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Full text of "Annual report of the School Committee of the City of Charlestown"














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ANNUAL REPORT 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE 



M'lTIl THE 



REPORTS OF THE SUPERINTENDENT, 



AND THE REPORT OF THE 



TRUSTEES OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY 



CITY OF CHARLESTOWN, 



FOE THE YEAR 1872. 




CHARLB3T0WN: 

PRINTED BY CALEB RAND 

18 73, 



CITY OF CHARLESTOW^. 



In School Committee, September 19, 1872. 

Messrs. Finney, Harden, and Murphy were appointed a Com- 
mittee to prepare the Annual Report. 

Attest: F. A. DOWNING, 

Secretary. 



In School Committee, December 19, 1872. 

Mr. Finney presented the Annual Report of the School Com- 
mittee for the current j^ear : it was ordered that eight hundred 
copies, with the Reports of the Superintendent, be pi'inted for dis- 
tribution. 

Attest : F. A. DOWNING, 

Secretary. 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 



1872. 

WILLIAM H. KENT, Mayor, ex-offido. 

JOSEPH W. HILL, Pres. of the Common Council, ex-nfficio' 

WARD 1. — Abram E. Cutter, Charles E. Sweney, James A. Mc- 
Donald, James S. Murphy, James F. Southworth, John G. 
Dearborn. 

WARD 2. — Charles F. Smith, Lyman P. Crown, William H. 
Finney, Nahum Chapin, John Sanborn, S. S. BlancharcL 

WARD 3. — Geo. W. Gardner, Geo. H. Marden, John Turner, 
Alfred O. Lindsey, Charles E. Daniels, Andrew J. Bailey. 

187;3. 

JONATHAN STONE, Mayor, ex-offido. 

ETHAN N. COBURN, Pres. of the Common Council, ex- officio. 

WARD 1. — Abram E. Cutter, Charles E. Sweney, James A. Mc- 
Donald, James S. Murphy, James F. Southworth, John G. 
Dearborn. 

WARD 2. — Charles F. Smith, Lyman P. Crown, William H. 
Finney, Nahum Chapin, John Sanborn, S. S, Blanchard. 

WARD 3. — Geo. W. Gardner, Geo. H. Marden, John Turner, 
Alfred 0. Lindsey, Charles E. Daniels, Edmund L. Conwa\'. 



OEGANIZATION 



SCHOOL co]mm:itteih: 



WILLIAM H. KENT, Chairman. 

F. A. DOWNING, Secretary. 

WILLIAM H. FINNEY, Treasurer. 

ABU AH BLANC HARD, Ifessenger. 

BENJAMIN F. TVYEED, Superintendent of Schools. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

ON FINANCE. 

Messrs. Tukner, Smith, aud Daniels. 

ON BOOKS. 

Messrs. Gardner, Cutter, Smith, and Dearborn. 

ON MUSIC. 

Messrs. Turner, Finney, aud Sweney. 

ON DRAWING. 

Messrs. Marden, Cutter, Bailey, and Dearborn. 

ON examination op teachers. 
Messrs. Gardner, Finney, Smith, Dearborn, and Turner. 

ON phinting. 
Messrs. Chapin, Cutter, and Southworth. 

ON FUEL, 

Messrs. Sanborn and Chapin. 

ON evening schools. 
Messrs. Cutter, Daniels, Smith, Chapin, and Blanchard, 



ORGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOLS. 



HIGH SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Gardner, Cutter, Dearborn, Bailey, 
Marden. 

Teachers. — Caleb Emery, Principal; Alfred P. Gage, 
Master of the English Dej^artment ; George W. Drew, Sub- 
Master ; Katherine Whitney, Dora Chamberlain, Louisa F. 
Parsons, Emma G. Shaw, Mary L. Coombs, Assistant 
Teachers. 

BUNKER HILL GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Daniels, Dearborn, Lindsey. 

Teachers. — Charles G. Pope, Principal ; Henry F. Sears, 
Sub-Master; Mary A. Eaton, Head Assistant; Lucy E. 
Howe, Caroline "W. Graves, Georgianna Smith; Abbie P. 
Josselyu, Angelia M. Knowles, Lydia S. Jones, Mary S. 
Thomas, Ida O. Hurd, Annah M. Prescott, Catherine C. 
Thompson, Assistant Teachers. 

WARREN GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Finney, Cutter, Blanchard, Mur- 
phy. 

Teachers. — George Swan, Principal; E. B. Gay, Sub- 
Master; Sarah M. Chandler, Head Assistant; Annie D. 
Dalton, Anna S. Osgood, Margaret W. Veazie, Elizabeth 
Swords, Frances L. Dodge, Abbie E. Holt, Ellen A. Pratt, 
Abby C. Lewis, Julia A. Worcester, Maria L. Bolan, Alice 
Hall, Assistant Teachers. 

HARVARD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Marden, South worth, Turner, 
Sweney. 



6 

Teachers. — Warren E. Eaton, Principal ; Darius Hadley, 
Sub-Master; Abbie B. Tufts, Head Assistant; Ann E. 
Weston, Sarah E. Leonard, S. A. Benton, Fidelia L. How- 
land, Fanny B. Hall, Lois A. Eankin, Susan H. Williams, 
Emma F. Thomas, Mary P. Howland, Elizabeth B. Weth- 
erbee, Mary A. Emery, Georgianna Fitzgerald, Assistant 
Teachers. 

WINTHROP GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Chapin, Sanborn,' Crown. 

Teachers. — Caleb Murdock, Principal ; William B. At- 
wood, Sub-Master; Loretta F. Knight, Head Assistant; 
Bial W. Willard, Harriet E. Frye, Mary F. Goldthwaite, 
Arabella P. Moulton, Abbie M. Clark, Ellen K. Stone, 
Jennie E. Tobey, Sara H. Nowell, Ellen A. Chapin, Lucy 
A. Seaver. 

PRESCOTT GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Smith, Bailey, McDonald. 

Teachers. — Geo. T. Littlefield, Principal ; Samuel J. 
Bullock, Sub- ^ faster ; Mary G. Prichard, Head Assistant ; 
Martha ]\L Kenrick, Mary C. Sawyer, Julia C. Powers, 
Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Ellen C. Dickinson, Lydia A. 
Sears, Georgie T. Sawyer, Frances A. Craigen, Assistant 
Teachers. 

INTEKMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

No. 1. — Committee, Mr. Blanchard ; Teacher, Lucy M. 
Small. 

No. 2. — Committee, ."N>r. Crown'; Teacher, Anna R. 
Stearns. 

No. 3. — Committee, Mr. Sanborn; Teacher, Caroline M. 
Si-^son. 

Teacher of Music* — James M. Masou, 

Teacher of Drawing. — Lucas Baker. 



PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

DISTRICT NO. 1. 

Committee. — Messrs. Mardon, Daniels, Gardner. 

Teachers. — Helen G. Turner, Effie G. Hazen, Elizabeth 
B. Norton, Sarah A. Smith, Mary H. Humphrey, Ella Worth, 
Ada E. Bowler, Sarah A. Atwo6d, Caroline M. Arnold. 

DISTRICT NO. 2. 

Committee. — Messrs. Turner, Lindsey. 
Teachers. — M. Jospehine Smith, Elizabeth W. Yeaton, 
Abbie P. Richardson, Melissa J. A. Conley. 

DISTRICT NO. 3. 

Committee. — Messrs. Bailey, Smith, Sweney. 
Teachers. — Mabel West, Frances M. Lane, Ellen Hadley, 
Abbie Varney, Caroline E. Osgood, Mary F. Richards. 

DISTRICT NO. 4. 

Committee. — Messrs. Sanborn, Chapin, Crown. 

Teachers. — Martha Yeaton, Mary P. Swain, Persis M. 
Whittemore, Frances B. Butts, LouisaW. Huntress, Marietta 
F. Allen, Caroline C. Smith. 

DISTRICT NO. 5. 

Committee. — Messrs. Blanchard, Finney, Murphy. 

Teachers. — Louisa A. Pratt, Elizabeth A. Prichard, Eliza- 
beth R. Brower, Catharine C. Brower, Mary F. Kittredge, 
Effie A. Kettell, Matilda Oilman. 

DISTRICT NO. 6. 

(7omm^V^ee. — Messrs. Cutter, Southvvorth, McDonald. 

Teachers. — Hannah W. Heath, Elizabeth F. Doane, Sarah 
E. Smith, Lucy M. Soulee, C. M. W. Tildeu, Caroline A. 
Rea, Frances A. Foster. 



REPORT. 



At the close of the last fiscal year, March 1st, 
1872, there was an unexpended balance of appro- 
priation for school purposes of $3,290.92. 

The ajDpropriations for the present fiscal year to 
March 1, 1873, were: — 

For salaries of teachers, superintendent, and officers of the 
school committee (in addition to the amount to be received from 



the State) 


. 


. 


. $99,025 00 


For incidental expenses 


. 


. 


. 14,000 00 


" evening schools 


. 


. 


800 00 


" drawing schools 


* ' 


■ 


800 00 




$114,625 00 


The expenses to January 1, 


1873, 


have been : — 


For salaries of teachers, 


superintendent and officers, $83,112 82 


" incidental expenses 


. 


. 


9,452 16 


" evening schools 


. 


. 


91 17 


" drawing schools 


• 


• 


148 39 



$92,804 54 

The committee believe that the schools have main^ 
tained during the year the high rank which they have 
held in the past, and also that considerable progress 
has been made in the efficiency of every department. 
Under the judicious and faithful supervision of the 
superintendent, with the co-operation of the teachers, 



10 

the work done has been more mtelligent and prac- 
tical. While congratulating ourselves and our fel- 
low-citizens upon this condition of our public schools, 
we are not unmindful that much room is left for 
improvement. Some of the defects in our system 
are referred to in the superintendent's report, and 
suggestions are therein presented which, if heeded 
by teachers, parents, pupils, and School Committee, 
will go far towards remedying present evils and 
shortcomings. 

It is idle to expect the best results from the labors 
of incompetent teachers, however assiduous these 
labors may be. We are happy to say that a large 
proportion of our teachers fully appreciate the dignity 
and importance of their profession, and are eager 
for opportunites for self-culture and improvement in 
methods of discipline and instruction, thus elevating 
themselves and exerting a beneficial influence upon 
their schools. But it cannot be denied that there are 
exceptions. A few are simply naturally incapable of 
imparting instruction, or of maintaining proper dis- 
cipline. Some of this number, being conscientious 
and earnest, may at some future time attain to the 
dignity of being termed " fair teachers," but they 
will never succeed, in the highest sense, as educators; 
others are fully content with their present attain- 
ments, and satisfied with the treadmill routine, so 
pernicious in its effects upon teacher and pupil. 
Whether it is not as imperative a duty on the par^: 
of the School Committee to remove such teachers, 
as it is to engage for vacancies none but teachers of 



11 

experience or special training, is a question worthy 
of consideration at the annual election of teachers. 
And here we might take occasion to say something on 
the subject of corporal punishment, but for the fact 
that there seems to be no direct method of reaching 
the case. The discipline of our schools must be pre- 
served, and the best teachers are sometimes obliged 
to resort to extreme measures. But an examination 
of the monthly reports shows very plainly that, as a 
rule, the frequent use of the rod indicates inexperience 
or incapacity on the part of the teacher. JSTo teacher 
can secure discipline without manifesting superiority 
of some kind. When intellectual or moral superi- 
ority is not apparent, physical superiority is a neces- 
sity. Like all other improvements, those in discipline 
will come, if they come at all, through teachers who 
are better qualified for their work, by a more thorough 
knowledge of the subjects taught, a wider range of 
illustration, and a clearer insight into the workings 
of the youthful mind. 

But there are duties which parents owe to the 
schools which cannot be delegated to teachers or 
School Committee. These duties have been enumer- 
ated and commented upon in the reports of our pred- 
ecessors. They may perhaps be summed up under 
the general head of co-operation with those who have 
the management and supervision of the schools. 
Without this co-operation, we cannot hope to attain 
the highest success, however competent and faithful 
the teachers may be. 

The primary schools number 39, located in 13 



12 

buildings. The schools of District ^o. 6, four of 
which formerly occupied rooms in the building on 
Bow street, on the site of the new Harvard Gram- 
mar school-house, and two of which occupied sepa- 
rate houses on Richmond street, are now provided 
with commodious and pleasant accommodations in 
the new Harvard Primary school-house. The two 
school-houses formerly on Richmond street have been 
removed to Fremont street, near Moulton street, 
accommodating the schools recently occupying Edge- 
worth Chapel. The school-house formerly on the 
corner of Sullivan and Bartlett streets has been 
removed to Polk street, and the school on Soley 
street has been discontinued and merged in the 
schools on Common street. By these changes the 
committee were able to re-arrange the primary school 
districts in such a manner as to distribute the pupils 
more equally. 

The intermediate schools, two of which are located 
in grammar school buildings, and the other removed 
to the new primary school-house on Harvard street, 
are performing their work with their accustomed 
efficiency, and exerting a good influence both on 
the primary and grammar schools. 

On the 22d February, the new Harvard Grammar 
school-house was dedicated with appropriate and in- 
teresting exercises. A full account of the dedica- 
tion and a detailed description of the building may 
be found in the Appendix. Four of the grammar 
schools are now provided with convenient and pleas- 
ant accommodations. The need of a new building 



]3 

for the Winthrop school has been virtually acknowl- 
edged by the city government in selecting a site, and 
preparing plans for a new school-house; but for 
reasons, chiefly financial, no definite steps have yet 
been taken to build. Meantime the wants of the 
school are as pressing as ever. 

In this connection it may be well for us to say that 
while we believe that true economy will be best pro- 
moted by providing well-arranged, commodious, and 
convenient school-houses, — elegant, even, in their 
symmetry and proportions, — it has never been the 
desire of the School Committee that any expense 
should be incurred for meretricious display or useless 
ornamentation. 

The surroundings of the Prescott school-house, 
which have been so objectionable in times past, and 
to which the attention of the city government has 
frequently been called, remain in the same unsatis- 
factory condition. 

For information in regard to the condition of the 
primary, intermediate, and grammar schools, we 
would refer to the Superintendent's last report, sim- 
ply adding our general approval of his views on the 
subjects of discipline and instruction. 

During the year, there have been several changes in 
the teachers of the High school. Miss Dora Cham- 
berlain, who, about two years before, resigned her 
position as assistant on account of ill-health, was re- 
appointed in September. In October, she was sud- 
denly removed by death. Miss Chamberlain was a 
devoted and faithful teacher. 



14 

In N^ovember, Mr. George W. Drew, the sub- 
master resigned his position. Mr. Drew enjoyed the 
confidence of the committee and the respect of the 
pupils, and his resignation was received with regret. 
Mr. Henry W. Brown has been appointed to succeed 
Mr. Drew, and the vacancy occasioned by the death 
of Miss Chamberlain, has been filled by the commit- 
tee on the High school by the appointment of Miss 
Susan A. Getchell. 

In previous reports frequent reference has been 
made to the importance of a practical course of study 
in the High school, suited to the wants of this com- 
munity, and it has been the efibrt of the School Com- 
mittee for a number of years so to arrange the course 
as to give the greatest good to the greatest number. 
It was for this purpose that the English department 
was formed a few years ago, furnishing to some 
extent the needed instruction for a large majority of 
pupils who enter the school. But we are not satisfied 
that all has been done that can be to meet the general 
want of practical instruction. Too much time is 
devoted to studies of comparatively little value, and 
not enough to those which the committee regard as 
of great importance. In a community like ours, in 
fact, in every community, the larger portion of schol- 
ars who attend the High school simply need a thorough 
practical English education to fit them for active 
business life. We do not question the assertion that 
the study of Latin is an advantage as a discipline to 
the mind, but we do question the propriety of making 
the whole instruction in the school subsidiary to a col- 



15 

lege course, when the average number of graduates 
who enter college is not more than two or three. In 
order fully to carry out the intention of the School 
Committee in establishing an English department, it 
is necessary that the pupils in this department should 
be considered by teachers as occupying as honorable a 
position as the pupils in the classical department. It 
seems to us that our wants will be more fully met by 
a judicious change in the course of instruction, mak- 
ing certain studies elective, and thus adapting it more 
fully to the individual wants of the pupil. We are 
aware that the establishment of such a system would 
be attended with many difficulties; but it is the duty 
of the committee to make necessary regulations to 
meet, as far as possible, the educational needs of the 
city, and of the teachers to carry out such regulations 
in spirit as well as in the letter. 

Previous to the appointment of " truant officers," 
no report of the School Committee was deemed com- 
plete that did not refer to the baleful influence of 
truancy upon the schools. We are happy in being 
able to state that this influence is reduced to its 
minimum by the efi'orts of our truant officers, Messrs. 
White and Wooffindale, who, in the discharge of their 
frequently difficult duties, have manifested marked 
energy and discretion. We believe it to be the unan- 
imous sentiment of the Superintendent and teachers, 
that these officers have been of great assistance in 
preventing truancy, as vfell as in the general disci- 
pline of the schools. 

They have also rendered important aid to the Su- 



16 

perintendent in his efforts to keep the small-pox and 
varioloid from our schools. By daily removing from 
them all pupils who have been in any way exposed 
to the disease, the attendance has been better than 
could have been anticipated; and we are informed 
that no case of small-pox or varioloid among the 
scholars has occurred that cannot be traced to ex- 
posure outside the schools. Our present statistics 
would indicate that the schools are the safest places 
we can find for our children during the prevalence of 
the epidemic; and this is due, in a great measure, to 
the efforts of the truant officers in carrying out the 
plans adopted by the committee and Superintendent. 

DRAWING. 

Much attention has recently been given to this 
subject throughout the State, and considerable space 
has been devoted to its consideration in previous 
reports of the School Committee. Although draw- 
ing was formerly considered by a majority of people 
as a needless accomplishment, the opinion is steadily 
gaining ground that it is of intrinsic practical value, 
and should be made, as it has been by law in this 
State, a part of regular school instruction. Without 
going over the ground traversed in former reports, 
and in the reports of the Superintendent, published 
herewith, we would express our conviction that while 
pupils may vary in their aptitude for this study, as 
in other studies, drawing can be learned by all as 
readily as arithmetic, grammar, or geograjDhy. This 
was clearly demonstrated at the exhibition of draw- 



17 

ing, in which every class of our schools was repre- 
sented; and the Evening Industrial Drawing School, 
the privileges of which are availed of by so many of 
our mechanics from year to year, shows the practical 
adaptability of this study to the wants of the me- 
chanic and the artisan. 



MUSIC. 

In the last annual report, a change was recom- 
mended in the method of teaching music in the 
schools, by which it was claimed that a more 
extensive and definite knowledge would be attained. 
Early in the year, the Committee on Music, who had 
been instructed to consider the subject, presented 
the following report : — 

The Committee on Music, who were instructed to consider the 
expediency of introducing Mason's music charts into the primary 
and grammar schools, respectfully present the following report : 

The system of musical instruction, based on the use of these 
charts, is in operation in most of the principal cities of Massa- 
chusetts and in many of the large cities and towns in various por- 
tions of the United States. 

The result of the system, so far as your committe have been able 
to learn, has been uniformly successful. 

The general scope of the system is thus briefly sketched by the 
superintendent of the Boston schools in his twentj^^-first semi-annual 
report : " On entering the primary school, at five years of age, the 
child is at once taught to produce musical sounds, and to sing little 
pieces adapted to his capacity. From this point the course of 
musical instruction is continued by an easy and just graduation 
all the way up through the primary, grammar, and high schools. 

There are two features of the system which produce a strong 
impression upon the minds of competent visitors, — the thoroug 
3 



18 

scientific training imparted to tlie pupils, and the provision requiring 
the instruction to be given mainly by the regular school teachers, 
aided and superintended in this work by a professional teacher of 
music. The system is both efficient and cheap. It is found that 
about ten minutes a day, properly employed, are sufficient to pro- 
duce most excellent results in this branch. And everybod}^ who 
understands school economy, knows that the time thus devoted to 
music will not in the least retard the progress of pupils in other 
branches." 

Mr. Philbrick, in the same report, in referring to the difficulties 
encountered in the establishment of the system, us3S the following 
language : " How slow has been the progress ! So hard is the 
task to conquer prejudice, and to convert conservatism ! But the 
object has been accomplished. It is a great step of progress and 
well worth a struggle of forty years." 

Your committee doubt not that the introduction of the system 
into the schools of this city will meet with similar opposition ; but 
as we shall have the experience of other cities to guide us, it is 
hoped that but little time will be required to " conquer prejudice 
and convert conservatism " in our midst. 

Your committee have made many inquiries in relation to the 
practical workings of the plan ; primary and grammar schools in 
Boston have been visited, and methods and results have been 
examined. 

The committee believe the plan proposed to be entirely practi- 
cable, and that " a great step of progress will be made, by the 
introduction of the charts, with suitable regulations regarding the 
teaching of music." 

Your committee recommend that a sufficient number of the charts 
be purchased to supply each primary school and each floor of the 
grammar schools with a set, and that the committee on music be 
authorized to prepare suitable regulations for the use of these charts 
under the supervision of the music teacher. These recommendations 
meet with the hearty approval of the teacher of music, and to carry 
them into elfect the accompanying orders are submitted. As these 
charts are intended for all grades of our schools, it is recommended 



19 

that the expense be defrayed from the income of the trust fund now 
in tlie hands of the treasurer. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN TURNER, 
CHAS. E. SAVENEY, 
WM. H. FINNEY, 

Committee. 

The report was adopted, and orders were passed 
authorizing the Committee on Music to purchase the 
charts, and make the necessary provisions for carry- 
ing its recommendations into effect. The system 
thus established has, during the time it has been 
in operation, met the sanguine expectations of its 
advocates, and has, to a great extent, " conquered 
prejudice " among the teachers, if it has not entirely 
" converted conservatism." For a definite statement 
of the results attained, the following Report of the 
Music Teacher, made under date of December 3d, 
to the Committee on Annual Keport, is presented. 

The result is to me exceedingly satisfactory. I feel now that 
every minute of time employed by me is utilized ; whereas, under 
the former system, I considered the time spent by me and many of 
the scholars in the lower classes very nearly thrown away ; the 
numbers brought together in the hall being so large I could not 
hold their attention, nor could they see the work on the chart or 
board ; consequently, very many of them actually learned nothing 
except what they learned from hearing those in front. Aside from 
these disadvantages, the instructions they received were not re- 
ferred to again until a week afterward, when I found a great por- 
tion of it had been forgotten, and we had the work to do over 
again, with but little real progress. It was the old story of " the 
frog in the well." Now, with the assistance of the regular teach- 



20 

ers, the instruction given by me is practised and reviewed every 
day, so that there is constant and steady advance. 

Judging from the remai'ks of many of the teachers, I have the 
impression that a large majority of them are pleased with the 
present method, and would not willingly give it up, although 
many of them were bitterly opposed to its introduction. However 
they may feel about their ability to carry on the work successfully, 
I think there are none but what admit the advantages of the present 
system. As for myself, I should be very unwilling to return to 
the former system under any circumstances. I think the scholars 
are also very much interested, which I can see in their faces as I 
enter their rooms. 

The progress in the primary schools of course depends very 
much on the ability of the regular teacher to sing, as it is mostly, 
really, rote-singing. I think, however, there is no case where the 
teacher may not do something, if she has the disposition ; and I am 
happy to say the cases are extremely rare where they have not that 
disposition ; though occasionally I find one who seems to hate it ; 
and i question whether ^uch may not hate to teach anything. 

I regret not being able to carry out the work in the High school 
as I should like to do it. My time there is limited to half an hour 
each week, with no assistance from the teachers. In this limited 
time, and with so large a number together, I can accomplish but 
little in the way of actual instruction. The charts are not adapted 
for use in large rooms, as it is impossible for those sitting back to 
see the notes ; and to write the exercises on the board, takes a 
great deal of time, which cannot be spared. I have been much 
gratified, however, by the increased interest manifested in the sing- 
ing, and especially by the boj'^s, since the introduction of the new 
singing-book. In fact, I may say it has been revolutionized, and 
I think Mr. Emery will agree with me on this point. 

I do not claim that we are yet doing our work in a perfect man- 
ner. Much is to be learned by experience. It must be a growth 
from the primary schools upward before we get the full benefits of 
it. I have availed myself of every opportunity to get information 
on the subject, and several times visited the Boston schools, and 
always get some hints which I try to make useful in my classes. I 



21 

shall be glad at any time to receive suggestions from the com- 
mittee. 

Yours, with respect, 

J. M. MASON. 
W. H. Finney, Esq. 



EVENING SCHOOLS. 

The following report of the Committee on Evening 
Schools was presented to the Board in March: — 

To the Board of School Committee : 

The evening schools were opened earl}^ in November, agreeably 
to a vote of the Committee. Two schools for boys, and two for 
girls. The boys' schools were placed under the charge of Mr. J. O 
Burdett, principal, and Mrs. J. M. Burbank, assistant. One was 
located in the engine building on IMain street. The other in the 
basement room of the Prescott schoolhouse. 

The schools for girls were located, one in engine building on 
Main street, the other in the basement at Winthrop school building. 
Miss Bial W. Willard was principal, and Miss Ellen R. Stone, assis- 
tant of the school on Main street ; and Mrs. C. M. Sisson, principal, 
and Miss Pitman, assistant, of the school in the Winthrop school 
building. 

The whole number of scholars registered in Miss Willard's school 
was 26. Of this number 14 were constant in attendance, and made 
good progress in their studies. The others were very irregular in 
attendance, many of them only coming two or three evenings. Of 
the 26 registered, 6 were under fifteen years of age ; 6 were fifteen ; 
2 were twenty-four years old. The average age of the whole num- 
ber was about sixteen years ; 8 worked in Tudor's mill ; 9 lived at 
home ; 5 worked at various occupations away from home, and 4 
worked at housework. 

The whole number registered in Mrs. Sisson's school was 66 ; 
average attendance, 27 ; 16 of this number were thirteen 3'ears of 
age, and under; 25 were under fifteen; 9 were 15, and 11 were 
twenty and over ; 30 lived at home ; 23 worked at housework ; 13 



22 

at various occupations away from home, includiug 3 at Tudor's mills. 
The average age was just about the same as in the other school. 

The whole number registered in the boys' school on Main street 
was 72. The average attendance for November and December, was 
46 ; the average for January was only lO-j-, and for the last evening 
of that month only 15 attended. Besides the irregular attendance, 
which interfered very much with the progress of this school, there 
was a very rough and disorderly spirit manifested ; 8 of the most 
unrulj'' were discharged ; 4 of them were boys who worked in the 
glass factory. Their influence was decidedly bad upon the school, 
and they did not come for any benefit they might derive themselves. 
It was deemed advisable, also, on account of the small attendance, 
to remove the school to the Prescott school building and merge it 
with the other school, and keep the combined school four evenings 
a week. 

The whole number of scholars registered in the other boys' school 
was 84. The average attendance, 36-}-. Taking the two schools 
together, the whole number registered was 156, with an average 
attendance of 69. Of this whole number 33 were under fifteen 
years of age ; 47 were fifteen years old ; 9 were 20 years and over. 
The average age of the boys was the same as the girls, 16 years ; 
32 of them had no occupation, or none given upon inquiry of the 
teacher; 26 were errand and cash bo3'S ; 11 worked on furniture ; 
27 in stores ; 36 at different trades ; 11 at the glass works ; 3 in 
navy yard ; 3 in lumber yards ; 2 teamsters ; 2 on milk routes ; 1 
house servant ; 1 peddler, and 1 a weigher of coal. The Board can 
see by these statistics of what varied material these schools are 
composed, and judge somewhat of the many obstacles and discour- 
agements the teachers have to contend with. The irregular attend- 
ance, and want of interest manifested by the irregular scholars, 
renders the schools of but little benefit to them. Those scholars 
who did attend with a good degree of punctuality, made commend- 
able progress in their studies. It was noticeable that in three or 
four examinations of the spelling exercises, by the Superintendent 
and Committee, all the boys who were present on the several even- 
ings, with the exception of only one or two, could write very fair 
hands, and spell with a good degree of correctness. Only two or 



23 

three of the boys were unable to read when they entered the school. 
One of these was a German, who made good progress in learning 
English ; 6 scholars were taught bookkeeping. Diplomas were pre- 
sented to those who remained, and were present at the last session. 
The teachers labored faithfully, and did all in their power to further 
the interests of the schools. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. E. CUTTER, 

For Committee on Ecening Schools. 



There is no doubt that these schools have accom- 
plished all the good which could reasonably be ex- 
pected of them under the plan by which they have 
been conducted; but we are not sure that evening 
schools are not capable of exerting a much wider 
beneficial influence in the community under a more 
extended and complete system of instruction. It is 
a question worthy of serious consideration by the 
prudent tax-payer, as well as by the philanthropist, 
whether it would not be economical in the end, as 
well as tending to the moral and intellectual eleva- 
tion of a large class in the community, for the city to 
offer pleasant and attractive accommodations for 
young men to pursue any branch of knowledge for 
which they may have a taste, and thus induce the 
withdrawal of large numbers from the streets or ex- 
ceptionable places of resort during the perilous even- 
ing hours. 

THe State has already acknowledged its obliga- 
tions, in this respect, in requiring industrial draw- 
ing to be taught, and in the same spirit the governor 
of Massachusetts, in his message of 1872, recom- 



24 

mends as equally important to the mechanic, a prac- 
tical acquaintance with mathematics, chemistry, and 
the specialties of mechanism. 

Applying the same principle in another direction, 
— the establishment of an evening school for practi- 
cal instruction in bookkeeping, etc., would undoubt- 
edly be of much benefit to a large number of young 
men and women in our city."^ 

Without committing ourselves upon the question 
as to the proper limits, beyond which it ceases to be 
the province of the public to provide free instruction, 
we would simply state that the opinion is evidently 
gaining ground that " we shall not reach our high- 
est development until our elementary and classical 
schools are supplemented by institutions for instruc- 
tion in the industries on which our prosperity so 
largely depends." 

While it must be admitted that there is hardly 
anything regarding principles or methods of popular 
education which meets with universal approval, even 
among intelligent and experienced educators, yet it 
by no means follows that all theories or suggestions 
for improvement should be rejected as chimerical and 
as simply "new-fangled notions," unworthy of serious 
consideration. Though change is not always prog- 
ress, it is an essential condition to progress, and we 
see no reason why there should not be advancement 
in education as in everything else. " Times change," 

*In some cities, notably Providence, R. I., and St. Louis, Mo., the sys- 
tem of evening instruction has been made a very prominent feature iu 
popular education, and with very satisfactory results. 



and institutions necessarily change with them. Our 
present system of education is an outgrowth of 
former systems, and must continue to develop and 
advance to meet the wants of succeeding generations. 
In conclusion, we commend the various interests of 
our schools to the same liberal support which they 
have always received from the citizens of the town 
and city of Charlestown, who have ever regarded the 
common schools as the common wealth. 

Eespectfully submitted on behalf of the board, 

WM. H. FINNEY, 
GEO. H. HARDEN, 
JAS. S. MURPHY, 

* Committee. 



26 



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27 



SUPEEINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



Gentlemen, — The semi-annual returns of our 
schools for the term commencmg September, 1871, 
and ending Feb. 29th, 1872, furnished the following 
statistics, viz. : — 

Number of children in Charlestown between 5 and 15, 

May 1st, 1871 6,557 

Average number of pupils in all the day schools during 

the term 5,092 

Average attendance during the term .... 4,657 

Per cent of attendance . . . . . . 91.4 

Average number of pupils to a teacher in all the day 

schools 45.4 

Average number in the High school during the term . 264 

Average attendance in the High school during the term, 255 

Per cent of attendance in the High school during the 

term 96.8 

Average number in the Grammar schools during the 

term 2,717 

Average attendance in the Grammar schools during the 

term 2,577 

Per cent of attendance in the Grammar schools during 

the term ........ 94.8 

Average number in the Intermediate schools during the 

term . . . . . . . . . 159 

Average attendance in the Intermediate schools during 

the term . ... . . . . . 145 

Per cent of attendance in the Intermediate schools during 

the term ........ 91 

Average number in the Primary schools during the term, 1,952 



28 

Average attendance in the Primary schools during the 

term 1,680 

Per cent of attendance in the Primary schools during 

the term ........ 86 

The term was not marked by anything of an ex- 
traordinary character; the schools were, however, 
working with their accustomed faithfulness, and 
certainly with their usual success. 

In anticipation of the completion of the Harvard 
school-house, a committee was appointed to re-dis- 
trict the city, that the pupils of the different sections 
might be better accommodated. This was effected 
with reference to the grammar schools, and the 
boundaries of the districts were defined. An attempt 
to re-district for the primary schools was found to 
involve more difficulty on account of the location of 
the several school-houses, and no change has been 
made. 

Our primary school-houses may have been well 
situated originally, but the rapid increase in some 
locations as compared with others, has left several 
of them on the very confines of their districts, some 
with less pupils than formerly, and others full to 
overflowing. District No. 1 has ample room for all 
the pupils ; but it is very inconvenient for pupils liv- 
ing near the Somerville line to go to Charles street, 
in consequence of which the small school-house in 
that locality is overrun. District ^o. 2 can hardly 
fill its rooms, although it extends from the centre of 
Baldwin street to the centre of Sullivan. Sullivan- 
street school-house, in District JSTo. 3, stands on the 



29 

extreme boundaiy of its territory, but is well filled. 
The Cross-street school-house, in the same district, is 
well located and well attended. The Medford-street 
schools at some seasons are overrun with pupils, and 
can be relieved only by taking some part of the dis- 
trict into 'No. 4, to which it originally belonged. 

In No. 4, the accommodations are entirely inad- 
equate. There seemed a prospect, at one time, of 
relief; but the colony of the Winlhrop Grammar 
school, and the burning of the old Harvard, have 
rendered it necessary still to occupy the Edgeworth 
Chapel, which, though expensive, is not by any 
means a luxury, and even with this, the schools 
are crowded. 

The Common-street schools in District No. 5 have 
been rather diminishing than increasing in numbers, 
though the limits of the districts have been extended 
so as to include Ferrin street, under the very eaves 
of the Edgeworth Chapel. Upon an examination of 
the returns for these schools and those of ^o. 81, it 
is evident that all the pupils in this district can be 
accommodated in the six schools on Common street. 

If, therefore, No. 31 on Soley street should be dis- 
continued, the house will be at the disposal of the 
committee, and may easily be removed to a convenient 
locality in district JSTo. 4. 

The completion of the^ old Harvard school-house 
will give the schools of district No. (3 ample room, 
and enable the committee to put one or both of the 
school-houses on Richmond street on wheels if it is 
thought desirable. Koom for three primary schools 



30 

is wanted in the 4th district, if the Winthrop colony 
is to remain in the room on Moulton street, and 
whether the want can be supplied better by remov- 
ing the buildings already referred to, or by building a 
new house with, four rooms, is a proper question to 
be considered. Some action, I think, should be 
taken before the vacation, that we may be prepared 
to begin the term in September under more favor- 
able circumstances. 

N^otwithstanding the inconveniences to which the 
primary schools have been subjected, it is, I believe, 
the unanimous verdict of the grammar-school teach- 
ers, that the pupils entering their schools from the 
primaries in February, were better qualified than 
those of any previous term. 

The intermediate schools, two of which have been 
removed to the grammar-school buildings, have fully 
maintained their former reputation, giving increased 
evidence of their usefulness and the efficiency of the 
teachers. 

l!^o special changes were made during the term in 
the grammar schools, and the statistics show a satis- 
factory condition in point of numbers, and a per- 
centage of attendance creditable to the schools, and 
indicative of the beneficial influence of the labors of 
our truant officers. I believe our grammar schools 
are all doing good work, and that our teachers very 
generally are adopting improved methods in im- 
parting instruction and illustrating the subjects 
they teach. 

The systematic introduction of drawing in our 



31 

primary and grammar schools, though looked upon 
with some distrust at first, has, I believe, conquered 
whatever prejudices existed, and estabUshed itself in 
the confidence of teachers and pupils. For a more 
definite statement of the results of last term's work, 
I refer you to the report of Mr. Baker, our drawing 
master, which is in the hands of the Committee on 
Drawing. 

The musical charts, introduced last term into all 
our schools, and the new system of instruction in 
this department, have not yet had time to present any 
important results; but so far as introduced, the new 
arrangement seems to have added much to the inter- 
est in this exercise, both among teachers and pupils. 
"While coming in as a grateful relief from the more 
irksome and less social exercises, there is no evidence 
that it detracts from the ordinary work of the school. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

An important improvement was made in this school 
during the term, by fitting up a room for chemical 
manipulation by the pupils. This has given a new 
interest to the study, and converted an abstract 
knowledge ol facts and principles into the power to 
do what is implied in them. 

The drawing in this school has not been as satisfac- 
tory to the drawing master as in the other schools, 
from the fact that the time allotted to it has been 
extremely limited. He has made some suggestions 
with reference to the future in a report to the Com- 
mittee on Drawing. 



82 

The report of the principal, containing some sug- 
gestions which may require action by the Board, I 
will read, as the briefest manner of making them 
known. 

Charlestown High School, 

February 29, 1872. 
To the Committee: 

Gentlemen, — The number of scholars connected with the school 
in September, 1871, was two hundred and seventy-two (272) ; the 
present number is two hundred and fifty-eight (258). The number 
in the junior class was one hundred and seven (107) ; the present 
number, one hundred and five (105). 

The class is about equally divided between the English and the 
classical course. In English Literature and Latin there are four 
divisions of twentyrseven each, — a number quite as large as can 
be thoroughly taught, in elementary studies, in the time allowed for 
recitation. 

But in algebra and physical geography there are only three divis- 
ions, averaging thirty-five scholars in each. These divisions are 
much too large. In algebra, especially, the teacher cannot test the 
intelligence or faithfulness of so large a number, or adapt instruc- 
tion to their individual wants. No special aid can be given, in the 
class, to those who need it most, without impeding the progress or 
wearying the patience of those who need no such assistance ; and 
scholars who, for any reason, fail in their lessons, must make up 
their deficiencies, and receive the requisite instruction before or 
after the regular school hours, or remain unassisted, and unqualified 
for further progress with their class. Such scholars might often be 
rescued by a little timely aid ; but our teachers cannot always ren- 
der this service, because their time is fully occupied by the regular 
recitations. They cannot give the needed instruction, and also 
secure the proper amount of study for all members of their classes. 

The remedy for this deficiency is an additional teacher. I hope, 
therefore, that the Committee will, at the beginning of the next 
school year, appoint some one competent to teach either of the two 
lower classes, and to relieve some of our present teachers of that 



33 

part of their labor which they are now unable to perform. With 
the exception thus indicated, the general condition of the school is 
highly satisfactory ; the teachers are competent and faithful, and 
their classes have made good proficiency in theu* several studies. 
Most respectfully, 

CALEB EMERY, Principal. 

The argument contained in the report of the prin- 
cipal for the appointment of another assistant seems 
to me to be valid; and the fact that the different 
courses are more equally divided, that more time is 
needed in drawing, and that we are tending more to 
practical methods and a departmental system, seems 
to necessitate a fuller corps of teachers than we have 
had. So far as I am informed, the number of pupils 
to a teacher in our High school is greater than in 
most of its kind. In Boston the average number of 
pupils to a teacher in all the High schools is 26.3, 
while in ours it is 39. 

As suggested in the report, it seems desirable that 
action should be taken on this matter before the close 
of this term, that we may be prepared to begin the 
term in September, knowing what the organization 
of the school is to be. 

The recent visit of the " State Director of Art 
Education," sent by the Board of Education, sug- 
gests the propriety of some remarks on what has 
been done, and what it seems desirable to do for In- 
dustrial Drawing in the city. This, I believe, is now 
conceded to be one of the most pr«c^icaZ things in 
our system of education, one which tends most di- 
rectly to make skilful workmen of our artisans. All 



u 

education above that of the most elementary charac- 
ter has been heretofore in the interest, almost exclu- 
sively, of those who were to pnrsue a classical course 
of study ; and the consequence has been, in nearly all 
our cities and large towns, that a feeling of dissatis- 
faction has manifested itself, which has led to a mod- 
ification of the High school course. This has been 
done to some extent in Charlestown, and the num- 
bers and interest in the several departments is proof 
that the efficiency of the school has been greatly in- 
creased thereby. But we have not yet done all that 
can be done in this direction. Every city and large 
town in the State is now engaged on this problem, 
and every educator, I believe, regards it as the turn- 
ing point which is to decide whether we are to retain 
our relative position in matters pertaining to popular 
education. 

Prof. Smith tells us that, while our system of ele- 
mentary education is superior to that of England and 
other European countries, so that we have a more 
intelligent community, our technical and industrial 
education is far inferior to that of any civilized coun- 
try on the earth. The consequence of this, says the 
professor, is, that our workingmen are doing and 
must do the coarse work, the drudgery, the least re- 
munerative, in all the departments of human labor. 
It is this fact that has aroused our manufacturers 
and mechanics, no less than our educationists, to the 
value of Industrial Drawing Schools, where all our 
artisans can be taught the essential rudiments of 
skilful workmanship. Charlestown was among the 



35 

first to comply with tlie law requiring industrial 
drawing in evening classes, and in making provision 
for such classes in the future by a systematic course 
in our day schools. The results, thus far, have been 
highly encouraging. And now the question arises, 
whether we shall stop here, and allow other cities and 
towns to outstrip us, and furnish greater facilities for 
improvement in this direction. Twenty places, Pro- 
fessor Smith states, have already made arrangements 
by which, before another winter, a suitable hall will 
be appropriated to this department, containing models 
and drawings to be used as studies, and without which 
he, as well as our own drawing-master, declares it 
impossible to make any great proficiency. 
Mr. Baker, in a report to me, says: — 
" The Evening Drawing School was very satisfac- 
tory to me in most respects, considering the means 
we had to work with. I am more and more con- 
vinced that it is impossible to do justice to a school 
of this character without models and engravings and 
a suitable place for their display. We must have 
means for illustration and examples, in order to set 
all comers at work in their own special departments; 
otherwise one trade must wait for another. The 
carpenter must wait until the machinist has taken 
his lesson from the blackboard; the carver and 
stone-cutter must wait for both, and so on. Again, 
we have no place in connection with the public 
schools of Charlestown where we can conveniently 
set up models and draw from them. J^ow it seems 
to me impossible to carry on drawing to any great 



36 

extent and with success, without drawing direct from 
models. Of course I refer now to free-hand drawing, 
which is a part of the work of the evening school. 
I would respectfully but earnestly suggest to your- 
self and to the School Committee the importance of 
providing a suitable room capable of accommodating 
one hundred and twenty-five persons, with movable 
stands or drawing tables, wherein we might hold our 
evening classes and the teachers' classes also. I 
would also suggest the importance of providing 
suitable models and drawings, or prints, illustrative 
of the various stages of technical art." 

"While our schools, then, are by no means perfect, 
I think they compare favorably with those of other 
places, and we are engaged in the same problems and 
moving in the same direction with the educationists 
of other parts of the State and country. 

At the present time, the organization, the pre- 
scribed course of study and methods of instruction, 
in all our institutions of learning, from the primary 
school to the college, are the subjects of discussion, 
and modifications of our systems are appearing in 
every department. Indeed, our colleges, which have 
heretofore been regarded as the hot-beds of conserva- 
tism, are in many instances taking the lead in changes 
which must influence to a considerable extent the 
character of the institutions by which they are fed, 
and bring them into closer sympathy with the great 
industrial interests of the country. 

I need not urge a school committee of Charles- 
town to cherish whatever of good we have, and to be 



37 

ready to adopt whatever measures will, in their judg- 
ment, tend to render our schools more efficient in pre- 
paring our youth for the active duties of citizenship 
and manhood. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

B. F. TWEED. 



38 



EEPOKT OF THE SUPERINTENDEOT. 



GEiSTTLEMEiN", — The semi-aimual returns for the 
Term beginning March 1st, and ending July 3d, give 
the following statistics, viz. : — 



Number of children in Charlestown between 5 and 15 

May 1, 1872 

Average number of pupils in all the Day Schools during 
the Term ....... 

Average attendance of pupils in all the Day Schools 
during the Term ...... 

Per cent attendance ...... 

Average number of pupils in High School 

" attendance " « « . . 

Per cent " " " " . . 

Number of pupils to a Teacher in High School 
Average number of pupils in Grammar Schools 

" attendance " " " " 

Per cent " " " " ' " 

Average number of " " Intermediate Schools 

" attendance " " " " 

Percent " "■ " " " 

Average number of " ',' Primary Schools 

" attendance " " " " 

Per cent " " " " " 

Average number in B. H. School . 

" attendance " " 

Per cent " " " 

Number of pupils to a Teacher 
Average number in Warren School 

" attendance " " 

Percent " " " 



6,810 
5,068 

4,567 

.89 

238 

228 

.95^7^ 
34 
2,826 
2,665 

120 
105 

.80 
1,885 
1,569 

.83 
576 
542 

.94+ 

44-*^ 
610 
576 

.94+ 



39 



Number of pupils to a Teacher 








43f 


Average number in Prescott School 








477 


" attendance " " 








454 


Percent " " " 








.95-f- 


Number of pupils to a Teacher 








43,V 


Avera2:e number in Harvard School 








. 656 


" attendance " " 








. 618 


Per cent " " " 








94-f 


Number of pupils to a Teacher 








43-1, 


Average number in Winthrop School 








. 507 


" attendance " " 








. 475 


Per cent " " " 








.94— 


Number of pupils to a Teacher 








39 


Number of Graduates from Harvard School, 


July, 1872 


15 


" u u u Winthrop " 


a u 


26 


" " " " B. Hill « 


(( u 


37 


u u u u Warren " 


it u 


38 


*' " " " Prescott 


(( 


ii 


(I 


38 



Total 



154 



Admitted to High School from Harvard 
" " " Winthrop 
" " " B. Hill 
" " " Warren 
" " " Prescott 
" " " other schools 
Total number from Grammar Schools examined 
" " " " " admitted 

" " " other *' examined 

" " " " " admitted 

Number of boys examined .... 
" " girls " .... 

" " boys not admitted 
" " girls " » ... 

" " pupils admitted to the Grammar School 
the primaries, July 3d ... . 



from 



15 

23 

24 

33 

36 

5 

133 

131 

7 

5 

66 

74 

1 

3 

309 



40 

By an examination of the foregoing statistics, they 
will be found to coincide so nearly with those of th^ 
preceding year as to indicate that we have arrived 
at about the maximum percentage of attendance in 
our high and grammar schools. The apparent fall- 
ing off in the attendance upon our primary schools 
is due chiefly to the burning of the Harvard primary 
school-house, and the temporary inconveniences to 
which the schools were subjected while rebuilding. 

The difficulties referred to in my last report, arising 
from the inconvenient location of some of our primary 
school-houses, have been overcome in accordance with 
the recommendations of the committee on re-district- 
ing, so that now our districts are more compact, the 
pupils more equally divided, and, while dispensing 
with one school, better accommodated than before. 

There is a period of a few weeks in September, and 
perhaps October, and another of similar duration in 
May and June, when our schools of the lowest grade 
are considerably fuller than the rest of the year. 

This can hardly be avoided; for, if we were to 
establish new schools based on the data of these 
periods, the average attendance for the year would 
be quite too small. The evils arising from this, 
however, are inconsiderable, since the daily attend- 
ance is seldom too large, although the number be- 
longing to the school may exceed the accommoda- 
tions. In nearly all the schools of the upper grades, 
where the attendance is more regular, the accommo- 
dations^ are ample at all seasons. 

I have made many visits to the primary schools, and 



41 

suggested such methods of instruction and discipluie 
as the inexperience of some have seemed to require, 
and in many instances there has been marked im- 
provement. But, as long as we appoint teachers who 
have had no professional training or experience, our 
primary scliools will vary much in excellence. 

In the regulations for our grammar schools, we have 
a rule that "pupils regularly transferred from one to 
another shall be admitted to the corresponding class 
without examination, provided they enter within two 
weeks of the date of their discharge." We ought, 
I think, if possible, to be able to apply this rule to 
our primary schools ; but at present, there is not 
such a degree of uniformity as to render it, in all 
cases, practicable. It is always discouraging to a 
pupil to be put in a lower class than that from which 
he has been removed; and I have, in some instances 
examined pupils personally, to satisfy myself that no 
injustice was done them. This is perhaps the only 
competitive examination of the lower classes, but it is 
one that is constantly occurring, and that determines, 
perhaps, better than anything else, the relative stand- 
ing of the several schools. 

There is another circumstance to which attention 
should be called, in reference to our primary schools. 
By the rules of the committee, pupils are admitted 
from them to the grammar schools twice a year, viz. : 
on the first Monda}^ in Se])tember and March. 

When this rule was made it divided the year more 
equally than at present. 

By the present arrangement of vacations, one term 



42 

is nearly six months in length, while the other is bnt 
four. I would recommend that promotions to the 
grammar school be made on the first Monday in Feb- 
ruary, instead of March, which will divide the school 
year very equally. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

There has been no essential change in our gram- 
mar schools during the term. The examination of 
candidates for the High school in June was con- 
ducted as usual, and gave evidence of faithfulness 
and success on the part of our teachers in the pre- 
scribed course of study. 

One feature of the examination deserves especial 
notice. I refer to the examination in grammar. The 
fact that a knowledge of grammatical definitions and 
rules, with the ability to analyze sentences and parse 
words, does not enable the pupil " to speak and write 
the language correctly," has brought the whole study 
of grammar into disrepute, and many teachers have 
even suggested the expediency of dropping it from 
the course in our grammar schools. 

Believing, however, the fault to be in the mode of 
teaching it, rather than in the subject itself, I stated 
to the teachers of the grammar schools at the begin- 
ning of the year, that in the examination for the High 
school, half the percentage would be given for a 
knowledge of principles, and half for the application 
of principle s in written composition. In some of the 
schools much attention had been given to composi- 
tion before; but I think, in nearly all, the fact that 



43 

the pupils' knowledge of grammar was to be sul)- 
jectecl to this practical test, has operated to make 
instruction in this branch much less abstract and 
technical. At any rate, the results of the experiment 
have been very successful, and the compositions, 
which I have carefully examined, are highly credita- 
ble to pupils and teachers. I think no one will ob- 
ject to such a study of grammar as enables a person 
" to write correctly." 

Geography, also, I think is better taught, though I 
believe there is great room for improvement, even 
now. If no text-book were used below the second 
class, and half the time now devoted to geography 
in the lower classes were occupied in drawing an out- 
line of the most important countries, and locating the 
principal physical features, and a very few places of 
commercial or historic interest, with such explana- 
tions and remarks as the teacher might give, I think 
our pupils would leave the grammar schools with a 
better and more practical knowledge of geography 
than they do at present. 

It would, also, afford time for more general con- 
versational exercises on subjects suggested by such 
works as Hooker's Book of Nature, Travels, etc., 
which, as a means of stimulating curiosity, and giv- 
ing direction to the out-of-school reading, are of more 
educational value than the memorizing of any amount 
of dry details. 

In addition to the creditable results of the exami- 
nation for promotion to the High school, I may also 
say that the exhibitions of the several schools at the 



44 

close of the term, all of which were attended by his 
Honor the Mayor and many members of the Board, 
were very creditable and interesting. It was, I think, 
the unanimous verdict, that the reading on these 
occasions was exceptionally good, and a decided 
improvement on that of the preceding year. 



THE HIGH SCHOOL. 

I herewith submit the semi-annual report of the 
principal of this school. 

" The last three weeks of the term have been devoted, principally, 
to reviews and loritten examinations, closing the year with the grad- 
uating exercises of the senior class. This class entered ninety- 
seven (97) members, and graduated forty-seven (47), larger than 
any preceding class. All the classes have been examined in the 
principal studies of the term, and the results have been not only 
satisfactory in general, but have indicated very justly the work 
accomplished during the year. 

The following classes deserve special commendation, viz : The 
junior class, in Physical Greography, Latin, and English Literature ; 
the second middle class, in Latin, History, Rhetoric, and Natural 
Philosophy ; the first middle class, in Chemistry and Geometry ; 
senior class, in Astronomy and English Literature ; and the second 
and third college classes, in Greek, The class in Chemistry have 
manifested an unusual interest in that subject ; and the facility with 
which the principles of the science have been applied in their ex- 
periments in chemical analysis, shows the wisdom of the recent 
expenditures for the laboratory, as well as the skill and faithfulness 
of their teacher. 

The present condition of the school is, in most respects, satis- 
factory. 

Nearly all have made good proficiency in their studies, and are 
well qualified for the regular promotion ; but a few in each class 



45 

have been delinquent, and ought not to be promoted until they 
shall have made up the deficiencies of the past year. 

In some of the classes the exercises in English composition have 
been necessarily too much neglected, — the teachers having been 
fully occupied with other essential duties ; but the aid of an ad- 
ditional teacher, already appointed, will in future ensure the requisite 
attention to this important exercise. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CALEB EMERY, Principal. 

It has been my object since I have occupied the 
position of superintendent, and I believe that of the 
committee, to make this school of greater practical 
value to that very large part of the pupils who do 
not intend to pursue a college course. It was with 
this view that the English department was made 
more prominent, and a master of that department 
appointed. It was with this view that a laboratory 
was provided for chemical manipulation by the 
pupils, the benefit of which is referred to in the 
report of the principal. 

The subjects of history and English literature have 
received more attention, with favorable results in 
the interest awakened; and I believe that the course 
of study should be more extensive in modern his- 
tory, and more limited in ancient, that the study of 
rhetoric and grammar should be less abstract and 
technical, and that much more time should be given 
to impart a facility in the use of language in written 
composition. 

I know that I shall be met here with the objection 
that it is impossible, with our present corps of teach- 



46 

ers, to correct a large number of compositions daily. 
I am prepared to admit this. But I have been struck 
with a suggestion which I recently met in a grammar 
which was sent me for examination. It is this : — 

*' Undoubtedly one reason why so few composition exercises are 
required in school is the drudgery of correcting them. A teacher 
having a class of say forty scholars, cannot carefully correct one 
set of exercises in less than five or six hours ; and of all taslis, that 
of correcting the compositions of beginners is the most thankless. 
By allowing the members of a class to interchange their exercises, the 
whole work of correcting and criticising may, under the direction 
of the teacher, be done in the school-room in half an hour. To any 
pupil, reading, correcting, and criticising the composition of a 
schoolmate, will be quite as valuable a drill as the original labor 
of writing one. The first attempts may be rather awkward ; but 
after a few trials the corrections will be definite enough for all 
practical purposes." 

There is another thing to which I think we are 
not giving the attention that its practical value de- 
mands. I refer to drawing. 

I believe it to be the opinion of the best educators 
and the most intelligent manufacturers in the country, 
that for practical utility, drawing, in our grammar 
and high schools, is second only to reading, writing, 
and arithmetic. It is believed that it will do for 
us what it has already done in several European 
countries, — enlarge the extent and improve the 
quality of our manufactures, and thus open a wider, 
more lucrative, and more desirable field, which can 
hardly fail to attract more of our young people to 
industrial pursuits. 



47 

The time devoted to drawing in our High school is 
much less than is given in the Boston schools of a 
similar grade, and not enough, in the opinion of Mr. 
Baker, our drawing master, to secure creditable results 
when compared with those of other cities and large 
towns in the State. 

I hope the committee will make some arrangement 
by which more attention can be given to drawing in 
this school, even if it necessitates some modification 
of the present course of study. 

SUBSTITUTES AND TEACHERS. 

Section 7, of chapter 6, of the rules, makes it the 
duty of the sub-committee, in case of the temporary 
absence of a teacher, to supply the vacancy with a 
substitute, and to determine the amount of compensa- 
tion, — which is, of course, deducted from the salary 
of the regular teacher. 

Under this rule, I have reason to believe that 
primary teachers often virtually appoint substitutes, 
and whether they or the committee determine the 
amount of compensation is, perhaps, better known to 
the various sub-committees than to me. 

The charge has been made, I know not w^ith how 
much truth, that teachers have sometimes had friends 
who were ready to substitute a few days for little or 
no pay, and who, by recommendation of the teacher, 
have been sanctioned by the committee. Whether 
this has or has not occurred, I can readily conceive 
that it might occur under our present system, espe- 
cially as the want of a substitute is not always made 



48 

known to the committee, even if known to the teacher? 
till the \evy day when her services are required. 

Under such circumstances we can hardly expect 
the sob-committee to leave his business at a moment's 
notice to make strict inquiries for a substitute, and if 
the teacher has a friend ready she is very likely to be 
accepted. 

While I do not wish to assume unnecessary re- 
sponsibilities, I believe it would be better for the 
superintendent to appoint substitutes, — subject, of 
course, to the approval of the sub-committee, — and 
that the compensation should be regulated by a uni- 
form scale. 

This would enable the superintendent to select 
from the applicants, a record of whose names he is 
required to keep, such as he might think proper for 
trial. He would also know when substitutes were 
employed, and it would be his duty to be able to re- 
port on their success. I think this would tend to 
give us a better class of substitutes, and render essen- 
tial aid in the appointment of new teachers. 

Care in the appointment of teachers I regard as 
essential to the improvement of our schools. Our 
salaries are sufficient to secure, for every new ap- 
pointment, a teacher who has had a successful experi- 
ence ; .and of those teachers appointed to positions in 
our schools who have had no experience, I think it 
safe to say that, if finally successful, the first year is 
commonly little better than an apprenticeship. 

By my ads^ice, several of the graduates of our High 
school have obtained schools in country towns where 



49 

smaller salaries are paid, and the experience there 
gained will often render immediate success in our 
schools almost certain. Though the neighboring 
cities of Boston and Cambridge have training schools? 
the superintendent and grammar-school teachers are, 
under the direction of the sub-committees, constantly 
seeking and taking the best teachers they can find 
anjnvhere. 

Our schools are now, as a rule, well graded, our 
accommodations, with a few exceptions well known 
to you, ample; but these alone will not secure good 
schools. 

]^one but teachers familiar with the best methods, 
possessed of the practical results of a successful ex- 
perience, and with eyes and ears open to all sugges- 
tions and improvements found in educational works, 
and heard at our school institutes and conventions, 
can take the first rank in j:heir profession.- 

For every vacancy that occurs in our schools, I 
think a teacher might be found in the vicinity of 
Boston whose education and expeiience would ren- 
der a high degree of immediate success almost cer- 
tain; and if every school is entitled to the best 
teacher our salaries will procure, it seems to me that 
this method should be adopted. I confess that I see 
no prospect of any great improvement in the charac- 
ter of our schools, except what is efiected by teachers 
who bring with them professional training, success- 
ful experience, a broader culture, and a more earnest 
spirit. 

7 



50 



METHODS OF INSTEUCTION AND COURSE OE STUDY. 

In my last report I stated that "the prescribed 
course of study and methods of instruction in all 
our educational institutions are the subjects of dis- 
cussion, and modifications of our systems are appear- 
ing in every department, from the primary school to 
the college. " This is true not only in our country, 
but in Europe. Even despotism has been driven to 
the adoption of the principle of universal education, 
if not for the benefit of the individual, for the wel- 
fare and eflSciency of the state. With us, it origi- 
nally took the form of a right inherent in those who 
were subject to law, and liable to be called on to 
make or execute it, no less than a necessity to self- 
government and the perpetuation of our free institu- 
tions. This difference in origin and motive accounts 
for the fact stated by Professor Smith, " that the su- 
periority of our elementary system of education gives 
us a more intelligent community, while our industrial 
education is inferior to that of most of the countries 
of Europe." Accepting this as a true statement of 
fact, it shows that the dissatisfaction with present 
methods and results is not an indication that our past 
and present methods are radically wrong, but that 
whatever evils exist are rather those incidental to a 
partial development. 

Undoubtedly, in the practical working of the sys- 
tem, there have have been and are faults in methods, 
which our normal schools, teachers' institutes, con- 
ventions, and educational journals should strive to 
reform. 



51 

Perhaps, however, the greatest obstacle to improve- 
ment m methods is the fact that so many teachers 
have but an imperfect knowledge of the subjects they 
are required to teach. They naturally follow the text- 
book, and perhaps it is best they should, if they teach 
at all, for beyond that they will be very likely to go 
wrong. I know it is common to berate text-books, 
and lay the fault of bad teaching at their doors ; but 
I have noticed in our conventions, that when some 
intelligent and progressive teacher gives us a good 
lecture on the best method of teaching grammar, or 
English literature, suggesting modes that will take 
us from the routine of the book, and give an ampler, 
less technical, and more practical knowledge of the 
subject, some one is almost sure to dispel the charm, 
by stating that this is very well in theory, but that 
not more than one in a hundred of the teachers of the 
State has such a knowledge of the formation and 
development of the language, or of the characteris- 
tics of our literature, as to be able to put it in prac- 
tice. I believe that text-books, even if imperfect, in 
the hands of teachers who could teach well without 
them, are convenient and efficient instruments; while 
incompetent teachers obtain certain verbal results by 
their use, which enables them to retain their position, 
and is so far unfortunate. 

Improvement in methods must, therefore, neces- 
sarily be slow, as it can only keep pace with the in- 
creased intelligence and professional preparation of 
teachers. To appoint teachers of no professional 
preparation or experience, and then expect them to 



52 

supply the deficiencies of text-books, using them only 
as a convenient instrument, is simply absurd. 

But the question which lies deeper than that of 
methods is, what change can be made in the pre- 
scribed course of studies that will make our schools 
more efficient in preparing for the industries of life? 
Governor "Washburn, in his address to the legisla- 
ture of 1872, says : — 

" The duty to encourage and promote the special education of 
mechanics rests upon two grounds : first, the welfare of the indivi- 
duals directly concerned ; and, second, the preservation of our 
manufacturing supremacy. Not only is a knowledge of cliemislry, 
and a somewhat extended acquaintance with mathematics, highly 
desirable to the mechanic who aims at an advanced position in his 
trade, but skill in drawing is universally important and valuable ; 
and it is with pleasure that I notice the introduction of teachers of 
drawing into some of our public schools/' 

And the committee on education gave several 
" hearings " to petitioners for some legislation to 
make our grammar and high schools contribute more 
directly to this end. I was present, I believe, at all 
these " hearings," and listened with much interest to 
views advanced by many distinguished educators, 
both male and female. 

On one point they were all agreed, viz : that the 
great desideratum of our schools at the present time, 
is to bring them into closer relations to the common 
duties and industries of life. 

'No one, however, seemed able to present a well 
considered plan for its accomplishment. 

The more radical seemed to regard- our present 



53 

system as little better than a failure, and wonld be 
satisfied with nothing but industrial schools where 
every one should learn a trade. 

This, however, was shown to be impracticable, the 
question arising, what trade? If one, why not all? 
And if all, it would involve an expense which few of 
our communities could bear. Half-time schools were 
proposed, but the number of places is few where 
these are practicable. The committee seemed fully 
sensible of the defects in our present course, and 
failed to present a specific bill, not from any doubt of 
its desirability, but because no one was able to pre- 
sent a plan which, in all respects, seemed feasible. 
The nearest approach, as it seemed to me, was to 
substitute some of the elementary principles of sci- 
ence for the more abstruse and abstract studies of 
grammar, rhetoric, etc. And here again we meet 
the question of methods, and find the same difficul- 
ty from the insufficient knowledge of the average 
teacher. 

" Hooker's Book of ISTature " has been introduced 
in many of our towns, with the express understanding 
that it is not to be committed to memory, but to be 
read and talked about, furnishing a text which the 
teacher is expected to explain, amplify, and illustrate 
in such a manner as to lay the foundation and create 
a desire for more knowledge of the subjects treated. 
In some cases, I have no doubt it is used in this 
way, and is accomplishing all that has been claimed 
for it. But I am not greatly surprised to know that 
in many schools it has already become a mere exer- 



54 

else in reading, and in some the pupils are simply 
required to commit the text to memory. A gentle- 
man of my acquaintance, recently, in speaking with 
a friend in a neighboring town, referred to this book 
as one that his children were reading at home with 
much interest, when his friend informed him that it 
was used as a text-book in their schools, and that his 
children were thoroughly disgusted with it, being 
required by the teacher to commit it to memory, as a 
regular routine recitation. Thus we see that it is 
not the book, nor the course of study, nor both, that 
can make a good school, unless supplemented by a 
good teacher. 

Charlestown was among the first of the cities of 
the State to provide for competent instruction in this 
branch in our public schools, and to carry out the 
provisions of the statute requiring mechanical draw- 
ing to be taught to persons over fifteen years of age, 
in cities and towns containing a population of ten 
thousand. 

Our exhibition of specimens from schools of all 
grades, held in June last, in the Harvard-school hall, 
was pronounced by competent judges to be credita- 
ble alike to pupils and teachers. The uniformity of 
the specimens — every pupil in the several schools 
being represented — went far to prove what Prof. 
Smith and Mr. Baker say, — that the ability to learn 
to draw is ae general as to read, write, or cipher. 

I was especially pleased, at that exhibition, to see 



55 

some of our best mechanics, and to hear their esti- 
mate of the value of drawing. 

One of our best master-builders said to me, point- 
ing to an average specimen of the work done by a 
boy of the first class in a grammar school, " all that is 
w^anted to make that boy a good mechanic is to learn 
the use of tools." That was true. His eye and judg- 
ment were trained to form, size, and proportion, and 
his hand to skill in representation. 

The introduction of drawing is undoubtedly the 
most important event in the modern history of our 
schools ; and it is doing more to furnish a solution of 
the problem already referred to, — that of rendering 
our schools of greater practical value to the indus- 
trial classes, than any, and perhaps all other agen- 
cies. 

It is, however, but just begun with us; and if we 
are denied the means of carrying it on to model 
drawing, etc., we can hardly hope to derive the bene- 
fit from it that it is calculated to impart. 

Other places, that were slower than we to begin, 
are now leading us in the provisions they are making 
for a complete practical course. Taking the word of 
Prof. Smith, director of art education in Massachu- 
setts that models and charts are " essential " to further 
progress, most of our cities and large towns have 
already made appropriations for this purpose, and are 
ready to go on with the course begun according to 
the programme of the director. 

I hope this matter will be reconsidered in our own 
city as soon as practicable. 



56 



MUSIC. 

An important change has been effected in teaching 
music in our schools, by the introduction of " Mason's 
Music Onarts." 

Under powers conferred by the Board, aided by the 
experience of otlier cities, and in consultation with 
our music teacher, the Music Committee have adopted 
a specific plan by which every regular teacher in our 
primary and grammar schools gives instruction in 
music, under the direction and supervision of the 
music master. 

Although this plan has not been in operation long 
in our schools, it has, I think, overcome whatever 
of prejudice and doubt existed among the teachers, — 
many of whom feared an increase of responsibility, — 
and established the fact that it is desirable and prac- 
ticable here as elsewhere. I think Mr. Mason will 
take an early opportunity to exhibit its results, and 
have no doubt that he will fully justify the expendi- 
ture, and satisfy the reasonable expectations of its 
advocates. 

In conclusion, I may say that with many of our 
teachers in all grades, there is an improvement in 
method more or less marked; but that this improve- 
ment is most visible among teachers of considerable 
experience, and those who had taken most pains to 
prepare for the work before entering upon it. 

I have found that those who are confident of suc- 
cess without special preparation, are very apt to carry 
the same spirit into the school-room, while those who 



57 

have attended normal schools, — if they have gained 
little else, — have learned that the price of the high- 
est success is constant improvement, and they are, 
therefore, more regular attendants at educational 
meetings, and greater readers of educational works. 
A large proportion of our teachers, I think, are 
now attending courses of lectures on some branches 
of science, in the Lowell Institute, or the Institute 
of Technology, and bringing the results into their 
classes, — vitalizing, and making interesting, what 
is in danger of becoming a lifeless routine. It is 
only on the condition of constant improvement that 
we retain what we have; and while I would counsel 
no rash innovation, I am sure that, — 

"When the heart goes before like a lamp, and illumines the pathway, 
Many things are made clear that else lie hidden in darkness." 

With thanks, gentlemen, for your constant sup- 
port^ the foregoing is respectfully submitted. 

B. F. TWEED, 

Septembek, 1872. 8wperintendent. 



DESCRIP TION 



Harvard School-House. 



This building, — a view of which is presented in the frontispiece 
of this Report, and the arrangement of the rooms, halls, etc., in 
the accompanying cuts, — is three stories in height. 

The basement contains, in addition to the rooms for the steam- 
heating apparatus, two large play-rooms for the pupils, with water 
closets and other conveniences. 

The first floor has five school-rooms, twenty-eight by thirty-two 
feet, and thirteen feet in height, with clothes-rooms for the pupils, 
and two reception-rooms, dressing-rooms, and water closets foT the 
teachers, as represented in the cut. 

The second floor has six school-rooms, of the same dimensions 
as the preceding, with clothes-rooms for the pupils. 

The third floor has three school-rooms of the same dimensions, 
and an exhibition hall nineteen and a half feet in height, of the 
length of the building, and about half its width. 

The inside finish of the building is of soft brown ash, with southern 
hard pine for upper floors and platforms. 

All the partitions are of solid brick work, and the exterior is .built 
of solid brick walls, faced with pressed brick, and trimmed with 
granite. 




-^..- 



Dressing 
Room _ 

■=4 




Clothes Room 



"V^-,,:,,,,^^ fZT] ' 



Dressing 
™ Room 



t — 



'\^] 




69 



3DEI3IOwA.TI03Sr 



HARVARD SCHOOL-HOUSE. 



The Harvard grammar school-house was dedicated, Feb. 22d, 1872, 
by the following appropriate exercises : — 



SINGING BY THE PUPILS, 



READING OF THE SCRIPTURES. 
By Rev. Wm. T. Stowe. 



PRAYER. 

By Rev. Thomas B. Smith. 



ORIGINAL HYMN. — By Mr. AbramE. Cutter. 
Tune, " Fair Harvard." 

The barbarous Scythian in Athens of old, 

As we read in a time-honored story, 
Its wonders would see — he was bidden behold 

In Solon, the Greek's greatest glory. 

For, far above temple, above sculptured fane. 

Earth's marvel to all coming ages ; — 
Above the Acropolis' storied domain. 

The Greek prized the wisdom of sages. 

Now broken the column, and crumbled the wall ; 

The proud archway perished, and portal — 
Yet wisdom has builded her house in the soul. 

In that realm where all is immortal. 



60 

To foundations thus laid in those ages afar, 

Headstone of the corner was given, 
When high in the East arose Bethlehem's star, 

The Herald of Wisdom from Heaven. 

To shores far beyond aught the Argos essayed 

Came wise men the new light discerning, 
Whose grand Golden Fleece was a Commonwealth staj'ed 

On churches and free schools of learning. 

With a fond local pride the muse now recalls 
From our archives the bright scroll of honor, 

And choosing therefrom, inscribes on the walls 
John Harvard, the generous donor. 

From seed sown in weakness we gather in strength, 

'T was timely and prayerfully sown; 
First the blade, then the ear, now the full corn at length, 

We reap where the fathers have strown. 



Mr. George B. Neal, Chairman of the Committee on City Property, 
then passed the keys of the building to Mayor Kent witli the following 
speech : — 

ADDRESS OF ME,. GEO. B. NEAL. 

Mr. Mayor, and Ladies and Gentlemen: — We have assembled together 
on this day memorable in the history of our country as the anniversary 
of the birth of our illustrious "Washington, to dedicate with appropriate 
exercises this new, beautiful, and commodious edifice to the uses and 
purposes of a free grammar school. We have listened to the reading of 
the Word of God, and have joined in invoking his blessing. And now 
we may well congratulate ourselves and our citizens generally upon 
the successful completion of this noble enterprise, whereby another and 
a more beautiful temple o/ learning than any yet erected in our city 
has been reared in our midst, whose spacious halls shall, we trust, be 
open for many years to come, for the reception of great numbers of 
the youth of our city, desirous of availing themselves of the privileges 
here to be afforded them of attaining, by thorough instruction and 
judicious discipline, a good common-school education, such as may 
qualify them for their respective duties and occupations in after life. 
And I cannot forbear, on this happy occasion, from tendering my sin- 
cere congratulations to the princijpal and his assistants, as well as the 
pupils of the Harvard school, upon their release to-day from all those 
trials and inconveniences to which they have been subjected during 
the past year, and while this building has been in progress. During 
this time one portion of the school has been separated from the other, 



61 

a part having been transferred to rooms, pleasant enough, perhaps, 
when reached, but quite difficult of access, in the attic story of the city 
hall building, under the charge of the principal; the other part remain- 
ing in the Harvard school-house under the care of the sub-master, but 
occupying the same, with four primary schools, which had been trans- 
ferred to that building from the primary school-house on Bow Street, 
which it was necessary to demolish in order to make room for this' 
edifice, a portion of which stands on the land formerly occupied by that 
building. I trust that Avhatever time or opportunities may have been 
lost on this account, may be more than compensated by the greater 
progress and improvement which shall be made by the pupils of this 
school in the future, aided and encouraged by the very greatly increased 
facilities and advantages which they must surely realize while receiv- 
ing instruction in a building so remarkably well fitted and arranged, as 
all who have examined it will admit, for the uses for which it has been 
designed. I propose now to give to you a short history of the incep- 
tion and progress of this enterprise, which has resulted in the final 
completion of the noble structure which we this day dedicate, also to 
make a brief statement of the cost of the work, together with such 
facts connected with the same as may be of interest to you. In the 
month of February, in the year 1870, a communication was presented 
to the City Council by the School Committee, stating, as the opinion 
of the Board, " that the Harvard grammar school requires increased 
and better accommodations, and they ask the immediate attention of 
the City Council to the subject, and that they be requested to take 
measures at once for the purchase of land and the erection thereon of 
a new edifice for said school." This communication was referred to 
the Committee on Public Property, who, after carefully considering 
the subject, reluctantly came to the conclusion that, in view of the 
large expenditures just incurred by the city in rebuilding and refur- 
nishing the High school-house, it would be better, on the whole, to 
defer, for a time at least, work which would require a still greater 
outlay of money. In the mean time, arrangements were made by 
the School Committee to accommodate temporarily the surplus schol- 
ars of the Harvard district in some one or more of the other gram- 
mar schools. But in the month of September of the same year it be- 
came evident to the members of the City Council that the petitions 
of the School Committee, which had become very urgent and were oft 
repeated, could no longer be disregarded. Accordingly it was decided 
to take promjDt action in the matter thus so decidedly brought to their 
notice, and the Committee on Public Property were authorized to 



62 

select a suitable location with the view of erecting thereon a large 
Duilding for the Harvard school. They were directed, however, in the 
first instance, to ascertain whether or not it might be expedient to pur" 
chase more land adjoining that occupied by the Harvard school-house 
for the purpose of either enlarging and remodelling that structure, or 
of building an entirely new edifice on the same site. The Committee 
after due inquiry and deliberation, decided that the project was inex- 
pedient and impracticable, and it was accordingly abandoned by vote 
of the City Council. The Committee then turned their attention to sev- 
eral locations which were available on Bow Street and its vicinity, and 
after consultation with the members of the School Committee, with 
the approbation of that Committee, they finally made selection of the 
site upon which this building stands as the most eligible as to situation, 
size, and cost. This site included the land owned by the city, and occu- 
pied by a j)rimary school-house, which, as I have already stated, it was 
found necessary to remove to make room for the new building. Having 
obtained authority from the City Council to make the purchase, the 
Committee proceeded to enter into negotiations with the several owners 
thereof, which resulted in the purchase qf the same for the city. This 
land, comprising four difierent estates, and occupied by dwelling-houses, 
most of them of no great value, contained 13,600 feet in area, and cost 
the city $29,810.60, at the rate of $2.20, nearly, per foot. The primary 
school^house lot, containing 2,720 feet, was purchased by the city in the 
year l'i42, and cost $1,675, or at the rate of about 50 cents per square 
foot. The total area of the land upon which this building stands 
is 16,320 square feet, and cost $31,485.60, or at the rate of $1.93 per 
square foot, not including interest on the original purchase. Plans 
and specifications for the proposed new building having been prepared 
and drawn up by Mr. Samuel J. F. Thayer, of Boston, whose reputa- 
tion as an accomplished and successful architect is so well known and 
established amongst us as to need no word in his behalf from me, they 
were accepted by the City Council after having been fully examined 
and approved by the School Committee, and the Committee were 
authorized to proceed with the work. Proposals having been received 
from several parties, the contract was finally awarded to Mr. John B. 
Wilson, our fellow-townsman, whose practical knowledge, skill, and 
thoroughness as a builder is clearly manifested by the many substan- 
tial and elegant buildings, both public and private, erected by him in 
various parts of this city and elsewhere. The principal sub-contractor 
was Mr. Eobert E. Wiley, a member of our City Government, and also 
well known to you all as a competent and successful mason and builder. 



63 

The heating apparatus was furnished on separate contract by Messrs. 
George W. Walker & Co., of Boston. The cost of the building, in- 
cluding grading and paving the yard, fence, and heating apparatus, is 
$92,000. The book-cases and teachers' desks were furnished by 
Messrs. Daniels, Harrison & Co., and the pupils' desks and chairs, and 
the settees for the hall, by Mr. Joseph L. Eoss. A few of the teachers' 
desks which were in the old building, have been repaired and put in 
this for use. Desks and chairs have been provided for 770 pupils, but 
if it ever becomes necessary, accommodations for sixty or seventy 
more pupils can be furnished. The cost of furnishing the building, 
including the gas fixtures, made by the Tucker Manufacturing Com- 
pany, is about $6,800. I will give the following summary of amount 
expended: — 

Forland $31,485 60 

" building 92,000 00 

" furniture 6,800 00 

$130,285 60 

In additon to the Winthrop school-house, which must soon give way to 
a larger and more modern structure, we have four first-class grammar 
school-houses, the Prescott,Warren, Bunker Hill, and the new Harvard; 
but we do not hesitate to say that the latter excels all the others in 
perfection of design and finish, and in completeness of adaptation to the 
purposes for which it has been designed. It differs materially from the 
others in its exterior, but more especially in its interior arrangements, 
It has more rooms on each floor, but has none in the attic story. On 
the first floor are five school-rooms and two reception-rooms; on the 
second, six school-rooms, and on the third, three school-rooms and the 
spacious and beautiful hall where we are assembled. All the rooms 
have convenient retiring'or clothes' rooms, and in each story are ample 
corridors extending from side to side through the centre of the building. 
In the basement are two very spacious apartments, separated by a 
brick wall, one to be occupied by the boys and the other by the girls 
during recess, and to be used by them as a play-room, especially in 
stormy weather. Although the expenditure thus required has been 
very great, yet the Committee are confident that the city has received 
a full equivalent for the outlay. And now, Mr. Mayor, the Committee 
which I represent, and to whom has been committed the direction and 
supervision of this important work, by the City Council, having ful-- 
filled their trust and accomplished the work assigned them, in their 
behalf I now surrender to you this noble edifice, fully completed and 



64 

furnished, ready for occupation. In token whereof, I now place in your 
hand the keys to the entrance doors of the building. 

On receiving the keys and passing them to the Chairman of the Har- 
vard School Committee, His Honor accompanied the act with the fol- 
lowing remarks : — 

ADDEESS OP MAYOE KENT. 
Mr. Chairman of the Committee on Public Property : 

It is one of my highest and best privileges to be present on occasions 
like this, and to participate in exercises of so much interest. In re- 
ceiving from you the keys of this elegant edifice, I follow a usual, and 
very just and proper custom, and acknowledge, in behalf of the govern- 
ment, an appreciation of the skill which planned, and the care and 
faithfulness which has superintended its construction. During a year 
of startling moral and political events, its walls have quietly risen; 
no accident has happened to the cunning workmen employed in its 
erection, and we here, to-day, with prayer and song and all pleasant 
associations and surroundings, rejoice in it finished and complete* 
And now, Mr. Chairman of the Committee on the Harvard school, it 
is my 'further privilege as well as my duty to transfer to you the use 
and occupancy of this building. During my pleasant intercourse with 
the school board, and in the course of my various visits to the schools, 
nothing has more forcibly impressed me than the vast improvements 
that have been made in school edifices. I chanced, a day or two since, 
to pass the building in which some of my earlier years were spent, in 
the city of Boston. It is occupied as a stable now, and I believe 
answers its present purpose admirably. As I stood looking at it for a 
few minutes, I was a boy again, and I could not but mentally contrast 
it with that in which we are assembled. I may be pardoned for noting 
here a pleasant circumstance, that my old master (Aaron Davis 
Capen) sits to-day by my side ; and little did he or I suppose, when 
he was striving to instil the mysteries of figures into my dull brain, 
that thirty-five years or more afterwards, we should meet on a platform 
like this, — he as my guest, and I having the honor to represent, as I 
may be able, an intelligent community. Yes, we remember the old 
Mayhew school well, with its spacious, but low and dingy apartments, 
into which some two hundred pupils were packed, seated at long forms 
in uncomfortable positions. Healthful modes of heating and venti- 
lation were not thought of; a neighboring pump was a luxury ; janitors 



65 

were unknown, and a weekly detail of boys was made to sweep and 
clean the school. To-d;iy, sir, I have the pleasure to deliver to yf)U a 
building perfect in its appointments, luxurious in its fittings. But I 
need not remind you that where much is given, much will be; roq'iirrdj 
and that it is in vain that we build and furnish, unless a faithful ajiiili- 
calion of means to ends is made. I say this with emphasis, because I 
think in this, as well as other communities, there is a disposition to 
inquire whether the results w^e attain iu matters of education, are com- 
mensurate with our rapidly increasing expenditures. However the 
question may be argued or answered, it is one of the greatest interest 
to all those who are in charge of our school systems ; and therefore 
the contract for the material and finish of this building being at an 
end, it having been accepted as ready for use, you and I are here to-day 
to make a new contract. And the covenant of this contract is, that 
whereas and inasmuch as the government has provided this splendid 
edilice, you, for yourself and for 3-our successors forever, do engage that 
it shall be faithfully applied to its destined use. And by this simple 
ceremony of transferring the keys to you, and in the presence of Ibis 
cloud of witnesses, we sign and seal and ratify the contract. Ladies 
and gentlemen, we are assembled here on this twenty-second day of 
February, the anniversary of the birth of one whose proudest title is 
that he was the father of his country. The flags are streaming brightly, 
the bells are pealing, the cannon are speaking, in commemoration of 
the day. It seems to me, that we, assembled here, can in no fitter way 
recognize the day, can no more devoutly, as it were, reconsecrate the 
memory of Washington, than by dedicating and erecting, as I trust we 
do in these services, one more pillar in that temple of constitutional 
liberty which he bequeathed as an inheritance to us. As I approach 
our city, set upon hills, from almost any direction, three prominent 
objects arrest my attention. First, the tall shaft on yonder eminence, 
which has risen to meet the sun in his coming, and around whose sum- 
mit the last beams of departing day linger and play. Next, the church 
spires; and then, and hardly less prominent, the structures which we 
devote to educational purposes. I am sure that the prominence of 
these objects is typical, in no narrow sense, of the estimation in the 
minds of our people of the interests they represent. They are but 
other names for liberty, moralitj^ and intelligence, — and the first is 
but little worth without the others, — for liberty without intelligence 
is but blind force, and, without morality, is but unbridled license. 
And so, for my duty to-day is but simiile, and my words need not 
weary, I know you will' all join with me in the devout aspiration, that 



66 

God will bless this school. May the elements spare it, and calamity- 
pass it by; and here may there be sown that good seed which shall 
spring up and bear abundant fruit, perchance thirty, tifty, yea, a hun- 
dred fold. 



Mr. Marden, on receiving the keys from the Mayor, and passing 
them to the teacher, made the following remarks. 

ADDRESS OF MR. MAEDEK 
Mr. Mayor: 

With pleasure I receive these kej's, as emblematic of the golden key 
of knowledge. I receive them with gralilude, knowing the wants of 
the children who have looked forward with hope to the completion of 
this magnificent edifice. For myself and my colleagues, I thank you, 
sir, for the interest you have manifested in the welfare of our public 
schools. Your visits to the schools have been a source of pleasure to 
the teachers and the scholars, who look forward with interest to a fre- 
quent renewal of them. 

Charlestown was founded in 1629, — Boston in 1C30. For a time the 
setUers dwelt in wigwams and huts about this hill. During the first 
few years, they sufiered severely from sickness, famine, death, and the 
encroachment of hostile Indians. Amidst ail this suffering, the first 
church was gathered in 1032, and the fiist free school was establibhed 
June 3, 1036. This school was probably kept in the block house, or in 
the great house that was built for the governor, and stood in the square 
where the fountain now stands. The great house was used as tlie first 
meeting house, and was sold, in 1035, to Robert Long, for £30. 

The record is as follows: "Mr. Long was granted to have the great 
house wholly, when we shall be provided of another meeting-house, 
and to pay £30, and for the present to have the south end, and so much 
of the cliamber as the deacons can spare, and when the congregation 
leaveth the house, the deacons are to have the plank and boards which 
lie over the chamber, with all the forms below and benches." 

In the archives on the other side of the river, we find, among other 
proceedings, of" a generall meeting upon publique notice," held on the 
" 13 of ye 2nd month (April), 1035 " That " Likewise it was then gen- 
erally agreed upon yt our brother, Philemon Purmout, shall be intreat- 
ed to become Scholemaster, for the teaching and nourtering of chil- 
dren with us." A tract of laud, "thirtle acres," was allotted to him 
"at a generall meeting ye 14th of ye 10th moneth, 1635, at Muddy 



67 

River " (now, it is supposed, a part of Brookline), and the grant vras 
confirmed " att a meeting j-eSthofye 11th moneth, called January, 
1G37." 

If this school was not established until the grant was confirmed, then 
the first free school was opened in Charlestown. If the school was es- 
tablished in 1635, Boston got a little the start of Charlestown, and has 
kept it to the present time. The General Court, September 8, 1636, 
granted LovelFs Island to the town. The island was rented, and the 
income applied to the support of the school. In 1648, the Court gave 
this island to the town forever. In 1648, the first school-house was built 
on AVindmill Hill, to be paid for by a general rate; in 1682, another, 
and in 1713, still another, on the same site. 

Sept. 8, 1636. The General Court granted Lovell's Island to the 
town, "provided they eraplo}' it for fishing by their own townsmen, 
or hinder not others." This island was rented, and the income of it in a 
short time applied regularly to the support of the school. In 1618, the 
Court gave this island to the town forever, "provided that half of the 
timber and firewood shall belong to the garrison at the castle." 

In the great conflagration of June 17, 1775, the meeting-house and 
school-house were destroyed, with the dwellings and shops of the cit- 
izens. One of the lirst acts of the town after the war was to build a 
meeting-house and a school-house. 

May 20, 1800. The School Committee voted " that school be opened 
"Wednesday, 4th June, notice to be given Sunday previously by Dr. 
Morse, from the pulpit, and that the Board attend the opening of the 
school 4th of June." 

June 20, voted, " That Dr. Morse, T. Thompson, and F. Walker, be 
a committee to procure plans and estimates for two new school-houses, 
— one where the old one stands, and one at or near the Keck, of either 
brick or wood." 

Previous to the year 1800, there was but one school-house within the 
Neck. On the 18th of September, 1800, the School Committee voted 
to ask the parish for a lot of land in front of the old school-house to 
put a new one on. The next day, September 19, the trustees met and 
measured and staked out the land for the school-house. September 
24th, it was voted to accept the proposal of Mr. Isaac Carlton, to erect 
the new school-house for " three thousand two hundred and twenty 
dollars." It was dedicated September 10, 1811. 

Seven primary schools were put in operation on tiie 16th of May, 
1825, for children from four to seven years of age. In May, 1826, an- 
other primary school was opened, making eight. 

In 1828, the Harvard school-house was put in complete repair at an 



68 

expense of $680.71, and rebuilt in 1847-8. And now, in 1872, we have 
this magnificent building and model school-house. For nearly two 
centuries and a half the meeting-house and school-house have stood 
side by side upon this hill. Thus may they ever stand. 

Charlestown has been a sort of nursery for raising teachers for the 
Boston market and elsewhere. 

Benjamin Thompson, a name ever honored among us, taught both in 
Boston and in Charlestown. 

In 1666, the celebrated master, Cheever, was teaching in Charlestown. 
In 1670, he was teaching in Boston, where he taught thirty-eight years,, 
exercising an important influence upon thepeojDle of Boston, and dying 
Aug. 21, 1708, aged ninety-four years. 

Many, after having taught successfully in Charlestown, have re- 
moved to other places to teach, or to engage in other business. Some 
are with us to-day, upon this platform; some have gone to their long 
home. One, after having for a brief period proclaimed throughout the 
length and breadth of this fair land, " Peace on earth, good will to man," 
has, like the glorious sun at eventide, sunk [TeacefuUy to rest upon the 
far-oif shore of the Pacific. 

Another, after having found scope for his abilities in the great Mis- 
sissippi valley, has returned to his Alma Mater, and is here for us to 
do him honor. 

At the beginning of this century, John Lathrop, a New-England 
man, established a school in Calcutta, but was narrowly watched by 
the government, and very much limited in his plans of instruction. 
They were willing that he should teach in elementary knowledge, but 
feared an extensive system of education, as full of evils to their polit- 
ical establishments. In the ardor of his zeal for instructing the 
rising generation of Calcutta, he presented to the ]SJarquis of WellesUy, 
Governor-General, a plan of an institution, at which the youths of 
India might receive an education without going to England for that 
purpose. 

In an interview with his lordship, Lathrop urged with great fervency 
and eloqiicnce the advantages that he believed would flow from a sem- 
inary well endowed, and properly patronized by the government, on 
such apian as he recommemled; but his lordship opposed the plan, 
and in his decided and vehement manner, replied, " No, no, sir; India 
is, and ever ought to be, a colony of Great Britain; the seeds of inde- 
pendence must not be sown here. Establishing a seminary in New 
England at so early a period of time hastened 3 our llevolutiou half a 
century." 



69 

Yes, our free schools and Harvard College did help to hasten that 
revolution, which brought to the front that great and good man whose 
birthday we are celebrating; and in what more fitting manner can it 
be done than by dedicating a school-house ! 

Another great and good man, the Eev. John Harvard, in honor of 
whom this grammar school is named, entered Emanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, England, in 1628, took the degree of A. B. in 1G31, and that of 
A.M. in 1635. He settled here in 1637; and, on the 6th of August, was 
admitted a townsman, " with promise of such accommodations as we 
best can." He took the freeman's oath !N"ovember 2d; was admitted, 
with his wife, Anne, a member of the church on the 6th, and " was 
some time minister of God's Word" here. There is no account, how- 
ever, of his ordination. The house which he occupied was near the 
meeting-house, on the side of this hill, and Avas subsequently owned 
by the Rev. Thomas Shepard, who writes of him: " This man was a 
scholar, and pious in his life, and enlarged towards his country, and 
the good of it, in life and death." 

Harvard's name is found a few times on the town records. He had 
a share in a division of land in 1637, and 1638, in another division. 
He is named, April 26, 1838, one of a committee " to consider of some 
things tending toward a body of laws "; and had a grant November 
27, 1637, of "three and a half feet of ground for a portal" for his 
house. 

Nothing whatever is known of his birthplace or early history. The 
Hon. James Savage, a most diligent antiquarian, has said that he 
would cover with gold coins heaped up every letter and line that 
would tell him anything about John Harvard. He even crossed the 
ocean in search of memorials of that good man. 

Harvard died September 14, 1638, in Charlestown, of consumption, 
supposed to be about 27 years old; bequeathing to the college one half 
of his estate, about £800, the earliest, the noblest, and the purest trib- 
ute to religion and science this western world had yet witnessed ! 

The precise spot of his interment is now unknown. Tradition says, 
that " till the revolutionary war, a great stone was standing over the 
spot where his ashes repose." But this was destroyed at that period. 
The summit of the burial hill has been appropriated to a monument 
to his memory, erected September 26, 1828, by the graduates of Har- 
vard College, which bears his name, and of which he is justly re- 
garded as the founder. 

The Colonial Records, October 25, 1636, contain the first notice of 
the college, towards which the Court makes a grant of £400, to be 



70 

paid when the work is finished, — the Court to regulate the place and 
building. ITovember 2, 1637, it is ordered that tbe college be at 'N'ew- 
town. May, 1638, the name of Newtown was altered to Cambridge in 
consequence of the college being established there, and the college re- 
ceived the name of Harvard in the same year. The first commence- 
ment was in 1642. 

The first professor was Nathaniel Eaton, chosen in 1637. Harvard 
was not the only benefactor of the college, or the only early promoter 
of learning. In Captain Richard Sprague's will, bearing date October 
6, 1703, is the following item: " I do give and bequeath unto Harvard 
College, in Cambridge, the sum of 400 pounds in money, etc. I do 
give and bequeath unto the free school in Charlestown, 50 pounds in 
money, to be put to interest by the selectmen or treasurer annually, 
for the use of said school ; the interest only to be spent yearly for the 
end aforesaid." 

And now, Mr. Warren Everett Eaton, I know not if you are a lineal 
descendent of the ancient professor of Harvard ; but knowing your 
zeal in the cause of education, and your ability and success as a 
teacher; having given full ; atisfaction to the school committee and to 
the citizens as sub-master of the Prescott School and master of the 
Harvard, — we have confidence to believe that you, with your able 
sub-master and corps of teachers, will make this Harvard School sec- 
ond to none in the State. 

And may He who holdeth the universe in his hand, and tempereth 
the wind to the shorn lamb, guide and direct you in your noble and 
glorious work of teaching the children entrusted to your care within 
the walls of this noble building, the keys of which I now place in your 
custody. 



On receiving the keys to the building, Mr. W. E. Eaton replied to 
Mr. Marden as follows : — 

ADDEESS OF IVm. W. E. EATOK 

It is indeed, as you have said, a noble building. I thank you for it, 
and, through you, the city. I thank you for it personally. I thank 
you for it in behalf of those with whom I am associated. And espec- 
ially do I thank you in behalf of three hundred children, boj-s and 
girls, looking through a score or more of these bright eyes before you. 
I need not say to you, sir, that, like the prophets of old, we have 
waited long to see these things which you now see, but, unlike them, 



71 

thank God, we have not died without the sight. And right here, be- 
fore I forget it, I desire to give my thanks to him whose comprehen- 
siveness of mind, whose intelligent sight, first properly appreciated 
the evils of the old structure yonder, and, I think, was the first gen- 
tlemen to call your attention to the importance of building a new one. 
And I desire, too, to thank from the bottom of my heart, his successor, 
whose untiring energy, whose perseverance against obstacles, — labor- 
ing day and night, in season and out of season, — has carried forward 
the idea of his predecessor to this beautiful consummation. You have 
alluded to the first professor who had the honor to preside over yonder 
college. I do not know, as you have suggested, whether I am a " lin- 
eal descendant " of him or not ; but, however that may be, I count it 
a far greater honor to stand here to-day and aid you in dedicating this 
building to the noblest of objects, — the education of future citizens 
of this great republic. 

You have alluded, too, and so have you, Mr. Mayor, to ancient struc- 
tures and modern school-houses " made into stables," and elegant ones 
like this. And I am reminded that brick walls, though they may cost 
$130,000. do not alone make a school; that spacious halls and 
convenient rooms do not make a school. These keys may 
open these doors to the coming of merry feet, but they will not 
open a single heart or a single mind of a single chid. The teacher 
alone is the talisman and the key. Upon you, sir, and your colleagues, 
rests the responsibility of placing upon every one of these platforms 
teachers of undoubted ability and influence. I say " of influence," for 
I count it not the value of a teacher that he is able to tyrannize over 
boys and girls, that he is able to seize upon the weaknesses of the child 
— for it has them — and make them minister to his own pride and 
love of approbation. I consider not him the most valuable teacher 
the results of whose labor can be mathematically computed. I stood 
last summer over the grave of the greatest of England's teachers ; a 
man who had raised himself into prominence, spite of church and 
state, against bigotry and social power. And I recollect his biogra- 
pher says that the secret of his success, the fundamental principles of 
his teaching, was, to seize upon the individuality of the boy, and with 
that as a lever lift him into a perfect Christian manhood. That is the 
motive of every true teacher. And such a teacher cannot be measured 
by line or surface. He is no slave — you can't make him one. And 
of what worth would he be if you could? You recollect, sir, what the 
old Greek said: " Give your son to a slave to be educated, and when it 
is done you have two slaves instead of one." I look over my own past 
life, and, from my mother's knee to college, I recall but two teachers 



72 

who, it seems to me, had the influence of a whit in the directing of my 
growth. One of them you have alluded to, and he sits upon this plat- 
form to-day. Ability, I repeat, you cannot measure by barleycorns. 
Xou cannot time it by clocks, even if it be one of Howard's best. That 
was not a rhetorical burst simply of the great jurist when he ex- 
claimed: " O, for an hour of Webster! " Go up and down histor}'', 
and you will find that every great movement had for its origin a stat- 
ute law that you could i^rint upon a single page of a 12mo, or a sermon 
that could be comprised within the limits of a single chapter, or a 
thought that you could crowd easily into a proverb. But I count my- 
self fortunate, I consider these teachers and children fortunate, I count 
the parents of these children favored, that there is at the head of its 
school to-day a gentleman (and I thank you, Mr. Mayor) whose com- 
prehensiveness of thought and purpose, whose intelligence, whose 
large-heartedness will see to it, with eyes as jealous as were those of 
the Roman senators of old, that to this school there comes no detri- 
ment. 

, These keys — ■ well, if they mean anything, they mean higher 
thoughts, truer loves, loftier aspirations, a larger growth. If they 
mean less than that, your $i;-30,000, for all the good that it will do, 
might have been dross, and these walls be in heaps before to-morrow's 
sun. I pledge you, sir, and gentlemen, that, so far as I may be privi- 
leged, these proportions, so beautiful, so costly, shall be to the passer- 
by neither a mockery nor a lie. 

A dedication ode, written for the occasion by Mr. W. E. Eaton, was 
then sung by the pupils, to the tune of Keller's American Hymn: — 

God of our fathers, all glorious and great I 
Founder of Empire and Saviour of State I 

Bend from thy throne in the dark-rolling cloud; 

Fill with tby Presence this temple so proud ; — 
Come in thy glory our efforts to bless. 

Twine with thy mercy each lintel above ; 

Crown every archway with justice and love; — 
Come in thy grandeur this temple to bless. 

Here into hearts that shall mould and bear sway, 
Fountain of Wisdom, the Truth and the Way, — 

Flow like the waves on the ocean's white breast; 

Pour through this temple a tide of unrest; 
Come in thy wisdom its teachers to bless. 

Sweet as that smile by Gennesaret's sea, 

Shine on these hearts now so youthful and free; 

Come in thy beauty its children to bless. 



73 

Angels that hover where danger Is near, 

Come from your homes in the bright heavenly sphere ; 

Quench the red flame that shall threaten with harm. 

Temper the whirlwind and ride on the storm; — 
Spread your white pinions to guard and protect, 

Blessing the years as they roll in and die. 

Long may these walls greet the blue-vaulted sky; — 
Ever, O Father, come, guard and protect. 



Prof. B. F. Tweed, superintendent of schools, was the next speaker 

ADDRESS OF PROF. TWEED. 
Mr. Chairman : 

I ought, perhaps, to say a word for the ex-teachers of Charlestown, 
who have been so kindly alluded to by the chairman of the committee 
on the Harvard school, and many of whom I am happy to see here to- 
day. And I believe I may claim that we have all sustained good moral 
characters, and been engaged in some useful and honorable employ- 
ment. Some of our number have left the profession, and served the 
county, the State, or the nation, in important offices. Others have 
occupied responsible positions in the great monetary institutions of the 
neighboring metropolis, and if we can judge by appearances, they 
have found them as lucrative, even, as teaching. Others, again, have 
been, and still are, in the harness as teachers, in Boston and elsewhere; 
and I know of but one instance, or two at the most, where they have 
come back upon Charlestown for support. I hope Deacon Weston will 
make a note of this. But here my classification fails. What shall I 
say of my sub-master at the Bunker Hill school, who outgrew Charles- 
town, and Boston, and the State, but who did not outgrow the nation, 
and when the demon of secession raised its horrid head, grappled with 
it, and died a martyr to the Union? But, sir, apart from our ex-teach- 
ers, Charlestown is rich in its historical associations. There is scarce 
a feature of its landscape not suggestive to the local historian of some 
important event in the annals of the country. Not to speak of the col- 
umn which rises from yonder summit, commemorating an event which 
reduced to ashes the altars and homes of the fathers, let me call your 
attention, for a moment, to a less pretentious monument in the old 
burial-ground, — that of John Harvard, whose memory is most appro- 
priately kept green, in connection with this and other institutions 
of learning. As has been said, little is known of the personal history 
of Harvard. It is agreed, I believe, that he died and was buried in 
10 



74 

Charlestown, but of his sepulchre, like that of Moses, no man know- 
eth to this day. Nor is it neccessary, — 

" strew his ashes to the wind, 
Whose words or deeds have served mankind," 

and monuments will spring up to guard and commemorate every par- 
ticle of his hallowed dust. Our old church historian, Fuller, in speak- 
ing of one of England's worthies, says: •' His ashes were thrown into 
the Avon, w^hence they passed to the Severn, thence to the narrow sea, 
and then to the broad ocean," so that now, like his principles, they are 
diffused through the world. This is an apt, though quaint, illustration 
(»f the virtue which goes out from every truly great and good man. 
The dust of the world's benefactors is the seed, which, though the 
smallest among seeds, becomes a great tree, in which the birds of the 
air find shelter. We trust that here the winged messengers of thought 
will nestle, and gladden us with their joyous songs of a better day com- 
ing. The sum given by Harvard to found the university which bears 
his name was STnall when compared with the princely donations of 
later benefactors, and yet it may be that the " ifnite " of John Harvard 
was, in the eye of Heaven, more than all which they have cast into the 
treasury. It is these small things which contain the germ of all our 
great institutions; and it is faith in the da}' of small things, " of seed 
sown in weakness," that lies at the root of our S3'stera of education. In 
ever}^ child we see the possibilities of greatness and usefulness, and we 
educate the man in the child. 



"A little child, in bulrush ark, 

Came floating down the Nile's broad water ; 
That child made Egypt's glory dark, 
And saved his land from bonds and slaughter, 

" A little child for knowledge sought 
In Israel's temple of its sages ; 
That child the world's religion brought, 
And razed the temples of past ages, 

" Mid worst oppression, if remain 

Toting hearts to freedom still aspiring, 
If, nursed in superstition's chain, 
The human mind is still i quiring; — 

" Then let not priest or tyrant dote 

On dreams of long the world commanding; 
The ark of Moses is afloat, 
And Christ within the temple standing," 



75 

Mr. Harden then read a letter from Hon. G. Washington Warren, 
who regretted that a previous engagement prevented him from attend- 
ing the dedication. Mr. Marden- then introduced Hon. Eichard Froth- 
ingham in a most complimentary manner, who responded with a 
brief address. 

EEMAEKS OP HON. RICHARD PEOTHINGHAM. 

Mr. Frothingham thanked the Committee for the honor of the invi- 
tation to be present on an occasion so interesting as the dedication of 
another noble temple to the cause of education, and for the privilege, 
quite unexpected, of taking part in the exercises; but the ground both 
of history and sentiment had been so thoroughly traversed, what ought 
to be said had been so well said, that he despaired of making any re- 
marks worthy of attention, and the few words he should say would 
grow entirely out of what had been already said. Of the benefactors 
of education of Charlestown, who have been mentioned, John Harvard 
justly has had the most prominent place, and his whole biography, so 
far as is known, has been given. Here was a young man who had one 
great thought, did one great deed useful to the world, and his name is 
immortal. It has been a matter of wonder that so many natives oi 
this place, becoming wealthy, have lived and died in or out of it 
but have never endowed here a temple dedicated to education and sci- 
ence. The municipality, however, has early and late supplied liberal 
opportunities for the education of the children born on her soil. The 
progress of equality, as to allowing boys and girls the same opportuni- 
ties, was slow; for, down to the Revolutionary war, the girls were 
allowed the privilege of attending school after the boys were dismissed. 
As Mr. Frothingham was dwelling on this point, the bells began to ring, 
when he passed from this subject to remark on the character of Wash- 
ington. What more than any other trait marked his public career, 
was his spirit of union, of nationality, fidelity to the idea that what he 
called his country took in Massachusetts and South Carolina, as well 
as Virginia; and this made him an impersonation of his countrymen. 
It was manifested, in a striking manner, in his manly political stand, 
before his appointment as commander-in-chief. It was made known to 
the patriots here by action more than appeared in the newspapers. 

An illustration was supplied in the reception of a letter accompany- 
ing a contribution from Virginia. It was probably read to a commit- 
tee that met in Fanueil Hall, when Samuel Adams and Joseph War- 
ren and others might have been present, and it told how Colonel 



76 

Washington had offered to lead, if necessary, a thousand men, well 
armed, to the relief of Boston. Another illustration occurred in his 
action relative to the act of parliament destroying the Massachusetts 
charter, or overthrowing its old government. He was the chairman 
of the meeting of the freeholders of his country when they resolved 
that if Boston was forced to submit, yet they would not hold this sub- 
mission to be binding on them, but would abide by the measures of 
the general congress. It was a knowledge of such a spirit in the hero 
of the Trench war that prompted Warren and Gerry to write on to 
the Massachusetts members that such a character should be selected to 
command the armies. Mr. Frothingham presented more fully this 
spirit of union and of nationality, as a characteristic of this great life, 
and in closing, spoke on the influences which teachers might exert on 
the youth who might gather within the walls of this noble building. 
Of those who had graduated from the common schools was Morse, the 
world-renowned inventor of the telegraph. The school which he at- 
tended was very near this location, and his schoolmates are living 
who tell things of his school hours, when his genius began to show 
itself. It is permitted to few to become like him, benefactors to man- 
kind. But all who enter these walls as pupils may here do much by 
application, to become fitted to act well their part in life. Long may 
this temple stand and continue to send forth graduates to be an honor 
to the place and be serviceable to their country I 

The exercises were then closed by a trio by three young ladies from 
the High School. 



REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES 



PUBLIC LIBKAKT 



CITY OF CHAELESTOWJ^, 



FOE THE YEAR 1872. 



CITY OF CHARLESTOWN. 



In Board of Mayor and Aldermen, 
December 16, 1872. 

Eeport accepted* Sent down for concurrence. 

JOHN T. PRIEST, 

Gity Glerh. 



In Common Council, 

December 16, 1872. 



Keport accepted in concurrence. 



THOS. H. HASKELL, 

Clerk. 



REPORT. 



Charlestown Public Library, Nov. 1, 1872. 

To the City Council of the City of Charlestown : 

The Board of Trustees of the Public Library pre- 
sent their Annual Report to the City Council, made 
up to ISTovember 15, 1872. 

The work of the library has been carried on qui- 
etly, but successfully, during the year, and its condi- 
tion can be seen by the following statement of the 
Librarian, whose services have been faithfully per- 
formed, and who has our full confidence at the pres- 
ent time. 

LIBRARIAN'S STATEMENT. 

Through the past year, besides the daily routine 
labor, much has been done towards bringing the 
library into good working order. 

All additions, since the issue of the stereotyped 
catalogue of 1862, now appear in the new Siip- 
ylementary Catalogue of July 1, 1872. 

The manuscript " card catalogue " has been care- 
fully revised, and may now be relied on to ascertain 
what books we have on the shelves. 



The following items indicate the present 



CONDITION OF THE LIBRARY. 



Number of vols, catalogued for circulation . 


. 11,510 


" " " for reference 


. 2,486 


Duplicates, etc., not catalogued . 


737 


Total 


. 14,733 


Number of vols, purchased .... 


926 


" " from binding periodicals 


46 


" " ■ from donations 


484 


Total increase ..... 


. 1,456 


Number of vols, sent to the bindery 


738 


" " worn out in service 


383 


<' " replaced by new 


225 


*' " considered lost . 


7 


Number of cards issued to new applicants 


. 1,090 


Total registration since June, 1869 


. 5,429 


Number of days the library was open . 


281 


" " books delivered .... 


. 65,501 


Average daily delivery .... 


233 


Largest number in one day .... 


663 


Smallest " " " . 


22 


Average Saturday delivery, for the year 


464 


" " " for each month : — 




November . .461 May 


. 509 


December . . 459 June 


. 440 


January . . . 523 July 


. 338 


February . . . 548 August 


. 254 


March . . . 588 September 


. 296 


April ... 548 October .. 


. 391 



Comparative Statement of Circulation for Three Years. 



November .... 
December .... 

January 

Eebruary 

Marcb 

April 

May 

June 

July- 

August 

September.... 
October 



iseg-TO. 

Cir. Days. 



3,694 
4,547 
6,634 
6,518 
7,677 
6,150 
6,119 
4,003 
3,409 
1,307 
1,912 
4,973 



25 
26 
26 
23 
27 
25 
25 
24 
25 
15 
14 
26 



56,943 281 



isro-ri. 

Cir. 



5,283 
5,578 
6,524 
7,095 
8,083 
7,270 
6,544 
5,423 
4,318 
1,010 
1,564 
4,867 

63,559 



25 
26 
2Q 
23 
27 
24 
26 
24 
24 
14 
10 
26 

275 



isri-ra. 

Cir. Days. 



5,950 
6,235 
7,080 
7,304 
8,185 
7,100 
6,085 
4,768 
3,710 
1,306 
2,108 
6,590 



65,501 



25 
25 
26 
24 
26 
25 
26 
23 
26 
15 
13 
27 



281 



Daily Average, 202-1- 



231+ — 



233 + 



The collection of pamphlets has been increased, by 
donations, two hundred and ninety, making an aggre- 
gate of about three thousand five hundred, some of 
which are in bound volumes, but by far the greater 
part are loose, unassorted, and not catalogued. 
These we hope to arrange in proper order as time 
may permit. 



11 



Amount received for sale of catalogues 



*' fines collected , 

" sale of old paper, etc. 



KespectfuUy submitted, 



$42 00 

237 70 

22 55 

$302 25 



C. S. CAETEE, 

Librarian. 



The following statement will show the financial 
condition of the Library, with the items of expendi- 
ture during the year : — 

Balance, Nov. 15, 1871 $1,697 03 

Appropriation for the year ending Feb. 28, 1 873, 4,100 00 
Amount received by the city for dog licenses in 

1871 683 05 

Collections in the Library as follows : — 

Fines to November 1 . . . $237 70 

Sales of catalogues ... . 42 00, 

" " old paper, etc. . . . 22 55 

302 25 



$6,782 33 
Amount of 12 pay rolls sent to the City Clerk . 4,969 54 



Leaving an unexpended balance of . . . $1,812 79 
to carry us to the end of the financial year. 

The items of expenditure have been as follows: — 
For Salaries $2,380 00 



Books and Periodicals . 
Binding 

Stationery, etc. . 
Covering Paper . 
Printing and Advertising 



1,084 40 

293 20 

41 05 

28 00 

85 75 



For Cataloo-iies . 






$C30 70 


Ciirpcntry, Painting, etc. 






34 8G 


Repairing Stamps, etc. 






13 15 


Insurance . . 






177 50 


Gas Fixtures 






4 40 


Temporary Assistants . 






67 78 


Exprcssage and Labor . 






32 50 


Incidentals . 






95 G5 



$4,969 54 



The new Supplementary Catalogue, which, we 
thinlr, is a very creditable volume, was printed by 
Messrs. Rockwell &; Churchill, of J5oston, at an ex- 
pense of $630.70. It supplies a need which was 
much felt by borrowers, and aids greatly in the com- 
fortable management of the Library. The two cata- 
logues now contain all the books belonging to the 
Library previous to July last, and lists of those re- 
ceived since that date have been posted in the wait- 
ing-room without delay. The number of new books 
added during the past year has been smaller than we 
could have wished, or than would have been the case 
if the new catalogue had been sooner completed and 
fewer replacements required. The good condition of 
the books, and the general good order of the library 
at the present time, make it probable that a larger 
number of new publications will be added in the year 
to come, even if the appropriation for the purchase 
of books is not increased. Our means have really 
been too limited for a proper increase in such a 
library; but this we think is a subject for the consid- 



8 

eration and liberality of the citizens rather than the 
City Council. 

"With the bequest of the late Mr. Adams, we have 
made some desirable additions to the Reference Li- 
brary, and it is om^ intention that all books purchased 
with that fund, and bearing his name, shall be of 
lasting value. The Reference Library, so far as it 
goes, is good; but there is need of a much more ex- 
tensive collection of such books in the city. Some 
additions to the list of periodicals for the Reading 
Room have been made since our last report, and the 
number of readers has increased. 

In July last, we sent to the City Council a com- 
munication in relation to the purchase of files of the 
" Bunker Hill Aurora," now in the possession of its 
editor, W. W. Wheildon, Esq., and we are still of the 
opinion that, if a reasonable arrangement to secure 
these papers can be made, it will be well for the city 
to possess them. 

The increase in the circulation of books this year 
over the last would have been greater, we think, if 
there had been less fear of varioloid, cases of which 
have been so numerous in our own as well as other 
cities. ISTevertheless, all the precaution in our power 
has been taken to protect the library and borrowers 
from its influence. 

The books and fixtures in the Library are insured 
for $10,000, but f4:,000 of the amount is in a policy 
of the Mechanics' Mutual Insurance Co., of Boston, 
taken out last April, and for which was paid $140 in 
cash, with a liability for f 140 more, for seven years' 



9 

insurance. The great fire of November 9 has prob- 
ably destroyed the value of this policy, and if the 
whole $280, less seven months' insurance, is lost, it 
■will be a large contribution for our little institution 
to the sufferers by this sad calamity. 

The usefulness and real value of public libraries is 
now so generally acknowledged and understood, that 
it would be altogether superfluous for us to enlarge 
upon that subject; and our duty is done when we 
report the present condition of the Library under our 
charge. "We can see how its usefulness could be 
increased with larger means and more liberal endow- 
ment; but as it is, there can be no question that it is 
a blessing to those who use it, and to the community 
who own and support it. 

For the Board of Trustees of ihe Public Library. 

TIMOTHY T. SAWYER, 

President. 



OiFiniCEI^S 



OF THE 



CHAELESTOWN PUBLIC LIBRAEY, 

1872. 



TJRUSTEES. 

TIMOTHY T. SAWYER, President. 

GEORGE HYDE. , JOSEPH SOUTHER. 

RICH'D FROTHINGHAM. FRANCIS E. DOWNER. 

GEORGE D. EDMANDS. CHARLES F. JOHNSON. 

GEORGE P. KETTELL. JOHN R. CUSHMAN. 



CORNELIUS S. CARTEE, Librarian. 



SUSAN EDWARDS, 

ANNA M. STEVENS, 



Assistants. 



12 



DO]^ATIONS FROM JAIST. 1 TO l^OV. 1, 1872, 



Amherst College .... 
Antiocli College .... 

Bailey, Andrew J 

Banks, Hon. N.V 

Bates College, Me 

Boston, City 

Boston College .... 

Boston Mercantile Library Association 
Boston Public Library . . . . 
Bowdoin College, Me. . . . , 
Briggs & Bros., Rochester, N". Y. . 
Bronson Library, Waterbury, Conn. 
Brookline Public Libi'ary 
Brown University, R. L . 
California University ... 

Cartee, C. S 

Chelsea City 

Chelsea Public Library . . . , 
Cliicago Relief & Aid Society 
Cobden Club, London, Eng. . 
Colby University, Me. . . . . 
Cornell University, JST. Y. 

Cutter, A. E 

Dartmouth College, N". H. . 
Delaware College, Del. ... 
Detroit Board of Education . 

Edes, Harry H 

Fearing, Hon. A 

Eorster, Dr. E. J.' .... 
Frothingham, Hon. R. . . . 
Georgia Historical Society 

Girard College, Pa 

Harvard University . . . , 
Holton Library, Brighton 

Hubbell, 3Irs. P 

Hyde, George 

Illinois Industrial University . 

Iowa Agricultural College 

Kansas Agricultural College . 

Liitle, Brown & Co. . . . , 

Lowell City Library . . . 

Lyon, Dr. 11 

Maine Agricultural College 
Manchester City Library 
Maryland Agricultural College 
Massachusetts Agricultural College 



Vols. 



5 

21 



4 

41 

1 



1 

47 

2 



1 

94 



13 



Vols. Pam3. 



Massachusetts Board of Agriculture 

" Bureau of Statistics & Labor 

" Harbor Commissioners 

" Institute of Technology 

" State Board of Health 

" State Lunatic Hospital 

Medford Public Library . 

Miami University, Ohio . 

Middlebury College, Conn. 

Michigan Agricultural Colleg 

Michigan State Board of Agriculture 
" University 

Kew Bedford Public Library 

ISTewburyport Public Library 

Newton Free Library 

New York State Library 

Paine, Rev. Albert . 

Peabody Institute, Baltimore 
" " Peabody 

Preble, Ga-pt. G. H., U. S. N. 

Quincy Public Library . 

Reading Public Library . 

St. Louis University, Mo. 

Sands, Bear Admiral, B. F., U. S. N. 

Sawyer, Hon. T. T. 

Sears, Rev. Br. B. 

Smithsonian Institution . 

South Carolina University 

Springfield City Library . 

Stover, A. W. . 

Taunton Public Library . 

Trinity College, Conn. 

Tufts College . 

Union College, N. Y. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Vermont University 

Virginia University 

Waltham Public Library 

War Department, Washington, D. C. 

Watertown Public Library 

Wesleyan Seminary, Me. 

Wesleyan University, Conn. 

West Springfield, Town . 

Wheildon, W. W. . 

Williams College 

Wilson, Hon. Henry 

Wiuchendon Public Library 

Winchester Home , 

Winthrop, Hon. R. C. 

Woburn, Town 

Worcester Public Library 

Yale College, Conn. 

Young Men's Association, Buffalo 



1 

42 



12 



1 

2 
1 
1 

2 
2 
1 

2 
1 
2 
1 
1 

7 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 

40 
1 

3 
1 

1 
3 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
2 

1 
1 

10 
2 
1 

2 
1 



12