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Full text of "Annual report of the School Committee of the City of Charlestown"

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ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE 



OF THE 



CITY OF CHARLESTOWK 



WITH THE 



Jieports flf % Superbtenhnt of |puWk Srijools, 



rOE THE YEAR 1871. 




CHARLESTOWN: 

PRINTED AT THE CHRONICLE OFFICE, 30 MAIN STREET. 

1872. 



CITY OF CHARLESTOWN. 



In School Committee, September 21, 1871. 

Messrs. Finney, Cutter, and Marden were appointed a Com- 
mittee to prepare the Annual Report. 

Attest: F. A. DOWNINC, 

Secretary, 



In School Committee, December 21, 1871. 

Mr. Finney pr^esented the Annual Report of the School Com- 
mittee for the current year : it was ordered that eight hundred 
copies, with the Reports of the Superintendent, be printed for dis- 
tribution. I 

Attest: F. A. DOWNING, 

Secretary. 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 



1871. 

WILLIAM H. KENT, Mayor, ex officio. 

JOHN B. NORTON, Pres. of the Common Council, ex officio. 

WARD 1 . — William Peirce, A. E. Cutter, John Gr. Dearborn, 
Wm. R.. Bradford, Charles E. Sweney, Henry R. Sibley. 

WARD 2. — John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P. Crown, S. S. 
Blanchard, Charles F. Smith, Liverus Hull. 

WARD 3. — Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, John Turner, 
Charles E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Marden. 

1872. 

WILLIAM H. KENT, Mayor, ex officio. 

JOSEPH W. HILL, Pres. op the Common Council, ex officio. 

WARD 1.— A. E. Cutter, Charles E. Sweney, Wm. R. Brad- 
ford, James A. McDonald, James S. Murphy, James F. South- 
worth. 

WARD 2. — John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P. Crown, S. S. 
Blanchard, Charles F. Smith, Wm. H. Finney. 

WARD 3. — Geo. W. Gardner, John Turner, Charles E. Daniels, 
A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Marden, A. 0. Lindsey. 



REPORT. 



The School Committee of Charlestown submit the 
following as their Amiual Report for 1871. 

riN'AlS'OES. 

In the Report for 1870 it was estimated that at the 
close of the financial year there would remain about 
$8,000 of the amount appropriated by the City Coun- 
cil for support of schools. The actual balance on 
the 1st March, 1871, was $8,688.58, — the appropria- 
tions being $106,557.42, and the expenses amounting 
to $97,868.84. ^ 

The expenses for the financial year of 1871-2 have 
thus far (to Jan. 1, 1872) amounted to $87,853.17. 
The appropriation for the year was $109,300. It is 
expected that the appropriation will be sufficient to 
meet the expenses. 

The report of the Treasurer in relation to the Trust 
Fund of $5,600, the income of which is applicable to 
the support of schools, is annexed hereto. 

SALARIES OF TEACHERS. 

Principal of High School . . . . . $2,500 00 

Master of English Department High School . . 2,200 00 

Submaster ...."" ... 1,600 00 

Fu'st Assistant . . . " " . „ 900 00 



6 



Three Assistants . . . High School, each $700 00 

Principals of Grammar Schools . . . each 2,100 00 

Submasters . " " . . . " . 1,600 00 

Head Assistants " "... « . 775 00 

Assistants . " " . in 3d Classes " . 650 00 

" in Grammar Schools, and ^ 1st year each 575 00 

teachers in Primary Schools ) after " " each 625 00 

Teachers of Intermediate Schools . . each 700 00 

Music Teacher . . . . . . . 1,000 00 

Drawing Master ....... 2,000 00 

The year has been one of general prosperity as 
regards the educational interests of our city, and our 
schools have, in great measure, met the just expecta- 
tions of our citizens. It gives us pleasure to testify 
to the courtesy, ability, and zeal exhibited by the 
superintendent since he commenced his labors in this 
city. Bringing to his work long and varied experi- 
ence in teaching and government, he enjoys the con- 
fidence of all the teachers, and is thus enabled to 
work through them and with them towards a high 
standard of excellence. His labors have been, and 
now are, specially directed against a narrow and 
merely technical instruction, — that which relies 
wholly upon the text-book, or appertains to memory 
exclusively. 

"We are happy to bear testimony also to the ability 
and faithfulness of most of the teachers. They have 
generally been quick and zealous in their co-operation 
with the superintendent for the advancement of the 
schools. Although no violent changes have been 
made, we believe there has been a decided improve- 
ment in the methods of discipline, a general advance 



among the teachers in their appreciation of the best 
methods of instruction, and a less rigid adherence to 
old forms merely because they are old. 

We have to record the death during the year of 
Miss Prances M. Read, a well-beloved and esteemed 
teacher, who had been most of the time for fifteen 
years connected with the High School ; also the death 
of Mrs. V. A. M. Cutler, formerly Miss Dadley, who 
was for many years connected with the Warren 
School, and who served with great fidelity and ac- 
ceptance, until obliged to resign by reason of failing 
health. 

It will be seen by the table of salaries of teachers 
that the rates are in some instances considerably in 
advance of the salaries previously paid. It is the 
conviction of the Committee, that, while the strictest 
economy should be exercised in the management of 
the schools, the true policy to be pursued is to offer 
sufficient inducement for the ablest and most efficient 
teachers. The result has thus far been beneficial, 
there having been fewer changes of teachers during 
the year than usual. Should this policy be continued, 
and should the Committee persistently refuse to retain 
the services of incompetent or unsuccessful teachers, 
increased efficiency would, no doubt, be manifested 
in our schools. 

By reference to the reports of the superintendent, 
a good understanding can be obtained of the progress 
and present condition of our schools, derived from 
direct personal knowledge. But we desire to call 
especial attention to some of the subjects treated of 



8 

therein, which seem to demand, by their importance, 
such emphasis as we may be able to give. 

APPOINTMENT OP TEACHERS. 

It sometimes requires considerable firmness to resist 
the solicitations of the active and influential friends 
of an applicant, who may perhaps be a graduate of 
our High School, or whose father pays taxes, or 
whose pecuniary circumstances appeal to our sym- 
pathies, but who is by no means qualified for the 
important and responsible position of teacher. But 
we are chosen to look after the welfare of the schools, 
and we shall be false to our trusts if we allow per- 
sonal, social, political, or sectarian motives to influ- 
ence us to apj^oint incompetent teachers. A thorough 
preparation for the work should be demanded as a 
requisite for appointment. As the superintendent 
remarks, the salaries now paid are sufiicient to com- 
mand the services of experienced and qualified 
teachers. They are also sufficient to induce those 
who aspire to so important a position as that of 
teacher, to spend the necessary time in j)rdfessional 
training. Of course, residents of our own city, if 
qualified, should have the preference in appointments. 
The subject of a "Training" or ISTormal School has 
occupied the attention of a previous board, but there 
have been some obstacles in the way of its establish- 
ment in this city. Until it is found practicable to 
establish such a school, it is recommended that such 
of our residents as desire to receive appointments as 
teachers, and possess the natural quaUfications, but 



9 

have had no experience, should avail themselves of 
the State formal Schools. 

EVENING SCHOOLS. 

Four of these schools were in operation during 
last winter, — two for males, and two for females. The 
schools for males were each under the charge of a 
master and female assistant. Those for females were 
wholly under the charge of female teachers. The 
Committee having special superintendence of these 
schools report the following statistical information: 
In the school for females at the Winthrop School- 
house, there were twenty-one scholars eighteen years 
old and upwards, one twenty-eight, and two twenty- 
seven years. The average age in this school was 
seventeen and one-half years. Of the fifty-four schol- 
ars belonging, twenty-four were at service perform- 
ing "house-work," eighteen lived at home, three 
worked at sewing, three in a net factory, and six did 
not give their occupation. In the female school at 
" the ]^eck," there were sixteen scholars of eighteen 
years of age and upwards, one thirty-one, one twenty- 
eight, and two twenty-five years old. The average 
age was eighteen years. The occupations of scholars 
in this school were not recorded. In the two male 
schools, numbering one hundred and eighty-four 
scholars, the average age was sixteen and three- 
fourths years. 

Occupations divided as follows :-^ 

At trades, eighty-four ; errand boys, twenty-five ; 
in stores, nineteen j driving teams, six; driving milk 



10 



carts, four; cash boys, sixteen; peddlers, three; 
waiters, three; at work in gas house, two; watch- 
man, one; farmer, one; no business, seventeen. 

The Committee say, " The greatest drawback to the 
benefits to be derived from evening schools, is irreg- 
ular attendance. There is improvement, however, in 
this respect over the previous year. The teachers 
have been zealous and attentive, and there has been 
a good degree of progress manifest on the part ot 
those scholars who have been regular in attendance. 
Diplomas, signed by the superintendent and Com- 
mittee, were granted to deserving pupils." 

The whole expense of carrying on the evening 
schools, exclusive of the mechanical drawing schools, 
was about five hundred and fifty dollars, or about 
two dollars for each scholar. 

The same number of schools, under the same gen- 
eral arrangements, have been established the present 
season with good prospects of success. 

EVENrN"© MECHA:sriCAL DRAWEN'a SCHOOLS. 

In the report for 1870, reference was made to the 
establishment of these schools under the direction of 
the Committee on Evening Schools. This Commit- 
tee selected Mr. Lucas Baker for the position of 
teacher. An assistant was afterwards found to be 
requisite to give the necessary individual instruction 
to so large a number as attended these schools, and 
Mr. Bradford H. Locke, of this city, was selected for 
that position. The Committee in their report to the 
Board speak in high terms of the teacher for his abil- 



11 



ity and aptness in imparting instruction. The assist- 
ant also gave satisfaction. The Committee say, " The 
whole matter was so new, and the time given to 
organize the school so short, that at first the prog- 
ress was somewhat retarded by want of method," 
but after a short time the schools were very success- 
ful. " It was soon found that a very general interest 
was felt in the subject in our community, especially 
with those engaged in industrial pursuits. The whole 
number after a few evenings of work was one hun- 
dred and fifty-four. The average attendance was 
ninety-six. The average age of the pupils was twen- 
ty-six years. Their occupations are recorded as fol- 
lows: machinists, fifty-five ; carpenters . and joiners, 
twenty-six; clerks, twenty; no business, six; carvers, 
four; engineers, four; pattern makers, three; sail- 
makers, three; boiler makers, three; scholars, two; 
hatmakers, two; blacksmiths, two; paper hangers, 
two; masons, two; painters, two; teamsters, two; 
boatbuilders, two; artist, printer, gilder, undertaker, 
piano maker, razor-strop maker, photographer, pol- 
isher, paper-carrier, milkman, stonecutter, wood en- 
graver, and ofiice boy, one each. Drawing-boards, 
squares, and paper were furnished the pupils at the 
expense of the city. All the other instruments were 
furnished by the scholars. Some of the work per- 
formed is highly creditable, and a large part of it 
commendable." 

At the commencement of the present municipal 
year, a standing Committee on Drawing was ap- 
pointed, under whose direction the Evenmg Drawing 



12 

Schools have been continued the present season, con- 
sisting of two classes, one composed mostly of those 
who attended last year, called the advanced class, 
and one for beginners. Each class meets two even- 
ings a week. We are glad to say that in the " ele- 
mentary " class there are a number of ladies attend- 
ing, most of them teachers in our public schools. 

DEAWING. 

Although drawing has been nominally taught in 
our schools for a number of years, but very little has 
been accomplished previous to this year. The teach- 
ers apparently took but little interest in the subject, 
seeming to regard the study as of little account, im- 
posed upon them through some unaccountable whim 
of the School Committee. The time devoted to the 
study was thought by many to be so much time 
wasted, or taken from more important studies. Of 
course the interest on the part of the scholars was 
proportionately small. Thus the object for which 
this study was introduced, was defeated, not from any 
wilful negligence on the part of teachers, but because 
its utility was not appreciated. During the past 
year a great change has taken place in the sentiment 
of teachers on this subject, and the effect is seen in 
the quality of work performed in our schools. On 
the first of March an engagement was made with 
Mr. Lucas Baker, by which he was to have the entire 
superintendence of drawing in our public schools. 
His time since then has been occupied by giving 
instruction in the Grammar and High schools, and 



13 

by giving lessons to the teachers of all the schools. 
It is designed that the teachers shall teach tliis 
branch under the supervision of the drawing master. 
We are happy to say there is now a very general dis- 
position to co-operate in the work. Most of the teach- 
ers have given the plan their hearty support, and 
have gone to work to lay a sure foundation for future 
progress. Those pupils whose teachers have faith- 
fully performed their duties have made rapid progress 
and are now in a good condition to advance under- 
standingly. 

It should be a part of our system of education to 
educate the hand as well as the head. Tlje scholar 
should acquire the power of representing upon paper 
anything that he wishes to describe. This every 
scholar can do, if with a fixed purpose, and the nec- 
essary guidance, he will make the needed exertion. 
If the scholars see their teacher stand at the black- 
board, and draw with spirit and energy, their own 
fingers will follow hers by a spontaneous movement. 
The agency that produces this result is a ready hand 
and a willing heart on the part of the teacher to guide 
the efforts of the scholars. While we do not expect 
to make "artists" of all the scholars in our schools, we 
do expect that they will obtain at least such a knowl- 
edge of drawing as will enable them to understand 
the working plans of a building or a machine. Edu- 
cation in this, as in other branches, pays for itself. 
Draiving, as a useful art, should be made universal. 
The mechanical skill of the artisan is greatly en- 
hanced by a knowledge of the art of drawing. The 



14 



engineer, the architect, the carpenter, the smith, the 
machinist, — in fact, every mechanic needs it, if he 
expects to become a master of his business. It is 
said that nine-tenths of our workmen cannot read a 
working drawing so as to work from it. If the mas- 
ter or foreman is able to make accurate sketches or 
working drawings, and the workmen are able to read 
them so as to work by them, the value of their labor 
is much increased. 

Pupils should not be taught merely to copy pic- 
tures, but should practise on simple copies, gradually 
increasing in difiiculty, until the eye is educated to 
judge of forms and distances with accuracy, and the 
muscle is taught to obey the will. 

Drawing demands thinking, and gives discipline 
to the perceptive and imaginative faculties, if it be 
taught by one who knows how to call these qualities 
into action. The minds of our pupils, we fear, are 
more likely to be dulled than brightened by the 
usual routine of daily duties in some school-rooms; 
and such studies as drawing and music, while reliev- 
ing the tediousness of drill in arithmetic, grammar, or 
geography, and imparting new zest even for those 
studies which are termed the most useful, serve to 
cultivate some of the most important faculties of the 
mind, and are themselves of as much practical utility 
as the gibberish which is to be found in the text- 
books of grammar and geography. Indeed, were it 
not for fear of shocking some few of our teachers, 
we should assert that a knowledge of drawing and 
music is of more practical importance than a knowl- 



15 



edge of all the " rules " and " exceptions " in gram- 
mar, or of the names of all the towns, rivers, and 
capes in the Chinese empire. 

MUSIC. 

This important branch of education has been as 
successfully taught in the high and grammar schools 
as the means placed at the disposal of the teacher 
will allow. We cheerfully concur in the superinten- 
dent's commendation of Mr. Mason, the music 
teacher. But much more could be accomplished in 
this department tinder different arrangements by the 
Committee. Under the present arrangement, the 
scholars in the schools we have mentioned receive 
instruction in music about an hour each week. It 
must be evident that, with three hundred or three 
hundred and fifty pupils of different ages, and be- 
longing to various classes, congregated in one room, 
the teacher must work under great disadvantages, 
and the instruction must be much diluted to meet 
the capacity of each pupil. The primary and inter- 
mediate schools are left entirely without instruction 
in elementary music. It is true that in most of these 
schools, singing by rote is professedly taught, and in 
some cases very satisfactorily, but in many the per- 
formances can hardly b^ dignified by the name of 
music. 

Experience in Boston and other cities and towns 
in the State has demonstrated the practicability of 
elementary instruction in primary, as well as gram- 
mar and high schools ; and this, too, at but little more 



16 

expense than is incurred by our present system. 'No 
additional professional teacher of music will be re- 
quired to attain such a result in this city. In August, 
1870, the City of Boston employed only six profes- 
sional teachers for 32,293 pupils. The chairman of 
the Committee on Music of the Boston schools, in an 
address before the American Social Science Associa- 
tion, in April, 1871, declares that music "can be 
taught as universally and as effectually as reading, 
writing, geography, or arithmetic " ; and, for proof, 
refers to the results obtained in the schools of Bos- 
ton and other cities. He also asserts that " it can be 
taught as economically as the other branches." The 
plan under which such results are attained, is simply 
this : by means of charts prepared for .the purpose, 
the teachers in the public schools are able to give 
most of the instruction under the general direction 
of the professional teacher. From the address re- 
ferred to we learn that " it requires no special musi- 
cal ability or previous training " on the part of the 
regular teachers. "An aptness to teach only is 
necessary, and any person who is fitted in other 
respects to hold the responsible position as teacher 
in a public school, has the ability to learn in a very 
short time (under the direction of a competent pro- 
fessional head) how to teach the elements of music 
as well as the other studies required in our common 
schools. Nor is it necessary that the teacher should 
be able to sing, in order to be successful in this 
branch of study, though of course it is an aid." By 
the system pursued in these cities, a comparatively 



17 



small portion of time is required, — five or ten min- 
utes in each session is all that is necessary for pri- 
mary schools and lower classes in the grammar 
schools, and no more time in the upper classes than is 
now devoted to the study. 

We take it for granted that the benefits of musical 
instruction are generally acknowledged in the com- 
munity, — certain it is that the best educators are 
agreed that its beneficial effects are manifested in 
many ways. The plan here suggested has recently 
been brought to the attention of the Committee, and 
we have no doubt favorable action will soon follow. 

SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION'S. 

The new Harvard School-house, situated on Bow 
street, opposite Richmond street, is nearly completed. 
This elegant and commodious building is arranged 
on a different plan from that of either of the other 
school-houses in the city, possessing advantages, it 
is claimed, in many respects. 

It was hoped that it would be completed in season 
for dedication during the present year; but this being 
impracticable, it is now thought that it will be ready 
for occupation early the coming year. A detailed 
description of the building will appropriately appear 
in the next annual report. 

"With the completion of this structure, the High 
School and four of the Grammar Schools will be pro- 
vided with elegant, commodious, and costly school- 
houses, nearly all erected within a few years. 

While cheerfully acknowledging the generosity of 



18 



the city in providing within a comparatively short 
time such elegant and well appointed school-houses, 
at so large an expense, it is our duty to call the 
attention of the city government and the citizens to 
the wants of that portion of the city embraced in the 
Winthrop School district. This subject has been 
repeatedly referred to in former reports, and in com- 
munications to the City Council. For a number of 
years, the various sub-committees on the "Winthrop 
School have strenuously urged the building of a new 
school-house for this district. Previous to the decis- 
ion of the city government to build a new house for 
the Harvard School, it was a question in the Board 
of School Committee, which school should receive 
the first attention. It was finally determined to 
recommend a new building for the Harvard at that 
time, with the implied understanding that the needs 
of the Winthrop should immediately afterwards 
receive due consideration. 

Probably the location and arrangement of the Win- 
throp School-house were satisfactory at the time the 
building was erected. But the change of circum- 
stances since has rendered them unsuitable and incon- 
venient. Without enumerating all of the inconve- 
niences and annoyances which are complained of by 
teachers and scholars, it may be sufiicient to mention 
the following : The increase of travel on the streets 
on which the building is located is so great as to dis- 
turb very much the operations of the school. The 
number of scholars is so much greater than the 
building was intended to accommodate, that it has 



19 



been found necessary, for several years, to occupy 
the basement, which was originally used for a ward 
room. The rooms in the basement are utterly unfit 
for school purposes, being damp, poorly ventilated, 
and badly arranged. The rooms in the upper part 
of the building consist of two large halls and a num- 
ber of very small recitation-rooms. This arrange- 
ment, at the best, is attended with many inconve- 
niences, and has been discarded in all the other school- 
houses in the city, and by other cities and towns in 
the erection of new buildings. The disadvantages ot 
the original plan have been much increased by the 
increase of scholars, making the task of discipline in 
the large halls much more difficult, and rendering the 
recitation-rooms inadequate to accommodate an entire 
class at one time. These rooms are poorly lighted 
and badly ventilated. "Want of clothes-rooms is a 
source of annoyance and discomfort. The proximity 
of the out-buildings makes them a great nuisance. 
Under these circumstances, the same results ought 
not to be expected as in more favored schools. The 
citizens of this section, as a matter of justice, are 
entitled to all the advantages enjoyed by the resi- 
dents of other portions of the city. After suitable 
provision for this school, we may congratulate our- 
selves that we possess ample accommodations for 
Grammar Schools for a long time to come. If it be 
objected that it is unnecessary to provide to such an 
extent at this time for prospective wants, we reply 
that while supplying our immediate necessities, it is 
true economy to have an eye to the future. If the 



20 

" prospective wants " had been fully appreciated and 
provided for when the Howard and Winthrop School- 
houses were built, the necessity for new buildings for 
those schools would not now exist. 

The Committee therefore recommend that land be 
purchased immediately, with a view to the erection 
of a first-class grammar school-house as soon as prac- 
ticable. 

In regard to accommodations for primary schools, 
although in some districts the schools are crowded, 
it is thought that by re-districting, the pressure may 
be relieved for the present. If the city should deter- 
mine to sell the old Harvard School-house, it will be 
necessary to provide new accommodations for the 
schools now meeting there. If it be determined to 
retain the building for these schools, it will be neces- 
sary that some changes be made in it to adapt it to 
the purpose. 



It may not be uninteresting to compare our pres- 
ent schools and school-houses with those of the past, 
as recorded in the old town records. We have ac- 
cordingly made a few extracts from " Frothingham's 
History of Charlestown." 

THE FIRST SCHOOL. 

" ' June 3, 1636, Mr. William Witherell was agreed with to keep 
a school for a twelve month, to begin the eighth day of August, 
and to have forty pounds this year.' This simple record is evi- 
dence of one of the most honorable facts of the time, namely, that 
a public school, and judging from the salary, a free school, at least 
for this ' twelve month,' was thus early established here ; and on 



21 



the principle of voluntary taxation. It may be worth while to 

remember also that this date is eleven years prior to the so often 

quoted law of Massachusetts, compelling the towns to maintain 
schools." 

THE FIRST SCHOOL-HOUSE. 

" There is no notice of a school-house until 1648, when one was 
ordered to be built on Windmill Hill, and paid for by a general 
rate." 

THE FIRST HIGH SCHOOL. 

In " 1671, Benj. Thompson, a celebrated teacher, was engaged 
by the Selectmen to keep school in town upon the following terms : 

" 1. That he shall be paid £30 per annum by the town, and to 
receive 20 shillings a year from each, particular scholar that he 
shall teach. 

" 2. That he shall prepare such youth as are capable of it, for 
college with learning answerable. 

"3. That he shall teach to read, write and cj^pher." 

A SCHOOL-HOUSE OP OLDEN TIME. 

A school-house yvsis built in 1682. 

" The house was ' twelve feet square and eight feet stud, with 
joints with a flattish roof, and a turret for the bell, and likewise a 
mantel-tree of twelve feet long.' The expense for carpenter work 
was £13. The masong were to ' build up chimneys and underpin 
the house, and to ceil the walls with clay and brick, and to point 
the roof with lime for £5.'" 

THE FIRST SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 

" 1712. The teacher having requested that regulations might be 
made about the town school, it was voted, ' That whereas the school 
being thronged with so many small children that are not able to 
spell or read, as they ought to do, by reason of which Latin schol- 
ars, writers and cypherers cannot be duly attended to and instructed 
as they ought to be,' Capt. Samuel Phipps and Mr. Jonathan Dowse 
were chosen ' inspectors and regulators of that matter.' '* 



22 



THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

" 1754. The town voted March 4th ' that the old town -house-be 
improved for a spinning school ' ; and the sum of fifty pounds to 
repair the same," 

"We have thus seen from what small beginnings 
our present extended and successful system of edu- 
cation has sprung. But it is well to remember that 
these .apparently small things were in reality as large 
at least, for them, in proportion to their needs and 
means, as our varied appliances and expenses are 
for us under our circumstances. 

The citizens of Charlestown have been distin- 
guished for their liberal spirit and enlightened policy 
with regard to public education. While awarding 
the meed of praise to our predecessors, it becomes us 
to remember that each generation has its own needs 
and its own work to do. With the change of cir- 
cumstances, new duties and responsibilities devolve 
upon us. "While providing liberally for all the acces- 
sories, such as costly school-houses, apparatus, etc., 
let us not lose sight of the fact that there are only 
the improved means by which improved results are 
to be attained. It is well also for us ' to remember 
that education does not consist, merely or primarily, 
in the communication of knowledge, — it includes a 
discipline of the mind, and a development of its facul- 
ties. Our success must be measured, in a great 
degree, by such discipline and the number of facul- 
ties we improve. Above all, our schools should be 



23 

fostered and governed with an eye to good morals. 
Yirtiie and knowledge should be mutually joined, 
and then will the foundations be laid upon which may 
be safely placed the responsibilities and duties of 
citizenship. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Board, 

WM. H. FINNEY, 

ABEAM E. CUTTER, > Committee. 

GEO. H. HARDEN, 



24 



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25 
ORGANIZATION 



OF THE 



SCHOOL COMMITTEli). 



WILLIAM H. KENT, Chairman. 

F. A. DOWNING, Secretary. 

WILLIAM H. FINNEY, Treasurer. 

ABIJAH BLANCHARD, Messenger. 

BENJ. F. TWEED, Superintendent of Schools. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

ON FINANCE. 

GEO. H. MARDEN, CHAS. F. SMITH, LIVERUS HULL. 

ON BOOKS. 

G. W. GARDNER, WM. H. FINNEY, JOHN G. DEARBORN. 

ON MUSIC. 

S. S. BLANCHARD, JOHN TURNER, CHAS. E. SWENEY. 

ON DRAWING. 

GEO. H. MARDEN, WM. PEIRCE, WM. H. FINNEY, 

HENRY R. SIBLEY. 

EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS. 

G. W. GARDNER, WM. H. FINNEY, CHAS. F. SMITH, 
NAHUM CHAPIN, WM. PEIRCE. 

ON PRINTING. 

NAHUM CHAPIN, WM. PEIRCE, A. E. CUTTER. 

ON FUEL. 

WM. R. BRADFORD, JOHN SANBORN. 

ON EVENING SCHOOLS. 

A. E. CUTTER, WM. H. FINNEY, NAHUM CHAPIN, 
H. R. SIBLEY, C. E. DANIELS, LIVERUS HULL. ' 

4 



26 
OEGAJS'IZATION OF THE SCHOOLS. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

Oommittee. — Geo. W. Gardner, A. E. Cutter, John G. 
Dearborn, A. J. Bailey, Liverus Hull. 

Teachers. — Caleb Emery, Principal ; Alfred P. Gage, 
Master of the English Department; Geo. W. Drew, Sub- 
Master ; Katharine Whitney, Dora C. Chamberlain, Frances 
M. Eead, Mary L. Coombs, Assistant Teachers. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

BUNKER-HILL SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Chas. E. Daniels, Geo. H. Marden, Wm. R. 
Bradford. 

Teachers. — Charles G. Pope, Principal ; Henry F. Sears, 
Sub-Master ; Abby F. Crocker, Head Assistant ; Mary A. 
Eaton, Emily M. Warren, Martha Blood, Katie C. Thompson, 
Lucy E. Howe, Georgia A. Smith, Abbie P. Josselyn, An- 
gelia M. Knowles, Lydia S. Jones, Mary S. Thomas, Ida O. 
Hurd, Emma S. Randlett, Anna M. Prescott, Assistant 
Teachers. 

WARREN SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Wm. H.Finney, A. E. Cutter, S. S. Blan- 
chard, John G. Dearborn. 

Teachers. — Geo. Swan, Principal ; E. B. Gay, Sub-Mas- 
ter; Sarah M. Chandler, Head Assistant; Annie D. Dalton, 
Margaret W. Veazie, Elizabeth Swords, Frances L. Dodge, 
Anna S. Osgood, Georgeanna Hamlen, Abbie E. Holt, El- 
len A. Pratt, Julia A. Worcester, Abby C. Lewis, Maria 
L. Bolan, Alice Hall, Assistant Teachers. 



27 



PEE SCOTT SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Chas. F. Smith, A. J. Bailey, Lyman P. 
Crown. 

Teachers. — Geo. T. Littlefield, Principal; Samuel J. 
Bullock, Sub-Master ; Mary G. Prichard, Head Assistant ; 
Martha M. Kenrick, Mary C. Sawyer, Julia C. Powers, 
Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Ellen C. Dickinson, Lydia A. 
Sears, Georgie T. Sawyer, Frances A. Craigen, Assistant 
Teachers. 

WINTHROP SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Nahum Chapin, John Sanborn, Henry E. 
Sibley. 

Teachers. — Caleb Murdock, Principal ; William B. At- 
wood, Sub-Master; Loretta F. Knight, Head Assistant; 
Bial W. Willard, Harriet E. Frye, Mary F. Goldthwaite, 
Arabella P. Moulton, Sara H. Nowell, Abbie M. Clark, 
Ellen R. Stone, Elsie A. Woodward, Jennie E. Tobey, 
Ellen A. Chapin, Assistant Teachers. 

» 

HARVAED SCHOOL. 

'Committee. — William Peirce, John Turner, Liverus Hull, 
Chas. E. Sweney. 

Teachers. — Warren E. Eaton, Principal; Darius Had- 
ley, Sub-Master ; Abbie B. Tufts, Head Assistant ; Ann E. 
Weston, Lois A. Rankin, Fanny B. Hall, Fidelia L. How- 
ard, Susan H. Williams, Emma F. Thomas, Assistant 
Teachers. 

INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

No. 1. — Sub- Com7nittee, Wm.. Peirce. No. 2. — John 
Turner. No. 3. — John Sanborn. 

No. 1. — Teacher, Lucy M. Small. No. 2. — Anna R. 
Stearns. No. 3. — Caroline M. Sisson. 



28 



PEIMARY SCHOOLS. 



N'o. 

Sch'l. Teacher. 

1 Helen G. Turner . . 

2 EfBe G. Hazen . . . 

3 Elizabeth B. Norton 

4 Lilla Barnard . . . 

5 Mary H. Humphrey 

6 Ella Worth. . . • . 

7 Martha B. Stevens . 

8 Sarah A. Atwood . • 

9 S. Josephine Chase . 



10 M. Josephine Smith . 

11 Elizabeth W. Teaton . 

12 Abbie P. Richardson , 

13 Melissa J. A. Conley , 



District No. 1. 

Location. 
Haverhill street 

Cor. Charles & Bunker Hill sts. 






District No. 2. 
Mead street 



14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
38 



19 
20 
21 
22 

23 

24 



25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Jennie D. Smith . 
Frances M. Lane . 
Ellen Hadley . . . 
Mary A. Blanchard 
Carrie E. Osgood . 
Mary F. Richards . 



District K"o. 3. 
Sullivan street .... 



Martha Teaton . . . . 
Mary P. Swain .... 
Persis M. Whittemore 
Frances B. Butts . . . 
Louisa W. Huntress . 
Marietta F. Allen . . . 
Carrie C. Smith . . . . 



Medford " 
Cross " 

Medford " 



District No. 4. 

,. Bunker Hill street . . . 



Louisa A. Pratt ... 
Elizabeth A. Prichard 
Elizabeth R. Brower 
Catherine C. Brower 
Mary F. Kiftredge . 
Effie A. Kettell . . . 
Matilda Gilman . . . 



Moulton street 

(( ti 

Harvard Chapel . . . . 

Moulton street . . . , . 

District Wo. 5. 

Common street .... 



32 Ellen M. Armstead . . 

33 Elizabeth F.*Doane . . 
■ 34 I Sarah E. Smith . . . 

' Lucy M- Soule . . . 

35 Charlotte M. W. Tllden 

.36 Carrie A. Rea . . . . . 

37 Frances a. Foster . . . 



Soley " . . . . 

District Wo. 6. 
Bow street 



Committee, 



Geo. H. Marden. 
>-Charles E. Daniels, 
Geo. W. Gardner. 



> 



A. J. Bailey, 
\Vm, H. Finney. 



John Turner, 
> Charles F. Smith, 
Lyman P. Crown. 



John Sanborn, 
► Nahum Chapin, 
Wm. R. Bradford. 



I S. 8. Blanchard,,. 
>-John G. Dearborn, 
Wm. R. Bradford. 



Richmond street ! 

" " ........ J 



■ A. B. Cutter, 
yC. E. Sweney, 
\ H. R. Sibley. 



SECO:NrD EEPOET OF SUPEEINTENDENT. 



Gentlemen, — In submitting my Second Semi- 
Annual Report, for the term commencing Septem- 
ber, 1870, and ending February 28, 1871, I would 
respectfully call attention to the following statistics, 
which may be of service in showing the condition of 
our schools in respect of numbers, regularity of 
attendance, etc. : — 

Population of the city ...... 28,416 

Number of children in Charlestown between five and 

fifteen years of age, May 1, 1870 . . . . 6,081 

Number of different pupils in all the day schools during 

the term ending Feb. 28, 1871 (about) . . 6,133 

Average number of pupils in all the day schools during 

the term . . 5,016 

Average attendance in all the day schools during the ^ 

term ......... 4,546 

Percentage of attendance . . ... . . .906 

Average number of pupils to a teacher in all the day 

schools ...*.... 44.7 

Eatio of average number of pupils to the whole popu- 
lation .... .176 

Eatio of average number of pupils to the school pop- 
ulation ...,..., .82 

By a comparison of these general statistics with 
those of other cities and towns, it will be seen that 



30 

Charlestown, in these regards, has no cause of com- 
plaint. Thus, the ratio of our average number of 
pupils to the school population is six per cent 
greater than that of Boston (.82 to .76), and to the 
whole population, is three and six-tenths per cent 
greater (.176 to .14). 

Mr. Philbrick, the able Superintendent of the Bos- 
ton schools, says in his report, that " no other large 
city in the country can show so high a percentage 
of its school population in attendance at school as 
Boston," and infers that no other large city has a sys- 
tem of schools which so nearly meets the wants of 
all classes of its citizens. 

The fact that Charlestown is not a large city does 
not, I suppose, invalidate the reasoning, and if not, 
the comparison must be regarded as very creditable 
to our schools. 

The average number in the High School, during the term, 221.71 

« " attendance " " " " " " 214.4 

Per cent of " .967 

Number of pupils to a teacher . . ... 31.8 

The average number in the Grammar Schools during 

the term . 2,660 

The average attendance in the Grammar Schools during 

the term 2,525 

Per cent of attendance .949 

Nimiber of pupils to a teacher, 45 . 

The average number in the Intermediate Schools . 168 

" " attendance " " " . . 141 

Per cent of " 84 

Number of pupils to a teacher ..... 56 



31 



(( 



(( 



The average number in the Primary Schools 

" " attendance " 
Per cent of " 
Number of pupils to a teacher 



The average 


number 


in the Bunker Hill School 


k( ( 




u 


(( 


W arren 


(( 


U ( 




(( 


(( 


Prescott 


u 


(( i 




(( 


(( 


VV inthrop 


(( 


(( i 




(( 


(( 


Harvard 


(( 


U il 


attendance 


in the Bunker Hill 


u 


>( (( 






(( 


Warren 


(( 


U (( 






t,i 


Prescott 


u 


(( (( 






a 


W inthrop 


(( 


(( (( 






a 


Harvard 


u 


Per cent 


of 




a 


Bunlier Hill 


(( 


(I (( 


u 




a 


W arren 


(( 


u a 


(( 




a 


Prescott 


(( 


11 (( 


(( 




a 


W inthrop 


(( 


(( (( 


(; 




li 


Harvard 


(( 



1,967 

1,665 
.846 
55.5 

719.9 

661. 

482. 

475.6 

321.3 

685. 

621. 

460. 

453.16 

306.2 
.951 
.939 
.954 
.952 
.953 



Per cent of pupils in the first class of the several 
Grammar Schools, January, 1871 : — 

Bunker Hill School . 065 

Warren " 05 

Prescott " 088 

Winthrop "... 059 

Harvard " 057 

Per cent of pupils in the sixth class of the several 
Grammar Schools : — 

Bunker Hill School .23 

Warren " . . 30 

Prescott " .23 

Winthrop " 269 

Harvard " . . . • . • , .15 



32 



' Average age of pupils in the several classes of the 
Grammar Schools, Jamiary, 1871 : — 



Bunker Hill School . 

Warren " 

Prescott " 

Winthrop " 

Harvard *' 

Number of Pupils 
in the several 
classea in all the 
Gra'mar schools 
January, 1871, 



1st Class. 



Uy.ejm. 

14" 8 " 
14" 6 " 
14" 5 " 
14 "6| " 

168 



2d Class. 



13 y. 10 m, 

14 " 3 " 
13 " 5 " 

13 " 10 " 

14 " 1 " 

262 



3d Class. 



13y. li m. 
12 " 11 " 
12 " 8 " 



13 



4 " 
419 



4tli Class. 



otli Class. 



12 y. 11 m. 
11 " 10 " 
11" 7 " 
11 " 10 " 
11 " 11 " 

616 



11 y. 5 m, 
11 " 3 " 
11 " 1 " 
11 " 2 " 
10 « 10 " 

541 



6th. Class. 



lOy. 61 m. 
' 9 

10 " 2 " 

10 " 0| « 

10" 1| « 

10" 2 " 

654 



EVEIiri]S"G SCHOOLS. 

Whole number, not including Drawing School 
" " of males .... 

" « " females 

Average attendance diu'ing term 

Percentage of the whole number 

* Whole number of teachers, 2 males, 6 females 

Average number of pupils to a teacher 

Average age of pupils, males 16f, females 17J years. 



253 

154 

99 

112 

.44-1- 

8 

14 



DKAWII^G SCHOOL. 

The whole number of pupils 154 

Average attendance during the term . . , . 96 

Per centage of whole number .63 

Average age of pupils . . . . . . . 26 

Number of teachers (males) 2 

Number of teachers in all the day schools, exclusive of 

the music teacher (13 males) (99 females) . . 112 



* Another assistant was employed six evenings. 



33 

The term commencing September, 1870, and end- 
ing February iJSth, 1871, was characterized by few 
events out of the usual order. 

The Primary schools in District ]^o. 4 were suf- 
fering from an excess of pupils, and the two 
Intermediate schools were found inadequate to the 
wants of the class of pupils that properly belonged 
in them. 

These evils have been temporarily remedied by 
hiring the Edgeworth Chapel, and removing Pri- 
mary school ISTo. 23, under the charge of Mrs. Hun- 
tress, to it, and establishing another Intermediate 
school in the room vacated by ISTo. 23. 

Edgeworth Chapel is capable of accommodating 
double the number of pupils usually assigned to 
one teacher, and Miss Marietta F. Allen has been 
appointed as an assistant to Mrs. Huntress. 

This has given relief to the Intermediate schools 
and the primaries of this district, and it is believed 
that the accommodations will be ample for some 
time, perhaps until the erection of new houses shall 
give permanent accommodation to all. 

The Primary schools are, so far as I can judge, 
in a better condition now than they have been at 
any previous time, and I have no suggestion to 
make with reference to them, except that of caution 
in the appointment of teachers. In these schools, 
perhaps more than any other, the teachers make the 
schools. With us, it can hardly be said that what 
we regard as the best system gives us the best 
schools. The few ungraded primaries that remain 

6 



34 

are among the best, while several of those most 
perfectly graded are among the poorest. I do not 
bring this forward as an argument against properly 
graded schools, but to show that the teacher is more 
than the system. 

The examinations of the candidates for admission 
to the Grammar schools in February were conduct- 
ed by the several sub-committees and myself, and 
the results generally, both in the primary and inter- 
mediate schools, were very gratifying. Where the 
examinations were not satisfactory, I have stated 
the fact to the teachers, and made suggestions by 
which, I hope, they may profit. Our Grammar 
schools have been interrupted only by the unavoid- 
able inconvenience of an occasional change of 
teachers. In September, the appointment of Mr. 
Gage to the mastership of the English department 
of the High School created a vacancy in the Bun- 
ker Hill School, which was filled by the appointment 
of Mr. Charles G. Pope as master. Mr. Pope had 
been at the head of the Forster School in Somer- 
ville some six years, where he had established a 
reputation as a teacher and disciplinarian which 
gave assurance of success in the new sphere to 
which he was transferred. So far as I have seen, 
I believe the selection a judicious one. Other 
changes have occurred in nearly all the Grammar 
schools of subordinate teachers, and the new ap- 
pointments have proved generally very satisfactory. 
Great care has been taken in the selection of teach- 
ers, their schools visited when practicable by the 



35 



superintendent, the principal, or the sub-committee, 
and thus the best of all tests applied before calling 
them to our schools. 

The February examinations of the Grammar 
schools gave evidence of faithfulness on the part of 
teachers, and of general success, diJBfering of course 
in the different schools, and in the several rooms of 
the same school. By reference to the foregoing 
statistics, it will be seen that considerably more than 
half the pupils that enter the Grammar schools 
never reach the second class. 

May not our " course of studies " be so modified 
that pupils shall have some practice in mensuration 
and interest before leaving the third class? 

It seems to me that too much time is devoted to 
long and difficult problems in the rules prescribed 
for the lower classes. Principles, I am sure, are 
more easily taught, and more deeply impressed on 
the mind of the child by a great number of exam- 
ples adapted to the capacity of childhood, than by 
fewer and more difficult problems. Thus, if a child 
is taught to find a common denominator, to add, 
subtract, multiply and divide fractions, or to perform 
operations in interest, by the use of small numbers 
and easy combinations, he will understand the pro- 
cesses better, and be better prepared for the more 
difficult problems which may arise in after life, than he 
can be by trying to do a man's work while he is a child. 
Considerable attention has been given, in some of 
these schools, to exercises not perhaps required by a 
strict interpretation of the course of study, and, T 



36 

think, with excellent effect. The regular drill and 
daily routine of the school is agreeably relieved by 
devoting an hour or two of the week to something 
of interest out of the common course ; and the teach- 
ers, I think, who have practised it most, feel that 
they have not lost, but rather gained, in the regular 
school work. I hope the practice may prove con- 
tagious. To create and stimulate a desire for knowl- 
edge is as legitimate an object of education, as to 
impart knowledge, and is likely to exert a far 
greater influence on the character. 

If I must choose between the two, I would much 
prefer that the child should leave school with a 
desire to know, than that he should possess a vast 
amount of definite knowledge, which has been drilled 
into him, but with no curiosity or enthusiasm to im- 
pel him to further acquisition. 

Says Mr. Hudson, a fine scholar and educator of 
much experience, " It is what young people learn to 
take pleasure in, what they build up happy thoughts 
and associations about, and what steals smoothly 
and silently into the heart, and there becomes a vital 
treasure of delight, that mainly determines their 
characters. In comparison with this, mere intellec- 
tual acquirements and furnishings, and even ethical 
arguments and convictions, are of insignificant value. 

The forms of young imagination have more force 
than anything else to keep the heart pure. To pre- 
occupy the mind with right tastes and noble loves, 
is the first principle of all wise and wholesome train- 
ing, both in school and at home." 



37 

The High School, under the new organization, has 
had hardly time and opportunity to show important 
results, though there are indications of much greater 
practical efficiency, especially in the English and 
scientific departments. 

Mr. Emery, the Principal, says in his semi-annual 
report, that " the progress of the school during the 
term now closing, has been interrupted by the sepa- 
ration of classes, change of teachers, and the loss of 
time, — nearly five weeks intervening between leav- 
ing our temporary school-rooms and entering the 
new building. The new school-house was dedicated 
on the 14th of December, and the re-united school 
commenced on the 15th, under new and most favor- 
able auspices, with convenient and ample accommo- 
dations, new and extensive apparatus, and a full 
corps of competent teachers. A new impulse seems 
to have been given to the school, and the several 
classes have made very satisfactory proficiency in all 
their studies." 

The examinations in February, I think, fully con- 
firmed the statement of the principal, and gave 
assurance of increased usefulness. 



EVEN'IN'G SCHOOLS. 

Our evening schools, it will be seen by reference 
to statistics, though limited, were thirteen per cent 
larger than those of the year preceding, and the 
attendance, as compared with the number belonging, 
was four per cent better. 



38 

By placing females at the head of the schools for 
girls, the expense of the schools was diminished, 
without detracting from their eflSciency. The de- 
portment of the pupils was generally good, and their 
improvement very gratifying. 

Much credit is due to the teachers of these schools 
for their faithfulness, and for the interest they mani- 
fest in the welfare of those who hare few to care 
for them. 



EVENTN'G DKAWE^G SCHOOL. 

It was stated, in the Report of the School Com- 
mittee for 1870, that " in compliance with a law of 
the State, passed at the session of the Legislature 
of 1870, a school for instruction in industrial or 
mechanical drawing had been established." 

It remains for me to say that the school continued, 
four evenings a week, from the middle of December 
to the first of March, and was attended with the 
most gratifying results. We were most fortunate 
in the selection of a teacher. Mr. Baker is not only 
skilful as a draughtsman, but understands perfectly, 
the geometrical principles involved, and possesses 
the faculty, both of imparting the method and ex- 
plaining it. Drawing thus becomes not merely imi- 
tative, but an educating process, no less for the mind 
than the hand. That the work done by this class 
was very creditable to all concerned, is the unani- 
mous verdict of many of our' citizens who have 
examined the specimens that have been exhibited in 



39 

my office. There was much enthusiasm in the class^ 
and in answer to a petition of the members, the 
school was continued longer than at first proposed. 

It is but just to say, that the results were obtained 
without the aid of models, or printed charts, or pic- 
tures of separate or combined parts of machinery, so 
abundant in most of our Technical schools. 

Much advantage, I am informed, may be derived 
from such aids, and more time allotted to the teacher 
to examine the work, and make suggestions to indi- 
viduals. 

In the absence of models, etc., much of this work 
devolved upon the assistant, Mr. Locke, who ren- 
dered essential service in this school. 

It is a question for the School Committee whether 
it may not be well to obtain some of these objects 
for representation and means of illustration before 
the school again opens. The expense, I understand, 
will be small, and the advantage derived from them 
great. 

, The experiment of teaching Industrial Drawing to 
our mechanics, has, with us, proved an entire suc- 
cess, unaccompanied by the mistakes and hindrances 
commonly . incident to experiments, even when suc- 
cessful ; and I know of nothing which has done so 
much to commend our public school system to all 
classes in the community, as the introduction of 
drawing into our schools, and the establishment of 
schools for mechanical drawing, for persons more 
than fifteen years of age. 

At the World's Fair, in 1851, the palm of excel- 



40 



lence in manufactures was, in nearly every depart- 
ment, awarded to England. Sixteen years later, 
when the nations again displayed the results of their 
skill and labor, England excelled only in ten of a 
hundred departments. 

This created so much excitement, that Parliament 
appointed a committee of investigation, and the re- 
port of the committee is equally instructive and 
valuable to us as to England. It is this : " That the 
success of the Continent was owing to its admirable 
technical schools ; that no nation can excel in manu- 
factures unless it provides facilities for scientific 
education, for all that converts the mere workman 
into the artisan." 

The introduction of free-hand and mechanical draw- 
ing is a good beginning for us, but the end is not yet. 
Already there are indications that it is not to stop 
here. During the present session of the Legislature, 
Dr. Putnam, as chairman of the Committee on Edu- 
cation, has introduced an order that the Board of 
Education be instructed to inquire what further 
measures may be adopted to make the instruction in 
our day schools more practical, in its relation to our 
industrial institutions. 

Whether the Board shall succeed in fixing on any 
definite plan or not, I have no doubt that the effect 
of such inquiries will be beneficial to the cause of 
popular education. 

In concluding this report, I think it safe to say 
that the statistics and examinations indicate that our 
schools are in a better condition to-day, than they 



41 

have been at any previous period; and that the spirit 
of our teachers generally is such as to give assur- 
ance of a still better time coming. 

The ratio of pupils in attendance upon the schools 
exceeds that of any city of the Commonwealth, with 
the exception of Chelsea and ]S'ew Bedford. 

The per cent of attendance in our High School, 
Grammar Schools^ and the upper grades of the Pri- 
maries, is fully up to that of the cities and towns 
in the Statfe, having the best schools; and, in the 
lower grades of the Primary, it is as great as it 
ought to be. 

Under the system we have adopted, the cases of 
truancy have greatly diminished, and much credit is 
due, I think, to our truant officers, for their efficient 
services, and the judicious manner in which they 
have discharged duties which require the exercise of 
much judgment and discretion. I believe all our 
teachers would heartily indorse this opinion. 

Thanking you, gentlemen, for the courtesy I have 

ever received at your hands, this report is respectfully 

submitted. 

B. F. TWEED, 

Stipt. of JSchools. 
March, 1871. 



THIED EEPOET OF SUPEEINTENDENT. 



GEiSTTLEMEisr, — During the term beginning March 
1st, and ending July 3d, 1871, our schools were in 
successful operation, with no special disturbing influ- 
ences not known to you, but which it may be well 
briefly to enumerate for the benefit of our commu- 
nity. 

The Harvard School sufi'ered temporarily from the 
necesity of providing accommodations for the Pri- 
mary schools formerly on Bow street, but now occu- 
pying four rooms in the Harvard School-house. 

This arrangement rendered it necessary to put 
about half the scholars of the Harvard School in 
the upper rooms of the City Hall. The incon- 
venience has, however, been very cheerfully acqui- 
esced in by the teachers, in anticipation of the new 
Harvard School-house on Bow street. 

I cannot say quite as much for the resignation of 
the teachers of the "Winthrop School, who are still 
subjected to the inconveniences of the ill construc- 
tion, large rooms, aaid crowded condition of the 
school, without any immediate prospect of relief. 
Several rooms in this building were never intended 
for school-rooms, and are wholly unfit for them in 
respect to light, ventilation, and proximity to a noisy 



43 

street. The call for a new house in this district 
is certainly pressing", and I trust the claims of 
the district to be placed on an equality with the 
others will be acknowledg-ed and granted at an early 
day. 

"With a new house in the Winthrop district, of the 
capacity of the new Harvard, we should have excel- 
lent accommodations for our High and Grammar 
schools for many years. 

I ought perhaps to mention, among the temporary 
inconveniences, that of re-districting, last year, for the 
relief of the Harvard and Winthrop, and the conse- 
quent crowding of the Bunker Hill School. The 
completion of the new Harvard will require a return 
to something like the old lines. 

In some of the Primary schools, also, especially of 
the lower grades, the attendance has been so great 
during a few of the pleasant months, as to cause some 
inconvenience. 

The inequality of the increase of population in * 
different parts of the city has crowded some schools, 
while others have not their full number. 

A re-districting of the Primary schools is needed, 
and perhaps one or two new schools may be required. 
This, however, cannot be determined until we ascer- 
tain how nearly they can be equalized. 

"With these exceptions, our schools have suffered 
no special hindrances. The closing of the schools 
on the third of July made the term somewhat shorter 
than usual, but the examinations for promotion to 
the High and Grammar schools gave evidence that 



44 

a full term's work had been done, and, in general, 
well done. 

ATTEI^DAJ^CE. 

Of the 5,000 scholars connected with our schools, 
there will of course be some cases of irregularity in 
attendance, arising from the frowardness of the 
pupils, unfortunate home influences, sickness, or other 
unavoidable contingencies ; but it is believed that the 
efforts of teachers, aided by the truant officers, have 
reduced the absences very nearly or quite to the 
minimum percentage that will be found practicable. 
It will be seen, by examining the accompanying sta- 
tistics, that the highest rate of attendance is in the 
High School, the next in the Grammar schools ; and, 
I may state, that the percentage of attendance in the 
U]3per grades of the Primary schools is considerably 
above that of the lower grades. 

This is as it should be. It is not desirable that 
'the attendance of pupils from five to seven years of 
age should be more regular than it is at present; and 
I should be disposed to doubt the reliability of statis- 
tics that gave a percentage of more than ninety-five 
or six for High schools, and ninety-two or three for 
Grammar schools. 

The variation from a hundred per cent is fully 
accounted for by sickness and unavoidable contin- 
gencies. On the whole, the statistics show a gain in 
the number of pupils in actual attendance, and, as 
far as figures can, an improved and satisfactory con- 
dition of our schools. 



45 



STATISTICS. 



l!^umber of different pupils in all the day schools 
during the term ending July 3d, 1871, 5913. 



Average number 

" attendance . 
Per cent of attendance 
Average number in High School 

" attendance " 
Per cent of " " 












Average number in Grammar Schools 
" attendance 

Per cent, of " 

Average number in Intermediate 
" attendance " 

Per cent of " " 

Average number in Primary 
" attendance " . 

Per cent of " " . 

Average number in Buiiker Hill School 
" " Warren " 

" " Prescott " 

" " Winthi-op " 

" " Harvard " 

" attendance in Bunker Hill School 



(( C( 


W arren 


(( 


(( (( 


Prescott 


li 


U (( 


W inthrop 


(( 


(( (( 


Harvard 


ii 


Per cent of " 


Bunker Hill 


(i 


^i a 


W arren 


(( 


(( u 


Prescott 


(C 


(( (( 


VV inthrop 


(( 


(( u 


Harvard 


(( 



5056 
4635 

.916 

196.76 

188'.78 
.96 
2825 
2654 
.94 

154 

133 
.86 
1880 
1659 
.88 

774.4 

699 

515 

510.8 

326.3 

718.3 

665 

489 

484.4 

307.2 
.927 
.937 
.949 
.948 
941 



46 



Number of scholars admitted to the Grammar, from the 

Intermediate and Primary schools, July 3d, 1871, 
Admitted to Bunker Hill School 

*' Warren " 

" Prescott " 

" Winthi'op " 

" Harvard " 

Number of graduates from the Grammar Schools 
Number of graduates from B. Hill School . 

Warren 






u 



a 



Prescott 
Winthrop 
Harvard 
High 
pupils admitted to High School from the Gram 



mar Schools . 
Bunker Hill School 
Warren " 

Prescott " 

Winthrop 
Harvard 






293 
103 
62 
45 
46 
37 
152 
41 
32 
38 
26 
16 
20 

128 
32 
80 
32 
22 
12 



rN^STRUCTIO^. 

The instruction in our schools during this term 
has been, I think, more practical, and more free from 
technicalities, and ^las adhered less strictly to the 
text-book, than was formerly the case. 

This is a result at which I have constantly aimed, 
and my examinations, which have been frequent, have 
been conducted with a special view to this end. I 
have seldom taken a text-book in hand when ques- 
tioning pupils, but have framed my questions, as far 
as possible, to develop the principles involved, and 
given more credit to a pupil who makes a statement 



47 

or an explanation in his own language, than to one 
who is able to give the precise words of the book. 

Another respect in which I think improvement has 
been made, is, that pupils are required to practise 
more on comparatively easy examples where the prin- 
ciple is obvious, and troubled less with more difficult 
or tedious ones, involving no new principle, but sim- 
ply hiding it under a load of conditions too difficult 
to be understood by the pupil. 

In grammar, for example, I would not have the 
pupil know that there are any exceptions, or even 
difficult application of principles, till he has come to 
recognize the general principle in so many familiar 
examples that he at once sees in what the real or 
apparent exception consists. 

In arithmetic, questions that simply test the endur- 
ance of the pupil by their length are no tests of 
their knowledge. I^Tor are they of equal value as a 
mental discipline. What we gain in the time of hold- 
ing the attention is more than lost in intensity. 

In teaching geography, more attention is given to 
map drawing, and the location of a few of the most 
important features and places, and less to the mere 
memorizing of descriptive geography. Geography, 
thus taught, especially if the teacher comes prepared 
with something new in connection with the lesson, is 
interesting to the pupil and not soon forgotten. I 
remember being told by a gentleman whose knowl- 
edge of geography was very extensive and accurate, 
that, if he knew more of geography than most people, 
it was because he had not tried to remember so much. 



48 

He had fixed a few important points definitely in 
his mmd, and clustered all others, as they came up, 
around them. This I know to be the best method of 
learning the sequence of historical events, and fixing 
them in the mind clu'onologically. I think it safe to 
say that what is remembered in geography and his- 
tory generally, is in the inverse ratio to what is 
taught. 

Drawing, which has been a required study in our 
schools for some time, but which was necessarily 
pursued under great disadvantages, from the fact that 
it was new to most teachers, has received an impulse 
by the appointment of a competent teacher, which 
already begins to manifest itself in more systematic 
and better work, and increased interest on the part 
of pupils and teachers. 

Mr. Baker has given occasional lessons to the 
teachers of all our day schools, and the attendance 
and interest have been highly creditable. They will 
be continued, and we shall soon have many compe- 
tent teachers of elementary drawing. 

In addition to the improvements above mentioned, 
I think I may add an increased earnestness on the 
part of most of our teachers. 

If I am not mistaken, they read more on the subject 
of education, and are more anxious to avail them- 
selves of improved methods of instruction. If it is 
not true now, in case of every teacher, I hope it will 
be before I make another report. 



49 



PKINCIPLBS AND PROCESSES OF INSTRUCTION". 

In my first report, I spoke of the studies required 
by statute, in our Grammar and Primary schools, 
indicating, to some extent, their relative importance 
and claims, and suggesting what I regard as the best 
method of teaching them. 

In my report of March last, I hinted at the impor- 
tance of inspiring pupils with a love of knowledge, 
expressing the conviction that it is a better guarantee 
of future intelligence than any amount of actual at- 
tainment. I now propose to consider this subject 
more definitely, and, in connection with it, to discuss 
some of the first principles and processes of teaching. 

Franklin and Bowditch, and thousands of others 
who became eminent, left school with but a small 
stock of actual knowledge, but with a desire for 
knowledge that induced them to use that small stock 
as a key to unlock the great treasure-houses of wis- 
dom. 

I speak of the importance of inspiring, or Tceeping 
alive, this desire. But, in most cases, it is only the 
latter that we have to do. Every one at all conver- 
sant with children is aware of the intense curiosity, 
and consequent activity, they manifest from the day 
they leave the nurse's arms to amuse themselves with 
toys, till they enter our schools, ^ot content with a 
superficial view, they are not satisfied till they have 
" analyzed " their playthings to see what it is that 
rattles or squeaks or whistles. And how much they 
learn during these three or four years! The names 



50 

and uses of almost everything around them, a vocab- 
ulary sufS.cient for all the purposes of practical life, 
and a recognition of nearly every grammatical form 
in the language, have been acquu^ed, chiefly through 
the curiosity of childhood, without any direct teach- 
ing. 

And yet, no complaint is more common with some 
teachers, than indifference and want of interest on 
the part of pupils. 

Is this because the subjects taught are uninterest- 
ing, or that, the manner of teaching renders them so? 
Undoubtedly there is work to be done, work not 
always agreeable. In learning the elements of most 
studies, it requires much ingenuity on the part of the 
teacher to preserve an interest in the subject until 
the pupil has sufficient knowledge of it to find it 
interesting. 

Yet children have the desire for knowledge. It is 
one of the strongest impulses of their nature, and it 
is only by the uninteresting drill and drudgery of 
the school-room, upon the dry husks of knowledge, 
that they acquire a chronic indifference to what, in 
itself, is interesting. 

I have been much interested in the Kindergarten 
system, by Froebel. His principle of organizing and 
guiding the activity of childhood, rather than re- 
pressing it, I am convinced, lies at the foundation of 
all good teaching, and of everything worthy of the 
name of education. 

The recognition, too, of the fact that the child is 
a doer primarily, and a Tcnower subsequently, or an 



51 



artist before he is a scientist, is important in its rela- 
tion to teaching. I have spoken of this in a previ- 
ous report, quoting from a greater than Froebel, to 
the same effect. 

Much also depends on the spirit in which the exer- 
cises are conducted. The discipline of the school, 
that is, the general tone and character of the inter- 
course of the teacher with the pupils, has an impor- 
tant bearing on their intellectual activity. The mind 
cannot act freely when under the influence of fear or 
restraint. 

Dr. Howe says, " Much idiocy is not organic, but 
only functional, and to be referred to coarse or harsh 
deahng with infants, paralyzing their nerves of per- 
ception with pain and terror." And Miss Peabody 
adds, that "what produces idiocy in these extreme 
cases, produces chronic dulness, discouragement, and 
destruction of all elasticity of mind in the majority of 
children." 

I believe this to be strictly true ; and when a teacher 
is continually harping upon the dulness and stupid- 
ity of his or her pupils, I admit the fact, and com- 
monly find the cause in the same room where the 
effect is manifested. I know indeed no better test of 
a teacher than his opinion of the ability and character 
of children. 

The teacher who has not faith in children will 
never secure their confidence, without which success 
is impossible. I think it is safe to say that nine-tenths 
of the complaints of dulness of pupils are the results 
of stupidity somewhere else. I have noticed that 



52 

the best teachers are offcener surprised at the intel- 
ligence manifested by their pupils than by their dul- 
ness. And this is what we should expect. 

Every child of ordinary intelligence is constantly 
surprising his parents and friends by the rapidity of 
his development and his new acquisitions. We are 
apt to attribute the surprise to the partiality of 
friends, and regard it as an undiscriminating, though 
amiable weakness. Yet parents and friends are not 
wrong in wondering at the intelligence of the child 
in whom they are particularly interested, but in not 
recognizing the fact that every child is a "won- 
der." 

Every child is a new revelation to a small circle of 
friends, and it is only our own stupidity and selfish- 
ness that prevent us from generalizing, and seeing in 
the class what we see in the individual. Is it not 
possible that the child's processes of learning, by 
which he makes such rapid advancement, are superior 
to our processes of teaching? And might we not 
all learn much by a careful study of the operations 
and development of children's minds? 

This was the great service rendered to arithmetic 
by Warren Colburn, and in examining a book recently 
published in England, and republished in this coun- 
try, entitled " English Lessons for English People," 
I have been struck with the fact that the methods 
of teaching recommended are almost uniformly those 
adopted by the child in learning, before he enters 
school. 

In fact, the author claims this as the highest sanc^ 



53 

tion of his method. To give an example of the 
child's method of learning the meaning of words, I 
will take the word " burn." The child touches the 
hot stove and feels pain. His mother tells him 
^^burn," and if he approaches the stove again^ the 
word " burn," "^^ burn," makes him careful and becomes 
associated in his mind with the pain. Then he hit^ 
his head against the table, or pinches his fingers in a 
crack of the door, and runs to his mother with 
"burn," "burn." He has now blocked out a rough 
meaning of the word, or, as a logician would say, 
assigned it to a certain genus, " pain," which is suffi- 
ciently definite for his present purposes. 

Soon, however, he observes that the pain caused by 
touching the stove diff'ers from that caused by hitting 
the table, and getting his fingers in the crack of the 
door, and thus learns to distinguish between a " burn,"' 
a "bump," and a "pinch." 

]N^ow this way, in which every child learns the 
m.eaning of his whole vocabulary, is the exact method 
of logical science in defining. 

The genus and the specific difference is the logical 
definition. 

The same thing is constantly repeated in the his- 
tory of civilization and the consequent growth of 
language. Every one in reading Trench's little book 
on the " Study of Words/' must have noticed how 
numerous the words are, that, since the time of Chau- 
cer, or even that of the translation of the received 
version of the Bible, have passed from a generic to 
a specific meaning. 



54 

It marks the history of mental growth and dis- 
crimination, no less in the nation than in the 
child. 

HEADING. 

It is well known, at least to teachers, that there 
are various theories of teaching reading to very 
young children. The old method, still adhered to 
by many, is to begin with the name of the letters, 
and then jump to the power of letters in combination ; 
and we sometimes think it very strange that the child 
can't see that " h-a-t " spells " hat," when, in fact, he 
has no reason in the world to think it spells any- 
thing, — or, at most, only " aitchaty." But, bad as 
this system, or lack of system, is, children do learn 
to read, though not by any direct instruction. This 
is the child's first experience in school of " obtaining 
knowledge under difiiculties," and furnishes an excel- 
lent illustration of his aptness to learn, and his abil- 
ity to overcome, partially, the hindrances of poor 
teaching. 

Another method is that of beginning with the 
powers, or elementary sounds, before the names of 
the letters are given, and combining them, — thus 
forming words. 

Still a third method is that of beginning with the 
word as the unit of significance, and analyzing the 
spoken word into its elementary sounds, and the 
written word into letters. While I am aware that 
many excellent teachers advocate the second method, 
it seems to me that the third is more in accordance 



55 

with the manner of learning to talk, and appeals more 
immediately to the intellect. 

It must, I think, be easier and more interesting to 
take a word, the sign of an idea, and resolve it into 
its parts, than to work with the utterly unmeaning 
elementary sounds until we have constructed the sig- 
nificant sign. It seems to me that the machinist finds 
it a more interesting as well as easier process, having 
seen the machine as a whole, to take it apart and 
examine it, than he Avould to construct the several 
parts, and put them together without any idea what 
it is to be till it is finished. But whether teachers 
begin with one or the other of the two latter methods, 
their work soon becomes essentially the same. They 
both differ from the first in being intelligent methods, 
which the first is not. But this is only the first step 
in learning to read, and it has seemed to me that the 
next step — that of putting words together in phrases 
and sentences — is quite as important, and perhaps 
more so. The monotonous habits acquired by read- 
ing sentences before the pupil is perfectly familiar 
with the words and phrases, are often carried through 
life. 

There are certain words — as the articles and the 
auxiliary verbs, for instance — that stand in the rela- 
tion of unaccented syllables to the words to which 
they belong, — and I think the sentence should not 
be read till the pupil can pronounce these combina- 
tions as one word. Thus, I would have the pupil 
able to pronounce rapidly, the phrases, "can spin," 
^' the boy," " the top," before he is required to read 



56 

the sentence, "The boy can spin the top." It then 
conveys to his mind some meaning, instead of being 
a mere string of words, as they are, if with some dif- 
. ficulty, and silent spelling of the words, he reads, 
^^ The — boy — can — spin — the — top." 

Some of our primary teachers are practising this 
method with excellent results, and I have heard, in 
some of our schools, sentences read for the first 
time, with good inflection and emphasis, simply from 
the fact that the pupil understood them. 

ARITHMETIC. 

Another instance occurs to me, in which it is safe 
to follow the child's method, viz., in developing the 
idea of number, and teaching what is contained in 
the tables of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 
division. It should not be merely by verbal memory, 
gained by a study of the card, that the pupil is able 
to say that three and foiu* are seven, or that three 
times four is twelve; but first, by the use of the 
numeral frame, or, better still, by pictures of ob- 
jects placed on the blackboard, and then by concrete 
examples in which the pupils see the objects men- 
tally. 

Thus, if a boy has three cents in one pocket and 
four in another, how many has he in both? If he 
spend two cents for candy, how many will he have 
left? There should be, I think, a great deal of prac- 
tice on these examples, before the pupil is required to 
deal in abstract numbers. The table then has a mean- 
ing for him, and is not a matter of mere verbal mem- 



57 

ory. In some schools 1 have found the practice the 
reverse of this : the abstract table first, and then the 
concrete examples. 

In what I have written on principles and processes 
of instruction, I have had in mind, primarily, the 
lower classes, or those in the Primary and lower 
Grammar school classes. But the principle is appli- 
cable in our schools, and in all classes. In no pro- 
fession is there greater danger of falling into routine 
than in teaching ; and I know of no way to break the 
monotony of teaching the same studies year after 
year, but by a constant questioning of present meth- 
ods. It is quite as important to the teacher as to 
his classes. 

An English writer, speaking of the cotton produc- 
tion in certain European countries, says, " They 
showed clearly that there is not a machine working 
a machine, but that brains sit at the loom, and intelli- 
gence stands at the spinning wheel." 

How much more important that this should be the 
case where the fabric to be produced is knowledge, 
virtue, wisdom. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

The High School, under the new organization, has 
gained I think in efficiency, especially in the depart- 
ments of history, English literature, and the natural 
sciences ; and while it maintains its high rank as a 
classical and preparatory school, it also meets the 
wants of the large majority of those who enter, far 
better than ever before. 

8 



58 

The study of the natural sciences, as now con- 
ducted, is perhaps the most practical — using the 
term as bearing immediately on our industrial inter- 
ests — of all our school instruction. 

Humboldt long since declared that " the time was 
not far distant when science and manipulative skill 
must be wedded together"; that "national wealth 
must be based on an enlightened employment of 
national products and forces." That we are moving 
with the current in this direction, is seen in our draw- 
ing schools, aiid improved facilities for practical 
instruction in the natural sciQuces. I hope that 
something will be done by additional facilities in the 
chemical department, to enable the pupils not only to 
see, but to perform the most important and interest- 
ing experiments. 

The English language and literature receive more 
attention than formerly, and it is believed that the 
interest awakened in this department will be the 
means of creating a taste which will seek gratification 
by reading the best authors, after leaving school. 

The semi-annual report of the principal represents 
the general condition of the school to be " unusually 
prosperous," and states that the " written examina- 
tions indicate a good degree of proficiency on the 
part of the several classes, especially the Junior class 
in Latin, English literature and physical geography." 

The report alludes to " the severe loss sustained 
by the school in the decease of Miss Frances M. Reed, 
who, for more than fifteen years, had been a faithful 
teacher, respected and beloved by all." The resigna- 



59 

tion of Miss Dora Chamberlain, on account of ill 
health, is also spoken of as " an event deeply regretted 
by scholars and teachers." 

MUSIC. 

Music, as a branch of school instruction, is now 
recognized in all the best schools in the country, and 
it is found that the ability to sing is not confined to a 
favored few, who have what is called an ear for music, 
but that all ears may be taught to appreciate and all 
voices to produce musical sornds. 

There may be as much difference in the capacity 
for music as for arithmetic ; but no one, I think, who 
has taught both, believes there is more. 

Mr. Mason, our teacher of music, has been indefa- 
tigable, and his labors, I think, have been very suc- 
cessful, especially when we take into consideration 
the difficulties with which he has to contend. He is 
now the only teacher of music in our schools, giving 
instruction to about 3,000 pupils weekly. If one 
teacher could take the same number of pupils in 
reading, arithmetic, or geography, and produce results 
equally satisfactory, we should regard it as a marvel. 
Many of the pupils are taught to read simple music, 
at sight, with great facility. And yet Mr. M. is not 
satisfied, believing that much more may be accom- 
plished, by an arrangement that would make each 
teacher an assistant, without any extra cost for in- 
struction, and with but a small outlay for musical 
charts. 

The experience of other cities has shown that this 



60 



may be done successfully in our Grammar and even 
Primary schools, and I recommend that the committee 
on music be authorized to furnish the schools with 
the necessary charts. 

THE APPOINTMENT OE TEACHEES. 

I have in a previous report spoken of the necessity 
of great care in the selection of teachers. 

The importance of the subject, and the pressure 
which is sometimes brought to bear in favor of some 
very worthy persons, on other grounds than special 
qualifications and adaptation to the position of 
teachers, must be my excuse for referring to it again. 

]Sro manufacturer would think of erecting build- 
ings, and furnishing them with machinery at an 
expense equal to that invested by the city in school- 
houses and apparatus, and then giving them in charge 
of any but experienced and skilful workmen. Good 
character, need of a situation, while they always 
excite respect and sympathy, would not even bfe 
urged as reasons for employing operatives who were 
unacquainted with the business. 

And yet it is not uncommon to have persons recom- 
mended for teachers in our schools who have made 
no special preparation for teaching, but whose only 
claims are a respectable education, good character, 
and need of the income. 

I know there is a prevalent oj)inion in the commu- 
nity that the discipline and instruction of a school 
require no special training, though it is admitted that 
some lack a special gift which others have. 



61 



The best teachers and educators, on the contrary^ 
believe that there is no trade or profession in which 
an apprenticeship or special training is more needed 
than in teaching. 

It is this opinion that justifies a very large expen- 
diture yearly, by the State, for the support of formal 
schools and educational institutes. 

Shall we bear our proportion of the expense of 
those schools, and yet derive little or no benefit from 
them? Our salaries are such as to command teach- 
ers who have had the advantages of all the special 
preparation which the State affords, supplemented 
by a successful experience. Have not our schools a 
just claim to the best teachers we can find? 

The schools are not for the teachers, but the teach- 
ers for the schools. Other things being equal, I 
would always give the preference to our own and to 
the needy. But it is very rarely the case that other 
things are equal. One of our own citizens who has 
had special preparation, and been successful in a 
school in some place where the salaries are less, wdll 
always have a great advantage over a stranger, with- 
out putting forward any claim except that of quali- 
fication and past success. It is the dictate of pru- 
dence, no less than justice, that commits great inter- 
ests to those who have been faithful and successful 
in smaller concerns. 

I^early every graduate of a N^ew-England college 
has learning enough, if that is all, to be principal of 
our High School. And yet, it is but one in a hun- 
dred that you would think of appointing to that im- 



62 



portant trust, and that one must be able to refer to 
a successful experience in some j)osition less remu- 
nerative. I see no reason why the same principle 
does not apply with equal force in the appointment 
of teachers for our Grammar and Primary schools; 
and I don't know how the committee can answer it 
to their constituents or their consciences, if they do 
not provide the best teachers available for the price 
they can offer. But, as I am not keeper of the com- 
mittee's conscience, I will let that pass. 

In closing this report, I wish to bear testimony to 
the general intelligence and faithfulness of our teach- 
ers. My intercourse with them has been uniformly 
pleasant. My advice, or criticisms, when made, have 
always been received in a friendly spirit, and the rela- 
tion existing between us has been to me, at least, a 
source of unalloyed pleasure. I am happy, also, to 
say that our worthy mayor has been something more 
than the presiding officer of this Board. His visits 
to our High and Grammar schools, with the words 
of advice and encouragement spoken, have been ap- 
preciated by both teachers and pupils, and I doubt 
not have done much good. 

Congratulating you, gentlemen, on the measure of 
success attained, and thanking you for uniform kind- 
ness and consideration, this report is respectfully 

submitted. 

B. F. TWEED, 

Superintendent of Fublf ScJiools. 
September, 1871. 



Tne Harvard and Its Depen- 
dencies. 



HISTORY OF THE GROWTH OF 
THIS SCHOOLHOUSE. 



OESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING AND 
ITS DEDICATION- 



The Harvard School dittes back as far as 
1648, when the first schnol house ever ereded 
in (Jliarlestowu was jilact^d on Wind-Mill 
Hill. Strictly speaking:, this school formed 
the nucleus of the Harvard which took its 
name from John Harvard, wlioni I believe is 
hurried in the old Phipps stieet cemetery. 
The name is an iliu.^-trmus one, and is taken 
by the most celebrated college in the cnuntry. 
to do honor to a man w ho made a donation to 
the institution. Previous to 1800, there was 
but one school house in Charlestown, below 
the Caiiel Bridge, for the accuniniodation o1 
children between thfl ages of 7 and 14, and 
that is near where the Harvard school now 
stands. In 1838, the school on Hai vard stre< t 
was named the "Harvard." Frothingham in 
his Hi^tory of Charlestown gives si^me amus- 
ing facts, which in these diiys seem comical 
in the extreme, but it is from small begin- 
nings like wliich he qnoti^s, that education in 
its comfiirts and facilities of attainment has 
arrived at lis present standiiis. After allud- 
ing to the first school-house built in 1648 on 
Wind Mill Hill, he says: "In 1671, Benjamin 
Tbomp.son, a celebrated teacher, was engaged 
by the select men to keep school in town 
upon the following terms: 1st, that he shaMbe 
paid £30 per annum by the town and to receive 
20Sshillings a year from each particular scholar 
he >hall teach; 2tl, that he shull prepare such 
youth as are capable of it, for college, with 
learning answerable; 3d, that he shall teach 
to read, write and cj pher. At the annual 
town meeting i i March, 1701. it was yoied, 
that it there ^h()uld be a County school-hou.se, 
settled by the General Cuurt, that this town 
should raise £40 in order to provide for it, if 
it be settled iu§ this town." In 1713, theie 
was a controversy about the location of a new 
School house, and it was finally settled by 
building one on the H 11 near the old house, 



near where the present Harvard school 
stands. Tne C(jst of this house was £104, 4s.,- 
lld. TliB salary of the Gramnjar master »vas 
£50, aud £4 was voteil to pay for teaching 
cliildren to write among the inhabitants near 
Iloading. In 1718, the -salary of the master 
was £60, and in 1725, £80, which was the 
largest item in the approi)ri iti<ni to defray 
the term expenses. 1^1 n 1748, live gentlemen 
were appointed to visit aud examine the 
schools, at least once a quaiter, and an addi- 
tion of £100 was made to the master's salaiy. 
So much for a musty history iu connection 
with the Harvard school. What by contrast 
do we find to-day. A massive brick building, 
fiontiiig on Devens' street and running 
through to Prescott street. Starting with the 
l)a-ement we find two large play-rooms, with 
additional rooms for the steam-heating ap{)a- 
ratus, with closets, etc. In the first floor are 
five rooms 28x32 feet and 13 feet in height, 
with clothes rooms for the pupils and two re- 
ception rooms, dressing rooms aud other con- 
veniences. The second Hoor has six rooms, 
of the same dimensions, aud on the third 
floor are three school rooms and an exhibition 
hall, running the length of the building and 
half its width. The exterior is of an invit- 
ing appearance, faced with pressed brick, 
with granite trimmings. The new building 
was dedicated Feb. 22d, 1872, with a feeling 
of pride, aud had our ancestors been around 
that time, they would have stamped it as a 
big piece of extravagance. The pupils had 
gathered together, and lent their voices in a 
song. Rev. W. T. Stone read from the Scrip- 
tures, and Kev. Thomas B. Smith offered a 
fervent prayer. A very appropriate thing 
was the singing of a hymn, written by Mr. 
Abram E. Cutter, to the time of "Fair 
Harvard." George B. Neal, Chairman of the 
Committee on Pullic Property, turned over 
the keys tc Mayor Kent in a neat speech, de- 
tailing how and why the School was erected. 
He said that the site included land owned by 
the city, and occajjied by a primary school- 
house, which was removed to make room for 
the new building. The total area of land on 
which the building now stands is 16,320 feet, 
aud cost the city $31,485,60. The bn Iding 
cost ©92, 000,00, the furniture $6800,00, mak- 
ing the total cost $130,285,60. Mayor Kent, 
in receiving the keys and passing them to 
the chairman of the Harvard School Com- 
mittee, made an address of an interesting 
nature, and Mr. Marden on receiving the keys 
spoke somewhat at length. He said that the 
School was probably kept in the block house 
or the great house built for the governor, and 
in the square where the fmiutain now 
stands. In 1828, the Harvard school-house 
was put in complete repair at an expense of 
$680,71, and rebuilt in 1847-8. For nearly 
two centuries and a half the meeting house 
aud school house has stood side by side upoti 



the hill. VV.E. Eaton, the present iniiinipal 

of the school, in receiving keys also spoke, 

thanking the authorities in behalf of the 300 

boys and girls for the noble building. At the 

conclusion of h's remarks the scholars sang a 

dedication ode written by Mr. Eaton to the 

tuue of Keller's Auieiican hymn. Prof. 

Tweed and Richard Frothingham made an 

address, and the exercises closed \vith a trio 

by three young ladies. •■ 

; The Harvard school district runs down to 

Prison Point, through the center of Au-tin 
-troet, down the ctntre of Warren srrci't to 
PleaSiUit. both sides of Pleasant as far as 
Monument square, through the centre of 
Adams street to the Navy Yard wafl^. The 
pupils at the Harvard school number 671, 51 
being primary scholars. There has been a 
decrease since Mr. Eaton took the school in 
1872. At that time he had 6S1. This is 
owing to the encroacliments of biisiue.ss on 
the water and railroad fi'onts diiving faiiiilifs 
away. The Harvard Hill school which is iu 
the district has 4(i4 primary scholars, making 
a total under M:-. Eaton's supervision of 1135. 
The Common street school was until quite 
recently in the Harvard District, hut is now 
included in the Warren. Mr. W. E. Eaton is 
^ the principal of che Harvard school and is- 
specially well adapted to the care of bo\ s and 
tiiris iu educating and bringing up as far as 
the school room is concerned. He is a very 
; busy man. Darius Hadley is the sub-master; 
/i^ddie B. Tuffs the 1st assistant and Annie 
^E. Weston tiie 2d assistant. The third assist- 
ants are Sarah E. Leonard, Mary A. Loveiing, 
Jennie E. HoAVard, Edith W. Howe, Lucy 
A Wilson, Sarali J. Perkins, Cally E. Gary, 
Annie E. O. Connor, Mrtha Palmer. At the 
Harvard HiU School the present teachers are 
Grace Bredeen, Catherine C. Broner, Eauuy 
A. Foster, Elizab'Hh B. Weatherbee,. 



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GH^I^LESTO'Vsrisr, 



FEBRUARY 22, 1872. 



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-'"Ss-=^r5&^!«>^Sg— 



1. MUSIC : - SINGING BY PU^PILS OF THE PUBLIC.SCHOOLS. 



2. READING SELECTIONS FROM THE SCRIPTURES Rev. Wjm. T. Stoave. 



3.7 PRATER....-.;. .:,;....'... T... Rev. Thoma.s B. Smith. 



MUSIC. 



HVMN BV ABK VJt E. CUTrER, 



The barbarous Scythian in Atlienti of old, 
As we read in a time-honored story, 

Its wonders would see — lie was bidden behoM 
In Solon, the'Greek's greatest-glory. 

For, iar above temple, above sculptured fane, 
Earth's marvel to all coming ages; — 

Above the Acropolis' storied domain. 
The Greek jirized the vvisdom of sages. 



Now, broken the column, and crumbled the wall; 

The proud archway perished, and portal- 
Yet wisdom has builded her hon.se in the soul. 

In tliat realm where all is immortal. 



To fouinlatioiis tlins laid in tliose ages afar. 
Head-stone of tlie corner was given, 

When high in the East arose Bethlehem's star, 
The Herald of Wisdom from Heaven. 



To shores far beyond aught the Argos essayed 

Came wise men the new light discerning, 
Whose grand Golden Fleece was a Commonwealth staj'ed 

On churches and tree schools of learning. 

With a fond local pride the muse now recalls 
From our archives the bright scroll of honor, 

And choosing therefrom incribes on the walls 
John Harvard, the generous donor. 

From seed sown in weakness we gather in strength, 

'Twas timely and prayerfully sown ; 
First the blade, then the ear, now the full corn at length, 

We reaji where the fathers have strown. 



5. STATEMENT by Gkorge B. Neal, EsO-, Chairman of Committee on City Property, 
on pa.'-sing the Keys to I he Mayor, Chairman ex-ofRcio of the School 

Committee. 



C, ADDRESS by his Honor IMayor. Kent, on receiving the Keys and passing them to 
the Chairiuaii of the Harvard School Committee. 



7 . ADDRESS by Geo. H. JNIarden, Esq., Chairman of the Harvard School Committee on 
receiving the Keys and passing them to the Principal of the School. 



8. ADDRESS by W. E. Eatox, Esq., Principal of the School, on receiving the Keys. 



MUSIC 



9. DEDICATION ODE By W. E. Eatox. 



DEDICATION ODE. 



God of our fathers, all glorious and great ! 
Founder of Empire and Savior of State! 

Bend from thy throne in the dark-rolling cloud ; 

Fill with thy Presence this temple so proud; — 
Come in thy glory our efforts to bless. 

Twine with thy mercy each lintel above; 

Crown every archway with justice and love; — 
Come in thy grandeur "this temple to bless. 



Here into hearts that shall mould and bear sway, 
Fountain of Wisdom, the Truth and the Way, — 

Flow like the waves on the ocean's white breast; 

Pour through this temple a tide of unrest; — 
Come in thy wisdom its teachers to bless. 

Sweet as that smile by Gennessaret's sea. 

Shine on these hearts now so youthful and free; — 
Come in thy beauty its children to bless. 



Angels that hover where danger is near, 

Come from your homes in the bright heavenly sphere; 

Quench the red flame that shall threaten with harm : 

Temper the whirlwind and riUe on the storm ;— 
Spread your white pinions to guard and protect. 

Blessing the years as they roll in and die. 

Long may these walls greet the blue-vaulted sky; — 
Ever, O Father, come, guard and protect. 



10. SHORT ADDRESSES By the Superintendent and others. 



MUSIC, 






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