Mr. Swan: In our country, I know they didn't die with the 
wet feet, but they are dead. The balance of them are dying 
now. Mine is on quite a steep hill, and all the heavy rains run 
off, and therefore the wet weather does not kill mine. They 
froze up a year ago last May, and the leaves became yellow, and 
every Morello in my orchard is gone. 

Mr. Beltzer: The gentleman is in favor of mulching. Mr. 
Harrison says it will not do. I want to know whether mulch- 
ing apple, cherry and plum trees will have the same effect as it 
does on cedar trees, to bring the roots up to the ground sur- 
face. Have you experiments? 

Mr. Harrison: We have not. 

Mr. Marshall: Take it for ten years and it will do it every 
time. 

A Member: We have experimented for twentj^ years. I 
mulch them as often as they need it. 

Mr. Beltzer: I find mulching is a benefit from the time 
they are planted until they fruit. 

Mr. Marshall: The impression left with me was, there was 
probably four inches of mulching kept on them all the time. 
Now that will not work. If you do that you will bring the roots 
up. The mulching is all right, but you must let it wear away. 



A TRIP THROUGH THE SOUTHERN ORCHARDS. 

BY MR. PETER YOUNGERS. 

Mr. Youngers: The paper I have prepared on this subject 
is very brief (applause). 



A TRIP THROUGH THE SOUTHERN ORCHARDS. 47 

After the meeting of the American Association of Nursery- 
men, which adjourned June 23rd, we had the pleasure of visit- 
ing the orchards of Central Georgia, through the courtesy 
of the Georgia Central Railroad, and invitations of the 
Orchardists. As we had visited the same section in 1892, we 
were surprised at the immense increase in the planting. In 
1892, the largest orchard of the section contained nearly 100,000 
peach trees. On this trip we visited five orchards containing 
755,000 trees. After we left Atlanta, we were taken to May- 
field, Ga., where some 150 persons were met at the station and 
driven to the orchard of Berckman Bros., which contained 710 
acres, consisting of 130,000 trees, largely peach with a smaU 
per cent of plum and pear. After a delightful drive we reached 
the house and were royally entertained by Berckman Bros., 
they having prepared a real old fashioned Barbecue, consisting 
of eight sheep and four hogs and other good things in propor- 
tion awaiting the hungry nurserymen. The tables were under 
the shade of a great spreading oak, and the drive had created a 
good apetite for all. Peaches were piled high upon the table 
and such good ripe fruit at this season of the year was enjoyed 
by the northern people. After a most delightful time in the 
orchard, we returned to Macon, Ga., and stopped over night. 
This is a very progressive city and has the appearance of being 
very much alive and up to date. 

The next morning we visited the orchard of J. H. Hale, near 
Ft. VaUey. This orchard contains 2,100 acres and has 250,000 
trees. They employ 200 hands and will ship 250 cars of fruit 
this season. 

Our next trip was to the Albaugh orchard, and here we found 
100,000 trees in most excellent condition. As Mr. Albaugh is 
one of the pioneers in peach growing, we were pleased to note his 
success. We also had the pleasure of visiting the orchard of 
of S. H. Rumph, the originator of the Elberta peach. His 
orchard consists of 165,000 trees. He gave the nurserymen a 
most hearty welcome at his home and we fuUy appreciated his 
hospitality. 

Our last trip was to the orchard of E. J. Willingham and 
G. M. Withoft. The Withoft orchard contains 110,000 trees and 
they were in the best possible condition. In aU we visited five 



48 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

orchards, containing 755,000 trees. AU this development of the 
southern fruit industry is the result of the eastern and north- 
ern blood that is developing the south. Ohio and Connecticut 
people are largely interested in bringing about the change. 
From barren fields they have produced train loads of fruit and 
are employing thousands of laborers to develop the south. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Youngers: (After finishing reading his paper states:) 
Georgia in the last 12 years has put out 12,000,000 peach trees. 
A Member: Do you think there is an opportunity for Ne- 
braska to compete with Georgia in the peach business? 

Mr. Youngers: I don't beUeve it is advisable unless_ they 
would form a company and plant on a large scale. In the first 
place the land is so poor you have got to fertilize it; and when 
you get fourteen bushels of corn to the acre, planted at four feet 
apart, one kernal to the hiU, you are getting a good crop- 

A Member: Can you make peach growing as successful in 
Nebraska as they do in Georgia? 

Mr. Youngers: I think you can. They ship their peaches 
to Boston and New York, they don't come in competition with 
the west at aU. I believe if we had orchards large enough so we 
could ship them that way we could make good money in Ne- 
braska. 

Mr. Snodgrass: How do our Nebraska peaches compare 
with Georgia peaches in fiavor ? 

Mr. Youngers: I think the Nebraska peach superior to the 
Georgia peach. We had that tested at the World's Fair, when 
the committee on awards made their award on peaches. They 
gave New Jersey first and Nebraska second in quality. They 
tell us they hadn't any rain for practically three months in 
Georgia. Tliat made considerable difference. When I was 
down in Georgia twelve years ago they were very juicy and 
smaUer than our own, but this year they had no rain for about 
three months. 

Mr. Harrison: I was in Mobile last winter and had a chance 
to observe a little not far from Mobile, and the peach orchards 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 49. 

are rather sad affairs. The scale seems hke a needle which 
enters the stump, and it dies. There were trees there you 
could rake the scales off; they had to cut off the limbs and leave 
nothing but the stump, and then whitewash them. I thought 
we had some advantages in Nebraska. I think Nebraska, from 
w^hat I can see of the United States, has the best show of 
raising peaches of any state in the Union, 

Mr. Swan: Mr. Youngers, you think Nebraska is ahead of 
all of them? 

Mr. Youngers : Yes, for profit and quality. 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS WITH APPLE SCAB AND 

CEDAR RUST. 

BY PROF. R. a. EMERSON , 
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA. 



INTRODUCTION. 

During the past three years two fungous diseases of the apple, 
scab and cedar rust, have been unusally prevalent in eastern 
Nebraska. Of the two, rust has attracted the more attention, 
owing to the fact that the trees attacked by it are often defohated 
and thereby seriously weakened, if not killed. The further fact 
that the rust seriously injures cedar trees has brought it to the 
attention of many who would not otherwise have been concerned 
about it. Scab, on the other hand, becomes noticeable only by 
disfiguring the fruit of certain varieties of apples. As a matter 
of fact, scab is more injurious than is often apparent. It not 
only attacks the fruit but also injures the foliage to such an ex- 
tent that the fruit is sometimes undersized. Moreover, the scab 
very commonly reduces the yield of fruit by attacking the flowers 
or very young fruits, causing them to drop early. This is of 
course a more serious trouble in "off years" than in seasons 
when there is a heavy set of fruit. For instance, after the freeze 
of 1903, which came while the trees were in bloom, there was a 
very noticeable difference in the amount of fruit set on sprayed 
and unsprayed apples, in favor of the sprayed trees.. 



50 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The observations recorded in this bulletin are mainly the re- 
sults of tests of spra.ving"as a preventive of the diseases under 
consideration. The tests of spraying: against apple scab can 
hardly be said to be experimental. They are more in the nature of 
demonstrations. Although spraying for apple scab is in reality 
beyond the experimental stage, tests of the sort reported here 
are of considerable value, since Nebraska fruit growers and 
farmers have not been uniformly successful in their attemps to 
hold scab in check by spraying. As regards cedar rust, the 
work is largely experimental, comparatively few attemps having 
been made before to control it by spraying. 

HOW THE DISEASES WORK. 

Before passing to the consideration of the spraying tests, it 
is well to understand something of what the diseases are and 
how they work. Description of the fungi concerned and detail- 
ed accounts of their life histories are rather for the plant path- 
ologist to undertake than for the horticulturist. Nothing of the 
sort will therefore be attempted in this account. 




Fig. 1 Leaves of Rails Genet apple showing apple scab. 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 



51 




Fig. 2. Winesap and Red June apples showing apple scab. 



Let it be said at the start that "cedar apples, " which are seen 
so commonly on cedar trees in spring, have no relation whatever 
to apple scab but do have a very close relation to the rust on 
apple leaves. Many fungi have two or more stages of growth. 
One stage of apple scab occurs on the foliage, fruit and twigs of 
apple trees during summer and the other on the dead apple leaves 
in winter and spring. Fig. 1 indicates something of the appear- 
ance of scab on the leaves in summer and fig. 2 shows how scabby 
fruits look. At first the scab shows as a brownish discoloration 
in spots on the underside of the leaves, on the flower or fruit 
stems, and on the young fruits. Later the upper surface of the 
leaves shows the disease, appearing as if swollen in spots (see 
fig. 1). The affected fruits often present many small, grayish- 
brown spots of scab and usually a few large patches of a similar 
color. The larger scabs often crack open (see fig. 2). If the 
fruits are badly affected while quite small, they frequently drop 
before they have grown appreciably. Infection takes place in 



52 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL ^OCIETY. 



spring or early summer from the leaves of the preceding year's 
growth. Later the disease spreads from the parts first affected 
to the new grow^th. 

In like manner cedar rust has two stages of growth. One stage 
occurs on the fohage, twigs, and fruits of the apple in summer, 
w^here it appears at first as definite yellowish spots, very unlike 
the rather indefinite brownish spots caused by scab. On sus- 
ceptible varieties the spots increase in size as the season ad- 
vances, often running together to form large patches. By mid- 
summer the affected parts of twdgs and fruits and the lower 
surfaces of leaves show short thread-like growths. On some less 
susceptible varieties, however, the diseased spots remain small 
and undeveloped throughout the summer. The fohage of apples 
is generally much more seriously injured by the rust than the 
fruit is. Apparently only the most susceptible varieiies suffer 
from diseased twigs. Figs. 3, 4, and 5 give some ide& of how the 
disease appears on the leaves, twigs, and fruits of apples. Tlie 
other stage of the rust occurs, not on the apple, but on the 
fohage and twigs of cedar trees, where it appears during fall and 
winter as small, brown knots, commonly called "cedar apples" 




Fig. 3 Leaves of the Wealthy apple, showing cedar rust. 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 



53 




Fig. 4. Twig and leaves of hybrid Prairie Crab apple showing cedar rust. 




Fig. 5. Jonathan apple showing cedar rust on the fruits. 



{see fig. 6, No. 1). With the warm weather of spring, these 
knots produce threadhke tubes (fig. 6, Nos. 2 and 3), which 
when wet with rain grow out into large gelatinous tongues of an 



54 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 







Fig. 6. "Cedar apples" on cedar twigs. No. 1, Winter stage of cedar rust; Nos. 2. 3. and 
4, pring sta{<es of cedar rust. 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 55 

orange-yellow color (fig. 6, No. 4). About this time spores are 
carried by the wind to apple trees, where in turn they produce 
the summer stage of the rust. Spores from the summer 
stage on the apple infect the cedar trees again during late 
summer and autumn. 

RESISTANCE TO RUST AND SCAB. 

Varieties of apples differ widely in their susceptibility to rust 
and scab. While a considerable number of our common vari- 
eties of apples are not very seriously injured by scab, few of them 
are perfectly free from its attacks. Varieties like Ben Davis 
are commonly regarded as so resistant to scab that it does not 
pay to spray them. They are nevertheless, far from being per- 
fectly free from scab. From the behavior of young trees in the 
Experiment Station orchards, Oldenburg, Whitney, Wealthy, 
Salome, and Patten Greening might be said to be almost perfectly 
free from scab. The writer has had no experience with old trees 
of some of these varieties. From the same standpoint. Red 
Astrachan, Windsor, Jonathan, Ingram, York Imperial, Ben 
Davis, Gano, Northwestern, Missouri Pippin, Iowa Blush, and 
Grimes Golden might be called fairly resistant to scab, while 
Winesap, Mammoth Black Twig, Sheriff, RaUs Genet, Virginia 
Beauty, Red June, and Northern Spy would be regarded as very 
susceptible to scab. 

From publications of other Experiment Stations, notably Ala- 
bama and Deleware, from reports received from a few fruit 
growers in this State and from personal observation, the writer 
has prepared the following provisional list of apples commonly 
grow in Nebraska, arranged with reference to their resistance to 
rust. Some of these varieties may have to be changed upon 
further observation, and it is certainly desirbale to add to the 
hst: 



56 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



VarHeties Besistant to Bust. 

Cooper Early- 
Oldenburg 
Early Harvest 
Sweet June 
Yellow Transparent 
Red Astrachan 
Maiden Blush 
Ben Davis 
Gano 
Winesap 

Mammoth Black Twig 
Ralls Genet 
Northwestern 
York Imperial 
Grimes Golden^ 



Varieties Susceptible to Bust. 

Red June 
Wealthy 
Whitney 
Iowa Blush 
Jonathan 
Missouri Pippin 
Grimes Goldeui 
Prairie Crab and its rel- 
atives and hybrids. 



REMOVING CEDAR TREES AS A PREVENTIVE OF RUST 

No less than fifteen Experiment Stations have discussed cedar 
rust in their reports. Ten of them recommend to remove the 
cedar, trees or at least to destroy the cedar apples, and some 
suggest destroying the effected parts of the apple trees. A num- 
ber of reports suggest spraying with some fungicide, like Bor- 
deaux mixture. A few results of practical tests of spraying 
have been reported, some fairly successful, some unsuccessful. 
One of these is of particular interest. In 1890 the Vermont 
Experiment Station- si^rayed an apple tree the limbs of which in- 
terlocked with a badly diseased cedar tree, a second tree near by 
having been left without spraying, as a check. The sprayed 
tree had as many diseased leaves as the unsprayed one, but the 
individual leaves were less seriously affected and remained on 
the tree longer, so that the tree ripened some fruit, while the 
unspraped tree lost both leaves and fruit. The test was re- 

The following 



peated in 1891 with about the same results. 



1 Grimes Golden is reported as being susceptible to rust, but trees on the Experi- 
ment station grounds have shown none of the disease. 



2 Vt. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rpt. 1S90. pp. 1.39. 140; 1891. i). 133; 1892, pp. 8.3, 84. 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 57 

-winter all cedar trees in the orchard and for a mile on all sides 
were destroyed, with the result that in 1892 not a single tree 
was rusted in the whole orchard, where for some years before 
most of the trees had been badly affected. Where the removal 
of cedar trees can be accomplished without difficulty it is per- 
haps the best method to follow, but in many cases the orchardist 
does not control all the cedar trees in the vicinity of his orchard, 
and, moreover, in some parts of Nebraska the cedar trees are as 
valuable as the apple trees. In such cases something else 
must be done if we wish to grow the varieties that are suscep- 
tible to the rust — and some of our most desirable sorts are very 
susceptible. 

PLAN OF SPRAYING TESTS. 

In the spraying tests against apple scab and cedar rust, six 
varieties of apples were used, namely, Ralls Genet, MaidenBlush, 
Winesap, Sweet June, Jonathan, and Wealthy. Of these, only 
the last two are troubled with rust, while all of them except 
Wealthy are usually injured by scab. The Wealthy, Sweet June, 
and Winesap trees used in the tests were young, the first two 
being five years old and the last one eight years old. The Rails 
Genet, Jonathan, and Maiden Blush were old trees standing in 
a neglected orchard. Of the rust-susceptible, varieties, the 
Jonathan trees stood over a quarter of a mile from the nearest 
cedar tree that showed any rust. The Wealthy trees were in 
two blocks, one on low land close to and almost surrounded by 
cedar trees badly affected by rust, and the other on high land 
somewhat farther from cedar trees 

In aU tests the spray mixture used was liquid Bordeaux of 
the ordinary strength, about four pounds of copper sulphate 
and four pounds of quicklime to fifty gallons of water (see direct- 
ions for iDreparing Bordeaux mixture, pagfe 19). The spraying was 
very thorough in every case. Ther fist spraying was given April 
26 and 27, soon after the apple leaf buds had begun to expand 
and when the characteristic tubes had begun to break from the 
brown knots on the cedar trees. This spraying included Jona- 
than, Wealthy, Sweet June, and Ralls Genet. The second 



58 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

spraying including the same varieties, followed on May 7 
and 9, about twelve days after the first, when the apple 
flowers were beginning to open. The rainy weather of about 
this time had caused the cedar apples to enlarge rapidly and to 
assume the characteristic orange color and gelatinous character. 
The third spraying came sixteen days after the second, or May 
23, in case of Johathan and Ralls Genet, and nineteen days after 
the second spraying, May 28, for the Wealthy and Sweet June. 
Maiden Blush and Winesap trees were now sprayed for the first 
and only time. May 23 for the former and May 27 for the latter. 
At the time of this last spraying the blossoms had fallen from 
most varieties of apple. No trace of scab was yet seen. The 
cedar apple were apparently still in a condition to give off rust 
spores. No rust was visible on either the sprayed or unsprayed 
Wealthy or Jonathan trees, though rust spots were showing 
plainly on the leaves of the prairie crab and prairie hj^brids in 
the same vicinity. 

To determine the amount of cedar rust on sprayed and un- 
sprayed trees, one-hundred leaves were picked at random from 
various trees and afterwards examined for rust spots, the num- 
ber of rusted leaves and the total number of rust spots being 
noted. This was done in the latter part of July. The preval- 
ence of scab on the sprayed and unsprayed trees was determined 
approximately at about the same time by simply examining from 
one-hundred to two-hundred fruits per tree. Later when the 
apples were picked, all the fruits except in case of Jonathan- 
were examined and the amount of scab on different trees deter- 
mined more accurately. The fruits were put into two classes, 
"scabby" and "not scabby," the former if they had any large 
spots of scab or several small ones, the latter if they were free 
from scab or showed only a few small spots of it. 



RESUT.TS OF SPRAYING FOR RUST. 

The results of the season's work against cedar rust on apple 
trees are given in the following table: 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 



59« 



Table I. Effect of spraying on cedar rust. 







No. of 


Tree 
No. 


Variety. 


spray- 
ings. 




1 




1, 2 


Wealthy 





3, 4 


( ( 


2 


5, 6 


u 


2 


7, 8 


( ( 


2 


9, 10 


" 2 


3 


11-13 


Wealthy 





14-16 


a 


1 


17-19 


a 


2 


20-22 


(( 


3 


23 


Jonath'n 





24 


(( 





25 


(( 


1 


26 


( ( 


1 


27 


i i 


2 


28 


(( 


2 


29 


(( 


2 


30 


(( 


3 



Dates of Spraying. 



Apr. 27, May 28 

Apr. 27, May 9, 

May 9, May 28 

Apr. 27, May 9, May 28 

ZZ'. '^ZZZ. May 28 

May 9, May 28 

Apr. 27, May 9, May 28 



Apr. 26, 

May 23 

Apr. 26, May 23 

Apr. 26, May 23 

May 7, May 23 

Apr. 26, May 7, May 23 



Per cent 


Total num- 


of leaves 


ber of rust 


rusted. 


spots. ] 


30 


43 


19 


31 


12 


20 


4 


4 


4 


4 


77 


260 


48 


97 


9 


18 


6 


9 


48 


115 


46 


106 


42 


104 


45 


120 


43 


110 


45 


112 


7 


11 


10 


15 



Average 

number of 

rust spots- 

per rusted 

leaf. 



1.4 
1.6 
1.7 
1.0 
1.0 
3.4 
2.0 
2.0 
1.5 
2.4 
2.3 
2.5 
2.7 
2.6 
2.5 
1.6 
1.5 



1 Some distance from cedar trees. 

2 Close to diseased cedar trees. 

From the above table it will be seen that a tree sprayed late 
in April and not again sprayed showed practically as much rust 
as unsprayed trees. Moreover, trees given the three sprayings 
were, as a rule, no freer from rust than trees which received 
only the two later sprayings. This indicates that the early 
sprayings had little, almost no, effect in keeping the foliage of 
apple trees free from rust. The third spraying late in May, 
gave somewhat better results than the first spraying, though it 
came too late to control the rust well. With Wealthy apples al- 
most surrounded by cedar trees, one spraying, on May 28, re- 
duced the number of rusted leaves by about one third and the 
number of rust spots by two thirds, while in case of Jonathan 
apples not close to cedar trees a single spraying on May 23 did 
not appreciably affect the amount 'of rust. In fact, Jonathan 
trees sprayed twice, April 22 and again May 23, showed practi- 
cally as much rust as unsprayed trees. The second spraying, May 
7 and 9, however, gave very satisfactory results in almost every 
case. While it happened that no tree was given this early May 
spraying alone, yet practically every tree given this spraying, 



60 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

wheather in combination with the early or late spraying or with 
both, showed comparatively little rust. In fact, with the Jona- 
than trees the spraying of May 7 was the only one that proved 
to be of any particular value. Trees sprayed at this time show- 
ed an average of thirteen rust spots per hundred leaves as against 
an average of 111 rust spots per hundred leaves for unsprayed 
trees and 112 spots for all trees sprayed at times other than 
May 7. 

This experence is of great practical importance. The results 
show conclusively that spraying at the wrong time, no matter 
how thoroughly done, is useless, while spraying at the proper 
time gives excellent results. Of course it is not to be assumed 
from this that spraying on this particular date in early 
May will give the best results every year. What we should 
learn from this test is that we must watch the "apples" on the 
cedar trees and spray nonresistant varieties of apple trees thor- 
oughly as soon as the cedar apples have begun to enlarge, be- 
come gelatinous and orange-colored, the changes which indicate 
that the rust spores will soon be spreading the infection broad- 
cast. 

RESULTS OF SPRAYING FOR SCAB. 

The results of spraying for apple scab are shown in the follow- 
ing table: 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 



61 



Table II. — Effect oj spraying on a/pple scab. 



Tree 
No. 



1,2 
3,4 

5 

6 

7-9 
10-12 
13-15 
16-18 
19-21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 



Variety. 



Wines ap 



Maiden Blush. 
Sweet June 



U ii 

Jonathan.. 



Ralls Genet 



u 
(( 



No. of 
spray- 
ings. 




1 

1 

1 
1 
2 
3 


1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 


1 
2 
2 
3 



Dates of spraying. 



May 27 
May 23 



May 9, 

May 28 

May 9, May 28 

Apr. 27, May 9, May 28 



No. of Fruits. 



Scabby 



Apr. 26, 

May 23 

Apr. 26, May 23 

Apr. 26, May 23 

May 7, May 23 

Apr. 26, May 7, May 23 



Apr. 26, 

May 7, May 23 

May 7, May 23 

Apr. 26, May 7, May 23 



248 

36 

1.33 

12 

39 

20 

10 

2 

2 

54 

49 

46 

2 



1 





1185 

210 

80 

4 

13 

16 



Not 
scabby 



63 

169 

71 

273 

11 

30 

40 

48 

48 

46 

51 

54 

98 

100 

99 

100 

100 

400 

59 

25 

258 

252 

1411 



Per 

cent of 

scabby 

fruit. 



80 

13 

65 

4 

78 

40 

20 

4 

4 

54 

49 

46 

2 



1 





75 

78 

76 

2 

5 

1 



In the records of the tests given in the above table, two or 
three facts stand out with special prominence. (1) The un- 
sprayed fruit was very scabby, running from about 50 per cent 
in case of Jonathan to 80 per cent with Winesap. (2) The first 
spraying, April 26 and 27, when the leaf buds were just open- 
ing, afforded no protection to the fruit. Trees sprayed late in 
April and not sprayed afterwards, had practically as scabby 
fruit as unsprayed trees. (3) The third spraying, May 23 and 
28, gave very good results. Winesap trees sprayed only once 
late in May showed only about 13 per cent of scabby fruit as 
against 80 per cent for unsprayed trees, and Maiden Blush only 
4 per cent of scab on sprayed as against 65 per cent on un- 
sprayed trees (see figs. 7 and 8), (4) The second spraying, 
May 7 and 9, while beneficial in practically all cases, was not 
quite so eifective in controlling scab as the later spraying. (5) 
The best results followed two sprayings, one early and one late 
in May. This is well shown in case of Sweet June, where an 



■62 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

unsprayed tree had 78 per cent of scab, one sprayed early in 
May, 40 per cent, one sprayed late in May, 20 per cent, and an- 
other sprayed both early and late in May, only 4 per cent. 

Tlie failure of the early spraying to give valuable results this 
year may not mean that early spraying can safely be omitted 
other seasons. Scab was rather slow in starting last spring, 
which may account for the poorer results from early than from 
late spraping. 

INJURY FROM SPRAYING. 

Some of the apples, notably Jonathan, were injured consider- 
•ably by the spraying of May 23. The fruit was badly russeted 
on one side. In the worst cases the injury took the form of one- 
sided development of the fruits. Whether the injury was due 
to an overdose of the spray, to improperly made Bordeaux, to 
the green arsenoid used with the Bordeaux, or to the extreme 
tenderness of the Jonathan fruits, it is impossible to say. Color 
is lent to the latter supposition by the fact that Maiden Blush, 
Ralls Genet, and Oldenburg, sprayed the same day and with 
exactly the same spray mixture, were injured very slightly, 
scarcely being russeted at all. 

The marked effect which spraying has in lessening scab is 
shovm more clearly by photographs than by columns of figures 
in tables. Figs. 7 and 8 are from photographs of sprayed and 
unsprayed apples shown as a part of the spraying exhibit made 
by the Experiment Station at the Nebraska State Fair of 1904. 
The difference between the sprayed and unsprayed trees shown 
at the Fair was so marked that some skeptical persons sug- 
gested that the poorest of the unsprayed fruit and the best of 
the sprayed fruit had been chosen. As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, the exhibit was a i)erfectly fair one and showed the actual 
average condition of the fruit on sprayed and unsprayed trees. 
The specimens were taken at random, the only selection allowed 
being the throwing out of the smallest fruits from each lot. As 
a matter of fact, the difference between the sprayed and un- 
sprayed fruit in the Experiment Station exhibit at the Fair was 
but little greater than the difference between the exhibits of the 
^several orchardists who showed fruit for premiums. Except 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 



63 




Fig. 7. Maiden Blush and Winesap apples sprayed once with Bordeaux mixtui-e (as 
exhibited at the State Fair. 1904). 








Fig. 8. Maiden Blush and Winesap apples not sprayed (as exhibited at the State 
Fair, 1904), 



64 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



in case of scab-resistant varieties, one could tell at a glance 
whether a particular exhibit had come from a sprayed or an un- 
sprayed orchard. If the general exhibits had been labeled, 
there would indeed have been little need for the spraying"ex- 
hibit made by the Experiment Station. 





Fig. 9. Leaves of Ralls Genet apple sprayed (on ris^ht) and unspraj-ed (on left). 

That spraying has a beneficial effect on the foliage"^of apple 
trees as well as on the fruit can be seen from fig. 9, which 
shows leaves from sprayed and unsprayed trees. 

PREPARATION AND USE OF BORDEAUX MIXTURE. 

The character of Bordeaux mixture varies greatly, according 
to the way in which it is made. The following method of per- 
paring it, now very generally employed throughout the coun- 
try, has been found to give best results and should be adhered 
to quite rigidly. To make Bordeaux mixture, take — 
4 pounds quicklime (stone lime.) 
4 pounds copper sulphate (blue vitriol). 
50 gallons water. 



SPRAYING EXPERIMENTS. 65 

Slack the lime carefully and acid water to make twenty-five gal- 
lons. Dissolve the copper sulphate in water and dilute the so- 
lution to make twenty-five gallons. Mix the two solutions to- 
gether by pouring first a pailful of one and then of the other 
into a third vessel. Never mix the solutions while warm. The 
Ume is best slacked a day or two before being used, so that it 
will be perfectly cool. Strain the mixture as it is poured into 
the spray barrel or tank. Made in this way, Bordeaux mixture 
should remain in suspension in the water for some hours, but if 
the solutions are mixed together in concentrated form and then 
diluted by adding water to make up the fifty gaUons or if they 
are mixed while hot, the resulting mixture settles very quickly, 
making it difficult to distribute it evenly in spraying. Bordeaux 
mixture should be used while fresh. After it has once settled 
it can never be made to stay in suspension well again. The 
copper sulphate solution can be kept indefinitely, and the lime 
will also keep well if the water is not allowed to evaporate, leav- 
ing it dry. When the two ingredients are brought together, 
however, the mixture should be used within a fevv hours at 
most. It is often desirable to make up stock solutions of the 
lime and copper sulphate in sufficient quantity to last through- 
out the season. When this is practiced it is common to dissolve 
the copper sulphate at the rate of one pound to the gallon of 
water and to make up the lime mixture in the same way, aUow- 
ing one pound of stone lime for each gallon of water. The lime 
and copper sulphate can then be diluted and mixed at any time, 
just previous to spraying. 

If desired, Paris green or any other of the arsenic poisons 
may be added to Bordeaux mixture to kill the apple worm and 
other insects which may feed upon the fruit or leaves of the ap- 
ple. It is especially important to add poison with the Bordeaux 
mixture at the second spraying for scab — soon after the blos- 
soms have fallen. Use from one-fourth to one-third pound of 
Paris green to 50 gallons of Bordeaux mixture. 

Copper sulphate solution and Bordeaux mixture should never 
be kept in iron receptacles, but will not injure wooden, earthen, 
copper, or brass vessels. The spray pump should always have 
brass working parts — valves, cylinders, etc. 



66 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The best spray is a fine mist. To get this it is necessary to 
have a good nozzel and a fairly high pressure. The tree should 
be sprayed until all the foliage is wet as with dew, but not until 
the mixture runs off from the leaves as in a rain. The spraying 
must be thorough. Every leaf should be hit if possible. Where 
whole limbs are missed, as often occurs with careless work- 
men, uniformly good results can not be expected. One or two 
sprayings carefully and thoroughly done are better than several 
sprayings carelessly applied, and are certainly much cheaper 
in both labor and material. 

Bordeaux mixture adheres to fohage very well. When once 
it has dried onto the leaves, it is not easily washed off even by 
heavy rains. In the spraying tests of the past season it hap- 
pened that a heavy rain fell within a day or two after almost 
every application of the spray, and yet the mixture was plainly 
visible on the foliage for two or three months after it was ap- 
phed. On one occasion the spraying had to be stopped on ac- 
count of rain which came w^hile the spray was being applied. 
The next day it was found necessary to renew the application 
in case of such trees as had been sprayed within perhaps the 
last half hour before the rain. Trees sprayed earher in the day 
so that the spray had dried on the leaves before the rain, did 
not need respraying. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

CEDAR RUST. 

The tests here described indicate that cedar rust can be held 
in check, even in the case of varieties that ordinarily rust bad- 
ly, by spraying the apple trees with Bordeaux mixture in 
spring when the apples on cedar trees are becoming gelatinous 
and orange-colored (fig. 6, No. 4), followed by a second spraying 
ten days or two weeks later. Picking and destroying the cedar 
apples during winter or early spring should prove of advantage 
but has not been tested here. The destruction of cedar trees 
for a distance of not less than a mile from the orchard, as is of- 
ten recommended, will undoubtedly prove beneficial. This 
remedy, however, for various reasons can not always be em- 
ployed. It is not, therefore, to be expected that this method of 
controlling cedar rust will be adopted except in rare cases. 



DISCUSSION. 67 

Spraying will probably have to be resorted to by most apple 
growers whose orchards are near cedar trees, unless the varie- 
ties most susceptible to rust are discarded, and it is unlikely 
that such varieties as Wealthy and Jonathan, for instance, will 
be given up soon. 

APPLE SCAB. 

The tests described in this bulletin indicate that apple scab 
can be controlled by spraying with Bordeaux mixture just be- 
fore the apple blossoms open and again soon after the blossoms 
fall. It should be noted that during the past season the two 
sprayings recommended for apple scab practically coincide in 
time with the two sprayings for cedar rust, though the earlier 
of the recommended sprayings gave the better results in case 
of rust, and the later of the two better results in case of scab. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Harris: Why not check the trees in some way? 

Prof. Emerson: A very common recommendation is to 
check the cedar tree with an ax, get it out of the way. It is a 
valuable tree in some parts of the state, and in others it is not. 
The spraying acts too as a good result this year. We are now 
carrying on some experiments in spraying cedar trees. We 
cannot tell a thing about it until winter. We spray the cedar 
tree if it will do any good. I don't know yet. If it wiU do any 
good with spraying it must be done from this time on. Prom 
this time on the cedar rust comes from the cedar tree to the 
apple. It may be possible to keep it off of the cedar tree, but 
we don't know yet as to that. I have never seen any cedar 
trees kiUed by this disease, though I have had reports to 
this effect. 

There is another disease working on cedar trees, which is a 
kind of a fly or blight which I don't know anything about. 
Whether these reports that come to me are true I cannot say. 
I have never seen a cedar tree yet that was killed by disease. I 
have seen apple trees absolutely defoliated. 

Mr. YoungerS: Have you ever seen the cedar tree attacked? 
Prof. Emerson: I don't know that I have. 



68 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Beltzek: Talk about these cedar trees. I don't believe 
in cutting them down; in same parts of the state I imagine the 
cedar trees are as valuable as the apple trees. I w^ant to say 
that on Platte Valley there vv^as a lady experimenting wath this 
cedar rust, and she commenced to use w^ood ashes v^hen the 
dew was on, or just after a rain, and that tree looked a hundred 
per cent better. There was a cedar ball there, and I examined 
it, and it seemed dead. My opinion is that the spraying did 
some good. There are trees twenty years old in our county 
that haven't died. 

Prof. Emerson: In the lasttwo years there has been abhght. 
I don't think it is business for horticulturists to study the 
fungus diseases; I think that is the business of the botanists. I 
think it is their duty to try to control these diseases. I cannot 
study these diseases as botanists do, I haven't had the training 
in this line. 

Mr. J. R. Davidson: Will spraying do much good if followed 
immediately by heavy rains? How do you manage to keep the 
spray on the tree? 

Prof. Emerson: I admit when you have a large orchard 
and have to get in there with heavy machinery, it is a hard 
proposition. There has not been a single time this year w^hen 
it has not rained within forty-eight hours, and most of the time 
the night following. In one case I began one afternoon and 
sprayed for two or three hours, and was compelled to quit on 
account of heavy rain, and the trees which were sprayed in the 
first part of the afternoon the next day looked just as well as if 
the rain had not come at all. The trees sprayed immediately 
before the rain didn't show much of it. I don't believe after it 
is dry once it will wash off of apple trees. If you can get into 
the orchard, I will risk the rain washing the spraying off. I 
would not stop for that. 

Mr. Russell: If they are through with this question of 
cedar rust and spraying, I would like to ask the Professor if he 
has had any experience in spraying the peach tree for this 
blistered leaf? 

Prof. Emerson: I have not had any experience except I 
have sprayed two or three trees and see no disease this year. 



DISCUSSION. 69 

It has now disappeared. The peach curl is related to that dis- 
ease which affects the plum fruit, and causes it to swell up. 
Spraying cannot prevent the first infection entirely, but it is 
said spraying certainly does reduce the amount of leaf curl. 
Spraying that will hold the leaf leach in check, but not prevent 
it entirely. It is caused by a fungus disease. 

A Member: I read the government reports. They say to 
spray peach trees in the month of March. I did that this year, 
and it checked the fungus. You may not be able to check it 
aU together in one year. 

Mr. C. S, Harrison: What do you spray with? 

A Member: With Bordeaux mixture, the same kind that 
was mentioned by others here. 

Mr. Will,iams: It is a very appropriate topic, is the check- 
ing, of the disease of the cherry trees which is the cause of the 
death largely among the Morello cherries, the late ones. If we 
can check that disease by means of this spraying feature, there 
is no reason why we should not continue to grow the MoreUo 
cherries. The wet weather the past few seasons has been suf- 
ficient to spread that disease and make it worse than before. I 
understand our nurserymen have succeeded very well in 
checking this disease by the use of Bordeaux mixture. I would 
like to see the question brought up and discussed by those who 
have had direct experience in the use of Bordeaux mixture as 
applied to the disease of the cherries. Cherries is one of our 
most valuable and profitable crops this last year, and if we can 
check this disease, I would certainly advocate the growing of 
the late cherries, as well as the early ones; not abandon it be- 
cause of this disease. 

Mr. Spencer: How about setting out cherry trees where 
apple trees have died out? 

Mr. Harris: I have apple trees that are in with my cherries, 
and my cherries are just as healthy as they were when I put 
them out. They are not affected at all by the apple. My apple 
trees the blight has taken a couple of crab apple trees I had, 
and begun to get on to the other and I had one of these long 
tree trimmers, and I cut the limbs off and burned them, and 
have not been bothered with them any more. And I also 



70 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sprayed them with this whitewash and sprayed all underneath 
the limbs and am not bothered at all, I raise apples every year. 

Chairman: Would you advise planting them in where apple 
trees had died out; would you put in cherries or apples there 
again? 

Mr. Harris. I would put in cherries if it were I. 

Mr. Spencer: I would like to hear from some of the nursery- 
men in regard to replacing the dead apple tree with live apple 
trees. I am inclined to think it a little easier to raise* a cherry 
tree than an apple tree. I think it grows a little better than the 
apple tree. I would recommend the cherry in preference 
to the apple. 

Mr. Williams: That has been my experience. I have an 
apple orchard. 

A Member: The Early Richmond is the standard in Nebr- 
aska. When you strike any other trees you are trying an experi- 
ment. It may result in good and it may not. 

Mr. Williams: I know from my own experience there is a wide 
market for cherries. We sold the early Richmonds, which were 
very abundant every where, and while they brought a good price 
being the first in the market, they soon dropped down to $1.75 a 
bushel. That was because every one who had those kind of 
cherries were bringing them in. A couple of weeks after the 
glut was over the prices recovered, and as soon as the late cher- 
ries were on the market there was a decided advance. You 
could get $2.00 a bushel for Montmorency and English Morellos, 
where the early Richmond were $1.00 a bushel. That was this 
last season. I have seen that repeated time and again. It is 
not advisable to grow all cherries of one kind or variety. I 
should put Montmorency first, as most desirable for a large 
commercial orchard, Early Richmond second, and English 
Morello third; one-third Montmorency, two-thirds of the other 
third in Early Richmond, and the other one-sixth in English 
Morello. 

A Member: The general concensus of opinion of nursery- 
men why cherry trees died this season, was owing to the wet 
season. 

Mr. Beltzer: I would like to know if anybody has any 



DISCUSSION. 71 

idea that the sleet we had last spring had anything to do with 
the killing of our trees? 

Mr. Marshall: Mr. Chairman, I dont know what to think 
about that, I don't believe that hurt the trees with us, yet 
from what Mr. Swan said about his trees 100 miles south of us, 
which were further along and had leaves on,— and I know if you 
freeze a cherry tree when grown, if it is frozen ha,rd, that it will 
Mil it. We had forty killed on the 19th of May about 10 years 
ago when it froze about four inches. I would not doubt there 
was something in it that far south. I think the great cause 
of our trouble is we have had too many cloudy days for the last 
two years, and it has taken too many leaves off the trees. No 
cherry tree can live more than three years without having the 
leaves on in the fall to put the food into the top. When it comes 
to spraying, if you have sunshine and use a very good spray I 
think it wiU do some good; but if it is going to rain right along, 
we have got to have something more. If we have sunshine and 
trim the little stuff up and carry that all out, and get aU the air to 
it you can, that will do more good than the spraying. And then 
spraying the top leaves that haven't had any attack yet, and 
then have sunshine, then you will get good results. If it contin- 
ues to rain you cannot do any good if you spray every day. We 
have got to have sunshine. I understand Mr. Keyser is work- 
ing on that question now. He is trying to get something that 
will have some effect on this question. 

I would plant the trees wider apart than before, keep aU wind 
breaks away. All the trees that we have that are in the open are 
all right today. 

Mr. Beltzer: Then you don't believe the sleet had anything 
to do with the dying of the trees down where Mr. Swan lives. 
The trees were pretty well out of bloom, and the leaves were 
pretty well out probably that did kiU his trees. We have 
five cherry orchards consisting on an average of about 300 trees 
to each orchard, and there is one part in a little basin all through 
these dry seasons was producing very good crops. There was 
no air got in there, and they would bloom two weeks before the 
other orchards. 



72 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THIRD SESSION. 

July 28th, 1904, 8:00 p.m. 
NATIVE SHRUBS FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTING. 

BY CHAS. A. SCOTT. 

Mr. Scott : While I cannot undertake to cover the subject ful- 
ly as to how pine trees are grown, I hope to clear up some few 
ideas and if I am not explicit I hope you will take advantage 
of the opportunity to ask me questions. I may not be able to 
answer all questions regarding pine trees or how to grow them. 
The basis of my paper is drawn entirely from the experience we 
have had in the sand hills. I take it that the greater number of 
you are aware and familiar with the fact that the United States 
goverment has set aside over 200,000 acres in the sand hill region 
of this state for a timber reservation. 

At the present time there is very little or no timber on the 
reserve, and our purpose is to grow the trees and plant them in 
the sand hills and ultimately have a forest where today there 
are no trees at all. This is the second year of our work. 

Our headquarters are on the Dismal River Forest Reserve. 
However, we are situated on the middle Loup River near Halsej'', 
a small town about 200 miles west of this on the B. & M. road. 



HOW PINE TREES ARE GROWN. 

BY CHAS. A. SCOTT. 

Very frequently have I been asked : "How do you grow pine 
trees?", followed by the exclamation "you don't grow them from 
seedl" The reply is always in the affirmative. We gather the 
pine cones from the trees in September or October and spread 
them out on large sheets of canvas or burlap to dry and open 
in the sun. When it is possible we spread the cones on the sur- 
face of large flat rocks. The time required to open the cones by 
this method varies from two to ten days; depending upon the 



HOW PINE TREES ARE GROWN. 73 

conditions of the weather, the warmer and brighter the weather 
the quicker they will open. Some cones, however, will not open 
readily under the influence of the sun; these we opened by ar- 
tificial heat. A close room is secured, a stove is set up as near 
the middle as convenient and a series of shelves or trays with 
four inch sides, are built up around it. The trays have wire 
screen bottoms so as to admit a free circulation of heat and air. 
To catch and hold the seeds a canvas or muslin apron is hung be- 
neath the wire bottoms. The cones are spread about two layers 
deep in the trays and the room is heated to as high a temjDarature 
as we dare for the safety of the cones and building. In some 
instances I have had a temperature of 200 degrees in a drying 
room. 

The length of time required to open cones in a drying room 
varies with the species from four to six hours to as many days. 
"When the cones have opened, i. e. when the scales have expanded 
sufficiently to allow the seeds to drop out, they are stirred around 
"with a garden rake or a stick in such a way as to loosen or 
dislodge as many of the seeds as possible. 

The number of seeds borne by a cone varies from 10 or 12 to 
60 or 80 according to the species. In weight a bushel of cones 
wiU yfeld from /i to 2/4 pounds of seed. Each seed is possessed 
of a very thin membranous wing that aids in distribution, the 
wind often carrying them several rods from the parent tree. 
To rid the seeds of the wings we usually put a peck or so in a 
sack and beat them over a stump or smooth stone and then run 
them through a fanning mill. The cost of collecting seeds de- 
pends upon several features, the abundance of the seed, the diffi- 
culty or ease of collecting cones, and the distance that they have 
to be transported. We have collected seed for 25 cents a pound 
while other seed has cost us as much as $8.00 jper pound. 

THE SEEDBEDS. 

Upon the preparation of the seedbeds depends very largely 
the success of the planting. The beds must be in a perfect state 
of cultivation, and prepared as finely as you would prepare a 
hed for onion seed. The soil should be a sandy loam containing 
considerable organic matter. A porous soil with good drainage 



74 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is absolutely necessary as the seedlings cannot endure an ex- 
cessive amount of water. 

The little trees also need some shade during the early 
months of their existence. Our seed beds include two one acre 
blocks that are covered with a lattice roof, supported six feet 
above the ground on posts and 2x4's. The slats forming the roof 
are 2/^ inches wide with an equal space between the slats, When 
young the seedlings are as tender as any garden plant, and be- 
cause of their slow growth they require the protection of the 
shade frames during the first summer. 

The seedbed blocks are subdivided into seedbeds. Each in- 
dividual seedbed is six and one half feet wide and as long as the 
seedbed block. The beds are divided by fifteen inch paths 
which are about four inches lower than the level of the beds. 
Besides affording a passage between the bed the paths provide a 
ready drainage. 

PLANTING SEASON. 

The seed may be planted in the fall anytime after the middle 
of October or in the spring up until the middle of June. Fall 
planting has some advantages over spring planting, and at the 
same time ithas some disadvantages. If the season is favorable 
and the seedbeds are in good condition the seed should be plant- 
ed in the fall. The plants will then come up early in the spring 
and continue growing throughout the summer, producing seed- 
lings four inches in height. If April happens to be an unfavor- 
able month and a late freeze occurs the entire crop may be 
kiUed before the seedlings are a month old. 

April, May and early June are the months for spring seeding. . 
The earher the seed is planted the larger will be the plants at the 
end of the season's growth. The advantage of spring planting is 
that the danger of spring freezing is avoided. 

The seed may be planted in drills or sown broadcast. We 
like the drill method; because we can care for the seedlings and 
weed the beds more satisfactorily; the beds look neater, and we 
know by experience that the trees can be dug from the drill beds 
with less injury to the roots than they can from the broadcasted 
beds. In either method of planting the seed should not be 
covered to a depth exceeding three times their diameter. When 



HOW PINE TREES ARE GROWN. 75 

covered too deep the plants exhaust their vitahty before getting 
above the ground, and those that do get above the ground leaf 
out so near the surface that the rain will splash soil over them, 
partly or wholly burying them. A good plan is to cover the seed 
with a half inch of gravel; this provides a good clean surface, 
prevents the soil from splashing up on the stems and leaves, and 
also permits the surface to dry quickly after a rain. 

The drills are made six inches apart and run cross wise to 
the bed. When planting we sow the seed thick enough to pro- 
duce from forty to fifty plants per linear foot. In making the 
drills we use the edge of an inch board thus making the drill wide 
enough to grow the plants two or three ranks in , depth. In 
broad cast seeding we expect to grow from eighty to one hun- 
dred and twenty-five plants per square foot. There is always 
more or less loss from several causes and if two-thirds of this 
number are growing at the end of the season we consider the 
stand remarkably good. 

DAMPING OFF. 

Damping off is the only malady attacking the seedlings with 
which we have had to contend. This is a fungus disease which 
attacks the seedling just beneath the surface of the ground, 
and is most active in warm moist weather. Damping off is most 
destructive on plants under four weeks of age; but attacks the 
pine seedlings throughout the first summer of their existance. 
The only practical means of preventing the destructiveness of 
this disease is to dry the surface soil as quickly as possible after 
each rain. As mentioned before a gravel seed cover aUows the 
surface to dry quickly and is desirable on this account. Wlien 
the garden soil is used for seed cover we hasten the drying by 
giving the beds a light raking immediately after each rain. This 
loosens the surface soil and permits it to dry very quickly, and 
at the same time forms a dust mulch which serves to retain the 
subsurface moisture. 

HEIGHT OF ONE YEAR OLD TREES. 

One year old Western Yellow Pine seedlings should be about 
three and one-half inches in height with roots twelve to eighteen 



76 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY 

inches in length. Jack Pine seedhngs the same age are about 
two inches in height, and have a great many side roots the long- 
est of which are from six to ten inches in length. ThePinonPine at- 
tains a height of about three inchesthe first season and sends down 
a strong tap root with few side branches. The main root is often 
eighteen inches in length. The Blue Spruce is by far the slowest 
growing of any tree that we have yet tried, one inch is the aver- 
age height growth for the first year. Their roots however are 
large in proportion; the main root being about eight inches in 
length with many side roots. 

Growing evergreen seedlings is not a difficult proposition when 
one is equipped for the work and gives it his entire attention. 
But it is work that requires patience and constant attention. 

DISCUSSION. 

A Member: What are the best evergreens for ornamental 
planting for Hamilton county? 

Mr. Scott : I presume from what I have seen the Blue Spruce 
is perhaps the best ornamental evergreen there is. It is hardy 
and grows well throughout the state, and is certainly one of the 
most beautiful trees we have. 

Member: Do you know anything about the Ball Pine. 

Mr. Scott: It rs a hardy tree, is difficult to transplant how- 
ever, but when transplanted it makes a very nice tree, except 
it gets very large for an ornamental plant in the yard. 

Member: At what age do you plant the forest reserve? 

Mr. Scott : This last year, one-year-old. We found that is too 
young, and hereafter will plant them two-year-old. The wind 
and rain together cover the seeds up; this on level land would 
injure. On the side hills they are covered within a week after 
planting. Quite a per cent of those planted on the side hills are 
covered with sand. 

Member: What is the method of second year culture? 

Mr. Scott: Well, this last spring, w^e transplanted nearly 
all of our one-year-old trees; otherwise, we leave them in the 
seed beds where they were last year without being touched. We 
take as much of the root as we can; we cannot take the entire 
root but we get as much of the root as we can. 



DISCUSSION. 77 

Member : Do you have trouble in planting? 

Mr. Scott: We have had. no experience of that aged trees. 
It is difficult proposition to transplant a Ball Pine after the third 
year, unless it has been root pruned. 

Mr. Harrison: I have had ninety-five per cent of two or 
three rows. 

Mr. Scott: That would be a very good per cent. You 
would not advise growing them longer than three years? 

Mr. Harrison: No sir. 

Mr. Scott: I presume the Ball Pine is the most difficult 
one of the pines to transplant successfully. 

Member: It has a root about eighteen inches long. You 
want to get as much as you can? 

Mr. Scott: Yes sir. It is a very hardy pine, but the dif- 
ficulty is in transplanting it successfully. 

Member: Have you had any experience in propagating the 
Red Cedar? 

A. Have not succeeded. 

Mr. Spofford: Evergreen, Scotch Pines and quite a num- 
ber of others? 

Mr. Scott: That is a very difficult question. There is one 
general fact with the Scotch Pine, it does not live to be an old 
tree in this country. In this region they are a short lived 
tree. 

Member: Ten years ago, fuUy one third died. 

Mr. Scott: It is possible there is some disease; although I 
have no experience in trees dying with us. 

Mr. Harrison: The Scotch Pine does not belong to this 
country and we ought not to plan it. The further west you go 
the shorter lived it is. I have known whole groves blotted out 
"in the Republican Valley. You ought not to plant them at all. 
Plant the Austrian Pines if you want something to depend on. 
We had a meeting at the University, and there were represen- 
tatives from Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska and the position of the 



78 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

leading horticulturists was, you can depend on the Austrian 
Pine. The blue Spruce is all right for ornamental planting. 
The next is the Blue Fir, that is a fine hardy tree. 

Mr. Christy: There is the importance of this meeting, to 
get at the thing we want to plant. You can get your money 
back but never get your time back, and the fact we ought not 
to plant an uncertain tree is worth much to us. The Austrian 
Pine is the surest Pine. 

Mr. Harrison : I planted those along the line of my farm at 
York, and that was the grasshopper year, and we had some hot 
winds and the grasshoppers combined, and their was not a 
Scotch Pine left. 

Mr. Beltzer: In behalf of the Black Pine, I want to say, 
of all the Pines that stood the climate and came out whole, it is 
the Austrain or Black Pine. 



FRUIT FOR THE HOME. 

BY G. A. MARSHALL. 

Mr. President: I did not prepare any paper. In the first 
place I did not have time. In the second place I did not know 
what phase of the subject you wished discussed, but after talk- 
ing with the the program committee I got an idea of what they 
wanted. They wanted us to talk about the value of the Nebraska 
farm. The idea being that we were to discuss the value of the 
Nebraska farm as a home, and what we needed in that home in 
order to make it the home that it should be. Now that is a 
good subject and I wish I could do it justice, because the future 
of America depends on the rural home in America, and when 
we look over the state or over the United States, we read- 
ily see that we are gradually undergoing a change. Go East 
in the worn out districts and see the farm homes there in 
a run down condition, with almost a hopeless future, because 
of the land being completely worthless and producing nothing 
unless commercial fertilizer is constantly applied. There, when 



FRUIT FOR THE HOME. 79 

we consider a farm home at all, it must necessarily be coupled 
with a worn out farm. Go south and we find a worse state 
of affa^irs, caused largely by poor soil which gives only meager 
returns. Now, with the best of wishes for our good brethern 
of the East and South, and their country, with its so-called ad- 
vantages, yet when we go where we really find thrifty homes 
and the place to make thrifty homes, and more and better homes, 
as time rolls on, with a soil that is productive, where do we have 
to go? We have to go to Nebraska. Now that is no joke. (Ap- 
plause) We have got a country here that is unsurpassed. I 
don't say that we have got to be in Nebraska but close enough 
to be confortable. Got to be in Iowa or some adjoining state. 
(Voice: Or Hamilton County) Yes we might say so because we. 
are here. If I lived here I would say so, and I hope every citizen 
of Hamilton County thinks that, because I believe a good Ameri- 
can citizen will not stay where he don't like the country. The 
selection ofhishome can largely be a matter of choice, and should 
be, and then he will stand up for his country and for his rights. 
If he does not believe Hamilton County is a good county he will not 
live in it. I would not live in Nebraska if I did not believe it was 
the best place for me to live. The country is free and we can grow 
enough stuff here, and get enough money, to get out of the state 
We live here as a matter of choice, but the great question beforeus 
now is the building of the home as it should be built. In that case, 
we as Horticulturists should take up the fruits for the home. 
Fully three-fourths of the home and the home attraction consists 
of the Horticultural surroundings. I fear we underestimate 
the influence, that these home surroundings have over the little 
ones, those boys and girls. I venture there isn't a family in 
this county of half a dozen children, but what they have a chance 
for at least one good horticulturist among them, and most of 
them will enjoy the horticultural work during their entire lives, 
if they have a chance to develop it at the proper time. They 
should learn it while they are young; while it is natural for them. 
And if we improve the opportunities we shall surely and easily 
succeed. We are in one of the best countries of the United 
States to make a home, a beautiful, thrifty country home. Not ■ 
a place we call home, but realy a home that we might be proud to 
take all of our friends to no matter where they came from. We 



80 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

have a soil that we can grow' the best of grass, the best of lawns 
which the south has not, and we have a soil that can grow the best 
of trees and the best of everything that it takes to make a home. 
We don't want to exclude the fruits. I know some are think- 
ing, "I have tried to grow fruit in Hamilton County and didn't 
make it grow and I don't believe you can grow them ". I imagine 
you haven't tried very well. Horticulture comes dragging be- 
hind in the development of any country. The time was, in 
Illinois, they could grow corn and hogs but thought they could not 
grow fruit. I believe there are some here who remember that 
time. Then it passed over into Iowa. Later it crossed the river 
into Nebraska and they could grow plenty of fruit in Iowa; would 
have good homes there because they could grow fruit but could 
not do it in Nebraska. But now that time has passed. Eastern 
Nebraska and the older parts of the state are growing an abund- 
ance of fruit now and we are not half trying. We are in too good 
a farming country to strive very hard to grow fruit. While the 
country is young you have to be driven to it. They are driven to 
growing fruit and a few specialties in most of the irrigation dis- 
tricts of Colorado because they cannot grow the general crops 
we grow. You know in Wisconsin, they were driven to excel in 
dairy work. Why? Because the lands and climate in Illinois 
gave the Illinois farmers advantage of the Wisconsin brother, and 
if he grew the general crop like the Illinois man, he had to 
walk behind. Therefore he learned how to raise cows and make 
butter. We are not in that kind of a territory. That is what is 
the matter with this country. It is a little too good. (Applause) 
The lazy man can exist here. He don't have to be somebody 
to exist, and that is the worst drawback to fruit growing we have. 
Farther, we have learned to grow corn, and hogs, and cattle, 
and in all these things excel. And on top of that we are living 
and we are weU fixed. The prospects are that we will stay well 
fixed, because we are getting prepared to stand the drought if 
it should come along, that used to scare us so badly. The next 
thing is to grow the fruits for these thousands of homes. Well, 
that is very easy if we only get interested. If we fail once, try 
again. By and by we are bound to succeed. You can walk 
around this town and put your finger on those who have some 
fruit and have been successful. If a man has planted twenty 



FRUIT FOR THE HOME. 81 

varieties, selected at random, he will surely have one or more 
that is really choice and does well. Another has planted twenty 
and has got possibly four or five that are valuable, and so on. 
I venture I could, in a day's time, find plenty of varieties of ap- 
ples that are of choice quality and that will thrive and bear here 
to last me the year round. You can grow cherries here until 
they can hardly steal them. The plum, the peach and the apri- 
cot will also all thrive and give good returns. The strawberry is 
quite at home here, and other fruits too numerous to mention 
can easily be grown at a profit. After some observation and 
careful consideration I cannot but believe that the way is very 
easy. Now then, if I had expected to sermonize on this I would 
have called on Brother Harrison. 

Returning to the subject proper, I might first take up the 
strawberries. We should iDrepare the ground and plant the 
plants very carefully, the same as we would prepare the ground 
for the lettuce or onion bed. Then plant the plants with care 
like we would the tomato or cabbage plant. Plant just the right 
depth, not too shallow or too deep. Either is destructive. 
Give thorough cultivation, mulch in the fall very little. Do not 
put on four or five inches of covering, not more than one or two 
inches. Scrape it off the plants in the spring and allow it to re- 
main between the rows. Now about varieties, there are at least 
twenty-five varieties that you can grow and be happy with every 
one of them. However, some are much better than others and 
if you want to know more about them, get some of the near-by 
growers' catalogues or consult the horticultural reports. For 
raspberries and blackberries, my idea is to prepare and handle 
the soil so as to conserve moisture through the latter part of 
the summer and fall, and the whole secret is then solved. If it 
is a dry season, or like it was this last season, dry in autumn, 
mulch them and you will carry them through. If you have an 
extreme dry summer and autumn, you can only grow canes and 
wait another year for the bearing. If you have planted a young 
orchard, plant your berries in your orchard. Some object to 
that but I can see no objection. You can grow them all together. 
We grow blackberries and raspberries when we have a young 
orchard to grow them in. There is no drying out of the trees 
or of the soil under the plants. They are not great plants to 



82 NEBRASKA STATK HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sap the moisture out of the ground. It is a perfect plant to put 
in the orchard. The soil never crusts under them. The young 
trees in the course of two or three years will furnish the neces- 
sary shade and windbreak that the berries want. Therefore 
they work together. 

As to currants and gooseberries, put them in the same place, 
only in the fruit tree row, North and South. If you plant a 
currant in the sun, it will grow and bloom perfectly but it is a 
Uttle too bright and warm for the fruit to hang on in large 
bunches as it should. If you put them in the shade they will 
succeed much better. They do better here than East. We 
have no currant worms here. We do not have to spray the cur- 
rants. We simply want to give them their natural condition. 
The gooseberries are to be handled in about the same way. 

CHERRIES. 

As to varieties of the cherry, would iDlant for earliest — the Early 
Richmond, followed by Montmorency, then English Morello 
for the latest. Their ripening season will lap onto each other. 
Therefore they will work well together, either for the market 
or for the home. A dozen or two dozen cherry trees will fur- 
nish an abundance of fruit for the home use. However, if you 
want a few more and let the boys and girls make some money, 
plant as many as you like. But they bear abundantly and a few 
trees produce a great plenty for the birds and boys and 
possibly some for the neighbors. 

In planting those, plant fifteen or twenty feet apart. Plant 
a little deeper than the bud. Put the offset under the ground 
a little bit. A great many who complain about their trees dy- 
ing or sprouting, get their trouble by not planting the proper 
depth. If planted too shallow, some cold winter kills the stock 
just below the bud and you don't know what killed your tree. 
The roots are alive but the tree does not leaf out right, and by 
the middle of the summer it is dead. Now, if it sprouts, it was 
planted too deep. It was planted six inches, probably, below 
the bud. So bear in mind in planting to plant it about two or 
three inches deeper than the bud. I know some of the Horti- 
culturists object to encumbering our reports with such little 



FRUIT FOR THE HOME. 83 

things but each one of these reports is supposed to be complete 
within itself. Therefore it should contain some A. B. C. of Hor- 
ticulture as well as the more advanced information. Then one 
would not have to read a whole series of the reports in order to 
obtain valuable information. 

PLUMS. 

In growing the plums I would plant them about the same as 
the cherries, about the same depth for the same reason. I be- 
lieve in mixing the plums somewhat, but using largely the 
American varieties. There are several reasons for mixing them. 
It is claimed they will bear better. Also you can have plums 
from this time of the year up until frost, by using the different 
varieties. For the earliest I would plant the Milton or Wild 
Goose, followed by the Wyant and Wolf. These are Americans. 
Of the Europeans I would plant the Lombard and the Shipper's 
Pride. Of the Japs, the Burbank and a few Abundance. I 
will not detain you much longer. I will say a few words about 
the Apple and mention a few varieties, then if they wish to dis- 
cuss it farther, alright. In this part of the state I would plant 
the apple trees about twenty-five feet apart each way. You 
want quite a number of varieties. I should recommend at 
least ten or twelve. I don't mean forty or fifty varieties. Have 
them scattered along so that you have fruit from the earliest 
ripening season until early the next spring. That can be done 
here to perfection. Use judgement in planting. Have a wind- 
break on the South and Southwest sides of your orchard, and 
if not too closely hemmed in, the orchard is even benefitted by 
a windbreak all around. Use the varieties that are best adapted 
in your best judgement to your locality. There is some talk of 
dividing the state up into more districts, now we have only nine 
districts. But in the absence of that, use the varieties you 
have in your neighborhood. Don't use the varieties that you 
had in some state you came from, unless you are sure they have 
been tested here, unless you want to experiment, and that is 
very unsatisfactory on the whole. Experimenting in an or- 
chard on the farm is very expensive. The country is too old for 
that. You can profit by the experience of others in your part 
of the state, and life is too short to do this experimenting over. 



84 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

I would suggest varieties about as follows for this part of Neb- 
raska: For summer, Yellow Transparent and Duchess; for 
autumn, Wealthy and Utter; for winter, Ben Davis, Gano, and 
Northwestern Greening. Then add to these such other vari- 
eties as have proven valuable in the locality where the or- 
chard is to be planted. With these you will always have fruit. 
Without these you will oftimes be without fruit. You might 
think, "we've got plenty of money and can buy our fruit easier 
than we can grow it." If we undertake to buy we will likely not 
have it more than half of the time. If we grow it, we have got 
it aU the time and we don't realize how much good we get out of 
it. We don't know how much pleasure we get out of caring for 
the orchard and vineyard and seeing them bloom and bear. 
Taking all in all, I believe that the most pressing work directly 
in front of the Horticultural Society today, is the development 
of the family orchards and dooryards of the average Nebraska 
home. (Applause.) 

DISCUSSION. 

Member: When did the Yellow Transparent come to the 
front? 

Mr. Marshall.: I think in our district it has been the best 
summer apple we have had for five or six years. What I say is 
not authority of the society I will stand back of that myself. 
It is to the front in all northeast of Nebraska. It is the only 
apple. 

Member: This is the first time for ten or fifteen years I 
have heard of the Yellow Transparent coming to the front. 

(Same) Member: I think his advise on planting cherry trees 
from two to three inches deeper than where they were a foot is 
a mistake. When you plant the tree you leave the place where 
you plant the tree a little lower. 

Mr. Marshall: I said two or three inches deeper, and I 
stick to it. The tree is not planted until the ground is level. 
After a year or two, when it is complete, it is about two or 
three inches deeper and you want that a foot under the ground, 
in order not to winter kill. We have had quite a little ex- 
perience in growing cherries. Of course I believe that it is al- 



DISCUSSION. 85 

right to leave a little basin around the tree, but if you do that 
be sure to make that allowance, and when it is complete it 
should be that deep. 

Mr. Beltzer: I believe that every tree that is transplant- 
ed the next fall should be mulched from a foot to eighteen 
inches for the first winter, and then remove that in the next 
spring after the frost is out. 

Mr. Spofford: When he plants these things — raspberries, 
currants, etc. — in the orchard, how long is that to be kept up? 

Answer: — It depends on the growing kind of seasons we 
have, but they will run from six to eight or nine years before 
they become too old to be of value, and by that time you want 
them out of the orchard and want them out of the way. 

Mr. Spofford: Then where shall we put them? 

Mr. Beltzer: It is time to find another orchard. 

H. S. Harrison : I would like to call attention to the fact that 
on the table there are some Burbank plums. I have been called 
upon in several meetings to defend them. Most of the horti- 
culturists living along the Missouri river have failed to give us 
a recommendation on these varieties. We can demonstrate 
they can be raised here most successfully. I would like to go 
on record as endorsing the Burbank as one of the plums to be 
planted for family use. They are of rich flavor. I don't sup- 
pose they are very long lived, and they have been grown for a 
number of years, and they ought to be pronounced as success- 
ful in this part of the state. We have got to endorse the Bur- 
bank for York and Hamilton counties, 

Mr. Christy: When you can grow such plums in Hamilton 
county what is the use of going to California? 

Mr. Marshall: That is the beauty of having fruit districts. 
We could not endorse the Burbank for the state over, but 
there are several districts in the state that would be compelled 
to endorse that plum. I find it growing fifty miles north of 
us and more than fifty miles from here. It seems to be quite 
certain here. Ours failed but once in three years. Another 
thing, we have a little more rainfall and cloudy weather and it 
rots on the tree much worse than it does here. It is more or 
less decayed at time of ripening. 



86 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Member: Isn't there several varieties of the Burbank phim? 

Mr. Harrison: We only recognize one variety here, and 
that goes by the name of Burbank. 

Mr. Christy: There is quite a variety of Burbank that 
Mr. Williams has crossed, but there is only one Burbank known 
by that name. 

Meeting adjourned to next morning. 



SECOND DAY'S SESSION. 

July 29th, 1904, 9:00 a.m. 
ORCHARDING IN SOUTH-EASTERN NEBRASKA. 

BY T. E. SNODGRASS. 

Orcharding in Southeastern Nebraska twenty-five years ago 
was far different from what is today. Seemingly almost every 
part of it has changed. In those days the trees were young 
and free from disease of all kinds. Insects had not found out 
that they could get a good living without work. The trees 
being young and free from disease, and no insects to mar or 
injure the fruit, bore large crops of fine fruit. And the mar- 
ket was at our very door. Wagons came in great numbers 
from the West, coming over two hundred miles and took every- 
thing, wind-falls and all. Some times we got more money for 
our poor fruit in the after part of the season than we got for 
our best fruit in the fore part of the season. Summer and fall 
varieties brought as much as Winter varieties. This made the 
season long and profitable for the fruit growers. 

It was an easy matter to be an orchardist then, when every 
farmer w^anted to stand up and be counted as such, no matter 
whether he knew anything about the business or not. The or- 
chardist lost no sleep about who would help him harvest the 
crop. The teamsters were his help, and boarded themselves, 
being both pickers and buyers and not hard to please. Often 
the second crowd of buyers would help the first pick and load 
their wagons, so as to get them out of the way in order that 
they themselves might load up. Everything came the or- 



ORCHARDING IN SOUTH-EASTERN NEBRASKA. 87 

chardist's way. On their way home they would meet and send 
other teams to the orchard. Even advertising cost the or- 
chardist nothing. 

Today we have a different proposition. Our trees are older 
and full of disease in body, limb and leaf. The owners of once 
young and profitable orchards feel old age creeping in upon 
them, and they have lost all their former energy for the business. 
The orchard goes uncultivated, it is not sprayed, it goes un- 
pruned, — in short, general neglect is its condition. 

Nebraska is the home of the home-seekers, and even the in- 
sects of all nations have found that it is a free picnic, and they 
are here galore, entering their claims on the old farmers 'trees. 
The first gentleman of note to come (not welcome, however) was 
the Codling Moth, and he seems to be a Bible student; at least 
he does not believe in race suicide, judging from the way he 
multiplies. His staying qualities seem to be unprecedented. 
Then we have the Canker Worm, that delights to defoliate our 
trees. We also have the Leaf Curler and other insects too 
numerous to mention in this paper. However, all of them can 
be handled to a greater or less extent by persistent effort, by 
using the poisons in the proper seasons. 

Last, but not least, comes the Curculio. This fellow for a 
long time confined his depredations to the plum alone, but after 
becoming Americanized he conceived the idea of expansion and 
took up his abode with the apple also, and very much to the dis- 
comfort of the apple growers of Southeastern Nebraska. We 
have appealed to our Entomologist and Horticultural Professors 
for some practical remedy to exterminate this pest. While we 
are sure they have done all they can, yet rehef is not in sight. 
While this pest seems in a fair way to finally outdo us, we 
have not lost all hope by any means. Aside from what our 
Professors may be able to teach us, we are still hoping that 
some rational enemy may appear. The cotton growers of the 
South waited long and patiently for the importation of the Red 
Ant which destroys the Cotton Ball worm. 

In regard to the fungus diseases, they have their high and 
low tides, and we understand pretty well how to cope with 
them. Hence we are not ready to give up orcharding in South- 



88 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTUBAI. SOCIETY 

eastern Nebraska because of their existence. With all the 
draw-backs we are having with diseases of various kinds and 
insects of every description, orcharding pays as well with most of 
us as any other partof the farm. Honey a few years ago was not 
worth saving. Cows at one time were so cheap that a calf was 
not worth saving. We have known hogs and sheep to sell for 
one and a half cents per pound. Only two years ago eggs were 
a drug on the market, and chickens were so cheap that a 
preacher would not eat them. The men and women who held 
onto the animals and fowls are making money out of them now. 
It is the man who holds on when prices are low and when 
every one wants to get out of the business, who is in shape 
when prices turn as they are sure to do. 

Brother Horticulturists, we cite you to the above facts by 
way of encouragement. Orcharding in Southeastern Nebraska 
is sure to loom up again. Be ready to reap your reward for 
holding on. If we got good crops of fruit every year and good 
prices for it, the business would soon be overdone; every body 
would raise fruit, even the Patriots. In 1902 the apple crop cut 
no small figure in Southeastern Nebraska. In Nemaha County 
alone there were five hundred car loads of apples. There were 
at least five hundred bushels per car (these figures are low) and 
at thirty cents per bushel we have $150.00 per car and this mul- 
tiplied by the five hundred cars makes the neat sum of $75,000.00 
from one county alone. With a bumper crop of apples on our 
hands, help scarce and hard to get, and lack of organization, at 
least one hundred cars more went to waste. This waste is 
what ought to bring a blush of shame to our cheeks. Is it not 
a shame that a man who has grit enough to plant and care for 
an orahard until it bears a car load or more of fine apples for 
him, has not grit enough left to get out and seU them? Or- 
charding will finally fall into the hands of men who are willing 
to learn the business from Alpha to Omega. It takes a man of 
grit and full of determination to plant an orchard; one has to 
learn the lesson "Learn to labor and to wait! " There is plenty 
of labor and from five to ten years of waiting. 

My advice to young men would be to plant apple 
orchards now, jilant the trees far apart, not less than 
two rods each way, and rather than any closer plant them 



COMMERCIAL ORCHARDING IN NEBRASKA. 89 

farther yet. Planting peach trees midway between the apple 
trees North and South, and then keep the peach trees well 
clipped. Plant strawberries in the space between the apple 
and peach trees. The strawberries will bear fruit in one 
year, the peach in from three to five years, and the apple in 
from five to eight years. Those fruits seem to intermingle, 
and if the orchardist has made a careful selection of the above 
named fruits and gives them thorough cultivation and up-to-date 
attention, he will have a happy surprise. Keep the orchard 
clean of brush; keep worthless limbs pruned out of the trees 
and keep it clean of weeds. Do these things for various reasons. 
First, such an orchard has a neat appearance and is in keeping 
with good taste, a silent speaker for the owner. Second, there 
is some comfort in getting around in such an orchard to gather 
the fruit, as one can make good time and do more work, and 
this pays the owner. Third, men working in a clean orchard 
are good natured and are willing to do better work. Fourth, 
an orchard that is kept clean of dead trees and worthless limbs 
is less liable to fungus diseases and insect pests. 



COMMERCIAL ORCHARDING IN NEBRASKA. 

BY E. F. STEPHENS, CRETE. 

The subject of commercial orcharding in central and western 
Nebraska is a topic of very deep interest to me. All of my ac- 
tive life has been devoted to a study- of the problems surround- 
ing the planting and developing of orchards under new and 
trying conditions. 

In the 60' s, after leaving the army, I lived for a time in 
southern California when orcharding was in the early stages of 
its development. There I learned how to handle soil so as to 
conserve the limited rainfall and grow crops without irriga- 
tion. 

Coming to Nebraska in the fall of 1871 my plan was to 
grow fruit in commercial quantities in a region where it was 
sufficiently difficult to keep the grower safe from the over- 
production so trying in California. Thirty-three years ago I 



90 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

called on Hon. Robert W. Furnas of Brownville, Nebraska, to 
ask his advice regardingthe kind of land to purchase for commer- 
cial orchard purposes and what varieties to plant. The Gov- 
ernor kindly gave me the benefit of his experience and sug- 
gested that w^hile they v^ere successful in growling fruit along 
the Missouri river, it might be difficult to grow leading com- 
mercial quantities of apples as far out as Saline county. At 
that time people were in doubt whether corn could be grown 
on the table lands of Saline. Governor Furnas advised the 
planting of Siberians. He was confident that those could be 
grown with fair success and that the scarcity of better fruit 
would be such that people would buy them in absence of larger 
apples. 

FIRST VENTURE WITH APPLES. 

My first venture was twenty acres of apple trees and Siber- 
ians planted on sod land broken the previous summer. One 
thousand one hundred of these were purchased of Samuel Bar- 
nard at Table Rock. We lost but five. We did not fare as well 
with a lot of tall four year-olds shipped from Illinois. 

From this beginning we gradually extended our home plant 
until we had eighty acres of orchard. It was our original in- 
tention to devote our efforts almost entirely to commercial or- 
charding, but we soon fonnd that it required years of time to 
secure such returns from a commercial orchard as would keep 
up expenses. 

Many years ago we were engaged in contract planting of 
timber claims and orchards for other parties. We planted the 
trees and carried forward their cultivation for a series of years. 
This line of work gave us a wide acquaintance in central and 
western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. We became familiar 
with soil and climatic conditions. We learned of the wonder- 
ful fertility of the soil in western and central Nebraska, 
We gradually acquired confidence in the ultimate outcome of 
horticultural work under western conditions. We studied the 
causes of failure of trees that had been already planted, visit- 
ing thousands of farmers. We noted here and there an occa- 
sional success and the conditions under which success had been 
secured; also the numberless failures and the reasons therefor. 



COMMERCIAL ORCHARDING IN NEBRASKA. 91 

We now feel sure that with suitable care and the plant- 
ing of the right varieties, fruit can be grown in commercial 
quantities in central and western Nebraska. Our attention 
was first called to the lack of fruit in those districts and to the 
great expense of shipping fruit in from other localities. We 
pay $1.50 per barrel on apples from Crete to Bridgeport, Neb- 
raska, with proportionately higher freight to other and more 
distant points on the Guernsey division. 

FREIGHT RATES A PROTECTION, 

The orchardist who can successfully grow apples in western 
Nebraska has a freight protection of forty to fifty cents per 
bushel in his favor as compared with the grower in eastern 
Nebraska. Should he grow small fruits, to the production of 
which the soil and water supply is peculiarly suited, he has the 
protection of heavy express charges on incoming fruit. Last 
summer I found summer apples retailing at ten cents per pound 
at Fort Morgan, Colo. At the present time they are worth six 
cents per pound in western Nebraska. Autumn apples sell at 
four cents per pound and winter apples are usually worth in 
car lots $1.25 to $1.50 per bushel. 

In seeking to overcome the difficulties connected with any 
new enterprize, it is well to make a careful study of the causes 
which led to previous failure. First and foremost, unsuitable 
varieties. The farmer living in western Nebraska naturally 
thinks of the varieties of fruit to which he was accustomed in 
his eastern home, forgetting the difference in altitude, soil and 
climatic condition. He is easily persuaded by the traveling 
salesman to purchase varieties of fruit, valuable no doubt in 
other locations, but unsuited to western conditions. The pic- 
tures of Japanese plums are very showy and attractive. He 
purchases and plants trees of this character, and also varieties 
of domestic or European varieties of plum. He plants varieties 
of apples better suited to Iowa or Missouri than to western 
Nebraska. He reasons that if a little water is good, a large 
amount is better. He uses so much water that growth con- 
tinues until winter. The trees are unripe when winter sets in 
and suffer severely. 

I have in mind two large commercial orchards in Lincoln 



92 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

county, one of twenty the other of thirty acres. They were 
planted with Missouri and Arkansas varieties. The behavior 
of those two orchards has been such as to lead people in the 
neighborhood to doubt the possibility of growing fruit in com- 
mercial quantities in Lincoln county. . 

Turning now from this dark picture to the other view — con- 
sider what to plant in central and western Nebraska. The ele- 
vation of the extreme western portion of the state leads up to 
obout 4,500 feet, and we should study the experience of success- 
■ f ul growers in Montana and Idaho, Dakota and Minnesota. We 
learn that there is a very narrow list of fruit trees which through 
long generations of production in trying climates have 
acquired the habit of being ready for winter in September. In 
Scotts Bluffs county I have seen apple and plum trees heavy laden 
with their crop of fruit, bendingto the ground with an addition- 
al weight of four inches of snow in the middle of September. 
In a climate where such conditions are possible, we need vari- 
eties which will have completed their growth by the first of 
September, and should j)lant summer and early autumn vari- 
eties rather than the later maturing winter kinds. 

We should do all in our power to conserve moisture by fre- 
quent cultivation rather than induce late and rank growth of 
wood by the free use of water. David Hunter of Sutherland, 
Lincoln county, visited California last winter. He was so much 
interested in their intensive system of frequent culture that he 
has already cultivated his orchard of forty acres seventeen 
times this season. This orchard has been irrigated only once, 
the water being applied about the last of March. His trees 
have made as much growth as can be safely carried and his 
outlook for a fruitful, productive orchard is very bright indeed. 

Mr. Hunter estimates that single apple trees will yield as 
high as eight bushels each. One tree gave one bushel and 
three pecks of apples the fifth fall after planting. 

FINE SPECIMENS OF APPLES. 

The finest Jonathan apples I have ever seen grown in this 
state were produced by Mr. Myers, six miles south of Kearney. 
The oldest peach trees with which I am acquainted in the state 



COMMERCIAL ORCHARDING IN NEBRASKA. 93 

are twenty-six years old, and yet bearing, nineteen miles south- 
east of Kearney. Thomas Blackburn, fourteen miles south- 
west of Kearney, has an orchard of ninety-three apple trees, 
occupying a little less than one acre. Prom this orchard 
in 1902 he supplied three families with what apples they could 
use. He also picked and sold six hundred and four bushels of 
merchantable apples at eighty-one cents a bushel, or $489.00. 

C. J. Nelson of Phelps county has a peach orchard two years 
and four months planted. There are twenty-one varieties of 
peaches in this orchard, and without exception all are in excel- 
lent condition. They promise to yield two to five baskets to 
the tree. 

Passing on westward, at Julesburg, Colo. , N. C. Roth has a 
very promising and successful orchard. At Mitchell, about, 
eighteen miles from the Wyoming line, Mr. Ed. Scriven an- 
nually markets a fine crop of apples, cherries and plums. 
Three varieties of apples gave him an average cash value last 
fall of $9.00 per tree. It is a peculiar feature of growing fruit 
under irrigation that the apple tree does not rest one season to 
recover from an excessive crop. Under irrigation the or- 
chardist is a manufacturer. Whenever the orchard needs 
more water to enable the tree to ripen its heavy load of fruit 
and to set strong fruit buds the succeeding year, the planter 
irrigates. The tree is therefore strong enough to repeat its 
best efforts with an annual load of fruit. In this respect the 
farmer under irrigation has a very marked advantage. 

SUB-IRRIGATED LANDS ARE BEST. 

Our observation would lead us to suggest that for orchard 
purposes the sub-irrigated lands are the best in the state. We 
also believe that the irrigable lands have great advantages over 
lands that depend upon rainfall in the production of frequent 
crops of fruit. In Scotts Bluffs county in orchards apple trees 
which produced an excessive crop of fruit last fall are now 
resting their overladen lower branches on the ground. 

In enumerating some of the successful orchards in cen- 
tral and western Nebraska I have left until the last the Watson 
orchard, near Kearney, This is the largest enterprise of it& 



94 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY. 

kind in the state. Under the efficient care of Mr. Watson's 
present manager, Mr. N. C. Dunlap, this orchard will be heard 
from in the near future. There are thousands of bearing 
cherry trees and many thousands of apple and peach trees. 
These orchards are showing that even the hill tops in Buffalo 
county are valuable for the production of peaches. 

If asked to enumerate a list of varieties of apples for far 
western Nebraska, I would suggest, Yellow Transparent, 
Duchess, Wealthy, Longfield, Patton's Greening and North- 
western Greening. In cherries plant the Early Richmond, 
Montmorency and English Morello. In plum trees rely on the 
American group of plums. The Lombard and German prune 
may be planted under favorable conditions after the wind 
breaks are so perfected as to protect the trees from sudden 
changes and trying winds. 

SUGGESTIONS AS TO PLANTING. 

When planting be sure to avoid low ground and alkali. Se- 
lect the drier and more loamy soils, not too near the water level. 
The advent of irrigation ditches has in some cases raised the 
water level too near the sarface. In planting set the trees six 
inches deeper than they grow in the nursery. Keep the trunk 
of the tree protected twelve months in the year for at least 
five years. Grow a dense, branched head. This offers some 
protection against hail. Protectby efficient windbreaks. If the 
orchard should unfortunately be in the track of a hail-storm, 
hail that comes straight down is not so destructive as that 
driven by the full sweep of a violent wind. 

It is of the utmost importance that the orchard should be ir- 
rigated in early November and carried into the winter with 
ample subsoil moisture. 

The market for fruit grown in western Nebraska is at this 
time local, and a large amount will be needed to supply the lo- 
cal markets. The soil, properly irrigated and suitably planted, 
is peculiarly adapted to the growing of small fruits for distant 
shipment. The strawberry is quite as productive in western 
Nebraska as in the Wood River Valley, Oregon, and a thousand 
miles nearer to market. The Kansas black raspberry does 



FRUIT RAISING. 95 

very well without winter protection. The red raspberries and 
the blackberries should receive winter protection by covering 
with earth as in Michigan and Colorado. Our confidence in 
the future of this district is such that we are continuing to 
plant contract orchards — 14,000 trees were planted this spring. 
Other orchards are contracted for next season, one in a very 
favorable location one mile from the Wyoming line. 

Up to this time Nebraska has shipped in a great deal more 
fruit than it has shipped out. Our home market is capable of 
immense and rapid development. When we grow more fruit 
than the people can consume we are fortunately located with 
leading trunk lines of railway, with a refrigerator car service 
already established and a shorter haul than other commercial 
districts, which will give us better access to the markets of 
the country. 



FRUIT RAISING. 

' BY J, R. DAVroSON. 

Mr. DAvrosoN: My address will be very brief indeed. I 
haven't had time or help to prepare a long address, and I pre- 
sume you will all be glad of it. 

Nowthis includes a whole lotof hard work anda great many dis- 
appointments, at least this is my experience so far, yet there is 
a certain fascination about fruit growing that I can hardly des- 
cribe, but which is a fact just the same, and there is scarcely a 
person to be found, who owning if only a town lot does not de- 
sire to raise some kind of fruit, and when the agents show their 
highly colored plates, taken from life, no larger than the original, 
we all feel a desire to raise tree currants, tree goose-berries, 
and strawberries aslargeas Ben-Davis apples. That fewof ussuc- 
ceed in attaining this high standard we aspire to, is but human. 
My experience so far has failed to enrich me, but I have gained 
some knowledge that I could obtain no other way, yet I find I 
have hardly commenced to investigate the most interesting sub- 
ject of fruit growing. I have succeeded fairly well with cher- 
ries, currants and plums promise well, especially the Burbank, 



96 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

which is a rank grower, a heavy bearer and seems to be reason- 
ably hardy, I have a sample here of the fruit gathered Mon- 
day last. This fruit was colored and nearly ripe when gathered, 
while this was uncolored and perfectly hard. This plum will 
ship well and ripen on the road. 

The only disease that has troubled my Burbanks so far is 
black knot which is easy to handle in the branches, but when it 
attacks a crotch of the tree it is not so easy, I intend to try gaso- 
line, which I think will evaporate before doing serious damage 
to the tree, and will at the same time be death to the fungus. 
I have here some samples of the knot that have grown this sum- 
mer and were removed about ten days ago. I find that in the 
culture of currants, heavy mulching is far ahead of cultivation, 
as this plant must have plenty of moisture and the mulch pre- 
vents evaporation. My currants this year were very nice, 
and I could have sold any amount of them. I sold these in 
strawberry boxes at ten cents straight. I had no trouble to 
dispose of cherries, and had a good crop. The best shipping 
package for cherries is either the one-half bushel basket or 
the grape basket. I used the grape basket, picking direct into 
the basket. This way the fruit is not handled and looks much 
better than if emptied into a larger basket. I had no trouble to 
get thirty cents a basket f. o. b. Aurora. 

I believe cherries are usually put onto the market too green. 
Should be left on tree until fully ripe. It is very hard to get 
pickers that will do good work and not muss the fruit. The 
looks of the fruit goes along way towards selling it. 

Strawberries winter killed badly on account of the dry win- 
ter, and grapes killed to the ground, and mulching with straw 
did not seem to save them. I covered some of my vines with 
earth and they came through fairly well and are loaded with 
fruit, I also mulched some vines heavily without laying them 
down, but it did no good, they killed to the ground just 
the same. 

This grape proposition is ahead of me I confess and I don't 
know where I am at. With the peach I have not scored much 
of a success so far, but I have some nice peaches and I believe 
we will get them used to our climate later on. I have some 



HARDY ORNAMENTALS. 97 

t 

twenty varieties and when I find the one that is a success I am 
ready to go into the peach business. I have a sample of an 
early peach here that seems to stand the winter quite well. I 
believe I have cultivated my peach trees too highly and have 
sown down to red clover, in hopes that by doing this they will 
stand the winters better. Now I do not care to take up further 
time as we have fruit growers here whose years of experience, 
and the magnitude of their labors so far out rank mine that I 
would much rather be a listener. I thank you. 



HARDY ORNAMENTALS. 

BY C. S. HAKRISON, YORK. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: You have been listen- 
ing to the successes and failures of fruit growing. We have 
heard of disease, insects and enemies without number which 
seem on the watch for every apple, pear and plum which 
makes its appearance. Now let us change the subject. Let 
us look away from failures to success — to hardy ornamentals. 
It is true we have lost much time and money in finding out what 
was hardy. We have followed the divine injunction, "Prove all 
things; hold fast to that which is good." 

I bring here samples of some of our perennials. It is too 
late, of course, for peonies, but it would have done your souls 
good to see the wonderful display of 50,000 in 400 varieties, all 
vieing with each other to do their best. Here are some gaillardi- 
as flowers, but little known. There is a species growing wild in 
the Republican valley. They have been improved till now we 
have eighty varieties; some of immense size, five inches across. 
Here are large single ones, very striking in color and some of 
mine are three inches in diameter. Here are double ones, very 
rich in the blending of tints, and these are single, blood red, 
very effective in masses. They are the most prolific of all 
flowers, doing a wholesale business from June tiU November. 

Here are some phloxes. These are imported and this col- 
lection is of my own originating. And I want you women to 
know something of the fascination in bringing new things out 



98 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of the unknown. I get the choicest ones that money can buy. 
They come from the leading florists of Europe. I plant the 
seeds from these in the fall and in July of the next year have 
cheering results. Many of these you see surpass the parent 
flowers. I am breeding for color and size. Your own Mr. Green 
of Fremont, one of our best florists, visited my grounds and 
saw the phloxes. 

You know the old flowers had blossoms the size of a dime, and 
then, wonder of wonders, the imported ones were as large 
as a quarter. I showed some of my own to Mr. Green. He 
took out a silver dollar and laid it on a single flower, and it could 
not cover it. Deliberating on the matter so as to be exact he 
said it would take just about $1.35 to cover the whole bloom. 
So you see what a fascination there is in this search for new 
things and when you realize how much good old Mother Nature 
has in reserve for you then you realize you ought to be better 
acquainted with her. 

We have now come to shrubs. Please note these leaves, some 
as large as your hand, and then we have these delicate and 
tiny ones. These all belong to the lilac family, of which we have 
over fifty kinds at the York experiment station. If they have 
no bloom, their hardiness and varied foliage would make them 
fine additions to our home grounds. But when you add to this 
the fact that from early spring till July they give a succession 
of flowers, then we have something very desirable. 

Then what a family of syringas, viburnums and spireas we 
have — almost unknown to our horticulturists and strangers al- 
most in our state. 

Now, brothers, I am going for you, and you deserve it. Along 
the line of fruits you have kept up with the procession. But 
when it comes to ornamentation you are far behind. 

You say there is no call for these things. Well, what in the 
name of goodness are you for? Why don't you make a call? 
Are you going to let the ignorant man run your business? You 
have a grander mission than to live for dollars and cents. Plant 
these things yourselves. Get acquainted with them and you 
will be fascinated. Then let your agents see them and study 
them. Wake up the whole force and get them interested. 



HARDY ORNAMENTALS 99 

Already some of your patrons are reading the Twentieth 
Century Farmer and are taking catalogues of eastern nurseries 
and an interest is being aroused. And when the people wake 
up to know how many things they might have had, they will 
blame you for not telling them, and eastern firms will soon send 
their agents into your territory and they will sell your patrons 
stock by the thousands that you ought to furnish them. You 
must keep up with the procession. 

We do not say who is to blame, but the horticultural depart- 
ment of the University of Nebraska is away behind the demands 
of the state. While the animal industry department is at the 
front, and challenges the world, horticulture is dragging in the 
rear, and I think makes by far the poorest showing of any state 
in the union. With an able and intelligent professor, where is 
the handicap? 

The leading horticulturists of the state, as well as the leading 
citizens, feel that a change must soon come. Our state farm 
should be the Mecca of the lovers of the beautiful. Every tree 
that can be made to grow and every flowgr that will bloom in 
our climate should be there. There should be at least 1,000 
kinds of peonies. The 130 kinds of lilacs now in other stations 
and the thirty or more kinds of spireas and as many more of 
the syringas, together, with the great family of viburnums 
all should be in evidence. Now, when the young farmer goes 
to the farm he sees the very triumph of animal industry and 
goes away enthused. He ought also to see the triumphs of ad- 
vanced horticulture. They are now making preparations for 
the education of farm girls, and they should be inspired by 
splendid displays of choice plants and flowers. 

Let the young people see the great family of lilacs, with their 
wealth of varied foliage, in bloom from early spring till the first 
of July. Let them see thousands of tulips open the campaign 
of loveliness, followed by thousands of columbines which have 
dissolved all the colors of the rainbow in their shadings; let gen- 
erous fields of peonies open their bloom and form a carpet of 
splendor fit to be touched with the feet of angels; let them see 
great masses of gaiUardias and iDansies lift their happy faces to 
thoes who pass by; let the Oriental poppies dazzle with their 
splendor, and the generous fields of phloxes in robes of peerless 



100 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

beauty stand on dress parade, and the scene would have its ef- 
fect. The lessons of the state farm would reach every country. 
The expense will not be great. With a small outlay the experi- 
ment station at York has secured ■ a collection which attracts 
people from various parts of the state. 

One efficient man under the direction of the faculty and Prof. 
Emerson could attend to the whole thing, and further than this, 
in two or three years things could readily be sold to pay all ex- 
penses. There could be no complaint of competition any more 
than there could be objections to selling cattle from the station. 

We can but emphasize this matter and we want to see such a 
pressure brought to bear that the farm shall be a garden of de- 
light to all who visit it. 

There is no reason why a great state like ours with a soil so 
rich and responsive should drag along with so little to show for 
all these years. We know that careful experiments have been 
conducted along some lines, but this is not enough. 

. DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Beltzer: I don't want to criticize any of the officers of 
our society, but I do really regret from the bottom of my heart, 
that things had not been arranged so that he could have de- 
livered that paper to the audience last night. With a gentleman 
who knows as much on that subject as he, it ought to have been 
so arranged that he could have delivered this last evening. I 
know I would have felt better myself. The Harrison family 
is quite noted, have been here quite a while. I have been in 
Polk county for 32 years, and they have had their agents there 
through that country a great deal, and I have the first one to 
ever meet who has ever purchased these fine flowers from the 
Harrison boys. Everybody knows he hves in Nebraska; that 
people are very anxious to pay $1, $2, $3 and $4 for a good plant. 
I think if he would jack up the boys a little and get these started 
out as they should be, it would be a good thing. 

Mr. C. S. Harrison: I didn't care for the audience last 
night, I wanted to get those horticulturists at short range. 

H S. Harrison: I would like to apologize for my father in 
this case. He came by all his energy and enthusiam along this 



STRAWBERRIES FOR HOME USE. 101 

line naturally. He took it from his boys, and took about all 
they had. 

Mr. C. S. Harrison: I used to call them in the morning to 
get up. They would say by and by, and they are getting up 
now, and they are going to get up by and by, and I hope they 
take after me. 

PREsroENT Christy: This is one of the things that leads us 
from the making of dollars and cents in life, and I think we 
ought to do it more. 



STRAWBERRIES FOR HOME USE. 

BY G. S. CHRISTY, JOHNSON 

The year 1904 has been one to greatly encourage the plant- 
ing of smaU beds of berries for home use. 

The commercial grower has been blessed with too much rain 
this season and was forced to let the berries go unpicked too 
long, so that much of the fruit on the market was too ripe and 
soft to command good prices. The man who depended on buy- 
ing had to take these low grade berries, possibly cheap, but 
not at all satisfactory. 

Not so with the family that had their own berry bed, for 
while the boys were taking a forced vacation after the last rain 
the^berry beds would not suffer from too many over-ripe ber- 
ries. Then, too, the matter of ownership enters largely into 
the'subject. and adds flavor to your berries and cream. 

Have you ever noticed how much better "my shorthorn cattle 
are than neighbor Jones'?" Or have you ever seen a hog ad- 
vertisement that did not announce the "the best lot of pigs I 
ever raised?" Or that baby "that never had an equal" in the 
estimation of its parents? So if you would get the full enjoy- 
ment out of a strawberry shortcake, grow the berries yourself. 

The size of your berry bed of course will depend on the num- 
ber of people you expect to feed; 300 to 500 plants should pro- 
duce ten to twenty bushels of berries, and wiU sometimes exceed 
that amount and sometimes faU far below it. 



102 . NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

One of the most important things in starting a berry bed is 
the question of varieties. Some varieties do w^ell in certain lo- 
caUties and their virtues are heralded far and wide, and even in 
places where they will prove worthless. The Aroma, that is 
the leading berry in southern Missouri, is almost a failure in 
Nebraska. Our Warfield, that stands well to the head of the 
list here, is a failure in Texas, and the Brandy wine, extensively 
planted at Nemaha City is a failure at Tecumseh, only thirty- 
five miles away. 

Again, the originator of some new variety has an exaggerated 
opinion of his handiwork; his description of the berry is cata- 
logued by leading nurserymen, and a new variety gets a reputa- 
tion it does not deserve. Be careful of these; better take some 
variety that has been tested in your vicinity and proved to be 
good; or get your horticultural report and find out the varieties 
recommended to your locality. 

Never send to your nurseryman and request that he send 
you three or four of his best varieties unless you know him to 
be a man of unbounded integrity, or he may be tempted to send 
you plants that are not selling well and that he fears may be 
left on his hands. Do not buy plants simply because they are 
quoted high in the catalogue. That is no criterion as to their 
value as berry producers. 

I was much interested recently by the "originator's descrip- 
tion" in a certain catalogue, and the $2.50 per dozen they priced 
the plants at. Being acquainted with the nurseryman in a bus- 
iness way I wrote him a personal letter asking his opinion of 
the berry. He replied that he had purchased the original 
plants at a very high price and had to sell accordingly, but un- 
less this variety did better the next year than it had in the past 
two, he would discard it, and advised that I let it alone. 

For our section we would place the Senator Dunlap at the 
head of the list. Dunlaps have healthy foliage, strong fruit 
stock, productive medium large berry, good color, excellent 
quality, a free runner and a self fertilizer. Splendids, Bisel, 
Warfield and Crescent, all do well generally over Nebraska. 
August Luther and Excelsior for very early varieties, although 
the latter i.s of very poor quality and requires plenty of Jersey 
cream and beet sugar to make the berries palatable. Sample 



STRAWBERRIES FOR HOME USE. 103 

and Gandy are excellent late varieties, with Lester Lovett con- 
tending for first place, but has not been tested here long enough 
to warrant crediting it with this position. The old Crescent 
and Bederwood will stand more grief than any of the newer 
varieties and still produce berries. 

Many people seem puzzled over the time of planting, being 
undecided between Pall and Spring. It is possible to plant 
berries any time when the ground is not frozen, but far best 
results in Nebraska are obtained by planting as early in the 
spring as it is possible to work the ground. Then be sure you 
have plants of last year's growth as you can never tell by the 
appearance of plants or trees what they will bear. 

Your only safe way to buy is from a nursery that has a repu- 
tation at stake, and one that is a permanent fixture. Never buy 
from traveling salesmen unless they represent nurseries that 
you know are "gilt edge." Buying nursery stock is "buying a 
pig in a poke, " and unless you have the reputation of a good 
nursery back of your purchase you may expect a blooded 
Poland China and get a worthless scrub. 

Plant your berries in rows four feet apart and fourteen inches 
to two feet apart in the row. Use a string or wire to make 
your rows perfectly straight and you will not be sorry when 
you get ready to cultivate. Be sure your soil is in good condi- 
tion, and plant deep, so that the crowns will be even with the 
surface of the ground. In regard to making the soil firm about 
the roots, do not be afraid of getting it packed too hard, pro- 
viding you stir the surface immediately after planting. Never 
scatter your plants along the row, but have them in a bucket 
with two or three inches of water, and transfer from the 
water immediately to the ground. Begin cultivation at once. 
If you have a two horse cultivator with small shovels you can 
cultivate all the surface except a strip three or four inches wide 
in the row. It requires but little work with the hoe to clean 
this out. 

Cultivation should be frequnt. once every week or ten days, 
and you will be surprised at the way they will set plants. By 
August first you can have a matted row and then you can cut 
off surplus runners after that. 



104 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

In Nebraska our dry Falls are the worst enemies of the berry- 
grower, and unless your ground is in good tilth, so the plants 
can make a strong Pall growth, they will go into winter weak 
and may die before Spring, or they will not have vitality enough 
to send up strong fruit stalks. Two or three cultivations in 
September, especially in a dry Fall, will increase your yield of 
berries the next June. , 

Mulching. — The object of mulching is to retain moisture, 
keep down weeds and keep your berries clean, but do not mulch 
to keep the i^lants from freezing out. Mulch in the fall not to 
exceed two inches deep, and remove the mulch from the plants 
early in the Spring, leaving it in the middle of the rows. If the 
mulch is left on in the Spring until growth starts and the plants 
turn white, you have injured your berry prospects. Fruit is a 
natural summer diet of the human race. I have attempted to 
grow everything in the catalogue for family use but find the 
strawberry the easiest grown of any, and as it is the first to 
ripen in the Spring we can not afford to be without it for the 
family. Then, too, by forcing them to lie dormant awhile, Dun- 
laps, Warfields and Bederwood and a few other varieties may 
be made to bear a Fall crop and greatly lengthen the straw- 
berry season. 

By the use of early and late varieties the strawberry season 
has been extended several weeks, and with a little extra work 
in 1903 we were able to pick berries for seven months. The 
ever-bearing varieties succeed in Oregon and California, but in 
Nebraska they will not produce enough berries. Spring or Fall, 
to pay for the plants. 



GARDENING IN AURORA. 

BY H. G. CASS. 

Mr. Chairman: Some one has expressed the opinion that 
gardening is a calling that no matter how high the social stand- 
ing of a man may be, is not disgraced thereby. If we look back 
to the first start of gardening, we shall form some idea of its 
importance. We are told in holy writ that after God had created 



GARDING IN AURORA. 105 

the heavens and the earth, and man himself, after the creation 
was finished, that he planted a garden over towards Eden, 
That in that garden he planted not only those things which 
were good for food, but also things that were pleasant to the 
eye. In this garden he placed Adam as gardener to keep it. 
Now that was quite a compliment to the gardener to be placed 
as the first man to be keeper of the garden as long as he re- 
mained upright, obedient and trustworthy to the mandates of 
his Creator. He remained, but when he fell from his high estate 
he was no longer worthy of the position which he had occupied, 
and he was driven forth from the garden and the gates were 
closed, and we are told he became a tiller of the soil. Now we 
see how rapidly when a man once gets on the toboggan slide and 
begins to go down how rapidly it becomes. But we are not 
gardening in the garden of Eden. My subject is gardening in 
Aurora. I did think at one time to take up my lot of culture of 
some of the things of the garden. The subject is a kind of a hack- 
neyed one. I apprehend that my name was put upon the pro- 
gram to fill in between times, and in thinking the matter over 
I came to the conclusion that nearly everybody has an idea 
that they know how to growa garden, and knowing that to be the 
case, perhaps my particular method of culture would not be inter- 
esting. If it is to any body it can be brought out by questioning. 

The one thing of importance in making a garden is to select 
its proper site where it will be convenient, and where the soil is 
of a proper consistency, where it is not bothered by standing 
of rain water that cannot be controlled. Now having made the 
selection, the next important thing to be taken into considera- 
tion is the securing of proper seed. I care not what you may 
plant, what it may be, you must realize and understand one 
thing "that whatsoever a man soweth, that he shaU also reap." 
For instance you take the potato crop. If you select your seed 
and plant potatoes that are diseased from scab without giving 
them the proper treatment before they are planted; or, if by 
careless work your ground has been contaminated by the dis- 
ease, as it will be, your potato crop will be a failure. But by 
keeping this disease in check by proper methods, your ground 
is kept clean, and you produce an article that is attractive in 
appearance and a ready seUer. So it is with the cabbage, and all 



106 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the leading products of the garden. I was in a field of cabbage 
the other day, and I presume some of them were as high as 
that chair, the stalk running that high — heads that tall, and 
about that big around (indicating). It all came from the buy- 
ing of improper seed. If you know where you can secure seed 
that is reliable from a reliable house, there is the place for you 
to buy it, and having tested the thing hold fast to that which is 
good. The same thing is true in regard to celery. A great 
many in buying celery think they should buy the self-bleaching 
seed. They may buy something under the name of White 
Heading, and it will turn out a different kind. These things 
we must take into consideration. In selecting the ground as I 
said before, any ground that will produce good corn will raise 
fairly good garden; but there is nothing that responds to gen- 
erous treatment more readily than a garden crop. The more 
you enrich your soil, the more you fertilize it, the better re- 
suits you will obtain in every variety of garden plant. I know 
of but one exception and that is perhaps the potato; that is a 
vegetable that will not stand ground that is freshly manured. 
The ground wants fertilizing a year or two ahead, a crop of 
something else raised on it, and then plant the potato and you 
will avoid the scab. I have a process of dealing with the potato 
scab, the corrosive-sublimate treatment, but it is a tedious 
treatment and it is a deadly poison, and I don't like to handle 
it. My seed last spring was usually a little scabby in that re- 
spect. I didn't treat them last spring a year ago and they 
were little infected with the scab owing to the wet season, but 
this spring I bought my seed potatoes and got ready when the 
time came to plant. I sprayed the seed over until they became 
wet, and used about a pint of flour of sulphur to a barrel of 
potatoes, stirred them up until the sulphur adhered to all the 
parts of the potato, and dropped them in the row. This year I 
find 95 per cent of my potatoes are entirely clean from scab 
notwithstanding the wet weather we have had. 

There is another thing in the cabbage crop. Some times 
this is affected by the black rot. I speak of these three veget- 
ables because they are the most profitable in the market gar- 
dening, and most important in the family garden. Some times 
they are affected by black rot. The plant wiU start all right. 



DISCUSSION. 107 

It may show itself before it comes to head, or not until after' 
A yellow leaf will appear on one side of the plant, and upon in- 
vestigation you will find that the stalk of the cabbage is affected, 
and if left it will communicate itself to the head that is already 
formed, and it will rot and decay. The cause of this is plant- 
ing cabbage upon the same ground years in succession. Cab- 
bage can only be raised as a crop only about three years upon 
the same ground, and then you will notice what I have spoken 
of, and you must remove your crop from that ground and keep 
it off of the ground and not return with it for 3 or 4 years, when 
you con again return to the same ground. 

In regard to celery there are a great many people that are 
taking their first lesson in raising celery, and I want to say this, 
that in celery culture there is a fascination about it, and you 
are just as likely to prove successful the first year as the fifth, 
but don't think that it follows that you will make a success the 
second year. It is a peculiar thing, and all at once you find 
you are entirely at sea with it. I used the self- bleaching variety; 
planted it in single rows, banking each row by itself. This 
year I have combined a new process with the old process, and 
planted two rows together about a foot apart, and banked on 
each side of it. This combination extends to at least four rows 
together, the banking on each side. There is one thing that 
must be taken into consideration in mass patches. For in- 
stance, the new process, where it is set in distances from six 
inches to a foot apart, it requires extremely rich ground 
and a great deal of water. If you can furnish these requisites, 
you may succeed, but you wiU be more likely to succeed with 
single rows first. 

As I said before, everybody understands the process of cul- 
tivating garden stuff, and it is not my province to go over that. 
I think I have said all on the subject I wish to say. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Keyser: Your variety of early potatoes? 

Mr. Cass : I have yet to find any variety of early potatoes 
earlier than the Early Ohio. I find early potatoes as early as 
that, and of better quality. There is a new variety, it is un- 



108 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

doubtedly a seedling of the Early Ohio, it has white and pink 
eyes, a very good quality. 

Mr. Keyser: Of late potatoes, what variety? 

Mr. Cass: I have a second varietj^ the Eureka, an excellent 
quality. I had intended to have brought up a sample of each 
of them. 

Mr. C. S. Harrison: Don't you find you get better results 
in getting seeds from the north? 

Mr. Cass: I think every man should secure northern grown 
seed from the Red River country; it will pay him to buy it even 
if he has his own seeds free. We then get a cleaner seed and 
a change in climate seems to produce better results. I have 
planted northern grown seed myself this spring. I sent to 
Shennendoah, Iowa, to Fields and I got two and a half bushels 
of these White Early Ohios northern grown seed, which cost 
me $6.00 laid down here, express and all, and I thought I was 
well paid for the expenditure of the money. 

Mr. Harrison: I got a barrel from northern Wisconsin and 
got 300 bushels on a half acre of ground. 

Mr. Williams: How about your scab treatment? 

Mr. Cass: I don't know as it is a new plan but I have adopted 
it. If a potato is badly diseased I throw it out. If a man is 
short of seed and only a very little scab on that, he can use that by 
using the sulphur treatment, or the corrosive-sublimate treat- 
ment. Dissolve it in hot water and put in about 15 gallons of 
cold water and then put your potatoes in that from 40 to 90 
minutes. I cut my potatoes, and when I get ready to plant 
them I spray them with water just to make them moist and use a 
pound of flour sulphur to a barrel of potatoes after they are 
cut. The sulphur adheres to the surface of the potato and the 
results I have had from that treatment has been very satis- 
factory. 

Member: Would you recommend sending for the northern 
grown seed each year. I think the seed should be changed 
once in four or five years? 

Mr. Cass: I don't believe it would be a good- plan for a man 
unless he could get it very conveniently to send every year for 



DISCUSSION. 109 

the seed. You will find the results of that change will last from, 
three to four years, and if you renew your seed from the north 
every two or three years I think it would be often enough. 
Mr. Harrison : How about celery? 

Mr. Cass: I would advise that system for family use, pro- 
vided, as I said before, they have the ground rich enough. You 
can understand very well that when you come to planting a 
stock of celery 6 by 12 inches there is a wonderful graft upon 
the fertility of the soil to produce the amount of foliage there 
to get good celery; it also requires a lot of water. In order to 
raise it enmasse in that way, you want to be sure you have the 
fertility and the water there. For a small family I think a 12 
foot lot would be just the thing. 

Mr. Christy: Have you ever used formaldehyde for your 
potatoes? 

Mr. Cass: No sir, but I see no reason why it should not 
work well. It is a germicide of a very powerful nature, but I 
see no reason why it would not work. It would be better thaiL 
corrosive-sublimate to have around. 

Mr. Forrell: If any one wants to raise potatoes I advise 
them to write to Mr. Ferguson of Beaver Crossing, who raises 
more potatoes than anybody in the state. He gave us some 
figures last fall that are astonishing. He experiments at his 
place. He has parellel rows; on one he will put the imported 
seeds from the north, and the next seed grown one year, and 
the next seed grown two years, and in that way, and the per- 
ceptible difference in the yield in each row, with the same kind 
of culture and treatment, seems to me would pay a man to im- 
port his seed every year. He raises potatoes on a very large 
scale. 

Mr. Christy: If you have an institute here, Mr. Ferguson 
would be good man to talk to you. His information cost him 
$10,000, and he has been giving it out free. 

Mr. Forrell: Mr. Merritt of Lexington is another good 
man to write to on this subject. 

Mr. Williams : Last winter I heard from one of our students 
in Howard county. He and his father makes a specialty of po- 
tatoes. They send for northern grown potatoes, and they get 



110 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

better results by far. The point I wish to call attention to is 
that they get special prices for their seeds by shipping them 
further south. They raise them in the valley, and then they sell 
them at fancy prices for good seed potatoes, perhaps in Kansas 
and Missouri The potatoes are passed further south and get 
about the same price that they have to pay for sending north. 
Mr. Christy : The question in regard to this northern grov^n 
seed should be carefully put. There are a great many potatoes 
sent out by seed houses as northern grow^n potatoes that are 
not grown very far north. I find in the southern part of the 
state that Box Butte potatoes do well. 

Mr. Williams: Take potatoes from northern Nebraska and 
planted in southern Nebraska will give very good results. 

Mr. Snodgrass: I wish to give my experience in dipping 
potatoes. Take a coal oil barrel, and put it on an elevation 
three feet high and have your liquid in that, and then put your 
potatoes in and you can get about four bushels in a barrel, and 
when they have been in long enough, just have a faucet at the 
lower end, and turn your potatoes out to dry. I don't cut the 
potatoes; I do this before I cut the potatoes. 

President Christy: I am pleased to note that we have 
Prof. Burnett, who is director of the Experiment Station at 
Lincoln, and also is director of the farmer's institutes for the 
state, with us this morning, and he will talk to you for a few 
minutes. 

Prof. E. A. Burnett. Ladies and .Gentlemen: Ihaven't so 
very much to say this morning. I was thinkingas Mr. Harrison 
was talking on this subject of ornamental plants, and especially 
as he was trying to impress upon the audience the desirability of 
l)roducingm iproved sorts, that perhaps one question of greater 
importance than almost any other going along with this meeting, 
of the surroundings of the home, is the education of the people to 
grow and care for these important varieties and to care for the 
things they pay for. We will admit we have got the things that 
they pay for. These important sorts have generally been raised 
under good, conditions by pretty intelligent men. They gener- 
ally require good conditions in order to retain the standard of 
excellence that theyhave been selected for. And especially on 



DISCUSSION. Ill 

farm homes I suppose to a large extent; same would be true in 
the towns. People who purchase these ornamental shrubs don't 
have enough educational knowledge of how to take care of them 
in order to make them do their best, and especially along lines 
of culture; probably also along lines of fertilization of the soil 
and winter protection in some cases. The question of tillage, 
probably above all others, is important when you commence to 
raise and improve varieties. The question of tillage is impor- 
tant in the growing of corn, but we plant corn so that tillage is 
relatively easy. In planting our ornamental shrubs it is not 
possible to do that unless you plant on an extensive scale. 
Most of the tillage has to be hand work, and we are very likely 
to want to grow these shrubs in the lawn, let the grass grow 
up to them as close as we can in order not to leave bare spots in 
the lawn, and this tillage must be hand tillage. 

We either forget or don't kno,w how much moisture gets 
away from the bare soil if not cultivated a good deal. Prof. 
Emerson set a row of Hackberry trees, in 1901. along the front 
of the farm that afterwards had to be removed; but along the 
side, south of the road, — you remember 1901 how dry it was 
from the middle of July until into September and how intensely 
hot it was — and I presume to say that more than 50 per cent of 
all the trees set in the state of Nebraska that summer died; if 
not that summer they died the next fall. If I remember rightly, 
under good cultivation one tree died in that whole row of nearly 
100 during that summer, under cultivation. So I think if we 
are going to send ornamental trees out over the state we want 
to get the very best sorts, whether they are the very hardiest or 
not, the sorts that make the best show; and along with that we 
have got to carry on a process of education of the people in the 
way of tillage to care for these shrubs before they wiU get out 
of them the value there is in them. I am not an expert. I 
don't know aU of the details of the careof these various things, 
but I think that before you get a large market for these orna- 
mental trees and shrubs, we will have to get a pretty thorough 
education of the people in their care. I expect that many peo- 
ple think that water is a substitute for tillage. Out at Sidney 
last year I saw some cottonwood trees planted two or three 
years. You know that Sidney is pretty high and dry. They 



112 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY. 

don't expect it to rain there althouj^h it sometimes does. I saw 
a block of trees which had been irrigated from a wind mill three 
or four times; and another block of trees which were so high 
they could not be conveniently irrigated and had not been irri- 
gated, but had been pretty thoroughly cultivated. At the end 
'of three years the cultivated trees were the more vigorous, 
there were fewer dead trees, and on the whole they were 
in better condition than the trees that had been irrigated, 
and should judge cultivation had not been considered impor- 
tant. They turned the water on and let it run and let the wind- 
miU pump and run filling the ditches full, or would dry up when 
the windmill was not running. Now these things I believe we 
ought to bring home to the people in some practical way. I 
don't know just how to do it. I suppose all the horticulturists 
here understand that thoroughly and I am not telling them any 
thing new at all, but a matter of dissemination of this know- 
ledge would be a matter of a great deal of importance. I sup- 
pose you know better how to get this before the people than I. 
Probably you have got to get an intense desire on the part of 
the people to have these things before they will go to the labor 
of continuous cultivation. I don't think many people know how 
much moisture the sod will take out of the soil, when the grass 
grows around a tree on the lawn as we like to see it growing 
around the tree, I don't believe anybody knows how much mois- 
ture that sod is robbing the tree of. But I believe that they could 
in most places, at least during the first five or six years, per- 
haps ten years that the tree is set, to keep a small piece of 
ground around this tree, if not more than six feet in diameter 
cultivated or mulched, and in that way save the moisture, at any 
rate during all the dry seasons. Now most any of these orna- 
mental things do well if you get them under congenial condi- 
tions. Not many of them do well unless they are so kept. 
Moisture is one of the things which is essential to congenial 
conditions. I suppose most of our soil is fairly fertile, not 
equally so and probably in a good many cases applications of 
manure well forked in around trees or along rows of ornamental 
shrubs, or where ever you want to enforce conditions, is essen- 
tial to get the best growth. I have nothing more to say at 
present. I think your program is fuU, and I am glad to meet 



DISCUSSION. 113 

your association. To the people of this locality I want to say I 
am very glad of the record which the farmers institute has 
made in horticulture, and that we expect to continue to send 
out the best talent we know where to find, and we feel confident 
that the people of Aurora will continue to give the very best 
support they can to the farmers institute, because we believe 
it is a factor in the education of the people which is worth con- 
tinuing. (Applause.) 

Mr. C. S. HLiRRisoN: I think the point is well taken. I 
know of a woman who bought some roses, and she planted her 
roses that way and they didn't live, and then she blamed the 
nurseryman for sending out such miserable stuff. 

Mr. Spofford: In 1901 did you use any irrigation? 

Answer: No. 

Mr. Spofford: The students that attend the agricultural 
farm, are they instructed along these Hnes? 

Mr. Burnett: Yes, we spend a great deal of time on these 
several practical lines of agriculture and horticulture. 

The school of agriculture runs six months in the year, begin- 
ning in November and closing the latter part of April. We do 
that because we want the farm boys, and we want those farm 
boys to get practical experience on their own farms during the 
busy season. We can get a great many more for a six months 
year than we can for a twelve months year. During the six 
months that they are at home on the farm they are getting real 
practical experience which is just as valuable education as we 
could give them when we get them there for nine months in- 
stead of six months school. 

Now, what do we teach? Three-fourths of aU the time of 
these boys is devoted to agricultural Hnes of work. For exam- 
ple, the study of the soil, and how to tell about cultivating the 
soil, take a great deal of it in order to produce the best crop. 

We study for example the effect of the benefit by plowing or 
original moisture, the effect of tillage immediately, of harrowing, 
and the effect of cultivation after plowing or original moisture. 
It might seem a curious thing, but I graduated from an agri- 



114 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cultural college and went to work on the farm, and nobody told 
me that you ought to harrow land the same day it was plowed. 
That was twenty years ago. Nobody told me when you go 
into a field and plow over that land, and let it lay two or three 
days in the hot sun before you put the' harrow on it, that you 
are losing a great deal of moisture which you might save if you 
follow up with the harrow. I can remember of going on and 
plowing a piece of land, part of the field, and going onto that a 
week afterwards, and it was all so lumpy that the harrow would 
not touch it and going on with the rest of the field, and by acci- 
dent harrowing right close after the plow, and it broke down as 
even as could be. And I didn't exactly know why. Just a 
question of saving the moisture. Following immediately up 
with the harrow while the soil is moist it breaks down easily, 
saves you most all the work. You otherwise never get that 
land down fine unless you do lots of labor and have rain. That 
is one of the things we teach the boys how to save that moisture 
in the land. 

For example, we believe that even though you may have lots 
of rain in a dry season, or in a season like this, that you must 
prepare for a dry season every spring. Now we recommend for 
example, if a man is going to list corn upon any kind of 
land, that does not have too much trash on it to get on to, that 
land as soon as the frost comes out of it in the spring, we 
should harrow and double disc it to loosen up the crust and 
save the moisture in the land; perhaps double disc it twice. In 
that way you can save moisture enough so that without any 
rain at all in the spring, your hster will run along in the soil 
easily. Whereas, otherwise it will throw up in big chunks 
from lost moisture. In the other case you have saved the 
moisture and the land is loose and friable. Two horses will 
work in it as easy as four the other way. 

In tillage, we teach the boys as the corn gets large, they have 
to use shallow cultivation. I had a young man on our own farm. 
He had been out in the fields one day without instruction. I 
happened to see him going in with his horses. I asked him 
how deep he was cultivating, he said he let the shovels right 
in. He was thus killing his team, injuring the corn, simply be- 
cause he did not know that cultivation two and one-half inches 



DISCUSSION. 115 

deep would save more moisture, the flesh on his horses and 
raise more corn than he could by dipping down to the bottom 
of the furrow. So far as that applies to soil, it applies to all 
crops. We teach the boys that they ought to spread the ma- 
nure that they have on the farm. 

What we teach in horticulture? Prof. Emerson could tell you 
better — variety of fruits, methods of budding and grafting, lo- 
cation, something about gardens, varieties of crops, how to lay 
out a garden so as to do the work with a horse instead of doing 
it all by hand; cultivation of the garden so as to save the moisture 
and get the best crop possible, and all subjects pertaining to all 
these things. How much about floriculture I cannot tell you, 
Prof. Emerson can tell you about that. 

In regard to livestock, we teach them about the diseases of 
animals — how to prevent rather than to cure disease. ' Although 
some about that, we teach them about the breeding of animals 
so as to raise a good sort instead of a poor sort. For example, 
last winter I sent a bunch of steers to the Omaha market which 
brought sixty-five cents per hundred more than any other cattle 
on the market that day. Now that was very largely because 
the cattle were well bred, they were of the right kind. They 
had made the best use of the corn and other feed. And we teach 
them how to feed these animals so as to get economical results. 

For example: It is of very great importance to the farmer 
to know whether the steers in his yard will pay at thirty cents 
a bushel for the corn that they eat, or forty cents a bushel for 
the corn they eat, and there are plenty of cattle right in the 
same feed yard on the same farm, one animal of which is not 
paying over thirty and the other animal paying forty cents and 
upward. And a sufficient knowledge of how to select these 
animals will enable a young man to pick the animals which will 
pay the highest price for the corn which they consume. Now 
you may say if he buys them on the market he has got to pay 
that additional price. That is some times true, and it does not 
always pay to purchase the highest priced feeders that are 
found on the market, because the margin between the buying 
and selUng price is not so great. But if this man is going to 
grow the feeder on his farm, then there is no excuse for breed- 
ing the inferior class of animals. We try to teach these boys 



116 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

how to breed the very best class of animals on the farm and 
how to feed them. 

This winter we had some steers in live lots, feeding in dif- 
ferent yards. We knew they would not give equal profit. One 
lot fed on corn and barley hay — men say that seventy-five per 
cent of the steers fed in Nebraska are fed on corn and barley 
hay — they made thirty-eight cents per head. We fed another 
lot of steers on corn and alfalfa, and they made us nearly nine 
dollars profit per head. Same conditions, same grade of cattle. 
Just simply intelligent method of feeding. We try to teach the 
boys these things. We believe that six months experience on 
the farm each summer is better for them than twelve months 
in school, because it gives them a chance to practice under farm 
conditions the theories they have been taught in the school, and 
if these theories will work they will find it out, and if not, they 
will find it out, and I think that more than anything else forces 
the school to teach practical things to the boys — methods which 
will show the boys in dollars and cents when they go back to 
the land. And these boys are enthusiastic over the things 
they learn at the school, and every year there is an increase of 
about twenty-five per cent over the numbers there was there 
last year. This school is economical. We try to make the ex- 
penses very small, and any boy can earn pretty near enough in 
six months on a farm to pay his expenses during six months in 
the school; and most any farmer who has a boy sixteen years 
old can afford to send, him to the school for one or two or three 
winters on account of the additional value he will be right on 
that farm, paying back more than the cost of schooling within 
the first three years. He will pay for three years schoohng in 
three years in the additional money he will make that farm earn 
on the average. You all know Mr. John Brenner at York. He 
said that his boy paid him the first ninety days, saved him 
more money than he had cost the father to pay his expenses 
during the winter. Now, I don't care to say any more. We 
would be glad to see all of you at the station. We are carrying 
on experiments there all the time and occasionally publishing 
reports. Three or four bulletins will be sent out in the next 
three months. We would like to send these bulletins to every 
farmer in the state of Nebraska. We send 22,000 of them now 



ROSES. 117 

to farmers in the state, and I am sure the state would be glad 
to pay the expense of sending 50,000 of them, because it would 
pay a profit to every man who reads the bulletins that are pub- 
lished along his line. 

Mr." BLvrrison: Any arrangements made for educating 
farm girls? 

Prof. Burnett: Not as good as there should be. There is 
a School of Domestic Science at the University, that is a very 
nice course. That takes up sewing, cooking, household econom- 
ics and such questions. We hope very soon to have a building 
at the farm where the girls can be taken care of, and then we 
will offer courses for farmers girls which wiU be along this line, 
taking in horticulture, dairying and some little agriculture, and 
sewing, cooking and household economics and home making. 
These subjects, some of them can be had now at the University 
under our most excellent teacher, Miss Bouton, who I think 
has been here at Aurora. 

PRESroENT : This is very interesting and of great importance 
to the state. There are two classes of parents that have been 
making a mistake — one that thinks it is foolish to give educa- 
tion at all, and the other that thinks education is all, the fact is 
the two go together. 

Meeting adjourned. 



ROSES. 

C. H. GREEN, FREMONT, 

In the earliest writings, both sacred and profane we find 
mention of the rose, and away back in the days of ancient Rome, 
the rose was as well known and as carefully cultivated as it is 
today. Then as now it was considered the height of floral per- 
fection and was very generally esteemed and used for orna- 
mentation on both public and private occasions. 

An instance may be mentioned of the very significant* use to 
which it was put by the Romans at some of their entertain- 
ments and feasts. A rose was hung above the entrance and he 
who passed under it silently pledged himself to forget or never 



118 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

repeat that which was said or done within. And even to this 
day anything told sub-rosa, imphes that it is not to be re- 
vealed. 

The species numbering several hundred, are found through- 
out the world, even Iceland, Greenland, and Siberia being repre- 
sented. China, Persia, and India however have furnished some 
of the finest species. From this raw material as it were, culti- 
vators have created the almost innumerable varieties that are 
catalogued today. From the Spinosissima, the type of those 
native to great Britian, the varieties known as the Scotch roses 
have sprung. There are several hundred varieties of these 
alone though they are not as much valued as many of the other 
classes. 

Rosa Centifolia, is supposed to be the hundred leaved rose of 
Pliny. It is a native of Eastern Caucasus and is one of the oldest 
and best known of the family. This is the variety known as 
the cabbage rose. Many fine hybrids of it have been produced 
by English and French gardeners since its introduction into 
England in the year 1596. 

The Centifolia Muscosa or Moss rose, the history of which is 
unknown, is supposed to be an accidental sort from the spino- 
sissima or from one of its hybrids. Plant seeds of the moss 
rose and you will find that perhaps one in three of the resulting 
seedlings will show moss and the others will have aU the char- 
acteristics of the cabbage rose. For hundreds of years the 
Damask rose has been grown in the gardens and fields of 
Damascus and used for making the rare and very expensive 
perfume or essence known as Attar of Roses. 

And even in this day and age, great fields of this rose may be 
seen there. I have friends who were in Damascus during the 
harvest of the blossoms, and you may be sure I was interested 
in hearing them tell how the blossoms were gathered in great 
baskets by peasant women and taken to the places for refining 
where by means of lard or tallow and distilling, the very odor 
was reduced to liquid form. 

There is another family that is grown extensively for the 
same purpose. This is the Rosea Gallica, indigenous to France 
and Italy. Great quantities of them are grown around Paris 



ROSES. 119 

for making the Attar of Roses. Nearly all the varieties noted 
for their great size and fragrance. This section contains a 
large number of variegated varieties, in fact all the sorts so 
marked owe this peculiarity to a strain of Gallica blood. 

Up through the years of many centuries the improvement of 
the rose has steadily advanced and wiU doubtless continue for 
many centuries to come. Not only have more beautiful and fra- 
grant blossoms been originated but the types and varieties and 
classes have multiplied almost without end, and every season 
we have from one to half a dozen more or less worthy new 
sorts placed on the market and loudly proclaimed to be the 
best that was ever introduced. Most of them are heard of 
for a season or two only as world beaters and then the places 
that knew them know them no more. There is an occasional ex- 
ception however and a new introduction that is good enough to 
maintain a place near the top of the list in this day of progress 
is indeed worthy of the homage of the flower lover. Nor is this 
constantly and comparatively rapid improvement to be wondered 
at when we remember that master minds of floriculture have 
devoted busy life times to this end. 

In a commercial sense, the forcing of roses under glass for 
cut flowers has attained a position of considerable importance, 
in the enterprises of the country and millions of square feet of 
glass are used for that purpose. The amount of money invested 
in the business in the United States runs into the hundreds of 
millions and the number of blossoms produced, especially dur- 
ing the winter months is practically beyond comprehension. In 
the little city of Fremont, hardly a speck on the map of floral 
production, were grown last season in this way over 37,000 rose- 
buds. To one who does not fully understand the requirements, 
it will seem strange that less than a dozen varieties of roses are 
forced for cut flowers. Of these the American Beauty stands 
at the head. This is a hybrid perpetual and is nearer what the 
name implies than perhaps any other rose of the class. It is 
really a perpetual bloomer in the greenhouse. The rest 
of those on the florists list are teas and hybrid teas. 
The Bride, the Bridesmaid, Liberty, Golden Gate, Mmme 
Chatenay, Meteor, Pearl des Jardines, and Kaiserein Augusta 
Victoria make up the balance of the list. Occasionally a grower 



120 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

will have another sort or maybe two but the ones named are the 
staples. The bread-winners. 

The methods of growing roses in the greenhouse are of course 
radically different from the treatment required by the same 
sorts when planted in the open ground. In any case however 
good treatment and careful cultivation will be amply repaid. 
For a winter supply of roses under glass we plant about July 
first, in five inches of rotted sod on raised benches, plants from 
three or four inch pots. After becoming well established, the 
plants are kept constantly in a vigorous growing condition which 
is accomj)lished by never ending vigilance. 

The temperature and amount of moisture is carefully regu- 
lated, and the enemies which are, mildew, red spider, green 
aphis, thrip, blackspot, eel worms, clubroot and rose bugs, are 
kept in mind but as much as possible out of sight. One could 
spend hours discussing forcing methods of rose growing with- 
out covering the subject fully. 

As to the varieties best adapted to the rose garden, there is 
no doubt that the hybrid perpetual or remontant class is the 
most satisfactory. Their ability to make the best of most any 
kind of treatment and to thrive, or at least exist even when 
neglected most shamefully is remarkable. The best of them are 
no doubt known to you all, for although new ones are constantly 
appearing, what will ever take the place of Gen. Jack, of Magna 
Charta, of Paul Neyron or of Anna de Diesbach? 

But little need be said on the subject of the garden culture of 
the rose. All that is wanted being a deep rich soil in an un- 
shaded position. In the dry climate of Nebraska, after the 
first burst of bloom in June no full crop of flowers is again ob- 
tained from the hybrid perpetuals although they continue to 
bloom moderately all summer long. 

With a little care however, a continued bloom of roses may be 
had during the summer and fall with the class known as the 
monthly or everbloomers, which includes the teas, hybrid teas, 
polyantha, and noisette classes. 

These are not hardy in this climate but can be wintered out 
of doors if they are laid down and covered with five or six inches 
of leaves or rough litter. This covering however should not be 



DISEASES OF FRUIT TREES. 121 

done until quite hard frosts comes. If done sooner there is 
danger that the shoots may be smothered and decay if the sea- 
son should be mild. 

The covering should not be removed until after the first of 
April. With a bed or border of hardy roses and one of ever- 
bloomers, and a Rambler and a Prairie Queen clambering over 
the porch or treUis you will in truth say: 

"Roses alw^ays roses fair, 
What vv^ith roses can compare? 
Nature Crov^ns the roses stem 
With her choicest diadem." 



DISEASES OF FRUIT TREES. 

VAL. KEYSER, LINCOLN. 

In considering the diseases of our common fruit trees we in- 
clude, of course, the diseases of the fruit which the tree pro- 
duces. The subject is entirely too large to permit one to give 
anything like detailed description of each disease; therefore I 
shall try to take up briefly only a few of the most important and 
the most troublesome diseases of each of the common fruit 
trees. 

The botanical study of diseases is very interesting, and it has 
occurred to me that the pathologist is apt to attribute a great 
many things to a plant disease for which that particular disease 
may not be at all accountable. The death of a fruit tree may 
be due to several causes other than plant diseases. Likewise 
the failure on the part of the tree to produce a fruit crop is 
probably as often due to other causes as it is to any particular 
disease. We may find unfavorable climatic conditions or un- 
favorable soil conditions, mechanical injury by winds, hailstorms 
or beating rains, also injury by insects and rodents, and self- 
sterility of varieties may also play an important part. Any or 
all of these conditions may be the real cause of the death of the 
tree or its failure to fruit, even when it is at the same time 
seriously affected with disease. 



122 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The pathologist may be able to profit by the observations and 
suggestions of the plant breeder. 

The fruit growers have discovered long ago that certain 
varieties were self-sterile. If we plant in isolation such varieties 
as the Wartield strawberry, the Ben Davis apple, the Wild 
Goose plum, or Kieffer's Hybrid pear, we find they fruit very 
sparingly, and when planted where the flowers have free access 
to pollen of other varieties they become leaders of their kind . 
All these varieties might be suffering from disease and yet the 
disease might have nothing to do with the failure of fruit pro- 
duction. To what extent this condition is true among our cul- 
tivated varieties is perhaps not well enough understood, and 
the investigator of plant diseases must not overlook these 
points. 

Diseases are accountable for an immense amount of damage 
to our fruit trees, and for convenience we may discuss briefly 
the most troublesome diseases under each fruit. 

DISEASES OF THE APPLE. 

The apple is probably the most important of the tree fruits, 
especially in eastern Nebraska. We find upon investigation 
that our apple trees must survive the attacks of about ten or 
twelve different diseases in order to produce a crop of apples. 
Of this number I have selected four which seem to give the 
fruit grower most trouble. They are, apple scab {Venturia 
chlorospo7-a), cedar rust (Gymnosporangiurn lYlaa'opus), twig blight 
(supposed Bacillus armjlovorus), and pink rot of the fruit. 

The first two diseases mentioned are discussed in detail 
in another paper before the society. In regard to the cedar 
rust, however, I might add that while I have no experimental 
proof to offer on the subject, I have observed the disease on the 
leaves of the apple until I am thoroughly convinced that the rust 
may spread from the Sporangia which are produced by the first 
stage on the leaves. 

Pink rot is especially troublesome on some varieties of apple 
in storage. The fungus causing the disease usually obtains a 
foothold through the ruptures on the surface of the apple 
caused by scab or other epidermal diseases. It is, however, 



DISEASES OF FRUIT TREES. 123 

possible for the fungus to enter at either the stem cavity or 
the calyx basin. If we raise apples free from disease by proper 
spraying and if we use the proper precaution in renovating our 
storage cellars, we can recude the the loss from iDink rot to a 
minimum. The disease is recognized by the deep cavities it 
causes and by the pinkish moldy appearance about the decay- 
ing portion. 

Twig-blight is perhaps the disease which presents the most 
difficult proposition to the apple grower, especially when he 
deals with varieties most susceptible to blight. There seems 
to be only one solution of the problem, and that is, to keep up 
the practice of careful selection of buds and scions in propoga- 
tion until we have established varieties or strains of varieties 
which are blight resistant. Such varieties as the Hyslop crab, 
the Snow and the Missouri Pippin are too valuable to be dropped 
from our list and yet in some sections of the state it is impossi- 
ble to grow them on account of blight. 

DISEASES OF THE PEAR. 

Of the diseases of the pear tree, probably the two most 
troublesome are twig blight and crown gall. The blight is by 
far the most serious. The organism causing this disease is 
suppose to be identical with that causing the blight of the apple 
twigs {Bacillus amylovorus Burr). For years the greatest diffi- 
culty of growing pears seemed to be how to overcome the blight, 
but since the introduction of varieties which are fairly resistant, 
growers are trying to assign some other reason for the failure 
to fruit. The crown gall trouble is apparently not very serious 
in its effect on the tree, but the presence of those unsightly 
nodular growths on the roots condemn the stock and make the 
disease of sufficient importance not to be overlooked. 

DISEASES OF THE PEACH. 

The peach is perhaps freer from the attacks of harmful 
diseases than any of the other common fruits. 

There are about a dozen different diseases which attack the 
peach, and the seriousness of the effect of any of the diseases 
seems to be governed largely by the variety and the locality in 



124 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

which the peach is grown. In some parts of the United States, 
crown gall is the worst enemy of the peach, while in others, 
where crown gall is unknown, peach yellows may be the greatest 
hindrance to the successful peach crop. Since we cannot enter 
into a discussion of all the diseases, it would perhaps be safe to 
say that the four doing the most damage in our state are, peach 
len,f curl (Exoascus deformans B.), brown rot {Monilm fructigena 
Pres.), scahiCladosjJorium carpophilium Thum), and crown gall. 

Propagators are compelled to throw away a great many trees 
which are apparently strong and vigorous, just because they 
have those unsightly galls attached to their roots. It is not 
known just how much damage these galls do to the tree. It is 
certainly a disease which needs further investigation. 

The brown rot of the peach is caused hy the same fungus 
that causes the brown rot of the plum and cherry, but it is not 
apt to be serious on the peach. There seems to belittle danger 
from this disease where orchards are kept properly sprayed. 
The scab of the peach can also be controlled by spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture. 

Leaf curl is sometimes quite troublesome in certain sections 
of the state. It seems to thrive best in the early part of the 
season, while the weather is still cool. Two sprayings are 
usually sufficient to check the disease. The first should come 
in the spring, before the buds open, because the fungus threads 
live over on the buds. The second application comes just after 
the petals have fallen. 

DISEASES OF THE PLUM. 

Of the six or eight diseases troubling the plum, the brown 
rot is by far the most serious. This disease sometimes attacks 
the flowers just as they are opening and the tree may be filled 
with a mass of perfumed bloom one day, and the next day look 
as though it had been struck by a southwest wind and all the 
while a drizzling rain may be falling. The fungus causing the 
disease is one of the most active, requiring less than two days 
for its round of life. The rapidity with which it spreads makes 
t very important that spraying be very thorough. Where or- 
chards are badly infected it would be advisable to go through 



DISEASES OF FRUIT TREES. 12& 

and remove all the mummy plums left hanging on the trees. 
The spraying is the same as recommended for cherry. 

The black knot (Ploivrightia morbosa) has never been a very 
serious trouble, and it is likely that this disease can be kept 
under control by merely cutting out and burning the affected 
twigs vt^henever they appear. 

The shot-hole fungus, or leaf spot, of the plum is recognized 
by the shot-hole appearance of the leaves. It is the same fungus 
that becomes so very serious on the cherry, but it never seems 
to give the plum trees much trouble, 

DISEASES OF THE CHERRY. 

The most troublesome diseases of the cherry are shot-hole 
fungus {Cylindrosjjorium 2)cidi), the mildev^ (Sphaerotheca oxyacan- 
thae), brown rot {Monilia fructigena), and the heart rot (Polystictus 
versixiolor). This last named disease is quite serious in neglected 
orchards and when once the fungus obtains a foothold there is 
no way to save the tree. The brown rot and mildew ought not 
to be troublesome where orchards are kept well sprayed. 

The shot-hole fungus, the disease which has done so much 
damage to our cherry trees during the past two seasons, is by 
far the most troublesome of any of the cherry diseases. The 
trouble has gone so far that the cherry industry in Nebraska is 
in a critical condition. Early varieties, especially the Rich- 
monds, seem to escape the ravages of the disease. Reports 
from about twenty fruit growers in different sections of the 
state show that less than twenty per cent of the early 
cherry trees were injured and an average of not over three per 
cent were killed, while in case of Morellos and other cherries 
of the black juice type the average will run over ninety-five per 
cent injured and about ninety per cent killed. Estimates from 
seven or eight propagators show that the damage caused by 
this disease alone amounts to over $55,000. From my observa- 
tion and study of the disease, it seems to me that the damage 
has reached proportions beyond which there was no necessity, 
for only in a few cases was spraying resorted to. It seems to 
be difficult to control this disease, and it may not be possible to 
save the crop in wet seasons hke the past two years, but I be- 



126 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

lieve if the orchards had been properly sprayed we could have 
saved the trees inthe majority of cases. It seems that thorough 
spraying is of prime imi^ortance and that the ai^plications should 
come about as follows, with Bordeaux mixture: 

First spraying in spring, while the trees are yet dormant, 
using the 4 to 4 mixture. This is to catch the spores that 
might be lodged in the bud scales. 

The second spraying need not come until about ten days after 
the petals of the flower have fallen. This application is delayed 
because the leaves and flowers are opening at the same time 
and it is difficult to spray without injuring the fruit crop. 

The third spraying should come immediately after the fruit 
crop is harvested, and it is not safe to use over a 2 to 2 mixture 
at this time. This is about the time that the first infected 
leaves are falling and I take it that this is a dangerous time for 
new infection. If a fourth spraying seems to be necessary, it 
should come about twenty or twenty-five days later, 

I am satisfied that this treatment will save our trees, even if 
it does not insure us a crop of cherries. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Nebraska State 
Horticultural Society, held at Horticultural Hall, State Farm, 
Lincoln, January 17, 18 and 19, 1905. 



PROCEEDINGS, 129 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



The annual meeting of the Nebraska State Horticultural So- 
ciety convened in Horticultural Hall, State Farm, Lincoln, 
Tuesday, January 17, 1905, at 2:00 p. m., with President Christy 
in the chair. Following is a copy of the program, which was 
carried out essentially as published: 

Tuesday, January 17th, 10:00 a. m. 
Renewing acquaintances and placing fruit on tables. 

2:00 p. M. 

Address of Welcome 

Prof. A. E. Davisson of the School of Agriculture 

Response _ President Christy 

Cherries W. A. Anderson, Ord 

Results of the Fruit Exhibit at St. Louis 

; E.M. Pollard, Nehawka 

Diseases of the Apple C. W. Pugsley, Woodbine, Iowa 

Secretary's Report 
Treasurer's Report 

Wednesday, January 18th, 9:00 a. m. 

Fruits under Irrigation T. M. Howard, Scotts Bluff 

Western Horticulture E. F. Stephens, Crete 

Ornamental Gardening J. H. Hadkinson, Omaha. 

Spraying Experiments 

R. A. Emerson, Professor of Horticulture, University 

of Nebraska. 

2:00 P. M. 

Diseases of House Plants Miss Elsa E. Boyd, Hastmgs 

How much Plant Pathology ought a Fruit Grower to Know? 

Dr. C. E. Bessey, University of Nebraska 



130 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A Talk . 

Prof. Lawrence Bruner, Entomologist, University of 

Nebraska 
Methods of Investigating Plant Diseases 

Prof. P. D. Heald, University of Nebraska 

Progress of Fruit Culture in Kearney County 

.- - D. C. Bliss, Minden 

Thursday, January 19th, 9:00 a. m. 

Diseases Arising from Improper Pruning • 

Frank Williams, Tecumseh 

Evergreens Best Adapted to Nebraska C. S. Harrison, York 

Reminiscences of Early Horticulture in Nebraska 

Hon. R. W. Furnas, Brownville 

Pears J. A. Shroyer, Humboldt 

Reports from Delegates to other Societies 

Reports from Experimental Stations. 

PRESroENT Christy: The annual meeting of the Nebraska 
State Horticultural Society w^ill nov^r come to order. The ad- 
dress of v^elcome will be delivered by Prof. A. E. Davisson of 
the School of Agriculture. 



ADDRESS OP WELCOME BEFORE THE STATE 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

BY PROFESSOR A. E. DA^^SSON 

Professor Davisson. Mr. President, Members of the Nebraska 
ITorticultural Society, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is a very pleasant 
task, that of welcoming the State Horticultural Society to the 
University Farm. But I cannot see why I should have been 
selected to deliver this address of welcome, for so far as a 
knowledge of Horticulture is concerned, I am in much the same 
position as the man was when he went to church. A revival 
meeting was being carried on, and at the close of the service, 
the minister said, "All who want to go to Heaven, stand up." 
They all stood up but this one man who was about two-thirds 
asleep at the time. Then he said, "All who want to go to Per- 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME 131 

dition, stand up." This man stood up, and some of the un- 
thinking ones laughed a little. He said to the preacher, "I don't 
know just what you are voting on, but you and I seem to be in 
a hopeless minority," I feel that way this afternoon, like I am 
in a hopeless minority. 

It is a fact, Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, and mem- 
bers of the society, that horticulture is one of the most impor- 
tant things in our agricultural development, and one of the 
things liable to receive scant attention and very little consid- 
eration. I was talking to a man this afternoon, and I said, "I 
suppose you raise fruit. " He said, "No, it costs too much; I 
can raise hogs easier than apple trees. ' ' The commercial spirit 
that is abroad in the land today has grown to such an extent 
that I am afraid we are liable to overlook and give up some 
things which have in them the elements of a high culture for 
some things that give very great returns in short spaces of 
time. And yet, notwithstanding that fact, Nebraska has done 
well. This last year we had about 40,000 acres of land in vege- 
tables, and our products from the vegetables amounted to about 
$1,750,000. These are vegetables merely. If we include pota- 
toes, and we had a wonderful yield in that respect, we would 
have to add $3,000,000 more to the $1,750,000. We have at the 
present time close to 5,000,000 apple trees in Nebraska, and the 
yearly product is very near 3,000,000 bushels. Then we have 
almost a million cherry trees with a product of fully 75,000 
bushels for a good year. We have fully 1,500,000 peach trees 
which, give a good yield. Of plums we have something like 
700,000, and almost as many pear trees. We have about two 
million grape vines in the state. Wlien w^e take the products 
of the work in horticulture and add them all together, our 
yearly product last year (1904) was something near $5,000,000. 
But this is all from the commercial side. 

Now I am a believer in horticulture. In the first place, I be- 
lieve in horticulture because it adds so much to the comforts of 
life. I think that any man who keeps a garden, whether it be 
vegetable garden or a flower garden, and who makes an honest 
and earnest effort to make the garden productive and beautiful, 
gets in his work a great deal of knowledge and culture. I say 
this knowing that some of my colleagues will laugh at me be- 



132 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cause I don't keep a garden myself, but I am no worse off than 
they are. This reminds me of a man I knew in New Mexico, 
and let me say that the people of New Mexico are considered 
barbarous. When I lived there, I had half of the house owned 
by this man. His name was Miles. He was rather free and 
easy in his manners, and had only a common education. He 
had one of the most beautiful flower gardens around his house 
that I ever saw. There were all colors of the rainbow. It was 
a very interesting study for me to see how this man, engaged 
in another business, was deriving so much real culture from 
his work. 

It is true, Mr. President, that in Nebraska one of the greatest 
needs we have is for beautifying our homes. It seems to me 
that the school of Agriculture in the University should see to it 
that every student who attends here shall go forth with the 
firm determination of making his home a thing of beauty. Here 
again, we have the elements of culture. So I say, ladies and 
gentlemen, that horticulture is one of the things that belongs 
to the fine arts. While it is intensely practical, yet there is 
combined with it the highest elements of aesthetic culture. 

This gentleman in New Mexico knew more about grouping 
colors than any man I have ever met, and he learned it all by 
himself too. What joy and culture came to him as he worked 
among his flowers. It all came because of the fact that he was 
interested in them. Horticulture is not only a fine art, but it 
is one of the best educators. It gives the best training to the 
perceptive faculties that can be given by any science connected 
with agriculture. I think that Professor Emerson will agree 
with me in this estimate that I place upon the work in horticul- 
ture. Then another question of great importance is that of 
Forestry, which is a branch of horticulture. I believe there is 
a great step to be taken yet in this matter. It seems to me, 
ladies and gentlemen, that the State Horticultural Society will 
be fully justified in making such demand upon the Legislature 
and Board of Regents as will result in their equipping the de- 
partment of horticulture with facilities for carrying on experi- 
ments not only in fruit growing, but also experiments in growing 
forest trees as well, and that we shall have abundant opportun- 
ities for disseminating this knowledge throughout the state. 



RESPONSE. 133 

Doubtless you have read "Planting the Apple Tree," by William 
Cullen Bryant. If you have'nt, you should. It strikes me, when 
reading and realizing what such things mean, that there is no 
higher occupation in the world than that of horticulture. If a 
man has a knowledge of horticulture, and wiU use it, he can serve 
his home better; he can inspire others to more earnest work; he 
can make a place where men and women will love to come and 
hve in peace. 

I hope I may be spared to see the trees waving their banners 
of green in every quarter of Nebraska, and in the Spring blos- 
soming into bowers of beauty, giving us the delicious fruits in 
the summer and fall, and at the same time, remind us that 
there are good and high rewards for labor. I thank you. 
(Applause.) 



RESPONSE. 

BY PRESIDENT CHRISTY. 

Ladies and Gentlemen and Fellow Meiiibers: I think, after 
listening to Professor Davisson's talk, that those of us here 
this afternoon who are not horticulturists, would feel a good 
deal like the Irishman did. He was in company with an 
Enghshman and a German, and they were talking about their 
nationahties. The Englishman said to the German, "If you 
were not a Gejrman, what would you rather be?" The German 
replied, "Why, if I were not a German, I would be an English- 
man, of course." The German asked the Englishman, "And 
if you were not an Englishman, what would you rather be?" 
He said, "Wliy, if I were not an Englishman, I would be a 
German." They then asked Pat what he would be if he were 
not an Irishman. He replied, "Faith, sor, if I were not an 
Irishman, I'd be ashamed of meself." So I think those here 
this afternoon who are not horticulturists would be ashamed of 
themselves. 

The past season has been what would be called a big fruit 
season. At St. Louis we had a chance to test what Nebraska 
has done as compared to other states. Nebraska took more 
gold medals than any other state in the Union; and not only 



134 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that, but we took more medals according to the number of ex- 
hibitors than any other state. So I think Nebraska is nothing 
to be ashamed of. Right here it would be well to make a few 
remarks in reference to judging fruit in this state. We have 
classes here at the University for judging horses, cattle and 
hogs. And it seems to me that we ought to have something 
along this line in fruit judging. This is one of the things 
that we must learn, and it should also be taught to the 
younger men. 

Another thing that should be impressed upon our horticul- 
turists here is the subject of freight rates. It has been the 
rule that transportation companies and shippers have kept as 
far from each other as possible, and are always fighting back 
and forth. Now this should not be, it is all wrong. The Rail- 
road companies can do nothing without our assistance. I be- 
lieve that not later than our next meeting at least, some repre- 
sentatives of the Railroads should be invited to come here and 
talk this matter over with the Society. 

We have five experiment stations in the state testing new 
fruits all the time. There is one thing that seems to be the 
matter with this work, and that is, that we cannot disseminate 
fast enough what we learn there. The way it is now, nothing 
can be given to the people before the information is about two 
years old. We should get this information before the people 
just as soon as we can after we find and learn these things. If 
we should get into closer working order with the University 
here, within fifteen to thirty days after we find out that a cer- 
tain fruit is good or a failure, we should have the information 
before the people. We should get some sort of a method right 
away for getting such information to the public. 

Now while our horticultural interests are very good, we should 
have more members. Bring your friends to our meetings and 
get them in on the ground floor. I am very glad to see so many 
out this afternoon. We are glad to see the State Farm and 
University people showing so much interest in our work. We 
shall try to repay them for it. I thank you. (Applause.) 

The President: Next on our program for this afternoon is 
a paper entitled "Some Experience with Cherries," by W. A. 



SOME EXPERIENCE WITH CHERRIES. 135 

Anderson of Ord. In the absence of Mr. Anderson his paper 
will be read by the Secretary, 



SOME EXPERIENCE WITH CHERRIES. 

BY W. A. ANDERSON, ORD. 

I came to Nebraska in the spring of 1879 and located in VaUey 
county. Conditions were not as favorable at that date for the 
propagation of fruit and yet here and there settlers had a few 
trees of various varieties planted as an experiment. The can- 
yons and banks of creeks had an abundance of wild plum, choke 
cherry and wild grape vines were plentiful in many places. 
My location was not far from the famous "sand hills" and in 
July and August of that year the sand-cherries were abundant 
and were eagerly sought for by the new settlers and were used 
in place of the cultivated fruit that many were used to in their 
previous homes in the east. To those not familiar with that fruit 
a word might not be out of place here. The sand cherry is a 
low, scrubby bush, seldom being more than three feet in height 
and more often from a foot to eighteen inches. It grows in 
great abundance everywhere in the sand hiUs and the more 
sandy the soil the better the fruit. I have seen cherries grow- 
ing on the tops of the highest sand hills where the loose sand 
had blown over and buried the fruit under the drifting sand 
and this fruit was bleached out white when uncovered and was of 
even better quality than that above the sand. The fruit grows 
along the limbs of the bush from the ground up to almost the 
ends of the limbs. We gathered an abundance of the fruit that 
season and I decided that if the fruit did so well in a wild state, 
if it were cultivated it certainly ought to improve. The next 
spring I removed from the sand hills and set out quite a number 
of the bushes in my garden where I had designed later to plant 
an orchard. I gave them thorough cultivation and they made 
a rank growth but was much disappointed the next season to 
get no fruit. The second year after planting they bloomed 
freely and quite a lot of fruit set on the bushes but when ripe 
it was bitter and unpalatable. This was the result whenever 



i36 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

they fruited in later years and my conclusion was that the sand- 
cherry was adapted to the sand hills, had become adapted to 
that locality through ages and would not do as well elsewhere. 

The next year I was out in the hills in May and captured a pair 
of fawns of the Blacktail deer. These became a beautiful pair of 
pets but later in the season they became very destructive of 
the garden "truck" and finally showed a tendency to wander 
away and not come up at night and so in September when an 
itinerent fruit tree man came soliciting orders and wanted the 
fawns, I exchanged one of them for a bill of nursery stock, and 
on the list were two varieties of cherries. Early Richmond and 
late Richmond. These were planted the following spring and 
that was my first experience with the cultivated variety of fruit. 

These trees did well and later were loaded with fruit. The 
next season after came a very severe hailstorm which destroyed 
all my start of an orchard with the exception of one late Rich- 
mond cherry. This tree was also stripped of its limbs but I 
cut off the stubs of limbs. A new growth came out the next 
season and thereafter for many seasons was almost invariably 
loaded with fruit. 

I did not plant any more fruit trees owing to being discouraged 
by the damage caused by hail until 1898. In the spring of that 
year I had some correspondence with Prof. J. L. Budd of 
Ames, Iowa, recently deceased. He had several new varieties 
of cherries and other fruit and offered to send me several trees 
of each variety for test purposes, I to report to experiment 
station the results. By and on his recommendation he sent me 
four Vladimir, four Sldanka, four Spate Morello, four Bessara- 
bia, four Griotto Du Nord cherries two years old. These were 
planted the spring of 1898. They were given good cultivation 
and made a vigorous growth. Some scattering fruit was on 
the trees the season of 1902 but not enough to form any base 
for an opinion as to their merits. The spring of 1903 the trees 
were loaded with bloom as full as seemed in any way possible 
for trees to be, but on the 29th of April, there came a storm of 
sleet, ice and snow with such cold that only here and there was 
a fruit bud that survived the ordeal and again was our hopes of 
fruit blasted. The spring of 1904 however proved moi-e propit- 
ious and the trees were full of bloom and set a great abundance 



SOME EXPERIENCE WITH CHERRIES. 137 

of„fruit. The Vladimir was first to ripen and were about even 
date with Early Richmond; but the quality I consider superior, 
being sweeter than the Richmond and fully equal to it in size. 
The Sklanka was only a few days later and I think a little 
larger in size of fruit and for eating from the hand a little more 
tart, but very good. The Spate Morello were next to ripen but 
were too tart for eating from the hand but were in size about 
the same as Richmond and are excellent for canning j)urposes. 
The Bessarabia and Griotto Du Nord came on about two weeks 
later than the others, ripening about the 20th of July. It is a 
question which of these were the best but my judgement would 
be that the Bessarabia would be better in some respects. 

The Bessarabia is very fine and large, of a deep black red and 
when fully ripe one of the finest cherries I have ever noticed. 
The tree is a vigorous grower with very heavy foliage and of 
rather an upright growth, inclined to be close-headed and I 
think on that account would be likely to resist the effect of hot 
winds. This season the fruit was aU the trees could well have 
borne in quantity. 

The Griotto Du Nord fruit is not as deep a black red but is of 
fine size and excellent quality either for canning or eating from 
the hand. These trees now (January, 1905) are all filled with 
an abundance of fruit buds and so far I am convinced they will 
withstand any range of temperature we may have in this cli- 
mate. Were I planting an orchard of cherries for home or 
commercial use, I certainly would place these varieties at the 
top of the list. I have a number of Early Richmond trees in my 
orchard also and they are doing well, but the quality of the fruit 
the past season was not nearly equal to the Sklanka or any of 
those mentioned, except Spate Morello. 

Several years ago I removed some of the wild choke-cherry 
to my yard and gave them cultivation and more or less of prun- 
ing. The fruit has nearly doubled in size and they have not 
failed to be loaded with fruit every year which is of an improved 
quality and is much relished by the children of the neighbor- 
hood. One peculiarity of these trees is that they bear two 
crops each year, being in bloom while the first crop of fruit is 
ripe and the second crop ripening late in September. I believe 



138 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

if we had a Luther Burbank in Nebraska there might be great 
possibilities for the future of the choke-cherry if cross ferti- 
Hzed with some other fruit. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Pollard: I would like to say just a few words in re- 
gard to Mr. Anderson's cherries. It is commonly understood 
that the eastern part of the state is the only part of Nebraska 
where we can grow fruit. People have gotten the idea that it 
is impracticable to try to grow any kind of fruit in the central 
and western part of the state. Now Mr. Anderson is at Ord, 
in the central part of the state. He sent cherries to the Expo- 
sition at St. Louis, which were without exception the finest 
cherries we received. They were not only larger, but they 
held up better than any other cherries we had. I think that 
speaks a good deal for central and western Nebraska. The 
cherry is one of the fruits that can be grown profitably in the 
central part of the state. 

A. J. Brown: I want to add a word on cherries. In his 
paper Mr. Anderson speaks about the Vladimir being better in 
quality, a little earlier and about the same size as the Early 
Richmond. We have the two growing side by side at Geneva, 
and so far as we can find out, the two are just alike. With us 
the Vladimir is certainly just the Early Richmond. 

L. O. Williams: I would like to say that the Bessarabia 
was grown quite largely in Iowa, but unfortunately I did not 
see any of the fruit. I am of the opinion, however, that it was 
good and one of the varieties that Prof. Budd recommended. 
The Bessarabia was one of the best growing trees. I would 
not discard the Early Richmond though for it. For my ex- 
perience in eastern Nebraska and Iowa, I would stand by the 
old reliable varieties we know. Regarding the Sklanka, — there 
are a few trees here at the State Farm that fruit very well. 
I consider it a good acquisition for this part of the state. In 
season it is a httle earher than the Richmond, and has a good 
foliage. The fruit is larger than the Early Richmond and of 
good color. 

G. A. Marshall: We bit on that same proposition, of try- 
ing new varieties of cherries about fourteen years ago. We 



DISCUSSION. 139 

planted ten varieties, and got every variety that has been men- 
tioned here. We planted them beside the Early Richmond, 
Montmorency and English Morello. We could not see any dif- 
ference between these new varieties and the old ones. If I 
were planting an orchard today, I would plant the Early Rich- 
mond, Montmorency and English Morello. We had another 
new one but it was identical with the Montmorency. We pro- 
pagated them in the nursery, and we could not find any per- 
ceptible difference. We had those with the long stems and it 
was of pretty good color too, but it was not more than two-thirds 
as large as the other varieties. Because of this long stem and 
smaller si^e it was not a good commercial fruit. In planting 
for commercial purposes, we ought to hold on to the old re- 
liable varieties. 

Mr. Cunningham: I am not connected with horticultural 
work in any way, but I would like to make a remark about the 
eastern part of the state being the only fruit growing part of 
the state. Cherries this last season in Hamilton county were 
very successful. They were a large crop and brought fifty to 
seventy-five cents per bushel. 

A. J. Brown: I would like to add to what this gentleman 
has just said. There is not a spot of land in the state of Neb- 
raska, where there is moisture enough to grow any trees at 
all, that you cannot grow cherries on. 

E. F. Stephens: I would like to say that cherry orchards of 
considerable size are being planted in Buffalo county. They 
use the Campbell method of cultivation there. Their orchards 
are doing very well indeed, and as there are not very many 
orchards in that country, they will be quite profitable. 

E. T. Hartley: Just now the fungus is the worst enemy to 
the cherries. Mr. Jenkins told me that his cherry orchard is 
now on the brush pile, and one of the varieties most affected 
was the English Morello. It is important to know what varie- 
ties will resist this fungus. 

Mr. Keyser: I might add that possibly about seventy-five 
per cent of the late cherries in eastern Nebraska are on the 
brush pile. I don't like to think of having to give up the late 
cherry. I wish we had some experimental work along the hne 



140 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of handling this disease. I think we can save the trees all right, 
and it is certainly worth the time and money to try. All we 
need to do is to use the Bordeaux mixture at the proper 
time. We have experimented a little in trying to prevent the 
disease, but have not carried it far enough. 

A Member: What variety best resists the attacks of this 
disease that is devastating the trees in the eastern part of 
the state? 

G. A. Marshall: The Early Richmond stands at the head 
yet in the matter of resisting disease. 

A Member: This same question came up last year, and no 
one was able to give an answer to it then. I had an orchard in 
Richardson county that I wanted to save. I thought quite a 
good many of the trees were gone, and when spring came I 
found that I had lost ten trees out of 108. I went to work this 
spring and sprayed with the Bordeaux mixture. Once early, 
before leafing out, and then when the trees were leafing out and 
then again when the cherries were setting. While the cherries 
were getting ripe a good many leaves dropped, but I sprayed 
then after that two or three times, and I was able to keep the 
leaves on as long as I sprayed regularly. The trees looked a 
great deal better at the end of the season than in the spring. 
Then no more trees died. 

Mr. Jackson: In south-western Iowa we had the same 
trouble. The EngHsh Morello and Wragg seem to be affected 
the worst with this fungus disease. The Montmorency and Early 
Richmond were the best. Where they were sprayed thoroughly 
they have shown but very httle.of the fungus disease, while 
about seventy-five per cent of the Wragg and English Morello 
died. 

The President: C. H. Barnard of Table Rock was to have 
been here this afternoon to give a talk on "Marketing Fruit." 
Mr. Barnard is not here so I will ask Mr. Parker to say a few 
words on this subject. 

Mr. Parker: Mr. President, I regret that Mr. Barnard is 
not here with his paper, and before I get through, probably 
you will regret it too. 



DISCUSSION. 141 

I have had some experience in raising and marketing fruit 
here in Nebraska. Quite hkely you have been told how to mar- 
ket fruit, — that you must select the best, put it in good attrac- 
tive packages so it will sell and get a reputation. Of course, all 
this is well and will help you, and you will have no trouble to 
sell that product. But what good is all this going to do you, 
after you have selected the fruits, planted and raised them, if 
the transportation companies are going to get all your profit be- 
fore your product gets to market? That's what the case is at 
present. This question of freight rates is a vital one and in- 
terests all. 

A car of apples shipped from Auburn to Chadron, Nebraska^ 
a distance of about five hundred miles costs eighty-four cents, 
per hundred pounds. A car of apples shipped from New York 
to Auburn, a distance over three times as great, costs only 
seventy-five cents per hundred pounds. The rate on a car of 
apples from Brock, Nebraska, to Waubay, South Dakota is fifty- 
two cents, while from New York to Waubay the rate is only 
thirty-nine cents per hundred. As a result of this discrimina- 
tion, 250,000 bushels of fruit rotted on the ground in five south- 
eastern counties of Nebraska last season. As I told the Gen- 
eral Freight Agent of the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Val- 
ley, "If you give us a reasonable rate up to Chadron, you will 
probably haul twenty cars of apples up there, whereas now you 
don't haul one." 

Down in the south-eastern section of the state, — Otoe, Nema- 
ha, Pawnee and Johnson counties, we have a horticultural asso- 
ciation or organization, and at a meeting we had the other day, 
this resolution was unanimously adopted: 

"Whereas, it has come to the knowledge of the Nebraska 
Fruit Growers' Association that the interstate freight rate on 
fruit discriminates against the fruit growers of Nebraska, 
therefore be it 

Resolved: That this association requests our legislators to 
ask congress by joint resolution to support an amendment to 
the interstate commerce law which provides that when the 
interstate commission shall find that the rates charged by any 
common carrier are unreasonable, they shall have the power to 



142 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cancel such rates and establish reasonable rates which shall not 
be stayed, susi^ended, modified, or annulled, otherwise than by 
the commission in the establishment of a new rate or rates or 
by a final decree of the United States court of competent juris- 
diction for manifest violation of error of law." 

I don't know what better I could do now, than move the 
adoption of this resolution. 

Motion being regularly seconded, the above resolution was 
unanimously adopted by the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society. 

The President: It is our pleasure to have with us this after- 
noon, Professor Green of the University of Minnesota. We 
would like to hear a few words from him. 

Professor Green : Mr. President, Ladies mid Gentlemen: I 
just thought I would sort of sneak in to see what was going on. 
I didn't expect to be called on to make any speech. But I will 
say that I like to see what is being done in the different sections 
of the country. I have a great power of absorbing horticul- 
tural information when I am in a crowd like this. I don't know 
what I have to say that would do you any good. 

There is one thing I have noticed though, that certainly speaks 
well for horticulture in Nebraska, and that is the fact that there 
are men of force and energy interested in it. They are suffi- 
ciently interested to come together in meetings like this for the 
discussion of subjects and questions of mutual concern. This 
matter of Railroad rates, which we have just listened to is a 
rather discouraging one, and it is on just such important ques- 
tions as this that it is good to come together on and discuss. 
In this question of Railroad rates, nothing can be done without 
co-operation, and it is only by co-operation that w^^e are going to 
get justice. When the people work together against the dis- 
criminations of the Railroads, and only then, there will be a 
public sentiment aroused that the Railroads cannot put down. 
(Applause.) When this sentiment is aroused, and justly so, the 
Railroads will be glad to fall into line and become just what 
they really are, — common carriers. (Applause.) 

I don't think I have anything more to say while up here, un- 
less it is to emphasize the inspiration we get from coming to- 



RESULTS OF THE FRUIT EXHIBIT AT ST. LOUIS. 143 

gether. You have a program going on now, and I just want to 
be a listener. I want to sit down and enjoy the remainder of 
your program this afternoon. I thank you, Mr. President and 
fellow-workers for this welcome. (Applause.) 

The President: These Horticultural Reports here are for 
free distribution. Any who care for them are entirely welcome 
to help themselves. The next subject on our program this 
afternoon is "Results of the Fruit Exhibit at St. Louis," by 
E. M. Pollard. 



RESULTS OF THE FRUIT EXHIBIT AT ST. LOUIS. 

BY E. M. POLLARD, NEHAWKA. 

Mr. Pollard: Mi\ President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Sep- 
tember first, 1903, 1 received my appointment as Superintendent 
of the Horticultural Department for the Nebraska Commission 
to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in the city of St. 
Louis from April 30th to December 1st, 1904. Immediately 
upon my appointment I began the collection of fruit to be placed 
in cold storage for use during the earlier part of the Exposition. 
On account of the extremely poor quality of our apples in 1903 
I found it very difficult to find fruit suitable for exhibition pur- 
poses. I finally succeeded however in collecting sixty-six bar- 
rels and twenty nine boxes of apples and one-half barrel of 
pears which were placed in cold storage with the Mound City 
Ice and Cold Storage Company of St. Louis, Mo. I secured 
block six in the Palace of Horticulture as the space for the Neb- 
raska exhibit at the Exposition. Our space was in the shape 
of a parallelogram and covered seventeen hundred and ninety- 
five square feet. On account of the small amount of money 
available for the department of Horticulture the Hon. Commis- 
sion thought even this was more space than our funds would 
enable us to maintain. Consequently at the west end of the 
space we erected a Grape arbor which was simple, yet unique 
in design. In keeping with the arbor we enclosed the space 
with a rustic fence. The rustic appearance of our booth gave 
a very pleasing effect. Being entirely different from anything 



144 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY. 

else in the Horticultural building, it attracted a great deal of 
attention and called forth as much comment as Missouri's lavish 
instillation which of itself cost several thousand dollars. The 
arbor made an inviting place for visitors to rest and in this way 
we extended Nebraska's hospitality to a great many people who 
seemed to appreciate this cool retreat for rest. 

On the morning af April 30th, Nebraska's booth was ready for 
visitors and our tables were covered with four hundred plates 
of choice apples. Prom the opening day until the close we 
maintained a continuous exhibition of the finest specimens of 
fruit grown in the state. Of course we relied upon our stock 
of cold storage apples mostly from which the tables were cov- 
ered up until the 1904 crop of apples were ready for use. 

Acting on the advice of Hon. Peter Youngers who was Super- 
intendent of Nebraska's Horticultural exhibit at the Trans-Mis- 
sissippi Exposition held in Omaha in 1898, I only collected a few 
varieties of apples for cold storage. The varieties I had in 
storage was as follows: Jonathans, Grimes Golden, Yellow 
Bell Flower, Mann, Stark, Genet, Willow Twig, York Imperial, 
Smith Cider, Northern Spy, Ben Davis and Gano. All of these 
varieties kept remarkably well in cold storage. We found that 
when the apples were in good condition when picked, and 
shipped properly to cold storage they came out in excellent con- 
dition. The condition in which the apples opened up when 
taken out of storage was dependent entirely upon their condi- 
tion when placed in storage. We opened up some Jonathans 
and Grimes Golden in July that were as crisp and juicy and in 
apparently as firm condition as when the were gathered from 
the tree. 

To illustrate the length of time certain leading varieties re- 
mained on the tables I cite the following instances: April 29th, 
eleven plates of Yellow Bell Flowers were placed on the tables 
and remained for fifty-three days, five plates of Jonathans 
which remained thirty-six days. June 9th, nine plates of G. G. 
Pippins remaining on the tables nineteen days, thirty-four 
plates of Jonathans remaining twenty-five days, July 9th, six 
plates of North- West Greenings remaining on the tables fifteen 
days, thirteen plates of York Imperial remaining on the tables 



RESULTS OF THE FRUIT EXHIBIT AT ST. LOUIS. 145 

seventy -one days, twenty-two plates of Jonathans remained 
eighteen days, eight plates of Smith Cider were placed on the 
table July 23rd, remaining eighteen days. The same day five 
plates of Northern Spy were put that remained for twelve 
days. August 5th, eight plates of Allans Choice were opened on 
tables remaining twenty-three days, fourteen plates of Duchess 
that remained fourteen days. August 24th, twenty-nine plates 
of Jonathans were put out that remained twenty days, twelve 
plates of Ben Davis that remained forty-five days, seventeen 
plates of Wolf River that remained forty days, and twenty plates 
of Early Pennock that remained thirty-five days. September 
1st, nine plates of Wealthies that remained eighteen days, eight 
plates of Porters that remained twenty-five days, seven plates 
of Chenango Strawberry that remained ten days. I might ex- 
tend this list indefinitely but it seems useless. Of course there 
were other entries made of these same varieties, some of which 
we were able to leave on the tables for shorter time, while others 
remained even longer. The instances I have mentioned are 
perhaps a good average and they demonstrate that apples taken 
from cold storage under similar conditions will hold up approxi- 
mately the same time as fruit that is taken fresh from the tree. 
A great many people hold the opinion and I have always been 
of this class that when apples are taken out of cold storage they 
must be used at once as they would not keep any length of time. 
Very much to my surprise, however, our experience at St. Louis 
demonstrated beyond any question of doubt that the placing of 
apples in cold storage has nothing to do with the length of time 
they will keep when taken out of storage. The temperature of 
the refrigerator rooms in which the apples were stored was 
kept as near 32 degrees fahrenheit as possible. The range of 
temperature being 31 and 32 degrees. 

My observation teaches me that in order to carry fruit suc- 
cessfully in cold storage it is necessary to carry the apples 
carefully, taking great pains to select the stock eliminating 
everything but perfect fruit and then carry the apples to cold 
storage without delay. The temperature of the rooms must 
be held as near constant as possible, and right down to the 
freezing point. I would make this exception however, that such 
varieties as the Missouri Pippin, Ben Davis, Gano and apples 



146 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that might be classed with the Ben Davis family should be held 
.at a higher temperature, just what that temperature should be 
I am not prepared to say. I am satisfied that 32 or even 33 de- 
grees is too low for these varieties. I noticed that these varie- 
ties from all the different states scalded when placed upon 
the tables. The apples seemed to look bright and fresh 
when opened, but by the time they had been out twenty-four 
hours they looked very bad. 

We undertook to make a continuous exhibit of all the different 
species of fruit grown in the state as they ripened in their 
respective seasons. Beginning with the Strawberry we ex- 
hibited all the soft fruits as follows: We exhibited two varie- 
ties of Strawberries, four of Raspberries, two Blackberries, 
two Gooseberries, four Currants, four Cherries, seven Plums, 
two Apricots, two Quince, eleven Peaches, twenty Grapes, nine 
Pears, and forty-eight Apples. This fruit was grown by forty- 
five fruit men, representing fourteen counties. I experienced 
trouble with small fruit. I made no effort to make an exhi- 
bition of all the varieties of the different species of fruit grown 
in Nebraska, but sought rather to present those varieties which 
can be grown with profit, and that are of good quality as well. 
I made a special effort to demonstrate that the quality of our 
fruit is just as good as that grown in any other state in the 
Union. So many people are of the opinion that to secure fruit 
of good quality they must go to New York or Michigan to find 
it, I made a special effort to break down this prejudice against 
our fruit. Prom a comparative statement given by the Judges 
who passed upon the fruit, we proved beyond any question of 
doubt that the quality of our fruit is equalled by few of the 
States, and surpassed by none. 

In the distribution of awards Nebraska led all other 
States in the Union in the number of Gold Medals she received. 
We received fourteen Gold Medals which was two more than 
any other State was awarded. Also twenty Silver and eighteen 
Bronze Medals. 

At the St. Louis Exposition we were brought into direct com- 
petition with thirty-three States and Territories of the Union. 
Nebraska had the smallest amount of money at her disposal 
for Horticulture of any of the States that made any pretense of 



RESULTS OF THE FRUIT EXHIBIT AT ST. LOUIS. 147 

growing fruit. Our fruit was exhibited side by side with fruit 
from what is known as tlie great red apple district to the south 
of us, and from New York, Michigan and Connecticut to the 
east where a great many people think they must go in order to 
secure choice apples. And from Colorado, "Washington and 
Oregon to the west of us where fruit of the higher color is 
grown, and if it was to be judged from its appearance alone 
would out-strip the fruit grown in any other section of the 
United States. Nevertheless Nebraska with her small amount 
of space maintained an exhibit that from point of general ap- 
pearance and quality surpassed them all. 

Gentlemen of the Horticultural Society we have passed be- 
yond the experimental stage in the growing of fine fruit. When 
brought into direct competition with the best fruit growing sec- 
tion in the world Nebraska can hold up her head and say with- 
out fear of successful contradiction that the quality of our fruit 
is surpassed by none. Those of us that are in the fruit business 
know that this is the case, but when we go out to sell our fruit 
we are brought face to face with a prejudice against our own 
fruit which I believe is due almost exclusively to the extensive 
planting and growing of the Ben Davis apple. It is so common 
and grown so universally that a great many people have come 
to the opinion that the Ben Davis is the only apple that we grow 
or can grow in the west. I realize that there is a reason for 
this situation. The Ben Davis tree is comparatively hardy, be- 
ing easy to grow, bearing young, very prohfic, standing a great 
deal of rough treatment and being a good keeper. The only 
objection to the apple being its inferior quality. These good 
points are responsible for its universal planting. However I 
think that the Ben Davis apple is a curse to the state and the 
whole west as well. 

There is a great long list of varieties that I might mention where 
the tree is just as hardy, just as prolific, just as good a keeper 
as the fruit grown in Michigan, Colorado, New York or Oregon. 
The efforts of this society in the past have been directed along 
the lines of encouraging the planting of fruit trees in all parts 
of the state. This has been a splendid work and has resulted 
very beneficially to the state. Now that these fine orchards 
have been planted all over the eastern half of the state I believe 



148 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that we should change our attitude as a society. We should 
now undertake to demonstrate to our people that it is no longer 
necessary to go to New York or Michigan for fancy eating ap- 
ples, but that the same may be secured within our own state. 
Statistics show that seventy-five per cent of the apples con- 
sumed in Nebraska outside of those that are consumed on the 
farm where they are grown are shipped into the state by other 
states. Thus the fruit growers in Nebraska are robbed of the 
home market, which is the best market in the world. During 
the season of 1904 we shipped forty cars of apples from the 
home orchard at Nehawka. Thirty-nine of which went out of 
the state. Why? Simply because the demand at home was for 
eastern apples rather than for home grown apples. This is a 
situation that ought not to exist. When such varieties as the 
Wine Sap, Mammoth Black Twig, York Imperial, Dominee, 
Genet, Swaar, White Winter Pearmain, Northern Spy, Yellow 
Bell Flower, Jonathan, G. G. Pippin, Roman Stem and Famuse 
can be grown successfully and in any quantity right at home, 
why should people send to New York for the Baldwin, New 
Town Pippin or any other variety? The quality of the fruit 
grown here is just as good as the fruit grown in any other part 
of the world and I think that this society should take upon it- 
self the task of spreading this information among our own 
people. 

In conclusion I wish to express my appreciation of the valu- 
able assistance I received in maintaining the exhibit at St. Louis 
from all the members of the State Horticultural Society. I 
wish to thank especially, Messrs G. A. Marshall of Arlington; 
L. M. Russell and C. H. Frey of Lincoln; E. F. Stevens of Crete; 
G. S. Christy of Johnson: G. W. Alexander of Juhan; Wm. Davies 
of Brownville and Arnold Martin of Du Bois, 

I wish to make special mention of the valuable services of 
Mrs. Hadkinson who was in direct charge of the exhibit most 
of the time. The splendid showing Nebraska made, the credit- 
able manner in which the tables were maintained and the hos- 
pitable manner in which she entertained all visitors at the Neb- 
raska booth was a good credit to Nebraska. And as Superin- 
tendent of this department I feel I am very much indebted to 
her for her conscientious and untiring services to the State. 



DISCUSSION. 149 



DISCUSSION. 



Mr. Stilson: Mr. Pollard is very modest in his statements 
of the work at St. Louis. I was where I heard what the public 
said regarding Nebraska fruit, and I want to say that there 
was no stall that had the reputation on peaches that Neb- 
raska had. 

Mr. Yager: Through the courtesy of Mr. Pollard, I was 
there a while. And when people wanted a good, first-class, 
every day apple to eat, they came over and asked for one of the 
Nebraska Ben Davis. (Applause.) 

Mr. Snodgrass: I can verify that all right. I heard the 
same questions asked when any one wanted a good apple. I 
want to stand up for the Ben Davis. 

Mr. Masters: I would like to make a few remarks here. 
At the time Samuel Barnard was elected President of this So- 
ciety, we had a few apples on exhibit. Among them I had three 
or four plates of very beautiful Ben Davis. I told the man in 
charge, that if any one should ask what variety they were, to 
tell them that he did'nt know. So after the exhibit was over, and 
quite a number had been asking questions, Mr. Barnard finally 
said, "Now gentlemen, these exhibitors brought their apples 
here to show, and they don't want to take them back home. I 
propose then that we eat them all up. So pitch in and help 
yourselves to the apple that suits you best." A good many of 
the fellows had been discouraging the Ben Davis, but every one 
of them reached for the plates of Ben Davis. They wished they 
could find out what varieties they were. Those apples were so 
good. I would like to tell you who those men were, but I don't 
think I ought to. 

(Member in the audience) — Tell it, tell it. 

Mr. Masters: (continuing) — Well there was Dan Wheeler, 
R. W. Furnas and two or three others who had talked so discour- 
agingly of the Ben Davis, and every one of them pitched in and 
helped himself to the Ben Davis. Finally when they got through 
bragging on them, I said, "Gentlemen, I did not tell you what 
variety of apples those were — not because I did'nt know, but 



150 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

because I did'nt want to. Those fine apples you have been eat- 
ing and discouragiug are Ben Davis." (Laughter.) 

Mr. Pollard: It is all w^ell enough to have a little fun and 
sport over the Ben Davis, but my experience in St. Louis was 
that people did'nt ask for Ben Davis, but came over and asked for 
Yellow Bell Flower, Jonathan or Grimes Golden. Now I am up 
against this question from the practical side, and I know that 
the Ben Davis causes more trouble than all the others put to- 
gether. I know when we come to Lincoln or Omaha and go in- 
to the fancy grocery stores, we cannot sell the Ben Davis at all. 
Now, why is it? The people who know what good fruit is don't 
buy the Ben Davis. The people are becoming educated along 
horticultural lines and are finding out what good varieties are, 
and I believe we as horticulturists ought to help disseminate 
this information and encourage the people to plant varieties 
that they know are good. I believe we should strive to raise 
the standard of fruit instead of dragging it down. When you 
have a good thing, let them have it. I don't believe in panning 
a Ben Davis apple off on a man when he wants a good apple. 
(Applause.) Speaking seriously, I think the time has come 
wh«n we ought to encourage the planting of other apples. Now 
the Winesap has caused trouble too. It has been practically 
worthless from a commercial point of view. Yet I can show 
you some Winesaps that I challenge any body in the United 
States to surpass for Winesaps. So I say we should encourage 
the planting of these better varieties we have, and discourage 
the planting of the Ben Davis. 

Mr. Yager: Speaking about the Ben Davis, — I don't like to 
see it condemned at this stage of the fruit business in Nebraska. 
And there is one thing I would like to call attention to. The 
one thing we saw and observed at St. Louis was that most peo- 
ple do not know many good varieties of apples we are raising 
here in Nebraska today. We don't realize how many good 
varieties we have here. The people would come along there 
past the Nebraska fruit and say, "Why, where did you get all 
this, fruit?" They were very much surprised at such a show- 
ing of fruit as Nebraska had there. I think Mr. Pollard is 
right in the main, but I do not believe in condemning the Ben 



DISCUSSION. 151 

Davis. He is right though in advocating that we plant more 
good varieties and raise the standard. 

Mr. Parker: I was up in the south-western part of South 
Dakota this last fall selling some apples. I had some Ben 
Davis, Winesap, Jonathan, etc. People did'nt want the Ben 
Davis though. Thought they were about as good as pumpkins. 
While I was up there in Dakota a couple of ladies came up to 
me one day and asked what kind of apples I had! I named over 
my varieties. "Well, we don't want any Ben Davis," they said, 
"but we will take a couple of bushels of this kind," pointing to- 
ward my big bright Ben Davis. I measured up the Ben Davis 
for them and they went away satisfied. A few years ago peo- 
ple bought up all the Ben Davis apples they could get, put them 
in barrels that held about three and a half bushels, and then 
sent them to Niagara Falls and put them in cold storage. They 
repacked them, sent them to Texas and got five dollars per bar- 
rel for them. Just common Ben Davis, you know. In making 
up our list we use the Horticultural reports. Why do you ad- 
vise people to plant Ben Davis apple trees? 

Mr. Von Forrel: I speak for one who lives west of here. 
I went down town this fall to buy several bushels of apples, and 
they were Ben Davis. I probably would not have bought the 
Ben Davis for eating, but when we cooked the apples, I liked 
the Ben Davis first rate. They can be used that way and kept 
very nicely. We cannot raise all kinds of apples out west, but 
the Ben Davis is hardy there. With us we want an apple that 
stands our climatic conditions. There are many people out 
there though who do not know the difference between the Ben 
Davis and Winesap. They simply don't know the Ben Davis. 
It reminds me of a trip through Mr. Marshall's orchard. A 
gentlemen and Mr. Marshall and I were riding through 
Marshall's orchard, looking at the trees. There were Ben Davis 
there looking fine. This gentleman said "I would just as 
soon eat a pumpkin as a Ben Davis." We put up a joke on him. 
After a while we went down cellar to see the different varieties 
of apples, and of course, there were some fine looking Ben 
Davis. He took one of the Ben Davis which was called the 
White Pippin, and ate it with a relish. He asked what kind it 
was. "Oh, that is the White Pippin." That gentleman never 



152 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sold any more Ben Davis apple trees. They were all White 
Pippin. 

Mr. Masters: When I was raising apples down near Neb- 
raska City, I used to sell wind-falls. A man came to my place 
one day, when I had mostly Ben Davis on the ground. He asked 
me what varieties I had, and I told him they were mostly Ben 
Davis. He said, "I would like to buy Ben Davis, but I cannot 
sell them in Omaha. " I told him to sell them as something 
else. They have several different names you know. I told him 
to call them New York Pippin, and he would sell every one in 
the whole lot. He went to Omaha. A man came along to his 
wagon and asked him what kind of apples he had. He told him 
they were New York Pippin. The gentleman looked at them. 
He had just come from a wagon load of hand-picked Ben Davis. 
He came up to the wagon load of wind-falls called New York 
Pippin and said. "I want ten bushels of these. " Inside of half 
an hour this man had sold out his entire load. That's what a 
name will do. 

G. A. Marshall: It is hot right to take my name in vain as has 
been done here this afternoon. But going back to Mr. Pollard's 
side of the discussion about the better grocers who would not 
buy his Ben Davis, I venture to say that there is not a grocery 
firm in Omaha, Chicago, Detroit or Buffalo that does nv)t handle 
the Ben Davis. They do not buy them of Mr. Pollard, however, 
because they can buy Ben Davis of anybody, and they can buy 
their other varieties from only a few people. When these gro- 
cery firms want Grimes Golden, Jonathan and such varieties, 
they have to go to the people who grow them, and consequently 
they go to Mr. Pollard. I expect he has more varieties than 
any other party in the state. 

Now if you should take the Ben Davis out of the west here, 
many places would be practically without apples. We cannot 
afford to condemn any variety that holds up like that. In Chi- 
cago, Buffalo and Detroit you find more Ben Davis on the mar- 
ket in the month of January than all other varieties put together. 
The poorer classes of people want apples, and the Ben Davis 
exists in such quantities that the poor man's children can eat it. 
So I say we ought not to condemn the Ben Davis. 



DISCUSSION. 153 

The PRESroENT: We have Mr, Jackson with us this after- 
noon, as a delegate from Iowa, and would be glad to hear 
from him. 

Mr. Jackson: I am not much of a talker, and I hope you 
will pardon me if I don't say much of anything. I have listened 
to these discussions over the Ben Davis apple, about cherries, 
and Railroad rates and I have been very much interested. In 
the first place I want to say that the Ben Davis was one of the 
principal things with us in south-western Iowa this last year. 
While I do not think much of the flavor of the Ben Davis, yet it 
is one of our leading apples. We raise more Ben Davis than all 
other varieties put together, and it has made more money for 
us than any other apple. 

I want to say a few words also in regard to this freight rate 
question. We have been handicapped by that one thing more 
than anything else in disposing of our fruits. The excessive 
freight rates have actually hindered us in disposing of our 
crops. We have had to come into competition with the New 
York fruits shipped in here cheaper than we can ship from the 
Missouri River points. We have been working this up, and in 
one of our societies we have gotten up resolutions and have ap- 
pointed committees to wait on the Legislators. We had two 
Railroad managers at the meeting of our Board of Agriculture 
to consult and work with our committees. Now the Railroad 
companies do not want this thing agitated any more. They 
have made propositions to two or three of our Legislators. I 
have had letters from several of our Legislators and they are 
standing firm for a fair regulation for everyone. We want all 
the people to have the same advantage that we are getting. I 
am surprised to see that you people do not have a little advan- 
tage over us, but I see you are laboring under the same disad- 
vantages that we were. We are not asking for anything that 
is not right, only what is practical and reasonable. We are 
working for this, and I think we are in shape to get it, and if 
we work together, there is no doubt but what we can get what 
we want. I thank you for your attention. (Applause.) 

Frank G. Stephens: I am sure that the society would like 
to be put on record as extending a welcoming hand to these 
young men who have come out this afternoon, They are going 



154 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to carry on the hoi'ticultural work of the state in years to come. 
I would like to see each of the older members constitute him- 
self a committee of one to welcome these young men, make 
them feel that they are at liberty to take advantage of our work. 
I think we can extend a welcome to these young men here and 
make them feel at home. 

Mr. Grimstead: Mr. President, I think it is due Mr. Pollard 
that the society extend a vote of thanks to him. 

On motion, regularly moved and seconded, the President, in 
behalf of the society, extended a vote of thanks to Mr. Pollard. 

Mr. Pollard: I sincerely thank the society for the vote. 

The PREsroENT: We will now have the reports of the Secre- 
tary and Treasurer. 

Mr. Pollard: I move that a committee of three be appointed 
to audit these reports. 

The above motion being duly seconded and carried, the Presi- 
dent appointed W. G. Swan, C. B. Camp and C. H. Green as the 
committee to audit the reports of the Secretary and Treasurer. 

Motion carried that the meeting adjourn until 9:00 A. M., 
Wednesday, January 18th. 



SECOND SESSION. 

Wednesday, January 18, 1905. 9:00 a. m. 

The committee on auditing the Secretary's and Treasurer's 
reports having examined and found these reports correct, were 
discharged after their report was duly accepted. 

Mr. Swan: I move that the committee on redistricting the 
state be allowed $200 for necessary expenses. 
Motion seconded. 

G. A. Marshall: As chairman of that committee, I would 
like to make a little exjilanation. We want to extend this work, 
and it is important that we make a good report. There are 
nine members on that committee: Marshall, G. A. Strand, A. J. 
Brown, C. H. Barnard, W. G. Swan, G. N. Titus, E. F. Stephens, 
H. S. Harrison and W. P. Jenkins. We commenced this work 



PROCEEDINGS. 155 

last summer, and during the State Pair week we drew up a 
map. We have to gather so much information from all over the 
state, and the western part particularly, that we simply cannot 
give an intelligent report today. We have finally made up our 
minds that we must have more time. That is the situation just 
now. That motion should be that this committee be allowed 
more time in which to do the work, also that the appropriation 
of $200 be allowed to pay the expenses of this committee. 

Mr. Swan: I consent to that addition to the motion. 

The President : It is very important that the report of this 
committee be made right. The people in the western part of 
the state ought to know what is best to plant in their sections. 
So it is important that whatever is recommended for them be 
all right. It is going to take some work and time to do this. 

Mr. Masters: A difficulty arises here, and that is, the so- 
ciety recommends certain fruits for these people, but when they 
buy the trees, they don't know whether they are getting what 
is recommended or not. 

A. J. Brown: I think we can all realize the force of Mr. 
Master's remark on this question; but that don't have anything 
particularly to do with this committee. The work of this com- 
mittee is simply to find out what fruits are best adapted to cer- 
tain sections of the state. We can at least tell the planters 
what is best to plant and save them a little money in that 
way. 

Mr. Yager: My observation has been that the former re- 
districting of the state has been very poor. The districts have 
been too large north and south. Varieties recommended for a 
section may have been all right for one part of that section, but 
not so for another part. The amount they are proposing to use 
for this purpose probably will not all be used, but I think it is 
well enough to give them a sufficient amount, and we will know 
that it is judiciously expended. And it is up to the society to 
find out to the best of their ability what is weU adapted to the 
different sections of the state. 

The motion as amended — that this redistricting committee 
be given more time and $200 be allowed for their expenses — was 
carried unanimously. 



156 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The President: "We will now hear from Mr. T. M, Howard 
of Scotts Bluff county on "Fruits Under Irrigation." 



FRUITS UNDER IRRIGATION. 

BY T. M. HOWARD, SCOTTS BLUFF. 

Fruit raising under irrigation bids fair to take a prominent 
part in the development of Scotts Bluff county, Nebraska, and 
while we have not the large number of grown and bearing or- 
chards that eighteen or twenty years of settlement should show, 
we have, we think, sufficient reason for it other than that our 
soil, climate, etc. are not adapted to fruit raising. 

The early settlers of the county were largely cattle men and 
while they know aU about raising, roping, and branding cattle, 
their early education and environments have not fitted them for 
successful fruit raisers. The first needs of irrigation in the 
county was felt by the cattle men that they could raise more 
hay to feed more cattle and the irrigation ditches in the county 
were largely built by them. 

It is true that they made some efforts towards fruit grow- 
ing but never seemed to carry the idea much beyond set- 
ting out the trees. I was at the ranch of one of our most suc- 
cessful cattle raisers a few years since. He had just trimmed 
the trees put out for shade, about his house, cutting the center 
down to about seven feet and trimming off the branches to make 
them symmetrical with lower branches about two feet from the 
ground. When asked why he trimmed them so low, said he 
wanted to get the tops shaped to suit him, and when the tree 
grew up he thought the lower limbs should be about the right 
distance from the ground. What wonder then that they did 
not succeed in growing fruit trees. 

An orchard I have in mind was put up about twelve years ago 
by a tenant on a rented farm. He was fairly well qualified for 
the business, set the trees and got them nicely started, then 
moved on, and other tenants came and went. Little or no work 
was done in the orchard farther than to burn the weeds off every 
spring, half till, and give it little or no water. The result is 



FRUITS UNDER IRRIGATION. 157 

that some trees were burned up, some dried out, and of the sur- 
vivors only a few^ have the original trunk they started with but 
have branches out a little above the ground and now have from 
five to eight branches from twelve to fifteen feet high looking 
like huge shrubs rather than trees. It was my privilege to as- 
sist in picking the apples from these shrubs last fall, and it is 
no fairy tale I am giving you when I say that we picked twenty 
bushels of as fine Wealthy apples from four of these shrubs as 
I ever saw, — size, color, and quality all taken into consider- 
ation. 

The Hyslop crab trees were the same, loaded to the ground 
with large finely colored and fully matured fruit. Had this or- 
chard been properly tended and the trees producing even as 
well as the shrubs, the crop this year would have been worth 
more than the entire crop on the balance of the forty acres. 

We have however a good many small orchards that are now 
bearing, that were well put out and well tended and the results 
give ample proof that fruit raising under irrigation is a success. 
The trees grow more rapidly — come into bearing early and pro- 
duce large crops of excellent quality of fruit. 

An altitude of nearly 4000 feet makes some difference in kinds 
of fruit grown, but from examples before us we can in a meas- 
ure shun the mistakes of others and only put out those varieties 
that are known to be good. Among them I can mention the 
following kinds that are proving satisfactory: Yellow Trans- 
parent, Red Astrachan, Wealthy, Duchess, Grimes Golden, Iowa 
Blush, Missouri Pipx)in, North-Western Greening. The Ben 
Davis in most orchards is not keeping up its reputation here, 
but the trees grow well and seem hardy. Cherries do exceed- 
ingly well, trees grow rapidly, fruit early and heavily, and of 
excellent quality. Almost any of the standard varieties will do 
well. Of the plums, only the early maturing kinds do well 
every year, as the late varieties are liable to get caught by frosts 
in the fall, but the fruits that lead all others, and are the won- 
der of all who see them in fruit are the small fruits, such as 
currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries and the like. 
The crops are simply enormous and the very best quality, and 
one marked feature of all these fruits or berries, under irrigation 
is that they all hold their fruit until fully matured. Take cur- 



158 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

rants as an example, the fruit is ripened more evenly, and when 
ripe they will han^? upon the stems until frost comes if you 
choose to leave them there, instead of falling off, just as they 
are ready for jellies, as the ladies say. The same thing holds 
true of all our small fruits and is a wonderful good fault, for we 
all know that the currant bush that grew in some fence corner 
on the old home farm and was not found until late in the fall 
had larger, nicer, sweeter currants on than any in the garden. 
Strawberries also grow well and with water at the 
proper time mature all their fruit, holding their size much bet- 
ter than when you depend on rainfall. It is better to cover these 
lightly in the fall that they will not dry out so badly during 
the winter. We water late, just before the ground freezes and 
put on the covering after the ground is frozen. It also tends 
to hold them back a little later in the spring until all danger of 
frosts is past. 

Dewberries and all of the Red Raspberries, as far as I know 
them, need to be covered for the winter. Blackberries and 
black cap Raspberries are better covered but some varieties do 
well without. 

Preparing the ground for fruit under irrigation is the same 
with us as else where, except that we must take more care in 
getting the ground smooth — by that I do not mean level, for 
you can irrigate successfully on a hill side but even in that case 
you must have the ground smooth so that the water will spread 
evenly and well, and there is no time you can do this as easily 
and cheaply as before the fruit is set, for there is nothing in the 
way then of getting it as it should be. If dirt has to be moved 
any great distance the Buck scraper is the best implement to 
to use, if not the work can be done rapidly with a common 
plank leveler. 

I wish to call particular attention to this, as it is a great time 
saver when you come to irrigate. With the land smooth and 
the laterals properly located you can simply raise the gate and 
it will irrigate itself, you soon learning how long it takes and 
when you must come and change it or shut if off, and besides 
the saving in your time you do not get quantities of water when 
you don't care to have it and none when you do. 



FRUITS UNDER IRRIGATION. 159 

It is said that mountain water will not run up hill, and we find 
this to be true, but it will find and fill the low places and the 
chances are that if smoothened as well as you can when you 
turn the water on there will be some surprises in store for you. 
In setting the trees, furrow for the rows, set the trees in the 
edge of the furrow and use the furrow for watering the 
first season. Later you can use smaller furrows further from 
the trees. Flooding the ground is not as a rule as good as allow- 
ing the water to soak in the ground from small furrows a little 
distance from the trees, but on some of our lands flooding does 
well, as water does not stand on the land, neither does our soil 
bake, and can be cultivated in a short time after flooding and 
be as loose and fine on the top as when first plowed and fitted 
in the spring. But having plenty of water is not aU, for here 
as well as elsewhere you must keep your cultivator going to 
have the best results, for when you get the moisture in the 
ground you must have the dust mulch to retain it. To know 
when, how much, and how often to water is after all the main 
thing to know, and that has to be learned largely from the plants 
or trees themselves. They have a way of making their wants 
known if you study them, and if you don't you are not on to 
your job. With water running by you all the time that can be 
had by just opening the gate, the tendency always is to water 
too much, and from my own experience I am satisfied that we 
do water too much rather than too little. Then again some 
fruits require more water than others, so that it is better not 
to mix varieties any more than necessary. 

Trees and canes that are of a woody nature may be watered 
quite freely early in the season but you must stop as soon as 
August that the growth of the trees may stop and mature the 
wood for winter. Late in the fall after all danger of growth is 
past and just before the ground freezes, water freely. This 
might not be necessary when they have winter rains or snow 
but with us we have very little of either and while other parts 
of the state are having rain, snow, hubs in mud, with us the 
roads are dry and dusty as summer and almost continual sun- 
shine. Our irrigated vegetables have already made some 
records at the State Pair, and the day is not far distant when 
pure irrigated fruits will do the same. 



160 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Wright: I would like to say a few words on the subject 
of horticulture. I was much interested in Mr. Howard's paper, 
it was encouraging to listen to it. He likes his business. If a 
garden is among a man's possessions, he is much better off than 
he w^ould be without it. Now I aih not interested in the com- 
mercial side of horticulture alone. I like to see every family 
have around them the very best to supply their wants, but I like 
to see the wife and daughters have a garden that they are proud 
of. I have never interested myself very much in the garden, 
but I have always taken a great delight in helping my wife care 
for it. I have grown to love it. It is a delight for me to do 
those things which help to make the family hajopy. 

One thing we can raise in Scotts Bluffs county is currants, 
and we like them. We have conditions with us, coupled with 
irrigation, that could be made all right for raising currants. It 
is the same with gooseberries. We can grow hardy raspberries 
too, but we have to cover them through the winter. I don't 
think we can grow as good Ben Davis apples though as you can 
here. I have never seen better fruit anywhere than some we 
have, although some of it was specked by the hail. We are in 
earnest out in Scotts Bluff County. We belong in the class of 
Wyoming and Colorado, but we are loyal to Nebraska. We are 
interested in our country and want to see it developed. 

A. J. Brown: I think these remarks we have just listened 
to show the necessity for greater diligence in the work of this 
committee on redistricting. It is quite possible that there are 
several varieties of apples and other fruits that are equally de- 
sirable under their conditions in Scotts Bluff county. 

The President: Do you have the Missouri Pippin and 
Winesap? 

Mr. Howard: Yes, sir. 



The President: Professor Green is with us again thi.s- 
morning, and we would like to hear from him on their horticul- 
tural work in Minnesota. 



DISCUSSION. 161 

Professor Green: Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: I 
think it is a little unfair to call on me again. However, I will 
say a few words about our seedling work in Minnesota. We are 
very much interested in seedling work, and are quite proud of 
what we have done along this line. 

Mr. Gideon worked at this work on seedling apples a good 
many years ago. He originated varieties that he said were 
adapted to every month in the year. But the one of greatest 
merit is the Wealthy. It is quite a wonderful variety in many 
ways. Wliile in many sections it is an autumn apple, it is the 
one variety to keep in cold storage. When Mr. Gideon origi- 
nated the Wealthy henamed it after his wife. After Mr. Gideon's 
death, we established an experiment station for the purpose of 
experimenting with apples. In connection with this we went to 
raising seedling fruits, and we are now trying to get the people 
of Minnesota to raise seedlings. Shortly before Mr. Gideon's 
death we had something like twenty or thirty thousand good 
seedlings. Many people experimented with them. This work 
was commenced about eighteen years ago, and we are getting 
a good many nice seedlings. They look nice and make a very 
creditable showing. 

In 1899 the Minnesota Horticultural Society offered a prem- 
ium of one thousand dollars for a seedling apple that should be 
as hardy as the Duchess, have the good quality of the Wealthy, 
and the long keeping qualities of the Malinda. That money is 
still on deposit, and you people of Nebraska can have it if you 
want to earn it. We are in earnest, and there is no humbug 
about this. At every meeting of our Horticultural Society we 
offer good premiums for seedling apples of merit. So you see 
we are doing a good deal to encourage the growing of seedling 
apples. We think we will get a lot of varieties that are well 
adapted to northern Minnesota. We have a seedling committee 
in charge of this work, two committees in fact. One of these 
committees is in charge of this one thousand dollar premium. 
We have had forty-two entries that have been made in competi- 
tion for this premium. They are from ten of the northern 
states, I think. Then we have another seedling committee on 
the lookout for seedling apples growing throughout the state. I 
think you Nebraska people ought to have a seedling committee 



162 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to visit the various states and report the results of their find- 
ings. They should report on them at the annual meeting. Nov?^ 
that is practically all we are doing. 

Cherries do not do w^ell with us. The trees can be grovrn 
successfully, but the fruit buds are frequently killed by the 
severe w^inters. About the best cherry is between the sand 
cherry and native wild plum. 

Mr Yager: What are about the five leading varieties of 
apples recommended as your best, Professor Green? 

Prof. Green : The best varieties with us are Patton's Green- 
ing, Hibernal, Duchess and Wealthy. I think the Florence crab 
is about the most profitable crab that we have. The Peerless 
is a disappointment. The Malinda we do not generally recom- 
mend. The North- Western Greening is rapidly coming to the 
front with us, and has been recently added to our list for gen- 
eral planting. Along with these varieties we also grow McMa- 
hon's White, Wolf River, etc. 

Mr. G. a. Marshall,: How long does the Wealthy keep? 
Can you make a winter apple of it? 

Prop. Green: I think the Wealthy, put in cold storage, is 
one of the finest apples we can get for winter use. We can 
keep them until January, and they come out in find condition too. 

Mr. Alexander: Would you kindly name two or three of 
your best plums? 

Prof. Green: The best plum we have is the Surprise. It 
has come steadily to the front and is gaining right along. It is 
a very hardy, strong grower, and has come to stay. Then next 
comes the Freestone Wolf, Wyant, De Soto and Rolling Stone, 
which are doing well. The Stoddard is also doing well. It is 
large and a good bearer. But we have nothing ahead of the 
Surprise in my opinion. It is a fine tree, very full grower, and 
the fruit is a good shipper. It is sufiiciently prolific too. The 
Frestone Wolf is also one of our best. 

Question: What is your list of cherries. Professor Green? 

Prof. Green: We don't grow cherries very extensively in 
Minnesota. We are practically doing nothing with cherries, 
except in the south-eastern part of the state. The Richmond 



WESTERN HORTICULTURE. 163 

and some of that class will grow there. We have had trouble 
there with the shot-hole fungus the same as you have here. 

Mr. E. M. Pollard: I would like to add a word about the 
Wealthy apple. The one apple that the Montana people had on 
exhibition at St. Louis, and which they recommended as doing 
the best for them, was the Wealthy. It came out in fine condi- 
tion. It was a revelation to me. With us the Wealthy is a 
summer apple, but in Montana it is an early winter apple. It 
does not scald and is an all 'round good apple. 

Mr. Yager: That Surprise plum was certainly a surprise to 
all who saw it at St. Louis. The quality is exceedingly fine. I 
think all that Professor Green has said for this plum is aU right. 
It is going to be all right for this country. It is also a good 
nursery tree. 

The PREsroENT: If there are no further questions or re- 
marks on this subject , we will now pass on to the next number 
of our program. "Western Horticulture, "by Mr. E. P. Stephens 
of Crete. 



WESTERN HORTICULTURE. 

BY E. F. STEPHENS, CRETE. 

Felloiv Members of the State Horticultural Society^ Ladies and 
Gentlemen: The public so far has always connected Nebraska 
orcharding with the eastern counties of the state. Central and 
western Nebraska has been practically unknown horticulturally. 
The public is tardily awakening to the fact however that there 
are in that part of the state districts as well suited to the grow- 
ing of excellent fruit as the best Kansas and Colorado counties. 

In addition to the three million acres of land capable of irri- 
gation in Nebraska, of which one million acres is already cov- 
ered with a network of ditches, we have considerable areas of 
valley lands which are sub-irrigated. I refer to the valleys of 
the Platte, the Republican, and the Loup rivers, which are sub- 
irrigated by the river water at a depth of from four to ten feet. 
This supply of water is unhmited and is available as long as these 
rivers flow. This system of irrigation is silent, sure, and effective. 



164 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

There are no quarrels between rival claimants for water, and it 
gives rise to no litigation in the courts. Like other things sup- 
phed by nature it is the best system possible if a man takes in- 
telligent advantage of it. 

Not only is there no question about the water supply as long 
as the rivers run, but soil cultivation is easier than under ditch 
irrigation. Not only is the elevation less than some of Colo- 
rado's most famous fruit districts, but the chmate is at least 
equal to and very little different from that of Colorado. Cool 
nights, ample moisture, and bright sunshine all combine to give 
the high coloring and fine quality which has made Colorado 
fruit famous. Western Nebraska has all of these. 

The extreme western part of Nebraska has a lesser amount 
of sub-irrigated land because of the narrowing of the valleys. 
The bench lands are used therefore and have fine soil usually 
free from alkali. Their elevation above the river compells irri- 
gation from ditches. There are now within the state more than 
twenty-five hundred miles of irrigating ditches, the Platte river 
alone supplying about twelve hundred miles of canals, watering 
560,000 acres. Additions are constantly being made to these 
ditches and to the areas brought under their beneficent in- 
fluence. 

The most important plan now in contemplation is to dam the 
North Platte river above Casper, Wyoming. Here the stream 
forces its way through rocky barriers having a narrow channel 
with a rock bottom. It is proposed to construct a dam of such 
height and proportions as will impound enough of the flood 
waters to irrigate at least 100,000 acres. The Government will 
construct the necessary ditches. It will be at once apparent 
that the storage of a portion of the winter flow until needed in 
midsummer will be of benefit to the entire Platte valley. 

Now given fertile soil, an abundance of water, and favorable 
chmate, I see no reason why the fruit products should not equal 
in excellence those of Colorado. 

APPLES. 

Some of the finest Jonathan apples I ever saw, ten and one- 
fourth inches in circumference and with brilliant coloring, were 



WESTERN HORTICULTURE. 165 

produced in the orchard of J. C. Myers six miles south of Kear- 
ney, His Ben Davis and Winesap were of extraordinary size and 
quality. In the twenty year old orchard of D. C. Blackburn in 
west central Nebraska single trees of Grimes Golden gave 
twenty bushels of the yellow fruit. From less than an acre of 
orchard he supplied three families and marketed six-hundred 
bushels of apples besides, for the sum $489. In Lincoln county 
more than three-hundred miles west of the Missouri river, irri- 
gated orchards are very healthy and promise large profits. 
Single trees of Missouri Pippin gave a bushel and three pecks 
the fifth season after planting. 

Among the varieties so far found successsful are Duchess, 
Whitney No. 20, Wealthy, Grimes Golden, Utters Red, Plum 
Cider, Longfield, Patten's Greening, Jonathan, Ben Davis, Wine- 
sap, Missouri Pippin, Northwestern Greening, and Janet. 
This list applies to districts two-hundred and fifty to three-hun- 
dred and fifty miles west of the Missouri river. 

On the Gurnsey division of the B. and M. in extreme western 
Nebraska, Ben Davis, Winesap, and Jonathan have suffered 
from sunscald. Perhaps this may be reniedied by protecting 
the trunks. The best varieties for that region are found in a 
narrower list comprising Duchess, Wealthy, Whitney No. 20, 
Iowa Blush, Day, and Northwestern Greening. To this may 
be added Longfield and Patten's Greening which are equally 
hardy but have not yet fruited there. 

PEACHES. 

In a Platte valley peach orchard twenty-one varieties of bud- 
ded peaches gave a fine crop last summer, their third season's 
growth. Many of these three-year-old trees drooped under the 
burden of more than a bushel of peaches. In the David Hunter 
orchard in Lincoln county, 318 miles west of Omaha, peach trees 
have given good returns four consecutive years without a failure. 
Last summer peaches fruited as far west as Lodgepole, and at 
Mitchell within twenty miles of the Wyoming line. 

Peaches of the North China type are much hardier than those 
of the Persian strain and should be used for western planting. 
The hardy list for central and far western Nebraska includes 



166 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Greensboro, Waddell, Early Rivers, Triumph, Hales Early,. 
Carmen, Hiely, Belle of Georgia, Russell, Champion, Crosby, 
Hills Chili, Wright, Elberta might be added to this number 
were it not for its liability to leaf curl, rendering it unsuitable 
for those orchardists who do not spray. 

The dry atmosphere of central and western Nebraska seems 
particularly well suited to the production of abundant crops of 
cherries. The trees are free from fungus diseases which effect 
the foliage in eastern Nc:braska. Since the cherry does not re- 
quire a large amount of moisture there are successful orchards 
unirrigated in most of the western counties. They are handled 
solely by judicious and thorough cultivation. The hardy vari- 
eties for planting are Early Richmond, Large Montmorency, 
Montmorency Ord., and English Morello. 

Both the Americana and Domestica type of plums succeed 
much better there than in the eastern part of the state. Ap- 
parently the dry sunny weather to which western Nebraska is 
accustomed at blossoming time is favorable to pollination. One 
of the very best and earliest of plums for this region is the San- 
doz which originated in Sheridan county. Forest Garden, De- 
Sota, Wolf, Wyant, Hawkeye, Profuse, Berwood, Lombard, and 
German Prune, all do well. 

Mr. W. P. Parks, Superintendent of the Wyoming division of 
the Union Pacific, produces superior crops of strawberries on 
his land in Lincoln county. At Julesburg Mr. Kortz grew 
strawberries at the rate of 10,000 quarts per acre. 

PLANTING AND CULTR^ATION. 

At an elevation of 3500 to 4500 feet the evaporation is very 
rapid and it requires more care to plant trees successfully than 
in eastern Nebraska. If they have been over long in transport- 
ation and have suffered thereby the bundles should be opened 
and the trees buried completely, root, body and branches. Two 
or three days in moist soil will restore them to their normal 
plump condition. 

After planting it is of the utmost importance to prevent evapo- 
ration of sap by protecting the trunk and lower branches with 
burlap, or strips of cloth wound spirally; or cornstalks bound 



WESTERN HORTICULTURE. 167 

about the trunk. Veneers are especially manufactured for this 
purpose and cost but little. Trimming the branches back is of 
greater importance in western than in eastern Nebraska. 

After this has been done if any trees fail to bud out within two 
weeks it is necessary to resort to a peculiar method. Construct 
an upright box which will enclose the trunk of the tree up to 
the lower branches, Fill this box with soil and keep it moist. 
This will not only prevent evaporation of sap, but wiU enable 
the bark to reabsorb moisture. Trees so treated will almost 
invariably leaf out within ten days. This treatment is of par- 
ticular value to large sized fruit or shade trees. Those who 
wish to do extra well by their trees can leave this box of soil 
about the trunk all summer, moistening the earth once in thirty 
days. In winter however the soil should be kept dry. 

Cultivation in western Nebraska differs very little from that 
in the eastern part of the state. The great aim is to conserve 
as much moisture as possible by frequent shallow culture. 
Three irrigations are sufficient for the first season, and should 
be given previous to the first of August. During the months 
of August, September and October the trees should be allowed 
to ripen their wood. November first the ground should be 
thoroughly irrigated so that the soil may freeze up wet. Until 
the trees come into bearing as much dependence should be 
placed on cultivation as on irrigation. When the trees begin to 
bear however, each variety of fruit as it matures should have an 
abundance of water so that the fruit may grow to large size and 
have the best possible flavor. 

It is a peculiar fact that western orchards planted at an ele- 
vation of three-thousand to five-thousand feet, with bright sun- 
light and rapid evaporation, set fruit buds earlier and therefore 
commence bearing younger than in eastern Nebraska. 

MARKETS. 

The facilities for marketing fruit brighten the outlook for 
commercial orcharding in western Nebraska. That part of the 
state will itself absorb large quantities of fruit upon which the 
orchardists will have no freight to pay. When those markets 
are over supplied, we are nearer the central markets of the 



168 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

United States by far than the fruit districts of Colorado, Oregon, 
Utah, Idaho and Washington. Western Nebraska has daily 
fast freight trains on trunk lines of road giving unexcelled faci- 
lities for transportation. The time is coming when these fertile, 
well watered lands will be utilized in the growing of fruit in 
large commercial quantities. 

Mr. Jackson: I would like to ask Mr. Stephens about those 
peaches. Those varieties that he mentions are varieties that 
we grow, and they do well all along the western part of Iowa. 

Mr. Stephens: This Platte valley orchard is 220 miles west 
of the river. We planted there the twenty-one varieties men- 
tioned, but of course, more of some varieties than others. They 
all did well this last season. I think that the list which I have 
given you would be about the best for that part of the state. 

Mr. Jackson: Is the Greensboro one of the best varieties? 

Mr. Stephens: It is. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year resulted as 
follows: 

President _ G. S. Christy, Johnson 

First Vice-President H. S. Harrison, York 

Second Vice-President E. M. Pollard, Nehawka 

Secretary L. M. Russell, Lincoln 

Treasurer Peter Youngers, Geneva 

DIRECTORS 

W. G. Swan _ Tecumseh 

Chas. Saunders Omaha 

C. H. Green Fremont 



Mr. E. M. Pollard: About this freight rate question. As 
I understand the situation, in order to get any relief in the way 
of freight rates, it is necessary for us to bring this matter be- 
fore the Interstate Freight Association. Now the only way we 



PROCEEDINGS. 169 

can get at this is to appoint a committee to go before that asso- 
ciation, and present our cause. So I move then that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed to find out when and where this 
association meets, and make arrangements to wait on them and 
present our question of freight rates. 

Motion seconded. 

Mr. a. J. Brown: We have usually found that we can get 
what we ask for if we show a good reason for it. 

Mr. Parker: We don't expect to ask for anything that is 
unreasonable. The South-Eastern Nebraska Fruit Growers' 
Association has already appointed a committee of five on their 
part to look after this matter. This committee will appoint, 
probably this afternoon, one or more of their number to see the 
railroad people, and go to the Traffic Association meeting if 
necessary. I think Mr. Pollard's motion is all right. If we 
follow it up we will probably get something reasonable. There 
is not a nurseryman who is not just as much interested in this 
question as the fruit growers are. 

Motion mad'e to table the above motion until 2 :00 P. M. 

The following resolution, introduced by Mr. E. F. Stephens, 
was unanimously adopted by the society: 

Whereas, the records and publications of this society have 
for a long time been kept in the State Historical Society rooms, 
and the publications distributed by that society on application 
at its own expense; 

Resolved, That this society extends its hearty good will and 
approval of the efforts of the State Historical Society to secure 
a permanent fire proof building from the legislature. 

Meeting adjourned until 2:00 P. M. 



THIRD SESSION. 

2:00 P. M. 
The business of the original motion relative to freight rates 
was taken up, and Mr. Pollard made a new motion to the effect 
"* 'That a committee of three be appointed to meet and confer 
with the Railroad men in regard to freight rates. " 

Motion seconded. 



170 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Swan: I would say amend that motion by including the 
Express Companies. See the Express agents also. 

The motion as amended was carried unanimously. 

Mr. Yager: Now I move that the following named gentlemen 
be appointed on this committee: E. M. Pollard, Peter Youngers 
and G. A. Marshall. 

Motion carried. 

It was moved and seconded that Mr. C. B. Parker be named 
as a fourth member of that committee. 

Carried. 

The following resolution, introduced by Mr. Peterson, was 
adopted by the society : 

Whereas, There has been introduced in the Nebraska Legis- 
lature now in session a bill asking for an appropriation of 
$25,000 to be used in the erection on the State Fair grounds a 
live-stock pavilion at a cost not to exceed $15,000; and a Fishery 
building at a cost not to exceed $10,000; 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that we en- 
dorse this measure and use our best efforts and influence with 
the members of the present legislature in behalf of the passage 
of this bill. 

Mr. Stilson: If it would be in order now I would like to 
introduce the following resolution: 

Whereas, House Roll No. 49, introduced by Ernst of Johnson 
County, providing for the erection and maintenance of a bind- 
ing twine plant at the State Penitentiary, will be of great finan- 
cial value to the farmers of Nebraska in particular, and to the 
State in general; be it therefore 

Resolved, That this organization is in full harmony with the 
purposes of this bill and requests the members of the Legisla- 
ture to support the same; 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the 
members of the House of Representatives and the Senate. 

Resolution adopted by the society. 

The President: We will now hear from Professor Heald on 
"Methods of Investigating Plant Diseases." 



METHODS OF INVESTIGATING PLANT DISEASES. 171" 



METHODS OP INVESTIGATING PLANT DISEASES, 

BY PROF. F. D. HEALD, LINCOLN. 



') 



That diseases of plants were known and recognized in early 
times is evidenced by the visitations of "blast" and "mildew" 
that are mentioned in ancient literature. These maladies were 
looked upon as due to the displeasure of the dieties, as visita- 
tions of the Divine wrath, and it was centuries before the human 
mind sought other explanations. Is it strange that even after 
centuries of human progress, vague ideas prevail in the minds 
of some of our less educated people in regard to the true nature 
of "blights" and "mildews" and various other plant troubles, 
when we note that as recent as 1846 a scientific investigator 
attributed our well known "fire-blight" to an epidemic and 
wrote as follows: "The atmosphere is I believe generally ad- 
mitted to be the principle by which they prevail, and are carried 
from place to place. What that subtle principle may be which 
pervades our atmosphere by which infection is retained and 
transmitted, so that like the Asiatic cholera it makes the circuit 
of the whole earth, human science has not discovered. " At a 
much later date (1897) a noted scientiest affirmed that bacteria 
do not enter the closed living cells of plants. 

As a boy on the farm I rarely heard of such a thing as diseases 
of plants, or spraying, or remedial measures of any sort. Such 
things were not common knowledge as at present. That disease- 
is as universal in plants as in animals is now generally recog- 
nized. The last twenty-five years has been a time of rapid 
progress in our understanding as to the real nature of diseases 
in plants, indeed I may say that its advances have been greater 
than in all of the preceding centuries. To-day plant pathology 
or the study of plant diseases constitutes an important branch 
of the subject of botany and a field for profitable research for 
scientific investigators in Universities, Government Bureaus, 
and Experiment Stations. It may be said with a truth that 
the time is at hand when ' 'a farmer or a gardener will as little 
dare to neglect the study of the physiology and pathology of 
plants as the surgeon will dare to practice without a knowledge 



172 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of anatomy or a sailor hope to become a captain without study- 
ing navigation. " 

Even though the practical horticulturist or agriculturist must 
know much about how plants live and how they are subject to 
diseases, much of his information must come second hand from 
the specialist. The old time botanist, who with hand-lens and 
dissecting needles, and possibly compound microscope and a 
wise look, could tell you all about a plant disease, bears the 
same relation to the modern pathologists, that the practitioner 
of the middle ages does to the skilled physician and surgeon of 
the present day. Experiments must be carried on in field, 
plant-house, and laboratory, by an investigator skilled in modern 
laboratory methods. It is from these specialists who should 
combine a knowledge of the practical with the scientific that the 
most may be expected. There are many cases where it would be 
just as unwise for the fruit grower to rely on his own judgment 
in regard to the nature and treatment of a plant trouble as it 
would be for him to fail to summon the family physician in case 
of an attack by some infectious disease. Rather than rely on 
his own limited experience and skill he should consult with the 
expert who has the scientific training that will enable him to 
probe to the bottom of the trouble. 

Plant troubles in general may be divided into three main 
classes in which various agents are the causes of the disturb- 
ances of the functions and activities that threaten the life of the 
entire plant or materially injure some of its parts or lesson its 
value as an article of culture. What may be termed inorganic 
troubles due to unfavorable soil relations, atmospheric in- 
fluences, etc., are to a great extent cared for by the scientific 
agriculturist; the insect troubles are mostly in the hands of the 
entomologist; and the diseases of plants due to other organisms, 
quite naturally fall to the lot of the botanist. Botanists are 
then the ones who have taken up the investigation of plant 
diseases due to parasites other than insects, yet but few botan- 
ists have been familiar with the exact methods of research that 
have been productive of such brilliant results in the study of the 
infectious diseases of domestic animals and man, and conse- 
quently much of the work has been little more than catalogues 
of plant troubles. More botanists have in recent years fitted 



METHODS OF INVESTIGATING PLANT DISEASES. 173: 

themselves for this important work, and much is being accom- 
phshed every year that has not only a direct scientific value but 
means dollars and cents in the pockets of horticulturists and 
agriculturists. 

We must recognize then this line of work as preeminently 
the province of plant pathology, altho in the broadest applica- 
tion of the subject it includes all inorganic, and insect troubles 
as well. It is concerning some of the methods used in investi- 
gating diseases due to parasitic organisms that I wish to speak 
to you this afternoon. It is not my purpose to enter into de- 
tail in regard to the different methods that may be used by the 
pathologist, for many are decidedly complicated, but to give 
you rather a general idea of the character of the work possible. 

There are two classes of plants that are important as the 
causal agents of the diseases of our cultivated plants: the bac- 
teria and the fungi. I need have no hesitation in using the 
word bacteria, since the importance of these simplest of all or- 
ganisms in many lines of human activity has made the name a 
household word. The bacteria are the smallest living organisms 
but they are most powerful. Probably not many of you have 
ever seen bacteria, altho you have seen their devastations. I 
have here the bacterium of "fire-blight," that deadly disease of 
apple and pear trees that is familiar to all of you. What you 
see is not one organism but millions. There are enough here 
in this tube to kill every apple tree in the state of Nebraska. 
Only a comparison can give you an idea of their minuteness. If 
one hundred were placed side by side, their total thickness 
would not equal the thickness of a single sheet of my manu- 
script paper. Let us put it in another way: I should have to 
increase the mass of a blight germ 22,000 times to get a body 
as large as a spore of the carnation rust, yet that is almost be- 
yond the limits of vision; again, I should have to multiply this 
by 350,000 to get a body as large as a number seven shot. If 
you should conceive of a number seven shot as a hollow sphere, 
there would be room and to spare inside it for something like 
8,000,000,000 of the blight bacteria. Such statements are of 
value only as serving to give you an idea of the minuteness of 
these organisms. Is it strange then considering their minute- 
ness that the elaboration of the methods for studying and hand- 



174 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ling these and many similar organisms has been a slow and la- 
borious process. It is not however an exaggeration to say that 
at present the plant pathologist can transplant a single germ 
as easily as you can transplant a green house plant. 

The number of bacteria that cause disease in plants is not 
great, but new diseases are constantly being discovered. Only 
recently a bacterial trouble of calla-lily bulbs has been added to 
our list. Since Burrill first discovered the blight bacterium in 
1880 something like thirty different bacterial troubles have been 
recorded. Of this total number probably not over half a dozen 
are prevalent in Nebraska. 

The other group of plants, the fungi, many of which are fami- 
liar to you in the mildews, blights, smuts, rusts, and leaf spots, 
are of even more importance than the bacteria as the cause of - 
diseases in plants. The total number of species of fungi maybe 
estimated at something like 40,000. Of the total number per- 
haps 8,000 are found in North America, and of these not more 
than one-fourth are the cause of disease, yet this is a vast and 
powerful army. Only a fraction of the diseases are prevalent 
in our own state, but new diseases make their appearance from 
time to time, and as sporadic cases or general epidemics call for 
investigation, in field and laboratory. 

Many of the fungi are but little larger than the bacteria and 
here again the investigator encounters difficulties that are only 
being overcome by use of modern laboratory methods. There is 
hardly a cultivated i^lant that is exempt from attacks, so many 
are the hosts of numerous parasites. The apple for example is 
attacked by something like sixty different species. I have here 
several examples of these injurious parasites: the brown rot of 
apple, cherry, plum, peach: the green mould, which is one of 
the most important apple rotting organisms; and a common foe 
of green-house or hot-house plants (Botrytis). These few illus- 
trations will serve to show you what some of these organisms 
look like in a state of captivity. 

The advances made in the study of plant diseases have been 
slow until recent years for at least two reasons. First, in the 
earlier development of the subject, the microscope was the 
principal instrument of research. Of course the microscope 



METHODS OF INVESTIGATING PLANT DISEASES. 175 

opened up a hidden world to eager investigators, but it alone 
was entirely inadequate to the solution of the manifold problems 
that presented themselves. Second, prior to 1880 there was no 
accurate and at the same time convenient method of making 
pure cultures of bacteria and fungi. It is the application of the 
perfected methods of making cultures, to the study of plant 
diseases that has been the most productive of results in recent 
years. The plant pathologist now has besides his ordinary 
microscope, a modern stand fitted with immersion lens and 
condenser; he has cupboards full of glass-ware and analine 
stains; his laboratory is equipped with imbedding baths and 
microtomes, hot-air sterilizers, steam sterilizers for streaming 
steam and steam under pressure, incubators, test-tubes, Petri- 
dishes, damp chambers, and many other appliances that I need 
not mention. 

I must tell you about one term that I have used, pwre culture. 
If the commercial grower of flowers had to grow his roses and 
carnations all jumbled together in one bed, and possibly over- 
run with weeds of various kinds, his difficulties would not be 
greater than that of the botanist who wished to study bacteria 
and fungi a few years ago. The horticulturist segregates his roses 
and carnations and keeps out the weeds. The plant pathologist 
at the present time can for example separate his blight bac- 
teria from the common bacteria of decay and moulds that might 
overrun them Hke the gardner's weeds, and grow them under 
conditions to which they are suited on some sort of an artificial 
medium. The medium is to the bacteria and fungi, what the 
soil is to the green-house plant. Just as the gardner has to use 
different kinds of soil for different purposes, so the pathologist 
has to use different kinds of media for his bacteria and fungi, 
only he deals with creatures that are far more delicate in their 
requirements than any green-house plants, and consequently 
must prepare many different kinds of soils to suit the varying 
needs. 

One single kind of an organism, a disease germ for example 
growing on some medium, with all others excluded, is a pure cul- 
ture. If you should grow your carnations in a bed in such a way 
that it was impossible for any weeds to get into the soil, you 
would be doing only similar to what the pathologist must do 
for his disease organisms. 



176 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Considering the minuteness of many of the disease producing 
organisms, you can readily see that this task of making and 
keeping pure cultures has been no easy one. There are two 
things that have very greatly facilitated the operation: first,, 
the discovery that it w^as impossible for even the minutest or- 
ganisms to get through a plug of cotton. It seems strange that 
such a simple discovery was not made until the middle of the 
nineteenth century. Second, the plate method, of growing 
bacteria and fungi, and the principle of intermittent steriliza- 
tion, has made the isolation of these minute forms possible. It 
is as easy at present for the pathologist to grow bacteria and 
fungi in pure cultures in test-tubes, Petri-dishes, and damp- 
chambers as it is for the gardner to grow his plants in flower- 
pots, flats and benches, and with "needle" and "loop" and 
"colony lifter" he transplants these minute organisms with no 
less difficulty than the gardner experiences in the use of trowel 
and dibble. 

The advantages of the pure cultures are many. The disease 
organism can be subjected to a variety of conditions: treated 
to any food medium imaginable; given acids or alkali; its 
growth tested at high temperatures or low temperatures; the 
action of poisonous substances on its growth observed; the 
products of its growth determined; its life history eludicated, 
and inoculations made into the tissues of the host plant. 

It may be opportune that I review in brief some of the things 
that the working pathologist must determine in case of the ap- 
pearance of a new disease. The first question that he must ask 
and settle if possible is the cause. Is the disease due to a par- 
asite or does it belong to the category of inorganic or constitu- 
tional diseases? The exact cause is often difficult to determine, 
as may be noted in the case of several well known examples as 
"peach yellows", "peach rosette", and "little peach". The 
cause of these is but little better understood than when they 
were first observed, yet much valuable information has been 
obtained as a result of their study. In order to demonstrate 
beyond a question that a given disease is due to a certain para- 
site, four steps involving a considerable amount of labor and 
time in laboratory and green-house, and field are required: 

1. The demonstration of the constant association of the 
organism with the deseased condition of the plant. 



METHODS OF INVESTIGATING PLANT DISEASES. 177 

2. The isolation of the organism from the deseased plant 
and its growth in pure culture whenever that is possible. 

3. The reproduction of the characteristic symptoms of the 
disease by infecting the healthy plant with organisms taken 
from pure cultures, or in case pure cultures are not possible 
the direct infection may be substituted, using parts of the 
diseased plant that contain the germs or spores of the disease 
organism. 

4. The rediscovery of the organism in the diseased tissues 
by microscopic examinations, and growth again in pure cultures. 

After the cause of the disease has been determined the path- 
ologist must endeavor to find out the complete life history of 
the disease producing organism. Many fungi produce several 
kinds of reproductive bodies, and in order that proper treat- 
ment and remedies may be discovered it is necessary to know 
when and where and under what conditions these reproductive 
bodies are produced. Accurate laboratory methods similar to 
those outlined, have yielded many important additions to path- 
ology in recent years. Clinton, in Illinois completed our know- 
ledge of the organism of apple scab; Spaulding and VonSchrenk 
have demonstrated the relation of canker and bitter rot in ap- 
ples; Norton has followed the complete life history of the brown- 
rot of the plum, and I might enumerate others but time will not 
permit. There are many diseases which have been only 
imperfectly investigated, and we may reasonably expect fruit- 
ful results in the near future. Even in our own state there is 
one disease that has caused the loss of hundreds of thousands 
of dollars to fruit growers and still our knowled^^e in regard to 
the nature of the disease is too imperfect to suggest efficient 
treatment or preventive measures. 

The study of plant diseases thoroughly and effectively means 
a matter of dollars and cents to the agricultural interests of a 
community and consequently the pathologist must not stop 
with the study of the disease producing organism. The extent 
of the devastations due to plant diseases can best be appreciated 
from a number of specific examples. It has been estimated that 
the brown-rot of peaches and plums cost the state of Georgia 
$500,000-$700,000 in the year 1900. The president of the 



178 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

National Apple Shippers Association estimated that bitter-rot 
of apples cost the United States the enormous sum of $10,000,000 
in 1900. The pathologist must carry his experiments farther, 
and attempt to find remedies and preventive measures. Much 
has been done in recent years in the vray of treatment of plant 
diseases, but in the future this phase of work must be ap- 
proached from a more scientific basis. Every century will not 
witness the accidental discovery of a Bordeaux mixture or some 
equally important treatment. Painstaking, accurate, scientific 
experimentation must yield the results for which we are 
looking. 

Spraying with various preparations has been an important 
preventive measure, saving millions of dollars annually to the 
fruit-grower of the country. For example, spraying saved 
$12,700 in one peach orchard in California in one year on a single 
variety, and I have no doubt that many of you have seen the 
value of such treatment in your own experience as commercial 
growers of fruit. There are many diseases for which such ex- 
ternal application of poisons are of no avail, and other methods 
must be resorted to. In many cases the remedies or preventive 
measures recommended are too expensive or too laborious, to 
appeal to the practical man and better and more practical ones 
must be sought. 

Stimulated by the method of treating diseases in animals by 
internal medicine, an occasional claim is made by some investi- 
gator that certain plant diseases may be cured or prevented by 
similar methods. It is safe to say that at present there is little 
of promise along that line. 

' Just as civilization has produced races that are less hardy 
than aborigines, so cultivation has, generally speaking, produced 
less resistant races or varieties of plants. It is unfortunate that 
our cultivated plants suffer more from disease than the worthless 
weeds. But there are individual differences that may be noted 
in any given species; some individuals are apparently more re- 
sistant than others, also some varieties are more immune from 
disease than others. If the hardy and resistant individuals and 
varieties are selected and propagated, the production of more 
resistant and even immune varieties may be accomplished. To 



DISCUSSION. 179 

give a single example, Dorsett has obtained excellent results in 
producing disease resistant violets. Plant breeding is becom- 
ing a more and more important phase of the subject, and I be- 
lieve we are just beginning a v^ork that offers much of promise. 
It remains for farmers, and scientific agriculturists, and prac- 
tical horticulturists, pathologists and plant breeders to still fur- 
ther co-operate w^ith each other in the prosecution of the 
work. 

After all when we consider the varied problem that the plant 
pathologist has to deal with, and the complicated methods that 
it has been necessary to discover and perfect for the prosecu- 
tion of the work infield, green-house and laboratory, it is not 
strange that it has required the accumulated results of nineteen 
centuries of human progress to place the scientific study of 
plant diseases on a firm and enduring foundation. Much has 
already been accomplished, but we look to the future for 
still greater achievements. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Masters: Do you consider that it is the same bacteria 
that produces the blight on plums and pears? 

Prof. Heald: It is the same organism exactly. 

Mr. Masters: What would you expect if you took a knife 
and cut into a blighted limb on a poor tree, and then cut into a 
healthy limb of another tree? 

Prof. Heald: I would expect that you would carry over from 
the blighted limb a disease and establish it in the healthy limb. 

Mr. Masters: If you cut into this same blighted limb, and 
then cut into a water sprout on an apple tree, would you expect 
the apple to blight? 

Prof. Heald: Yes sir. 

Mr. Masters: Well, that has not been my experience. I 
think in about twenty experiments I made on pears, that in 
every case it did not produce blight. I did'nt get a blight in 
the whole lot. , 

Prof. Heald: Probably those organisms had become so 



180 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

accustomed to the pear that they did not flourish very well when 
noculated into the apple. 

Mr. Masters: Is it not possible that there are two bacteria? 

Prof. Heald: Not generally understood so. 

Question: Is there any known remedy that will prevent 
this on plums? I would also like to ask the same about the 
brown rot, which is so destructive. 

Prof. Heald: One way of dealing with this disease on plums, 
apples, pears, etc. is to dig them up. That means lots of labor, 
but it is recommended at the present time in the absence of 
anything better. In addition to destroying the trees, spraying 
has been used to some extent with fair success. 

Question: Spraying with what? 

Prof. Heald : The Bordeaux mixture has been used. 

A Member: We have used that and found it a partial success. 

Prof. Heald: You must be sure to destroy all diseased 
fruits. 

The President: Dr. Bessey will now give a paper on "How 
Much Plant Pathology Ought a Fruit Grower to Know. " 



HOW MUCH PLANT PATHOLOGY OUGHT A 
FRUIT GROWER TO KNOW. 

BY DR. CHARLES E. BESSEY. 

In answering this question I propose to suggest what I con- 
sider to be the minimum knowledge which he should have, and 
I shall bear in mind the limited time which every active fruit 
grower has for devoting to the special study of this subject. 
While it would be a very handy thing for the fruit grower to 
know the subject thoroughly, everyone realizes that this is as 
impossible at the present as for every man to be an expert in 
regard to the diseases which are likely to afflict his own body. 
It is probable that we shall always need the advice of a physi- 
cian however well informed we may be in regard to human 
pathology. And yet it is true that the man who knows something 



PLANT PATHOLOGY. 181 

in regard to the nature and origin of diseases is more likely to 
avoid them than if lie were totally ignorant in regard to them. 
And so it is with the diseases of fruit-bearing plants. It is not 
likely that the grower will ever be able to dispense with the ad- 
vice of the expert plant pathologist, but he will avoid a good 
deal of trouble for himself and save much money (by saving his 
fruit) if he knows some of the main facts and principles as to 
plant diseases and their treatment. 

PLANTS ARE REALLY LIVING THINGS. 

What then are the things that the fruit grower ought to know? 
First of all he should know fully that a plcmt is a living thing. I 
know that in a certain way we all think of plants as living, but 
very largely this is with some limitations and reservations. I re- 
member the exclamation of a student in my laboratory, to whom 
I showed some unusally active low form of plant, — "why it's 
alive!' ' Yet I had talked and lectured to that student in regard 
to the life of plants, and all that I had said had not penetrated 
sufficiently to make him realize that life in the plant is like life in. 
the animal. It was only when this life manifested itself in vis- 
ible motion that its full meaning was understood. 

Plants are alive, and their life is the same as that of animals. 
Not only is this true, but the life of a plant resides in the same 
substance in both kinds of living things. If we examine the 
animal substance under a compound microscope we find that it 
consists of very minute bodies which are composed of proto- 
plasm, — a soft and somewhat slimy substance. And so if we 
make a similar examination of the plant substance we find simi- 
lar minute bodies also composed of protoplasm. Now it is this 
essential identity of structure, and the actual identity of life, 
that I must insist upon here. The fruit-grower who is trying 
to get an adequate notion of the pathology of his apple trees, for 
example, must realize that they are as truly' alive as are his 
horses and cattle, and that in their minute structure they are 
essentially alike. 

SOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 

Now while apple trees and horses are essentially alike as liv- 



182 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL. SOCIETY. 

ing things, they differ in certain things. For example the tree 
has roots and leaves, while the horse has a mouth, a stomach, 
and blood-vessels. The digested food of a horse is carried 
rapidly to all parts of its body through a system of tubes, — the 
arteries and veins, but in the apple tree the food of all kinds 
merely soaks through the substance and has no tubes through 
which it runs. But in this the apple tree is like some lower 
animals, in which there is no system of arteries and veins, and 
as a consequence the digested food passes from part to part by 
a soaking process similar to that in the apple tree. All animals 
having such a slow circulation are sluggish, some of them being 
almost as slow and sluggish as the trees are. It is noticed that 
just as animals are more active, their circulatory system is 
more perfect. 

The slow circulation in plants implies slow progress in their 
diseases. In an animal a poison may be carried to all parts of 
the body in a few seconds, or at most in a few minutes, but in 
plants this is much slower on account of their want of a circu- 
latory system. So it is with the bacterial diseases which may 
pervade the whole body of the animal in a short time, but in the 
plant their dispersal through the body is very slow. Plant di- 
seases are therefore slower and simpler than the correspond- 
ing diseases of animals, and this fact must be taken into the ac- 
count by the person who wishes to know even a very little about 
plant pathology. 

SOURCES AND CAUSES OF PLANT DISEASES. 

In the second place the fruit-grower should know something 
as to the more common sources and causes of plant diseases. 
These are briefly as follows : 

1. Thirst, which in plants as in animals is the condition of the 
body in which there is a deficiency of water. Plants need 
water for the same purposes as animals, the principal one of 
which is to keep the inner tissues wet enough so that they can 
do their work properly. But both plants and animals lose a 
good deal of water and this loss is especially great in dry air, 
and for this reason there must be an extra amount to make 
good this loss. 



PLANT PATHOLOGY. 183 

2. Starvation, which is like that of animals, namely the lack 
of a sufficient amount or kind of food. We know well enough 
that to do well a domestic animal must have what we call a 
"balanced ration," that is, one in which all the constituents 
which are necessary to build up all parts of the body are present 
in proper proportions. Now it is just so with a plant; it must 
have a balanced ration also in order to do best, and if any of the 
necessary food constituents are wanting it will suffer from 
starvation. Fruit trees never starve for the food constituents 
which come from the air, but they frequently suffer for want 
of some which they ^should get from the soil. Now and then in 
Nebraska a soil is deficient in nitrogen or phosphorous, or per- 
haps iron, and the tree suffers. In other regions there may be 
a deficiency of potash or lime, but this is rarely if ever the case 
in Nebraska. 

3. Poisoning. This may be from gases in the air, which, 
when absorbed by the leaves kill or injure their tissues. This 
is not likely to occur in Nebraska, but it is common in manu- 
facturing regions, especially near smelting works, coke ovens, 
and like establishments which emit chemical fumes in consider- 
able volumes. A much more common source of poisoning is 
from the presence of harmful substances in the soil. Most 
fruit trees can not endure the presence of appreciable quanti- 
ties of common salt, and when this occurs in the soil in sufficient 
amount the trees are slowly poisoned. So too, the presence of 
"alkali" is harmful, as indeed is the case with many other soil 
constituents. It must be borne in mind that lime, magnesia, 
soda, iron, etc. etc. very dilute solutions of which plants need, or 
at least are tolerant of, when in strong solutions become fatally 
poisonous. In some cases the soil may be helped by the appli- 
cation of some corrective, but for the most part it will pay the 
fruit grower best to make selection of a soil which does not con- 
tain any of these substances in poisonous quantities. 

4. Wounds. Attention has been repeatedly called to the in- 
jurious effects of wounds on trees; in fact they are comparable 
in their harmfulness to open wounds in animals. And just as 
in animals a wound is a place through which harmful bacteria 
may gain entrance to the body, so a wound in a tree allows 
various kinds of injurious fungi to enter the inner tissues. 



184 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Every wound on a tree, from whatever cause is a danger, and 
should be cared for if the Mfe of the tree is to be indefinitely 
prolonged. The most general cause of wounds is the wind, 
which breaks or twists the branches and often splits them badly. 
In the dense forests, trees are rarely injured in this way, as 
they protect one another, but every isolated tree is especially 
subject to the power of the wind. Orchard trees are usually 
planted so far apart that they are exposed to almost the full 
fury of the wind, and after every storm many trees show many 
ragged wounds through which fungi of various kinds may 
enter. 

Another fruitful source of wounds is the gnawing of the bark 
by rabbits and other animals. These wounds are not as deep 
as those due to the winds, and yet they are often even more 
harmful, since they expose or destroy the cambium, and so stop 
the stem growth, often resulting in the early death of the 
tree. 

The third class of wounds includes those made by the fruit 
grower himself when he prunes his trees. In many cases he is 
wise enough to so handle his trees that he does not have to re- 
move any large branches, thus avoiding the necessity of making 
large wounds. But in too many cases the tree is allowed to 
grow as it will for a number of years, and then when too many 
branches have started, the top is severely pruned, leaving many 
open wounds through which fungi gains entrance, and in which 
decay sooner or later sets in. If these wounds in the top are 
accompanied with the wounds on the roots, which accompany 
transplanting, the tree is in a sad phght indeed. The wonder 
is that with so many gaping wounds the tree ever recovers. 
And there can be no question that these partially healed wounds 
are the cause of the early death of many a tree. Such trees are 
like the soldiers who have many wounds, from which tl^ey seem 
to recover for a time, only to find after a while that the old 
wounds which were only partially healed, finally drag them 
down to death. A wounded tree is like a wounded man, it may 
recover from it , but there is always danger that the wound is 
not fully healed, and may some day prove fatal. 

5. Loss of necessary parts. All things considered the leaves 



PLANT PATHOLOGY. 185 

are the most necessary organs of plants, especially of trees, and 
yet the leaves are frequently destroyed so that the plant is 
naked. Now the leaves are not the clothing of the tree, as is 
supposed by some people, but they are much more like the 
stomach, in which the food is prepared so that it can be used 
by the plant. A tree without leaves is in practically the same 
condition of an animal which has no stomach. Of course this is 
a very crude comparison but it is true to this extent that both 
leaf and stomach are necessary organs in the preparation and 
digestion of food, on the one hand for the tree, and on the other 
for the animal. When insects eat the leaves of a tree they de- 
stroy to that extent the power of the plant to use the available 
plant food, especially that derived from the air. And this is 
the real nature of the injury of the tree when its leaves are lost 
whether by insects, frost, hail or any other means. The result 
is always the same, namely the loss of the power of utilizing 
food. Such a condition is in fact one form of starvation, and 
the final result so far as the plant is concerned is the same. 

Roots are sometimes destroyed by insects, moles or other 
burrowing animals. The principal function of roots is to ab- 
sorb water and food matters from the soil, so that the loss of 
roots implies the loss of the power to absorb water and such 
foods as are in the soil water. A tree whose roots have been 
eaten off is in danger of dying from thirst as well as from starva- 
tion. But trees suffer from the loss of their roots at the hands 
of man himself, when he digs them out in such a way as to cut 
off the roots close to the base of the trunk, A tree so mutilated 
is in as pitable a condition as when it has suffered such a loss 
through other means. The mere fact that the owner of the 
tree has purposely cut off the roots does not help the poor tree. 
It is quite as likely to die from thirst and starvation as though 
the mutilation had been been done by rascally gophers or 
moles. 

Some years the flowers of apple trees suddenly die before 
the fruit has set. Here the disease is confined to the reproduc- 
tive organs of the tree, and while the life of the tree itself is not 
threatened, the crop of fruit is ruined. This disease is often 
due to a form of blight, closely related if not identical with the 



186 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ordinary blight of twigs and leaves. In other cases it is due to 
the presence of small worms (larvae) which eat the soft tissues 
of the flower stalks and bases, killing the whole cluster much 
as in the case of the blight. 

6. Fungi. Here we come to one of the most fruitful causes 
of plant diseases. There are so many species of harmful fungi 
that every kind of plant in which the fruit grower is interested 
is infested by at least three or four, and some are attacked by 
ten times as many. These affect trees in different ways but 
for my present purpose I shall notice only the following modes : 
(«) Some grow over the surface of the leaves choking them so 
that they can not jDerform their functions properly. A good 
example of such a surface fungus is the Powdery Mildew, which 
often attacks the leaves of nursery stock covering them with a 
fine white powder. Every nurseryman knows that young trees 
so affected can not make a good growth. The reason is that 
the leaves can make the necessary food constituents, and as a 
consequence the tree is partially starved. 

{h) Another type of fungus grows on the surface of fruits, 
forming patches and blotches which are unsightly. The com- 
mon Apple Scab is a familiar example of a fungus of this kind. 
It is a surface fungus, never penetrating deeply into the tissues 
of the apple, but producing such disfigurement as to seriously 
injure its market value, (c) Still another type of fungus is 
that which lives inside of the leaf tissues, killing small patches. 
Such are the many Leaf- Spot fungi, of which many species are 
known to be parasitic upon all kinds of plants grown by the 
fruit grower. Now the damage done by fungi of this kind is 
directly proportional to the amount of tissue killed in each 
leaf. In case of the Shot-hole fungus I have seen leaves 
in which one-tenth of their tissue was killed, which implies that 
the leaves had only nine-tenths of their full power to make food 
for the use of the tree. It is equivalent to reducing the food of 
the tree by just that amount, (d) There is still another type 
of fungus which lives inside of some part of the tree and decays 
it. Such fungi are among the most destructive with which we 
have to deal, and unfortunately they are abundant. Some of 
them enter the root where it is wounded, and penetrate and rot 
the wood, turning it into a soft, dry, rotten mass. Here is where 



PLANT PATHOLOGY. 187 

the evil effects of mutilation of the roots are manifest. Where 
a tree has rotten roots it can not secure a sufficent supply of 
water and food matters from the soil, so that it suffers from 
thirst and starvation, w^hile at the same time it is liable to still 
greater injury by being blown over by severe winds. Allied to 
the fungi which produce root rot and possibly identical with 
them are those producing stem rot. They gain access through 
wounds and penetrate the stem tissues, turning them into a 
mass of decay. Aside from the weakness of stem, making 
them especially liable to injury in high winds, the trees so at- 
tacked show evidence of general thirst and starvation. 

Many fruits are attacked by rot-producing fungi, as in the 
common apple rot, where a fungus gains entrance through some 
puncture or wound in the skin, and then penetrates all the tissues 
of the fruit, eventually turning the whole into a rotten mass. 

GENERAL NATURE OF FUNGI. 

It is not enough to know how a fungus acts in attacking a 
plant. While that is essential, it is by no means sufficient to 
enable the fruit grower to know what to do to eradicate it. We 
must know how and when it reproduces itself. Now every 
fungus at some time in its life produces tiny seeds (spores) so 
small that they are easily carried by the wind for considerable 
distances. No fungus comes spontaneously any more than do 
weeds or grass. Every one comes from a seed just as every 
tree comes from a seed. It is these minute seeds that blow 
from plant to plant, and from tree to tree, thus carrying the 
disease. 

Now it is a well established fact that every fungus is much 
more easily combated if taken when it first appears than after 
it gains full headway. It is with fungi as it is with weeds in 
your garden:— you can kill them best when they are young, and 
it is a pretty big job to kill them after they are tall and pretty 
well rooted. It is important therefore that the fruit grower 
should know when and where the fungi begin their work on his 
trees and fruit, for this is the best time to spray with Bordeaux 
mixture in order to kill the largest number of fungi. Still 
another reason why the fruit grower should quite certainly 



188 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

know when the fungi begin to grow is that while he can kill them 
with Bordeaux mixture as long as they have not penetrated 
the tissues, when that is accomplished and they are safely in- 
side of the leaf or fruit it is quite useless to spray. Here then 
is one of the most important things which a fruit grower must 
know as much about as possible, and it will pay him to give 
much time and thought to it. 

SOME FACTS ABOUT PLANT DISEASES. 

Another thing to be remembered is that some plant diseases 
can be "cured," and many can not. Thirst can be cured if the 
trouble is in the soil, and the roots are all right. So starvation 
can be cured by enriching the soil, if the roots, stem and leaves 
are in good condition. Mild cases of poisoning can be cured, 
but severe cases invariably prove fatal. Wounds that have been 
neglected are incurable, but if taken when first formed, and 
treated properly they may generally be made to heal quickly 
and effectively. The loss of necessary organs is not necessarily 
irreparable. Leaves will sometimes appear after they have 
been destroyed by insects or fungi. Roots will often push out 
to take the place of those which were cut off, and even flowers 
which have been destroyed will be replaced by a later set if the 
tree is in vigorous condition. On the other hand diseases due 
to fungi are generally incurable in any proper sense. An in- 
ternal leaf fungus can not be eradicated when once it is inside 
of the leaf, and so a fruit rot or a stem rot can not be remedied. 
In such cases prevention is all that can be done. We can pre- 
vent the fungus from getting into the leaf, stem or fruit, but 
when once it is inside it is safe from any sprays or other 
remedial measures which we can employ against it. 

AVOID QUACKS. 

The last thing which I think the fruit grower should know in 
connection with this matter of plant diseases is that here as 
elsewhere there are quacks to be avoided. There are all sorts 
of patent medicines advertised for curing all sorts of plant di- 
seases. Now these things are just like the patent medicines 
which fill so many yards of shelving in the drug stores in every 



PLANT PATHOLOGY. 189 

town, — they are made to sell, and to bring money into the pockets 
of the makers of the medicines. My best advice to every fruit 
grower is to absolutely refuse to buy any of these advertized 
remedies and invigorators. When you are sorely tempted to 
buy a cure-all for your tree troubles, write to the Experiment 
Station, and we will give you the best advice we can, and not 
charge you a cent for it either. 



After some discussion the President appointed a committee 
consisting of E. M. Pollard, C. H. Green and J. H. Hadkinson, to 
confer with Dr. Bessey and Prof. Bruner in regard to a state 
appropriation to be used for fighting insect pests, after which 
the following resolution was unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, Each year great losses are sustained by thefarmers, 
fruit growers, stock raisers and other tillers of the soil, as a 
direct result of the ravages of various insect pests, and. 

Whereas, Many problems arise in connection with the con- 
trol of these pests which can only be solved by specially trained 
persons who devote their time to the study of matters like these, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Nebraska State 
Horticultural Society, do favor and recommend that a liberal 
appropriation of funds be made, by the present session of the 
legislature for the use of the acting State Entomologist; such 
money to be used in the study and control of insect pests like 
the Hessian Fly, chinch bug, destructive grasshoppers, codling 
moth, apple curculio, San Jose scale, melon louse, bud both, 
alfalfa, corn, wheat, garden and other insects, as well as the in- 
sect enemies of domestic animal and injurious insects in general. 

Meeting adjourned until 9:00 A. M., January 19th. 



190 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

FOURTH SESSION. 

Thursday, January 19th, 9:00 a. m. 

The President: The first subject on our program this 
morning is "Progress of Fruit Culture in Kearney County," by 
Mr. D. C. Bliss of Minden. This should have been given yester- 
day afternoon, but we over ran our time, so we will hear Mr. 
Bliss now. 



PROGRESS OF FRUIT CULTURE IN 
KEARNEY COUNTY. 

BY D. C. BLISS, MINDEN. 

Mr. President, andlYiends of Horticulture: I believe this is the 
:first opportunity that has ever presented itself to me to be with 
the horticulturists of Nebraska. For that reason it gives me 
considerable embarrassment to appear before you. In addition 
to that, I realize there is another cause for embarrassment, 
which is the fact that horticulturists, their wives and families 
are considered rather superior in intelligence to the general 
classes of people we come across. 

Kearney county, lying about 185 miles west of Lincoln, em- 
bracing Range 13, 14, 15 and 16 West, the northern limit extend- 
ing to the Platte river, and the southern boundary within 
twenty miles of the Republican river, consisting mostly of a 
level table land, with a rich deep soil, is preeminently an agri- 
cultural district. 

Agriculture and horticulture are so nearly allied that they 
should go hand in hand, that where aU kinds of produce are 
successfully grown from year to year, more attention should be 
given to the growing of fruit and other trees. 

All kinds of produce, wheat, corn and oats, have but once in 
twenty years proved a failure. 

The year 1894, not only in Kearney county, but largely through 
the state owing to the extreme drouth, was generally known as 



PROGRESS OF FRUIT CULTURE IN KEARNEY COUNTY. 191 

the year of almost total failure of all kinds of crops. Soil, cli- 
matic conditions, and a sufficient amount of rain-fall, are the 
principal request which enter into successful production of all 
agricultural and horticultural products in all places. 

These are natural requisites which vary to a considerable ex- 
tent in different sections of the county, and can be modified only 
to a limited extent by anything which man can do. The soil, or 
the elements of which it is composed, when exhausted by ex- 
cessive production, may to a limited extent be renewed from 
time to time. 

We believe the soil on the great divide from the Missouri 
river to the western part of the state, between the Platte and 
the Republican river, is more uniform in quality than in most 
other states in the union. 

As to climate we think, comparing the extreme eastern 
counties of the state, where successful orcharding has so many 
years been carried on, to the central and western districts, 
there can be but little difference. 

As to the amount of rain-fall necessary to produce crops of 
all kinds, as well as to the successful growing of trees and 
plants, the amount varies to some extent from year to year. In 
Kearney county since the year 1890, the greatest rain-fall was 
in 1891, amounting to 44 89/100 inches. The smallest amount 
falling in 1894, being 16 43 / 100 inches. "This was the year of 
almost a total failure. The average yearly rain-faU since 1890, 
being 29 60/ 100 inches. The decade previous to this the aver- 
age was 35 48/ 100 inches. 

We find by comparison with the eastern and north-eastern 
counties of the state, that these averages were but little below 
the average there, while it was somewhat greater than the 
record shows in some of the south-eastern counties. 

We mention these facts and figures to show that while Kear- 
ney county and the central and western section of our state is 
not so much behind other parts of the state in these natural 
conditions, but comparing the eastern portion of the state with 
the western in the matter of fruit production, we must have to 
submit to be relegated to the rear. 

We must then look for other reasons than those above men- 



192 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tionecl to show why we do not come up to the standard of fruit 
raising in some other places. It is surely not altogether be- 
cause we do not plant trees enough, neither is it because there 
is no demand for fruit, or that people do not cultivate a taste 
for the same. 

We have in Minden a wholesale fruit man, Mr. Ben. Johnson, 
who informs me that he has some years bought and shipped to 
Minden as high as 105 car loads of apples alone in a single year, 
in addition to many car loads of all other kinds of fruit in its sea- 
son. Some one must buy and consume all this. I do not wish 
to be understood, however, that all of this is consumed at home, 
as his shipments extend all along the different lines of road 
west. 

The demand is very rapidly increasing from year to year, and 
a plenty of room for the home grower. 

I have so far said but little in regard to the progress of fruit 
culture in this county and the counties lying adjacent to this, 
and do not wish to be understood to mean that we do not grow 
fruit to some extent. Kearney county contains no large com- 
mercial orchards, but contains many small family orchards, 
consisting largely of apple, cherry, plum and peaches. 

Within the last few days we have visited and had reports from 
quite a number in this immediate vicinity, who are engaged to 
some extent in growing fruit. 

G. A. Strand, a typical farmer and stock raiser living three 
miles north-west of Minden, and a horticulturist as well, with 
a beautiful farm home, surrounded with beautiful flowers, ever- 
greens, shrubs and shade trees, reports about one-hundred apple 
trees planted in 1886, largely Ben Davis, Wine Saps, Genetan, 
Wealthys and Duchess. Trees all in fine condition at the 
present time, and entirely free from twig blight, which we trust 
has run its course here. 

Mr. Strand reports a very light crop of apples this year, but 
other years has produced fairly well, especially the Ben Davis, 
Duchess and Wealthy. His cherry orchard, mostly Early Rich- 
mond and Montmorency, produced a crop of fine cherries, mar- 
keting from 130 to 150 bushels. English Morello all killed. 
Mr. J. T. Kelly ten miles east of Minden planted twenty acres 



PROGRESS OF FRUIT CULTURE IN KEARNEY COUNTY. 193 

of apples seventeen and eighteen years ago, mostly Ben Davis. 
This orchard since coming into bearing several years ago, has 
produced from 600 to 700 bushels per year, and tv^o years ago 
produced from 1000 to 1200 bushels. Winesaps and Genetans 
usually inferior in quality and little worth. Mr. Kelly usually 
cultivates with a disk and harrow, and thinks the quality of fruit 
has been much improved by spraying, which he usually does 
from once to three times during the season. John Beishein 
seven miles north-west has a small number of apples planted 
twenty years ago, which bore a crop the past year of from five to 
seventeen bushels per tree. Planted last spring about one hun- 
dred trees, consisting of apple, some cherries and peaches, 
which cost him a little less on an average than $1.00 per tree, 
with pears at $1.50 each, bought of an agent of an eastern 
dealer. Says he does not care about the cost if they only grow. 
Alonzo Springer reports two-hundred of apples and cherries in 
good condition, bearing good crops of from five to ten bushels 
per tree, with Duchess and Early Harvest in the lead. John 
Havens, section 16-7-14, reports an orchard of six-hundred apple 
trees, seventy-five cherry, two-hundred budded peaches, and 
two-thousand seedlings. Many of these latter killed by the ice 
storm on the 29th and 30th of April, 1903. Balance of trees in 
good condition. This is a contract orchard where he gives one- 
half the crop for a series of years. Mr. Haven sends samples 
of seedling apples which has borne a heavy crop of fruit for 
several years, of excellent quality. He wishes the samples in- 
spected by this association. 

Mr. Buchanan, section 8-7-14, near the above, reports another 
contract orchard of eight-hundred apples, one-hundred cherries, 
and six-hundred and fifty peaches. Apples five years old, and 
cherries and peaches two and eight years old, all in good con- 
dition, with the exception of the English Morellos which are all 
gone. Mr. Shearer also reports similar to the above, about 
twelve-hundred trees in good condition, and had two-hundred 
bushels of peaches. Mr. Shearer cultivates with disk and har- 
row, as per contract. 

Edward Krick reports two-hundred apple trees planted 
twenty-three years ago, twenty-eight feet apart, with no wind- 
break for protection, and has borne good crops for many years. 



194 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Mr. Krick, like many others, who planted years ago, has always 
cultivated with a stirring plow two or three times each year, but 
would not now recommend this method of cultivation. I have been 
over other counties in this horticultural district more or less the 
past twenty years and find about the same conditions to contend 
with as here, finding once in a while some man who has had faith 
enough in Nebraska to plant and care for successfullj'-, while 
the majority of men fail from different causes. We visited a 
peach orchard near Beaver City last summer while the crop was 
being gathered, where the owner reported between two-thou- 
sand and three-thousand bushels of fruit, which he was selling 
from $1.50 to $2.00 per bushel. In one orchard near McCook, 
one-hundred miles west of Minden, two-thousand bushels of 
cherries were grown. The planting of budded peaches, to any 
extent over these western counties is of comparative recent 
dates, many thinking that a seedling peach is good enough, and 
think that they cost them nothing. This idea seems to be wear- 
ing off in the past few years, that it costs no more time and labor 
to produce a choice budded tree than a seedling. 

Realizing that the failure of the many, in comparison with the 
success of the few, in localities where the local conditions as to 
soil and climate are the same to the man who fails, as to him 
who succeeds, we are led to believe that the causes of success 
or failure lie largely in the interest and the knowledge of him 
who plants. It is then largely a matter of education and from 
what source that information is obtained. In the first place 
then, one must become interested in any work of the kind as 
the principal element in his success. It must be of that kind 
of interest which will prompt him to obtain all the practical 
knowledge available, which will bear on the subject in hand. 
John Smith buys a bill of trees, and afterwards says to himself, 
"I was a fool to let that agent talk me into bnying this bill, be- 
cause the trees will not grow in Nebraska any way. But now 
I have bought them, I will plant them, but I do not expect they 
will grow, and if they do I will never get any fruit from them." 
He plants his trees as quickly as possible, just to get the job off 
his hands, and perhaps does not see them again till sometime 
in the fall, when he finds the result as he at first predicted, 
all dead. 



PROGRESS OF FRUIT CULTURE IN KEARNEY COUNTY. 195 

He does not stop to consider whether he first prepared his 
soil in a proper manner, or whether they were properly planted, 
and whether the lack of care had anything to do with his failure, 
and says he will never try again. 

Will Jones also is seized with a desire to beautify his home 
and add to the value of it, by planting trees and says to himself, 
"I believe I can successfully grow trees in Nebraska, I have 
made a study to some extent of the conditions existing in my 
community. I will attend horticultural meetings and farmers' 
institutes, and obtain all the information possible in relation to 
what to plant and how, and fully inform myself in regard to 
best methods of cultivation as to when and how to do the same." 
He goes to the nearest reliable nurseryman he can reach, one 
who has spent years of study and thought, and who perhaps is 
a specialist in his line, and buys his trees and has the confidence 
of his nurseryman, and tries to follow his advice in reference 
to the future of the same. 

John Smith fails and Wm. Jones succeeds. Wm. Jones has 
faith and follows up his faith by his works. John Smith has 
neither faith, works or trees. How to reach them. Perhaps 
something might be done in some sections through well organ- 
ized horticultural county societies. I woud favor an organiza- 
tion of this kind in every county in the state. The local press 
might, if it would do something along this line. I believe every 
live county paper should have an agricultural and horticultural 
department, and invite a discussion along this line to its columns. 
Every one who plants a tree should know a little something of 
the principal of propagation.. He should at least, know some- 
thing of what seeds come true to na^me, and what must be bud- 
ded or grafted to produce like the parent tree, and a knowledge 
of how the operation is performed. I know a man who bought 
two-hundred peach trees, at one dollar each, because the agent 
told him they were bred on a "Hard Maple" root and just could 
not freeze down. About all this man has to show for his invest- 
ment, is his experience. We do not expect every one to be a 
Luther Burbank, Baily or Hodge, a Harrison or a Stevens. I do 
not wish to close this article without making reference to one of 
the growing evils of the day, an evil in which every Nebraska 
horticulturist should be interested in checking, as it not only 



196 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

affects the man who plants, but the nurseryman as well. An 
evil which does not probablj'- exist in the eastern part of the 
state to the extent it does here, and elsewhere over the west, a s 
the masses of the people there who plant are better informed 
along these lines. 

I refer to the work of the so called "Tree Agent" or dealer, 
claiming to do business generally through eastern nurseries. 
These western counties have for many years been made the 
dumping ground of nursery stocks which was never grown in 
Nebraska and never passed through the hands of any Nebraska 
nurseryman. In my twenty years experience in this county, 
as nearly as can be estimated, from $5,000 to $10,000 worth an- 
nually, of such kind of stock has been distributed among the 
farmers of the county; and other counties have about the same 
experience. Purchasers usually paying from three to five 
times as much for the stock as the same might have been pro- 
cured for at home. Probably not five per cent of such stock is 
growing to-day. It is not always because of the poor quality or 
worthlessness of the stock that renders the same of so httle 
value, but more because of the fact that in buying of the class of 
adventurers they are made- to beheve that their success depends 
altogether on buying of them, without giving any practical 
knowledge of how to do the work. The average salesman repre- 
senting this class usually knows little and cares less whether 
the planter is successful than the planter himself. I would not 
disparage the honesty and intelligence of all salesman, as many 
are honest, and honestly represent some well known nursery. 
The majority of the salesman, however, are not of this class in 
this western country. We have the "model orchard-man" who 
sells from $75 to $100 orchards, agreeing to plant, care for, 
and warrant for a series of years, who get their money and 
are never seen again. 

Nextcomes some one claiming to represent some northern nur- 
sery, and lay claims to the extra hardiness of this stock on ac- 
countofthesamebeinggrownin a cold climate, then goto Hunts- 
ville, Alabama and buy stock to fill their orders. Another man 
sells two year old stock on three and four year old roots, al- 
ways different from that of any one else. Again some one sells 
some variety of peach or cherry, on which they have a copy- 
right, and the same can only be obtained through them. 



DISCUSSION. 197 

In the same class of salesman belong the whole root man, and 
the budded tree man, who claims a monopoly on the same kind 
of trees they sell, and claim that Nebraska tree men are not up 
to date, and never discovered things as are well known to them. 
Experience of twenty-five or thirty years of a Nebraska nursery- 
man does not count for as much as one or two months of experi- 
ence as salesman which they have had. Only a year or two since 
I came across a "gang" of men in one of our western coun- 
ties who were making a run on "Buck Thorn Hedge" at fancy 
prices, and furnishing Osage Orange to fill their orders. Per- 
haps more sales are made on the old trick of selling at fancy 
prices and agreeing to take half their pay from one-half the 
third years crop, the purchaser always thinking he is getting 
the best of the bargain. Our observation is that the majority of 
sales over the west are made on such schemes as these; schemes 
to which the honest nurseryman or salesman does not resort. 
Is there any remedy for all this? 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Shroyer: I am not a nurseryman, but I am a buyer of 
trees, always have been; I believe I was a born lover of trees. 
While the gentleman was relating the experiences with tree 
agents, many recollections came back to me. I don't know 
whether I felt bad or not. I have been through the mill, but I 
want to say that I visited a nursery and saw trees dug up early 
in the morning and left on the ground in the hot sun until one 
o'clock in the afternoon. Now can you wonder why such trees 
w^ould not grow, and why we don't patronize home nurseries 
more? It is for such reasons as this that we deal with the 
tree agents. 

Mr. Bliss: What the gentleman says about the home nur- 
sery digging up trees early in the morning and leaving them on 
the ground until afternoon may be true occasionally, but I would 
like to ask whether a home nursery is more liable to do that 
than any other nursery. I believe as a rule that our home nur- 
serymen handle their stock very carefully. 

The President: If you have a home nursery that don't do 
business right, then find another that does and deal with them. 
Know their reputation. They are generally reliable though. 



198 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mk. Snodgrass: If a man is going to set out a dozen trees, 
he ought to go to some home nursery and get the trees himself. 
I am very particular about the kind of trees I plant out. When 
I am going to set out a bunch of trees, I want to go to the nur- 
sery and get the trees myself. I want to select the trees. 
Wlien I get a tree in good condition, properly taken up and with 
a good root system, I will take care of the balance of it. 

Mr. Grimstead: Down in the south-eastern part of the 
state a traveling nursery agent has pretty lean picking with the 
tree jilanters. We have never had to complain of our home 
nurseries yet. If I was ever swindled by a home nurseryman, 
I have never known it. We have done some business with the 
traveling nursery agent, but the trees they sold have never 
borne any fruit yet. 

Mr". Hale :. Nevertheless, the people generally buy of agents, 
and I understand the nurserymen sell to the agents. So the 
agent can put in one variety or another, just as he pleases. I 
am sure we are handicapped along that line. We cannot always 
depend upon our nurserymen unless we can go direct to the 
nursery and get the trees ourselves. 

Mr. Isaac Pollard: It seems to me that that ought to be 
one of the duties of this society, to disseminate the knowledge 
that local nurseries are all right. We ought to stand up for 
them and support them. We have something like twenty 
thousand fruit trees at home, and have never bought of fruit 
agents and have never had any trouble with our trees. We have 
always sent direct to the nursery and have never had any 
trouble in getting what we want. If a man wants to plant trees, 
he will do better to send direct to some local nursery or go him- 
self. Don't depend upon an agent if you want to get good trees. 
Deal direct with the nurseryman who has a reputation, and 
you will get what you want and be treated fairly too. 



Mr. a. J. Brown: This society in its wisdom yesterday ap- 
pointed a committee to look after the fruit interests of the state 
in connection with railroad freight rates. Now this committee 
is bound to be put to some expense, and the society should pro- 



DISCUSSION. 199 

vide them with funds to carry on their work. So I move that 
the society appropriate $300 or as much as is necessary to 
carry on that work. 

Motion seconded and carried. 

Mr. E. M. Pollard: I would iike to introduce the follow- 
ing resolution: 

To the Chancellor and Regents of the State University: We, who 
are members of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society, are 
much pleased to find in your Seventeenth Biennial Report that 
you say, "The duty confronts us, urged, and justly, by the 
leading fruit growers in the state, of making ample provision 
for investigating plant diseases. The demand must be met at 
the earliest moment, and plant pathology made a regular line of 
inquiry at the Experiment Station." 

We wish to commend most heartily this portion of your re- 
port, and to urge upon you the absolute necessity of providing 
for the beginning of this work the present year. The losses which 
we have suffered from diseases affecting apple and cherry trees 
within the past two years are so great that we feel that the Ex- 
periment Station must not wait longer before taking up the 
work of investigating the causes of the trouble. 

Do not let this matter fail. We ask that you carry out your 
excellent suggestion in your Spring meeting, so that the work 
may be begun this year. It is of vital inierest to us and the 
fruit growing industry of the state is largely dependent upon 
your favorable action. If you act now, you may be the means 
of saving this industry. If you delay action, it will imperil its 
very existence in the state. 

We hereby authorize our committee to call upon you and pre- 
sent this matter further, and ask you to give them a favorable 
hearing. 

Above resolution unanimously adopted by the society. 

Mr. Pollard: I move that a committee of three be appointed 
to call upon the Chancellor and present this resolution, and do 
it in such a way that it will be regarded as coming direct from 
the society. 

Motion carried. 



200 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

- Mu. Hadkinson: Mr. Marshall and I were talking with the 
Chancellor this morning, and he will be pleased to see anybody 
from the society. This is the proper time to do this. 

The President appointed E. M. Pollard, J. H. Hadkinson and 
J. A. Yager as this committee. 

The President: ' We will now hear from Ex-Governor 
R. W. Furnas, who will speak on '"Reminiscences of Early Hor- 
ticulture in Nebraska." 



REMINISCENCES OF EARLY HORTICULTURE 

IN NEBRASKA. 

BY R. W. FURNAS. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Nebraska 
Horticultural Society: It affords me a great deal of pleasure in- 
deed to meet with an organization of which I am proud to say I 
helped organize. I have been honored with an invitation to take 
the subject "Reminicences of Early Horticulture in Nebraska." 
I fear if I get launched into this, I will not know when to stop, 
so I will try to take as little of your time as possible. I really 
felt though that I would not be able to fill my engagement this 
morning, but when I learned that Mr. Masters was here at- 
tending the meeting, I came to see him and to shake his hand. 

He and I started at almost the same time in Nebraska. 
There is a great fascination about early work in a new, untried 
region of country. I think Mr. Masters came here about as I 
did, from on older region of country, where everything was 
pretty well established and sure. Going into a new country 
then was something that very few persons ever thought of. I 
came here in 1855, from an old and well settled portion of Ohio. 
A young man in Ohio at that time was simply known as a son of 
his parents as long as they lived. But when I came west to 
the new country, I found that a young man counted as a whole 
man here. We came here with big ideas of Horticulture. All 
this country west of the Missouri River was then known as the 
Great American Desert. It was quite an undertaking for a 
young man to start into this new country. We did'nt know 



EARLY HORTICULTURE IN NEBRASKA. 201 

whether we would do well here or not, but we made a beginning. 
We had a great deal to learn. We learned that our old time 
favorites of the east could not be raised here. In figuring up, 
we found that it cost us about one dollar per tree to learn what 
could be grown here. We had to pay good prices for our stock. 
I remember I paid one dollar each for the~ first Concord grape 
vines that I bought and planted. The price did seem high. 
But when, in a few years, I gathered the delectable fruit from 
the vines and sold what I had to spare at ten cents per pound, 
I felt amply repaid. Now you are compelled to take ten to fif- 
teen cents per basket for it. Of course, there has been an in- 
creased supply and demand. But I say yet, that good number 
one fruits do not go begging today. They bring good prices. 
People do not think of the price when they are getting good 
fruit. Now to keep on growing this good fruit, the depreda- 
tions of the insects have got to be gotten rid of. Orchards ought 
to be kept in better condition than they are. Diseased and 
feeble trees are the hiding places of insects. If the trees were 
kept in better shape, I don't think we would have the insect 
depredations that we have today. 

The young men and young women of this day and age of the 
world have advantages that we old folks never had. See all these 
improvements on this University Farm. There was no Profes- 
sor of Horticulture in those days with a fund of information at 
his command for our benefit. Then each man was his own hor- 
ticultural professor, and our school was the expensive school of 
experience. Those were the days when it meant not only hard 
work, but self sacrifice as well to be a horticulturist. 

I have been very much interested in ascertaining who planted 
the first apple trees in the state. My friend Mr. Masters 
planted his first trees on the sixteenth day of March, 1855. 
That same fall a certain Mr. Bobst went down into Missouri 
and brought back a bundle of apple trees on horseback tied be- 
hind his saddle. These were planted on the twentieth of Sep- 
tember, 1855. I have been given to understand that a Mr. G. B. 
Lore planted some apple trees at DuBois, in 1853, some of which 
are still alive and bearing fruit. So far as I know these three 
plantings were the earliest of any in Nebraska. 

I have been associated with the horticultural movement in 



202 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Nebraska for nearly half a century. I am satisfied with 
Nebraska. I would not give up my Nebraska home for a home 
in any part of God's domain. The very fact that I have lived 
here for fifty years is ample proof of the fact that I believe with 
all my heart that Nebraska is the best spot on God's earth. I 
thank you for your attention. (Applause.) 

The President: Next on our program is a paper on "Pears" 
by Mr. J. O. Shroyer of Humboldt. 



PEARS. 

BY J. O. SHROYER, HUMBOLDT. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: In the early days of the 
history of our state it was often hinted to the settler that his 
family must forego the fruit that was considered a substantial 
part of the product of his former home in the East. How well 
we remember how we fought the gnats and mosquitoes as we 
bent over the wild gooseberries along the creek, or trudged a 
mile or two to get a pail of wild plums and even the tart wild 
grapes that hung so tantalizing from the very top of some brit- 
tle boxalder would cause us to risk life and limb to secure the 
wherewithal to make a few pies. 

The friendly ties of the most social neighborhood was often 
drawn to the tightest tension in the scramble for the posses- 
sion of the wild fruit that grew along the streams, indeed we 
remember one man who cut down a fine patch of plums because 
his wife was every year so aggravated because the plums would 
be attacked by gangs of the marauders that would pick the fruit 
before it had a chance to ripen. 

Then later on apples began to be plenty and a few of the 
bravest began to plant cherries, peaches, and other tame fruit. 
Then the wild fruit had to be pretty handy or it was not picked 
at all, and now a lusty vine can Haunt it's clusters of purple 
fruit beside the road through all the autnmn days and no 
hand is stretched to gather. We had an appetite for something 
better, and we have proved that Nebraska's fertile soil has bid- 



PEARS. 203 

den a hearty welcome to the luscious fruits of which we often 
dreamed in those early days. 

On our trees, bushes and vines at Glenview Farm we soon 
had apples, berries and all other common fruits growing in such 
profusion that we no longer haunted the hunting grounds of 
the gnat and mosquito, but we were not completely happy, for 
in memory we still had one dream that had never come true. 
We coveted the old pear tree bending beneath it's load of golden 
fruit that grew close down over the woodshed beside the old 
home back East. 

Some eighteen years ago when I bought my first order of 
trees for my orchard, I put down two Keiffer j)ears, I had heard 
that Keiffers were about the only pears that would do any good 
at all and I was warned that I probably would never eat a Keiffer 
from my own trees, but I loved trees, and it was not the only 
time that I have invested money to experiment with some 
new thing. 

Now that nurseryman with whom I dealt (peace to his ashes) 
did something that none of his profession who live in this day 
would think of doing. Not having a supply of Keiffers, but be- 
ing long on Keiffer tags, he put a tag of that name on a couple 
of Bartlett trees and sent them along without explanation. Of 
course I have since blessed that man for being a deceiver, as the 
Bartlett is a vastly superior pear. 

I planted those trees in the apple orchard between the trees 
as I was told they would die in a few years anyway and be out 
of the way. Then some fellow told me that pears would not 
bear unless in a sod and as I wanted pears as well as trees, I 
dug them up and moved them to the lawn right in the midst of 
a bluegrass plot. They are small trees yet but are thrifty and 
during the past few years have borne two crops of pears, but 
the winds blew so hard in those early days and the wood of a 
pear tree was so supple that they are not very fine specimens. 
"When those trees did begin to bloom I noticed that the hard 
south winds often struck them roughly, so I decided that I 
would set out more trees and put them where a belt of cedars 
kept off the south winds. 

This time we made a more extensive selection and bought 



204 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

both drawf and standard trees, and my success with this lot of 
trees has been satisfactory, and as a plate of Anjou pears from 
Glenview Farm took a gold medal at the St. Louis Exposition, I 
feel that my experiments along this line have proved that the 
prairie home need not be without this delicious fruit. But re- 
member that whatever I may say in this paper is but the ideas 
obtained from limited experiences and I would hardly dare at- 
tempt to say anything along this line, did I not know that there 
are a score of fruit growers with a vastly wider knowledge of 
this subject who are present and whom I invite to allow no 
wrong impressions to be taken away from this meeting by 
listeners. 

WHAT TREES TO PLANT. 

The season for pears begins in August and during the past 
season we enjoyed the pear from about the middle of that month 
until Christmas day, when we ate the last of the Anjous. And 
now we are going to plant some winter varieties so that the sea- 
son will be farther prolonged. 

Wilder Early is a medium sized greenish yellow pear that 
ripens before the middle of August, and is nice looking and fine 
eating, our trees of this variety are small but have borne two 
light crops. Bartlett then follows the first of September and if 
you only have room for one pear plant a Bartlett, for it is sim- 
ply perfection in what a fine pear should be, fine in shape, fine 
in color, fine in texture and above all fine in flavor. 

Then comes the Idaho, and this is a very fair sort of pear, a 
heavy bearer of nice large fruit that is fine for household pur- 
poses and not so early as to strike the busy season of canning 
and preserving. We had a surplus of this pear this season and 
besides selling some, we had a nice supply that lasted all through 
November. If you plant pears, pears to eat, pears to can and 
preserve, pears for the children to carry to school, and pears to 
sell, then plant a few trees of the Idahos. 

They wiU not be so good in quality as the Bartletts, but you 
w411 have pears and plenty of them, in fact the Idaho is the Ben 
Davis of the pear family, a good honest everyday sort of 
a pear. 



PEARS. . 205 

But if it had not of been for the dwarf Anjou pear tree that I 
planted a few years ago you would not of had to bear the burden 
of hearing this paper read. The Anjou is a remarkable pear. 
It keeps in fine eating shape from the first of November until 
the last of December and is a large bell- shaped pear, one speci- 
men that I measured was eleven and three quarters inches in 
circumference. They are just juicy enough to eat well out of 
hand, and the keeping quality is superb. 

PLANTING AND CULTIVATION. 

A pear tree should be set deeper than it was grown in the 
nursery, and in the case of dw^arfs it should be set three or 
four inches above the graft. I would plant some dwarfs, for 
they are quite ornamental and would grace any lawn and do not 
take up much room, and then they come into bearing so much 
sooner. As to putting them in the sod, I think they will grow 
and bear in the heaviest bluegrass sod, in fact I have them do- 
ing so, but it is better to cultivate them some while young and 
mulch them later on. 

Fertilization will not hurt them. Indeed I told one fellow 
that I put twenty-five dollars worth of fertilizer around every 
pear tree I had, and when he looked at me as if he thought I 
had gone crazy, I speedily told him that when my barn was 
burned some years ago, I distributed the ashes among the pear 
trees and estimated the value at so much per load. 

Nevertheless we find it a good plan to put both w^ood and coal 
ashes about the pear trees, and also while remodeling our house 
some time ago we distributed the plaster and lime about them 
also, and the tree from which the gold medal fruit was raised 
had a compost heap of stable manure within six feet of it for 
the past year, as we have such a heap of rotted manure handy 
for use about the lawn. Of course this rich plant food will in- 
duce a large growth and it is well to prune the pear trees some- 
what, and in order to prove this we used the knife very severely 
on some of our trees last spring and the result was beyond our 
anticipations, it is alright to remove from one-third to one-half 
of the previous years growth. In this way the trees will not 
grow so pyramidal in shape and the bearing surface will be ul- 



206 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

timately increased as well as brought nearer our base of oper- 
ation in picking time. In fact it is very hard to pick the fruit 
from a tall slender tree. But in trimming remember that it is 
the last years wood that contains the fruit spurs, and do not re- 
move so much of it that there will be no bloom. 

There is no branch of pear culture more neglected than that 
of pruning, the pyramidal form is the most natural, although 
there are other forms such as the vase in which there is much 
to be commended in our western country for it contemplates 
a low head composed of three or four main branches that 
are allowed to start from the main stem at a height of not 
more than two feet from the ground, and by careful work an 
open spreading head is obtained. 

But for the average westerner this may entail too much labor 
and perhaps the best plan is to let the natural form alone and 
when the trees begin to arrive at that stage where they grow 
rapidly, it is only necessary to remove all water sprouts and 
limbs that interfere, cut excessive growth and attain a moder- 
ately low heading. By a yearly pruning in this way the bear- 
ing surface of the tree may be wonderfully increased and a ten- 
dency to blight be vastly counteracted. 

DISEASES OF THE PEAR. 

Blight, scab and leaf blight are the most dreaded enemies 
that we have to contend with in pear culture, and perhaps blight 
is the dread enemy of most of the Nebraska growers. 

It is a contagious bacterial disease of the pear and allied fruits. 
It may attack any part of the tree, blossoms, new growth, limbs 
or trunk, and while the blight may not attack the leaves it is 
certain that they succumb in a short time after the limb is 
struck by this dread disease. The leaves do not fall after dying 
but remain attached and are a mute feature that points us to 
the trouble. 

Only that part of the tree that is directly struck by the di- 
sease is affected and all remaining portions are healthy until the 
bacteria reaches them. The progress is usuaUy at the rate of 
from two to three inches a day but may be more rapid. 



PEARS. 207 

It has been proved that by innoculating a healthy tree with 
the germs a state of disease is produced. Bees or other insects 
may transfer this disease from one part of a tree to another, or 
from a diseased tree to a healthy one. 

The only efficient remedy is to cut away all diseased portions 
leaving only the healthy wood. 

Scab is another disease that in some sections is very much to 
be feared, but it is rather a wet weather disease, we have little 
to fear from it except in phenomonally wet seasons. 

The means of fighting this foe is found in the spray pump 
with the Bordeaux mixture. 

But after all the pear has no more diseases than other fruits, 
and it is well deserving of more attention than the horticul- 
turists of our state have heretofore allowed it, and if anj'-thing 
that I, a common farmer, can say, will cause my brother farmers 
to take up this much neglected fruit and give it the place that 
it deserves, then will these feeble efforts not have been in 
vain. 

But even if you are not quite sure that I have convinced you 
that the pear will give you a profitable return for labor and 
money expended, experiment on your own account, plant 
both the dwarf and standard varieties and plant for fruit both 
early and late. 

Others have experimented with the cherry and apple until 
they are growing where the men of twenty-five years ago said 
it was folly to plant them, so let it be with the pear. 

Let us no longer dream of the old pear tree back of the wood 
shed on grandfather's farm back east, but let us anticipate a 
near realization of an ideal western home, where the pear tree 
shall become a boquet of snowy white in early spring, its 
branches bending beneath a weight of gold in days of autumn. 

I presume that by this time you have made up your minds 
that what I do not know about pears would make a very large 
and interesting volume and my surpries at being asked to ad- 
dress this honorable assembly upon this subject was very great 
and could hardly have been greater had I been called upon to 
tell Rockerfeller how to make money out of oil, or explain to 
Jim Hill the best plan to buy up a railroad. 



208 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

But if my blimdei-s in this attempt will have the effect of 
drawing out the knowledge of the knowing ones, then, not all of 
this valuable time will have been lost. 

What I do know about pears is limited to the experience gained 
in the way of providing a choice selection of this delicious fruit 
for home use, simply an ordinary farmer's experience. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Atkinson : I am a pear man. It seems to me that there 
is possibly a wrong impression. Are you sure of the pears you 
caU Idaho? 

Mr. Shroyer: Well, I got them from the nurseryman 
for that. 

Mr. Atkinson: My experience is that the trees I got for 
Idaho have not been profitable. The original tree I got has 
never borne any. 

Mr. Martin: This is the first paper on pears that I have 
ever heard in Nebraska, and it is a good one. I think south- 
eastern Nebraska has ideal places for pears. I think pears can 
be grown there profitably, but we must stay with it. 

Mr. Shroyer : I bought a good many pear trees a year ago, 
and I got a few Idaho in them. They did all right for me, and 
I think it is a fine pear. 

Mr. Hadkinson: At St. Louis the Nebraska grown pears 
were commented upon quite freely. 

Mr. Masters: I would hke to say just a word about the 
Idaho pear. I got a few Idaho, paid good prices for them, and 
I believe it is genuine and all right. The original tree has not 
borne a pear yet, but I took some scions from it and grafted them 
into the limbs of a bearing tree and got quite a number of speci- 
mens of the Idaho pear. It looks very much like the Duchess, 
but don't ripen at the same time. It is fully as good a pear I 
think. I don't think it will blight any worse than other 
varieties. 

The President: If there are no further questions or remarks 
we will now hear from Mr. Frank Williams of Tecumseh, on 
The Physiology and Pathology of Pruning. 



THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF PRUNING. 209 



THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OP PRUNING. 

BY FRANK WILT^IAMS, TECUMSEH. 

The question often arises, why do we prune? To answer this 
question we need only visit a neglected orchard or grove of 
shade trees. We find that trees often suffer from mechanical 
injuries which they receive in --'arious ways. The more common^ 
are those received from storms, animals and insects. To re- 
pair these wounds, it is often necessary to regulate the growth 
by taking away certain of the old limbs and adding new ones. 

The crown of a tree which is left to develop naturally, often 
assumes a form which is disadvantageous. It produces such a " 
number of branches that it becomes too thick at the center. 
This shuts out the light which is essential to the formation of 
plant food in the leaves. Then again we often find a large num- 
ber of water shoots produced, which hinder the growth of the 
tree, or may even stop it for a time. Therefore, it is necessary 
to prune to regulate the crown and take away the "water 
shoots." 

A tree cannot be removed from a nursery row without having 
a large number of its roots cut or broken. This diminishes the 
root system while the top is not changed. Thus if the top is 
not pruned the diminished root system will have to supply the 
entire top, which it cannot do satisfactorily. 

There are circumstances under which pruning is harmful, es- 
peciaUy if large branches are removed. The removal of large 
branches, while it may not cause a direct shock to the vitality 
of the tree, often exposes dangerous wounds. It perhaps opens 
the tree so much that some of the remaining parts sunscald, 
and borers and insects gain a foothold; it may also destroy the 
beauty and symmetry of the tree. Such branches represent a 
certain amount of energy which should have been directed to 
some part of the tree where it could have been used in building 
up structure which would benefit the tree. 

My attention is often called to the abominable work of the 
would be pruners who go about our cities horribly mutilating 



210 NEBRASKA STATE: HOKTICULTURAL SOCItrrV. 

beautiful structures which nature has been years in producing. 
These men seem to work without the slightest knowledge of the 
significance of pruning. They will prune at any time of the 
year; leave jagged stubs; peel the bark; cut all kinds of limbs 
and leave wounds unprotected. The worst example I have 
noticed of this pruning was upon a row consisting of twelve 
beautiful boxelder trees. The tops of the trees were entirely 
removed by taking off all the main branches late in the autumn. 
The branches were cut from four to six feet from the trunks. 
This not only completely ruined the beauty and symmetry, but 
it also left large exposed surfaces which allowed serious loss of 
water when the trees were least able to withstand it. These 
large rough wounds were also fruitful sources of infection for 
the wood-rotting fungi. The result was that at the end of two 
years nearly all the trees were dead, while similar unpruned 
trees in the same locality were healthy and vigorous. If the 
ordinary shade and forest trees are left to develop naturally I 
think there will be little or no need of pruning. In most such 
cases nature will prune sufficiently. 

Fruit trees are pruned almost entirely for economic reasons. 
A fruit tree, if left to develop naturally, will produce so many 
branches that when it begins bearing, the food-manufacturing 
organs of the tree will not be able to supply a sufficient quantity 
of food to produce a superior quality of fruit. 

The question often arises, what is the least injurious form of 
a cut to make. If we examine a number of healing wounds it 
will be found that the younger the shoots the least injurious 
were the wounds. The danger in making wounds lies in what 
may follow. The setting in of decay is the most to be feared. 
Therefore the wounds should be made in a form which will 
heal most rapidly. 

The position of the wounds with reference to the main branch 
is also of importance. The cut should, in most cases, be made 
parallel to the primary axis of the main branch and the cut sur- 
face should be as nearly as possible in the same plane as the 
surface of the branch. It sometimes happens that a wound 
made in this way would be left with the cut surface in a horizon- 
tal position facing upward. This would be a very dangerous 



THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF PRUNING. 211 

position for a wound, especially if it were a large one. The 
reason why this position is dangerous is perfectly clear. Every 
wound while healing forms a cup shaped depression. If this 
depression be left in an upright position it would be an excel- 
lent device for catching various kinds of organic material to- 
gether with bacteria, and fungus spores, which will produce 
decay. In case it is necessary to cut a limb which would leave 
a wound in this position', I think it would be better to cut it 
somewhat diagonally in order to prevent the danger, even though 
the wound does not heal so smoothly. 

In the healing of wounds the age of the injured organ is of 
foremost importance, as the process of healing works more ra- 
pidly the younger the injured tissues. The youngest tissues 
of roots and shoots are made up of cells which are not differ- 
entiated into permanent structures. These cells are still able 
to undergo cell division and may be changed into a different 
structure. If the tip be pinched from a young root it will be 
found that the entire surface will begin to form new cells and 
the tip will be entirely renewed in a short time. If, however, a 
root or branch two or three years old be cut off it will be found 
that only a small ring just outside the wood has the power of 
forming healing tissues. At first the tissues formed by the 
cambium and spreading over the cut surface, consist of delicate 
soft cells (callus). Later these cells become greatly differ- 
entiated and form permanent structures. Thus the delicate 
callus cells gradually form the layers which cover the wound. 
They may then be looked upon as a part of the cells which 
formed the branch. 

The shape of the wound has a great deal to do with the rapid- 
ity with which it heals. If we examine a wound we will find 
that there is more healing tissue formed at the upper end than 
at the lower. This is explained by the fact that the plastic sub- 
stances which enter into the healing tissues descend from the 
leafy portion of the branch. The upper surface of the wound 
stops the downward current and causes a large amount of heal- 
ing material to collect. Thus on a wound which is proportion- 
ately broad a large amount of material will collect and the heal- 
ing will go on more rapidly than if the greatest length of the 
wound were parallel to the long axis of the main branch. 



212 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

There are three ways in which the careless pruner can 
greatly endanger the life of the tree. First by leaving a jagged 
or split surface. Second by letting the bark peel back from 
the wound. Third by cutting the limbs where it is most con- 
venient, leaving stubs of various lengths. It is not to be under- 
stood that all such wounds lead to wound-rot diseases, but the 
point is that they may induce them, since on every wounded 
surface a certain amount of death and decay are inevitable. On 
a jagged or split surface there is necessarily a large amount of 
decay. This decaying organic matter together with the mois- 
ture it absorbs, forms an excellent culture medium. To this 
fertile medium bacteria and spores of the wood-rotting fungi 
are brought by rain and wind. Under these conditions the 
spores germinate very rapidly. The bacteria are not so much 
to be feared as the fungi belonging to the toadstool family, as 
the former are only prominent in the early slow process of decay. 
The filaments of the fungi penetrate the entire trunks of large 
trees, causing them to decay. One is everywhere familiar with 
the fruits (sporophores) of these fungi growing upon dead logs 
and even upon the decaying parts of living trees. The germi- 
nations of the spores consists in sending out delicate threads 
which gradually work their way from the wound through the 
trunk and branches causing decay as they proceed. It often 
happens that the conditions do not favor the formation of the 
fruits on the surface and the cause of decay may not be evident. 

In this state there seem to be very few if any species of de- 
ciduous trees free from the attacks of this fungi. This was 
brought forcibly to my mind about a month ago when I saw an 
Osage tree in its last stage of decay as the result of the work of 
one of these fungi. There are some species which only work 
on a certain variety of trees, while others are very general in 
their attacks. Thus it is impossible for the pruner to exercise 
too much care to insure the safety of the tree. 

In case it is necessary to make large wounds they should be 
dressed. The dressing does not hasten the healing but allows 
it to go on without interruption. Professor Bailey says: "A 
good dressing is one which is antiseptic and durable, which af- 
fords mechanical protection, and which does not itself injure 
the tissues. Lead paint is perhaps the best single dressing or 
preservative for wood wounds." 



DISCUSSION. 213 



DISCUSSION. 



Mr. Hadkinson: We ought not to let this paper pass, and I 
for one will heartily endorse everything Mr. Williams says. 

Mr. Isaac Pollard: What do you use for dressing wounds? 
Mr. Williams. White lead is recommended as best. 
Question: What time? 

Mr. Williams: I think the best results are obtained from 
the first of February until the first of April. 

Mr. Prank Stephens: What size wound would you think it 
worth while to paint? 

Mr. Williams: I don't think it would be worth while to 
paint a wound that was less than one inch in diameter. Wounds 
that size and smaller will be over grown very rapidly if the 
pruning is done at the proper time of the year. 

Mr. Stephens: It is very important then that it be done in 
the latter part of the winter or early spring? 

Mr. Williams: Yes sir. 

Prof. Sweezy: How large a limb would it do to take off? 

Mr. Hadkinson: A limb that needs to be cut off at all will 
undoubtedly break off. You will have to do something sooner 
or later. It is better to cut off the limb before it gets too large. 
Cutting off very large limbs, say six to eight or more inches 
across is not advisable. 

Mr. Masters: My experience in Nebraska has taught me 
that every wound that bleeds will produce rot. If you can close 
up the spores with some good paint, it will not rot. White lead 
is good if mixed with oil. There are several cheaper things 
that are not satisfactory. 



Mr. Jackson: I was heard from day before yesterday, and 
I don't know that I have anything further to offer now, but I do 
want to repeat that I am glad to have had the opportunity of 
meeting with you Nebraska people at this good meeting. I 
want to thank you for the courtesies that I have received from 
this society. 



214 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. a. J. Brown: Mr. Jackson is representing the State 
Horticultural Society of Iowa. The methods and work of their 
society are almost identical with those of Nebraska. And what 
I want to do now, is to move that Mr. Jackson and E. S. Welsh 
of Shenandoah, Iowa, be made annual members of our society. 

Motion carried unanimously. 

The resolution introduced by Mr. C. B. Camp of Cheney was 
tabled by vote of the society. 

The location of the Summer Meeting of the society was left 
with the Executive Board. 

Meeting adjourned. 



EVERGREENS. 

BY C. S. HARRISON, YORK. 

I am requested to write a paper on evergreens suitable for 
Nebraska. It is an important subject, one which is thought too 
little of. If twenty-five years ago people had planted on a large 
scale, and had filled the land, with groves of pine and spruce, 
what a change would have been wrought. 

Evergreens can be raised for beauty, utility and also profit. 
How much five acres of pine would add to the value of a farm. 
They should be planted on the north and west of the house. It 
is a cheerful sight in winter to see these heroic trees outlined 
against the sky, standing like sentinels to shield man and beast 
from the storms. There is no such ideal play ground for chil- 
dren as an evergreen grove. Take the Austrian or Ponderosa 
pine, plant them eight feet apart each way, and alternate with 
ash till the trees are large enough to take the ground. There 
is such a grove about fourteen years old on the experiment 
grounds of the Minnesota Agricultural College. Though the 
grove is but fifteen years old, the tops have met, and they shut 
out the sun, and there you have an ideal place for rest. What 
a resort for those with weak lungs to swing a hammock in the 
delightful shade, where the cool breeze would wander in the 
summer time, and how children would rejoice in such a place. 



EVERGREENS. 215 

I recall a grove of Norway Spruce in an eastern state, where the 
trees have grown straight as an arrow fifty feet high, and the 
branches interlock so that no rays of the sun can penetrate. 
There you see play houses of all kinds, swings and hammocks 
are put up. There go the father and mother when wearied, 
and it is home to the little ones. We cannot have Norway 
Spruce except in the eastern part of the state, but we can have 
the White Spruce of the Black hills, the Pungens, and the Con- 
color of the Rockies, and the Austrian and Ponderosa pines. 

People have a wrong impression regarding the growth of 
evergreens. One reason why nurserymen are so shy of them 
is, they grow so rapidly, that very soon they are too large to 
handle. Another wrong impression is they are too hard to 
transplant, and the loss is so great it does not pay. I would as 
soon agree to make one hundred Austrian pines live, as one 
hundred Elm or Ash. They are just as sure if you handle them 
right. A tree ten to fifteen inches high, twice transplanted, if 
well handled, is quite sure to live. The first year it gets hold, 
making but little growth. After that it shoots upward and out- 
ward. As a general purpose tree for Kansas, Nebraska and 
Iowa, by general consent, the Austrian pine leads everything. 
I planted some in York about twenty-five years ago, and at the 
same time planted some of the hardiest of Catalpas, and there 
is but little difference in their growth. In thirty years you can 
get quite a lot of lumber from an acre of pine. Let it grow 
a while and then cut out the alternate rows. 

It is one of the strangest things on earth that men wiU not 
look out for the future. They must have a crop they can har- 
vest next year. The idea of planning for twenty-five or fifty 
years ahead never occurs to them. For shame on a man if he 
so lives that you can gather up all there is in him and bury it in 
a narrow grave. A man should be immortal here. He ought 
to raise something that will last longer than a corn stalk or a 
straw stack, and yet that is about the limit of many a man's 
ambition, no thought of the coming years or coming ages. 
Plant a beautiful pine grove for your monument. Let your 
grandchildren say, "Our grandfather planted these trees.'* 
The expense is not so very great. Take it as you can, an acre 
at a time. I think it takes about 700 trees to the acre. These 



216 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIEl'Y. 

may cost you ten dollars per hundred if you get some twice 
transplanted. You should get them at half that if you could 
raise your own seedlings. Plant them and take the best of care 
of them. People have a wrong idea of evergreens. They watch 
them as they grow. It is all done in four to six weeks. They 
make a push of a foot or so outward and upward, and you say 
they have got' through for the season. By no means. If they 
have a good chance they begin a vigorous root growth in August 
and keep it up all the fall. They must do this. They must lay 
vitality in store for those needles. It takes a good deal to sus- 
tain them, and then they must have a pow^erful reserve for that 
spring push when they shoot up so rapidly and stop, so the 
tree must have care all the while till it is well established. It 
is strange in this bleak country that people do not plant ever- 
green shelters for stock. Plant two rows of Austrians so as to 
break joints. Put them eight or ten feet apart around a half 
acre and what a fine shelter for cattle. In our dry win- 
ters, most of the time these trees would give ample protection. 
They would be vastly ahead of the wire fence so generally used 
for shelter. In one season the farmer would save enough to 
pay for his grove twice over. It takes but a little while to se- 
cure this shelter. Plant good strong trees, and when fairly 
established they will grow eighteen to twenty-four inches a 
year. If you put them ten feet apart their branches will soon 
come together and in a short time you have a splendid shelter. 
Wliat are the people thinking of? Have the farmers all turned 
Adventists or Milorites, and think the world will be wound up 
in a year or two? I think any responsible scientist would agree 
to insure for a millenium at least. Most of us believe there 
will be another century added to this, and with this belief it will 
be well to be getting ready for it. 

I think that there are a good many evergreens that will do 
fairly well. The Jack pine is all right for timber, but is worth- 
less as an ornamental tree because it cannot ornament, it soon 
begins to bear cones, and the cones will cling to the tree till 
others come, and then they will all hang on together, and wait for 
others and then they will all be there. For a timber tree it is 
one of the hardiest, thriftiest and best. Only you want a man 
with both skill and conscience to handle them. They have done 



EVERGREENS. 217 

well in the Sand Hills, and the man who furnished the first lot 
is yet in the business. He keeps a large nursery of them, and 
also has great success in collecting and handling. Among a 
dozen kinds the Jack pine will lead everything in growth. 

For twenty years I have been raising the Chinese Arborvitae. 
Mr. Douglas, the father of the evergreen business, advised me 
to go into this. In the main they have been thrifty and hardy. 
Last winter I wrote them up, and before the ink was dry, there 
came that death wave, so fatal to many of our choice trees, and 
nipped there heads. Well, they stood it as well as the Scotch 
pines and the Red Cedars. I have one now growing just where 
it came up in the seed bed. It has grown six years, and is now 
a beautiful and shapely tree nine feet high. If any one ever 
knew an evergreeen to grow one and a half feet a year right in 
the spot where it came up, let us know it. I have been raising 
evergreens a good many years and never saw anything like this 
before. These trees are exceedingly beautiful in the summer. 
They have a system of fans which converge toward the center, 
and the tree is of pyramidal form, and is very fine. In winter, 
like the Platte Cedar, they turn brown. Did I say Platte Cedar? 
Forgive me. We are all saddened when we think of a good man 
w^ho has borne a good reputation and then goes wrong, and 
spoils aU the good of a life time. The Red Cedar, like the In- 
dian, was all right when wild, but don't seem to stand civiliza- 
tion. How all these years we have praised him, recommended 
him and endorsed him, and what zest was awakened in the prop- 
agation, and as soon as we found out, we did not want to know 
any more. How terribly they went back on us. There was 
good Brother Bruning who invented the process of having them 
<iome up a year ahead of schedule time. He had them by the 
million, and they all went back on him. The blight wiped out 
thirty thousand dollars in two years. They could not stick to 
their own sphere. Their business was just to grow and make 
good fence posts, and bear seeds. But they got ambitious and 
wanted to raise oranges. Looking at them at a distance you 
would say they were succeeding, but a near inspection showed 
they were frauds. They and the apple trees had been playing 
shuttle cock — acting and »e-acting on each other. Well, the up- 
shot is that Mr. Platte has lost his reputation altogether, and it 



318 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

may be necessary to blot him entirely out of existence. Many 
of our best apples are very sensitive to his presence. The noble 
Wealthy, one of the best apples, cannot endure him. I heard a 
preacher once say when speaking of the Lily of the Valley, that 
it was so "Very beautiful and so fragrant that you could smell 
it two miles away," and he added "that is just so with the 
Christian. " It is so with the Platte Cedar, and the Wealthy 
don't like the smell. It is so rank it makes all the leaves fall. 
The reputation of the Cedar is decidedly rusty. 

THE SCOPULORIUM. 

Or Rocky Mountain red cedar. At first we supposed this 
was the mother of the platte cedar. But she disowns him, has 
no relationship with him, and will have nothing to do with him. 
They are different in form and foliage. The Rocky Mountain 
tree needs two years to perfect its seed. Again there will be 
several seeds in the berry of the Platte cedar, and only one in 
the berry of the Scopulorium. I have had them growing side 
by side for years. Last summer the Platte cedars all died with 
the blight or looked as if they wished they had, and the Scopu- 
lorium made a vigorous growth, and not one died. I think this 
for the Western half of Nebraska is the most beautiful tree on 
earth. There will be some fungus bulbs on them even when 
wild in the mountains, but they do not seem to effect them in 
the least. It is a pitty that these are so scarce. People did 
not know about the seeds, and they gathered them the first year 
and none came up. They are very scattering and of course 
high. But there should be one planted here and there. They 
grow in very compact, conical, symmetrical shape, and often 
have a drooping habit which makes them look as if shingled 
with silver of emerald. There are some under the 100th meri- 
dian as fine as any trees on earth. The Concolor is growing in 
favor. It is a little sensitive to our changing climate while 
young, but when it gets age it is very hardy. I have had them 
in exposed places during the most fearful heat and in the full 
sweep of our American Siroccos, and they would come out un- 
scathed. I have seen them growing on a hill and in the grass 
in a Nebraska Cemetery, and under such adverse conditions 



EVERGREENS. 219 

making a splendid growth. They were considered hard to 
transplant. If left alone they develop one large tap root much 
like the Oak or Black Walnut. In the nursery they should be 
lifted every two years. Let two men with spades on either side 
the row lift them so that every root is severed. Then drop them 
back and stamp the ground solid. Follow this up with good 
cultivation, and in two years you will have a tree with as fibrous 
roots as a spruce. 

Alcock's Spruce is a beautiful tree. I have known it to stand 
several years and do well. 

Frazer's Fir is a charming tree from North Carolina. I have 
only a few left out of a hundred. You cannot depend upon it. 
I have not tried the Wisconsin Balsam Fir. I think it is a short 
lived tree anyway. The Foxtail Pine of the Rockies does well 
and should be largely planted. The Douglas Spruce is worth- 
less as a wind break. The foliage is too soft, and like the White 
Pine, it cannot stand excessive heat. In some cases they have 
done splendidly when surrounded by other evergreens. I have 
never had but one specimen of Brown Cedar which will grow 
perhaps with less moisture than any other, and that did 
splendidly. 

Engleman Spruce will do well if you keep it out of the sun. 
All know the Picea Pungens, one of the finest of aU for a single 
lawn tree, but of not much account as a forest tree. Sub Alpina 
has a white body, and foliage much like Balsam Fir. I have 
had a few specimens. They need to be sheltered from the sun, 
then they do well. American Arborvitae is worthless in the 
west half of the state. It may do in some of the River counties. 
For the west there is no tree that will do as well as the Pon- 
derosa. It does far better in the western than in the eastern 
portion of the state. The seed should be sowed in the fall. It 
then comes up early and puts on the second set of leaves before 
the intense heat which induces the damps when it is very young 
and tender. The seeds are cheap. They can be raised by the 
million. Take them when three years old from the seed bed, 
and they transplant as well as any evergreen that grows. They 
handle well and grow about two feet a year when once estab- 
lished. I do not believe there is a section anywhere in the west 



220 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

or north-west where with care they cannot be made to grow. 
People have had a prejudice against them because they could 
not transplant them readily from the woods. They did not 
have roots enough. I have often had a stand of fifty per cent, 
.and if I could select and dig the right sizes in the right kind of 
soil, I could save seventy-five per cent of collected ones. I have 
had perhaps as much experience with these as any man living. 
I know them. Treat them right, and they are all you can ask 
for. The Black Hills Spruce is all right unless you take three 
years of consecutive drouth beyond the 100th meridian. In 
such case they cannot live. I see our Forestry experts are 
recommending the Scotch Pine for south-western Kansas. 
The west is now having its wet cycle of years. Kansas realizes 
this; so does the Kaw river. During the wet cycle trees will 
live which will be utterly blotted out when the dry years come. 
A man to be a Government expert, or any other kind of an ex- 
pert, needs to be with his trees and summer and winter them, 
and stay by them. A man never can be an expert by graduat- 
ing at a Yale School of Forestry. The Scotch Pine can no more 
live in south-western Kansas twenty-five years than an orange 
tree can live in the open on the Nebraska Experiment Farm. 
It is hardy in Minnesota and the Dakotas. It can stand the 
cold, but cannot stand the heat like the Austrian and the Pon- 
derosa. Our reliance for forests will be the Douglass where 
you can i)ut it in the center, the Chinese Aborvitae which is the 
best tree to propagate we have, for the seedlings never damp 
off. Black Hills Spruce and the White Spruce from northern 
Minnesota, the Austrian and Ponderosa Pines for wind breaks 
and general planting. White Pines may do for river counties, 
but as far west as York county we have perhaps a dozen that 
have survived the thousands that have been planted, and under 
the 100th meridian it is utterly impossible for them to live. 
The Platte Cedar may do for the extreme west in the semi-arid 
belt, but it has no business in the eastern part of the state. 

WHAT IS NEEDED. 

I think the state, in consideration of the fact that it is"a'wind 
swept country, should have an experiment station for growing 
evergreens. For most kinds they are past experiment; we 



EVERGREENS. 221 

know just how to grow them. But the Concolor and the Pun- 
gens and Engleman want special favors. They cannot be grown 
by ordinary processes. The ground selected should be sandy 
loam with plenty of sand near by. The most skillful men should 
be selected for the work, and every facility should be granted. 
An especial propagating house should be devised for the more 
difficult evergreens. Trees should be raised by the million, and 
should be sold at the cost of production. It would pay for some 
man or company to go into it who could take contracts for plant- 
ing and show people what can be done. But there is no proba- 
bility that this will be done. The U. S. Experiment Stations 
have taught a lesson on the cheapness of production. Per- 
sonally I suppose I have had more experience with ever- 
greens in this state than all the nurserymen put together. But 
my land at York is not suitable. A plunging rain makes a 
brick-bat of it. Light and porous soil is needed, and must be 
had or you cannot make a success. Land invaded by angle- 
worms is worthless. These are among the worst pests the 
state has ever known. They take a rich piece of land that once 
could be tilled so it would be fine and pliable, and they reduce 
it to a sticky mass which dries out in a short time, and it is im- 
possible to pulverize it. Some eastern soils may be benefited 
by them, but they are a terror in oijr gardens already and a 
menace to our future. 

If the state should expend say $10,000 or even $5,000 for this 
work, it would repay them a hundred fold. The blizzards of 
winter and the hot winds of summer would be checked, and we 
would have cheerful people. While the air filled with the aroma 
of pines would make the state a delightful sanitarium. This is 
not visionary. Evergreens of the right kind grow well here. 
I do not know of a country where they make a more sturdy, 
healthy and vigorous growth. 



222 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THE FOOD HABITS OF SOME COMMON 
NEBRASKA BIRDS. 

BY MYRON H. SWENK, 



THE BROWN CREEPER. 

(Certhia familktris americana and C. f. niontana.) 

This unobtrusive little bird is a stranger to most people al- 
though it is really one of the commonest birds in our woods and 
orchards during the winter. There it may be found creeping 
up the tree trunks and over the limbs like a diminutive wood- 
pecker, or flitting from tree to tree in search of food. No de- 




BROWN CREEPER. 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 223 

tailed examination of this bird's food has been made, but suf- 
ficient has been learned to place it along with the entirely use- 
ful species. Associating as it does with chickadees and nut- 
hatches, it eats much the same kinds of food, and large numbers 
of small beetles and beetle larvae, ants, small flies and insect 
eggs of many kinds are devoured by it. To the horticulturist, 
especially, the Brown Creeper is an exceedingly valuable ally. 

THE SHRIKES. 

( Lanius borealis, L. ludovicianiis migrans and L. I. excubitorides.) 
Birds, like men, cannot always be correctly estimated by ap- 
pearances; for who, on seeing these plain colored, modest de- 
meanored birds would suspect that such an innocent exterior 
concealed a nature at times as blood-thirsty as a hawk's. Yet 
if the bird be carefully watched as it sits like a flycatcher on 
some elevated perch, it may suddenly dart down at some ven- 
turesome or unsuspecting small bird or field mouse, and if un- 
able to snap it up at once, pursue it either to capture or cover. 
Once caught, the quarry is carried to some sharp thorn or 
splinter or very often a barb wire fence, and there impaled to 
be devoured at leisure or to serve as a reserve stock for less 
fortunate days to come. This impaling habit is general among 
these birds and not confined to vertebrates but applies to in- 
sects as well. 

We have three shrikes in Nebraska. All are gray with wings 
and tail black, conspicuously relieved by white. The Northern 
Shrike is a winter bird, appearing in October and tarrying un- 
til late in March. It is larger than the other two, and differs 
from either in having the breast crossed by fine wavy dark lines 
in the adult and lacking any black on the forehead. The other 
two are summer birds, present from the time the Northern 
Shrike leaves until it returns again, and are known as the 
Migrant Shrike and the White-rumped Shrike. These two are 
very similar and differ principally in the latter having the rump 
distinctly whiter than the back while the former has it about 
concolorous. The White-rumped is common all over the state, 
the Migrant only in the eastern half. 

The food of shrikes is all of an animal character. Being a 



224 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



winter bird the Northern Shrike would of course be compelled 
to eat different food than its summering relatives, and conse- 
quently is considered separately. Birds and mice constitute 
sixty per cent of its food while with us, the remaining forty 
per cent being insects, chietiy grasshoppers. Among the birds 
killed by the Northern Shrike are the Chickadee, Tree Sparrow, 
Snow-flake, Downy Woodpecker, Junco, Golden-crowned King- 
let, Goldfinch, Pine Siskin, Cardinal, Longspurs and Horned 
Larks. Very often it comes into towns and cities and destroys 
large numbers of English Sparrows, a trait certainly not to its 
discredit. Occasionally, when very hungry it even becomes 




NOKTHEIIN SHRIKE. 
Sylvester D. Jiuld, Bulletin No. 9, 1898. 



THE FOOD HABITS OP NEBRASKA BIRDS. 225 

cannabalistic, and will devour one of its kind. Birds aggregate 
thirty-four per cent of its food. Mice constitute twenty-six 
per cent of the food and are most frequently eaten in March. 
They are mostly meadow mice, while some are harvest mice, 
white footed mice and house mice are also eaten. Carrion also 
is sometimes eaten. 

The forty per cent of insect food is largely grasshoppers and 
crickets, which are constantly taken and together form twenty- 
four per cent of the food, and over half of that eaten in October 
and November. Beetles form five per cent, and over half of 
them (four per cent) are useful predaceons beetles, the remain- 
der (one per cent) tiger beetles and tenebrionids. Caterpillars 
form eight per cent of the food of January and February, and 
six per cent of the entire food, and includes both cutworms and 
the bristly kinds. Ants, wasps and flies (two per cent) consti- 
tute the remaining insect food. Spiders form three per cent of 
the food. 

The summary, then, of one-fourth mice, one-fourth grasshop- 
pers, one- fourth other injurious insects and English Sparrows, 
while the last one-fourth only is of beneficial wild birds and in- 
sects, shows that the Northern Shrike does decidedly more 
good than harm. 

Considering now our summering species. Here vertebrate 
food comprises only twenty -eight per cent, and of this fifteen 
per cent is small mammals, mostly mice and especially the 
white-footed mice, taken mostly in winter when it forms one-half 
of the food. Birds amount to only eight per cent and include 
the Tree Sparrow, Grasshopper Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Chip- 
ping Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, Chimney Swift, Bell 
Vireo, Snow-flake, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher and, as a relief, the 
English Sparrow. The other four per cent of vertebrate food 
are snakes, lizards, frogs and fish. Like the Northern Shrike 
the southern species will occasionally eat carrion. 

But it is in their insect diet (seventy-two per cent) that the 
smaller shrikes do most good. Orthoptera (thirty-nine per cent), 
mostly grasshoppers, are very extensively consumed, and when 
these insects are abundant the birds are left alone. They in- 
clude the Red-legged Locust, the Dusty Road Grasshopper and 



220 NEHKASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the Pellucid Grasshopper. Beetles (twenty-two per cent) come 
next in importance, and unfortunately a large portion of these 
(nine per cent) are useful forms, mostly Carabldae: the remain- 
ing thirteen per cent of beetles devoured are of considerable 
variety and of varying importance from the dung-beetles and 
carrion-beetles to the weevils, click-beetles, May-beetles and 
wood-boring beetles. Caterpillars (four per cent) are relished 
and include canker-worms, cut- worms and bristly caterpillars. 
Wasps, ants, crane-flies, may-flies, dragon-flies and true bugs 
together form three per cent, spiders form four per cent. The 
young are fed principally on grasshoppers, beetles and cater- 
pillars. 

It is thus evident that the food habits of the smaller species, 
the Migrant and White-rumped Shrikes, are even more benefi- 
cial than those of the Northern, and that the bird is full worthy 
of protection. 

THE WAXWINGS. 

( Ampelis garrulus and Ampelis cedrorum.) 

Our Waxwings, like our Shrikes, are represented by distinct 
species in winter and in summer. At the former season we 
can expect occasional flocks of the Bohemian Waxwing to de- 
scend upon us from the frozen north, remaining only until the 
conditions are such that they may return. The Cedar Waxwing, 
however, not only braves the winter in small numbers with us, 
but as spring comes on, passes through in large flocks and re- 
mains until summer approaches, when the majority retire north 
of us to nest, returning early in the fall. Both of these birds 
are of a rich brown color, conspicuously crested and with a 
dark, broadly yellow-tipped tail. The Bohemian Waxwing has 
white wing-bars and chestnut under tail-coverts while the 
Cedar Waxwing has wholly dark wings and white under tail- 
coverts. By these signs ye may know them. 

Considering the scarcity and irregular occurence of the 
northern species it is evident that it can afl'ect us but very little 
economically; all the more so since its food consists almost en- 
tirely of wild fruits and berries of various kinds. But with the 
Cedar Waxwing it is different, and an extended account of the 
food of this species is preferable, especially since its reputed 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 



227 




BOHEMIAN WAXWING. 

extreme fondness for cherries have earned it the name of 
"cherry bird" in many locahties. 

The animal food is entirely insects and amounts to thirteen 
per cent of the food of the year. Insects are most eaten in 
May, when they form fifty-one per cent of the food; in June 
twenty-two per cent, July twenty-one per cent, August thirteen 
per cent, September fifteen per cent. Beetles are most eaten, 
the only useful ones being a few tiger-beetles, the rest are 
various scarabeid and chrysomelid beetles, the latter including 
many of the destructive elm leaf-beetle. Caterpillars are the 
next choice, one stomach containing over one-hundred of them. 



228 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 




CEDAR WAXWING. 
F. E. L. Beal, Earmer's Bulletin No. 54, 1897. 
Ants and ichneumons, crane-flies, bark and scale lice, grass- 
hoppers and earwigs are also eaten but together not equaling 

the beetles and caterpillars. Spiders are frequently taken. 
The nestlings are fed mostly on insects, these forming over 
four-fifths of the food. 

The vegetable food amounts to eighty-seven per cent. Except 
for buds eaten mostly in May, the vegetable element is entirely 
fruit. This is mostly w^ild fruit (seventy-four per cent) and in- 
cludes a great variety, such as Juneberry, Hackberry, Dogwood, 
Huckleberry, Red Cedar, Mistletoe, Pokeberry, Black cherry, 
Choke cherry. Black elder. Black haw and Wild Grape. The 
cultivated fruit taken (thirteen per cent) is cherries, blackber- 
ries, raspberries and mulberries. Frozen apples are occasionally 
eaten in winter. The extent of cultivated fruit stolen by these 
birds is much less than is generally supposed, amounting to less 
than one-fifth of the fruit taken, and largely of varieties hav- 
ing little value. The only depredations of any seriousness what- 
ever seem to be upon early cherries in June and July, but as the 
bird is scarce in Nebraska during these months no harm can be 
done by it in this state. The horticulturist, therefore, will do 
well in protecting the Waxwings. 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 



229 



THE CHIPPING SPARROW. 

{Spizella socialis and S. s arizonae.) 
Although a close relative of the Field Sparrow, which was 
discussed in the 1903 report, the Chipping Sparrow is much 
more sociable than that species, and during the nesting season 
shows a decided preference for human company; but it lacks the 
pretty song of its relative, and its "chip" and simple little song 
are apt to become very monotonous. It is only fairly common 
as a summer resident over eastern Nebraska, but is abundant 
during migrations, when it is to be found in the fields and brush 
rather than about the house. In the spring the Chipping 
Sparrow is easily told by its bright red cap and the black line 
through the eye, but in the fall the young are not so easily 
recognized. 

The food habits of this species are very similar to those of the 
Field Sparrow. Animal food amounts to thirty-eight per cent, 
vegetable food to sixty-two per cent. Of the former sort three- 
fourths are noxious insects of which grasshoppers (ten per cent). 




CHIPPING SPARROW. 

caterpillars (nine per cent), and beetles (eleven per cent) form 
the bulk. The beetles eaten are of great variety, including 
weevils (six per cent), leaf-beetles (two per cent) and predaceous 



2H0 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ground, click, dung and May-beetles (three per cent). The eight 
per cent remaining is composed of leaf-hoppers, true bugs, ants, 
spiders and parasitic wasps, the latter (which are useful insects) 
together with the useful predaceous insects aggregating only 
one per cent of the food. In the month of June, ninety-three 
per cent of that month's food is insects, of which grasshoppers 
form thirty-six per cent, caterpillars twenty-five per cent and 
leaf-beetles six per cent. Weevils form sixteen per cent of the 
food eaten in May. 

As to the vegetable element only four per cent is grain, and 
that mostly oats. The remaining fifty-eight per cent is seed, 
of which forty-eight per cent is grass seed and ten per cent 
other seeds, including clover, ragweed, amaranth, wood sorrel, 
lamb's quarters, purslane, chickweed, knotweed and black bind- 
weed. Of the grass seed twenty-six per cent is crab-grass and 
pigeon-grass, chiefly crab-grass, the remaining twenty-two per 
cent other grasses, including timothy and orchard grass. 

The Chipping Sparrow has been seen taking cultivated cher- 
ries and sipping grapevine sap but the instances of such oc- 
curences are few, and furthermore are completely overshadowed 
by the observations on its caterpillar eating propensities. It 
has been seen devouring caterpillars of the brown-tail moth and 
Sypsy moth in the east, and also eating tent caterpillars, canker 
worms and army worms. Mr. C. M. Weed (Bull. 55, New 
Hampshire Coll, Exp. Sta.) watched a pair with three young 
birds from the time they commenced to feed the young in the 
morning at 3:57 until 7:50 in the evening when the day's work 
was over. During this day the birds made nearly two-hundred 
visits to the nest bringing food nearly every time; among the 
insects observed fifty were caterpillars, and there were many 
crickets and crane-flies. It has also been found to feed upon 
the pea louse, which is becoming very destructive in some 
localities. 

There is no doubt but that the Chipping Sparrow is an ex- 
ceedingly valuable little bird and one that should be encouraged 
in its domesticity by rigidly protecting it. 

THE PHOEBE. 
( Sa yorn is phoe be.) 

This abundant plaincolored Flycatcher is the one that builds 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 



231 



its mud nest attached by the side under bridges and culverts, 
and which when disturbed flies away a short distance and by 
emphatically repeated "phe-be" shows its displeasure at the 
intrusion. It is a very common species over the whole of eastern 
Nebraska, westward being replaced by a congener, the Say 
Phoebe {Sayornis saija). There is no reason for believing that 
the food habits of these two differ greatly in this state. Of the 
eastern species Mr. Beal writes: 

"The phoebe subsists almost exclusively upon insects, most 
of which are caught upon the wing. An examination of eighty 
stomachs showed that over ninety -three per cent of the year's 
food consists of insects and spiders, while wild fruits constitute 
the remainder. The insects belong chiefly to noxious species, 
and include many click- beetles. May beetles, and weevils. 
Grasshoppers in their season are eaten to a considerable extent, 




THE PHOEBE. 
F. E. L. Beal, Farmer's Bull. No. 54, 1897. 
while wasps of various species, many flies of species that annoy 
cattle, and a few bugs and spiders are also eaten regularly. It 
is evident that a pair of phoebes must materially reduce the 
number of insects near a garden or field, as the birds often, 



232 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIEl'Y. 



if not always, raise two broods a year, and each brood numbers 
from four to six young." 

"The vegetable portion of the food is unimportant, and con- 
sists mainly of a few seeds, with small fruits, such as wild 
cherries, elder berries, and juniper berries. The raspberries 
and blackberries found in the stomachs were the only fruits 
that might have belonged to cultivated varieties and the quan- 
tity was trifling." 

"There is hardly a more useful species than the phoebe about 
the farm, and it should receive every encouragement." 

THE SMALL FLYCATCHERS. 

{EmpMonax spp.) 

During the first half of May and again the first half of Sep- 
tember there pass through eastern Nebraska on their migrations 
at least four species of small flycatchers belonging to the genus 
Emjjklwiax, all very similar in coloration and very difficult to 
distinguish. One of these, the Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, is 
rare; the other three, the Acadian, Traill and Lesst Flycatchers 
are all common, and, while their food habits have never been 




ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. 

given detailed attention, it is certainly known that they are all 
quite beneficial. All of the common species frequent the or- 
chard fully as much as the woods, and consequently their good 
work directly affects the horticulturist. Beetles, crane-flies, 
gnats, mosquitoes, and grasshoppers are all eagerly eaten, 
while various sorts of larvae and berries vary the diet. 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 233 

THE WOODPECKERS. 

Probably no other group of birds are of greater importance 
to the horticulturist than the various species of woodpeckers, — 
for it is to them that the important task of seeking out and de- 
stroying the wood boring larvae from their hiding places be- 
neath the bark and in the wood is delegated, and to this labor 
they devote almost undivided attention. Modeled by nature for 
this very work, with their chisel-like bill, long, extensile barbed 
tongue, yoke-toed and strong clawed feet and stiffened tail, 
they are capable of great things in this direction. Hence it is 
proper that we should know how well they utilize their talents. 

We have in Nebraska a dozen different kinds of woodpeckers. 
Of these one is practically extinct, another very rare and three 
are confined to extreme north-west Nebraska; of these five we 
shall take no account. The Downy, Hairy, Red-headed and 
Red-bellied Woodpeckers, The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker and 
our two Flickers are for the most part common, generally dis- 
tributed, and of considerable economic importance. As they 
vary greatly among themselves in economic value they are 
treated separately. 

Of these seven the smallest, commonest and most beneficial is 
the familiar Downy Woodpecker ( Dryobates loubescens medianus). 
This little chap is easily recognized by its plain black and white 
plumage, the colors being arranged as shown in the illustration 
of the next species. It is commonest about our homes and in 
our orchards, and seems really partial to such spots rather 
than the woods, and remains with us the year around. Insects 
constitute seventy-four per cent of its food. Beetles (twenty- 
four per cent) come first in importance and are mostly wood- 
boring larvae, the other forms being May beetles and a few 
predaceous Carabidae. Ants (twenty-three per cent) come next, 
and are apparently greatly relished. Caterpillars (sixteen per 
cent) are extensively eaten. Bugs and plant lice (four per cent) 
Grasshoppers and their eggs (three per cent), spiders (three 
per cent) and flies (one per cent) constitute the remainder of 
the animal food. Mineral matter amounts to one percent. 
The vegetable matter (twenty-five per cent) is mostly fruit, in- 
cluding dogwood berries, Virginia creeper berries, June ber- 
ries and pokeberries, along with a little strawberries and apples. 



234 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Seeds of various kinds are extensively eaten, especially those 
of the poison ivy, sumac, mullien and hornbeam. Nuts, cam- 
bium and flower buds are also eaten. It is probably largely 
due to this bird that the seeds of the poison ivy and sumac are 
spread, an unfortunate circumstance, yet not one of sufficient 
importance to seriously act against the species. 

Almost an exact counterpart of the Downy, only larger is 




THE HAIRY WOODPECKER. 
F, E. L. Beal, Bull. No. 7, 1895. 

the Hairy Woodpecker {Drijobates vIUosuh). Like the Downy this 
species is resident, but it prefers the woods to human proximity 
and is a shyer, noisier bird. Its food is quite similar to that 
of its smaller relative, animal matter aggregating a little less 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 235 

(sixty-eight per cent) and vegetable matter a little more (thirty- 
one per cent), while mineral matter remains the same (one per 
cent). Beetles (twenty-four per cent) are most eaten, caterpil- 
lars (twenty-one per cent) next, ants (seventeen per cent) being 
third in importance, just the reverse of the last two being -true 
with the Downy. Spiders amount to four per cent, plant lice 
to two per cent. Grasshoppers are but slightly eaten. The 
vegetable food is of about the same character as that eaten by 
the Downy, including additionally spice berries, sourgum ber- 
ries, wild black cherries, choke cherries, wild grapes, blackber- 
ries and raspberries. Fruit altogether constitutes eleven per 
cent of the food and is all wild. Weed seed are often consider- 
ably eaten here in the west. 

The Red-headed Woodpecker was discussed in detail in the 
1903 report. Its relative the Red-bellied Wood-pecker ( Centurus 
carolinus) is found in fair numbers in the heavier timber of eastern 
Nebraska, but it is so retiring that it plays but little part in the 
insect destruction among our orchards. It is not very fond of in- 
sects, which amount to only twenty-six per cent of its food; among 
them ants (eleven per cent) are most eaten, while beetles (ten 
per cent) are next preferred, especially the adults, which form 
seven per cent against three per cent of larvae. Caterpillars 
(four per cent) are sometimes eaten greedily. True bugs, 
crickets and spiders are eaten sparingly. The seventy-four 
per cent of vegetable matter is almost entirely wild fruit and 
seeds, including mulberries, elderberries, wild grapes, Virginia 
creeper berries, pine, poison ivy and ragweed seeds. Corn is 
occasionally eaten to a slight extent. The species thus does no 
harm and is fairly beneficial. 

THE FLICKERS. 

Our two Flickers, the Yellow-shafted iColaptes auratus luteus) 
and Red-shafted (Colajjtes cafer collaris) are both present over 
the entire state, the former more abundant eastwardly the 
latter more so westwardly. Both of tlTese birds are well 
known, and need no description here, especially as they 
may be readily recognized from the accompanying illus- 
tration. Their food habits are practically identical and will be 
treated together. Animal matter amounts to fifty-six per cent, 



236 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



vegetable matter to thirty-nine per cent, mineral matter to five 
per cent. Among the former element, ants are the greatly pre- 
dominating food, forming forty-three per cent of the whole. 
These are eaten in immense numbers, often to the exclusion of 
all other food, single stomachs containing over three-thousand 
of^hem. Flickers may frequently be seen upon the ground 
digging in the ant-hills for these insects. Next to ants comes 
beetles (ten per cent), mostly the useful predaceous Carabids, 
but also including May beetles and click-beetles. Grasshoppers 
and "crickets, caterpillars, bugs. May flies, termites and spiders 
together form but three per cent. The vegetable matter eaten 
is quite varied. Corn and buckwheat are both sometimes taken, 
but never extensively so, and when the Flicker is seen in the 




/2.?2 



YELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER. 

F. E. L. Beal, Bull. No. 7, 1895. 
cornfield he is in all likelyhood searching for grubs. The fruit 
includes hackberries, blueberries, blackberries, June berries, 
elderberries, mulberries, the berries of dogwood, Virginia 
creeper and sourgum, wild grapes, choke cherries, wild black 
cherries, and rarely, cultivated cherries in small amounts. The 



THE FOOD HABITS OF NEBRASKA BIRDS. 



237 



grain and fruit together amount to twenty-five per cent, the re- 
maining fourteen per cent being principally poison ivy, sumac, 
juniper berries, polygonum, clover, pigweed, mullein and rag- 
weed seeds, and acorns. 

THE SAPSUCKER. 

For final consideration we have the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, 
{Spliyi'apicus varius) a species accused of doing harm and not 
without some reason. Fortunately this species is quite un- 
common in Nebraska, and is found only as a migrant, so that 
very little harm indeed is ever done here. Yet it is inter- 




YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER. 
F. E. L. Beal, Bull. No. 7, 1895. 



238 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

estin*^ to note just what this bird eats. The animal and 
vegetable matter eaten just about balance. Of the former, 
ants (thirty-six per cent) greatly predominate. Beetles (five 
per cent] are not nearly so extensively eaten as by some 
of the other species. Flies (three per cent) of various kinds 
are often taken, largely crane-flies. Caterpillars amount to 
two per cent, spiders to the same figure, grasshoppers, 
crickets, bugs, wasps and May flies together to a similar per 
cent. Vegetable matter is about half (twenty -six per cent) 
fruit, including berries of dogwood and Virginia creeper, 
wild black cherries, blackberries and raspberries. Other vege- 
table substances taken were a small amount of poison ivy and 
mullein seeds, juniper berries and buds, and a great deal of 
cambium. While there is nothing very objectionable to the 
above record, the real harm done by this bird is in its habit of 
drilling holes in the bark of trees so as to form girdles of 
punctures which cause the ultimate death of the tree in severe 
attacks. The trees mostly injured by this bird are the -apple, 
maple, red oak, white and mountain ash. This puncturing is 
done to secure the sap which oozes out and is greedily sipped 
up by the bird, as well as to form an easy foraging ground 
against the many insects which are attracted to it by its sweet- 
ness. But as the bird is numerous only in forested areas, 
where trees can be spared, it is doubtful whether it does suffi- 
cient harm to warrant its destruction. 



DISEASES OF THE APPLE. 

BY C. W. PUGSLEY, LINCOLN. 

It is the object of this paper to present the diseases of the 
apple in a plain and practical way, and only the diseases of 
economic importance to fruit growers in Nebraska will be dis- 
cussed. Each disease will be treated under the following heads : 
Cause; Description; How spread; Treatment. 

For the benefit of those who wish to gain a more thorough 
knowledge of a disease than this paper affords I have appended 
a partial list of publications treating of various diseases. I 
have also added a partial list of references to writings treating 
of insect enemies. In these lists are included only those 



DISEASES OF THE APPLE. 239 

treatises which are easily obtainable, such as Experiment Sta- 
tion Bulletins, etc. 

BITTER ROT. 

Cause: Bitter Rot is caused by a fungus {GlomereUa rufoma- 
Gulans) which attacks, not only the apple, causing Bitter Rot, 
but also the twigs, causing Bitter Rot Canker. 

Description: The disease is first noticed as a small circular 
spot on the unbroken skin of the apple. Later, as the spot en- 
larges, it becomes a pale brown with a dark surrounding circle. 
Sometimes around all is a purple stain. The tissue becomes 
slightly shrunken, and in the center the fruiting pustules are 
formed. The entire fruit never becomes covered with these, 
as in the case of Black Rot. The disease begins sometimes 
when the fruit is not yet half grownbut is much worse as the fruit 
reaches maturity. The first outbreak usually occurs about the 
middle of July. The disease has not as yet done much damage 
in Nebraska, but' its appearance in a destructive form may be 
looked for at any time. It has been definitely shown that in 
some cases the disease passes the winter in the form of cankers 
on the limbs or twigs of the trees. 

How Spread: The spores wash off during a rain, and in this 
way reach the apples below. They may also be carried some 
distance by the wind. The disease is also spread to some ex- 
tent by insects. 

Treatment: All cankered limbs should be removed and 
burned, and all affected fruit should be destroyed. The disease 
can be checked by the early use of a Bordeaux mixture spray, 
while the apples are young. 

BLIGHT. 

Cause: Apple Blight, sometimes called Twig Blight or Fire 
Blight, is the result of the growth of bacteria {Bactirium amy- 
lovorum) in the young and tender twigs of the tree causing the 
destruction of the cells attacked. 

Description: The disease attracts the attention of the casual 
observer first by the fact that the twigs at the ends of the limbs 
are dying, presenting an appearance very much as if they had 



240 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

been scorched. The entire killed portion of the twig may not 
be infected by the bacteria, for if the cells in the lower portion 
of the twig are killed the upper portion will die. In severe 
cases the smaller limbs may be attacked but usually only the 
young succulent growths. The disease was first a disease of 
the pear tree, later going over to the apple. 

How Spread: The disease is undoubtedly spread by the wind 
and by insects of various kinds. Insects may puncture the di- 
seased parts and carry the bacteria to healthy twigs. Little 
drops of sticky sweet sap come out on the diseased twigs and 
bees and flies are attracted to these carrying away with them 
many bacteria to other twigs and flowers, the stigma of which 
afford an excellent culture medium for their growth. 

Mr. A. F. Woods, of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, says: 

"The disease is considered to be extremely infectious, the 
bacteria being carried in the form of dust from tree to tree by 
the wind." 

Treatment: The best remedy, so for as yet known, is the re- 
moval of the diseased parts and their destruction by fire. The 
twigs or branches should be cut off a few inches below the 
lowest point of infection. 

BROWN ROT. 

Cause: The organism which causes this disease is commonly 
'known as Monilia fructigena, an imperfect fungus, but the cup 
stage has been found growing on the mummied fruits, and the 
fungus is now known as Sclerotlniafructigena. 

Description: The germinating spores form threads which 
penetrate the cells of the the fruit, come to the surface and 
form long rows of spores, either single or multiple. The di- 
sease attacks the young apple and prevents its ripening. The 
apple in this case remains hanging on the tree often through- 
out the winter. Such apples are commonly spoken of as 
"mummy apples." 

How Spread: When warm wet weather comes the spores from 
the fungus carried over the winter by the mummy apples, are 
carried to other apples by wind, rain, or insects, and there 
they germinate. 



DISEASES OP THE APPLE. 241 

Treatment: A good preventive is to remove all mummy 
apples. The only remedy suggested is to spray with Bordeaux 
mixture late in June or early in July. 

CANKER. 

This is a general term applied to diseased areas vs^here there 
is a deep seated killing of the tissues. It may take the form 
of a swelling, a scale, or a crack. 

Cause: The cause of the apple tree canker is a fungus known 
as Spha£ropsi8 malorum. The Bitter Rot Canker, which occurs 
on twigs or small branches, is caused by the Bitter Rot fungua 
entering some wound. 

Description: The apple tree canker is likely to occur on any 
part of the tree, and on trees of any age, but is more likely to 
occur on the little trees. The bark becomes rough and cracks 
open. 

Treatment: Spraying with Bordeaux mixture has been used 
with good results. The young trees aifected should be de- 
stroyed, as should all diseased branches and twigs. 

CROWN GALL. 

Cause: It is not known what causes this disease. Mr. Miles, 
in a paper read before this society in 1903 says: 

"Some crown galls are caused by nematodes or eel-worms. "^ 

Prof. J. W. Toumey, Arizona Experiment Station, says that in 

his opinion the cause may be refered to either one or two closely 

related species of slime-moulds. This seems to be the popular 

opinion at present. 

Description: The crown gall is an irregular enlargement of 
the tissue of the apple tree, just below the surface of the ground 
around the crown of the tree. The galls become quite large 
and undoubtedly interfere with the process of nutrition. The 
trouble is not easily noticed, being under ground, but if the 
leaves appear pale and the tree has a general sickly appearance, 
it is best to examine carefully for this trouble. An examination 
will probably show an unusual amount of fibrous roots at and 
below the crown. The disease is commonly a disease of the 



24l' NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

young trees and should be carefully watched for in all nursery 
stock. 

How spread: As long as we do not know the cause we can not 
tell how it is spread. It is undoubtedly spread from orchard to 
orchard while the trees are young by planting affected trees. 
The disease also spreads from tree to tree in the nursery. W. 
B. Alwood of the Virginia Station says: 

"The organism undoubtedly attacks the seedling apple trees 
in the nursery. The organism gaining entrance to the radicle 
or main root stock soon after germination, by entering through 
one or more of the main root hairs." 

HEART ROT. 

Cause: There is much difference of opinion as to the cause of 
this disease, but it is certain that some pore fungus causes 
the trouble. The threads of these larger fungi are found ram- 
ifying through the tissue. 

Deso'ipt'ion: There are two kinds of heart rot. In one case 
the heart wood becomes soft, punky, and brown and is known 
as wet rot; in the other case it becomes dry, brittle and white, 
and is known as dry rot. The tree, when the disease is well 
advanced, is easily snapped off by the wind, or broken by any 
small force. The processes of nutrition are stopped and the 
tree dies. The fruits of the fungus are produced on the tree 
trunks in the form of brackets, but do not appear until the dis- 
ease is well advanced. 

How spread: The spores borne on the brackets are carried by 
the winds and insects to other trees, where they germinate 
and enter the tree through any wound they may find. 

Treatment: Great care should be exercised in the manage- 
ment of the orchard to prevent wounds. In pruniug, or when 
the trees are injured in any way, the wound should be painted 
or covered with wax. The fruits should be destroyed as soon 
as they appear, and as soon as the tree is so badly affected as to 
be worthless, it should be removed from the orchard and burned. 

POWDERY MILDEW. 

Cause: Powdery mildew is caused by a sac-fungus {Podos- 
phaera oxycantha) which grows over the surface of the leaves 



DISEASES OF THE APPLE. 243 

and twigs sending in little suckers (haustoria) which rob the 
plant of food substance. 

Description: Dr. Bessey, in his paper "The Botany of the 
Apple Tree" read before this society in 1894 says: 

"The leaves ofyoung trees, especially those in the nursery, are 
quite subject to the attacks of a powdery mildew which covers 
their surface with a white powdery coat. The leaves soon be- 
come somewhat curled and wrinkled and eventually are greatly 
injured." 

Hoiu spread: "The summer spores blow away in the wind, 
and under favorable conditions germinate quickly and give rise 
to a new growth of the fungus. Later in the season, usually 
not until the autumn, the fungus produces its small spherical 
fruits which are black in color and barely large enough to be 
seen with the naked eye." 

These germinate the next spring and infect the young leaves 
of the apple. 

Treatment: All the old leaves should be burned in the fall or 
early spring. Spraying a few times in the spring will usually 
check this disease. For this spray Dr. Bessey recommends a 
solution of ammoniacal carbonate of copper, 

PINK ROT. 

Cause: The fungus which causes this disease is known as 
Cephalothecium noseum. It was first described in 1836, but not in 
connection with the apple 

Description: Pink rot is an attendant of apple scab and should 
be looked for wherever scab is present. When it once gets a 
start it is very destructive. The scab spots, or any injury, make 
a good place for the entrance of the spores, where they germi- 
nate and grow beneath the skin for a time. The skin is finally 
ruptured and a white fungus, turning gradually to a pink color, 
makes its appearance. The apple turns a brown and the spots 
sink a little below the surface. The entire apple may become 
affected. 

Hmo spread: The spores are carried by currents of air, by 
insects, are washed by rains, or when the apples are in piles, 
drop from apple to apple. 



244 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

/IVeatment: Since the disease is prevented by the prevention 
of ap^le scab, spraying is about the onty remedy of economic 
value. If the apples are healthy and free from injury no trouble 
need be feared from pink rot. 

RUST. 

Cause: This disease is caused by a fungus {Gyinnosporangium 
macropus) which hves during the summer on the apple twigs, 
leaves or fruit, and in the winter on the red cedar. 

DescHption: The disease is the most noticeable on the leaves 
of the apple tree in the spring or early summer. Orange 
colored patches appear on the under surface of the apple leaves, 
and often little projections occur directly over these on the 
upper surface. The spores, formed at the spots on the lower 
surface, germinate on leaves, or on the young twigs of the cedar 
during the summer, and by fall they have formed the so-called 
"cedar apple." The enlargement seen on the twigs of the red 
cedar is not the fungus, but the abnormal growth of the red 
cedar tissue caused by the presence of the fungus. This 
growth continues throughout the winter and in the spring there 
is an extrusion of a yellow gelatinous substance which contains 
myriads of spores of the fungus. These find their way to the 
apple tree and there begin their destructive work. It seems 
necessary that the fungus shall have both the apple tree and 
the red cedar in order to persist. The disease on the fruit had 
not been observed in this State by the department of botany 
until this winter. However, the fact that the fungus will attack 
both fruit and twigs has been known for some time as shown by 
B. T. Galloway, Report of the Chief of the Section of Vegetable 
Pathology for 1888. He says in part: 

"Some species frequently attack the young fruit and twigs, 
and in developing greatly distort them. This is particularly 
true of Boestelia aurantiaca which infests several species of haw- 
thorne, june-berry, apples and quinces." 

The Boestelia auraiitiaxM is the Boestelia stage of the Gynnios- 
porangiuvi macropus, the common rust of the apple. 

A knowledge of the appearance of the disease can best be 
gained from the accompanying cuts. 



DISEASES OF THE APPI.E. 



245 




Twig and leaves of hybrid Prairie Crab apple showing cedar rust. 




Jonathan apple showing eedar rust on the fruits. 

How spread: The wind is undoubtedly the greatest agent in 
•spreading rust. The spores are very light and are easily 
•carried for long distances. Without a doubt insects play an 
important part in the spread of the disease. 

'Treatment: The common recommendation has been to cut 
down all the red cedar trees. It is certain that if there are no 
red cedars in the community the apple trees will not be affected 



240 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 







No. I. Winter stapre of cedar rust; Nos. r). :i. und -J, Sin-iiifcc .•^tUKes oi' ec-dai- rust. 

by the rust. Another treatment sometimes recommended is to- 
remove all the cedar apples, but those who have had experience 
covered with tar when the tree is planted to prevent the entrance 
of the fungus. 



DISEASES OF THE APPLE. 247 

with the disease realize that this is next to the impossible. If 
the cedar trees are valued, as they undoubtedly are, they may 
be saved and the disease on the apple at least checked by the 
use of the Bordeaux spray, as shov^rn by Professor Emerson. 

"Two sprayings with Bordeaux mixture, the first at the time 
the apples on the cedar trees were becoming orange colored and 
gelatinous, and the second two weeks later, kept the apple 
foliage practically free from rust. The average number of rust 
spots per hundred leaves from sprayed and unsprayed apple 
trees were as follows : 

Sprayed, Wealthy 19; Jonathan, 13. 

Unsprayed, Wealthy 260; Jonathan 112. 

Unless the disease is perennial on the red cedar it can prob- 
ably be stamped out by spraying. 

RHIZOMORPHIC ROOT-ROT. 

Cause: The disease is caused by a parasitic fungus {GUtocyhe 
parasitica.) 

Description: The fungus enters the tree near the surface of 
the ground, works its way through the roots, and by delicate 
white threads {mycelium) penetrates the ground and infects root 
after root. These fungi ordinarily work on decaying wood or 
other vegetable matter, but readily adapt themselves to living 
plants, if they have a chance to enter through some wound, such 
as a cut root. The disease is first noticed by the turning yeUow 
of the leaves, caused by a decreased food supply. Next the 
bark withers and the fruit becomes wrinkled and drops. 

Hoio spread: It is claimed by the Oklahoma station that the 
mycelia make their way through the ground ten or fifteen feet. 
The disease is spread by the spores which are borne on the 
fruits. These fruits appear on the trunks of the trees. The 
spores are carried by wind and by insects. 

Treatment: There is little that can be done to check the rav- 
ages of the disease on the tree if it once gets started. A 
diseased tree should be destroyed as soon as it is past its 
usefulness. It has been recommended that a ditch about two 
feet deep be dug around the tree to prevent the spread of the 
disease by the mycelium. The wounds on the roots should be 



248 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

vSCAB. 

Cause: The disease is caused by one of the fung^i ( Ventnria 
vhlorosporo). The fungus is regularly branched and creeps in 
every direction from the place of infection. It is a superficial 
fungus. 

Description: The disease shows first in the spring by the 
appearance of velvety dark green spots on the leaves. It is 
sometimes called mildew or leaf blight. When the disease is 
at its worst the leaves may curl up or fall off. Mr. Longyear 
of the Michigan Station says that the fungus may attack the 
stem at blossoming time and cause the fruit to drop. The 
fungus also attacks the fruit causing spots which at first 
resemble those on the leaves. The fungus works just under the 
cuticle, which finally scales off leaving a dark brown color with 
olive borders. This is one of the worst diseases of the apple 
and perhaps causes more damage than any other in this state. 
It not only does harm itself by preventing the proper growth of 
the fruit and leaves, but it opens the way for rot producing 
fungi. Apples free from scab are usually much larger and 
more regular than those affected by it. 

Hoiv spread: The spores are very small and are blown from 
place to place or carried by the insects. 

'ireatment: Burn all the leaves in the fall or early spring and 
cut out affected twigs. The disease may be checked by spray- 
ing, as demonstrated by Professor Emerson: 

"Two sprayings with Bordeaux mixture, the first just before 
the flowers opened and the second soon after the blossoms fell, 
prevented practically all injury from apple scab both to the 
foliage and the fruit. One spraying after the blossoms fell gave 
nearly as good results. The results in detail are as follows. 
The figures represent the percent of fruit free from apple scab: 

Sprayed Unsprayed 



Winesap 


1 


spraying 


82 


20 


Maiden Blush 


1 




96 


85 


Sweet June 


1 




80 


11 


U (< 


2 




96 


11 


Ralls Genet 


2 




95 


27 


Jonathan 


2 




99 


49 


Average 






91 


26" 



DISEASES OF THE APPLE. 249 

SOOTY FUNGUS. 

Cause: Sooty Blotch is caused by a fungus {Phyllachora 
poinlgena) which creeps over the surface of the apple. 

Description: The disease is characterized by sooty, black, 
roundish like spots. The blotches are simply on the skin of 
the apple and may be of any size up to one-half of an inch in 
diameter. The disease causes no damage except as to the 
appearance of the fruit. 

Hoio spread: The disease is spread by spores which find 
their way from apple to apple by the aid ot currents of air, 
water, or insects. 

Treatment: The disease may be checked by spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture when the apples are small. 

TIME FOR SPRAYING. 

It is not necessary for the man with an orchard to give 
special attention to spraying for each disease. A spraying in 
season to check one will often check others. It seems that 
three or four sprayings during the season are sufficient to keep 
down the destructive diseases. 

Mr. Youngers in a paper read before this society in 1902 says 
he would spray three or four times. The first time he would 
use Bordeaux and paris green and would apply this as soon as 
the blossoms fall. He follows fifteen days later with a spray of 
paris green, and with another of the same fifteen days later. 
When the orchard is to receive a fourth spraying he uses Bor- 
deaux and paris green again about fifteen days later. The cost 
for the four sprayings should not exceed six cents per tree. 

In looking over the time for spraying for each disease it would 
•seem that three sprayings with Bordeaux mixture as follows 
should prove effective in checking the diseases common in the 
state: One when the buds begin to swell, or just as soon as 
they are opening in the spring; a second just before the flowers 
open, and a third shortly after the blossoms fall. 



250 KEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

REFERENCES TO DISEASES. 

Bitter Rot. 
Bulletin No. 1 Fruit Experiment Station, Mountain Green, Mo. 
44, Agri. " " Washington, D. C. 

" 142, " " " Blacksburg, Va. 

" 77, " " " Urbana, 111. 

Canker. 
Bulletin No. 70, Agri. Experiment Station, Urbana, 111. 
" 185, " " " Geneva, N. Y. 

1d8, 

Pink Hot. 
Bulletin No. 207, Agri. Experiment Stat., Ithaca, N. Y. 
" 227 " " " Geneva, " 

Rust. 
Bulletin No. 107, Agri. Experiment Stat., New Haven, Conn. 
" 88, " " " Lincoln, Nebr. 

Scab. > 

Bulletin No. 20, Agri. Experiment Stat., Moscow^, Idaho. 

" 64, " " " Pullman, Wash. 

" 23, " " " Madison, Wis. 

" 67, " " " Urbana, 111. 

" 88, " " " Lincoln, Nebr. 

Notes on Apple Scab, Bessey, State Hort. Society Report 1901 
Prevention of " ' " " " " " 1904 

3riscella7ieoi(s. 
Botany of the Apple Tree, Bessey, State Hort. Soc. Report 1894 
Diseases of the Apple Tree, Miles, " " " " 1903 

" " " " Williams, State Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1904 

Apple Rots in Illinois, Bulletin No. 69, Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Urbana, 111. 

REFERENCES TO INSECT ENEMIES. 

Apple Plant Louse, Bulletin No. 143, Agriculture Experiment 
Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Sting in the Apple, Bulletin No. 64, Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Columbia, Mo. 

Insects Injurious to Fruit, Bulletin No. 24, Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Agricultural College, Mich. 



THE CROWN GALL CONTROVERSY. 251 

Fruit Tree Bark Beetle, Bulletin No. 44, Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Columbia, Mo. 

Common Apple Tree Borer, Bull. 44, Agriculture Exp. Station, 
Columbia, Mo. 

Apple Insects, Bull. 56, Agriculture Exp. Station, Orona, Me. 
Apple Bud Borer, Bull. 53, Agri. Exp. Station, Newark, Del. 
Fruit Tree Bark Borer, Bull. 53, Agri. Exp. Sta., 
Periodical Cicade, Bull. 53, Agri. Exp. Station, " " 

Codling Moth, " 64, " " " Logan, Utah. 

Ribbed Cocoon Maker, Bull. 214, Agri. Exp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Woolly Aphis, Circular 20, U. S., Department of Agriculture, 
Washington. 

Insect Enemies of the Apple Tree, Bruner, State Horticultural 
Society Report 1894. 

Insect Enemies of the Apple Tree and Fruit, Bruner, State 
Horticultural Society, Report 1899. 

The last two references cover nearly all the known insect 
enemies of the apple tree, and in many cases no other refer- 
ences need be consulted. 



THE CROWN GALL CONTROVERSY. 

BY F. E. DENNY, LINCOLN. 

Since about 1892 when attention was first directed to the 
disease called crown gall, a great deal has been written upon 
the subject. Except in a few cases these opinions were not the 
result of careful, scientific experiments, but were more in the 
form of speculations upon the reports of others. The literature 
upon crown gall has therefore become a mass of conflicting 
testimony, so conflicting in fact that upon almost every point 
authorities differ. The object of this paper is to show in what 
a dissatisfactory state the crown gall problem is in at the pre- 
sent time, and to indicate to the reader what statements in 
regard to this much-talked-of disease may be believed, and 
what statements may reasonably be doubted. 



252 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE APPEARANCE OF CROWN GALL, 

There is practical unanimity upon this point among the 
various authorities. The galls or nodules are usually found at 
the crown of the root, although they are also, but less frequently 
found upon the minor roots. Their size is variable. Starting 
as a mere speck, they gradually increase in size until they 
become as large as walnuts, sometimes as large as apples, and 
sometimes even larger. They are soft, spongy, and granular, 
and, although whitish in color when young, they gradually 
assume the same color as the roots. The galls are usually 
annual in growth, that is, they begin their growth in the spring 
and become mature in the fall. Around the galls a mass of 
fine, fibrous roots usually start out. They are not to be con- 
fused with the galls produced by the wooly aphis. The latter 
galls are small, hard, and are mere swellings of the roots, while 
the former are large, spongy, and are more in the form of 
excrescences. 

WHAT CAUSES CROWN GALL. 

This question has never been settled. There are a variety of 
theories concerning it, but none have been generally accepted 
by the botanists of the world. Sorauer, the celebrated German 
botanist, gives it as his belief that the disease is caused by an 
injury to the root, such as bending or breaking it in the process 
of transplanting. Since the galls were first noticed on stock 
coming from irrigated districts it was concluded that irrigation 
was the cause. But this idea was abandoned when cases of 
crown gall were found in compartively dry places, where irri- 
gation had never been practiced. The galls are frequently 
found at the place of union of the stock and scion in root-grafted 
trees, and it was thought at one time that grafting was the 
cause of crown gall, but since the galls are common upon seed- 
lings which have never been touched by a knife, grafting can- 
not be regarded as the cause of the disease, although it may 
provide for the easy entrance of the disease into the plant. The 
latest and most elaborate opinion as to the cause of crown 
gall is that of Professor J. W. Toumey of Arizona. As a result 
of a course of careful experimentation he decided it to be due 
to a certain organism very low in the scale of life, belonging to 



THE CROWN GALL CONTROVERSY. 253 

the slime mould group. Unfortunately he did not prove to the 
satisfaction of all that he had located the organism, and until 
later experiments are performed the cause of crown gall must 
remain a debatable question. 

IS CROWN GALL COMMUNICABLE? 

According to the great preponderance of evidence this ques: 
tion should undoubtedly be answered in the affirmative. Pro- 
fessor Heald of the University of Nebraska has succeeded with 
very little difficulty in producing the galls upon perfectly 
healthy raspberry plants by inoculating the crown of the root 
with bits of crown gall. Professor Selby in bulletin 121 of the 
Ohio Experiment Station, says " soil which causes this sort of 
growth upon peach trees has been known to produce the same 
upon the apple and conversely." And in bulletin 111 he gives 
as a result of an experiment carried on by the Ohio station 
that peach trees set in a raspberry plantation affected with 
crown gall became attacked by crown gall to the extent of 70,8 
per cent, in two years. Professor Toumey of the Arizona 
Station was able to transfer the disease from seedling to seed- 
ling with ease, and found that almond seedlings grown in soil 
into which minced galls had been introduced, showed a larger 
percentage of infected trees than similar seedlings grown in 
soil where the minced galls were absent. In opening bundles of 
trees where there are trees infected with crown gall, it has often 
been noticed that several diseased trees would be found 
together, indicating that they were near each other in the nur- 
sery row. All these examples tend to show that from what is 
known at present crown gall should be looked upon as com- 
municable. 

HOW MUCH DAMAGE DOES CROWN GALL DO? 

Our authorities are divided upon this point also. The botanist 
of the Michigan Experiment Station in bulletin 25 says: "The 
effect of this disease upon the tree is to produce a spindling or 
stunted growth and usually leads to the death of the tree. 
Trees affected with crown gall when planted from the nursery 
seldom reach bearing size, but frequently die the first season. " 
On the other hand a nurseryman in writing to the New York 



254 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Experiment Station says in bulletin 191: "Two years ago we 
planted a row of apple trees affected with crown gall beside a 
row of healthy trees. This fall we dug up a number of the 
trees and some had galls on them and some had not. The trees 
with the crown gall made just as good a growth as the healthy 
trees near by, the root system seemed to be healthy and sup- 
plying the top with all the nourishment needed for a strong 
growth." While the New York nurseryman could not say from 
his experiment that crown gall does no damage, he could deny 
that affected trees "frequently die the first season." 

The Utah Experiment Station in bulletin 55 publishes the fol- 
lowing statement: ''Almost sure death to a tree, without cure 
or preventive, .supposed to be highly contagious, crown gall is 
becoming one of our worst orchard troubles. " The above state- 
ment is denied by the Alabama Experiment Station in bulletin 124 
in the following terms: "Until experimental work now in pro- 
gress has been carried so far as to warrant conclusions on this 
point the crown gall of the apple now so common in many nur- 
series of the Mississippi valley can be regarded as a suspicious 
object and not certainly as a dangerous one." The testimony 
of an ex-nurseryman may throw some light on this subject. 
This man, who, some twenty-five years ago, was engaged in 
selling nursery stock, said that there were galls upon the roots 
of many trees at that time, and that such trees had been dis- 
tributed to various portions of the state. Now if crown gall is 
as communicable as many would have us believe, and if, as has 
been stated, an infected tree is doomed sooner or later to death, 
it is remarkable indeed that vast numbers of our fruit trees 
have not succumbed to this disease long ago. 

THE TREATMENT FOR CROWN GALL. 

This is another controversial point. Many authorities advo- 
cate cutting away the galls and burning them, but Professor 
• Close of Utah says in bulletin 65 of the Utah Experiment 
Station: "Even if the galls are removed when the tree is 
planted new ones will nearly alw^ays develop." It is some- 
times advised as a precautionary measure to apply Bor- 
deaux mixture, but bulletin 93 of the Kentucky Station says: 
"Bordeaux mixture applied to the outside can do little more 



REPORT OF C. S. HARRISON. DELEGATE. 255 

than kill the parasite on the surface." All authorities agree, 
however, in advising that all infected trees should be rejected, 
and many urge that no trees from nurseries where crown gall 
is known to exist should be planted. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

1. Crown gall is not a disease over which to be greatly 
alarmed. It may in the future become serious but at present 
it is not doing any vast amount of damage. 

2. The cause of crown gall is not known. 

3. All experimental work done up to the present time indi- 
cates that the disease is communicable. 

4. No remedy has been found for the trouble. As a pre- 
cautionary measure no trees obviously infected should be 
planted. If a great many trees in the consignment are dis- 
eased none should be planted but the whole shipment should be 
returned to the person from whom the treees were bought. 

5. Since so little is known of crown gaU, the need of accurate 
and scientific experimentation upon the supject is obvious. Not 
until this is done will the crown gall controversy be settled to 
the satisfaction of all. 



REPORT OP C. S. HARRISON AS DELEGATE TO THE 
MINNESOTA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The thirty-eighth annual meeting of the Minnesota State 
Horticultural society was held in the audience room of the First 
Unitarian church, Minneapolis. The basement being used for 
the fruit display. 

The writer has visited many horticultural societies, but never 
any where saw a finer display than was made here of showy 
splendid apples. They were clean and bright and exceedingly 
attractive. One large table was devoted entirely to new seed- 
lings and among them were many of great merit. Never was 
there a more persistant, determined and heroic band of men 
who in the face of every obstacle have pushed on to success, 
and the results are most cheering. One by one the old veterans 



250 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

are passing away. But when we saw a hundred students from 
the agricultural school coming in we were sure their places 
would be filled with a splendid set of men who would carry on 
the work already begun. 

One feature of many of our horticultural societies is the 
presence of gray heads and the absence of young men. I noted 
this in Kansas, and it is too much the case in Nebraska. We 
older men realize the fact that we need the vim, push and en- 
thusiasm which young blood alone can impart. 

A T.IVELY PROCtRAM. 

The secretary, Mr. Latham, determined to have short papers — 
right to the point and plenty of them for discussion. Thi« 
made a lively time, and there was a sort of love feast in the inter- 
change of views and experiences. 

First came the address of the president, Clarence Wedge. 
Mr. Wedge stands at the front in horticulture. He is a man of 
experience, not simple theories. He is horticultural editor of 
The Farmer published at St. Paul. His articles are always full 
of instruction. His address was right to the point. He wished 
to emphasize one thing, and that was: 

"Look out where you get your seeds and stock. Take the 
white spruce for instance. The impression is that white spruce 
will do well in Minnesota. Find out first where this white 
spruce is born and bred. We cannot emphasize this point too 
strongly." 

Mr. Wedge said he had four collections. The best, most 
thrifty, compact and beautiful was the type from the Black 
Hills. Next best came from north Minnesota. Another lot 
came from eastern nurseries with seed probably from Maine 
or New Hampshire. They were of little account. Another lot 
came from Europe and they were utterly worthless. 

We cannot emphasize this too strongly. For instance a man 
in Minnesota wants red cedar. He looks over catalogues and 
finds a firm in southern Illinois offering seedlings very cheap. 
They are the genuine red cedar all right, but they are all dead 
the following spring. Had he paid five times as much for Min- 
nesota stock he would have been far ahead. 



REPORT OF C. S. HARRISON, DELEGATE. 257 

A man in Manitoba sees cottonwood growing and determines 
to have some. He sees them offered cheap in a Nebraska nursery 
and buys a lot, but none of them can live, for they are southern 
born and bred. Had he taken them from the Manitoba streams, 
he w^ould have been all right. So with boxelder, called Manitoba 
maple. The natives are all right, but those imported from Ne- 
braska or Kansas would be a failure. Carry this further. 
Rocky Mountain evergreens grown from seed gathered in the 
foot hills are all right for the plains, for the conditions are sim- 
ilar. The same trees planted in the north would be too tender^ 
as they have found to their cost in Minnesota. 

On the other hand seedlings raised from seed of the high alti- 
tudes which corresponds to almost arctic conditions would be 
worthless on the plains, but all right for Manitoba. These 
things are too little regarded, but we must accept these facts 
and act accordingly if we would have success. 

THE POSSIBILITIES OF FLORICULTURE. 

The next paper was on "The Possibilities of Floriculture," 
by C. S. Harrison of York, Nebraska. Tlie writer presented 
the second chapter of his forthcoming book, "The Gold Mine 
in the Front Yard; How to Work It" soon to be issued by the 
Webb Publishing company of St. Paul. 

He spoke of the wonderful carpet captured by the Saracens 
from the Persians. This was 450 feet long and 590 feet wide. 
It was set with gems, to imitate a flowering garden. He said: 
"We cannot own a carpet like this, but there was only one of it, 
while millions of people could have carpets of flowers fully as 
beautiful. ' ' He spoke of standing by the original Concord grape 
in the old, historic town in Massachusetts; that humble vine 
was worth more by far than the choicest gems ever discovered. 

He spoke of the charms of finding new things in the fields of 
floriculture, and said that Rosenfield of Nebraska and Terry of 
Iowa were finding several gems richer than diamonds, which 
were bringing beauty and joy to thousands of homes. 

T. T. Bachellor of Minneapolis read an extremely interesting 
paper on garden experiments. He referred to what the writer 
said a year before, "that never had an acre in the west been put 



258 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to its best. " He had been trying to see what could be done 
with a few lots, and he was gratified with the results. His 
paper showed how much of beauty and utility a busy man 
could get out of a small piece of ground. The subject did not 
seem large when he commenced on it, but it grew as he un- 
folded it. 

Wyman Elliott of Minneapolis, that veteran in horticulture, 
gave some short "chop talks" hints gathered here and there. 

He emphasized one point we wish to note. There is now 
special attention given to raising seedling apples from the 
hardiest kinds. He said the seedlings should stand till they 
were two to three years old, and then pick out those that had 
the largest and healthiest leaves and the smoothest twigs. That 
the crooked, thorny ones with small leaves never could amount 
to anything and should go on the brush pile to begin with. 

PROBLEMS OF THE PRAIRIE. 

Prof. Erwin of Ames, Iowa, gave an interesting paper on 
"Prairie Problems," and some of the difficulties to be encoun- 
tered. First, there is less rainfall on the prairie than in the 
timber belts; timber grew where it did because there the most 
rainfall came. Again, the winds were unobstructed on the 
prairie, and they pumped out the moisture. Wind at thirty 
miles an hour drank up more moisture in one day than would 
be absorbed in calm weather in a week, and this emjihasized the 
need of evergreen wind breaks, which would deflect the wind 
upward. 

Another difficulty in orcharding on the prairies was, good 
rich ground was very poor orchard ground. The trees grew 
too rank and made wood rather than fruit. Land somewhat 
broken, with clayey soil was better for apples. 

Preston McCully of Maple Plain read a very helpful paper on 
ginseng culture, at which he seemed quite successful. Then 
the meeting was confronted by the ginseng disease bulletin of 
Cornell, giving warning to six dangerous diseases which were 
getting away with these roots rapidly. 

George W. Strand, who is an up-to-date nurseryman and hor- 
ticultural editor of one of our great farm papers, gave an inter- 



REPORT OF C. S. HARRISON. DELEGATE. 259 

esting address on the apple orchard in March and April. Mr. 
Strand is located at Taylor's Palls. 

Prof. Washburn of St. Anthony Park, connected with the 
Minnesota Experiment station, gave an interesting paper on the 
plum curculio as a foe to the apple. He had cuts showing the 
damage they inflicted. Nurtured in the plum orchard when the 
food there was not sufficient, they took to the apples, often 
ruining whole orchards. The matter was thoroughly discussed 
and a warfare planned against the pest. 

A leading plum grower gave his experience. He had no 
trouble now that he understood the business. He kept hens in 
his plum orchard and cultivated the ground every week or two. 
He gave those in hiding no rest, and the chickens were on the 
alert to catch everything they could find, and he was rewarded 
with an enormous crop of perfect fruit. Jarring the trees was 
recommended. There must be a sudden jar; shaking was not 
enough. Give the rascals a sudden shock and they fall. Have 
a sheet ready to catch them. But the hen cure seems the best 
of all. It pays to keep fowls. The more you have and the 
more they lay the higher their products, and when the little 
faithful chemists can transform such worthless pests into good, 
wholesome eggs, better give her a chance, and let orcharding 
and chickens go together. No use in trying the hap-hazard way 
of letting an orchard take care of itself; with that system you 
court a failure. 

PLUMS AND CHERRIES. 

Minnesota seems weU adapted to the plum. Nowhere in all 
the west can you find finer native plums than in this state. I 
well remember that along in the '50s we used to go out plum 
gathering, and as the crop lasted for weeks we had fine times, 
often bringing bushels of splendid and luscious fruits. In those 
days there was no curculio, and the fruit was perfect. By gen- 
eral consent the most popular and successful plum is the Sur- 
prise, which seems by far to lead all others. 

When you reach the center of Minnesota — dividing the state 
north and south — you cross the cherry belt, and there does not 
seem to be much use in trying to move the belt farther north at 
present, unless some new kinds or new methods can be chosen. 



260 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The last two wet seasons seem to have given the parting 
blow to the cherry business, giving the trees the rust to the 
extent that the last winter finished them. 

There were ten experiment stations represented and their 
reports were very interesting. As a general thing pears were 
not a success and cherries were failures, except the Homer, 
which is a large black morello, which sprouts freely and thus 
reproduces itself. Plums were good and apples were gener- 
ally a success. For strawberries, the Senator Dunlap took the 
lead of all others; besides this were the leading sorts which do 
well in Nebraska and Iowa. 

woman's auxiliary. 

The Minnesota State Horticultural society makes way for the 
womenWednesday afternoon and for the State Forestry associa- 
tion Thursday afternoon, and thus extends a helping hand and a 
cordial reception to two of its most helpful auxiliaries. 

Dr. Mary S. Uhelston of Minneapolis gave a very interesting 
address on apples as a healthy diet. Miss Margaret J. Evans 
gave a genial, sensible and suggestive address on hospitality 
and the simple life as advocated by Wagner. 

Trimming orchards was discussed with a good deal of vigor. 
Some advocated pruning any time of the year, but the best in- 
formed thought June was the proper time for them, as the tree 
was most active and would heal the soonest. It it well known 
that the tree understands self-surgery, and if a limb is cut off 
near the bark this immediately grows over the wound, just as 
the surgeon makes a flap of flesh cover the bone when he saws 
off a limb. 

Mrs. N. S. Sawyer of Excelsior, gave an interesting paper on 
flowers, recommending planting in masses and so arranging a 
succession as to have blossoms from early spring till the killing 
frost of autumn. 

While in Minneapolis I received a telegram from Dr. A. T. 
Peters of the Nebraska University, asking me to secure the 
services of Prof. Green for one of the leading sessions of our 
great association week at Lincoln. The professor thinks he 
can be with us. Most of our scientific men are scholars rather 



REPORT OF MINDEN EXPERIMENT STATION. 261 

than speakers. Prof. Green is a good talker with a clear, full 
voice, and he can hold an audience and pour redhot facts into 
it. Let all hear Prof. Green. 

Thursday afternoon the meeting was turned over to the 
Forestry association. The veteran General C. C. Andrews made 
a stirring address. A paper was read prepared by the game 
warden on "Forestry and Game Protection." Forest and game 
go together. The fish and game of Minnesota are worth over 
$1,000,000 a year, and the state of Maine receives several mil- 
lions a year from those who fish in its lakes and streams and 
travel in its forests. 

FORESTRY AS RELATED TO THE FARM. 

One of the most important addresses of the session was given 
by Mrs. Lidia Phillips WiUiams of Minneapolis on "Forestry as 
Related to the Farm." The address was replete with practical 
points and humor. She described a visit to Washington to con- 
fer with Minnesota congressmen and enlist their efforts in the 
forest reserves. She spoke of the woods on the farm and that 
the two were intimately associated. She said that many cases 
of insanity among women dated back to treeless and cheerless 
homes, and the terrible drudgery and monotony of unadorned 
and desolate homes. 

The annual banquet is always an interesting feature where 
there is "the feast of reason and the flow of soul," and full vent 
is given to wit and humor. One hundred and twenty-five were 
present, paying seventy-flve cents each for tickets. I think the 
Minnesota Horticultural society the best in the world. It has 
1,800 members and another year will bring it up to 2,000. The 
reason is that it has one of the most energetic and business-like 
secretaries that can be found, who puts his life into the work. 
The members are grand, wholesome men, who have fought their 
way through many a defeat to sure victory. 



REPORT OF MINDEN EXPERIMENT STATION. 

BY G. A. STRAND. 

Mr. President and Members of Neljraska State Horticultiira2 So- 
ciety, Gentlemen: I beg leave to report from Minden Experiment 
Station as follows: 



262 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The trees are young; they were planted in 1900 and 1901. 
Nearly all were peach and plum trees. The plums are mostly 
European and Japanese varieties. In 1899 I planted foreign 
plums but of different varieties from those sent me by your 
association. I have about twenty varieties of the foreign plums. 
Wickson have fruited, color greenish yellow, sweet. Dorma 
fruit blue, meat nearly green, sour, and a cling, size medium. 
All the varieties are in good healthy condition. They have 
made a better growth than any of the American varieties, but 
I am in doubt that they will ever give to the planter the returns 
in dollars and cents that the American plums will. The Amer- 
ican varieties are ten to fifteen years old, and consist of Robin- 
son, Wild Goose, Miner, Wolf, Pottawatamie, Forest Garden and 
De Soto. All except the Robinson had the largest crop and the 
cleanest fruit they ever had. The insects did not bother them 
last season. 

Peaches planted in 1901. Experiment. Twelve varieties. 
See report of 1902. Trees in fine condition. Three varieties 
fruited. Russell, six trees, had about five bushels of peaches 
last season. Wright fruited well, also Coolidge, fruit large and 
handsome. I had some older trees which fruited well, namely 
the Bokara, Elberta and Champion. 

Lincoln and Suddeth pears living, and showing no blight. 

Baldwin and Terry cherries killed by the shot hole fungus 
in fall of 1903. 



REPORT OP CHAMBERS EXPERIMENT STATION. 

BY J. L. COPPOC. 

Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society: I beg to submit the following report of my work as di- 
rector of the Chambers Experiment Station. The past season 
has been one of great encouragement to the horticultural in- 
terests of this part of the state. 

APPLES. 

All trees of this fruit old and large enough to bear were loaded 
with the finest apples, as to size, coloring and flavor. They 
were also very free from worms and disease. The season of 



REPORT OF CHAMBERS EXPERIMENT STATION. . 263 

1904 has been so favorable that it is difficult to determine which 
did the best. One Ben Davis tree six years old from planting 
yielded three bushels of very large, nicely colored fruit. The 
Iowa Blush of the same age only produced a few specimens, but 
the trees are in fine condition. The Whitneys were so full of 
fruit that I thought best to thin them, and in fact, this was the 
case with the Tetofska, Maiden's Blush, Roman Stem and 
Ben Davis. 

CHERRIES. 

Cherries of all varieties except the Vilna Sweet and Yellow 
Glass have borne full crops. The varieties mentioned have given 
no evidence so far of any value. Of eight varieties tested at 
this station, I think the Early Richmond would be counted the 
best, all things conside red, with the Montmorency a close second. 
But this is not speaking disparagingly of the other sorts, as all 
the sour cherries did well. 

PLUMS. 

I have not much to report in regard to plums, as most of my 
planting of these were on too low ground for the wet seasons 
just past. The later planting has not come into bearing yet. 
One Wolf tree yielded one and one-half bushels of very nice 
fruit. 

PEACHES. 

It has been thought that peaches could not be grown as far 
north as this, but the season of 1904 has proven that the hardy 
varieties will do well here. One tree of the Bokara No. 3 yielded 
three pecks in 1904, its first crop. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Strawberries have exceeded all expectations here. I have 
only tested two sorts, the Bederwood and the Warfield, both of 
which have proven to be well suited to this soil and climate. I 
will be able to report upon the behavior of several other varieties 
next year, 

ORNAMENTAL TREES AND FLOWERING SHRUBS. 

Of the twenty dollars worth of these, kindly donated by Rev. 
C. S. Harrisons of York, everything made a good growth and 



264 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

there was but little loss except Buffalo Berries which appear 
not to be suited to this soil. The Thurlow Willows made a very 
large growth from cuttings, some of them made a growth of 
seven feet in height with limbs two feet long. 

FRUIT BUDS. 

All fruit trees are budded for a large crop next year except 
cherries, and the older trees of these give promise of a fair crop. 
Peaches are well budded, and the buds are uninjured, unless 
the late cold w^eather (the mercury fell to twenty?- below zero) has 
affected them. 

PROTECTORS. 

I have tried several kinds of tree protectors, but have found 
nothing so satisfactory as the wood veneer protectors. They 
cost less than a cent apiece. I use them on all my young fruit 
trees. For fasteners I use No. 20 spool wire, cutting it into 
proper lengths. I soak the protectors until they are thoroughly 
pliable, wrap them around the trees pressing them into the 
ground about two inches, making the circle at the top a little 
smaller so that the wire will not slip down, place the wire round 
the protector above the middle and giving it two or three twists 
and the work is done. 



REPORT OF VALENTINE STATION. 

BY C. M. VAN METRE. 

Mr. L. M. Russell, Secretary State Horticultural Society, Lincoln, 
Nebraska. Dear Sir: Please find enclosed report of Valentine 
station. 

The peach trees we planted are in hedge form, one row thirty 
rods long, 160 trees and had twelve baskets of peaches in 1903, 
thirty-seven in 1904, and never were in as fine condition as now. 
I do nothing whatever except sit on the disc and let the horses 
draw it up one side the row and down the other, then gather, 
can and eat. My wife and I can forty quarts a day, and they 
keep perfectly in the Mason jars. But I want peaches that will 
ripen a little earlier. We are liable to lose a crop by the early 



REPORT OF SANDOZ EXPERIMENT STATION. 265 

freeze. This year the freeze came at the last of October and 
there were a few peaches left on the trees at the time. 

The experiment of this last season with strawberries was with 
twenty-four varieties from the R. M. Kellogg Company of Three 
Rivers, Michigan. A new method looking to overcome the ad- 
verse climatic conditions to the strawberry was planned, and 
some good beds of plants were secured. Will report fully on 
this at the 1906 meeting. Would like to try other varieties this 
firm catalogues the coming season, also a few varieties of 
peaches. 



REPORT OF SANDOZ EXPERIMENT STATION. 

BY JULES A. SANDOZ. 

Mr. President and Members of the State Horticultural Society, 
Lincoln, Nebraska. Gentlemen: Not being able to attend the 
meeting in person, I hereby report by mail as follows: 

All the trees planted and cared for by me have made a good 
growth during 1904. I have now several plats, altogether about 
three thousand trees, and keep a close record of every one. I 
replant every spring every one missing. Rain is sufficient here 
for all kinds of fruit trees, and that on the driest land in the 
north-west, with clean cultivation, of course. All the Plum trees 
were loaded with fruit as usual but only the earliest ones such 
as Sandoz, Bizeby and Rockford ripened well. Others like De 
Soto, Wyant and Hawkeye were frozen on the trees, yet in a 
green state, in the first part of September. Cherries were all 
loaded, but one Terry tree sent me by the Society three years 
ago was a beauty. Such a beautiful growth and loaded with the 
finest of large cherries on such poor dry, sandy land makes this 
variety suitable for north-west Nebraska. I predict that in 
cherries, plums and pears the north-west will outdo the east, as 
soon as such trees are planted here in a commercial way. In 
fact we have the altitude of Colorado, with better soils and more 
rainfall, no irrigation needed. I have eleven varieties of pears 
which have now stood two winters unharmed, and this where 
the Ben Davis and Wealthy apples winter-kill. Some of the 



266 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

pear trees will bear the coming summer. I had also Florence 
crabapple trees loaded with line fruit. All Japanese plums 
winter-kill with me on sandy conglomerate soil, but the Burbank 
is bearing six miles north from here at the farm of Mr. Dreyer. 
Sweet cherries always winter-kill here, but in Rushville there 
is a tree in the garden of Banker Musser, against a high brick 
wall on the north side, which has stood several winters un- 
harmed, and will likely bear the coming summer. This shows 
that with the Burbank also the soil and location have to do with 
the resistance of trees. 

European plums I always reported as worthless here, but 
years ago I got from Professor Budd a lot of Glass seedling 
plums. They all winter- killed, but I happened to graft two on 
with native. These trees have grown well and last summer 
were loaded with large blue prunes that ripened well before the 
frost. This I must add to recommend list for these parts. I 
believe that many more trees that winter-kill on usual nursery 
roots would do well if grafted on hardier stock like the native 
Sandoz. I am going to try the Japanese varieties again that 
way. The season being so short here, only the earlier plums, 
apples and pears will do, but these do so well as to fully repay 
for those that do not ripen. Spring frosts have no effect on 
trees here. All plums stand heavy frosts during or after blos- 
soms. So do the cherries with land practically free. I am still 
locating settlers on 640 acre homesteads. This part of the 
country ought to draw a big immigration, but this has been dis- 
couraged by our big cattle men who in some cases hold hun- 
dreds of sections by hobo filings which will not stand a $10 con- 
test. Potatoes are being raised extensively here, also corn and 
wheat, and I am proving and showing to everyone here that fruit 
of the best quality like the Colorado brands can be raised here 
with limit. There are scattered through the country a few 
apple trees which have been bearing" for years, mostly in the 
town gardens, the only place where I would plant two year trees. 
On the open two year cherry do fairly well, but two year apple 
and plums are worthless. I have still lots of land, and if the 
society think it proper I would like to have more varieties of 
pears and hardiest peaches for spring planting. I have found 
out that they are raising lots of Flemish Beauty pears one-hun- 
dred miles north-west from here in Dakota. 



REPORT OF S ANDOZ EXPERIMENT STATION. 267 

There are no insect pests or tree diseases here. I had a few 
tent caterpillars at first but have burned them and have not seen 
any for two years. 

The 'pocket gophers will clean out an orchard if given a 
chance, also alfalfa which is being grown quite extensively here 
without irrigation. But the gopher can be tamed with a New- 
house trap or strychnine in potatoes. Prairie chickens or Grouse 
is the worst enemy we have to contend with. There are thous- 
ands of them on my place and they eat the blossom buds of 
cherries and plums, and I have to Mil them every day or give 
fruit raising up. 

Irrigation is what north-west Nebraska needs, and fruit rais- 
ing will take care of itself. 



The following resolution was passed by the Executive Board 
of the Society: 

Resolved, That we, the Executive Board of the Nebraska 
State Horticultural Society, in Executive Session, approve the 
efforts of Mr. G. W, Alexander in producing new varieties of 
grapes for the west, and heartily commend his efforts in pro- 
ducing such varieties. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 269. 



REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING 

THE STATE. 

We, your committee, to whom was referred the matter of 
redistricting the state and revision of the hst of fruits and orna- 
mentals recommended for general planting in Nebraska, beg to 
submit the following report: 

APPLES. 

For District No. 1, comprising the counties of Richardson, 
Nemaha, Otoe, Johnson, and Pawnee, we recommend the fol- 
lowing varieties of apples for general planting: 

Summer: Duchess, Coopers 's Early White, Cole's Quince, 
Early Harvest, and Sweet June. 

For second choice we recommend Red Astrachan. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Maiden's Blush, Famuse, Dyer, and 
Warfield. 

Winter: Grime's Golden, Winesap, Jonathan, Gano, Ben 
Davis, Salome, N. W. Greening, Missouri Pippin, and Virginia 
Beauty. 

For District No. 2, comprising Cass, Sarpy, Douglas, Wash- 
ington, Burt, Dodge, and Saunders counties, we recommend 
the following for general planting: 

Summer: Duchess, Yellow Transparent, Cole's Quince, Dyer, 
Sweet June, Red Astrachan, Red June, Chenango Strawberry, 
Early Pennock, Early Harvest, American Summer Pearmain, 
Benoni, and Summer Hagloe. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Utter 's Red, Maiden's Blush, Ramsdell 
Sweet, Fulton Strawberry, Flora BeUe, Plumb's Cider, Famuse,. 
Warfield, Porter, Fulton, and McMahon's White. 

Winter: Ben Davis, Gano, Wine Sap, Windsor, Jonathan^ 
Grime's Golden, Janet, N. W. Greening, Salome, Ingram, Black 
Twig, and Isham Sweet. 

For second choice we recommend Missouri Pippin and Iowa 
Blush. 

For District No. 3, comprising Stanton, Thurston, Wayne,. 



270 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Dakota, Dixon, and Cedar counties, we recommend the follow- 
ing varieties for general planting: 

Summer: Duchess and Yellow Transparent. 

For second choice, Red Astrachan and Sweet June. 

For trial,- Summer Hagloe. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Utter 's Red, Flora Belle, Famuse, and 
Ramsdell Sweet. 

For second choice. Maiden's Blush and Plumb's Cider. 

For trial, Warfield and McMahon's White. 

Winter: First choice for entire district — N. W. Greening, 
Salome, and Janet. 

First choice for south half of district: Ben Davis, Gano, and 
Wine Sap. 

Second choice for entire district: Iowa Blush and Missouri 
Pippin. 

For trial, Windsor. 

For District No. 4, comprising Gage, Jefferson, Saline, and 
Lancaster counties, we recommend the following varieties for 
general planting: 

Summer: Yellow Transparent, Duchess, Cooper's Early 
White, Early Harvest, Red June, and Sweet June. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Maiden's Blush, Famuse and Utter 's Red. 

Winter: Ben Davis, Gano, Wine Sap, Jonathan, Grime's 
Golden, Missouri Pippin, and N. W. Greening. 

For District No. 5, comprising Thayer, Nuckolls, Fillmore, 
and Clay counties, we recommend the following varieties for 
general planting: 

Summer: Duchess, Cooper's Early White, Cole's Quince, 
Early Harvest, Red June, and Sweet June. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Maiden's Blush, Famuse, Dyer, and 
Warfield. 

Winter: Ben Davis, Gano, Wine Sap Jonathan, Grime's 
Golden, Janet, and Missouri Pippin. 

For District No. 6, comprising Seward, Butler, Polk, York, 
and Hamilton counties, we recommend the following varieties 
for general planting: 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 271 

Summer: Yellow Transparent, Early Harvest, Cooper's 
Early White, Red June, Duchess, Summer Queen, and Sweet 
June. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Maiden's Blush, Utter's Red, Patton's 
Greening, Wolf River, Peerless, and Snow. 

Winter: Wine Sap, Missouri Pippin, Ben Davis, N. W. Green- 
ing, Janet, Salome, Walbridge, Ingram, M. B. Twig, Gano, 
Jonathan, Iowa Blush, Grime's Golden, York Imperial, Minkler, 
and Rome Beauty. 

For District No. 7, comprising Colfax, Platte, Boone, Nance, 
and Merrick counties, we recommend the following varieties 
for general planting: 

Summer: Yellow Transparent and Duchess. 

For second choice, Sweet June. 

For trial. Summer Hagloe. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Utter's Red, Ramsdell Sweet. 

For second choice, Plumb's Cider, Flora Belle, Famuse, and 
Maiden's Blush. 

For trial, Warfield. 

Winter: Ben Davis, Gano, Wine Sap, Janet, and N. W. 
Greening. 

For second choice, Iowa Blush and Missouri Pippin. 

For trial, Solome, Black Twig, and Windsor. 

For District No. 8, comprising Madison, Pierce, Antelope, and 
Knox counties, the following varieties are recommended for 
general planting: 

Summer: Duchess and Yellow Transparent. 

For second choice. Red Astrachan and Tetofska. 

For trial. Summer Hagloe and Sweet June. 

Autumn: Wealthy and Utter's Red. 

For second choice we recommend Plumb's Cider, Flora Belle, 
Snow, Ramsdell Sweet, and Maiden's Blush. 
For trial, Warfield and McMahon's White. 

Winter: First choice for entire district — N. W. Greening, 
Salome, and Janet. 



272 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

To be added for south half of district — Ben Davis, Gano, and 
Wine Sap. 

Second choice for entire district — Iowa Blush, Missouri Pip- 
pin, and Walbridge. 

For trial in entire district — Windsor. 

For District No. 9, comprising Holt, Boyd, KeyaPaha, Brown, 
and Rock counties, we recommend the following varieties for 
general planting: 

Summer: Duchess, Yellow Transparent, and Summer Hagloe. 

For trial. Red Astrachan. 

Autumn: Wealthy and Utter' s Red. 

For trial. Maiden's Blush and Plumb's Cider. 

Winter: Salome, N. W. Greening, Janet, Iowa Blush, Wine 
Sap, Walbridge, and Ben Davis. 

For District No. 10, comprising Howard, Greeley, Wheeler, 
Garfield, Valley, Sherman, Custer, Loup, and Blaine counties, 
we recommend the following varieties for general planting: 

Summer: Yellow Transparent, Early Harvest, Cooper's 
Early White, Duchess, and Sweet June. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Maiden's Blush, Utter's Red, and Pat- 
ton's Greening. 

Winter: Missouri Pippin, Ben Davis, N. W. Greening, Salome, 
Walbridge, Janet, Gano, Jonathan, Iowa Blush, and Grime's 
Golden. 

For District No. 11, comprising Hall and Buffalo counties, we 
recommend the following varieties for general planting: 

Summer: Yellow Transparent, Early Harvest, Cooper's Early 
White, Red June, Duchess, and Sweet June. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Maiden's Blush, Utter's Red, Patton's 
Greening, Wolf River, and Snow. 

Winter: Wine Sap, Missouri Pippin, Ben Davis, N. W. Green- 
ing, Janet, Salome, Walbridge, M, B. Twig, Gano, Jonathan, 
Iowa Blush, Grime's Golden, and York Imperial. 

For District No. 12, comprising Adams, Webster, Franklin, 
Kearney, Phelps, and Harlan counties, we recommend the fol- 
lowing varieties for general planting: 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 273 

Summer: Yellow Transparent, Early Harvest, Cooper's 
Early White, and Duchess. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Utter 's Red, and Plumb's Cider. 

Winter: Wine Sap, Missouri Pippin, Ben Davis, N. W. Green- 
ing, Salome, Gano, Jonathan, Iowa Blush, Grime's Golden, and 
Janet. 

For District No. 13, comprising Furnas, Gosper, Frontier, and 
Red Willow counties, we recommend the following varieties for 
general planting: 

Summer: Duchess and Cooper's Early White. 

Autumn: Wealthy and Maiden's Blush. 

Winter: Wine Sap, Missouri Pippin, Janet, Ben Davis and 
Gano. 

For District No. 14, comprising Dawson, Lincoln, and Keith 
counties, we recommend the following for general planting: 

Summer: Duchess, Early Harvest, and Yellow Transparent. 

Autumn: Wealthy and Utter's Red. 

Winter: Ben Davis, Wine Sap, Janet, Missouri Pippin, and 
Jonathan. 

For District No. 15, comprising Hitchcock, Hayes, Perkins, 
Chase, and Dundy counties, we recommend the following va- 
rieties for general planting : 

Summer: Duchess and Yellow Transparent. 

Autumn: Wealthy, Utter's Red, and Famuse. 

Winter: N. W. Greening, Ben Davis, Gano, Janet, and Wine 
Sap. 

For District No. 16, comprising Logan, Thomas, Hooker, 
McPherson, and Grant counties, we recommend the following 
varieties for general planting: 

Summer: Duchess. 

Autumn: Wealthy. 

Winter: Walb ridge, Iowa Blush, and N. W. Greening. 

For District No. 17, comprising Cherry and Sheridan coun- 
ties, we recommend the following varieties for general planting 
on dryland with good care: 

Summer: Duchess. 

Autumn: Wealthy. 



274 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Any varieties recommended for districts 3, 8, or 9 will do well 
in most places in district 17. 

For District No. 18, comprising Box Butte, Dawes, and Sioux 
■counties, we recommend Duchess and Wealthy, but they must 
be given good care. 

Any varieties recommended for districts 3, 8, or 9 will do 
well in most places of district 18, under irrigation. 

For District No. 19, comprising Deuel, Cheyenne, Scotts 
Bluff, Banner, and Kimball counties, we recommend the follow- 
ing varieties for general planting: 

Summer: Duchess, Yellow Transparent, and Cooper's Early 
White. 

Autumn: Wealthy. 

Winter: Ben Davis, Gano, Janet, Grime's Golden, Iowa 
Blush, and N. W. Greening. 

APRICOTS. 

For District No. 2, we recommend the following varieties of 
Russian apricots for general planting: Alexis, Budd, and 
Moorpark. 

For Districts 6, 10, 11, 12, and 13, we recommend the Russian 
varieties of apricots. 

For District No. 7, Russion apricots are fully as hardy as the 
hardiest peaches. 

ASPARAGUS. 

For Districts 6, 10, 11, and 12, we recommend Conover's Col- 
ossal and Palmetto. 
For District No. 15, we recommend Conover's Colossal. 

BLACKBERRIES. 

For Districts 1 and 4, we recommend Snyder and Early Har- 
vest. 

For Districts 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 14, we recommend 
Snyder. 

For District No. 7, blackberries are unsuccessful except in 
damp seasons and favored locations. Snyder, and for trial, 
Stone's Hardy. 

For District No. 9, we recommend Snyder, for trial only. 



REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 275 

CHERRIES. 

For Districts 1, 4, 14, and 19, we recommend Early Richmond, 
Montmorency, and English Morrello for general planting. 

For District No. 2, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, English Morello or Wragg, and Dyehouse, 

For District No. 3, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, and English Morello. 

For trial in District No. 3, we recommend Terry, Baldwin, 
and Ostheim. 

For Districts 5 and 15, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, English Morello, and Dyehouse. 

For District No. 6, we recommend Early Richmond, Dyehouse, 
Large Montmorency, English Morello and Ostheim. 

For District No. 7, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, English Morello, or Wragg. 

For trial in District 7, we recommend Dyehouse, Baldwin, and 
Terry. 

For District No. 8, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, and English Morello. 

For trial in District 8, Terry and Baldwin. 

For District No. 9, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, English Morello, and Terry. 

For Districts 10, 11, and 12, we recommend Early Richmond, 
Large Montmorency, English Morello, Baldwin, Dyehouse, and 
Ostheim. 

For District No. 13, we recommend Early Richmond, Dye- 
house, Large Montmorency, and English Morello. 

For District No. 16, we recommend Early Richmond and 
Montmorency. 

For District No. 17, we recommend Early Richmond, Mont- 
morency, English Morello, and Dyehouse. 

For trial in District 17, Early Morello and Terry. 

For District No. 18, we recommend Early Richmond, English 
Morello, Montmorency, Dyehouse, and Terry. 



276 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

CRAB APPLES. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Whitney No. 20, Hyslop, 
and Siberian. 

For Districts 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, and 19, we recommend 
Wliitney No. 20, Hyslop, Florence, and Martha. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Whitney No. 20, Hyslop, 
Florence, Martha, and Siberian (Red and Yellow). 

For District No. 6, we recommend Whitney No. 20, Florence, 
Martha, Golden Beauty, Hyslop, and Transcendant. 

For Districts 10 and 11, we recommend Whitney No. 20, Flor- 
ence, Martha, Golden Beauty, and Hyslop. 

For District No. 12, we recommend Whitney No. 20, Florence, 
and Martha. 

For District No 13, we recommend Whitney No. 20, and 
Florence. 

For District No. 17, we recommend Whitney No. 20, General 
Grant and Virginia. 

For District No. 18, we recommend Whitney No. 20, Florence, 
Hyslop, Transcendant, and Martha. 

CURRANTS. 

For Districts 1, 4, 14, and 19, we recommend Red Dutch, Vic- 
toria, and White Grape. 

For District No. 2, we recommend Victoria, Cherry, White 
Grape, Fay's Prolific, and North Star. 

For District No. 3, we recommend Victoria, White Grape, 
Cherry, and Fay's Prolific. 

For District No. 5, we recommend Cherry, La Versailles, Vic- 
toria, Prince Albert, London Market, Red Dutch, and White 
Grape. 

For District No. 6, we recommend Victoria, Cherry, Versailles, 
and White Grape. 

For Districts 7 and 8, we recommend Victoria and White 
Grape. 

For trial in Districts 7 and 8, we recommend Cherry, Fay's 
Prohfic, and London Market. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 277 

For District No. 9, we recommend Victoria, White Grape, 
Cherry, Fay's Prolific, and London Market. 

For Districts 10, 11, and 13, we recommend Victoria, Cherry, 
Versailles, and White Grape. 

For District No. 15, we recommend Red Dutch, Victoria, 
Cherry, and White Grape. 

For District No. 16, we recommend White Grape, Victoria, 
and Cherry. 

For District No. 17, we recommend White Grape, Victoria, 
and London Market. 

For District No. 18, we recommend Victoria, White Grape, 
White Dutch, and Red Dutch. 

DEWBERRIES. 

For Districts 5, 6, 10, 11, and 12, we recommend Lucretia 
Dewberries. 

JUNEBERRIES. 

For Districts 5, 6, 10, 11, and 12, we recommend Dwarf June- 
berries. 

GOOSEBERRIES. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Downing, Houghton, In- 
dustry, and Red Jacket. 

For Districts 2, 3, and 8, we recommend Downing, Houghton, 
and Champion. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Downing, Houghton, and 
Industry. 

For Districts 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15, we recommend 
Downing and Houghton. 

For District No, 6, we recommend Downing and Pearl. 

For Districts 16, 17, and 18, we recommend Houghton. 

For Distrist No. 19, we recommend Downing, Houghton, and 
Smith's Improved. 

GRAPES. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, Niagara, Moore's Diamond, and Woodruff Red. 



278 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

For District No. 2. we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, Agawam, Brighton, Pocklington, Moore's Diamond, and 
Woodruff Red. 

For District No. 3, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, and Pocklington. 

For trial in District 3, Brighton, Agawam, and Moore's Dia- 
mond. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, and Niagara. 

For District No. 5, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, Duchess, Agawam, and Brighton. 

For District No. 6, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, Elvira, Niagara, Wyoming Red, and Pocklington. 

For District No. 7, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, and Pocklington for general planting. 

For second choice in District 7, we recommend Elvira. 

For trial in District 7, Moore's Diamond and Brighton. 

For District No. 8, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, and Pocklington for general planting. 

For trial in District 8, Moore's Diamond and Brighton. 

For District No. 9, we recommend Concrod, Worden, Moore's 
Early, Pocklington, and Moore's Diamond. Grapes should be 
covered in winter to insure success. 

For District No. 10, we recommend Concord, Worden, Moore's 
Early, Elvira, Niagara, and Wyoming Red. 

For Districts 11 and 12, we recommend Concord, Worden, 
Moore's Early, Elvira, Niagara, Wyoming Red, and Pocklington. 

For District No. 13, we recommend Concord and Elvira. 

For Districts 14 and 15, we recommend Moore's Early, Wor- 
den, Elvira, and Concord. 

For District No. 16, we recommend Concord. 

For District No. 19, we recommend Concord and Moore's 
Early. 

PEACHES. 

For Districts 1 and 4, we recommend Alexander, Early Rivers, 



REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 279 

Triumph, Hale's Early, Russell, Champion, Crosby, Hill's Chili, 
Heath Cling, Salway, and Wright. 

For District No. 2, we recommend Alexander, Early Rivers, 
Triumph, Russell, Champion, Bokara, and Wright for general 
planting in Cass and Sarpy counties, and for trial in balance of 
district. 

For District No. 3, we recommend Alexander, Triumph, 
Champion, Bokara, and Wright, for trial only. 

For District No. 5, we recommend Amsden, Alexander, Hale's 
Early, Early Rivers, Russell, Cooledge, Champion, Triumph, 
Heath Cling, Wright, Smock, and Hill's Chili. 

For Districts 6 and 11, we recommend Alexander, Early 
Rivers, Triumph, Hale's Early, Russell, Champion, Crosby, 
Hill's Chili, Wright, and Bokara. 

For District No. 7, we recommend Alexander, Triumph, 
Champion, Bokara, Russell, and Wright, for trial. 

For trial only in Districts 8 and 9, we recommend Alexander, 
Champion, Bokara, and Wright. 

For District No. 10, we recommend Alexander, Triumph, 
Russell, Bokara, Hill's Chili, Crosby, and Wright. 

For District No. 12; we recommend Alexander, Early Rivers, 
Triumph, Hale's Early, Champion, Crosby, Hill's Chili, Wright, 
and Cooledge. 

For District No. 13, we recommend Alexander, Early Rivers, 
Hale's Early, Triumph, Russell, Champion, Hill's Chili, and 
Wright. 

For District No. 14, we recommend Alexander, Early Rivers, 
Champion, Crosby, and Wright, 

For District No. 15, we recommend Alexander, Early Rivers, 
Russell, Hill's Chih, and Wright. 

For trial in Districts 17 and 18, we recommend Alexander and 
Wright. 

PEARS. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Kieffer, Bartlett, Sheldon, 
and Seckel,. 

For District No. 2, we recommend Kieffer, Flemish Beauty, 
Sheldon, Duchess, and L. B. De Jersey. 



280 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

For District No. 3, for trial only, we recommend Kieffer, 
Flemish Beauty, Sheldon, Duchess, and L. B. De Jersey. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Duchess, Flemish Beauty, 
aud Seckel. 

For District No. 5, M-e recommend Flemish Beauty, and 
Bartlett. 

For District No. 6, we recommend Flemish Beauty, Seckel, 
Duchess, and Lincoln. 

For District No. 7, for trial only, we recommend Kieffer, 
Sheldon, and Flemish Beauty. 

For Districts H and 9, for trial only, Kieffer, Sheldon, Flemish 
Beauty, and L. B. De Jersey. 

For Districts 10 and 11, for trial only, we recommend Flemish 
Beauty, Seckel, Duchess, and Lincoln. 

For District No. 12, for trial only, Flemish Beauty, Seckel, 
and Kieffer. 

For trial only in District No. 13, Seckel, Sheldon, and Flemish 
Beauty. 

For District No. 19, we recommend Flemish Beauty, Bartlett, 
and Kieffer. 

PLUMS. 

American varieties — Wild Goose, Wyant, Wolf, Forest Gar- 
den, De Soto, Stoddard, Hawkeye, Cheney, Weaver, Robinson, 
Pottawattomie, Miner, and Hammer. 

European varieties — Lombard, Shipper's Pride, Green Gage, 
Shrop, Damson, Bradshaw, German Prune, and Tagge. 

Japanese varieties — Burbank, Abundance, and Wickson. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Abundance, Wyant, Forest 
Garden, Burbank, and Wild Goose. 

For District No. 2, we recommend Wild Goose, Wyant, Wolf, 
Stoddard, Hawkeye, De Soto, Forest Garden, Lombard, Ship- 
per's Pride, Green Gage, Shrop, and Damson for general 
planting. 

For trial in District 2, we recommend Burbank, Abundance, 
and Wickson. 

For District No. 3, we recommend Forest Garden, De Soto, 



REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 281 

Lombard, Shipper's Pride, and Green Gage for general planting 
in the entire district. 

First choice for south half of district. Wild Goose. 

For trial in entire district, Burbank and Abundance. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Wyant, Hawkeye, Wild 
Goose, Forest Garden, and Burbank. 

For District No. 5, we recommend Wild Goose, Miner, Forest 
Garden, Wolf, Wyant, De Soto, Hawkeye, and Lombard. 

For District No. 6, we recommend Lombard, German Prune, 
Tagge, Burbank, Wickson, Wyant, Wolf, Weaver, De Soto, 
Forest Garden, Stoddard, Cheney, and Hawkeye. 

For District No. 7, we recommend Wild Goose, Wyant, Wolf, 
Forest Garden, Lombard, Shipper's Pride, and Green Gage for 
general planting. 

For trial in District 7, we recommend Stoddard, Burbank, and 
Abundance. 

For District No. 8, we recommend Wyant and Wolf as first 
choice for entire district. 

Second choice for entire district, De Soto, Forest Garden, 
and Stoddard. 

First choice for south half of district, Wild Goose. 

For trial in entire district, Burbank, Lombard, Shipper's 
Pride, and Green Gage, 

For District No. 9, we recommend Wyant, Wolf, Stoddard, 
De Soto, and Forest Garden. 

For District No. 10, we recommend Burbank, Wickson, Wyant, 
Wolf, Weaver, De Soto, Forest Garden, Stoddard, Cheney, and 
Hawkeye. 

For District No. 11, we recommend Lombard, German Prune, 
Burbank, Wickson, Wolf, Weaver, De Soto, Forest Garden, 
Stoddard. Cheney, and Hawkeye. 

For District No. 12, we recommend Burbank, Wickson, Wyant, 
Wolf, Weaver, De Soto, Forest Garden, Stoddard, Cheney, 
Hawkeye, Wild Goose, Robinson, and Pottawattomie. 

For District No. 13, we recommend Forest Garden, Burbank, 
Hawkeye, and Miner. 



282 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

For District No. 14, we recommend Wyant, De Soto, Forest 
Garden, Hawkeye, and Lombard. 

For District No. 15, we recommend Forest Garden, Hawkeye, 
Wolf, and De Soto. 

For District No. 16, we recommend Stoddard, Cheney, De 
Soto, Forest Garden, Wolf, and Wyant. 

For District No. 17, we recommend Wyant, Stoddard, Cheney, 
and Hammer. 

For District No. 18, we recommend Wyant, Stoddard, Cheney, 
Hammer, Lombard, and Shipper's Pride. 

For District No. 19, we recommend Forest Garden, Wolf, 
Pottawattomie, De Soto, Cheney, and Stoddard. 

RASPBERRIES. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Cumberland, Kansas, 
Gregg, Nemaha, Turner (Red), Cardinal (Purple). 

For District No. 2, we recommend Nemaha, Kansas, Palmer, 
and Cumberland. 

For District No. 3, we recommend Nemaha, Kansas, Palmer, 
and Columbia. 

Cumberland for river counties and balance of district 3. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Kansas, Palmer, Gregg, 
and Turner. 

For Districts 5 and 9, we recommend Kansas, Palmer, and 
Nemaha. 

For Districts 6 and 10, we recommend Cumberland, Kansas, 
Gregg, and Ohio. 

For District No. 7, we recommend Nemaha, Kansas, and Pal- 
mer. Successful only in damp seasons or favored locations. 

For District No. 8, first choice for river counties and for trial 
in balance of district, we recommend Nemaha, Kansas, Palmer, 
Cumberland, and Columbia. 

For trial in entire district, Cardinal. 

For Districts 11, 12, 14, 18, and 19, we recommend Cumber- 
land, and Kansas. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON REDISTRICTING THE STATE. 28S 

RHUBARB. 

For Districts 6, 10, and 11, we recommend the following vari- 
eties of rhubarb: Linnaeus and Victoria. 

For District No. 15, Linnaeus. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Aroma, August Luther, Bederwood, Brandywine, Clyde,. 
Gandy, Senator Dunlap, and Splendid are Staminate or self- 
fertilizing varieties. 

Crescent, Haverland, Sample, and Warfield are Pistillate va- 
rieties, and should be planted with Staminate varieties for 
fertilization. 

For District No. 1, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Splendid,. 
Bederwood, Crescent, Gandy, and August Luther. 

For Districts 2, 3, and 9, we recommend Senator Dunlap,. 
Splendid, Bederwood, Crescent, Sample, and Warfield. 

For District No. 4, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Splendid,. 
Bederwood, Crescent, and Gandy. 

For District No. 5, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Clyde, 
Bederwood, Crescent, and Warfield. 

For District No. 6, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Warfield, 
Sample, Aroma, and Haverland. 

For District No. 7, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Warfield,. 
Crescent, and Bederwood. 

For trial in District 7, Sample and Splendid. 

For Districts 8, 9, and 18, we recommend Senator Dunlap,. 
Sample, Warfield, Bederwood, Splendid, and Crescent. 

For Districts 10 and 12, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Sam- 
ple, Warfield, Aroma, Haverland, and Crescent. 

For District No. 11, we recommend Senator Dunlap, Sample, 
Warfield, Aroma, Haverland, and Bederwood. 

For Districts 13 and 15, we recommend Bederwood, Warfield, 
Crescent, and Senator Dunlap. 

For District No. 14, we recommend Senator Dunlap, August 
Luther, Splendid, Bederwood, and Crescent. 



284 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

For District No. 17, we recommend Crescent, Bederwood, 
and Warfield. 

For District No. 19, we recommend Warfield, Senator Dunlap, 
Brandywine, Gandy, and Crescent. 



LIST OF ORNAMENTALS. 

INCLUDING TREES, SHRUBS, ROSES, ^aNES, BULBS, ETC., WHICH 

APPLIES TO THE ENTIRE STATE, EXCEPT WHERE 

OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 





HARDY 


SHRUBS. 


Snowball 




Prunifolia. 


Hydrangea Paniculata Grandi- 


Golden Leaf (Aurea). 


flora. 




High Bush Cranberry. 


Syringa, all kinds. 




Altheas. 


Weigelia, Variegated and Rosea. 


Caragana. 


Flowering Almond. 




Yucca Filamentosa. 


Lilac, all kinds. 




Forsythia. 


Spireas as follows: 




Purple Berberry. 


Van Houtii. 




Golden Leal Alder. 


Arguta. 




Tamerix Amuerensis. 


Thunbergii. 




Dogwood. 


Collosa Alba and Rut 


)rea. 


Wahoo. 


Anthony Waterer. 




Rosa Rugosa. 


Bumalda. 




Bechtel Flowering Crab 


Billardii. 




Moss Accacia. 




BULBS AND TUBERS. 


Paeonias. 




Dahlias. 


Tulips. 




Gladiolas. 


Lilies. 




Tuberoses. 




PERENNIALS. 


Phlox. 


* 


Iris. 


Oriental Poppy. 




Larkspur. 


Columbine. 




Foxglove. 


Gaillardia. 




Cannas. 



LIST OF ORNAMENTALS. 



285 



Bleeding Heart. 
Golden Glow. 



American Ivy 

Quinquefolia). 
Honeysuckles. 
Wistaria. 



Caladium. 

CLIMBERS. 

(Ampelopsis Trumpet Vine. 
Clematis. 
Bitter Sweet. 



CLIMBING ROSES. 



Crimson Bambler. 
White Rambler. 
Wichuriana-creeper. 

Harrison's Yellow. 
Persian Yellow. 



Luxembourg. 
Crested Moss. 

HYBRID 

Alfred Colomb. 
Anne De Diesbach. 
Margaret Dickson. 
Baron de Bonstetten. 
Coquette Des Alps. 
Mabel Morrison. 
Prince Camille de Rohn. 
Tom Wood. 
Marshall P. Wilder. 



Prairie Queen. 
Baltimore Belle. 



JUNE ROSES. 

Madam Plantier. 

MOSS ROSES. 

Glory of Mosses. 
White Moss, 

PERPETUAL ROSES. 

General Jacqueminot. 
John Hopper. 
Ulrich Bruner. 
Paul Neyron. 
Magna Charta. 
Madame Chas. Wood. 
Fisher Holmes. 
Jules Margotten. 
Mrs. John Lang. 



WEEPING TREES. 



Thurlow Weeping Willow. 
Teas Weeping Mulberry. 



Camperdown Weeping Elm. 
Cut Leaf Weeping Birch. 



Hackberry, 
Sycamore (S. E. part) 
Carolina Poplar. 



ORNAMENTAL SHADE TREES. 

Catalpa Speciosa (S. E. part). 
American Linden. 
White Birch. 



286 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



European Mt. Ash. 

Black Walnut. 

Butternut. 

Ash. 

Soft Maple. 

Elm. 



Horse Chestnut (S. E. part). 

Sweet Chestnut (S. E. part). 

Russian Olive. 

Oaks. 

Hard Maple (Extreme East). 

Russian Mulberry. 



Berberry. 
Japan Quince. 
Spirea. 

Osage Orange. 
Honey Locust. 



Elm. 

Ash. 

Soft Maple. 

Catalpa Speciosa. 

Walnut. 

Black Hills Spruce. 
Pungens. 

Englemon Spruce. 
Douglas Spruce. 
Concoler. 



ORNAMENTAL HEDGE. 

California Privet, 
Tamerix. 

COMMON HEDGE. 

Russian Mulberry. 

FOREST TREES. 

Honey Locust. 
Russian Mnlberry. 
Osage Orange. 
Box Elder. 

EVERGREENS. 

Ponderosa Pine. 

Austrian Pine. 

Scotch Pine. 

White Pine (Extreme East). 

Balsam Fir. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. A. Marshall, Chairman. 

G. A. Strand. 

A. J. Brown. 

C. H. Barnard. 

W. G. Swan. 

G. N. Titus. 

E. F. Stephens. 

H. S. Harrison. 

W. F. Jenkins. 

Committee. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 287 

SECRETARY'S REPORT. 
The following warrants have been drawn on the Treasurer: 

No. 

106 G. S. Christy Per diem winter meeting $15 00 

107 W. J. Hesser Per diem 12 00 

108 E. M. Pollard " " 9 00 

109 Peter Youngers Per diem 12 00 

110 H.S.Harrison " " 12 00 

111 J. G.NefE " " 9 00 

112 C.H.Barnard " " 12 00 

113 G. S. Christy, Delegate to Missouri State Society.. 10 00 
'114 FrankG. Stephens, Delegate to Illinois State Society 10 00 

115 J. W. Brewster, Part pay reporting winter meeting 25 00 

116 W. J. Blystone, Drayage 2 00 

117 loungers & Co., Apples furnished at State Farm for 

Lunch 15 00 

118 L. M. Russell, Postage and Express, 15 25 

119 Lindell Hotel, Board Delegate from Iowa 4 00 

120 L. M. Russell, Postage 15 00 

121 L.M.Russell, Salary 125 00 

122 L. M. RusseU, Salary 125 00 

123 C. S. Harrison, Stock for York Experiment Station 20 00 

124 Marshall Bros., Stock for stations Valentine and 

Sandoz 20 90 

125 C. H. Barnard, Stock for Chambers station 2 25 

126 R. M. Kellogg Co., Stock for Valentine station 9 95 

127 J. W. Brewster, Balance reporting winter meeting 25 00 

128 G. S. Christy, Per diem Summer meeting 12 00 

129 Peter Youngers, Per diem 12 00 

130 Chas. L. Saunders, Per diem Summer meeting 9 00 

131 Chas. H. Green, Per diem 12 00 

132 H.S.Harrison, " " 12 00 

133 G. A. Marshall, " " 12 00 

134 J. E. Ferris, Part pay reporting Summer meeting . 25 00 

135 Jacob North & Co., Printing programs 6 25 

136 W. P. Aylsworth, Premium State Fair 1 00 

137 G.W.Alexander, " ._ _ 48 00 

138 C.H.Barnard, " 110 00 

139 Not drawn. 



288 



NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY. 



140 


R. I. Brown Premium-s $2 00 


141 


W. S. Blake 


3 00 


142 


C. B. Camp 


44 00 


143 


Crete Nurseries ' 


170 00 


144 


Geo. S. Christy 


• . 39 00 


145 


Wm. Comer 


1 00 


146 


R. T. Chambers 
S. W. Christy 


6 00 


147 


2 00 


148 


Chas. D. Crone ' 


2 00 


149 


0. M. Easterday ' 


1 00 


150 


Frey & Frey 


144 00 


151 


C. H. Green 


51 00 


152 


C. J. Gilbert 


24 00 


153 


Mrs. L. A. George 


1 00 


154 


L. Henderson 


144 00 


155 


Ray Hesseltine 


16 00 


156 


Geo. W. Hagan 


4 00 


157 


C. B. Hain 
J. W. Johnson 


2 00 


158 


3 00 


159 


Wm. Krough 


19 00 


160 


A. B. Kenton ' 
M. Kovarik ' 


2 00 


161 


2 00 


162 


John Logeman 


3 00 


163 


G. A. Marshall 


76 00 


164 


Arnold Martin 


13 00 


165 


A. P. Mickey ' 


2 00 


166 


R. A. Martin ' 


1 00 


167 


Agnes E. McCall ' 


5 00 


168 


R. C. Marshall 


1 00 


169 


M. Nineehelser 


1 00 


170 


C. J. Nelson ' 


3 00 


171 


John Peckman 


1 00 


172 


Aug. Quiller ' 
J. M. Russell & Co. ' 
Stackhouse & Tyrrel 


6 00 


173 


39 00 


174 


, Premiums 74 00 


175 


J. C. Stokes 


4 00 


176 


Aug. Schmutte 


2 00 


177 


E. E. Smith 
0. R. Trimmer 


10 00 


178 


1 00 


179 


G. M. Whitford 


15 00 



%2 00 


2 


00 


17 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


4 


00 


6 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


17 


50 


27 00 


27 


00 


_. 27 


00 


27 


00 


27 


00 


60 


00 


18 


35 



SECRETARYS REPORT. 289 

180 Ray Hesseltine, Premiums 

181 S. Banning 

182 G. W. Alexander 

183 E. E. Smith 

184 G. S. Christy 

185 Crete Nurseries 

186 Pry & Fry 

187 Delia Evans 

188 C.H.Green " 

189 Margaret Sutton, Labor during State Fair 

190 H. S. Harrison, Per diem State Pair 

191 G. S. Christy, Per diem State Pair 

192 Peter Youngers, Per diem 

193 C. H. Greem, Per diem 

194 G. A. Marshall, Per diem 

195 W. J. Blystone, Labor at State Pair Grounds 

196 G. S. Christy, Fruit, and Express for State Fair 18 35 

197 L. M. Russell, Salary . 125 00 

198 A. Booth & Co., Cold storage on fruit 5 40 

199 J. E. Ferris, Balance reporting Summer meeting 25 00 

200 Geo. A. Wilson, Building Lagoon at Pair Grounds 

201 Jacob North & Co., Warrant and Entry Books 

202 MiUer & Paine Bunting for Horticultural Hall 

203 L. M. RusseU, Postage 

204 L. M. Russell, Salary 

205 Nebraska Paper & Bag Co., SuppUes for State Fair 

206 Dr. A. T. Peters, Supplies and Postage 

207 L. M. Russell, Supphes and Postage 

208 C. S. Harrison, Delegate to Minn. State Society 

$1148 05 

The following amounts have been received as membership 
fees and turned over to the Treasurer: 

C. B. Parker S5 00 

C. A. Hale 1 00 

R. B. Fields 5 00 

B. E. Fields . 5 00 

John Williams 1 00 

E. C. Leigh 1 00 

J. M. Dunkin 5 00 



527 


00 


9 


25 


5 


30 


35 


45 


125 


00 


• 7 60 


10 


00 


17 


20 


10 


00 



290 



NKliKASKA STATK HOKTICULT.URAL SOCIKTY 



Arnold Martin 

Ray W. Hesseltine 

For sale of fruit at State Fair 

Total, 



1 00 
JO 00 

$89 00 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



WARRANTS PAID. 



Series 1903. 


No. 




18 


W. G. Swan 


71 


J. W. Christ 


Series 1904. 


No. 




106 


G. S. Christy 


107 


W. J. Hesser 


108 


E. M. Pollard 


109 


Peter Youngers 


110 


H. S. Harrison 


111 


J. G.Neff 


112 


C. H. Barnard 


113 


G. S. Christy 


114 


Frank G. Stephens 


115 


J. W. Brewster 


116 


W. J. Blystone 


117 


Voungers & Co. 


118 


L. M. Russell 


119 


Lindell Hotel 


120 


L. M. Russell 


121 


L. M. Russell 


122 


L. M. Russell 


123 


C. S. Harrison 


124 


Marshall Bros. 


125 


C. H. Barnard 


126 


R. M. Kellotrg Co. 


127 


J. W. Brewster 


128 


G. S. Christy 


129 


Peter Youngers 



SI 


00 


1 


00 


15 


00 


12 


00 


9 


00 


12 


00 


12 


00 


9 


00 


12 


00 


10 00 


10 


00 


25 


00 


2 


00 


15 


00 


15 


25 


4 


00 


15 


00 


125 


00 


125 


00 


20 


00 


20 


90 


2 


25 


9 


95 


25 


00 


12 


00 


12 


00 



TREASURERS REPORT. 291 

130 Chas. L. Saunders... $9 00 

131 Chas. H.Green 12 00 

132 H. S. Harrison 12 00 

133 G. A. Marshall 12 00 

134 J.E.Ferris 25 00 

135 Jacob North & Co 6 25 

136 W. P. Aylsworth 1 00 

137 G.W.Alexander _ 48 00 

138 C.H.Barnard 110 00 

140 R.I.Brown 2 00 

141 W. S. Blake 3 00 

142 C.B.Camp „ 44 00 

143 Crete Nurseries 170 00 

144 Geo. S. Christy 39 00 

145 Wm. Comer .. 100 

146 R.T.Chambers 6 00 

147 S.W.Christy 2 00 

148 Chas. D. Crone „ 2 00 

149 O. M. Easterday 1 00 

150 Frey & Frey 144 00 

151 C. H. Green 51 00 

152 C.J.Gilbert 24 00 

153 Mrs. L. A. George 1 00 

154 L.Henderson 144 00 

155 Ray Hesseltine 16 00 

156 Geo. W. Hagan 4 00 

157 C. B.Hain 2 00 

158 J.W.Johnson 3 00 

159 Wm. Krough 19 00 

160 A.B.Kenton 2 00 

161 M. Kovarik 2 00 

162 JohnLogeman 3 00 

163 G.A.Marshall 76 00 

164 Arnold Martin 13 00 

165 A. P. Mickey 2 00 

166 R.A.Martin 1 00 

167 Agnes E. McCall 5 00 

168 R.C.Marshall 100 

169 M. Nineehelser 1 00 

170 C. J. Nelson 3 00 



292 NEBRASKA STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

171 John Peckman $1 00 

172 Aus. Quiller 6 00 
178 J. M. Russell & Co. 39 00 

174 Stackhouse & Tyrrel 74 00 

175 J. C. Stokes 4 00 

176 Aug. Schmutte 2 00 

177 E.E.Smith 10 00 

178 O. R. Trimmer 100 

179 G. M. Wliitford 15 00 

180 Ray Hesseltine 2 00 

181 S. Banning 2 00 

182 G.W.Alexander 17 00 

183 E.E.Smith , 2 00 

184 G.S.Christy 100 

185 Crete Nursery 4 00 

186 Frey&Frey. . 6 00 

187 Delia Evans 2 00 

188 C. H. Green 2 00 

189 Margaret Sutton _ 17 50 

191 G.S.Christy 27 00 

192 Peter Youngers 27 00 

193 C. H. Green 27. 00 

194 G. A. Marshall 27 00 

195 W. J. Blystone 60 00 

196 G.S.Christy 18 35 

197 L. M. Russell 125 00 

198 A. Booth & Co ., 5 40 

199 J.E.Ferris 25 00 

200 George A. Wilson 527 00 

201 Jacob North & Co 9 25 

202 Miller & Paine 5 30 

203 L. M. RusseU ,..:....... 35 45 

204 L. M. Russell 125 00 

205 Nebraska Paper & Bag Co 7 60 

206 Dr. A. T. Peters 10 00 

207 L. M.Russell 17 20 

208 C. S. Harrison ■ 10 10 

$2849 65 



TREA SURER- S REPORT. 293 

The Nebraska State Horticultural Society, 

In account with Peter Youngers, Treasurer: 

Jan. 11, 1904, Balance on hand $1918 95 

July 30, " Cash, State Apportionment 1500 00 

Sept. 3, " State Agricultural Society 800 00 

Oct. 27, " State Apportionment .1000 00 

Dec. 6, " L.M.Russell 39 00 

$5257 95 
Total Warrants paid 2849 65 

Balance on hand January 17, 1905, $2408 30 

We your committee respectfully submit the following report: 
We have carefully examined the reports of the secretary and 
Treasurer and find them correct, 

W. G. Swan. 
C. H. Green. 
C. B. Camp. 

Committee. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

A trip through the southern orchards 46 

Address of welcome at annual meeting _ 130 

Address of welcome at summer meeting 23 

Anderson, W. A.— Some Experience with cherries 135 

Annual meeting, Proceedings of 127 

Apple, Diseases of the 238 

Apples, Recommended list of 269 

Apple Scab and Cedar Rust 49 

Auditing committee. Report of 293 

Bald, P. A. — Address of welcome at summer meeting 23 

Bessey, Dr. Charles E. — How much plant pathology ought a fruit 

grower to know 180 

Birds, Pood habits of 222 

Bi'own Creeper 222 

Shrikes 223 

Waxwings 226 

Chipping Sparrow 229 

Phoebe ..a 230 

Flycatchers 232 

Hairy Woodpecker 234 

Flickers 235, 236 

Sapsucker : 237 

Bliss, D. C. — Progress of fruit culture in Kearney County 190 

By-Laws 18 

Cass, H. G. — Gardening in Aurora 104 

Chambers experiment station, Report of 262 

Cherries, Recommended list of 275 

Cherries, Some experience with 135 

Christy, G. S.— 

Response by president 133 

Strawberries for home use 101 

Commercial orcharding in Nebraska 89 

Committee on recommended list, Report of 269 

Committee to audit 293 

Committees, Standing ' 9 

Constitution , Ti 

Coppoc, J. L. — Report of Chambers experiment station 262 

Crown (iall Controversy 251 

(294) 



INDEX. 295 

PAGE 

Davidson, J. R. — Fruit raising 95 

Davisson, Prof. A. E. — Address of welcome at annual meeting^ 130 

Denny, F. E.^ — The crown gall controversy 251 

Diseases of fruit trees 121 

Diseases of the apple 238 

Bitter rot 239 

Blight 239 

Brown rot 240 

Canker 241 

Crown gall 241 

Heart rot : 242 

Powdery mildew 242 

Pink rot 243 

Rust 244 

Rhizomorphic root rot 247 

Scab 248 

Sooty fungus 249 

Emerson, Prof. R. A. — 

Spraying experiments with apple scab and cedar rust..... 49 

Evergreens 214 

Experiment stations. Reports of — 

Chambers 262 

Minden • 261 

Sandoz 265 

Valentine 264 

Food habits of some common Nebraska birds : 222 

Fruit culture in Kearney County, Progress of 190 

Fruit districts. Map ! 268 

Fruit exhibitat St. Louis, Results of 143 

Fruit for the home 78 

Fruit raising 95 

Fruits, Recommended list of 269 

Fruit trees. Diseases of 121 

Fruits under irrigation 156 

Furnas, Hon. R. W. — 

Reminiscences of early horticulture in Nebraska 200 

Gardening in Aurora 104 

Grapes, Recommended list of 277 

Green, Chas. H. — Roses 117 

Green, Prof. S. B.— Remarks by .' 142, 161 

Greeting at summer meeting 29 

Hardy ornamentals 97 

Harris, Frank — How I grow cherries 38 

Harrison, C. S. — 

Evergreens 214 

Hardy ornamentals 97 

Renort of as delegate to Minnesota society 255 



296 INDEX. 

PAGK 

Heald, Prof. F. D. — Methods of investig-ating plant diseases 171 

Horticultural education, Value of ."{I 

How pine trees are grown 72 

How to grow cherries 38 

Howard, T. M. — Fruits under irrigation 156 

Keyser, Val. — Diseases of fruit trees 121 

Letter of transmittal 3 

Marshall, G. A.— Fruit for the home 78 

Membership list 11 

Nebraska birds, Food habits of 222 

Officers, Election of 1(58 

Officers and standing committees 7,9 

Orcliarding in south-eastern Nebraska 86 

Pears .-. , 202 

Plant diseases. Methods of investigating .: '. 171 

Plant pathology 180 

Pollard. E. M.— Pvesults of fruit exhibit at St. Louis 143 

Proceedings of annual meeting 127 

Proceeding-s of summer meeting 21 

Progress of fruit culture in Kearney County .. 190 

Pruning, Physiology and pathology of 209 

Pugsley, C. W. — Diseases of the apple •. 238 

Reports — 

Chambers experiment station 262 

Minden experiment station 261 

Sandoz experiment station , 265 

Valentine experiment station 264 

Secretary 287 

Treasurer 290 

Committee on redistricting the state 269 

Reminiscences of early horticulture in Nebraska 200 

Results of fruit exhibit at St. Louis 143 

Roses 117 

Saunders, Chas. L.— Response to address of welcome 27 

Scott, Chas. A. — How pine trees are grown 72 

Snodgrass, T. E. — Orcharding in south-eastern Nebraska 86 

Some experience with cherries 135 

Spraying experiments . 49 

Stephens, E. F.— 

Commercial orcharding in Nebraska 89 

Western horticulture 163 

Strawberries for home use 101 

Summer meeting — 

Proceedings of 21 

Address of welcome at 23 



INDEX. 297 

PAGE 

Swenk, Myron H.— The food habits of some common Nebraska birds 222 

Tatmn, W. W.— Greeting at summer meeting- 29 

Value of horticultural education 31 

Western Horticulture 1*^3 

Williams, Frank— Physiology and pathology of pruning 209 

Younger s, Peter — 

A trip through the southern orchards 46 

Report of treasurer 290 



New 



York Botanical Ga,';'?,'!" ,,V,?nn 




3 5185 00259 0436