jv-o * 6345 ^55
CITY OF CHARLESTOWN,
REPORTS OF THE SUPERINTENDENT,
For the Year 1873.
PRINTED BY CALEB RAND.
CITY OF CHAKLESTOWK
In Board of School Committee, September 18, 1873.
At a meeting of the Board held this evening, Messrs. Dear-
born, Finney, and Daniels were appointed a Committee to piepaie
the Annual Report.
Attest: F. A. DOWNING,
In School Committee, December 31, 1873.
Ordered : That the Annual Report of the School Commiiiee
and Superintendent be accepted, and that one thousand copies be
printed for distribution.
Attest; F. A. DOWNING,
JONATHAN L STONE,
Mayor, ex officio.
ETHAN N. COBURN,
President of the Common Council, ex officio.
Charles E. Sweney,
J. G. Dearborn,
James A. McDonald,
James 8. Mlrphy,
James F. Southworth
Retire H. Parker.
Charles F. 8mith,
S. S. Blanchard,
William H. Finney,
Joseph H. Cotton.
Charles E. Daniels,
George H. Marden,
A. O. Lindsey,
John P. Loring,
George S. Poole.
JONATHAN STONE, Chairman.
F. A. DOWNING, Secretary.
WM H. FINNEY, Treasurer.
JAMES MLSKELLY, Messenger.
BENJAMIN F. TWEED, Superintendent of ScJiools.
A. O. Lindset, Chas. F. Smith, John Sanborn.
Chas. F. Smith, Chas. E. Daniels, R. H. Parker.
S. S. Blanchard, George S. Poole, W. H. Finney, Chas. E.
Geo. H. Harden, R. H. Parker, A. 0. Lindsey, J. G.
ON EXAMINATION of teachers.
Wm. H Finney, Chas. F. Smith, J. G. Dearborn, S. S. Blan-
chard, Geo. H. Harden.
Nahum Chapin, Chas. F. Smith, Jas. F. Southworth.
John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin.
on evening schools.
Citas. E. Daniels, R. H. Parker, Chas F. Smith, Nahum Cha-
pin, S. S. Blanchard.
OKGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOLS.
Committee. — Messrs. Dearborn, Mardert, Murphy, Parker,
Teachers. — Caleb Emery, Principal ; Alfred P. Gage,
Master of the English Department ; L. B. Pillsbury, Sub-
Master; Katharine Whitney, EmmaG. Shaw, A. E. Somes,
Susan A. Getchell, Anna M. Wilde, Assistant Teachers.
BUNKER HILL GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
Committee. — Messrs. Daniels, Marden, Liudsey.
Teachers. — Chas. G. Pope, Principal ; Henry F. Sears,
Sub-Master; Mary A. Eaton, Head Assistant; Abbie P.
Josselyn, Ellen B. Wentworth, Caroliue W. Graves, Geor-
gia Smith, Angelia M. Knowles, Mary S. Thomas, Lydia S.
Jones, Ida O. Hurd, Caroline C. Thompson, Anna M. Pres-
cott, Assistant Teachers.
WARREN GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
Committee. — Messrs. Finney, Parker, Sweney, Poole.
Teachers. — Geo. Swan, Principal ; E. B. Ga}>-, Sub-Mas-
ter ; Sarah M. Chandler, Head Assistant; Anna D. Dalton,
Anna S. Osgood, Margaret W. Veazie, Elizabeth Swords,
Frances L. Dodge, Abbie E. Holt, Ellen A. Pratt, Abbie C.
Lewis, Louisa Swan, Maria L. Bolan, Alice Hall, Assistant
HARVARD GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
Committee. — Messrs. Southworth, Dearborn, McDonald,
Teachers. — Warren E. Eaton, Principal ; Darius Hadley,
Sub-Master ; Abbie B. Tufts, Head Assistant ; Ann L. Wes-
ton, Sarah E. Leonard, Sarah A. Benton, Mary P. Rowland,
Lucy A. Kimball, Fannie B. Hall, Emma F. Thomas, Lois
A. Rankin, Mary A. Emery, Elizabeth B. Wetherbee, As-
WINTHROP GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
Committee. — Messrs. Chapiu, Sanborn, Blanchard.
Teachers. — Caleb Murdock, Principal; William B. At-
wood, Sub-Master; Harriet E. Frye, Bial W. Willard, Ara-
bella P. Moulton, Georgianna Warren, Sarah H. Nowell,
Abbie M. Clark, Ellen R. Stone, Jennie E. Tobey, Ellen
A. Chapin, Lucy A. Seaver, Assistant Teachers.
PRESCOTT GRAMMAR SCHOOL.
Committee. — Messrs. Smith, Loring, Cotton.
Teachers. — Geo. T. Littlefield, Principal; Samuel J.
Bullock, Sub-Master; Mary G. Prichard, Head Assistant;
Martha M. Kenrick, Mary C. Sawyer, Elizabeth J. Farns-
worth, Julia C. Power, Ellen C. Dickinson, Lydia A. Sears,
Frances A. Craigen, Jennie F. Sawyer, Assistant Teachers.
No. 1. Sub- Committee. — S. S. Blanchard.
No. 2. " Geo. S.Poole.
No. 3. " John Sanborn.
Teachers. — Lucy M. Small, Anna :R. Stearns, C. M.
DISTRICT NO. 1.
Committee. — Messrs. Marden; Daniels.
Teachers. — H'^leii G. Turner, Effie G. Hazen, Elizabeth
B. Norton, Sarah A. Smith, Mary E. Flanders, S. Josephine
Worcester, Ada E. Bowler, Sarah A. Atwood, Carrie M.
district no. 2.
Committee — Messrs. Poole, Lindsey, Loring.
Teachers. — M. Josephine Smith, Melissa J. A. Conley,
Elizabeth W. Yeatou, Abbie P. Kichardson.
district no. 3.
Committee. — Messrs. Sweney, Smith, Dearborn.
Teachers. — Frances M. Lane, Emma Hanson, Mary E.
Smith, Ellen Hadley, Carrie E. Osgood, Abbie Varney.
district no. 4.
Committee. — Messrs. Sanborn, Chapin, Cotton.
Teachers. — Martha Yeaton, Mary P. Swain, Persis M.
Whittemore, Frances B. Butts, Louisa W. Huntress, Mari-
etta F. Allen, O. H. Morgan.
DISTRICT NO. 5.
Committee. — Messrs. Blanchard, Finney, Murphy.
Teachers. — Elizabeth A. Prichard, Catharine C. Brower,
Mary P. Kittredge, Effie A. Kettell, Elizabeth R. Brower,
Alice S. Hatch.
DISTRICT NO. 6.
Committee. — Messrs. Parker, Southworth, McDonald.
Teachers. — Frances A. Foster, H. W. Heath, Elizabeth
F. Doane, C. M. W. Tilden, Louisa A. Whitman, Caroline
A. Rea, Lucy M. Soulee.
The appropriations for the fiscal year, beginning
March 1, 1873, and the expenses under such appro-
priations for ten months, to January 1, 1874, are
shown by the following table: —
Salaries of teachers,
secretary, and messenger .
The salaries of teachers are, —
Principal of the High School .
Master of English Department of the High School
Sub-Master of the High School
Head Assistant " "
Second " " "
Assistants " "
Principals of Grammar Schools
Sub-Masters " "
Head Assistants " "
Teachers of Third Classes of Grammar Schools
- Assistants after first year " "
Assistants first year " "
Teachers of Intermediate Schools
" Primary Schools after first year
" " " first year .
Music Teacher ......
Drawing Master .
There have been some changes in the membership
of the Board, more, indeed, than have ordinarily oc-
curred in a single year. Four gentlemen have re-
signed, one of whom, Mr. Lyman P. Crown, has siuce
Dr. Edmund L. Conway, having been ill at the time
of his election, died without having taken his seat as
a member. Five vacancies have thus occurred, one
of which still remains unfilled.
The Board has held its regular meetings through-
out the year, at which the subject of education in
general, and various details connected with the prog-
ress, management, and requirements of the schools
have received due consideration. Aside from this,
the various standing and sub-committees have given
much time and thought to such special matters as
have come before them.
The full and comprehensive report of the superin-
tendent leaves but few points to which this commit-
tee need call attention. To some portion of this re-
port we shall presently make more special reference,
although no very marked changes have been made in
the schools during the past year. There have been
some improvements in respect to more intelligent
teaching; and, generally speaking, the schools are in
In the primary schools, improved methods of in-
struction have been gradually introduced by the super-
intendent, and with excellent results. We regard
these schools as worthy of the most liberal support
and the most careful supervision.
The idea has been quite prevalent among the com-
munity at large that almost any person, possessing a
fair degree of patience, and some notion of discipline,
would do very well to teach in a primary school.
Even the transfer of a successful primary school
teacher to a grammar school has been sometimes
urged, on the ground of promotion. But the very
highest qualities of mind and character are requisite
for successful teaching in those schools, and it is
gratifying to know that this matter is beginning to
be viewed in its true light.
It is certainly of the utmost importance that chil-
dren should be well and correctly taught from the
outset. For, if their first steps in the path of knowl-
edge be guided aright, and the way made so pleasant
that they shall wish to learn more; if, at the same time,
they be taught to despise everything low and mean,
and to choose that which is honorable and good, then
has a great work been accomplished, the results of
which will be as lasting as life.
Of the condition of these schools, the Superinten-
dent's report gives a full account, to which we have
nothing to add, except to say that we find them to be
in good condition, and believe that they will compare
favorably with such schools throughout the Common-
We desire to call special attention to that part of
the Superintendent's report which relates to the pres-
ent and prospective wants of the primary schools. It
thus appears (and we are able to corroborate these
statements from personal observation) that with the
exception of districts five and six, these schools are
full, — in some cases to overflowing.
It should be remembered that every pupil added to
a school beyond the number which the room can con-
veniently accommodate, not only fails to receive due
benefit as a pupil, but also impairs, to some extent, the
efficiency of the whole school. It is also highly de-
sirable that better accommodations should be fur-
nished the scholars attending schools on and near
Medford Street. These school-houses are both small
and inconvenient; and one, at least, on account of
its location and surroundings, is totally unfitted for
the purpose for which it is used.
We earnestly recommend that the earliest possi-
ble action be taken to supply those wants, as well as
those of the "Winthrop Grammar School.
To say nothing of the inconvenience of the upper
rooms of this school-house, the lower rooms are seri-
ously objectionable on account of dampness.
Disease often originates among people who live in
rooms similarly situated; and certainly such rooms
ought never to be used for schools. As the urgent
need of better accommodations in this case has been
repeatedly referred to in former reports, and as it has
come under the notice of former city governments,
and its claims to attention and favorable action have
generally been admitted, it is, perhaps, unnecessary
to say more upon the subject at this time.
During the past three years there have been many
changes in the corps of teachers of this school. Of
those connected with the school three years ago, only
the principal, master of the English Department, and
first assistant now remain. Two have been removed
by death; the others have for various reasons
resigned. Undoubtedly the interests of this school
have suffered to some extent from these changes.
Whenever a teacher succeeds to the position of
another, although both may be fully qualified for
their work, there will always be some loss to the
classes under instruction, since more or less time
will be required to get the work fully in hand, and to
carry it on as smoothly and profitably as before.
The present corps of teachers seem to appreciate
the importance of the work intrusted to their care,
and are carrying it on with good results.
Mr. Henry W. Brown, appointed sub-master in
November, 1872, having decided to pursue a course
of study in Europe, retired from his position at the
close of the term in July. Mr. Brown is a gentleman
of much culture and refinement, who possesses many
excellent qualifications as a teacher. Mr. L. B.
Pillsbury, late master of a grammar school in
Somerville, has been appointed to the position of sub-
master, and Miss A. E. Somes has been appointed to
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Miss
Mary L. Coombs. Miss Coombs had been connected
with the school for several years, and had always
earnestly and faithfully performed her duties as a
After much care and consideration, a course of
study has been adopted which went into effect on the
first of September. In adopting this revised course
of study, the effort has been to meet, as far as possi-
ble, the varied wants of all pupils who may wish to
attend this school. Certain studies have been made
elective, such as Geology, Astronomy, Botany,
etc., while more time will be given to Book-keeping
and Higher Arithmetic.
Early in the year a petition was received, signed
by a majority of the parents having pupils in the
High School, asking that the sessions of this school
might be so changed as to omit the regular session
This petition was referred to the Committee on the
High School, and the report thereupon was as fol-
In School Committee, }
March 27, 1873. )
The Committee on the High School, to whom was referred the
petition of many parents, that the school hours in the High School
be so changed as to have regular sessions from nine till two on five
successive days, and no session on Saturday, beg leave to report that
they have considered the matter in its various bearings, and, after
conferring with the principal of the school, have arrived at the
unanimous conclusion that the petition ought to be granted. They
therefore recommend the passage of the following orders : —
'jraered. — That section 3 of chapter V. of the General Regula-
tions of the Public Schools, be so amended as to read —
"There shall be one daily session of this school, commencing at
9 o'clock, and ending at 2 o'clock, for five days in the week ;
namely, Monday, Tuesdajr, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, an 1
no session on Saturday. There shall be a recess, midway in eaeli
daily session, of twenty minutes."
Ordered. — That section 27, of chapter 1, of the General Eegu-
ations be amended by adding after the words " eveiy "Wednesday
and Saturday afternoon throughout the year," the words " Except
in the High School, as provided in section 3, chapter V."
The committee have arrived at these conclusions from the follow-
ing considerations : —
(1). — The character and number of the petitioners ; — thej 7 being
parents of the scholars, and a very large majority of all the parents.
(2). — Belief to the scholars themselves; — they being now 1 ept
in school every day in the week, nearly the full time of the regular
sessions, thus allowing very little respite from severe study.
<3). — Practicability. It is thought by the principal and by the
sub-committee of the school that the work of the school can be done
equally well in five days as in six.
(4). — The experience of those who have tried both plans. The
whole of Saturday is given as a holiday in most of our academies,
and in very many of our High Schools, and this plan gives gre it
satisfaction to all.
The foregoing report was accepted, and the orders
therein recommended were passed.
Last year the Board made an appropriation for the
purpose of fitting up a laboratory for practical in-
struction in chemistry. The committee are happy to
report that this project has been carried into effect
with complete success. Since they have received
instruction in the laboratory, the pupils have taken an
increased interest in this branch of study, and at the
examinations have been found to possess a practical
and accurate knowledge of this science which eou.'d
have been obtained in no other way.
The following report of the committee on Evening
Schools was presented to the Board in April: —
To the Board of School Committee : —
The evening school for boys was held in the basement of the
Prescott School house, during the months of December, January,
February, and March, 1872-3 ; that for girls in the basement of
the Winthrop school-house, during the same time.
The school for boys was under the charge of Messrs. Henry F.
Sears and E. B. Gray, and that for girls, of Miss B. W". Willard
and Mrs C. M. Sisson
Each school was in session thirty-five evenings.
During the months of December and January, the whole num-
ber of boys was seventy-five, the average attendance being forty-
five. During February and March, the whole number was thirty-
five, there being an average attendance of thirty.
This, it will be observed, is a much higher percentage than
we have usually obtained. The arrangement of having two
of our sub-masters who are acquainted with many of the class
that attend our evening schools, has been attended with unusual
The school has been less disturbed by those who have no desire
to learn, and the spirit of the school has been much more favor-
able to good results.
YVe believe that a very large portion of those who have attended
have been greatly benefited.
On the last evening, thirty-four diplomas were awarded ; and the
teachers believe that, in every instance, it was the reward of an
earnest endeavor to make the most of the opportunities provided
by the committee.
The whole number of pupils in the girls' school was thhiy-four,
with an average attendance of twenty-three.
This school, though somewhat smaller than the boys', has been
well disciplined and taught, and most of the pupils made marked
improvement. Twenty-three diplomas were awarded in this
Your committee, in closing, would express the. opinion that the
evening schools have been more successful than ever before, and
would suggest that another winter it might be well to open another
boys' school, at least, in some place nearer the square.
In concluding this last annual report, it seems
proper to refer briefly to the past record of Charles-
town, — as town and city, — regarding the interests
of public education. The liberality of the appropri-
ations for schools, and the interest manifested in them,
have ever been marked characteristics of our muni-
cipality. Many of our best and most prominent citi-
zens — as will appear by the names in the appendix
to this report — have served from time to time on the
school committee, and the records of the committee
show with what vigilance and care these appropria-
tions have been expended, and the interests of the
schools guarded. Our schools have ever been the
pride of our citizens; and, though far from perfect,
we believe they will be found, on the whole, better
to-day than at any previous period. We commend
them to the fostering care of the city into which we
are now merged, and whose system of popular edu-
cation, is, perhaps, its proudest monument.
J. G. DEARBORN.
WM. H. FINNEY.
CHARLES E. DANIELS.
5 tf °
- s g
P o -
o w .S
M " .M
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE CHARLESTOWN SCHOOLS,
Term ending Feb. 1*^73.
Gentlemen, — The term from September, 1872, to
February 1, 1873, was in some respects exceptional.
The prevalence of the small-pox and varioloid during
a large part of the term had a tendency to reduce the
school attendance, especially as we adopted very
stringent measures for excluding all who were known
to have been exposed to the disease.
Others, especially in the primary schools, were kept
at home by parents, to avoid exposure. I believe,
however, that the care used had such a tendency to
inspire confidence, that the schools were much less
disturbed than they would have been if we had
adopted a more lax policy. The unusual severity of
the winter also had some influence in diminishing
the attendance in the lowest grade of the primary
The work done, however, in our primary and gram-
mar schools has been, I think, as a whole, more intel-
ligent and practical than heretofore. Our teachers
in the primary schools have more uniformly adopted
modern and improved methods in teaching the ele-
ments of reading, and in many instances with marked
This has had its influence on the reading in the
upper classes of the primary schools, in some of
which I have heard excellent articulation and into-
nation. In our grammar schools, too, there has been
an increased interest in reading; and in some classes
I have heard pieces rendered with marked taste and
expression. This I regard as the most important
exercise in our primary and grammar schools, and
chiefly because it is the key to all the rest and involves
more mental discipline than any other exercise.
Good reading is the best analysis of thought and
feeling. Principles which it would be utterly impos-
sible to teach by any abstract statement, are easily
appreciated by pupils when aided by the discriminat-
ing intonations of a good reader, — which every
teacher should be.
In geography much more attention is given to map
drawing, and much less to descriptive geography. A
knowledge of form, relative distance, and location,
which are the elements of geography, is only obtained
and fixed in the mind by frequent drawing on the
slate, the blackboard, or paper. The general outline
of the most important divisions should be made as
familiar to the pupil as the form of the letters he
uses in writing, and by the same process, — practice.
While this is made the leading object of the recita-
tion in geography, many of the important facts ot
geography are learned in connection with the written
exercises which have greatly increased in our schools,
and which, while imparting much useful information,
give the pupils facility and correctness in the
use of language. This practice of writing in
their own language, what they have learned from
reading and conversational explanations by the
teacher, has become one of the most efficient means
of instruction in our grammar schools.
There is, I think, a decided tendency on the part
of a large portion of our primary and grammar
school teachers to freer and more liberal methods of
instruction, and less servility in simply hearing reci-
tations from the text-book.
The exceptions to this are found chiefly among
those who, from habit and constitution, have become
wedded to old methods, and those who have been
appointed as teachers before making any special
preparation. Such, of course, must have time for
learning how to teach, and we are fortunate if they
are willing even then to take advantage of all the
means that offer, to make up for a lack of previous
The time has come, not only in our own State, but
in all the States, where the public school system is in
successful operation, when it is no longer considered
the province of the grammar and high school to fit
pupils for any particular trade or profession, but to
give them a general education, and leave the work
of qualifying them for a specialty to the trades or
professions which they may severally choose. It was
stated by Horace Mann more than a quarter of a
century ago, after an examination of the European
schools, that nothing but the establishment of normal
schools, where teaching should be regarded as a spe-
cial profession, could permanently benefit our schools,
and make them what they must be to secure the con-
fidence and respect of the intelligent portion of the
It was with this idea that the first normal school
in America was established at Lexington, in 1839.
This Mr. Mann ever regarded as the most important
achievement of his secretaryship. From that time
to this, the increase in the number and efficiency of
the normal schools of any State has marked with
great accuracy the condition of its public schools. It
is true that the normal schools of the country, even
now, are far too few to supply all our schools with
teachers who have had a full professional preparation ;
but the establishment of training schools by many of
our cities and large towns, and the holding of insti-
tutes by the Board of Education, are intended, tempo-
rarily, to supplement, as far as practicable, the means
not fully provided for in our normal schools. The
necessity of such professional training is fully recog-
nized by all who have taken a prominent part in edu-
cational matters in the State, and furnishes the only
justification for the annual expenditure of many thou-
sand dollars, under the direction of the Board of Edu-
The High School has been peculiarly unfortunate
the past term, in consequence of the change of teach-
ers. The death of Miss Chamberlain and the resig-
nation of Mr. Drew rendered the appointment of two
new teachers necessary; and the severe illness of Miss
Getchell and Miss Coombs has put their classes into
the hands of substitutes for a considerable time, who,
however competent, could not, of course, do as well
for the class as a regular teacher. The evil, how^-
ever, so far as it has been caused by sickness, was
unavoidable, and all possible care has been exercised
in the appointment of substitutes.
In the department of chemistry and natural phi-
losophy, the instruction has been of a much more
practical character than formerly, and the pupils ma-
nipulate with great accuracy, showing a thorough
knowledge of principles and their application.
An exercise before the Middlesex Teachers'
Convention, conducted by Mr. Gage, in which his
pupils performed all the experiments, gave great
satisfaction, and evinced such a knowledge of the
properties of elementary substances and their combi-
nations as to win the commendation of many compe-
tent teachers in the same department. I am informed
by Mr. Emery that the preparatory class is laboring
faithfully, and he feels confident that they will restore
the prestige which, with one exception, our High
School has maintained for twenty years.
THE EVENING SCHOOLS.
These schools have been conducted with less dis-
order, and the results have been more satisfactory
than heretofore. The report of the committee con-
tains the statistics and the general results of the
schools, and some suggestions with reference to an
increased number of schools hereafter, which I hope
will commend themselves to the Board.
DRAWING IN OUR DAT SCHOOLS AND IN THE EVE-
NING DRAWING SCHOOLS.
Drawing in our primary and grammar schools has
received generally the attention claimed for it by the
committee on drawing, and the results are highly sat-
isfactory. If we had not had the assurance of our
own drawing master and others that the ability to
learn to draw is as common as to learn any of the
branches taught in our schools, I should say that
the work done by most of the classes was surprising ;
but as an exhibition of specimens by all the pupils
will be given in June, every one will have an oppor-
tunity of testing the truth of the statement, and
of comparing the work of different schools marking
the progress since the exhibition last year.
In the evening drawing school the whole number
of scholars was sixty-five, — forty-seven males and
eighteen females. The average attendance was thir-
ty-three. There were about twenty from the classes
of '71 and '72, most of whom completed their third
term of evening school instruction.
Four different departments were carried on at the
same time, viz. the class of beginners in geometrical
drawing, the advanced class in construction, outline,
and model drawing. With such a diversity the
teacher, of course, labored under considerable diffi-
culty ; and, but for the sets of models, it would hardly
have been possible to satisfy the demands of all. The
progress, however, was good, and the interest contin-
ued unabated to the close.
Mr. Baker suggests that the number and variety
of the models and flat examples should be greatly
increased, and that colored examples, and casts of
ornament and figure, should be added. He also re-
peats what he said a year ago, and what the Director
of Art Education said, with reference to the neces-
sity of a room arid drawing stands suited to the dis-
play and use of models, etc.
The music in our schools, since the introduction of
Mason's Charts, has become a more definite branch of
instruction; and, while it has afforded a pleasant and
beautiful exercise, relieving to some extent the
monotony of the ordinary school recitation, the
pupils, even in our primary schools, have proved that
they have the ability, with scarcely an exception, to
discriminate sounds, and to learn to read simple
music. At an exhibition given by Mr. Mason,
during the term, in the Harvard School hall, classes
representing the highest grade in the primary, and
each grade of the grammar schools, were found to be
able to sing, with a good degree of accuracy and read-
iness, such combinations as were presented to them
for the first time. I think those members of the com-
mittee that were present, will agree with me that it
was a very creditable performance.
During the last half year, the superintendents of
the State have given much attention to the subject ot
a programme, and such a division of time in the
several studies, as to secure a general uniformity in all
the cities and large towns in the State. This, if it can
be effected, will be of great benefit and convenience
to scholars moving from one place to another. In
consultation with the grammar masters, I have care-
fully re-examined our course of study, adapting it to
the various subjects taught, rather than to any par-
ticular text-book, both to aid in this general unifor-
mity, and to encourage teachers to adopt methods ot
instruction more independent of text-books. The
results of these deliberations I shall report to the
committee in time, if adopted, to go into operation in
September. In the confident belief that the efforts
now making, throughout the country, to improve the
methods and to adapt our courses of instruction to
the wants of the community, will result in better sys-
tems and better schools than we have yet seen, this
report is respectfully submitted.
B. F. TWEED,
SUPEKINTENDENT OF THE CHARLESTOWtf SCHOOLS,
Term ending July, ±&73.
The number of children in Charlestown between 5 and 1 5
years of age, on May 1st, 1873, as returned by the
assessors, was .
Average number of pupils in all the day schools
" attendance " " " "
Per cent " " " " "
Average number " the High School
" attendance " " " "
Per cent " " " " "
Number of pupils to a teacher in " "
Average number in the Grammar Schools
" attendance " "
Percent " " "
Number of pupils to a teacher in the Grammar Schools
Average number in the Intermediate Schools
" attendance " " "
Per cent " li " "
Number of pupils to a teacher in Intermediate Schools
Average number in the Primary Schools
« attendance " " " •
Percent " " u « .
Number of pupils to a teacher in the Primary Schools
Average number in Bunker Hill School .
" attendance in """...
Per cent " " " "
Number of pupils to a teacher in Bunker Hill School
Average number in Warren School
" attendance in " " .
Percent " " " .
Number of pupils to a teacher in Warren School
Average number in Prescott School
" attendance in " " . .
Percent " " " . .
Number of pupils to a teacher in Prescott School
Average number in Harvard School
" attendance in " "
Percent " " " .
Number of pupils to a teacher in Harvard School
Average number in Winthrop School
" attendance in " "
Per cent " « " .
Number of pupils to a teacher in Winthrop School
Average number of pupils in all the day schools, for the
year ending July 3, 1873
Average attendance of pupils in all the day schools, for
the year ending July 3, 1873 .
Number of graduates from the High School, July 3, 1873
" admitted from the Grammar Schools to the
High School, July 3, 1873 (boys) . . . 84
" admitted from the Grammar Schools to the
High School, July 3, 1873 (girls) . .61
Number of graduates from the Grammar Schools, July
Number of graduates from the Bunker Hill School, July
Number of graduates from the Warren School July 3, 1873
" " " Prescott " "
" " " Winthrop" "
" " " Harvard' " "
Number of graduates from the Primary and Intermediate
Schools, for the year ending July 3, 1873
46 7 -
Before proceeding to report on the instruction in
our schools, it is proper that I should say a word re-
specting our school accommodations, indicating our
present and prospective wants. We have, then, an ex-
cellent high school building, and four first-class gram-
mar school-houses, giving ample accommodations to
the pupils of their respective districts. I say four,
for the Prescott, though containing but ten school-
rooms, is, in all respects but size, equal to the others.
The Winthrop has been referred to so often as en-
tirely unfit for school purposes, that I can but repeat
what . has been said in every report since i868.
The large halls are inconvenient, and not at all
adapted to the present organization of our grammar
schools; three rooms in the basement, which it has
been found necessary to use, — though not originally
intended for school-rooms, — are truly described in the
report of 1869, as "dark, damp, and unhealthy"; while
" the recitation rooms on the upper floors are small,
poorly seated, and destitute of ventilation." The
pressing need of a new house for this school has for
several years been urged by the school committee, and
acknowledged by the city government in selecting a
site and preparing plans for a new house. His Honor
the Mayor also called attention to the wants of this
district in his inaugural address; but for reasons,
chiefly financial, no definite steps have been taken to
build. It is to be hoped that the urgent wants of
this district will be supplied with the least possible
In the primary school district No. 1, we have nine
school-rooms, — eight in the building at the corner
of Charles and Bunker Hill Streets, and one on Haver-
These rooms are now fall to overflowing at some
seasons, and the erection of new dwelling-houses be-
yond the railroad crossing on the Neck will render it
necessary to provide additional accommodations in
that locality very soon.
In district No. 2, there are four rooms in the build-
ing on Mead Street. These rooms are now full, and
will soon be wholly inadequate to the wants of the
district. A new building in the vicinity of Sullivan
Square, containing several rooms, would relieve the
Charles Street primaries, and enable them to take a
portion of the pupils in district No. 2.
District No. 3 comprises two schools in the build-
ing on Cross and Bartlett Streets, two in separate
houses on Medford Street, and two in the building on
Polk Street. These are now full, and new accommo-
dations are required.
District No. 4 comprises two schools in the build-
ing on BunkerHill Street, three schools in the building
on Moulton Street (one room being occupied by a
class belonging to the Winthrop Grammar School),
and two schools in separate houses on Fremont
Street. We need even now the fourth room in
the Moulton Street building*; and the district is
so compact that it is to be hoped a building will
soon be erected that will furnish accommodations for
the Bunker Hill and Fremont Street Schools, and
provide for the rapid increase of pupils in this part
of the city.
District No. 5 comprises six schools in the Com-
mon Street building, and district No. 6 the seven pri-
maries and one intermediate, on Harvard Street.
There are ample and good accommodations for these
districts, though it may be necessary to change their
GRAMMAR AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS.
The statistics herewith given will be found to coin-
cide essentially with those of last year, though our
number of promotions to the high school has some-
what increased, and the proportion of pupils in the
upper classes of our grammar schools is greater than
heretofore. I may also say, that the examination of
grammar school pupils for promotion to the High
School gave better results. This was especially
marked in grammar, — or the ability " to write the
language correctly." In accordance with a previous
understanding, five questions were proposed in pars-
ing and analysis, to be marked on a scale of ten, and
the pupils were then required to write, in the form of
a letter to a friend, what they had been doing the
last year. This exercise was marked on a scale of
fifty, — taking into consideration the penmanship,
the spelling, the grammatical construction, the use of
capitals, and the punctuation. Of course, during the
year, a considerable portion of the time given to
grammar has been devoted to composition, in antici-
pation of this test of their ability "to write correctly."
As I have already intimated, I was particularly grat-
ified with the results, and I cannot but feel that our
teachers have done something to rescue " grammar "
from the odium which has j ustly attached to it, because
it " did not teach the pupils to write the language
That I may not be charged with making a loose
statement in this regard, I will say that the papers of
pupils examined are in my office, and are open to the
inspection of any one who may have the curiosity to
examine them. Several gentlemen, members of the
committee, and others, have looked at many of them,
and they have uniformly coincided with me in con-
sidering them highly creditable both to pupils and
teachers. It is so common an occurrence for people
in our cities and towns to speak in disparaging terms
of the schools as compared with some fabulous " gold-
en age " of the past, that I am especially desirous
they should inform themselves of their present con-
dition by personal examination, if they are doubtful
of the accuracy of statements made by those who
have them in charge.
Even our normal schools have not been exempt
from adverse criticism, which, under the sanction of
a great name, has been widely circulated by the press,
— though the criticisms were admitted to be based
on observations made some fifteen years ago.
I would not be understood to object to criticism, —
on the contrary, I invite it, — but it should be intel-
ligent criticism. I think it unjust publicly to criti-
cise or depreciate our schools, until one has assured
himself, by careful examination, that they deserve it.
It would be a great benefit if parents and guardians
would by personal inspection become acquainted with
existing methods, and interchange views with
those having charge of our schools. However faulty
their discipline and instruction at the present time,
— and I not only admit but affirm that there is much
that is unsatisfactory, — I yet believe that any fair-
minded man, who will make himself thoroughly
acquainted with their administration, and consider
the difficulties that exist among a population like
ours, and with teachers, many of whom have had
little special preparation and experience, will rather
wonder that pupils learn so much, and that order is
maintained with so little resort to force, than that
they learn no more, and that forcible means of disci-
pline are so frequent.
The value of confidence is well understood in
financial and commercial affairs, and never more
keenly felt than at the present time. All teachers
know it to be at least equally important in education.
Destroy the confidence of the pupils in their teach-
er, and to the same extent you destroy his influence.
Destroy the confidence of the community in our
school system and its administration, and you sub-
tract very much from its usefulness.
That great improvements have been made in the
matter ot school-houses and school furniture, an'd
especially in the system of grading, all are prepared
to admit. Whether the course of study and methods
of teaching have kept pace with these improvements
may be an open question.
The course of study in our grammar schools is the
result of long experience, and, I believe, requires no
radical change. As more intelligent teaching se-
cures more time, there will undoubtedly be modifica-
tions of the course, and additions to it; and these
modifications will be in the future, as they have been
in the past, tending to a more complete and practical
education for the great mass of pupils. We not
unfrequently hear the complaint that too mnch is
required of the pupils, and that the introduction of
drawing, music, etc., takes just so much from the
thoroughness with which the ordinary branches are
taught. On the other hand, we are met with the
complaint that so little is accomplished during the
six years of the grammar school course. I think
there is some ground for both these complaints. The
introduction of new studies must, of course, take
from the time formerly devoted to the meagre course
of our grammar schools; and, if no improvements
are made in our processes of teaching, there may and
must be a loss in thoroughness.
It is believed, however, that so much more can be
accomplished by intelligent teaching than has been
by the routine methods of those who have had no spe-
cial preparation for their work, that we have not yet
given our pupils as much to do as they can do thor-
oughly, under the most intelligent instruction. Ex-
perience, however, has shown that attention to these
branches has not been attended by any falling off in
the other branches. Their introduction has made
school pleasanter, and produced a degree of interest
and activity, that has reacted favorably on all school
studies. Should more time be wanted, I think I see
where it may be gained from the ordinary course.
Intelligent teaching can impart a better and more
practical knowledge of geography in half the time
than we have usually had. The same may be said of
grammar* and I believe a better knowledge of the
practical rules of arithmetic may be acquired in a
considerably less time than we now devote to it; and,
instead of its being done at the expense of thorough-
ness, I think we may add to the thoroughness.
"When Judge Story was asked why he made so large
a book on a certain subject, he said, " Because I had
not time to make a smaller one." Paradoxical as
this may seem to some, it was probably true; and if
so, the book must have contained much, perhaps, in
some way more or less remotely, relevant to the sub-
ject, but not necessary to its development.
So in teaching. As our teachers are more thor-
oughly prepared, so that they can eliminate all that
is not strictly necessary, the principles now buried
under different forms will be found to be few and
very simple. In a popular text-book on arithmetic, I
find a rule for dividing a fraction by a whole number ;
another for dividing a whole number by a fraction ;
another for dividing a mixed number by a whole num-
ber ; another for dividing a whole number by a mixed
number; another, which should have been the first and
only rule, for dividing a fraction by a fraction;
another for dividing a mixed number by a mixed
number; and still another for reducing a complex
fraction to a simple one.
When the pupil has learned, as he is supposed to
have learned, in this book, that a whole number may
be written as a fraction by placing the denominator
one (1) under it, and how to change a mixed number
to an improper fraction, there is but one principle and
one process to be learned, instead of seven, as given
in the book. Nor is it wholly loss of time and tax
on memory that I complain of. The impression is
given that there are seven different things, when, in
fact, there is but one. Thus we meet, at every turn,
the necessity for a more thorough preparation of
Mr. Mann saw this in 1810; and all experience since
proves that, after providing good accommodations
and apparatus, the question of progress depends
chiefly on the preparation and fitness of teachers.
Notwithstanding all that has been done by our nor-
mal schools to give us the best teachers, — and they
have done much, — we are still far behind several of
the European countries in this regard, even when we
make this preparation an essential requisite. Enter-
taining these views, I have sought, during my super-
intendency, to do what I could to make the teaching
more practical and intelligent, especially in our pri-
mary and grammar schools. There is, I believe,
much better teaching in many of our primary schools
than formerly; and in all our grammar schools the
teachers I think rely less upon the text-books, and
aim more to impart a knowledge of the subjects, than
to prepare the pupils to pass an examination in a defi-
nite set of problems. Of course, the teaching in the
several schools varies somewhat according to the
peculiarities and capacities of the teachers; but the
tendency has been the same in all, and I think there
has been a progressive spirit aroused in our schools
that will not be satisfied with the results even now
Already in several of the schools time is found to
go beyond the required course of study, and to
impart much useful knowledge on various interest-
ing subjects, by means of familiar lectures. The
substance of these lectures is then given by the
pupils in their written exercises or "compositions";
and they are thus forming the habit of selecting
the salient points in a discourse, and stating them in
their own language.
I know of no school exercise of greater educational
value than this. It induces fixed habits of attention
and judgment in the selection, no less than facility of
expression. I ought, perhaps, to say a word on the
discipline of our schools.
Fortunately, we have not had to meet the question
of corporal punishment in our schools in such a man-
ner as to require much action on the part of the com-
mittee. There is a standing rule that " The disci-
pline shall be such as a kind, judicious, and faithful
parent would exercise in his family," " avoiding cor-
poral punishment in all cases where good order and
wholesome restraint and discipline can be secured by
milder measures," and requiring that a record of
each case of corporal punishment shall be kept, and
reported monthly to the superintedent.
That this rule has had some influence, and that the
discipline of our schools is generally judicious, would
seem to be shown from the fact that we have been so
free from the periodic excitements to which some of
our neighboring cities have been subject. Corporal
punishment still exists in our schools; but, to the
credit of our teachers, I am glad to say that they are
making great effort to discipline without a resort to
it. It is already greatly reduced, and the discipline
has been, in the opinion of the teachers, improved,
rather than weakened. There is naturally a better
feeling existing between pupils and teachers.
In order, however, to banish the rod entirely from
our schools, our teachers must have the hearty co-
operation of parents, and the means of removing the
incorrigible — of whom there will be found a very small
number — to some place where they will be subject to
such discipline as they require. Our best teachers,
I know, are anxious to effect this object, and thus
relieve themselves of the most unpleasant thing con-
nected with the profession of teaching. Experience
has shown, that in all but a few extreme cases, the
parent may, by immediate consultation and co-opera-
tion with the teacher, render a resort to corporal
punishment unnecessary; and, for the extreme
cases, other measures, as I have suggested, should be
adopted. Knowing the desires of the teachers, I
earnestly invoke the aid of parents, by all the means
in their power, to put the discipline of our schools on
the sure basis of self-respect and mutual confidence.
The high school course of instruction in our New
England schools has not been, to the same extent
with that of our grammar schools, a growth, and it
is possible that it may be found susceptible of more
The programme for these schools was at first very
naturally based on the presumption that the pupils
were preparing for a higher course of instruction in
our colleges. Had this idea been adhered to, and
such scholars only been admitted to the high school
as were looking forward to a college course, the pro-
gramme would undoubtedly been found well adapted
to secure the desired end. It would then have been
necessary, in all but our largest cities, — containing
pupils enough for a classical preparatory school, and
an English high school, — to extend the course in our
grammar schools. Such, however, was not the policy
adopted, and the consequence has been that a feel-
ing exists in nearly every community that the high
school course is less practical than it should be for
that class who finish their school education in it. I
believe in most towns it will be found that modifica-
tions have been made in the course and always with
this view. It certainly has occupied the attention of
our High School committee; and, if the results thus
far have not been all that could be desired, they have
at least tended in that direction, and removed many
of the objections formerly urged.
The preparatory course naturally and necessarily
must follow the demands of the higher institutions ;
and school committees may safely leave to those
institutions the preparation of a course of study for
this class of pupils. Perhaps, also, under the new
order of things in our own city, some of the difficul-
ties which we have encountered in adapting our high
school course to the wants of those who finish their
school education here, may be obviated.
There are, however, questions of the relative
status of the different sexes, which are quite as closely
connected with education as with politics. These
questions involve, not only the identical education of
the sexes, but their co-education in our high schools
and colleges. Experience has shown that females
have the intellectual ability to compete successfully
with males in the high school curriculum, at least.
But physiology steps in, and while admitting that
this can be done, asserts that as our schools are now
organized, it is done at the expense of one of the most
important functions of the system, and that this vio-
lation of law becomes a fruitful source of disease.
Without denying that girls can do as much and as
well in the high school course of studies as boys, it
asserts that it must be done in a different way; that
while the male system, even at the school age, will
admit of constant and persistent effort, both physical
and intellectual, there is a periodicity in the constitu-
tion of the female which cannot be ignored without
the gravest consequences ; and that the most critical
period in this regard coincides almost precisely with
that of our high school course.
A work recently published, entitled "Sex in Edu-
cation," by Dr. Edward Clarke, considering this sub-
ject solely on physiological grounds, will, I am con-
fident, lead to some modification of views on the
vexed question of female education. It is a book of
equal value to parents and teachers
In addition to the statistics already given, the
principal of our High School, in a report to the High
School committee, says: —
" Allow me to express the opinion that the school, in all its
departments, is in good condition ; that all the teachers have per-
formed their respective duties faithfully and well ; and that most
of the scholars have pursued their studies with commendable zeal
and success. There have been a few cases, however, of very defec-
tive and superficial scholarship, in consequence of promoting
delinquent scholars ' with conditions,' instead of requiring them
to go over again, and thoroughly, the work of the preceding year.
"In a well arranged course of study, the successive classes can
advance to higher branches only when they have thoroughly mas-
tered their previous studies ; and the subjects assigned to each period
of the course are intended to call into exercise the power and
resources which those alone possess who have been faithful and
successful in the earlier stages of their progress.
" Those, therefore, who are deficient in the studies of one year of
the course, will not be likely to ' make up ' such deficiency in con-
nection with the duties of the succeeding year, and ought, in justice
to themselves as well as the school, to remain in a lower class until
fully quallified for the next higher grade. This principle has always
been recognized in our school as a theory, but the recent action
which you have been pleased to take on this subject, fixing a defi-
nite, standard of promotion, will enable us to enforce it in practice."
The class that graduated at the close of the last
school year, numbered forty-nine, — it being the
largest class ever graduated from this school, and
constituting, I think, the largest percentage of the
class when it entered.
At the close of the school year, in July, by vote
of the drawing committee, an exhibition of the work
of pupils was given in each of our grammar schools.
It was not an exhibition simply of the best, but of the
work of all; and I believe I hazard nothing in s&y-
ing that the progress manifest in this new department
more than realized the expectations of the most san-
guine. I visited several of the rooms in company
with an expert from the neighboring city, who spoke
of the exhibition in terms of the highest commenda-
tion. I commend to your notice the report of our
accomplished drawing master, who has had the di-
rection of this department from the beginning.
Prof. B. F. Tweed,
/Superintendent of Schools, City of Charlestown :
Dear Sir, — The work in drawing for the year ending July, 3,
1873, was characterized by a very great advance in the proficiency
of the classes from the lowest in the primary, to the highest in the
grammar schools. An increased enthusiasm was everywhere
shown among scholars, with a much greater capacity for work,
greater skill in execution, and a higher appreciation of the signifi-
cance of form. Especially was the power of execution doubled and
even trebled during the year.
The first months of the yea,v were devoted to elementary drill on
simple curves and forms in the upper classes, and rectangular fig-
ures and simple lines, in the lower. This was often discouraging
in itself, to the class teachers, but there was no abatement of effort
on their part, and the dullest classes were obliged to yield to the
constant pressure Order began to appear where chaos was seen
before, and skill and thought controlled the wayward hand ; so
that during the last month of the school-year, the scholars surprised
all with the rapidity of their advancement and the accuracy of
The exhibition of drawing during the last week of the school-
3 r ear, was, in truth, a delight to all who were in any way concerned
in the work.
The experiment, if such it ever was, was solved. Our children
could learn to draw as well as they could learn to read ; and the
ratio of those who excelled, or fell below mediocrity, was about the
same in each.
Furthermore, the results show that drawing can be carried on in
harmony with, and even as an aid, to the other subjects in our
Ma) T we not, therefore, take just pride in having successfully en-
grafted this new element upon our old system without any apparent
derangement of the general plan?
To return to the exhibition. Work was shown from almost every
scholar in the grammar schools It was, therefore, a true exhibi-
tion of the progress made, and of the general proficiency apparent
to all observers.
The work was classed under three heads, — Free Hand Outline
Design, Object and Perspective Drawing.
The large examples on the blackboards, drawn entirely by the
scholars, illustrated, in a degree, the three subjects.
Many of our scholars acquired in a remarkably short time the
power to execute nicely some very difficult examples in flat orna-
ment. In fact, I regard almost anything possible to some of them
with ordinary effort.
The progress of the year argues a greater progress for the future
under the same discipline. Of course we must .employ our develop-
ing skill upon a broader field of labor.
The work, then, of the coming year takes a higher plane, and im-
plies new resources in our teaching. I have no doubt the committee
will duly consider our needs, and supply our deficiencies in the way
The drawing in the High School was not equally satisfactory
with that of the grammar schools. The small amount of time
allotted it was wholly insufficient to secure creditable results, as
you and the committee will bear witness that I foretold ; and I am
glad to be relieved of a resposibility involving duties for which
adequate time could not be obtained.
The primary schools have made good progress in drawing dur-
ing the year, with the exception of some few classes, which I might
The results in these schools have more than met my expectations,
as regards the ability of the classes to do this work. We must
hold their teachers accountable for very considerable advancement.
The Teachers' Class was continued last winter, and they were
taken through a course of geometrical problems, and the theory of
orthographic projections as applied to perspective. The interest
was, in general, good ; and, with the larger part of the class there
was a worthy effort to comprehend the subject, and to clo the work.
With some few, however, there seemed a disposition to do as little
as possible. They were, in general, the same teachers that were
anxious to know whether attendance was required by the school
In general, however, our teachers are to be commended for their
faithful efforts to do their whole duty in regard to this subject ; and
very many have labored from a love of the subject, as well as from
a sense of duty. We are, in general, fortunate in securing the har-
monious co-operation now so generally prevalent.
We enter upon the new year with every prospect of rapid im-
provement ; and I hope for the development of much greater inter-
est everywhere, and an advance in the quality and kind of work*
We shall undertake Model drawing in the upper classes, and Design
everywhere, to a certain extent. In the latter work we have
already made a beginning.
With many thanks for your earnest help,
I remain, very truly yours,
Teacher of Drawing'
Charlestown, 27 Oct. 1873.
Though we have had, during the last term, no for-
mal exhibition in this department, the singing at the
annual exhibitions of the schools formed a very in-
teresting part of the exercises, and afforded evidence
of great improvement. In all our grammar schools,
ana in nearly all our primary schools, the introduc-
tion of Mason's charts has been attended with results
of the most satisfactory character.
In some of our schools, I have heard pupils sing
music that they had never seen before, with about as
much readiness and certainty as they read the ordi-
nary reading lesson.
I have thus, gentlemen, given the usual statistics,
the condition of our present school accommodations,
with our immediate and prospective wants, — the gen-
eral condition of our schools in regard to instruction
and discipline, and indicated what I regard as an
essential requisite to progress. It will be observed
that for whatever evils exist, or for whatever hinders
progress, the only remedy is hetter instruction. We
must have thoroughly prepared teachers before we
can decide how much our pupils are capable of doing.
When a teacher tells me that he or she has not time
to do what another teacher does well, I infer that
there is a fault in the teaching. That, I know, is not
the inference drawn by the teacher; but I believe it
to be fully warranted by the facts, and I notice, also,
that it comes from the same class of teachers, who
are anxious to know how much they are required to
do, to qualify them for the work of the school-room.
I will say, however, that, though these are not imag-
inary cases, I believe a large part of our teachers are
alive to the necessity of ampler professional prepara-
tion, and are striving to obtain it by such means as
are furnished by lectures on literary and scientific
topics, in our educational works, and our teachers'
associations. I find, too, among this class a grateful
appreciation of the means of .preparation afforded
them by the committee.
On the whole, I believe that our schools compare
favorably with those of other cities and large towns ;
that the spirit of progress is as active, and that, in
our primary and grammar schools, at least, we are
second to none in the interest and success which have
accompanied the introduction of industrial art draw-
ing into the schools of the Commonwealth.
Hoping and believing, gentlemen, that the future
of our schools will be better than the past or the pres-
ent, this report is respectfully submitted.
B. F. TWEED,
TRUSTEES OF THE CHAKLESTOWN FREE SCHOOLS
AND TRUST FUND.
The Act annexing the City of Charlestown to the City of Boston
prescribes that the members of the School Committee within the
present limits of the City of Charkstown shall be the corporation
entitled " Trustees of Charlestown Free Schools."
It has been thought desirable to present, in connection with the
report for this year, a statement of the establishment of the cor-
poration, and whatever facts we may possess regarding the origin
of the fund under its control.
At a town-meeting held March 4th, 1793, it was " Voted, that a
committee of three be appointed to apply to the General Court to
have trustees incorporated to superintend the schools and the
schools' funds who shall be chosen annually " ; and, at the same
meeting, Richard Devens, Nath'l Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron
Putnam, Esqs., Joseph Hurd, Nath'l Hawkins, and Seth Wyman
were chosen as trustees.
At a meeting March 7th, 1793, " The committee appointed to
apply to the Court to have trustees for the schools incorporated,
reported that they had given in a petition for that purpose, and
had constructed a bill, which was then read by paragraphs and
accepted with amendments."
Tue Legislature, on the 27th of March, 1793, passed an Act to
incorporate the Trustees of the Charlestown Free Schools. On
the 18th of April of the same year, it was " Voted, that the Town
Treasurer deliver to Aaron Putnam, Esq., Treasurer for the Trus-
tees of the Charlestown Free Schools, all the money, bonds, notes
of hand, etc. (being the property of said free schools), that now
are, or may come into his, the Town Treasurer's hands."
" By the preamble of the act creating the corporation, the object
appears to have been a more convenient administration of certain
real and personal property that had been bequeathed to the town
for the use of the public schools, and prevent it from being indis-
criminately mixed with other property or funds of the town, and
so lost to the specific use for which it was given." *
The charter of the City of Charlestown, after prescribing the
manner of electing the School Committee, provides that the per-
sons thus chosen shall have " all the powers and privileges, and be
subject to all the liabilities set forth " in the Act to incorporate
certain persons by the name of the Trustees of Charlestown Free
Schools ; and, as before stated, the act of annexation provides for
the continuance of this corporation, in the members of the School
Committee of the City of Boston from the Charlestown district.
The present funds of the corporation consist of two notes of
the Town and City of Charlestown ; one for $600, dated May 1,
1837, the other for $5,000, dated May 22, 1848, at six per cent
interest, the income of which is applicable towards the support
of the Charlestown schools. These notes were given in con-
sideration of the release to the town and city, of deeds of certain
school-houses which had been built from the funds of the Trus-
The town records, under various dates previous to the Act of
Incorporation, make mention of the school fund ; but we regret
that we have been unable, in the time at our disposal, fully to
trace its origin and history.
We present the information we have been able to gather from
various sources, hoping that, at no very distant day, a more com-
plete statement will be prepared.
From Frothingham's History of Charlestown, under date of
* Charlestown School Report, February, 1848.
January 20th, 1647, we learn that " It was agreed that a rate
of fifteen pounds should be gathered of the town towards the
school for this year, and the five pounds that Major Sedgwick is
to pay this year (for the island) for the school, also the town's part
of MisticJc wear for the school forever."
Also, under the date of 1660 — " One thousand acres of land
were laid out, by order of the G-eneral Court, ' for the use of the
school of Charlestown ' ' in the wilderness, on the western side of
Merrimack River, at a place comrnpnly called by the Indians,
* Sodegonock.' "
It is probably in relation |to this " land-grant," that the follow
ing report was made in 1742 : —
"To the Inhabitants of Charlestown, this 29th of March, 1742,
By adjournment from the first of this instant, —
We being then appointed a Committe Refering to the Towns
School Farm at Sauhegonick — Do Find that the said Farm dos
fall within the Line lately run by the Province of New Hampshier,
And that it is Necessary for the Town To Impower said Committe
(or a New One) To prepare a Draught or a memoriall To the Gov-
ernour and Council of New Hampshier, Representing to them Our
Claim to the said Farm and to procure all Grants, Deeds, and Ne-
cessary Evidences to justify the same, In order to Our being qui-
eted in Our Antient Possession of the premises, and that one or
more of the said Committe be Desired to present the said Memo-
riall and pursue the buisness to effect.
We have not ascertained with what "effect" this "buisness"
was pursued, or indeed whether or not it was pursued at all.
Deputy Governor Francis Willoughby, who died April 4, 1671,
bequeathed three hundred acres of land for the school.*'
* Frothmghain's History, page 143.
Capt. Richard Sprague, by his will dated October 5, 1703, left,
among other bequests to the town, " the sum of £50, money to be
put to interest by the Selectmen and Treasurer for the annual
benefit and use of the Free Schooll in Charlestowne, the interest
only to be spent yearly — the principal not to be improved any
other wayes but by letting for lawful interest to be improved as
In 1727, " A record was made of the income of the town. This
was classed as ' The towns, the free school, and the poor.' " The
school's income was, rent of Lovell's Island, £17 ; School lot £5.
School marsh £1. 0. ; mone} r at interest (£357. 10) £21. 9, and
Souhegan farm and two lots, the rent of which is not given.
In 1740, the free school's income was £714. In 1745, Mr. Isaac
Royal gave £80. to the school at the Neck.
At a town-meeting in May, 1792, a committee consisting of
James Russell, Nath. Grorham, Richard Devens, Aaron Putnam,
and Isaac Mallet, reported that the common belonged to the school,
and recommended " vesting the funds belonging to the school in a
dwelling-house, and other buildings suitable for a tavern," whereby
" the funds would be placed upon a permanent and advantageous
At a town-meeting, held December, 1792, the following report
was presented, giving a very full statement of the funds, etc., con-
sidered as belonging to the schools at that time.
" The committee appointed to take into consideration the funds
belonging to the school, and report thereon, have endeavored thor-
oughly to investigate the business, and beg leave to make the fol-
lowing report, viz : —
41 That there is a farm lying in Stoneham improved by
Mr. Silas Symonds, prized at ... £450
which they propose to have sold, and the proceeds
thereof vested in the public funds.
"Also certain bonds due from Richard Miller, Jonathan
Chapman, and Richard Chapman, principal and
interest to Sept. 4, 1792 70.0.1
" Capt. Nathan Adams, William Grubb, and Richard
Trumbull, principal and interest to July 10, 1792 24. 0.2
" Capt. Benj. Frothingham, principal and interest to
Feb. 8, 1792 . 20.0.6
which they propose to have collected, and the proceeds
thereof placed as above.
" Also they find that the town have sold a lot of land
to Timothy Wright, which they have appropriated
to their use as a town separate from the interest
of the school, which amounts, with interest, to . £119. 0.8
*' Likewise the town received of Samuel Swan, Esq.,
for a lot of land belonging to James Kenney,
which land was- secured for money that said Ken-
ney borrowed of the school funds, — principal
and interest is ...... 49.12.0
" The farm that appraised at Stoneham to pay for
what the town had received of the school funds
was deficient ....... 38.18.8
" The interest on the above sums, due from the town
they propose, should be paid from the rent of a farm
at Stoneham improved by Mr. Wiley.
" Also a certain pasture lying in Medford, improved
by Mr. Symes, supposed to be worth . . . 90. 00
which they propose to have sold, and the proceeds placed in the
" The Common, lying in Charlestown near the neck of land, they
conceive to belong also to the School ; this they propose to have
rented to the best advantage, — the rent to be paid quarterly.
" Also certain bonds and notes clue from Nicholas
Hopping, — principal and interest . . . £51.16.5
" Benjamin Sweetser, — principal and interest . . 26. 0.0
" From the above bonds, nothing is expected.
" From the foregoing statement, your committee are of opinion,
the income of the funds which may be collected, will amount to
near £70 per annum, which your committee would propose to have
paid into the hands of certain persons appointed by the town, and
applied solely for the support of the school.
" Your committee beg leave also to observe that, provided the
town should accept the foregoing leport, that in their opinion it
would be expedient to appoint a committee to carry the same into
" Charlestown, Nov. 2, 1792."
The following, from the town records, shows the action taken in
relation to the above report : —
" Voted, To accept the foregoing report, and that the same com-
mittee be appointed and empowered to put the said report into
execution, and also to consider and report whether any other land
belonging to the town can be sold to advantage."
In March, 1793, it was " voted to sell the common, and that the
proceeds be vested in the funds to be applied to the use of the
In December, 1832, the trustees received from the executors of
Thomas Miller, one hundred dollars devised to the trustees, with
the proviso that the income thereof be appropriated to the support
of the public schools in the town of Charlestown.
In 1836, the sum of fifty dollars was received from the executors
of the will of Miss Catherine Bradish " to be expended in the pur-
chase of Latin and Greek Testaments, and distributed by said
trustees in the schools," and fifty dollars to be expended in Bibles.
At a town-meeting March 27, 1837, the following vote was
passed : —
" Voted, That the portion of the surplus revenue which shall
or may be received by this town from the Commonwealth shall be
invested by the Town Treasurer, in the town's notes or securities ;
and that gthe interest of the ^same shall be annually appropriated
to the support of Public Schools, and that the appropriations of
the interest of the surplus fund as above provided, shall not be
considered as, in any degree, superseding the annual appropria-
tion usually made for the support of the Public Schools at the May
From the above imperfect sketch of the history of the School
Fund, it would appear that, had not some of it been diverted from
its proper use, the present School Fund would be much larger than
it is. The deficiency is explained, in part, by the fact that the
trustees, in addition to managing the income from their invested
funds, had, also, for a long time, the disposal of the annual town
appropriations for school purposes ; and a confusion thus arose in
regard to the disbursements, so that the permanent fund was at
times encroached upon in the building and furnishing of school-
houses, etc., when such expenditures should have been made ex-
clusively from the appropriations by the town.
TRUSTEES FROM 1793 TO 1874.
1793. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron
Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Nathaniel Hawkins, Seth Wyraan.
1794. Richard Devens, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Nathaniel
Hawkins, Seth Wyman, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah
1795. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Seth
WyinaD, Aaron Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Timothy Tufts.
1796. Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron
Putnam, Joseph Hurd, Seth Wyman, Timothy Tufts.
1797. Richard Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph
Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts ("Mr. Nathaniel
Gorham chosen in the place of the late Honorable Nath.
Gorham, Esq., deceased ").
1798. Richards Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph
Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts, Nathaniel Gorham.
1799. Richard Devens, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, Joseph
Hurd, Seth Wyman, Samuel Tufts, Nathaniel Gorham.
1800. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Rev. Jedediah
Morse, Benjamin Hurd, Jr., Timothy Walker, Timothy
1801. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Jedediah Morse,
Benjamin Hurd, Jr., Timothy Walker, Timothy Thomp-
1802. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris,
Samuel Payson, Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin.
1803. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris,
Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Nehemiah Wyman.
1804. Samuel Tufts, Seth Wyman, Jonathan Teel, Thomas Harris,
Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Nehemiah Wyman.
1805. Seth Wyman, Thomas Harris, Matthew Bridge, David
Goodwin, John Stone, Peter Tufts, Jr., Joseph Phipps.
1806. Matthew Bridge, Seth Wyman, Peter Tufts, Jr., James
Green, Elijah Mead, John Tufts, Samuel Thompson.
1807. James Green, Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed,
John Kettell, Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent.
1808. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell,
Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, Timothy Thompson.
1809. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell,
Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, Timothy Thompson.
1810. Elijah Mead, Peter Tufts, Jr., Daniel Reed, John Kettell,
Daniel Parker, Samuel Kent, David Devens.
1811. Rev. William Collier, Jonas Tyler, William Austin, Joseph
Phipps, Samuel Kent, Philemon R. Russell, Ebenezer
1812. William Collier, Abram R. Thompson, Nathaniel Wyman,
David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George
1813. William Collier, Abram R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman,
David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George
1814. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman,
David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George
1815. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman,
David Stetson, Daniel Reed, Joseph Miller, George
1816. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman,
David Stetson, Daniel Reecl, George Bartlett, Isaac
1817. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Nehemiah Wyman,
David Stetson, Isaac Tufts, Peter Tufts, Jr., Elias Phin-
1818. William Collier, A. R. Thompson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phin-
. ney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley.
1819. Rev. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts, Elias
Phinney, James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley.
1820. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts,Elias Phinney,
James K. Frothingham, Joel Tufts, John Soley.
1821. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Isaac Tufts, Elias Phinney,
James K. Frothingham, John Soley, Philemon P. Rus-
1822. Edward Turner, Samuel Payson, Elias Phinney, Rev.
James Walker, Joseph Phipps, Samuel P. Teel, Nathan
1823. Edward Turner, James "Walker, Joseph Phipps, Nathan
Tufts, 2d, James Russell, Samuel Gardner, Leonard
1824. James Walker, Joseph Phipps, James Russell, Samuel
Gardner, Leonard M. Parker, Chester Adams, Thomas
1825. James Russell, Leonard M. Parker, Chester Adams, Rev.
Henry Jackson, Lot Pool, Edward Cutter, Rev. Walter
1826. Chester Adams, Hall J. Kelley, Nathaniel H. Henchman,
James Walker, Benjamin Whipple, William S. Phipps,
Henr} 7 Jackson.
1827. James Walker, Chester Adams, Lot Pool, Benjamin Whip-
ple, Hall J. Kelley, Josiah S. Hurd, Henry Jaques.
1828. Benjamin Whipple, James Walker, Chester Adams, Henry
Jackson, Luke Wyman, J. S. Hurd, Robert G. Tenney.
1829. Benjamin Whipple, James Walker, Chester Adams, Henry
Jackson, Luke W3 T man, J. S. Hurd, Robert G. Tenney.
1830. James Walker, Rev. Linus S. Everett, Chester Adams,
Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, Guy C. Hawkins,
1831. L. S. Everett, Chester Adams, Paul Willard, Benjamin
Thompson, Guy C. Hawkins, John Runey, James K.
1832. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G. C. Hawkins, John
Runey, Jas. K. Frothingham, Henry Jaques, Joseph F
1833. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G. C. Hawkins, Jas.
K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, Charles Thompson,
1834. Paul Willard, Benjamin Thompson, G-. C. Hawkins, Jas.
K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, Charles Thompson,
1835. Charles Thompson, Paul Willard, Amos Hazeltine, Joseph
Tufts, Larkin Turner, John Stevens, Alfred Allen.
1836. J. W. Valentine, Charles Forster, Charles Thompson, Alfred
Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James
1837. J. W.Valentine, Charles Forster, Charles Thompson, Alfred
Allen, Thomas Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James
1838. J. W. Valentine, Charles Forster, Alfred Allen, Thomas
Brown, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, James Underwood, Eliab
1839. Charles Forster, James Underwood, Alfred Allen, Richard
Frothingham, Jr., Thomas Brown, Jr., George W. War-
ren, John Sanborn.
1840. Richard Frothingham, Jr., Geo. W. Warren, Charles Forster,
John Sanborn, Francis Bowman, Frederick Robinson, E.
1841. E. P. Mackintire, J. C. Magoun, Philander Ames, Francis
Bowman, Charles Forster, Alfred Allen, M. F. Haley,
Frederick Robinson, Richard Frothingham, Jr., Geo. W.
Tyler, John Sanborn.
1842. Richard Frothingham, Jr., E. P. Mackintire, Charles Fors-
ter, Philander Ames, William Sawyer, Aaron Clark, 2d,
Dexter Bowman, Thomas J. Eliott, S. M. Felton, Fred-
erick Robinson, John Sanborn.
1843. Richard Frothingham, Jr., E. P. Mackintire, Frederick Rob-
inson, S. M. Felton, Charles Forster, Benjamin Badger,
Timothy T. Sawyer, Thomas Greenleaf, John Sanborn,
William Arnold, Henry K. Frothingham.
1844. E. P. Mackintire, S. M. Felton, Benjamin Badger, T.
T. Sawyer, Thomas Greenleaf, Henry K. Frothingham,
John Sanborn, Jonathan Brown, Jr., Andrew J. Locke,
Henry Lyon, Daniel White.
1845. H. K. Frothingham, Jonathan Brown, Jr., James Adams,
Henry Lyon, Daniel White, T. T. Sawyer, A, J. Locke,
James G. Fuller, James G. Foster, Joseph F. Tufts, J.
1846. H. K. Frothingham, Jonathan Brown, Jr., James Adams,
Henry Lyon, James G. Fuller, James G. Foster, Joseph
F. Tufts, J. W. Bemis, Nathaniel Lamson, N. Y. Cul-
bertson, George Farrar.
.1847. Henry K. Frothingham, Joseph F. Tufts, N. Y. Culbertson,
John Sanborn, James Miskelly, Edward Thorndike,
George A. Parker, Seth J. Thomas, George Farrar, J. W.
Bemis, Thomas Greenleaf.
1848. James Adams, George A. Parker, Lemuel Gulliver, Henry
K. Frothingham, Seth J. Thomas, George P. Sanger,
Joseph F. Tufts, Edward Thorndike, Charles W. Moore,
James Miskelly, N. Y. Culbertson.
1849. James Adams, Henry K. Frothingham, Lemuel Gulliver,
Charles W. Moore, George P. Sanger, Joseph F. Tufts,
William Tufts, Edward Thorndike, N. Y. Culbertson,
1850. Henry K. Frothingham, George P. Sanger, Henry Lyon,
William Tufts, George Cutler, James G. Fuller, Andrew
K. Hunt, C. Soule Cartee, Charles W. Moore, Isaac W.
Blanchard, William Sawyer.
1851. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-officio, President; Elrab P.
Mackintire, Seth J. Thomas, James Adams, William
Tufts, James G. Fuller, William Sawyer, Edward Thrrn-
dike, John Sanborn, Charles W. Moore, Andrew K.
Hunt, Charles D. Lincoln, Charles B. Rogers.
1852. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-ojjicio, President; James
Adams, Nathan Merrill, William Tufts, Oliver C. Ever-
ett, James G. Fuller, John Sanborn, Edward Thorndike,
William Williams, Andrew K. Hunt, Lemuel Gulliver,
George Bradford, Charles D. Lincoln.
1853. Richard Frothingham, Jr., ex-officio. President; Nathan
Merrill, Oliver C. Everett, James Fogg, James G. Fuller,
Edward Thorndike, Warren Rand, Isaac W. Blanchard,
Abraham B. Shedd, Solomon Hovey, James Adams,
William Williams, John Sanborn.
1854. James Adams, ex-officio, President; James Fogg, William
Flint, Oliver C. Everett, William I. Budington, Hiram
Hutchins, George Bartlett, George Cutler, Isaac W.
Blauchard, Hiram P. Kemick, Freeman C. Sewall,
Reuben Curtis, Nathan A. Tufts.
1855. Timothy T.Sawyer, ex-officio^ President; James Adams,
George E. Ellis, Oliver C. Everett, James G. Fuller,
John Sanborn, Calvin C. Sampson, Abraham B. Shedd, •
Isaac W. Blanchard, William Flint, Nathan A. Tufts,
Henry K. Frothingbara.
1856. Timothy T. Sawyer, ex-officio, President ; William B. Mor-
ris, Anthony S. Morss, Oliver C. Everett, James G.
Fuller, John Sanborn, George B. Neal, David Foster,
George P. Kettell, Isaac W. Blanchard, Edwin F.
Adams, George E. Ellis, Franklin A. Hall.
1857. Timothy T. Sawyer, ex-officio, President ; George E. Ellis,
William W. Wheildon, Abram E. Gutter, J. W. Bemis, /
John Sanborn, George B. Neal, G. Washington Warren,
Andrew J. Locke, David Foster, Luke K. Bowers, Wil-
liam N. Lane, Franklin E. Bradshaw.
1858. Timothy T. Sawyer, President ; George E. Ellis, William
W. Wheildon, Abram E. Cutter, Edwin F. Adams, Henry 2-
B. Metcalf, James G. Foster, George B. Neal, John
Sanborn, G. Washington Warren, Calvin C. Sampson,
James B. Miles, Charles D. Lincoln, Henry K. Froth-
ingham, William Fosdick, William N. Lane, Samuel T.
Tapley, Franklin E. Bradshaw.
1859. James Adams, Edwin F. Adams, G. W. Warren, John K.
Fuller, Calvin C. Sampson, Gustavus V. Hall, Henry C.
Graves, Samuel T. Tapley, Solomon G. Phipps, T. T.
Sawyer, George E. Ellis, W. W. Wheildon, G. B. Neal,
John Sanborn, A. E. Cutter , Henry K. Frothingham, J. *>
B. Miles, J. G."FosterT~
1860. Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, George B. Neal, T. T.
Sawyer, Edwin F. Adams, Calvin C. Sampson, James
Adams, A. R Cutter, Wm. F. Conant, W. W. Wheildon, ¥-
G. Washington Warren, Gustavus V. Hall, Samuel H.
Pook, John Sanborn , Henry K. Frothingham, Charles F.
Smith, Horace B. Wilbur, Godfrey B. Albee.
1861. T. T. Sawyer, Henry Lyon, James B. Miles, B. F. Brown,
George Johnson, Herbert Curtis, Henry C. Graves, Wm.
II. Finney, James Adams, George B. Neal, Charles F.
Smith, G. V. Hall, W. W. Wheildon, John Sanborn, A.
r K Cutter, N. A. Tufts, James Lee, Jr., M. F. Warren.
1862. Nathan A. Tufts, James Adams, James Lee, Jr., Andrew
J. Locke, Thomas Doane, J. Q. A. Griffin, Henry Lyon,
Henry C. Graves, T. T. Sawyer, John Sanborn, B. F.
£ Brown, A^ E^Cutter, Geo. B. Neal, H. Curtis, Charles
F. Smith7 Wm. H. Finney, James B. Miles, W. W.
1863. A. E. Cutter, Nathan A. Tufts, Geo. B. Neal, Geo. H.
? Yeaton, Charles F. Smith, Wm. B. Long, Geo. H. .Har-
den, Henry Lyon, Henry C. Graves, T. T. Sawyer, James
Adams, A. J. Locke, B. F. Brown, Thomas Doane, Wm.
H. FiDQCy, James Lee, Jr., James B. Miles.
1864. A^ K Cutter, N. A. Tufts, Jas. B. Miles, James Adams,
]> Geo. BjNeal, William Peirce, Augustus H. Heath,JA. J.
Locke, Geo. H. Yeaton, Benj. F. Brown, James Lee, Jr.,
Arthur W. Tufts, Wm. H. Finney, Edwin B. Haskell,
Charles. F. Smith, William B. Long, William Fosdick,
George H. Harden.
1865. James Adams, Geo. E. Mackintire, Abrarn . E. Cutter, Wil-
f liam Peirce, Arthur W. Tufts, James B. Miles, George
W. Gardner, Samuel H. Hurd, Geo. B. Neal, George H.
Yeaton, Augustus H. Heath, Benjamin F. Brown, George
H. Harden, Jerome B. Horse, John A. Day, Edwin B.
Haskell, Charles F. Smith, William B. Long.
1866. Abram E_. Cutter , Oscar F. Safford, J. E. Rankin, William
/^ Pv. Bradford, Charles N. Smith, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stacy
Baxter, William H. Finney, Charles H. Bigelow, William
Peirce, George W. Gardner, George H. Harden, Ben-
jamin F. Brown, Samuel H. Hurd, John A. Day, E. B.
Haskell,. Charles F. Smith, James F. Hunnewell.
1867. J. E. Rankin, Abram^ Cutter, Oscar F. Safford, Wm. R.
Bradford, Moses H. Sargent, David M. Balfour, Sam-
uel H. Hurd, George H. Marden, Geo. H. Yeaton,
Stacy Baxter, Andrew J. Locke, John Sanborn, George
W. Gardner, ¥m. H. Finney, Charles II. Bigelow. Ed-
win B. Haskell, John A. Day, Charles F. Smith.
186.8. Liverus Hull, Mayor, ex-officio, Jas. Swords, Pres. of Com.
/X Council, ex-officio; Abr/tm K Cutter, Oscar F. Safford,
Wm. R. Bradford, George A, Hamilton, James F. Hunne-
well, James F. Southworth, John Sanborn, Audrew J.
Locke, Geo. H. Yeaton, Stac} r Baxter, Matthew H. Mer-
riam, Wm. H. Finne} 7 , Charles H. Bigelow, Edwin B.
Haskell, George W. Gardner, Chavles F. Smith, George
H. Marden, Nahum Chapin.
1869. Eugene L. Norton, Mayor, ex-officio, Andrew J. Bailey,
Pres. of the Com. Council, ex-officio; Geo. W. Gardner,
Wm. H. Finney, A. J. Locke, Wm. Peirce, Charles E.
Daniels, James F. Hunnewell, Geo. A. Hamilton, Wm.
B. Bradford, -Nahum Chapin. J. W. Randy John Sanborn,
Willim Raymond, M. H. Merriam, Charles F. Smith,
/^- A.'.E. Cutter , Geo. H. Marden, John Turner, Washing-
1870. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex-officio, Jas. Adams, Pres. of the
/#- Com. Council, ex-officio; Wm. Peirce, A^_ E^ Cutter,
James F. Hunnewell, Geo. A. Hamilton, Wm. R. Brad-
ford, Willard Rice, John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P.
Crown,, Wm. Raymond, Washington Lithgow, S. S.
Blanchard, Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, Charles
F. Smith, John Turner, Charles E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey.
1871. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex officio, John B. Norton, Pres. of
/AT Common Council, ex-officio; Wm. Peirce, A^ E^ Cutter,
John G. Dearborn, Wm. R. Bradford, Charles E. Sweney,
Henry R. Sibley, John Sanborn, Nahum Chapin, L. P.
Crown, S. S. Blanchard, Charles F. Smith, Liverus Hull,
Geo. W. Gardner, Wm. H. Finney, John Turner, Charles
E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Marden.
1872. Wm. H. Kent, Mayor, ex-officio; Joseph W. Hill, Pres. Com.
/& Council, ex-officio; A^ E. Cutter^ Charles E. Sweney,
Wm. R. Bradford, James A. McDonald, James S. Mur
phy, James F. Southworth, John Sanborn, Nahum Cha
pin, L. P. Crown, S. S. Blanchard, Charles F. Smith
Wm. H. Finney, Geo. W. Gardner, John Turner, Charle
E. Daniels, A. J. Bailey, Geo. H. Harden, A. O. Lind
1873. Jonathan Stone, Mayor, ex-officio, Ethan N. Coburn, Prea
Com. Council, ex-officio; A^ E. Cutter,* Charles E
Sweney, James A. McDonald, James S. Murphy, Jame
F. Southworth, John G. Dearborn, Charles F. Smitt
L. P. Crown,* Wm. H. Finney, Nahum Chapin, Joh
Sanborn, S. S. Blanched, Geo. W. Gardner,* Geo. H
Marden, John Turner,* A. O. Lindsey, Charles H
Daniels, Edmund L. Conway.f — Elected to Jill vacancie
— R. H. Parker, J. P. Loring, J. H. Cotton, Geo. g
* Resigned. f Deceased.