rB" jv-o * 6345 ^55 t a 1 ANNUAL REPORT SCHOOL COMMITTEE CITY OF CHARLESTOWN, WITH THE REPORTS OF THE SUPERINTENDENT, For the Year 1873. CHARLESTOWN : PRINTED BY CALEB RAND. 1874. CITY OF CHAKLESTOWK In Board of School Committee, September 18, 1873. At a meeting of the Board held this evening, Messrs. Dear- born, Finney, and Daniels were appointed a Committee to piepaie the Annual Report. Attest: F. A. DOWNING, /Secretary. In School Committee, December 31, 1873. Ordered : That the Annual Report of the School Commiiiee and Superintendent be accepted, and that one thousand copies be printed for distribution. Attest; F. A. DOWNING, £ ecrelary. SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 1873. JONATHAN L STONE, Mayor, ex officio. ETHAN N. COBURN, President of the Common Council, ex officio. WARD 1. Charles E. Sweney, J. G. Dearborn, James A. McDonald, James 8. Mlrphy, James F. Southworth Retire H. Parker. WARD 2. Charles F. 8mith, John Sanborn, S. S. Blanchard, William H. Finney, Nahum Chapin, Joseph H. Cotton. WARD 3. Charles E. Daniels, George H. Marden, A. O. Lindsey, John P. Loring, George S. Poole. ORGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE. JONATHAN STONE, Chairman. F. A. DOWNING, Secretary. WM H. FINNEY, Treasurer. JAMES MLSKELLY, Messenger. BENJAMIN F. TWEED, Superintendent of ScJiools. STANDING COMMITTEES. ON FINANCE. A. O. Lindset, Chas. F. Smith, John Sanborn. on BOOKS. Chas. F. Smith, Chas. E. Daniels, R. H. Parker. on MDSTC. S. S. Blanchard, George S. Poole, W. H. Finney, Chas. E. Sweney. on drawing. Geo. H. Harden, R. H. Parker, A. 0. Lindsey, J. G. Dearborn. ON EXAMINATION of teachers. Wm. H Finney, Chas. F. Smith, J. G. Dearborn, S. S. Blan- chard, Geo. H. Harden. ON PRINTING. Nahum Chapin, Chas. F. Smith, Jas. F. Southworth. ON FUEL. John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin. on evening schools. Citas. E. Daniels, R. H. Parker, Chas F. Smith, Nahum Cha- pin, S. S. Blanchard. OKGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOLS. HIGH SCHOOL. Committee. — Messrs. Dearborn, Mardert, Murphy, Parker, Finney, Loring. Teachers. — Caleb Emery, Principal ; Alfred P. Gage, Master of the English Department ; L. B. Pillsbury, Sub- Master; Katharine Whitney, EmmaG. Shaw, A. E. Somes, Susan A. Getchell, Anna M. Wilde, Assistant Teachers. BUNKER HILL GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Committee. — Messrs. Daniels, Marden, Liudsey. Teachers. — Chas. G. Pope, Principal ; Henry F. Sears, Sub-Master; Mary A. Eaton, Head Assistant; Abbie P. Josselyn, Ellen B. Wentworth, Caroliue W. Graves, Geor- gia Smith, Angelia M. Knowles, Mary S. Thomas, Lydia S. Jones, Ida O. Hurd, Caroline C. Thompson, Anna M. Pres- cott, Assistant Teachers. WARREN GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Committee. — Messrs. Finney, Parker, Sweney, Poole. Teachers. — Geo. Swan, Principal ; E. B. Ga}>-, Sub-Mas- ter ; Sarah M. Chandler, Head Assistant; Anna D. Dalton, Anna S. Osgood, Margaret W. Veazie, Elizabeth Swords, Frances L. Dodge, Abbie E. Holt, Ellen A. Pratt, Abbie C. Lewis, Louisa Swan, Maria L. Bolan, Alice Hall, Assistant Teachers. HARVARD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Committee. — Messrs. Southworth, Dearborn, McDonald, Murphy. Teachers. — Warren E. Eaton, Principal ; Darius Hadley, Sub-Master ; Abbie B. Tufts, Head Assistant ; Ann L. Wes- ton, Sarah E. Leonard, Sarah A. Benton, Mary P. Rowland, Lucy A. Kimball, Fannie B. Hall, Emma F. Thomas, Lois A. Rankin, Mary A. Emery, Elizabeth B. Wetherbee, As- sistant Teachers. WINTHROP GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Committee. — Messrs. Chapiu, Sanborn, Blanchard. Teachers. — Caleb Murdock, Principal; William B. At- wood, Sub-Master; Harriet E. Frye, Bial W. Willard, Ara- bella P. Moulton, Georgianna Warren, Sarah H. Nowell, Abbie M. Clark, Ellen R. Stone, Jennie E. Tobey, Ellen A. Chapin, Lucy A. Seaver, Assistant Teachers. PRESCOTT GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Committee. — Messrs. Smith, Loring, Cotton. Teachers. — Geo. T. Littlefield, Principal; Samuel J. Bullock, Sub-Master; Mary G. Prichard, Head Assistant; Martha M. Kenrick, Mary C. Sawyer, Elizabeth J. Farns- worth, Julia C. Power, Ellen C. Dickinson, Lydia A. Sears, Frances A. Craigen, Jennie F. Sawyer, Assistant Teachers. INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. No. 1. Sub- Committee. — S. S. Blanchard. No. 2. " Geo. S.Poole. No. 3. " John Sanborn. Teachers. — Lucy M. Small, Anna :R. Stearns, C. M. Sisson. PRIMARY SCHOOLS. DISTRICT NO. 1. Committee. — Messrs. Marden; Daniels. Teachers. — H'^leii G. Turner, Effie G. Hazen, Elizabeth B. Norton, Sarah A. Smith, Mary E. Flanders, S. Josephine Worcester, Ada E. Bowler, Sarah A. Atwood, Carrie M. Arnold. district no. 2. Committee — Messrs. Poole, Lindsey, Loring. Teachers. — M. Josephine Smith, Melissa J. A. Conley, Elizabeth W. Yeatou, Abbie P. Kichardson. district no. 3. Committee. — Messrs. Sweney, Smith, Dearborn. Teachers. — Frances M. Lane, Emma Hanson, Mary E. Smith, Ellen Hadley, Carrie E. Osgood, Abbie Varney. district no. 4. Committee. — Messrs. Sanborn, Chapin, Cotton. Teachers. — Martha Yeaton, Mary P. Swain, Persis M. Whittemore, Frances B. Butts, Louisa W. Huntress, Mari- etta F. Allen, O. H. Morgan. DISTRICT NO. 5. Committee. — Messrs. Blanchard, Finney, Murphy. Teachers. — Elizabeth A. Prichard, Catharine C. Brower, Mary P. Kittredge, Effie A. Kettell, Elizabeth R. Brower, Alice S. Hatch. DISTRICT NO. 6. Committee. — Messrs. Parker, Southworth, McDonald. Teachers. — Frances A. Foster, H. W. Heath, Elizabeth F. Doane, C. M. W. Tilden, Louisa A. Whitman, Caroline A. Rea, Lucy M. Soulee. REPORT. The appropriations for the fiscal year, beginning March 1, 1873, and the expenses under such appro- priations for ten months, to January 1, 1874, are shown by the following table: — Salaries of teachers, superintendent, Appropriations Expenses. secretary, and messenger . $100,025 $82,706 50 Incidental expenses . 13,000 10,548 07 Evening schools . • 800 263 42 Drawing school . 800 S79 81 Total $114,625 $93,897 80 The salaries of teachers are, — Principal of the High School . Master of English Department of the High School Sub-Master of the High School Head Assistant " " Second " " " Assistants " " Principals of Grammar Schools Sub-Masters " " Head Assistants " " Teachers of Third Classes of Grammar Schools - Assistants after first year " " Assistants first year " " Teachers of Intermediate Schools " Primary Schools after first year " " " first year . Music Teacher ...... Drawing Master . $3,000 2,200 2,000 1,000 800 700 2,100 1,800 775 650 625 575 700 625 575 1,000 2,000 10 There have been some changes in the membership of the Board, more, indeed, than have ordinarily oc- curred in a single year. Four gentlemen have re- signed, one of whom, Mr. Lyman P. Crown, has siuce died. Dr. Edmund L. Conway, having been ill at the time of his election, died without having taken his seat as a member. Five vacancies have thus occurred, one of which still remains unfilled. The Board has held its regular meetings through- out the year, at which the subject of education in general, and various details connected with the prog- ress, management, and requirements of the schools have received due consideration. Aside from this, the various standing and sub-committees have given much time and thought to such special matters as have come before them. The full and comprehensive report of the superin- tendent leaves but few points to which this commit- tee need call attention. To some portion of this re- port we shall presently make more special reference, although no very marked changes have been made in the schools during the past year. There have been some improvements in respect to more intelligent teaching; and, generally speaking, the schools are in good condition. In the primary schools, improved methods of in- struction have been gradually introduced by the super- intendent, and with excellent results. We regard these schools as worthy of the most liberal support and the most careful supervision. 11 The idea has been quite prevalent among the com- munity at large that almost any person, possessing a fair degree of patience, and some notion of discipline, would do very well to teach in a primary school. Even the transfer of a successful primary school teacher to a grammar school has been sometimes urged, on the ground of promotion. But the very highest qualities of mind and character are requisite for successful teaching in those schools, and it is gratifying to know that this matter is beginning to be viewed in its true light. It is certainly of the utmost importance that chil- dren should be well and correctly taught from the outset. For, if their first steps in the path of knowl- edge be guided aright, and the way made so pleasant that they shall wish to learn more; if, at the same time, they be taught to despise everything low and mean, and to choose that which is honorable and good, then has a great work been accomplished, the results of which will be as lasting as life. GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. Of the condition of these schools, the Superinten- dent's report gives a full account, to which we have nothing to add, except to say that we find them to be in good condition, and believe that they will compare favorably with such schools throughout the Common- wealth. We desire to call special attention to that part of the Superintendent's report which relates to the pres- ent and prospective wants of the primary schools. It 12 thus appears (and we are able to corroborate these statements from personal observation) that with the exception of districts five and six, these schools are full, — in some cases to overflowing. It should be remembered that every pupil added to a school beyond the number which the room can con- veniently accommodate, not only fails to receive due benefit as a pupil, but also impairs, to some extent, the efficiency of the whole school. It is also highly de- sirable that better accommodations should be fur- nished the scholars attending schools on and near Medford Street. These school-houses are both small and inconvenient; and one, at least, on account of its location and surroundings, is totally unfitted for the purpose for which it is used. We earnestly recommend that the earliest possi- ble action be taken to supply those wants, as well as those of the "Winthrop Grammar School. To say nothing of the inconvenience of the upper rooms of this school-house, the lower rooms are seri- ously objectionable on account of dampness. Disease often originates among people who live in rooms similarly situated; and certainly such rooms ought never to be used for schools. As the urgent need of better accommodations in this case has been repeatedly referred to in former reports, and as it has come under the notice of former city governments, and its claims to attention and favorable action have generally been admitted, it is, perhaps, unnecessary to say more upon the subject at this time. 13 HIGH SCHOOL. During the past three years there have been many changes in the corps of teachers of this school. Of those connected with the school three years ago, only the principal, master of the English Department, and first assistant now remain. Two have been removed by death; the others have for various reasons resigned. Undoubtedly the interests of this school have suffered to some extent from these changes. Whenever a teacher succeeds to the position of another, although both may be fully qualified for their work, there will always be some loss to the classes under instruction, since more or less time will be required to get the work fully in hand, and to carry it on as smoothly and profitably as before. The present corps of teachers seem to appreciate the importance of the work intrusted to their care, and are carrying it on with good results. Mr. Henry W. Brown, appointed sub-master in November, 1872, having decided to pursue a course of study in Europe, retired from his position at the close of the term in July. Mr. Brown is a gentleman of much culture and refinement, who possesses many excellent qualifications as a teacher. Mr. L. B. Pillsbury, late master of a grammar school in Somerville, has been appointed to the position of sub- master, and Miss A. E. Somes has been appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Miss Mary L. Coombs. Miss Coombs had been connected with the school for several years, and had always 14 earnestly and faithfully performed her duties as a teacher. After much care and consideration, a course of study has been adopted which went into effect on the first of September. In adopting this revised course of study, the effort has been to meet, as far as possi- ble, the varied wants of all pupils who may wish to attend this school. Certain studies have been made elective, such as Geology, Astronomy, Botany, etc., while more time will be given to Book-keeping and Higher Arithmetic. Early in the year a petition was received, signed by a majority of the parents having pupils in the High School, asking that the sessions of this school might be so changed as to omit the regular session on Saturday. This petition was referred to the Committee on the High School, and the report thereupon was as fol- lows: — In School Committee, } March 27, 1873. ) The Committee on the High School, to whom was referred the petition of many parents, that the school hours in the High School be so changed as to have regular sessions from nine till two on five successive days, and no session on Saturday, beg leave to report that they have considered the matter in its various bearings, and, after conferring with the principal of the school, have arrived at the unanimous conclusion that the petition ought to be granted. They therefore recommend the passage of the following orders : — 'jraered. — That section 3 of chapter V. of the General Regula- tions of the Public Schools, be so amended as to read — "There shall be one daily session of this school, commencing at 9 o'clock, and ending at 2 o'clock, for five days in the week ; 15 namely, Monday, Tuesdajr, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, an 1 no session on Saturday. There shall be a recess, midway in eaeli daily session, of twenty minutes." Ordered. — That section 27, of chapter 1, of the General Eegu- ations be amended by adding after the words " eveiy "Wednesday and Saturday afternoon throughout the year," the words " Except in the High School, as provided in section 3, chapter V." The committee have arrived at these conclusions from the follow- ing considerations : — (1). — The character and number of the petitioners ; — thej 7 being parents of the scholars, and a very large majority of all the parents. (2). — Belief to the scholars themselves; — they being now 1 ept in school every day in the week, nearly the full time of the regular sessions, thus allowing very little respite from severe study. <3). — Practicability. It is thought by the principal and by the sub-committee of the school that the work of the school can be done equally well in five days as in six. (4). — The experience of those who have tried both plans. The whole of Saturday is given as a holiday in most of our academies, and in very many of our High Schools, and this plan gives gre it satisfaction to all. The foregoing report was accepted, and the orders therein recommended were passed. Last year the Board made an appropriation for the purpose of fitting up a laboratory for practical in- struction in chemistry. The committee are happy to report that this project has been carried into effect with complete success. Since they have received instruction in the laboratory, the pupils have taken an increased interest in this branch of study, and at the examinations have been found to possess a practical and accurate knowledge of this science which eou.'d have been obtained in no other way. 16 The following report of the committee on Evening Schools was presented to the Board in April: — To the Board of School Committee : — The evening school for boys was held in the basement of the Prescott School house, during the months of December, January, February, and March, 1872-3 ; that for girls in the basement of the Winthrop school-house, during the same time. The school for boys was under the charge of Messrs. Henry F. Sears and E. B. Gray, and that for girls, of Miss B. W". Willard and Mrs C. M. Sisson Each school was in session thirty-five evenings. During the months of December and January, the whole num- ber of boys was seventy-five, the average attendance being forty- five. During February and March, the whole number was thirty- five, there being an average attendance of thirty. This, it will be observed, is a much higher percentage than we have usually obtained. The arrangement of having two of our sub-masters who are acquainted with many of the class that attend our evening schools, has been attended with unusual success. The school has been less disturbed by those who have no desire to learn, and the spirit of the school has been much more favor- able to good results. YVe believe that a very large portion of those who have attended have been greatly benefited. On the last evening, thirty-four diplomas were awarded ; and the teachers believe that, in every instance, it was the reward of an earnest endeavor to make the most of the opportunities provided by the committee. The whole number of pupils in the girls' school was thhiy-four, with an average attendance of twenty-three. This school, though somewhat smaller than the boys', has been well disciplined and taught, and most of the pupils made marked improvement. Twenty-three diplomas were awarded in this school. 17 Your committee, in closing, would express the. opinion that the evening schools have been more successful than ever before, and would suggest that another winter it might be well to open another boys' school, at least, in some place nearer the square. In concluding this last annual report, it seems proper to refer briefly to the past record of Charles- town, — as town and city, — regarding the interests of public education. The liberality of the appropri- ations for schools, and the interest manifested in them, have ever been marked characteristics of our muni- cipality. Many of our best and most prominent citi- zens — as will appear by the names in the appendix to this report — have served from time to time on the school committee, and the records of the committee show with what vigilance and care these appropria- tions have been expended, and the interests of the schools guarded. Our schools have ever been the pride of our citizens; and, though far from perfect, we believe they will be found, on the whole, better to-day than at any previous period. We commend them to the fostering care of the city into which we are now merged, and whose system of popular edu- cation, is, perhaps, its proudest monument. J. G. DEARBORN. WM. H. FINNEY. CHARLES E. DANIELS. 13 ■as OS Q«2 P3 PS PS -35 £3 PS >^ ft -*5 O iffl va O O O O O O »o m CO 05 «& «= >> . . ,fl rCT +3 eo 3 1^ co GO 1-1 H O 4-3 ,B > a rt O a 5 £ OQ *d -/5 s-. oj O PQ £ £ V ^J O O 4-3 Oh •rH O B c3 G3 "3 u .q !>, PQ * ,4 eo 1— 1 eo t-- 00 CO O O I-- 1~ O <M O H O CO O M 10 O eO C2 » <*H 5tH a €£ O O '£ O 03 4-3 +3 4J O O oa a S a a s „ ' c -3 3 •U +a Bj . GO O H • aa - . 03 pq O V CO 43 +j c-fl 3 fl 3 • * • 73 O > CO 03 Q. C3 43 <D GO 3 3 o3 3 OB O O U ci <0 O ;— 1 >* 3 43 3 B O O O a O O 43 10 eo CO O CD >• B tf: 53 H CO oa m €# 'x <=# 11 rH "3 ci ci H ,0 U „ „ „ Eh j eo r— CO a rt 1-5 pq 5 tf ° - s g P o - o w .S M " .M « g 5 H CO R pq < o w co 19 Semi-Annual Report SUPERINTENDENT OF THE CHARLESTOWN SCHOOLS, FOR Term ending Feb. 1*^73. Gentlemen, — The term from September, 1872, to February 1, 1873, was in some respects exceptional. The prevalence of the small-pox and varioloid during a large part of the term had a tendency to reduce the school attendance, especially as we adopted very stringent measures for excluding all who were known to have been exposed to the disease. Others, especially in the primary schools, were kept at home by parents, to avoid exposure. I believe, however, that the care used had such a tendency to inspire confidence, that the schools were much less disturbed than they would have been if we had adopted a more lax policy. The unusual severity of the winter also had some influence in diminishing the attendance in the lowest grade of the primary schools. The work done, however, in our primary and gram- mar schools has been, I think, as a whole, more intel- ligent and practical than heretofore. Our teachers in the primary schools have more uniformly adopted modern and improved methods in teaching the ele- ments of reading, and in many instances with marked success. 20 This has had its influence on the reading in the upper classes of the primary schools, in some of which I have heard excellent articulation and into- nation. In our grammar schools, too, there has been an increased interest in reading; and in some classes I have heard pieces rendered with marked taste and expression. This I regard as the most important exercise in our primary and grammar schools, and chiefly because it is the key to all the rest and involves more mental discipline than any other exercise. Good reading is the best analysis of thought and feeling. Principles which it would be utterly impos- sible to teach by any abstract statement, are easily appreciated by pupils when aided by the discriminat- ing intonations of a good reader, — which every teacher should be. In geography much more attention is given to map drawing, and much less to descriptive geography. A knowledge of form, relative distance, and location, which are the elements of geography, is only obtained and fixed in the mind by frequent drawing on the slate, the blackboard, or paper. The general outline of the most important divisions should be made as familiar to the pupil as the form of the letters he uses in writing, and by the same process, — practice. While this is made the leading object of the recita- tion in geography, many of the important facts ot geography are learned in connection with the written exercises which have greatly increased in our schools, and which, while imparting much useful information, give the pupils facility and correctness in the 21 use of language. This practice of writing in their own language, what they have learned from reading and conversational explanations by the teacher, has become one of the most efficient means of instruction in our grammar schools. There is, I think, a decided tendency on the part of a large portion of our primary and grammar school teachers to freer and more liberal methods of instruction, and less servility in simply hearing reci- tations from the text-book. The exceptions to this are found chiefly among those who, from habit and constitution, have become wedded to old methods, and those who have been appointed as teachers before making any special preparation. Such, of course, must have time for learning how to teach, and we are fortunate if they are willing even then to take advantage of all the means that offer, to make up for a lack of previous preparation. The time has come, not only in our own State, but in all the States, where the public school system is in successful operation, when it is no longer considered the province of the grammar and high school to fit pupils for any particular trade or profession, but to give them a general education, and leave the work of qualifying them for a specialty to the trades or professions which they may severally choose. It was stated by Horace Mann more than a quarter of a century ago, after an examination of the European schools, that nothing but the establishment of normal schools, where teaching should be regarded as a spe- 22 cial profession, could permanently benefit our schools, and make them what they must be to secure the con- fidence and respect of the intelligent portion of the community. It was with this idea that the first normal school in America was established at Lexington, in 1839. This Mr. Mann ever regarded as the most important achievement of his secretaryship. From that time to this, the increase in the number and efficiency of the normal schools of any State has marked with great accuracy the condition of its public schools. It is true that the normal schools of the country, even now, are far too few to supply all our schools with teachers who have had a full professional preparation ; but the establishment of training schools by many of our cities and large towns, and the holding of insti- tutes by the Board of Education, are intended, tempo- rarily, to supplement, as far as practicable, the means not fully provided for in our normal schools. The necessity of such professional training is fully recog- nized by all who have taken a prominent part in edu- cational matters in the State, and furnishes the only justification for the annual expenditure of many thou- sand dollars, under the direction of the Board of Edu- cation. HIGH SCHOOL. The High School has been peculiarly unfortunate the past term, in consequence of the change of teach- ers. The death of Miss Chamberlain and the resig- nation of Mr. Drew rendered the appointment of two 23 new teachers necessary; and the severe illness of Miss Getchell and Miss Coombs has put their classes into the hands of substitutes for a considerable time, who, however competent, could not, of course, do as well for the class as a regular teacher. The evil, how^- ever, so far as it has been caused by sickness, was unavoidable, and all possible care has been exercised in the appointment of substitutes. In the department of chemistry and natural phi- losophy, the instruction has been of a much more practical character than formerly, and the pupils ma- nipulate with great accuracy, showing a thorough knowledge of principles and their application. An exercise before the Middlesex Teachers' Convention, conducted by Mr. Gage, in which his pupils performed all the experiments, gave great satisfaction, and evinced such a knowledge of the properties of elementary substances and their combi- nations as to win the commendation of many compe- tent teachers in the same department. I am informed by Mr. Emery that the preparatory class is laboring faithfully, and he feels confident that they will restore the prestige which, with one exception, our High School has maintained for twenty years. THE EVENING SCHOOLS. These schools have been conducted with less dis- order, and the results have been more satisfactory than heretofore. The report of the committee con- tains the statistics and the general results of the schools, and some suggestions with reference to an 24 increased number of schools hereafter, which I hope will commend themselves to the Board. DRAWING IN OUR DAT SCHOOLS AND IN THE EVE- NING DRAWING SCHOOLS. Drawing in our primary and grammar schools has received generally the attention claimed for it by the committee on drawing, and the results are highly sat- isfactory. If we had not had the assurance of our own drawing master and others that the ability to learn to draw is as common as to learn any of the branches taught in our schools, I should say that the work done by most of the classes was surprising ; but as an exhibition of specimens by all the pupils will be given in June, every one will have an oppor- tunity of testing the truth of the statement, and of comparing the work of different schools marking the progress since the exhibition last year. In the evening drawing school the whole number of scholars was sixty-five, — forty-seven males and eighteen females. The average attendance was thir- ty-three. There were about twenty from the classes of '71 and '72, most of whom completed their third term of evening school instruction. Four different departments were carried on at the same time, viz. the class of beginners in geometrical drawing, the advanced class in construction, outline, and model drawing. With such a diversity the teacher, of course, labored under considerable diffi- culty ; and, but for the sets of models, it would hardly 25 have been possible to satisfy the demands of all. The progress, however, was good, and the interest contin- ued unabated to the close. Mr. Baker suggests that the number and variety of the models and flat examples should be greatly increased, and that colored examples, and casts of ornament and figure, should be added. He also re- peats what he said a year ago, and what the Director of Art Education said, with reference to the neces- sity of a room arid drawing stands suited to the dis- play and use of models, etc. MUSIC. The music in our schools, since the introduction of Mason's Charts, has become a more definite branch of instruction; and, while it has afforded a pleasant and beautiful exercise, relieving to some extent the monotony of the ordinary school recitation, the pupils, even in our primary schools, have proved that they have the ability, with scarcely an exception, to discriminate sounds, and to learn to read simple music. At an exhibition given by Mr. Mason, during the term, in the Harvard School hall, classes representing the highest grade in the primary, and each grade of the grammar schools, were found to be able to sing, with a good degree of accuracy and read- iness, such combinations as were presented to them for the first time. I think those members of the com- mittee that were present, will agree with me that it was a very creditable performance. During the last half year, the superintendents of 26 the State have given much attention to the subject ot a programme, and such a division of time in the several studies, as to secure a general uniformity in all the cities and large towns in the State. This, if it can be effected, will be of great benefit and convenience to scholars moving from one place to another. In consultation with the grammar masters, I have care- fully re-examined our course of study, adapting it to the various subjects taught, rather than to any par- ticular text-book, both to aid in this general unifor- mity, and to encourage teachers to adopt methods ot instruction more independent of text-books. The results of these deliberations I shall report to the committee in time, if adopted, to go into operation in September. In the confident belief that the efforts now making, throughout the country, to improve the methods and to adapt our courses of instruction to the wants of the community, will result in better sys- tems and better schools than we have yet seen, this report is respectfully submitted. B. F. TWEED, Superintendent. Makcii, 1873 Semi-Annual Report SUPEKINTENDENT OF THE CHARLESTOWtf SCHOOLS, Term ending July, ±&73. Gentlemen, — The number of children in Charlestown between 5 and 1 5 years of age, on May 1st, 1873, as returned by the assessors, was . Average number of pupils in all the day schools " attendance " " " " Per cent " " " " " Average number " the High School " attendance " " " " Per cent " " " " " Number of pupils to a teacher in " " Average number in the Grammar Schools " attendance " " Percent " " " Number of pupils to a teacher in the Grammar Schools Average number in the Intermediate Schools " attendance " " " Per cent " li " " Number of pupils to a teacher in Intermediate Schools Average number in the Primary Schools « attendance " " " • Percent " " u « . Number of pupils to a teacher in the Primary Schools Average number in Bunker Hill School . " attendance in """... Per cent " " " " Number of pupils to a teacher in Bunker Hill School 7,133 5,004 4,580 90 -f 229 220 96.2 28| 2,783 2,611 93.8 46-f- 122 103 84 41- 1,870 1,646 .88 48 572 538 94.5 47| 28 Average number in Warren School " attendance in " " . Percent " " " . Number of pupils to a teacher in Warren School Average number in Prescott School " attendance in " " . . Percent " " " . . Number of pupils to a teacher in Prescott School Average number in Harvard School " attendance in " " Percent " " " . Number of pupils to a teacher in Harvard School Average number in Winthrop School " attendance in " " Per cent " « " . Number of pupils to a teacher in Winthrop School Average number of pupils in all the day schools, for the year ending July 3, 1873 Average attendance of pupils in all the day schools, for the year ending July 3, 1873 . Number of graduates from the High School, July 3, 1873 " admitted from the Grammar Schools to the High School, July 3, 1873 (boys) . . . 84 " admitted from the Grammar Schools to the High School, July 3, 1873 (girls) . .61 Total — Number of graduates from the Grammar Schools, July 3, 1873 Number of graduates from the Bunker Hill School, July 3, 1873 Number of graduates from the Warren School July 3, 1873 " " " Prescott " " " " " Winthrop" " " " " Harvard' " " Number of graduates from the Primary and Intermediate Schools, for the year ending July 3, 1873 605 567 94 46 7 - 471 450 95.4 47.1 651 606 92.9 50-A 484 450 93 m 4,932 4,487 49 145 163 31 40 43 20 34 556 29 SCHOOL-HOUSES. Before proceeding to report on the instruction in our schools, it is proper that I should say a word re- specting our school accommodations, indicating our present and prospective wants. We have, then, an ex- cellent high school building, and four first-class gram- mar school-houses, giving ample accommodations to the pupils of their respective districts. I say four, for the Prescott, though containing but ten school- rooms, is, in all respects but size, equal to the others. The Winthrop has been referred to so often as en- tirely unfit for school purposes, that I can but repeat what . has been said in every report since i868. The large halls are inconvenient, and not at all adapted to the present organization of our grammar schools; three rooms in the basement, which it has been found necessary to use, — though not originally intended for school-rooms, — are truly described in the report of 1869, as "dark, damp, and unhealthy"; while " the recitation rooms on the upper floors are small, poorly seated, and destitute of ventilation." The pressing need of a new house for this school has for several years been urged by the school committee, and acknowledged by the city government in selecting a site and preparing plans for a new house. His Honor the Mayor also called attention to the wants of this district in his inaugural address; but for reasons, chiefly financial, no definite steps have been taken to build. It is to be hoped that the urgent wants of this district will be supplied with the least possible delay. 30 In the primary school district No. 1, we have nine school-rooms, — eight in the building at the corner of Charles and Bunker Hill Streets, and one on Haver- hill Street. These rooms are now fall to overflowing at some seasons, and the erection of new dwelling-houses be- yond the railroad crossing on the Neck will render it necessary to provide additional accommodations in that locality very soon. In district No. 2, there are four rooms in the build- ing on Mead Street. These rooms are now full, and will soon be wholly inadequate to the wants of the district. A new building in the vicinity of Sullivan Square, containing several rooms, would relieve the Charles Street primaries, and enable them to take a portion of the pupils in district No. 2. District No. 3 comprises two schools in the build- ing on Cross and Bartlett Streets, two in separate houses on Medford Street, and two in the building on Polk Street. These are now full, and new accommo- dations are required. District No. 4 comprises two schools in the build- ing on BunkerHill Street, three schools in the building on Moulton Street (one room being occupied by a class belonging to the Winthrop Grammar School), and two schools in separate houses on Fremont Street. We need even now the fourth room in the Moulton Street building*; and the district is so compact that it is to be hoped a building will soon be erected that will furnish accommodations for the Bunker Hill and Fremont Street Schools, and 31 provide for the rapid increase of pupils in this part of the city. District No. 5 comprises six schools in the Com- mon Street building, and district No. 6 the seven pri- maries and one intermediate, on Harvard Street. There are ample and good accommodations for these districts, though it may be necessary to change their respective limits. GRAMMAR AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS. The statistics herewith given will be found to coin- cide essentially with those of last year, though our number of promotions to the high school has some- what increased, and the proportion of pupils in the upper classes of our grammar schools is greater than heretofore. I may also say, that the examination of grammar school pupils for promotion to the High School gave better results. This was especially marked in grammar, — or the ability " to write the language correctly." In accordance with a previous understanding, five questions were proposed in pars- ing and analysis, to be marked on a scale of ten, and the pupils were then required to write, in the form of a letter to a friend, what they had been doing the last year. This exercise was marked on a scale of fifty, — taking into consideration the penmanship, the spelling, the grammatical construction, the use of capitals, and the punctuation. Of course, during the year, a considerable portion of the time given to grammar has been devoted to composition, in antici- pation of this test of their ability "to write correctly." As I have already intimated, I was particularly grat- 32 ified with the results, and I cannot but feel that our teachers have done something to rescue " grammar " from the odium which has j ustly attached to it, because it " did not teach the pupils to write the language correctly." That I may not be charged with making a loose statement in this regard, I will say that the papers of pupils examined are in my office, and are open to the inspection of any one who may have the curiosity to examine them. Several gentlemen, members of the committee, and others, have looked at many of them, and they have uniformly coincided with me in con- sidering them highly creditable both to pupils and teachers. It is so common an occurrence for people in our cities and towns to speak in disparaging terms of the schools as compared with some fabulous " gold- en age " of the past, that I am especially desirous they should inform themselves of their present con- dition by personal examination, if they are doubtful of the accuracy of statements made by those who have them in charge. Even our normal schools have not been exempt from adverse criticism, which, under the sanction of a great name, has been widely circulated by the press, — though the criticisms were admitted to be based on observations made some fifteen years ago. I would not be understood to object to criticism, — on the contrary, I invite it, — but it should be intel- ligent criticism. I think it unjust publicly to criti- cise or depreciate our schools, until one has assured himself, by careful examination, that they deserve it. It would be a great benefit if parents and guardians 33 would by personal inspection become acquainted with existing methods, and interchange views with those having charge of our schools. However faulty their discipline and instruction at the present time, — and I not only admit but affirm that there is much that is unsatisfactory, — I yet believe that any fair- minded man, who will make himself thoroughly acquainted with their administration, and consider the difficulties that exist among a population like ours, and with teachers, many of whom have had little special preparation and experience, will rather wonder that pupils learn so much, and that order is maintained with so little resort to force, than that they learn no more, and that forcible means of disci- pline are so frequent. The value of confidence is well understood in financial and commercial affairs, and never more keenly felt than at the present time. All teachers know it to be at least equally important in education. Destroy the confidence of the pupils in their teach- er, and to the same extent you destroy his influence. Destroy the confidence of the community in our school system and its administration, and you sub- tract very much from its usefulness. That great improvements have been made in the matter ot school-houses and school furniture, an'd especially in the system of grading, all are prepared to admit. Whether the course of study and methods of teaching have kept pace with these improvements may be an open question. The course of study in our grammar schools is the 34 result of long experience, and, I believe, requires no radical change. As more intelligent teaching se- cures more time, there will undoubtedly be modifica- tions of the course, and additions to it; and these modifications will be in the future, as they have been in the past, tending to a more complete and practical education for the great mass of pupils. We not unfrequently hear the complaint that too mnch is required of the pupils, and that the introduction of drawing, music, etc., takes just so much from the thoroughness with which the ordinary branches are taught. On the other hand, we are met with the complaint that so little is accomplished during the six years of the grammar school course. I think there is some ground for both these complaints. The introduction of new studies must, of course, take from the time formerly devoted to the meagre course of our grammar schools; and, if no improvements are made in our processes of teaching, there may and must be a loss in thoroughness. It is believed, however, that so much more can be accomplished by intelligent teaching than has been by the routine methods of those who have had no spe- cial preparation for their work, that we have not yet given our pupils as much to do as they can do thor- oughly, under the most intelligent instruction. Ex- perience, however, has shown that attention to these branches has not been attended by any falling off in the other branches. Their introduction has made school pleasanter, and produced a degree of interest and activity, that has reacted favorably on all school 35 studies. Should more time be wanted, I think I see where it may be gained from the ordinary course. Intelligent teaching can impart a better and more practical knowledge of geography in half the time than we have usually had. The same may be said of grammar* and I believe a better knowledge of the practical rules of arithmetic may be acquired in a considerably less time than we now devote to it; and, instead of its being done at the expense of thorough- ness, I think we may add to the thoroughness. "When Judge Story was asked why he made so large a book on a certain subject, he said, " Because I had not time to make a smaller one." Paradoxical as this may seem to some, it was probably true; and if so, the book must have contained much, perhaps, in some way more or less remotely, relevant to the sub- ject, but not necessary to its development. So in teaching. As our teachers are more thor- oughly prepared, so that they can eliminate all that is not strictly necessary, the principles now buried under different forms will be found to be few and very simple. In a popular text-book on arithmetic, I find a rule for dividing a fraction by a whole number ; another for dividing a whole number by a fraction ; another for dividing a mixed number by a whole num- ber ; another for dividing a whole number by a mixed number; another, which should have been the first and only rule, for dividing a fraction by a fraction; another for dividing a mixed number by a mixed number; and still another for reducing a complex fraction to a simple one. 36 When the pupil has learned, as he is supposed to have learned, in this book, that a whole number may be written as a fraction by placing the denominator one (1) under it, and how to change a mixed number to an improper fraction, there is but one principle and one process to be learned, instead of seven, as given in the book. Nor is it wholly loss of time and tax on memory that I complain of. The impression is given that there are seven different things, when, in fact, there is but one. Thus we meet, at every turn, the necessity for a more thorough preparation of teachers. Mr. Mann saw this in 1810; and all experience since proves that, after providing good accommodations and apparatus, the question of progress depends chiefly on the preparation and fitness of teachers. Notwithstanding all that has been done by our nor- mal schools to give us the best teachers, — and they have done much, — we are still far behind several of the European countries in this regard, even when we make this preparation an essential requisite. Enter- taining these views, I have sought, during my super- intendency, to do what I could to make the teaching more practical and intelligent, especially in our pri- mary and grammar schools. There is, I believe, much better teaching in many of our primary schools than formerly; and in all our grammar schools the teachers I think rely less upon the text-books, and aim more to impart a knowledge of the subjects, than to prepare the pupils to pass an examination in a defi- nite set of problems. Of course, the teaching in the 87 several schools varies somewhat according to the peculiarities and capacities of the teachers; but the tendency has been the same in all, and I think there has been a progressive spirit aroused in our schools that will not be satisfied with the results even now obtained. Already in several of the schools time is found to go beyond the required course of study, and to impart much useful knowledge on various interest- ing subjects, by means of familiar lectures. The substance of these lectures is then given by the pupils in their written exercises or "compositions"; and they are thus forming the habit of selecting the salient points in a discourse, and stating them in their own language. I know of no school exercise of greater educational value than this. It induces fixed habits of attention and judgment in the selection, no less than facility of expression. I ought, perhaps, to say a word on the discipline of our schools. Fortunately, we have not had to meet the question of corporal punishment in our schools in such a man- ner as to require much action on the part of the com- mittee. There is a standing rule that " The disci- pline shall be such as a kind, judicious, and faithful parent would exercise in his family," " avoiding cor- poral punishment in all cases where good order and wholesome restraint and discipline can be secured by milder measures," and requiring that a record of each case of corporal punishment shall be kept, and reported monthly to the superintedent. 38 That this rule has had some influence, and that the discipline of our schools is generally judicious, would seem to be shown from the fact that we have been so free from the periodic excitements to which some of our neighboring cities have been subject. Corporal punishment still exists in our schools; but, to the credit of our teachers, I am glad to say that they are making great effort to discipline without a resort to it. It is already greatly reduced, and the discipline has been, in the opinion of the teachers, improved, rather than weakened. There is naturally a better feeling existing between pupils and teachers. In order, however, to banish the rod entirely from our schools, our teachers must have the hearty co- operation of parents, and the means of removing the incorrigible — of whom there will be found a very small number — to some place where they will be subject to such discipline as they require. Our best teachers, I know, are anxious to effect this object, and thus relieve themselves of the most unpleasant thing con- nected with the profession of teaching. Experience has shown, that in all but a few extreme cases, the parent may, by immediate consultation and co-opera- tion with the teacher, render a resort to corporal punishment unnecessary; and, for the extreme cases, other measures, as I have suggested, should be adopted. Knowing the desires of the teachers, I earnestly invoke the aid of parents, by all the means in their power, to put the discipline of our schools on the sure basis of self-respect and mutual confidence. 39 HIGH SCHOOLS. The high school course of instruction in our New England schools has not been, to the same extent with that of our grammar schools, a growth, and it is possible that it may be found susceptible of more radical changes. The programme for these schools was at first very naturally based on the presumption that the pupils were preparing for a higher course of instruction in our colleges. Had this idea been adhered to, and such scholars only been admitted to the high school as were looking forward to a college course, the pro- gramme would undoubtedly been found well adapted to secure the desired end. It would then have been necessary, in all but our largest cities, — containing pupils enough for a classical preparatory school, and an English high school, — to extend the course in our grammar schools. Such, however, was not the policy adopted, and the consequence has been that a feel- ing exists in nearly every community that the high school course is less practical than it should be for that class who finish their school education in it. I believe in most towns it will be found that modifica- tions have been made in the course and always with this view. It certainly has occupied the attention of our High School committee; and, if the results thus far have not been all that could be desired, they have at least tended in that direction, and removed many of the objections formerly urged. The preparatory course naturally and necessarily 40 must follow the demands of the higher institutions ; and school committees may safely leave to those institutions the preparation of a course of study for this class of pupils. Perhaps, also, under the new order of things in our own city, some of the difficul- ties which we have encountered in adapting our high school course to the wants of those who finish their school education here, may be obviated. There are, however, questions of the relative status of the different sexes, which are quite as closely connected with education as with politics. These questions involve, not only the identical education of the sexes, but their co-education in our high schools and colleges. Experience has shown that females have the intellectual ability to compete successfully with males in the high school curriculum, at least. But physiology steps in, and while admitting that this can be done, asserts that as our schools are now organized, it is done at the expense of one of the most important functions of the system, and that this vio- lation of law becomes a fruitful source of disease. Without denying that girls can do as much and as well in the high school course of studies as boys, it asserts that it must be done in a different way; that while the male system, even at the school age, will admit of constant and persistent effort, both physical and intellectual, there is a periodicity in the constitu- tion of the female which cannot be ignored without the gravest consequences ; and that the most critical period in this regard coincides almost precisely with that of our high school course. 41 A work recently published, entitled "Sex in Edu- cation," by Dr. Edward Clarke, considering this sub- ject solely on physiological grounds, will, I am con- fident, lead to some modification of views on the vexed question of female education. It is a book of equal value to parents and teachers In addition to the statistics already given, the principal of our High School, in a report to the High School committee, says: — " Allow me to express the opinion that the school, in all its departments, is in good condition ; that all the teachers have per- formed their respective duties faithfully and well ; and that most of the scholars have pursued their studies with commendable zeal and success. There have been a few cases, however, of very defec- tive and superficial scholarship, in consequence of promoting delinquent scholars ' with conditions,' instead of requiring them to go over again, and thoroughly, the work of the preceding year. "In a well arranged course of study, the successive classes can advance to higher branches only when they have thoroughly mas- tered their previous studies ; and the subjects assigned to each period of the course are intended to call into exercise the power and resources which those alone possess who have been faithful and successful in the earlier stages of their progress. " Those, therefore, who are deficient in the studies of one year of the course, will not be likely to ' make up ' such deficiency in con- nection with the duties of the succeeding year, and ought, in justice to themselves as well as the school, to remain in a lower class until fully quallified for the next higher grade. This principle has always been recognized in our school as a theory, but the recent action which you have been pleased to take on this subject, fixing a defi- nite, standard of promotion, will enable us to enforce it in practice." The class that graduated at the close of the last school year, numbered forty-nine, — it being the 42 largest class ever graduated from this school, and constituting, I think, the largest percentage of the class when it entered. DRAWINa. At the close of the school year, in July, by vote of the drawing committee, an exhibition of the work of pupils was given in each of our grammar schools. It was not an exhibition simply of the best, but of the work of all; and I believe I hazard nothing in s&y- ing that the progress manifest in this new department more than realized the expectations of the most san- guine. I visited several of the rooms in company with an expert from the neighboring city, who spoke of the exhibition in terms of the highest commenda- tion. I commend to your notice the report of our accomplished drawing master, who has had the di- rection of this department from the beginning. Prof. B. F. Tweed, /Superintendent of Schools, City of Charlestown : Dear Sir, — The work in drawing for the year ending July, 3, 1873, was characterized by a very great advance in the proficiency of the classes from the lowest in the primary, to the highest in the grammar schools. An increased enthusiasm was everywhere shown among scholars, with a much greater capacity for work, greater skill in execution, and a higher appreciation of the signifi- cance of form. Especially was the power of execution doubled and even trebled during the year. The first months of the yea,v were devoted to elementary drill on simple curves and forms in the upper classes, and rectangular fig- ures and simple lines, in the lower. This was often discouraging in itself, to the class teachers, but there was no abatement of effort on their part, and the dullest classes were obliged to yield to the 43 constant pressure Order began to appear where chaos was seen before, and skill and thought controlled the wayward hand ; so that during the last month of the school-year, the scholars surprised all with the rapidity of their advancement and the accuracy of their work. The exhibition of drawing during the last week of the school- 3 r ear, was, in truth, a delight to all who were in any way concerned in the work. The experiment, if such it ever was, was solved. Our children could learn to draw as well as they could learn to read ; and the ratio of those who excelled, or fell below mediocrity, was about the same in each. Furthermore, the results show that drawing can be carried on in harmony with, and even as an aid, to the other subjects in our schools. Ma) T we not, therefore, take just pride in having successfully en- grafted this new element upon our old system without any apparent derangement of the general plan? To return to the exhibition. Work was shown from almost every scholar in the grammar schools It was, therefore, a true exhibi- tion of the progress made, and of the general proficiency apparent to all observers. The work was classed under three heads, — Free Hand Outline » Design, Object and Perspective Drawing. The large examples on the blackboards, drawn entirely by the scholars, illustrated, in a degree, the three subjects. Many of our scholars acquired in a remarkably short time the power to execute nicely some very difficult examples in flat orna- ment. In fact, I regard almost anything possible to some of them with ordinary effort. The progress of the year argues a greater progress for the future under the same discipline. Of course we must .employ our develop- ing skill upon a broader field of labor. The work, then, of the coming year takes a higher plane, and im- plies new resources in our teaching. I have no doubt the committee will duly consider our needs, and supply our deficiencies in the way of material. 44 The drawing in the High School was not equally satisfactory with that of the grammar schools. The small amount of time allotted it was wholly insufficient to secure creditable results, as you and the committee will bear witness that I foretold ; and I am glad to be relieved of a resposibility involving duties for which adequate time could not be obtained. The primary schools have made good progress in drawing dur- ing the year, with the exception of some few classes, which I might mention confidentially. The results in these schools have more than met my expectations, as regards the ability of the classes to do this work. We must hold their teachers accountable for very considerable advancement. The Teachers' Class was continued last winter, and they were taken through a course of geometrical problems, and the theory of orthographic projections as applied to perspective. The interest was, in general, good ; and, with the larger part of the class there was a worthy effort to comprehend the subject, and to clo the work. With some few, however, there seemed a disposition to do as little as possible. They were, in general, the same teachers that were anxious to know whether attendance was required by the school committee. In general, however, our teachers are to be commended for their faithful efforts to do their whole duty in regard to this subject ; and very many have labored from a love of the subject, as well as from a sense of duty. We are, in general, fortunate in securing the har- monious co-operation now so generally prevalent. We enter upon the new year with every prospect of rapid im- provement ; and I hope for the development of much greater inter- est everywhere, and an advance in the quality and kind of work* We shall undertake Model drawing in the upper classes, and Design everywhere, to a certain extent. In the latter work we have already made a beginning. With many thanks for your earnest help, I remain, very truly yours, LUCAS BAKER, Teacher of Drawing' Charlestown, 27 Oct. 1873. MUSIC. Though we have had, during the last term, no for- mal exhibition in this department, the singing at the annual exhibitions of the schools formed a very in- teresting part of the exercises, and afforded evidence of great improvement. In all our grammar schools, ana in nearly all our primary schools, the introduc- tion of Mason's charts has been attended with results of the most satisfactory character. In some of our schools, I have heard pupils sing music that they had never seen before, with about as much readiness and certainty as they read the ordi- nary reading lesson. I have thus, gentlemen, given the usual statistics, the condition of our present school accommodations, with our immediate and prospective wants, — the gen- eral condition of our schools in regard to instruction and discipline, and indicated what I regard as an essential requisite to progress. It will be observed that for whatever evils exist, or for whatever hinders progress, the only remedy is hetter instruction. We must have thoroughly prepared teachers before we can decide how much our pupils are capable of doing. When a teacher tells me that he or she has not time to do what another teacher does well, I infer that there is a fault in the teaching. That, I know, is not the inference drawn by the teacher; but I believe it to be fully warranted by the facts, and I notice, also, that it comes from the same class of teachers, who 46 are anxious to know how much they are required to do, to qualify them for the work of the school-room. I will say, however, that, though these are not imag- inary cases, I believe a large part of our teachers are alive to the necessity of ampler professional prepara- tion, and are striving to obtain it by such means as are furnished by lectures on literary and scientific topics, in our educational works, and our teachers' associations. I find, too, among this class a grateful appreciation of the means of .preparation afforded them by the committee. On the whole, I believe that our schools compare favorably with those of other cities and large towns ; that the spirit of progress is as active, and that, in our primary and grammar schools, at least, we are second to none in the interest and success which have accompanied the introduction of industrial art draw- ing into the schools of the Commonwealth. Hoping and believing, gentlemen, that the future of our schools will be better than the past or the pres- ent, this report is respectfully submitted. B. F. TWEED, Superintendent. Nov. 1873. APPENDIX. TRUSTEES OF THE CHAKLESTOWN FREE SCHOOLS AND TRUST FUND. The Act annexing the City of Charlestown to the City of Boston prescribes that the members of the School Committee within the present limits of the City of Charkstown shall be the corporation entitled " Trustees of Charlestown Free Schools." It has been thought desirable to present, in connection with the report for this year, a statement of the establishment of the cor- poration, and whatever facts we may possess regarding the origin of the fund under its control. At a town-meeting held March 4th, 1793, it was " Voted, that a committee of three be appointed to apply to the General Court to have trustees incorporated to superintend the schools and the schools' funds who shall be chosen annually " ; and, at the same meeting, Richard Devens, Nath'l Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Esqs., Joseph Hurd, Nath'l Hawkins, and Seth Wyman were chosen as trustees. At a meeting March 7th, 1793, " The committee appointed to apply to the Court to have trustees for the schools incorporated, reported that they had given in a petition for that purpose, and had constructed a bill, which was then read by paragraphs and accepted with amendments." Tue Legislature, on the 27th of March, 1793, passed an Act to incorporate the Trustees of the Charlestown Free Schools. On 48 the 18th of April of the same year, it was " Voted, that the Town Treasurer deliver to Aaron Putnam, Esq., Treasurer for the Trus- tees of the Charlestown Free Schools, all the money, bonds, notes of hand, etc. (being the property of said free schools), that now are, or may come into his, the Town Treasurer's hands." " By the preamble of the act creating the corporation, the object appears to have been a more convenient administration of certain real and personal property that had been bequeathed to the town for the use of the public schools, and prevent it from being indis- criminately mixed with other property or funds of the town, and so lost to the specific use for which it was given." * The charter of the City of Charlestown, after prescribing the manner of electing the School Committee, provides that the per- sons thus chosen shall have " all the powers and privileges, and be subject to all the liabilities set forth " in the Act to incorporate certain persons by the name of the Trustees of Charlestown Free Schools ; and, as before stated, the act of annexation provides for the continuance of this corporation, in the members of the School Committee of the City of Boston from the Charlestown district. The present funds of the corporation consist of two notes of the Town and City of Charlestown ; one for $600, dated May 1, 1837, the other for $5,000, dated May 22, 1848, at six per cent interest, the income of which is applicable towards the support of the Charlestown schools. These notes were given in con- sideration of the release to the town and city, of deeds of certain school-houses which had been built from the funds of the Trus- tees. The town records, under various dates previous to the Act of Incorporation, make mention of the school fund ; but we regret that we have been unable, in the time at our disposal, fully to trace its origin and history. We present the information we have been able to gather from various sources, hoping that, at no very distant day, a more com- plete statement will be prepared. From Frothingham's History of Charlestown, under date of * Charlestown School Report, February, 1848. 49 January 20th, 1647, we learn that " It was agreed that a rate of fifteen pounds should be gathered of the town towards the school for this year, and the five pounds that Major Sedgwick is to pay this year (for the island) for the school, also the town's part of MisticJc wear for the school forever." Also, under the date of 1660 — " One thousand acres of land were laid out, by order of the G-eneral Court, ' for the use of the school of Charlestown ' ' in the wilderness, on the western side of Merrimack River, at a place comrnpnly called by the Indians, * Sodegonock.' " It is probably in relation |to this " land-grant," that the follow ing report was made in 1742 : — "To the Inhabitants of Charlestown, this 29th of March, 1742, By adjournment from the first of this instant, — We being then appointed a Committe Refering to the Towns School Farm at Sauhegonick — Do Find that the said Farm dos fall within the Line lately run by the Province of New Hampshier, And that it is Necessary for the Town To Impower said Committe (or a New One) To prepare a Draught or a memoriall To the Gov- ernour and Council of New Hampshier, Representing to them Our Claim to the said Farm and to procure all Grants, Deeds, and Ne- cessary Evidences to justify the same, In order to Our being qui- eted in Our Antient Possession of the premises, and that one or more of the said Committe be Desired to present the said Memo- riall and pursue the buisness to effect. THOS. JENNER. JOHN FOYE, JAMES HAY. JOSEPH LEMMON. Committe." We have not ascertained with what "effect" this "buisness" was pursued, or indeed whether or not it was pursued at all. Deputy Governor Francis Willoughby, who died April 4, 1671, bequeathed three hundred acres of land for the school.*' * Frothmghain's History, page 143. 50 Capt. Richard Sprague, by his will dated October 5, 1703, left, among other bequests to the town, " the sum of £50, money to be put to interest by the Selectmen and Treasurer for the annual benefit and use of the Free Schooll in Charlestowne, the interest only to be spent yearly — the principal not to be improved any other wayes but by letting for lawful interest to be improved as aforesaid." In 1727, " A record was made of the income of the town. This was classed as ' The towns, the free school, and the poor.' " The school's income was, rent of Lovell's Island, £17 ; School lot £5. School marsh £1. 0. ; mone} r at interest (£357. 10) £21. 9, and Souhegan farm and two lots, the rent of which is not given. In 1740, the free school's income was £714. In 1745, Mr. Isaac Royal gave £80. to the school at the Neck. At a town-meeting in May, 1792, a committee consisting of James Russell, Nath. Grorham, Richard Devens, Aaron Putnam, and Isaac Mallet, reported that the common belonged to the school, and recommended " vesting the funds belonging to the school in a dwelling-house, and other buildings suitable for a tavern," whereby " the funds would be placed upon a permanent and advantageous foundation." At a town-meeting, held December, 1792, the following report was presented, giving a very full statement of the funds, etc., con- sidered as belonging to the schools at that time. " The committee appointed to take into consideration the funds belonging to the school, and report thereon, have endeavored thor- oughly to investigate the business, and beg leave to make the fol- lowing report, viz : — 41 That there is a farm lying in Stoneham improved by Mr. Silas Symonds, prized at ... £450 which they propose to have sold, and the proceeds thereof vested in the public funds. "Also certain bonds due from Richard Miller, Jonathan Chapman, and Richard Chapman, principal and interest to Sept. 4, 1792 70.0.1 " Capt. Nathan Adams, William Grubb, and Richard Trumbull, principal and interest to July 10, 1792 24. 0.2 51 " Capt. Benj. Frothingham, principal and interest to Feb. 8, 1792 . 20.0.6 £564. 0.9 which they propose to have collected, and the proceeds thereof placed as above. " Also they find that the town have sold a lot of land to Timothy Wright, which they have appropriated to their use as a town separate from the interest of the school, which amounts, with interest, to . £119. 0.8 *' Likewise the town received of Samuel Swan, Esq., for a lot of land belonging to James Kenney, which land was- secured for money that said Ken- ney borrowed of the school funds, — principal and interest is ...... 49.12.0 " The farm that appraised at Stoneham to pay for what the town had received of the school funds was deficient ....... 38.18.8 £771.12. L " The interest on the above sums, due from the town they propose, should be paid from the rent of a farm at Stoneham improved by Mr. Wiley. " Also a certain pasture lying in Medford, improved by Mr. Symes, supposed to be worth . . . 90. 00 £861.12.1 which they propose to have sold, and the proceeds placed in the public funds. " The Common, lying in Charlestown near the neck of land, they conceive to belong also to the School ; this they propose to have rented to the best advantage, — the rent to be paid quarterly. " Also certain bonds and notes clue from Nicholas Hopping, — principal and interest . . . £51.16.5 " Benjamin Sweetser, — principal and interest . . 26. 0.0 £77.16.5 52 " From the above bonds, nothing is expected. " From the foregoing statement, your committee are of opinion, the income of the funds which may be collected, will amount to near £70 per annum, which your committee would propose to have paid into the hands of certain persons appointed by the town, and applied solely for the support of the school. " Your committee beg leave also to observe that, provided the town should accept the foregoing leport, that in their opinion it would be expedient to appoint a committee to carry the same into effect. "■•James Russell. "RlCHARD DEVENS. "Aaron Putnam. " Charlestown, Nov. 2, 1792." The following, from the town records, shows the action taken in relation to the above report : — " Voted, To accept the foregoing report, and that the same com- mittee be appointed and empowered to put the said report into execution, and also to consider and report whether any other land belonging to the town can be sold to advantage." In March, 1793, it was " voted to sell the common, and that the proceeds be vested in the funds to be applied to the use of the school." In December, 1832, the trustees received from the executors of Thomas Miller, one hundred dollars devised to the trustees, with the proviso that the income thereof be appropriated to the support of the public schools in the town of Charlestown. In 1836, the sum of fifty dollars was received from the executors of the will of Miss Catherine Bradish " to be expended in the pur- chase of Latin and Greek Testaments, and distributed by said trustees in the schools," and fifty dollars to be expended in Bibles. At a town-meeting March 27, 1837, the following vote was passed : — " Voted, That the portion of the surplus revenue which shall or may be received by this town from the Commonwealth shall be invested by the Town Treasurer, in the town's notes or securities ; and that gthe interest of the ^same shall be annually appropriated 53 to the support of Public Schools, and that the appropriations of the interest of the surplus fund as above provided, shall not be considered as, in any degree, superseding the annual appropria- tion usually made for the support of the Public Schools at the May .meeting." From the above imperfect sketch of the history of the School Fund, it would appear that, had not some of it been diverted from its proper use, the present School Fund would be much larger than it is. The deficiency is explained, in part, by the fact that the trustees, in addition to managing the income from their invested funds, had, also, for a long time, the disposal of the annual town appropriations for school purposes ; and a confusion thus arose in regard to the disbursements, so that the permanent fund was at times encroached upon in the building and furnishing of school- houses, etc., when such expenditures should have been made ex- clusively from the appropriations by the town. TRUSTEES FROM 1793 TO 1874. 1793. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Nathaniel Hawkins, Seth Wyraan. 1794. Richard Devens, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Nathaniel Hawkins, Seth Wyman, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett. 1795. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Seth WyinaD, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Timothy Tufts. 1796. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Seth Wyman, Timothy Tufts. 1797. Richard Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts ("Mr. Nathaniel Gorham chosen in the place of the late Honorable Nath. Gorham, Esq., deceased "). 1798. Richards Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts, Nathaniel Gorham. 1799. Richard Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts, Nathaniel Gorham. 1800. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Rev. Jedediah Morse, Benjamin Hurd, Jr., Timothy Walker, Timothy Thompson. 1801. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Jedediah Morse, Benjamin Hurd, Jr., Timothy Walker, Timothy Thomp- son. 1802. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris, Samuel Payson, Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin. 1803. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris, Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Nehemiah Wyman. 1804. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris, Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Nehemiah Wyman. 55 1805. Seth Wyman, Thomas Harris, Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, John Stone, Peter Tufts, Jr., Joseph Phipps. 1806. Matthew Bridge, Seth Wyman, Peter Tufts, Jr., James Green, Elijah Mead, John Tufts, Samuel Thompson. 1807. James Green, Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent. 1808. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, Timothy Thompson. 1809. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, Timothy Thompson. 1810. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, David Devens. 1811. Rev. William Collier, Jonas Tyler, William Austin, Joseph Phipps, Samuel Kent, Philemon R. Russell, Ebenezer Cutter. 1812. William Collier, Abram R. Thompson, Nathaniel Wyman, David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George Bartlett. 1813. William Collier, Abram R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George Bartlett. 1814. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George Bartlett. 1815. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George Bartlett. 1816. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, David Stetson, Daniel Reecl, George Bartlett, Isaac Tufts. 1817. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, David Stetson, Isaac Tufts, Peter Tufts, Jr., Elias Phin- ney. 1818. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phin- . ney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley. 1819. Rev. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phinney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley. 56 1820. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts,Elias Phinney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley. 1821. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phinney, James K. Frothingham, John Soley, Philemon P. Rus- sell. 1822. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Elias Phinney, Rev. James Walker, Joseph Phipps, Samuel P. Teel, Nathan Tufts, 2d. 1823. Edward Turner, James "Walker, Joseph Phipps, Nathan Tufts, 2d, James Russell, Samuel Gardner, Leonard M. Parker. 1824. James Walker, Joseph Phipps, James Russell, Samuel Gardner, Leonard M. Parker, Chester Adams, Thomas Hooper. 1825. James Russell, Leonard M. Parker, Chester Adams, Rev. Henry Jackson, Lot Pool, Edward Cutter, Rev. Walter Balfour. 1826. Chester Adams, Hall J. Kelley, Nathaniel H. Henchman, James Walker, Benjamin Whipple, William S. Phipps, Henr} 7 Jackson. 1827. James Walker, Chester Adams, Lot Pool, Benjamin Whip- ple, Hall J. Kelley, Josiah S. Hurd, Henry Jaques. 1828. Benjamin Whipple, James Walker, Chester Adams, Henry Jackson, Luke Wyman, J. S. Hurd, Robert G. Tenney. 1829. Benjamin Whipple, James Walker, Chester Adams, Henry Jackson, Luke W3 T man, J. S. Hurd, Robert G. Tenney. 1830. James Walker, Rev. Linus S. Everett, Chester Adams, Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, Guy C. Hawkins, John Rnney. 1831. L. S. Everett, Chester Adams, Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, Guy C. Hawkins, John Runey, James K. Frothingham. 1832. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G. C. Hawkins, John Runey, Jas. K. Frothingham, Henry Jaques, Joseph F Tufts. 1833. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G. C. Hawkins, Jas. K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, Charles Thompson, Chester Adams. 57 1834. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G-. C. Hawkins, Jas. K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, Charles Thompson, Chester Adams. 1835. Charles Thompson, Paul Willard, Amos Hazeltine, Joseph Tufts, Larkin Turner, John Stevens, Alfred Allen. 1836. J. W. Valentine, Charles Forster, Charles Thompson, Alfred Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James Underwood. 1837. J. W.Valentine, Charles Forster, Charles Thompson, Alfred Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James Underwood. 1838. J. W. Valentine, Charles Forster, Alfred Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James Underwood, Eliab P. Mackintire. 1839. Charles Forster, James Underwood, Alfred Allen, Richard Frothingham, Jr., Thomas Brown, Jr., George W. War- ren, John Sanborn. 1840. Richard Frothingham, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, Charles Forster, John Sanborn, Francis Bowman, Frederick Robinson, E. P. Mackintire. 1841. E. P. Mackintire, J. C. Magoun, Philander Ames, Francis Bowman, Charles Forster, Alfred Allen, M. F. Haley, Frederick Robinson, Richard Frothingham, Jr., Geo. W. Tyler, John Sanborn. 1842. Richard Frothingham, Jr., E. P. Mackintire, Charles Fors- ter, Philander Ames, William Sawyer, Aaron Clark, 2d, Dexter Bowman, Thomas J. Eliott, S. M. Felton, Fred- erick Robinson, John Sanborn. 1843. Richard Frothingham, Jr., E. P. Mackintire, Frederick Rob- inson, S. M. Felton, Charles Forster, Benjamin Badger, Timothy T. Sawyer, Thomas Greenleaf, John Sanborn, William Arnold, Henry K. Frothingham. 1844. E. P. Mackintire, S. M. Felton, Benjamin Badger, T. T. Sawyer, Thomas Greenleaf, Henry K. Frothingham, John Sanborn, Jonathan Brown, Jr., Andrew J. Locke, Henry Lyon, Daniel White. 1845. H. K. Frothingham, Jonathan Brown, Jr., James Adams, 58 Henry Lyon, Daniel White, T. T. Sawyer, A, J. Locke, James G. Fuller, James G. Foster, Joseph F. Tufts, J. W. Bemis. 1846. H. K. Frothingham, Jonathan Brown, Jr., James Adams, Henry Lyon, James G. Fuller, James G. Foster, Joseph F. Tufts, J. W. Bemis, Nathaniel Lamson, N. Y. Cul- bertson, George Farrar. .1847. Henry K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, N. Y. Culbertson, John Sanborn, James Miskelly, Edward Thorndike, George A. Parker, Seth J. Thomas, George Farrar, J. W. Bemis, Thomas Greenleaf. 1848. James Adams, George A. Parker, Lemuel Gulliver, Henry K. Frothingham, Seth J. Thomas, George P. Sanger, Joseph F. Tufts, Edward Thorndike, Charles W. Moore, James Miskelly, N. Y. Culbertson. 1849. James Adams, Henry K. Frothingham, Lemuel Gulliver, Charles W. Moore, George P. Sanger, Joseph F. Tufts, William Tufts, Edward Thorndike, N. Y. Culbertson, James Miskelly. 1850. Henry K. Frothingham, George P. Sanger, Henry Lyon, William Tufts, George Cutler, James G. Fuller, Andrew K. Hunt, C. Soule Cartee, Charles W. Moore, Isaac W. Blanchard, William Sawyer. 1851. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-officio, President; Elrab P. Mackintire, Seth J. Thomas, James Adams, William Tufts, James G. Fuller, William Sawyer, Edward Thrrn- dike, John Sanborn, Charles W. Moore, Andrew K. Hunt, Charles D. Lincoln, Charles B. Rogers. 1852. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-ojjicio, President; James Adams, Nathan Merrill, William Tufts, Oliver C. Ever- ett, James G. Fuller, John Sanborn, Edward Thorndike, William Williams, Andrew K. Hunt, Lemuel Gulliver, George Bradford, Charles D. Lincoln. 1853. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-officio. President; Nathan Merrill, Oliver C. Everett, James Fogg, James G. Fuller, Edward Thorndike, Warren Rand, Isaac W. Blanchard, Abraham B. Shedd, Solomon Hovey, James Adams, William Williams, John Sanborn. 59 1854. James Adams, ex-officio, President; James Fogg, William Flint, Oliver C. Everett, William I. Budington, Hiram Hutchins, George Bartlett, George Cutler, Isaac W. Blauchard, Hiram P. Kemick, Freeman C. Sewall, Reuben Curtis, Nathan A. Tufts. 1855. Timothy T.Sawyer, ex-officio^ President; James Adams, George E. Ellis, Oliver C. Everett, James G. Fuller, John Sanborn, Calvin C. Sampson, Abraham B. Shedd, • Isaac W. Blanchard, William Flint, Nathan A. Tufts, Henry K. Frothingbara. 1856. Timothy T. Sawyer, ex-officio, President ; William B. Mor- ris, Anthony S. Morss, Oliver C. Everett, James G. Fuller, John Sanborn, George B. Neal, David Foster, George P. Kettell, Isaac W. Blanchard, Edwin F. Adams, George E. Ellis, Franklin A. Hall. 1857. Timothy T. Sawyer, ex-officio, President ; George E. Ellis, William W. Wheildon, Abram E. Gutter, J. W. Bemis, / John Sanborn, George B. Neal, G. Washington Warren, Andrew J. Locke, David Foster, Luke K. Bowers, Wil- liam N. Lane, Franklin E. Bradshaw. 1858. Timothy T. Sawyer, President ; George E. Ellis, William W. Wheildon, Abram E. Cutter, Edwin F. Adams, Henry 2- B. Metcalf, James G. Foster, George B. Neal, John Sanborn, G. Washington Warren, Calvin C. Sampson, James B. Miles, Charles D. Lincoln, Henry K. Froth- ingham, William Fosdick, William N. Lane, Samuel T. Tapley, Franklin E. Bradshaw. 1859. James Adams, Edwin F. Adams, G. W. Warren, John K. Fuller, Calvin C. Sampson, Gustavus V. Hall, Henry C. Graves, Samuel T. Tapley, Solomon G. Phipps, T. T. Sawyer, George E. Ellis, W. W. Wheildon, G. B. Neal, John Sanborn, A. E. Cutter , Henry K. Frothingham, J. *> B. Miles, J. G."FosterT~ 1860. Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, George B. Neal, T. T. Sawyer, Edwin F. Adams, Calvin C. Sampson, James Adams, A. R Cutter, Wm. F. Conant, W. W. Wheildon, ¥- G. Washington Warren, Gustavus V. Hall, Samuel H. 60 Pook, John Sanborn , Henry K. Frothingham, Charles F. Smith, Horace B. Wilbur, Godfrey B. Albee. 1861. T. T. Sawyer, Henry Lyon, James B. Miles, B. F. Brown, George Johnson, Herbert Curtis, Henry C. Graves, Wm. II. Finney, James Adams, George B. Neal, Charles F. Smith, G. V. Hall, W. W. Wheildon, John Sanborn, A. r K Cutter, N. A. Tufts, James Lee, Jr., M. F. Warren. 1862. Nathan A. Tufts, James Adams, James Lee, Jr., Andrew J. Locke, Thomas Doane, J. Q. A. Griffin, Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, T. T. Sawyer, John Sanborn, B. F. £ Brown, A^ E^Cutter, Geo. B. Neal, H. Curtis, Charles F. Smith7 Wm. H. Finney, James B. Miles, W. W. Wheildon. 1863. A. E. Cutter, Nathan A. Tufts, Geo. B. Neal, Geo. H. ? Yeaton, Charles F. Smith, Wm. B. Long, Geo. H. .Har- den, Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, T. T. Sawyer, James Adams, A. J. Locke, B. F. Brown, Thomas Doane, Wm. H. FiDQCy, James Lee, Jr., James B. Miles. 1864. A^ K Cutter, N. A. Tufts, Jas. B. Miles, James Adams, ]> Geo. BjNeal, William Peirce, Augustus H. Heath,JA. J. Locke, Geo. H. Yeaton, Benj. F. Brown, James Lee, Jr., Arthur W. Tufts, Wm. H. Finney, Edwin B. Haskell, Charles. F. Smith, William B. Long, William Fosdick, George H. Harden. 1865. James Adams, Geo. E. Mackintire, Abrarn . E. Cutter, Wil- f liam Peirce, Arthur W. Tufts, James B. Miles, George W. Gardner, Samuel H. Hurd, Geo. B. Neal, George H. Yeaton, Augustus H. Heath, Benjamin F. Brown, George H. Harden, Jerome B. Horse, John A. Day, Edwin B. Haskell, Charles F. Smith, William B. Long. 1866. Abram E_. Cutter , Oscar F. Safford, J. E. Rankin, William /^ Pv. Bradford, Charles N. Smith, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stacy Baxter, William H. Finney, Charles H. Bigelow, William Peirce, George W. Gardner, George H. Harden, Ben- jamin F. Brown, Samuel H. Hurd, John A. Day, E. B. Haskell,. Charles F. Smith, James F. Hunnewell. 1867. J. E. Rankin, Abram^ Cutter, Oscar F. Safford, Wm. R. 61 Bradford, Moses H. Sargent, David M. Balfour, Sam- uel H. Hurd, George H. Marden, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stacy Baxter, Andrew J. Locke, John Sanborn, George W. Gardner, ¥m. H. Finney, Charles II. Bigelow. Ed- win B. Haskell, John A. Day, Charles F. Smith. 186.8. Liverus Hull, Mayor, ex-officio, Jas. Swords, Pres. of Com. /X Council, ex-officio; Abr/tm K Cutter, Oscar F. Safford, Wm. R. Bradford, George A, Hamilton, James F. Hunne- well, James F. Southworth, John Sanborn, Audrew J. Locke, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stac} r Baxter, Matthew H. Mer- riam, Wm. H. Finne} 7 , Charles H. Bigelow, Edwin B. Haskell, George W. Gardner, Chavles F. Smith, George H. Marden, Nahum Chapin. 1869. Eugene L. Norton, Mayor, ex-officio, Andrew J. Bailey, Pres. of the Com. Council, ex-officio; Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, A. J. Locke, Wm. Peirce, Charles E. Daniels, James F. Hunnewell, Geo. A. Hamilton, Wm. B. Bradford, -Nahum Chapin. J. W. Randy John Sanborn, Willim Raymond, M. H. Merriam, Charles F. Smith, /^- A.'.E. Cutter , Geo. H. Marden, John Turner, Washing- ton Litbgow. 1870. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex-officio, Jas. Adams, Pres. of the /#- Com. Council, ex-officio; Wm. Peirce, A^_ E^ Cutter, James F. Hunnewell, Geo. A. Hamilton, Wm. R. Brad- ford, Willard Rice, John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P. Crown,, Wm. Raymond, Washington Lithgow, S. S. Blanchard, Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, Charles F. Smith, John Turner, Charles E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey. 1871. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex officio, John B. Norton, Pres. of /AT Common Council, ex-officio; Wm. Peirce, A^ E^ Cutter, John G. Dearborn, Wm. R. Bradford, Charles E. Sweney, Henry R. Sibley, John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P. Crown, S. S. Blanchard, Charles F. Smith, Liverus Hull, Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, John Turner, Charles E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Marden. 1872. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex-officio; Joseph W. Hill, Pres. Com. /& Council, ex-officio; A^ E. Cutter^ Charles E. Sweney, '62 Wm. R. Bradford, James A. McDonald, James S. Mur phy, James F. Southworth, John Sanborn, Nahum Cha pin, L. P. Crown, S. S. Blanchard, Charles F. Smith Wm. H. Finney, Geo. W. Gardner, John Turner, Charle E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Harden, A. O. Lind sey. 1873. Jonathan Stone, Mayor, ex-officio, Ethan N. Coburn, Prea Com. Council, ex-officio; A^ E. Cutter,* Charles E Sweney, James A. McDonald, James S. Murphy, Jame F. Southworth, John G. Dearborn, Charles F. Smitt L. P. Crown,* Wm. H. Finney, Nahum Chapin, Joh Sanborn, S. S. Blanched, Geo. W. Gardner,* Geo. H Marden, John Turner,* A. O. Lindsey, Charles H Daniels, Edmund L. Conway.f — Elected to Jill vacancie — R. H. Parker, J. P. Loring, J. H. Cotton, Geo. g Poole. * Resigned. f Deceased.