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Full text of "Annual report of the School Committee of the City of Charlestown"

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ANNUAL REPORT 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE 



OF THE 



CITY OF CHARLESTOWN, 



DECEMBER, 1862. 




CHARLESTOWN : 

18 6 3. 



SCHOOL REPORT 



The School Committee commenced their labors the 
present year, as usual, by making an estimate of the 
amount of money which would be requisite to carry 
on the schools till the 15th of February next, when 
the school-year closes. To that date, the salaries of 
the teachers, and others employed by the committee, 
as well as all the expenses for school purposes, have 
been, for a number of years past, made up. Our esti- 
mate this year was ^44.300, and we asked the City 
Council for a corresponding appropriation. Last year, 
the City's proportion of the income of the School Fund 
received from the State, was;^817.83; and the Fi- 
nance Committee of the City Council put into their 
report, " for the support of Schools ^^43.500, and the 
amount of this income to be received this year ; " and 
their report was adopted by the City Council. The 
amount received from the State this year was ^912.59, 
which with the ^43.500.00, makes ^4.412.59 the 
appropriation for the school-year before mentioned. 
The amount expended to this date, is ^37.217.71, 
which leaves a balance of §7.194.88. Our estimate 
of the expenses for the remainder of the year (to Feb, 



15,) exceeds this amount, by at least ^1500. For 
several years past, we have endeavored to keep our 
expenses within the appropriation, and we have been 
successful — in some years leaving a large balance to 
our credit, which has been transferred to other appro- 
priations by the City Council; and we regret to report 
a deficiency this year. We think, however, that we 
have such an explanation to give, as will verify the 
correctness of our estimate at the commencement of 
the year, and justify our action in authorizing expen- 
ses beyond its limits. The items in our estimate 
which will be exceeded in expenditure, are Repairs of 
School-rooms, School Furniture, Stoves and repairs, 
and Contingencies. It has been the custom of the 
Board, to appoint a sub-committee to see that the 
necessary cleaning up and small repairs are attended 
to, during the six weeks vacation in the summer ; and 
a small amount is asked for in our estimate, as needed 
for this purpose. This year, that committee was in- 
struct(3cl to inform the Committee on City Property, of 
the City Council, that alterations would be necessary 
in the Winthrop and Bunker-Hill School Houses, to 
accommodate the increased number of scholars in 
those schools ; and also, that certain repairs were ne- 
cessary in other school houses, which have always 
been made by that committee, and paid for out of other 
appropriations than that for support of schools. These 
alterations and repairs, which were all absolutely 
necessary, were made ; and the new rooms in the Win- 
throp and Bunker-Hill Schools, and also one of the 
Intermediate Schools, were furnished with desks, 
chairs, and other things essential to the comfort and 



convenience of those who occupy them ; and towards 
these expenses, bills have been passed by the School 
('ommittee, amounting to ^1.840.05. All of these 
bills, according to custom heretofore, should have been 
provided for by the Committee on City Property. As, 
however, at the time the work was being done, it was 
supposed that the School Appropriation would be 
more than suthcient, and the City's Appropriation for 
Contingencies, to which they would otherwise have to 
be charged, was being drawn upon largely for extra- 
ordinary expenses this year, it was thought best, by 
both Committees, to charge these bills to the School 
appropriation. But the high price of fuel this year, 
which is the only item on which any considerable al- 
lowance is ever made in our estimate, has occasioned 
a different state of things from what was expected by 
the two Committees, and left no margin in our appro- 
priation for these unusual expenses. There is another 
matter which we desire to explain in anticipation. 
At the close of the financial year, (March 1,) there 
will be a balance against the Appropriation for Schools, 
in addition to what we have already mentioned, of 
^1.507.12. This will arise from the fact, that the 
date of the payment of the Teachers' Roll has been 
altered, for the convenience of the City Officers, and 
to make the School conform to the' Financial year ; so 
that on the 1st of March next they will have been 
paid for twelve and a half months, instead of for a 
year — the ^1.507.12 being just the amount of one 
half month additional pay. These changes which 
have been referred to, will of course make no differ- 
ence, so far as the expenses of the City are concerned ; 



but the explanation we have thought necessary, in 
order to show what the usual expenses for the sup- 
port of schools will be for the present year ; and that 
they will not vary much from the appropriation of 
^M.5 12.59. 

CONDITION OF SCHOOL HOUSES. 

The High School House will need to be painted 
throughout, the coming Spring, and at the same time 
economy and health will be promoted if furnaces and 
improved ventilators are put into the building. The 
Winthrop and Bunker-Hill have been much improved 
by recent alterations and repairs, and the addition of 
several new rooms has afforded temporary relief from 
their over-crowded condition. Similar improvements 
to those made about the Winthrop, are very much 
needed at the Harvard School ; and all the Grarhmar 
School Houses are suffering for paint on the outside. 
A proper regard to economy will require attention to 
this as early in the Spring as the weather will permit. 
In the list of expenses for Schools, the item of stoves 
and repairs is always a large one, and we believe it 
will be an economical and judicious expenditure, if all 
the Grammar School Houses are provided with furna- 
ces and hot air pipes before another winter. All the 
Grammar Schools are inconveniently full; and the 
time cannot be far distant when another will have to 
be formed, and a building erected for its accommoda- 
tion. Better accommodations for some of the Primary 
Schools are also needed, and a new Primary School 
House in Ward Three, is a necessity at the present 
moment. 



MUSIC. 

During the year, we think much has been accom- 
plished Jn instruction in Music. On the 22d of May, 
Mr. W. H. Goodwin was elected teacher, and since 
that date he has had charge of all the schools. He 
is a teacher of ability, and his influence over his pu- 
pils is, we think, good. They are carefully drilled in 
the rudiments of the science, and thoroughly taught 
as far as they go. In the selection of pieces for their 
exercises, regard is had to the sentiment as well as to 
the music, and an impression for good, in stirring 
the patriotism, encouraging devotional thoughts, or 
strengthening good resolutions, is believed to be left 
on the minds of the pupils. The committee were 
unanimous in making the appropriation for this study, 
and they are equally unanimous in the opinion that 
the expenditure has been a wise one. The influence 
of music, as it has been taught and used in our schools 
the past year, must have been decidedly beneficial to 
teachers and pupils ; and we have no doubt that the 
homes of many of the children have been made more 
cheerful and happy, by the sound and sentiment of 
school songs. And in addition to cheerfulness of 
mind, which the exercise of singing certainly induces, 
is the gain to health which the proper exercise of the 
vocal powers unquestionably affords. On the 10th 
and 11th of December, the Committee on Music, being 
authorized by a vote of the Board, and believing that 
it would be a source of gratification to parents, ar- 
ranged two rehearsals, by a portion of the scholars 
from the Warren and Harvard Schools, at the City 
Hall, to the first of which the parents of the children 



attending the Harvard School were invited, and to the 
second the parents of the Warren School children, the 
hall not being large enough to accommodate all at 
one time. The entertainment, which was successful, 
afforded an opportunity to the parents, which they 
could not have had at the school houses, to see what 
was being done with music ; it was highly grati- 
fying to the children, and will, we think, increase 
their interest in the study. The intention is to have 
similar exhibitions of the Bunker-Hill, Winthrop and 
Prescott scholars, in the month of January. 



PRIMAEY SCHOOLS. 

In February, Miss E. R. Hamilton, on account of 
ill health, resigned the situation of teacher of Primary 
School, No. 15, and Miss Mary C. Sawyer, appointed 
in her place, was, on the 16th of May, elected to fill 
the vacancy. Miss S. Worthen, teacher of No. 17, also 
resigned April 17, and the vacancy was filled by the 
election of Miss Susan E. Ethridge, on the 16th of 
May. Several of the teachers have been absent from 
their schools for some weeks at a time, on account of 
ill health, and their places have been supplied by 
substitutes. In some instances, the sub-committees 
have reported the schools as suffering from this change ; 
in others, competent and experienced persons have 
been appointed, and have kept up the discipline and 
instruction of the schools. It is very important that 
persons acting as substitutes for absent teachers, should 
be qualified to take charge of the schools ; and the 
care of such children as attend them should not be, 



9 

even for a short time, entrusted to those who are not 
interested in the employment. With one or two ex- 
ceptions, the Primary Schools have been managed, 
during the past year, upon the same plan as hereto- 
fore ; and the reports upon them have been generally 
satisfactory. Some of the teachers are always com- 
mended in the highest terms, and most of those now 
employed must be properly considered as faithful and 
successful. A few, for want of tact, or energy, or nat- 
ural fitness for the care of young children, have been 
unable to present their scholars to the sub-committees 
in a favorable light, and the shadow is apparent in the 
semi-annual reports. Some of the schools are over 
crowded, and are so located that they suffer from irreg- 
ularity in attendance ; but in such cases, the sub-com- 
mittees make all due allowance, and are careful that 
to the annoyances and perplexities growing out of 
such a state of things, unfavorable mention to the 
whole committee shall not be added. Discussions 
have frequently taken place at the Board, on the sub- 
ject of grading the schools, upon a plan adopted in 
some other cities and towns, and in April a vote was 
passed authorizing the committee on Nos. 25 and 26, 
which occupy rooms in the same building, on Bunker- 
Hill Street, to divide the scholars into two grades — ■ 
giving to one teacher all the youngest classes, and to 
the other the older ones, arranging the studies in each 
to conform to the change. In November, the sub- 
committee on schools Nos. 1 6 and 24, were authorized 
to make the same change. The experiment has not 
yet been reported upon, but is being fairly tried, and 
if successful other schools will be arranged in the 
2 



10 

same way. The plan is to allow the little children, 
in the lowest division, more freedom, and to have their 
instruction principally oral ; while the upper division 
can be more fittingly employed in the study of books. 
In other cities where the plan has been adopted in 
the Primary Schools, it is said their order has been 
much improved, and their efficiency increased. 



INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

On the 15 th of May, Miss Ann Nowell, teacher of 
Intermediate No. 1, resigned, and Miss E. Miles was 
appointed in her place. The sub-committee, in his 
report says : " The school has not, apparently, suffered 
by the change. The new teacher has generally se- 
cured the confidence and respect of the scholars, and 
is faithful and efficient." The introduction of desks 
and seats instead of chairs, has done much in aid of 
the discipline of the school The committee on this 
school expresses some doubts in regard to the value of 
our Intermediate Schools; and questions whether the 
class of children who attend them would not be under 
better influences, if they were placed in the Primary 
and Grammar Schools, according to their ages. He 
says the school has been large during the past winter 
and spring, and included among its pupils are rough, 
unmannerly boys, from twelve to fourteen years of age, 
who are hard to manage, and whose example is dele- 
terious to the interests of the school, as it also includes 
many small boys and girls about nine years of age, who, 
thoagh backward in their studies, are well behaved, and 
who have been sent from the Primary iSchools only on 



11 

account of their age. He thinks the older scholars 
could be put into the Grammar Schools, in divisions, 
to be under the charge of female teachers, but subject 
to the discipline and oversight of a master — while the 
younger ones could be returned to the Primary Schools. 
This is a different view of the matter from that which 
has formerly been taken by committees on these schools. 
Last year one of the reports on Intermediate School, 
No. 2, contained the remark, that the working of the 
school had convinced the committee " that some of 
the Primary School teachers were too much inclined 
to neglect their dull and sluggish minded pupils," and 
it may be that there are evils of this kind which have 
grown out of the establishment of Intermediate 
Schools. At any rate, the suggestions of the sub- 
committee on School No. 1, will have the careful at- 
tention of the Board ; and if the disadvantages of the 
present arrangement of Intermediate Schools exceed 
the advantages, action will be taken to remedy the 
difficulty. 

The report on School No. 2, notices the removal of 
the school from the basement of the Prescott School 
House to the rear of Vv^ard Room No. 3, which had 
been fitted up with new desks and seats. The condi- 
tion of the school, the committee say, is excellent, the 
discipline perfect, and the school is governed without 
noise or force. The teacher, by her patient efforts in 
their behalf, wins the love and respect of her pupils, 
and exercises an influence over them which is more 
potent than the rod, and which they will bear with 
them through life. 



12 
WAREEN SCHOOL. 

TeacIiea'S. 

GEORGE SWAN, Principal. WILLIAM BAXTER, Snb-Master. 

Afsistajits. 
MARY A. OSGOOD, JULIA A. WORCESTER, 

MARIA BROWN, HENRIETTA J. MERRILL, 

MARGARET VEAZIE, VICTORIA A. M. L. DADLEY. 

MARY J. FULLER, 

GEORGE B. NEAL, ■) 

HENRY C. GRAVES, V Sub-Committee. 

THOMAS DOANE, > 

The committee report upon the condition of this 
school as follows : " The last examination took place 
just before the close of the summer term, when many 
of the scholars, among whom were some of the best, 
had gone away into the country and elsewhere to 
spend their vacation ; and the school did not appear 
to good advantage on this account. The first class, 
under the charge of the Principal, was examined in a 
most careful and thorough manner. The answers to 
the questions asked were, with a very few exceptions, 
given promptly and correctly, and it was evident that 
the pupils had a good understanding of all the studies 
which they had been pursuing. The class undt^r the 
charge of the sub-master, did not appear as well as on 
former occasions. Both divisions alike failed greatly 
in all their studies. This may be accounted for, in a 
great measure, by the fact that the teacher had been 
obliged to be absent from school for a long time on 
account of severe illness, and his place had been sup- 
plied by female teachers, until six weeks before the 
close of the term, when it was found necessary to em- 
ploy a master. The late sub-master of the Bunker- 
Hill School had charge of the division during this 



13 

time, and performed his duties satisfactorily. The 
other classes in the school were found not to be as 
well qualified in their studies as they should have 
been, particularly the second divisions of each class. 
The appointment of an additional female teacher to 
the school will allow the Principal to have a more 
particular charge and oversight of all the classes, and 
the school will doubtless be very much benefitted by 
the change." 



BUNKER-HILL SCHOOL. 

Teaclaers. 

WILLIAM H. SANDERS, Principal. 

ANNIE M. LUND, * JUDITH C. WALKER, 
CAROLINE PHIPPS, ABBY F. CROCKER, 

MARTHA A. BIGELOW, FRANCES S. LOTHROP, 

PHEBE A. KNIGHT, SARAH J. MILLS, 

MARY S. THOMAS, MARIA T. DELANO. 

CHARLES F. SMITH, ^ 

WILLIAM H. FINNEY. >- Sub-Committee. 

A. L. PAINE, ) 

" This school was found on examination, to be, for the 
most part in a prosperous condition. The Principal 
is a thorough and comprehensive teacher, and we were 
well pleased with the manner in which most of the 
pupils acquitted themselves. Much administrative 
ability in the Principal of a school of seven or eight 
divisions, is requisite for the proper management and 
direction of its afiairs. The teachers having various 
and favorite theories of their own, are generally de- 
termined to carry them out, if possible. The Princi- 
pal of this school fails somewhat in this respect — he 



14 

seems to be reluctant to assume a firm stand, and to 
insist on having his suggestions carried out by his 
assistants. 

The second division of the school was under the 
charge of a sub-master till June, when a female assist- 
ant was appointed. Its condition was not at all satis- 
factory. The recitations were of an inferior order, and 
there was a noticeable lack of interest and animation 
on the part of the pupils. They were satisfied with 
very imperfect lessons, and were thorough in but a 
small portion of the text books. The new teacher is 
an excellent disciplinarian, and after she assumed the 
management of the division there was a gratifying 
change in the conduct of the pupils. 

The third and fourth divisions passed very satisfac- 
tory examinations, with the exception of spelling in 
the fourth division. 

The fifth division was partially examined in May, 
and found to be in a very unsatisfactory condition. At 
the examination in July, there was improvement man- 
ifest in the limited space in the text books which is 
assigned to this division. But there had been no re- 
view of those portions taught in the lower divisions, 
notwithstanding it was known that the committee 
would insist on examining from the beginning of 
the book. 

In the sixth division the same want of thorough- 
ness was manifest — no review had been made^ — the 
first lessons in geography seemed to have been for- 
gotten by the pupils, and they had but a very imper- 
fect idea of the location of the cities and towns of our 
own State, or any of the New England States, their 



15 

productions, or the occupation of their inhabitants — 
and the recitations generally were poor. 

The seventh division passed a very satisfactory ex- 
amination. The teacher is well worthy of the position 
Avhich she occupies — she is diligent, faithful, and al- 
ways ready to follow suggestions from the Committee 
or Principal. 

The eighth division has been under the charge of 
a substitute since March. Miss Caroline S. Bigelow, 
the late teacher, was obliged, on account of ill health, 
to ask for leave of absence, which the Board granted 
till September ; but before the expiration of June her 
disease (consumption) terminated fatally. 3Iiss Big- 
eloiv was an eocceUent young lady^ a faithful and suc- 
cessful teacher, and her memorg will he precious to her 
pupils and friends. Her successor is a competent and 
faithlul teacher, and we were much pleased with the 
good order and general excellence of the recitations 
of this division. Since the vacation, the system of 
parallel divisions has been adopted in this school, 
Miss Bigelow taking the second division. Misses 
Lund and Crocker the two third. Misses Phipps and 
Thomas the two fourth, and Misses Knight and Walk- 
er the two fifth. Two additional rooms have been 
fitted up in the basement, capable of holding sixty 
pupils each ; they are entirely above ground, well 
lighted, and were much needed, as the school was 
overrunning before the promotions from the Primary 
Schools, when one hundred were added to the list of 
its scholars." 



16 



WIN THE OP SCHOOL. 

Teacliers. 

B. F. S. GRIFFIN, Prmcipal. CALEB MURDOCK, Sab-Masler. 

SOPHIA W. PAGE, ' AMELIA R. HAMILTON, 

NANCY M. CASWELL, ARABELLA P. MOULTON, 

ANN M. HOBBS, MARY F. GOLDTHWAITE, 

SARAH H. WOODMAN, EMILY B. BROWN, 

ABBY M. CLARK, HARRIET L. LADD. 

BENJAMIN F. BROWN, ~) 

JAMES LEE, Je. I sub-CommUtee 

HERBERT CURTIS, f ^'^o-i.ommutee. 

JAMES B. MILES, j 

The sub-committee report as follows : " At the com- 
mencement of the year, when we entered upon our 
duties, we found this school in a very unsatisfactory 
condition. There seemed to be no system of instruc- 
tion, but each teacher acted independently of the oth- 
ers, and often in a manner that indicated a lack of zeal 
and energy in their work, and with none of that en- 
thusiasm with which its importance should fill them. 
Enough ground had been gone over, but there was a 
lack of thoroughness in the work done. We felt it 
our duty, therefore, to visit the school frequently, and 
to endeavor to wake up the teachers to a livelier in- 
terest in its affairs ; and believing the inspired decla- 
ration that ' faithful are the wounds of a friend,' we 
spoke plamly of faults, while we commended virtues. 
Often calling the teachers together to advise with them 
in regard to the welfare of the school, we indicated 
what progress would be expected of the pupils, what 
mental discipline they should have, and the amount 
and quality of the information they should receive. 
We also called particular attention to Sect. 4th of the 
School Regulations, which is now strictly enforced ; 



17 

and by this means succeeded in breaking up a habit 
of collecting about the door-ways, and in the streets in 
the vicinity of the school-house, to the annoyance and 
inconvenience of the neighborhood. 

During the summer vacation, the request of the 
Board for improvements in and about the building, 
was complied with by the committee of the City Coun- 
cil who have the care of the public buildings, and we 
are happy to report that neatness and convenience 
now mark the appearance of things about the A^^in- 
throp School House. The internal arrangements of 
the building have also been so altered and improved 
as to add much to the comfort of the school. In June, 
in compliance with a vote of the Board, the school 
was put under the single headed system, Mr. B. F. S. 
Griffin ha^dng been elected PrincipaL Mr. Caleb 
Murdock was elected Sub-master, and Miss H. L. 
Ladd appointed First Assistant. The school was 
graded the last week of the term, and now consists of 
one First Division, two Second, two Third, two Fourth, 
and three Fifth Divisions. Although all our teachers 
are not what we could wish, yet we hope, under the 
present system, they will become not only acceptable, 
but excellent. Our examination was a thorough and 
practical one and although the school is far from what 
we could desire it to be, we think we can report it to 
be in a prosperous condition." 

3 



18 



FRESCO TT SCHOOL. 

Teacfiiers. 

JOSEPH T. SWAN, Principal. 

Assistants, 

SARAH M. CHANDLER, ELLEN C. DICKENSON, 

H. A. T. DADLEY, MARY E. FALL, 

HAMNAH M, SAWYER, MARY G. PRICHARD, 

ABBY L. SWAN, EMMA L, WHITING, 

JOSEPHINE M. FLINT, FRANCES M. CLARK. 
AMY E. BRADFORD, 

NATHAN A. TUFTS, ^ 

S?HN Ia^o'rN, [ Sub.Comn>ittee. 

TIMOTHY T. SAWYER, J 

The committee remark, in their report, that they 
have made frequent visits and given much time to the 
school in its several departments, and they think their 
labors have been attended with good results. The 
health of the Principal is now good, and he is active 
in the performance of all his duties. The change 
made in the school, by the substitution of female as- 
sistants for a sub-master, has added much to his labors ; 
but he has done all that has been required of him 
with promptness and zeal, and to our satisfaction. 
We were not in favor of the new system, especially 
when applied to large schools like the Prescott ; but 
as yet no great inconvenience has been experienced 
by the change. We have been fortunate in securing 
an able teacher to take the place of the sub-master. 
The examinations were conducted by the several mem- 
bers of the committee, each having assigned him two 
or more divisions, and it is believed that all the scholars 
have had an opportunity to be heard in all the studies 
pursued. The result of the examination was gratify- 
ing and satisfactory, showing a good degree of readi- 



19 

ness and proficiency on the part of the pupils, and 
industry and adaptation of the teachers. 

The first division, under the immediate care of the 
Principal, and the second and third divisions, were 
examined by the chairman of the committee, who 
found them in excellent condition in respect to disci- 
pline and attainments. Twenty-one of the pupils 
passed a successful examination for the High School. 
The sub-committees who attended to the examination 
of the other divisions, severally reported favorably 
upon their condition. One says '• the teachers ap- 
peared to be qualified for their positions, and I have 
no doubt the pupils will progress in their studies, and 
do well under their supervision and care. Good order 
prevails, and the children appear neat and cleanly." 
Another remarks that the teacher is active and inter 
ested in her work ; her school afi"ords evidence of this 
The exercises were all satisfactory, and the division 
and teacher are entitled to a decidedly favorable re- 
port. Of another division, he says : " in the short time 
which the teacher has been employed, she has accom- 
plished all that could reasonably be expected of her. 
She has good control of her scholars, and there was 
much in the exercises to show ability and judgment 
in teaching." The remaining divisions were found, on 
the whole, in a satisfactory condition. The school is 
very full, and in some divisions there is a large excess 
of scholars more than can be accommodated. If a 
portion of the hall was appropriated for a new divi- 
sion, it would, for the present, relieve the school. The 
room in the basement is objected to, by many parents, 
as damp and unhealthy. This also might be remedied 



20 

by converting the hall into two school-rooms. It 
would cause inconvenience in the singing exercise, to 
give up the hall, but it had better be done than to 
overcrowd the rooms or overtax the teachers. Mr. 
Goodwin has commenced the instruction in music un- 
der favorable circumstances ; we have endeavored to 
impress on the Principal and his assistants the import- 
ance of this exercise, and all now appear to engage in 
it with much interest. There can be no doubt that 
singing has a favorable influence on the life of a 
school, and contributes much to the happiness of the 
scholars. 



HARVARD SCHOOL. 

Tcaclies's. 

JOSFPH B. MORSE, Principal. 

Assistants. 

ANN E. WESTON, ELIZABETH SWORDS, 

SARAH E. ARCHER, ABBY B. FISKF, 

MARTHA BLOOD, LUCY L. BURGESS, 

HANNAH E. BLISS, MARTHA M. FILSBURY. 

JAMES ADAMS, ") 

EDWIN F. ADAMS, i Sub-Commi/iee. 

ABRAM E. CUTTER, )> 

The committee say ; " It was duly examined, but 
owing to the changes incident to the adoption of a 
somewhat diiferent system of organization of the 
school, and to a great amount of absence in the older 
divisions during the time of the examination, we can- 
not give a detailed report that will do justice to the 
school or the teachers. We have great confidence in 
the Principal, and have no doubt that the school will 
stand high at the next semi-annual examination, when 
we hope to give a full and thorough report." 



21 
HIGH SCHOOL. 

Teachers. 

CHARLES E. STETSON, Principal. 
GEORGE W. WARREN, Sub- Master. 

Assistants. 
KATHARINE WHITNEY, • MARY CURTIS, 

FRANCES M. READ, HARRIET E. LOVETT. 

TIMOTHY T. SAWYER, ] 

JAMES B. MILES, | 

HENRY LYON, } Sub Committee. - 

NATHAN A. TUFTS, | 

HENRY C. GRAVES, J 

During the term ending in July, the teachers have 
been faithful in their instruction, and successful in 
their endeavors to maintain the good character and 
standing of the school 'J'he graduating class of this 
year consisted of twenty-three girls, and seven boys, 
to each of whom a diploma was presented on the day 
of the public examination, July 18th. The exercises 
on the occasion were conducted by the teachers as 
last year. A large number of visitors were present, 
and the expression of satisfaction and gratification 
w^as general among them. The committee think that 
the high praise bestowed upon the school by intelli- 
gent ladies and gentlemen who w^ere present, not only 
for excellence in the recitations, but for the correct 
deportment of the scholars, was richly dcov.^ ed. Dil- 
igence and attentive mterest, on the part of teachers 
and scholars, could alone produce the state of things 
exhibited on the day in question. The private exam- 
ination by members of the committee, which took 
place at an earlier date, was in all respects satisfac- 
tory. The examination of candidates for admission 
to the school took place on the 14th of July. Of the 



22 

ninety-nine examined, thirty-seven girls and twenty- 
seven boys were admitted without conditions — seven 
girls and eight boys conditionally. Seventy-six of 
this number appeared after the vacation, and entered 
upon the prescribed course of study. 

Miss West, one of the teachers, resigned at the end 
of the term in July, and the experiment of carrying 
on the work of the school with the remaining teach- 
ers, was tried for some time after the close of the va- 
cation ; but it was found that another teacher was 
necessary, and Miss Lovett was appointed. 

We annex a list of the different branches of study 
pursued in the school, which are divided into two de- 
partments, the General Department, and the Classi- 
cal Department, which will give some idea of the 
duties of the teachers, and the time which they must 
necessarily devote to them. As has been said in 
another report, " they have a great deal of service to 
distribute over a few hours daily, and are expected to 
aid the understanding and engage the attentive inter- 
est of the pupils by much explanatory and simplify- 
ing information, so that the pupils will not have to 
rely upon or be satisfied with the mere words of the 
text books." 

Four of the boys graduating this year have entered 
college — three at Harvard, and one at Amherst. 



23 

GENERAL DEPARTMENT. 



Fourth Class — Fikst Year. 

Arithmetic (Greenleaf's National.) 

Chemistry (Stockhardt.) 

Physiology (Cutter's First Book.) 

Physical Geography (Warren's) commenced. 

Andrews' Latin Lessons — Reader and Grammar. 

Reading (Sargent's Fifth Rea'der) — Spelling and Defining. 

Declamation — Writing of Topics — Singing. 

Third Class — Second Year. 

Algebra (Robinson's.) 
Ancient History. 
Physical Geography, finished. 

Latin Reader, finished — Coesar's Commentaries, or Nepos, com- 
menced — Latin Grammar (Etymology.) 

Rhetoric (Part First, History of English Language.) 
French, commenced (Fasquelle's Exercises ) 
Composition — Declamation — Map Drawing — Singing. 

Second Class — Third Year. 

Geometry — Trigonometry — Surveying. 
Natural Philosophy, commenced — Mechanics. 
History of Middle Ages and England. 
Caesar, finished — Cicero's Select Orations. 
Latin Grammar (Syntax ) 

French, continued — Fasquelle's Exercises, finished. 
Rhetoric (Part Second : Punctuation) — Composition — Decla- 
mation. 

Lectures in Natural Philosophy — Singing. 

First Class — Fourth Year. 

Natural Philosophy (pursued) — Hydrostatics — Pneumatics. 
Acoustics — Electricity — Magnetism. 
Astronomy. 

Botany, with analysis of plants. 

French — Translations from French into English, and from En- 
glish into French — Noel & Chapsal's French Grammar. 
Constitution of United States, (Shepard.) 
Virgil (^^neid) — Latin Grammar (Prosody.) 
Zoology (Agassiz &. Gould's.) 
Rhetoric, finished — English Literature. 
Composition — Declamation — Singing. 



24 

CLASSICAL DEPARTMENT 



Third Yeak. 

Cicero's Select Orations. 

l^atin Grammar (Syntax.) 

Latin Prose Composition. 

Greek Lessons. 

Xenophon's Anabasis, commenced. 

Greek Grammar (Etymology.) 

Fourth Year. 

Virgil (Bucolics, Georgics, and the ^neid.) 

Latin Grammar (Prosody.) 

Latin Prose Composition, 

Xenophon's Anabasis, finished. 

Homer's Iliad. 

Greek Prose Composition. 

Greek Grammar (Syntax and Prosody.) 



The Schools, Teachers and Scholars, at this date, 
January 1, 1863, number as follows: 

29 Primaries. 29 Teachers. 2069 Scholars. 

2 Intermediate. 2 " 128 " 

5 Grammar. 54 " 2461 

1 High. 6 " 136 

1 Teacher of Music. 



37 S3hools. 92 Teachers. 4794 Scholars. 

Other information in regard to the Schools is given 
in the following tables. 



SCHOOL EETUfiNS, AT THE SEMI-ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS. 



SCHOOLS. 



Term ending July, 1862. 



December 31, 1862. 



High School, ------ 

Bunker-Hill School. - - - - 

Warren School, - - - . - 

Winthrop School, - - - - 

Harvard School. - - - - - 

Prescott School, - - - - - 

Intermediate Scliool, No. 1, 

do. do. No. 2, 



140 
576 
441 
631 
456 
718 
94 
99 



46 
290 
217 
311 
250 
386 
55 
45 



94 

286 
224 
3-20 
206 
332 
39 
54 



115 
467 
356 
453 
383 
563 
73 
72 



36 
228 
177 
226 
216 
293 
41 
40 



ni 
















< o 


£.S 


tofl 




« "^ 




pj 


< 





79 
239 
179 
227 
167 
270 
32 
32 



124 


112 


86 


29 


391 


384 


11 


456 


349 


336 


11 


345 


411 


382 


15 


438 


291 


290 


9 


374 


477 


486 


18 


545 


44 


56 




73 


54 


64 


150 


72 


2141 


2110 


2332 



28i 148 
106? 632 

62 S 456 
136 567 

56< 478 
112 734 

10 123 

20 75 



3155 1600 1555 2482 1257 1225 2141 2110 150 2332 530'3213 1588 1625 272511312 1413 2335'159 2566 196 




m 





~ 






Term en 


ding July, 1863. 


~ ' I : 


— 




Dec 


emt 


er .31, 1862 




Sub-ffiominittefs 




|rimiir2 S^chools. 


L ocatioE of 


s=- 






SS 






,; 


.. = 




s,i i-o . IrianraSdwls. 


%i. 






li 






. 


%i L i 


CC 





PEIMAET 


-.S. 




. 






_; 


S) = 


g'i „• 


. 




5^ 














t\ \Q 




«*-. 






^ ® 


>. 


'Z 


K o 


»• 


t; 


£t3 


" " o" 


,t: 


„ -. .o ,* sj 


" o 


>. 


•^ 


^ s 


>,. 


— 




» = o c 




^ 


Teachers' Names. 


School Houses. 


gi 


a 


a 


Is 


n 


O 


"% 


w 


a 


l.'S ll'^.Sj Teachers' Names, 


|i 




o 




"^ 


c 


> s 


^\ 1 ^ 


Primary Schools. 


1 


Ellen M. Criifts, 


Charles Street, 


1^7 


6S 


.59 


108 


,5fi 


52 


70 


84 43 


41 


105] 3 


fi/EUenM. Crafts, 


114 


57 


57 


98 


45 


4f 


70 


93 


4, A. L. Paine, 


'^ 


Elizabeth W. Yeaton, 


Mead 


111 


(iO 


r.i 


92 


52 


40 


,57 


81 47 


34 


92 




SJElizabpth AV. Yeaton, 


108 


60 


48 


68 


40 


«8 


64 


68 


51 Wm. H. Finney, 


s 


Maria J. Smith, 


Mead 


ff>. 


RO 


82 


72 


45 


27 


,50 


51 34 


17 


72 




12 (Maria J. Smith, 


82 


50 


•^■>. 


67 


48 


24 


51 


67 


4 Thomas Doane, 


4 


Malvina B. Skilton, 


Mead 


9o 


41 


54 


84 


85 


49 


62 


70 28 


42 


84 




4)MalvinaB. Skilton, 


88 


36 


52 


75 


80 


45 


69 


75 


3 Thomas Doane, 


s 


Martha R. Hale, 


Elm 


Sfi 


4.') 


41 


78 


41 


87 


,58 


63 34 


29 


78 




15?Martha R. Hale, 


77 


85 


4'< 


68 


811 


88 


58 


63 


7j Charles F. Smith, 


fi 


Frances Hichborn, 


Medford " 


ini 


42 


59 


80 


8(i 


44 


62 


56 27 


29 


80 




6 (Frances Hichborn, 


81 


35 


46 




35 


40 




75 


3 Henry C. Graves, 


7 


Mary A. Foster, 


Boylston Chapel, 


fin 


82 


28 


49 


25 


24 


48 


45 22 


28 


48 


1 


8 (Mary A. Foster. 


69 


82 


37 


60 


25 


85 


47 


57 3 


1 Henry Lyon, 


(■ 


Alice S. Wiley, 


Cross Street. 


97 


4S 


49 


70 


88 


82 


52 


48 28 


20 


69 


1 


8(Alice S.Wiley, 


75 


84 


41 


70 


82 


88 


,50 


70 


1 Abram E. Cutter, 


^. 


Ellen T. Knis;ht, 


Cross " 


97 


49 


4S 


75 


89 


86 


54 


62 33 


29 


V4 


i 


S^EllenT. Knight, 


74 


40 


84 


68 


88 


81) 


52 


66 2 


2 Abram E. Cutter, 


1( 


Louisa A. Pratt, 


Common 


m 


H7 


'5,5 


84 


8H 


48 


,57 


76 32 


44 


84 




2 ^Louisa A. Pratt, 


84 


86 


48 


66 


8;', 


84 


54 


66! 


2 Benjamin F. Brown, 


11 


Joanna S.Putnam, 


Common " 


90 


49 


41 


7(i 


40 


80 


58 


63 34 


29 


76 


6 f Joanna S. Putnam, 


74 


41 


83 


60 


88 


27 


48 


60 




4 


James B. Miles, 


v; 


Ellen M. Armstead. 


Bow 


KiS 


41 


(i7 


87 


88 


,54 


.50 


73 28 


4o 


87 




8 Ellen M. Armstead, 


114 


48 


71 


90 


82 


58 


63 


90 




1 


James Adams, 


i;- 


C. W. Trowbridge, 


Bow " 


99, 


49 


48 


87 


44 


48 


.57 


65 


8.T 


30 


87 




9^C. W.Trowbridge, 


100 


48 


,52 


82 


88 


44 


62 


82 




6 


Edwin F. Adams, 


14 


Sarah E. Smith, 


Bow 


KW 


.'57 


4S 


89 


44 


45 


61 


65 


82 


83 


89 




17(Sarah E.Smith, 


99 


51 


48 


80 


48 


87 


69 


,80 




4! Nathan A. Tufts, 


l.i 


Mary C. Sawyer, 


Bow 


US 


7fi 


72 


77 


89 


88 


60 


40 


18 


22 


76 


1 


25 (Mary C. Sawyer, 


114 


60 


54 


80 


45 


35 


56 


80 




7 


Timothy T. Sawyer, 


Ih 


Elizabeth R. Brewer, 


Common " 


9:i 


42 


,')! 


78 


8,5 


88 


,51 


,58 


26 


27 


V3 




5 (Elizabeth R. Brower, 


75 


87 


88 


61 


26 


35 


45 


61 




7 


Benjamin F. Brown, 


17 


Susan E. Etheridge, 


Moulton 


sx 


41 


42 


(i9 


81 


88 


,58 


64 


82 


82 


69 




6 ( Susan E. Etheridge, 


82 


42 


40 


66 


86 


80 


54 


66 






John Sanborn, 


U 


Lydia M. Butts, 


Moulton *' 


9fi 


4.T 


51 


70 


80 


84 


56 


64 


38 


81 


70 




9 Lydia M. Butts, 


86 


46 


40 


75 


88 


87 


ao 


75 






John Sanborn, 


It 


Louisa W. Huntress, 


Moulton ** 


lOS 


.iO 


55 


81 


40 


41 


,58 


68 


82 


81 


81 




6(LouisaW. Huntress, 


96 


47 


49 


78 


40 


88 


60 


78 






.Tames Lee, Jr. 


'if 


Matilda Gilman, 


Soley 


9fi 


.58 


48 


07 


87 


80 


49 


56 


81 


2-3 


67 




18(M.atilda Gilman, 


81 


48 


88 


57 


80 


:^7 


46 


57 




5 


Nathan A. Tufts, 


1^1 


Frances E. Everett, 


Sullivan " 


K9 


,88 


5fi 


7« 


41 


85 


55 


65 


86 


29 


76 




25<Frances E. Everett, 


72 


46 


26 


68 


44 


24 


54 


681 


3 


Herbert Curtis, 


'^M 


Frances M. Lane, 


Sullivan 


9.1 


.57 


8S 


79 


47 


82 


.59 


77 


49 


■Ah 


79 




23 (Frances M. Lane, 


87 


55 


82 


70 


45 


25 


57 


70 


2 


Herbert Curtis, 


% 


Helen G. Turner, 


Haverhill " ^ 


IM 


60 


(io 


97 


48 


49 


86 


88 


42 


46 


9'( 




etHelen O.Turner, 


91 


49 


42 


76 


44 


82 


70 


76 




5 


George B. Neal, 


•24 


Cath. C. Brower, 


Common " 


98 


4,5 


4K 


84 


42 


42 


62 


67 


81 


86 


84 




5 C. C. Bn.wcr, 


97 


48 


49 


74 


39 


85 


60 


74 




7 


George B. Neal, 


Vo 


Adaline M. Smith, 


Bunker-Hill " 


fifi 


4<1 


V.« 


02 


8fi 


26 


.52 


59 


38 


21 


62 




lOSAdalini- M. Smith, 


68 


88 


8(1 


.52 


28 


24 


44 


52 




2 


Andrew J. Locke, 


•2h 


Fannie B. Hall, 


Bunker-Hill " 


9.1 


4fi 


47 


84 


87 


47' 5S 


65 


29 


86 


84 




10 Fannie B. Hall, 


lOo 


.54 


51 


92 


48 


44 


61 


92 




9, 


Andrew J. Locke, 


27 


Susan V. Moore, 


Bunker-Hill " 


91 


47 


44 


71 


88 


83 45 


58 


3(1 


2t 


71 




12(Susan V.Moore, 
Oj Jane B. Loring, 


98 


54 


44 


72 


87 


85 


47 


72 




3 A. L. Paine, 


'2t 


Jane B. Loring, 


Moulton 


1(1(1 


,5(1 


,50 


82 


41 


41 62 


70 


84 


8b 


82 




64 


37 


27 


55 


82 


23 


4o 


5,5 






James Lee, Jr. 


29 


Pamelia E. Delano, 


Mead 


100 


4S 


62 


85 


48 


42 47 


68 


34 


34 


85 




12.^Pamelia E. Delano, 


96 




44 


76 


41 


35 


49 


76 




4 


Wm. H, Finney. 








2S26 


1411 


141.5 


2288 


11,5,5 


11,88 


1632 


18.59 


952 


907 


2281 


7 


285; 


2546 


1301 


1245 


2069 


1069!l0n0 


1605 


2064 


5 


94 





25 



The salaries of the teachers this year have been as 
follows : 



Principal of the High School, $1,400 

Sub-Master " " " 900 

1st Assistant " " " ...... 600 

2cl " " " " 450 

3d " " " " 375 

4th " " " " 325 

Principals of the Grammar Schools, each, . . . 1200 

Sub-Masters " " " " . . . . 800 

Assistants " " " " . $275, 300, 325 

Teachers of the Intermediate " " . . . . 350 

Teachers of the Primary Schools, " . $275,300,325 

The Assistants of the Grammar, and the Teachers 
of the Primary Schools, are paid ^275 for the first 
year, ^300 for the second, and ^325 for the third. 



From the last published Annual Report of the 
Board of Education, we take the following, which may 
be interesting, we think, to our citizens. In the table 
showing the comparative amount of money appropri- 
ated by the different towns in the State, for the educa- 
tion of each child between the ages of five and fifteen 
years, Charlestown stands No. 11, higher than any 
other city ; and in the County, No. 4. In the tables 
showing the per centage of valuation appropriated, 
Charlestown stands No. 21, the highest city in the 
State; and in the County, No. 2. In the table in 
which all the towns in the State are numerically ar- 
ranged according to the average attendance of their 
children, Charlestown stands No. 69, higher than any 
of the cities except Lynn ; and in the County, No. 14. 
4 



26 

The condition of the Schools, according to the judg- 
ment of the several Sub-Committees, can be seen in 
the foregoing extracts from their reports. The Board 
feel that the facts in the case will warrant the state- 
ment, that as a whole they are in a prosperous con- 
dition. We have authorized some changes during 
the year, which we believe to be improvements in the 
management of the Schools. At our meeting in 
March, an order was offered to change the system in 
the Grammar Schools, where two Principals were em- 
ployed, and to place them under a single head on and 
after the first Monday in June. A rule of the Board 
fixes the time for the annual election of all the teach- 
ers at the last meeting in the month of May, when 
they are elected for one year from the first Monday 
in June aforesaid. The order occasioned considerable 
discussion, but was adopted at the first meeting in 
April ; and the change was made at the time contem- 
plated by it. Several of the teachers who had served 
the city for a long time, were thus thrown out of em- 
ployment. The committee regretted the effect of the 
order, so far as this alone was concerned ; but as on the 
whole, they were satisfied that the interest of the city 
and the schools would be promoted by the change — 
they felt it to be their duty to make it — and they are 
of opinion that so far the experiment is working favor- 
ably. From the report of one of the schools, it will 
be seen that the sub-committee are of opinion that a 
sub-master should be employed, and there are several 
. of the committee who feel that a mistake may have 
been made in dispensing with sub-masters ; but a lit- 
tle more experience may prove that their fears, in this 
respect, are groundless. 



27 

On the 17th of April the rules of the Board were 
altered, so as to make the school year commence on 
the first Monday of September ; and changes were 
also made m regard to the semi-annual examinations, 
to conform to this alteration. The first semi-annual 
examination of the High and Grammar Schools takes 
place now during the ten days preceding the vacation 
in February, and the second during the month of 
July, before the commencement of the long vacation; 
and the time for promotions from the Primary and 
Intermediate, to the Grammar Schools, has been 
changed to the first Monday in September. 

The returns from the several schools show that the 
sub-committees have made frequent visits to them; 
and the meetings of the Board, held every two weeks, 
except from the middle of July to the first of Septem- 
ber, have always been fully attended ; but we are 
unanimously of opinion that the great lack in our 
school system, is that of an ordinance authorizing the 
appointment of a Superintendent of Schools. And we 
close our year's labor, as a Board, by the unanimous 
passage of a vote, urging the City Council to adopt 
such an ordinance. 

On Friday and Saturday, October 24th and 25 th, 
the Middlesex County Teachers' Association held their 
semi-annual meeting in our City Hall. The occasion 
was a very interesting one. The President, in his 
address, stated that ten and a half years before, the 
Association held its first meeting in Charlestown, 
which fact made the present meeting particularly 
gratifying to its members. The discussions and lec- 
tures were on interesting subjects, and many good 



28 

things were said which ought to prove beneficial to 
the teachers and others, who were present to hear 
them. 

In concluding this Report, we cannot refrain from 
a single word respecting the duties of parents to the 
Schools. Parents, unquestionably, have duties to the 
schools, and duties which neither school committees 
nor teachers, however well qualified and faithful they 
may be, can discharge for them. In a certain sense, 
indeed in an important sense, the teacher stands to the 
child in loco parentis, in the place of the parent. We 
deem it essential that those who hold the dignified 
and responsible office of instructors in our public 
schools, shall feel that they sustain a very intimate 
relation to the children entrusted to their care and 
instruction. "We do not think it sufficient that our 
teachers possess ample literary qualifications, and are 
able with facility and by felicitous illustrations, to 
communicate a knowledge of the various studies pur- 
sued. We consider, as indispensable requisites, ma- 
turity of judgment, self-control, kindness of heart 
blended with firmness, prudence, discretion — in a 
word, all those qualities which will lead the teacher 
to care for the manners and morals and habits, the 
general culture and welfare of the child. We expect 
our teachers to feel that their own interests and rep- 
utation are identified with those of their pupils. But 
still, should all our teachers reach this high standard, 
yet, if parents are remiss in the discharge of their 
duties, our schools must fail, if not wholly, at least 
partially, to accomplish their beneficent design. No 
person, whether teacher or guardian, can actually sup- 



29 

ply to the child the place of the parent. The Creator 
has placed upon parents the brief responsibility of 
watching over and educating their children; and ihis 
great responsibility they cannot roll from themselves 
upon others. They ought to regard teachers and the 
school as very important aids and auxiliaries in the 
training and education of their children. By no means 
should they imagine the school takes the children out 
of their hands, and that during the hours which their 
children spend at school, they themselves are freed 
from all responsibility respecting them. They must 
know how their children employ their time, and how 
they conduct at the school-room — how they demean 
themselves towards their teachers and fellow-pupils, 
as well as what is their behaviour on the way to and 
from school. They must not only feel, but manifest, 
a lively interest in the school studies and exercises of 
their children, and must keep themselves definitely 
informed of the progress which they are makmg. For 
this purpose, we deem it very important that parents 
often visit the schools, that by their frequent presence 
in the school-room, not only upon examination and 
exhibition days, but at other times, they may convince 
both teachers and pupils that they are not indifferent 
to what transpires at the school. It will be very use- 
ful for parents to see with their own eyes how their 
children appear at the school as well as at home. 
Moreover, let them cultivate a familiar acquaintance 
with the teachers, and esteem them, as they are, if 
worthy of the name of teachers, as their benefactors, 
and so in a kind and friendly spirit, confer and advise 
with them respecting their children. In case their 



30 

children come to them with complaints of the harsh- 
ness, partiality, or ill-treatment of teachers, let them 
be exceedingly cautious lest their parental fondness 
lead them hastily to condemn the teacher. Let them 
bear in mind, that, as a general rule, the presumption 
is, the teacher is right and the pupil is wrong ; or, at 
any rate, that the child has been guilty of some mis- 
demeanor or fault. For our observation confirms what 
the principles of human nature teach us, that teach- 
ers, if partial at all, are partial to respectful, obedient 
and industrious scholars : and that if those children 
who complain of harsh treatment and severe punish- 
ments, had conducted themselves properly, they would 
not have been punished at all. Not to extend these 
remarks, we cannot too forcibly impress upon parents 
a dispassionate, conscientious consideration of their 
duties to our schools. Let them appreciate the ad- 
vantages which are offered to them by these institu- 
tions, and secure the punctual and constant attendance 
of their children. Let them, in all possible ways, co- 
operate with school committees and teachers, and our 
common schools will indeed be the pride and glory 
of our city. Our children shall come out of them so 
disciplined and cultured in mind, in heart, and in 
habits, as to be prepared to fill, with honor and use- 
fulness and success, the various spheres the Creator 
has appointed for them. 

By order of the Committee, 

TIMOTHY T. SAWYER, President 
Charlestown, December, 1862. 



31 

George B. Neal, Treasurer, in account with Trustees 
of Charlestown Free Schools. 

Dr 18G2. 

Jan. 1. To balance brought forward, 1.182.05 

" " Received of City Treasurer, interest: 

On $5000 Note, to Jan. 1, 150.00 

June 11. " $600 « " May 1, 36.00 

July 13. " $5000 '• " July 1, 150.00 

$1,518.05 

Cr 1862. 

May 30. By paid A. E. Cutter, for Maps, &c 42.75 

June 4. " Elliott & White, Cyclopaedia No. 14, 3.50 
July 34. " " " Annual " 3.50 

Oct. 16. " C. A. Knight & Co., Diplomas 

for High School, 24.75 
" 29- '• E. S. Ritchie, Apparatus 

for High School, 30.13 

" " " Elliott & White, Cyclop'a, No. 15, 3.50 

Nov. 17. •' A. E. Cutter, Prim. School Cards, 142.73 

250.86 

Balance, $1,267.19 

GEORGE B. NEAL, Treasurer. 
Charlestown, Dec. 20, 1862. 



Tlie undersigned, a committee appointed for the purpose, here- 
by certify that they have examined the above account of George 
B. Neal, Treasurer, and find the same correct, and the balance 
$1,267.19, as above stated; $1000 of which is on deposit in the 
Charlestown Five Cents Savings Bank, upon which interest has 
accrued from the various dates of deposit. 

A. J. LOCKE, ) . 

WM. H. FINNEY, > ^"«*t!f^ 

B. F. BROWN, } Commtttee.