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Full text of "Annual report of the State Department of Health of Massachusetts"

^ 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 




University Library 



»*«>'.»*.*%<.'UA«j» 



Public Document 



No. 34 



FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



State Department of Health 



MASSACHUSETTS 




BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 

1920 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



131 



CONTENTS. 



Report of the Public Health Council . 
Report of the Commissioner of Health 
Changes in Organization 
Disease Prevalence .... 

Infant Mortality and Child Hygiene 
The Laboratory Problem 
The Water Supply Investigation 
The Plumbing Board .... 
National Health Problems 
Co-operation with Volunteer Health Agencies 
Legislation Recommended 
Division of Administration . . 

Di\-ision of Sanitary Engineering 
Di\'ision of Water and Sewage Laboratories 
Di\'ision of Communicable Diseases 
Division of Biologic Laboratories 
Division of Food and Drugs . 
Division of Hj-giene 
Appropriations and Expenditures 
Regular Appropriations 
Special Appropriations 
Emergency Appropriations 
Recapitulation . 
Supplement .... 

Report of Di\'ision of Sanitary Engineering 
Sanitary Protection of Public Water Supplies 
Work required by Special Legislation 
Examination of Public Water Supplies 

Analysis of the Water of Public Water Suppl 
Water Supply Statistics 
Consumption of Water 
Rainfall .... 
Flow of Streams 
Sudbury River 
Nashua River 
Merrimack River . 

Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimack Rivers 
Examination of Rivers 
Chemical Examination of Water 
From Blackstone River . 
From Charles River 

From Chicopee River and its Tributaries 
From Concord River and its Tributaries 
From Connecticut River 
From Deerfield River 
From French River 
From Hoosick River 
From Housatonic River and its Branches 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Supplement — Concluded. 

Report of Division of Sanitary Engineering — Concluded 
Chemical Examination of Water — Concluded. 

From Merrimack River 

From Miller's River 

From Nashua River 

From Neponset River 

From Quinebaug River 

From Taunton River 

From Ten Mile River 

From Westfield River 
Examination of Sewage Disposal Works 
Report of Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories 

Investigations in Regard to the Bacterial Quality of Shellfish 

Investigations in Regard to Factory Wastes . 

Experiments with Sewage Sludge; Dewatering with a Centrifugal Machine 

Stabilizing Sewage Sludge by Oxidation with Nitrates from Sewage Filter 

Effluents 

Purification of Sewage by Aeration; Activated Sludge . 
Agitation of Activated Sludge without Air .... 

Self-purification of Quiescent Sewage ..... 

Operation of Trickling Filters ...... 

The Depth of Filtering Material and Trickling Filter Efficiency 
Experiments upon the Recovery of Sediment from Trickling Filter Effluents 
Intermittent Sand Filters operated with Untreated Sewage 
Chlorination. — Filtration . 
Lawrence City Filters 
Report of Division of Food and Drugs 

Cold-storage Statistics 
Report of Division of Communicable Diseases 
Bacteriological Laboratory . 
Inspection of Hospitals 
Dispensaries ..... 

Jails and Lock-ups .... 

Subdivision of Tuberculosis 
Subdivision of Venereal Diseases 
Changes in Personnel 
Special Activities .... 

New Rules and Regulations affecting the Division 
Recommendations ........ 

Report of the Epidemiologist for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1919 

Cases and Deaths, with Case and Death Rates, for all Reportable Diseases during 

1919 

Incidence of Communicable Diseases by Months, 1919 . 
Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous to the Public Health, 1919 
Report of Division of Biologic Laboratories ..... 
Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory 
Wassermann Laboratory 
Report of Division of Hygiene 
Changes in Personnel 
Lines of Work .... 
Report of the State Examiners of Plumbers 
Papers written in 1919 and Pamphlets issued 

Papers written by Members of the State Department of Health during the Year 

1919 

Pamphlets issued by the State Department of Health 
Index ......... 



PAGE 

79 
79 
80 
81 
81 
82 
82 
83 
83 
97 
98 
100 
100 



FIFTH ANNUAL EFFORT 

OF THE 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



For the fiscal year ending Nov. 30, 1919, the State Department of 
Health was constituted as follows: — 

Commissioner of Health, Eugene R. Kelley, M.D, 

Public Health Council. 

Eugene R. Kelley, M.D., Chairman. 
David L. Edsall, M.D., 1921. John T. Wheelwright (until May, 1919). 
J. E. Lamoureux, M.D., 1921. George C. Whipple, S.B., 1920. 
Wm. J. GALLn^\N, M.D., 1922. Wm. T. Sedgwick, Ph.D., 1920. 
Warren C. Jewett (appointed May, 1919), 1922. 

During the year sixteen formal meetings of the Council were held, 
as well as many meetings of the standing and special committees of the 
Department. The standing committees of the Council follow : — 

Sanitary Engineering (including Housing and Rural Hygiene). 
Professors Whipple and Sedgwick, Dr. Kelley and Mr. Jewett. 

Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 
Drs. Edsall, GaUivan, Kelley and Lamoureux. 

Food and Drugs. 
Professor Sedgwick, Drs. GalUvan and Lamoureux. 

Finance, Law and Demography, 
Dr. Kelley, Professor Whipple, Dr. Gallivan and IVIr. Jewett. 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



The Fiftieth Anniversary of Organized Health Work in 
Massachusetts. 
On Sept. 15, 1869, the first meeting of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Health was held. It seemed most fitting that the fiftieth 
anniversary of that date — Sept. 15, 1919 — should receive suitable 
recognition. Accordingly, the Massachusetts Medical Society and the 
Massachusetts Association of Boards of Health co-operated with this 
Department in arranging exercises in commemoration of the event. A 
program of unusual interest had been arranged with Dr. Henry P. 
Walcott, former chairman of the State Board of Health, Dr. A. J. 
McLaughlin, the first commissioner of the present Department, and 
Sir Arthur Newsholme, late chief medical officer of England, as the 
principal speakers. However, the occurrence of the riots following the 
policemen's strike in the city coming just at the time of the anni- 
versary made it necessary to cancel the meeting to the great regret of 
all interested in public health in this section. At a later meeting of 
the Public Health Council the following resolution was adopted : — 

Whereas, Almost the first pubHc act of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Health in 1869 was the issuance of a declaration in which occurred these 
memorable words : — 

We believe that all citizens have an inherent right to the enjoyment of pure and 
uncontaminated air and water and soil; that this right shall be regarded as belonging 
to the whole community; and that no one shall be allowed to trespass upon it by his 
carelessness or his avarice or even by his ignorance; 

Whereas, During the past fifty j-ears there have been great advances in the 
fields of medicine, hygiene and sanitation, notably in our knowledge of the 
methods of transmission of communicable diseases and means of combating 
them, thus placing the administration of public health work upon a wider and 
surer foundation; be it 

Resolved, That on this fiftieth anniversary of the fii'st meeting of the State 
Board of Health, we, the Commissioner of Health and the Public Health Council, 
reiterate the above-mentioned declaration of the people's right to live under 
clean and wholesome conditions and commend it to the health officials of the 
State as a basis of sanitary administration; and be it further 

Resolved, That we beUeve that every citizen of the State is entitled to pro- 
tection from communicable disease, by the setting up of such barriers as may 
be most effective in preventing the spread of the causal agents of those diseases 
from person to person and by providing at public expense such prophylactic 
agencies as may enable individuals to safeguard themselves against the attacks 
of disease, and by conducting such diagnostic and epidemiological services as 
modern science deems to be necessary; and 

Resolved, That we beUeve that human health is something more than the 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 3 

absence of disease and that the people of the State should be taught to raise 
the standard of their own health by giving proper attention to the care ot in- 
fants the growth of children, the physique of adults, the conditions of labor 
the need of proper food and sufficient sleep, the need of mental and physical 
recreation, and, in general, that as much care should be given to human bodies 
as to their envnonment. 

In accordance with section 2, chapter 792 of the Acts of 1914, at a 
meeting of the Public Health Council on Jan. 13, 1920, the Commis- 
sioner of Public Health submitted to the Council a report of the activi- 
ties of the Department for the fiscal year 1919, and it was voted that 
this report be approved and adopted as the report of the State Depart- 
ment of Health for the fiscal year 1919. 

REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH. 

Eugene R. Kelley, M.D. 

Jan. 10, 1920. 

To the Public Health Council. 

Gentlemen: — The first year of peace has brought to this Depart- 
ment in common with all departments of the Commonwealth, prob- 
lems of adjustment vastly different in character but only to a degree 
less complex and difficult than the problems of war time. The constant 
disruption of personnel due to the call for military service has ceased. 
The post-war unrest and the economic pressure, due to the increasing 
discrepancy between the ever higher cost of living on the one hand and 
the small relative increase in compensation which the public service 
generally can offer, have continually operated during the year to de- 
prive us of old experienced officers and employees, and have deterred 
many otherwise eager to do so from entering upon health work as a 

career. , , •, -i x 

Under the circumstances, I feel that a distinct though silent tribute 
to the Department and to the fascination of progressive health work 
has been paid by many members of our staff who have deliberately 
declined alluring ^offers of employment and at much more liberal terms 
of compensation. 

Our sincere thanks are due also to the Executive Department ot the 
Commonwealth and the General Court for their sympathetic attitude 
towards the underpaid public servant. Their efforts to meet the 
emergency, by granting at least partially adequate increases m salaries 
and wages, have not by any means done full justice to all or even to 
the majority, but was all that could be expected under the circum- 
stances, with rising costs in every activity of the State government 
plus the extraordinary war obligations which were so properly assumed. 



4 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Even more important from the standpoint of the Department's work 
is the necessity of additional increases in salaries if the morale and 
general efficiency of the Department are to be kept from serious im- 
pairment. 

Never have so many left the service of the Department as in the 
past two years, and only a portion of those leaving for military service 
returned even at substantially increased pay. With the exception of 
two or three young women employees who resigned to marry, the indi- 
vidual's attitude and reason assigned have always been the same, — 
genuine regret at severing their connection with the organization and 
the necessity of earning the additional money which their new position 
assured them. 

Changes in Organization. 

During the year the growing importance of public health nursing as 
a distinct branch of sanitary science and public health has been recog- 
nized by the creation of a special subdivision in this subject. This is 
expected to merely foreshadow the creation in the near future of a dis- 
tinct Division of Public Health Nursing. 

Mouth hygiene activities have also been inaugurated. The Com- 
monwealth is directly indebted to the public spirit of its dental pro- 
fession in general and especially to Dr. Edwin Kent, the supervisor of 
mouth hygiene, that such a needed advance step was consummated at 
the present time. No one who has made even a cursory investigation 
into the needs of the State in mouth hygiene can fail to be appalled at 
the magnitude and the seriousness of the problem. The Common- 
wealth would be amply justified and amply rewarded in utilizing the 
full-time service of a corps of dentists and dental hygienists. But 
funds not being available, Dr. Kent generously offered his services 
gratis, for such time as he could spare to the work, provided the De- 
partment would appoint a graduate dental hygienist to work under his 
direction. This proposal was accepted with gratitude by the Depart- 
ment, and thus a beginning has been made in what ought justly soon 
to grow into an important activity. 

A fundamental change in the scope and character of our work oc- 
curred during the fiscal year with the passage of the act reorganizing 
and consolidating the departments of the State government. By this 
act the management of the four tuberculosis sanatoria and of the 
Hospital for Lepers was transferred to this Department. This results 
in the Department being projected directly into the field of curative 
medicine, and serves as a precedent for an indefinite expansion in these 
lines in the future under the guise of State medicine. The prospect 
does not appeal to me personally as necessarily best for the general 



No. 34.] ANNXAL REPORT. 5 

public or for the most economical and efficient future development of 
preventive medicine. But it seems to be the tendency of the times, as 
can be seen by similar and much more radical innovations in England 
and in other States. Thus it has become our duty to do the best we 
can in this new field and especially to see if a closer co-ordination of 
activities cannot be brought about in all phases of anti-tuberculosis 
work. The previous Board of Trustees, who had managed these insti- 
tutions from their inception, now more than twenty years ago, has 
established a high standard of efficient, humane and economical man- 
agement. To maintain this standard will call for our best efforts. 

This previous efficient Board having been abolished as a part of the 
general scheme of consolidation, it has fortunately bequeathed to the 
Department no heritage of friction or disorganization, but a splendidly 
equipped, "going" organization, which has simply been incorporated 
into the Department as this fiscal year expires as a Division of Tuber- 
culosis. Dr. William J. Gallivan, a former member of the Boston 
Board of Health, and a member of our Public Health Council since its 
creation, becomes the director of the new division, and under his able 
leadership I confidently expect great stimulus and development of our 
already well-planned and organized campaign against the great white 
plague. 

Disease Prevalence. 

Last year closed with the first wave of the terrible influenza epidemic 
just past and with the secondary wave definitely in progress. Massa- 
chusetts suffered among the first of the States from the invasion, and 
with the possible exception of Pennsylvania was more severely afflicted 
at the beginning than other States. It was perhaps only due to the 
natural laws of susceptibility of population that the secondary waves 
of the epidemic in this Commonwealth were relatively very light. The 
disease prevailed sporadically during the early winter and finally died 
down to endemic proportions in the early spring. Encouraging results 
were obtained on a limited scale in the treatment of influenza-pneu- 
monia with the serum of recently recovered cases, and with the advent 
of warm weather it became gradually apparent that the disease was 
dropping below its ordinary sporadic frequency. This fortunate con- 
dition has persisted until now it would appear that we may safely hope 
that there will be no recurrence of the disease on any epidemic scale 
during the coming winter. 

We know no more about the etiology or means of prevention of this 
dreadful visitor than we did before its recent world-wide spread. It is 
a fact, however, all too little appreciated in this country, that although 
the mortality was terrific among us, in other sections of the world, 



6 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



especially in countries where our standards of disease prevention are 
unknown, the mortality was proportionately so much greater that it 
furnishes an impressive and abundant answer to the question, " Do 
sanitation and preventive medicine pay?" 

In direct contrast to the gloomy record of 1918, it is encouraging to 
record a year of extremely low prevalence of, and low mortality from, 
our usual infectious diseases as a group. Unfortunately, it is never 
possible to have final or correct figures for deaths at the date when the 
law requires this report to be filed. However, we do have complete 
returns for cases of these diseases, complete death reports for ten 
months, and sufficiently complete preliminary reports for the remain- 
ing two months to enable general comparisons to be made with sub- 
stantial correctness. 

If we take the prevailing communicable diseases as a group, we find 
that 1919 has established a new record for comparative freedom from 
infection and a most impressive decline in mortality. I have included 
in this group diphtheria, infant paralysis, epidemic meningitis, measles, 
pneumonia, scarlet fever, smallpox, pulmonary tuberculosis, typhoid 
fever and whooping cough: — 



Disease. 



Deaths. 



1918. 


1919. 


604 


591 


38 


17 


228 


181 


5.33 


183 


9,787 


2,508 


77 


130 


- 


2 


5,106 


4,200 


160 


103 


719 


319 



Diphtheria, ..... 

Infant paralysis, .... 

Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. 
Measles, ...... 

Pneumonia, ..... 

Scarlet fever, ..... 

Smallpox,' ..... 

Tuberculosis, pulmonary, 
Typhoid fever, .... 

Whooping cough, .... 



8,234 



The difference for the two years in the aggregate deaths from these 
diseases is so great as to be startling and at once excites many chains 
of speculation as to the precise reason back of so satisfactory a statis- 
tical showing. It would be presumptuous to attribute all or even the 
lion's share of this result to the activities of this Department and all 
our fellow health organizations in the cities and towns. Something 
may perhaps be attributed to the influenza epidemic of last year 



No. 34. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



resulting in the taking off of the weakest and most susceptible of the 
population. This argument may hold true for tuberculosis, and, to a 
great degree, is unquestionably almost entirely the cause of the great 
decline in pneumonia deaths, but it does not explain in a satisfactory 
manner the decline in the mortality from the other diseases. Careful 
examination will show this tendency operating for several years back, 
with certain fluctuations from year to year, but, on the whole, with a 
remarkable downward trend. I am strongly of the opinion that a 
large share of the credit for this result belongs to the Department of 
PubHc Health and the local health boards. A natural cautiousness 
bred into health administrators on account of the uncertain factors in 
communicable disease prevalence and mortality, plus, perhaps, a cer- 
tain degree of false modesty, has kept us from impressing sufficiently 
upon our fellow citizens what the true meaning of these figures is, or 
how much saving they represent, not only in terms of life but of 
suffering, and in loss of time and in cost to the several communities, 
the State and the Nation. 

If this point were made more clear, there might be a correspond- 
ingly more generous support of health departments with vastly greater 
results in diminution of disease than we can show up to the present. 

As an example, let us consider the following figures for typhoid fever 
in Massachusetts for a series of years, bearing in mind that the total 
population and hence the density of population has been steadily in- 
creasing, factors that in themselves, unless carefully counteracted by 
sanitary science and modern hygiene, tend to greatly increase the 
prevalence of this disease: — 



Year. 



Cases. 



Deaths. 



Death Rate. 



1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 
1918, 
1919, 



3,736 
2,743 
3,452 
2,238 
2,088 
2,398 
2,333 
2,204 
1,515 
1,546 
1,067 
938 



517 
390 
411 
302 
269 
280 
268 
247 
172 
178 
160 
103 



16.0 
11.8 
12.2 
8.8 
7.7 
7.8 
7.4 
6.7 
4.6 
4.6 
4.1 
2.6 



8 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

These results do not just happen. There is a reason for them. In 
the case of typhoid fever our figures are now showing steady improve- 
ment year by year as a result of the intelligent application of pre- 
ventive principles. Eternal vigilance, however, is the price of freedom 
from typhoid epidemics. In this field the policy of constant watchful- 
ness by the District Health Officers and epidemiologist and the increas- 
ing efficiency of the local boards of health working in closest possible 
co-operation with our staff show such striking results that they are obvi- 
ous at a glance. If we had merely held our own in typhoid control in 
the past two years, making proper allowance for our increase of popu- 
lation, there should have been in the neighborhood of 4,000 cases and 
500 deaths instead of the actual results. Aside from the humanitarian 
satisfaction inherent in these figures, they mean a progressive economic 
saving to the Commonwealth and its citizens of at least $1,000,000 
annually. 

Assuming that the present machinery for disease prevention is main- 
tained and gradually improved, I can see no good reason why we may 
not predict with some confidence the practical extermination of en- 
demic typhoid in this Commonwealth within the next decade. 

The pulmonary tuberculosis returns for the year are surprisingly 
good. Coming immediately after the culminating high death rate of 
1918 (130.2 per 100,000), which was the climax of a steadily increasing 
rate for three successive years, this at once arouses the most acute 
interest as to the reason for a decrease in mortality amounting to 
nearly 900 less deaths and representing a drop in rate to the new low 
death rate for the Commonwealth of approximately 106 deaths per 
100,000 of population, the previous low record of 1915 being 113.1 per 
100,000. 

It would be peculiarly gratifying if good grounds existed for attribut- 
ing all or the major portion of this result directly to our anti-tuber- 
culosis activities, but candor compels the admission that such an ex- 
planation is not justified by the facts. I am frankly at a loss to 
account for such a remarkable diminution, but I believe that two 
factors largely enter into it, viz., (1) the cessation of war and (2) the 
abnormal mortality from the influenza epidemic of 1918. At the same 
time there are the best of scientific and statistical grounds for believing 
that without the resources for fighting tuberculosis that our sj'stem of 
sanatoria, hospitals, dispensaries and home visiting nursing service 
furnishes the Commonwealth, the war-time tuberculosis rates would 
have been much more disastrous and discouraging than they were and 
that no improvement of such magnitude would have been recorded 
for this year. 

Tuberculosis mortality fluctuates from year to year and it would be 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 9 

unreasonable to demand that we must always keep our future death 
rate below this new low figure. But when enough perspective is 
utihzed the hard fact remains that the tuberculosis death rate and case 
prevalence rate are steadily declining in Massachusetts and at a 
reasonably rapid pace. 

Most tuberculosis authorities to-day feel that the tuberculosis prob- 
lem is inextricably interwoven with the problem of child hygiene and 
especially with the problem of childhood and adolescent nutrition. 
For this reason as well as for many others I feel it should become a 
major policy of this Department to foster and stimulate in every way 
all movements designed to improve the nutrition of the growing child. 
Small but not insignificant beginnings of work in this special field have 
been inaugurated by the Division of Hygiene, but it is to be hoped 
that this Department, all local boards of health, educational authori- 
ties and many other organizations may expand nutritional work to a 
very great extent in the immediate future. 

In the field of adult pulmonary tuberculosis the great objective may 
be summed up in the problem of "getting them earlier." .The chance 
of cure or indefinite "arrest" of consumption by a period of treatment 
in our tuberculosis institutions bears almost a direct geometrical ratio 
to the promptness with which the disease is recognized and the patient 
admitted. This problem of getting the incipient or early case into the 
institutions built for and adapted to his needs has been the stumbling 
block for the past two decades. From experiments already fairly well 
tested in this State, it would seem as if a consulting service, particularly 
for the rural towns, is the only real answer to this vexatious problem. 

The year has not been noteworthy as regards any of our other com- 
mon communicable diseases. Toward the end of the year scarlet fever 
became abnormally prevalent in many parts of the State, but up to the 
present the disease has fortunately been of a mild character and the 
total deaths for the year are not above the average. 

Diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough are still taken 
too much for granted by our citizens. Diphtheria, for instance, is per- 
haps more definitely controllable than any other serious disease of an 
acutely infectious nature. By laboratory methods it is possible to 
detect its presence, to detect carriers, to determine what individuals 
are susceptible to it, by simple and harmless methods to artificially 
render such susceptible persons immune for long periods of years, and 
to combat the poison of the disease with complete success by means of 
antitoxin if this is administered within the first twenty-four hours. 
Yet the prevalence of this disease is alarming and the mortality from 
it a pitiful tragedy because so unnecessary. The Department is in- 
augurating an intensive campaign designed to arouse the public as to 



10 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the importance of having every suspicious "sore throat" seen early by 
a competent physician and this needless "slaughter of the innocents" 
prevented. 

But here again we are prone to be blinded as to our progress by 
viewing our results from too close a standpoint. If we take the trouble 
to study critically the death returns from all these common infectious 
diseases of children for any considerable number of years, it is sur- 
prising to discover how our death rates from them have gradually 
diminished, until now our "bad" years witness few if any more deaths 
than the most favorable years of a generation ago. 

And here once more I believe that health departments have been 
too modest, or, perhaps, so afraid of the yearly variations of prevalence 
and mortality that we have not emphasized enough the steady gains 
made in fighting these maladies. There is no reason to suppose that 
the nature of these diseases has changed, and I do not believe that 
climatic changes, living conditions, or any other factors can explain 
this decline in mortalities except the increasing efficiency of health 
departments and .the slowly increasing popular comprehension and co- 
operation in carrying out isolation and other administrative measures 
designed to check the spread and diminish the mortality of such 
diseases. 

The average death rate from scarlet fever in Massachusetts for the 
last nine years, 4.4 per 100,000 of population, is exactly one-half the 
average death rate of the five years from 1905 to 1910, 8.7 per 100,000. 
Diphtheria shows a decline of nearly one-third in the average mortaHty 
for the same period. Whooping cough shows a distinct though much 
less pronounced decline; measles a slight average decline, but one so 
slight that it is hard to see that any real advance has been made in 
reducing its mortality. 

Infant Mortality and Child Hygiene. 

Encouraging advances are recorded in the matter of infant mortality 
for the past year. In this field, however, the demonstrated possibili- 
ties of life saving are so greatly in excess of what Ave have hitherto 
accomplished in this Commonwealth that gratification over our gains 
is counterbalanced by mortification at our failure to achieve much 
greater gains. The most salutary example in all the world for us is 
perhaps New York City. No thinking person would declare the en- 
vironmental conditions of congested New York equal to the average 
environment of the homes of the State of Massachusetts. The two 
populations are so nearly similar that comparisons based on aggregate 
populations are perfectly fair. And yet the decline of infant deaths in 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 11 

New York City so far exceeds the corresponding decline in Massa- 
chusetts as to at once challenge our attention. At the present time 
the average New York City infant has nearly a 15 per cent better 
chance of survival than the average Massachusetts baby. There seem 
to be only two possible reasons for this: first, a shifting racial stock in 
New York City with increasing proportions of such races as the Jewish 
and Italian, which have low infant mortality rates compared to other 
race stocks; and, second, more intensive work on the part of the 
authorities in prenatal, maternity and infant care. 

The opportunities for life saving in this field by an extension of 
nursing and obstetrical service are so great that I believe it is impera- 
tive that the maternity benefit proposals before the Legislature should 
receive most careful consideration by all intelligent citizens and some 
form of such service be made available for every expectant mother in 
the Commonwealth. Undoubtedly, many errors of commission and 
omission will mark the early history of the administration of such a 
law, but the practical certainty that its actual operation will quickly 
produce a marked and continuous decline in both maternal and infant 
mortality makes all such shortcomings insignificant as compared with 
the shortsightedness of failing to try such measures at all. 

The Laboratory Problem. 

Every year for the past four years attention has been called to the 
increasing inadequacy of our laboratories and to the growing insistence 
of the authorities of Harvard University that the Department vacate 
the laboratories at Forest Hills now occupied by us but belonging to 
Harvard. 

The high cost of building naturally led the Department to defer 
asking legislative action during the war. The war is now over, but no 
immediate or prospective decline in building costs is in sight, and the 
• problem has steadily grown more urgent, until at length it has become 
critical. I urge that the matter be placed before the General Court in 
detail and that we strive by every legitimate means to impress upon 
the incoming Legislature the necessity of making appropriations to 
enable building to be begun during the present fiscal year. After care- 
fully studying the problem again and again, I am convinced that the 
original plan of obtaining sufficient land to keep stables and horses in 
immediate proximity to the laboratory must be abandoned, and I 
recommend that enough land for the laboratory alone be obtained well 
within the metropolitan district, and if possible in Greater Boston, and 
the farm and stable features transferred to State-owned land well out- 
side. Our experiences of the fire risk involved, the impossibility of 



12 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ever adopting State House space in a satisfactory manner to laboratory 
requirements, together with the pressing need for other purposes of the 
space now occupied by our laboratories in the State House, have con- 
vinced me that all our laboratory activities should be transferred to the 
new laboratory building, and it will be impossible to properly carry on 
our many laboratory activities unless the laboratory building is within 
easy distance of mail, express and other transportatfon services. 

The Water Supply Investigation. 

Last year I devoted considerable space in my report to pointing out 
the urgent necessity of making a new and comprehensive study of the 
water supply needs of the Commonwealth. The General Court 
authorized the carrying out of this study and the work is now in 
progress under the joint direction of this Department and the Metro- 
politan District Commission. It will take at least two years to com- 
plete the study, but thereby a comprehensive policy can be adopted 
by the State for the necessary future extension of its water supplies. 
It is as yet too soon to draw any conclusions from this work. 

The Plumbing Board. 

For years the conflicting plumbing rules and regulations of the 
various municipalities of the Commonwealth have been recognized as 
a source of trouble and of additional expense to building operations. 
There should be no need of varying material and devices in order to 
meet the plumbing requirements of Boston, Brookline and Newton for 
instance, yet under our present system such is the case. 

Every one directly concerned felt that a more uniform code appli- 
cable throughout the State ought to be worked out if it is at all 
possil)le to do so. Hoping to make a start in this direction I appointed 
early in the year a Plumbing Board, consisting of the representatives 
named from each of the following bodies: — 

Prof. G. C. Whipple, professor of sanitary engineering, Harvard University, 
representing the Public Health Council of this Department. 

James C. Coffey, executive officer, health department, Worcester, representing 
the State Examiners of Plumbers. 

Thomas M. Wilson, chief tenement house inspector, building department, 
Boston, representing the New England Association of Plumbing Inspectors. 

Edward C. Kelly of Boston, representing the jNIassachusetts State Association 
of Master Plumbers. 

Patrick J. Osborne, supervisor of plumbing in the Boston schoolhouse depart- 
ment, representing the Massachusetts Association of Journeymen Plumbers. 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 13 

These experts have attacked the various complex problems with 
enthusiasm, have met regularly each week throu,i,^hout the year, have 
amassed a truly astonishing amount of expert information on this 
intricate subject, and have outlined a constructive plan to serve as a 
basis for forming a new plumbing code. I feel that this masterly 
report should have wide circulation among all interested in the sub- 
ject. I also heartily approve the recommendation of this Board that 
legislative authority be sought to empower this Department to con- 
tinue the study and to draw up a complete plumbing code to be sub- 
mitted to the General Court of 1921 for adoption. 

National Health Problems. 

In common with all State health executives I have been compelled 
during the past year in the interests of our own State to devote no 
little time to the question of co-operation with Federal departments 
and bureaus in certain phases of health work. 

Under the terms of the Chamberlain-Kahn act the United States 
government now extends very substantial financial assistance to the 
several States in the matter of venereal disease control ($36,000 an- 
nually to Massachusetts). The same principle has been invoked in 
proposed legislation for rural sanitation, physical education, infant 
welfare, and general health administration, inspired by nearly as many 
different Federal departments as there are proposals. This Federal 
aid extension principle is a live issue at present in many lines of gov- 
ernmental activity. It is by no means clear that the principle is 
sound, and the merits of such proposals are further confused by the 
present state of uncertainty in the Federal government as regards 
health measures, because, as just stated, so many different Federal 
departments are sponsoring various health policies with practically no 
relation to each other and no co-ordination. 

The attitude of nearly all State health executives is that we should 
first strive to bring about a more definite co-ordination of all Federal 
health activities, and then take up such questions of policy as the 
Federal subsidy to the States in health work, for example, on their 
merits, with that Federal department or commission which is finally 
made responsible for carrying out all the health policies of the national 
government. For instance, a Federal department whose work takes it 
into some special corner of the health field, finding the machinery for 
dealing with its specialty weak or lacking in many States, forthwith 
proposes as a solution the creation of a Federal subsidy fund to be 
administered by itself on such terms that the development of this 
phase of health work throughout the country shall be dictated from 



14 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Washington, entirely subordinating the initiative and moral responsi- 
bility of the several States. No matter how well meaning such poli- 
cies may be in the beginning there is grave danger they will lead to a 
parasitic existence on the part of State and municipal departments. 
If such a development occurs, in the long run the public welfare of the 
several States will be less wholesomely promoted than by a slower 
evolution of such work, dependent upon the impetus of public senti- 
ment within the State bringing into operation the legislative and 
financial machinery for achieving the same praiseworthy ends. 

Whatever the outcome, the war has forever radically changed the 
degree of contact of the State health departments with Washington. 
Even those of us who wish we could get back to the very loose contact 
of pre-war days (in which class I personally belong) recognize the im- 
possibility of such a solution. For good or ill the tendency of the 
times is the other way. 

Co-operation with Volunteer Health Agencies. 

For years all progressive health departments have recognized the 
great value in their own work of close co-operation with such bodies 
as tuberculosis societies, baby hygiene associations, visiting nursing 
organizations, mental hygiene associations and others of like nature. 
As these organizations have grown in resources, membership and pop- 
ular prestige, some of them have become great national influences in 
the field of public health. The American Red Cross as a result of its 
war activities has come to occupy a pre-eminent place among such 
voluntary civic welfare bodies. It has decided as one of its peace time 
activities, in fact as its great activity, to enter the field of public health 
and particularly to promote the movement for wider utilization of 
public health nursing service throughout the country. It must be ad- 
mitted, in spite of the clear declaration of poUcy by the Red Cross 
that it intended in no sense to compete with or absorb existing private 
or public agencies already engaged in pubhc health nursing work, that 
in many quarters the expansion of public health nursing work by the 
Red Cross has been viewed with suspicion and apprehension by other 
agencies already in the field. From careful study of the development 
of the Red Cross plan I am convinced that there is nothing in their 
policy which is in any way detrimental to the best interests of any 
health department's or voluntary organization's public health nursing 
plans, and I therefore urge that the closest co-operation between the 
Red Cross and this Department, as well as all the city and town 
boards of health of the State, be striven for. 

For many years past the closest and heartiest co-operation with the 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 15 

State Tuberculosis League and its subordinate associations has been 
maintained. I attribute in no small degree the advanced position 
Massachusetts holds in tuberculosis work to this fact, and particularly 
to the statesman-like policy of our tuberculosis societies' executives in 
always transferring to the State and local health authorities definite 
activities as soon as the general public appreciates their value to such 
an extent as to be willing to support such work as part of the proper 
province of the health authorities. This has never meant a cessation 
of endeavor by the tuberculosis societies, but rather their constantly 
turning to other pioneer work in the tuberculosis field. 



Legislation recommended. 
The following recommendations for legislation have been submitted 
to the General Court: — 

1. An act relative to the appointment of school nurses in cities and towns. 

2. An act to provide for clean, sanitary and healthful food estabUsliments. 

3. An act relative to the analysis of Uquor by the Department of PubUc 
Health. 

4. An act relative to the use of methyl alcohol. 

5. An act authorizing cities and towns to establish and maintain centers for 
preventive health work. 

6. An act relative to the dissemination by advertising or otherwise of infor- 
mation concerning certain diseases. 

7. An act rslative to the maximum compensation of District Health Officers 
and the number of such officers that the Department of PubUc Health may 
have. 

8. An act transferring certain duties of the State Department of Health 
(Department of Pubhc Health) to the MetropoHtan District Commission, 

9. A resolve authorizing the Department of Pubhc Health to study and 
investigate the relation of medical social service to pubhc health problems. 

10. An act amending the present cold-storage law. 

11. A resolve authorizing the Department of Pubhc Health to make an 
investigation as to the advisabihty of revising and codifying certain rules and 
regulations relative to plumbing. 

Division of Administration. 

Several factors have added greatly to the work of the Division of 
Administration during the past year. For example, the methods of 
handling personnel matters have been completely revised in order to 
comply with the regulations promulgated by the office of the Super- 
visor of Administration. The addition of any new function, as, for 
example, the transfer of the tuberculosis sanatoria, increases in- 



16 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

evitably the labor of the Division, even with the simplest sort of sys- 
tem maintained to keep record of the routine activities that must pass 
through the office of the Commissioner, and it is absolutely essential 
that another stenographer-clerk be added to the force to relieve the 
heavy overload of work now being carried. 

This Department has never organized the Division of Administra- 
tion with a director, such duties being performed by the Commissioner 
and his secretary, but with the increase in size and complexity of the 
Department's activities the point has already been passed when the 
Division should have a separate director and assume more completely 
its proper function as a supervising organization for the routine fiscal, 
field and record work of the entire Department. I recommend that 
the Council give this question serious consideration during the coming 
year with a view to making such a recommendation to the General 
Court of 1921. It is to be remembered that all the work of the 
Public Health Council itself is also carried out by the Commissioner's 
secretary. It is interesting to note that in a neighboring State depart- 
ment of health an executive clerk at .|4,000 salary and a departmental 
secretary at $4,500 are necessary to carry on the functions of the 
administration division. 



Division of Sanitary Engineering. 

The total number of applications received from cities, towns and 
others, for advice with reference to water supply, drainage, sewerage 
and similar subjects, presented for the consideration of this Division 
during the year 1919 was 146 as compared with 147 in 1918. The 
character of the work called for under these applications is much the 
same as in the previous year. As in all the years since the war began, 
the construction and extension of municipal works in water supply, 
drainage and sewerage have been confined to meeting the most pressing 
requirements. 

The rainfall during the year, especially during the summer and 
autumn seasons, has been much higher than usual; consequently, 
there has been little difficulty from shortage of water supply, while, on 
the other hand, the comparatively high flow of streams has reduced to 
a minimum the effects of river pollution. 

In addition to the regular work of the Division, certain special 
duties imposed upon the Department by the Legislature of 1919 have 
been referred to this Division for investigation and report. These 
are — 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 17 

Report relative to the pollution of the Charles River. (Chapter 9, Resolves 
of 1919.) 

Report relative to the pollution of the Blackstone River. . (Chapter 15, 
Resolves of 1919.) 

Investigation jointly with the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board of 
the water supply needs and resources of the State, including the use of Great 
Ponds. (Chapter 49, Resolves of 1919.) 

Resolve extending the time for the report of the State Department of Health, 
upon the cost of a sewerage system to prevent the pollution of the Mystic Lakes 
in the towns of ArUngton and Winchester and the city of Medford. (Chapter 
14, Resolves of 1919; former act, Chapter 34, Resolves of 1918.) 

Inyestigation as to the pollution of the Taunton River and its tributaries. 
(Chapter 29, Resolves of 1919.) 

In accordance with these provisions these matters have been re- 
ported upon direct as special reports to the General Court of 1920. 

The work of ascertaining- the area and ownership of lands benefited 
by the improvement of the Neponset River under the provisions of 
chapter 655 of the Acts of the year 1911, and acts in amendment 
thereof and in addition thereto, has been completed during the year, 
and the work of estimating the special benefits to these lands as pro- 
vided by the act is now under way. The determination of the owner- 
ship of these lands has been a tedious and difficult one under the cir- 
cumstances, but it has been carried out, it is believed, with sufficient 
thoroughness to meet the requirements of the statutes. 

Of the special investigations called for by the Legislature, by far the 
most important is that which requires the investigation of the water 
supply needs and resources of the Commonwealth. This work is the 
most important undertaken by the Department for many years in its 
relation to the health and comfort of the people of the State. The 
growth of the metropolitan district has reached a stage where the first 
enlargements of the system will soon become necessary, as expected 
when the construction of the works was begun in 1895. In the mean- 
time, other large areas in the neighborhood of the metropolitan district 
and elsewhere are in need of a large increase in their water supplies. 
This work was organized as promptly as practicable after the passage 
of the necessary legislation, and the investigations in the field have 
begun. 

The season has been an unfavorable one for the satisfactory deter- 
mination of the condition of the rivers called for in the special acts of 
the Legislature of 1919, chiefly for the reason that the rainfall has been 
large and the flow of the streams unusually high. 

On the other hand, there has been a marked increase in manufactur- 



18 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ing and a growth in the number of manufacturing establishments 
which discharge considerable quantities of offensive waste which have 
caused an increase in the pollution of streams likely to be felt seriously 
unless cared for when seasons of low rainfall again occur. 

Under the provisions of chapter 289 of the General Acts of 1919, 
relative to the improvement of certain low lands, the Drainage Board, 
created by that act, has, in response to a petition, made the necessary 
surveys to determine the practicability and cost of diking and draining 
certain marsh lands lying west of Salisbury Beach near the boundary 
line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Some of these lands 
in fact lie within the latter State, and the necessity of confining the 
work to the State of Massachusetts makes the cost of the work greater 
than would probably be the case if the favorable conditions found just 
within the New Hampshire boundary could be utilized in the construc- 
tion of the works. The information collected has been reported to the 
proprietors as required by the act. 

Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories. 

In the laboratories of this Division the usual large number of 
chemical, bacterial and microscopical examinations of samples from the 
water supplies, rivers, etc., in the State were made during the fiscal 
year. This analytical work included 5,550 chemical, 1,800 micro- 
scopical and 1,020 bacterial analyses. Special studies of sewage areas, 
the purification of sewage, trade wastes and purification of water 
required 3,050 additional chemical and 1,800 bacterial examinations. 
Besides these analyses 574 determinations of lead, manganese, etc., 
were made in connection with studies of corrosion, manganese in 
ground water and similar questions. Much field work was done in 
co-operation with the Division of Sanitary Engineering, which included 
1,051 determinations of dissolved oxygen, carbonic acid and alkalinity. 

Special studies were made during the year on the following sub- 
jects: — 

Examination of shellfish from different areas to determine (1) the 
variation in degree of pollution of clams from polluted sources during 
the different seasons of the year, and to determine (2) the varying 
bacterial content of clams from grossly polluted, slightly polluted, and 
practically unpolluted sources; methods of the disposition of trade 
wastes from different factories in the State; recovery of fertilizing 
material and grease from the treatment of sewage by plain sedimenta- 
tion, chemical precipitation and by the Miles acid process, so called, 
using both sulphuric and sulphurous acid as a precipitant; modifica- 
tions of the activated sludge process, including purification by agita- 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 19 

tion without the use of air, and on methods of dehydrating sludge by 
centrifugal machines. 

During the year studies were also made of the self-purification of 
sewage in large bodies, the purification of different water supplies in 
the State, and the treatment of water with chlorine, especially the 
Lawrence municipal supply after filtration, and the new Beverly and 
Salem supply. The removal of color from water by methods already 
described, and by a modification of the Anderson process, so called, 
which seems to promise success, has also been carefully investigated, 
together with the question of the control of the quality of water in 
swimming pools. 

Division of Communicable Diseases. 

The activities of the Communicable Disease Division have continued 
along the same general lines as in former years, with additional stress 
being placed upon the control of diphtheria and typhoid fever. 

Constant effort has been made to impress upon the general public 
the fact that many of the deaths resulting from communicable diseases 
are needless. In this work, publicity has been sought at various times 
through the daily press and in bulletins, in an endeavor to bring to the 
minds of the people the need of earlier and more complete diagnosis in 
suspected cases of communicable disease. 

The work of the subdivision of venereal diseases has increased tre- 
mendously during the year. As the machinery for the handling of this 
work becomes more efficient we find that our problems have become 
more and more specialized in nature. Increased investigation of 
sources of infection, together with more intensive medical-social follow- 
up with the object of placing under treatment the lapsed case, has 
been instituted with quite appreciable results. Here lies the greatest 
chance for the prevention and control of venereal diseases. During 
the ensuing year special effort will be made to make this work more 
effective by placing trained social workers in these clinics in order that 
the dangerously infected person may be placed under supervision, and, 
when necessary, under control, without delay. 

Circularization of various organizations, doctors, dentists and phar- 
macists has been intensively carried out by letters and pamphlets, and 
lectures to various groups of people have been given during the year 
by members of our force. 

A particularly effective means of placing information before selected 
groups has been the so-called " study group." Small groups of intelli- 
gent people have been gathered together and by lectures and the use 
of Stokes' "World Problems in Disease Preverition" medical facts con- 



20 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



cerning gonorrhoea and syphilis have been explained. It is hoped that 
from these small units a large amount of knowledge will be dissemi- 
nated to other persons or groups where it will be of much service. 

At this time all of the sixteen State-approved and subsidized clinics 
are in operation and it appears that in the near future others will have 
to be established in order to adequately care for the increasing number 
of patients. Attendance at venereal disease clinics offers the greatest 
opportunity for the control of the actual case, and advertising the 
time and place of holding the clinics in the respective areas should 
result in a great increase in the number of patients coming under 
treatment. 

The work of the subdivision of tuberculosis is approximating the 
results hoped for, and with still more intensive "follow-up" by local 
authorities even better results can be expected. 

Three county tuberculosis sanatoria are in operation, with a fourth 
to open at an early date. It is certain that, with co-operative efforts 
of the local boards of health, their nursing force and this Department, 
these institutions can easily be filled to capacity. 

The Bacteriological Laboratory has had a most successful and indus- 
trious year, having examined more than 2.5,000 specimens, an increase 
of 3,000 over the preceding year. 

The total number of all kinds of examinations made follows: — 





Diagnosis. 


Release. 


*Atypical. 






Positive. 


Negative. 


Positive. 


Negative, 


Total. 


Diphtheria, 
Tuberculosis, 
Typhoid fever: — 

*Widaltest, . 

Culture test, . 
Gonorrhoea, 

Malaria, .... 
Pneumonia, 
Miscellaneous, 


1,366 
949 

370 

59 

417 

3 


8,463 
2,800 

1,171 

491 

3,610 

88 


1,641 


3,455 


81 


14,925 
3,749 

1,622 
550 

4,027 

91 

497 

293 


Total 












25,754 















The State, as a whole, has been unusually free from communicable 
diseases for the past year. The totals for all reportable diseases are 
80,239 cases for 1917, 249,020 for 1918, and 112,089 for 1919. Ex- 
cluding cases of lobar pneumonia and influenza for this three-year 
period, nearly all of which for 1918 and 1919 represent the effect of the 
epidemic, the figures are 78,483 cases in 1917, 90,384 cases for 1918, 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 21 

and 67,087 cases for 1919. This remarkable showing for 1919 becomes 
more pronounced if the total returns for venereal diseases are ex- 
cluded. These diseases were reportable only during part of 1918, and 
not at all during 1917. With their exclusion the comparative figures 
for the reportable diseases are 78,483 for 1917, 79,419 for 1918, and 
only 53,525 for 1919. 

Scarlet fever and diphtheria were present in ordinary amounts until 
the latter part of the year when scarlet fever of a mild type became 
very prevalent all over the State during the past two months. Diph- 
theria also increased markedly over 1918, but the monthly average did 
not exceed the monthly incidence for the past five years. 

There were only seven small outbreaks of typhoid fever. The largest 
one, reaching a total of 38 cases, was due to an infected water supply. 
Another outbreak due to milk infected by a typhoid carrier was re- 
sponsible for 29 cases, while two others, due to a polluted well and 
spring, respectively, caused 13 and 18 cases. The last large outbreak 
of 10 cases was apparently due to food infected by a typhoid carrier. 
This sets a new record for the State. The remaining cases of typhoid 
have all been sporadic. In 209 instances it has been necessary to 
make special epidemiological investigations, distributed as follows: — 

Smallpox, 40 

Anthrax, IS 

Measles, 20 

Scarlet fever, 19 

Diphtheria, 23 

Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, 14 

Typhoid fever, 13 

Whooping cough, 3 

Leprosy, '3 

Chicken pox, 1 

Lethargic encephalitis, 33 

Mumps, ' . . 4 

Tetanus, 3 

Malaria, 1 

PeUagra, 1 

Upon milk farms : — 

Diphtheria, 3 

Smallpox, 1 

Scarlet fever, 6 

Typhoid fever, 3 

In smallpox, anthrax, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, leprosy, 
lethargic encephalitis, tetanus and pellagra the individual cases were 
investigated. 



22 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Because of the unusual prevalence of disease in certain communities 
"outbreak notices" were sent to the District Health Officers in 64 
instances. The number of notices sent for each disease was as fol- 
lows: — 

Scarlet fever, 14 

Measles, 20 

Diphtheria, 19 

Typhoid fever, 3 

Whooping cough, 3 

Malaria, . 1 

Mumps, 3 



During the twelve months ended Nov. 30, 1919, 497 specimens of 
sputum were examined for pneumococci. Of these, 212 showed no 
pneumococci and 285 showed pneumococci of the following types: — 



Type I. 


Type II. 


Type III. 


Type IV. 


41 

14.4% 


33 
11.6% 


66 

23.1% 


145 

50.9% 



During the twelve months 13 typhoid carriers were found. 



Division of Biologic Laboratoeies. 

The principal task of the Division during the fiscal year covered by 
this report was the readjustment from war conditions. The laboratory 
at Forest Hills is practically a factory for the production of serums, 
antitoxins and other prophylactic and diagnostic products. Much 
difficulty was encountered in obtaining certain supplies, and the con- 
stantly increasing costs rendered the financial situation increasingly un- 
certain. As an example of the handicap under which the work of the 
laboratory was done, it was impossible, for one thing, to obtain dialyz- 
ing paper. This paper is necessary to concentrate and purify diph- 
theria antitoxin. The difficulty in obtaining this material necessitated 
certain changes in the production and distribution of antitoxic serum. 

While some of the personnel of the Division entered war service, the 
work of the laboratories suffered no serious interference for this reason. 
On the other hand, both the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory and 
the Wassermann Laboratory were able to co-operate with and assist 
both the Army and Navy in many ways. 



No. 34.] 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



23 



The following table summarizes the work done at the Antitoxin and 
Vaccine Laboratory during the fiscal year 1919: — 



1919. 



1918. 



Vaccine virus (doses), 
Typhoid prophylactic (doses), 
Paratyphoid prophylactic (doses), 
Typhoid-paratyphoid (doses), 
Diphtheria antitoxin (doses), 
Antimeningitis serum (bottles), 
Pneumococcus: — 

Type I (bottles), . 

Type II (bottles), 
Schick outfits (bottles), . 
Toxin-antitoxin (doses), . 



196,277 
16,735 
1,615 
56,316 
130,195 
4,452 

369 

189 

9,600 

1,133 



217,650 

24,578 

1,950 

25,263 

183,039 

4,558 

357 

366 

6,400 

426 



The activities of the AVassermann Laboratory have not been unusual 
during the present year. There have been a few minor changes in 
personnel designed to make the work more efficient and less expensive. 

The efforts made by this and other departments in the control of 
venereal disease have shown the desirability of statistical data with 
regard to both syphilis and gonorrhoea. Although the Wassermann 
Laboratory has collected a wealth of such material, it has been delayed 
in placing this in available form because of lack of clerical assistance. 
This w^ork, however, is now proceeding with rapidity, and it is hoped 
that at a very early date valuable statistical data will be in form for 
publication. 

The Wassermann Laboratory has continued to co-operate with the 
Bureau of Animal Industry in making diagnostic tests for glanders, 
rabies and other infections of animals. 

The following table indicates the routine examinations made and 
their number: — 



1918. 



Wassermann tests, ...... 

Gonococcus fixation tests, .... 

Complement fixation tests for glanders, 
Agglutination tests for glanders, . 
Diagnostic examinations for rabies. 
Pathological and bacteriological examinations. 



31,304 


27,534 


150 


- 


126 


646 


- 


215 


80 


61 


85 


45 



24 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In most instances the number of tests and examinations performed 
exceeds that of last year. The only exception to this is in the case of 
tests for glanders. 

Division of Food and Drugs. 

The work of the Division of Food and Drugs has increased about 18 
per cent over the year 1918. During the first eleven months 12,989 
samples were examined and 236 cases have been prosecuted, the total 
fines imposed being $7,195. Ninety-five confiscations have been made, 
the combined weight of such confiscated articles amounting to 250,008 
pounds. 

The State was covered more thoroughly than has been possible pre- 
viously by the use of an automobile carrying two inspectors and one 
chemist, together with sufficient laboratory equipment for preliminary 
examinations. In this way many districts not readily accessible by 
railroad were visited. The Division is indebted to Mr. Morrill of West 
Springfield, Mr. Mecarta of Barnstable and Mr. Hyde of North 
Adams, local milk inspectors, as well as Dr. Lindsay, director of the 
Amherst x\gricultural Experiment Station, who permitted the use of 
their laboratories on some of these trips. 

An unusually large number of liquor samples have been submitted 
by police departments, and it was found that the privilege of free 
analysis has been abused, because a large number of these samples 
were submitted by the LTnited States Internal Revenue Department, 
through the medium of the police departments, the samples being ob- 
tained from dealers licensed to sell such liquors by Massachusetts 
licensing boards. 

An investigation of soft drink factories has been made with a view 
to improving sanitary conditions in such establishments. It was found 
that they are frequently operated with practically no thought of 
cleanliness or decency, and conditions which would not be tolerated 
upon any dairy farm are quite common in such establishments. A 
sanitary food law should be enacted to prevent such establishments 
from competing with those bottlers of high-grade products produced in 
clean factories under clean conditions. 

The Division presented evidence of violation of the cold-storage law 
in the so-called fish conspiracy case, tried by the Attorney-General in 
the Suft'olk District Superior Court. It so happens that there is more 
violation of the cold-storage laws in relation to fish than in relation to 
any other article of food, due probably to the fact that the law per- 
mits fish to be placed in cold storage undated, while all other food- 
stuffs must carry the date of entry when placed in storage. In one 
instance an attempt was made to put a carload of fish in storage in 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 25 

Boston, which, though originally salt-water fish, had been stored in 
Chicago, shipped from New York to Boston, and, when this Depart- 
ment refused admission to Massachusetts storage because of its age, 
was shipped to Cleveland, Ohio, for storage. 

It was necessary to grant eighty extensions of time in storage during 
the first eleven months of the fiscal year. 

Owing to a disastrous fire in the laboratory from the breaking of a 
carboy of ether, resulting in the loss of one life, the arsphenamine 
work was removed from the State House to a laboratory building in 
the Fenway, Boston. It was estimated that this would curtail pro- 
duction for about two months, and a large surplus of arsphenamine 
was prepared. The transfer of apparatus, delays in new construction, 
and the strike of electric linemen, resulted in a delay of five months. 
The production will soon be brought to the former rate, how^ever. 

Division of Hygiene. 

The activities of the Division of Hygiene for the year may be sum- 
marized under the principal headings of public health nursing activi- 
ties, food in relationship to health, mouth hygiene, work against can- 
cer and educational work. 

In order to be able intelligently to advise towns regarding their 
public health nursing needs, this Division co-operated with the District 
Health Officers during the past year in a survey which included an 
enumeration of the existing nursing facilities of the different com- 
munities, together with an estimate as to future needs. Special studies 
have also received attention. The Division is now engaged in a study 
of the midwife situation in Massachusetts, of open-air classes, and of the 
various factors which would enter into a system of maternity benefits. 

The work of food in its relationship to health has been extended 
greatly during the past year, though no new personnel has been em- 
ployed. Food exhibits and lecture material have been considerably 
extended. It is felt, however, that a need exists for the broader treat- 
ment of the subject. Disconnected efforts are being made by various 
organizations to handle parts of the problem. A State-wide policy is 
sadly needed so that every ounce of effort may tell. Nutrition clinics 
need to be stimulated and, when obtained, standardized. To this end 
the Division is making a study of existing clinics. Experts in dietet- 
ics ought to be available in every community. Such experts would 
logically be attached to health centers where such exist. From these 
centers would radiate an influence which would touch the schools and 
the home, making possible a more rational attention to the basic 
nutritional needs of the community. 

Another new departure this year has been the appointment of a 



26 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

supervisor of mouth hygiene. This branch of work has been too long 
neglected as a factor in preventive medicine. As a result of these 
activities new dental dispensaries will be established, standardization 
accomplished, and the public instructed as to the part which mouth 
hygiene can play in the preservation of health. 

The work of furnishing diagnostic service for physicians with pa- 
tients who possibly may have cancer has been continued. The work, 
as heretofore, is carried out in co-operation with the Cancer Commis- 
sion of Harvard University. In addition to this service, all the 
physicians of the State have been furnished with a pamphlet prepared 
by the American Society for the Control of Cancer and dealing with 
the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. 

Our lecture service has been extended wherever possible to reach all 
influential groups which can further the cause of public health. In all, 
571 lectures were given by the Department to aggregate audiences of 
over 100,000 persons. The health exhibits of the Division have been 
increased and improved. Important relationships have been estab- 
lished with the Massachusetts Tuberculosis League, the Massachusetts 
Child Labor Committee, and the League for Preventive Work, whereby 
the health exhibits maintained by these organizations travel with ours. 
In this way all reach a larger audience at a smaller overhead expense. 
New pamphlets have been issued from time to time. Probably the 
most important of these has been an outline for teaching child welfare, 
which was prepared in co-operation •with the State Board of Education 
for use in vocational and other schools. 

Preparations are now under way to establish a lecture course on the 
outlines of public health nursing for training schools in nursing. These 
lectures will be given by the District Health Officers and the personnel 
of the Division of Hygiene. 

An innovation this year was the maintenance of a diagnostic service 
for children at the agricultural fairs. A physician skilled in pediatrics 
was present to examine children and to advise with parents. No 
treatment was offered, all cases in need thereof being referred to their 
family physician. This service was offered largely as an educational 
measure and was decidedly successful. It is recommended that this 
diagnostic service be made permanent and extended to the whole 
State, especially throughout the rural sections. 

Appropriations. 
The appropriations for the year ended Nov. 30, 1919, as recom- 
mended by the Commissioner of Health in the annual estimates made 
under the provisions of section 26, chapter 6, of the Revised Laws, 
were as follows : — 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 27 



Regular Appropriations. 

For the Division of Administration, $28,700 00 

For the Division of Hygiene, 27,850 00 

For the Division of Communicable Diseases, 101,350 00 

For antitoxin and vaccine Ijonph, 50,300 00 

For the manufacture and distribution of arsphenamine, . . . 19,200 00 

For the Division of Food and Drug Inspection, .... 34,000 00 

For the Division of Water Supply and Sewage Disposal, . . 66,000 00 

For the State Examiners of Plumbers, . . . . . . 4,800 00 

For an investigation relative to the causes of cancer, and for further 

investigations for the treatment or prevention of cancer, . . 3,000 00 

Total, $335,200 00 

Special Appropriations. 
For the control, suppression and treatment of ve- 
nereal diseases, balance from 1918, .... $10,490 01 
For ascertaining the cost of a sewerage system to pre- 
vent the pollution of the Mystic Lakes, . . . 500 00 

10,990 01 

Emergency Appropriations. ^ 
For work in connection with the epidemic of influenza-pneumonia, 5,000 00 



$351,190 01 
Expenditures. 
The expenditures under the different appropriations for the year 
ended Nov. 30, 1919, were as follows: — 

Regular Appropriations. 

Division of Administration. 

Appropriation, $28,700 00 

Credit, brought over from 1918 appropriation, 30 17 

$28,730 17 

Salaries, $19,016 86 

TraveUng, • 963 34 

Express, 187 52 

Printing and binding, 735 05 

Books and subscriptions, 312 15 

Advertising, 20 82 

Stationery, maps and blue prints, 504 56 

' Transferred by the Governor and Council from their appropriation for extraordinary expenses. 



28 STATE DEP.ARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Postage and postal orders, $1,785 80 

Telephone and telegraph messages, 960 85 

Typewriting supplies and repairs, 226 35 

Sundry office supplies, . . 166 68 

Messenger, 257 36 

Miscellaneous, 82 01 



Total, $25,219 35 

Unexpended balance, 3,510 82 

$28,730 17 
Division of Hygiene. 

Appropriation, $27,850 00 

Credit, cash returned to treasury, 5 70 

Credit, brought over from 1918 appropriation, 532 11 



$28,387 81 



Salaries, $13,501 68 

TraveUng, • . 4,097 06 

Express, 452 30 

Printing and binding, 4,311 16 

Books and subscriptions, 4 86 

Advertising and educational work, 3,000 61 

Stationery, maps and blue prints, 395 68 

Postage, 386 94 

Telephone and telegraph, 31 30 

Typewriting supplies and repairs, 239 08 

Extra service, 196 06 

Purchase and maintenance of auto truck, 1,250 41 

Office supplies, 8 77 

Laboratory supplies, 48 27 

Miscellaneous, . 92 00 

Total, $28,016 18 

Unexpended balance, 371 63 

$28,387 81 
Division of Communicable Diseases. 

Appropriation, ^ $101,350 00 

Credit, brought forward from 1918, 12 50 

Credit, cash returned to treasury, 59 98 



$101,422 48 



' Includes 1919 appropriation for venereal diseases, against which nothing was drawn until September 
as there was a balance available from the 1918 appropriation for this purpose. 



No. 34.1 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



29 



Salaries, . 

Traveling, 

Express, . 

Printing and binding, 

Books, maps and educational supplies, 

Postage, 

Typewriting supplies and rental, . 

Extra services, .... 

Telephone and telegi-aph, 

Office supplies and stationery. 

Laboratory and experimental work, 

Office supplies, inspectors, 

CUnics, 

Animals, . 

Food for animals. 

Labor, 

Miscellaneous, . 

Office rent and light 

Total, 
Unexpended balance, 



So3,770 96 

13,217 36 

30 74 

2,097 35 

655 42 

1,091 71 

231 35 

368 05 

609 00 

982 73 

2,445 90 

40 10 

4,975 00 

79 05 

14 21 

25 50 

62 10 

741 87 

$81,438 40 
19,984 08 



,422 48 



Production and Distribution of Antitoxin and Vaccine Lyrnph. 

Appropriation, $50,300 00 

Credit, brought forward from 1918, 284 27 

Credit, cash returned to treasury, 3 75 



$50,588 02 



Salaries, 












$22,651 13 


Apparatus, chemicals and laboratory supplies, . 










8,478 65 


TraveUng, 










203 08 


Express, 












131 93 


Books and stationery. 












713 89 


Printing, 












812 08 


Purchase of animals. 












1,300 46 


Shipping, 












1,382 62 


Services of veterinary and saddlery. 












24 60 


Food for animals, .... 












6,527 02 


Rental of telephone, messages and postage. 










- 583 11 


Rent, 










. 2,058 32 


Water, gas and electric fighting, heatinj 


T 

5) 










703 76 



30 



STATE DEPAIIT:MEXT of health. [Pub. Doc. 



Labor and materials, 
Ice, . . . . 
Miscellaneous, . 

Total, . 
Unexpended balance, 



S2,454 64 
476 38 
437 37 

$48,939 04 
1,648 98 

$50,588 02 



Manufacture and Distribution of Arsiphenomine. 



Appropriation, 



Salaries, 

Apparatus, chemicals and laboratory supplies, 
Ser\aces, testing arsphenamine. 
Animals, .... 
Traveling, .... 

Rent, 

Express, .... 
Labor, .... 
Piu"chase of arsphenamine, 
Heat and light, . 
Miscellaneous, . 

Total, .... 
Unexpended balance. 



Division of Food and Drug Inspection. 

Appropriation, 

Credit, brought forward from 1918, 



Salaries, 

Apparatus and chemicals, 

Travehng, . 

Express, 

Printing, 

Books, maps and stationery, 

Telephone, telegraph messages and postage, 

Sundr}^ laboratory supphes, . 

Typewriting suppUes and repairs. 

Branding outfits, 

Samples, 

Extra services, . 

Miscellaneous, . 

Tota^, . 
Unexpended balance. 



$19,200 00 


4,336 


19 


2,329 


12 


225 00 


113 


50 


62 


37 


375 


00 


13 


74 


65 00 


5,040 00 


53 


75 


34 24 


$12,647 91 


6,552 


09 


$19,200 00 


$34,000 00 


32 


19 


$34,032 


19 


$25,378 


14 


601 


47 


5,766 


77 


89 


88 


452 04 


317 


58 


392 45 


262 


38 


29 


80 


77 93 


457 81 


35 00 


31 


18 



$33,892 43 
139 76 

$34,032 19 



No. 34. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



31 



Division of Water Supply and Sewage Disposal. 

Appropriation, 

Credit, cash returned to treasury, ....... 



Salaries, 

Apparatus and materials. 

Traveling, .... 

Express, .... 

Printing and binding. 

Maps, blue prints and books, 

Stationery, drawing materials and typewriting supplies, 

Telephone and telegi'aph messages and postage, 

Services collecting samples and reading gages, . 

Labor, 

Rent, 

Miscellaneous, 



Total, . 
Unexpended balance. 



Appropriation, . 



$66,000 00 


101 60 


$66,101 60 


51,286 19 


2,967 38 


5,650 68 


1,364 01 


1,002 28 


202 76 


607 39 


234 44 


350 45 


87 10 


150 00 


73 61 



State Examiners of Plumbers. 



$63,976 29 
2,125 31 

$66,101 60 

$4,800 00 



Salaries, 

Examiner's wages, 

Traveling, . 

Express, 

Printing, 

Postage, 

Books and stationery, 

Plumbers' materials. 

Extra services, . 

Cleaning, . 

Office suppUes, . 

Telephone and lighting, 

Total, . 
Unexpended balance, 



2,604 50 
405 00 

457 88 
40 88 
95 63 
95 00 
71 38 
8 00 

426 50 

19 00 

3 98 

101 07 

S4,328 82 
471 18 



$4,800 00 



32 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Investigation relative to the Causes of Cancer. 
Appropriation, $3,000 00 



Special investigation, 
Pamphlets, 
Printing, 
Laboratory supplies. 



$833 32 

330 00 

5 55 

29 59 



Total, . 
Unexpended balance. 



Special Appropriahons. 

Control, Sujjpression and Treatment of Venereal Diseases {Chapter 

Acts of 1918). 

Appropriation, 

Expended in 1918, 



Balance, .... 
Credit, cash returned to treasury, 



$1,198 46 
1,801 54 

$3,000 00 

140, Special 

$30,000 00 
19,529 99 

$10,470 01 
1,080 82 



Salaries, 

Traveling, . 

Express and shipping. 

Postage, 

Telephone and telegraph, 

Books and stationery. 

Printing, 

Typewriting supplies, 

Clinic subsidies, 

Educational material, 



$11,550 83 


$5,144 48 


342 


52 


41 


87 


19 


50 


6 37 


183 


42 


559 


26 


75 


60 


5,025 


00 


152 


62 



Total, . 
Unexpended balance, 



$11,550 64 
19 



Ll,550 83 



No. 34.] ANNUAL REPORT. 33 



Ascertaining the Cost of a Sewerage System to -prevent the Pollution of the Mystic 

Lakes (Chapter I4, Resolves of 1919). 
Appropriation, $500 00 

Salaries, 1405 00 

Traveling, ' 8 00 

Total, S413 00 

Unexpended balance, 87 00 

$500 00 
Emergency Appropriations. 

Work in Connection with the Epidemic of Influenza-Pneumonia. 
Appropriation, $5,000 00 

Salaries, Sl,477 91 

Traveling, 592 92 

Printing, 51 39 

Postage, 215 00 

Laboratory supplies, 89 66 

Miscellaneous, 3 32 

Total, $2,430 20 

Unexpended balance, 2,569 80 

$5,000 00 



34 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



Recapitulation. 
Regular Appropriations. 



Appropria- 
tion. 



Expended. 



For the Division of Administration, ........ 

For the Division of Hygiene 

For the Division of Communicable Diseases, ...... 

For antitoxin and vaccine lymph, 

For the manufacture and distribution of arsphenamine, ... 

For the Division of Food and Drug Inspection, 

For the Division of Water Supply and Sewage Disposal, . 

For the State Examiners of Plumbers, ...... 

For an investigation relative to the causes of cancer, and for further investi- 
gations for the treatment or prevention of cancer. 

Total, ............ 



$28,700 00 

27,850 00 

101,350 00 

50,300 00 

10,200 00 

34,000 00 

66,000 00 

4,800 00 

3,000 00 



S25,219 351 
28,016 181 
81,438 401 
48,939 041 
12,647 91 
33,892 431 
63,976 291 
4,328 82 
1,198 46 



$335,200 00 



$299,656 88 



Special Appropriations. 



For the control, suppression and treatment of venereal diseases, balance 

from 1918. 
For ascertaining the cost of a sewerage system to prevent the pollution of 

the Mystic Lakes. 



Total, 



$10,490 01 
500 00 



$10,990 01 



$11,550 641 
413 00 

$11,963 64 



Emergency Appropriations. 



For work in connection with the epidemic of influenza-pneumonia, . . $5,000 00 $2,430 20 



1 Credits, cash returned to the State treasury and brought forward from 1918. 



SUPPLEME^TT 



135] 



Division of Sanitmy ExNgineering 



X. H. GooDNOUGH, Director 



[37] 



EEPORT OF DIVISION OF SANITAEY ENGINEEKING. 



The duties of this Division relate in general to the oversight and 
care of inland waters, including advice to cities, towns and persons 
relative to water supply, drainage, sewerage, sewage disposal and 
questions relating thereto. During the year 1919 the Department has 
received 146 applications for advice, of whicL 43 were in relation to 
public water supplies, 56 to private supplies, 4 to sources of ice 
supply, 19 to sewerage, drainage and sewage disposal, 6 to pollution 
of streams and 18 to miscellaneous matters. 

As was the case during the years 1917 and 1918, very little per- 
manent work relative to the introduction of new water suppHes or 
the extension of old ones has been carried out during the year, such 
works as have been constructed being limited chiefly to cases of 
emergency, the high cost of materials and labor making construction 
work at the present time very costly. A number of investigations 
have been made, however, and plans prepared for the construction of 
new water works as soon as the conditions become more favorable 
for carrying on such construction at a reasonable cost. 

The total number of cities and towns in the State is 354, of which 
215 are provided with public water supplies. Many of the remaining 
towns are very small, with no considerable aggregation of popula- 
tion at any point, but there are still 21 towns, which had by the 
census of 1915 a population in excess of 2,000, in which the domestic 
water supply of the inhabitants is derived wholly from private wells. 
The Department has examined the private wells in many villages 
and towns where no public water supply exists, and in some cases 
has tested all of the wells in use. The results of these tests show 
that the wells in the populated districts of towns and villages are 
invariably affected in a greater or less degree by the sewage and 
other refuse deposited upon the ground in their neighborhood, and 
in some cases these wells are so grossly polluted as to be utterly 
unsafe for use for drinking. It is not practicable in such populous 
areas to obtain water of good quality, since numerous tests have shown 
that the ground waters beneath populous areas are very generally 
affected by sewage pollution, and that good waters cannot be obtained 
in such locations. 

An important sanitary problem at the present time is that which 



40 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

has been brought about by the development of lands for occupation 
by summer cottages and camps, the number of which is increasing 
very rapidly, not only along the seashore, but especially along the 
banks of rivers and the shores of lakes and ponds. In some of these 
communities lots are being laid out and occupied for camps and 
cottages which are so small in area that it is impracticable to locate 
a well upon them at any point within their limits at such a distance 
from a neighboring receptacle for sewage as to avoid danger of the 
pollution of the well. Such settlements as these are often remote 
from the thickly settled portions of the towns within which they are 
situated, and it is often impracticable for a town or a water company 
to provide a water supply in these communities and secure sufficient 
income therefrom to pay a reasonable return on the improvement 
and prevent such settlements from being a burden on the other 
water takers. Some of these settlements, however, are located in 
towns where no water supply has yet been introduced. Under such 
conditions the advantages of living in otherwise excellent surroundings 
may be more than offset by the use of an unsafe water supply and by 
objectionable methods of sewage disposal. In cases where it is prac- 
ticable to extend public water supplies to such communities there is 
often hesitation to do so on the part of water departments, and 
especially of private companies, because complaint frequently arises 
on account of the necessity of charging for water, even though used 
for only a few weeks in summer, practically the same amount that 
would be charged for the entire year. The health authorities are 
attempting to meet this problem, which is becoming a most difficult 
one in many communities and can probably only be met, in some 
cases at least, by legislation. In the opinion of the Department 
the subject is one which should receive thorough investigation with a 
view to providing such legislation as may be necessary to prevent 
injury to the public health from such settlements, the number and 
size of which are rapidly increasing. 

Early in the year, upon petition of the authorities of the city of 
Haverhill, the rules and regulations adopted for the sanitary pro- 
tection of Lake Saltonstall were rescinded by the Department and 
the use of the lake as a source of water supply temporarily discon- 
tinued. Following the suspension of these protective rules it was 
reported that the use of the lake by the public resulted in gross 
abuses, and the Department was subsequently petitioned for the re- 
estabHshment of these regulations. The question of the further use 
of this source of water supply is still under investigation. 

A regulation adopted by the Department providing that no permits 
should be granted for entering upon ponds and reservoirs used as 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



41 



sources of water supply was rescinded in the spring of 1918, and the 
conditions affecting the granting of permits for boating, fishing, ice 
cutting, etc., on sources of water supply were restored to those 
existing before the war. 



Sanitary Protection of Public Water Supplies. 

Under the provisions of chapter 75, section 113, of the Revised 
Laws, as amended by chapter 467 of the Acts of 1907, this Depart- 
ment, at the request of municipal authorities, during the past year 
has adopted rules and regulations for the sanitary protection of the 
water supplies of the city of Leominster and the town of Dalton, and 
also for the protection of the water supply of the town of Lee, sup- 
plied by the Berkshire Water Company. 

The following list shows the cities and towns in Massachusetts the 
water supplies of which are now protected by similar rules and 
regulations: — 



Abington and Rockland. 


Lincoln and Concord. 


Amherst. 


LATin. 


Andover. 


IMarlborough. 


Attleboro. 


MajTiard. 


Braintree. 


Montague. 


Brockton and Whitman. 


Northampton. 


Cambridge. 


North Andover. 


Chester. 


Northborough. 


Chicopee. 


Norwood. 


Concord. 


Peabody. 


Dalton. 


Pittsfieid. 


Danvers and Middleton. 


Pljanouth. 


Easthampton. 


Randolph and Holbrook. 


Fall River. 


Rockport. 


Falmouth. 


Russell. 


Fitchburg. 


Rutland. 


Gardner. 


Salem and Beverly. 


Great Barrington (Housatonic). 


Springfield. 


Greenfield. 


Springfield and Ludlow. 


Haverhill. 


Stockbridge. 


Hingham and Hull. 


Taunton. 


Hold en. 


Wakefield. 


Holyoke. 


Westfield. 


Hudson. 


West Springfield. 


Lee. 


Weymouth. 


Leicester (Cherry VaUey and 


Williamsburg. 


Rochdale). 


Winchester. 


Leominster. 


Worcester. 



42 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Work required by Special Legislation. 

Under the legislation of 1919 extra work was committed to this 
Department in connection with special investigations under the 
following resolves of the Legislature: Mystic Lakes (chapter 34, 
Resolves of 1918, and chapter 14, Resolves of 1919); Taunton River 
(chapter 29, Resolves of 1919); Blackstone River (chapter 15, Resolves 
of 1919); and Charles River (chapter 9, Resolves of 1919). 

The engineering work in connection with the foregoing matters 
has been carried out by the Engineering Division. 

Under the provisions of chapter 49 of the Resolves of 1919 the 
MetropoHtan Water and Sewerage Board and the State Department 
of Health, acting jointly, are directed to investigate the water supply 
needs and resources of the Commonwealth, and under this act the 
Joint Board was organized in July as follows: — 

Chairman, Dr. Henry P. Walcott, chairman, JMetropohtan Water and Sewerage 
Board. 

Chief engineer and secretary, X. H. Goodnough, chief engineer, State Depart- 
ment of Health. 

Consuhing engineer, Frederic P. Stearns, formerly chief engineer, MetropoHtan 
Water and Sewerage Board. 

The sudden death of Mr. Stearns on Dec. 1, 1919, removed from 
the staff the engineer who was most famihar with the construction 
and operation of the metropolitan water works, beginning with the 
first extensions which followed the introduction of water into Boston 
in 1848. Mr. Stearns not only served the State of Massachusetts in 
the construction of the great metropoHtan water system, but had been 
consulting engineer in a large number of vast engineering projects, in- 
cluding the Panama Canal and the water supply of greater New York. 
His loss at this time deprives the Joint Board of the assistance of the 
expert best qualified to advise on the larger problems of water supply 
with which the State is now confronted. 

At about the same time, following a general reorganization of the 
departments of the State, the chairman of the Joint Board, Dr. 
Henry P. Walcott, after long years of public labor, withdrew from the 
active service of the Commonwealth. As chairman of the State 
Board of Health which designed and recommended to the Legislature 
the metropolitan water system, and later as a member of the Metro- 
politan Water Board during the most of its existence, and its chair- 
man for many years. Dr. Walcott possessed a remarkable and unique 
acquaintance with all the important problems of water supply affect- 
ing not merely the metropolitan district but all of the cities and 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



43 



towns of the State, and his retirement is greatly regretted. These 
losses made necessary at the end of the year changes in the organi- 
zation of the Joint Board. 

The work has now been organized, and investigations are pro- 
gressing at the present time as rapidly as practicable. 

Examination of Public Water Supplies. 

The usual examinations of public water supplies have been carried 
on during the year, and many of the sources of supply have been in- 
spected by the engineers of this Division. Chemical examinations 
of the various sources of supply have also been made as usual at in- 
tervals of from one to four months, and in a few cases bacterial 
tests have been made where such tests appeared necessary or desirable. 
On account of the heavy rainfall there has been no necessity for the 
use of auxiliary water supplies in emergencies, as commonly happens 
in dry seasons or in very cold winters. 

Following are average results of chemical analyses of the sources 
examined in 1919. 



Analysis of the Water of Public Water Supplies. 
Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources for the Year 1919. 



PParts in 100,000.] 











C 
o 
o 
O 


o 
ft 

t 

a 

o . 

.2 2 

m cS 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

o 

o 






Source. 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 




CiTT OR Town. 


3 

o 


-a 
a> 

•a 
a 
a 
ft 

3 

m 


c 

-3 
u 

s 


Metropolitan Water 
District. 


Wachusett Reservoir, upper end, 
Wachusett Reservoir, low-er end, 


.34 
.14 


4.18 
3.39 


.0024 
.0020 


.0163 
.0127 


.0028 
.0019 


.30 
.29 


1.1 
1.1 




Sudbury Reseri-oir, . 


.18 


3.78 


.0022 


.0147 


.0022 


.33 


1.4 




Framingham Reservoir, No. 3, 




.18 


3.90 


.0032 


.0159 


.0032 


.35 


1.3 




Hopkinton Reservoir, 






.58 


4.52 


.0040 


.0204 


.0020 


.39 


1.3 




Ashland Reservoir, 






.56 


4.50 


.0039 


.0236 


.0017 


.36 


1.3 




Framingham Reservoir No 


2, 




.79 


5.66 


.0060 


.0265 


.0025 


.54 


1.5 




Lake Cochituate, 






.20 


6.46 


.0024 


.0270 


.0064 


.70 


2.7 




Chestnut Hill Reservoir, 






.17 


3.90 


.0024 


.0137 


.0025 


.36 


1.5 




Weston Reservoir, 






.16 


4.11 


.0019 


.0137 


.0021 


.33 


1.4 




Spot Pond, . 






.09 


3.79 


.0020 


.0152 


.0023 


.36 


1.4 




Tap in State House, . 






.20 


4.32 


.0010 


.0133 


.0023 


•.36 


1.5 




Tap in Revere, . 






.09 


3.41 


.0006 


.0135 


.0017 


.34 


1.4 




Tap in Quincy, . 






.16 


3.94 


.0009 


.0111 


.0013 


.37 


1.5 



44 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-icaler Sources, etc. ■ — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 





Source. 




a 

> 

w 

a 
o 


Ammonia. 










ALBUMINOID. 




City or Town. 




■d 

01 


(K 






"o 
O 


2 «' 
Pi 




3 

o 


T3 

a 

a 


1 
o 


i 

ca 


Abington, 


Big Sandy Pond, 


.10 


3.77 


.0050 


.0158 


.0021 


.71 


1.2 


Adams, . 


Dry Brook, .... 


.21 


7.07 


.0016 


.0095 


.0011 


.14 


4.7 




Bassett Brook, .... 


.04 


3.66 


.0013 


.0043 


.0004 


.12 


2.3 


Amherst, 


Amethyst Brook large reservoir, 


.49 


3.60 


.0023 


.0120 


.0016 


.15 


0.8 




Amethyst Brook small reservoir. 


.21 


3.00 


.0029 


.0121 


.0022 


.16 


0.8 


Andover, 


Haggett's Pond 


.15 


4.35 


.0027 


.0189 


.0044 


.38 


1.6 


Ashburnham, 


Upper Naukeag Lake, 


.12 


2.42 


.0012 


.0076 


.0009 


.17 


0.5 


Ashfield, 


Bear Swamp Brook, . 


.28 


5.47 


.0023 


.0136 


.0015 


.17 


2.8 


Athol, . 


Phillipston Reservoir, 


1.05 


5.32 


.0054 


.0337 


.0099 


.22 


1.2 




Buckman Brook Reservoir, 


.30 


3.55 


.0023 


.0201 


.0069 


.15 


0.8 




Inlet of Filter 


.40 


3.84 


.0066 


.0262 


.0069 


.16 


1.0 




Outlet of Filter, .... 


.45 


4.48 


.0045 


.0215 


- 


.17 


1.1 


Barre, 


Reservoir 


.15 


3.87 


.0023 


.0139 


.0016 


.16 


1.5 


Blandford, 


Freeland Brook 


.06 


3.42 


.0006 


.0041 


.0004 


.23 


1.5 


Brockton, 


Silver Lake, .... 


.13 


3.50 


.0016 


.0134 


.0022 


.60 


0.8 


Cambridge, . 


Lower Hobbs Brook Reservoir, . 


.20 


6.11 


.0060 


.0238 


.0026 


.51 


2.5 




Stony Brook Reservoir, 


.51 


6.75 


.0042 


.0265 


.0030 


.57 


2.5 




Fresh Pond 


.28 


6.81 


.0069 


.0273 


.0080 


.61 


2.9 


Cheshire, 


Thunder Brook 


.01 


6.65 


.0002 


.0050 


.0004 


.15 


8.4 




Kitchen Brook 


.01 


4.90 


.0002 


.0026 


.0000 


.14 


5.1 


Chicopee, 


Cooley Brook, .... 


.74 


3.74 


.0053 


.0165 


.0041 


.21 


1.4 


Colrain, . 


McClellan Reservoir, . 


.06 


8.05 


.0042 


.0071 


.0005 


.17 


5.2 


Concord, 


Nagog Pond, .... 


.09 


2.74 


.0013 


.0124 


.0015 


.38 


0.8 


Dal ton, . 


Egypt Brook Reservoir, 


.41 


3.75 


.0048 


.0172 


.0032 


.19 


2.6 




Cady Brook 


.33 


5.22 


.0016 


.0167 


.0021 


.13 


2.8 


Danvers, 


Middleton Pond, 


.49 


5.11 


.0061 


.0240 


.0038 


.42 


1.9 


Deerfield (South), . 


Roaring Brook, .... 


.09 


6.92 


.0004 


.0060 


.0014 


.16 


4.3 


Egremont (South),. 


Goodale Brook 


.03 


5 00 


.0000 


.0028 


.0000 


.14 


3.3 


Fall River, . 


North Watuppa Lake, 


.15 


4.20 


.0015 


.0172 


.0025 


.61 


1.0 


Falmouth, 


Long Pond, .... 


.03 


3 49 


.0016 


.0121 


.0014 


1.10 


0.6 


Fitchburg, 


Meetinghouse Pond, . 


.10 


2.98 


.0032 


.0180 


.0018 


.21 


1.1 




Scott Reservoir, .... 


.19 


3.47 


.0058 


.0186 


.0038 


.23 


0.7 




Wachusett Lake, 


.11 


3.02 


.0046 


.0166 


.0026 


.19 


0.9 




Falulah Brook, .... 


.22 


3.34 


.0041 

1 


.0152 


.0026 


.22 


0.7 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITAEY ENGINEERING. 



45 



Averages of Chemical Aiialyses of Surface-water Sotirces, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 




o 
a 

> 

H 


o 


Ammonia. 










ALBUMINOID. 




City or Town. 




13 


ED 








.2 2 
35 03 


6 

o 
i-, 


3 
^ 


a 


6 

o 


CD 

g 

03 

15 


Fitchburg — Con. . 


Ashby Reservoir, 


.35 


3.26 


.0112 


.0265 


.0036 


.20 


0.7 


Gardner, 


Crystal Lake 


.12 


4.51 


.0021 


.0168 


.0033 


.33 


1.9 


Gloucester, 


Dike's Brook Reservoir, . 


.30 


4.25 


.0030 


.0148 


.0023 


.74 


0.5 




Wallace Reservoir, 


.56 


4.78 


.0040 


.0192 


.0026 


.89 


0.5 




Haskell Brook Reservoir, . 


.19 


3.79 


.0011 


.0122 


.0017 


.78 


0.6 


Great Barrington, . 


East Mountain Reservoir, . 


.18 


6.12 


.0015 


.0123 


.0015 


.12 


4.0 




Green River 


.01 


12.32 


.0006 


.0070 


.0006 


.13 


10.2 


Great Barrington 

(Housatonic). 
Greenfield, 


Long Pond, .... 
Glen Brook Lower Reservoir, . 


.08 
.05 


9.20 
5.75 


.0033 
.0012 


.0190 
.0082 


.0027 
.0014 


.15 

.17 


6.9 

3.5 


Hadley, . 


Hart's Brook Reservoir, 


.10 


5.12 


.0026 


.0083 


.0019 


.16 


2.2 


Hatfield, 


Running Gutter Brook Reservoir, 


.10 


5.52 


.0035 


.0061 


.0007 


.21 


2.8 


Haverhill, 


Johnson's Pond 


.15 


4.87 


.0019 


.0174 


.0016 


.48 


2.5 




Crystal Lake, .... 


.19 


3.55 


.0019 


.0175 


.0013 


.37 


1.4 




Kenoza Lake 


.21 


5.16 


.0018 


.0198 


.0026 


.43 


2.5 




Lake Saltonstall, 


.08 


6.16 


.0029 


.0192 


.0021 


.63 


3.1 




Lake Pentucket, 


.15 


4.96 


.0024 


.0212 


.0035 


.47 


2.4 




Millvale Reservoir, 


.60 


5.62 


.0031 


.0198 


.0024 


.38 


2.1 


Hingham, 


Accord Pond 


.26 


3.64 


.0016 


.0156 


.0027 


.54 


0.5 


Hinsdale, 


Reservoir 


.25 


3.02 


.0012 


.0145 


.0029 


.10 


0.8 


Holyoke, 


Whiting Street Reservoir, . 


.13 


5.14 


.0043 


.0157 


.0020 


.22 


2.9 




Fomer Reservoir, 


.35 


4.23 


.0046 


.0152 


.0019 


.17 


1.7 




Wright and Ashley Pond, . 


.11 


5.48 


.0045 


.0154 


.0028 


.19 


2.8 




High Service Reservoir, 


.11 


4.19 


.0041 


.0181 


.0032 


.21 


2.0 




White Reservoir, 


.24 


4.10 


.0070 


.0195 


.0038 


.19 


1.7 


Hudson, 


Gates Pond, .... 


.07 


3.34 


.0026 


.0182 


.0044 


.26 


1.4 


Huntington, . 


Cold Brook Reservoir, 


.16 


3.65 


.0002 


.0078 


.0010 


.18 


1.7 


Ipswich, . 


Dow's Brook Reservoir, 


.27 


5.75 


.0042 


.0175 


.0022 


.69 


1.9 


Lawrence, 


Merrimack River, filtered, 


.40 


6.06 


.0047 


.0072 


- 


.48 


1.1 


Lee, 


Codding Brook Upper Reservoir, 


.15 


4.58 


.0010 


.0074 


.0004 


.11 


2.3 




Codding Brook Lower Reservoir, 


.15 


4.53 


.0011 


.0065 


.0005 


.13 


2.4 




Basin Pond Brook, 


.64 


5.05 


.0031 


.0229 


.0053 


.13 


1.6 


Lenox, . 


Reservoir, 


.09 


7.81 


.0006 


.0060 


.0004 


.10 


6.3 


Leominster, . 


Morse Reservoir, 


.20 


2.74 


.0056 


.0171 


.0021 


.20 


0.4 




Haynes Reservoir, 


.29 


2.96 


.0232 


.0274 


.0069 


.18 


0.4 



46 



STATE DEPAETMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Snrface-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 


O 


a 

> 

H 

a 



II 

|2 


Am.monia 


. 1 


o 
3 
o 


a 

■a 




i 


ALBUMINOID. 


City or Town. 


"a 


^3 

-a 
a 

a 

m 


Leominster— Core. . 


Fall Brook Reservoir, 


.13 


2.70 


.0018 


.0144 


.0026 


.20 


0.6 


Lincoln, . 


Sandy Pond, .... 


.17 


4.18 


.0017 


.0127 


.0019 


.34 


1.4 


Longmeadow, 


Cooley Brook, .... 


.07 


5.49 


.0044 


.0067 


.0011 


.28 


2.4 


Lynn, 


Birch Reservoir 


.21 


5.36 


.0094 


.0203 


.0032 


.75 


2.0 




Breed's Reservoir, 


.42 


5.94 


.0081 


.0230 


.0036 


.68 


2.0 




Walden Reservoir, 


.56 


6.02 


.0074 


.0212 


.0025 


.70 


2.0 




Hawkes Reservoir, 


.52 


6.18 


.0088 


.0241 


.0047 


.64 


2.3 


Manchester, . 


Gravel Pond, .... 


.13 


4.45 


.0022 


.0150 


.0023 


.86 


11 


Marlborough, . 


Lake Williams, .... 


.13 


5.69 


.0020 


.0172 


.0015 


.56 


2.2 




Millham Brook Reservoir, . 


.49 


5.34 


.0065 


.0236 


.0038 


.41 


1.7 


Maynard, 


White Pond 


.35 


3.27 


.0008 


.0141 


.0019 


.30 


1.3 


Milford, . 


Charles River, filtered. 


.22 


5.27 


.0008 


.0072 


- 


.34 


2.4 


Montague, 


Lake Pleasant 


.07 


3.40 


.0012 


.0129 


.0028 


.16 


0.8 


Nantucket, 


Wannacomet Pond, 


.11 


7.12 


.0050 


.0202 


.0068 


2.14 


1.7 


New Bedford, 


Little Quittacas Pond, 


.41 


4.20 


.0059 


.0227 


.0027 


.56 


1.1 




Great Quittacas Pond, 


.52 


4.51 


.0048 


.0225 


.0023 


.54 


1.0 


North Adams, 


Notch Brook Reservoir, 


.10 


7.41 


.0013 


.0060 


.0012 


.11 


5.7 




Beaman Reservoir, 


.06 


7.06 


.0020 


.0078 


.0013 


.11 


5.2 


Northampton, 


Middle Reservoir, 


.25 


4.33 


.0016 


.0132 


.0019 


.18 


1.9 




Mountain Street Reservoir, 


.10 


4.26 


.0014 


.0079 


.0009 


.17 


1.9 


North Andover, 


Great Pond, .... 


.13 


4.93 


.0022 


.0188 


.0009 


.45 


1.9 


Northborough, 


Lower Reservoir, 


.76 


4.90 


.0041 


.0259 


.0042 


.29 


1.2 


Northbridge, . 


Cook Allen Reservoir, 


.01 


3.05 


.0005 


.0033 


.0004 


.23 


0.7 


North Brookfield, . 


Doane Pond, . . . . 


.43 


4.12 


.0079 


.0296 


.0078 


.18 


1.1 




North Pond 


.42 


3.42 


.0042 


.0247 


.0043 


.16 


1.0 


Northfield, 


Reservoir 


.10 


4.50 


.0008 


.0065 


.0006 


.13 


1.5 


Orange, . 


Reservoir, 


.12 


2.92 


.0006 


.0048 


.0005 


.13 


1.0 


Palmer, . 


Lower Reservoir, 


.27 


2.70 


.0059 


.0169 


.0035 


.18 


1.1 


Peabody, 


Spring Pond 


.37 


5.68 


.0117 


.0238 


.0050 


.82 


2.3 




Suntaug Lake, . . . . 


.10 


5.68 


.0086 


.0209 


.0019 


1.13 


3.5 


Pittsfield, 


Ashley Brook, . . . . 


.20 


5.49 


.0025 


.0137 


.0014 


.13 


3.5 




Hathaway Brook, 


.10 


8.49 


.0006 


.0060 


.0005 


.14 


7.2 , 




Sacket Brook, . . . . 


.19 


5.09 


.0009 


.0078 


.0010 


.13 


4.8 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



47 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 









o 

a 


o 

a 

53 

W 

o 

2 
-§•2 


Ammonia. 


a 

o 

3 
O 






Source. 


6 
o 


ALBUMINOID. 




City or Town. 


1 
^ 


T3 

■a 

a 

p, 

3 


1 

•a 

K 


Pittsfield — Con. . 


Farnham Reservoir, . 


.52 


4.63 


.0029 


.0191 


.0031 


.16 


1.9 


Plymouth, 


Little South Pond, 




.05 


3.03 


.0040 


.0192 


.0023 


.66 


0.3 




Great South Pond, 




.02 


3.16 


.0032 


.0158 


.0024 


.67 


0.3 


Randolph, 


Great Pond, 




.48 


4.30 


.0023 


.0181 


.0019 


.59 


1.5 


Rockport, 


Cape Pond, 




.27 


10.29 


.0116 


.0290 


.0093 


3.53 


1.7 


Russell, . 


Black Brook, 




.20 


4.85 


.0005 


.0092 


.0006 


.17 


1.7 


Rutland, 


Muschopauge Lake, . 




.10 


2.92 


.0008 


.0103 


.0010 


.30 


0.9 


Salem, 


Wenham Lake, - 




.37 


7.53 


.0106 


.0221 


.0034 


.90 


2.4 




Longham Reservoir, . 




1.07 


7.25 


.0157 


.0372 


.0090 


.90 


2.0 


Shelburne, 


Fox Brook, . 




.04 


6.13 


.0003 


.0051 


.0001 


.13 


3.6 


Southbridge, . 


Hatchet Brook Reservoir No. 3, 


.23 


3.32 


.0030 


.0146 


.0028 


.19 


0.8 




Hatchet Brook Reservoir No. 4, 


.24 


2.94 


.00.37 


.0164 


.0032 


.19 


0.7 


South Hadley, 


Leaping Well Reservoir, 


.12 


3.22 


.0035 


.0177 


.0049 


.20 


0.8 




Buttery Brook Reservoir, . 


.13 


4.71 


.0035 


.0103 


.0020 


.36 


1.3 


Spencer, . 


Shaw Pond, . . • ■ 


.11 


3.04 


.0020 


.0171 


.0019 


.20 


0.9 


Springfield, . 


Westfield Little River, filtered, . 


.19 


3.69 


.0008 


.0082 


- 


.16 


1.4 


Stockbridge, . 


Lake Averic, . . • • 


.13 


7.16 


.0024 


.0166 


.0022 


.13 


5.2 


Stoughton, 


Muddy Pond Brook, . 


.17 


4.32 


.0005 


.0090 


.0021 


.36 


0.8 


Taunton, 


Assawompsett Pond, . 


.30 


4.49 


.0030 


.0199 


.0023 


.51. 


0.8 




Elder's Pond 


.13 


3.62 


.0026 


.0173 


.0023 


.50 


0.9 


Wakefield, 


Crystal Lake, . . • ■ 


.18 


5.89 


.0090 


.0259 


.0036 


.81 


2.0 


Wareham (Onset), . 


Jonathan Pond, . . • ■ 


.06 


2.52 


.0011 


.0099 


.0013 


.65 


0.3 


Wayland, 


Snake Brook Reservoir, 


.80 


4.62 


.0144 


.0311 


.0047 


.33 


1.6 


Westfield, 


Montgomery Reservoir, 


.39 


3.12 


.0033 


.0179 


.0030 


.18 


0.8 




Tillotson Brook Reservoir, 


.20 


3.47 


.0019 


.0088 


.0009 


.21 


0.8 


West Springfield, 


Bear Hole Brook, filtered, . 


.05 


6.68 


.0006 


.0044 


- 


.22 


4.4 


Weymouth , 


Great Pond, . . . . 


1.12 


4.55 


.0075 


.0249 


.0031 


.46 


0.7 


Williamsburg, 


Reservoir, . 




.12 


4.70 


.0003 


.0074 


.0004 


.18 


2.5 


Williamstown, 


Reservoirs, . 




.04 


8.80 


.0004 


.0058 


.0008 


.10 


7.4 


Winchester, 


North Reservoir, 




.08 


3.99 


.0019 


.0152 


.0026 


.43 


1.5 




South Reservoir, 




.11 


3.62 


.0014 


.0146 


.0017 


.39 


1.5 




Middle Reservoir, 




.13 


3.37 


.0024 


.0232 


.0045 


.38 


1.3 


Worcester, 


Bottomly Reservoir, 




.36 


4.37 


.0048 


.0220 


.0029 


.29 


1.6 



48 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical A7ialyses of Surface-icater Sources, etc. — Concluded. 



[Parts in 100,000.1 





Town. 


Source. 


o 
O 


o 
a 

a 
o 


A 


MMONIA. 


o 

a 

3 
O 








ALBUMINOID. 




City or 


"a 
1 


-0 


02 


i 


Worcester - 


-Con. . 


Kent Reservoir, .... 


.25 


3.98 


.0027 


.0153 


.0035 


.27 


1.2 






Leicester Reservoir, . 


.19 


4.22 


.0041 


.0142 


.0018 


.25 


1.3 






Mann Reservoir, 


.20 


4.70 


.0053 


.0167 


.0029 


.22 


1.9 






Upper Holden Reservoir, . 


.14 


3.57 


.0020 


.0127 


.0023 


.24 


1.4 






Lower Holden Reservoir, . 


.15 


3.81 


.0028 


.0133 


.0011 


.29 


1.0 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources for the Year 1919. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 


o 

6 


o 

§1 
II 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


i 
1 




City or Town. 


1 


3 

'o 

1 a 

< 


1 


2 


d 
o 

u 


Acton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


8,92 


.0003 


,0022 


.69 


.1400 


,0003 


3.6 


.008 


Amesbury, 


Tubular wells, . 


.29 


16.24 


,0034 


,0057 


.55 


- 


- 


9.3 


.212 


Ashland, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.26 


,0002 


.0021 


.42 


- 


- 


1.7 


.011 


Attleboro, 


Large wells. 


.04 


5.52 


,0006 


.0050 


.59 


,0105 


,0002 


2.1 


.015 


Avon, 


Wells 


.00 


6.32 


,0009 


.0024 


.56 


,2300 


,0000 


2.5 


.007 


Ayer, 


Large well. 


.02 


7.60 


.0009 


.0029 


.69 


.0533 


.0000 


3.1 


.020 




Tubular wells, . 


.07 


5.90 


,0009 


.0033 


.32 


.0057 


.0000 


3.2 


.039 


Barnstable, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4,80 


,0009 


,0021 


1.15 


- 


- 


0.8 


.014 


Bedford, . 


Large well, 


,09 


5.20 


.0004 


,0035 


.34 


- 


- 


2.0 


.017 


Billerica, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.15 


8.13 


,0015 


.0060 


.42 


- 


- 


3.4 


.047 


Braintree, 


Filter-gallery, . 


.34 


7.47 


.0014 


.0169 


.90 


.1963 


.0002 


2.3 


.023 


Bridgewater, . 


Wells 


.00 


5.56 


.0003 


.0021 


.64 


.0217 


.0000 


1.6 


.014 


Brookfield (East), . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.40 


.0003 


,0022 


.24 


- 


- 


0.8 


.014 


Brookline, 

Canton, . 


Tubular wells and filter- 
gallery filtered. 
Springdale well, 


.15 
.09 


8.92 
5.58 


.0007 
.0009 


,0079 
,0072 


.77 
.56 


.0209 
.0260 


,0000 
.0000 


4.0 
1.9 


.010 
.011 




Well near Henry's Spring, 


.15 


5.42 


.0007 


,0052 


.56 


.0372 


.0000 


1.8 


.009 


Chelmsford (North), 


Tubular wells, . 


.13 


5.35 


.0127 


,0085 


.50 


.0545 


.0001 


1.9 


.020 


Chelmsford (Center), 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


8,80 


.0008 


,0020 


.69 


.1667 


.0006 


3.3 


.009 



No. 34.1 DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



49 



Averages of Chemical Anahjses of Ground-water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 





Source. 


o 
o 
O 


13 
O 


Ammonia. 


d 

a 

_o 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


i 

o 

a 




CiTT OR Town. 


6 
1 


"2 

'3 

1 a 

is 


1 
1 


1 


2 


Chicopee (Fairview) , 


Tubular wells, . 


.10 


5.75 


.0003 


.0017 


.30 


.0809 


.0002 


2.0 


.065 


Cohasset, 


Tubular wells No. 2, 


.16 


14.68 


.0006 


.0103 


1.93 


.1883 


.0002 


6.0 


.011 




Filtered water, . 


.22 


8.62 


.0023 


.0110 


1.16 


.0090 


.0000 


3.3 


.026 


Dedham, 

Deerfield (Fire Dis- 
trict). 
Douglas, . 


Large well and tubular 

wells. 
Wells 

Tubular wells, . 


.10 
.00 
.03 


9.97 
5.80 
4.70 


.0009 
.0000 
.0001 


.0061 
.0020 
.0018 


1.05 
.20 
.38 


.1183 
.0380 


.0001 
.0000 


4.1 
3.5 
1.7 


.010 
.015 
.119 


Dracut (Water Sup- 
ply District). 

Dracut (Collins- 
ville). 

Dudley, . . . 


Tubular wells, . 
Tubular wells, . 
Tubular wells, . 


.02 
.06 
.00 


7.70 
5.87 
3.00 


.0005 
.0006 
.0001 


.0020 
.0049 
.0017 


.58 
.35 
.24 


.1136 
.0075 


.0000 
.0000 


4.5 
2.1 
1.1 


.021 
.065 
.007 


Duxbury, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.67 


.0003 


.0020 


.80 


- 


- 


0.5 


.007 


Easthampton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.01 


8.33 


.0002 


.0017 


.15 


.0180 


.0000 


3.9 


.007 


Easton, . 


Well 


.00 


5.23 


.0002 


.0024 


.55 


.0429 


.0000 


1.8 


.007 


Edgartown, 


Large well. 


.00 


3.85 


.0000 


.0009 


.99 


- 


- 


0.4 


.005 


Fairhaven, 


Tubular wells, . 


.47 


8.30 


.0024 


.0132 


.98 


.1500 


.0000 


2.9 


.025 


Foxborough, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.30 


.0005 


.0017 


.49 


.0350 


.0000 


1.9 


.013 


Framingliam, . 


Filter-gallery, . 


.02 


12.58 


.0235 


.0073 


2.06 


.0168 


.0005 


6.0 


.010 


Franklin, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


6.10 


.0004 


.0022 


.61 


.0250 


.0000 


2.0 


.009 


Grafton, . 


Filter-gallery, . 


.09 


12.63 


.0007 


.0042 


1.59 


.1975 


.0001 


4.6 


.012 


Granville, 


Well, 


.05 


- 


.0005 


.0030 


.13 


- 


- 


1.7 


.026 


Groton, . 


Large well. 


.00 


6.27 


.0007 


.0032 


.22 


.0043 


.0000 


3.4 


.011 


Groton (VVestGroton 
Water Supply Dis- 
trict). 

Hingham, 


Tubular wells, . 

Wells 


.00 
.23 


5.03 
6.13 


.0001 
.0027 


.0021 
.0083 


.19 
.74 


.0057 


.0001 


3.0 
1.9 


.021 
.026 


Holliston, 


Large well. 


.39 


5.13 


.0023 


.0173 


.35 


.0073 


.0000 


1.5 


.062 


Hopkinton, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


13.97 


.0006 


.0031 


1.19 


.3200 


.0001 


6.0 


.017 


Kingston, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.75 


.0007 


.0022 


.70 


- 


- 


1.1 


.005 


Leicester, 


Wells 


.05 


5.70 


.0001 


.0037 


.27 


.0810 


.0001 


2.0 


.049 


Leicester (Cherry 
Valley and Roch- 
dale Water Supplj- 
District). 

Littleton, 


Wells 

Tubular wells, . 


.22 
.00 


4.52 
5.27 


.0017 
.0002 


.0111 
.0015 


.29 
.21 


.0087 


.0000 


2.2 
1.6 


.013 
.006 


Lowell, . ... 


Boulevard wells (tubular), 


.57 


7.34 


.0609 


.0075 


.49 


.0182 


.0002 


3.0 


.443 




Boulevard wells (filtered), . 


.09 


6.35 


.0006 


.0050 


.49 


.0392 


.0000 


2.4 


.022 


Manchester, 


Wells 


.00 


11.60 


.0001 


.0016 


1.99 


.1700 


.0000 


4.0 


.020 


Mansfield, 


Large well. 


.00 


4.67 


.0006 


.0029 


.42 


.0952 


.0000 


2.0 


.007 



50 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.1 



— Continued. 











C 

o 

6 


o 
gl 

.1? 


Ammonia. 


6 


Nitrogen 

AS — 






CiTT OR Town. 


Source. 


6 
1 


■6 
'3 

il 

< 


1 


1 


B 

2 

t-l 


Marblehead, . 


WeUs 


.16 


15.68 


.0008 


.0065 


2.72 


.0110 


.0000 


6.8 


.016 


Marion, . 


Tubular wells, . 






.01 


4.85 


.0001 


.0020 


.72 


.0362 


.0000 


1.5 


.008 


Marshfield, 


WeUs, 






.00 


60.25 


.0002 


.0024 


23.90 


.1140 


.0002 


12.3 


.014 


Mattapoisett, . 


Tubular wells. 






.00 


6.60 


.0005 


.0023 


.94 


.0470 


.0000 


2.2 


.013 


Medfield, 


Spring, 






.01 


4.53 


.0005 


.0026 


.35 


.0100 


.0000 


1.8 


.011 


Med way, . 


Tubular wells. 






.03 


6.93 


.0003 


.0026 


.57 


.0273 


.0000 


2.7 


.012 


Merrimac, 


Tubular wells, 






.00 


8.57 


.0008 


.0027 


.51 


.0110 


.0000 


3.3 


.009 


Methuen, 


Tubular wells, 






.31 


8.27 


.0009 


.0088 


.47 


.0144 


.0000 


3.2 


.145 


Middleborough, 


Well, . 






- 


7.83 


.0088 


.0080 


.66 


.0442 


.0000 


2.6 


.628 




Filtered water. 






.13 


6.63 


.0006 


.0055 


.63 


.0327 


.0000 


2.4 


.045 


Millbury, 


Well, . 






.00 


4.13 


.0003 


.0043 


.30 


.0093 


.0000 


1.4 


.006 


MiUis, . 


Spring, 






.00 


10.57 


.0003 


.0023 


.81 


.2800 


.0000 


4.7 


.005 


Monson, . 


Large well, 






.13 


4.12 


.0001 


.0038 


.21 


- 


- 


0.9 


Oil 


Natick, . 


Large well, 






.00 


10.27 


.0002 


.0029 


.84 


.0182 


.0000 


4.7 


.007 


Needham, 


Wells, 






.01 


7.15 


.0005 


.0029 


.71 


.0897 


.0001 


2.6 


.015 




Hicks Spring, 






.00 


8.35 


.0013 


.0054 


.82 


.1800 


.0000 


2.8 


.008 


Newburyport, 


Wells and Artichoke River 

filtered. 
Tubular wells and filter- 


.15 


7.09 


.0011 


.0130 


.69 


.0161 


.0000 


3.0 


.044 


New-ton, . 


.01 


6.10 


.0003 


.0038 


.49 


.0512 


.0000 


2.6 


.005 


No. Attleborough, . 


gallery. 
Wells 


.00 


6.89 


.0009 


.0035 


.53 


.0267 


.0001 


2.5 


.010 


Norton, . . 


Tubular wells. 




.00 


4.10 


.0002 


.0016 


.37 


- 


- 


1.4 


.007 


Norwood, 


Tubular wells. 




.17 


9.26 


.0024 


.0068 


.58 


.0289 


.0000 


3.8 


.102 


Oak Bluffs, 


Springs, 




.00 


4.80 


.0002 


.0032 


1.23 


.0230 


.0000 


1.1 


.009 


Oxford, . 


Tubular wells, 




.00 


5.10 


.0002 


.0021 


.37 


.0497 


.0000 


1.9 


.006 


Palmer (Bondsville), 


Tubular wells, 




.00 


5.70 


.0008 


.0021 


.24 


.0207 


.0001 


2.2 


.013 


Pepperell, 


Tubular wells. 




.01 


3.25 


.0001 


.0019 


.19 


r 


- 


1.7 


.010 


Plainville, 


Tubular wells. 




.02 


5.15 


.0005 


.0017 


.38 


.0000 


.0000 


2.4 


.029 


Provincetown, 


Tubular wells in 


Truro, . 


.03 


11.74 


.0001 


.0014 


4.76 


- 


- 


2.9 


.030 


Reading, . 


Filter-gallery, 




.82 


11.05 


.0177 


.0177 


1.62 


.0077 


.0001 


2.7 


.355 




Filtered water. 




.22 


17.17 


.0006 


.0067 


1.03 


.0072 


.0001 


7.2 


.078 


Salisbury, 


Well, . 




.18 


8.25 


.0005 


.0041 


.61 




- 


4.2 


.043 


Scituate, . 


Tubular wells. 




.00 


17.27 


.0003 


.0020 


3.26 


. 1720 


.0000 


5.8 


.012 


Sharon, . 


Well, . 




.00 


14.42 


.0008 


.0021 


2.18 


.3120 


.0000 


6.4 


.010 




Tubular wells. 




.01 


5.50 


.0003 


.0023 


.50 


.0222 


.0000 


2.1 


.010 



xXo. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



51 



Averages of Chemical Anahjses of Ground-water Smirces, 

[Parts in 100,000.1 



etc. — Concluded. 





Source. 


o 


c 
o 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

_o 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


ffl 

a 
•a 

1 




City or Towx. 


Pi 


i 


■6 
'3 


1 


.1 




o 

t4 


Sheffield, 


Spring 


.00 


3.60 


.0003 


0033 


.09 


- 


- 


1.8 


009 


Shirley, . 


Well 


.00 


5.15 


.0001 


.0015 


.50 


.1525 


.0000 


1.5 


008 


Shrewsbury, . 


WeUs 


.00 


5.27 


.0002 


.0024 


.65 


.0500 


.0000 


1.7 


007 


South Hadley (Fire 

District No. 2). 
Tisbury, . 


Large well. 

Well 


.05 
.00 


4.85 
3.60 


.0003 
.0001 


.0029 
.0019 


.16 
.99 


.0175 


.0000 


1.6 
0.6 


.005 
Oil 


Uxbridge, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


4.40 


.0004 


.0021 


.50 


.0417 


.0000 


1.7 


Mf 


Walpole, . 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.00 


.0001 


.0019 


.45 


.0250 


.0000 


1.8 


.008; 


Waltham, 


Old well 


.16 


8.86 


.0044 


.0048 


.83 


.0132 


.0001 


4.0 


.068 




New well, .... 


.01 


7.85 


.0010 


.0052 


.61 


.0161 


.0001 


3.7 


.008 


Ware, 


WeUs 


.00 


7.80 


.0001 


.0015 


.52 


.1600 


.0000 


2.7 


.009 


Wareham (Fire Dis- 


Tubular wells, . 


.01 


3.03 


.0009 


.0023 


.58 


- 


- 


0.5 


.005 


trict). 
Warren (West), 


Large well. 


.00 


5.60 


.0006 


.0012 


.22 


- 


- 


2.4 


.016 


Webster, . 


WeUs 


.01 


4.50 


.0006 


.0035 


.38 


.0105 


.0000 


1.9 


.035 


Wellesley, 


Tubular wells, . 


.03 


9.74 


.0007 


.0027 


1.31 


.0532 


.0000 


4.3 


.016 




Well at Williams Spring, . 


.02 


14.40 


.0004 


.0030 


1.24 


.5600 


.0000 


5.7 


.008 




Filter-gallery, 


.04 


9.36 


.0007 


.0036 


.95 


.0967 


.0000 


3.9 


.009 


Westborough, . 


Filter basin. 


.04 


3.31 


.0021 


.0095 


.28 


- 


- 


1.2 


.015 


West Brookfield, 


Tubular wells, . 


.00 


5.03 


.0001 


.0017 


.29 


.0567 


.0000 


1.4 


.011 


Westford, 


Tubular wells, . 


.01 


5.07 


.0004 


.0022 


.21 


- 


- 


2.2 


.018 


Weston, . 


Well 


.35 


7.92 


.0023' 


.0125 


.57 


.0158 


.0000 


3.4 


.014 


Winchendon, . 


Wells 


.11 


3.91 


.0010 


.0029 


.15 


- 


- 


1.0 


.104 


Woburn, . 


Filter-gallery, . 


.00 


11.89 


.0015 


.0051 


1.61 


.0257 


.0001 


5.8 


.006 


Worthington, . 


Springs, .... 


.07 


2.20 


.0001 


.0054 


.10 


- 


- 


0.9 


.024 


Wrentham, 


Tubular wells, . 


,.00 


4.60 


.0003 


.0017 


.38 


.0257 


i.OOOO 

1 


1.4 


.006 



Water Supply Statistics. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1919, no new water supplies 
were introduced in the cities and towns of Massachusetts, and very 
few extensions were made to existing supplies. 

The town of Aeushnet is now credited with being supplied in part 
with water from the city of New Bedford, mains connected with the 
supply of this city having been introduced in 1916. The town of 



52 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Monterey is also supplied to a certain extent, private works having 
been introduced in 1917 These two supplies are not shown in the 
report of this Department for the year 1918, and there are now 
therefore, 215 cities and towns, including all of the 38 cities and 177 
towns, of the 354 cities and towns in the State which are provided 
with public water supplies. 

The following table shows the classification by population (census 
of 1915) of the cities and towns having and those not having public 
water supplies at the end of the year 1919: — 



POPULATIOX, 1915. 


Number of 

Places of Given 

Population 

having 

Public Water 

Supplies. 


Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 


Number of 
Places of Given 
Population 
not having 
Public Water 
Supplies. 


Total 
Population of 

Places 

in Preceding 

Column. 


Under 500, . 








• 


2 


720 


38 


12,5.50 


500-999, 










7 


5,229 


36 


27,536 


1,000-1,499, . 










21 


27,759 


24 


29,589 


1,500-1,999, . 










12 


21,685 


20 


33,947 


2,000-2,499, . 










18 


40,206 


9 


19,615 


2,500-2,999, . 










20 


54,895 


6 


16,013 


3,000-3,499, . 










6 


19,928 


3 


9,920 


3,500-3,999, . 










8 


30,123 


_ 




Above 4,000, 










121 


3,329,981 


3 


13,614 


Totals, . 


215 


3,530,526 


139 


162,784 



The 215 cities and towns having public water supplies are also 
classified in the following table according to the dates when a fairly 
complete system of water supply was introduced. 



Years. 



Number of 
Public Water 

Supplies 
introduced. 



Previous to 1850, 
1850-1859, inclusive, 
1860-1869, inclusive, 
1870-1879, inclusive, 
1880-1889, inclusive, 



Years. 



1890-1899, inclusive, 
1900-1909, inclusive, 
1910-1919, inclusive, 
Total, 



Number of 
Public VVater 

Supplies 
introduced. 



215 



An examination of the first table given above will show that, 
although but 61 per cent of the cities and towns in the State of 
Massachusetts are provided with public water supplies, the total 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



53 



population of these places is equivalent to about 96 per cent of the 
total population of the State (census of 1915). 

At the present time all cities and towns in the State having a 
population in excess of 5,000 — with the exception of the town of 
Tewksbury — are provided with public water supplies, and only 12 
towns having a population in excess of 2,500 are not so provided. 
These towns are the following: — 



Towx. 


Population, 
1915. 


Towx. 


Population, 
1915. 


Tewksbury 


5,265 


Sutton 


2,829 


Warren, 


4,268 


Seekonk 


2,767 


Templeton, 


4,081 


Bourne, 


2,672 


Somerset, 


3,377 


Hanover, 


2,666 


Auburn 


3,281 


Swansea 


2,558 


Westport, 


3,262 


Wilbraham 


2,521 



At the end of the year 1919 the water supplies in all of the cities 
in Massachusetts and in 134 of the towns were owned either by the 
city or town, or by a water supply or fire district. In 44 towns the 
works were owned by private companies. The following table gives 
the classification by population of the cities and towns which own their 
water works, and those which are supplied by private companies: — 





Cities and Towxs 
OWNING Water Works. 


1 Cities and Towns 
1 SUPPLIED with Water by 
Private Companies. 




Number. 


Total 
Population. 


Number. 


Total 
Population. 


Under 1,000 

1,000-1,999 

2,000-2,999 

3,000-3,999 

4,000-4,999, 

5,000-5,999 

6,000-6,999 

7,000-7,999 

Over 8,000 


4 

23 

\ 29 

8 

7 
16 
10 

7 
67 


2,263 
33,846 
71,794 
28,942 
31,251 
88,166 
66,316 
52,937 
2,979,893 


5 
10 
9 
6 
2 
3 
3 

6 


3,686 
15,598 
23,307 
21,109 

9,476 
16,117 
18,778 

67,047 


Total 


171 


3,355,408 


44 


175,118 



The annual report of the State Department of Health for the year 
1915 (pages 296-306) shows the population and valuation of all 



54 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



cities and towns in Massachusetts in 1915, together with certain 
other information relative to the ownership of the water works and 
the date of their introduction. 

Consumption of Water. 
The consumption of water in the various cities and towns in which 
records of consumption are kept is shown in the following table. In 
towns used extensively as summer resorts large quantities of water 
used by summer visitors are credited to the permanent population of 
the town, making the consumption of water per capita larger than is 
actually the case. There is a number of cases also in which the 
consumption of water per person is greatly increased by the use of 
an excessive quantity of water for manufacturing or other purposes. 



Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Toivns in 1919. 





Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
I>er 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Metropolitan Water 


1,267,080 


120,593,500 


95 


Abington and Rock- 
land. 
Acushnet, 


12,990 


642,000 


49 


District: 1 — 
Arlington, 


17,530 


1,085,700 


62 


2,943 


42,400 


14 


Belmont, - 


9,710 


564,000 


58 


Agawam, 


5,398 


93,700 


17 


Boston, . 


804,140 


89,652,400 


111 


Amesbury, 


7,462 


613,900 


82 


Chelsea, 


48,840 


3,158,400 


65 


Andover, 


8,520 


598,000 


70 


Everett, 


41,610 


2,886,700 


69 


Ashland, 


2,263 


168,700 


75 


Lexington, 


6,020 


389,200 


65 


Athol, . 


10,781 


751,700 


70 


Malden, . 


53,150 


2,682,800 


50 


Attleboro, 


20,292 


1,137,400 


56 


Medford, 


35,860 


1,688,500 


47 


Avon, 


2,285 


85,000 


37 


Melrose, 


18,170 


1,057,100 


58 


Ayer, 


2,765 


222,400 


80 


Milton, . 


9,450 


401,300 


42 


Barnstable, 


5,250 


139,000 


26 


Nahant, . 


1,570 


186,900 


119 


Bedford, 


1,472 


43,300 


29 


QUINCY, . 


45,280 


4,550,100 


100 


Beverly, 


26,406 


1,497,400 


57 


Revere, . 


30,640 


1,780,700 


58 


Billerica, 


3,612 


367,400 


102 


Somerville, . 


94,800 6,541,500 


69 


Eraintree, 


10,365 


637,400 


62 


Stoneham, 


7,840 602,400 


77 


Bridgewater, . 


10,735 


204,500 


19 


Swampscott, . 


8,160 


570,900 


70 


Brockton, 


66,616 


2,798,000 


42 


Watertown, 


19,140 


2,002,900 


105 


Brookline, 


38,048 


3,309,100 


87 


Winthrop, 


15,170 


792,000 


52 


Cambridge, . 


112,009 


10,512,600 


94 



1 Figures taken from Table No. 16 of the 
Sewerage Board. 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the MetropoUtan Water and 



No. 34.1 DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



55 



Consum-ption of Water in Vnrious Cities and Toivns in 1919 — Continued. 





Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
per 1 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Canton, . 


6,284 


438,600 


70 


Longmeadow, 


2,340 


86,900 


37 


Chelmsford, . 


5,320 


115,900 


22 


Lowell, 


111,803 


6,711,700 


60 


Clinton, . 


13,286 


683,600 


51 


Ludlow, . 


7,293 


201,200 


28 


Concord, 


6,889 


573,100 


83 


Lynn and Saugus, . 


112,946 


8,048,000 


71 


Dan vers and Mid- 


14,044 


1,402,900 


100 


Manchester, . 


3,163 


369,000 


117 


dleton. 
Dedham, 


12,450 


796,000 


64 


Mansfield, 


6,243 


630,500 


101 


Dracut, . 


4,435 


93,400 


21 ; 


Marblehead, . 


7,820 


594,900 


76 


Dudley, . 


4,458 


130,900 


29 


Marion, . 


1,509 


99,300 


66 


Duxbury, 


2,107 


64,200 


30 


Marlborough, 


15,787 


690,800 


44 


East Bridgewater, . 


3,950 


85,300 


22 


Mattapoisett, 


1,447 


58,500 


40 


East Longmeadow, 


2,248 


28,300 


13 


Maynard, 


7,074 


331,000 


47 


Easthampton, 


10,902 


761,100 


70 


Medway, 


2,966 


113,500 


38 


Easton, . 


5,004 


194,700 


39 


Merrimac, 


2,020 


113,300 


56 


Edgartown, . 


1,344 


103,300 


77 


Methuen, 


16,054 


800,000 


50 


Fairhaven, 


7,201 


323,800 


45 


Middleborough , 


8,965 


382,500 


43 


Fall River, 
Falmouth, 


129,188 
4,535 


5,907,000 
389,000 


46 
86 


Milford and Hope- 
dale. 
Millbury, 


17,230 
5,739 


856,900 
311,100 


50 
54 


FlTCHBCRG, . 


41,120 


4,321,400 


105 


Millis, . 


1,476 


71,900 


49 


Framingham, 


18,190 


950,200 


52 


Nantucket, 


3,329 


257,400 


77 


Franklin, 


7,079 


341,100 


48 


Natick, . 


12,121 


616,900 


51 


Gardner, 


17,718 


721,000 


41 


Needham, 


7,755 


395,700 


51 


Gloucester, 


24,542 


1,506,600 


61 


New Bedford, 


119,901 


9,579,900 


80 


Grafton, 


6,686 


?17,600 


33 


Newburyport, 


15,601 


1,250,900 


80 


Greenfield, 


14,371 


1,497,400 


104 


Newton, 


45,759 


3,488,400 


76 


Groton, . 


2,475 


102,200 


41 


North Andover, 


6,298 


364,000 


58 


Haverhill, . 


53,718 


5,729,000 


107 


North Attleborough, 


9,267 


406,400 


44 


Hoi listen. 


2,850 


116,100 


41 


North Brookfield, . 


2,845 


217,800 


77 


HOLYOKE, 


63,285 


6,713,000 


106 


Norton, . 


2,621 


192,300 


73 


Hudson, 


6,770 


348,400 


51 


Norwood, 


13,347 


1,085,800 


81 


Ipswich, 


6,668 


337,500 


51 


Orange, . 


5,457 


148,000 


27 


Lancaster, 


2,682 


79,200 


30 


Peabody, 


20,948 


3,721,900 


178 


Lawrence, . 


93,753 


4,430,600 


47 


Pepperell, 


2,748 


153,400 


56 


Lenox, . 


3,388 


293,900 


87 


PiTTSFIELD, . 


45,596 


5,318,280 


117 


Lincoln, . 


1,418 


216,700 


153 


Plymouth, 


13,554 


j 1,330,900 


98 


Littleton, 


1,228 


36,700 


30 


Pro\'incetown, 


4,236 


300,700 


71 



56 



STATE DEPARTISIENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Consumption of Water in Vario^is Cities mid Towns in 1919 — Concluded. 





Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 


Average Daily 
Consumption. 


City or Town.. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Randolph and Hol- 

brook. 
Reading, 


8,134 
7,59.5 


453,900 
259,000 


56 

34 


Walpole, 
Waltham, 


5,968 
32,010 


1,020,500 
1,952,100 


171 

61 


Rockport, 


4,463 


258,400 


58 


Wareham, 


6,035 


163,800 


27 


Salem, . 


46,500 


5,305,400 


114 


Webster, 


13,410 


695,900 


52 


Salisbury, 


1,764 


130,100 


74 


Wellesley, 


7,260 


521,600 


72 


Scituate, 


2,804 


320,300 


114 


West Brookfield, . 


1,258 


33,300 


26 


Sharon, . 


2,. 594 


193,100 


74 


Westfield, 


20,305 


2,200,800 


108 


Shirley, . 


2,341 


89,400 


38 


Westford, 


2,837 


1.52,100 


54 


Shrewsbury, . 


3,472 


93,100 


27 


Weston, . 


2,531 


132,100 


52 


Southbridge, . 


15,517 


864,500 


56 


Weymouth, 


14,828 


1,207,900 


81 


Springfield, 


114,207 


11,920,000 


104 


Whitman, 


7,702 


228,400 


30 


Stoughton, 


7,515 


413,600 


55 


Winchester, . 


10..562 


444,000 


42 


Taunton, 


37,683 


3,090,000 


82 


WOBURN, 


17,292 


1,795,600 


104 


Tisbury, 


1,426 


130,500 


92 


Worcester, . 


176,066 


14,723,000 


84 


Wakefield, . 


13,883 


579,100 


42 


Wrentham, 


2,951 


84,000 


28 





Rainfall. 

The normal yearly rainfall in Massachusetts as deduced from long- 
continued observations in various parts of the State is 44.53 inches. 
The average rainfall for the year 1919 in these places was 45.83, an 
excess of 1.30 inches over the normal. This ^ear was the first since 
1903 in which the rainfall has been in excess of the normal. The 
accumulated deficiency for these sixteen years is 57.78, a quantity 
greater by 13.25 inches than the total rainfall in a normal year. 
There was an excess of precipitation in the months of March, May, 
July, August, September and November, and a deficiency in the other 
six months of the year. The greatest excess in any month occurred in 
September, when the average rainfall was 5.61 inches, or 2.13 inches 
greater than the normal, and the greatest deficiency occurred in June, 
w'hen the average rainfall was 1.57 inches, or 1.66 inches less than the 
normal. 

The following table gives the normal rainfall in the State for each 
month as deduced from observations at various places for a long 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



57 



period of years, together with the average rainfall at those places for 
each month during the year 1919 and the departure from the 
normal: — 



Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1919 

(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 

1919 
(Inches). 


Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1919 

(Inches). 


Excess or 

Defi- 
ciency in 
1919 

(Inches). 


January, . 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 


3.76 
3.66 
3.95 
3.58 
3.65 
3.23 
3.76 


3.49 
3.19 
4.68 

2.94 
5.45 
1.57 
4.07 


—0.27 
—0.47 
+0.73 
—0.64 
+ 1.80 
—1.66 
+0.31 


August, . 
September, 
October, . 
November, 
December, 
Totals, 


4.22 
3.48 
3.77 
3.81 
3.66 


4.95 
5.61 

2.38 
5.45 
2.05 


+0.73 
+2.13 
—1.39 
+ 1.64 
—1.61 


June, 
July, 


44. 53 


45.83 


+ 1.30 



Flow of Streams. 
Sudbury River. 

The average flow of the Sudbury River during the year 1919 was 
988,000 gallons per day per square mile of drainage area, or about 
1 per cent in excess of the normal flow for the past forty-five years. 
The flow was above the normal in the months of January, March, 
May, July, September, November and December, but less than the 
normal in the other five months of the year. The greatest excess 
occurred in the month of November, and the greatest deficiency in 
the month of February. The average flow for the driest six months, 
June to November, inclusive, was 458,000 gallons per day per square 
mile, or about 21 per cent in excess of the normal flow for that 
period during the past forty-five years. 

In order to show the relation between the fiow of the Sudbury 
River during each month of the year 1919 and the normal flow of 
that stream as deduced from observations during forty-five years, 
from 1875 to 1919, inclusive, the following table has been prepared. 
The drainage area of the Sudbury River above the point of measure- 
ment is 75.2 square miles. 



58 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Table showing the Average Daily Flow of the Sudbury River for Each Month in 
the Year 1919, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of drainage Area, 
and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, 
Departure from the Normal Flow. 











Normal Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1919. 


Excess or 


Deficiency. 


Month. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 
per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


January, .... 


1.789 


1.157 


2.021 


1.306 


+ .232 


+ .149 


February, . 








2.540 


1.642 


1.418 


.917 


—1.122 


—.725 


March, 








4.160 


2.689 


4.270 


2.759 


+ .110 


+ .070 


April, . 








3.046 


1.969 


2.651 


1.713 


— .395 


—.256 


May, . 








1.653 


1.069 


1.996 


1.290 


+ .343 


+ .221 


June, . 








.746 


.482 


.174 


.112 


— .572 


—.370 


July, . 








.281 


.182 


.463 


.299 


+ .182 


+ .117 


August, 








.360 


.233 


.143 


.092 


— .217 


— .141 


September, 








.361 


.233 


1 . 103 


.713 


+ .742 


+ .480 


October, 








.629 


.407 


.431 


.279 


— .198 


— .128 


November, 








1.136 


.735 


1.973 


1.275 


+ .837 


+ .540 


December, . 








1.467 


.948 


1.694 


1.095 


+ .227 


+ .147 


Average for v 


v^hole 


year 


• 


1.509 


.975 


1.529 


.988 


+ .020 


+ .013 

1 



In the annual report of the State Department of Health for the 
year 1915 (pages 312 to 318) tables were presented giving the record 
of the rainfall upon the drainage area of the Sudbury River and the 
yield expressed in inches in depth upon the drainage area (inches of 
rainfall collected) for each of the forty-one years from 1875 to 1915, 
inclusive. The corresponding record for the years 1916 to 1919, 
inclusive, together with the average for the entire period of forty-five 
years, is given in the following table: — 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



59 



RainjaU, in Inches, received and collected on the Sudbury River Drainage Area. 









1916. 


1917. 




1918. 




MOXTH. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
col- 
lected. 


Per 
Cent 
col- 
lected. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
col- 
lected. 


Per 
Cent 

col- 
lected. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
col- 
lected. 


Per 
Cent 
col- 
lected. 


January 


1.53 


1.680 


109.8 


3.50 


.909 


25.9 


3.47 


.486 


14.0 


February, 






5.91 


2.262 


38.2 


2.68 


1.216 


45.5 


3.58 


2.914 


81.3 


March, 






4.16 


3.245 


78.1 


4.96 


3.940 


79.4 


2.50 


3.896 


156.2 


April , 






4.19 


5.243 


125.1 


2.41 


2.425 


100.5 


4.43 


2.530 


57.1 


May, 






3.43 


2.567 


74.9 


4 93 


2.632 


53.4 


1.16 


1.141 


98.8 


June, 






4.77 


2.068 


43.4 


4.23 


1.802 


42.7 


3.65 


.319 


8.7 


July, 






5.17 


1.044 


20 2 


1.11 


.076 


6.8 


4.07 


.171 


4.2 


August, . 






2.01 


.139 


6 9 


6.40 


.361 


5.6 


1.61 


— .096 


—6.0 


September, 






1.80 


.044 


2.5 


1.52 


.100 


6.6 


8.60 


1.100 


12.8 


October, . 






1.49 


— .009 


— .6 


5.65 


.860 


15.2 


1.04 


.490 


47.0 


November, 






2.28 


.189 


8.3 


1.31 


.757 


57.6 


2.75 


.843 


30.7 


December, 






3.22 


.562 


17.4 


2.81 


.678 


24.2 


3.68 


1.673 


45.5 


Totals and 


avera 


ges, . 


39.96 


19.034 


47.6 


41.51 


15.756 


38.0 


40.54 


15 467 


38.2 





1919. 


Me.\x for Forty-five Years, 
1875-1919. 


Month. 
















Rainfall. 


Rainfall 
collected. 


Per Cent 
collected. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 
collected. 


Per Cent 
collected. 


January, .... 


3.52 


2.329 


66.1 


4.03 


2.063 


51.1 


February, .... 


3.40 


1.477 


43.4 


4.10 


2.666 


65.0 


March, .... 


4.79 


4.916 


102.7 


4.33 


4.796 


110.7 


April 


2.93 


2.957 


101.0 


3.55 


3.400 


95.9 


May 


4.60 


2.301 


50.0 


3 30 


1.907 


57.7 


June 


1.86 


.193 


10.4 


3 08 


.833 


27.1 


July 


5.47 


.533 


9.8 


3.68 


.324 


88 


August, .... 


3.75 


.164 


4.4 


3.86 


.415 


10.8 


September, .... 


5.28 


1.232 


23.3 


3.41 


.403 


11.8 


October, .... 


2.16 


.498 


23.1 


3.73 


.725 


19.4 


November, .... 


5.90 


2.202 


37.3 


3.70 


1.268 


34.3 


December, .... 


1.98 


1.952 


98.6 


3.76 


1.692 


45.0 


Totals and averages. 


45.64 


20.754 


45.5 


44.53 


20.492 


46.0 



60 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



The following table gives the record of the yield of the drainage 
area of the Sudbury River for each of the last four years, the flow 
being expressed in gallons per day per square mile of drainage area 
in order to render the table more convenient for use in estimating the 
probable yield of drainage areas used as sources of water supply: — 

Yield of the Sudbury River Drainage Area in Gallons per Day per Square Mile.''- 



Month. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


Mean for 
Forty-five 

Years, 
1875-1919. 


January, . 






942,000 


510,000 


273,000 


1,306,000 


1,157,000 


February, 












1,356,000 


755,000 


1,809,000 


917,000 


1,642,000 


Alarch, 












1,820,000 


2,209,000 


2,187,000 


2,759,000 


2,689,000 


April, 












3,037,000 


1,405,000 


1,466,000 


1,713,000 


1,969,000 


May, 












1,439,000 


1,476,000 


639,000 


1,290,000 


1,069,000 


June, 












1,198,000 


1,044,000 


185,000 


112,000 


482,000 


July. 












585,000 


43,000 


96,000 


299,000 


182,000 


August, . 












78,000 


202,000 


—54,000 


92,000 


233,000 


September, 












26,000 


58,000 


637,000 


713,000 


233,000 


October, . 












—5,000 


482,000 


274,000 


279,000 


407,000 


November, 












110,000 


438,000 


489,000 


1,275,000 


735,000 


December, 












315,000 


380,000 


938,000 


1,095,000 


948,000 


Average for whole year, 


904,000 


750,000 


736,000 


988,000 


975,000 


Average for driest six months, 




186,000 


267,000 


269,000 


458,000 


377,000 



1 The drainage area of the Sudbury River used in making up these records included water surfaces 
amounting to about 2 per cent of the whole area, from 1875 to 1878, inclusive, subsequently increasing 
by the construction of storage reservoirs to about 3 per cent in 1879, to 3.5 per cent in 1885, to 4 per cent in 
1894 and to 6.5 per cent in 1898. The drainage area also contains extensive areas of swampy land, which, 
though covered with water at times, are not included in the above percentages of water surfaces. 



Nashua River. 

The average flow of the South Branch of the Nashua River at the 
outlet of the Wachusett Reservoir, Clinton, during the year 1919 was 
1,257,000 gallons per day per square mile of drainage area, or 18 
per cent in excess of the normal flow for the past twenty-three years. 
The flow was greater than the normal in the months of January, 
March, May, September, October, November and December, and 
less than the normal in the other five months of the year. The 
greatest excess occurred in the month of November, and the greatest 
deficiency in the month of February. The average flow for the 
driest six months, June to November, inclusive, was 752,000 gallons 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



61 



per day per square mile, or about 41 per cent in excess of the normal 
flow for that period during the past twenty-three years. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of the Nashua 
River during each month of the year 1919 and the normal flow of 
that stream as deduced from observations during twenty-three years, 
1897 to 1919, inclusive, the following table has been prepared. The 
drainage area of the Nashua River above the point of measurement 
was 119 square miles from 1897 to 1907, and 118.19 square miles 
from 1908 to 1913, inclusive. Since Jan. 1, 1914, the city of Worcester 
has been diverting water from 9.35 square miles of this drainage area 
for the supply of that city, leaving the net drainage area 108.84 
square miles. In the calculations of yield allowance has been made 
for water overflowing from the AVorcester area. 

Table showing the Average Daily Flow of the South Branch of the Nashua River 
for Each Month in the Year 1919, in Cubic Feet per Second -per Square Mile 
of Drainage Area, and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drain- 
age Area: also Departure from the Normal Flow. 









NORMAl 


Flow. 


Actual Flow in 1919. 


Excess or 


Deficiency. 


Month. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 
pyer Square 

Mile. 


Cubic Feet 

per 

Second 

per Square 

Mile. 


Million 
Gallons per 

Day 

per Square 

Mile. 


January, .... 


1.832 


1.184 


2.075 


1.341 


+ .243 


+ .157 


February, . 






2.150 


1.389 


1.228 


.794 


—.922 


—.595 


March, 






3.987 


2.577 


4.882 


3.155 


+ .895 


+ .578 


April, . 






3.245 


2.097 


2.648 


1.711 


— .597 


—.386 


May, . 






1.893 


1.223 


3.410 


2.204 


+1.517 


+ .981 


June, . 






1.182 


.764 


.715 


.462 


—.467 


—.302 


July, . 






.661 


.427 


.619 


.400 


— .042 


— 027 


August, 






.633 


.409 


.405 


.262 


—.228 


— .147 


September, 






.560 


.362 


1.691 


1.093 


+1.131 


+ .731 


October, 






.747 


.483 


.765 


.495 


+ .018 


+ .012 


November, 






1.167 


.755 


2.840 


1.835 


+1.673 


+1.080 


December, . 






1.720 


1.112 


1.999 


1.292 


+ .279 


+ .180 


Average for v 


vhole year 


> 


1 646 


1.063 


1.945 


1.257 


+ .299 


+ .194 



In the annual report of the State Department of Health for the 
year 1915 (pages 324 to 327) tables were presented giving the record 
of the rainfall upon the drainage area of the Nashua River, and the 
total yield expressed in inches in depth upon the drainage area 
(inches of rainfall collected) for each of the nineteen years from 1897 



62 



STATE DEPART:\IENT of health. [Pub. Doc. 



to 1915, inclusive. The corresponding record for the years 1916 to 
1919, inclusive, together with the average for the entire period of 
twenty-three years, is given in the following table: — 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Drainage Area. 











1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


Month. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
col- 
lected. 


Per 
Cent 
col- 
lected. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
col- 
lected. 


Per 
Cent 
col- 
lected. 


Rain- 
fall. 


Rain- 
fall 
col- 
lected. 


Per 

Cent 
col- 
lected. 


January, .... 


1.60 


2.346 


146.7 


3.37 


1.224 


36.3 


2.97 


.864 


29.1 


February, 








5.98 


3.030 


50.7 


3.05 


1.476 


48.3 


4.25 


3.260 


76.6 


March, 








3.32 


3.374 


101.5 


4.21 


4.409 


104.8 


2.24 


4.614 


206 


April, 








3.65 


5.696 


156.0 


1.80 


2.535 


140.6 


3.47 


2.775 


80.0 


May, 








3.34 


3.028 


90.7 


3.89 


2.350 


60.5 


1.07 


1.201 


112.8 


June, 








6.57 


3.546 


53.9 


4.47 


2.122 


47.4 


4.57 


.902 


19.8 


July, 








5.66 


1.9.37 


34.2 


1.22 


.471 


38.8 


2.80 


.499 


17.8 


August, . 








1.72 


.506 


29.5 


4.46 


.552 


12.4 


2.82 


.284 


10.1 


September, 








4.21 


.506 


12.0 


1.20 


.144 


12.0 


7.18 


1.041 


14.5 


October, . 








1.42 


.250 


17.6 


6.03 


.990 


16.4 


1.58 


.609 


38.6 


November, 








3.15 


.554 


17.6 


1.25 


.540 


43.1 


3.08 


1.004 


32.6 


December, 








2.81 


.820 


29.2 


2.31 


.694 


30 


3.74 


1.884 


50.4 


Totals and 


avera 


ges. 


43.43 


25.593 


58.9 


37.26 


17.507 


47.0 


39.77 


18.937 


47.6 













1919. 


Me.-\.n fob 


Twenty-three Ye.\.rs 
1897-1919. 


Month. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 
collected. 


Per Cent 
collected. 


Rainfall. 


Rainfall 
collected. 


Per Cent 
collected. 


January, 






3.23 


2,392 


74.1 


3.61 


2.113 ■ 


58.6 


February, 










3.51 


1.279 


36.5 


3.79 


2.251 


59.4 


March, 










5.27 


5.621 


106.7 


4.08 


4.595 


112.5 


April, . 










2.57 


2.954 


115.0 


3.65 


3.620 


99.0 


May, . 










6.06 


3.931 


64.9 


3.40 


2.183 


64.2 


June, . 










2.01 


.798 


39 6 


3.68 


1.319 


35.8 


July, . 










5.00 


.713 


14.3 


4.08 


.763 


18.7 


August, 










4.17 


.467 


11.2 


4.14 


.730 


17.7 


September, 










6.78 


1.887 


27.8 


3.73 


.625 


16.8 


October, 










2.35 


.884 


37.6 


3.34 


.861 


25.8 


November, 










6.01 


3.168 


52.7 


3.39 


1.302 


38.4 


December, 










2.09 


2.305 


110.4 


3.98 


1.983 


49.9 


Totals ar 


d av 


erage 


s. 


49.05 


26.399 


53.8 


44.87 . 


22.345 


49.8 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



63 



The following table gives a record of the yield of the drainage area 
of the Nashua River for each of the last four years, the flow being 
expressed in gallons per day per square mile of drainage area : — 

Yield of the Xnshua River Drainage Area in Gallons per Day per Square Mile} 



Month. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


Mean for 
Twenty- 
three Years, 
1897-1919. 


January, 


1,315,000 


686,000 


484,000 


1,341,000 


1,184,000 


February, 










1,816,000 


916.000 


2,024,000 


794,000 


1,389,000 


March, 










1,891,000 


2,472,000 


2,590,000 


3,155,000 


2,577,000 


April, 










3,300,000 


1,468,000 


1,608,000 


1,711,000 


2,097,000 


May, 










1,697,000 


1,317,000 


673,000 


2,204,000 


1,223,000 


June, 










2,054,000 


1,229,000 


523,000 


462,000 


764,000 


July, 










1,086,000 


264,000 


280,000 


400,000 


427,000 


August, 










284,000 


309,000 


159,000 


262,000 


409,000 


September, 










294,000 


84,000 


603,000 


1,093,000 


362,000 


October, . 










140,000 


555,000 


341,000 


495,000 


483,000 


November, 










321,000 


313,000 


582,000 


1,835,000 


755,000 


December, 










460,000 


389,000 


1,056,000 


1,292,000 


1,112,000 


Average for whole year. 


1,215,000 


834,000 


902,000 


1,257,000 


1,063,000 


Average for driest six months, . 


432,000 


320,000 


412,000 


752,000 


533,000 



1 The drainage area used in making up these records included water surfaces amounting to 2.2 per cent 
of the whole area from 1897 to 1902, inclusive, to 2.4 per cent in 1903, to 3.6 per cent in 1904, to 4.1 per cent 
in 1905, to 5.1 per cent in 1906, to 6 per cent in 1907, to 7 per cent in 1908, 1909 and 1910, to 6.5 per cent in 
1911, to 6.8 per cent in 1912, to 7 per cent in 1913, to 7.4 per cent in 1914 and 1915, to 7.6 per cent in 1916, to 
7.4 per cent in 1917 and 1918, and to 7.5 per cent in 1919. 

Merrimack River. 

The flow of the Merrimack River has been measured for many 
years at Lawrence, where the river has a total drainage area of 4,663 
square miles, which includes 118 ^ square miles on the South Branch 
of the Nashua River, 75 square miles on the Sudbury River and 18 
square miles tributary to Lake Cochituate, or a combined area of 
21 P square miles from which water is drawn at the present time for 
the supply of the Metropolitan Water District. The flow as measured 
at Lawrence includes the water wasted from these three drainage areas, 
the aggregate quantity of which, in the wet months of the year, is con- 
siderable, but which becomes very small in the dry months. Records 
of the quantity of water wasted have been kept by the Boston Water 



* Including 9.35 square miles from which water is drawn for the supply of the city of Worcester. 



64 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Board and by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board, and these 
quantities have been deducted from the flow as measured at Lawrence. 
In presenting the record of the flow of the river, these three drainage 
areas have been deducted from the total above Lawrence, so that the 
net drainage area above that point was 4,567 square miles in 1880, 
4,570 square miles in the years 1881 to 1897, inclusive, and 4,452 
square miles since the latter year. 

The average flow of the Merrimack River during the year 1919 
amounted to 1.427 cubic feet per second, or 923,000 gallons per day, 
per square mile of drainage area, or 98 per cent of the normal flow 
for the past forty years for which records are available. The flow 
was in excess of the normal in the months of January, March, May, 
September, November and December, and less than the normal in 
the other six months of the year. 

In order to show the relation between the flow of this stream 
during each month of the year 1919 and the normal flow as deduced 
from observations during the forty years from 1880 to 1919, in- 
clusive, the following table has been prepared: — 



Table shoicing the Average Monthly Flow of the Merrimack River at Laurence 
for the Year 1919 in Cubic Feet jjer Second per Square Mile of Drainage 
Area: also the Departure from the Normal Flow. 



Month. 


Normal Flow, 
1880-1919. 


Actual Flow 
in 1919. 


E.xcess or 
Deficiency. 


January, 






1.2S5 


1.314 


+0.029 


February, 




















1.401 


.872 


—0.529 


March, . 




















2.713 


3.383 


+0.670 


April, . 




















3.393 


2.542 


—0.851 


May, 




















2.185 


2.741 


+0.556 


June, 




















1.258 


1.007 


—0.251 


July, . 




















.741 


.539 


—0.202 


August, 




















.677 


.401 


—0.276 


September, 




















.651 


.653 


+0.002 


October, 




















.808 


.699 


—0.109 


November, 




















1.122 


1.648 


+0.526 


December, 




















1.219 


1.331 


+0.112 


Average f 


or vf 


lole 3 


.'ear, 




1.4.54 


1.427 


—0.027 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



65 



The following table gives the record of the flow of the Merrimack 
River at Lawrence for each of the last four years, the flow being 
expressed in cubic feet per second per square mile of net drainage 
area: — 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Laurence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 

Mile. 



Month. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


1919. 


Mean 
for Forty 

Years, 
1880-1919. 


January, .... 






1.527 


1.023 


.466 


1.314 


1.285 


February, 












1.674 


.770 


.819 


.872 


1.401 


March, 












1.735 


2.316 


1.983 


3.383 


2.713 


April, 












4.323 


3.242 


3.337 


2.542 


3.393 


May, 












2.733 


2.124 


1.540 


2.741 


2.185 


June, 












3.101 


3.037 


.757 


1.007 


1.2.58 


July, 












1.531 


1.024 


.553 


.539 


.741 


August, . 












.924 


.629 


.470 


.401 


.677 


September, 












.972 


.549 


.847 


.653 


.651 


October, . 












.798 


.613 


.991 


.699 


.808 


November, 












.743 


.882 


1.126 


1.648 


1.122 


December, 












1.154 


.569 


1.492 


1.331 


1.219 


Average for whole year. 


1.768 


1.398 


. 1.198 


1.427 


1.454 


Average for driest six months. 




1.020 


.711 


.791 


.825 


.870 



Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimack Rivers. 

The following table shows the weekly fluctuations during the year 
1919 in the flow of the three streams just described, namely, the 
Sudbury River at Framingham, the South Branch of the Nashua 
River above Clinton, and the Merrimack River at Lawrence. The 
flow of the first two serves to indicate the flow of other streams in 
eastern Massachusetts, while that of the Merrimack indicates the gen- 
eral stream flow in central New England. 



66 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Table showing the Average Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, South Branch of the Nashua 
and the Merrimack Rivers far the year 1919 in Cubic Feet -per Second 'per 
Square Mile of Drainage Area. 





Flow in Cubic Feet per 




Flow in Cubic F 


EET PER 




Second 


per Squab 


E Mile. 


Week ending 


Second 


PER Square Mile. 


Week ending 














Sunday — • 




South 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Sunday — 




South 


Merri- 
mack 
River. 




Sudbury 


Branch 




Sudbury 


Branch 




River. 


Nashua 
River. 




River. 


Nashua 
River. 


Jan. 5, 


2.393 


2.515 


1.367 


July 6, 


.098 


.498 


.571 


12, 


1.543 


1.274 


1.183 


13, 


.014 


.378 


.573 


19, 


.643 


1.099 


.937 


20, 


.565 


.894 


.482 


26, 


3.123 


3.382 


1.436 


27, 


1.205 


.887 


.548 


Feb. 2, 


1.681 


1.607 


1.620 


Aug. 3, 


.182 


.105 


.477 


9, 


.913 


.951 


.974 


10, 


.128 


.128 


.419 


16, 


1.018 


1.068 


.780 


17, 


.021 


.156 


.379 


23, 


.985 


1.191 


.706 


24, 


—.046 


.936 


.426 










31, 


.475 


.583 


.417 


Mar. 2, 


4.498 


2.893 


1.152 










9, 


3.550 


4.329 


2.652 


Sept. 7, 


1.435 


2.945 


.472 


16, 


3.937 


3.376 


2.880 


14, 


1.673 


1.956 


.773 


23, 


5.054 


5.120 


3.290 


21, 


.745 


.760 


.753 


30, . . 


3.772 


5.331 


4.837 


28, 


.817 


1.411 


.576 


Apr. 6, 


2.972 


2.9.50 


3.522 


Oct. 5, 


.282 


.611 


.555 


13, 


2.482 


2.636 


2.498 


12, 


.320 


.616 


.693 


20, 


3.996 


3.970 


2.955 


19, 


.591 


.810 


.681 


27, 


2.080 


1.727 


2.100 


26, 


.223 


.618 


.732 


May 4, 


1.614 


2.175 


1.691 


Nov. 2, 


1.135 


1.950 


.932 


11, 


1.593 


2.650 


1.996 


9, 


2.221 


2.892 


1.850 


18, 


2.875 


3.527 


2.074 


16, 


1.245 


2.243 


1.883 


25, 


2.394 


5.548 


4.349 


23, 


.980 


1.290 


1.326 










30, 


3.252 


4.711 


1.727 


June 1, 


1.093 


2.000 


2.979 










8, 


.365 


.948 


1.302 


Dec. 7, 


2.258 


2.021 


1.843 


15, 


.025 


.772 


1.208 


14, 


2.952 


3.677 


1.637 


22, 


—.031 


.444 


.816 


21, 


1.472 


1.384 


1.229 


29, 


.341 


.685 


.620 


28, 


.787 


1.282 


.797 



Examination of Rivers. 

The condition of the various rivers was examined as usual during 
the year, and a summary of the results was presented in the pre- 
liminary report to the Legislature dated Jan. 10, 1920, and published 
as House Document No. 873. 

In addition to this report special reports were presented with 
regard to the Charles, Taunton and Blackstone rivers by direction of 
resolves of the Legislature of 1919. The report upon the Charles 
River was made under the direction of chapter 9 of the Resolves of 
1919, was presented on Jan. 10, 1920, and is published as House 
Document No. 1240; the report upon the Taunton River was made 
by direction of chapter 29 of the Resolves of 1919, was presented on 
Jan. 7, 1920, and is published as House Document No. 1115; the report 
on the Blackstone River was made by direction of chapter 15 of the 



No. 3-1.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



67 



Resolves of 1919, was presented on Jan. 10, 1920, and is published as 
House Document No. 1246 of that year. 

The flow of streams in 1919 was somewhat in excess of the normal, 
and was the greatest that has occurred since 1903. The rainfall of 
1919 was the first since 1903 that had been in excess of the normal, 
the chief excess occurring between May and November, the period 
when the flow of streams is usually most deficient. In consequence 
of this high rainfall and unusual flow of streams the eft'ect of the 
pollution has been generally less noticeable than usual. 

The results of chemical examinations of the more important rivers 
in recent years are presented in the following tables : — 



Blackstone River. 

Chemical Examination' of Water from Blackstont: River. — Averages 
FOR Six JVIgnths, from Juke to NovEivrBER, in'clusive. 

Blackstone River, below Cherry Valley. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









O 


Residue on 


Ammoni.\. 


a 
'% 

O 


Nitrogen 


s 

i 

8 
a 

1 






Evaporation. 


(S 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 


1 


ii 

►3 


1 


i 
> 

1 

Q 


Ci 

o 
0. 

03 


i 

1 




i 


1909, 

1910, 

1911, 

1912,1 

1913, 

1914, 

1915, 

1916, 

1917, 

1918, 

1919, 






■.35 
.32 


13.93 
16.42 
21.02 
44.10 
32.32 
44.73 
19.23 
14.18 
20.67 
18.43 
16.24 


3.34 
3.92 
4.40 
11.04 
6.52 
7.27 
5.15 
5.27 
7.48 
4.95 
4.90 


.0681 
.0633 
.1277 
.2514 
.2591 
.3430 
.0985 
.0209 
.0406 
.1209 
.0894 


.0470 
.0489 
.0726 
.2884 
.1628 
.1857 
.1142 
.0809 
.1279 
.11^5 
.1221 


.0334 

.0387 

.0559 

.1023 

.1122. 

.1379 

.0785 

.0544 

.0762 

.0666 

.0625 


.0136 
.0102 
.0167 
.1861 
.0506 
.0478 
.0357 
.0265 
.0517 
.0459 
.0596 


3.70 
4.02 
5.70 

10.70 
8.18 

12.83 
3.08 
1.25 
2.36 
2.10 
4.04 


.0125 
.0146 
.0080 
.0002 
.0015 
.0000 


.0003 
.0002 
.0005 
.0004 
.0004 
.0001 


.80 
.85 
1.15 
3.08 
2.06 
2.12 
1.89 
1.50 
2.20 
1.48 
1.65 


: 



I Augitet omitted. 



68 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Chemical Examinatiox of Water from Blackston:e River, etc. — 

Conti7iued. 

Blackstone River, between Mill Brook Channel and the Sewage Precipitation Works 

of the City of Worcester. 

















[Parts in 100,000,] 
















i 

O 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


6 

_o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 






t-t 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


3 

o 




■i 
1 


■q 


1 

a 

3 

in 


i 

1 


1 

1 


i 

c 

-3 


1909 


- 


52.97 


18.55 


,1865 


.0381 


,0239 


.0142 


4,80 


,0033 


,0010 


- 


1910, 










.15 


50.92 


18,97 


,1933 


.0545 


.0309 


.0236 


4.07 


,0023 


,0009 


■ - 


1911, 










.11 


44.64 


15,70 


,1920 


,0449 


.0212 


.0237 


4,03 


,0170 


,0009 


- 


1912, 










.10 


40.05 


10,91 


,2047 


.0352 


.0225 


.0127 


3.58 


,0027 


.0011 


- 


1913, 










.10 


35.17 


10,34 


,2767 


.0491 


,0285 


.0206 


3.18 


.0003 


,0008 


- 


191.4. 










.14 


35,03 


8.23 


,2993 


,0771 


.0510 


.0261 


3,85 


,0012 


,0018 


- 


1915, 










.13 


39,00 


11,68 


,2383 


,0650 


,0392 


,02.58 


2.96 


- 


- 


- 


1916.1 










- 


29.10 


8,20 


,2483 


.0549 


,0354 


,0195 


2,08 


- 


- 


- 


1917,2 










.23 


42.38 


11,04 


,4864 


,Q612 


,0379 


.0233 


2.19 


- 


- 


- 


1918, 










.20 


37.36 


10.23 


,2917 


,0728 


,0322 


,0406 


2.23 


- 


- 


- 


1919, 










.37 


28.06 


7.08 


.3168 


,0808 


.0361 


.0447 


1.63 


- 


- 


- 



1 September omitted. 



2 November omitted. 







Blackstone River, 


below Sewage Precipitatio7i 


Works. 






1909 


- 


53,79 


12.12 


1,0567 


.1282 


.0792 


,0490 


6,92 


.0067 


,0075 


- 


1910, 








- 


52.15 


12.52 


1.00,90 


.1654 


,0817 


,0837 


5.68 


,0015 


,0034 


- 


191.1. 








.21 


53,25 


13,15 


.9967 


,1608 


.0651 


.0957 


6,54 


,0152 


,0072 


- 


1912, 








.23 


48,90 


10.08 


1.1700 


,1673 


.0904 


.0769 


6.12 


,0137 


.0096 


- 


1913." 








.28 


40,68 


10.46 


.19320 


,1286 


.0719 


.0567 


4.49 


.0158 


,0084 


- 


1914, 








.25 


43,46 


9,08 


,8577 


.1114 


.0770 


,0344 


4.87 


.0038 


,0091 


- 


1915, 








.13 


39,45 


6.77 


.6370 


,1032 


.0575 


,0457 


3.58 


- 


- 


- 


1916.1 








- 


49,21 


9.00 


.6684 


,1031 


,0607 


,0424 


3,69 


- 


- 


- 


1917,2 








- 


50,37 


12.46 


.9350 


.0926 


.0610 


.0316 


4,25 


- 


- 


- 


1918, 








.61 


39.03 


8,40 


.8590 


,1370 


,0687 


.0683 


3,42 


- 


- 


- 


1919, 








.21 


32.30 


6,50 


.5940 


.0891 


,0511 


.0380 


2.78 


- 


- 


- 



1 September omitted. 



2 July omitted. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



G9 



Chemical Examixation' of Water from Blackstone River, etc. — 

Co7ichided. 

Blackstone River, at Uxbridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













S 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

J3 
O 


Nitrogen 

AS — 






£ 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


"3 


d 


"3 
1 


•a 
> 


■d 
1 

CO 


1 
1 


1 


i 

•E 


1909 


.22 


18.31 


4.35 


.3473 


.0273 


.0216 


.0057 


3.64 


.0325 


.0066 


- 


1910, 










.26 


22.53 


4.69 


.4963 


.0356 


.0302 


.0054 


4.62 


.0498 


.0043 


- 


1911, 










.26 


23.10 


3.85 


.3717 


.0293 


.0225 


.0068 


4.15 


.0558 


.0173 


- 


1912, 










.21 


21.91 


3.06 


.4897 


.0345 


.0288 


.0057 


4.06 


.0497 


.0137 


6.5 


1913, 










.29 


19.48 


3.70 


.3880 


.0355 


.0281 


.0074 


3.34 


.0382 


.0107 


5.5 


1914, 










.25 


23.72 


2.84 


.5285 


.0355 


.0284 


.0071 


4.55 


.0482 


.0154 


7.2 


1915, 










.30 


19.63 


2.75 


.3068 


.0381 


.0302 


.0079 


3.10 


- 


- 


6.3 


1916,1 










.32 


20.42 


4.72 


.3766 


.0376 


.0293 


.0083 


2.74 




- 


6.3 


1917, 










.22 


22.21 


4.28 


.3904 


.0365 


.0286 


.0079 


3.27 


- 




- 


1918, 










.36 


19.23 


4.12 


.2555 


.0354 


.0280 


.0074 


3.26 


- 


- 


- 


1919, 










.37 


17.96 


3.76 


.2342 


.0330 


.0275 


.0055 


2.55 


- 


- 


- 



1 August omitted. 



Blackstone River , at Millville. 



1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 
1918, 
1919, 











.24 


11.87 


3.17 


.1595 


.0267 


.0220 


.0047 


2.27 


.0225 


.0019 










.30 


13.94 


3.32 


.2350 


.0277 


.0234 


.0043 


3.01 


.0290 


.0013 










.33 


14.35 


2.79 


.1787 


.0268 


.0222 


.0046 


2.94 


.0355 


.0051 










.29 


15.20 


2.18 


.2433 


.0283 


.0249 


.0034 


2.91 


.0421 


.0064 










.37 


12.92 


2.38 


.1631 


.0281 


.0237 


.0044 


2.44 


.0345 


.0063 










.28 


14.33 


2.78 


.2245 


.0304 


.0243 


.0061 


2.78 


.0233 


.0065 










.42 


13.55 


2.02 


.1379 


.0361 


.0267 


.0094 


2.12 


- 


- 










.38 


13.31 


2.78 


.2284 


.0266 


.0199 


.0067 


1.86 


- 


- 










.33 


14.19 


3.96 


.1572 


.0286 


.0222 


.0064 


2.12 


- 


- 










.42 


13.87 


3.42 


.1166 


.0334 


.0252 


.0082 


2.21 


- 


- 










.37 


13.92 


4.18 


.1193 


.0313 


.0262 


.0051 


1.81 


- 


- 



70 



STATE DEPAKTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Charles River. 

Chemical Exajiinatiox of Water from Charles River. — Averages for 
Six Moxths, from June to November, inclusive. 

Charles River, above Milford. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





"o 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 

o 


Nitrogen 


■6 
B 

a 
o 

o 

a 

a 
>. 

O 






EVAPOHATION. 


fo 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 


e2 


a 

m - 
m to 

a" 




-0 

Q 


a 

C 

01 

s. 
§ 




1 
1 




1914,1 . 


.34 


4.03 


1.43 


.0046 


.0228 


.0178 


.0050 


.41 


.0000 


.0000 


.35 


0.9 


1915,1 . 


.75 


5.00 


2.27 


.0039 


.0296 


.0260 


.0036 


.41 


- 


- 


.84 


1.1 


1916,1 . 


.49 


4.70 


2.23 


.0058 


.0219 


.0207 


.0012 


.37 


- 


- 


.75 


1.0 


1917, . 


.43 


4.96 


1.58 


.0062 


.0197 


.0157 


.0040 


.35 


- 


- 


.53 


1.3 


1918,2 . 


.37 


4.15 


1.26 


.0096 


.0209 


.0155 


.0054 


.38 


- 


- 


.41 


1.2 


1919, 


.35 


4.94 


1.77 


.0037 


.0194 


.0171 


.0023 


.34 


- 


- 


.54 


1.3 



1 Three months. 



2 Four months. 



Charles River, below Milford. 



1914, . 


.48 


12.47 


2.87 


.2817 


.0470 


.0368 


.0102 


1.74 


.0298 


.0085 


.74 


3.3 


1915, 


.72 


12.00 


3.58 


.1327 


.0587 


.0344 


.0243 


1.61 


- 


- 


1.04 


3.1 


1916,1 . 


.41 


12.26 


4.96 


.1258 


.0251 


.0220 


.0031 


1.93 


- 


- 


.81 


2.9 


1917, . 


.32 


17.93 


5.77 


.4138 


.0413 


.0321 


.0092 


3.24 


- 


- 


.49 


3.7 


1918,2 . 


.62 


10.33 


3.10 


.0519 


.0531 


.0366 


.0165 


1.71 


- 


- 


.95 


- 


1919, . 


.50 


13.36 


5.16 


.2005 


.0418 


.0341 


.0077 


2.16 


- 


- 


.74 


- 




1 Oct 


ober omi 


tted. 








2 Foui 


montl 


s. 









Charles River, opposite Pumping Station of Brookline Water Works. 



1914, . 


.55 


7.10 


1.87 


.0055 


.0314 


.0265 


.0049 


.92 


.0032 


.0001 


.66 


2.1 


1916,1 . 


.45 


8.10 


2.60 


.0087 


.0245 


.0211 


.0034 


.96 


- 


- 


.65 


2.0 


1917, . 


.70 


7.93 


2.72 


.0053 


.0394 


.0270 


.0124 


.73 


- 


- 


1.02 


2.1 


1918,2 . 


.66 


7.25 


2.50 


.0084 


.0401 


.0323 


.0078 


.86 


- 


- 


.80 


1.9 


1919, 


.81 


6.98 


2.44 


.0087 


.0332 


.0277 


.0055 


.78 


- 


- 


.93 


2.1 



1 Two months. 



2 Three months. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 71 

Chemical Examination of Water from Charles River, etc. — Conchided. 
Charles River, opposite Pumping Station of Waltham Water Works. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





o 

6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 
a 
*C 

O 


Nitrogen 


T3 
O 

a 
g 

c 
o 

1 

>. 

X 

O 






Evaporation. 


£ 


ALBtTMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 


a 

.3 


1 




i 

d 
o 
g. 

3 

to 


1 


.1 


s 

■H 


1914, . 


.52 


7.45 


1.98 


.0117 


.0353 


.0297 


.0056 


.92 


.0030 


.0002 


.57 


2.6 


1915, 


.93 


8.30 


2.97 


.0131 


.0475 


.0407 


.0068 


.91 


- 


- 


1.11 


2.3 


1916, 


.69 


8.68 


3.38 


.0163 


.0328 


.0246 


.0082 


.89 


- 


- 


.91 


2.2 


1917, 


.67 


7.68 


2.75 


.0109 


.0310 


.0282 


.0028 


.80 


- 


- 


.71 


2.3 


1918,1 . 


.49 


6.60 


2.27 


.0101 


.0384 


.0272 


.0112 


.96 


- 


- 


.61 


2.2 


1919. . 


.80 


7.38 


2.02 


.0151 


.0371 


.0323 


.0048 


.76 


- 


- 


.81 


- 



1 Three months. 

Chicopee River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Chicopee River and its Tribu- 
taries. — Averages for Six Months, from June to November, in- 
clusive. 

Ware River, below Ware. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





i 


Resid 


UE on 


Ammonia. 


6 
1 


Nitrogen 


T3 

o 

a 

3 
S 

s 

d 
o 

>. 
X 

O 






Evaporation. 


^ 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 


1 


o.- 

sr 


1 


> 


s> 
a 

O 

a 


O 

2 


1 


1 

c 

•a 


1914, 


.60 


10.47 


3.15 


.0501 


.0704 


.0488 


.0216 


.53 


.0012 


.0006 


.82 


- 


1915, 


.76 


9.43 


3.41 


.0317 


.0746 


.0427 


.0319 


.42 


- 


- 


1.16 


- - 


1916, 


.79 


7.37 


2.82 


.0148 


.0451 


.0334 


.0117 


.36 


- 


- 


1.04 


- 


1917,1 . 


.53 


8.38 


2.68 


.0529 


.0630 


.0376 


.0254 


.44 


- 


- 


.74 


- 


1918, 


.66 


8.08 


3.26 


.0319 


.0647 


.0414 


.0233 


.39 


- 


- 


1.14 


- 


1919, . . 


.75 


7.83 


2.62 


.0227 


.0457 


.0373 


.0084 


.31 




- 


1.14 


- 



1 July omitted. 



72 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Chicopee River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Concluded. 

Qiiaboag River, beloio Palmer. 









[Parts in 100,000.] 
















i 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 
8 

1 

X 

O 






i 


ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 


1 


Ql-l 


1 


> 

1 


a 
m 


1 
g 


1 

i 


i 


1914, . 


.49 


6.62 


1.62 


.0144 


.0243 


.0176 


.0067 


.49 


.0045 


.0004 


.35 


- 


1915, . 


.56 


6.00 


2.12 


.0128 


.0336 


.0236 


.0100 


.40 


- 


- 


.62 


- 


1916, . 


.64 


6.02 


2.54 


.0134 


.0278 


.0209 


.0069 


.31 


- 


- 


.70 


- 


1918,1 . 


.26 


5.70 


1.88 


.0149 


.0220 


.0156 


.0064 


.45 


- 


- 


.41 


- 


1919,2 . 


.49 


5.20 


1.85 


.0100 


.0207 


.0160 


.0047 


.32 


- 


- 


.56 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 June omitted. 



Swift River, below Bondsville. 



1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 
1918, 
1919, 





.35 


4.97 


1.67 


.0037 


.0304 




.46 


4.95 


1.83 


.0052 


.0269 




.49 


4.22 


1.67 


.0026 


.0193 




.33 


5.07 


2.02 


.0034 


.0224 




.34 


4.35 


1.63 


.0055 


.0197 




.43 


4.80 


2.08 


.0046 


.0203 



0219 .0085 


.20 


.0025 


.0002 


.55 


0202 .0067 


.24 


- 


- 


.64 


0160 .0033 


.18 


- 


- 


.69 


0166 


.0058 


.19 


- 


- 


.50 


0155 


.0042 


.21 


- 


- 


.49 


0177 


.0026 


.22 


- 


- 


.59 



Chicopee River, above Chicopee. 



1914, . 




•.33 


6.50 


2.00 


.0168 


.0278 


.0212 


.0066 


.51 


.0095 


.0008 


.40 


- 


1915, . 




.61 


6.45 


1.98 


.0168 


.0295 


.0242 


.0053 


.39 


- 


- 


.64 


- 


1916,1 . 




.69 


6.15 


2.35 


.0126 


.0236 


.0194 


.0042 


.32 


- 


- 


.72 


- 


1917,2 . 




.35 


8.84 


3.10 


.0244 


.0250 


.0196 


.0054 


.36 


- 


- 


.43 


- 


1918,1 . 




.38 


6.25 


2.00 


.0351 


.0373 


.0282 


.0091 


.46 


- 


- 


.50 


- 


1919,3 . 




.50 


6.23 


2.80 


.0232 


.0261 


.0213 


.0048 


.34 


- 


- 


.60 


- 




1 Four 


mont 


IS. 


2 


June( 


)mitte 


i. 




3 Th 


ree mo 


nths. 







No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



Concord River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries. — AVER.\GES FOR SiX MONTHS, FROM JUNE TO NOVEMBER, IN- 
CLUSIVE. 

Sialbitry River, below Saxonville. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


s 

3 

a 
8 






Evaporation. 




ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 




d 




■6 


-d 






i 




i 
6 




m to 

sr 


1 


1 


t 

1 
Q 


-a 
1 

02 


o 
Q 


1 


1 

't-c 


I 

6 


■H 


1914, 


.51 


9.62 


3.03 


.0292 


.0439 


.0276 


.0163 


1.13 


.0220 


.0042 


.61 


_ 


1915, 


.97 


6.67 


2.75 


'.0129 


.0408 .0319 


.0089 


.73 


- 


- 


1.04 


- 


1916,1 . 


.62 


7.20 


2.10 


.0315 


.0311 .0264 


.0047 


.93 


- 


- 


.74 


- 


1917, 


.52 


7.30 


2.70 


.0185 


.0481 1.0306 


.0175 


.63 


- 


- 


.73 


- 


1918, 


.52 


6.68 


2.52 


.0158 


.0340 


.0242 


.0098 


.71 


- 


- 


.59 


- 


1919, 


.65 


8.12 


3.47 


].0138 


.0326 


.0263 


.0063 


.77 






.91 





1 June omitted. 







Assabet River, above 


Vestborough. 










1914, 


.92 


7.37 


2.78 


.0088 


.0356 


.0304 


.0052 


.41 


.0034 


.0001 


.98 


_ 


1915, 


1.56 


8.08 


4.02 


.0046 


.0453 


.0406 


.0047 


.46 


- 


- 


1.74 


- 


1916, 


1.01 


7.52 


3.20 


.0033 


.0298 


.0260 


.0038 


.47 


- 


- 


1.24 


- 


1917, 


.82 


8.11 


3.43 


.0088 


.0325 


.0281 


.0044 


.57 


- 


- 


1.11 


- 


1918,1 . 


1.20 


7.46 


3.42 


.0286 


.0400 


.0315 


.0085 


.56 


- 


- 


1.31 


- 


1919, 


.86 


7.25 


3.07 


.0068 


.0331 


.0276 


.0055 


.48 


" 




1.13 





1 September omitted. 













Assabet River, below Westborough. 










1909. 


1".70 


19.24 


8.91 


.4140 .2281 


.1616 


.0665 ' 1.94 


.0005 


.0005 


2.90 


_ 


1910 








2.23 


17.07 


7.00 


.2898 .1334 


.1018 


.0316 : 2.16 


.0078 


.0018 


2.20 


- 


1911 








.83 


12.09 


4.01 


.0556 .0460 


.0373 


.0087 :; 1.87 , 


.0967 


.0121 


1.24 


- 


191' 








.66 


12.71 


4.01 


.0975 .0419 


.0357 


.0062 ,1 2.20 


.1998 


.0132 


.95 


- 


1913 








1.15 


9.67 


4.21 


.0152 .0448 


.0401 


.0047 I; 1.08 


.1078 


.0016 


1.37 


- 


1914 








.80 


10.21 


3.14 


.0089 0399 


.0339 


.0060 


1.59 '• 


.0195 


.0005 


1.01 


- 


1915 








1.62 


9.46 


4.28 


.0118 '.0.539 


.0438 


.0101 


.87 I 


- 


- 


1.83 


- 


1916 








.88 


11.30 


4.38 


.0807 .0360 


.0319 


.0041 


1.8V 


- 


- 


1.12 


- 


1917 








.80 


10.08 


3.68 


.0428 .0381 


.0352 


.0029 


1.03 


- 


- 


1.04 


- 


1918 


1 






.85 


9.18 


3.57 


.0427 .0424 


.0333 


.0091 1.10 


- 


- 


1.08 


- 


1919 








.93 


7.55 


3.02 


.0070 i.0364 


.0322 


.0042 .53 






1.25 





1 September omitted. 



Assabet River, above Hudson. 



1914, 


.44 


6.80 


2.10 


.0066 


.0275 


.0222 .0053 


.65 


.0060 


.0001 


.53 


_ 


1915, 


.82 


6.48 


2.63 


.0064 


.0325 


.0305 .0020 


.55 


- 


- 


1.02 


- 


1916, 


.54 


6.68 


2.73 


i.0053 


.0236 


.0208 


.0028 


.61 


- 


- 


.62 


- 


1917, 


.50 


6.64 


2.26 


.0057 


.0288 


.0223 


.0065 


.55 


- 


- 


.57 


- 


1918, 


.46 


5.68 


2.01 


.0049 


.0263 


.0233 


.0030 


.71 


- 


- 


.53 


- 


1919, 


.62 


6.52 


2.46 


.0064 


.0276 


.0244 


.0032 


.50 


" 




.74 





74 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Concord River and its Tribu- 
taries, ETC. — Concluded. 

Assabet River, below Hudson. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 













Residue on 


Ammonia. 




NiTH 
AS 


OGEN 


a 






Evaporation. 


























o 




Year. 




ci 




T3 


i 






m 




O 


"S 


c-3 


aj 


3 




Ci 


'C 

o 




'S 




OS 




o 


^ 




2 


o 


s 


3 


O 


^ 


% 


o 


1909, 


.51 


8.81 


3.26 


.0161 


.0403 


.0296 


.0107 


.98 


.0022 


.0002 


.64 


_ 


1910, 








.69 


13.83 


3.83 


.0413 


.0428 


.0337 


.0091 


1.27 


.0048 


.0002 


1.24 


- 


1911, 








.64 


12.83 


4.30 


.0817 


.0532 


.0400 


.0132 


.90 


.0043 


.0003 


1.06 


- 


1912, 








.78 


18.08 


3.99 


.0939 


.0752 


.0494 


.0258 


1.02 


.0053 


.0002 


1.28 


- 


1913,1 








.76 


13.29 


3.34 


.0727 


.0704 


.0.577 


.0127 


1.07 


.0036 


.0004 


1.28 


- 


1914. 








.57 


11.88 


3.10 


.0720 


.0601 


.0436 


.0165 


' .98 


.0042 


.0002 


; 1.03 


- 


1915, 








.90 


8.25 


3.17 


.0144 


.0466 


.0.356 


.0110 


.59 


- 


- ~ 


1.16 


- 


1916, 








.64 


11.03 


3.95 


.0398 


.0509 


.0377 


.0132 


.70 


- 


- 


.89 


- 


1917. 








.63 


10.36 


3.57 


.0250 


.0522 


.0376 


.0146 


.65 


- 


- 


.77 


- 


1918, 








.52 


11.08 


2. 86 


.0284 


.0486 


.0345 


.0141 


.77 


- 


- 


.73 


- 


1919, 








.69 


8.04 


3.44 


.0103 


.0464 


.0359 


.0105 


! .53 


~ 




.95 


~ 



1 November omitted. 

Annabel River, above Maynard. 



1914, . 


.46 


7.02 


2.39 


.0069 


.0373 


.0308 


.0065 


.82 


.0014 


.0002 


.53 


1915, 


.92 


7.08 


2.63 


.0104 


.0403 


.0336 


.0067 


.63 


_ 


- 


1.03 


1916, 


.64 


7.25 


2.47 


.0127 


.0302 


.0260 


.0042 


.67 


- 


- 


.81 


1917, 


.57 


7.95 


2.57 


.0204 


.0361 


.0276 


.0085 


.63 


- 


- 


.68 


1918, 


.64 


7.63 


2.33 


.0154 


.0363 


.0325 


.0038 


.82 


- 


- 


.75 


1919,1 . 


.76 


7.92 


2.72 


.0353 


.0445 


.0381 


.0064 


.63 


~ 


~ 


1.02 



1 August omitted. 



Assabet River, below Maynard. 



1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 
1918, 
1919,1 







_ 


13.97 


4.21 


.1208 


.0991 


.»629 


.0462 


1.22 


.0007 


.0006 


1.34 






.59 


13.15 


4.68 


.0708 


.0685 


.0446 


.0239 


1.82 


.0038 


.0006 


.85 






.58 


12.73 


4.17 


.07.38 


.06.50 


.0408 


.0242 


1.41 


.0060 


.0006 


1.08 






- 


12.94 


3.92 


|.1205 


.0771 


.0494 


.0277 


1.46 


.0026 


.0010 


1.04 






.60 


10.60 


3.01 


1.0746 


.0597 


.0394 


.0203 ' 


1.34 


.0311 


.0007 


.85 






.33 


11.58 


2.87 


.0705 


.0.595 


.0378 


.0217 


1.32 


i.0056 


.0012 


.73 






.69 


10.78 


3.25 


.0509 


.0610 


.0.3.53 


.0257 


1.27 


- 


- 


.99 






.83 


11.27 


3.98 


.0191 


.0576 


.0364 


.0212 


1.13 


- 


- 


1.32 






.67 


12.08 


4.14 


.0684 


.0832 


.0440 


.0392 


1.30 


- 


- 


1.07 






.57 


10.27 


3.42 


.0233 


.0559 


.0369 


.0190 


1.13 


- 


- 


.«1 






.95 


8.49 


3.35 


.0336 


.0446 


.0370 


.0076 


.80 


- 


- 


1.06 



1 August om.itted. 

Concord River, at Billerica. 



1914, 


.41 


8.78 


2.20 


.0096 


.0335 


.0284 


.0051 


1.10 


.0072 


.0005 


.50 


1915, . 


.88 


7.92 


2.93 


.0157 


0411 


.0375 


.0036 


.84 


- 


- 


1.05 


1916, . 


.62 


8.60 


2.87 


.0130 


.0292 


.0256 


.0036 


.85 


- 


- 


.78 


1917, 


.54 


7.42 


2.32 


.0166 


.0321 


.0268 


.0053 


.94 


- 


- 


.55 


1918, . 


.51 


7.83 


2.45 


.0134 


.0365 


.0303 


.0062 


.94 


- 


- 


.66 


1919, 


.68 


7.72 


2.48 


.0157 


.0311 


.0267 


.0044 


.77 


- 


- 


.86 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANIIWRY ENGINEERING. 



75 



Connecticut River. 

Chemical Examixatiox of Water from Connecticut River. — Averages 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Connecticut River, at Northfield Farms. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


s 






Evaporation.- 








AS — 


















3 

a 




Year. 




a 




■6 


73 






ai 




o 


i 




8 


3 


> 


g 

ft 


a 


1 


1 

'B 


g 


a 

"73 

!3 




o 


o 




u 




















O 


H 


hJ 


fe 


H 


Q 


CO 


O 


^ 


g 


O 


K 


1914, . 


.29 


8.03 


2.73 


.0056 


.0182 


.0137 


.0045 


.17 


.0012 


.0001 


.70 




1915, 


.30 


7.08 


2.08 


.0031 


.0162 


.0124 


.0038 


.17 




_ 


.60 


- 


1916,1 . 


.37 


6.90 


2.10 


.00.32 


.0152 


.0135 


.0017 


.14 


- 


- 


.80 


- 


1917,1 . 


.35 


7.40 


3.08 


.0055 


.0196 ;.0139 


.0057 


.13 


- 


- 


.63 


- 


191S, . 


.33 


6.93 


2.20 


.0041 


.0186 .0142 


.0044 


.19 


_ 


_ 


.80 


- 


1919, 


.33 


6.95 


2.15 


.0050 


.0182 .0155 


.0027 


.16 


~ 


~ 


.76 


~ 



1 August omitted. 



Connecticut River, below Springfield. 



1914, . 


.29 


7.92 


2.50 


.0185 


.0243 


.0178 


.0065 


.30 


.0023 


.0003 


.82 


1915, . 


.35 


7.15 


2.38 


.0091 


.0216 


.0151 


.0065 


.24 


- 


- 


.69 


1916, 


.37 


7.82 


3.09 : 


.0067 


.0173 


.0143 


.0030 


.20 


- 


- 


.77 


1917, . 


.36 


8.30 


3.30 [ 


.0106 


.0227 


.0174 


.0053 


.22 


- 


_ 


.67 


1918, 


.33 


7.48 


2.60 


.0168 


.0236 


.0149 


.0087 


.26 


- 


- 


.77 


1919,1 . 


.34 


7.82 


2.07 


.0124 


.0213 


.0159 


.0054 


.27 


~ 


" 


.86 



1 August omitted. 



Deerfield River. 

Chemical Ex.\mination of Water from Deerfield River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Deerfield River, at Shelburne Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen. 

AS — 








EVAPOR.iTION. 


















ALBUMINOID. 








a 
g 




Year. 




c 




•d 


i 










i 
6 


o 


3" 




s 

O 


s 


a 
1 

02 


S3 

3 
u 


1 


1 

1 


a 
1 

X 

O 


1 

K 


1914, 


.45 


4.80 


1.57 


.0062 


.0222 


.0167 


.0055 


.17 


.0022 


.0003 


.56 




1915, 


.27 


4. 58 


1.44 


.0042 


.0149 


.0121 


.0028 


.16 


_ 


- 


.39 


- 


1916,1 . 


.34 


4.50 


2.23 


.00,33 


.0129 


.0117 


.0012 


.23 


- 


- 


.55 


- 


1917,2 . 


.22 


4.97 


1.90 


.0035 


.0113 


.0093 


.0020 


.12 


- 


- 


.20 


- 


1918, 


.39 


5.13 


1.47 


.0085 


.0232 


.0182 


.0050 


.23 


_ 


- 


.52 


- 


1919,3 . 


.26 


6.28 


1.44 


.0056 


.0151 


.0131 


.0020 


.14 


~ 


~ 


.41 


~ 



1 Four months. 



2 Three months. 



3 August omitted. 



76 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Chemical Examination or Water from Deerfield River, etc. — 

Concluded. 

Deerfield River, beloiv Green River. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





i 
6 


Resid 


UE ON 


Ammonia. 


1 
O 

.19 


Nitrogen 


B 

3 

g 

d 
1 

6 






Ev.iPORATION. 


£ 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


"a 


a 


3 


s 


1 


1 

i 


1 


i 


1914, . 


.30 


5.68 


1.80 


.0124 


.0182 


.0143 


.0039 


.0020 


.0001 


.43 


- 


1915,1 . 


.22 


5.41 


1.28 


.0211 


.0195 


.0128 


.0067 


.20 


- 


- 


.34 


- 


1916, 


.29 


5.60 


1.47 


.0226 


.0160 


.0127 


.0033 


.21 


- 


- 


.43 


- 


1917,2 . 


.24 


8.68 


2.90 


.0161 


.0187 


.0148 


.0039 


.20 


- 


- 


.36 


- 


1918, 


.29 


6.38 


2.23 


.0141 


.0198 


.0136 


.0062 


.25 


- 


- 


.47 


- 


1919,2 . 


.32 


5.08 


1.53 


.0086 


.0181 


.0153 


.0028 


.18 


- 


- 


.48 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 August omitted. 



French River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from French River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

French River, below Webster. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 
O 


Nitrogen 


■a 

s 

a 
I 
O 






Evaporation. 


6 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 




.1 


"o 
H 


1 


o 
g. 
3 


1 

1 


1 


1 

a 

1 


1914, . 


.40 


8.50 


2.48 


.0500 


.0675 


.0399 


.0276 


.72 


.0018 


.0027 


.69 


- 


1915, 


.53 


8.38 


3.02 


.0472 


.0778 


.0448 


.0330 


.80 


- 


- 


.88 


- 


1916, 


.60 


8.03 


2.55 


.0521 


.0593 


.0402 


.0191 


.84 


- 


- 


.86 


- 


1917, 


.48 


7.85 


3.08 


.0428 


.0645 


.0367 


.0278 


.61 


- 


- 


.72 


- 


1918,1 . 


.50 


9.00 


3.75 


.0162 


.0779 


.0416 


.0363 


.80 


- 


- 


.96 


- 


1919, 


.53 


9.52 


4.02 


.0257 


.0492 


.0317 


.0175 


.55 


- 


- 


1.13 


- 



1 Four months. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



77 



Hoosick River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Hoosick River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Hoosick River, at Williamstoivn. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 





o 
O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


i 
e 

3 

a 
o 

a 
>, 

X 

O 






Evaporation. 


6 
o 

fin 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 

o 


c 

1-1 


"3 




1 

3 


1 
1 


.1 

-4-3 


1 

c 
■a 

1 


1914, . 


.39 


18.62 


4.02 


.0670 


.0584 


.0381 


.0203 


.83 


.0037 


.0015 


.63 


9.5 


1915, 


.21 


12.65 


2.60 


.0351 


.0316 


.0202 


.0114 


.49 


- 


- 


.32 


6.9 


1916,1 . 


.29 


12.93 


4.10 


.0422 


.0294 


.0195 


.0099 


.67 


- 


- 


.40 


7.2 


1917,1 . 


.22 


14.54 


4.96 


.0585 


.0328 


.0197 


.0131 


.59 


- 


- 


.35 


- 


1918,2 . ... 


.39 


18.10 


4.17 


.0685 


.0628 


.0360 


.0268 


1.07 


- 


- 


.76 


- 


1919, 


.33 


16.10 


3.78 


.0339 


.0397 


.0227 


.0170 


.60 


- 


- 


.64 


- 



1 August omitted. 



2 Three months. 



Housatonic River. 

Chemical Ex,\mination of Water from Housatonic River and its 
Branches. — Aver.\ges for Six Months, from June to November, 
inclusive. 

East Branch, below Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 































"3 


Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


S3 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


£ 
E 

3 
O 
C 

a 

O 






6 


albuminoid. 




Year. 


3 

o 




o 


•a 

> 
a 

S 


i 

a 

a 
P. 
§ 

in 


1 


1 


a 


1914,1 . 


.24 


13.82 


3.27 


.0509 


.0351 


.0271 


.0080 


.47 


.0087 


.0015 


.53 


- 


1915, . 


.37 


11.98 


3.23 


.0527 


.0304 


.0236 


.0068 


.35 


- 


- 


.60 


- 


1916, . 


.34 


12.67 


4.00 


.0496 


.0292 


.0225 


.0067 


.40 


- 


- 


.54 


- 


1917, 


.07 


11.41 


3.38 


.0228 


.0247 


.0159 


.0088 


.22 


- 


- 


.31 


- 


1918,2 . 


.17 


10.65 


2.60 


.0178 


.0201 


.0166 


.0035 


.34 


- 


- 


.39 


- 


1919,3 . 


.31 


12.75 


3.65 


.0372 


.0298 


.0211 


.0087 


.34 


- 


- 


.48 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 Two months. 



3 Three months. 



78 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Housatonic River and its 
Br.\nches, etc. — Concluded. 

West Branch, below Pittsfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





"o 
O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


a 

3 
o 


Nitrogen 


s 

m 

a 
o 

e 

>> 

6 






Evaporation. 


8 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


"3 


d 

5" 


"3 


■6 

1 

s 


i 

a 
a 

3 

m 


i 

1 
1 


i 


c 


1914,1 . 


.20 


14.62 


2.75 


.0288 


.0495 


.0313 


.0182 


.45 


.0017 


.0011 


.61 


- 


1915,2 . 


.34 


16.62 


3.72 


.0671 


.0691 


.0359 


.0332 


.65 


- 


- 


.63 


- 


1916, . 


.18 


12.93 


3.78 


.0568 


.0432 


.0228 


.0204 


.46 


- 


- 


.29 


- 


1917, . 


.20 


14.00 


4.43 


.0429 


.0378 


.0204 


.0174 


.38 


- 


- 


.49 


- 


1918,3 . 


.23 


15.43 


3.40 


.0463 


.0594 


.0285 


.0309 


.65 


- 


- 


.43 


- 


1919,3 . 


.31 


16.50 


4.45 


.0103 


.0429 


.0283 


.0146 


.35 


- 


- 


.62 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 September omitted. 



3 Three months. 







So^dhwest Branch, 


at Pittsfield. 










1914,' . 


.16 


15.05 


2.30 


.0098 


.0259 


.0166 


.0093 


.24 


.0072 


.0005 


.37 


- 


1915, . 


.14 


15.25 


2.95 


.0070 


.0243 


.0159 


.0084 


.26 


- 


- 


.30 


- 


1916, . 


.15 


14.97 


4.69 


.0038 


.0197 


.0122 


.0075 


.20 


- 


- 


.30 


- 


1917. . 


.17 


16.98 


. 4.30 


.0326 


.0292 


.0172 


.0120 


.36 


- 


- 


.35 


- 


1918.2 . 


.14 


15.76 


3.87 


.0188 


.0201 


.0155 


.0046 


.32 


- 


- 


.22 


- 


1919,2 . 


.13 


12.95 


3.30 


.0115 


.0187 


.0123 


.0064 


.21 


- 


- 


.29 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 Three months. 





Housatonic River, beloio Great Barr 


Ington 










1914,1 . 


.22 


17.62 


4.22 


.0147 


.0372 


.0268 


.0104 


.69 


.0112 


.0023 


.42 


- 


1915, . 


.23 


15.83 


3.60 


.0142 


.0296 


.0183 


.0113 


.46 


- 




.47 


- 


1916,2 . 


.22 


15.40 


5.80 


.0143 


.0230 


.0174 


.0056 


.49 


- 




.40 


- 


1917,3 . 


.19 


15.76 


4.30 


.0130 


.0295 


.0196 


.0099 


.52 


- 


- 


.43 


- 


1918, . 


.21 


16.65 


4.97 


.0166 


.0273 


.0210 


.0063 


.61 


- 


- 


.41 


- 


1919, . 


.21 


15.02 


3.67 


.0098 


.0230 


.0190 


.0040 


.46 


- 


- 


.43 


- 



1 Four months. 



2 June omitted. 



' September omitted. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANm\IlY ENGINEERING. 



Merrimack River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from ]Merrimack River. — Aveii-^ges 
FOR Six jMonths, from June to November, inclusive. 

Merrimack River, above Lowell. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


s 






Evaporation. 




albuminoid. 


AS — 








' 






■73 








\ EAR. 






c-2 






> 






o 


o 


13 






u 
o 

S 


1 


Ol-l 
1-1 • 




i5 


i 

S 


ft 

xn 


S 
O 


^ 

g 


g 


o 




1914, 


.30 


5.32 


1.74 


.0170 


.0255 


.0181 


.0074 


.35 


.0037 


.0003 


.61 


1.6 


1915, 


.46 


5.43 


2.18 


.0140 


.0273 


.0205 


.0068 


.32 


- 


- 


.79 


1.3 


1916,1 . 


.50 


6.02 


2.06 


.0078 


.0197 


.0169 


.0028 


.25 


- 


- 


.77 


1.3 


1917, 


.34 


6.58 


2.12 


.0117 


.0222 .0166 


.0056 


.36 


- 


- 


.54 


1.4 


1918, 


.37 


5.88 


2.05 


.0140 


.0238 .0191 


.0047 


.42 


- 


- 


.72 


1.5 


1919, . 


.36 


5.45 


1.91 


.0165 


.0232 .0178 


.0054 


.35 






.72 


1.7 



1 October omitted. 







Merrimack Rivei 


•, above Laivrence. 










1914, 


.23 


6.85 


2.62 


.0280 


.0246 .0201 


.0045 


.59 


.0190 


.0003 


.59 


1.7 


1915, 


.33 


7.05 


2.83 


.0183 


.02.30 .0177 


.0053 


.47 


.0139 


.0002 


.69 


1.6 


1916, 


.47 


6.89 


2.77 


.0143 


.0211 .0146 


.0065 


.43 


.0175 


.0004 


.55 


1.4 


1917, 


.44 


6.54 


2.53 


.0147 


.0203 |.0169 


.0034 


.50 


.0147 


.0007 


.47 


li2 


1918, 


.45 


7.10 


2.88 


.0176 


.0233 .0174 


.0059 


.53 


.0132 


.0010 


.66 


1.2 


1919, . 


.42 


7.37 


3.23 


.0214 


.0211 .0159 


.0052 


.52 


.0185 


.0013 


.61 


0.9 



Miller's River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Miller's River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Miller's River, below Miller's Falls. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





6 


Residue on 


Ammoni.*.. 


o 

.2 
u 


Nitrogen 


e 

3 

a 

O 

a 

a 

o 






Evaporation. 


£ 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 
^ 


a 

O 


"3 


1 
1 

5 


■2 

ft 

3 
CO 


i 


.1 


a 
1 


1914, . 


.44 


5.17 


1.85 


.0073 


.0251 .0204 


.0047 


.36 


.0068 


.0003 


.49 


_ 


1915, . 


.88 


5.77 


2.75 


.0092 


.0311 .0256 


.0055 


.31 


- 


- 


.93 


- 


1916, 


.80 


4.85 


2.14 


.0093 


.0274 .0212 


.0062 


.31 


- 


- 


.97 


- 


1917, 


.75 


5.90 


2.75 


.0058 


.0281 .0224 


.0057 


.25 


- 


- 


.78 


- 


1918, . 


.62 


4.90 


1.67 


.0058 


.0267 1.0226 


.0041 


.32 


- 


- 


.73 


- 


1919, . 


.64 


5.10 

1 


1.92 


.0095 


.0301 1.0245 


.0056 


.30 


" 




.95 





80 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Nashua River. 

Chemical Ex.\mination of Water from Nashua River. — ■ Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

North Branch of Nashua River, below Fitchburg. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 













Residue on 

Ev.^^PORATION. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


S 


















i 






6 


ALBUMINOID. 


6 
c 
'u 






3 
o 

13 

a 




Year. 


3 




3 




i 

a 




.1 






o 


^ 


3" 


fa 


E^ 


Q • 


m 


O 


IS 


^ 


O 


hL) 


1909, 


.52 


15.85 


3.42 


.3220 


.0958 


.0563 


.0395 


1.87 


.0027 


.0014 


1.02 


_ 


1910, 








.60 


20.11 


4.90 


.4047 


.1235 


.0789 


.0446 


2.29 


.0017 


.0009 


1.03 


- 


1911, 








.51 


19.38 


5.57 


.2848 


.1035 


.0566 


.0469 


2.37 


.0027 


.0015 


1.15 


- 


1912, 








.57 


19.52 


4.99 


.2.380 


.1007 


.0560 


.04-47 


2.20 


.0032 


.0019 


1 99 


- 


1913, 








.40 


23.45 


4.97 


.2770 


.1064 


.0561 


.0503 


2.02 


.0028 


.0013 


1.42 


5.0 


1914, 








.41 


26.93 


5.78 


.3260 


.1156 


.0662 


.0494 


2.60 


.0020 


.0006 


1.55 


5.9 


1915,' 








.41 


14.68 


3.52 


.0578 


.0745 


.0296 


.0449 


1.26 


- 


- 


.94 


3.1 


1916,2 








.42 


18.52 


5.12 


.1043 


.0778 


.0380 


.0398 


2.12 


- 


- 


1.03 


3.2 


1917, 








.42 


15.66 


4.00 


.0433 


.0702 


.0394 


.0.308 


1.68 


- 


- 


.74 


- 


1918, 








.49 


19.87 


6.02 


.0602 


.0800 


.0431 


.0369 


2.12 


- 


- 


1.04 


- 


1919, 








.37 


22.16 


6.84 


.0618 


.0714 


.0444 


.0270 


2.00 


~ 


~ 


1.25 


~ 



1 October omitted. 



August omitted. 



North Branch of Nashua River, at Lancaster. 



1909, . 


.44 


12.26 


3.41 


.1556 


.0330 


.0284 


.0046 


1.46 


.0360 


.0066 


.60 


_ 


1910 










.45 


13.44 


3.82 


.1655 


.0462 


.0.366 


.0096 


1.63 


.0388 


.0108 


.70 


- 


1911 










.51 


15.64 


4.10 


.3067 


.0828 


.0408 


.0420 


1.95 


.0208 


.0083 


.92 


- 


1912 










.45 


12.65 


3.10 


.1252 


.0438 


.0275 


.0163 


1,68 


.0343 


.0083 


.72 


- 


1913 










.43 


15.45 


3.02 


.2292 


.05.33 


.0386 


.0147 


1.75 


.0133 


.0053 


.80 


4.2 


1914 










.39 


16.80 


3.15 


.2147 


.0466 


.0336 


.0130 


1.94 


.0262 


.0115 


.67 


4.1 


1915 










.42 


12.10 


3.49 


.0757 


.0465 


.0294 


.0171 


1.31 


- 


- 


.69 


2.4 


1916 


I 








.41 


12.34 


3.92 


.0539 


.0336 


.0257 


.0079 


1.28 


- 


- 


.73 


2.7 


1917 










.32 


14.28 


2.82 


.0542 


.0343 


.0240 


.0103 


1.52 


- 


- 


.51 


- 


1918 










.31 


13.83 


3.22 


.0755 


.0392 


.0291 


.0101 


1.98 


- 


- 


.55 


3.4 


1919 










.33 


14.22 


3.30 


.0663 


.0315 


.0254 


.0061 


1.52 


- 


- 


.64 





1 October omitted. 



Nashiia River, at PejjpereU. 



1914,1 . 


.31 


12.67 


2.75 


.0595 


.0459 


.0286 


.0173 


1.27 


.0132 


.0027 


.59 




1915, . 


.46 


8.25 


2.27 


.0222 


.0328 


.0237 


.0091 


.85 


- 


- 


.63 


- 


1916,2 . 


.43 


8.57 


2.33 


.0191 


.0248 


.0197 


.0051 


.78 


- 


- 


.57 


- 


1917, . 


.39 


10.96 


4.06 


.0434 


.0357 


.0204 


.0153 


1.25 


- 


- 


.54 


- 


1918, . 


.31 


10.75 


3.00 


.03.38 


.0305 


.0210 


.0095 


1.53 


- 


- 


.51 


- 


1919, 


.34 


9.93 


3.28 


.0258 


.0245 


.0218 


.0027 


1.04 


~ 


~ 


.69 


- 



1 Two months. 



2 Three months. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



81 



Neponset River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Neponset River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Neponset River, at Hyde Park. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











- 




Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS — 


a 

3 

C 
O 








ALBUMINOID. 




Year. 




c 




i 








<«• 




o 


"cS 


c-2 


6 


"S 


"o 








0) 


c 
>> 






6 


o 


Qi-l 




O 

H 


p 


3 


O 


^ 


^; 


O 


« 


1909. 




28.69 


9.08 


.1723 


.1218 


.0898 


.0320 


5.35 


.0027 


.0009 


2.02 


10.0 


1910 










_ 


31.37 


10.16 


.1740 


. 1333 


.1000 


.0333 


5.84 


.0010 


.0002 


2.96 


10.4 


1911 










1.24 


18.82 


5.49 


.0786 


.0727 


.0539 


.0188 


3.36 


.0025 


.0007 


1.86 


7.1 


19^ 










.82 


26.02 


6.45 


.1241 


.1020 


.0707 


.0313 


4.18 


.0017 


.0012 


2.31 


9.2 


191S 










1.02 


26.13 


6.22 


.0533 


.0757 


.0494 


.0263 


3.93 


.0020 


.0007 


2.29 


7.9 


1914 










.93 


20.27 


4.37 


.0754 


.0697 


.0484 


.0213 


3.43 


.0025 


.0008 


1.31 


5.2 


1915 


1 








1.23 


19.67 


6.30 


.0530 


.1078 


.0649 


.0429 


2.42 


- 


- 


1.92 


5.3 


191fi 










1.28 


19.47 


5.37 


.0466 


.0761 


.0554 


.0207 


2.37 


- 


- 


1.96 


- 


1917 










.93 ' 


15.55 


6.40 


.0474 


.0599 


.0394 


.0205 


1.88 


- 


- 


1.09 




1918 










.87 


19.65 


5.87 


.0968 


.0808 


.0494 


.0314 


2.68 


- 


- 


1.51 




1919 










1.09 


13.74 


4.20 


.0389 


.0540 


.0382 


.0158 


1.73 






1.53 





1 Four months. 



Quinebaug River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Quinebaug River. — Aver.\ges 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Quinebaug River, below Southbridge. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





O 

6 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


O 


Nitrogen 


a 
o 

a 
O 






Evaporation. 


03 
<I> 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 

o 


a 
o 

J" 


"3 
o 


i 
Eg 

s 


i 

a 

a 
ft 

3 

m 


1 
1 


0) 


1 

£3 
T3 

03 


1914, 


.52 


11.93 


2.36 


.3033 


.0514 


.0323 


.0191 


2.41 


.0078 


.0052 


.47 


_ 


1915, 


.68 


7.56 


2.49 


.1499 


.0457 


.0327 


.0130 


.82 


- 


- 


.91 


- 


1916, 


.54 


8.12 


3.32 


.0867 


.0367 .0266 


.0101 


.52 


- 


- 


.76 


- 


1917, 


.42 


5.32 


1.65 


.0380 


.0297 .0201 


.0096 


.35 


- 


- 


.47 


- 


1918, 


.50 


7.35 


2.77 


.0471 


.0351 .0256 


.0095 


.53 


- 


- 


.64 


- 


1919, 


.49 


5.90 


2.10 


.0315 


.0278 .0217 


.0061 


.32 






.63 





82 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Taunton Rirer. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Taunton River. — Averages for 
Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Taunton River, below Taunton. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 


Ammonia. 


6 
.S 

O 


Nitrogen 


a 

B 

3 

C 
o 

s 
O 






Evaporation. 


6 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 

o 
H 


o 


O 


1 

5 


1 

13 
O 
C. 




1 
'S 


1 


1914, . 


.92 


18.10 


3.33 


.0701 


.0389 


.0323 


.0066 


5.95 


.0100 


.0020 


.88 


- 


1915, . 


1.35 


9.38 


3.38 


.0469 


.0465 


.0374 


.0091 


1.24 


- 


- 


1.34 


- 


1916, . 


1.70 


9.58 


3.72 


.0323 


.0424 


.0341 


.0083 


1.20 


- 


- 


1.74 


- 


1917, . 


1.36 


9.05 


3.98 


.0345 


.0423 


.0336 


.0087 


1.31 


- 


- 


1.30 


- 


1918, . 


1.25 


9.43 


3.73 


:.0578 


.0514 


.0382 


.0132 


1.23 


- 


- 


1.40 


- 


1919, . 


1.76 


9.25 


3.80 


.0260 


.0404 


.0341 


.0063 


.91 


- 


- 


1.98 


- 



Ten Mile River. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Ten Mile Rh^er. — Averages 
for Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Ten Mile River, heloiv Attlehoro. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





i 

O 


Residue on 


Ammonia. 


i 
'% 
s 

o 


Nitrogen 


13 

a 

i 

8 

a 
>. 

Y. 
. O 






Evaporation. 


i 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Year. 


3 

o 


a 

Ql-I 




1 
Q 


-i 
1 

CO 


i 
1 


.1 
u 


i 

§ 

•a 

03 


1914, . 


.51 


15.32 


3.09 


.1909 


.0673 


.0401 


.0272 


1.73 


.0300 


.0087 


.77 


- 


1915,1 . 


.88 


i 11.10 


3.30 


.0954 


.0494 


.0346 


.0148 


1.37 


- 


- 


.98 


3.2 


1916, . 


- 


13.23 


3.42 


.0912 


.0510 


.0340 


.0170 


1.66 


- 


- 


.91 


3.0 


1917,2 . 


.72 


10.62 


3.72 


.0613 


.0349 


.0250 


.0099 


1.08 


- 


- 


.66 


- 


1918,3 . 


.56 


10.46 


3.73 


.0221 


.0584 


.0317 


.0267 


1.14 


- 


- 


.80 


- 


1919, . 


.84 


10.56 


3.96 


.0243 


.0532 


.0308 


.0224 


.99 


- 


- 


.91 


- 



' June omitted. 



2 November omitted. 



3 Three months. 



Xo. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



83 



Westfield River. 

Chemical Ex.\minatiox of Water from Westfield River. — Aver.\ges 
FOR Six Months, from June to November, inclusive. 

Westfield River, below Westfield. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





o 
o 
O 




Ammonia. ] 


6 

a 

'% 
O 


Nitrogen 


1 

a 
o 

a 

a> 
O 






Evaporation. 




ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 




Year. 


1 




1 


•a 
% 

P 


1 

CO 


1 


1 


§ 

1 


1914, . 


.15 


6.50 


1.72 


.0255 


.0255 


.0161 


.0094 


.33 


.0101 


.0013 


.26 


- 


1915, 


.23 


5.70 


1.78 


.0191 


.0224 


.0159 


.0065 


.27 


- 


- 


.38 


- 


1916, . 


.25 


6.58 


2.62 


.0258 


.0183 


.0139 


.0044 


.26 


- 


- 


.39 


- 


1917, 


.15 


6.04 


2.20 


.0379 


.0193 


.0154 


.0039 


.31 


- 


- 


.28 


- 


1918, 


.19 


6.90 


2.43 


.0230 


.0186 


.0133 


.0053 


.32 


- 


- 


.22 


- 


1919, 


.26 


5.40 


2.10 


.0135 


.0175 


.0153 


.0022 


.23 


' " 




.42 





Examination of Sewage Disposal Works. 

The average results of analyses of samples of sewage and effluent 
and statistics concerning the more important sewage disposal works 
in the State are presented in the following tables. 

In general, the sewage delivered at most of the disposal works in 
the State has been greater in quantity and considerably more dilute 
than has been the case in previous years, a condition due to the 
unusual rainfall. 

At Clinton and Natick, in particular, the disposal works have been 
overloaded during most of the year, while at Spencer a very large 
quantity of sewage overflows into the river because of an inadequate, 
pipe line leading from the town to the filter beds, though the latter 
works are probably of adequate capacity for the disposal of all of the 
sewage of the town. A similar case at Milford has been corrected 
during the year by the construction of a new inverted siphon. At 
Pittsfield large quantities of sewage overflow into the river at times, 
and, according to the records, no sewage at all is pumped to the 
disposal works on holidays, the entire flow from the city on such 
days apparently being discharged directly into the Housatonic River. 
At Southbridge large quantities of sewage have overflowed into the 
river during the past year. 



84 . STATE DEPMITMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The sewage disposal works at Northbridge have been enlarged 
during the year, and the condition of the effluent discharged into the 
river from these works has been materially improved as compared 
with previous years. Additional disposal works are under construction 
at Brockton, with a view to relieving the surcharging of the filter 
beds, which are inadequate for the quantity of sewage now dis- 
charged from the city. It has been difficult, owing to the high cost 
of labor, to maintain municipal works in satisfactory condition in a 
number of places; nevertheless, the sewage disposal works, as a rule, 
have given satisfactory results. 



No. 34] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



85 









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■p9pu8dsns 



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CO m O CD oo CD O C^ ^^ 05 CO oo t^ Ci ^H 

coior^oco cot^^^oo— t>-"»t' — o»o 



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86 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 










•b^BjI 


3.48 

5.24 
7.17 


2.70 
15.33 

20.00 


1.86 

3.08 
6.85 


3.28 
2.18 


4.82 
2.23 

2.51 


CI 

2 ' 


■uaSoa^i^ 


Ci»0 »c o ^ 
t~O"2O00 


M ooSoS o 


r~ o ^- oo 1^ 

SC oo •*«! 


to— .cq OOCO 


COC^OTCO-^ 


»— CO 
0^3 -rj* 


«rt « 


,-1 cq "»< 


—Crt-H 


"^ 




— OJ 


i, 
o 

BS 


■pajaJH^ 


.043 
.075 
.109 
.448 


.186 
.127 

.087 


.076 

.070 
.060 
.086 


.278 
.088 
.075 
.027 


.124 
.064 
.085 
.081 


-* CO 

o »o 


•paja^ignn 


.108 
.135 
.295 
1.130 


.418 
.595 

.467 


.144 

.160 
.320 
.393 


.874 
.167 
.248 
.077 


.338 
.138 
.215 
.190 


CO to 
CO 00 
(M to 


a S 

O o 
o 


•paia^nj; 


Oi C5 W5 (M oo 

o:iro(M-*to 


SS2S?§ 


OOOOO Ol 


oooc-^tooo 


t^-*0 — C! 




T-H ^ 1/2 00 C'l 


CMCOiO lO 


^ <M <M Tj< T-t 


oooo- 


COCOOOiMrt 


eo>o 


•paaa^iyun 


•rt- lO »0 COCC 
OO ^ ,- C-. OO 


CO OO !>■■ t— O 
■^ CD t^ O CM 


2S?3SiB 


^ t^ — , co^^ 


oo t^QO 00 oo 


t--t^ 


OOIMOO^ M 


IC -* ^ ^ ^^ 


CM '<** -^f t^ CM 


iO-«JH 00 '-< ^ 


>OCO-*^Cil 


toco 


•anuojqQ 


7.68 
6.15 
9.65 
6.12 
5.45 


5.78 
5.88 
8.61 
2.73 
7.10 


5.26 
5.53 
19.02 
4.90 
4.53 


8.62 
6.85 
7.18 
3.78 
2.50 


16.63 
4.42 
5.80 
3.85 
3.10 


00 ira 
toco 


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'" 


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C^ ^H CO o o 


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^^ OO t^OO OO 


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-*-H 


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(MOO 


12 

o 
o 
W 



;^ 
a 

Pi 


z 
o 

H 

S 
O 

o 
o 


•papnadsng 


3.74 
4.35 
12.20 
7.89 
5.47 


10.80 

3.27 

33.51 

.93 

50.10 


2.65 
4.40 
4.72 
4.60 
2.84 


7.87 

3.98 

5.24 

.90 

.85 


6.30 
3.51 
7.45 
6.84 
4.60 


lOO 

t^'<J( 

(31 CO 


•paAIOSSTQ 


12.15 
6.45 

18.88 
15.51 
8.83 


14.08 
11.31 
22.98 
5.80 
17.90 


10.14 
14.90 
15.93 
23.40 

7.58 


15.55 
14.07 
10.49 
5.50 

5.78 


17.02 
13.44 
14.75 
8.40 
8.73 


too 
lood 


•Ib;ox 


15.89 
10.80 
31.08 
23.40 
14.30 


24.88 
14.58 
56.49 
6.73 
68.00 


12.79 
19.30 
20.65 
28.00 
10.42 


23.42 
18.05 
15.73 
6.40 
6.63 


23.32 
16.95 
22.20 
15.24 
13.33 


t^<o 


13 

P 
Q 

DO 

» 

K 

,J 

■< 

H 

O 


•papnadsng 


5.40 
5.50 
17.04 
10.15 
6.87 


14.32 
7.33 

41.22 
1.60 

61.90 


6.27 
6.93 
6.60 
10.60 
5.14 


11.42 
6.24 
7.02 
2.03 
1.87 


10.72 
6.49 

11.45 
7.70 
5.54 


o to 

O CO 


•paAJOSSTQ 


31.24 

22.20 
43.90 
39.78 
25.20 


.34.72 

27.78 
49.89 
16.83 
43.20 


26.46 
31.00 
55.69 
34.60 
18.36 


40.. 36 
38.63 
32.82 
19.97 
14.16 


54.64 
33.53 
33.85 
21.90 
26.73 


(3C-] 

CO to 


■mox 


36.64 
27.70 
60.94 
49.93 
32.07 


49.04 
35.11 
91.11 
18.43 
105.10 


32.73 
37.93 
62.29 
45.20 
23.50 


51.78 
44.87 
39.84 
22.00 
16.03 


65.36 
40.02 
45.30 
29.60 
32.27 


o to 
oco- 
IC o 


>) 

03 

a 

*a -*^- 

.a a 

"e a 

IS 

;2 








Tank, . 
None, . 
None, . 
Basins, 

None, . 


Tanks, 
Imhoff tanks 
None, . 
Tanks, 
None, . 


Tanks, 
Tanks, 
Tanks, 
Tanks, 
None, . 


Tanks, 
Tanks, 
None, . 
Tanks, 
Tanks, 


Tank, . 
None, . 
Tanks, 
None, . 
None, . 







z 

o 

K 
O 

C 





Andover, .... 
Attleboro, 1 . 
Brockton, 2 

Clinton 

Concord, 3 


Easthampton,' 

FiTCHBURO, 

Franiingham,2 

Franklin,' 

Gardner (Gardner area),* 


^ 








Gardner (Templeton area 

Hopedale, ' 

Hudson, . 

Leicester, i 

Marion, 


3 

O - <1 ^- 

■<:::% o o 


Norwood, 

PlTTSFlELD,2 . 

Southbridge,' . 
Spencer, 3 . 
Stockbridge,'' . 


•i 

3 H 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



87 







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STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 






05 






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a. 






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en 


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^^ 






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tf 


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-i- CO 


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No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



89 



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90 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Table No. 5. — Average Results of the Analyses of Monthly Samples of Effluent 

frovi Saiid Filters. 





[Parts in 


100,000.1 












Free 
Am- 
monia. 


Total 
Albu- 
minoid 
Am- 
monia. 


Chlor- 
ine. 


Nitrogen as — 




City or Town. • 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


Iron. 


Andover.i 


1.61 


.1325 


7.22 


.4177 


.0246 


.474 


Attleboro,- 


.57 


.0460 


4. 46 


.7950 


.0208 


.016 


Brockton,' 


3.44 


.1333 


8.77 


.1881 


.0040 


1.751 


Clinton,! 


1.57 


.0890 


5.00 


.1695 


.00.58 


2.417 


Concord, ' 


.07 


.0135 


4.08 


1.0610 


.0077 


.012 


Easthampton, ' 


.74 


.0897 


5.58 


.9920 


.0213 


.373 


Framingham.i 


1.49 


.1063 


12.03 


.8496 


.0631 


1.485 


Franklin,' 


.51 


.0382 


2.86 


.5050 


.0075 


.024 


Gardner (Gardner area),* 


1.51 


.1158 


7.03 


2.5700 


.0202 


.076 


Gardner (Tempi et on area), 1 


1.52 


.1490 


7.00 


1.7302 


.0278 


.062 


Hopedale,' 


.81 


.0676 


4.94 


3.2460 


.0045 


.054 


Hudson, 


.67 


.0720 


20.10 


1.6447 


.0452 


.173 


Leicester,* 


.72 


.0867 


3.10 


.0870 


.0008 


.230 


Marion 


.46 


.0418 


4.32 


.3726 


.0055 


.172 


M.4.RLBOROUGH,l 


.44 


.0478 


7.08 


2.9082 


.0061 


.039 


Milford 


1.13 


.0816 


5.91 


.5266 


.0093 


.609 


Natick, 


1.75 


.0904 


6.94 


.1482 


.0038 


.958 


North Attleborough,3 . . . . 


.03 


.0114 


3.00 


.7193 


.0013 


.018 


Northbridge, s 


.35 


.0379 


2.83 


.7212 


.0162 


.276 


Norwood 


.79 


.0568 


12.43 


.4788 


.0162 


.394 




.90 


.1114 


4.28 


.5305 


.0118 


.231 


Southbridge.i 


1.35 


.0954 


5.71 


.8944 


.0103 


.817 


Spencer,' 


.05 


.0218 


2.88 


.7982 


.0005 


.022 


Stockbridge, 5 


.33 


.0360 


2.15 


.4532 


.0137 


.101 


West borough, 1 


.40 


.0636 


4.31 


.6177 


.0268 


.191 


Worcester, 5 


1.63 


.0963 


13.37 


.8710 


.0061 


1.193 


I Regular samples from two or more 
' Every other month. 


inderdrain 
« Four 


s combinec 
samples. 


1 in one av 


erage. 


2 Three 
5 Sevei 


samples. 
1 samples. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



91 



Table No. &. — Efficiency of Sand Filters (Per Cent of Free mid Albuminoid 

Ammonia removed). 





[Parts in 


100,000.1 














Free Ammonia. 


Total Albumi- 
noid Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 






















flcQ 


CiTT OR Town. 


1 

1 

< 




o 
> 
o 

1 

S 

o 


1 

m 

1 
"ft 

a 

■< 




-3 

> 
o 

e 
t 

a 


aj 

c3 
& 

ffl 

02 

"3. 

ft 


+3 


.2-2 fe 

O CO 


Andover, 


3.44 


1.61 


53 


.63 


.13 


79 


7.68 


7.22 


68,000 


Attleboro, 


2.81 


0.57 


80 


.38 


.05 


87 


6.15 


4.46 


40,000 


Brockton, 


7.64 


3.44 


55 


1.07 


.13 


88 


9.65 


8.77 


66,000 


Clinton 


3.05 


1.57 


49 


.66 


.09 


86 


6.12 


5.00 


45,000 


Concord, 


2.21 


.07 


97 


.41 


.01 


98 


5.45 


4.08 


109,000 


Easthampton, 


5.23 


.74 


86 


.72 


.09 


88 


5.78 


5.58 


270,000 


Framingham, 


4.34 


1.49 


66 


1.34 


.11 


92 ~ 


8.61 


12.03 


50,000 


Franklin, 


1.02 


.51 


50 


.13 


.04 


69 


2,73 


2.86 


81,000 


Gardner (Gardner area). 


10.05 


1.51 


85 


2.12 


.12 


94 


7.10 


7.03 


' 82,000 

J 


Gardner (Templeton area). 


3.12 


1.52 


51 


.36 


.15 


58 


5.26 


7.00 


Hopedale 


4.99 


.81 


84 


.54 


.07 


87 


5.53 


4.94 


29,000 


Hudson, 


4.20 


.67 


84 


.67 


.07 


90 


19.02 


20.10 


45,000 


Leicester, 


4 10 


.72 


82 


.77 


.09 


88 


4.90 


3.10 


- 


Marion, 


1.45 


.46 


68 


.30 


.04 


87 


4.53 


4.32 


113,000 


Maelborough, 


4.14 


.44 


89 


.68 


.05 


93 


8.62 


7.08 


50,000 


Milford 


3.34 


1.13 


66 


.54 


.08 


85 


6.85 


5.91 


93,000 


Natick, 


2.78 


1.75 


37 


.42 


.09 


79 


7.18 


6.94 


88,000 


North Attleborough, .... 


.88 


.03 


97 


.14 


.01 


93 


3.78 


3.00 


104,000 


Northbridge, 


1.37 


.35 


74 


.21 


.04 


81 


2,50 


2.83 


86,000 


Norwood 


2.48 


.79 


68 


.61 


.06 


90 


16.63 


12.43 


104,000 


PiTTSFIELD 


2.64 


.90 


66 


.45 


.11 


76 


4.42 


4.28 


88,000 


Southbridge, 


3.02 


1 35 


55 


.53 


.10 


81 


5.80 


5.71 


118,000 


Spencer, 


3 34 


.05 


99 


.60 


.02 


97 


3.85 


2.88 


48,000 


Stockbridge, 


1 81 


.33 


82 


.29 


.04 


86 


3.10 


2.15 


- 


West borough 


2.54 


.40 


84 


.70 


.06 


91 


6.85 


4.31 


83,000 


Worcester, 


3.31 


1.63 


51 


1.15 


.10 


91 


13.51 


13.37 


54,000 



1 See also Table No. 



92 



STATE DEPART:MEXT of health. [Pub. Doc. 





Estimated 

Rate of 
Operation 

with 
Even Dis- 
tribution 
(Gallons 
per Acre 
per Day). 


§§l§s 

c o_o_o 

OCo'tOu-'c:" 
Tj- ^^..r 


270,000 

,50,000 
81,000 
82,000 


29,000 
45,000 

- 113,000 
50,000 


93,000 
88,000 

104,000 
86,000 

104,000 


88,000 
118,000 
48,000 
83,000 
54,000 




Net Area 

of 

Filter Beds 

(Acres). 


100 omoo 

to >0 <M !M 


s s^g 


CO »o 


0000^ 

CO CO lO 


Sgggg 




"""^ 




cq 


c^] I^ CO 


— OOOIOIM 




Estimated 
Average 
Quantity 
of Sewage 

per 

Connection 

(Gallons 

per Day). 


1 5 ^' 9 1 

r~. t^ lO 


1 1 ocoo 


1 1 »^ Cvl 

CO ^35 
CO lO .rj* 


668 

800 

1,225 

1,008 


01^ 1 1 1 

Kg 




?« 
^§ 

!^ 

w a 

S a 

5 « 

1^ 


Average 
for Month 

of 

Minimum 

Flow. 


151,000 
145,000 

864,000 
314,000 


794,000 

70,000 

479,000 


68,000 
369,000 

644,000 


577,000 
616,000 
437,000 
463,000 


3,049,000 
309,000 




Average 
for Month 

of 

Maximum 

Flow. 


320,000 
970,000 

1,673,000 
599,000 


1,307,000 

4.56,000 

1,110,000 


156,000 
424,000 

1,700,000 


999,000 

1,646,000 

801,000 

565,000 


4,150,000 
666,000 




Average 
for Year. 


00000 

§§s§s 


r^ •* ^ 

"O-* -* 
CD ro o_iM 0_ 

co"— r «" 


o>ra >oco 

-HO COCO 
.-H .rJH 


00000 
o_o_o_o_o_ 
ii:s"^'"»o CO 
00 ^_t^ *o -^ 


00000 
00000 
O) 000 
c^To'o'co-io" 

— IC 00 OD 
CO 0_Tt^ "rt< GO 

COrt" co" 




Approxi- 
mate 
Number 
of House 

Con- 
nections. 


1,082 

6,376 

1,558 

469 


2,296 

346 

1,803 


643 

156 
2,134 


1,295 

1,392 

592 

1,091 


4,761 
1,114 




Approxi- 
mate 
Length of 
Sanitary 
Sewers 
(Miles). 


12.69 
30.86 
85.33 
21.24 
8.69 


57 40 
26.01 

28.14 


9.68 

3.92 
29.81 


17.96 
15.60 
10.60 

17.81 


61.17 
16.33 

183 97'> 




Popula- 
tion, 
Census of 
1915. 


c> ^ c^ — 


IC -^ CO 

1^ ir; -.0 ^ r^ 

OC CO oo 'Tf CO 


CO 00 (M t^ 

CO 10 c-1 CO >o 

CO t^ CO^ M 


CO — . CO c-i C5 


0— 'Cs OJ 




l^ CO ^1 CO 

— 0.-I 


S-- >0 CO CO 


(M COCO-Hio 


co-Hoo:o 


■* iC »o C-1 

CO-H CO 




2 


H 
a 


>■ 

H 




























Andover, 
Attleboro, 
Brockton, . 
Clinton, 
Concord, 


Easthampton, 
Fitchburo, 
Framingham, 
Franklin, . 
Gardner, 


Hopedale, . 
Hudson, 
Leicester, 
Marion, 
Marlborough, . 


Milford, 

Natick, 

North Attlcborough, 

Northbridge, ; 

Norwood, 


PiTTSFIELD, 

Southbridge, 

Spencer, 

Westborough, 

WORCE.STER, 



o.'g . 
p2 3 5 



O i-H ■< 



S B^ 
< fe 12: 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 



93 







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Division of Water and Sewage 
Laboeatoeies 



H. W. Claek, Director 



[95] 



Eeport of Division of Water and Sewage 
Laboratories. 



This Division was engaged during the year in carrying on its usual 
analytical and research work, this work being done under the pro- 
visions of the act entitled "An Act to protect the purity of inland 
waters of the State," and also of many special acts concerning the 
public welfare and public health as relating to water supply, sewerage, 
sewage disposal, condition of rivers, etc. In carrying out the pro- 
visions of these acts, and to enable the Department to give such 
advice as was requested during 1919 on questions submitted in regard 
to water supply, sewage disposal, etc., 5,582 samples of water, sewage, 
etc., were analyzed in the State House laboratories of this Division, 
and 3,521 microscopical and special chemical examinations were made, 
divided approximately as follows : — 

Samples from public water supplies : — 

Surface waters, 1,904 

Groimd waters, 1,148 

Samples from rivers, 1,014 

Samples from sewage disposal works : — 

Sewages, 437 

Filter effluents, 657 

Samples of wastes and effluents from factories, ■ . 168 

Samples of sea water from various locations, 34 

Miscellaneous samples (color, hardness, chlorine, etc.), .... 220 



5,582 



Special examinations of water for manganese, lead, etc., .... 277 

Determinations of fats, alkalinit}', etc., 440 

Microscopical examinations, 1,856 

Determinations of dissolved oxygen, carbonic acid, etc. (field work), . 948 



3,521 



Many investigations were carried on during the year in regard to 
approved and new methods for the treatment and purification of 
water, sewage and trade wastes, and an extended investigation was 



98 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

made concerning the bacterial quality of shellfish coming from different 
areas along our coast. A large part of the research work of the 
Division is carried out at the experiment station, although consider- 
able is done in the State House laboratories. The station is also the 
laboratory where all the bacterial work of the Department is done 
in regard to water supplies, rivers, sewage disposal, purification of 
water, sewage, etc. 

At the station laboratories 5,881 samples were examined during the 
year, divided as follows: — 

Chemical examinations on account of investigations concerning the dis- 
posal of domestic sewage and factory wastes, 1,245 

Chemical examinations on account of investigations in connection with 
filtration and other treatment of water supplies and swimming pools, . 632 

Mechanical and chemical examinations of sand, 64 

Bacterial examinations of water from public water supplies, rivers, 

sewage effluents, ice, etc., 1,334 

Bacterial examinations in connection with methods of purification of 

sewage and water, 1,916 

Bacterial examinations of shellfish, 690 

5,881 

The following pages contain a very brief summary of some of the 
research work carried on during the year. 

Investigations in Regard to the Bacterial Quality of Shell- 
fish. 

During the past twenty years frequent examinations have been 
made by this Division of shellfish, including clams, quahaugs and 
oysters, collected along our coast. During recent years questions in 
regard to the bacterial pollution of soft clams have demanded the 
greatest amount of attention, and it has been necessary for the 
Department to define flats from which such shellfish could be safely 
taken, and areas from which their taking would be dangerous to 
health, and hence forbidden. 

In order to gain further information along this line, a very com- 
plete investigation was made during the year in regard to the bac- 
terial quality of clams taken from (1) what is known to be a badly 
polluted area; (2) from a slightly polluted area; and (3) from as un- 
polluted an area as probably can be found on the northeastern coast 
of the State, these three areas being the Joppa flats at Newburyport, 
flats on the Ipswich River some distance below the town of Ipswich, 
and flats at Treadwell Island Creek, so called, on the Ipswich shore. 



No. 34.] WATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 



99 



In this investigation, besides determining the bacterial quality of 
the clams from these three sources, two other main points were inves- 
tigated: (1) the seasonal variation of bacteria found in the clams, and 
(2) the value or availability of the scoring method, so called, as devised 
by a committee of the American Public Health Association to deter- 
mine the condition of shellfish. By this method five samples of clams 
from each station on a flat are examined to determine whether coli 
are present in .01, .1, 1 and 10 cubic centimeters of the shellwater of 
each. 

It is not necessary to summarize the details of this method here, 
but a table is given showing the B. coli score, so called, of the clams 
collected during nearly every month of the year from these areas. 
Over the Newburyport flats the sewage of the city flows mingled with 
the water of the Merrimack River and sea water; the flats on the 
Ipswich River below Ipswich receive some pollution, although the 
town of Ipswich is not sewered, while the Treadwell Island flats are, 
as stated, practically unpolluted. All the stations on the Newbury- 
port flats as numbered on the table were from 3,000 to 6,000 feet 
below the sewer outlet, and stations Nos. 4 and 5 were the ones 
farthest from the sewer and in such a direction from it that the small- 
est volume of sewage undoubtedly reached them. The great difference 
in the B. coli score of the unpolluted Treadwell Island clams and the 
Newburyport clams is clearly indicated, and also the great seasonal 
variation occurring at the Joppa flats. This scoring method is un- 
doubtedly the most satisfactory way of summarizing the bacterial 
results obtained from clams from different sources. 



B. Coli Tests of Clams by the Scoring Method. 











Newburyport. 


Ipswich. 


1919. 












Tread- 


Ipswich. 




Station 


Station 


Station 


Station 


Station 


well 


River^ 




No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 


Island 
Creek. 


below 
Ipswiclr. 


January 27 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


5 


_ 


February 6, 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


May 6, . 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


23 


Mav 20, . 








3,200 


230 


500 


50 


410 


- 


- 


June 5, . 








5,000 


4,100 


1,400 


410 


500 


1 


- 


June 19, . 








500 


500 


2,300 


410 


320 


4 


140 


Julv 7, . 








320 


32 


50 


23 


23 


4 


- 


July 21, . 








50 


230 


450 


140 


41 


2 


140 


August 4, 








500 


500 


4 


4 


3 


1 


32 


August 18, 








500 


140 


5 


14 


4 


- 


4 


September 15, 






230 


33 


410 


140 


50 


32 


500 


October 14, . 






500 


230 


320 


50 


50 


14 


500 


November 14, 






1,400 


~ 


410 


410 


140 


14 


500 



100 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Water from Ipswich River just below Town of Ipswich. 



Number 
» of 
Samples. 


Bacteria per Cubic Centi- 
meter. 


Per Cent of Samples containing B. Coli. 


20° C. 


37° C. 


.001 c. c. 


.01 c. c. 


0.1 c. c. 


1 c. c. 




Total. 


Red. 


10 c. c. 


8 9,970 


2,300 


830 


25 


50 


87 


87 


100 



1,170 



Water from Treadwell Island Creek. 



25 



Investigations in Regard to Factory Wastes. 

During the year considerable work was done concerning the wastes 
from various industries in the State; for example, wastes from the 
Acushnet Process Company, New Bedford, engaged in reclaiming rub- 
ber; from the Essex Aniline Works, South Middleton, engaged in the 
manufacture of aniHne dyes; from various tanneries and glue works 
in Peabody and Dan vers; from gas works, these wastes entering Col- 
lins Cove, Salem; from the Springdale Finishing Company, Canton, 
and from the Merrimac Chemical Company, North Woburn. Re- 
ports in regard to all this work were made to the Department in order 
that advice could be given concerning the treatment of these various 
wastes. 

Experiments with Sewage Sludge. — Dew^\tering with a Cen- 
trifugal Machine. 

During the year experiments were made upon removing water from 
sludge by the Tolhurst centrifugal machine. This machine was of 
the 12-inch type, and provided with interchangeable sludge baskets. 
With the perforated basket it is necessary to use a lining of cloth 
or like material, and the action is one of filtration induced by the 
centrifugal action. In experiments with this basket two kinds of 
cloth and filter paper were tried, but with Httle success, these linings 
quickly becoming clogged. In all subsequent work a tight basket was 
used and the apparatus run at a speed of 1,980 revolutions a minute. 
This second basket has a lip about l\ inches wide extending from the 



No. 34. 



WATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 



101 



top towards the center, and the sludge is by centrifugal motion held 
against the side of the machine, and the liquid passes up over the lip 
and out of the basket. All the resulting sludge from centrifugal treat- 
ment was in a condition to be readily shoveled or otherwise handled, 
and had a specific gravity ranging from below^ 1.01 up to 1.04. The 
percentage of water in the sludges centrifuged varied from 92.28 per 
cent in sludge from an ordinary settling tank to 97.82 per cent in 
activated sludge, and the percentage in the resulting sludge varied 
from 61 to 81. Usually the machine retained at least 55 per cent of 
the solid matter of the sludge treated, but about 45 per cent escaped 
with the overflow. In all cases the overflow water could be termed 
a very strong sew^age or weak sludge, and needed treatment in the 
machine to collect the remaining solids. It did not seem from our 
exp'eriments that the machine was particularly satisfactory. 

The following table gives the results of certain experiments, and 
shows the volume of sludge treated in each experiment, the per cent 
of contained water, the time of centrifuging, the per cent of water 
removed from the sludge and dry matter in the overflow: — 



1919. 


SlUDGE FROM — 


Gallons 

of 
Sludge 
used. 


Per Cent 

of Water 

in 

Sludge 

used. 


Time — 
Minutes 
centri- 
fuging. 


Pounds 
of Wet 
Sludge 

re- 
covered. 


Per Cent 
of Water 
in Re- 
covered 
Sludge. 


Per Cent 

Dry 

Matter 

in Over- 
flow. 


June 30 


Settling tank, 


7 


92.28 


60 


10.50 


61.1 


3.74 


July 8 
8 


Activated sludge Tank No. 

485. 
EfiBuent from previous run, . 


12 
11 


97.82 
98.46 


30 
105 


7.50 
7 00 


81.3 
90 2 


1.54 
.74 


8 


Effluent from previous run, . 


10 


99.26 


60 


4.50 


90.6 


.29 


8 


EfHuent from previous run, . 


9 


99.71 


60 


1.00 


90.8 


.23 


8 


Alum precipitation. 


5 


97.18 


60 


7.50 


84.3 


.57 


8 


Effluent from previous run, . 


4 


99 43 


60 


1.50 


86.4 


.26 


10 
10 


Activated sludge Tank No. 

485. 
Effluent from previous run, . 


10 
9 


96 20 
98.56 


30 
40 


9.00 
7.00 


78.2 
86.5 


1.44 
.30 


10 


Effluent from previous run, . 


8 


99 70 


40 


1.25 


88.8 


.14 


11 


Settling tank. 


10 


97.60 


30 


8.75 


80.0 


.45 


11 


Effluent from previous run, . 


9 


99.55 


eo' 


2.55 


81.1 


.13 


29 


Alum precipitation, 


10 


96.25 


30 


10 00 


80.2 


1.34 


29 


Effluent from previous run, . 


9 


98.66 


601 


5.00 


84.7 


.58 


Oct. 23 


Settling tank, 


10 


96.79 


30 


8.00 


77.6 


2.31 


23 


Effluent from previous run, . 


9 


97. 69 


30 


6.00 


85.0 


1.25 


Nov. 3 


Digestion tank, 


10 


95 40 


30 


8.50 


68.0 


2.05 


3 


Effluent from previous run, . 


9 


97.95 


30 


7.50 


84.3 


.36 



' Run through the centrifuge twice in this time. 



102 



STATE DEPART]MEXT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Stabilizing Sewage Sludge by Oxidation With Nitrates from 
Sewage Filter Effluents. 

This investigation in regard to the treatment of sludge to destroy 
its offensive properties and render its disposal at certain municipal 
filtration areas free from all but slight odors was continued during 
the year. The work was carried on with Tank No. 483, which is made 
of Akron pipe set in concrete and divided into three compartments, 
connected in series, each 4 feet deep with a capacity of about 65 gal- 
lons. Sewage sludge was passed into these compartments in rotation, 
and a maximum storage of three months was given. The inlets and 
overflows of the tank are so arranged that the effluents applied passed 
through all three compartments, entering at the bottom and leaving 
about 6 inches below the surface of each. 

The greater part of the effluent used came from trickling filters, 
although some contact filter effluent was applied. The volume applied 
daily averaged 2.29 volumes of effluent for each volume of sludge con- 
taining 5 per cent of solids in the three compartments; that is, each 
gallon of sludge was treated with over 200 gallons of effluent. Seventy- 
nine per cent of the samples of the applied effluents were stable, and 
the average suspended solids were 12.2 parts in 100,000; 38 per cent 
of the samples of overflow were stable and there were 7.9 parts in 
100,000 solids in suspension. The sludge after four weeks' tank treat- 
ment was always inoffensive, and almost invariably remained so when 
removed from the tank. During this process the sludge lost nitrogen 
and organic matter, and the fats were oxidized as in the activated 
sludge process. 

Average analyses of the applied filter effluent, of the overflow from 
the last compartment, and sludge analyses on a dry basis are shown 
in the following tables: — 

Effluent applied to Tank No. 483. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 










ALBUMINOID. 




Oxygen 
consumed. 


Free. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


2.87 


.54 


.28 


1.00 


1.36 .0841 


2.94 



Overfl 010 from Tank No. 483. 



2.92 



.36 



.24 



.0603 



2.23 



Xo. 34.] WATER AND SE^YAGE LABORATORIES. 



103 



Sludge Analyses. 




Settling tank applied to Tank No. 483 
Tank No. 483: — 

After four weeks, . . . . 

After eight weeks, . . . . 

After twelve weeks, 



Purification of Sewage by Aeration. — Activated Sludge. 

The activated sludge process of sewage purification which had its 
inception at Lawrence in 1912 was investigated further during 1919. 
Tank No. 485, put into operation on April 10, 1917, was continued in 
operation throughout the year on the continuous flow plan. As stated 
in previous reports it consists of three compartments, each about 75 
inches deep over conical bottoms and the overflow or effluent from it 
is passed to a settling tank 92 inches deep. It was so operated during 
the year that the time of passage of sewage through it was theoreti- 
cally 5.75 hours, and the air applied equaled 2.6 cubic feet per gallon of 
sewage treated. The rate of operation followed, that is, the volume 
of sewage treated, was equal to the treatment of 5,900,000 gallons a 
day in a tank of equal depth and 1 acre in area. 

During the first six months of the year air was applied through 
the perforated, hollow, circular brass discs described in the last report, 
and during the latter part of the year through alundum tubes. These 
tubes gave better air distribution than any form of distributor that 
so far has been tested, but have the disadvantage of being rather 
easily broken. The sludge collected in the settling tank is drawn at 
intervals of an hour or so into a 200-gallon iron sludge storage tank, 
where it is aerated with the same proportion of air per gallon of sludge 
as is used in the main activated tank, and pumped back into the first 
section of this main tank three times daily. 

The effluent from the plant was stable throughout the year, and 
contained a small amount of nitrates; the organic matter, as shown 
by albuminoid ammonia determinations, was one-fourth that of the 
applied sewage, that is, there was a removal of organic matter of 
75 per cent; and a slightly greater percentage of improvement was 
shown by the oxygen consumed results. The entering sewage con- 
tained 1,875 pounds of matters in suspension per million gallons, the 



104 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

effluent from the tank 250 pounds, and 1,130 pounds per million gal- 
lons were recovered from the sludge tanks, showing a loss of 495 
pounds, that is, the amount of organic matter apparently oxidized to 
carbon dioxide and free nitrogen. It was found that the best results 
were obtained when the sludge in the activated sludge tanks amounted 
to about 20 per cent of the total volume held by these tanks. 

Agitation of Activated Sludge without Air. 
The value of air in activated sludge work has been questioned by 
some students of sewage purification, and experiments have been made 
whereby sludge has been agitated in the sewage by mechanical means. 
In order to investigate this point an experiment was made at the 
station during the year by which sewage was treated in a revolving 
cylinder. In order to test out the value of agitation merely as com- 
pared with agitation of air, this cylinder was filled two-thirds full of 
sewage, the right proportion of activated sludge placed in it, this 
sludge being taken from a tank in good operation, and the cyhnder 
so operated as to make 30 revolutions a minute. As a result of all 
this work, it was found that when the oxygen of the air became ex- 
hausted in the cylinder, not only was further purification prevented, 
but organic matter actually went into suspension or semi-solution from 
the activated sludge used, and the effluent was of poorer character 
than the sewage before treatment. It was only when air was allowed 
to enter the cylinder frequently that results approximating those ob- 
tained in a true activated sludge tank were obtained. The experiment 
was continued long enough to determine these points accurately. 

Self-purification of Quiescent Sewage. 
It is well known that if sewage is allowed to stand long enough it 
will eventually become stable and nitrification take place, and experi- 
ments upon this point were made by this Division and published in 
the report of the Department for 1901.^ To study this, two outdoor 
tanks, 17 feet 4 inches in diameter were used. One of them had a 
concrete roof excluding light and air currents, and the other was open. 
Two feet in depth of sewage were placed in the covered tank on July 
29, and the same volume in the open tank on August 5. In three days 
a heavy green growth, consisting mostly of Protococcus, developed in 
the open tank, mosquito larvae soon appeared in large numbers, and 
in a week the green growths had largely disappeared, probably being 
destroyed by these larvse. A month after the experiment was started 
gasolene at the rate of 300 gallons per acre was applied to the tank, 

I a study of the Stability of the Effluent of Sewage Filters of Coarse Materials, pp. 371-393. 



No. 34.] WATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 105 

killing all the larvae in three hours. Two days later the green growth 
reappeared; on September 12, seven days after the larvje were killed, 
newly hatched larvje appeared, but not in such numbers as during 
warmer weather, and they were not able to check the green growth 
which persisted until October 1, when the tanks were emptied. No 
algse grew in the covered tank, but mosquito larvae appeared in per- 
haps half the numbers that were in the open tank. There was an odor 
of sewage about the open tank for a day or two after filling, after 
which it was practically odorless. There was always a decidedly 
musty odor in the closed tank, but it was not the offensive odor of 
stale sewage. 

Dissolved oxygen appeared in the sewage in the open tank in about 
two weeks, and fluctuated from a 2 per cent saturation to over 90 per 
cent. It was a week later in appearing in the covered tank, and 
fluctuated between 1 and 30 per cent of saturation. The temperature 
of the sewage in the tanks was taken twice daily, — in the morning 
and at noon. In the open tank the two averages were 64° F. and 
67° F., respectively, with a minimum of 57° F. and a maximum of 
73° F. for the whole period. In the covered tank both average tem- 
peratures were 64° F., with a minimum of 60° F. and a maximum of 
72° F. 

The sewage in the open tank became stable in about six weeks, 
although it would probably have been stable sooner except for the 
decaying green growths. The sewage in the covered tank took about 
a week longer to acquire stability, but became well clarified in a little 
over a week. There was no measurable evaporation in the covered 
tank. The rainfall during the course of the experiments was 7.70 
inches. The increase in depth of sewage in the open tank was 2.2.5 
inches, hence apparently 5.45 inches evaporated. 

On October 6 the tanks were refilled with sewage. A heavy green 
growth appeared in a day or two in the open tank and persisted until 
November 12, when the tank was emptied. There were only a few 
mosquito larvae, and these disappeared about November 1. Five days 
after filling, the dissolved oxygen was 35.7 per cent of saturation, and 
fluctuated from 6 to 75 per cent, and in about four weeks the con- 
tents of the tank were stable on incubation. The average tempera- 
ture of the sewage was 50° F. in the morning and 53° F. at noon, with 
a maximum of 61° F. and minimum of 42° F. There was an apparent 
evaporation of 2.12 inches. 

There were many mosquitoes in the covered tank during the first 
week or two, but they disappeared about November 1. Dissolved 
oxygen did not appear until a month after filling the tank, and then 
to a maximum of only 12 per cent of saturation. Stability was reached 



106 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



in about six weeks, and the tank was emptied on November 17. Nitri- 
fication did not occur in either tank. The average temperature of the 
sewage was 53'^ F., with a maximum of 60° F. and a minimum of 
43° F. In general, the results of the second period of operation of the 
covered tank were much like the first. In the open tank the growth 
of Protococcus was heavier during the cooler weather of the second 
period, probably partly due to absence of mosquito larvae. The green 
organisms liberate much oxygen which remains dissolved and aids in 
the purification of sewage, but sewage laden with this growth might, 
under some conditions of discharge, create offensive conditions. 

Average Analyses. 

Sewage applied to Open Tank {First Filling). 
[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 


Suspended Solids. 




ALBUMINOID. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 




Free. 


Total. 


In 
Solution. 


Fixed. 


4.80 


.85 


.22 


5.20 


9.1 


4.1 


5.0 



Sewage applied to Open Tank (Second Filling). 



.46 



15.5 



2.3 



13. 2 



Open Tajik, First Filling, after Fifty-six Days. 



.30 



.46 



.38 



2.0 



Open Tank, Second Filling, after Thirty-seven Days. 



1.20 



41 .27 



2.24 



3.4 0.6 



2.8 



Sewage applied to Covered Tank (First Filling). 



2.80 



.64 



4.25 



5.1 



3.00 



Sewage applied to Covered Tank (Second Filling). 



.60 



.14 



1.20 



7.8 



2.8 



Covered Ta7ik, First Filling, after Sixty-two Days. 



3.55 



1.02 



5.8 2.7 



3.1 



Covered Tank, Second Filling, after Forty-two Days. 



1.35 



.18 .17 



0.7 0.5 



0.2 



No. 34.] WATER AND SE^YAGE LABORATORIES. 107 



Operation of Trickling Filters. 

During the year nine trickling filters receiving sewage clarified by 
sedimentation were continued in operation. These filters are not only, 
operated for special studies, but in order that data from such types 
of filters may be always available for the use of the Department. One 
of them, No. 135, has now been in operation for twenty years, longer 
probably than any other trickHng filter in America. It contains 10 
feet in depth of pieces of fine broken stone, all of which pass a 1-inch 
screen, but are retained by a ^-inch screen, and .have an average 
volume of .52 cubic centimeter. In spite of the fineness of this mate- 
rial it has been necessary to dig over the filter surface to a depth of 
from 3 to 8 inches only eight times in twenty years. In April, 1918, 
the upper 18 inches of stone were removed, washed and replaced. 
The effluent was stable 92 per cent of the time during the year. 

The Depth of Filtering Material and Trickling Filter 

Efficiency. 

In previous reports studies have been elaborated showing the great 
efficiency and economy of deep compared with shallow trickling filters. 
In establishing this point, four filters, Nos. 452 to 455, inclusive, have 
been operated since 1913. These filters are 4, 6, 8 and 10 feet in 
depth, respectively, and are constructed of broken stone that will pass 
a l|-inch screen and be retained by a f-inch screen. During the year 
all four filters were operated at the same theoretical rate, 1,500,000 
gallons per acre daily, and the results are presented in the following 
table: — 

A similar series of filters, Nos. 472 to 475, inclusive, was started in 
1915. In this second series the filtering material of broken stone is of 
a much larger grade than that in the first series, the average volume 
of the pieces ranging from 25.2 to 29.4 cubic centimeters. These fil- 
ters, with the exception of No. 474, were operated at such rates that 
their effluents were of approximately the same quality. The coarse 
material of these filters gives only about one-half as much surface per 
foot in depth of filter as the finer material in Filters Nos. 452 to 455, 
inclusive, and hence sewage passes through them in a correspondingly 
shorter time, giving a lower purification at a given rate. Filter No. 
474 was operated at a high rate the last nine months of the year to 
furnish a poor effluent for experiments upon activated sludge treat- 
ment as a finishing process. 



108 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Average Analyses. 

Effluents from Trickling Filters Nos. 135, 462, 453, 464, 465, 472, 473, 474 and 475. 

(Parts in 100,000.] 





Quantity 
applied. 

Gallons 
per Acre. 


Ammonia. 


a 

a 
o 


O 


Nitrogen 


-6 
B 

a 
o 
o 

a 

bl 

6 


'a 

1 
< 


IS 




6 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 


o 


Filter Num- 
ber. 


O 
Eh 


"o 
a 






11 

fee 

w 


135, . 


1,393,000 


3.23 


.46 


.24 


.82 


7.2 


1.76 


.0913 


2.76 


13.0 


850,000 


452, . 


1,368,000 


3.38 


.67 


.35 


1.20 


8.0 


.77 


.1790 


3.43 


14.8 


888,000 


453, . 


1,368,000 


2.85 


.51 


.27 


.93 


8.0 


1.74 


.0948 


2.81 


11.2 


584,000 


454, . 


1,368,000 


2.75 


.46 


.23 


.86 


8.0 


1.59 


.0443 


2.80 


10.8 


644,000 


455, . 


1,368,000 


2.64 


.39 


.24 


.77 


7.9 


1.85 


.0457 


2.84 


10.5 


530,000 


472. . 


555,700 


3.14 


.62 


.36 


1.09 


8.3 


1.01 


.0701 


2.89 


15.5 


1,271,000 


473, . 


873,000 


2.84 


.52 


.30 


.92 


8.0 


1.41 


.0348 


2.90 


12.0 


678,000 


474, . 


5,297,000 


2.60 


.48 


.26 


.93 


7.7 


.44 


.0893 


3.02 


14.0 


525,000 


475, . 


1,8.52,000 


2.94 


.48 


.28 


.99 


7 9 


1.52 


.0583 


3.00 


12.9 


636,000 



Average Rates and Results. — Trickling Filters. 



Filter Number. 



Depth 

(Feet). 



452, 
453, 
454, 
455, 

472, 
473, 
474, 
475, 



G.^LLONS filtered PER 

Acre Daily per 
Foot of Filter Depth. 



During 
1919. 



342,000 
228,000 
171,000 
136,800 

139,000 
145,000 
682,000 
185,000 



Since 
Filter was 

started. 



95,000 
115,000 



151,000 



Per Cent of Samples 
Stable. 



During 
1919. 



42 
94 
100 
100 

56 
81 



Since 

Filter was 

started. 



No. 34.] WATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 



109 



Experiments upon the Recovery of Sediment from Trickling 
Filter Effluents. 

Much interest is attached to the sedimentation of trickling filter 
effluents for improving the effluents of such filters and for recovering 
material of a fertilizing value. The following table indicates the 
amount of suspended matter in the sewage aj^lied to all the trickling 
filters at the station and in their effluents, together with similar figures 
concerning the sewage applied to activated sludge Tank No. 485, and 
the sludge from this tank: — 



Average Suspended Solids in Trickling Filter Effluents, in applied Seivage and 
Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 4So. 



Suspended Solids in Effluent from • 



Pounds 

per Million 

Gallons. 



Filter No. 1.35 

Filter No. 452 

Filter No. 453, 

Filter No. 454 . . . . 

Filter No. 455, 

Filter No. 472, 

Filter No. 473 

Filter No. 474, 

Filter No. 475 

Settled sewage applied to filters above, . . . . . 

Sewage applied to activated sludge Tank No. 485, . 

Surplus sludge removed from activated sludge Tank No. 485, 



8G5 

1,266 

1,016 

850 

857 

975 

875 

825 

1,016 

1,295 

1,874 
1,130 



Intermittent Sand Filters operated with Untreated Sewage. 
Filters A'^os. 1, 4 (ind 9 A. 

Each of these three sand filters is ^ot of an acre in area, and at the 
end of the year Filters Nos. 1 and 4 had been operated continuously 
for nearly thirty-two years, while Filter No. 9A had been in operation 
twenty-nine years. They are probably the oldest regularly operated 
sewage filters in this country, and are kept in operation to demon- 
strate the permanency of such filters when properly cared for. Regu- 
lar station sewage without preliminary clarification has always been 



110 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



applied to them, and for many years it has been the practice to apply 
only as much sewage to each filter as can be purified without mate- 
rially increasing the amount of organic matter stored within the filter. 
Since 1893, a period of about twenty-six years, all of these filters have 
been operated without the removal of any sand from their surfaces. 
The depth of each filter and grade of sand of which each is con- 
structed, the date whe^ first put into operation, the total volume of 
sewage treated upon each filter since it was started, and the volume 
of sewage applied daily during the year are shown in the following 
table: — 



Filter Number. 


Depth 

(Feet). 


Effective 

Size of 
Sand (Mil- 
limeter). 


Date first 
operated. 


Actual 
Volume of 
Sewage ap- 
plied since 

start 
(Gallons). 


Volume of 
Sewage ap- 
plied daily 
during 1919 
(Gallons 
per Acre). 


No. 1, 

No. 4 

No. 9A 


5 
5 
5 


.48 
.04 
.17 


Dec. 10, 1888 
Dec. 19, 1887 
Nov. 18. 1890 


3,096,600 
1,084,700 
2,585,200 


43,400 
18,300 
43,900 



For a number of years the surface of Filters Nos. 1 and 9 A have 
been trenched and ridged during the winter and leveled again each 
spring. The surface of Filter No. 4 is arranged in circular trenches, 
14 inches wide, which are filled to a depth of 12 inches with sand of 
an effective size of .48 millimeters. The sewage is applied to these 
trenches, grass being permitted to grow on the ridges. In the fall 
and spring the surface of the filters was dug over to a depth of from 
8 to 10 inches. Filters Nos. 1, 4 and 9A were raked to a depth of 1 
inch on thirty-one, thirty-four and thirty-four different occasions, 
respectively, and board coverings were put over the trenches on De- 
cember 5 and removed on April 7. 

An examination of the sand in Filters Nos. 1 and 9A is made about 
the 1st of July each year, and, as has been previously stated, the 
greater part of the stored organic matter is in the first foot of sand. 
As has happened before, there has been a decided reduction in the 
stored organic matter following an increase in the previous year. 

The average analyses of the effluents from these filters are shown 
in the following tables: — 



No. 34.] WATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 



HI 



Sand Analyses. 

Albuminoid Ammonia in First Foot of Sand in Filters Nos. 1 and 9 A. 
[Parts in 100,000.] 

Year. 



1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 
1918, 
1919, 




Average Analyses. 

Effluent from. Filter No. 1. 
[Parts in 100,000.] 



Temperature 
(Degrees F.). 


Ammoki.*.. 


Chlor- 
ine. 


Nitrogen 
AS — ■ 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Bacteria 
per 


Ap- 
plied. 


Efflu- 
ent. 


Free. 


Total 
Albumi- 
noid. 


Ni- 
trates. 


Ni- 
trites. 


Cubic 
Cen- 
timeter. 


61 


53 


.6540 


.0667 


7.7 


3.03 


.0062 


.63 


—1.9 


3,420 



Effluent from Filter No. 4. 



52 


.1478 


.0264 


8.5 j 


3.27 


.0220 


.44 


—2.3 



140 



Effluent from Filter No. 9 A. 



60 



1.1778 .0970 8.0 3.12 



.0017 



64 —09 19,500 



Chlorination. — Filtration. 

The water supply of Beverly and Salem is taken from Wenham 
Lake. During the past three years the water in this lake has been 
added to materially by water taken from the Ipswich River, pumped 



112 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



during that portion of the year when the flow of the river is above a 
stated vohime. The river water is led through a canal to a pumping 
station, where it is raised about 20 feet and thence flows by gravity 
to the lake. Liquid chlorine is added to the water as it enters the 
pump, and two series of samples were taken during the year to test 
the efficiency of the chlorination. Some water is also collected in 
Longham Reservoir, and after chlorination run to the lake by gravity. 
A table showing the results of this treatment is given beyond. 

On July, 1916, an experimental filter, 2^t of an acre in area, was 
put into operation at the lake. This filter is of wood, concrete lined, 
10 feet deep, and contains 5 feet in depth of sand of an effective size 
of 0.27 millimeter, and a uniformity coefficient of 3.3. It has been 
operated uniformly at a rate of 3,000,000 gallons per acre daily, and 
many samples, both chemical and bacterial, of the water applied to 
and of the effluent from this filter were taken during the year, the 
results of which are shown in a following table: — 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Ipswich River Water before and after Treatment with Chlorine. 





Before Treatment with 
Chlorine. 


Chlorine 

added 
(Parts in 
1,000,000). 


After Treatment with 
Chlorine. 


Date. 


Color. 


BACTERIA PER CUBIC 
CENTIMETER. 


Color. 


b.\cteria per cubic 
centimeter. 




20° C. 


37° C. 


20° C. 


37° C. 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


1919. 

January 27, 

March 6, . . ■ 


1.14 
.94 


4,600 
1,700 


195 
45 


15 


.87 
.60 


1.07 
.91 


300 
170 


140 
35 


8 



Longham Reservoir before and after Treatment with Chlorine. 



January 27, 



6,500 200 50 



96 300 



No. 34.] ^YATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 



113 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Results of the Experimental Filter at the Salem Pumping Station. 





■6 
-2 


Lake Water before Filtration. 


Lake Water after Filtration. 


























B.4.CTER1A PER 


PER CENT OF 


BACTERIA PER 


PER CENT OF 




>! 


CUBIC 


SAMPLES CON- 


CUBIC 


SAMPLES CON- 


1919. 


03 

Q 
.a 

e 

3 


CENTIMETER. 


TAINING B. COLI. 


CENTIMETER. 


TAINING B. COLI. 




20° C. 


37° C. 


0.1 
C. C. 


1 

c. c. 


10 
c. C. 


20° C. 


3r C. 


0.1 
C. C. 


1 

c. c. 


10 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


c. c. 


January, 


1 


600 


6 


3 











140 


4 














February, 


1 


200 


50 














10 


3 














March, 


1 


240 


30 














130 


24 














June, 


2 


47 


5 














6 


2 














July, 


1 


24 


^4 














23 


3 


1 











August, . 


1 


130 


50 


4 











4 


4 


1 











September, 


1 


110 


6 














9 


5 














October, . 


1 


120 


21 


9 











20 


3 














Average, 


- 


184 


21 


2 











43 


6 















Lawrence City Filters. 

The city of Lawrence takes its supply of water from the Merrimack 
River, which is badly polluted by the entrance of sewage and mill 
wastes of cities and towns above Lawrence. Since 1893, a period of 
twenty-six years, the city has purified this water by sand filtration. 

Two filters are operated, — the older one, constructed in 1893, is 
2.2 acres in area and divided into three sections by concrete dividing 
walls, and contains 4 feet in depth of sand of an effective size of 
approximately 0.25 millimeter; the other, of modern construction, 
entirely of concrete, covered, etc., was constructed in 1907. This 
filter has an area of three-quarters of an acre, and contains about 4| 
feet in depth of sand of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter. 

The effluents from these filters flow into the same pump-well, and 
from this they are pumped to a distributing reservoir. During 1917 
the easterly section of the old filter was in part reconstructed, a con- 
crete bottom and sides being built; during 1918 this reconstruction 
was finished, this section being roofed over, and the remaining two 
sections had all their pipe and gravel underdrains renewed and ex- 
tended. A certain amount of ground water, high in iron, enters the 
underdrains of these sections and mixes with the filtered water. The 



114 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



concrete bottom of the easterly section was built on ground resembling 
quicksand, and it would not be surprising if cracks developed in the 
concrete. That this has really happened is indicated by the fact that 
iron in the effluent is much higher than in the effluent of the other 
covered filter. 

The average volume of water pumped daily from both filters during 
1919 was about 4,366,000 gallons. In December, 1918, owing to poor 
results following the putting into operation of the covered section of the 
old filter during cold weather, it was thought advisable to chlorinate the 
water after filtration. A temporary arrangement was made of barrels 
and a solution of bleach applied directly to the pump-well at the rate 
of .75 part per million available chlorine. This was continued until 
May 21, when a liquid chlorine apparatus was installed, which was 
operated continuously the rest of the year. The average amount of 
chlorine applied was 0.57 part per million. In the early spring there 
was an after-growth in the reservoir of bacteria growing at 20° C, 
but this is not unusual following chlorination of water, and has no 
sanitary significance. 

The average chemical and bacterial analyses of the effluents from 
these two filters, and of samples from other points on the Lawrence 
water supply system, are shown in the following tables : — 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 
[Parts in 100,000.] 



^ 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■6 








ance. 




ALBUMINOID. 


AS — ' 


03 






















>. 










6 






a 
o 








T) 








■s 


a 


O 


s 






K 


0. 

S 
<u 
H 


Eh 


u 

"o 
O 


6 

a 




a 


Q 




t. 

g 


>> 
X 

O 




a 
o 

m 


51 


0.1— 


.40 


.0165 


.0193 


.0146 


.43 


.020 


.0008 


.56 


.0462 


0.9 



0.1— 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {Old Filter) . 



0143 .0094 



.49 



031 .0003 : .39 .1102 1.2 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter (New Filter) . 



0.1— .30 



0061 .0083 



44 .023 .0002 



0392 1.0 



No. 34.] WATER AND SEWAGE LABORATORIES. 



115 



Average Chemical Analyses — Concluded. 

Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 
[Parts in 100,000.) 



i 


Appear- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


s 

3 

C 

8 






ance. 




Albuminoid. 


AS -~ 


« 


>. 








d 
a 










T3 
03 


£ 


-0 








3 


C 




.2 






a 


0. 


•e 


O 


6 


5 


O 


o 


s 


U, 




e 


0. 


01 




6 




o 
H 


S 


O 


I? 


^ 


d 


o 


51 


0.1— 


.39 


.0079 


.0089 


- 


.47 


.032 


.0004 


.36 


.0725 


1.1 



Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 



53 I 0.1— .40 ' .0056 .0073 



.035 .0002 ! .35 .0752 11 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 



55 0.1— .40 .0032 .0077 



.48 .034 .0001 .36 1 .0691 11 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 



Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent op B.\cteria 
removed. 


Per Cent of S.vmples containing 
B. CoLi. 






37° C. 


20° C. 


37° C. 


.001 c. c. 


.01 c. c. 


0.1 c. c. 


1.0 c. c. 


10 c 




20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


c. 


15,970 


1,120 


687 


- 


- 


- 


12 75 


100 


100 


- 



Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter (Old Filter) . 



426 



9 99.6 



35 62 



Effluent from the Lawrence City Filter {New Filter). 



101 



4 99.5 99.9 



12 50 



Mixed Effluents as pumped to Distributing Reservoir. 



189 10 



116 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



Average Bacterial Analyses — Concluded. 

Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 



Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent of Bacteria 
removed. 


Per Cent of Samples containing 
B. CoLi. 


20° C. 


37° C. 


20° C. 


37° C. 


.001 c. c. 


.01 c. c. 


0.1 c. c. 


1.0 c. c. 




Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


10 c. c. 


3,160 


13 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


18 


44 



Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 



9 


1 


- 


- 




- 




1 


5 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 



1,566 



27 48 



Division of Food and Deugs 



Hermann C. Lythgoe, S.B., Director 



[117] 



Keport of Division of Food and Drugs. 



During the year 1919 the Food and Drug Division of the Massachu- 
setts State Department of Health has been engaged in the usual rou- 
tine work relative to the enforcement of the milk, food, drug, cold 
storage and slaughtering laws, and in the examination of samples sub- 
mitted by the police authorities. In addition to this the division has 
been engaged in the manufacturing of arsphenamine. 

Mr. Leslie B. Coombs, who was employed in the arsphenamine work 
as assistant chemist, left the Department to go into commercial work, 
and his place has not yet been filled. Dr. George L. Drury returned, 
after a short leave of absence, from the United States army. Mr. 
Howard D. Williams returned after one year's service in the United 
States army, and Dr. James M. Kingston returned after two years' 
service, a great deal of which was spent in France with the 26th 
Division. 

There was an increase of nearly 2,000 samples collected and exam- 
ined over last year's work, and an increase of nearly 3,000 samples 
over the work of the year 1917. 

The prosecutions are somewhat less in number than during the pre- 
vious two years, although the fines are nearly as heavy as those im- 
posed last year. 

The number of confiscations are slightly more than last year, but 
slightly less than during the jear before. 

Of the cases prosecuted, those relating to cold storage were the 
largest in number, and the cases relating to milk were next in number. 
Of the milk cases there were 58 convictions for the sale of watered 
milk; 8 convictions for the sale of milk with a portion of the cream 
removed; 17 convictions for the sale of milk of low-standard quality; 
1 conviction for the sale of skimmed milk without the proper marking 
on the can; and 1 conviction for the sale of milk containing dirt. Six 
milk cases were discharged. Of the convicted cases, 2 were for second 
offence, the balance for first offence. The 17 low-standard cases were 
brought against restaurant keepers, in all of which cases skimmed milk 
was served, the fault being with the restaurant and not with the per- 
son supplying the milk. The complaints, however, were brought under 
the low-standard law rather than under the adulteration law. Ten 



120 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

cases were brought for the sale of decomposed food; 2 of the samples 
were butter; 2 were fish; 1 was sausage; and 5 were eggs. One each 
of the fish and egg cases was discharged. The balance of the cases 
resulted in conviction. Seven convictions were obtained for violation 
of the special sausage law: in 4 cases the presence of coloring matter 
was the cause of the complaint, and the other 3 cases were brought 
by reason of the presence of starch to an extent greater than 2 per 
cent. Thirteen cases were brought, alleging adulteration of food: 
3 of these were for the sale of clams containing added water; 1 for the 
sale of maple sugar containing cane sugar other than maple; and 9 
for the sale of adulterated olive oil. One of the olive oil cases was dis- 
charged. Seven cases w^ere brought for misbranding: 1 for the sale 
of improperly labeled compound coffee; 1 for the sale of strawberry 
ice cream containing no strawberries; two for the sale of improperly 
labeled olive oil; and 3 for the sale of stale eggs under the name 
"fresh eggs." One of the egg cases was acquitted. 

For violation of the false advertising law there were 3 cases: 2 relat- 
ing to eggs and 1 relating to a proprietary drug. The latter case was 
prosecuted by the chief of police of Palmer. An inspector of this De- 
partment obtained most of the necessary evidence and testified at the 
trial. There were 23 cases for the sale of adulterated drugs, all of 
which were convicted; 12 of these cases were for the improper labeling 
of wood alcohol or of denatured alcohol. The other 11 cases were for 
the sale of drugs not conforming to the requirements of the Pharma- 
copoeia. Seven convictions were obtained under the slaughtering laws: 
3 for slaughtering in the absence of the inspector; 2 against inspectors 
who stamped carcasses which they had not seen killed; and 2 for the 
sale of unstamped meat. Of the cases involving violatioTi of the 
storage laws 23 were for holding goods in storage longer than twelve 
months without the consent of the State Department of Health; 67 
were for the sale of cold-storage eggs without the proper label, 3 of 
which cases were acquitted; 6 cases were for selling cold-storage goods 
without the proper sign in the store; 1 case was for returning goods 
to cold storage after they had been placed on the market for sale; and 
1 case was for operating a cold-storage warehouse without a license. 
With the exception of 3 cold-storage egg cases, convictions were 
secured. There were 3 cases for obstruction of an inspector, all of 
which were prosecuted and convicted. 

The war-time prohibition law has resulted in an enormous increase 
in the work submitted by police authorities. The work began on the 
1st of July, when the act went into effect, and during that month 
about 800 samples were submitted by the police departments. Since 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF FOOD AND DRUGS. 121 

the Department took over the work in 1904 only 2,200 samples ■were 
examined up to June 30 of this year, and since July 1, 1,304 samples 
have been examined during the present fiscal year. It is therefore very 
evident that the liquor work has been excessive this year. It was as- 
certained upon investigation that the privilege of free analysis was 
being abused in that samples were being submitted by police depart- 
ments at the request of the United States Internal Revenue Depart- 
ment. This abuse has apparently ceased, though there is still a legiti- 
mate increase in the number of liquor samples examined. 

Jamaica ginger is the most popular of the unusual preparations 
utilized by persons who are at present unable to purchase distilled 
liquor, and who have no reserve supply. There have been various 
decisions in these cases,, resulting mostly in conviction. One particular 
case in Charlestown was in the nature of a test case, and apparently 
the court was unable to convict until evidence as to the use of Jamaica 
ginger was submitted. The testimony was that Jamaica ginger was 
used as a medicine, as a flavoring extract and as a beverage. The 
court then held that the testimony of its use as a beverage classed 
it as an intoxicating liquor as defined by the statute. The court 
furthermore said that he could take judicial notice of the use of ginger 
as a beverage by the testimony of the intoxicated persons brought 
before him, who stated that the intoxication resulted from the inges- 
tion of Jamaica ginger. In a number of instances, however, the de- 
fendants were found not guilty under the provisions of an act passed 
some years-ago at the request of pharmacists, which act permits 
grocers to sell certain specified drugs, among which is specified essence 
of ginger. 

There were 9,576 samples of milk collected and examined during 
the year. Of these samples 2,699 were below the legal standard; 29 
samples were skimmed milk properly labeled; 263 samples were milk 
from which a portion of the fat had been removed, the milk being 
sold as pure milk; 369 samples contained added water; and 2 samples 
contained dirt. Of these samples, 8,661 were obtained from milk 
dealers, restaurants or stores, and 877 from producers suspected of 
adulterating the milk which they Avere selling. Fifty-seven samples 
were obtained from dairies outside of Massachusetts, 8 of these sam- 
ples containing added water. 

The quality of the milk sold in the State is substantially the same 
as that furnished during the past two years. The statistics of the 
Department, however, show less variation in the composition of the 
average milk, there being more samples found between 12 and 13 per 
cent of solids, less samples above 13 per cent, and less samples below 



122 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

11 per cent than in former years. The number of low-standard samples, 
however, is on the increase, due to the increase in the number of 
Holstein cows furnishing milk for the Massachusetts market. There 
does not, however, seem to be any immediate necessity for lowering 
of the standard, because the average quality of the milk sold is far 
above our legal standard, and sufficiently high-quality milk can be 
obtained to offset the low-quality milk furnished by many of the 
Holstein cattle. 

There were 1,382 samples of food examined, including 132 samples 
of clams, 59 of which contained added water; 352 samples of eggs, of 
which 227 did not conform to the statute requirements; 188 samples 
of sausages, 34 of which were either colored or contained starch in 
excess of 2 per cent; 274 samples of soft drinks, of which 86 con- 
tained saccharine; and 75 samples of olive oil, of which 23 contained 
cottonseed or some other foreign oil. The samples of cider, con- 
fectionery, canned corn, evaporated milk, flavoring extract, grapes, 
maple syrup, spices and vinegar were all found to be pure. The bal- 
ance of the adulterated samples consisted of 8 samples of rancid butter, 
representing two shipments; 1 sample of swelled canned goods; 2 
samples of w-atered buttermilk; 1 sample of improperly labeled com- 
pound coffee; 1 sample of improperly labeled cocoa, the information 
in the last instance being referred to the United States Department of 
Agriculture, resulting in a seizure; 1 sample of condensed milk without 
the dilution label required by statute; 1 sample of cream below the 
legal standard; 8 samples of decomposed fish; 4 samples of mis- 
branded ice cream; 1 sample of maple sugar; 3 samples of oysters, 
containing added water; 1 sample of pears sprayed with arsenic; 4 
samples of scallops containing added water; 1 sample of decomposed 
shrimp; and 3 samples of miscellaneous sugar, containing dirt and 
salt. These samples of sugar were submitted by the public, and the 
inspectors were unable to obtain any such samples in the stores 
against which the complaints were made. 

There were 262 samples of drugs examined, of which 79 were adul- 
terated. One sample of bay rum contained wood alcohol; 6 samples 
of camphorated oil were deficient in camphor; 43 samples of citrate 
of magnesia contained magnesium sulphate, and the packages were 
not properly labeled; 29 samples of denatured alcohol did not bear 
the required label. The samples which were not found to be adulter- 
ated consisted of magnesium carbonate, olive oil, paregoric, proprietary 
medicines, spirit of nitrous ether and witch hazel. 

The itinerary of the inspectors was greater this year than during the 
previous two years, owing to the fact that sufficient appropriation was 
available for this purpose, and more attention than usual was paid to 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF FOOD AND DRUGS. 123 

the outlying districts as well as to the western part of the State and 
to the Cape district. 

A traveling laboratory was utilized on three automobile trips, — 
two in the Cape district, and one through the western part of the 
State. On two different occasions the laboratory of the milk inspector 
of West Springfield was utilized; on two other occasions the laboratory 
of the milk inspector of North Adams was utilized, as was also the 
laboratory of the milk inspector of Barnstable and the laboratory of 
the Amherst Agricultural Experiment Station. The expense of these 
trips is very heavy, because the chemist travels with the inspectors, 
but when one considers the fact that the follow-up work is done without 
the inspectors returning to Boston to submit the samples for examina- 
tion, there is a great saving in time, there is a saving in additional 
railway expense, and there is a great increase in efficiency. Further- 
more, by utilizing an automobile it is possible to visit places which 
would otherwise be almost inaccessible. It is proposed to continue 
work of this nature during the coming year. 

There has been unusual activity this year in cold-storage work, 
particularly in relation to fish. It is a curious fact that there is more 
violation of the cold-storage law in relation to fish than to all other 
articles of food combined. This is due to the fact that the law per- 
mits fish to be placed in storage without being labeled as to the date 
of storage, whereas all other foods must be labeled. Fish can there- 
fore be transferred in cold storage, and there is practically no way of 
ascertaining the date of original storage, except in a few cases where 
records have been kept by the owners of the fish. The Food Adminis- 
tration required packages of fish to be dated with the original date 
of storage, and by reason of this fact we were able to obtain a num- 
ber of cases of the illegal transfer of fish in cold storage. 

The total extensions may be summarized as follows: 87 requests for 
extensions have been granted; 89 have not been granted; permission 
was granted on 11 lots to remove goods from storage that had been 
in storage more than twelve months; and 220 lots were ordered to 
be removed from storage. Of the 87 extensions granted, 2 were on 
broken-out eggs, 5 were on butter, 5 were on poultry, 1 was on game, 
9 were on meat, 64 were on fish, and 1 was on sweetened condensed 
milk. Of the 89 extensions not granted, 14 were on broken-out eggs, 
8 were on butter, 9 were on poultry, 32 were on meat and 26 were on 
fish. Of the 11 removals granted, 1 was on poultry, 1 was on game, 
4 were on meat and 5 were on fish. Of the 220 lots ordered to be re- 
moved, 15 were broken-out eggs, 5 were butter, 22 were poultry, 2 
were game, 93 were meat and 83 were fish. 

The work of the veterinary inspectors during the year shows that 



124 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the business of slaughtering under Massachusetts inspection is, on the 
whole, carried out in a far more satisfactory manner than ever before 
since this Department has been enforcing the slaughtering laws. We 
have succeeded in removing most of the incompetent inspectors, and 
the local boards have put in their places men who are enforcing the 
laws in their proper manner. The result of this has been the closing 
of many slaughterhouses, the owners of these houses stating that they 
were working in slaughterhouses the inspection of which was not con- 
trolled through the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. There are still 
a number of slaughterhouses in this State which ought to be put out 
of business, but against which we are unable to get the necessary evi- 
dence. 

The inspectors of the Department have found it necessary to make 
64 confiscations in the cold-storage warehouses; 19 confiscations in 
stores, factories, etc., and 14 confiscations in slaughterhouses, the total 
weight of the confiscated articles being 250,462 J pounds. 

One of the inspectors was detailed to examine the soft drink fac- 
tories in this State. The Soda Water Bottlers' Association, for the 
past two years, has attempted to have a law passed in this State 
calling for a license system of these factories, with sanitary control by 
the State Department of Health. 

At a legislative hearing last year this Department was asked to sub- 
mit a statement covering the sanitary condition of these factories, and 
the Department was unable to do so at that time because inspections 
had not been made. It was deemed advisable to have inspections made 
of these establishments during the present year. One inspector was 
therefore detailed upon this work during the producing season, and 
visited, in all, 78 such factories. Of these establishments 11 were 
reported to be in very satisfactory condition; 24 needed only a few 
slight improvements to put them in a very satisfactory condition; 
18 establishments were in poor condition; and 25 establishments were 
in absolutely unsatisfactory condition. 

In the matter of bottles, for example, it was found that many of 
these places took back bottles from junk handlers, rag pickers, etc.; 
they used bottles belonging to other bottlers, and, in many instances 
they were not particular about cleaning these bottles. In 26 estab- 
lishments mechanical cleaners were used, and in 44 establishments the 
bottles were cleaned by hand. Forty-seven of these places were re- 
ported to clean the bottles in an unsatisfactory manner, and only 23 
places cleaned the bottles in a satisfactory manner. In 30 instances 
the factories were unscreened. In 24 instances the syrups were unpro- 
tected from dirt and dust. In 10 instances the syrup room was very 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF FOOD AND DRUGS. • 125 

dirty. In 18 instances the lavatories were unscreened, and in 12 in- 
stances there were either no facilities or the facilities were inadequate 
for hand cleaning. In many instances the places were full of rubbish; 
the work was carried out in kitchens or cellars, as well as in very fine, 
satisfactory buildings. 

In one of these establishments a bottle of corrosive sublimate tablets 
was found by the inspector. The owner and the employees present 
were unable to account for the presence of this bottle. 

By reason of the unsanitary condition found in many of these fac- 
tories, it seems advisable for this State to enact the so-called uniform 
sanitary food law, which is in operation in so many other States. This 
law provides for the sanitary condition of all establishments where food 
is manufactured, stored or distributed, and it provides that the mate- 
rials used in the food shall be protected from contamination in the 
process of manufacture. The act, as originally proposed, is to be 
enforced by the State Department of Health, or by the Department 
enforcing the State food and drug law. It seems, however, feasible in 
this State that the enforcement of this act should be extended to in- 
clude the local boards of health, but it also seems desirable that the 
making of regulations under this act should be confined to the State 
Department of Health. AYith an act of this sort on our statute books, 
this Department, as well as the local boards of health, would be able 
to enforce cleanliness in the various slaughterhouses, food factories, 
stores, restaurants, etc., in this State. The act, providing as it does 
for hearings, would give the proprietors of these establishments plenty 
of opportunity to put their places in satisfactory shape before it is 
necessary to take the matter into court. 

During the year we have made and distributed 16,027 doses of 
arsphenamine. Considerable research work has been carried out to 
improve the process. Effort was expended upon methods for increas- 
ing the yield of arsanilic acid, with only moderate success. Research 
to improve faulty nitration resulted in information relative to puri- 
fication of the intermediate product next preceding this process. Con- 
siderable research upon the preparation of the oxyphenyl-arsonic acid 
from phenol was carried out and was, in the main, unsatisfactory, 
although one preparation was made which was satisfactory. Some of 
this research work has been kept up, and it has been found possible 
to prepare this compound from phenol upon a laboratory scale, and 
studies are now being made to put this upon a factory scale because 
of increased purity of the final product, because of greater yield of 
finished product, and because of fewer steps in the process of manu- 
facture. 



126 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

During the latter part of the year investigations have also been 
made toward the production of neoarsphenamine. We have succeeded 
in making some of this body, but it is not yet sufficiently pure to be 
put out. 

The present facilities of the Division will be adequate for the pro- 
duction of arsphenamine in sufficient quantities to supply the need of 
the Department during the coming fiscal year, and, in all probability, 
we will be able to furnish neoarsphenamine as well. 



Cold-storage Statistics. 
Sum^nanj. 

Requests for extension of time granted, 87 

Eggs, 2 

Butter, 5 

Poultry, 5 

Game, 1 

Meat, 9 

Fish, 64 

Condensed milk, 1 

Requests for extension of time not granted, 89 

Eggs, 14 

Butter, '.8 

Poultry, 9 

Meat, 32 

Fish, 26 

Requests for permission to remove granted, 11 

Poultry, 1 

Game, 1 

Meat, 4 

Fish, 5 

Articles ordered removed from storage (no requests made), .... 220 

Eggs, 15 

Butter, . . . 5 

Poultry, 22 

Game, 2 

Meat, 93 

Fish, 83 



No. 34.] 



DIVISION OF FOOD AND DRUGS. 



127 



Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from Dec. 1, 

1918, to Dec. 1, 1919. 

[Reason for such extension being that goods were in proper condition for further storage.! 



Article. 


Weight 
(Pounds). 


Placed in 
Storage. 


Extension 
granted to — ■ 


Name. 


Egg whites, 






4,000 


Mar. 


14, 


1918 


Aug. 15 


1919 


Berwick Cake Company. 


Egg yolks, 








17,000 


Apr. 


22, 


1918 


Aug. 15 


1919 


Berwick Cake Company. 


Butter, 








3,025 


June 


5, 


1918 


June 25 


1919 


British Ministry of Shipping. 


Butter, 








2,773 


June 


15, 


1918 


June 24 


1919 


British Ministry of Shipping. 


Butter, 








2,945 


June 


15, 


1918 


June 25 


1919 


British Ministry of Shipping. 


Butter, 








40 


June 


12, 


1918 


Oct. 1 


1919 


Butler, Alfred M. 


Butter, 








40 


July 


8, 


1918 


Sept. 8 


1919 


Hunneman, William C. 


Broilers, 








1,642 


July 


31, 


1918 


Sept. 25 


1919 


Eastman, Frank B. 


Chickens, 








95 


Nov. 


29, 


1918 


Mar. 1 


1920 


Mailman, Charles. 


Chickens, 








120 


Dec. 


10, 


1918 


Feb. 1 


1920 


Morgan, Fred L. 


Fowl, . 








300 


Dec. 


10, 


1918 


Feb. 1 


1920 


Morgan, Fred L. 


Turkeys, 








7,547 


Jan. 


3, 


1918 


Feb. 17 


1919 


Dorr, Arthur E., & Co., Inc. 


Deer, . 








160 


Oct. 


25, 


1918 


Jan. 25 


1920 


Freeman, B. A. 


Beef, . 








2,275 


Nov. 


20, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


Dorr, Arthur E., & Co., Inc. 


Beef, . 








448 


May 


9, 


1918 


Aug. 9 


1919 


Prendergast, William J. 


Beef, . 








461 


May 


21, 


1918 


Aug. 21 


1919 


Prendergast, William J. 


Beef, . 








203 


Mar. 


30, 


1918 


June 30 


1919 


Prendergast, William J. 


Beef, . 








6,850 


Nov. 


14, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


Dorr, Arthur E., & Co., Inc. 


Beef kidneys. 






1,980 


May 


27, 


1918 


July 15 


1919 


Hollis, N. E. & Co. 


Beef rounds, 






1,403 


Jan. 


22, 


1918 


Apr. 1 


1919 


Bay State Fishing Company. 


Ox tails, 






10,710 


Sept. 


10, 


1918 


Dec. 15 


1919 


Swift & Co. 


Pork livers. 






10,000 


Mar. 


9, 


1918 


May 9 


1919 


Dorr, Arthur E., & Co., Inc. 


Halibut, 






7,600 


July 


8, 


1918 


Aug. 8 


1919 


McKay, Robert S. 


Halibut, . 






4,737 


Oct. 


30, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


New England Fish Company. 


Halibut, . 






5,148 


Oct. 


30, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


New England Fish Company. 


Halibut, 






4,447 


Nov. 


1, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


New England Fish Company. 


Halibut, . 






5,168 


Nov. 


2, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


New England Fish Company. 


Halibut, . 






5,018 


Nov. 


8, 


1918 


Dec. 31 


1919 


New England Fish Company. 


Halibut, . 






2,783 


Nov. 


5, 


1918 


Dec. 5 


1919 


T Wharf Fish Company. 


Halibut heads,' 






1,200 


Feb. 


12, 


1918 


May 1 


1919 


New England Fish Company. 


Herring, ' . 
Herring,! . 






7,525 
8,450 


May 
May 


7, 
10 


1918 
1918 


Nov. 1 
Nov. 1 


1919 
1919 


Atlantic & Pacific Fish Com- 
pany. 
Atlantic & Pacific Fish Com- 


Herring, 






2,520 


June 


22, 


1918 


Jan. 1 


1920 


pany. 
At wood & Co. 


Herring, i . 






2,200 


May 


3, 


1918 


Aug. 1 


1919 


Bay State Fishing Company. 



> For bait. 



128 



-STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Requests for Extension of Time Granted on Goods in Cold Storage from Dec. 1, 
1918, to Dec. 1, i5i 5 — Continued. 



Article. 



Weight 
(Pounds). 



Placed in 

Storage. 



Extension 
granted to — • 



Name. 



Herring, 
Herring, ' 
Herring,! 
Herring, 1 
Herring, ' 
Herring,' 
Herring, 1 
Herring, 
Herring, 
Herring, 
Herring, 
Herring, 
Herring, 
Herring, i 
Herring, ' 
Herring, i 
Herring, ' 
Herring, > 
Herring, i 
Herring, 
Herring, 
Herring, i 
Herring, 1 
Herring,' 
Herring,' 
Mackerel, 
Mackerel, 
Mackerel, 
Mackerel , 
Mackerel , 
Mackerel , 
Mackerel, 
Mackerel , 
Mackerel , 
Mackerel , 



2,000 
6,000 
1,767 
13,600 
33,000 
8,600 
11,860 
1,400 
1,800 
1,800 
40,000 
6,800 
10,800 
14,280 
36,000 
400 
1,000 
90,000 
130,000 
98,200 
2,164 
7,600 
5,000 
6,880 
16,342 
30,722 
38,691 
5,600 
34,654 
15,700 
5,820 
2,100 
840 
3,000 
3,600 



Feb. 28, 1918 

May 8, 1918 

May 13, 1918 

May 16, 1918 

May 22, 1918 

May 29, 1918 

May 30, 1918 

June 6, 1918 

June 7, 1918 

June 10, 1918 

June 10, 1918 

June 12, 1918 

June 26, 1918 

July 12, 1918 

July 12, 1918 

Oct. 14, 1918 

Nov. 6, 1918 

May 29, 1918 

May 29, 1918 

May 19, 1918 

Oct. 10, 1918 

July 12, 1918 

June 2, 1918 

June 2, 1918 

July 23, 1918 

July 5, 1918 

July 10, 1918 

July 17, 1918 

July 26, 1918 

Aug. 21, 1918 

Oct. 3, 1918 

Oct. 22, 1918 

June 11, 1918 

June 11, 1918 

June 27, 1918 



June 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mar. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

July 



1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1920 
1, 1919 
14, 1919 
31, 1919 

29, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1920 

30, 1919 
12, 1919 

1, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 
5, 1919 
10, 1919 
17, 1919 

26, 1919 

31, 1919 

30, 1919 

31, 1919 
1, 1919 
1, 1919 

27, 1919 



Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company, 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Bay State Fishing Company. 

Boston Fish Pier Company. 

Cape Cod Cold Storage Com-' 

pany. 
Consolidated Weir Company. 

Harding, F. E., Company. 

O'Brien, R., & Co. 

Rutstein, B., & Sons Com- 
pany. 

Rutstein, B., & Sons Com- 
pany. 

Rutstein, B., & Sons Com- 
pany. 

Boston Fish Pier Company. 

Boston Fish Pier Company. 
Boston Fish Pier Company. 
Boston Fish Pier Company. 
Boston Fish Pier Company. 
Boston Fish Pier Company. 
Boston Fish Pier Company. 
O'Brien, R., & Co. 
O'Brien, R., & Co. 
O'Brien, R., & Co. 



1 For bait. 



No. 34.] 



DIVISION OF FOOD AND DRUGS. 



129 



Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from Dec. 1, 
1918, to Dec. 1, 1919 — Concluded. 



Article. 


Weight 
(Pounds). 


Placed in 
Storage. 


Extension 
granted to — 


Name. 


Mackerel, . . . . 


1,110 


July 


1, 1918 


Aug. 


1, 


1919 


O'Brien, R., & Co. 


Mackerel , 








2,040 


July 


1, 1918 


Aug. 


1, 


1919 


O'Brien, R., & Co. 


Pollock, 








60,000 


Nov. 


12, 1918 


Dec. 


30, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








13,638 


Jan. 


16, 1918 


Feb. 


16, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








800 


Jan. 


29, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








2,080 


Jan. 


29, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








8,840 


Jan. 


29, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








150 


Feb. 


2, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








1,630 


Feb. 


2, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








3,560 


Feb. 


2, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Smelts, 








23,560 


Feb. 


2, 1918 


Mar. 


1, 


1919 


Boston Fish Pier Company. 


Squid, 1 








1,100 


Jan. 


12, 1918 


Apr. 


12, 


1919 


Atlas Fish Company. 


Squid,! 








1,080 


Nov. 


22, 1917 


Dec. 


22, 


1918 


Prevoir, Frank. • 


Squid, 1 








650 


Nov. 


24, 1917 


Dec. 


24, 


1918 


Prevoir, Frank. 


Sqmd,i 








20,000 


Mar. 


5, 1918 


Apr. 


5, 


1919 


Prior & Mahoney. 


Whiting, 








2,200 


Oct. 


10, 1918 


Dec. 


30, 


1919 


Harding, F. E., Company. 


Whiting, 
Sweetened c 


onde 


ised 


milk. 


90,000 
36,000 


Nov. 
Jan. 


19, 1918 
25, 1918 


Jan. 
Apr. 


30, 
25, 


1919 
1919 


Martha's Vineyard Cold Stor- 
age and Ice Company. 
Worcester Baking Company. 



> For bait. 



Division of Communicable Diseases 



Bernard W. C.\rey, M.D., Director 



[131] 



Report of Division of Communicable Diseases. 



The value of the District Health Officer is becoming more and more 
apparent. The concrete results of his endeavors to raise the public 
health standards of the State are shown with increasing frequency. 

The procedures which were formerly thought to belong to the special 
investigator of communicable disease are now regularly undertaken by 
the local boards of health. Carriers of typhoid and of diphtheria (with 
differentiation of the virulent from the non-virulent group) and out- 
breaks on milk farms are among the epidemiological investigations 
which are receiving closer attention from the local investigator. This, 
it is believed, is one of the direct results of the District Health Officer's 
endeavors. 

As a generalist in public health the District Health Officer has insti- 
tuted movements which have greatly increased the efficiency of health 
administration. The placing of public health nurses in the smaller 
communities, the institution of health weeks with numerous lectures 
to interested audiences, differential diagnosis for the physicians, to- 
gether with advice to local boards of health as to their action in a 
given condition or perhaps controversy, are but few of his duties. 

The evidences of unrest so prevalent among all people at this time 
as an aftermath of the war and disturbed economic conditions have 
existed among our personnel. We have lost efficient District Health 
Officers for the sole reason that they could not support themselves 
and their families upon the salary paid, and we were likewise unable 
to interest suitably trained physicians in our service because of the 
low rate of recompense. Examinations have been advertised to fill 
vacancies, with an insufficient number of qualified men appearing to 
allow a choice to be made or even to complete our staff. It appears 
that some financial relief must be offered if we are to retain the Dis- 
trict Health Officers who are now with the Department,, or to obtain 
qualified oflficers to fill vacancies as they may occur. 

The nursing assistant continues to prove the wisdom of the estab- 
lishment of her position. Groups of women, children and nurses have 
been amenable to her suggestions that could not have been reached 



134 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



in any other way. Her faithful, conscientious efforts in the follow-up 
work of the tuberculous alone justify her existence, and her interest 
in co-operative effort with other nursing agencies furnishes the Depart- 
ment with a contact that has limitless possibilities for community 
welfare. 



Bacteriological Laboratory. 

The number of specimens examined during the year has exceeded 
that done for any previous year. 

The total number of all kinds of examinations made follows: — 





DiAGXOSIS. 


Release. 


Atypical. 


Total. 














Positive. 


Negative. 


Positive. 


Negative. 






Diphtheria 


1,366 


8,463 


1,641 


3,455 




14,925 


Tuberculosis, .... 


949 


2,800 








3,749 


Typhoid fever: — • 














Widal test, .... 


370 


1,171 






81 


1,622 


Culture test, .... 


59 


491 








550 


Gonorrhea, 


417 


3,610 








4,027 


Malaria, 


3 


88 








91 


Pneumonia, 












497 


Miscellaneous, .... 












293 


Total, 


25,754 



To overcome the delay of specimens which occurs in the mail, to 
stimulate more accurate diagnosis of communicable diseases, and to 
insure their earlier treatment where positive laboratory findings are 
shown, it is recommended that a bacteriological laboratory in the 
western section of the State, preferably at Springfield, be established. 

The special studies that our bacteriologist is making on diphtheria 
in its relation to the carrier in the home or school are progressing 
favorably. Marked co-operation of local health and school authorities 
has been shown, and it is believed that the scientific data obtained, as 
well as the material benefit rendered to these children, will make this 
work of real and lasting value. 

The following table gives the total number of biological products 
and diagnostic outfits distributed by the State Department of Health 
from the bacteriological laboratory from Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 
1919: — 



No. 34.] DIVISIOxX OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 135 

Diphtheria antitoxin : — 

12,000 units (for the Boston City Hospital), . 1,794 bottles. 

12,000 units, 592 bottles. 

6,000 units (for the Boston City Hospital), . 422 bottles. 

6,000 units, 4,087 bottles. 

3,000 units, 34,861 bottles. 

2,000 units (for the Boston City Hospital), . 238 bottles. 

1,000 units, 10,157 bottles. 

Smallpox vaccine: — 

Capillary tubes, 184,973 

Bulk, 8,025 cubic centimeters. 

Typhoid vaccine : — 

Ampoules, 7,762 

Bulk, 9,450 cubic centimeters. 

Tj'phoid-paratyphoid vaccine: — 

Ampoules, 12,050 

Bulk, 44,500 cubic centimeters. 

Paratyphoid vaccine : — 

Ampoules, 1,381 

Antimeningitis serum, 4,399 bottles. 

Silver nitrate solution, . 52,108 ampoules. 

Diagnostic Outfits. 

Diphtheria culture outfits, 18,203 

Tuberculosis sputum bottles, 5,378 

Pneumonia outfits, • • 424 

Widal outfits, 1,954 

Typhoid culture outfits, 855 

Malaria-gonorrhea outfits, . _, 2,535 

Inspection of Hospitals. 

Routine inspections of hospitals for the year have been made, and 
the conditions found show that in the main the hospitals of our State 
are being conducted in such a manner as to protect the public health. 

Dispensaries. 

Under chapter 131 of the General Acts of 1918 all dispensaries of 
the State were inspected and recommendations made for their proper 
licensing. There have been 32 licenses granted and 5 refused. 

Investigation by the District Health Officers showed that in no in- 
stance where the dispensary license was denied was the public health 
likely to be conserved nor had public benefit resulted from the opera- 
tion of the dispensary. 



136 STATE DEP.\IITMEXT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Jails and Lock-ups. 

The yearly inspections of jails and lock-ups were made, and in most 
instances the places were found to be in fair sanitary condition. 

It is a notable fact, however, that the recommendations made at 
the time of the inspections are seldom carried out, and each year finds 
the same insanitary conditions existing where they were present the 
previous year. 

Subdivision of Tuberculosis. 

The work of the subdivision of tuberculosis has continued along the 
same general lines as in other years. 

There has been a lessened attendance at the tuberculosis dispen- 
saries, due perhaps to the same factors which lessened the number of 
patients at the tuberculosis sanatoria, namely, the high wages obtain- 
able in our manufacturing plants, and the natural unrest which arose 
from abnormal conditions. 

Some means must be devised to raise the standard of follow-up work 
to bring under regular medical supervision contacts and the children 
who live in the homes of the tuberculous. 

The regvdar tuberculosis dispensary inspection for the year shows 
that in the main the records are well kept, the personnel interested, 
and few patients in attendance. 

An additional factor to account for the falling off of attendance at 
the dispensaries may be that, because of the increased wage which the 
laboring man is now receiving, there are more tuberculous attended 
by private physicians. It is also believed that our people do not know 
as much about our tuberculosis dispensaries as they should, and there- 
fore do not utilize them. It is hoped that by greater publicity the 
attendance at our clinics will increase. 

The tuberculosis survey of the city of Cambridge, started July 1, 
1918, which was interrupted because of the pandemic of influenza, has 
been completed. The facts brought out are comparable with those of 
cities of the same population and industry where insufficient financial 
aid has been given to the local board of health. If the tuberculosis 
activities of a given community are to be economically and efficiently 
carried out, there must be a sufficient amount of financial aid available. 

The control and prevention of tuberculosis in a large measure is in 
the hands of the follow-up worker, for upon her ability to supervise 
patients, contacts, and with sympathetic interest to reach the sus- 
pected cases, lies our future. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 137 



Subdivision of Venereal Diseases. 

The subdivision of venereal diseases is striving to maintain the im- 
petus given to venereal disease activities by the war conditions, and, 
judging by the reports of incidence of these diseases, the increased 
attendance at the clinics, and the number of lapsed cases returning to 
treatment, it is fair to state that this work is giving permanent results. 

During the year sixteen clinics have been placed in operation 
throughout the State, giving a total number of treatments of 26,087. 
Of this number, however, 22,598 were received in Boston, and 3,489 
in the remaining clinics of the State. 

It is believed that wider advertising of our clinics will result in a 
much larger attendance, and from this attendance and from the num- 
ber of patients under the supervision of private physicians the success 
of the venereal disease movement must be judged. 

Thirty-seven lectures have been given to selected audiences; 17,963 
pamphlets distributed; physicians and pharmacists circularized with 
special literature; and 10,822 ampoules of arsphenamine distributed 
to clinics, hospitals and physicians for the treatment of syphilis. 

Changes in Personnel. 

The following changes in personnel have occurred in our staff during 
the year: — 

January 15. Miss Katharine M. Turner appointed nursing assistant in the 

Berkshire Health District. 
April 1. Miss Bernice W. Billings resigned as chief of the subdivision of 

tuberculosis. 
April 24. Miss Bertha C. Lovell appointed as special investigator in the 

subdivision of venereal diseases. 
May 1. Dr. John J. Carroll resigned as chief of the subdi^dsion of venereal 

diseases. 
June 1. Dr. John S. Hitchcock resigned as director of the division. 
June 1. Dr. Bernard W. Carey appomted as director of the division. 
June 1. Dr. George H. Bigelow appomted as acting epidemiologist. 
July 1. Dr. Howard A. Streeter resigned as District Health Officer of the Berk- 
shire Health District and appointed as chief of the subdivision of venereal 

diseases. 
July 29. Dr. James A. Keenan appointed as Acting District Health Officer 

of the Berkshire Health District. 
August 1. Dr. Stanley H. Osborn, epidemiologist, returned from military 

service. 
August 26. Mr. H. C. Mosman appointed as inspector in the subdivision 

of venereal diseases. 



138 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

September 1. Miss Mary C. Hoisington resigned as nursing assistant of the 

Southeastern Health District. 
September 1. Dr. George H. Bigelow resigned as acting epidemiologist. 
September 1. Mr. Charles Clark appointed as special investigator in the 

subdivision of A^enereal diseases. 
October 1. Dr. Russell B. Sprague resigned as District Health Officer of 

the Eastern Health District. 
October 1. Dr. George T. O'Donnell transferred to the Eastern Health Dis- 
trict from the Connecticut Valley Health District. 
November 10. Dr. Bertrand E. Roberts appointed as District Health Officer 

of the Connecticut Valley Health District. 
November 15. Dr. Arthur A. Brown resigned as District Health Officer of 

the South Midland Health District. 
November 17. Miss Katherine B. O'Connor appointed as nursmg assistant 

in the Southeastern Health District. 



Special Activities. 

During the year certain activities have been undertaken, either to 
perfect plans and procedures already in existence, or along altogether 
new lines. 

To increase morbidity reports by physicians, and to have these re- 
ports more uniform with those of the other States, the agents or mem- 
bers of local boards of health, through the co-operation of the United 
States Public Health Service, are to be appointed assisting collaborating 
epidemiologists, and will be privileged to use franked postal cards for 
the reporting of communicable diseases to the District Health Officer 
and to this office. A wider distribution of cards will be effected, with 
the result that more cases will be reported. 

Arrangements have been made with the Association of Hospital 
Superintendents for courses of lectures upon public health topics for 
the nurses in their training schools. This is a most important step, 
and one which should react for a great improvement in public health 
in the communities in which nurses may locate. 

Lectures were given at vacation camps for boys and girls upon per- 
sonal hygiene and general public health subjects. 

A special campaign against diphtheria has been instituted, based 
upon a statistical study of 1,000 deaths which were investigated by 
the District Health Officers. As the largest single factor in the causa- 
tion of these deaths appeared to be the non-realization of the necessity 
of early diagnosis and treatment, our efforts have been directed toward 
wider publicity for our facts, using the press, the medical journals, 
lectures to women's organizations and other interested bodies. Papers 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF COINIMUNICABLE DISEASES. 139 

before medical societies and a special bulletin for school children have 
been prepared and delivered. 

At the present time a special diphtheria investigation is being car- 
ried out to ascertain what may be the carrier incidence in both the 
school and the preschool age groups, what percentage of these carriers 
may harbor virulent organisms as shown by the virulence test, and 
what percentage of children may show pathological conditions of the 
naso-pharynx which might possibly account for this carrier state. 

Our epidemiologist has prepared special follow-up letters to phy- 
sicians urging them to use prophylactic typhoid vaccination, and to 
the families telling of its value. It appears as though the more wide- 
spread use of typhoid vaccine is the greatest single factor left us to 
reduce the incidence of typhoid fever in this State. 

Efforts have been made to have the inmates of prisons receive a 
thorough examination, paying particular attention to venereal and 
tubercular conditions. It is hoped that this work for the tuberculous 
may be done by experts, and, through the co-operation of the Prison 
Bureau, that they may be transferred to the Prison Camp at Rutland 
for their proper treatment. 

Arrangements were made during the year with the county commis- 
sioners of Plymouth County to care for the patients whose names are 
on the waiting list for the State sanatoria. It is hoped that this will 
provide treatment for a large number of people who otherwise would 
not have the advantage of hospital care, and who might be infecting 
the inmates of their homes during this prolonged period of waiting. 

A special study to determine the value of serum treatment for 
influenza-pneumonia was carried out during the latter part of the 
influenza outbreak. Physicians were trained in the preparation and 
administration of sera obtained from convalescent influenza-pneumonia 
patients at the Chelsea Naval Hospital under the direction of Dr. 
Redden and Dr. Maguire. Owing to the fact that we entered this 
special field of therapy at the end of the outbreak our results were 
limited. It is believed, however, that the administration of convales- 
cent sera of influenza given early is an efficacious agent for the treat- 
ment of influenza-pneumonia. The thanks of this Department are 
extended to Dr. Redden and Dr. Maguire for this splendid co- 
operation. 

New Rules axd Regulations affecting the Division. 
March 13, 1919. An act amending chapter 286 of the General Acts of 1916, ex- 
tending the time in which tuberculosis hospitals shall be built, and requiring 
one hospital bed for each four deaths rather than one bed for each two deaths. 



140 



STATE DEPART.AIEXT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Nov. 7, 1919. The Public Health Council amended the minimum requirements 
for tuberculosis dispensaries to include certain requirements for dispensary 
nurses. 

April 1, 1919. Regulations for the reporting of venereal diseases revised. 

Recommendations. 

It is especially recommended that consulting service, for tuber- 
culosis in particular, be afforded to the rural communities. A traveling 
clinic as suggested by Dr. Francis A. Finnegan might accomplish this, 
and even furnish diagnostic aid for all of the communicable diseases 
and further our special activities, such as the child conservation 
movement. 

Report of the Epidemiologist for the Year ending Nov. 30, 

1919. 

Interstate and International Reciprocal Notifications. 

The United States Public Health Service form is now used for noti- 
fication in cases of disease occurring in Massachusetts which originate 
in other States, and in Canada, or of residents of other States who 
have been in contact with disease in Massachusetts. There were 49 
such notifications sent during 1919. Of this number, 4 were relative 
to cases of anterior poliomyelitis, 3 were of cases of smallpox, and 42 
were relative to cases of typhoid fever. 

Outbreaks and Epidemics. 

Since Janviary the following outbreaks have been investigated by 
the District Health Officers: — 



Disease. 



Number of 
Cases. 



Scarlet fever, . 
Diphtheria, 
Measles, . 
Whooping cough, 
Typhoid fever, 




Diseases on Premises of Milk Handlers. 

There were 22 instances of illness reported as existing on farms pro- 
ducing milk or on premises of a milk dealer. Immediate investigation 
of these cases and the carrying out of prompt precautions, advised by 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF COM!\IUNICABLE DISEASES. 



141 



local boards of health and State District Health Officers, assisted in 
preventing the further spread of diseases through the medium of milk. 
At the present time cases of scarlet fever, dysentery, tonsillitis, 
diphtheria and typhoid fever on premises of milk handlers are re- 
quired to be reported to the State Department of Public Health at 



once. 



The following table gives the total cases of disease for the period 
covered : — 

Relative Occurrence of Principal Reportable Diseases. 



Disease. 



Influenza, ■ , • 

Measles, . . . . 
Gonorrhea, 
Scarlet fever, . 
Diphtheria, 

Tuberculosis (pulmonary 
Chicken pox, . 
Whooping cough, 
Lobar pneumonia, . 
Syphilis, . . . . 
Mumps, . . . . 
Ophthalmia neonatorum , 
Typhoid fever, 



1918. 



1919. 



145,262 
29,215 
7,681 
4,490 
6,922 
7,833 
4,117 
7,765 
13,374 
3,284 
4,972 
1,877 
1,067 



40,222 
9,985 
9,435 
8,018 
7,929 
6,977 
6,693 
5,727 
4,585 
4,127 
3,497 
1,687 
938 



Increase. 



1,754 
3,528 
1,007 

2,576 
843 



Decrease. 



105,040 
19,2.30 



2,038 



1,475 
190 
129 



Typhoid Bacilli Carriers. 

There were 13 typhoid carriers located during 1919. The search 
for typhoid bacilli carriers is now practically a routine procedure by 
all progressive health officials in the State. A few, however, do not 
yet realize the danger of the carrier, and that he is the chief factor 
in causing typhoid fever in Massachusetts. Many hospitals are carry- 
ing out as a routine procedure the fecal and urine examinations of 
convalescent typhoid patients before discharging them. All hospitals 
should do this to be sure that the patient will not return home and 
infect other members of the household. 

Every carrier found in 1919 had a positive Widal test. The 13 car- 
riers were apparently responsible for 57 cases of typhoid fever in 1919, 
2 cases in 1918, 33 cases in 1913, 2 cases in 1912, 2 cases in 1911, 2 
cases in 1908 and 5 cases in 1907. 

The summary of the carriers is given in the accompanying tabular 



142 



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No. 34.1 DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



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146 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



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No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 147 




148 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



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No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 149 



Diseases on Premises of Milk Handlers. 



Date. 



Locality. 



Disease. 



Brief History of Case. 



May, 
May, 

June, 

July, 
October, 

October, 

November, 

November, 
December, 

December, 
December, 

December, 
December, 



Mendon , 
Milford, 

Framingham, 

Fall River, . 
Dunstable, . 

Princeton, . 

Shelburne, . 

Sutton, 
Dracut, 

Belchertown, 
Springfield, 

Spencer, 
Gardner, 



Typhoid fever. 
Scarlet fever, 

Smallpox, 

Typhoid fever. 
Typhoid fever. 

Typhoid fever. 

Scarlet fever, 

Scarlet fever, 
Scarlet fever. 

Diphtheria, 
Scarlet fever, 

Scarlet fever, 
Scarlet fever, 



A milk handler on a farm became sick. 
Precautions were taken and no cases 
appeared on the milk route. 

A daughter of a milk producer became 
sick, and the sale was stopped until 
proper arrangements could be made. 
No cases occurred on the milk route. 

The farm where the case lived was quar- 
antined. Arrangements were made for 
handling the milk, and no cases ap- 
peared on the milk route. 

There were three cases in the family of a 
milk producer. No cases on the milk 
route. 

A case infected in the Worcester outbreak 
returned to his home in Dunstable, 
which was a farm producing milk. No 
cases occurred on the milk route in 
Dunstable. 

A case appeared on a milk farm sending 
milk to Worcester. There were 29 cases 
on the milk route in Worcester, but later 
the owner of the farm was proven a 
typhoid bacilli carrier, and the child on 
the farm was a \dctim rather than the 
cause of the outbreak. 

First case on the milk farm was a child 
who contracted disease from other school 
children. Four cases followed on the 
farm. No cases occurred on the milk 
route. 

A child on a milk farm became sick and 
was removed to a hospital. No cases 
appeared on the milk route. 

A mild case existed on a milk farm two 
weeks before diagnosis was made. No 
cases occurred on the milk route as far 
as known. 

Two children on a milk farm had the dis- 
ease, but no cases occurred on the milk 
route of the farm. 

A son of an owner of a milk depot had the 
disease. No cases followed in the city 
that could be traceable to the milk sold 
by the depot. 

Two cases at a milk farm. The children 
were isolated, and no known cases were 
infected by milk from the farm. 

Two children on a m.ilk farm were ill with 
the disease. No cases were reported in 
families on milk route of the farm. 



150 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Cases and Deaths, with Case and Death Rates, for all 
Reportable Diseases during 1919. 



Disease. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Case Rate 
per 100,000 
Population. 


Death Rate 
per 100,000 
Population. 


Fatality 
Rate (Per 

Cent). 


Actinomycosis 


3 





.1 


- 


- 


Anterior poliomyelitis, . 


66 


17 


1.7 


.4 


25.8 


Anthrax, 


18 


1 


.5 


.02 


5.6 


Chicken pox 


6,693 


5 


168.7 


.1 


.1 


Diphtheria 


7,929 


591 


199.8 


14.9 


7.5 


Dog bite (requiring anti-rabic treat- 
ment) . 
Dysentery, 


54 
23 


9 


1.4 
.6 


.2 


39.1 


Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, 


253 


181 


6.4 


4.6 


71.5 


German measles, . . . ■ 


434 


1 


10.9 


.02 


.2 


Leprosy, 


3 


1 


.1 


.02 


33.3 . 


Malaria 


72 


4 


1.8 


.1 


5.6 


Measles, 


9,985 


182 


251.6 


4.6 


1.8 


Mumps, 


3,497 


10 


88.1 


.3 


.3 


Ophthalmia neonatorum,' 


1,687 


- 


42.5 


- 


- 


Pellagra 


13 


15 


.3 


.4 


115.4 


Pneumonia (lobar), 


4,585 


2,508 


115.5 


63.2 


54.7 




1 


1 


.02 


.02 


100 


Scarlet fever 


5,018 


130 


202.0 


3.3 


1.6 


Septic sore throat, .... 


216 


40 


5.4 


1.0 


18.5 


Smallpox, 


40 


2 


1.0 


.1 


5.0 




21 


22 


.5 


.6 


104.8 


Trachoma, 


72 


- 


1.8 


- 


- 


Trichinosis, 


3 


- 


.1 


- 


- 


Tuberculosis (pulmonary). 


6,977 


4,204 


175.8 


105.9 


60.2 




782 


693 


19.7 


17.5 


88.6 


Typhoid fever 


938 


103 


23.6 


2.6 


11.0 


Whooping cough, .... 


5,727 


319 


144.3 


8.0 


5.6 


Gonorrhea, 


9,435 


8 


237.8 


.2 


.1 


Syphilis 


4,127 


281 


104.0 


7.1 


6.8 


Influenza, . . • ■ , ■ 


40,222 


3,052 


1,013.5 


76.9 


7.6 




111,894 


12,380 


2,819.6 


312.0 


11.1 



» Includes suppurative conjunctivitis. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF COIVOIUNICABLE DISEASES. 



151 



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152 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 






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3 



No. 34.1 DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



153 



Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous to the Public 

Health, 1919. 

Index to Line Numbers in the Table of Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 
to the Public Health, 1919. 



Abington, 






113 


Charlemont, . 


290 


Gardner, 


Acton, . 






197 


Charlton, 


189 


Gay Head, . 


Acushnet, 






163 


Chatham, 


225 


Georgetown, . 


Adams, 






61 


Chelmsford, . 


120 


Gill, . 


Agawam, 






117 


Chelsea, 


20 


Gloucester, 


Alford, . 






355 


Cheshire, 


238 


Goshen, 


Amesbury, 






90 


Chester, 


263 


Gosnold, 


Amherst, 






112 


Chesterfield, . 


317 


Grafton, 


Andover, 






82 


Chicopee, 


31 


Granby, 


Arlington, 






44 


ChUmark, 


350 


Granville, 


Ashburnham, 






205 


Clarksburg, . 


282 


Great Barrington, . 


Ashby, . 






291 


Clinton, 


62 


Greenfield, 


Ashfield, 






283 


Cohasset, 


161 


Greenwich, 


Ashland, 






192 


Colrain, 


211 


Groton, 


Athol, . 






69 


Concord, 


98 


Groveland, 


Attleboro, 






41 


Conway, 


272 




Auburn, 






137 


Cummington, 


311 


Hadley, 


Avon, . 






191 






Halifax, 


Ayer, . 






173 


Dalton, 
Dana, . 


136 
309 


Hamilton, 
Hampden, 








Hancock, 


Barnstable, . . .121 


Danvers, 


64 


Hanover, 


Barre, . 






139 


Dartmouth, . 


107 


Hanson, 


Becket, 






286 


Dedham, 


65 


Hardwick, 


Bedford, 






244 


Deerfield, 


1.53 


Harvard, 


Belchertown, 






202 


Dennis, 


227 


Harwich, 


Bellingham, 






196 


Dighton, 


175 


Hatfield, 


Belmont, 






73 


Douglas, 


195 


Haverhill, . 


Berkley, 






288 


Dover, . 


276 


Hawley, 
Heath, . 


Berlin, . 






300 


Dracut, 


129 


Bemardston, 






299 


Dudley, 


131 


Hingham, 


Beverlt, 






34 


Dunstable, 


346 


Hinsdale, 


BiUerica, 






145 


Duxbury, 


199 


Holbrook, 


Blackstone, 






142 






Holden, 


Blandford, 






321 


East Bridgewater, . 


138 


Holland, 


Bolton, 






304 


East Longmeadow, 


193 


HoUiston, 


Boston, 






3 


Eastham, 


318 


HOLYOKE, 


Bourne, 






168 


Easthampton, 


68 


Hopedale, 


Boxborough, 






343 


Easton, 


125 


Hopkinton, . 


Boxford, 






307 


Edgartown, . 


258 


Hubbardston, 


Boylston, 






298 


Egremont, 


316 


Hudson, 


Braintree, 






72 


Enfield, 


305 


Hull, . 


Brewster, 






294 


Erving, 


274 


Huntington, . 


Bridgewater, 






70 


Essex, . 


229 




Brimfield, 






285 


Everett, 


26 


Ipswich, 


Brockton, 






16 








Brookfield, 






209 


Fairhaven, 


93 


Kingston, 


Brookline, 






28 


Fall River, 


7 




Buckland, 






237 


Falmouth, 


128 


Lakeville, 


Burlington, 


. 295 


FiTCHBUEG, . 


27 


Lancaster, 






Florida, 


328 


Lanesborough, • . 


Cambkidge, 


. 10 


Foxborough , . 


143 


Lawrence, . 


Canton, 


. 104 


Framingham, 


43 


Lee, 


Carlisle, 


. 331 


Franklin, 


96 


Leicester, 


Carver, 






. 228 


Freetown, 


. 220 


Lenox, . 



154 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Index to Line Numbers in the Table of Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 
to the Public Health, 1,919 — Continued. 



Leominster, 


47 


North Attlebc 


rough, . 78 


Scituate, 




Leverett, 


301 


North Brookfi 


eld, . .169 


Seekonk, 




Lexington, 


110 


North Readin 


g, . . 242 


Sharon, 




Leyden, 


338 


NORTHAMPTO; 


^, . .37 


Sheffield, 




Lincoln, 


252 


Northborough 


. 217 


Shelburne, 




Littleton, 


269 


Northbridge, 


77 


Sherborn, 




Longmeadow, 


218 


Northfield, 


. 212 


Shirley, 




Lowell, 


11 


Norton, 


. 179 


Shrewsbury, . 




Ludlow, 


91 


Norwell, 


. 231 


Shutesbury, . 




Lunenburg, . 


222 


Norwood, 


-. 59 


Somerset, 




Lynn, . 


12 






Somerville, 




Lynnfield, 


264 


Oak Bluffs, 


. 255 


South Hadley, 








Oakham, 


. 325 


Southampton, 




Malden, 


19 


Orange, 


. 116 


Southborough, 




Manchester, . 


155 


Orleans, 


. 268 


Southbridge, . 




Mansfield, 


106 


Otis, 


. 336 


Southwick, 




Marblehead, . 


84 


Oxford. 


. 146 


Spencer, 




Marion, 


241 






Springfield, 




Maklborough, 


50 


Palmer, 


. 74 


Sterling, 




Marshfield, . 


230 


Pax ton. 


. 324 


Stockbridge, . 




Mashpee, 


356 


Peabody, 


. 39 


Stoneham, 




Mattapoisett, 


248 


Pelham, 


. 323 


Stoughton, 




Maynard, 


97 


Pembroke, 


. 261 


Stow, . 




Medfield, 


141 


Pepperell, 


. 166 


Sturbridge, 




Medford, 


30 


Peru, 


. 361 


Sudbury, 




Med way. 


164 


Petersham, 


. 308 


Sunderland, . 




Melrose, 


45 


Phillipston, 


. 339 


Sutton, 




Mendon, 


287 


Pittsfield, 


. 23 


Swampscott, . 




Merrimac, 


206 


Plainfield, 


. 340 


Swansea, 




Methuen, 


49 


Plainville, 


. 251 




Middleborough, 
Middlefield, . 
Middleton, . 
Milford, 
Millbury, 
Millville, 


80 
348 
247 

56 
114 
203 


Plymouth, 

Plympton, 

Prescott, 

Princeton, 

Provincetown 


58 
. 314 
. 352 
. 303 
. 134 


Taunton, 
Templeton, . 
Tewksbury, . 
Tisbury, 
Tolland, 




MilUs, . 


243 






Topsfield, 




Milton, 


79 


QuiNCY, 


. 22 


Townsend, 




Monroe, 


342 






Truro, . 




Monson, 


122 


Randolph, 


. 124 


Tyngsborough, 




Montague, 


81 


Raynham, 


. 215 


Tyringham, . 




Monterey, 


344 


Reading, 


. 88 






Montgomery, 


357 


Rehoboth, 


. 188 


Upton, . 




Mount Washington, 


364 


Reverb, 
Richmond, 


. 33 
. 326 


Uxbridge, 




Nahant, 


239 


Rochester, 


. 271 


Wakefield, 




Nantucket, . 


151 


Rockland, 


95 


Wales, . 




Natick, 


66 


Rockport, 


. 130 


Walpole, 




Needham, 


86 


Rowe, . 


. 337 


Waltham, 




New Ashford, 


363 


Rowley, 


. 235 


Ware, . 




New Bedford, 


8 


Royalston, 


. 293 


Wareham, 




New Braintree, 


330 


Russell, 


. 270 


Warren, 




New Marlborough, 


292 


Rutland, 


. 204 


Warwick, 




New Salem, . 


315 






Washington, . 




Newbury, 


232 


Salem, 


. 25 


Watertown, . 




Newburyport, 


51 


Salisbury, 


. 224 


Wayland, 




Newton, 


24 


Sandisfield, 


. 319 


Webster, 




Norfolk, 


240 


Sandwich, 


. 260 


Wellesley, 




North Adams, 


38 


Saugus, 


67 


Wellfleet, 




North Andover, 


105 


Savoy, . 


. 322 


Wendell, 





No. 34.1 DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



loo 



Index to Line Numbers in the Table of Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 
to the Public Health, 1919 — Concluded. 



Wenham, 
West Boylston, 
West Bridgewater, 
West Brookfield, 
West Newburj', 
West Springfield, 
West Stockbridge, 
West Tisbury-, 
Westborough, 
Westfield, 
Westford, 



279 
257 
156 
267 
236 

63 
265 
329 
103 

40 
170 



Westhampton 


, 




332 


Westminster, 




221 


Weston, 




182 


Westport, 






147 


Westwood, 






234 


Weymouth, 






54 


Whately, 






259 


Whitman, 






87 


Wilbraham, 






178 


Williamsburg, 




200 


Williamstown 






135 



Wilmington, . 


174 


Winchendon, 


108 


Winchester, . 


71 


Windsor, 


341 


Winthrop, 


53 


WOBUBN, 


48 


Worcester, . 


5 


Worthington, 


313 


Wrentham, . 


162 


Yarmouth, 


253 



156 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 









19A 


61A 


9 




19B 


92 


6 






Popu- 
lation 


Chicken 


Cere- 
bro- 


Diph- 


Ger- 
man 


Lobar 
Pneu- 


Measles, 




Cities and Towxs 


esti- 


Pox. 


spinal 


theria. 


Mea- 


monia. 






GROUPED IN Order of 


mated 




Menin- 






sles. 








POPITLATION. 


as of 




gitis. 
















July 1, 
























i 




1919. 


m -S 




J3 




S 




.s 


M 


.s 


^ 


J3 


o 






S 


c3 


m 


^ 


1 


"S 


i 


ts 


<i> 


"S 


o 


"S 


s 






g3 


O 




a 


d 


u 


CS 


£ 


§ 


s 


§ 


a> 


3 






o 


Q 


U 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


U 


Q 


O 


Q 


1 


Massachusetts, 


3,991,969 


6693 


5 


253 


181 


7929 


591 


134 


1 


4585 


2508 


9985 


182 


2 


Cities over 500,000. 




























3 


Boston, 


808,442 


1753 


- 


71 


55 


2333 


153 


65 


- 


1597 


591 


2200 


27 


4 


Cities over 150,000. 




























5 


Worcester, .... 


176,761 


186 


1 


7 


9 


362 


18 


12 


- 


183 


171 


748 


24 


6 


Cities, 100,000-150,000. 


687,463 


1092 


- 


38 


29 


1397 


131 


101 


- 


804 


397 


2849 


88 


7 


Fall River, .... 


129,416 


173 


_ 


10 


7 


220 


24 


13 


_ 


144 


59 


1209 


56 


8 


New Bedford, 






120,438 


83 


_ 


3 


7 


143 


22 


21 


- 


59 


44 


746 


15 


9 


Springfield, 






114,792 


302 


- 


3 


3 


140 


25 


24 


- 


251 


90 


40 


2 


10 


Cambridge, 






112,176 


366 


- 


5 


2 


253 


5 


22 


- 


153 


72 


266 


2 


11 


Lowell, . 






109,396 


53 


_ 


8 


7 


268 


25 


3 


- 


101 


67 


171 


7 


12 


Lynn, 






101,245 


115 


- 


9 


3 


373 


30 


18 


~ 


. 96 


65 


417 


6 


13 


Cities, 50,000-100,000. 


478,432 


673 


2 


32 


u 


798 


77 


46 


- 


568 


303 


791 


8 


14 


Somerville, .... 


94,950 


138 


_ 


4 


4 


205 


11 


6 


_ 


109 


58 


98 


1 


15 


Lawrence, 








93,933 


85 


1 


9 


S 


131 


19 


4 


- 


80 


57 


24 


- 


16 


Brockton, 








66,824 


133 


_ 


3 


3 


114 


8 


8 


- 


31 


26 


474 


1 


17 


Holyoke, 








63,413 


21 


- 


2 


2 


55 


11 


10 


- 


33 


41 


87 


3 


18 


Haverhill, 








53,940 


167 


- 


4 


2 


151 


14 


9 


- 


196 


43 


50 


3 


19 


Maiden, . 








52,699 


56 


1 


6 


4 


75 


9 


6 


- 


45 


36 


29 


- 


20 


Chelsea, . 








52,663 


73 


- 


4 


4 


67 


5 


3 


~ 


74 


42 


29 


1 


21 


Cities and Towns, 25,000- 
50.000. 


506,608 


996 




$4 


13 


1110 


87 


30 


- 


407 


320 


653 


15 


22 


Quincy 


47,433 


77 


_ 


4 


2 


100 


5 


3 


- 


30 


30 


20 


- 


23 


Pittsfield, 








45,907 


100 


- 


4 


1 


13 


2 


2 


- 


40 


30 


4 


- 


24 


Newton, 








45,895 


196 


- 


2 


1 


87 


9 


8 


- 


26 


21 


29 


- 


25 


Salem, 








42,292 


108 


- 


3 


2 


226 


18 


- 


- 


53 


24 


37 


- 


26 


Everett, . 








41,282 


102 


- 


5 


3 


249 


19 


- 


- 


50 


31 


36 


1 


27 


Fitchburg, 








41,196 


32 


- 


2 


- 


52 


10 


1 


- 


53 


28 


26 


- 


28 


Brookline, 








38,287 


230 


- 


1 


1 


41 


1 


5 


- 


48 


19 


127 


- 


29 


Taunton, 








37,761 


12 


- 


- 


- 


38 


1 


4 


- 


21 


49 


250 


13 


30 


Medford, 








36,702 


28 


- 


1 


- 


55 


3 


4 


- 


23 


28 


31 


1 


31 


Chicopee, 








34,124 


8 


- 


- 


1 


67 


8 


1 


- 


11 


19 


42 


- 


32 


Waltham, 








32,107 


71 


- 


1 


2 


60 


4 


- 


- 


19 


18 


34 


- 


33 


Revere, . 








31,035 


- 


- 


- 


- 


108 


4 


- 


- 


4 


11 


- 


- 


34 


Beverly, . 








26,587 


32 


- 


1 


- 


14 


3 


2 


~ 


29 


12 


17 




35 


Cities and Towns, 10,000- 
25,000. 


597,915 


1165 


- 


38 


22 


1051 


67 


91 


- 


518 


305 


1146 


9 


36 


Gloucester, . . . . 


24,545 


13 


_ 


1 


- 


49 


1 


- 


- 


17 


7 


5 


- 


37 


Northampton, 






23,526 


25 


- 


- 


1 


36 


4 


2 


- 


22 


12 


12 


- 


38 


North Adams, 






22,048 


33 


- 


1 


1 


6 


2 


- 


- 


15 


13 


2 


1 


39 


Peabody, 






21,070 


17 


- 


1 


- 


26 


3 


- 


- 


10 


10 


20 


- 


40 


Westfield, 






20,402 


31 


- 


1 


1 


139 


13 


- 


- 


41 


9 


4 


- 


41 


Attleboro, 






20,386 


27 


- 


1 


1 


59 


1 


1 


- 


11 


10 


14 


- 


42 


Watertown, 






19,579 


44 


- 


2 


1 


29 


- 


4 


- 


29 


6 


41 


- 


43 


Framingham, 






18,310 


88 


~ 


3 


1 


12 


1 


2 


" 


" 


11 


35 





No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



157 



to the Public Health, 1919. 



38A 


7 


28-29 


30-35 


1 


8 


100 


19C 


38C 


37 


10 




Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough . 


Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


Mumps 


Gonor- 
rhea. 


Syph- 
Uis. 


Influ- 
enza. 






S 




i 




J3 




i 




J3 




j3 




j3 




J3 




i 




.s 








g 


t 


a> 


t 


01 


<a 


1 




m 


■s 


o 


« 


<o 


'§ 


<u 


t? 


1 


+3 

C3 


1 


+9 

53 


1 


"S 


o 




o 


§ 


o 


is 


<o 


o3 


S 




s 




o 


S 


a> 


i 


<a 


03 


e> 


a 


s 


03 


s 




U 


P 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


Q 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


U 


1687 


- 


8018 


130 


6977 


4204 


782 


693 


938 


103 


5727 


319 


216 


40 


3497 


10 


9435 


8 


4127 


281 


40222 


3052 


1 


559 


- 


1881 


30 


2184 


965 


235 


182 


106 


16 


1011 


60 


60 


7 


1009 


- 


3992 


- 


1774 


97 


8453 


903 


2 
3 


126 


- 


281 


5 


314 


187 


19 


39 


43 


5 


199 


31 


1 


- 


67 


- 


458 


- 


307 


26 


1358 


134 


4 
5 


BU 


- 


1348 


28 


1417 


7.54 


189 


155 


188 


28 


982 


59 


32 


7 


417 


3 


1553 


2 


581 


37 


6419 


507 


6 


164 


_ 


63 


4 


281 


142 


34 


27 


70 


4 


167 


11 


5 


1 


33 


1 


244 


- 


77 


12 


1299 


101 


7 


178 


- 


158 


4 


406 


139 


47 


39 


17 


3 


84 


19 


2 


- 


25 


- 


236 


- 


125 


6 


964 


91 


8 


50 


- 


176 


3 


155 


98 


30 


20 


24 


5 


155 


2 


1 


2 


23 


- 


402 


- 


172 


5 


777 


102 


9 


52 


- 


190 




212 


176 


22 


17 


14 


2 


432 


12 


10 


2 


267 


1 


200 


- 


78 


4 


1371 


54 


10 


75 


- 


325 


6 


22S 


110 


42 


41 


32 


5 


32 


4 


11 


1 


51 


1 


272 


- 


65 


4 


1020 


75 


11 


25 


- 


436 


11 


137 


89 


14 


11 


31 


7 


112 


11 


3 


1 


18 


~ 


199 


2 


64 


6 


988 


84 


12 


227 


- 


946 


18 


752 


467 


108 


81 


156 


19 


558 


35 


29 


3 


267 


2 


908 


2 


370 


12 


52S5 


345 


13 


26 


_ 


208 


2 


139 


82 


25 


13 


14 


1 


74 


4 


11 


_ 


36 


1 


103 


_ 


28 


2 


1437 


71 


14 


16 


- 


195 


7 


146 


138 


22 


21 


77 


8 


47 


7 


- 


- 


46 


- 


134 


- 


99 


1 


540 


81 


15 


56 


- 


117 


- 


106 


46 


19 


15 


6 


1 


52 


- 


5 


1 


7 


- 


129 


- 


e3 


4 


461 


32 


16 


12 


- 


206 


5 


79 


65 


1 


9 


3 


1 


12 


ID 


1 


1 


14 


- 


54 


1 


30 


3 


65 


21 


17 


36 


- 


36 


- 


127 


55 


16 


6 


21 


3 


312 


7 


8 


- 


12 


- 


360 


- 


116 


- 


1446 


47 


18 


14 


- 


119 


4 


81 


38 


9 


8 


27 


2 


35 


4 


1 


1 


90 


- 


51 


1 


7 


- 


701 


45 


19 


61 


- 


65 


- 


74 


43 


16 


9 


8 


3 


26 


3 


3 


- 


62 


1 


77 


- 


27 


2 


635 


48 


20 


83 


- 


1038 


12 


722 


410 


71 


67 


122 


11 


785 


51 


U 


4 


459 


1 


606 


2 


209 


34 


4811 


291 


21 


3 


_ 


141 


_ 


78 


37 


5 


6 


12 


1 


37 


6 


1 




19 


_ 


66 


_ 


15 


1 


671 


25 


22 


6 


- 


47 


1 


79 


42 


9 


8 


13 


- 


223 


8 


- 


1 


119 


- 


65 


- 


16 


- 


46 


23 


23 


7 


- 


107 


- 


51 


19 


13 


7 


18 


2 


79 


- 


4 


_ 


27 


1 


35 


1 


6 


1 


684 


27 


24 


9 


- 


233 


6 


61 


54 


6 


3 


3 


- 


177 


15 


- 


1 


15 


- 


51 


- 


17 


3 


238 


18 


25 


9 


- 


81 


- 


64 


19 


7 


3 


19 


3 


47 


4 


1 


1 


74 


- 


39 


- 


17 


- 


567 


12 


26 


- 


- 


26 


- 


66 


41 


9 


7 


5 


- 


2 


1 


1 


- 


3 


- 


64 


1 


34 


- 


314 


22 


27 


3 


- 


62 


- 


57 


18 


1 


7 


7 


- 


74 


- 


4 


_ 


140 


- 


22 


- 


11 


1 


523 


16 


28 


7 


- 


35 


1 


79 


64 


6 


9 


4 


1 


32 


5 


1 


_ 


3 


- 


120 


- 


44 


26 


314 


36 


29 


11 


- 


53 


_ 


30 


29 


8 


7 


15 


- 


39 


7 


8 


_ 


21 


_ 


29 


_ 


9 


- 


506 


32 


30 


8 


- 


44 


2 


66 


44 


1 


3 


3 


- 


2 


2 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


26 


- 


6 


- 


59 


16 


31 


12 


- 


70 


2 


37 


21 


3 


5 


11 


2 


22 


1 


4 


1 


3 


- 


31 


- 


9 


2 


395 


32 


32 


2 


- 


96 


- 


27 


11 




1 


8 


1 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


47 


- 


16 


- 


157 


22 


33 


6 


- 


43 


- 


27 


11 


3 


1 


4 


1 


51 


1 


- 


- 


35 


- 


11 


- 


9 


~ 


337 


10 


34 


199 


- 


1342 


26 


809 


503 


70 


77 


172 


11 


1100 


u 


45 


13 


589 


2 


873 


2 


309 


32 


5989 


371 


35 


5 


_ 


226 


9 


54 


21 


3 


3 


9 


_ 


47 


3 


_ 




5 


_ 


33 


_ 


14 


2 


166 


16 


36 


3 


- 


52 


3 


26 


41 


1 


7 


10 


- 


13 


_ 


_ 


- 


20 


- 


33 


- 


2 


18 


182 


30 


37 


3 


- 


11 


- 


35 


16 


7 


3 


6 


1 


41 


2 


- 


- 


14 


- 


38 


- 


2 


- 


58 


4 


38 


3 


- 


27 


- 


45 


18 


- 


1 


3 


- 


29 


4 


1 


- 


1 


- 


27 


- 


4 


2 


101 


13 


39 


3 


- 


99 


- 


25 


57 


_ 


2 


3 


- 


8 


1 




- 


5 


- 


35 


- 


11 


- 


66 


12 


40 


1 


- 


46 


1 


23 


14 


1 


1 


15 


2 


36 


2 


- 


- 


2 


- 


27 


- 


20 


- 


455 


20 


41 


2 


- 


23 


- 


22 


8 


7 


4 


3 


- 


29 


- 


1 


_ 


57 


- 


25 


- 


5 


- 


261 


13 


42 


1 


" 


50 


~ 


36 


12 


1 


3 


4 


~ 


27 


- 


1 


2 


14 


~ 


212 


~ 


18 


" 


79 


11 


43 



158 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 













Cases and Deaths from Diseases 


Dangerous 








19A 


61A 

Ep. 


9 




19B 


92 


6 




Cities and Towns 


Popu- 
lation 
esti- 


Chicken 
Pox. 


Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 


Diph- 
theria. 


Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 




GROUPED IN Order of 


mated 




Menin- 












Population. 


as of 




gitis. 
















July 1, 


























6 




1919. 




tn 




in 




m 




m 




m 




2 


12; 






• 


X. 


aj 


J3 


ai 


j3 


DQ 


^ 


m* 


A 


en 




<u 






^ 


ce 


S 


03 


S 


■g 


(U 


■§ 


S 


■g 




S 


a 






C3 


(D 


c3 


S 


03 




03 





0) 




C3 


<u 


S 






P 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 


44 


Arlington, .... 


18,004 


21 




,3 


1 


30 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 


9 


6 


_ 


45 


Melrose, . 






17,860 


17 


- 


- 


- 


13 


- 


4 


- 


12 


4 


10 


- 


46 


Gardner, 






17,786 


74 


- 


2 


2 


14 


1 


6 


- 


16 


17 


3 


- 


47 


Leominster, 






17,701 


76 


- 


3 


4 


9 


1 


4 


- 


35 


22 


435 


3 


48 


Woburn, 






17,.336 


13 


- 


1 


- 


17 


3 


1 


- 


16 


14 


2 


- 


49 


Methuen, 






16,161 


16 


- 


1 


- 


24 


2 


1 


- 


18 


10 


2 


- 


50 


Marlborough, . 






15,814 


78 


- 


- 


- 


21 


1 


10 


- 


4 


3 


16 


- 


51 


Newburyport, 






15,614 


83 


- 


3 


1 


17 


3 


17 


- 


25 


10 


17 


- 


52 


South bridge, . 






15,580 


5 


- 


1 


- 


8 


- 


1 


- 


4 


6 


19 


- 


53 


Winthrop, 






14,968 


100 


- 


2 


1 


14 


1 


12 


- 


20 


9 


10 


- 


54 


Weymouth, 






14,874 


1 


- 


2 


1 


33 


1 


- 


- 


22 


10 


4 


- 


55 


Greenfield, 






14,466 


13 


- 


1 


- 


59 


1 


9 


- 


12 


7 


14 


- 


56 


Milford. . 






14,214 


15 


- 


- 


1 


39 


- 


1 


- 


7 


12 


5 


- 


57 


Wakefield, 






13,939 


12 


- 


1 


1 


18 


- 


- 


- 


19 


8 


1 


- 


58 


Plymouth, 






13,587 


14 


- 


- 


- 


14 


1 


- 


- 


1 


7 


15 


- 


59 


Norwood, 






13,472 


27 


- 


~ 


- 


15 


- 


4 


- 


15 


8 


5 


1 


60 


Webster, 






13,453 


21 


- 


1 


1 


26 


4 


- 


- 


11 


2 


40 


- 


61 


Adams, . 






13,378 


5 


-. 




- 


28 


2 


- 


- 


8 


6 


1 


- 


62 


Clinton, . 






13,289 


10 


1 


1 


2 


12 


3 


1 


- 


22 


9 


4 


1 


63 


West Springfield, 






13,119 


12 


- 


- 


- 


15 


2 


- 


- 


5 


4 


- 


- 


64 


Danvers, 






12,663 


45 


- 


- 


- 


40 


- 


- 


- 


6 


11 


141 


- 


65 


Dedham, 






12,524 


16 


- 


1 


- 


47 


1 


- 


- 


5 


2 


151 


1 


66 


Natick, . 






12,175 


42 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


11 


5 


5 


- 


67 


Saugus, . 






12,061 


21 


- 


- 


- 


52 


2 


2 


- 


5 


4 


53 


1 


68 


Easthampton, 






10,956 


11 


- 


- 


- 


23 


2 


- 


- 


9 


1 


1 


- 


69 


Athol, . 






10,831 


5 


- 


- 


- 


14 


2 


- 


- 


7 


5 


21 


1 


70 


Bridgewater, . 






10,807 


10 


- 


- 


- 


35 


- 


4 


- 


2 


3 


20 


- 


71 


Winchester, 






10,590 


48 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


1 


- 


11 


4 


- 


- 


72 


Braintree, 






10,417 


14 


1 


4 


1 


12 


1 


2 


- 


9 


5 


5 


- 


73 


Belmont, 






10,219 


58 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


2 


- 


13 


6 


7 


- 


74 


Palmer, . 






10,191 


4 


- 


- 


~ 


26 


8 


~ 


~ 


6 


4 


" 


" 


75 


Towns, 5,000-10,000. 


342,000 


499 


- 


17 


11 


433 


B3 


50 


1 


235 


190 


632 


1 


76 


Ware, 


9,808 


6 


_ 


1 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


4 


- 


77 


Northbridge, . 






9,629 


4 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


2 


5 


21 


- 


78 


North Attleboroug' 


1, 




9,.536 


8 


- 


- 


- 


29 


- 


1 


- 


17 


5 


5 


- 


79 


Milton, 






9,168 


55 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


2 


3 


48 


- 


80 


Middleborough, 






8,981 


7 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


7 


7 


19 


- 


81 


Montague, 






8,814 


4 


- 


- 


1 


10 


1 


4 


- 


3 


4 


1 


- 


82 


Andover, 






8,547 


21 


- 


- 


- 


24 


2 


- 


- 


9 


5 


- 


- 


83 


Swampsoott, . 






8.305 


5 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


1 


- 


5 


4 


48 


- 


84 


Marblehead, . 






7,833 


1 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


3 


- 


85 


Stoneham, 






7,825 


7 


- 


- 


- 


14 


1 


- 


- 


11 


7 


1 


- 


86 


Needham, 






7,817 


19 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


10 


3 


1 


- 


87 


Whitman, 






7,713 


18 


- 


1 


1 


7 


- 


8 


- 


12 


2 


11 


- 


88 


Reading, 






7,635 


1 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


89 


Stoughton, 






7,542 


2 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10 


2 


- 


90 


Amesbury, 






7,407 


- 


- 


1 


1 


7 


1 


1 


- 


16 


10 


- 


- 


91 


Ludlow, . 






7,349 


20 


- 


- 


1 


3 


2 


- 


- 


7 


3 


1 


- 


92 


Wellesley, 






7,302 


55 


- 


- 


- 


24 


- 


12 


- 


14 


3 


4 


- 


93 


Fairhaven, 






7,249 


2 


- 


- 


- 


10 


2 


1 


- 


1 


3 


50 


- 


94 


Great Barrington, 






7,216 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


6 


7 


6 


- 


95 


Rockland, 






7,196 


4 


- 


2 


2 


9 


- 


5 


- 


2 


1 


32 


- 


96 


Franklin, 






7,113 


12 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


8 


2 


112 


- 


97 


Maynard, 






7,090 


- 


- 


1 


1 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


98 


Concord, 






6,900 


36 


- 


- 


- 


35 


- 


3 


- 


6 


14 


3 


- 


99 


Hudson, 






6,771 


4 


- 


5 


2 


4 


- 


- 


- 


1 


7 


- 


- 


100 


Ipswich, . 






6,689 


5 


- 


1 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


2 


- 


101 


Grafton, 






6,688 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


6 


7 


8 


- 


102 


Tewksbury, 






6,540 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


103 


Wesi borough, . 






6,329 


11 


~ 


" 


" 


4 


2 






7 


11 


7 





No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



159 



to the Public Health, 1919 — Continued. 



38A 


7 




28-29 


30-35 


1 




8 




100 


19C 


38C 


37 


10 




Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 


Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


Mumps 


Gonor- 
rhea. 

1 


Syph- 
ilis. 


Influ- 
enza. 




6 




6 


.3 
1 


6 


1 

Q 


(0 




J3 

03 
0) 

Q 


1 

6 


i 
t 

Q 


1 




5 


6 


P 


1 



Q 





1 
Q 


(a 

6 


1 

Q 


1 

_C3 




d 


3 


1 




40 




26 


10 


2 


2 


6 


_ 


45 


4 


5 


T 


39 


1 


10 


_ 


4 


1 


243 


7 


44 


17 


- 


47 


1 


12 


8 


1 


1 


2 


- 


64 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


18 


- 


7 


- 


307 


13 


45 


2 


- 


13 


1 


51 


20 


1 


2 


13 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


58 


- 


21 


- 


4 


1 


136 


9 


46 


5 


- 


56 


- 


39 


10 


3 


3 


8 


3 


91 


3 


1 


- 


9 


- 


36 


2 


2 


- 


368 


10 


47 


1 


- 


11 


- 


25 


14 


2 


1 


8 


- 


58 


2 


1 


- 


34 


- 


23 


- 


3 


- 


180 


16 


48 


3 


- 


26 


- 


22 


14 


2 


1 


2 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


21 


- 


9 


- 


1 


- 


115 


7 


49 


1 


- 


7 


- 


32 


10 


- 


1 


7 


1 


37 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


lis 


12 


50 


2 


- 


5 


2 


11 


8 


2 


4 


12 


1 


30 


3 


29 


8 


4 


1 


19 


- 


2 


1 


112 


3 


51 


- 


- 


4 


- 


15 


5 


1 


1 


12 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


32 


- 


7 


- 


58 


5 


52 


i 


- 


55 


1 


18 


7 


2 


2 


2 


- 


36 


- 


- 


- 


59 


- 


15 


- 


3 


1 


155 


7 


53 


- 


- 


25 


_ 


17 


10 


2 


- 


2 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


8 


- 


111 


7 


54 


9 


- 


24 


- 


12 


6 


4 


2 


3 


- 


105 


3 


- 


- 


30 


- 


12 


- 


9 


1 


153 


11 


55 


1 


- 


69 


1 


16 


21 


7 


6 


3 


- 


2 


- 


- 


1 


38 


- 


13 


- 


3 


1 


89 


14 


56 


- 


- 


46 


2 


13 


8 


1 


4 




- 


16 


1 


- 


1 


10 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


63 


7 


57 


2 


- 


6 


- 


14 


9 


1 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


10 


- 


4 


1 


57 


7 


58 


3 


- 


39 


_ 


19 


10 




3 


1 


1 


7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


13 


- 


6 


- 


149 


72 


59 


8 


- 


2 


- 


12 


13 


3 


3 


3 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


17 


- 


6 


- 


71 


5 


60 


5 


- 


1 


1 


26 


10 




_ 


10 


1 


19 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


2 


1 


39 


4 


61 


2 


- 


24 


- 


18 


15 


4 


4 


2 


- 


10 


3 


- 


- 


1 


- 


22 


- 


5 


- 


203 


15 


62 


- 


- 


26 


1 


7 


5 


- 


_ 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


17 


- 


9 


- 


12 


7 


63 


2 


- 


22 


- 


15 


22 


3 


4 


_ 


- 


60 


5 


- 


- 


5 


- 


17 


- 


43 


1 


105 


3 


64 


2 


- 


15 


- 


9 


3 


- 


- 


1 


- 


54 


- 


1 


- 


8 


- 


14 


- 


16 


- 


39 


1 


65 


- 


- 


11 


- 


15 


3 


1 


1 


6 


- 


_ 


- 


3 


1 


7 


- 


17 


- 


7 


- 


301 


10 


66 


2 


- 


47 


- 


11 


8 


- 


1 


3 


- 


22 


2 


1 


- 


4 


- 


6 


- 


5 


1 


527 


9 


67 


- 


- 


54 


3 


13 


3 


- 


- 




- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


- 


45 


3 


68 


- 


- 


8 


- 


5 


8 


- 


- 


2 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


17 


- 


2 


- 


194 


7 


69 


1 


- 


53 


- 


25 


21 


4 


1 


3 


- 


7 


- 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


14 


- 


10 


- 


67 


4 


70 


5 


- 


13 


- 


10 


5 


2 


- 


1 


1 


15 


1 


- 


- 


10 


- 


10 


- 


1 


- 


252 


16 


71 


- 


- 


22 


- 


14 


18 


1 


2 


2 


- 


39 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


14 


- 


2 


- 


171 


7 


72 


- 


- 


24 


- 


18 


8 


1 


_ 


2 


- 


115 


1 


- 


- 


96 


- 


8 


- 


4 


- 


169 


3 


73 


- 


- 


13 


- 


3 


4 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


5 


~ 


7 


- 


12 


11 


74 


39 


- 


545 


4 


347 


230 


46 


39 


67 


5 


430 


19 


8 


- 


256 


2 


366 


- 


116 


13 


3370 


228 


75 


_ 


- 


9 


- 


2 


7 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


11 


- 


9 


_ 


4 


- 


6 


2 


76 


2 


- 


6 


- 


20 


9 


- 


1 


2 


- 


13 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


13 


- 


2 


- 


5 


10 


77 


1 


- 


3 


- 


9 


6 


2 


3 


2 


- 


18 


4 


- 


- 


1 


- 


30 


- 


5 


- 


256 


10 


78 


1 


- 


12 


- 


10 


4 


1 


_ 


2 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


4 


- 


2 


- 


152 


4 


79 


- 


- 


5 


- 


17 


7 


- 


1 


2 


- 


23 


1 


- 


- 


5 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


7 


2 


80 


3 


- 


31 


- 


10 


8 


- 


_ 


3 


- 




_ 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


20 


2 


81 


- 


- 


9 


- 


3 


2 


1 


1 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


29 


- 


8 


- 


1 


- 


117 


7 


82 


1 


- 


21 


- 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


- 


13 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


4 


- 


4 


- 


30 


3 


83 


- 


- 


26 


- 


6 


8 


- 


- 


1 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


14 


- 


3 


- 


16 


2 


84 


2 


- 


4 


- 


8 


4 


- 


- 


1 


1 


34 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


9 


- 


4 


- 


131 


9 


85 


- 


- 


9 


- 


8 


3 


2 


1 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


5 


- 


2 


- 


99 


7 


86 


- 


- 


20 


- 


9 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


41 


9 


87 


- 


- 


5 


- 


3 


7 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


12 


2 


88 


1 


- 


7 


- 


1 


4 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


2 


- 


2 


4 


89 


2 


- 


2 


- 


12 


10 


_ 


1 


1 


- 


24 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


36 


- 


3 


- 


132 


9 


90 


4 


- 


4 


- 


6 


1 


2 


3 


- 


- 


28 


1 


- 


- 


63 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


73 


2 


91 


1 


- 


11 


- 


7 


2 


- 


1 


4 


1 


8 


- 


1 


- 


29 


- 


8 


- 


2 


- 


120 


4 


92 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12 


3 


- 


2 


- 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


39 


4 


93 


- 


- 


10 


- 


8 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


27 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


12 


- 


3 


- 


- 


3 


94 


- 


- 


22 


- 


5 


7 


1 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


69 


3 


95 


- 


- 


15 


- 


2 


3 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


- 


3 


1 


14 


4 


96 


1 


- 


- 


- 


4 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 




- 


39 


10 


97 


- 


- 


17 


- 


10 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


65 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


26 


- 


8 


- 


369 


11 


98 


1 


- 


2 


- 


14 


4 


3 


1 


2 


- 


28 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


1 


- 


2 


6 


99 


1 


- 


37 


- 


8 


4 


1 


1 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


2 


- 


1 


- 


6 


4 


100 


- 


- 


16 


- 


33 


29 


- 


- 


1 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 


- 


1 


43 


6 


101 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


4 


- 


- 


1 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


102 


_;_ 


" 


8 


~ 


11 


10 


"" 


1 


1 


1 


11 


~ 


~ 


~ 


9 


~ 


11 


~ 


32 


9 


100 


3 


103 



160 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 















Cases and Deaths from D 


iseases 


Dangerous 








19A 


61A 

Ep. 


9 


19B 


92 


6 






Popu- 
lation 


Chicken 


Cere- 
bro- 


Diph- 


Ger- 
man 


Lobar 
Pneu- 


Measles. 




Cities and Towns 
GROUPED IN Order op 


esti- 
mated 


Pox. 


spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


theria. 


Mea- 
sles. 


monia- 






Population. 


as of 






1 




, 


July 1, - 
























o 




1919. 


2 




xi 




5 




S. 


m 


S, 


oj 


i 


o 






1 ^ 


p 


cS 


o 


s 


o 


C3 


o 


s 


M 


1 


c 






6 S 




Q 




a 




P 


6 


0) 

Q 


6 




104 


Canton, 


6,318 


15 


_ 


_ 


_ 


4 


- 


6 


1 


- 


4 


1 


- 


105 


North Andover, 






6,314 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


1 


- 


~ 


5 


6 


~ 


~ 


103 


Mansfield, 






6,268 


17 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


4 


2 


8 
17 
48 


~ 


107 


Dartmouth, . 








6,130 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


"" 


7 


" 


~ 


108 


Winchendon, . 








6,102 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


~ 


109 


Wareham, 








6,081 


8 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


"" 


7 


2 


51 


~ 


110 


Lexington, 








6,060 


8 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


10 


3 


3 


~ 


111 


Walpole, . 








5,995 


23 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 


~ 


10 


1 


1 


~ 


112 


Amherst, 








5,933 


89 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


~ 


8 


~ 


6 

49 




113 


Abington, 








5,806 


3 


- 


- 


- 


13 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


3 


~ 


114 


Millbury, 








5,762 


4 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


~ 


1 


4 


~ 


115 


Hingham, 








5,516 


4 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


6 


3 
2 


5 


~ 


116 


Orange, . 








5,4.59 


- 


- 


1 


- 


28 


2 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 




117 


Agawam, 








5,443 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


1 


4 

1 
5 


~ 


~ 


118 


South Hadley, 








5,419 


1 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


~ 


1 


~ 


~ 


119 


Spencer, 








5,367 


1 


- 


- 


- 


50 


4 


~ 


■" 


~ 


5 
6 
12 




120 


Chelmsford, 








5,326 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


"" 


1 


1 
3 
5 
5 
2 
1 


~ 


121 


Barnstable, 








5,264 


5 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


3 


~ 


6 


1 


122 


Monson, . 








5,210 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


~ 


"* 


1 


123 


Uxbridge, 








5,131 


1 


- 


- 


- 


8 


2 


- 


~ 


7 


~ 




124 


Randolph, 








5,100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


"■ 


~ 


~ 


31 




125 


Easton, . 








5,001 


5 


~ 


~ 


" 


15 




1 




2 




126 


Towns, 2,500-5,000. 


1S8,S65 


139 


- 


s 


6 


230 


16 


H 


- 


93 


92 


395 


6 


127 


Lee, 


4,783 


2 


- 


- 


- 


5 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 
3 

17 


1 


128 


Falmouth, 








4,.569 


2 


- 


1 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 


"" 


~ 


129 


Dracut, . 








4,494 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15 


- 


~ 


"" 


~ 


1 

1 
4 




130 


Rockport, 








4,474 


2 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


"" 


2 


~ 


131 


Dudley, . 








4,462 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


1 


- 


~ 


5 


44 
4 




132 


Templeton, 








4,3.55 


4 


- 


- 


- 


5 


1 


"" 


" 


15 


4 




133 


Warren, . 








4,335 


— 


— 


— 


1 


6 


" 


~ 


~ 


~ 




134 


Provincetown, 






4,232 


4 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1 

10 

1 


~ 


~ 


135 


Williamstown, 






4,212 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 






136 


Dal ton, . 






4,102 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


22 


1 


137 


Auburn, . 






4,005 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


2 
1 


138 


East Bridgewater, 






3,963 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


~ 


~ 


8 


3 




139 


Barre, 






3,913 


2 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


~ 


1 


~ 


140 


Somerset, 






3,865 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


5 


2 
4 
4 
4 


31 




" 


141 


Medfield, 






3,800 


3 


- 


- 


- 


2 


~ 


~ 


" 


"" 


Ji 




142 


Blackstone, 






3,700 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


" 


9 




143 


Foxborough, . 






3,663 


1 


- 


- 


- 


23 


- 


1 


~ 


2 


~ 


144 


Hardwick, 






3,655 


- 


- 


- 


- 


14 


2 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 


6 

17 




145 


Billerica, 






3,629 


4 


- 


1 


1 


21 


1 


- 


- 


1 


~ 


146 


Oxford, . 






3,573 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


■" 


~ 


1 


1 


147 


Westport, 






3,543 


3 


- 


- 


- 


5 


1 


2 


- 


~ 


2 
2 
1 
3 


66 


148 


Shrewsbury, . 






3,. 509 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 


5 


2 




149 


Leicester, 






3,394 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




150 


Lenox, 






3,394 


6 


- 


- 


- 


1 


~ 


- 


~ 


1 


11 




151 


Nantucket, 






3,338 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


" 


1 




152 


Hadley, . 






3,226 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


~ 


4 


2 


~ 




153 


Deerfield, 






3,185 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


~ 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 






154 


Hatfield, 






3,173 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


~ 


1 


2 
3 


~ 




155 


Manchester, 






3,173 


8 


- 


1 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 




156 


West Bridgewater, 






3,170 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


2 






157 


Seekonk, 






3,079 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 
6 




158 


Holbrook, 






3,0.58 


-• 


- 


- 


1 


3 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


2 


1 


159 


Swansea , 






3,043 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


6 


2 


160 


Hopedale, 






3,(145 


1 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


~ 


1 


1 




161 


Cohasset, 






2,981 


3 


- 


1 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 


1 

1 


~ 


1 


162 


Wrentham, 






2,978 


29 


- 


1 


1 


4 


- 


- 


~ 


10 


1 




163 


Acushnet, 




2,972 










7 


2 








z 





No. 34.1 DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



161 



to the Public Health, 1919 — Continued. 



38A 


7 


28-29 


30-35 


1 


8 


100 


19C 


38C 


37 




10 






Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 


Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


Mumps 


Gonor- 
rhea. 


Syph- 
ihs. 


Influ- 
enza. 

























































f^ 




n 




J3 


m 


M 


m 


J3 


ro 


^ 


m 


J3 


m 


j3 


m 


J5 




_2 


'4, 


^ 


^ 


01 




o 




m 


4.S 


S 


OS 


S 


% 


m 


c3 


^ 


cS 


<o 


c3 


o 


■s 




03 





6 


Q 


6 


a 


6 


a 


O 


Q 


6 


Q 


6 


a 


o 


q 


6 


P 


03 

o 


Q 


03 

o 


Q 


a 


Q 


3 






.>> 




p 


2 


?3 


3 


2 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


15 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 


4 


3 


104 




_ 


1Q 


1 


fi 


3 


?, 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


44 


1 


105 


_ 


_ 


41 




7 


2 


1 


1 


- 


- 


23 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


20 


- 


6 


- 


105 


4 


106 


4 


_ 


S 


1 


7 


8 




- 


1 


- 


2 


2 


3 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


81 


10 


107 




_ 


q 




9 


4 


_ 


2 


fi 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


3 


- 


3 


1 


273 


15 


108 


2 


_ 




_ 


7 


5 


_ 


1 


9. 


- 


9 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


40 


1 


109 




_ 


3 


_ 


fi 


3 


_ 


1 




- 


31 


1 


- 


- 


7 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


151 


5 


110 




_ 


13 


_ 


fi 




_ 


_ 


a 


- 


24 


- 


3 


- 


24 


- 


13 


- 


1 


- 


170 


2 


111 


9 


_ 


fi 


_ 


4 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


2 


- 


158 


1 


112 




_ 


•?,=) 


_ 


1 


2 




- 


3 


- 


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148 
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3 

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155 
156 
157 


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2 


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2 


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- 


- 


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50 


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159 


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4 


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1 


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- 


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4 


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2 


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44 


2 


160 


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1 


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1 


_ 


- 


- 


2 


1 


8 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


7 


- 


- 


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42 


1 


161 


_ 


_ 


5 


- 


7 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


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20 


- 


3 


- 


- 


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22 


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162 


- 


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3 


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5 


3 


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- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 


2 


163 



162 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Cases and Deaths fro7n Diseases Dangerous 



Cities and Towns 

GROUPED IN Order of 

Population. 



Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1919. 



19A 



Chicken 
Pox. 



61A 

Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 



Diph- 
theria. 



19B 

Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 



Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 



Measles. 



Medway, 

Hanover, 

Pepperell, 

Holliston, 

Bourne, . 

North Brookfield, 

Westford, 

Holden, . 

Scituate, 

Ayer, 

Wilmington, 

Dighton, 

Kingston, 

Lancaster, 

Wilbraham, 

Norton, . 

Sutton, . 

Sharon , . 

Weston, . 



Towns under 2,500. 



Hopkinton, . 

Groton, . 

Grovoland, 

Hull, 

Rehoboth, 

Charlton, 

Shirley, . 

Avon, 

Ashland, 

East Ix)ngmeadow, 

Harwich, 

Douglas, 

Bellingham, . 

Acton, 

Georgetown, . 

Duxbury, 

Williamsburg, 

Southborough, 

Belchertown, 

Milh-ille, 

Rutland, 

Ashburnham, 

Merrimac, 

Upton, . 

Hamilton, 

Brookfield, 

Sherborn, 

Colrain, . 

Northfield, 

Sheffield, 

Wayland, 

Raynham, 

Stockbridge, 

North borough 

Longmeadow, 

Townsend, 

Freetown, 

Westminster, 

Lunenburg, 

Lakeville, 



2,972 
2,952 
2,935 
2,852 
2,840 
2,838 
2,83.5 
2,822 
2,813 
2,763 
2,726 
2,722 
2,694 
2,686 
2,681 
2,625 
2,619 
2,602 
2,540 



211,793 ISO 



2,495 

2,484 
2,482 
2,446 
2,418 
2,365 
2,344 
2,290 
2,278 
2,263 
2,233 
2,201 
2,168 
2,164 
2,142 
2,118 
2,106 
2,028 
2,070 
2,031 
2,022 
2,017 
2,017 
2,007 
1,988 
1,937 
1,923 
1,904 
1,900 
1,900 
1,886 
1,882 
1,875 
1,868 
1,866 
1,8.54 
1,823 
1,796 
1,791 
1,785 



104 



52 



No. 34.1 DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



163 



to the Public Health, 1919 — Continued. 



38A 


7 




28-29 


30-35 


1 


8 


100 


19C 


38C 


31 




10 






Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 


Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


Mumps 


Gonor- 
rhea. 


Syph- 
ills. 


Influ- 
enza. 
















































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178 


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_ 


_ 


1 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


77 


- 


19* 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 




_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


34 


3 


200" 


- 


- 


1 
3 
1 


- 


1 


1 

2 

55 


- 


1 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


12 
5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 
35 


3 
3 


201 
202 
,203 
2Q4 


_ 


_ 


9 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


« 


- 


- 


- 


29 


- 


205 


- 


- 




- 


2 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


11 


1 


206 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


1 


20V 


_ 


_ 


4 


_ 


1 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2()H 


- 


- 


1 


- 


4 


2 


- 


- 


4 


2 


1 
1 


- 


: 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 
159 


3 
1 


209 
210 


1 


- 


3 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


22 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


3 


211 


_ 


_ 


9 


7. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


'M?. 


_ 


_ 






1 


1 


_ 


_ 




_ 


fi 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


18 


3 


213 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


2 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


7 


2 


214 


_ 


_ 


5 


- 


2 


3 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


215 


- 


_ 


15 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


39 


1 


216 


_ 


_ 


3 


- 


1 




- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


31 


1 


217 


_ 


_ 


2 


- 


2 




- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


1 


218 


■ - 


- 


- 


- 


3 




- 


- 


- 


: 


: 


1 


: 


: 


2 


~ 


3 


- 


~ 


: 


48 


2 

1 


219 
220 


_ 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


221 


_ 


_ 




- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


21 


5 


222 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


120 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 


~ 


" 


~ 


21 


2 


223 



164 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 





Cities .\nd Towns 

GROUPED IN Order of 

Population. 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1919. 


19A 

Chicken 
Pox. 


61A 

Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


9 

Diph- 
theria. 


19B 

Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


92 

Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


6 

Measles. 


o 

o 
c 

3 




6 




1 

6 


J3 

Q 


i 
u 




1 

6 


1 


6 


1 

Q 


1 

6 


J3 
1 

Q 


224 

225 

226 

227 

228 

229 

230 

231 

232 

233 

234 

23.5 

236 

237 

238 

239 

240 

241 

242 

243 

244 

245 

246 

247 

248 

249 

250 

251 

252 

253 

254 

255 

256 

257 

258 

259 

260 

261 

262 

263 

264 

265 

266 

267 

268 

269 

270 

271 

272 

273 

274 

275 

276 

277 

278 

279 

280 

281 

282 

283 

284 

285 

286 


Salisbury, 

Chatham, 

Hanson, . 

Dennis, . 

Carver, . 

Essex, 

Marshfield, 

Norwell, 

Newbury, 

Southwick, 

West wood, 

Rowley, . 

West Newbur 

Buckland, 

Cheshire, 

Nahant, . 

Norfolk, . 

Marion, . 

North Readin 

Millis, . 

Bedford, 

Sunderland, 

Shelburne, 

Middleton 

Mattapoisett, 

Sterling, . 

Tisbury, 

Plainville, 

Lincoln, . 

Yarmouth, 

Huntington, 

Oak Bluffs, 

Hinsdale, 

West Boylston 

Edgartown, 

Whately, 

Sandwich, 

Pembroke, 

Sturbridge, 

Chester, . 

Lynnfield, 

West Stockbric 

Sudbury, 

West Brookfiel 

Orleans, . 

Littleton, 

Russell, . 

Rochester, 

Conway, 

Lanesborough, 

Erving, . 

Topsfield, 

Dover, . 

Harvard, 

Stow, 

Wenhani, 

Hubbardston, 

Tyngsborough, 

Clarksburg, . 

Ashfield, 

Southampton, 

Brim field, 

Becket, . 


Ige, 
d, 






1,767 
1,7.55 
1,746 
1,742 
1,734 
1,724 
1,713 
1,693 
1,682 
1,655 
1,600 
1,577 
1,.576 
1,565 
1,560 
1,559 
. 1,528 
1.508 
1,489 
1,479 
1,478 
1,472 
1.471 
1,459 
1,4.53 
1,441 
1,4.33 
1,429 
1,424 
1,411 
1,387 
1,380- 
1,375 
1,360 
1,348 
1,346 
1,340 
1,337 
1,332 
1,315 
1,281 
1,281 
1,278 
1,2.55 
1,242 
1,228 
1.222 
1,219 
1,212 
1,207 
1,185 
1,173 
1,168 
1,163 
1,136 
1,118 
1,093 
1,084 
1,035 
1,023 
1,017 
992 
985 


18 
1 

4 

1 

1 

7 

3 

1 

- 
2 

1 

1 

1 
1 


- 


1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

-_ 
1 


2 

4 
1 
5 

1 
2 
2 

2 
6 
2 
1 
5 
3 

1 
1 

2 
4 
6 
3 

2 

2 

1 

2 
2 

1 
1 

3 


1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 


1 

1 

1 

5 

1 
1 
1 


- 


3 

1 

1 

1 
1 

3 

2 
3 
5 

2 
1 

2 

1 

3 

2 

2 


2 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
3 
1 

1 
2 

1 

1 
3 
3 
2 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
2 

1 
2 
5 
3 

1 


1 

2 
2 

1 

1 

8 
2 
11 

18 
9 

17 
41 

1 

30 

8 
6 

5 

2 
2 

1 

7 
8 

7 
1 

6 


1 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



165 



to the Public Health, 1019 — Continued. 



38A 

Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


7 

Scarlet 
Fever. 


28-29 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


30-35 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


1 

Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


8 

Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 


100 

Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


19C 

Mumps 


38C 

Gonor- 
rhea. 


37 

Syph- 
ilis. 


10 

Influ- 
enza. 




i 

a 


1 


03 

o 


1 


6 


J3 

Q 


O 




01 




6 Q 


§ 




6 


5 

^ 

a 


1 

a 


j3 

+3 


1 

6 


1 


a 


J3 
1 


d 

o 

a 

3 


• 1 
1 

1 

2 
1 


- 


1 
1 

2 

2 
2 
2 
9 
1 
3 
3 
2 
19 

3 

1 

8 
8 
4 
1 
1 
4 

4 
2 
1 

2 

1 
1 
6 

1 

3 

1 

11 

2 
5 

3 

1 
3 

1 

1 


1 
1 


1 

3 

1 
3 

2 
5 

1 
5 

4 
1 

2 
2 

3 

4 
1 

8 
1 


1 

10 
2 

1 
2 

1 

6 

2 
1 

60 

1 
1 

1 

1 
2 

2 

1 

2 
1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

3 

1 

1 
1 

1 

3 

1 


1 
1 

1 
1 


1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


2 

1 

6 

1 

1 
2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

7 

2 

1 

1 

1 


1 
1 


29 

2 

6 

1 

1 

2 

1 
3 

3 

54 
9 

32 
3 

8 

20 

5 
2 

25 

24 

4 
1 

11 


1 
1 
1 

1 


10 


1 

2 

1 


2 
1 

2 
1 
6 

1 

1 
2 

2 
36 

1 


- 


2 
1 

1 

3 

2 

1 
1 

4 

2 

1 
1 

1 
2 
1 
1 

3 

2 
9 

8 

1 

1 
5 

1 
1 


- 


1 

3 

1 


1 
1 

1 


7 

1 

18 

25 
51 
14 
14 
2 
16 

6 
1 

3 
10 
38 
40 

1 

3 

35 
135 

27 

18 
2 
2 

15 

1 
5 

1 

14 

98 
34 

2 

17 
78 

3 
12 

7 

13 
14 

9 
14 


2 
1 
3 
2 

2 

1 
3 

2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

2 
2 
1 

2 

1 

3 

1 

1 

2 
1 

2 

1 
2 

1 

3 

1 

3 


224 

225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 



166 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 









19A 


61A 

Ep. 


9 


19B 


92 


6 




Cities and Towns 
GBOUPED IN Order of 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 


Chicken 
Pox. 


Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


Diph- 
theria. 


Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


T^obar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 




POPTILATION. as of | 




1 




1 








July 1, - 


























o 




1919. 








J3 




J3 


. 


.S 


m 


JS 


aj 


1 








\o 


-.J 


o 




S 


03 


a 


cS 


m 


& 


K 












» 








S 


ca 








,=5 




3 






U 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


« 


U 


u 


U 


(-1 


U 


'-' 


?87 


Mendon. .... 


979 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


9M 


Berkley, . 






973 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 






"■ 


?89 


Gill, 






959 


6 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 










?m 


Charlemont, . 






956 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




~ 




?'»i 


Ashby, 






952 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 






•K\?. 


New Marlborough, 






950 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


~ 




~ 


~ 


293 


Royalston, 






921 


2 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


"" 


~ 










?94 


Brewster, 






910 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


"■ 












?.% 


Burlington, . 






886 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 

2 


2 






?96 


Granby, . 






883 


- 


- 


- 


- 


■" 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 

2 




?97 


Wellfleet, 






864 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


■" 


~ 


— 






398 


Boylston, 






842 


- 


- 


- 


- 




~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




?99 


Bernards ton, . 






832 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 












30n 


Berlin, . 






830 


- 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




~ 


sni 


Leverett, 






821 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 










302 
303 


Granville, 
Princeton, 






788 
784 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


11 


- 


304 


Bolton, . 






772 


2 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 














305 


Enfield, . 






748 


8 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 












306 


Halifax, . 






713 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




2 


1 
1 


6 




307 


Boxford, 






710 


1 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




30S 


Petersham, 






702 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 




2 


1 




309 


Dana, 






691 


1 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 






310 


Hampden, 






691 


- 


- 


~ 


I 


~ 


" 


~ 


~ 










311 


Cummington, 






681 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 










3 




313 


Truro, . 






671 


2 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 














313 


Worthington, . 






660 


- ~ 


2 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 












314 


Plympton, 






632 


~ ~ 


~ 


" 


2 










1 






315 


New Salem, . 






613 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 














31fi 


Egremont, 






595 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 
















317 


Chesterfield, . 






580 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 
















■" 


318 


Eastham, 






567 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 










1 

1 
1 






319 


Sandisfield, . 






562 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 


~ 










3?.0 


Hancock, 






556 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 












331 


Blandford, 






543 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


1 


~ 


~ 










332 


Savoy, 






542 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 










2 




S'S 


Pelham, . 






525 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


1 


~ 












324 
335 


Pax ton, . 
Oakham, 






517 
506 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 




- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


326 
337 


Richmond, 
Warwick, 






492 

477 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


338 


Florida, . 






453 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


"" 


~ 












339 


West Tisbury, 






445 


1 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 










1 
1 






330 


New Braintree, 






444 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 
















331 


Cilrlisle, . 






439 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 
















333 


West ham pton, 






435 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


















333 


Haw ley, . 






431 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


















334 


Heath, . 






413 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 








1 








335 


Greenwich, 






405 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 












336 


Otis, 






400 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


1 
















337 


Rowe, 






398 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


















338 


Levden, . 






361 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


2 












5 




339 


PhiUipston, . 






360 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 
















340 
341 


Plain field, 
Windsor, 






350 
350 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


342 
343 


Monroe, . 
Boxborough, . 






338 
334 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


344 


Monterey, 






333 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 
















345 
346 


Wales, . 
Dunstable, 






329 
324 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 
1 


- 


- 


347 


Shutesbury, . 






313 


~ 


~ 


~ 


*■ 


- 














348 


Middlefield, . 






300 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


















349 


Goshen, 


297 



























No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



167 



to the 


Public Health, 1919 


— 


Continued. 


























38A 

Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


7 

Scarlet 
Fever. 


28-29 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


30-35 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


1 

Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


8 

Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 


100 

Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


19C 

Mumps 


38C 

Gonor- 
rhea. 


37 

Syph- 
ilis. 


10 

Influ- 
enza. 




i 

a 


.2 


DO 


J3 


1 

a 




a 


Q 


o 
O 


J3 


1 

a 


1 
(3 


a 
O 




1 

03 
O 


1 
P 


a 


P 


a 


+3 


1 

a 


P 


o 

§ 
3 


1 


- 


2 

1 
4 

3 

1 
2 

3 

1 

3 
3 

2 


_ 


1 
1 

1 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

2 
2 

1 


2 

1 

1 

2 
1 
4 

1 
1 
1 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


1 


1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


1 

_ 

1 
- 

1 


1 

1 


2 
5 

4 

8 
4 

6 


1 
1 


~ 


- 


1 
1 

3 

1 




1 
1 

3 

1 
2 
1 

1 
1 

1 
~ 


- 


1 
1 


1 


41 

1 
1 

33 

39 

4 

4 
1 

3 

1 
12 

4 

12 
33 
11 

10 

5 
40 

4 

4 
11 

14 
10 

4 
12 

3 
11 

18 
19 


1 

1 
2 

2 
1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 

2 

1 

1 
3 

2 
2 

1 
1 
2 

1 

1 

1 

2 


287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
2S3 
294 
295 
236 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 
325 
326 
327 
328 
329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 



16S 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

















Ca 


se.s 


and Deaths 


frotn Diseases 


D07 


gerovs 




Cities axd Towns 

GROUPED IK Order of 

Population. 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1919. 


19A 

Chicken 
Pox. 


61A 

Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


9 

Diph- 
theria. 


19B 

Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


92 

Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


6 

Measles. 


6 

a> 

a 
3 


6 







J5 

Q 


i 
o 


J3 
1 

Q 




.S 


6 


1 

p 


6 




350 
351 
352 
3.53 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
333 
364 

335 

366 


Chilmark, 
Wendell, . 
Prescott, 
Tyringham, 
Washington, 
Alford, . 
Mash pee, 
Montgomery, 
Tolland, . 
Gay Head, 
Holland, 
Peru, 
Gosnold, 
New Ashford, 
Mount Washin 

Camp Devens 

State Infira 

BURY, . 


gton 

lART 


Te 


WKS 




293 
292 
282 
282 
273 
267 
259 
242 
216 
187 
171 
161 
159 
92 
82 


10 
30 


- 


7 


2 

1 


1 

17 
22 


1 
2 


11 




1 
1 

■55 
21 


1 

6 
17 


6 
2 


- 



In addition to the above there 












Cases 


occurred 3 cases of actinomy- 




Somerville, .... 1 


cosis: — 


Cases. Deaths. 


Springfield, 








2 


Boston 


2 


Swampscott, 








2 


Taunton, .... 


1 


Warwick, 
West Newbury, 










66 cases of anterior poliomye 




Weymouth, 










litis, with 17 deaths: — 




Winthrop, . 










Abington, .... 


1 


Worcester, . 










Athol, 






1 1 






Belmont, 






1 - 


18 cases of anthrax, with 1 


Boston, 






13 3 


death: — 


Bridgewater, 






2 1 


Boston, 1 


Brockton, . 






1 - 


Canton, 








1 


Cambridge, 






1 


Chelsea, 








2 


Carlisle, 






1 


Hudson, 








2 


Chelmsford, 






1 


Lynn, 








2 


Clinton, 






1 


Peabody, . 








2 


Dedham, . 






1 


Salem, 








3 


Easthampton, 






1 


Somerville, 








1 


Everett, 






2 - 


Weymouth, 








1 


Fall River, 






1 - 


Woburn, 








2 


Gloucester, 






1 1 


Worcester, . 








1 


Great Barringtor 


ii 




1 - 




Holliston, . 






1 - 


54 cases of dog bite (requiring 


Holyoke, 






2 1 


anti-rabic treatment) : — 


Lawrence, . 






1 


Attleboro 1 


Lowell, 






9 3 


Berkley, 








1 


Lynn, 






4 - 


Beverly, 








1 


Med ford, 






1 - 


Brockton, . 








2 


Melrose, 






1 


Cambridge, 








1 


Methuen, . 






1 


Dartmouth, 








1 


Milford, . 






1 


Dighton, . 








3 


Needham, . 






1 1 


Fall River, 








9 


New Bedford, 






1 2 


Fitchburg, . 








1 


Newton, 






1 - 


Groton, 








2 


North .\dams, 






1 


Lawrence, . 








1 


Norwood, . 






1 


Lowell, 








8 


Palmer, 






1 


Lunenburg, 








1 


Revere, 






I - 


Middlebo rough. 








1 


Scituate, 






1 


New Bedford, 








4 



Deaths. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 



169 



to the Public Health, 1919 — Concluded. 



38A 

Oph- 
thal- 
mia 
Neona- 
torum. 


7 

Scarlet 
Fever. 


28-29 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


30-35 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


1 

Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


8 

Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 


100 

Septic 

Sore 

Throat. 


19C 

Mumps 


38C 

Gonor- 
rhea. 


37 

Syph- 
ilis. 


10 

Influ- 
enza. 




1 


P 


i 
6 


Q 


a 


J3 

Q 


IS 

6 


ffi 

P 




1 

O 


j3 
P 


6 


1 
p 


1 

6 


P 


1 

6 


P 




P 


1 

03 

o 


J3 

"ca 


o 

Z 
o 

a 

3 


3 


- 


23 
10 


- 


1 

131 


1 
1 

9 
165 


21 


1 

1 
6 


2 
2 


- 


2 

7 

16 


1 


1 


1 


114 
3 


- 


1 

269 
119 


- 


272 
37 


1 
19 


7 
1 
3 

38 

3 

3 

8 

1 

3 


1 
1 
1 

5 


350 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 

365 
356 



Rehoboth, . 
Swansea, 
Taunton, 
Templeton, 
Winthrop, . 
Worcester, . 



23 cases of dysentery, w 
deaths: — 
Adams, 
Agawam, 
Bellingham, 
Boston, 
Brookline, . 
Cambridge, 
Camp Devens, 
Fall River, 
New Bedford, 
Newburyport, 
North Adams, 
Northampton, 
Pittsfield 
Provincetown, 
Quincy, 
Salem, 
Scituate, 
Sterling, 
Tops field, 
Westport, 



Cases. Deaths. 
1 



ith 9 



3 cases of leprosy, with 1 
death : — 

Boston 3 

Chelsea, ..... 

72 cases of malaria, with 4 
deaths: — 
Barre, ..... 1 

Boston 11 

Brockton 2 



Camp Devens, 

Chelsea, 

Dedhani, 

Fall River, 

Framingham, 

Franklin, 

Haverhill, . 

Law rence, . 

Lexington, . 

Ixjwell, 

Maiden, 

Mansfield, . 

Middleborough, 

Milford, 

Needham, . 

Newton, 

Northampton, 

Northbridge, 

Springfield, 

Way land, . 

Wellesley, . 

Weymouth , 

Winthrop, . 



13 cases of pellagra, with 15 
deaths: — 
Boston, 
Danvers, 
Fox borough, 
Haverhill, . 
Med ford, 
Melrose, 
Northampton, 
Pepperell, . 
Somerville, 
Taunton, 
West borough, 
\\'orcester, . 
Wrentham, 



Cases. Deaths. 
3 

1 
2 



170 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



1 case of rabies, with 1 death: — Cases. Deaths. 
Fall River, .... 1 1 

40 cases of smallpox, with 2 
deaths: — 
Belmont, 
Boston, 



Cambridge, 

Edgartown, 

Everett, 

Fall River, 

Framingham, 

Gardner, 

Gloucester, 

La.vrence, . 

Lowell, 

Ludlow, 

Quincy, 

Springfield, 



21 cases of tetanus, with 22 
deaths: — 
Adams, 
Amesbury, 
Barnstable, 
Boston, 
Braintree, . 
Brookline, . 
Cambridge, 
Concord, 
Dedham, 
Dracut, 
Fasthampton, 
Fairhaven, . 
Fall River, 
Franklin, . 



Georgetown, 
Lynn, 

Maiden, 

Milton, 

New Bedford, 

Peabodv, 

Pittsfieid, . 

Quincy, 

Somerville, 

Worcester, . 



Cases. Deaths. 
1 



3 cases of trichinosis: 
Boston, 



72 cases of trachoma 
Attleboro, . 
Boston, 
Cambridge, 
Chelsea, 
Chicopee, . 
Fall River, 
Fitchburg, . 
Haverhill, . 
Lawrence, . 
Lowell, 
Lynn, 
Maiden, 
Newton, 
Northampton, 
Nor-i^'ood , . 
Peabody, 
Somerville, 
Watertown, 
Williamsburg, 
Worcester, . 



Division of Biologic Laboratories 



Milton J. Rosenau, M.D., Director 
W. A. HiNTON, M.D., Assistant Director 
A. N. Allen, M.D., Assistant Director 



[171] 



Eeport of Division of Biologic Labokatories. 



It is becoming increasingly clear that the quarters for the Antitoxin 
and Vaccine Laboratory, at Forest Hills, are inadequate both in size 
and equipment to meet the present situation. These buildings were 
erected fifteen years ago for the purpose of making diphtheria anti- 
toxin and vaccine virus. Since then both the variety and amounts of 
vaccines and serums made at Forest Hills have increased by leaps 
and bounds. It is also very clear that further developments in the 
line of biologic products which have to do with the diagnosis, pre- 
vention and cure of disease will progress during the next decade. 
The need of new quarters and adequate equipment is pressing. 

The Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory, during the fiscal year 
covered by this report, made and distributed products which would 
have cost the State $99,270.80. This was accomplished with a total 
appropriation of $39,800. This was done only by strict economies 
and careful planning. 

The report of the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory and the report 
of operations of the Wassermann Laboratory follow. 



Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. 

Normal Diphtheria Antitoxin. 

Number of liters in stock Dec. 1, 1918, 

Number of liters in stock Nov. 30, 1919, 

Number of liters produced Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . 
Number of liters distributed Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 
Number of liters distributed Dec. 1, 1917, to Nov. 30, 1918, 
Number of 1,000 units distributed Dec 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 
Number of 1,000 units distributed Dec. 1, 1917, to Nov. 30, 1918, 



116.087 
72.300 
602.280 
646.067 
629.086 
143,101 
61,013 



Concentrated Diphtheria Antitoxin. 

Number of liters in stock Dec. 1, 1918, .... 
Number of liters in stock Dec. 1, 1919, .... 
Number of liters produced in 1918 to Nov. 30, 1919, . 
Number of liters distributed in 1918 to Nov. 30, 1919, . 
Number of liters distributed in 1917 to Nov. 30, 1918, . 
Number of 1,000 units distributed Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30 
Number of 1,000 units distributed Dec. 1, 1917, to Nov. 30 



1919, 
1918, 



3.100 
60.000 
165.950 
109.050 
234.350 
16,028 
122,026 



174 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Diphtheria Horse Ta'p'ping. 

Number of liters of blood dra\^ai Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 2,444. 800 

Number of liters of serum yield Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . . 740. 225 

Diphtheria Horses. 

Number of diphtheria horses in stock Dec. 1, 1918, .... 22 

Number of diphtheria horses in stock Nov. 30, 1919, .... 25 

Number of diphtheria horses yielding antitoxin Nov. 30, 1919, . . 15 

Number of diphtheria horses acquired Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 9 

Number of diphtheria horses disposed of Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 7 

Anthneningitis Serum. 

Number of liters in stock Dec. 1, 1918, 11.000 

Number of liters in stock Nov. 30, 1919, 31.000 

Number of liters produced Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . . . 86. 500 

Number of liters distributed Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . . 67.365 

Number of liters distributed Dec. 1, 1917, to Nov. 30, 1918, . . 69. 720 
Number of bottles of 15 cubic centimeters each distributed Dec. 1, 

1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, •, • • 4,565 

Number of bottles of 15 cubic centimeters each distributed Dec. 1, 

1917, to Nov. 30, 1918, 4,558 

Antimeningitis Horse Tapping. 

Number of liters of blood drawn Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . 258. 700 

Number of liters of serum yield Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . . 98. 900 

Antimeningitis Horses. 

Number of meningitis horses in stock Dec. 1, 1918, .... 6 

Number of meningitis horses in stock Dec. 1, 1919, .... 6 

Number of meningitis horses yielding serum Nov. 30, 1919, . . 6 

PneumococcAis Serum. 

Number of liters in stock Dec. 1, 1918, Type I., 65.325 

Number of liters in stock Nov. 30, 1919, 36.925 

Number of liters produced Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . . . 23.800 

Number of liters distributed Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . . 42. 200 
Number of bottles of 100 cubic centimeters each distributed Dec. 1, 

1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 422 

Number of bottles of 100 cubic centimeters each distributed Dec. 1, 

1917, to Nov. 30, 1918, 357 

Number of liters in stock Dec. 1, 1918, Type II., 13.825 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF BIOLOGIC LABORATORIES. 175 

Number of liters in stock Nov. 30, 1919, Type II., . . . 11 . 525 

Number of liters produced Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, Type II., 18.600 
Number of bottles of 100 cubic centimeters each distributed Dec. 1, 

1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 209 

Number of bottles of 100 cubic centimeters each distributed Dec. 1, 

1917, to Nov. 30, 1918, 295 

Antipneu7nococcus Serum Tapping. 

Number of liters of blood drawn Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . 71 . 100 
Number of liters of serum yield Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . .29. 900 

Antipneiimococcus Horses. 

Number of pneumococcus horses in stock Dec. 1, 1918, ... 3 

Number of pneumococcus horses in stock Nov. 30, 1919, ... 3 
Number of pneumococcus horses disposed of Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 

30, 1919, 2 

Diphtheria Toxin. 

Number of liters of toxin in stock Dec. 1, 1918, 64 

Number of liters of toxin in stock Nov. 30, 1919, 20 

Number of liters produced Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, ... 539 

Average strength of toxin in minimum lethal dose (.006, or used on 

a basis of .006). 
Culture used, Park No. 8 and Parke, Davis No. 0236. 

General Distribution of Schick Toxin Outfits. 

Number of outfits distributed from Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, . 96 

One outfit contains 100 doses; total doses, 9,600. 

General Distribution of Diphtheria Toxin- Antitoxin Mixture. 

Number of ampoules distributed from Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 

1919 (1 cubic centimeter in each ampoule), 508 

Distributed from Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919, 600 cubic centi- 
meters equaling 600 ampoules. 



176 



STATE DEP.\RTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Calves inoadated and Vaccine Virus produced, Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. SO, 1919. 



Date of Vaccination. 



Number of 
Calves. 



Yield of Vac- 
cine (Cubic 
Centimeters). 



Virus (Vso 
Cubic Centi- 
meter Doses). 



1919. 

January 9, . . . 
January 23, . . . 
February 14, . 
March 13, 
Aprils 

April 24 

May 8 

May 23, . 

June 6, . . . . 

August 28, 

September 5, . 

October 2, 

October 17, 

October 20, . . . 

October 29, 

November 15, . 

November 29, . 

Totals, 



100 
120 
100 
100 
100 
140 
156 
150 
80 
105 
180 
110 
110 
130 
116 
120 
192 
120 
120 



2,349 



6,000 
7,200 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
8,400 
9,360 
9,000 
4,800 
6,300 

10,800 
6,600 
6,600 
7,800 
6,960 
7,200 

11,520 
7,200 
7,200 



140,940 



Vaccine Virus, Output bij Months Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. SO, 1919. 



Month. 



Doses (^^0 
Cubic Cen- 
timeters) of 
Vaccine Virus 
sent out. 



1918. 
December, ....... 

1919. 
January, ........ 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, . .' 

July 

August 

September, ....... 

October, ........ 

November, ....... 

Total 



5,056 



8,816 
6,195 
6,715 
11,028 
18,905 
13,895 
14,957 
50,080 
36,785 
14,350 
8,025 



194,807 



No. 34.1 DIVISION OF BIOLOGIC LABORATORIES. 



177 



Typhoid and Paratyphoid Prophylactic, Output by Months, in One Cubic Centi- 
meter Doses, Dec. 1, 1918, to Nov. 30, 1919. 



Month. 



Typhoid 
Prophylactic. 



Paratyphoid 
A and B. 



Triple Mixture. - 



1918. 

December, 

1919. 
January, .... 
February, 

March, .... 
April, .... 
May, .... 

June, .... 

July, .... 

August, .... 
September, 

October 

November, 
Totals, 



1,262 



1,150 


- 


1,562 


900 


150 


730 


1,400 


168 


2,114 


2,100 


150 


1,993 


2,015 


75 


1,663 


2,200 


214 


2,394 


800 


150 


6,716 


750 


75 


1,850 


1,550 


135 


9,456 


1,068 


81 


23,487 


1,575 


150 


1,800 



16,770 



55,831 



Wassermann Laboratory. 

The activities of the Wassermann Laboratory have not been unusual 
during the past year. There have been a few minor changes in per- 
sonnel designed to make the work more efficient and less expensive. 
For example, an assistant bacteriologist, employed at a beginning rate 
of $1,500 per year, has been replaced by a laboratory assistant at 
$900 per year. By careful training, this assistant has been taught 
to do most of the work formerly done by the higher paid individual 
without detracting from the quality of the work and in some instances 
greatly adding to it. 

The activity of the Ignited States Public Health Service in venereal 
disease control has shown the desirability of statistical data with regard 
to both syphilis and gonorrhea. Although the Wassermann Labora- 
tory has had a wealth of this material to work on, it has been handi- 
capped because of lack of clerical assistance. This work, however, 
is now proceeding with rapidity, and it is hoj>ed that at a very early 
date valuable statistical data will be in form for publication. 

The following table indicates the comparative number of the 
different tests during the years 1918 and 1919: — 



178 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 



Wassermann tests, ....•••■■■ 
Gonococcus fixation tests, • • • , / . ', t j ^ ' 

Diagnostic examinations for the Department of Animal Industry: — 

(a) Complement fixation tests for glanders, .... 

(6) Agglutination tests for glanders, 

(c) Examinations for rabies, • .• 

(d) Pathologic and bacteriologic exammations, .... 




1919. 



31,485 
221 



122 
84 



The number of tests and examinations made for the year 1919 is 
greater than that of the previous year in every case, with the exception 
of diagnostic examinations for glanders. This exception is due to the 
fact that very few cases of glanders have been suspected in domestic 
animals during the past year. 

A law was passed in 1917 requiring that certain laboratory tests 
be made (that the Department of Health might direct) upon the 
inmates of houses of correction, jails and similar institutions. As a 
result of the enforcement of this law, an unusual number of Wasser- 
mann tests have been made upon the inmates of these institutions. 
All told, thirteen houses of correction and courts have requested a 
Wassermann test. The total number of specimens upon which a 
satisfactory test was made for these agencies was 1,485, of which 241, 
or 16 per cent, were positive, and 61, or 4.1 per cent, were doubtful. 
Assuming that the rate of positivity is from 5 to 8 per cent for the 
population of Massachusetts in general, it is obvious that the criminal 
class is a real menace to the community from the point of view of the 
spread of syphilis. 

The State-approved venereal clinics outside of Boston with one 
exception have had their Wassermann tests made in the State labora- 
tory. The total number of specimens submitted from this source 
during the year was 1,303. 

Scientific medicine has given public health officials knowledge upon 
which laws may be drafted adequate to properly control syphilis. 
This is not the case with gonorrhea. The treatment of this disease 
from the venereal aspect is far from satisfactory, while the diagnosis 
in many instances, especially in the case of females, is notoriously 
uncertain. The gonococcus fixation test is proving in our hands a 
valuable aid in the diagnosis of the disease. However, it is not 
expected that this test will entirely solve this aspect of gonorrhea, 
and for this reason it is desirable that funds be obtained with which 
to make a study of this very important pubHc health problem. The 
Wassermann Laboratory is excellently equipped to carry out such 
research, and possesses a personnel desirous of studying the problem. 
It simply needs a small additional amount of money and the au- 
thority to undertake its study. 



Division of Hygiene 



Merrill E. Champion, JM.D., Director 



[179] 



Keport of Division of Hygiene. 



Changes in Personnel. 

There have been various changes in the personnel of this Division 
during the past year. Miss Pansy V. Besom, chief of the child wel- 
fare supervisors, attached to this Department during the war, re- 
signed in February to go with the Red Cross as associate director 
in the public health nursing section of the New England Division. 
In April Miss Ellen Atchison, another of the child welfare super- 
visors, resigned. Miss Ethel M. Ford in April was transferred to the 
Division of Administration, succeeding Miss Lowe as filing clerk. 
Mr. Edward H. Williams, for several years draftsman in the Division 
of Hygiene, resigned to accept a more highly paid position outside 
of State work. Lastly, Miss Genevieve R. Jules resigned in Novem- 
ber to be married. Miss Jules was one of the nurses receiving an 
appointment early in the history of this Division. 

Replacing Miss Ford, Miss Josephine M. Cullen was transferred 
from the Division of Communicable Diseases to the Division of 
Hygiene. Mr. John H. McCarthy was appointed to succeed Mr. 
WilHams. Mr. McCarthy is a graduate of the Massachusetts Normal 
Art School, has been supervisor of drawing for several towns in this 
State, and has served overseas. Several other new appointments were 
made during the summer to fill vacancies or new positions. Miss 
Hazel Wedgwood was appointed temporary health instructor, later 
being made permanent after a civil service examination list was 
established. Miss Harriet L. Wedgwood and Miss Helen C. Reilly 
were obtained from this same list to fill new positions authorized by 
the Legislature of this year. 

When, in April, it was decided to extend the work of this Division 
to cover the subject of mouth hygiene, Dr. Edwin N. Kent was ap- 
pointed with the title of Supervisor of Mouth Hygiene. Dr. Kent 
has been for many years interested in the public health aspect of 
dental hygiene, having developed, among other things, a standardized 
series of lectures which have had very wide circulation. At the time 
of his appointment Dr. Kent was president of the Dental Hygiene 
Council of Massachusetts. In October Miss Evelyn C. Schmidt was 



182 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

appointed as temporary health instructor in mouth hygiene, to assist 
Dr. Kent in his work. 

During the period of the agricultural fairs Dr. Mary Putnam of 
Cambridge was employed by the Division of Hygiene to conduct 
clinics for children. Dr. Putnam, in addition to excellent training 
and experience as a pediatrician, had served with the Franco-American 
Committee for the Care of Children from the Frontier in France 
during the war. 

The Child Conservation Committee, appointed by the Commissioner 
of Health during the war, completed the large piece of work it set 
out to do early in the year, and discontinued the employment of its 
child welfare nurses, the Red Cross appropriation having run out. 
The members of this committee have, however, agreed to continue 
as an advisory committee to give the Department the benefit of their 
valuable advice. The hearty thanks of the Department are due these 
experts who have so freely given of their time and energy for the 
improvement of the health of the children of the State. 

Lines of Work. 

During the early part of the year 1918-19 the work of the Division 
of Hygiene was considerably handicapped by the fact that people 
had not yet recovered from the effect of the disastrous epidemic of 
influenza of 1918. This was to be noted, so far as this Division was 
concerned, chiefly in the infrequency of public meetings. Later in 
the new year, however, things resumed a more normal aspect. On 
the whole, the work of the year which is just past has represented 
a real extension, both in scope and in character. A short description 
of our various activities will be given under appropriate headings. 

Public Health Nursing. 

Li many ways the activities of our public health nurses represent 
the most varied and fundamental of our lines of work. Starting in 
1915 with two nurses, the Division now employs five. In April, 1919, 
it was decided that the time had come for a more compact organiza- 
tion of the nurses. Therefore a subdivision of public health nursing 
was estabhshed within the Division of Hygiene. Miss Blanche Wildes, 
one of our health instructors, was appointed chief of this subdivision. 
The duties of these nurses have been varied. Lectures, investigations 
of child welfare problems, and exhibit work have taken them all over 
the State. A few examples of the type of work they are doing will 
appear under the various subsequent headings. 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF HYGIENE. 183 



Food and its Relationshi'p to Health. 

The Division of Hygiene has had a health instructor in foods since 
1917. For the first two years the work of this instructor was confined 
largely to preparing articles on food for publication in bulletin form, 
and to delivering lectures to public audiences on this same subject. 
During this time a good deal of valuable educational material was 
scattered broadcast throughout the State. A very interesting series 
of posters and stereopticon slides prepared in this connection has been 
used by various food workers. The effort is now being made to do a 
broader work by aiding in the co-ordination of the intensive efforts 
carried on by many different organizations, all having in view the 
maintenance of health through a proper appreciation of the problem 
of nutrition. An attempt is now being made by this Division to list 
the various nutritional clinics of the State, and to devise some ade- 
quate method for standardization. 

Mouth Hygiene. 

Reference has already been made to the appointment of Dr. Kent 
to develop this very important phase of personal hygiene. It was 
recognized at once that if anything was to be accomplished the first 
step would have to be a survey of existing facilities. This has been 
accomplished. The Division of Hygiene now has a list of all the 
dental dispensaries in the State, and is receiving a monthly report 
regularly from each one. Furthermore, we are trying to lend all 
possible assistance to communities desirous of establishing dental 
clinics, hoping that thereby a saving will be effected for these com- 
munities in time, expense and efficiency. Some educational material 
has also been prepared and more is in preparation. A good many 
talks on the care of the mouth have been given, especially to school 
children, by the health instructor in mouth hygiene. 

Cancer Control. 

The results obtained from the co-operation between the Cancer 
Commission of Harvard University and the State Department of 
Health seemed so desirable that a special appropriation was secured 
from the Legislature amounting to $3,000 for the purpose of furnish- 
ing diagnostic facilities to physicians, and also for educational propa- 
ganda. The Cancer Commission has handled this diagnosis work for 
us. A special booklet on the subject of cancer is being sent by the 



184 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Department of Health to every physician in the State. The accom- 
panying chart shows the trend of the cancer death rate in Massa- 
chusetts. 

CANCER 

MASSACHUSETTS DEATH RATE 



no 










1905 








191 











19 


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hivestigations and Surveys. 

It is becoming increasingly apparent that the Division of Hygiene 
can do good service by making an investigation of some of the prob- 
lems relating to the health of women and children which have long 
been neglected. Accordingly, we have begun an inquiry into the 
status of the midwife problem in Massachusetts. A survey is also 
being completed of the open-air schools in this State. The imminence 
of maternity benefit legislation made it necessary for us to gather 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF HYGIENE. 185 

information which would be of assistance in the administration of any 
laws which might be passed. A number of similar lines of investiga- 
tion are contemplated for the future. 

Educational JFort. 
■ Our oldest venture in the educational field, our child welfare exhibit, 
is still proving to be of real value. The original panels which were 
first used in 1915 were found to be pretty well used up after four 
years of wear and tear, and were discarded. An entirely new set was 
prepared, consisting of ten panels, smaller in size and of lighter con- 
struction than the ones which they replaced. These are more easily 
assembled and cost less to ship. Various small posters have been 
added from time to time. An excellent and unique set of food posters 
has been developed by the health instructor in foods. The same 
ground has also been covered with a set of stereopticon slides which 
are in great demand among food workers outside the Department for 
use in public talks. A large part of the real value of the exhibit lies 
in the fact that it can be used as a nucleus around which a health 
week can be built. The underlying purpose of a health week is to 
awaken the people of a given community to the importance of health 
measures in general, and some one measure in particular. The most 
common object in such a drive is the acquisition of a public health 
nurse. 

Arrangements have been entered into with the Massachusetts 
Tuberculosis League, the Massachusetts Child Labor Committee, and 
the League for Preventive Work, whereby the exhibits maintained by 
these organizations are united with ours during health weeks. 

Closely allied with the health weeks have been our visits to certain 
of the agricultural fairs. This year, with the aid of an automobile 
truck and a tent, we attended seven of these fairs, showing our ex- 
hibits and giving demonstrations on health subjects. An innovation 
this year was the employment, for the period of the fairs, of a trained 
pediatrician, who gave an examination to such children as were 
brought to her by their parents, and who advised the parents regard- 
ing the necessity of a visit to the family physician for correction of 
such physical defects as were brought to light by the examination. 

Another innovation at the fairs was the use of a dental hygienist 
to demonstrate to children and adults the hygiene of the mouth. 

During the past year our lecture work has been continued; prac- 
tically every request for a speaker from any responsible group has 
been complied with. The District Health Officers and their nursing 
assistants have shared to a great extent in this service. In addition 



186 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

to these facilities offered the general public, there has been co-opera- 
tion with educational and nursing institutions in special lectures on 
public health subjects. 

One of the most potent aids to public health education is unques- 
tionably the moving pictures. A drawback to their use has always 
been the fact that the standard film requires a booth and a licensed 
operator, two adjuncts not always to be obtained in a country com- 
munity. To obviate this difficulty the Division of Hygiene has this 
year added a pathescope to its equipment. As yet the supply of films 
of this type is inadequate. 

Owing to the fact that the very important subject of school hygiene 
has never been handled adequately in moving picture form, this 
Division, during the past year, produced such a film, entitled "The 
Priceless Gift of Health." 

No educational scheme would be complete without the use of 
written material. During the past year there has been a very great 
demand for all of our pamphlets. A great many of these have gone 
to school children. New material issued this year includes "The 
Importance of Minerals in the Diet;" Diet Cards for Children from 
Birth to Six Years of Age; "A Few Simple Facts about Digestion;" 
"Posture in its Relation to Health;" "The 1916 Epidemic of Polio- 
myelitis;" "The Importance of Mouth Cleanliness;" and "Health 
Habits." 

Most far-reaching of all our educational material, perhaps, have 
been our prenatal and postnatal letters, the latter new this year. 
Under our present system, prenatal letters are sent to the prospective 
mother once a month until the baby is born; the postnatal letters 
are then sent to the mother once a month until the baby is a year 
old. The names of persons to whom these letters are to be sent come 
to us through physicians, nurses, social workers, interested friends of 
patients, and from the patients themselves. We have had 1,071 
requests for these letters during the past year. The average has been 
higher during the last few months. 

That prenatal work of the most intensive kind is needed is con- 
clusively shown by the charts which follow. Deaths among women 
from causes directly referable to childbirth are increasing in Massa- 
chusetts. The extraordinarily high rate for 1918 undoubtedly was 
due to the influenza epidemic, but for a number of years the trend 
has been undeniably upward. This upward trend, in spite of modern 
advances in preventive medicine, is hard to explain. It would seem 
as if the stress of modern life, with its changing conditions, were 
tending to render maternity a pathological state more rapidly than 
counterbalance can be applied through better obstetrics. 



No. 34. 



DIVISION OF HYGIENE. 



18i 



The same tendency may be perceived in the infant mortality, not 
as a whole, but during the first month. The total rate for the first 
year of life shows in this State a satisfactory decrease, due largely 
to a lessening of the number of deaths caused by the diarrheal 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Department of Public Health 



AMTO^Al^L DEATHS PEfi 10,000 L/V£: B/^m^ IN 


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diseases. The rate for the year 1918 shows an atypical increase, as 
might have been expected; the indications are that the 1919 rate 
will fall below the 1917 rate. None the less, our admittedly imperfect 
figures show that the rate for the first month of life does not share 
in this satisfactory decrease. Those interested in a further study of 



188 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



the infant mortality will find information of value in the report of 
the Secretary of State, in whose office the vital statistics of the State 
are collected. However, the slowness with which individual cities 
and towns report their births to the State renders the compilation of 
recent figures almost out of the question. 



INFANT MORTALITY 

MASSACHUSETTS RATE 

1905 1910 1915 











































































































































































$150 


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75 











































175 



150 



125 



100 



1900 



1905 



1910 



1915 



75 
1920 



In view of the fact that the maternal mortality is increasing, and 
that the infant mortality of the first few weeks is not coming down, 
it would seem imperative that steps be taken to extend the employ- 
ment of prenatal care as the only means likely to influence these 
deplorable conditions. 

Our health column in the newspapers has now been extended to 



No. 34.] 



DIVISION OF HYGIENE. 



189 



include seven newspapers. I feel that this is of distinct value, though 
the type of question that comes in shows conclusively that the general 
public has not as yet any real appreciation of the need of prevention 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Department of Public Health 

DEAmS UAD^ CWE VEAD QT AGE, BY MONTHLY 
AGE a?0CP^,WA/AJ^Cm5ETrS 

TOTAL DD^TT/J OW^ CM: YEAI^, (i^/CJ S>,JM. 

JA}^ BAN£J NH) DUR/NG /mST AfOAmf OF L/FE IN MAJMOiU^ETT^ 
4j^J^ D/^ Dump TmOTTiOl £L£VpV MCWTTf^ OF LIFE. 

. ■*A.M.. jgjf.. fA.tL. T/h.M.. eAM, J^AMi. KAjJi m 



616 



eer 









lUKM.. /tih.ft.. 






as compared with the cure of disease. This newspaper service has 
for its object assistance to the public in the ways to health. It does 
not contemplate offering treatment, which is the function of the 
practicing physician. 



190 



STATE DEPAETIMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Expansion for the Coming Year. 

The work done the past year suggests new avenues for the coming 
year. Among these I would place, first, the need for a whole-time 
physician to conduct clinics for children, especially in the rural sections 
of the State. Again, our mouth hygiene work, which has now a fair 
start, must be extended. This will need the whole time of a trained 
dental hygienist. The urgent need for more work on nutrition has 
already been referred to. Finally, extension of work for mothers and 
young children, as well as for the school child, must occupy much of 
our time in the future. 

Statistical tables relative to health weeks, exhibits, literature and 
lectures follow: — 



Exhibit at Health Weels and Health Days. 



Ames bur }'. 

Ashburnham. 

Attleboro. 

Belchertown. 

Belmont. 

Boston. 

Canton. 

Deerfield. 

Easthampton. 



Franklin. 

Greenfield. 

Haverhill. 

Ipswich. 

Montague. 

North Attleborough. 

Southampton. 

South Deerfield. 

Taunton. 



Barnstable. 
Brockton. 
Charlemont. 
Fitchburg. 



Exhibit at Agricultural Fairs. 



Great Barrington. 
Pittsfield. 
Marshfield. 
Worcester. 



Lectures were given during the year on the following subjects: — 



Venereal Diseases, . 




149 


Oral Hygiene, . 


. . . 18 


Public Health Nursing, 




72 


School Hygiene, 


. 6 


Communicable Diseases, 




65 


Cancer and Diseases 


of Adult 


Child Welfare, . . 




58 


Life, . 


. . . 3 


Food and its Relation 


-hip to 




Rural Sanitation, . 


. 3 


Health, 




58 


]\Iaternity Benefits, 


2 


PubHc Health, 




54 


Water Supplies, 


. . . 2 


Social Hygiene, 




43 







Personal Hygiene, . 




38 


Total, 


. . . 571 



No. 34.] DIVISION OF HYGIENE. 

A table of lectures by months follows : — 



191 



Month. 



1918. 
December, 

1919. 
January, 

February, 

March, 

April, ...... 

May, 

June, 

July 

August, 

September 

October, ..... 

November, 

Totals, 



Lectures. 



571 



Number 
Present. 



6,835 



53 


8,783 


85 


15,891 


100 


21,704 


64 


11,954 


65 


11,364 


33 


4,144 


25 


1,685 


3 


308 


14 


1,479 


51 


10,547 


59 


9,618 



104,312 



During the fiscal year ending Nov. 30, 1919, lectures were given in 
the following cities and towns: — 



Abington, 
Adams, 










1 
3 


Agawam, . 










4 


Amesbury, 
Amherst, . 










6 
1 


Andover, . 










7 


Arlington, 
Ashburnham, 










1 

7 


Athol, 










3 


Attleboro, 










9 


Auburn, . 










2 


Avon, 










1 


Ayer, 
Barnstable, 










3 
1 


Becket, 










1 


Bedford, . 










1 


Belchertown, 










4 


Belmont, . 










11 


Berlin, 










1 


Boston, . 










97 


Bourne, . 










2 


Boxford, . 










1 


Braintree, 










1 



Bridgewater, 

Brimfield, 

Brockton, 

Brookline, 

Cambridge, 

Canton, . 

Chatham, 

Chelsea, 

Clinton, 

Cohasset, 

Colrain, 

Concord, 

Dan vers, 

Deerfield, 

Dighton, 

Douglas, 

Duxbury, 

Easthampton, 

East Longmeadow, 

Edgartown, 

Enfield, . 

Everett, . 

Fairhaven, 



5 
1 
3 
3 

17 
7 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
4 
3 

10 
1 
1 
1 
5 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 



192 



STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc- 



Fall River, 

Falmouth, 

Fitchburg, 

Framingham, 

Franklin, . 

Freetown, 

Gardner, . 

Georgetown, 

Gloucester, 

Goshen, . 

Great Barringt^ 

Greenfield, 

Grafton, . 

Harvard, . 

Haverhill, 

Hingham, 

Hinsdale, . 

Holbrook, 

HoUiston, 

Holyoke, . 

Hudson, . 

Hyannis, . 

Ipswich, . 

Kingston, 

Lancaster, 

Lawrence, 

Leominster, 

Lowell, 

Ludlow, . 

Lunenburg, 

Lynn, 

Maiden, . 

Mansfield, 

Marblehead, 

Marlborough, 

Marshfield, 

Medford, . 

Medway, . 

Melrose, . 

Mendon, . 

Methuen, 

Middleboroug' 

Milford, . 

Monson, . 

Montague, 

Nahant, . 



on. 



4 


Natick, . 


2 


New Bedford, . 


2 


Newbury port, . 


2 


Newton, . 


5 


North Adams, 


3 


North Aiidover, 


1 


North Attleborough 


1 


Northbridge, . 


7 


Northfield, 


1 


Northampton, 


2 


Norwood, 


4 


Orleans, . 


6 


Palmer, 


1 


Pembroke, 


15 


Pittsfield, 


1 


Plainfield, 


1 


Provincetown, 


3 


Quincy, . 


1 


Revere, . 


7 


Rockland, 


2 


Salem, 


10 


Salisbury, 


10 


Sandwich, 


1 


Saugus, . 


2 


Somerville, 


4 


South Hadley, 


7 


Southampton, . 


13 


Springfield, 


2 


Stockbridge, . 


2 


Stoneham, 


5 


Taunton, . 


1 


Tisbury, . 


3 


Townsend, 


1 


Walpole, . 


2 


Walt ham, 


1 


Wareham, 


6 


Warren, . 


1 


Water town. 


3 


Wellcsley, 


1 


Westborough, . 


5 


Westfield, 


2 


Westford, 


2 


West Newbury, 


2 


West Springfield, 


6 


Wilmington, . 


1 


Williamsburg, . 



No. 34.1 



DIVISION OF HYGIENE. 



193 



Winchendon, 1 

Winchester, 2 

Woburn, 2 

Worcester, 11 



Total, 



565 



AshviUe, N. C, . . . . 1 

New Orleans, La., . . . . 1 

Providence, R. I., . . . .3 

Washington, D. C, . . 1 



Total, 



571 



Report of the Boaed of State Examiners 

OF Plumbers 



James C. Coffey, Chairman 



[195] 



Report of the State Examiners of Plumbers. 



Information concerning Examinations for Plumbers, showing the Place and Date 
of Examination and Number examined, together with the Results of the 
Examination, etc. 



Examinations. 

Boston, Dec. 7, 1918, . 
Lowell, Dec. 21, 1918, . 
Boston, Jan. 4, 1919, . 
Pittsfield, Jan. 18, 1919, 
Boston, Feb. 1, 1919, . 
Springfield, Feb. 15, 1919, . 
Boston, Mar. 1, 1919, . 
Fall River, Mar. 15, 1919, . 
Boston, Apr. 5, 1919, . 
Worcester, Apr. 26, 1919, 
Boston, May 3, 1919, . 
Lowell, May 17, 1919, . 
Boston, June 7, 1919, . 
Pittsfield, June 21, 1919, 
Boston, July 5, 1919, . 
Boston, Sept. 6, 1919, '. 
Springfield, Sept. 20, 1919, . 
Boston, Oct. 4, 1919, . 
Fall River, Oct. 18, 1919, . 
Boston, Nov. 1, 1919, . 
Worcester, Nov. 15, 1919, 

Totals, ..... 



Examined. 



Passed. 



Refused. 



41 
11 
29 
4 
54 
26 
68 
18 
70 
25 
69 
6 
91 
16 
89 
102 
35 
84 
17 
58 
33 



36 

9 
20 

1 
41 ■ 
21 
56 
13 
61 
22 
60 

4 
75 
13 
75 
93 
31 
73 
14 
50 
27 



946 



Licenses granted on account of examination Dec. 1, 

1918, to Dec. 1, 1919. 
Probationary licenses issued during year, . 



Masters. | Journeymen. 



45 



105 
2 



Total. 



150 



198 



STATE DEPARTIVIENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



December, 1918, 
January, 1919, 
February, 1919, 
March, 1919, . 
April, 1919, 
May, 1919, 
June, 1919, 
July. 1919, 
August, 1919, . 
September, 1919, 
October, 1919, 
November, 1919, 
Totals, 




Meetings, 



55 



Examinations 21 



Fees received. 



945 examination fees, at S0.50, 

53 master plumber licenses issued, at $2, 

127 journeymen plumber licenses issued, at $0.50, 

1,759 master plumber renewals issued, at SO. 50, 

4,154 journeymen plumber renewals, at SO. 50, 

Back fees, at SO. 50, 

Total 

Interest during May, 

Interest during June 



Paid to the 
Treasurer of 
the Common- 
wealth. 



8472 50 
106 00 
63 50 
879 50 

2,077 00 
202 00 



$3,800 50 
1 94 

1 07 



$3,803 51 



No. 34.] 



EXAMINERS OF PLUMBERS. 



199 



For carrying out the Provisions of the Act relative to the Examination of Plumbers. 

Salaries, 

Examiners' wages, 

Traveling, . 

Express, 

Printing, 

Postage, 

Books and stationery. 

Plumbers' materials. 

Extra services. 

Cleaning, 

Office supplies, 

Telephone and lighting, 

Total, . 
Unexpended balance, . 



Summary of Registrations. 



$2,604 50 


405 00 


457 88 


40 88 


95 63 


95 00 


71 38 


8 00 


426 50 


19 00 


3 98 


101 07 


. $4,328 82 


471 18 



$4,800 00 





Masters. 


Journeymen. 


Certificate holders (individuals) (holding journeymen, also, 311), 
Licenses, year ending May 1, 1919 (individuals) (holding journeymen, 
also, 1,539) 


462 
1,766 


461 
2,830 


Totals 


2,228 


3,291 



Ntimber of last master license issued up to Aug. 1, 1919, 2,761. 
Number of last journeyman license issued up to Aug. 1, 1919, 6,403. 



Masters, 



Deceased Plumbers reported to Examiners. 

8 1 JournejTnen, 5 



Respectfully submitted, 



JAMES C. COFFEY. 
CHAS. R. FELTON. 
DAVID CRAIG, Clerk. 



PAPEES written in 1919 AND PAMPHLETS 

ISSUED 



[201] 



Papers written in 1919 and Pamphlets issued. 



Papers written by Members of the State Department of Health 
DURING the Year 1919. 

Division of Administration. 

Eugene R. Kelley, M.D., Commissioner of Health. 

, "Wliat has More Centrahzed Control to Offer in Solving the Tubercu- 
losis Problem?" Transactions of the National Tuberculosis Societ}', 
Sociological Section, Atlantic City, N. J., June, 1919. 

"The Attack on the So-called Venereal Diseases." Transactions of the 
Conference of Charities and Corrections, Portland, Me., September, 
1919. 

"Open-Air Schools." Transactions of the Maine Anti-tuberculosis Society, 
Portland, Me., 1919. 

"The State Chnics for the Treatment of Venereal Diseases." Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal, Sept. 11, 1919. 

Eugene R. Kelley, M.D., and Stanley H. Osborn, M.D. 

"Further Evidence as to the Relative Importance of Milk Infection in 
the Transmission of Certain Communicable Diseases of Man." Ameri- 
can Journal of Pubhc Health, 1920. 

Division of Sanitary Engineering. 
Mr. Bertram Brewer. 

"Public Control over New Streets in Relation to Extension of Water 
Mains." Journal of the New England Water W^orks Association, Vol. 
XXXIII, No. 4, Section 1, December, 1919. 

Division of Commxmicahle Diseases. 

Bernard W. Carey, M.D. 

"Lessons from a Study of 1,000 Diphtheria Deaths." Boston Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Jan. 16, 1919. 

Bernard W. Carey, M.D., and John S. Hitchcock, M.D. 

"A Median Endemic Index." American Journal of Public Health, May, 
1919. 



204 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Stanley H. Osborn, JM.D. 

"Scarlet Fever Wave in 1919." Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 
Dec. 4, 1919. 

Division of Biologic Laboratories. 

Milton J. Rosenau, M.D. 

"Some Interesting though Unsuccessful Attempts to Transmit Influenza 
Experimentally." United States Public Health Service Reports, 34, 
No. 2, Jan. 10, 1919. 

"All About Milk." Revised edition. Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany, New York, 1919. 

"Fallacies in the Diagnosis of 'Ptomaine' Poisoning." Medical Clinics, 
North America, March, 1919. 

"'Ptomaine' Poisoning." Journal of the American Medical Association, 
March 8, 1919, p. 730. 

"'Ptomaine' Poisoning." Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Apr. 3, 
1919, p. 398. 

"Food Poisoning." American Journal of Public Health, September, 

1919. 

Wm. A. Hinton, M.D., and E. S. Kane, M.D. 

"Use of Influenza Vaccine as a Prophylactic." The Commonhealth, 
April, 1919. Journal of Tennessee State Medical Association, 1919. 

Division of Food and Drugs. 

Hermann C. Lythgoe, S.B. 

"Violations of Massachusetts Cold Storage Egg Laws and Method of 
Control." American Food Journal, January, 1919. 

Mr. Clarence E. Marsh. 

"Composition of Market Milk in Massachusetts." Annual Report, In- 
ternational Association of Dairy and Milk Inspectors, 1919. 



Division of Hygiene. 

Merrill E. Champion, M.D., C.P.H. 

"Health Centers for Pre-school Children." Standards of Child Welfare, 
Conference Series, No. 1, Children's Bureau, United States Depart- 
ment of Labor, 1919. 

"Maternity Benefits." Transactions of American Child Hygiene Asso- 
ciation, 1919. 



No. 34.] PAPERS AND PAMPHLETS ISSUED. 205 



Pamphlets issued by the State Department of Health. 

Anthrax in Massachusetts. 19 pp. 

Cancer. Facts which Every Adult should know. 1920. 

Diphtheria Bulletin. (Leaflet.) 1919. 

The Occurrence of Infantile Paralj^sis in Massachusetts in 1908. 26 pp. 

Infantile Paralj^sis in Massachusetts in 1909. 105 pp. 

Infantile Paralysis in Massachusetts, 1907-12. 151 pp. 

Infantile Paralysis; Committee Report; State and Provincial Boards of Health. 

8 pp. 1917. 
The 1916 Epidemic of Poliomyelitis. 53 pp. 1919. 
Influenza Bulletin. (Leaflet.) 1918. 
The Control of Ophthahnia Neonatorum. 6 pp. 1917. 
The Control of Typhoid Fever. 11 pp. 1911. 
Antityphoid Inoculation; Tj^phoid Prophylactic. 12 pp. 1912. 
The Venereal Diseases. 1918. 5 pp. 
Report of State Board of Health upon the Sanitary Condition of Factories, 

etc., 1907. 144 pp. 
Sanitary Organization of Zone about the Mihtary Camp at Ayer, Mass. 4 pp. 

1917. 
The Abatement of Nuisances. 7 pp. 1913. 
Nuisances and Boards of Health. (Massachusetts Association of Boards of 

Health.) 5 pp. 1917. 
Mosquitoes and Malaria. 1916. 3 pp. 
Prevention of Flies. 7 pp. 1917. 
Resume of the Present Status of Medical Supervision of School Children in 

Massachusetts. 22 pp. 1917. 
Posture and Its Relation to Health. 1919. 

A Health Creed for Massachusetts Boys and Girls. (Card.) 1916. 
The Baby and You. ReAased edition. 1920. 

Care of the Child in Hot Weather. 1918. 7 pp. (Booklet, 3 by 5 inches.) 
Diet No. 1. Diet for Baby from Birth to Twelve Months. (Card.) 1918. 
Diet No. 2. Diet for Child from Twelve Months to End of Second Year. 

(Card.) 1918. 
Diet No. 3. Diet for Child from Three to Six Years. (Card.) 1918. 
Food for Children from Two to Six Years Old. 15 pp. 1918. 
Food for the Child. 7 pp. 1918. 
Food Rules for School Children. (Card.) 1918. 
Food: What it is and what it does. 7 pp. Revised edition. 1920. 
Food and the Calorie. 7 pp. 1918. 
Tissue-Forming Foods. 7 pp. 1918. 
Fats and Their Value in the Diet. 8 pp. 1918. 
Carbohydrate Foods. 8 pp. 1920. 
The Importance of Minerals in the Diet. 1918. 
A Few Simple Facts about Digestion. 7 pp. 1919. 
Food for Working Women in Boston. 1917. 213 pp. 



206 STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. [P. D. No. 34. 

Report of the Special Milk Board of the Massachusetts State Department of 

Health. 1916. 358 pp. 
List of Illustrated Lectures and Moving Pictures on Public Health Work. 

Revised edition. 1920. 
Health Habits. 1919. 

The Importance of Mouth Cleanliness. 1919. 
The Home Care of the Mouth. 1919. 
Do You Know That — (Mouth Hygiene.) 1920. 
School Health Program. 1919. 

Ways in which the State Department of Health Can Aid You. 1919. 
The School Lunch. 1920. 
Suggested List of Books on Hygiene for the Town Library. 1920. 



INDEX 



[2071 



INDEX. 



Abington, water supply- 
Accord Pond, analysis of water 
Actinomycosis 
Activated sludge 

Agitation of, without air 

Purification of sewage by aeration 
Activities, special, of Division of Communicable Diseases 
Acton, water supply 
Adams, water supply . 
Administration, Di^asion of . 
Agitation of activated sludge without air 
Amesbury, water supply 

Amethyst Brook reservoirs, analysis of water 
Amherst, water supply 
Andover, water supply 
Anterior poliomyelitis . 
Anthrax ..... 
Antimeningitis horses . 
Antimeningitis horse tapping 
Antimeningitis serum . 
Antipneumococcus horses 
Antipneumococcus serum tapping 
Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory 

Antimeningitis horses 

Antimeningitis horse tapping . 

Antimeningitis serum 

Antipneumococcus horses 

Antipneumococcus serum tapping 

Calves inoculated and vaccine ^^rus produced 

Concentrated diphtheria antitoxin 

Diphtheria horses 

Diphtheria horse tapping 

Diphtheria toxin . 

General distribution of diphtheria toxin-antitoxin mixture 

General distribution of Schick toxin outfits 

Normal diphtheria antitoxin . 

Pneumococcus serum .... 

Typhoid and paratyphoid prophylactic output by months 

Vaccine virus, output by months 
Appropriations . 

Emergency appropriations 

Regular appropriations . 

Special appropriations . 
Ashliurnham, water supply . 
Ashljy Reservoir, analysis of water 
Ashfield, water supply 



150, 



PAGE 

44 

45 

), 151, 168 

103 

104 

103 

138 

48 

44 

15 

104 

48 

44 

44 

44 

150,151, 168 
150, 151, 168 
174 
174 
174 
175 
175 
173 
174 
174 
174 
175 
175 
176 
173 
174 
174 
175 
175 
175 
173 
174 
177 
176 
26 
27 
27 
27 
44 
45 
44 



210 



INDEX. 



Ashland Reservoir, analysis of water 

Ashland, water supply 

Ashley Brook, analysis of water 

Assabet River, examination of 

Assawompsett Pond, analysis of water 

Athol, water supply 

Attleboro, water supply 

Avon, water supply 

Ayer, water supply 



Bacterial quality of shellfish, investigations in regard to the 
Bacteriological Laboratory . 

Examinations made 

Biological products distributed 

Diagnostic outfits distributed 
Barnstable, water supply 
Barre, water supply .... 
Basin Pond Brook, analysis of water 
Bassett Brook, analysis of water . 
Beaman Reservoir, analysis of water 
Bear Hole Brook, analysis of filtered water 
Bear Swamp Brook, analysis of water . 
Bedford, water supply 
Big Sandy Pond, analysis of water 
Billerica, water supply 
Biologic Laboratories, Di^^sion of 

Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory . 

Report of Division of . . ''. 

Wassermann Laboratory 
Biological products distributed by Bacteriological Laboratory 
Birch Reservoir, analysis of water 
Black Brook, analysis of water 
Blackstone River, examination of . 
Blandford, water supply 
Bondsville (Palmer) water supply 
Bottomly Reservoir, analysis of water 
Braintree, water supply 
Breed's Reservoir, analysis of water 
Bridgewater, water supply . 
Brockton, water supply 
Brookfield (East), water supply 
Brookline, water supply 

Buckman Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Buttery Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Cady Brook, analysis of water 

Cambridge, water supply 

Cancer control 

Canton, water supply . 

Cape Pond, analysis of water 

Charles River, analysis of filtered water 

Examination of . 
Chelmsford (Center) , water supply 
Chelmsford (North), water supply 
Cheshire, water supply 
Chestnut Hill Reservoir, analysis of water 



INDEX. 



211 



Chicken pox ..... 

Chicopee River, examination of 

Chieopee, water supply 

Chicopee (Fairview), water supply 

Child hygiene and infant mortality 

Chlorination ..... 

Codding Brook reservoirs, analysis of water 

Cohasset, water supply 

Cold Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Cold-storage statistics .... 

Articles ordered removed from storage 

Requests for extension of time granted 

Requests for extension of time not granted 

Requests for permission to remove granted 
Collinsville (Dracut) , water supply 
Colrain, water supply ..... 
Commissioner of Health, report of 
Communicable diseases: — 

Case rate and death rates per 100,000 of population 

Cases reported .... 

Deaths reported .... 

Disease table .... 

Incidence of, by months 
Communicable Diseases, Di\'ision of 

Activities of, special 

Bacteriological Laboratory, work of 

Dispensaries, inspection of 

Epidemiologist, report of, for j'ear ending Nov. 30, 1919 

Hospitals, inspection of 

Jails and lock-ups, inspection of 

Personnel, changes in 

Recommendations 

Report of . 

Rules and regulations, new, affecting the division 

Tuberculosis, work of subdivision of 

Venereal diseases, work of subdivision of 
Concord, water supply 
Concord River, examination of 
Connecticut River, examination of 
Cook Allen Reservoir, analysis of water 
Cooley Brook (Chicopee), analysis of water 
Cooley Brook (Longmeadow), analysis of water 
Crystal Lake (Gardner), analysis of water 
Crystal Lake (Haverhill), analysis of water 
Crystal Lake (Wakefield) , analysis of water 

Dalton, water supply . 

Danvers, water supply 

Dedham, water supply 

Deerfield (Fire District), water supply 

Deerfield (South), water supply 

Deerfield River, examination of 

Dewatering with a centrifugal machine 

Experiments with sewage sludge 
Diagnostic outfits distributed by Bacteriological Laboratory 
Dike's Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 



150, 151, 156 
71,72 
44 
49 
10 
111 
45 
49 
45 
126 
126 
126, 127 
126 
126 
49 
44 
3 

150 
150, 153, 156 
150, 153, 156 
156 
151 
19 
138 
134 
135 
140 
135 
136 
137 
140 
133 
139 
136 
137 
44 
73,74 
75 
46. 
44 
46. 
45' 
45 
47 

44 

44 

49 

49 

44 

75,76 

100 

100 

135 

45 



212 



INDEX. 



Diphtheria .... 

Outbreaks of . . . 

Disease prevalence 

Diseases on premises of milk handlers 
Diseases, relative occurrence of principal reportable 
Dispensaries, inspection of . 
Doane Pond, analysis of water 
Dog bite ...... 

Douglas, water supply 

Dow's Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Dracut (Collinsville), water supply 

Dracut (Water Supply District) , water supply 

Dry Brook, analysis of water 

Dudley, water supply .... 

Duxbury, water supply 

Dysentery ...... 

East Brookfield (Brookfield) , water supply 
Easthampton, water supply . 
East Mountain Reservoir, analysis of water 
Easton, water supply .... 

Edgartown, water supply 
Educational work of Division of Hygiene 
Egremont (South) , water supply . 
Egypt Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Elder's Pond, analysis of water 
Emergency appropriations . 
Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis 
Epidemics, outbreaks and 
Epidemiologist, report of, for year ending Nov. 30, 1919 
Diphtheria, outbreaks of 
Diseases on premises of milk handlers 
Diseases, relative occurrence of principal reportable 
Interstate and international reciprocal notification 
Measles, outbreaks of 
Outbreaks and epidemics 
Scarlet fever, outbreaks of 
Typhoid bacilli carriers . 
Typhoid fever, outbreaks of 
Whooping cough, outbreaks of 
Examinations made by Bacteriological Laboratory . 
Exhibit at agricultural fairs ..... 

Exhibit at health weeks and health days 
Expansion of Division of Hygiene for coming year . 
Expenditures ....... 

Emergency appropriations .... 

W^ork in connection with the epidemic of influenza 
Recapitulation ...... 

Emergency appropriations . 
Regular appropriations 
Special appropriations 
Regular appropriations . 
Division of Administration 
Division of Communicable Diseases 
Division of Food and Drug Inspection 
Division of Hygiene . 



pneumonia 



150, 



PAGE 

150, 151, 156 
145 
5 
140, 149 
141 
135 
46 
), 151, 168 
49 
45 
49 
49 
44 
49 
49 
150, 151, 169 



48 
49 
45 
49 
49 
185 
44 
44 
47 
27 

, 151, 156 

140 

140 

145 

140, 149 

141 

140 

143 

140, 143 

144 

141 

147 

144 

134 

190 

190 

190 

27 

33 

33 

34 

34 

34 

34 

27 

27 

28 

30 

28 



150 



INDEX. 



213 



Expenditures — Concluded. 

Regular appropriations — Concluded. 

Division of Water Supply and Sewage Disposal 
Investigations relative to the causes of cancer 
Manufacture and distribution of arsphenamine 
Production and distribution of antitoxin and vaccine lymph 
State Examiners of Plumbers 
Extension of time granted for goods in cold storage 
Extension of time not granted for goods in cold storage 

Factory wastes, investigations in regard to 

Fairhaven, water supply 

Fairview (Chicopee), water supply 

Fall Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Fall River, water supply 

Falmouth, water supply 

Falulah Brook, analysis of water . 

Farnham Reservoir, analysis of water 

Fiftieth anniversary of organized public health work in Massachusetts 

Filtering material, the depth of, and trickling filter efficiency 

Filters, Lawrence city ....... 

Filters: — 

Intermittent sand, operated with untreated sewage 

Lawrence city 

Trickling, operation of . 
Filters, trickling, operation of 
Filtration, chlorination 
Fitchburg, water supply 
Flow of streams .... 
Fomer Reservoir, analysis of water 
Food and Drugs, Di\'ision of 

Cold-storage statistics . 

Requests for extension of time granted 
Summary ...... 

Articles ordered removed from storage 
Requests for extension of time granted 
Requests for extension of time not granted 
Requests for permission to remove granted 

Report of . 
Food and its relationship to health 
Foxborough, water supply 
Fox Brook, analysis of water 
Framingham, water supply . 
Framingham reservoirs, analysis of water 
Franklin, water supply 
Freeland Brook, analysis of water 
French River, examination of 
Fresh Pond, analysis of water 

Gardner, water supply 

Gates Pond, analysis of water 

German measles .... 

Glen Brook Lower Reservoir, analysis of water 

Gloucester, water supply 

Gonorrhea ..... 

Goodale Brook, analysis of water . 

Grafton, water supply . 



150, 



150, 



214 



INDEX. 



Granville, water supply .... 

Gravel Pond, analysis of water 

Great Barrington, water supply 

Great Barrington (Housatonic), water supply 

Great Pond (North Andover), analysis of water 

Great Pond (Randolph), analysis of water 

Great Pond (Weymouth), analysis of water 

Great Quittacas Pond, analysis of water 

Great South Pond, analysis of water 

Greenfield, water supply 

Green River, analysis of water 

Groton, water supply .... 

Groton (West Groton Water Supply District), water supply 

Hadley, water supply .... 
Haggett's Pond, analysis of water 
Hart's Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Haskell Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Hatchet Brook reservoirs, analysis of water 
Hatfield, water supply 
Hathaway Brook, analysis of water 
Haverhill, water supply 
Hawkes Reservoir, analysis of water 
Haynes Reservoir, analysis of water 
Hicks Spring, analysis of water 
Hingham, water supply 
Hinsdale, water supply 
Holden reservoirs, analysis of water 
Holliston, water supply 
Holyoke, water supply 
Hoosick River, examination of 
Hopkinton, water supply 
Hopkinton Reservoir, analysis of water . 
Hospitals, inspection of . . . 

Housatonic (Great Barrington), water supply 
Housatonic River, examination of 
Hudson, water supply . 
Huntington, water supply 
Hygiene, Division of 
Lines of work 

Cancer control . 

Educational work 

Exhibit at agricultural fairs 

Exhibit at health weeks and health days 

Expansion for the coming year 

Food and its relationship to health 

Investigations made . 

Lectures given . 

Mouth hygiene . 

Public health nursing 

Surveys made 
Personnel, changes in 
Report of . 

Infant mortalitj' and child hygiene 
Influenza ..... 
Intermittent sand filters operated with untreated sewage 



INDEX. 



215 



Interstate and international reciprocal notification 
Investigations made by Division of Hygiene 
Ipswich, water supply . 

Jails and lock-ups, inspection of 
Johnson's Pond, analysis of water 
Jonathan Pond, analysis of water 

Kenoza Lake, analysis of water 
Kent Reservoir, analysis of water 
Kingston, water supply 
Kitchen Brook, analysis of water 

Laboratory problem 
Lake Averic, analysis of water 
Lake Cochituate, analysis of water 
Lake Pentucket, analysis of water 
Lake Pleasant, analysis of water . 
Lake Saltonstall, analysis of water 
Lake Williams, analysis of water . 
Lawrence, city filters . 
Lawrence, water supply 
Leaping Well Reservoir, analysis of water 
Lectures given during 1919 . 
Lee, water supply 
Legislation recommended 
Legislative acts, work required by special 
Leicester, water supply 
Leicester (Cherry Valley and Rochdale Water Supply District) 
Leicester Reservoir, analysis of water 
Lenox, water supply 
Leominster, water supply 
Leprosy ..... 
Lincoln, water supply . 
Little Quittacas Pond, analysis of water 
Little South Pond, analysis of water 
Littleton, water supply 
Lobar pneumonia 
Lock-ups and jails, inspection of . 
Longham Reservoir, analysis of water 
Longmeadow, water supply . 
Long Pond (Falmouth), analysis of water 
Long Pond (Great Barrington), analysis of water- 
Lowell, water supply . 

Lower Hobbs Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Lynn, water supply 

Malaria ..... 
Manchester, water supply 
Mann Reservoir, analysis of water 
Mansfield, water supply 
Marblehead, water supply . 
Marion, water supply . 
Marlborough, water supply . 
Marshfield, water supply 
Mattapoisett, water supply . 
Maynard, water supply 



water supply 



PAGE 

140 

184 

45 

136 
45 

47 

45 
48 
49 
44 

11 

47 
43 
45 
46 
45 
46 
113 
45 
47 
190 
45 
15 
42 
49 
49 
48 
45 
45,46 

151, 169 
46 
46 
47 
49 

151, 156 
136 
47 
46 
44 
45 
49 
44 
46 



150, 151, 169 
46,49 
48 
49 
50 
50 
46 
50 
50 
46 



150, 



150, 



216 



INDEX. 



McClellan Reservoir, analysis of water . 
Measles ...... 

Outbreaks of .... 

Medfield, water supply 
Med way, water supply 
Meetinghouse Pond, analysis of water . 
Merrimac, water supply 
Merrimack River, analysis of filtered water 

Examination of . 

Flow of .... . 

Methuen, water supply 
Metropolitan Water District, water supply 
Middleborough, water supply 
Middleton Pond, analysis of water 
Milford, water supply .... 

Millbury, water supply 

Miller's River, examination of 

Millham Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

MUlis, water supply .... 

Mnivale Reservoir, analysis of water 

Monson, water supply 

Montague, water supply 

Montgomery Reservoir, analysis of water 

Morse Reservoir, analysis of water 

Mountain Street Reservoir, analysis of water 

Mouth hygiene ..... 

Muddy Pond Brook, analysis of water . 
Mumps ...... 

Muschopauge Lake, analysis of water 

Nagog Pond, analysis of water 
Nantucket, water supply 
Nashua River, examination of 

Flow of . . . 

Rainfall on drainage area 
Natick, water supply . 
National health problems 
Needham, water supply 
Neponset River, examination of 
New Bedford, water supply . 
Newbur^TJort, water supply . 
Newton, water supply . 
North Adams, water supply 
Northampton, water supply 
North Andover, water supply 
North Attleborough, water supply 
Northborough, water supply 
Northbridge, water supply . 
North Brookfield, water supply 
North Chelmsford (Chelmsford), water supply 
Northfield, water supply 
North Pond, analysis of water 
North Watuppa Lake, analysis of water 
Norton, water supply . 
Norwood, water supply 
Notch Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 



PAGE 

44 
150, 151, 156 

143 
50 
50 
44 
50 
45 
79 
6.3 
50 
43 
50 
44 
46 
50 
79 
46 
50 
45 
50 
46 
47 
45 
46 

183 

47 

), 151, 157 

47 

44 
46 
80 
60, 65, 66 
62 
50 
13 
50 
81 
46 
50 
50 
46 
46 
46 
50 
46 
46 
46 
48 
46 
46 
44 
50 
50 
46 



150, 



INDEX. 



21: 



Health during 1919 



Oak Bluffs, water supply 

Onset (Wareham), water supply 

Ophthalmia neonatorum ......... 150, 

Orange, water supply . 
Organization, changes in 
Outbreaks and epidemics 
Oxford, water supply . 

Palmer, water supply . 

Palmer (Bondsville), water supply 

Pamphlets issued by State Department of Health 

Papers written by members of State Department of 

Papers written in 1919 and pamphlets issued 

Peabody, water supply 

Pellagra ............ 150 

Pepperell, water supply 
Personnel, changes in: — 

Division of Communicable Diseases 

Di\asion of Hygiene 
Phillipston Reservoir, analysis of water 
Pittsfield, water supply 
Plainville, water supply 
Plumbers, report of State Examiners of 
Plumbing Board .... 

Plymouth, water supply 

Pneumonia, lobar .......... 150 

ProvincetowB, water supply 
Public Health Council, report of 
Public health nursing . 
Purification of sewage by aeration 

Activated sludge . 

Quaboag River, examination of 
Quinebaug River, examination of 



Rabies . . . 150, 152, 

Rainfall in Massachusetts 

Rainfall on Nashua River drainage area 

Rainfall on Sudbury River drainage area 

Randolph, water supply 

Reading, water supply 

Recommendations of Di\'ision of Communicable Diseases 

Recovery of sediment from trickling filter effluents, experiments upon the 

Regular appropriations 

Reportable diseases, cases and deaths, with case and death rates 

Rivers, examination of 

Roaring Brook, analysis of water . 

Rockport, water supply 

Rules and regulations, new, affecting the Di\-ision of Communicable Diseases 

Running Gutter Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Russell, water supply ..... 

Rutland, water supply .... 

Sacket Brook, analysis of water 

Salem, water supply ..... 

Salisbury, water supply .... 



PAGE 
50 

47 

151, 157 

46 

4 

140 

50 

46 

50 
205 
203 
203 

46 
, 151, 169 

50 

137 
181 
44 
46,47 
50 
197 
12 
47 
, 151, 156 
50 
1 
182 
103 
103 

72 
81 



170 
56 
62 
59 
47 
50 

140 

109 
27 

150 
66 
44 
47 

139 
45 
47 
47 

46 
47 
50 



218 



INDEX. 



Sandy Pond, analysis of water 
Sanitary Engineering, Division of . 

Report of . 
Scarlet fever .... 

Outbreaks of . . . 

Scituate, water supply 
Scott Reservoir, analysis of witer 
Septic sore throat 
Sewage, purification of, by aeration 

Self-purification of quiescent . 

Untreated, intermittent sand filters operated with 
Sewage disposal works, examination of 
Sewage sludge, experiments with . 

Dewatering with a centrifugal machine 

Stabilizing, by oxidation with nitrates from sewage filter effluents 
Sharon, water supply . 
Shaw Pond, analysis of water 
Sheffield, water supply 
Shelburne, water supply 
Shirley, water supply . 
Shrewsbury, water supply 
Silver Lake, analysis of water 
Smallpox ..... 
Snake Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Southbridge, water supply .... 
South Deerfield (Deerfield), water supply 
South Egremont (Egremont) , water supply 
South Hadley, water supply 

South Hadley (Fire District No. 2), water supply 
Special appropriations ..... 
Spencer, water supply ..... 
Spot Pond, analysis of water 
Spring Pond, analysis of water 
Springfield, water supply .... 
Stabilizing sewage sludge by oxidation with nitrates from 
Stockbridge, water supply 
Stony Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Stoughton, water supply 
Streams, flow of . 

Sudbury Reservoir, analysis of water 
Sudbury River, examination of 

Flow of .... . 

Rainfall on drainage area 
Suntaug Lake, analysis of water . 
Supplement ..... 

Surveys made by Division of Hygiene . 
Swift River, examination of . 
Syphilis ...... 

Taunton, water supply 
Taunton River, examination of 
Ten Mile River, examination of 
Tetanus ...... 

Thunder Brook, analysis of water 
Tillotson Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 
Tisbury, water supply .... 



sewage filter effluents 



150 



150 



152 



150 



PAGE 
46 

16 
39 

, 152, 157 

144 

50 

44 

157 

103 

104 

109 

S3 

100 

100 

102 

50 

47 

51 

47 

51 

51 

44 

, 152, 170 

47 

47 

44 

44 

47 

51 

27 

47 

.43 

46 

47 

102 

47 

44 

47 

57 

43 

73 

57, 65, 66 

59 

46 

35 

184 

72 

150, 152, 157 

47 
82 
82 
150, 152, 170 
44 
47 
61 



INDEX. 



219 



Trachoma . 
Trichinosis 

Trickling filter efficiency, the depth of filtering material and 
Trickling filter effluents, experiments upon the recovery of sediment 
Trickling filters, operation of 
Tuberculosis, other forms 
Tuberculosis, pulmonary 
Tuberculosis, subdivision of 
Typhoid bacilli carriers 
Typhoid fever 
Outbreaks of 

Upper Naukeag Lake, analysis of water 
Uxbridge, water supply 

Venereal diseases, subdivision of . 
Volunteer health agencies, co-operation with 

Wachusett Lake, analysis of water 

Wachusett reservoirs, analysis of water 

Wakefield, water supply 

Walden Reservoir, analysis of water 

Wallace Reservoir, analysis of water 

Walpole, water supply 

Waltham, water supply 

Wannacomet Pond, analysis of water 

Ware, water supply 

Ware River, examination of . 

Wareham (Fire District), water supply 

Wareham (Onset), water supply . 

Warren (West), water supply 

Wasserraann Laboratory 

Water, consumption of, in cities and towns 

Water and Sewage Laboratories, Di^'ision of 

Report of . 
Water supplies : — 

Analyses of ground-water sources 

Analyses of surface-water sources 

Sanitary protection of public . 
Water supply investigation . 
Water supply statistics 
Wayland, water supply 
Webster, water supply 
Wellesley, water supply 
Wenham Lake, analysis of water . 
Westborough, water supply . 
West Brookfield, water supply 
Westfield, water supply 

Westfield Little River, analysis of filtered wat 
Westfield River, examination of 
Westford, water supply 
Weston, water supply . 
Weston Reservoir, analysis of water 
West Springfield, water supply 
West Warren (Warren), water supply 
Weymouth, water supply 



from 



220 



INDEX. 



White Pond, analysis of water 
White Reservoir, analysis of water 
Whiting Street Reservoir, analysis of water 
Whooping cough 
Outbreaks of 
Williamsburg, water supply 
Williamstown, water supply 
Winchendon, water supply 
Winchester, water supply 
Woburn, water supply 
Worcester, water supply 
Worthington, water supply 
Wrentham, water supply 
Wright and Ashley Pond, analysis of water 



150, 



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