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Full text of "Annual report of the School Committee of the City of Charlestown"

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ANNUAL REPORT 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE 



CITY OF CHARLESTOWN, 



WITH THE 



REPORTS OF THE SUPERINTENDENT, 



For the Year 1873. 




CHARLESTOWN : 

PRINTED BY CALEB RAND. 

1874. 



CITY OF CHAKLESTOWK 



In Board of School Committee, September 18, 1873. 

At a meeting of the Board held this evening, Messrs. Dear- 
born, Finney, and Daniels were appointed a Committee to piepaie 
the Annual Report. 

Attest: F. A. DOWNING, 

/Secretary. 



In School Committee, December 31, 1873. 

Ordered : That the Annual Report of the School Commiiiee 
and Superintendent be accepted, and that one thousand copies be 
printed for distribution. 

Attest; F. A. DOWNING, 

£ ecrelary. 



SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 
1873. 



JONATHAN L STONE, 
Mayor, ex officio. 

ETHAN N. COBURN, 
President of the Common Council, ex officio. 



WARD 1. 



Charles E. Sweney, 
J. G. Dearborn, 
James A. McDonald, 



James 8. Mlrphy, 
James F. Southworth 
Retire H. Parker. 



WARD 2. 



Charles F. 8mith, 
John Sanborn, 
S. S. Blanchard, 



William H. Finney, 
Nahum Chapin, 
Joseph H. Cotton. 



WARD 3. 



Charles E. Daniels, 
George H. Marden, 



A. O. Lindsey, 
John P. Loring, 



George S. Poole. 



ORGANIZATION 

OF THE 

SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 



JONATHAN STONE, Chairman. 

F. A. DOWNING, Secretary. 

WM H. FINNEY, Treasurer. 

JAMES MLSKELLY, Messenger. 

BENJAMIN F. TWEED, Superintendent of ScJiools. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

ON FINANCE. 

A. O. Lindset, Chas. F. Smith, John Sanborn. 

on BOOKS. 

Chas. F. Smith, Chas. E. Daniels, R. H. Parker. 

on MDSTC. 
S. S. Blanchard, George S. Poole, W. H. Finney, Chas. E. 
Sweney. 

on drawing. 
Geo. H. Harden, R. H. Parker, A. 0. Lindsey, J. G. 
Dearborn. 

ON EXAMINATION of teachers. 
Wm. H Finney, Chas. F. Smith, J. G. Dearborn, S. S. Blan- 
chard, Geo. H. Harden. 

ON PRINTING. 

Nahum Chapin, Chas. F. Smith, Jas. F. Southworth. 

ON FUEL. 

John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin. 

on evening schools. 
Citas. E. Daniels, R. H. Parker, Chas F. Smith, Nahum Cha- 
pin, S. S. Blanchard. 



OKGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOLS. 



HIGH SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Dearborn, Mardert, Murphy, Parker, 
Finney, Loring. 

Teachers. — Caleb Emery, Principal ; Alfred P. Gage, 
Master of the English Department ; L. B. Pillsbury, Sub- 
Master; Katharine Whitney, EmmaG. Shaw, A. E. Somes, 
Susan A. Getchell, Anna M. Wilde, Assistant Teachers. 

BUNKER HILL GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Daniels, Marden, Liudsey. 

Teachers. — Chas. G. Pope, Principal ; Henry F. Sears, 
Sub-Master; Mary A. Eaton, Head Assistant; Abbie P. 
Josselyn, Ellen B. Wentworth, Caroliue W. Graves, Geor- 
gia Smith, Angelia M. Knowles, Mary S. Thomas, Lydia S. 
Jones, Ida O. Hurd, Caroline C. Thompson, Anna M. Pres- 
cott, Assistant Teachers. 

WARREN GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Finney, Parker, Sweney, Poole. 

Teachers. — Geo. Swan, Principal ; E. B. Ga}>-, Sub-Mas- 
ter ; Sarah M. Chandler, Head Assistant; Anna D. Dalton, 
Anna S. Osgood, Margaret W. Veazie, Elizabeth Swords, 
Frances L. Dodge, Abbie E. Holt, Ellen A. Pratt, Abbie C. 
Lewis, Louisa Swan, Maria L. Bolan, Alice Hall, Assistant 
Teachers. 

HARVARD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Southworth, Dearborn, McDonald, 
Murphy. 



Teachers. — Warren E. Eaton, Principal ; Darius Hadley, 
Sub-Master ; Abbie B. Tufts, Head Assistant ; Ann L. Wes- 
ton, Sarah E. Leonard, Sarah A. Benton, Mary P. Rowland, 
Lucy A. Kimball, Fannie B. Hall, Emma F. Thomas, Lois 
A. Rankin, Mary A. Emery, Elizabeth B. Wetherbee, As- 
sistant Teachers. 

WINTHROP GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Chapiu, Sanborn, Blanchard. 

Teachers. — Caleb Murdock, Principal; William B. At- 
wood, Sub-Master; Harriet E. Frye, Bial W. Willard, Ara- 
bella P. Moulton, Georgianna Warren, Sarah H. Nowell, 
Abbie M. Clark, Ellen R. Stone, Jennie E. Tobey, Ellen 
A. Chapin, Lucy A. Seaver, Assistant Teachers. 

PRESCOTT GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Committee. — Messrs. Smith, Loring, Cotton. 

Teachers. — Geo. T. Littlefield, Principal; Samuel J. 
Bullock, Sub-Master; Mary G. Prichard, Head Assistant; 
Martha M. Kenrick, Mary C. Sawyer, Elizabeth J. Farns- 
worth, Julia C. Power, Ellen C. Dickinson, Lydia A. Sears, 
Frances A. Craigen, Jennie F. Sawyer, Assistant Teachers. 

INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. 

No. 1. Sub- Committee. — S. S. Blanchard. 
No. 2. " Geo. S.Poole. 

No. 3. " John Sanborn. 

Teachers. — Lucy M. Small, Anna :R. Stearns, C. M. 

Sisson. 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

DISTRICT NO. 1. 

Committee. — Messrs. Marden; Daniels. 

Teachers. — H'^leii G. Turner, Effie G. Hazen, Elizabeth 



B. Norton, Sarah A. Smith, Mary E. Flanders, S. Josephine 
Worcester, Ada E. Bowler, Sarah A. Atwood, Carrie M. 
Arnold. 

district no. 2. 

Committee — Messrs. Poole, Lindsey, Loring. 
Teachers. — M. Josephine Smith, Melissa J. A. Conley, 
Elizabeth W. Yeatou, Abbie P. Kichardson. 

district no. 3. 

Committee. — Messrs. Sweney, Smith, Dearborn. 
Teachers. — Frances M. Lane, Emma Hanson, Mary E. 
Smith, Ellen Hadley, Carrie E. Osgood, Abbie Varney. 

district no. 4. 

Committee. — Messrs. Sanborn, Chapin, Cotton. 

Teachers. — Martha Yeaton, Mary P. Swain, Persis M. 
Whittemore, Frances B. Butts, Louisa W. Huntress, Mari- 
etta F. Allen, O. H. Morgan. 

DISTRICT NO. 5. 

Committee. — Messrs. Blanchard, Finney, Murphy. 

Teachers. — Elizabeth A. Prichard, Catharine C. Brower, 
Mary P. Kittredge, Effie A. Kettell, Elizabeth R. Brower, 
Alice S. Hatch. 

DISTRICT NO. 6. 

Committee. — Messrs. Parker, Southworth, McDonald. 

Teachers. — Frances A. Foster, H. W. Heath, Elizabeth 
F. Doane, C. M. W. Tilden, Louisa A. Whitman, Caroline 
A. Rea, Lucy M. Soulee. 



REPORT. 



The appropriations for the fiscal year, beginning 
March 1, 1873, and the expenses under such appro- 
priations for ten months, to January 1, 1874, are 
shown by the following table: — 



Salaries of teachers, 


superintendent, 


Appropriations 


Expenses. 


secretary, and messenger . 


$100,025 


$82,706 50 


Incidental expenses 


. 


13,000 


10,548 07 


Evening schools 


. • 


800 


263 42 


Drawing school 


. 


800 


S79 81 


Total 


$114,625 


$93,897 80 



The salaries of teachers are, — 

Principal of the High School . 

Master of English Department of the High School 

Sub-Master of the High School 

Head Assistant " " 

Second " " " 

Assistants " " 

Principals of Grammar Schools 

Sub-Masters " " 

Head Assistants " " 

Teachers of Third Classes of Grammar Schools 
- Assistants after first year " " 

Assistants first year " " 

Teachers of Intermediate Schools 

" Primary Schools after first year 

" " " first year . 

Music Teacher ...... 

Drawing Master . 



$3,000 

2,200 

2,000 

1,000 

800 

700 

2,100 

1,800 

775 

650 

625 

575 

700 

625 

575 

1,000 

2,000 



10 



There have been some changes in the membership 
of the Board, more, indeed, than have ordinarily oc- 
curred in a single year. Four gentlemen have re- 
signed, one of whom, Mr. Lyman P. Crown, has siuce 
died. 

Dr. Edmund L. Conway, having been ill at the time 
of his election, died without having taken his seat as 
a member. Five vacancies have thus occurred, one 
of which still remains unfilled. 

The Board has held its regular meetings through- 
out the year, at which the subject of education in 
general, and various details connected with the prog- 
ress, management, and requirements of the schools 
have received due consideration. Aside from this, 
the various standing and sub-committees have given 
much time and thought to such special matters as 
have come before them. 

The full and comprehensive report of the superin- 
tendent leaves but few points to which this commit- 
tee need call attention. To some portion of this re- 
port we shall presently make more special reference, 
although no very marked changes have been made in 
the schools during the past year. There have been 
some improvements in respect to more intelligent 
teaching; and, generally speaking, the schools are in 
good condition. 

In the primary schools, improved methods of in- 
struction have been gradually introduced by the super- 
intendent, and with excellent results. We regard 
these schools as worthy of the most liberal support 
and the most careful supervision. 



11 

The idea has been quite prevalent among the com- 
munity at large that almost any person, possessing a 
fair degree of patience, and some notion of discipline, 
would do very well to teach in a primary school. 

Even the transfer of a successful primary school 
teacher to a grammar school has been sometimes 
urged, on the ground of promotion. But the very 
highest qualities of mind and character are requisite 
for successful teaching in those schools, and it is 
gratifying to know that this matter is beginning to 
be viewed in its true light. 

It is certainly of the utmost importance that chil- 
dren should be well and correctly taught from the 
outset. For, if their first steps in the path of knowl- 
edge be guided aright, and the way made so pleasant 
that they shall wish to learn more; if, at the same time, 
they be taught to despise everything low and mean, 
and to choose that which is honorable and good, then 
has a great work been accomplished, the results of 
which will be as lasting as life. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

Of the condition of these schools, the Superinten- 
dent's report gives a full account, to which we have 
nothing to add, except to say that we find them to be 
in good condition, and believe that they will compare 
favorably with such schools throughout the Common- 
wealth. 

We desire to call special attention to that part of 
the Superintendent's report which relates to the pres- 
ent and prospective wants of the primary schools. It 



12 

thus appears (and we are able to corroborate these 
statements from personal observation) that with the 
exception of districts five and six, these schools are 
full, — in some cases to overflowing. 

It should be remembered that every pupil added to 
a school beyond the number which the room can con- 
veniently accommodate, not only fails to receive due 
benefit as a pupil, but also impairs, to some extent, the 
efficiency of the whole school. It is also highly de- 
sirable that better accommodations should be fur- 
nished the scholars attending schools on and near 
Medford Street. These school-houses are both small 
and inconvenient; and one, at least, on account of 
its location and surroundings, is totally unfitted for 
the purpose for which it is used. 

We earnestly recommend that the earliest possi- 
ble action be taken to supply those wants, as well as 
those of the "Winthrop Grammar School. 

To say nothing of the inconvenience of the upper 
rooms of this school-house, the lower rooms are seri- 
ously objectionable on account of dampness. 

Disease often originates among people who live in 
rooms similarly situated; and certainly such rooms 
ought never to be used for schools. As the urgent 
need of better accommodations in this case has been 
repeatedly referred to in former reports, and as it has 
come under the notice of former city governments, 
and its claims to attention and favorable action have 
generally been admitted, it is, perhaps, unnecessary 
to say more upon the subject at this time. 



13 



HIGH SCHOOL. 



During the past three years there have been many 
changes in the corps of teachers of this school. Of 
those connected with the school three years ago, only 
the principal, master of the English Department, and 
first assistant now remain. Two have been removed 
by death; the others have for various reasons 
resigned. Undoubtedly the interests of this school 
have suffered to some extent from these changes. 
Whenever a teacher succeeds to the position of 
another, although both may be fully qualified for 
their work, there will always be some loss to the 
classes under instruction, since more or less time 
will be required to get the work fully in hand, and to 
carry it on as smoothly and profitably as before. 

The present corps of teachers seem to appreciate 
the importance of the work intrusted to their care, 
and are carrying it on with good results. 

Mr. Henry W. Brown, appointed sub-master in 
November, 1872, having decided to pursue a course 
of study in Europe, retired from his position at the 
close of the term in July. Mr. Brown is a gentleman 
of much culture and refinement, who possesses many 
excellent qualifications as a teacher. Mr. L. B. 
Pillsbury, late master of a grammar school in 
Somerville, has been appointed to the position of sub- 
master, and Miss A. E. Somes has been appointed to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Miss 
Mary L. Coombs. Miss Coombs had been connected 
with the school for several years, and had always 



14 

earnestly and faithfully performed her duties as a 
teacher. 

After much care and consideration, a course of 
study has been adopted which went into effect on the 
first of September. In adopting this revised course 
of study, the effort has been to meet, as far as possi- 
ble, the varied wants of all pupils who may wish to 
attend this school. Certain studies have been made 
elective, such as Geology, Astronomy, Botany, 
etc., while more time will be given to Book-keeping 
and Higher Arithmetic. 

Early in the year a petition was received, signed 
by a majority of the parents having pupils in the 
High School, asking that the sessions of this school 
might be so changed as to omit the regular session 
on Saturday. 

This petition was referred to the Committee on the 
High School, and the report thereupon was as fol- 
lows: — 

In School Committee, } 
March 27, 1873. ) 

The Committee on the High School, to whom was referred the 
petition of many parents, that the school hours in the High School 
be so changed as to have regular sessions from nine till two on five 
successive days, and no session on Saturday, beg leave to report that 
they have considered the matter in its various bearings, and, after 
conferring with the principal of the school, have arrived at the 
unanimous conclusion that the petition ought to be granted. They 
therefore recommend the passage of the following orders : — 

'jraered. — That section 3 of chapter V. of the General Regula- 
tions of the Public Schools, be so amended as to read — 

"There shall be one daily session of this school, commencing at 
9 o'clock, and ending at 2 o'clock, for five days in the week ; 



15 



namely, Monday, Tuesdajr, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, an 1 
no session on Saturday. There shall be a recess, midway in eaeli 
daily session, of twenty minutes." 

Ordered. — That section 27, of chapter 1, of the General Eegu- 
ations be amended by adding after the words " eveiy "Wednesday 
and Saturday afternoon throughout the year," the words " Except 
in the High School, as provided in section 3, chapter V." 

The committee have arrived at these conclusions from the follow- 
ing considerations : — 

(1). — The character and number of the petitioners ; — thej 7 being 
parents of the scholars, and a very large majority of all the parents. 

(2). — Belief to the scholars themselves; — they being now 1 ept 
in school every day in the week, nearly the full time of the regular 
sessions, thus allowing very little respite from severe study. 

<3). — Practicability. It is thought by the principal and by the 
sub-committee of the school that the work of the school can be done 
equally well in five days as in six. 

(4). — The experience of those who have tried both plans. The 
whole of Saturday is given as a holiday in most of our academies, 
and in very many of our High Schools, and this plan gives gre it 
satisfaction to all. 

The foregoing report was accepted, and the orders 
therein recommended were passed. 

Last year the Board made an appropriation for the 
purpose of fitting up a laboratory for practical in- 
struction in chemistry. The committee are happy to 
report that this project has been carried into effect 
with complete success. Since they have received 
instruction in the laboratory, the pupils have taken an 
increased interest in this branch of study, and at the 
examinations have been found to possess a practical 
and accurate knowledge of this science which eou.'d 
have been obtained in no other way. 



16 



The following report of the committee on Evening 
Schools was presented to the Board in April: — 

To the Board of School Committee : — 

The evening school for boys was held in the basement of the 
Prescott School house, during the months of December, January, 
February, and March, 1872-3 ; that for girls in the basement of 
the Winthrop school-house, during the same time. 

The school for boys was under the charge of Messrs. Henry F. 
Sears and E. B. Gray, and that for girls, of Miss B. W". Willard 
and Mrs C. M. Sisson 

Each school was in session thirty-five evenings. 

During the months of December and January, the whole num- 
ber of boys was seventy-five, the average attendance being forty- 
five. During February and March, the whole number was thirty- 
five, there being an average attendance of thirty. 

This, it will be observed, is a much higher percentage than 
we have usually obtained. The arrangement of having two 
of our sub-masters who are acquainted with many of the class 
that attend our evening schools, has been attended with unusual 
success. 

The school has been less disturbed by those who have no desire 
to learn, and the spirit of the school has been much more favor- 
able to good results. 

YVe believe that a very large portion of those who have attended 
have been greatly benefited. 

On the last evening, thirty-four diplomas were awarded ; and the 
teachers believe that, in every instance, it was the reward of an 
earnest endeavor to make the most of the opportunities provided 
by the committee. 

The whole number of pupils in the girls' school was thhiy-four, 
with an average attendance of twenty-three. 

This school, though somewhat smaller than the boys', has been 
well disciplined and taught, and most of the pupils made marked 
improvement. Twenty-three diplomas were awarded in this 
school. 



17 



Your committee, in closing, would express the. opinion that the 
evening schools have been more successful than ever before, and 
would suggest that another winter it might be well to open another 
boys' school, at least, in some place nearer the square. 

In concluding this last annual report, it seems 
proper to refer briefly to the past record of Charles- 
town, — as town and city, — regarding the interests 
of public education. The liberality of the appropri- 
ations for schools, and the interest manifested in them, 
have ever been marked characteristics of our muni- 
cipality. Many of our best and most prominent citi- 
zens — as will appear by the names in the appendix 
to this report — have served from time to time on the 
school committee, and the records of the committee 
show with what vigilance and care these appropria- 
tions have been expended, and the interests of the 
schools guarded. Our schools have ever been the 
pride of our citizens; and, though far from perfect, 
we believe they will be found, on the whole, better 
to-day than at any previous period. We commend 
them to the fostering care of the city into which we 
are now merged, and whose system of popular edu- 
cation, is, perhaps, its proudest monument. 

J. G. DEARBORN. 
WM. H. FINNEY. 
CHARLES E. DANIELS. 



13 



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19 



Semi-Annual Report 



SUPERINTENDENT OF THE CHARLESTOWN SCHOOLS, 

FOR 

Term ending Feb. 1*^73. 



Gentlemen, — The term from September, 1872, to 
February 1, 1873, was in some respects exceptional. 
The prevalence of the small-pox and varioloid during 
a large part of the term had a tendency to reduce the 
school attendance, especially as we adopted very 
stringent measures for excluding all who were known 
to have been exposed to the disease. 

Others, especially in the primary schools, were kept 
at home by parents, to avoid exposure. I believe, 
however, that the care used had such a tendency to 
inspire confidence, that the schools were much less 
disturbed than they would have been if we had 
adopted a more lax policy. The unusual severity of 
the winter also had some influence in diminishing 
the attendance in the lowest grade of the primary 
schools. 

The work done, however, in our primary and gram- 
mar schools has been, I think, as a whole, more intel- 
ligent and practical than heretofore. Our teachers 
in the primary schools have more uniformly adopted 
modern and improved methods in teaching the ele- 
ments of reading, and in many instances with marked 
success. 



20 

This has had its influence on the reading in the 
upper classes of the primary schools, in some of 
which I have heard excellent articulation and into- 
nation. In our grammar schools, too, there has been 
an increased interest in reading; and in some classes 
I have heard pieces rendered with marked taste and 
expression. This I regard as the most important 
exercise in our primary and grammar schools, and 
chiefly because it is the key to all the rest and involves 
more mental discipline than any other exercise. 
Good reading is the best analysis of thought and 
feeling. Principles which it would be utterly impos- 
sible to teach by any abstract statement, are easily 
appreciated by pupils when aided by the discriminat- 
ing intonations of a good reader, — which every 
teacher should be. 

In geography much more attention is given to map 
drawing, and much less to descriptive geography. A 
knowledge of form, relative distance, and location, 
which are the elements of geography, is only obtained 
and fixed in the mind by frequent drawing on the 
slate, the blackboard, or paper. The general outline 
of the most important divisions should be made as 
familiar to the pupil as the form of the letters he 
uses in writing, and by the same process, — practice. 

While this is made the leading object of the recita- 
tion in geography, many of the important facts ot 
geography are learned in connection with the written 
exercises which have greatly increased in our schools, 
and which, while imparting much useful information, 
give the pupils facility and correctness in the 



21 



use of language. This practice of writing in 
their own language, what they have learned from 
reading and conversational explanations by the 
teacher, has become one of the most efficient means 
of instruction in our grammar schools. 

There is, I think, a decided tendency on the part 
of a large portion of our primary and grammar 
school teachers to freer and more liberal methods of 
instruction, and less servility in simply hearing reci- 
tations from the text-book. 

The exceptions to this are found chiefly among 
those who, from habit and constitution, have become 
wedded to old methods, and those who have been 
appointed as teachers before making any special 
preparation. Such, of course, must have time for 
learning how to teach, and we are fortunate if they 
are willing even then to take advantage of all the 
means that offer, to make up for a lack of previous 
preparation. 

The time has come, not only in our own State, but 
in all the States, where the public school system is in 
successful operation, when it is no longer considered 
the province of the grammar and high school to fit 
pupils for any particular trade or profession, but to 
give them a general education, and leave the work 
of qualifying them for a specialty to the trades or 
professions which they may severally choose. It was 
stated by Horace Mann more than a quarter of a 
century ago, after an examination of the European 
schools, that nothing but the establishment of normal 
schools, where teaching should be regarded as a spe- 



22 

cial profession, could permanently benefit our schools, 
and make them what they must be to secure the con- 
fidence and respect of the intelligent portion of the 
community. 

It was with this idea that the first normal school 
in America was established at Lexington, in 1839. 
This Mr. Mann ever regarded as the most important 
achievement of his secretaryship. From that time 
to this, the increase in the number and efficiency of 
the normal schools of any State has marked with 
great accuracy the condition of its public schools. It 
is true that the normal schools of the country, even 
now, are far too few to supply all our schools with 
teachers who have had a full professional preparation ; 
but the establishment of training schools by many of 
our cities and large towns, and the holding of insti- 
tutes by the Board of Education, are intended, tempo- 
rarily, to supplement, as far as practicable, the means 
not fully provided for in our normal schools. The 
necessity of such professional training is fully recog- 
nized by all who have taken a prominent part in edu- 
cational matters in the State, and furnishes the only 
justification for the annual expenditure of many thou- 
sand dollars, under the direction of the Board of Edu- 
cation. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

The High School has been peculiarly unfortunate 
the past term, in consequence of the change of teach- 
ers. The death of Miss Chamberlain and the resig- 
nation of Mr. Drew rendered the appointment of two 



23 

new teachers necessary; and the severe illness of Miss 
Getchell and Miss Coombs has put their classes into 
the hands of substitutes for a considerable time, who, 
however competent, could not, of course, do as well 
for the class as a regular teacher. The evil, how^- 
ever, so far as it has been caused by sickness, was 
unavoidable, and all possible care has been exercised 
in the appointment of substitutes. 

In the department of chemistry and natural phi- 
losophy, the instruction has been of a much more 
practical character than formerly, and the pupils ma- 
nipulate with great accuracy, showing a thorough 
knowledge of principles and their application. 

An exercise before the Middlesex Teachers' 
Convention, conducted by Mr. Gage, in which his 
pupils performed all the experiments, gave great 
satisfaction, and evinced such a knowledge of the 
properties of elementary substances and their combi- 
nations as to win the commendation of many compe- 
tent teachers in the same department. I am informed 
by Mr. Emery that the preparatory class is laboring 
faithfully, and he feels confident that they will restore 
the prestige which, with one exception, our High 
School has maintained for twenty years. 

THE EVENING SCHOOLS. 

These schools have been conducted with less dis- 
order, and the results have been more satisfactory 
than heretofore. The report of the committee con- 
tains the statistics and the general results of the 
schools, and some suggestions with reference to an 



24 

increased number of schools hereafter, which I hope 
will commend themselves to the Board. 



DRAWING IN OUR DAT SCHOOLS AND IN THE EVE- 
NING DRAWING SCHOOLS. 

Drawing in our primary and grammar schools has 
received generally the attention claimed for it by the 
committee on drawing, and the results are highly sat- 
isfactory. If we had not had the assurance of our 
own drawing master and others that the ability to 
learn to draw is as common as to learn any of the 
branches taught in our schools, I should say that 
the work done by most of the classes was surprising ; 
but as an exhibition of specimens by all the pupils 
will be given in June, every one will have an oppor- 
tunity of testing the truth of the statement, and 
of comparing the work of different schools marking 
the progress since the exhibition last year. 

In the evening drawing school the whole number 
of scholars was sixty-five, — forty-seven males and 
eighteen females. The average attendance was thir- 
ty-three. There were about twenty from the classes 
of '71 and '72, most of whom completed their third 
term of evening school instruction. 

Four different departments were carried on at the 
same time, viz. the class of beginners in geometrical 
drawing, the advanced class in construction, outline, 
and model drawing. With such a diversity the 
teacher, of course, labored under considerable diffi- 
culty ; and, but for the sets of models, it would hardly 



25 

have been possible to satisfy the demands of all. The 
progress, however, was good, and the interest contin- 
ued unabated to the close. 

Mr. Baker suggests that the number and variety 
of the models and flat examples should be greatly 
increased, and that colored examples, and casts of 
ornament and figure, should be added. He also re- 
peats what he said a year ago, and what the Director 
of Art Education said, with reference to the neces- 
sity of a room arid drawing stands suited to the dis- 
play and use of models, etc. 

MUSIC. 

The music in our schools, since the introduction of 
Mason's Charts, has become a more definite branch of 
instruction; and, while it has afforded a pleasant and 
beautiful exercise, relieving to some extent the 
monotony of the ordinary school recitation, the 
pupils, even in our primary schools, have proved that 
they have the ability, with scarcely an exception, to 
discriminate sounds, and to learn to read simple 
music. At an exhibition given by Mr. Mason, 
during the term, in the Harvard School hall, classes 
representing the highest grade in the primary, and 
each grade of the grammar schools, were found to be 
able to sing, with a good degree of accuracy and read- 
iness, such combinations as were presented to them 
for the first time. I think those members of the com- 
mittee that were present, will agree with me that it 
was a very creditable performance. 

During the last half year, the superintendents of 



26 

the State have given much attention to the subject ot 
a programme, and such a division of time in the 
several studies, as to secure a general uniformity in all 
the cities and large towns in the State. This, if it can 
be effected, will be of great benefit and convenience 
to scholars moving from one place to another. In 
consultation with the grammar masters, I have care- 
fully re-examined our course of study, adapting it to 
the various subjects taught, rather than to any par- 
ticular text-book, both to aid in this general unifor- 
mity, and to encourage teachers to adopt methods ot 
instruction more independent of text-books. The 
results of these deliberations I shall report to the 
committee in time, if adopted, to go into operation in 
September. In the confident belief that the efforts 
now making, throughout the country, to improve the 
methods and to adapt our courses of instruction to 
the wants of the community, will result in better sys- 
tems and better schools than we have yet seen, this 
report is respectfully submitted. 

B. F. TWEED, 

Superintendent. 

Makcii, 1873 



Semi-Annual Report 



SUPEKINTENDENT OF THE CHARLESTOWtf SCHOOLS, 



Term ending July, ±&73. 



Gentlemen, — 

The number of children in Charlestown between 5 and 1 5 

years of age, on May 1st, 1873, as returned by the 

assessors, was . 

Average number of pupils in all the day schools 

" attendance " " " " 

Per cent " " " " " 

Average number " the High School 

" attendance " " " " 

Per cent " " " " " 

Number of pupils to a teacher in " " 
Average number in the Grammar Schools 

" attendance " " 

Percent " " " 

Number of pupils to a teacher in the Grammar Schools 
Average number in the Intermediate Schools 

" attendance " " " 

Per cent " li " " 

Number of pupils to a teacher in Intermediate Schools 
Average number in the Primary Schools 

« attendance " " " • 

Percent " " u « . 

Number of pupils to a teacher in the Primary Schools 
Average number in Bunker Hill School . 

" attendance in """... 
Per cent " " " " 

Number of pupils to a teacher in Bunker Hill School 



7,133 
5,004 
4,580 
90 -f 
229 
220 
96.2 
28| 
2,783 
2,611 
93.8 
46-f- 
122 
103 
84 
41- 
1,870 
1,646 
.88 
48 
572 
538 
94.5 
47| 



28 



Average number in Warren School 

" attendance in " " . 

Percent " " " . 

Number of pupils to a teacher in Warren School 
Average number in Prescott School 

" attendance in " " . . 

Percent " " " . . 

Number of pupils to a teacher in Prescott School 
Average number in Harvard School 

" attendance in " " 

Percent " " " . 

Number of pupils to a teacher in Harvard School 
Average number in Winthrop School 

" attendance in " " 

Per cent " « " . 

Number of pupils to a teacher in Winthrop School 
Average number of pupils in all the day schools, for the 

year ending July 3, 1873 
Average attendance of pupils in all the day schools, for 

the year ending July 3, 1873 . 
Number of graduates from the High School, July 3, 1873 
" admitted from the Grammar Schools to the 

High School, July 3, 1873 (boys) . . . 84 
" admitted from the Grammar Schools to the 

High School, July 3, 1873 (girls) . .61 

Total — 

Number of graduates from the Grammar Schools, July 

3, 1873 

Number of graduates from the Bunker Hill School, July 

3, 1873 

Number of graduates from the Warren School July 3, 1873 
" " " Prescott " " 

" " " Winthrop" " 

" " " Harvard' " " 

Number of graduates from the Primary and Intermediate 
Schools, for the year ending July 3, 1873 



605 

567 
94 
46 7 - 

471 

450 
95.4 
47.1 

651 

606 
92.9 
50-A 

484 

450 
93 

m 

4,932 

4,487 
49 



145 
163 

31 

40 
43 
20 
34 

556 



29 



SCHOOL-HOUSES. 

Before proceeding to report on the instruction in 
our schools, it is proper that I should say a word re- 
specting our school accommodations, indicating our 
present and prospective wants. We have, then, an ex- 
cellent high school building, and four first-class gram- 
mar school-houses, giving ample accommodations to 
the pupils of their respective districts. I say four, 
for the Prescott, though containing but ten school- 
rooms, is, in all respects but size, equal to the others. 
The Winthrop has been referred to so often as en- 
tirely unfit for school purposes, that I can but repeat 
what . has been said in every report since i868. 

The large halls are inconvenient, and not at all 
adapted to the present organization of our grammar 
schools; three rooms in the basement, which it has 
been found necessary to use, — though not originally 
intended for school-rooms, — are truly described in the 
report of 1869, as "dark, damp, and unhealthy"; while 
" the recitation rooms on the upper floors are small, 
poorly seated, and destitute of ventilation." The 
pressing need of a new house for this school has for 
several years been urged by the school committee, and 
acknowledged by the city government in selecting a 
site and preparing plans for a new house. His Honor 
the Mayor also called attention to the wants of this 
district in his inaugural address; but for reasons, 
chiefly financial, no definite steps have been taken to 
build. It is to be hoped that the urgent wants of 
this district will be supplied with the least possible 
delay. 



30 

In the primary school district No. 1, we have nine 
school-rooms, — eight in the building at the corner 
of Charles and Bunker Hill Streets, and one on Haver- 
hill Street. 

These rooms are now fall to overflowing at some 
seasons, and the erection of new dwelling-houses be- 
yond the railroad crossing on the Neck will render it 
necessary to provide additional accommodations in 
that locality very soon. 

In district No. 2, there are four rooms in the build- 
ing on Mead Street. These rooms are now full, and 
will soon be wholly inadequate to the wants of the 
district. A new building in the vicinity of Sullivan 
Square, containing several rooms, would relieve the 
Charles Street primaries, and enable them to take a 
portion of the pupils in district No. 2. 

District No. 3 comprises two schools in the build- 
ing on Cross and Bartlett Streets, two in separate 
houses on Medford Street, and two in the building on 
Polk Street. These are now full, and new accommo- 
dations are required. 

District No. 4 comprises two schools in the build- 
ing on BunkerHill Street, three schools in the building 
on Moulton Street (one room being occupied by a 
class belonging to the Winthrop Grammar School), 
and two schools in separate houses on Fremont 
Street. We need even now the fourth room in 
the Moulton Street building*; and the district is 
so compact that it is to be hoped a building will 
soon be erected that will furnish accommodations for 
the Bunker Hill and Fremont Street Schools, and 



31 

provide for the rapid increase of pupils in this part 
of the city. 

District No. 5 comprises six schools in the Com- 
mon Street building, and district No. 6 the seven pri- 
maries and one intermediate, on Harvard Street. 
There are ample and good accommodations for these 
districts, though it may be necessary to change their 
respective limits. 

GRAMMAR AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

The statistics herewith given will be found to coin- 
cide essentially with those of last year, though our 
number of promotions to the high school has some- 
what increased, and the proportion of pupils in the 
upper classes of our grammar schools is greater than 
heretofore. I may also say, that the examination of 
grammar school pupils for promotion to the High 
School gave better results. This was especially 
marked in grammar, — or the ability " to write the 
language correctly." In accordance with a previous 
understanding, five questions were proposed in pars- 
ing and analysis, to be marked on a scale of ten, and 
the pupils were then required to write, in the form of 
a letter to a friend, what they had been doing the 
last year. This exercise was marked on a scale of 
fifty, — taking into consideration the penmanship, 
the spelling, the grammatical construction, the use of 
capitals, and the punctuation. Of course, during the 
year, a considerable portion of the time given to 
grammar has been devoted to composition, in antici- 
pation of this test of their ability "to write correctly." 
As I have already intimated, I was particularly grat- 



32 



ified with the results, and I cannot but feel that our 
teachers have done something to rescue " grammar " 
from the odium which has j ustly attached to it, because 
it " did not teach the pupils to write the language 
correctly." 

That I may not be charged with making a loose 
statement in this regard, I will say that the papers of 
pupils examined are in my office, and are open to the 
inspection of any one who may have the curiosity to 
examine them. Several gentlemen, members of the 
committee, and others, have looked at many of them, 
and they have uniformly coincided with me in con- 
sidering them highly creditable both to pupils and 
teachers. It is so common an occurrence for people 
in our cities and towns to speak in disparaging terms 
of the schools as compared with some fabulous " gold- 
en age " of the past, that I am especially desirous 
they should inform themselves of their present con- 
dition by personal examination, if they are doubtful 
of the accuracy of statements made by those who 
have them in charge. 

Even our normal schools have not been exempt 
from adverse criticism, which, under the sanction of 
a great name, has been widely circulated by the press, 
— though the criticisms were admitted to be based 
on observations made some fifteen years ago. 

I would not be understood to object to criticism, — 
on the contrary, I invite it, — but it should be intel- 
ligent criticism. I think it unjust publicly to criti- 
cise or depreciate our schools, until one has assured 
himself, by careful examination, that they deserve it. 
It would be a great benefit if parents and guardians 



33 

would by personal inspection become acquainted with 
existing methods, and interchange views with 
those having charge of our schools. However faulty 
their discipline and instruction at the present time, 
— and I not only admit but affirm that there is much 
that is unsatisfactory, — I yet believe that any fair- 
minded man, who will make himself thoroughly 
acquainted with their administration, and consider 
the difficulties that exist among a population like 
ours, and with teachers, many of whom have had 
little special preparation and experience, will rather 
wonder that pupils learn so much, and that order is 
maintained with so little resort to force, than that 
they learn no more, and that forcible means of disci- 
pline are so frequent. 

The value of confidence is well understood in 
financial and commercial affairs, and never more 
keenly felt than at the present time. All teachers 
know it to be at least equally important in education. 
Destroy the confidence of the pupils in their teach- 
er, and to the same extent you destroy his influence. 
Destroy the confidence of the community in our 
school system and its administration, and you sub- 
tract very much from its usefulness. 

That great improvements have been made in the 
matter ot school-houses and school furniture, an'd 
especially in the system of grading, all are prepared 
to admit. Whether the course of study and methods 
of teaching have kept pace with these improvements 
may be an open question. 

The course of study in our grammar schools is the 



34 

result of long experience, and, I believe, requires no 
radical change. As more intelligent teaching se- 
cures more time, there will undoubtedly be modifica- 
tions of the course, and additions to it; and these 
modifications will be in the future, as they have been 
in the past, tending to a more complete and practical 
education for the great mass of pupils. We not 
unfrequently hear the complaint that too mnch is 
required of the pupils, and that the introduction of 
drawing, music, etc., takes just so much from the 
thoroughness with which the ordinary branches are 
taught. On the other hand, we are met with the 
complaint that so little is accomplished during the 
six years of the grammar school course. I think 
there is some ground for both these complaints. The 
introduction of new studies must, of course, take 
from the time formerly devoted to the meagre course 
of our grammar schools; and, if no improvements 
are made in our processes of teaching, there may and 
must be a loss in thoroughness. 

It is believed, however, that so much more can be 
accomplished by intelligent teaching than has been 
by the routine methods of those who have had no spe- 
cial preparation for their work, that we have not yet 
given our pupils as much to do as they can do thor- 
oughly, under the most intelligent instruction. Ex- 
perience, however, has shown that attention to these 
branches has not been attended by any falling off in 
the other branches. Their introduction has made 
school pleasanter, and produced a degree of interest 
and activity, that has reacted favorably on all school 



35 

studies. Should more time be wanted, I think I see 
where it may be gained from the ordinary course. 
Intelligent teaching can impart a better and more 
practical knowledge of geography in half the time 
than we have usually had. The same may be said of 
grammar* and I believe a better knowledge of the 
practical rules of arithmetic may be acquired in a 
considerably less time than we now devote to it; and, 
instead of its being done at the expense of thorough- 
ness, I think we may add to the thoroughness. 
"When Judge Story was asked why he made so large 
a book on a certain subject, he said, " Because I had 
not time to make a smaller one." Paradoxical as 
this may seem to some, it was probably true; and if 
so, the book must have contained much, perhaps, in 
some way more or less remotely, relevant to the sub- 
ject, but not necessary to its development. 

So in teaching. As our teachers are more thor- 
oughly prepared, so that they can eliminate all that 
is not strictly necessary, the principles now buried 
under different forms will be found to be few and 
very simple. In a popular text-book on arithmetic, I 
find a rule for dividing a fraction by a whole number ; 
another for dividing a whole number by a fraction ; 
another for dividing a mixed number by a whole num- 
ber ; another for dividing a whole number by a mixed 
number; another, which should have been the first and 
only rule, for dividing a fraction by a fraction; 
another for dividing a mixed number by a mixed 
number; and still another for reducing a complex 
fraction to a simple one. 



36 



When the pupil has learned, as he is supposed to 
have learned, in this book, that a whole number may 
be written as a fraction by placing the denominator 
one (1) under it, and how to change a mixed number 
to an improper fraction, there is but one principle and 
one process to be learned, instead of seven, as given 
in the book. Nor is it wholly loss of time and tax 
on memory that I complain of. The impression is 
given that there are seven different things, when, in 
fact, there is but one. Thus we meet, at every turn, 
the necessity for a more thorough preparation of 
teachers. 

Mr. Mann saw this in 1810; and all experience since 
proves that, after providing good accommodations 
and apparatus, the question of progress depends 
chiefly on the preparation and fitness of teachers. 
Notwithstanding all that has been done by our nor- 
mal schools to give us the best teachers, — and they 
have done much, — we are still far behind several of 
the European countries in this regard, even when we 
make this preparation an essential requisite. Enter- 
taining these views, I have sought, during my super- 
intendency, to do what I could to make the teaching 
more practical and intelligent, especially in our pri- 
mary and grammar schools. There is, I believe, 
much better teaching in many of our primary schools 
than formerly; and in all our grammar schools the 
teachers I think rely less upon the text-books, and 
aim more to impart a knowledge of the subjects, than 
to prepare the pupils to pass an examination in a defi- 
nite set of problems. Of course, the teaching in the 



87 

several schools varies somewhat according to the 
peculiarities and capacities of the teachers; but the 
tendency has been the same in all, and I think there 
has been a progressive spirit aroused in our schools 
that will not be satisfied with the results even now 
obtained. 

Already in several of the schools time is found to 
go beyond the required course of study, and to 
impart much useful knowledge on various interest- 
ing subjects, by means of familiar lectures. The 
substance of these lectures is then given by the 
pupils in their written exercises or "compositions"; 
and they are thus forming the habit of selecting 
the salient points in a discourse, and stating them in 
their own language. 

I know of no school exercise of greater educational 
value than this. It induces fixed habits of attention 
and judgment in the selection, no less than facility of 
expression. I ought, perhaps, to say a word on the 
discipline of our schools. 

Fortunately, we have not had to meet the question 
of corporal punishment in our schools in such a man- 
ner as to require much action on the part of the com- 
mittee. There is a standing rule that " The disci- 
pline shall be such as a kind, judicious, and faithful 
parent would exercise in his family," " avoiding cor- 
poral punishment in all cases where good order and 
wholesome restraint and discipline can be secured by 
milder measures," and requiring that a record of 
each case of corporal punishment shall be kept, and 
reported monthly to the superintedent. 



38 



That this rule has had some influence, and that the 
discipline of our schools is generally judicious, would 
seem to be shown from the fact that we have been so 
free from the periodic excitements to which some of 
our neighboring cities have been subject. Corporal 
punishment still exists in our schools; but, to the 
credit of our teachers, I am glad to say that they are 
making great effort to discipline without a resort to 
it. It is already greatly reduced, and the discipline 
has been, in the opinion of the teachers, improved, 
rather than weakened. There is naturally a better 
feeling existing between pupils and teachers. 

In order, however, to banish the rod entirely from 
our schools, our teachers must have the hearty co- 
operation of parents, and the means of removing the 
incorrigible — of whom there will be found a very small 
number — to some place where they will be subject to 
such discipline as they require. Our best teachers, 
I know, are anxious to effect this object, and thus 
relieve themselves of the most unpleasant thing con- 
nected with the profession of teaching. Experience 
has shown, that in all but a few extreme cases, the 
parent may, by immediate consultation and co-opera- 
tion with the teacher, render a resort to corporal 
punishment unnecessary; and, for the extreme 
cases, other measures, as I have suggested, should be 
adopted. Knowing the desires of the teachers, I 
earnestly invoke the aid of parents, by all the means 
in their power, to put the discipline of our schools on 
the sure basis of self-respect and mutual confidence. 



39 



HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The high school course of instruction in our New 
England schools has not been, to the same extent 
with that of our grammar schools, a growth, and it 
is possible that it may be found susceptible of more 
radical changes. 

The programme for these schools was at first very 
naturally based on the presumption that the pupils 
were preparing for a higher course of instruction in 
our colleges. Had this idea been adhered to, and 
such scholars only been admitted to the high school 
as were looking forward to a college course, the pro- 
gramme would undoubtedly been found well adapted 
to secure the desired end. It would then have been 
necessary, in all but our largest cities, — containing 
pupils enough for a classical preparatory school, and 
an English high school, — to extend the course in our 
grammar schools. Such, however, was not the policy 
adopted, and the consequence has been that a feel- 
ing exists in nearly every community that the high 
school course is less practical than it should be for 
that class who finish their school education in it. I 
believe in most towns it will be found that modifica- 
tions have been made in the course and always with 
this view. It certainly has occupied the attention of 
our High School committee; and, if the results thus 
far have not been all that could be desired, they have 
at least tended in that direction, and removed many 
of the objections formerly urged. 

The preparatory course naturally and necessarily 



40 

must follow the demands of the higher institutions ; 
and school committees may safely leave to those 
institutions the preparation of a course of study for 
this class of pupils. Perhaps, also, under the new 
order of things in our own city, some of the difficul- 
ties which we have encountered in adapting our high 
school course to the wants of those who finish their 
school education here, may be obviated. 

There are, however, questions of the relative 
status of the different sexes, which are quite as closely 
connected with education as with politics. These 
questions involve, not only the identical education of 
the sexes, but their co-education in our high schools 
and colleges. Experience has shown that females 
have the intellectual ability to compete successfully 
with males in the high school curriculum, at least. 
But physiology steps in, and while admitting that 
this can be done, asserts that as our schools are now 
organized, it is done at the expense of one of the most 
important functions of the system, and that this vio- 
lation of law becomes a fruitful source of disease. 

Without denying that girls can do as much and as 
well in the high school course of studies as boys, it 
asserts that it must be done in a different way; that 
while the male system, even at the school age, will 
admit of constant and persistent effort, both physical 
and intellectual, there is a periodicity in the constitu- 
tion of the female which cannot be ignored without 
the gravest consequences ; and that the most critical 
period in this regard coincides almost precisely with 
that of our high school course. 



41 

A work recently published, entitled "Sex in Edu- 
cation," by Dr. Edward Clarke, considering this sub- 
ject solely on physiological grounds, will, I am con- 
fident, lead to some modification of views on the 
vexed question of female education. It is a book of 
equal value to parents and teachers 

In addition to the statistics already given, the 
principal of our High School, in a report to the High 
School committee, says: — 

" Allow me to express the opinion that the school, in all its 
departments, is in good condition ; that all the teachers have per- 
formed their respective duties faithfully and well ; and that most 
of the scholars have pursued their studies with commendable zeal 
and success. There have been a few cases, however, of very defec- 
tive and superficial scholarship, in consequence of promoting 
delinquent scholars ' with conditions,' instead of requiring them 
to go over again, and thoroughly, the work of the preceding year. 

"In a well arranged course of study, the successive classes can 
advance to higher branches only when they have thoroughly mas- 
tered their previous studies ; and the subjects assigned to each period 
of the course are intended to call into exercise the power and 
resources which those alone possess who have been faithful and 
successful in the earlier stages of their progress. 

" Those, therefore, who are deficient in the studies of one year of 
the course, will not be likely to ' make up ' such deficiency in con- 
nection with the duties of the succeeding year, and ought, in justice 
to themselves as well as the school, to remain in a lower class until 
fully quallified for the next higher grade. This principle has always 
been recognized in our school as a theory, but the recent action 
which you have been pleased to take on this subject, fixing a defi- 
nite, standard of promotion, will enable us to enforce it in practice." 

The class that graduated at the close of the last 
school year, numbered forty-nine, — it being the 



42 



largest class ever graduated from this school, and 
constituting, I think, the largest percentage of the 
class when it entered. 

DRAWINa. 

At the close of the school year, in July, by vote 
of the drawing committee, an exhibition of the work 
of pupils was given in each of our grammar schools. 
It was not an exhibition simply of the best, but of the 
work of all; and I believe I hazard nothing in s&y- 
ing that the progress manifest in this new department 
more than realized the expectations of the most san- 
guine. I visited several of the rooms in company 
with an expert from the neighboring city, who spoke 
of the exhibition in terms of the highest commenda- 
tion. I commend to your notice the report of our 
accomplished drawing master, who has had the di- 
rection of this department from the beginning. 

Prof. B. F. Tweed, 

/Superintendent of Schools, City of Charlestown : 

Dear Sir, — The work in drawing for the year ending July, 3, 
1873, was characterized by a very great advance in the proficiency 
of the classes from the lowest in the primary, to the highest in the 
grammar schools. An increased enthusiasm was everywhere 
shown among scholars, with a much greater capacity for work, 
greater skill in execution, and a higher appreciation of the signifi- 
cance of form. Especially was the power of execution doubled and 
even trebled during the year. 

The first months of the yea,v were devoted to elementary drill on 
simple curves and forms in the upper classes, and rectangular fig- 
ures and simple lines, in the lower. This was often discouraging 
in itself, to the class teachers, but there was no abatement of effort 
on their part, and the dullest classes were obliged to yield to the 



43 



constant pressure Order began to appear where chaos was seen 
before, and skill and thought controlled the wayward hand ; so 
that during the last month of the school-year, the scholars surprised 
all with the rapidity of their advancement and the accuracy of 
their work. 

The exhibition of drawing during the last week of the school- 
3 r ear, was, in truth, a delight to all who were in any way concerned 
in the work. 

The experiment, if such it ever was, was solved. Our children 
could learn to draw as well as they could learn to read ; and the 
ratio of those who excelled, or fell below mediocrity, was about the 
same in each. 

Furthermore, the results show that drawing can be carried on in 
harmony with, and even as an aid, to the other subjects in our 
schools. 

Ma) T we not, therefore, take just pride in having successfully en- 
grafted this new element upon our old system without any apparent 
derangement of the general plan? 

To return to the exhibition. Work was shown from almost every 
scholar in the grammar schools It was, therefore, a true exhibi- 
tion of the progress made, and of the general proficiency apparent 
to all observers. 

The work was classed under three heads, — Free Hand Outline 

» 

Design, Object and Perspective Drawing. 

The large examples on the blackboards, drawn entirely by the 
scholars, illustrated, in a degree, the three subjects. 

Many of our scholars acquired in a remarkably short time the 
power to execute nicely some very difficult examples in flat orna- 
ment. In fact, I regard almost anything possible to some of them 
with ordinary effort. 

The progress of the year argues a greater progress for the future 
under the same discipline. Of course we must .employ our develop- 
ing skill upon a broader field of labor. 

The work, then, of the coming year takes a higher plane, and im- 
plies new resources in our teaching. I have no doubt the committee 
will duly consider our needs, and supply our deficiencies in the way 
of material. 



44 



The drawing in the High School was not equally satisfactory 
with that of the grammar schools. The small amount of time 
allotted it was wholly insufficient to secure creditable results, as 
you and the committee will bear witness that I foretold ; and I am 
glad to be relieved of a resposibility involving duties for which 
adequate time could not be obtained. 

The primary schools have made good progress in drawing dur- 
ing the year, with the exception of some few classes, which I might 
mention confidentially. 

The results in these schools have more than met my expectations, 
as regards the ability of the classes to do this work. We must 
hold their teachers accountable for very considerable advancement. 

The Teachers' Class was continued last winter, and they were 
taken through a course of geometrical problems, and the theory of 
orthographic projections as applied to perspective. The interest 
was, in general, good ; and, with the larger part of the class there 
was a worthy effort to comprehend the subject, and to clo the work. 
With some few, however, there seemed a disposition to do as little 
as possible. They were, in general, the same teachers that were 
anxious to know whether attendance was required by the school 
committee. 

In general, however, our teachers are to be commended for their 
faithful efforts to do their whole duty in regard to this subject ; and 
very many have labored from a love of the subject, as well as from 
a sense of duty. We are, in general, fortunate in securing the har- 
monious co-operation now so generally prevalent. 

We enter upon the new year with every prospect of rapid im- 
provement ; and I hope for the development of much greater inter- 
est everywhere, and an advance in the quality and kind of work* 
We shall undertake Model drawing in the upper classes, and Design 
everywhere, to a certain extent. In the latter work we have 
already made a beginning. 

With many thanks for your earnest help, 
I remain, very truly yours, 

LUCAS BAKER, 

Teacher of Drawing' 
Charlestown, 27 Oct. 1873. 



MUSIC. 

Though we have had, during the last term, no for- 
mal exhibition in this department, the singing at the 
annual exhibitions of the schools formed a very in- 
teresting part of the exercises, and afforded evidence 
of great improvement. In all our grammar schools, 
ana in nearly all our primary schools, the introduc- 
tion of Mason's charts has been attended with results 
of the most satisfactory character. 

In some of our schools, I have heard pupils sing 
music that they had never seen before, with about as 
much readiness and certainty as they read the ordi- 
nary reading lesson. 

I have thus, gentlemen, given the usual statistics, 
the condition of our present school accommodations, 
with our immediate and prospective wants, — the gen- 
eral condition of our schools in regard to instruction 
and discipline, and indicated what I regard as an 
essential requisite to progress. It will be observed 
that for whatever evils exist, or for whatever hinders 
progress, the only remedy is hetter instruction. We 
must have thoroughly prepared teachers before we 
can decide how much our pupils are capable of doing. 
When a teacher tells me that he or she has not time 
to do what another teacher does well, I infer that 
there is a fault in the teaching. That, I know, is not 
the inference drawn by the teacher; but I believe it 
to be fully warranted by the facts, and I notice, also, 
that it comes from the same class of teachers, who 



46 

are anxious to know how much they are required to 
do, to qualify them for the work of the school-room. 
I will say, however, that, though these are not imag- 
inary cases, I believe a large part of our teachers are 
alive to the necessity of ampler professional prepara- 
tion, and are striving to obtain it by such means as 
are furnished by lectures on literary and scientific 
topics, in our educational works, and our teachers' 
associations. I find, too, among this class a grateful 
appreciation of the means of .preparation afforded 
them by the committee. 

On the whole, I believe that our schools compare 
favorably with those of other cities and large towns ; 
that the spirit of progress is as active, and that, in 
our primary and grammar schools, at least, we are 
second to none in the interest and success which have 
accompanied the introduction of industrial art draw- 
ing into the schools of the Commonwealth. 

Hoping and believing, gentlemen, that the future 
of our schools will be better than the past or the pres- 
ent, this report is respectfully submitted. 

B. F. TWEED, 

Superintendent. 
Nov. 1873. 



APPENDIX. 




TRUSTEES OF THE CHAKLESTOWN FREE SCHOOLS 
AND TRUST FUND. 

The Act annexing the City of Charlestown to the City of Boston 
prescribes that the members of the School Committee within the 
present limits of the City of Charkstown shall be the corporation 
entitled " Trustees of Charlestown Free Schools." 

It has been thought desirable to present, in connection with the 
report for this year, a statement of the establishment of the cor- 
poration, and whatever facts we may possess regarding the origin 
of the fund under its control. 

At a town-meeting held March 4th, 1793, it was " Voted, that a 
committee of three be appointed to apply to the General Court to 
have trustees incorporated to superintend the schools and the 
schools' funds who shall be chosen annually " ; and, at the same 
meeting, Richard Devens, Nath'l Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron 
Putnam, Esqs., Joseph Hurd, Nath'l Hawkins, and Seth Wyman 
were chosen as trustees. 

At a meeting March 7th, 1793, " The committee appointed to 
apply to the Court to have trustees for the schools incorporated, 
reported that they had given in a petition for that purpose, and 
had constructed a bill, which was then read by paragraphs and 
accepted with amendments." 

Tue Legislature, on the 27th of March, 1793, passed an Act to 
incorporate the Trustees of the Charlestown Free Schools. On 



48 

the 18th of April of the same year, it was " Voted, that the Town 
Treasurer deliver to Aaron Putnam, Esq., Treasurer for the Trus- 
tees of the Charlestown Free Schools, all the money, bonds, notes 
of hand, etc. (being the property of said free schools), that now 
are, or may come into his, the Town Treasurer's hands." 

" By the preamble of the act creating the corporation, the object 
appears to have been a more convenient administration of certain 
real and personal property that had been bequeathed to the town 
for the use of the public schools, and prevent it from being indis- 
criminately mixed with other property or funds of the town, and 
so lost to the specific use for which it was given." * 

The charter of the City of Charlestown, after prescribing the 
manner of electing the School Committee, provides that the per- 
sons thus chosen shall have " all the powers and privileges, and be 
subject to all the liabilities set forth " in the Act to incorporate 
certain persons by the name of the Trustees of Charlestown Free 
Schools ; and, as before stated, the act of annexation provides for 
the continuance of this corporation, in the members of the School 
Committee of the City of Boston from the Charlestown district. 

The present funds of the corporation consist of two notes of 
the Town and City of Charlestown ; one for $600, dated May 1, 
1837, the other for $5,000, dated May 22, 1848, at six per cent 
interest, the income of which is applicable towards the support 
of the Charlestown schools. These notes were given in con- 
sideration of the release to the town and city, of deeds of certain 
school-houses which had been built from the funds of the Trus- 
tees. 

The town records, under various dates previous to the Act of 
Incorporation, make mention of the school fund ; but we regret 
that we have been unable, in the time at our disposal, fully to 
trace its origin and history. 

We present the information we have been able to gather from 
various sources, hoping that, at no very distant day, a more com- 
plete statement will be prepared. 

From Frothingham's History of Charlestown, under date of 

* Charlestown School Report, February, 1848. 



49 

January 20th, 1647, we learn that " It was agreed that a rate 
of fifteen pounds should be gathered of the town towards the 
school for this year, and the five pounds that Major Sedgwick is 
to pay this year (for the island) for the school, also the town's part 
of MisticJc wear for the school forever." 

Also, under the date of 1660 — " One thousand acres of land 
were laid out, by order of the G-eneral Court, ' for the use of the 
school of Charlestown ' ' in the wilderness, on the western side of 
Merrimack River, at a place comrnpnly called by the Indians, 
* Sodegonock.' " 

It is probably in relation |to this " land-grant," that the follow 
ing report was made in 1742 : — 

"To the Inhabitants of Charlestown, this 29th of March, 1742, 
By adjournment from the first of this instant, — 

We being then appointed a Committe Refering to the Towns 
School Farm at Sauhegonick — Do Find that the said Farm dos 
fall within the Line lately run by the Province of New Hampshier, 
And that it is Necessary for the Town To Impower said Committe 
(or a New One) To prepare a Draught or a memoriall To the Gov- 
ernour and Council of New Hampshier, Representing to them Our 
Claim to the said Farm and to procure all Grants, Deeds, and Ne- 
cessary Evidences to justify the same, In order to Our being qui- 
eted in Our Antient Possession of the premises, and that one or 
more of the said Committe be Desired to present the said Memo- 
riall and pursue the buisness to effect. 

THOS. JENNER. 

JOHN FOYE, 

JAMES HAY. 

JOSEPH LEMMON. 

Committe." 

We have not ascertained with what "effect" this "buisness" 
was pursued, or indeed whether or not it was pursued at all. 

Deputy Governor Francis Willoughby, who died April 4, 1671, 
bequeathed three hundred acres of land for the school.*' 

* Frothmghain's History, page 143. 



50 



Capt. Richard Sprague, by his will dated October 5, 1703, left, 
among other bequests to the town, " the sum of £50, money to be 
put to interest by the Selectmen and Treasurer for the annual 
benefit and use of the Free Schooll in Charlestowne, the interest 
only to be spent yearly — the principal not to be improved any 
other wayes but by letting for lawful interest to be improved as 
aforesaid." 

In 1727, " A record was made of the income of the town. This 
was classed as ' The towns, the free school, and the poor.' " The 
school's income was, rent of Lovell's Island, £17 ; School lot £5. 
School marsh £1. 0. ; mone} r at interest (£357. 10) £21. 9, and 
Souhegan farm and two lots, the rent of which is not given. 

In 1740, the free school's income was £714. In 1745, Mr. Isaac 
Royal gave £80. to the school at the Neck. 

At a town-meeting in May, 1792, a committee consisting of 
James Russell, Nath. Grorham, Richard Devens, Aaron Putnam, 
and Isaac Mallet, reported that the common belonged to the school, 
and recommended " vesting the funds belonging to the school in a 
dwelling-house, and other buildings suitable for a tavern," whereby 
" the funds would be placed upon a permanent and advantageous 
foundation." 

At a town-meeting, held December, 1792, the following report 
was presented, giving a very full statement of the funds, etc., con- 
sidered as belonging to the schools at that time. 

" The committee appointed to take into consideration the funds 
belonging to the school, and report thereon, have endeavored thor- 
oughly to investigate the business, and beg leave to make the fol- 
lowing report, viz : — 

41 That there is a farm lying in Stoneham improved by 

Mr. Silas Symonds, prized at ... £450 

which they propose to have sold, and the proceeds 

thereof vested in the public funds. 

"Also certain bonds due from Richard Miller, Jonathan 
Chapman, and Richard Chapman, principal and 
interest to Sept. 4, 1792 70.0.1 

" Capt. Nathan Adams, William Grubb, and Richard 

Trumbull, principal and interest to July 10, 1792 24. 0.2 



51 



" Capt. Benj. Frothingham, principal and interest to 

Feb. 8, 1792 . 20.0.6 



£564. 0.9 



which they propose to have collected, and the proceeds 
thereof placed as above. 

" Also they find that the town have sold a lot of land 
to Timothy Wright, which they have appropriated 
to their use as a town separate from the interest 
of the school, which amounts, with interest, to . £119. 0.8 

*' Likewise the town received of Samuel Swan, Esq., 
for a lot of land belonging to James Kenney, 
which land was- secured for money that said Ken- 
ney borrowed of the school funds, — principal 
and interest is ...... 49.12.0 

" The farm that appraised at Stoneham to pay for 
what the town had received of the school funds 
was deficient ....... 38.18.8 



£771.12. L 



" The interest on the above sums, due from the town 
they propose, should be paid from the rent of a farm 
at Stoneham improved by Mr. Wiley. 
" Also a certain pasture lying in Medford, improved 

by Mr. Symes, supposed to be worth . . . 90. 00 

£861.12.1 

which they propose to have sold, and the proceeds placed in the 
public funds. 

" The Common, lying in Charlestown near the neck of land, they 
conceive to belong also to the School ; this they propose to have 
rented to the best advantage, — the rent to be paid quarterly. 
" Also certain bonds and notes clue from Nicholas 

Hopping, — principal and interest . . . £51.16.5 
" Benjamin Sweetser, — principal and interest . . 26. 0.0 

£77.16.5 



52 



" From the above bonds, nothing is expected. 

" From the foregoing statement, your committee are of opinion, 
the income of the funds which may be collected, will amount to 
near £70 per annum, which your committee would propose to have 
paid into the hands of certain persons appointed by the town, and 
applied solely for the support of the school. 

" Your committee beg leave also to observe that, provided the 

town should accept the foregoing leport, that in their opinion it 

would be expedient to appoint a committee to carry the same into 

effect. 

"■•James Russell. 

"RlCHARD DEVENS. 

"Aaron Putnam. 
" Charlestown, Nov. 2, 1792." 

The following, from the town records, shows the action taken in 
relation to the above report : — 

" Voted, To accept the foregoing report, and that the same com- 
mittee be appointed and empowered to put the said report into 
execution, and also to consider and report whether any other land 
belonging to the town can be sold to advantage." 

In March, 1793, it was " voted to sell the common, and that the 
proceeds be vested in the funds to be applied to the use of the 
school." 

In December, 1832, the trustees received from the executors of 
Thomas Miller, one hundred dollars devised to the trustees, with 
the proviso that the income thereof be appropriated to the support 
of the public schools in the town of Charlestown. 

In 1836, the sum of fifty dollars was received from the executors 
of the will of Miss Catherine Bradish " to be expended in the pur- 
chase of Latin and Greek Testaments, and distributed by said 
trustees in the schools," and fifty dollars to be expended in Bibles. 

At a town-meeting March 27, 1837, the following vote was 
passed : — 

" Voted, That the portion of the surplus revenue which shall 

or may be received by this town from the Commonwealth shall be 

invested by the Town Treasurer, in the town's notes or securities ; 

and that gthe interest of the ^same shall be annually appropriated 



53 

to the support of Public Schools, and that the appropriations of 
the interest of the surplus fund as above provided, shall not be 
considered as, in any degree, superseding the annual appropria- 
tion usually made for the support of the Public Schools at the May 
.meeting." 

From the above imperfect sketch of the history of the School 
Fund, it would appear that, had not some of it been diverted from 
its proper use, the present School Fund would be much larger than 
it is. The deficiency is explained, in part, by the fact that the 
trustees, in addition to managing the income from their invested 
funds, had, also, for a long time, the disposal of the annual town 
appropriations for school purposes ; and a confusion thus arose in 
regard to the disbursements, so that the permanent fund was at 
times encroached upon in the building and furnishing of school- 
houses, etc., when such expenditures should have been made ex- 
clusively from the appropriations by the town. 



TRUSTEES FROM 1793 TO 1874. 



1793. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron 

Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Nathaniel Hawkins, Seth Wyraan. 

1794. Richard Devens, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Nathaniel 

Hawkins, Seth Wyman, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah 
Bartlett. 

1795. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Seth 

WyinaD, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Timothy Tufts. 

1796. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron 

Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Seth Wyman, Timothy Tufts. 

1797. Richard Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph 

Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts ("Mr. Nathaniel 
Gorham chosen in the place of the late Honorable Nath. 
Gorham, Esq., deceased "). 

1798. Richards Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph 

Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts, Nathaniel Gorham. 

1799. Richard Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph 

Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts, Nathaniel Gorham. 

1800. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Rev. Jedediah 

Morse, Benjamin Hurd, Jr., Timothy Walker, Timothy 
Thompson. 

1801. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Jedediah Morse, 

Benjamin Hurd, Jr., Timothy Walker, Timothy Thomp- 
son. 

1802. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris, 

Samuel Payson, Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin. 

1803. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris, 

Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Nehemiah Wyman. 

1804. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris, 

Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Nehemiah Wyman. 



55 



1805. Seth Wyman, Thomas Harris, Matthew Bridge, David 

Goodwin, John Stone, Peter Tufts, Jr., Joseph Phipps. 

1806. Matthew Bridge, Seth Wyman, Peter Tufts, Jr., James 

Green, Elijah Mead, John Tufts, Samuel Thompson. 

1807. James Green, Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, 

John Kettell, Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent. 

1808. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, 

Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, Timothy Thompson. 

1809. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, 

Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, Timothy Thompson. 

1810. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell, 

Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, David Devens. 

1811. Rev. William Collier, Jonas Tyler, William Austin, Joseph 

Phipps, Samuel Kent, Philemon R. Russell, Ebenezer 
Cutter. 

1812. William Collier, Abram R. Thompson, Nathaniel Wyman, 

David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George 
Bartlett. 

1813. William Collier, Abram R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, 

David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George 
Bartlett. 

1814. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, 

David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George 
Bartlett. 

1815. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, 

David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George 
Bartlett. 

1816. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, 

David Stetson, Daniel Reecl, George Bartlett, Isaac 
Tufts. 

1817. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman, 

David Stetson, Isaac Tufts, Peter Tufts, Jr., Elias Phin- 
ney. 

1818. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phin- 

. ney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley. 

1819. Rev. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts, Elias 

Phinney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley. 



56 



1820. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts,Elias Phinney, 

James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley. 

1821. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phinney, 

James K. Frothingham, John Soley, Philemon P. Rus- 
sell. 

1822. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Elias Phinney, Rev. 

James Walker, Joseph Phipps, Samuel P. Teel, Nathan 
Tufts, 2d. 

1823. Edward Turner, James "Walker, Joseph Phipps, Nathan 

Tufts, 2d, James Russell, Samuel Gardner, Leonard 
M. Parker. 

1824. James Walker, Joseph Phipps, James Russell, Samuel 

Gardner, Leonard M. Parker, Chester Adams, Thomas 
Hooper. 

1825. James Russell, Leonard M. Parker, Chester Adams, Rev. 

Henry Jackson, Lot Pool, Edward Cutter, Rev. Walter 
Balfour. 

1826. Chester Adams, Hall J. Kelley, Nathaniel H. Henchman, 

James Walker, Benjamin Whipple, William S. Phipps, 
Henr} 7 Jackson. 

1827. James Walker, Chester Adams, Lot Pool, Benjamin Whip- 

ple, Hall J. Kelley, Josiah S. Hurd, Henry Jaques. 

1828. Benjamin Whipple, James Walker, Chester Adams, Henry 

Jackson, Luke Wyman, J. S. Hurd, Robert G. Tenney. 

1829. Benjamin Whipple, James Walker, Chester Adams, Henry 

Jackson, Luke W3 T man, J. S. Hurd, Robert G. Tenney. 

1830. James Walker, Rev. Linus S. Everett, Chester Adams, 

Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, Guy C. Hawkins, 
John Rnney. 

1831. L. S. Everett, Chester Adams, Paul Willard, Benjamin 

Thompson, Guy C. Hawkins, John Runey, James K. 
Frothingham. 

1832. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G. C. Hawkins, John 

Runey, Jas. K. Frothingham, Henry Jaques, Joseph F 
Tufts. 

1833. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G. C. Hawkins, Jas. 

K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, Charles Thompson, 
Chester Adams. 



57 



1834. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G-. C. Hawkins, Jas. 

K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, Charles Thompson, 
Chester Adams. 

1835. Charles Thompson, Paul Willard, Amos Hazeltine, Joseph 

Tufts, Larkin Turner, John Stevens, Alfred Allen. 

1836. J. W. Valentine, Charles Forster, Charles Thompson, Alfred 

Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James 
Underwood. 

1837. J. W.Valentine, Charles Forster, Charles Thompson, Alfred 

Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James 
Underwood. 

1838. J. W. Valentine, Charles Forster, Alfred Allen, Thomas 

Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James Underwood, Eliab 
P. Mackintire. 

1839. Charles Forster, James Underwood, Alfred Allen, Richard 

Frothingham, Jr., Thomas Brown, Jr., George W. War- 
ren, John Sanborn. 

1840. Richard Frothingham, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, Charles Forster, 

John Sanborn, Francis Bowman, Frederick Robinson, E. 
P. Mackintire. 

1841. E. P. Mackintire, J. C. Magoun, Philander Ames, Francis 

Bowman, Charles Forster, Alfred Allen, M. F. Haley, 
Frederick Robinson, Richard Frothingham, Jr., Geo. W. 
Tyler, John Sanborn. 

1842. Richard Frothingham, Jr., E. P. Mackintire, Charles Fors- 

ter, Philander Ames, William Sawyer, Aaron Clark, 2d, 
Dexter Bowman, Thomas J. Eliott, S. M. Felton, Fred- 
erick Robinson, John Sanborn. 

1843. Richard Frothingham, Jr., E. P. Mackintire, Frederick Rob- 

inson, S. M. Felton, Charles Forster, Benjamin Badger, 
Timothy T. Sawyer, Thomas Greenleaf, John Sanborn, 
William Arnold, Henry K. Frothingham. 

1844. E. P. Mackintire, S. M. Felton, Benjamin Badger, T. 

T. Sawyer, Thomas Greenleaf, Henry K. Frothingham, 
John Sanborn, Jonathan Brown, Jr., Andrew J. Locke, 
Henry Lyon, Daniel White. 

1845. H. K. Frothingham, Jonathan Brown, Jr., James Adams, 



58 



Henry Lyon, Daniel White, T. T. Sawyer, A, J. Locke, 
James G. Fuller, James G. Foster, Joseph F. Tufts, J. 
W. Bemis. 

1846. H. K. Frothingham, Jonathan Brown, Jr., James Adams, 
Henry Lyon, James G. Fuller, James G. Foster, Joseph 
F. Tufts, J. W. Bemis, Nathaniel Lamson, N. Y. Cul- 
bertson, George Farrar. 

.1847. Henry K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, N. Y. Culbertson, 
John Sanborn, James Miskelly, Edward Thorndike, 
George A. Parker, Seth J. Thomas, George Farrar, J. W. 
Bemis, Thomas Greenleaf. 

1848. James Adams, George A. Parker, Lemuel Gulliver, Henry 

K. Frothingham, Seth J. Thomas, George P. Sanger, 
Joseph F. Tufts, Edward Thorndike, Charles W. Moore, 
James Miskelly, N. Y. Culbertson. 

1849. James Adams, Henry K. Frothingham, Lemuel Gulliver, 

Charles W. Moore, George P. Sanger, Joseph F. Tufts, 
William Tufts, Edward Thorndike, N. Y. Culbertson, 
James Miskelly. 

1850. Henry K. Frothingham, George P. Sanger, Henry Lyon, 

William Tufts, George Cutler, James G. Fuller, Andrew 
K. Hunt, C. Soule Cartee, Charles W. Moore, Isaac W. 
Blanchard, William Sawyer. 

1851. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-officio, President; Elrab P. 

Mackintire, Seth J. Thomas, James Adams, William 
Tufts, James G. Fuller, William Sawyer, Edward Thrrn- 
dike, John Sanborn, Charles W. Moore, Andrew K. 
Hunt, Charles D. Lincoln, Charles B. Rogers. 

1852. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-ojjicio, President; James 

Adams, Nathan Merrill, William Tufts, Oliver C. Ever- 
ett, James G. Fuller, John Sanborn, Edward Thorndike, 
William Williams, Andrew K. Hunt, Lemuel Gulliver, 
George Bradford, Charles D. Lincoln. 

1853. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-officio. President; Nathan 

Merrill, Oliver C. Everett, James Fogg, James G. Fuller, 
Edward Thorndike, Warren Rand, Isaac W. Blanchard, 
Abraham B. Shedd, Solomon Hovey, James Adams, 
William Williams, John Sanborn. 



59 

1854. James Adams, ex-officio, President; James Fogg, William 

Flint, Oliver C. Everett, William I. Budington, Hiram 
Hutchins, George Bartlett, George Cutler, Isaac W. 
Blauchard, Hiram P. Kemick, Freeman C. Sewall, 
Reuben Curtis, Nathan A. Tufts. 

1855. Timothy T.Sawyer, ex-officio^ President; James Adams, 

George E. Ellis, Oliver C. Everett, James G. Fuller, 
John Sanborn, Calvin C. Sampson, Abraham B. Shedd, • 
Isaac W. Blanchard, William Flint, Nathan A. Tufts, 
Henry K. Frothingbara. 

1856. Timothy T. Sawyer, ex-officio, President ; William B. Mor- 

ris, Anthony S. Morss, Oliver C. Everett, James G. 
Fuller, John Sanborn, George B. Neal, David Foster, 
George P. Kettell, Isaac W. Blanchard, Edwin F. 
Adams, George E. Ellis, Franklin A. Hall. 

1857. Timothy T. Sawyer, ex-officio, President ; George E. Ellis, 

William W. Wheildon, Abram E. Gutter, J. W. Bemis, / 
John Sanborn, George B. Neal, G. Washington Warren, 
Andrew J. Locke, David Foster, Luke K. Bowers, Wil- 
liam N. Lane, Franklin E. Bradshaw. 

1858. Timothy T. Sawyer, President ; George E. Ellis, William 

W. Wheildon, Abram E. Cutter, Edwin F. Adams, Henry 2- 
B. Metcalf, James G. Foster, George B. Neal, John 
Sanborn, G. Washington Warren, Calvin C. Sampson, 
James B. Miles, Charles D. Lincoln, Henry K. Froth- 
ingham, William Fosdick, William N. Lane, Samuel T. 
Tapley, Franklin E. Bradshaw. 

1859. James Adams, Edwin F. Adams, G. W. Warren, John K. 

Fuller, Calvin C. Sampson, Gustavus V. Hall, Henry C. 
Graves, Samuel T. Tapley, Solomon G. Phipps, T. T. 
Sawyer, George E. Ellis, W. W. Wheildon, G. B. Neal, 
John Sanborn, A. E. Cutter , Henry K. Frothingham, J. *> 
B. Miles, J. G."FosterT~ 

1860. Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, George B. Neal, T. T. 

Sawyer, Edwin F. Adams, Calvin C. Sampson, James 
Adams, A. R Cutter, Wm. F. Conant, W. W. Wheildon, ¥- 
G. Washington Warren, Gustavus V. Hall, Samuel H. 



60 

Pook, John Sanborn , Henry K. Frothingham, Charles F. 
Smith, Horace B. Wilbur, Godfrey B. Albee. 

1861. T. T. Sawyer, Henry Lyon, James B. Miles, B. F. Brown, 

George Johnson, Herbert Curtis, Henry C. Graves, Wm. 

II. Finney, James Adams, George B. Neal, Charles F. 

Smith, G. V. Hall, W. W. Wheildon, John Sanborn, A. 

r K Cutter, N. A. Tufts, James Lee, Jr., M. F. Warren. 

1862. Nathan A. Tufts, James Adams, James Lee, Jr., Andrew 

J. Locke, Thomas Doane, J. Q. A. Griffin, Henry Lyon, 
Henry C. Graves, T. T. Sawyer, John Sanborn, B. F. 
£ Brown, A^ E^Cutter, Geo. B. Neal, H. Curtis, Charles 

F. Smith7 Wm. H. Finney, James B. Miles, W. W. 
Wheildon. 

1863. A. E. Cutter, Nathan A. Tufts, Geo. B. Neal, Geo. H. 
? Yeaton, Charles F. Smith, Wm. B. Long, Geo. H. .Har- 
den, Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, T. T. Sawyer, James 
Adams, A. J. Locke, B. F. Brown, Thomas Doane, Wm. 
H. FiDQCy, James Lee, Jr., James B. Miles. 

1864. A^ K Cutter, N. A. Tufts, Jas. B. Miles, James Adams, 
]> Geo. BjNeal, William Peirce, Augustus H. Heath,JA. J. 

Locke, Geo. H. Yeaton, Benj. F. Brown, James Lee, Jr., 
Arthur W. Tufts, Wm. H. Finney, Edwin B. Haskell, 
Charles. F. Smith, William B. Long, William Fosdick, 
George H. Harden. 

1865. James Adams, Geo. E. Mackintire, Abrarn . E. Cutter, Wil- 
f liam Peirce, Arthur W. Tufts, James B. Miles, George 

W. Gardner, Samuel H. Hurd, Geo. B. Neal, George H. 
Yeaton, Augustus H. Heath, Benjamin F. Brown, George 
H. Harden, Jerome B. Horse, John A. Day, Edwin B. 
Haskell, Charles F. Smith, William B. Long. 

1866. Abram E_. Cutter , Oscar F. Safford, J. E. Rankin, William 
/^ Pv. Bradford, Charles N. Smith, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stacy 

Baxter, William H. Finney, Charles H. Bigelow, William 
Peirce, George W. Gardner, George H. Harden, Ben- 
jamin F. Brown, Samuel H. Hurd, John A. Day, E. B. 
Haskell,. Charles F. Smith, James F. Hunnewell. 

1867. J. E. Rankin, Abram^ Cutter, Oscar F. Safford, Wm. R. 



61 



Bradford, Moses H. Sargent, David M. Balfour, Sam- 
uel H. Hurd, George H. Marden, Geo. H. Yeaton, 
Stacy Baxter, Andrew J. Locke, John Sanborn, George 
W. Gardner, ¥m. H. Finney, Charles II. Bigelow. Ed- 
win B. Haskell, John A. Day, Charles F. Smith. 
186.8. Liverus Hull, Mayor, ex-officio, Jas. Swords, Pres. of Com. 
/X Council, ex-officio; Abr/tm K Cutter, Oscar F. Safford, 

Wm. R. Bradford, George A, Hamilton, James F. Hunne- 
well, James F. Southworth, John Sanborn, Audrew J. 
Locke, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stac} r Baxter, Matthew H. Mer- 
riam, Wm. H. Finne} 7 , Charles H. Bigelow, Edwin B. 
Haskell, George W. Gardner, Chavles F. Smith, George 
H. Marden, Nahum Chapin. 

1869. Eugene L. Norton, Mayor, ex-officio, Andrew J. Bailey, 

Pres. of the Com. Council, ex-officio; Geo. W. Gardner, 
Wm. H. Finney, A. J. Locke, Wm. Peirce, Charles E. 
Daniels, James F. Hunnewell, Geo. A. Hamilton, Wm. 
B. Bradford, -Nahum Chapin. J. W. Randy John Sanborn, 
Willim Raymond, M. H. Merriam, Charles F. Smith, 
/^- A.'.E. Cutter , Geo. H. Marden, John Turner, Washing- 
ton Litbgow. 

1870. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex-officio, Jas. Adams, Pres. of the 
/#- Com. Council, ex-officio; Wm. Peirce, A^_ E^ Cutter, 

James F. Hunnewell, Geo. A. Hamilton, Wm. R. Brad- 
ford, Willard Rice, John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P. 
Crown,, Wm. Raymond, Washington Lithgow, S. S. 
Blanchard, Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, Charles 
F. Smith, John Turner, Charles E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey. 

1871. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex officio, John B. Norton, Pres. of 
/AT Common Council, ex-officio; Wm. Peirce, A^ E^ Cutter, 

John G. Dearborn, Wm. R. Bradford, Charles E. Sweney, 
Henry R. Sibley, John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P. 
Crown, S. S. Blanchard, Charles F. Smith, Liverus Hull, 
Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, John Turner, Charles 
E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Marden. 

1872. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex-officio; Joseph W. Hill, Pres. Com. 
/& Council, ex-officio; A^ E. Cutter^ Charles E. Sweney, 



'62 



Wm. R. Bradford, James A. McDonald, James S. Mur 
phy, James F. Southworth, John Sanborn, Nahum Cha 
pin, L. P. Crown, S. S. Blanchard, Charles F. Smith 
Wm. H. Finney, Geo. W. Gardner, John Turner, Charle 

E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Harden, A. O. Lind 
sey. 

1873. Jonathan Stone, Mayor, ex-officio, Ethan N. Coburn, Prea 
Com. Council, ex-officio; A^ E. Cutter,* Charles E 
Sweney, James A. McDonald, James S. Murphy, Jame 

F. Southworth, John G. Dearborn, Charles F. Smitt 
L. P. Crown,* Wm. H. Finney, Nahum Chapin, Joh 
Sanborn, S. S. Blanched, Geo. W. Gardner,* Geo. H 
Marden, John Turner,* A. O. Lindsey, Charles H 
Daniels, Edmund L. Conway.f — Elected to Jill vacancie 
— R. H. Parker, J. P. Loring, J. H. Cotton, Geo. g 
Poole. 

* Resigned. f Deceased.