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Full text of "Annual report of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri"




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C. W. MURTFELDT, KIRKWOOD. MO. 
One of the oldest members of the State Society. 



FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



State Horticultural Society 



OF MISSOURI 



1904 



ORGANIZED 1859, INCORPORATED 1893. 



Meetings at St. Louis, June 7, 8, 9, 10; 

Neosho, December 20, 21, 22, 1904. 



L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary, 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 
LIBRARY 

NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 




THE HUGH STEPHENS PRINTING COMPANY, 

JEFFERSON CITY, MO. 



A '-7 



MISSOIIKI STATE HORTICULTUI^AL SOCIETY. 



To His Excellency, Joseph W. Folk, Governor : 

This report of our Society work, of the meetings held, of the moneys expended, of 
the local societies and counties reporting for the year 1904, and of the work at the 
World's Pair, and the medals awarded is respectfully submitted. 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary. 

Kansas City, Mo. 



Oity of Jefferson, March 27, 1905. 

To the Commissioners of Public Printing: 

I require for the use of my office five thousand copies of Missouri State Horticultura 

Report— three thousand to be bound in cloth and two thousand to be bound iu paper — which 

I desire printed as per accompanying sample. 

Respectfully, 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary, 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Approved: 

JNO. E. SWANGER, Secretary of State. 

WM. W. WILDER, State Auditor. 

J. F. GMELIOH, State Treasurer. 



OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1904. 

Governor JOSEPH W. FOLK Ex-Officio Member of Executive Committee 

J. C. WRITTEN, President Columbia 

C. H. DUTCHEK, Vice-President Warrensburg 

W. G. GANO, Second Vice-President Parkville 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary Kansas City 

W. T. FLOURNOY, Treasurer Marion ville 

N. J. COr.MAN, Hon. Vice-President for Life St. Louis 



LIST OF HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS. 

R. H. JESSE, President State University Columbia 

HON. A. A. LESUEUR Kansas City 

J. C. EVANS .' Harlem 

MISS M. E. MURTFELDT Kirkwood 

*C. W. MURTFELDT Kirkwood 

HON. N. J. COL.MAN St. Louis 

PROF. M. G. KERN St. Louis 

PROF. B. T. BUSH Independence 

PROF. B. T. GALLOWAY •• Washington, D. C. 

CONRAD H ARTZELL St. Joseph 

PROF. H. E. VAN DEMAN Washington, D. C. 

J. T. STINSON Springfield 

FRANK HOLSINGER Rose'dale, Kansas 

WM. H. BARNES Topeka, Kansas 

♦Deceased. 



LIST OF LIFE MEMBERS. 

J. C. EVANS Harlem 

L. A. GOODJI AN Kansas City 

D. M. DUNI.AP .^ Fulton 

D. A. ROBNKTT Columbia 

CHAS. HUBER Seneca 

C. H. EVANS St. Louis 

W. R. WILKl.NSON ,. Altenburg 

H. M. WHITNER Fredericktown 

RIGHT REVEREND J. J. IIOGAN Kansas City 

H. C. IRISH St. Louis 

M. J. CROW '. Louisiana 

EUGENE W. STARK Louisiana 

C. M. STARK Louisiana 

W. P. STARK Louisiana 

EDGAR M. STARK Louisiana 

W. R. WILKINSON St. Louis 

H. N. WILD Sarcoxie 

MARIE L. GOODMAN Kansas City 

C. M. WILD Sarcoxie 



State Horticultural Society. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 

[By virtue of resolution passed June 9th, 1502.] 

CONRAD AUL Smithville 

A. A. BLTJM1<:R Fredericlitown 

R. J. BAGBY & SONS New Haven 

TH. BRO WNLEE Willow Springs 

M. BUTTERKIELD Farmington 

A. B. COMBS Ft. Scott, Kansas 

J. G. CO.V Odessa 

C. GULP ■ Hannibal 

A. J. DAVIS Jefferson City 

F. FLEISCHER Gasconade 

JACOB FAITH Monfevallo 

jroS. GAMBLE Brooktield 

A. H. GILKESON Warrensburg 

W. G. GANG Parkville 

E. LISTON Virgil City 

G. W. HOPKINS Springfield 

WM. MYERSICK Union 

.1. H. MARION Fulton 

N. F. MURRAY Oregon 

WM. McCRAY Cowgill 

J. E. MAY LaPlata 

J. N. MENIFEE Oregon 

J. H. MONSEES _ , Beaman 

G. T. ODOR Holt 

E. A. PATTERSON Kirksville 

*F. H. SPEAKMAN Neosho 

G. T. TIPPIN Nichols 

H. S. WAYMAN Princeton 

J. B. AVILD & BRO Sarcoxie 

J. C. WHITTBN Coiumbia 

A. L. ZIMMERMAN Weatherby 

♦Deceased. y 



LIST OF iMEMBERS. 



G. A. Atwood Springfield 

J. A. B. Adock Wanensburg 

Anderson Tully Co Memphis, Tenn. 

B. C. Auten Carthage 

0. C. Bell Boonville 

E. J. Baxter Nauvoo, 111. 

J. S. Butterfield Lee's Summit 

R. E. Bailey Rusk, Tex. 

W. D. Bassford Mexico 

G. D. Berry St. .Joseph 

F. J. Buente Morrison 

A. G. Bonham King City 

Th. Butler Amity 

J. G. Briggs Versailles 

Geo. Boone, .Jr St. Joseph 

Wm. Byler Brookfleld 

H. W. Blanke....ll30 Market St., St. Louis 

W. H. Benedict Richards 

.fos. Baumgartner Columbia 

Mrs. Jos. Baumgartner Columbia 

S. H. Baker Columbia 

Thos. Bolander Chillicothe 

E. C. Butterfield Lee's Summit 

A. S. Bailey Bolivar 

E. S. Butt May view 

J. .T. Blakely Platte City 

J. N. Brink Tarkville 

J. E. BaJmyer McBaine 

C. E. Benson Columbia 

S. P. Bailey Versailles 

W. -E. Barnes Vineland, Kas. 

Th. E. Beazley Columbia 

Dr. T. J. Burrill Urbana, 111. 

Mrs. W. T. Burkam St. Louis 

Dr. E. L. Beal Republic 

W. T. Burkam St. Louis 

H. O. Beeson Noel 

P. V. Carey Marble Hill 

H. W. Cook Potosi 

F. W. Closs Allenton 

'iV. G. Campbell St. .Joseph 

C. .T. Croniger Vinita, Ind. Ter. 

A. Chandler Randolph 

M. B. Collins Glasgow 

M. O. Cole Springfield 

T M. Culver Koshkonong 

C. F. Christensen Bells, Tex. 

T. W. Choisser Bourbon 

■T. T. Craighead.... 5u2 S. Ttli St., St. Louis 

.1. H. Christian Neosho 

■J. C. Christopher Warrensburg 



L. V. Dix .Jefferson City 

C. H. Butcher Warrensburg 

F. \y. Dixon Holton, Kas. 

R. M. Davis Bismarck 

F. L. Dawson Elsberry 

B. H. Dunall Welch, Ind. Ter. 

J. A. Durkes Weston 

J. L. Erwin Steedman 

R. H. Edwn'.ds Peirce City 

N. G. Englp Centreview 

Louis Erb..6 Howard Row, Memphis, Tenn. 

Emory Estcs Rolla 

Wm. Eckert Parkville 

.J. D. Edwards & Son Fairville 

I. Y. Elliott Rushville 

J. C. Evans, .Jr Olden 

Paul Evans Mt. Grove 

Robt. Forsythe Farmington 

W. T. Flournoy Marionville 

Ford & Kennedy Parnell 

F. W. Faurot Mt. Grove 

Prof. J. W. Fellows Columbia 

C. W. Ferney Columbia 

J. L. Ferguson Warrensburg 

Theo. Funk Warrensburg 

G. A. Fetters Lee's Summit 

Th. J. Foster Washburn 

E. Fosiey, R. F. D. No. 1 Neosho 

Jas. H. Foster Sarcoxie 

Prof. M. C. Finley Parkville 

E. H. Favor Columbia 

R. J. Fulton Deerfleld 

G. W. Ferguson Brandsville 

Mrs. L. A. Goodman Kansas City 

Mrs. W. Good.... 1006 Howell St., St. Joseph 

Geo. Gutoknnst Moberly 

W. H. Ghonnley Greenwood 

R. F. George IVirce City 

Chas. E. Gentry Republic 

W. D. Gibson Dixon 

W. A. Gardner Springfield 

F. O. Gustafson Sarcoxie 

S. H. Graden Parkville 

T. Godfrey Eldon 

C. B. Green 1196 East 5th, Sedalia 

M. B. Greensfelder Clayton 

W. H. Gibbs Bengal 

D. S. Ifelveru Mammoth Springs, Ark. 

D. M. Huleu Hallsville 

W. F, Hoy FarmingtLii 



8 



State Horticultural Society. 



LIST OF MEMBERS— Continued. 



A. Hentrich Bismarck 

W. S. Hnston Marshall 

Fred Howe Pacific 

J. S. Harmon Weston 

F. P. Halsey St. Joseph 

F. Horsfall Mt. Grove 

W. L. Howard Columbia 

.Tas. Harmon Kearney 

C. W. Halliburton Moberly 

Prof. S. A. Hoover Warrensburg 

J. A. Hamerick Warrensburg 

L. T. Hoover Conklin 

L. O. Howell Chilllcothe 

S. A. Hazeltine Springfield 

Earl B. Hopkins Springfield 

S. J. Hickerson Louisiana 

W. T. Hawkins Strafford 

W. W. Higgins Parkville 

J. R. Helfrlch Eldon 

J. E. Hitchcock Oberlin, Ohio 

Z. M. Hampton Centralia 

Jack Horner Ashley 

L. J. Hartman R. D. No. 3, St. Joseph 

G. S. Homan Easton 

John Howe Pacific 

Mrs. A. C. Hodge Anderson 

J. M. Hall Joplin 

•L W. Hitts Sons Koshkonong 

J. E. Hall Warrensburg 

W. T. Heikes Huntsville, Ala. 

T. B. Hudspeth Sibley 

T. J. Henley Spring Garden 

W. A. Irvine Springfield 

J. M. Irvine St. Joseph 

J. H. .Jenkins Sapp 

H. W. Jenkins Boonville 

E. C. Jenkins Troy 

H. H. Johnson Parkville 

F. L. Johnson Parkville 

•T. H. G. Jenkins Eugene 

L. P. Jansen 2929 S. 13th, St. Louis 

Ed. Kemper Hermann 

T. H. King Springfield 

J. H. Karnes St. Joseph 

W. P. Keith Mayview 

R. T. Kingsbury Estill 

J. R. Kelly Warrensbui'g 

R. F. Kincaid Blackwater 

Wra. Kinling Highlandville 

E. S. Katherman Warrensburg 

C. H. Knighton.., Parkville 

Philip Kaleman Parkville 

W. E. Kiser Stanberry 

C. Koch Cedar Gap 

E. II. Leggett 

301 Pearl St., New York City, N. Y. 

B. Logan Logan, Mo. 

Danl. Lowmiller Parkville 

W. H. Litson Nevada 

Alonzo Lewis Sapp 

J. D. Lyle Warrensburg 



T. C. Love Seymour 

G. W. Logan Logan 

I. B. Lawton Bentonville, Ark. 

A. I. Loop North East, Pa. 

G. B. Lamm Sedalia 

J. P. Landes Neosho 

T. S. Larkin Corder 

G. T. Lincoln Bentonville, Ark. 

T. W. Mershon Buckner 

Pat. Moriarty Jonesburg 

H. Meyers Bridgeton 

F. J. Marshall Nichols 

Judge C. B. McAfee Springfield 

Mrs. A. Z. ISIoore Mt. Grove 

E. Mohler Plattsburg 

A. L. McClay Highview 

J. H. Murray Oregon 

W. S. Martin DeKalb 

D. McNallie Sarcoxie 

A. B. Mathews Mayview 

N. J. Mayer Columbia 

Jesse Mohler Warrensburg 

F. S. Martin Forkners Hill 

J. D. Meriwether, Jr Louisiana 

S. W. Moore Elwell, West Va. 

S. F. McNair Warrensburg 

J. W. McCause Mt. Vernon 

H. L. Messick Quincy, 111. 

F. J. McNamara Chilllcothe 

.T. G. McNair.... 722 Chestnut St., St. Louis 

IT. B. McAfee Parkville 

W. T. Maddox Waverly 

G. R. Murray Oregon 

W. D. Maxwell R. K. No. 2, St. Joseph 

Robt. Montgomery Oregon 

F. M. Merritt Pilot Grove 

J. F. Marshall 4710 Easton, St. Louis 

C. W. Morrill Macon, Ga. 

W. C. Monsees Beaman 

J. E. Newton Warrensburg 

Albert Newhouse Smithville 

W. M. Norwood Rhea, Ark. 

W. C. Nash Springfield 

A. T. Nelson Lebanon 

O. F. Neal Hannibal 

C. H. Ogden Warrensburg 

Chas. O. Ozias Warrensburg 

J. A. Orr Mt. Vernon 

John Osborne Sarcoxie 

Albert Owen Warrensburg 

W. H. Otto New Haven 

T. R. Peyton Mexico 

H. H. Park Springfield 

H. M. Page Breckenridge 

W. A. Patton .-...Jane 

W. H. Perkins.." Quincy, 111. 

Millard Parker Warrensburg 

Harvey E. Patton Nichols 

H. C. Porter Fayetteville, Ark. 

Ed. I'icquet Dixon 



State Horticultural Society. 



LIST OF MEMBERS-Continued. 



Emma Piercon Lockwood 

John Barton Payne Chicago, 111. 

J. H. Pelham Neosho 

a. Raupp Monett 

R. J. Rogerson 7th and Market, St. Louis 

August Reese 2516 N. 14th, St. Louis 

D. W. Reid Slater 

O. C. Roby Rocheport 

Ezra Roop Warrensburg 

M. L. Reynolds Nichols 

Homer Reed Louisiana 

E. A. Riehl Alton, 111. 

W. Riehl Potosi 

J. H.. Ruddick Bourbon 

Mrs. Laura B. Robnett Columbia 

H. G. Richardson Neosho 

Howard S. Reed Columbia 

J. O. Rudder Vulcan Station 

H. C. Rogers Warrensburg 

J. M. Rogers Blsberry 

Jas. A. Rogers Bowling Green 

G. A. Smith Chillicothe 

W. J. Stevens St. Louis 

P K. Sylvester Sunlight 

A. V. Schermmerhorn Kinmundy, 111. 

•J. W. Stanton Richview, III. 

G. L. Scssen West Plains 

Chas. W. Steiman Dalton 

H. Schnell Glasgow 

A. W. Swartout Mt. Grove 

J. T. Snodgrass 

39th and Wyandotte, K. C, Mo. 

H. A. Squiers Inza 

B. F. Stuart Rushville 

Prof. B. L. Seawell Warrensburg 

J. Ovid Stark Stark 

J. L. Scott Gravel Point 

W. H. Strong Seligman 

E. E. Smith 4029 McGee, K. C, Mo. 

N. J. Shepherd Eldon 

A. G. Samuel St. Joseph 

J. P. Sinnock Moberly 

Andrew Sturm Brunswick 

Zeno Stocks Columbia 

W. H. H. Stephens Bunceton 

J. T. Stinson Springfield 

L. J. Slaughter Grain Valley 

Geo. T. Smith Richland 

Theo. Saxenmoyer Red Bud, 111. 

C. E. Shock Montgomery City 

F. H. Smelzer Van Buren, Ark. 

Oscar P. Schueler Neosho 

A. V. Swaty Texankana, Tex. 

O. H. Treadway Paynesville 

S. Y. Thornton Blackwater 

Geo. S. Tovmsend Troy 



J. W. Tippin Nichols 

T. H. Todd New Franklin 

D. A. Turner South St. Joseph 

J. M. Titus Coffeyville, Kas. 

Geo. E. Tippie Lee's Summit 

J. A. Taylor Wynnewood, Ind. Ter. 

J. N. Todd Fulton 

B. B.. Thurraan Auxvasse 

P. A. Van Vranken...R. D. 21, Grain Valley 

A. Van Buskirk Oregon 

W. H. Vaughn Marshall 

B. van HerfE 

..93 Nassau St. New York, N. Y. 

C. W. Wilmeroth Chicago, HI. 

Carl Wallace Jackson 

E. J. Winter Mexico 

H^nry Wallis Wellston 

C. H. Wittenbach Morrison 

John Ware Wappapello 

J. M. Withoil Nichols 

Dr. C. R. Woodson St. Joseph 

S. R. Walker Liberty 

H. Waterman Nichols 

W. H. Watts Glasgow 

L. C. Wilson.. Station D., South St. Joseph 

W. J. Wilson St. Joseph 

A. C. Woolfolk Troy 

K. B. Wllkerson Mexico 

Dean H. J. Waters Columbia 

G. W. Williams Humansville 

Roy Withoil Nichols 

Robt. E. Williams Louisiana 

S. D. Williamson Mt. Vernon 

H. J. Weber & Sons Nursery 

A. Willis Ottawa, Kas. 

J. R. Warren.. Harcourt, Victoria, Australia 

A. P. Whlttemore Webster Groves 

H. S. Wheeler Argentine, Kas. 

F. F. Wagner Warrensburg 

G. H. Williams Midway, Kas. 

J. B. Wagner Sarcoxie 

W. S. Wade Springfield 

Arthur O. Wild Sarcoxie 

Frank H. Wild Sarcoxie 

G. IT. Wild Sarcoxie 

Wm. H. Woods Sarcoxie 

Chas. Wilson Sarcoxie 

S. A. Waters Nadine 

T. C. Wilson Hannibal 

L. A. Willis.. 403 15th Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
C. M. Williams Laclede 

C. T. Zeitinger Zeitonia 

W. T. Zink Nichols 

A. W. Zimmerman Amazonia 

Louis Zellner Granby 



Note.— While we carry all these names on our roll It Is well understood that not all 
have paid their menibeisliip up to the present date. Secretary. 



LIST OF COUNTY SOCIETIES. 



Adair Connty Horticultural Society— 
R. M. Brasher, president, Kirksville. 

A. Fatterscn, secretary, Kirksville. 

Audrain County Horticultural Society- 
Si. B. Guthrie, president, Mexico. 
K. B. W'ilkerson, vice-president, Mexico. 
R. A. Ramsey, secretary, Mexico. 
W. G. Hutton, ass't secretary, Mexico. 
■William Eagan, ass't secretary, Mexico. 
W. M. Pearson, treasurer, Mexico. 

Barry County Hoticultural Society— 
W. W. Witt, president, Exeter. 

E. B. Utter, vice-president, Butterfield. 
G. G. .Tames, secretary, Hailey. 

J. C. Crane, treasurer, Exeter. 

Barton County Horticultural Society— 

B. D. Hayes, secretary, Lamar. 

Billings Fruit Growers' Association — 
J. W. Washam, president, Billings. 
Wm. Watkinson, vice-president, Billings. 

C. E. Purdy, secretary, Billings. 
K. H. Stone, treasurer, Billings. 
Members, 25. 

Birch Tree Fruit Growers' Association, 
Shannon County— 
V. H. Kirkendal, president. Birch Tree. 

F. Anderson, secretary, Birch Tree. 

Bismarcn. Fruit Growers' Association, St. 
Francois County— 

C. J. Tullock, president, Bismarck. 
M. H. Dowling, secretary, Bismarck. 

Boone County Plorticultural Society— 

D. A. Robnett, president, Columbia. 
D. M. Hulen, vice-president, Plallsville. 
.Tas. Baumgartner, secretary, Columbia. 
Samuel Baker, treasurer, Columbia. 
Members, 40. 

Butterfield Berry Growers' Shipping Asso- 
ciation— 
R. J. Hinson, president, Butterfield. 
A. J. Russell, vice-president, Butterfield. 
W. D. Cowherd, secretary-treasurer. Purdy 
(R. F. D. 1). 

Butterfield Local, Barry County- 
Morris Bayless, president, Butterfield. 
I. R. Crane, secretary, Butterfield. 

G. D. Bethune, treasurer, Butterfield. 
Members, 12. 



Benton CoTiuty (Ark.) Horticultural Society— 
G. T. Lincoln, president, Bentonville. 
I. Henthorn, vice-president, Bentonville. 
I. B. Lawton, secretary, Bentonville. 
L. n. McGill, treasurer, Bentonville. 
Members, 60. 

Callaway County Horticultural Society— 
D. M. Dunlap, president, Fulton. 

Centra! Missouri Horticultural Association — 

A. Tuttle, president, Boonville. 

Dr. Chas. Dawie, 1st vice-president, Boon- 
ville. 

Mrs. .Tas. Gault, 2nd vice-president, Boon- 
ville. 

C. C. Bel!, secretary, Boonville. 

W. A. Smiley, treasurer, Boonville. 

Members, 20. 

Clay County Horticultural Society— 
F. M. Williams, president, Gashland. 
F. P. Chedister, secretary. Linden. 

Berry Growers' Association— 
J. I. Sparks, president. Ashland. 

Conway Horticultural Society, Laclede 
County— 
W. H. Getty, president, Conway. 
R. O. Hardy, secretary, Conway. 

Cole County Horticultural Society— 
W. A. Maddox, president, Jefferson City. 
Henry ITentges, vice-president, Scruggs 

Station. 
A. J. Davis, Secretary, .Tefferson City. 
C. A. Dix, treasurer, Jefferson City. 
Members, 20. 

Everton Fruit Growers' Association, Dade 
County— 
J. E. Gyles, president, Everton. 
L. L. Gibson, vice-president, Everton. 
W. S. Wilson, secretary, Everton. 
Members, 23. 

I Exeter Berry Gowers, Barry County— 
T. G. Johnson, president, Exeter. 
K. Armstrong, vice-president, Exeter. - 
.T. Armstrong, secretary, Exeter. 
Jess Talbert, treasurer, Exeter. 

Gandy Berry Growers' Association — 
J. P. Boyd, president, Sarcoxie. 
.T. McMahon, vice-president, Sarcoxie. 
H. H. I'.ean, secretary, Sarcnxie. 
Joe l">r.dson, treasurer, Sarcoxie. 
Members, 100. 



State Horticultural Society. 



II 



LIST OF COUNTY SOCIETIES-Oontinued. 



The Grafters— 
E. H. Favor, president, Columbia. 
J. B. Hill, vice-president, Columbia. 
J. Lee Hewitt, secretary, Columbia. 
Members, 17. 

Greene County Horticultural Society- 
Theodore H. King, president, Springfield. 
George A. Atwood, vice-president, Spring- 
field. 
Earl B. Hopkins, secretary, Springfield. 
H. H. Park, treasurer, Springfield. 

Henry County Horticultural Society — 
M. L. Bonliam, president, Clinton. 
M. G. Conden, vice-president, Clinton. 
J. M. Prezinger, secretary, Clinton. 
H. T. Burr is, treasurer, Clinton. 

Holt County Horticultural Society— 
N. F. Murray, president, Oregon. 
J. N. Menifee, vice-president, Oregon. 
Wm. Kaucher, secretary and treasurer, 
Oregon. 

Koshkonong Horticultural Society— 
T. M. Culver, president, Koshkonong. 
C. M. Alderson, secretary, Koshkonong. 
H. C. Huxley, treasurer, Thayer. 

Laclede County Horticultural Society- 
Phil. Donnely, president, Lebanon. 
W. n. Mcllvane, vice-president, Lebanon. 

B. H. CowgiU, secretary, Lebanon. 
M. W. Serl, treasurer, Lebanon. 
Members, 50. 

Logan Fruit Growers' Association— 

C. M. Lester, president, Logan. 

G. K. Boyd, vice-president, Logan. 
G. W. Logan, secretary, mgr., Logan. 
A. J. Carver, treasurer, Logan. 
Members, 65. 

Leasbury Fruit Growers' Association (Craw- 
ford County) — 
H. N. Lyon, president, Leasbury. 
C. P. Lindsey, vice-president, Leasbury. 
J. L. Fulton, secretary, Leasbury. 

Lincoln County Horticultural Society— 

A. H. Kercheval, president, Elsberry. 
T. O. Mayes, vice-president. New Hope. 

B. C. Benedict, secretary, Moscow Mills. 

C. F. Wallace, treasurer, Brussells. 

Linn County Horticultural Society — 
A. P. Swan, president, Marceline. 
I. D. Porter, vice-president, Marceline. 
H. Long, secretary, Marceline. 
J. W. Porter, treasurer, Marceline. 

Livingston County Horticultural Society— 
V. K. Thompson, president, Chillicothe. 

D. A. French, vice-president, Chillicothe. 
.T. T. Jackson, secretary, Chillicothe. 

.T. W. Bird, treasurer, Chillicothe. 
Members, 50. 



Madison County Horticultural Society— 
A. A. Blumer, president, Fredericktown. 
H. M. Whitner. secretary, Fredericktown. 

Mayview Horticultural Society, Lafayette 

County— 
Edw. S. Butt, president, Mayview. 
J. W. Gladish, vice-president, Higgins- 

ville. 
G. H. Rabius, secretary, Mayview. 
Members, 2S. 

Meramec Horticultural Association, Craw- 
ford County— 
E. R. Bowen, president, Steelville. 
Jos. T. Marsh, secretary, Steelville. 

C. D. Norval, treasurer, Steelville. 

Mercer County Horticultural Society- 
Martin Read, president, Princeton. 
J. F. Stanley, vice-president, Princeton. 
H. S. Wayman, secretary, Princeton. 
Lewis Smith, treasurer, Princeton. 
Members, 60. 

Miller County Horticultural Society— 
J. R. Helfrich, president, Eldon. 
T. G. Henley, vice-president. Spring 

Garden. 
N. J. Shepherd, secretary, Eldon. 
Henry Philips, treasurer, Eldon. 
Members, 18. 

Missouri-.\rkansas Horticultural Society— 

D. S. Helvem, pres., Mammoth Springs, 
Ark. 

P. B. P. Hynson, secretary. Mammoth 
Springs, Ark. 

Missouri State University Agricultural 
Club— 
L. W. Thieman, president, Aullville. 
C. H. Hechler, vice-president, Dalton. 
J. Lee Hewitt, secretary, Columbia. 
J. C. Foulds, treasurer, Columbia. 
Members, 26. 

Missouri Valley Horticultural Society— 
Geo. W. Holsinger, president, Argentine, 

Kas. 
W. G. Gano, vice-president, Parkville, Mo. 
Mrs. H. E. Chandler, secretary, Argentine, 

Kas. 
G. F. Espenlaub, treasurer, Rosedale, Kas. 
Members, 40. 

Monett Local— Barry County— 
R. D. Creed, president, Monett. 

E. O. Snyder, vice-president, Monett. 
Geo. Raupp, secretary, Monett. 

L. C. Ferguson, treasurer, Monett. 

Monteer Horticultural Society— 
C. r. Adams, president, Monteer. 
R. Boram, treasurer, Monteer, 



12 



State Horticultural Society. 



LIST OF COUNTY SOCIETIES-Continued. 



Mt. Vernon Fruit Growers' Association- 
Lawrence County — 
R. C. Sedwlck, president, Mt. Vernon. 
A. Wont, vice-president, Mt. Vernon. 
AV. E. Iliclvman, secretary, Mt. Vernon. 
Geo. A. McCause, treasurer, Mt. Vernon. 
Members, 25. 

Neosho Fruit Growers' and Shiippers' Asso- 
ciation—Newton County— 
C. L. Williams, president, Neosho. 
S. D. Taylor, vice-president, Neosho. 
J. H. Christian, secretary, Neosho. 
J. H. Richardson, treasurer, Neosho. 

F. H. Speakman, business mgr., Neosho. 
Members, 15. 

Nevada Fruit Growers' Association, Vernon 
County— 
S. V. Mitchem, president, Nevada. 
J. S. McClenney, vice-president, Nevada. 
W. H. Litson, secretary, Nevada. 
J. N. Shipley, treasurer, Nevada. 
Members, 20. 

Norwood Horticultural Society — 
.T. W. Hollenbeck, president, Norwood. 
J. E. Hart, vice-president, Norwood. 
W. S. Calhoun, secretary, Norwood. 
Dan. Twohig, treasurer, Norwood. 
Members, 30. 

Ozark, Fruit Growers' Association— 

G. A. Atwood, secretary, Springfield. 

Pettis County Fruit and Dairy Club — 
Ed. Brown, president, Sedalia. 
Chas. H. Green, vice-president, Sedalia. 
G. B. Lamm, secretary, Sedalia. 
Earnest Thompson, treasurer, Sedalia. 
Members, 20. 

Peirce City Fruit Growers' Association— 
W. F. Brendlinger, president, Peirce City. 
C. O. Grimes, vice-president, Peirce City. 

E. F. George, secretary, Peirce City. 

W. A. Rhea, treasurer, Peirce City. 

Members, 116. 

\ 

Phelps County Horticultural Society- 
Robert Merriwether, president, Rolla. 
Albert Newman, secretary, Rolla. 

Polk County Horticultural and Agricultural 
Association— 
G. W. Williams, president, Humansville. 
G. M. Briggs, secretary, Humansville. 
A. H. Schofield, treasurer, Humansville. 

Polk County (Ark.) Horticultural Society— 
A. W. St. John, president, Mena, Ark. 

F. S. Foster, secretary, Mena, Ark. 

G. S. Graham, treasurer, Dallas, Ark. 
^^embers, 50. 

Richland Fruit Growers' Association, Pu- 
laski County — 
Jolm C. Evans, president, Richland. 



W. W. Hillhouse, vice-president. Stout- 
land. 
FI. W. Rausch, secretary, Richland. 
L. C. McCully, treasurer, Richland. 
Members, 25. 

Purdy Horticultural Society, Barry County— 

J. F. Chastain, president, Purdy. 

S. M. Bennett, secretary, Purdy. 

M. Roller, treasurer, Purdy. , 

T. R. Robberson, committee, Purdy. 

V\\ A. Thornhill, committee, Purdy. 
Members, 65. 

Randolph County Horticultural Society— 
B. R. Boucher, president, Cairo. 
G. N. Ratliff, secretary, Moberly. 
.T. W. Dorsey, treasurer, Moberly. 
Members, 48. 

Ray County Horticultural Society— 

A. Maitland, president, Richmond. 

G. A. Stone, vice-president, Richmond. 
R. TS'Illiams, secretary, Richmond. 
Members, 20. 

Republic Horticultural Society, Greene 
County— 
J. E. Davis, president. Republic. 
Dr. E. L. Beal, secretary and treasurer, 

Republic. 
Members, 40. 

Ripley County Horticultural Society— 
.J. G. Hancock, president, Doniphan. 
S. S. Hancock, secretary, Doniphan. 

Saline County Horticultural Society— 
W. S. Huston, president, Marshall. 
W. C. Gower, vice-president, Marshall. 
Thos. Adams, secretary, Marshall. 
Members, 9. 

St. Francois County Agricultural Associa- 
tion — 
P. V. Ashburn, president, Farmington. 
J. B. Highley, vice-president, Farmington. 
Maurice Highley, secretary Farmington. 
J. R. Pratt, treasurer, Farmington. 
Members, 23. 

St. .Joseph (Buchanan County) Horticul- 
tural and Agricultural Society— 
W. D. Maxwell, president, St. Joseph. 
R. E. Lee Utz, vice-president. South St. 

Joseph. 
Jas. M. Irvine, secretary, St. Joseph. 
Robt. Onstot, treasurer, South St. Joseph. 
Members, 45. 

St. Louis County Horticultural Society— 
H. Meyer, president, Bridgeton. 
(Jeo. Wiegand, vice-president, Bridgeton. 
E. W. Terry, secretary, Bridgeton. 

B. J. Koenig, treasurer, Normandy. 
Members, 17. 



Siate Horticultural Society. 



13 



LIST OF COUNTY SOOIETIES— Continued. 



Sarcoxie Horticultural Association — 
Henry Foster, president, Sarcoxie. 
J. F. Wagner, vice-president, Sarcoxie. 
J. C. Reynolds, trustee, Sarcoxie. 
Andy Seneker, trustee, Sarcoxie. 

St. Charles County Horticultural Society— 
Dr. J. E. Edwards, president, O'Fallon. 
Jacob Schaeffer, vice-president, O'Fallon. 
Tony Moser, secretary, O'Fallon. 
J. S. Keithly, treasurer, O'Fallon. 

Seymour Fruit Growers' Association— Web- 
ster County— 
T. C. Love, president, Seymour. 
G. L. Childress, vice-president, Seymour. 
L. S. Witmer, rec. secretary, Seymour. 
P. A. Williams, cor. secretary, Seymour. 
T. J. Smith, treasurer, Seymour. 
Members, 38. 

South Missouri Fruit Growers' Association. 
Howell County — 
Geo. Coraley, president. Willow Springs. 
J. Lovewell, secretary. Willow Springs. 

South Missouri Horticultural Association, 
Howell County — 
D. J. Nichols, president. West Plains. 
J. W. Hitt, vice president, W'est Plains. 

Stoutland Fruit Growers' Society, Camden 
County— 
J. W. Burhans, president, Stoutland. 



Henry Evans, vice-president, Stoutland. 
Janie W. Burhaus, secretary, Stoutland. 
P. C. Kennedy, treasurer, Stoutland. 
Members, 41. 

Washburn Local— Barry County— 
P. R. Moffiatt, president, Washburn. 
.Tohn Hoog, vice-president, Washburn. 
W. B. Adock, secretary, Washburn. 
G. K. Hurd, treasurer, Washburn. 
Members, 50. 

Willow Springs Horticultural Society, 

Howell County— 
W. H. Thomas, president, Willow Springs. 
G. H. Johnson, vice-president. Willow 

Springs. 
E. Brown, secretary. Willow Springs. 
Members, 60. 

Wayne County Horticultural Society- 
Chris. Richman, president, Lowndes. 
Jas. Wilson, vice-president, Wappapello. 
John Ware, secretary, Wappapello. 
Wm. Howell, treasurer, Wappapello. 
Members, 25. 

Wright County Horticultural Society — 
Frank Horsfall, president, Mt. Grove. 
R. R. Titus, vice-president, Mt. Grove. 
L. M. Reese, secretary, Mt. Grove. 
John Thielman, treasurer, Mt. Grove. 



1 4 State Horticultural Society. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Orchards. 
M. BTJTTERFIELD, Farmington. W. T. FLOURNOY, Marionville. 

N. F. MURRAY, Oregon. 

Vineyards. 
M. OLIVER COLE, Springfield. ED. KEMPER, Hermann. C. W. STEIMAN, Dalton. 

Small Fruits. 
HENRY SCHNELL, Glasgow. J. E. MAY, LaPlata. B. LOGAN, Logan, Mo. 

Stone Fruits. 
G. L. SESSEN, West Plains. J. H. KARNES, St. Joseph. H. CRBCELIUS, Mehlville. 

Vegetables. 
L. C. WILSON, South St. Joseph. .L C. RUDER, Affton. J. P. SINNOCK, Moberly. 

Flowers. 
MRS. G. E. DUGAN, Sedal-a. E. L. MASON, Trenton. PROF. W. L. HOWARD, Columbia. 

Ornamentals. 
PROF. H, C. IRISH, St. Louis. HENRY WILD, Saicoxie. H. S. WAYMAN, Princeton. 

Entomology. 
MISS M. E. MURTFELDT, Kirkwood. PROF. J. M. STEDMAN, Columbia. 

Botany. 
PAUL EVANS, Mt. Grove. H. W. JENKINS, BoonvlUe. 

Nomenclature. 
J. C. EVANS, Harlem. W. G. GANO, Parkville. J. T. STINSON, Springfield. 

New Fruits. 
T. H. TODD, New Franklin. R. .L BAGBY, New Haven. D. A. ROBNETT, Columbia. 

Ornithology. 

O. WIDMAN, 5105 Morgan St, St. Louis. G. A. ATWOOD, Springfield. 

A. H. GILKESON, Warrensburg. 

Injurious Fungi. 
PROF. J. C. WHITTEN, Columbia. DR. HERMAN VON SCHRENK, St. Louis. 

Packing and Marketing Fruits. 
T. C. WILSON, Hannibal. W. P. KEITH, Mayview. D. McNALLIB, Sarcoxle. 

Transportation. 
G. T. TIPPIN, Nichols. C. C. BELL, Boonville. A. T. NELSON, Lebanon. 

Horticultural Education. 

Chairman, G. B. LAMM, Sedalia. L. A. GOODMAN. Kansas City. 

MRS. G. E. DUGAN, Sedalia. MISS M. B. MURTFELDT, Kirkwood. 

DR. WM. TRELEASE, St. Louis. PROF. J. R. KIRK, Kirksville. 

PROF. .L C. WHITTEN, COLUMBIA. 



NEW 
BOTA 
QAR 



Missouri State Horticultural Society. 



Organised January 5, 1859, at Jefferson City. 
Jncorporated 1893, at Jefferson City. 



INCOKPORATION AND REORGANIZATION OF THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY BY 
AN ACT OP THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY IN 1893. 

The following law was passed by the Legislature incorporating the 
State Horticultural Society. The Executive Committee met soon after 
the passage of this act and accepted its provisions, and at the semi- 
annual meeting of the Society at Columbia, June 6, 7, 8, 1893, the act was 
adopted as part of the constitution of the society. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Under the new constitution the law requires the payment of $i per 
year for membership fee. Life membership, $ig. 

L. A. Goodman, Secretary- 

ACT OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 

The Missouri Horticultural Society is hereby instituted and created a body corporate, 
to be named and styled as above, and shall have perpetual succession, power to sue and 
be sued, complain and defend in all courts, and to make and use a common seal and alter 
the same at pleasure. 

The Missouri Horticultural Society shall be composed of such persons as take an 
interest in the advancement of Horticulture in this State, who shall apply for member- 
ship and pay into the society treasury the sum of one dollar per year, or ten dolars for 
a life membership, the basis for organization to be the Missouri Horticultural Society, 
as now known and existing, and whose expenses have been borne and annual reports paid 

tfor by appropriations from the State treasury. The business of the Society, so far as it 

y relates to transactions with the State, shall be conducted by an Executive Board, to be 

^^ composed of the President, Vice-President, Second Vice-President, Secretary and Treas- 

"^ urer, who shall be elected by ballot at an annual meeting of the Society. The Governor 

of the State shall be ex-of[icio a member of the Board— all other business of the Society 
2^to be conducted as its by-laws may direct. All appropriations made by the State for the 
^^aid of the Society shall be expended by means of requisitions to be made by order of tlie 
* — Board on the State Auditor, signed by the President and Secretary and attested with the 

seal ; and the treasurer shall annually publish a detailed statement of the expenditures 
COof the Board, covering all moneys received by it. The Public Printer shall annually, 

iUnder the direction of the Board, print such number of the reports of the proceedings of 



l6 State Horticultural Society. 

the Board, Society and auxiliary societies as may, in the judgment of the State Printing 
Commission, be justified by the appropriation made for that purpose by the General 
Assembly, such annual report not to contain more than 400 pages. The Secretary of the 
Society shall receive a salary of eight hundred dollars per annum as full compensation 
for his services; all other officers shall serve without compensation, except that they may 
receive their actual expenses in attending meetings of the Board. 

CONSTITUTION. 

Article I. This association shall be known as the Missouri State Horticultural 
Society. Its object shall be the promotion of horticulture in all its branches. 

Art. il. Any person may become a member of this Society upon the payment of 
one dollar and membership shall continue upon the payment of one dollar annually : 
Provided, however, that no person shall be allowed to vote on a question of a change of 
the constitution or the election of officers of this Society until after he has been a mem- 
ber for a period of one year preceding the time of election, except in case of a life member. 

The payment of ten dollars at any one time shall constitute a person a life member 
and honorary members may be elected at any regular meeting of the Society ; and any 
lady may become a member by giving her name to the Secretary. 

Art. III. The officers of this society shall consist of President, Vice-President, 
Second Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at each 
regular annual meeting, and whose term of office shall be for one year, beginning on the 
first day of June, following their election. The President, Vice-Presidents and Treasurer 
shall be eligible to but one successive re-election. 

Art. IV. The elective officers of this Society shall constitute an Executive Committee, 
at any meeting of which a majority of the members shall have power to transact business. 
The other duties of the officers shall be such as usually pertain to the same officers in 
similar organizations. 

Art. V. The regular meetings of this Society shall be held annually on the first 
Tuesday in December and .June, except when otherwise ordered by the Executive Commi't- 
tee. Special meetings of the Soceity may be called by the Executive Committee, and 
meetings of the committee by the President and Secretary. 

Art. VI. As soon after each regular annual meeting as possible, the President shall 
appoint the following standing committees, and they shall be required to give a report in 
writing, under their respective heads, at the annual and semi-annual meetings of the 
Society, of what transpires during the year of interest to the Society : Orchards, Vine- 
yards, Stone Fruits, Small Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers, Ornamentals, Entomology, Ornith- 
ology, Botany, Nomenclature, New Fruits, Injurious Fungi, Packing and Marketing Fruit 
and Transportation. 

Art. VII. The treasurer shall give a bond in twice the sum he is expected to handle, 
executed in tnist to the President of this Society (forfeiture to be made to the Society), 
with two or more sureties, qualifying before a notary public, of their qualifications as 
bondsmen, as provided by the statute concerning securities. 

Art. VIII. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members 
present at any regular meeting. , 



SUMMER MEETING. 

ST. LOUIS, JUNE 7, 8, 9, 10, 1904. 



> 



H-2 



SUMMER MEETING. 



I 



FIRST SESSION— TUESDAY, JUNE 7, 1904, TEN O'CLOCK. 

The sessions were held in one of the Balcony rooms at the west 
end of the Horticultural Building. 

The meeting- was called to order by President Robnett, who spoke 
a few words of welcome and introduced the new President, Dr. J. C. 
Whitten. 

D. A. Robnett — I thank the society for the courtesies and the honor 
and kindness that have been shown to me on every side while I have 
been your presiding officer. You have given me honors that I did not 
deem myself competent to fill. For all my mistakes and failures I now 
apologize. But the main thing is to thank the Society for the way in 
which it has held up my hands. This is the thirty-third meeting I have 
attended. I am always ready to fill any place that needs me, but any 
failures in my duties as President are the fault of the Society as I did 
not choose the office myself. Our law is that an officer shall succeed 
himself only once. I am therefore stepping down and out and yield the 
chair to one to whom you can look for advice. Dr. J. C. Whitten will 
now take the chair and serve you with honor. 

Dr. J. C. Whitten — I can not adequately express my gratitude for 
your courtesy in electing me to this office. Inasmuch as the president 
is usually a practical and successful fruit grower, I imagine you have 
chosen me because I have worked with you, and as an appreciation ot 
my professional work, on this account I appreciate the honor all the 
more. The responsibility is on every member and we need zeal and 
vigor. I shall do all I can to enhance the position and vigor of the 
Society, depending at the same time ^on your co-operation for success. 
Any honor accruing is due to the active m/embers who do the work for 
which the Society stands. 



20 State Horticultural Society. 



DISCUSSION ON STRAWBERRIES. 

There being no papers present on the subject, the session opened 
with a discussion on growing and cuhivating the strawberry in the 
field. 

G. T. Tippin — In southwest Missouri the strawberry business 
reaches large proportions, last week a hundred cars were shipped from 
that district. That this success is being made commercially is due to 
the varieties chosen and the system of planting and cultivation. The 
Associations making the greatest success study first the time of coming 
into market, and plant therefore the variety which ripens at the best time 
for the market. Most successful points have a gravelly soil, and practice 
a thorough preparation of the soil before planting ; they plant early in 
the spring and give intense cultivation. All get good returns the first 
year. The matted row, which is kept about two feet wide, gives a 
double surface, and as the best berries are always at the edge this shows 
that they need space, therefore the rows are thinned and the plants left 
in individual hills. This thinning it is estimated costs as high as ten 
dollars per acre, but the result is large berries all along, and last ones 
are good commercial size. 

Mr. Dewey — Wouldn't rows only i6 inches wide be as good as two 
feet? 

Mr. Tippin — That would not bring the results because the narrow 
row would be thick with plants. The object is to cover the. row with 
good strong bearing plants and have them not too close together. 

W. G. Gano — What is the time of thinning? 

''Mr. Tippin — After the plants are well set, about September first. 
Plowing the plant beds in the spring gives good results, plow before 
mulching, for this also is done in the spring. 

C. H. Dutcher — In Johnson county we mulch the Haverland and 
let the Marshall go unmulched. 

Mr. Tippin — Plants take their growth and vitality in the fall. The 
roots are disturbed by the thinning in the fall, so the places thinned 
should be filled up and leveled that the roots may spread and recover 
before spring. 

iMr. Dewey — Wouldn't it be better to leave the rows thin in the 
first place? 

Mr. Tippin — Yes that would be good but it requires too much care 
and is not practical on a commercial scale. 

J. C. Evans — What is the best mulch in the absence of clean wheat 
straw ? 



Slimmer Meeting. 21 

Mr. Tippiii — Leaves or prairie hay are good, the latter has not as 
much seed as the wheat straw. Cornstalks also make a splendid mulch 
and good fertilizer. 

L. A. Goodman — What about cow peas sown in August for a 
mulch ? 

j\Ir. Evans — We have never tried them, but they might be good. 

Mr. Tippin — Generally we use more mulch than is necessary. We 
should just cover the ground with a sprinkle of straw ; it is not for the 
plants but for clean beriies, to keep them out of the sand and dirt- 
Mr, Evans — If the straw is full of weeds, grass, etc., it pollutes the 
ground so that we can hardly pick the berries and then we have to plow 
the fields. 

P. K. Silvester — Sugar cane is a fine fertilizer, grows as fine as 
wheat, and shoulder high and is as good as wheat straw. Cut it before 
the seeds manure and put it on thin. 

C. H, Dutcher — Sow it the latter part of May, sow. thick, two 
bushels to the acre. 

Pres, Whitten — The cane leaves the field clean and is therefore 
good, so say the best strawberry growers. 

C. H. Dutcher — Is it necessary when you have good plants to trim 
off the roots? 

Mr. Sylvester — It saves time to have shorter roots when setting the 
plants. Leave the roots four inches or one-third of the entire length. 



STRAWBERRIES : NOTE ON THE VARIETIES. 

(W. L. Howard, Assistant Professor of Horticulture, Columbia, Mo.) 

Some of the varieties I mention may not seem new to some of you 
but they are not the old standard sorts and have not been widely grown. 
The reports given are taken from notes on our experimental beds at 
the station and from reports from growers in various parts of the state. 

The Aroma is a late or medium season berry and already quite a 
general favorite. This is about the only variety grown in the vicinity 
of 'Neosho where there are six hundred and fifty acres now in bearing 
and it has proved to be entirely satisfactory and profitable. It is large 
in size, firm, of good color and fine shape, but not of first quality. 

Barton's Eclipse, is a medium season berry of good quality but too 
soft to ship. Bisel, is a prolific bearer, the fruit ranging from medium 
to large, is of good quality but slightly soft; a good home berry. The 



22 State Horticultural Society. 

Bismarck is medium season, prolific, has large fruit and vigorous plants 
but an acid taste and some object to it on account of its sourness. The 
Brandywine is a perfect flowered sort, medium season, a fair producer, 
grows well but is subject to mildew. The Cloud is a pistillate variety, 
ripens in mid-season and is a grower. The fruit is moderately firm, the 
flavor mild and sweetish. Earliest, is a staminate, later than the Ex- 
celsior, is a good producer but somewhat subject to rust. Excelsior is 
perfect flowered and makes healthy plants. The fruit is firm and ripens 
from three to ten days earlier than the others ; it is noted for its acid 
flavor and is considered to be a good canner. Gardner, is the best pol- 
linator in the opinion of many, while a few say they do not like it for 
anything. Glen Mary, is a medium season, variety and productive ; the 
berries range from medium to large in size but it is somewhat subject 
tO' rust and has scant foliage ; is a good home variety. Heffin, or Hefif- 
lin, has made a splendid record so far ; it has a long and late season and is 
a good producer, the fruit being large and of excellent flavor ; the foliage 
is light green in color but seems to be healthy. Kansas, has a medium 
late season, the fruit being small to medium and the quahty fair. 

Other varieties we are trying are the following : Klondike, which 
is of medium season, berries medium in size and not a good producer. 
Lady Thompson, medium season of ripening but lasts a long time ; 
size, medium to small, color light, and firm enough to ship well. Mc- 
Kinley, medium season of ripening, fruit medium in size and not very 
firmi; a staminate variety which seems to be a good pollinator. Monitor, 
is perfect flowered, has large fruit which is abundant and a fine flavor; 
plants healthy but fruit too soft to ship well. Nick Ohmer is of medium 
season, perfect flowered, fruit large, not a good producer, but fruit is 
firm and plants make a fairly good growth. Rough Rider, is a staminate 
variety which makes a poor growth although plants seem to be healthy ; 
considered to be useful only as a pollinator. Seaford, begins to ripen 
medium early but has long season of fruiting ; rather large fruit, but 
only medium as a producer ; fruit is firm enough to ship well ; a fairly 
good variety with Rough Rider or some other good pollinator growing 
with it as it is imperfect flowered ; bad to mildew. Senator Dunlap, 
staminate variety of medium season, a good producer ; fruit varies from 
medium to very large in size ; texture firm ; a vigorous grower and 
promising commercial variety. 

Sample, is an imperfect flowered variety, of medium to late season ; 
a fairly good producer ; fruit large and firm and medium good in quality ; 
promises to be a good commercial variety where it succeeds. Splendid 
is a staminate variety which fruits in mid or late season, is productive 



Summer Meeting. 23 

but the size of the fruit is variable; a fairly good shipper, but more 
highly regarded for home use and local market than for shipping ; plant 
a good grower. Texas, is a new variety, not thoroughly tested as yet 
but very highly regarded by those who have tried it in South Missouri, 
notably at the Experiment Station at Mountain Grove. Wild Wonder 
is a new sort, said by its introducers to be able to grow in bluegrass sod ; 
under cultivation our plants are vigorous but have not been allowed to 
fruit as yet. 

LaPlata, Mo., June, 1904. 
Hon. L. A. Goodman, St. Louis, Mo. : 

Dear sir : — I enclose paper as requested, I trust you will have a 
profitable meeting and assure you I would be glad to meet with you 
but it is impossible. We have promise of a great crop of strawberries. 
They are just beginning to ripen and need more sunshine than we are 
having. Raspberries and blackberries also promise full crop. Cherries 
and plums, 75 per cent. Keififer and Garber pears full. Duchess blos- 
somed full as they do every year but no fruit. Why is it they don't bear ? 
Apples promise 75 per cent crop. Ben Davis 90 per cent. Think I shall 
girdle all my York and M. B. Twig as a few that I girdled last year 
are the only trees with fruit this year. Am disappointed as the trees 
are 9 years old and have never produced any fruit ; while Ben Davis, 
same age, have produced three crops. Can't compete for any of the 
premiums as fruit is not ripe enough to send. 

J. E. May. 



GROWING FANCY STRAWBERRIES. 

(J. E. May, of La Plata, Mo.) 

In growing fancy strawberries there are several things that must 
be observed to make the undertaking a success. The first requisite is 
good land well prepared. If not naturally fertile, then the fertility must 
be supplied by giving a good coat of well-rotted stable manure, say 20 
to 30 loads per acre. This should be applied at least a year in advance 
of setting the plants and plowed under. The land should be thoroughly 
cultivated during the following summer in some hoed crop, such as early 
potatoes or beans, and after the crop is off plow again, not too deep, and 
sow to rye thickly. This will give a good cover crop for winter if sown 
by September i, and will also give any weed seed a chance to germinate, 
thus making the cultivation of the berry plants a much easier matter. 



24 State Horticidtural Society. 

The next thin": to do is to attend to ordering your plants, provided you 
have not grown them yourself. Don't wait until spring, when you are 
ready to plant them, but select such varieties as you know succeed in 
your immediate locality. Send your order to some reliable plant-grower 
and instruct him to have your plants on hand as early as you think the 
ground will do to work. Better have them two weeks before that time 
and heel them in than to be a few days behind. Now I don't think 
fancy berries mean the very largest berries than can be grown, but 
berries of uniform size and typical of the variety that they represent. Of 
course, if large berries are to be the end sought, then select such 
varieties as Bubach, Ridgeway, Nick Ohmer, Rough Rider, etc., but I 
contend a box of well-grown Cresents or Warfields are just as fancy 
as any of the others, although not as large. As soon in the spring as 
the ground is ready to work (never work it while too wet), plow under 
the crop of rye and drag and harrow until well pulverized and in good 
shape to receive the plants. Having the plants on hand, begin setting 
immediately, setting plants 3I/2 ft. by 18 to 24 inches, owing to variety. If 
the variety is a great plant-maker, like Warfield or Crescent, 24 inches ; 
if like Bubach, then 18 inches is far enough. Plants should be set deep 
enough to cover the roots well, but not deep enough to cover the crown. 
Begin cultivation as soon as plants are set and give thorough cultivation 
all sumimer, never allowing the ground to crust after a hard rain. As 
soon as your plants begin to make runners, place them in line with the 
mother plants and cover tips with a little moist earth, thus helping to 
get a row full of plants as early as possible. Plants should be grown in 
thin, matted rows for best results, allowing them to set not closer than 
4 or 5 inches apart. No use to try to grow fancy berries where you let 
the plants have their own sweet will, as they will pile up so thick that it 
will be all the plants can do to exist, without producing any fruit of 
consequence. The idea is to have your rows about a foot wide and 
plants 4 to 5 inches apart in the row, thus giving each plant room to do 
its best. As soon as ground freezes in the fall, cover your plants with 
slough grass or good clean straw to protect the plants from alternate 
freezing and thawing during the winter and following spring months. 
As soon as settled weather comes in the spring, remove the mulch from 
the plants, leaving it between the rows to hold moisture and keep your 
berries clean. "Pshaw!" you say; "''all that is too much trouble." Is 
it ? Wait and watch those plants develop in the spring ; see them with 
their great crowns full of vigor; see the healthy foliage; notice the 
great big berries as they form and at last see how the boxes fill with 
great big red berries fit for a king to eat. Watch the expression of 



Slimmer Meeting. 25 

your customer's face as you offer the fruit for sale. Notice how they 
pass the inferior fruit by, paying you 2c to 3c more per box for your 
fruit, and then I don't think you will feel that your labor has been in 
vain. 

Mr. Tippin — I want to corroborate Mr. Howard in what he says 
of the Aroma. The Splendid, Dunlap and Sample are also among the 
best commercial varieties. 

Wm. H. Barnes — We need to develop the real strawberry flavor; 
for home use we want quality and quantitiy, not size. 
Mr. Tippin — The Texas is likewise promising. 

Mr. E. S. Katherman, of Warrensburg, read some notes on a new 
variety produced by Mr. Turner in Johnson county. The plant is a 
strong grower, next to Haverland, and the berry firm. The report was 
referred to the Committee on New Fruits. 

Mr. Wild of vSarcoxie also reported a new production, known as 
No. 176, a cross between Warfield and Gandy, and a pistillate. The 
Gandy characters prevail, the foliage is like the Gandy. The season 
is before the Aroma, and it has fruited four years. If it is deemed good, 
we shall put it on the market, growing it as a leading commercial variety. 
The place is not occupied by any other variety. 

Prof. L. B. Taft — From the fruit I can say it is handsome, of even 
size, and perfect in form. It is firm and superior in flavor tO' the Aroma, 
and under good condition's ships well. If the plants are healthy it will 
be valuable. 

Mr. Wild — The plants are good in all points. 

Mr. Dutcher — Victor Hugo, the only new thing from the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture is a staminate berry. The fruit is good 
color and quality and prolific- There were only a few runners this year 
and they all died and the old plants suffered in the winter. 

Dr. Whitten — ^Mr. Howard has been asked to report on the data 
gathered from his trip in South Missouri, on the best means of hand- 
ling the strawberry business. 

Mr. Howard — On this trip I saw the details of picking, packing 
and loading the fruit. The thing that impressed me most was that 
strict business methods are required for this, but such are not always 
used, and in those cases the growers suffer. 

The lessons learned are not to be lax about watching the pickers, 
one field boss is needed for each twenty-five pickers. If you do not have 
this, many poor berries are allowed to pass and the official judge rejects 
them at the end. No berry less than three-q-uarters of an inch in di- 
ameter should be picked, as less than that size will not pass the buyer. 



26 State Horticultural Society. 

LIST OF BEST VARIETIES. 

Johnson County — Haverland with Wolverton for poUinator, Cres- 
cent, Warfield with Tennessee Prolific for pollinator, and Greenville. 

Laclede County- — Bubach, Haverland, Ruby, Gandy. 

Washington County — Sample, Gandy Haverland. 

Jasper County — The best is Bubach, it has commanded the market 
and is the one the people pay their money for. 

Boone County — Aroma, Excelsior, one of the earliest and Bubach 
for the home market and Ridgeway, which is the best drouth resister. 

Mr. Tippin — ^The Bubach is not a shipper, as it does not refrigerate 
well. 

Mr. Robnett — The Aroma is very poor in quality. 

Orlando Harrison, Maryland — Our best varieties are Tennessee Pro- 
lific, although it is somewhat soft, Bubach, Gandy, Aroma, Nick Ohmer, 
Excelsior and Parsons Beauty, which is of dark color. 

Prof. L. R. Taft, Michigan — Haverland, Clyde, Bubach, Brandy- 
wine, Gandy, Excelsior. Of the new varieties the Marie is better than 
the Aroma and Uncle Jim is a good late sort. 

Mr. Dewey, lovv'a — Bederwood, Warfield, Bisel, Dunlap, Sample 
and Enhance. 

Mr. Brown, Georgia — Lady Thompson is large and prolific, but not 
the best flavor nor as a shipper. Brandywine, Excelsior and Klondike, 
an acid berry are good. Hoffman and Neuman are also used. On the 
coast of Georgia, we plant in August and give good cultivation, until the 
plants are established. The rows are plowed and sowed with cow peas. 
A plantation runs for two years in the interior. It is best not to tie to 
two varieties, but have a half dozen, as most kinds fail some years. 
For instance last year Nick Ohmer was poor, but this year it redeemed 
itself. Some varieties prefer a certain location. The Bubach is the 
nearest universal, like the old Wilson, and the Gandy is good on a heavy 
soil, while the Aroma is better on lighter soil. 

Buchanan County — Cresent, Bederwood, Bubach, Gandy, Haver- 
land. 

THE RASPBERRY — DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Goodman — I have heard that whole fields have been destroyed 
this year. What is the cause? In the Ozarks we have fine prospects 
for berries with no disease whatever, 

Pr. Whitten — Anthracnose is very bad on new wood. 



Summer Meeting. 27 

D. A. . Robnett — There are the best prospects I ever saw on my 
patch. 

A. T. Nelson — There are the best prospects for all kinds of berries. 
My choice of varieties of raspberries is Kansas, Evans, Gregg, Ever- 
bearing. 

Prof. H. C. Irish — The twig blight on one patch is very bad, but on 
another I found no indications. The rust is also bad this year. 

G. T. Tippin — The Dewberry is profitable where planted, it is the 
easiest and least expensive berry grown, and brings good prices. It is 
fine for home use and ships well some distance, that is for one night. 
It is cultivated the first year, then mowed and burned over after the 
crop is gathered. The best soil for it I believe is light clay, some say 
post-oak land. This fruit will bring from fifty to one hundred dollars 
per acre. 

J . C. Evans — I do not know the trouble with my raspberry patch, 
but I think it was plowed too much last year. The bushes were in baa 
shape from anthracnose, but we cut them down and they now look 
better. 

Prof. Irish — The twig blight is coming from the East, and there is 
no remedy for the patch, until the germs are eradicated. It is often 
mistaken for anthracnose. 

President Whitten — I will ask Prof. Irish to bring specimens so 
that we can learn the two diseases. 

J\Ir. Barnes — From three-fourths of the State of Kansas I have 
Iliad letters saying that anthracnose prevails, but it may be some is 
blight. 

T. H. Todd — Raspberries are good only three years on the same 
ground. Care does not seem to prevent diseases. The new wood dies 
and then there is no fruit. Rarely are over two crops good from the 
same spot. We have to change and distribute the plantings. 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED. 

Fruit— Prof. L. R. Taft, Orlando Harrison, W. P. Stark. 
Finance— D. A. Robnett, P. K. Sylvester, W. T- Flournoy. 
Final Resolutions— C. H. Dutcher, G. T. Tippin, J. M. Irvine. 



28 State Horticultural Society. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 

June, 1904. 

Since I have been your secretary for the last twenty two years we 
have held no meeting in St. Louis. It is proper therefore that at this 
time of the greatest exposition ever held in the world that we should 
meet and again discuss what is new in our business, what have we 
learned, what is the outlook, when will Horticulture become a science? 
Our society was organized here in St. Louis and' it is proper that we 
should meet here at this tim'e. 

We are certainly gaining in knowledge and in experience, as to 
"how" and "what," and "when" in this fruit business. We are surely 
finrling more and more the dangers, and disappointments and the failures, 
and, like the old fruit grower said, finding "more new bugs and insects 
and diseases and troubles than ever before until we can only wish for 
more knowledge of how to combat them." 

The spring opened up with the brightest of prospects. The frosts 
and cold and rains followed in quick succession and so most of our 
hopes were blasted. 

There are still many locations however where the fruit prospects 
make a good showing and the results of our crops this fall may therefore 
far exceed our expectations at this time. 

Following is crop report collected from 500 P. O'. cards sent out 
and collated from the answers received in response to the requests. 

The crop report was justified by the results as shown during the 
summer and fall. The apple crop was a light one in most parts of the 
state and the quality was not very good either. Many orchards had none 
at all, others very few and still some orchards or parts of orchards had 
a very fair crop. The prices were poor also and strange to say never 
improved. These bearing orchards were so scattered that we can say 
that no place or portion of the State was best. 

The peach crop was still poorer than the apple crop. The southwest 
portion had none- The central and southeast part had a good half crop. 
Along the Missouri river there seemed to be a good sprinkling also. 
During the ripening of the Elberta in south Missouri the rains were so 
incessant that the peaches rotted very badly on the trees, and this con- 
tinued until the Salway season. 

The strawberry crop was a full one but the excessive rains prevented 
marketing the full crop. 



Summer Meeting. 2g 

The other herries did well and the crop was generally satisfactory. 

Grapes produced an enormous crop- Cherries, Plums and Pears 
were only partial crops but brought fair prices in general. 

The great work of the society and every member of it since our 
last meeting has been to get ready for the fruit display at our great 
exposition. In spite of th€ great failure of our crop last fall we have a 
large fine lot of apples on our tables and a still larger and finer lot in 
cold storage. To the members of this society is due the honor of this 
collection, for, with but few exceptions, have we had collections made by 
any other persons than by our members and although our commissioners 
were liberal in paying for all this fruit yet it is to the honor of our 
society that it is said that nine-tenths of all our fruit was collected by 
the members of the society. 

The work of installation and our display in general has been a 
slow and tedious one, because of its complicated nature, and various dis- 
appointments by the workmen in its construction. Even today we have not 
been able to get the electric power turned on or the connection made 
so as to have our train running, in spite of the fact that all is ready, and 
has been ready for the power for two or three weeks, and in spite of the 
promises tliat we should have it tomorrow — ever tomorrow. To me 
this delay has been a very provoking part of the work. 

To the members of our society have 1 to give credit for the possi- 
bility of collecting and making this display of fruits. O'f the many hun- 
dreds of boxes of strawberries already put on the tables, all or nearly all 
are the results of direct efi'ort of this society and its members. Some days, 
five or six or more crates of berries were received and put on the tables 
and, in nearly every instance, were they either furnished, or collected by 
the members of this society. 

The question of hardiness of our fruit and their ability to withstand 
the cold of spring is a question that is coming to our attention more 
and more and one that needs close investigation. The question of lo- 
cation of our orchards and the soil in which they are planted and char- 
acter of the subsoil under them, are matters that need study and thought 
and observation. Our eyes, and ears, and minds need to be kept open 
to facts and experiences which are taking place about us continually. 

All these matters are being investigated by our Agricultural Col- 
lege and Experiment Station more closely each year so that we may be 
sure of results and knowledge in a few years, that will work greatly to 
our advantage. 

The dust process of spraying and keeping rid of insects and diseases, 
has probably come in for more inquiry than any other new subject before 



30 State Horticultural Society. 

us. Many more have tried it than ever before, some with success, some 
with partial success others wiUi entire failure just the same experience 
as with liquid spraying, some condemning it, others approving and all 
sorts of views as to benefits and results. 

Results this year have not proven anything except the uncertainty 
of our efforts and the surety that we must do something to keep our 
fruits free from troubles. Continued experimenting will finally result in 
definite directions and I feel sure that in a few years we can say what 
and how and when to spray. 

Information and special facts are wanted to go into our case where 
we shall have the enlarged photos to show. We want some extra- 
ordinary facts as to largest crops of fruit, growth of trees, money from 
crops, size of trees, oldest bearing orchard, best record of orchard pro- 
ducts, largest fruits produced; in fact any important horticultural fact 
that would be notable enough to go on a card for the viewing of the 
public. 

Some of these which I shall use are here appended and they will be 
used on our large photo cards. 



THE LARGEST HORTICULTURAL FACTS OF MISSOURI. 

Largest apple tree 9 years old, 3c inches in circumference, 28 feet 
spread, 25 feet high. 

Largest apple tree 6 years old, 6 inches in circumference, 15 feet 
spread, 13 feet high. 

'More counties producing fruit than any other state. 

The largest nurseries in the world are in Missouri. 

The largest orchard in the world is in Missouri. 

The largest number of apple trees in any state in the world is in 
Missouri, 25,000,000. 

The largest acreage of peach orchards in any state in the world is 
in Missouri. 

The largest number of cars of strawberries was shipped from 
Missouri, 2,000 cars. 

The largest crop of fruit in the State, $20,000,000. 

The largest strawberry center. 

The largest acreage of fruit lands of any state. 

The largest range of red lands of the Ozarks. 

The largest amount of "loess" lands, best in the world, along the 
Missouri and Mississippi rivers. 



Summer Meeting. 31 

The largest apple tree in Missouri, 10 1-2 feet in circumference, 90 
vears old. 

The largest peach tree in Missouri, 7 1-2 feet in circumference, 54 
years old. 

The largest grape vine in Missouri, 2 1-2 feet in circumference, 120 
years old. 

The largest crop on a single tree in one year, no bushels. 

The largest cherry crop on a single tree in one year, 610 boxes- 

The largest peach crop on a single tree in one year, 35 bushels. 

The largest strawberry crop per acre $1,210, Jackson county. 

The largest raspberry crop per acre $470, Buchanan county. 

The largest grape crop on single wild vine, 1,000 pounds. 

The largest wild crab apple in the world, 9 inches in circumference, 
Missouri product. 

The largest apple, 21 inches, weight 33 ounces. 

The largest peach, 14 inches in circumference. Olden. 

The largest strawberry, 81-4 inches in circumference. 
- Oldest apple tree in JMontgomery county, 102 years old. 

Largest chestnut orchard in Jackson county. 

Largest pecans grow in Bates count} . 

Largest peach orchard in Oregon county, McNair orchards. 

Largest grape vinyard in Gasconade county. 

Largest strawberry plantation in Jasper county. 

Largest apple orchards in Ozarks. 

Largest apple orchards being planted by Frisco Orchard Co. 

Largest number of good winter apples originated in this State. 

Largest number of grapes originated in the State. 

Largest and best Horticultural papers in Missouri. 

Largest: number of intelligent fruit growers (30,000). 

Largest number local Horticultural societies. 

Largest and best State Horticultural Society. 

"Loess" lands best fruit lands. 

Red lands of the Ozarks, ideal fruit soil. 

Varieties more important than good growth. 

Sub-soil more important than top soil. 

Cultivation more important than manure. 

Missouri hills and Ozark Mountains have the best subsoil. 

The best Horticultural school of the land at Columbia. 

The only exclusively fruit station at Mountain Grove. 

The Agricultural College best in the Nation. 

Full peach crop 4 1-2 million dollars. 



32 State Horticultural Society. 

Full apple crop 14 million dollars. 

Full berry crop 31-2 million, per year. 

Best apple returns from apple orchard $40 per acre, for 20 years, 

Holt county. 

Best apple crop from 5 year trees $200 per acre, McDonald county- 
Largest apricot tree in Clay county, 7 feet in circumference, spread 

of branches 40 feet, 20 crops in 20 years. 

Largest increase in orchard for 5 years, 100 per cent. 
Largest increase in orchard for 10 years, 200 per cent. 
Largest increase in orchard for 15 years, 300 per cent, 

I wish to call to your attention the beauty of our exhibit. I believe 
it to be by far the most elaborate horticultural display ever attempted, 
and it is not yet complete by any means. In addition to what you see 
on the floor we shall have all the cases filled with large photos of fruit 
plantations of all kinds, and the bases filled with books and reports. Over 
them will go a large relief map of the State with all the fruit districts 
and lands plainly colored so that they can be seen at a glance. This 
will be invaluable to the land seeker. At one end of the cases will be 
placed the nut display, on the wall over the jar exhibit will be a series 
of orchard views representative of our fruit interests. At the main 
entrance will be a fountain and on each side two large show cases to be 
filled with fruits. Under the pagoda will be two small fountains under 
glass cases and these cases to be covered with fruit. A center piece 
consisting of a large glass vase and 8 large punch bowls to be filled 
with fruit. Back of the" main long fruit stands will be a double horse- 
shoe showcase to be made with glass shelves and all to be filled with 
fruits. 

When our exhibit is completed it will be by far the most elaborate 
one ever attempted and will cost more than all the rest of the exhibits in 
the building. 

The 'Missouri Commission have stood by me in this matter and 
granted every reasonable request that I made asking that I be permitted 
to make the display the most notable one every attempted. To this end 
we have worked in unison and Mr. Bonfoey, the chairman, has been a 
notable enthusiast in all we have had to do, giving his heartiest co- 
operation to every suggestion made for "showing the world." 

The result stands before you, and to you, dear helpers and co-work- 
ers, I now tender many of hearts truest emotions for your noble assist- 
ance in every part of the work. Our society takes another step in ad- 
vance in the eyes of our sister societies, has made another record as one 




Q 



s 



o 

K 

a 



O 



Summer Meeting. 33 

of the best societies and I am glad to report to you that they all say, 
"You can do anything in Missouri, for you have such a strong, noble, 
earnest intelligent State Society." To you, then, does the credit of this 
display come. L. A. Goodman^ Secy. 



REPORT OF TREASURER, W. G. GANG, JUNE 7, lO, '04. 

Jan 30, N. F. Murray, expense to Kansas meeting.. $11 30 

Hudson-Kimberly Pub. Co., 5,000 envelopes. lo oo 

Hudson-Kimberly Pub. Co., 2,000 letter heads 12 50 
Express on fruit, winter meeting, $4.00, 

$1.25, 75c., $1.22, $2.10, $1,25 II 82 

Warrant No. 546 $45 62 

Jan. 30. Express, 25c., 25c., 47c., 40c ' $1 37 

Salary of secretary for January 66 66 

Salary of typewriter for January 20 00 

Warrant No. 547 $88 03 

Mar. 14. Postoffice bill $40 00 

Salary of secretary for February 66 66 

Salary of typewriter for February 20 00 

Warrant No. 548 $126 66 

Mar. 31. Expense W. G. Gano to Ex. Com., St. Louis. $19 35 

G. T. Tippin, same 17 00 

" C. H. Dutcher, same 16 00 

" D. A. Robnett, same 14 82 

Salary of secretary for March 66 66 

Salary of typewriter for March 20 00 

Warrant No. 549 $153 83 

May 21, Express on photos 40 

Telephone to Odessa 35 

Scotford, pencils and pens $2 20 

Salary of secretary for April 66 66 

Salary of t\^pewriter for April 20 00 

Warrant No. 550 $89 61 

H-3 



34 State Horticultural Society. 

May 21, Expense W. G. Gano, to Nichols and return. $17 60 
Expenses D. A. Robnett, to Kansas City and 

return 14 30 

D. A. Robnett, postage for two years 10 00 

D. A. Robnett, telegram 2 40 

Expenses J. C. Whitten, Kansas City and re- 
turn II 85 

Expenses J. C. Whitten, Louisiana and return 6 70 

Expense L. A. Goodman, Ex. Com. meetings 24 20 

Warrant No. 551 $8705 

May 21. Expenses G. T. Tippin, Ex. Com. meeting, 

St. Louis $19 60 

Expenses C. H. Dutcher, meetings St. Louis 

and Kansas City 15 10 

Expenses D. A. Robnett, Ex. Com. meeting, 

St. Louis . 12 35 

Expenses W. G. Gano, Ex. Com. meeting, 

St. Louis 23 10 

Warrant No. 552 $70 15 

May 21. Postoffice bill $21 00 

Scotford, 1,500 programs and one dozen pen- 
holders • . 10 25 

Scotford, 500 double post cards, printing... 12 50 

Salary of secretary for May 66 66 

Salary of typewriter for May 20 00 

Warrant No. 553 $130 41 

Total amount $79^ 3^ 

RECEIPTS 1904. 

Balance on hand January i, 1904 240 96 

Jan. 30. Received from State treasurer 825 85 

Received from Md. State Society per L. A. Goodman. y2 00 

Total receipts $153^ ^^ 

Total paid out 79i 3^ 

Balance on hand $347 45 



Slimmer Meeting. 35 

Since making this report, I have received from the State treasurer, 
June 2, 1904, the sum of $791.36. This makes a total sum of money 
in my hands which I turn over to my successor in office, W. T. Flour- 
noy, of $1,138.81. The expense of this meeting and premiums awarded 
will, of course, be deducted from this amount. 

W. G. Gang, 

Treasurer. 



Mr. Chairman : Your committee, after looking over the Treasurer's 
report, find bills and receipts for each and every item in account. Also 
find drafts for amount to balance his account. 

D. A. ROBNETT, 

W. T. Flournoy, 
P. K. Sylvester. 
Adopted. 



The report of the Finance Committee and the resolutions offered 
and adopted on another day of the meeting are submitted here at the 
conclusion of the Treasurer's report; also the discussion on the Finance 
Committee report. The Executive Committee authorize the following 
statements and notations in order that our members may have a full 
understanding : 

AFTER THE REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

A statement followed the report to the effect that the $1,000 which 
was placed in the Mississippi Valley Trust Company by order of the 
Executive Committee, was still there and $100 had been spent for four 
chairs and two desks for use at the World's Fair. This was done by 
vote of the Executive Committee and the treasurer issued the check for 
the same. There is, therefore, still left to the credit of the society over 
$1,000, including interest. This fund, while deposited in the name of 
the Society, can be drawn only by the treasurer on order of Executive 
Committee and of the President and Secretary, the same as all other 
moneys are drawn. 

This money has been accumulating for a number of years and it has 
been the aim of the Society to save and establish a fund of $2,000, or 
more of their own. The time is here when another $1,000 can be set 
aside and added to this amount. 



3G State Horticultural Society. 

Later the Executive Committee decided that $500 more should be 
added to this fund and be deposited the same as the other with the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Trust Company, which was done, making about $1,500 
now in the hands of the Mississippi Valley Trust Company to the credit 
of our Society. — Secretary. 

DISCUSSION ON treasurer's REPORT. 

E. W. Stark — Is there an opportunity for remarks ? I wish to make 
a few remarks. Upon the report of the treasurer the other day I asked 
him if there were other funds in his hands. I asked him of another item 
and he said he had received it from the secretary. I got no information 
and talked with him afterwards, and got no information ; and asked the 
committee and got no information other than that they had examined 
the treasurer's report. Under our laAvs and constitution the treasurer 
is instructed to hold the funds and to hold them for warrants drawn by 
the president and secretary on treasurer, the voucher to be furnished by 
the secretary. Interrogating the treasurer I asked the expenditures and 
find they are itemized, but he does not know the source of his receipts. 
January 30th received from L. A. Goodman $72.00. I asked the treas- 
urer for the voucher which the secretary furnished and he said it was 
a balance which the secretary turned over to him. I went to the com- 
mittee who examine the treasurer's report and received no information. 
I do not know from whom to make the inquiry except here. 

Note— The Secretary furnishes no voucher for money turned into the hands of the 
Treasurer. The money comes direct from the State Treasurer on an order signed by the 
President and Secretary, and the Treasurer does know where all the money comes from. 

This Society is incorporated for a specific purpose under a consti- 
tution which specifies the duties each officer is to perform. As I read 
the constitution I see by the by-laws that the treasurer is tO' act as cus- 
todian and receive money and issue it on warrants by the secretary. As 
I understand it, the secretary is to keep the record and issue warrants 
as specified, and if he receives money he is to turn it over to the treasurer. 
As a member I deem it my privilege to know the source. I am unable 
to glean any information from the treasurer and the committee. The 
report of the treasurer has the items of expense, but not the receipts. 

Note— The Society has a constitution but no by-laws; and if reference is made, it plain- 
ly shows that the Executive Committee have full power over all the money in our hands, and 
in drawing money from the State, and all other business dealings with the State. 

D. A. Robnett, Chairman Committee on Finance — I said I would ask 
for the information and I did so and found it ; also the information con- 
cerning the special fund and reported it to you myself. This spe- 
cial fund was reported last year and the account is with the Missouri 



Summer Meeting. • 37 

State Horticultural Society and the treasurer has it deposited with the 
Mississippi Valley Trust Company at St. Louis. This is not an annual 
session and the secretary inserted it in last year's report, $992.62 on hand 
and $ioo.(X) paid out for World's Fair. Mr. Gano has it in the name 
of the Society at St. Louis. 'Mr. Stark said he wanted to be on the 
Finance Committee, and I thought he should be, so I asked the president 
to appoint him, and he kindly did so, but Mr. Stark would not accept it, 
and refused to look into this matter with us, in spite of the fact that he 
was given every opporunity by the committee. 

L. A. Goodman — The money can not be drawn from this special 
fund by the treasurer alone. After the death of Mr. Nelson and a new 
treasurer was appointed, this fund could not be turned over until mat- 
ters were settled and the certificate of deposit turned over to the Exe- 
cutive Committee, but as soon as settled the money was deposited in the 
name of the Society and is now held in the name of the Society by the 
Mississippi Valley Trust Company. I told Mr. Stark personally every- 
thing he asked. We get our money by checks from the State treasurer, 
sent directly to our Society treasurer. It has been our ambition to set 
aside two thousand dollars for a permanent fund, and this money is the 
beginning of it. The $72.00 referred to was a refund from the Mary- 
land society for money paid out for my expenses to their meeting, and 
I told him of this also. He has known all the facts in connection 
with all our money matters, for I had explained them all to him. 

When we draw a requisition on the State Auditor we have to present 
a list of paid bills and send a certified list to Jefferson City. I have had 
to pay these bills as they come in, express, travel, printing, post office, 
etc., and I do this all the time. It is the same way with this Exposition 
work. The Missouri Commission sometimes owed me from three to 
six hundred dollars at a time. This money was turned over after the 
meeting because we have to settle bills that way. I explained to Mr. 
Stark and supposed it was satisfactory, and I am ready to explain to 
every member. The Executive Committee, to whom all such things are 
referred, and who have the power to act in all such cases, had full 
knowledge of this whole matter as did also many of our old members. 
There was nothing hidden or covered up, but all was done above board 
and Mr. Stark was told of it all personally by myself. In preparation 
for the World's Fair we were running three stations and there were 
expenses of express, processing and buying fruit and some of the money 
was so used, as is our custom to use it, and make the settlement after- 
ward, sometimes months afterwards. This was done in this instance as 
it has been done often before, and the Executive Committee so author- 
ized it. 



38 State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Stark — I would ask the question, what is your plan and policy 
of settlement with the treasurer? 

Mr. Goodman — We aim to settle once a year, including memberships. 
We make partial settlements with each other according to the semi- 
annual and annual reports, as shown by the warrants issued each month. 

Mr. Stark — Is this settlement the only one? 

Mr. Goodman — This is the settlement we make once a year. 

Mr. Stark — I ask this as my privilege and right as a member. 

Mr. Goodman — That is supposed to be the final settlement. Partial 
settlements are made once or twice a month with the treasurer, and war- 
rants are drawn. The complete one is never made until December, and 
then everything is not always settled. Membership fees are sometimes 
carried over, and also some other expenses, as we have found this some- 
times necessary, and the above instance is one of them. 

Mr. Robnett — Mr. Stark was told that the $72 was returned from 
the Maryland societ)^ and he knew all about it. 

Mr, Stark — I made inquiry the first day of the treasurer and have 
the right to know. The constitution specifies the duties and how the 
account shall be kept. The reports of officers should be correct, of the 
right sources and right expenditures, and I ask if such has been made 
to the society? 

Mr. Goodman — You have been informed of this whole matter time 
and again. The source of every dollar has always been given and for 
what expended. 

Mr. Gano — The warrants were used for monthly statements which 
are partial settlements only. The secretary and treasurer keep a run- 
ning account as suits their convenience. 

Mr. Stark — Have the duties of treasurer been carried out? 

Mr. Williams — Do you show all the bills to the State Auditor ? 

Mr. Goodman — No, certainly not. No bills have ever been given to 
the State Auditor in the history of the society. The law does not re- 
quire him to look over a lot of bills, but a list of them certified to by the 
president and secretary is sent him according to law, the warrants issued 
(after being paid) just as the law requires, and he never gets any of 
our bills. They are all audited by the Finance Committee of the State 
Society. 

Member — The money is held by the laws of the State and the rules 
of the Society, and that should be enough. 

Mr. Stark — This makes no authority for payment. 

Note— It does make authority for payment aad payment is made by a warrant drawn 
Vjy the President and Secretary. After the Secretary makes out the warrant the President 
can refuse to sign it if he thinks it not right: and after the warrant is signed by the President 



Summer Meeting. 39 

and Secretary, the Treasurer can still refuse to pay it if he should think it not correct. This 
authority comes by State law and by the rules of the soeiety. If the gentleman had ever at- 
tended a meeting of our Society he would have known all these things. The Executive Com- 
mitte have entire control of this whole matter. 

Mr. Stark — There is but one way and that is the right way as a 
corporation. This has not been done. 

• Mr. Goodman — It has been done and you know it has for I have told 
}ou all the circumstances, and this plan we have followed for thirty years. 

Mr. Burkam — Mr. President, I rise to a point of personal privilege : 
I can't sit still and Hsten any longer to these accusations made by 
aspersions and innuedoes, and I demand of Mr. Stark that he file a state- 
ment of any charges he has to make with the secretary. I make this 
as a motion to have Mr. Stark write down his claims and put in writing 
his charges against any member or members of the Society and file it at 
once with the secretary. 

The motion was seconded. 

J. M. Irvine — We can't cover up a wrong. The Society is laying 
up trouble for itself. 

Mr. Goodman — The Society has nothing to cover up and never has 
had anything to cover up. All you have to do is to open your eyes and 
see ; the reports show it all. Every cent of money ever received and 
every cent ever paid out by the Society is a matter of record. 

Mr. Burkam — My object is not to smother any wrong, but I want 
the charges filed against the people who are charged with dishonesty 
or carelessness or neglect. I want to know and the public wants to 
know the truth of these matters. I am a new member and I want to 
know whether these jnen are responsible. I insist on the motion. 

The motion was put and carried. 

Note— This filing of charges, Mr. Stark failed to do at the time, and has failed to do 
anything of the kind since. 

W. G. Campbell — I think there were no charges made and the 
treasurer's report does cover all funds. 

C. H. Butcher — Mr. Stark does not accuse the officers of stealing 
or dishonesty. The methods of accounts and reports should be improved. 
The ^22 could have been reported in December, but was not, because Mr. 
Goodman was using the money for the Fair, as the appropriation was 
not available until money was spent and bills rendered. 

I move that while we have explicit confidence in the integrity and 
honesty of our secretary, Mr. L. A. Goodman, and our outgoing treas- 
urer, Mr. W. G. Gano, in the handling of the funds of our Society, and 
that we are proud of the fact that the reports of the Financial Committee, 
show not the loss or misappropriation of a single dollar, we recommend 



40 State Horticultural Society. 

such a change in the method of keeping the accounts that the books of 
the treasurer shall show more clearly the source of all receipts, that every 
dollar shall pass through the hands of the treasurer, and that the pres- 
ent system of balances be discontinued. 

This motion was seconded and carried. * 

Motion offered by Mr. Stark — I move you, Mr. President, that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed to investigate this fund of $i,ooo or more, 
for which no report was made to this meeting by the treasurer, ascer- 
taining who is the custodian of the fund and by whose authority they 
are acting, ascertaining from what source the fund was derived, tracing 
it fromt its incipiency down to the present date, informing the Society 
who has been handling it, what additions have been made to it, who 
have been drawing checks or warrants against it and for what purpose 
such disbursements have been made. This committee further to have 
the authority to at once take possession of this fund and turn it over 
to the treasurer who is the proper custodian of all funds belonging to 
the Society. 

Mr. Dutcher — I second the motion. 

Member — I enter a protest to this motion as its endorsement implies 
that the report does not cover the whole of our funds. 

The question was called and the motion carried. 

Note— This money is now in the hands of the Treasurer and has always been in the 
hands of tlie Society and Is now deposited with the Mississippi Valley Trust Company of St. 
Louis as Mr. Stark well knows. Later in the year President Whitten appointed Hon. M. B. 
Greensfelder of Olayton, Judge 0. B. McAfee of Springfield and Prof. S. A. Hoover of War- 
rensburg as the commitcee to report on this matter at the Winter meeting. This report is to 
be found in the minutes of the Winter meeting, business meeting, fifth session. 

In our report for 1901 the Treasurer reported the special fund of $1,071.20 on hands, and 
with interest to 1902 made the amount f 1,092.63. One hundred dollars of this fund was spent 
for office furniture at the World's Fair, by order of the Executive Committee, and, in the re- 
port of 1903 the Treasurer showed as a balance on hand $993.92, and accrued interest; thus 
making a complete report of all the money on hand in the Mississippi Valley Trust Company. 

Mr. Dutcher introduced a resolution on the Gano and Black Ben 
Davis controversy. 

RESOLUTION CONCERNING THE BLACK BEN DAVIS-GANG CONTROVERSY. 

In view of the present status of the Black Ben Davis-Gano contro- 
versy, your Executive Committee, the special committee on said contro- 
versy concurring, feel it is due all parties interested and affected that 
the following statement be made : 

I. Our action in appointing said committee was a legitimate one, 
being in harmony with the position often taken in our discussions and 
which found formal expression in the resolutions recorded on pages 89 
and 90 of the 1902 report. 



Summer Meeting. 4^ 

2. In harmony with the latitude given the committee at the time 
of its appointment, it decided that their investigation of the facts obtain- 
able concerning the origin, dissemination and characteristics of the Black 
Ben Davis and Gano apples, should be reported on account of any bear- 
ing they might have upon the origin of the varieties and for their his- 
torical value should they possess any, and that the work should be done 
in the same spirit in which one might trace the origin of a cultivated 
plant in order to determine if possible whether it was an indigenous or 
an introduced species. 

3. When this was accomplished, we considered our duty to the 
fruit growers fully performed and hoped to hear no more of an already 
unpleasant controversy. But whereas the Stark Bros., of Louisiana, Mo., 
think a too strenuous interpretation has been given the statement made 
by their representative, Mr. Crow, at the summer meeting of 1902, viz. : 
"that the Stark Bros, think it right to appoint the committee; all they 
ask is a fair committee," and that as a result they have been placed in 
an imjust attitude, the Society would state the Stark Bros, did not in 
any other way ask for the appointment of the committee, did not, to our 
knowledge, verbally accept the personnel of the committee nor agree to 
stand by its report, but manifested an acquiescent interest in its work 
by placing in their possession information, and accompanying them in an 
interested capacity on their trip into Arkansas, which acts were calcu- 
lated to leave the impression that they were satisfied with the committee, 
while it did not imply, as a matter of fact, they would agree to its find- 
ings in case the report went against their position ; and 

Whereas, it is now claimed and charged by the Stark Bros., that 
since the report was made its legitimate function seems to have been 
lost sight of by some, to be considered from the standpoint of its alleged 
bearing upon commercial interests alone to the exclusion of any scientific 
or historical, or other value, the report may possess, and that some have 
unduly used it to their detriment in business, and to their injury in 
reputation and character, for which our action furnished the occasion, 
this Society would state and does now state, that it never contemplated 
any such use of the report as is charged, and that it was not our intention 
to unjustly interfere with any established commercial interest; that recog- 
nizing the fact that some horticulturists and fruit growers do not con- 
cur in the conclusions of our committee, we recommend every one in- 
terested in the matter to consider the entire evidence as brought out 
upon both sides, and make up his own opinion ; and that we should all 
avoid any over-zealous defense of personal opinion which migh lead to 
misunderstanding and partisan strife. 



42 State Horticultural Society. 

DISCUSSION ON BLACK BEN DAVIS CONTROVERSY. 

Mr. Stark — This resolution indicates recent developments, since the 
report of the committee appointed to investigate the question of two vari- 
eties called Black Ben Davis and Gano. I deny asking for such a com- 
mittee, or that I am satisfied with the personnel, or that I accept the re- 
port. (Refers to letters.) 

We received a letter from Prof. VVhitten stating that he had learned 
many things, and would like to come to Louisiana, and we answered to 
come, and bring Mr. Robnett with him. They owed it to themselves to 
take the initiative. A statement was prepared and mailed to us, but was 
not satisfactory. We went to Columbia, but could not accept it. We 
sent another statement with a few additions, but President Whitten and 
Mr. Robnett were unwilling to sign this. 

Mr. Robnett made a motion to postpone the discussion until two 
o'clock. 

Mr, Todd offered an amendment to table the whole until the winter 
meeting. This was amended to give Mr. Stark twenty minutes to finish 
his statement. 

The amendment as amended was carried. 

Mr. Stark — We would not accept the article unless as worded by us, 
but would accept it as finally signed by part of the Executive Committee. 
As far as the personnel of the committee for the investigation is con- 
cerned, Mr. Goodman is at the bottom of the whole, and responsible for 
it. We have heard that he said the apples were the same. We find 
that Mr. Goodman introduced the question and asked for the investiga- 
tion and made the statement that he had received hundreds of inquiries 
as to the two. Mr. Robnett consulted Mr. Goodman on the committee. 
Mr. Goodman is the instigator, he never lost an opportunity to say the 
apples were the same, never said a work in favor, never recommended a 
customer to Stark Bros. He said Starks imposition should be settled 
by the Society. In conclusion we want the members to know what led 
to the controversy, and the expense. We mean to publish the whole 
matter. 

Note— This gives tlie secret of all tlie troulile, iil)uut tlie money matters as well. 

G. T. Tippin — I am glad my reputation is worth as much before this 
Society as though I were not a nurseryman. I am one of the men who 
would not sign the statement Mr. Stark wanted, and my brother oflficers 
are glad we refused to do so. In fact the officers withdrew their sig- 
natures, and Stark Bros, had no right to the statement at all, as it was 
not to be given to them unless signed by the entire Executive Com- 



Summer Meeting. 43 

niittee, and as it was never signed, it was never delivered. Messrs. 
Whitten, Flournoy and Evans are honorable gentlemen. The report 
was made in the interest of fruit growers and is an honest decision. 
The Society or the Executive Committee are not responsible if the report 
is misused. The report should not be criticised, nor impugned, the reso- 
lutions did not authorize any abuse of the report. I know that this 
committee settled this controversy once and for all, and the Society con- 
curred in their finding unanimously. 

On motion the resolutions introduced by Mr. Dutcher were adopted 
without a dissenting voice. 

Mote -Concerning tlie report sent out by the Starks as coming: from the Executive 
Committee: This article was signed by a part of tlie Executive Committee and the Black Ben 
Davis and Gano Committee, with thb understanding that it should not become public unless 
signed by all of them. Never having been signed by them all, it was never delivered to Stark 
Bros., nor given to the public, and the Executive Committee passed the following, which was 
signed by every memberof the committee, and sent to Stark Bros., and ordered embodied in 
the report of 1904, as their final conclusion in this matter: 

St. Louis, Mo.. Mays, 1904. 
W. P. Stark, Treasurer: 

Dear Sir.— The whole Board having utterly • refused to concur in the statement sent by 

jrou to Messrs. Robnett and Whitten, and a further discussion of said statement having 

brought out more fully the real purport of the same, those who did sigQ withdrew their 

names, and it was uuaQimously agreed to take no action in the matter. 

The Special Black Ben Davis-Gano Committee consider that their work ended when 

their report was made and accepted and they were discharged. 

D.A.ROBNETT, President. 

G.T.TIPPIN, Vice-President. 

C.H. DUTCHER. Second Vice-President. 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary. 

W. G. GANO, Treasurer. 



SECOND SESSION— WEDNESDAY, JUNE 8, lo A. M. 

President Whitten called the meeting to order. 

The secretary read an invitation from Dr. Trelease to visit the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. 

The Missouri Botanical Garden, 
Office of the Director, St. Louis, Mo., May 21, 1904. 
Dear Mr. Goodman. — I take much pleasure in extending a cordial 
invitation to the State Horticultural Society to visit the Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden on the occasion of its approaching summer meeting. Though 
I fear that I shall not have returned to the city myself, Mr. Irish will 
see that every provision is made for the economical use of time in case 
the invitation is accepted, and timely notice given of the proposed time 
of visit. Very truly, 

Wm. Trelease, Director. 



44 State Horticultural Society. 

A motion was made and carried to accept this invitation for Friday 
afternoon, and that the Society make the visit in a body. 

The general subject of orchards was the order of the morning. 



ORCHARDS. 

(Mr. T H.Todd, New Franklin, Howard Co., Mo.) 

Location — The fruit growers should understand that, without proper 
location, they have failure to start with. To my mind one of the greatest 
questions is the location. If you have the right one you are sure of 
success. In viewing the country over I find there are thousands of acres 
in the State which are not considered good for growing trees and fruit 
for money. I find plenty where the trees grow large, but they are not 
fruitful. I hoped to have nice looking trees and orchard by careful 
attention, and thought there was no question as to results, but after 
trying twelve or fourteen years I .find other things are necessary, and 
many problems confront the fruit grower. 

I would recommend, when you are setting out a commercial orchard, 
to select high, dry, rolling land with a deep subsoil, as original timber 
land, and the river hills of the Missouri, Mississippi or any stream. In 
my orchard I have had reasonable success. One year I have had an 
abundant crop on the east side, or another on the west, with perhaps 
an entire failure on the north, and so am sure of a crop each year, but 
not on all of the orchard at once. I have never seen all points of the 
compass in the orchard have fruit in one year. I could make great sug- 
gestions to myself, as to planting something else than apple trees on the 
low rich land. It is necessary to start well by having a good location 
and then we may expect reasonable results. Let us not plant on the hills 
with no soil, nor on poor land where only scrub trees grow, but get good 
land even if it does cost some more. Don't start on unprepared land. 
Prepare your land beforehand. 

Planting. — We all differ .a little in our plans for planting. Some 
think it is best to plant in the fall. Have the ground prepared and plant 
freshly dug trees as early as possible, and set that way and standing until 
spring they are apt to start better than those set in the spring. But I 
think it better to plant in the spring when the sap is starting, the trees 
are full of vigor and all is ready to grow and they will not be injured by 
the winter weather. 

Varieties. — I believe in planting different varieties, as when we divide 
up we will have success with one if not the other. Some prefer one kind. 



Summer Meeting. 45 

some another. I think it is best to have not over half a dozen varieties, 
but neither should we have all Ben Davis nor all Jonathan, nor too many 
of one sort. Some varieties are not adapted to all soils, so we must 
know our soils, and what use they are suited for before planting. 

My first choice is Ben Davis, and then Gano and the standard 
varieties. 

We must not plant too close together. I made that mistake at first. 
Twenty-seven feet is too close, the trees ought to be thirty-five feet apart. 
Missouri Pippin can be planted close. Every man has and should have 
his own way of planting. 

Care. — There are many ways in which we can take care of our or- 
chards. We work the land with corn as long as possible in order to 
cultivate the trees and have the land clean. We are not bothered with 
rabbits where there is no grass or weeds. While it may take a great 
deal of substance of the land away to grow corn, we can put the rich- 
ness back with clover. A mulch is splendid but we must not leave food 
for the mice. If the corn is cut, we can not mulch as the corn remains 
as feed and harbor for the mice. You should go over the orchard be- 
fore cold weather and pull the mulch away, and clean twelve inches or 
further from the tree. 

Rabbits. — We have been successful against rabbits with a wash of 
lime, carbolic acid and sulphur and some copper, mixed together. It 
will scale off if it is not rightly mixed*. Put the carbolic acid and soap 
in a barrel, add a little water and add rock lime, which slacks and mixes 
the other ingredients. Get the sulphur in before the slacking is finished. 
This stays on the trees two or three times as long as whitewash. 

Tobacco dust is good around the roots and trunks of small trees, and 
if put where it is hard to get a tree to live, you can then replant. 

Replants. — I hate to have vacant spots in my orchard. Put in young 
trees, and they will grow if well cared for. Take care to get the hole 
well prepared. Empty the hole by dynamite, this loosens the ground 
better than plowing. Prepare in the fall and set in the spring. 

If the land is rich, you can rake the clover for hay, otherwise let it 
stay on the ground. Do not have any small grain in the orchard. 

Priming. — Head the trees low, after two years you can get the head 
the way you want it, two feet from the ground, or as low as you can. 
Take off the water sprouts in May or June, or while they are soft and 
can be rubbed off with the glove. Of course we must cut off the dead 
limbs and broken ones. 

Spray. — ^We shall keep on spraying as we are until we find some- 
thing better. We can not tell the exact effects. 



46 State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Howard — How many corn crops would you use? 

Mr. Todd — I would use four crops of corn, but if your land is 
thin you can not use as many. The corn protects the young trees from 
the sun. 

Mr. Dutcher — How do you prepare for the new tree or replant? 

Mr. Todd — After the fruit is gathered, clean up the orchard in the 
fall for winter, pull the grass away and take off the unnecessary limbs. 
At this time you can detect the dead trees. Bore a hole two feet under 
the tree and use one stick of dynamite under to blow it out. Leave the 
place open until spring, for the freezing is good for the ground. Borers 
and all pests will be destroyed and the replants will grow. I don't find 
new earth necessary, but fill the hole with near-by earth. Tobacco dust 
put near the roots of the trees after they are set is beneficial and the 
difference is readily seen where it is used. 

J. M. Irvine — Do you put clover after the corn and does it harbor 
mice? 

Mr. Todd — I use the clover when it is necessary to have a fertilizer. 

Mr. Meyers — Will dynamite throw out a tree thirty-five or forty 
years old? I have had success in putting in a new orchard where an 
old one had been, 

Mr. Todd — If the tree is very large, use two sticks of dynamite. 

President Whitten — Mr. Todd is modest as to his success, but he 
has given us good sense and the* pith of his practices. 



SCIENCE APPLIED WITH PROFIT. 

(0. H. Williamson, Quincy, 111.) 

When your esteemed secretary asked me to prepare a paper for this 
meeting he assigned an ironical subject like the "Money-side of Fruit 
Growing." My science, if I have any, is from books and scientific minds, 
but we use it in a loose and unconventional way, as meaning the use 
of some system in our work and good sense and such information as 
we can get, and I have used it so. We speak of a man as just setting 
out his orchard and he has to consider first location. I have long since 
given up the inquiry as to whether I shall plant on the northeast or 
some other slope. My rule is, never put out an orchard except 
where there is the best of soil, where nature has richly stored the 
food materials. Some soils are apparently poor or sterile but are richly 
adapted to orchard growing. My experiences teaches me never to put 
the trees where the soil is thin nor where the frost easily settles. I 



Summer Meeting. 47 

have changed my opinion on bottom lands and now I had as Uef have 
an orchard there, near the water as in any other location. In ten years 
an over rich bottom soil will produce more crops than any other except 
fine hills. The high ridges with mulatto soil, as in Arkansas, are the 
finest orchard lands. The keeping quality of apples grown on bottom 
lands is surprising, as was proved by the Maiden Blush grown there. 
When the spring is late and there are severe frosts the bottom is dan- 
gerous. The experience of last year in this regard cannot be taken into 
a business account. There are two desirable locations, the bottom lands 
and the best in elevated situations. 

My cannon No. 2 is, buy trees near' your own place. 

It pays to mulch in order to start the young trees and keep them 
growing. We do not regard enough the needs of the young growing 
tree. The question as to what crop to put in the orchard is a grave one. 
Experience leads me to believe that we ought to give high and con-' 
tinuous cultivation, but cropping in corn is often a mistake. I would 
never put more than one crop of corn in a new orchard. It is a virtue 
only because of the cultivation given, but it is not the better way. Po- 
tatoes are a good crop for about two years, only they are too much 
■work. Clover would keep two years in a young orchard and one of 
the cheapest and best ways is to keep it in clover for a period of two 
years, and use hoeing around the trees. This is a cheap way for ex- 
tensive planting and in hard years it is safe to put in clover and hoe. 
Western orchards may not need cultivation every year, especially where 
there has been washing and erosion. We have often made a scientific 
mistake by over cultivating. It is better to keep a bearing orchard in 
clover half of the time and use commercial fertilizers. Besides cultiva- 
tion during the period when the new leaves need stimulants, use com- 
mercial fertilizers which are prepared in a scientific way. 

As to pruning we need to cut more than is the usual habit. Missouri 
has grown too much wood. Few of us can show successive crops, and 
we need to change the methods now used. The business of apple orch- 
arding is, as we have it now, a weak business, and from a scientific stand- 
point, a monumental failure. I do not doubt but that most of you, and 
I know for myself, that I have made serious mistakes. I use clover 
a number of years and then cultivate for a season or two and then put 
in clover again and hoe by hand around the trees, and I use commercial 
fertilizer to stimulate the fruit production on my trees. 

In the matter of varieties, judging from my own experience, I would 
dissent from the choice of only from one to four varieties. For our 
pocketbook's sake we should have at least eight. Different years are 



48 State Horticultural Society. 

not favorable to all kinds; some may be a failure while others are suc- 
cessful, and there are eight successful varieties for the West. We can- 
not afford to neglect the early varieties. 

The work of spraying cannot be done rigidly by rule, it is most 
foolish to spray by calendar dates. We must adapt our spraying to the 
seasons and will need to change every year. The rule is not the master, 
but reason in the use of the rule. 

When I became satisfied this spring that there was too much rain 
at blooming time, I cultivated an orchard of beautiful Jonathan trees, 
and had, as a result, a phenomenal set of fruit, and I did the same five 
years ago and am persuaded that this is the reason of the fruit setting, 
it re-inforces and invigorates the blossoms and is a safe plan. Watch 
the weather and the conditions and make your rule. 

The most important spraying after the first is the later one and not 
the intermediate. We do not have enough of the late spraying. It is 
necessary to change the character of the spraying for the late applica- 
tion. For the two late ones we use carbonate of copper and for the 
early ones Bordeaux mixture. I am satisfied that many a fine crop has 
been ruined by insects after July 15th. We should, however, protect 
and defend our crop by spraying at this time and also in August, the 
20th is the last date of our spraying. The price of spraying five times is 
ten dollars per acre and the price of cultivating is five dollars per acre, 
clover reduces it some; one and one-half cents per tree is said by other 
orchardists to be the price for hoeing and fifteen dollars per acre for 
cultivation. Five dollars per acre for commercial fertilizer has proved 
beneficial through a season of years. From fifteen to twenty dollars per 
acre for expenses is what you should spend if you want fruit, but the 
business of growing wood instead of fruit is unprofitable, and you had 
better direct your efforts to other channels. I am sure that legitimately 
conducted, and if men take advantage of every new thing that is observed, 
that the growing of apples is profitable. 

The orchardist should have an attitude receptive to newer light and 
discoveries. The business of apple orcharding is legitimate and profit- 
able, provided it is well conducted, but the man of ordinary means usually 
undertakes the work on too large a scale. It is intensive and not ex- 
tensive work. 

Pres. Whitten — Mr. F. W. Taylor, chief of the Department of Agri- 
culture and Horticulture of the exposition is present at this time and 
will give a short talk to the Society. Mr. Williamson has kindly allowed 
his own paper to be interrupted in order that the Society may hear from 
Mr. Taylor. 



Summer Meeting. 49 

Mr. Taylor — I am sorry to have the appearance of not being- able 
to see my friends and listen to horticultural gospel, but the dairy work 
has now been put into my hands so that time is shortened. I commis- 
erate myself at not being able to do more and learn more in this work. 
Ihe Horticultural Exhibit is the apple of my eye. Just executive work 
is a grind, but I am delighted to be here and listen to horticultural lan- 
guage, it is like hearing again the language of one's youth. It is a pleas- 
ure to me to drop in at this time. All this pomological exhibit is not by 
chance, but a lo^ of men have worked, so that we have a display never 
before approached at this time of the year, and we are proud of it. 

We shall try to get records that are worthy of publication, that shall 
be helpful and shall be printed and not buried. We want the most pos- 
sible made of this. In the selection of jurors we have provided that rep- 
resentatives of every agricultural and horticultural college shall be 
brought here, twenty to thirty of them. They will be making studies, 
taking data, bringing them home to their schools and stations, so that 
the expansion of knowledge shall reach to every state. The educational 
advantages must be gotten to the people. We shall try to make it as 
broad as possible and hope the recipients will be benefited, especially the 
young men and the experiment stations and colleges. A great good will 
be started from this exposition. I am delighted to be here, more than at 
any other organization. My best wishes are yours for all success, and 
I hope the meeting here will be profitable and that you will enjoy the 
visit. I thank you for your time and attention. 

DISCUSSION ON ORCHARDING. 

D. A. Robnett — How soon would you put clover in a young orchard ? 

Mr. Williamson — I use potatoes in the orchard for the first two 
years and find them profitable and good for the soil, but they are a 
good deal of labor and consequently it is not well to have them for 
more than two years. Then I put in clover and leave it on the ground, 
or at least the second crop. 

To return to the topic of varieties I grow eight. The first is Jona- 
than, and I have them forty years old and they will live another twenty 
or more, while Ben Davis are gone at the same age. The Jonathan is 
a heavy bearer and worth more than others. My next varieties are 
Grime's Golden and Ben Davis, but I do not plant solid blocks of Ben 
Davis, but have it in moderation. It is a business apple and a tree of 
business instinct. Potash in the soil improves Ben Davis, and it is as 
good as Baldwin every time. Speaking of Ben Davis I include the Gano 
also. It will have fine color when the Ben Davis is slow to color. Wine- 

H— i 



50 State Horticultural Society. 

sap is another good one. The Willowtwig must be starved as a Kieffer 
pear and it is safe to leave it in weeds. The Wealthy is good and the 
Maiden Blush not the least valuable, mine are still bearing at sixty 
years. It is thrifty and healthy and rewards all labor expended upon it. 
The Wealthy at twenty-five years is still a good tree. Off of two hun- 
dred trees we gathered twelve hundred bushels. It needs to be thinned 
and the cheapest way is to spray while it is in bloom. 

W. H. Barnes. — At this time the Gano are on the tree while the 
Ben Davis are on the ground. 

Mr. Williamson. — For the eighth variety I would recommend Mis- 
souri Pippin, especially as it is a good filler. Plan for sixty feet between 
the trees. It will bear itself to death and can be cut out. 



Bentonville, Ark., June i, 1904. 
L. A. Goodman, Secretary: 

My Dear Mr. Goodman — Your invitation to meet with your State 
Horticultural Society in St. Louis June 8-1 1, was duly received, and I 
feel very much flattered at that part of your letter asking that I prepare 
a paper on "Orchard Cultivation ;" for am of so limited experience. 

I am trying several experiments on that line of care, and think by 
next winter I will be able to speak out my judgment. Qean cultiva- 
tion of a young orchard should continue until June loth to 20th, then 
sow with cowpeas, or later with rye to be turned under not later than 
April. And hoe your trees at least twice, three times is better. When 
the orchard comes into bearing seed to clover and cultivate with the 
mower. I have 40 acres of 11 -year-old trees which have been in clover 
for three years, they look well, lost but one tree last year. All Ben Davis 
show from y% to a full crop. I am sure some trees will have five bar- 
rels of apples after thinning. 

I use dust spray altogether, have been over it four times and intend 
leaving one-half with the four sprayings and the balance with six or 
seven sprayings. We must find out all about it. 

Now I am very sorry I cannot be with you, I would enjoy it, but 
little wife is sick and I must not leave her; besides I am run over with 
my little cares. Besides this, I am ashamed of our State Horticultural 
Society. We hope at our next meeting to undo, as far as possible, the 
work that was put through at our last meeting. With my very best 
wishes for you, the society, and its prosperity. 

Sincerely, 

Geo. T. Lincoln. 



Summer Meeting. 5^ 



THE APPLE GROWER AND THE APPLE SHIPPER. 

(Louis Erb, Memphis, Tenn.) 

Your convention being held in the World's Fair City of St. Louis, I 
took for granted that it would be attended by apple growers as well 
as by apple shippers. For this reason I selected for my subject, "The 
Apple Grower and the Apple Shipper." Under the circumstances I also 
concluded that it would be proper, on this occasion, to say a good word 
lor Missouri, and especially the Missouri apple grower. 

I am enjoying the freedom and hospitality of this city and State 
on the same terms that you are, any where from $2.50 to $15.00 a day, 
and it behooves me to show and express my appreciation, besides I am 
a Missouri apple grower myself, and as the crop looks short this year, 
I need encouragement in another direction. As the progress of a race 
of people is indicated by the care for fruits and flowers and the char- 
acter of its apple growers, so may we also judge of its taste, culture and 
refinement by the appearance of its apple shippers. If the men I see 
before me are a fair representation of the latter, then I must confess our 
race is in good luck and a subject for congratulation. As co-workers of 
the apple growers in civilizing humanity, by supplying it with apples, 
they may not scale the dome of the temple of fame, nor attain to great 
honor and renown, but surely the w'orld is better off for their living 
in it. 

If all the politicians from Maine to California were put in a big sack 
and dumped into Salt river it would certainly be a great calamity, but 
the nation would still live and the people prosper, but what would the 
world do without the apple shippers ? The first apple shipper, of whom 
we have any record was Eve in the Garden of Eden, when she plucked 
the apple from the forbidden tree and shipped it to Adam. And as a 
result of her first shipment, there came the clothing and the millinery 
business. 

As I stated on a former occasion, our distinguished friend, Mr. P. 
M. Kiely of St. Louis, after thorough investigation, has made the im- 
portant discovery that this first shipment of apples from the Garden of 
Eden consisted entirely of Ben Davis. And for making this discovery 
we owe him a debt of gratitude which we never can pay. 

Now what is the difference between the apple grower and the apple 
shipper? The difference between the apple grower and the apple shipper 
is, that one is an optimist while the other is a pessimist. The difference 



52 State Horticultural Society. 

between an optimist and a pessimist, in my opinion, is that one can make 
a speech under the influence of hot cofl:ee, while the other needs the 
inspiration of a "cold bottle." But according to another authority, an, 
optimist is a man who builds air-castles, and like the American eagle, 
soars among the clouds; the out-stretched wings of his imagination fill 
the sky, and in Missouri he regards himself the intellectual crown of 
the universe. 

The pessimist, on the other hand, is said to be a man of a conserva- 
tive temperament who deals in facts and figures, and, like the frugal hen 
that scratches the earth for worms and insects in order to lay more eggs, 
he is after apple growers to increase his bank account, always has an 
eye for business and takes no stock in sentiment. 

But Mr. President, I do not wish that this explanation of the dif- 
ference between the optimist and the pessimist be considered as a com- 
pliment to the apple grower nor as a reflection on the apple shipper. And 
yet it is true that the apple grower is the best man of the two, because 
he plants the apple trees. And in poetical language, 

"What does he plant, who plants the apple tree ? 

' 'He plants cool shade and tender rain, 

"And seed and bud of days to be, 

' 'And years that fade and flush again, 

' 'He plants the glory of the plain, 

"He plants the people's heritage, 

' • The harvest of the comin g age, 

"The joy that unborn eyes shall see, 

'•These things he plants, who plants the apple tree." 

Yes, it is true that the apple grower is the best man of the two 
because he is engaged in the divine calling of horticulture, while the 
apple shipper is employed in the wicked avocation of commercialism. 
The very existence of the apple shipper is dependent on the apple grower. 
Without an apple grower, there could be no apple shipper, and the latter 
would be compelled to go into some other business to make a living for 
himself and take care of his poor relations. 

The apple grower is a proud man, superior to the ordinary man 
who tills the soil, and if any dude apple shipper from the city doubts my 
assertion, just let him call him a clod-hopper or a mudsill, and then 
see what he will do to him. 

The apple grower, especially if he hails from Missouri, is regarded 
by the best people everywhere, as a messenger of peace, joy and good 
will. The angels of heaven are supposed to hover around him, to guard 
and watch over him, and to inspire him with beautiful sentiments and 
thoughts of poetry and song. In the language of another: 

"He who would worthily speak of a Missouri apple grower should 
be inspired by a muse of fire that should ascend the brightest heaven 



Siumner Meeting. 53 

of invention, he should have a kingdom for a stage and monarchs to be- 
hold the swelling scene." 

But, Mr. President, while this is all very nice and sounds well, it 
has also occurred to me that the average Missouri apple grower would 
feel that he was a still bigger man if the angels of heaven would only 
hover around his orchard occasionally and inspire his trees, not with 
beautiful sentiments and thoughts of poetry and song, but with an am- 
bition to bear larger and more regular crops of apples. In olden times 
when a man achieved distinction in any calling, great pains were taken 
to find out all about his ancestors, the idea being that genius is inherited. 
The Americans being a young and practical nation, care nothing for an- 
cestry, every man stands for himself, every tub on its own bottom, no 
one cares whether his grandfather dined with President Jefferson or 
sawed w^ood for a living. But if in the near future it should become 
the custom in this country to inquire into the ancestry of gifted men and 
women, you will find they are the sons and daughters of Missouri apple 
growers, and don't you forget it. (I take for granted, Mr. President, 
that no inquiries will be made into the ancestry of those sons and daugh- 
ters of Missouri apple growers, who may happen to be usefully employed 
in work houses and the penitentiary.) Missouri, by some people once 
considered the moss-back in the galaxy of states, has today the best and 
most complete system of schools and other educational institutions of 
any in the union, according to her population, and is holding her own 
in the march of progress in all other respects. 

Missouri is the only state in the Union that has an experiment sta- 
tion or college exclusively devoted to fruits. It is located at Mountain 
Grove in the southwestern part of the State. No other state except 
Missouri has a railroad that takes as much interest in fruit growing as 
the great Frisco system. Go to the World's Fair grounds and you will 
s.'e at the Missouri horticultural exhibit, its train of cars of big red apples 
swinging 'round the circle. In other states you have to pay on rail- 
loads whenever you ride but in Missouri all you have to do when you 
enter the cars is to hold up a Ben Davis apple in your right hand and 
an Elberta peach in your left and the Frisco system take you all over the 
State without charging you a cent. Therefore, I say, if any of you apple 
shippers are tired of your wicked vocation, come to Missouri and start 
an apple orchard, and if it does not make you rich it will surely make 
you happy. The Frisco system, through its emigration department, 
will help you in finding the land, and the people bid you welcome and 
wish you god-speed. I admit that Missouri, on account of unusual 
weather conditions, has had short crops for several years, and that New 



54 State Horticultural' Society. 

York is still the banner state in the production of apples, but the time 
will come, and is not far distant, when Missouri will raise more apples 
and better apples than any state in the Union, especially the Ben Davis. 
And even now she is holding her own when you consider the age of 
the trees. Yea, she is doing more than holding her own : According to 
the census of 1900 she has 20,040,399 apple trees v/hile the great apple 
state of New York which comes next has only 15,054,832. 

Talk to me about old Missouri, why she can beat the world in rais- 
ing smart politicians, fine mules, beautiful women and Ben Davis apples. 
Hence, its no cause for wonder that in this good year of the Lord 1904 
there is being held within the borders of this State, the grandest exposi- 
tion that has ever been seen in this or any other land. 

The horticultural and pomological displays, which are or will be 
the largest and most complete that have ever been known in ancient or 
modern times, owe or will owe their success in a very great measure to 
the untiring efforts unparalleled energy and wide knowledge of the apple 
growers and others interested in the cause of horticulture. No visitor 
should leave St. Louis without thoroughly inspecting these departments, 
and taking a good look at Frederic W. Taylor, L. A. Goodman and John 
T. Stinson who are in charge of them. And I say especially John T. 
Stinson, because, as I am reliably informed, he is the man who on the 
27th of next September, will give away to the public one million dollars 
worth of apples. Such deeds of chivalry, Mr. President, remind me of 
the days when knighthood w^as in flower, and therefore I say, may the 
blessing from On High rest on the gallant sir knight, "Apple" John, and 
his great liberality. I honestly believe that one of the causes of Mis- 
souri's awakening from her long slumber was the appearance on the 
stage of her activity of the intelligent apple grower. 

As I still claim to be a citizen of Tennessee, I beheve I can assert, 
without being accused of egotism, that the apple grower of Missouri is 
one of her best and most useful citizens, and I am quite satisfied that 
when his course is run on this earth, and his genial spirit passes to the 
other side of Jordan and into the new Jerusalem, he will leave to poster- 
ity the richest legacy of all the dead — the Ben Davis apple tree. 

But while, as I have said, the apple grower is the best man of the 
two the apple shipper has also a great mission to perform in life. His 
mission is largely for the benefit and advantage of the apple grower and 
this being so, he will surely get his reward, if not in this world then in 
the next. 

Mr. President, I believe that when, at the end of time, the Angel 
Gabriel blows his horn for the just and the good to appear, some of 
.the apple shippers will be found at the golden gate. 



Summer Meeting. 55 

The interests of the apple grower and the apple shipper are mutual, 
and it behooves both to cultivate the most intimate and friendly commer- 
cial relations with each other. Both will make money by the operation, 
and, although money is a side issue with the apple grower, there may 
be times when his family and perhaps his creditors can use it. It is 
an old saying that a good barber never shaves himself, but lets some 
other fellow do it for him. The same rule applies to the average apple 
grower. The apple shipper thoroughly understands the tonsorial art, 
and is, therefore, entirely competent to shave the apple grower. And 
considering the fact that the average apple shipper has a tender regard 
for the 'feelings and opinions of others, and believes in the golden rule, 
"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" (provided he 
can do the others first). I am confident that he will make a nice job of it. 

It is one thing to grow apples, and another to market them. Preach- 
ers and poets have told us in prose and in verse of the wonders and 
beauty of nature, in ways and manners to challenge awe and admira- 
tion. It is therefore, not surprising that some unreasoning persons be- 
lieve that she is solely responsible for the production of the superb 
fruits which are being exhibited at the exposition in this good city and 
the work of the grower is lost sight of. 

But after all, nature supplies us with very few useful or beautiful 
things. Excepting the earth, which sustains us, the air, which we 
breathe, and the water which we drink, there is not much else that is 
solely due to nature. All that we own or possess is due to the appli- 
cation of human knowledge and skill, and the conquest of labor. The 
beautiful apples which are raised on the Ozarks, especially the Ben Davis, 
according to a tradition among the bald knobbers down our way, were 
originally in Asia small, dry and worthless seedlings, and used by the 
children in playing marbles, but by and through the ingenuity and in- 
dustry of men, and at the expense of much time and almost infinite 
patience, you find them what they are today. 

And still the work is not done, as a horticulturist, I agree with 
others in that the prize of an apple orchard is; a clear head, constant 
application, eternal vigilance, a discerning eye, a bending knee and a 
sharp knife. It takes all of these attributes with the addition of hope, 
faith, enthusiasm and great patience to fight, in these modern times, 
fungi diseases, codling moth, canker worm and other pests. Now add 
to this the making, gathering and packing of the crop, and you must 
admit that the apple grower has his hands full without looking after the 
markets. Therefore, I hold that apple growing is a business by and in 
itself, and the marketing the apples is also a business by and in itself. 



5(^> State Horticultural Society. 

I'o market the apples is the business of the apple shipper whose whole 
time and attention is devoted to it. 

I do not deny that there are plenty of apple growers who have the 
ability to market their own apples, but whether or not it is good policy 
to do so, that is the question. Shakespeare says of the man who tries 
to do two things at a time : 

"He is like a man to double business bound 
and stands in pause where be shall first begin 
and both ueglect." 

Although the apple shipper may be a pessimist, and, like the hen, 
prefer to stick to the earth in his conservatism, yet, when the apple season 
opens, he becomes an eagle in his flight, or like a race horse in his course, 
he scours not only his own country, but all the foreign lands where 
they have sense enough to eat American apples, to find the best markets. 
He knows where the men are located who buy apples, and keep in con- 
stant touch with them, and they know where to find him. 

To make apple growing in the United States profitable, with the 
increasing production, we need Europe as an outlet. Now, if a man in 
Liverpool, London, Amsterdam, Hamburg or Paris wants one or ten 
thousand barrels of apples, he will not enquire all over our country among 
the apple growers, but will send his telegrams and his orders to repu- 
table, responsible apple shippers in Chicago, St. Louis, New York, Bos- 
ton and other large cities. For this reason I consider that the apple 
shipper or commission merchant, or apple buyer, as you- may call him, is 
a necessary evil or a great blessing. All depends on how he treats the 
apple grower. I may say by way of parenthesis, that sometimes the 
apple shipper is almost as honest and reliable as the apple grower ; strange 
as it may seem, but I have known of such cases. For five and twenty 
years I have been a commission merchant myself, and on account of 
the sins I committed, according- to the foolish opinion of some country 
shippers, remorse struck me and I repented a good many years ago. 

In order to make proper atonement for my sins, I also became an 
honest apple grower. Of course I had the good judgment to select 
Missouri as my field of operation, and pitched my tent in the land of 
"the big red apple. " I located on the Frisco system on top of the 
Ozarks, "just midway between Memphis on the Bridge and Kansas City 
on the Kaw," on what is called Missouri's highest ridge, and the finest 
place you ever saw. The elevation at this point is so lofty and the atmos- 
phere so ethereal that I sometimes dream of things above and beyond 
this earth. 

In one of my dreams I saw Eros, the God of Strife, throw the prize 
of beauty in the midst of the assembled divinities, and Juno, Minerva and 



Situiiiicr Meeting. 57 

Venus quarreled over it. Then I saw Jupiter, the chief of all the gods, 
appoint Paris, the handsome, accomplished and valiant, to settle the dis- 
pute and make the award. He gallantly awarded the prize of beauty, 
which was a Ben Davis apple, to Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, 
whose favorite fruits and flowers were the poppy, myrtle, rose and 
apple. So you see my friends not only in this world of ours, but even be- 
yond the skies the handsomest woman takes the cake, or which is better, 
the Ben Davis apple. 

Now from the experience I have had in both lines of business, I have 
come to the conclusion that it is the best policy for the apple grower to 
sell his apples, if possible at harvest time, if he can obtain a fair price, 
or consign them to reputable, responsible commission houses. The ex- 
pense of holding and the risk of dribbling them out during winter and 
spring in small lots to Tom, Dick and Harry are matters for serious 
thought and consideration. I know that some of the apple shippers are 
too particular when they try to purchase from the apple grower, by de- 
manding only the select fruit and leaving him with two-thirds of his 
crop to take to the evaporator or cider mills. Now this is all wrong, and 
the reason why many apple growers have become apple dealers. 

If the apple grower had his own way about it there would be only 
No. I apples, but unfortunately he can't control the elements and other 
conditions incidental to apple growing. 

Hence, no matter how careful he may be, a large per cent of his 
apples will not class as No. i, and he must find a market for them better 
than the evaporator or the cider mills. My opinion is that a good de- 
mand can be created^ in this country for No. 2 and even No. 3 apples, 
among people of moderate means, if the apple shippers would take hold 
of it in the right way. And when they do take hold of it and have them 
packed in a proper careful manner, indifferently packed, "farmers' stock" 
will no longer glut or spoil the markets for them. In other words, 
my advice to you apple shippers is, instead of trying to buy only one- 
third of a grower's apples, buy his whole crop in so far as it is merchant- 
able, and pay him for each grade what it is worth and no more. I am 
aware that some apple shippers do this, but in the majority of cases they 
will talk only about fancy stock, and will leave the grower with the bag 
to hold, which usually results in the latter becoming a competitor of the 
former. Treat the apple grower right in this matter and you will serve 
your own interest in the end. It is my opinion that if the apple crop in 
the United States is handled in the right way, by proper packing, judi- 
cious marketing and wise distribution among all classes of people, there 
can be no over production and ruinous prices for many years to come. 



58 State Horticultural Society. 

There are more people in this country who do not get enough apples, 
than there of those who get too many. It is your business as apple ship- 
pers to reach them, and by so doing, you will not only increase your own 
prosperity, but will also make apple growing a source of greater profit. 

1 am also aware that some of the apple growers are suspicious of 
the apple shippers because they meet annually in convention and pass 
resolutions about the immense apple crops all over the United States and 
Canada, and the consequent low prices. But I tell my friends that this 
does not signify anything, that it is simply a harmless diversion and 
affords the members an opportunity to blow off surplus steam, and 
that besides they want to have a good time away from home where their 
wives and the members of their church can't watch them. 

The apple growers are guilty of the same offense when they attend 
the horticultural meetings, especially the older members and the bald 
headed men, who ought to know better ; some of them come to St. Louis 
not only to blow off steam, but foam as well, "Anheuser-Busch" for 
instance. At our last meeting which was held in this city early in June 
there came with me an old apple grower from Wright county, who had 
never been in a large city before. At home he was regarded as a very 
respectable and pious old man and a model apple grower. We had 
hardly been in St. Louis two days when I saw him one evening, with 
my own eyes, occupying a front seat at 'a variety show down on Market 
street, and during the night he would talk in his sleep about buy- 
ing a brewery and an automobile. As he spoke in a low tone of voice, I 
may not have caught the last word correctly, but it was either automobile 
or order more beer. According to my observations there are very few 
millionaires among the apple shippers, so they are not getting rich off 
the apple growers. As a rule they are too honest and pay too much for 
apples, and then they are not skinflints like men in other lines of busi- 
ness. When they occasionally get the best of an apple grower and make 
big money they spend it like a prince. They are high rollers and there 
is nothing small about them. 

Therefore, not many of them after they have rendered their last 
account sales or made out their final statement, leave enough of this 
world's goods to enable their families to erect them beautiful or costly 
tombstones on which to put the inscription, "Here lies Peter Jones, who 
in life w^as a good apple shipper and tolerably honest commission mer- 
chant." 

But some bright Missouri apple grower will say if it is best policy 
to sell apples at harvest time to apple shippers, "why don't you do it 
yourself?" I do whenever I can at a reasonable price. I am always 



Summer Meeting. 59 

Avilling to give the apple shipper a chance, because I know he is a good 
fellow and generally has a large family to support; besides I hold as I 
have said before, that apple growing is a business by and in itself, and 
the marketing of apples is also a business by and in itself. My 
orchard being like myself, comparatively young in years, I have not had 
many large apple crops, but whenever I had any apples of consequence 
I have generally sold them to wholesale apple dealers or commission 
merchants. And expect to pursue this course in the future. I don't 
mind being shaved by the apple shippers in the ordinary way, but what 
I object to is a clean shave. 

In 1901, when Missouri had a fair crop of apples, several prominent 
apple shippers came to see me to look at my crop, but did not think I 
would sell to them, because I was an apple dealer myself. I told them 
very frankly to disabuse their minds, and that as an apple grower I was 
ready to sell my crop. And I did sell all of my crop to one man from the 
good city of St. Louis, who belongs to the International Apple Shippers 
Association. He paid me nearly $30,000.00 for my apples delivered on 
the cars, he stuck to his contract "and I stuck to mine, and not one un- 
pleasant word passed between us. And this year before the Ben Davis 
turns to crimson red or the Huntsman to golden yellow, I expect to see 
some of you apple shippers at Cedar Gap, drinking my buttermilk and 
buying my crop. 

In 1902 I sold a large portion of my crop to a prominent Memphis 
apple dealer, who is also a member of the International Apple Shippers 
Association. He must have done well on his purchase, because on several 
occasions after that, when I called at his store, he invited me to his cel- 
lar, where he keeps an open barrel of olives and other things imported 
from Kentucky. My Memphis friend, although a pessimist, is a phi- 
losopher as well ; he realizes that in order to stand in with the apple 
grower he must keep him in good spirits. In 1903, on the last day of 
April, when the prospects were as rosy as the rising sun of an August 
morning, the elements destroyed the crops, and the Missouri apple 
growers were taught another lesson on the dark side of the divine calling 
of horticulture, and in consequence of this calamity, many of them 
haven't the ready cash this year to visit the World's Fair, and those who 
do come here can't afiford to dine and drink champagne at first class 
hotels like you prosperous apple shippers, but proud and aristocratic as 
they are, have to economize and straddle stools at the lunch counter. 
Such is life in this ungrateful republic. 

Mr. President, in closing my remarks, which I fear are already too 
long, I will say to the apple grower, don't be afraid of the apple shipper. 



6o State Horticultural Society. 

he won't hurt you, and he couldn't if he would. So long as the apple 
shippers are not in a trust or combine, competition will always compel 
them to pay fair market value for apples, and there is no more danger of 
that than there is of the apple growers forming a trust or corribine. 

The apple shippers and the apple growers in some respects are "birds 
of a feather," they are all sweet harmony in conventions, and believe in 
having "a good time" together, but when it comes down to business, they 
don't agree, and never will, except on one proposition, namely, that the 
Missouri Ben Davis is the best apple in the world. 



JUDGING FRUITS. 

(Prof. L. II. Taft, Agricultural College, Michigan.) 

In exhibiting fruits the manner of doing so and of the preparation 
is the cause of success. This exhibit of fruit is the finest ever had in 
jars and from cold storage, but there has not been care enough in pack- 
ing. Do not blame the superintendent nor the judge for lack of awards 
if your fruit is carelessly sorted or poorly packed. 

There are two methods that may be used in judging fruit exhibits. 
One is to off hand pass upon the fruit. Second, to determine the standard 
of each exhibit. To do this we must have a score card by which the 
judges may determine the comparative merits. 

The first point is size, although not of the utmost importance. One 
plate of five full normal and uniform specimens will score higher than 
a plate of four good specimens and one larger one; or four normal will 
grade higher than four overgrown ones, since the latter are imperfect 
usually in color or form. Size relates to size and considers uniformity, 
or uniformity is a separate item counting twenty or twenty-five points. 
Form and color should be uniform and they relate to all classes of fruits. 
Color of course, should be uniform in making up a plate of fruit. It- 
would be far better to have five specimens really uniform in color, and 
I would mark them far higher than if I had four specimens of the proper 
color and one w-hich vras undercolored. Form means the typical form 
for a variety. But the judge must consider the district, as varieties 
vary usually in some particulars in each district. 

On the point of quality there is a variation among score cards, but 
thirty points is out of proportion. Here we use 15 for each point of size, 
color, form and quality, and uniformity counts a part of each. Another 
card counts ten each for size, color and form and fifteen each for quality 
and uniformity. Twenty counts are given on the size of the exhibit. 



Summer Meeting. 6i 



"& 



Twenty points also for freedom from blemishes, this is the highest given. 
A score of 60 per cent gives a bronze medal ; 75 per cent a silver medal ; 
80 per cent a gold medal and 95 per cent the grand prize. Blemishes 
are defined as imperfections, worm holes, scab, the stem ofif, bruises, re- 
sults of bad packing or picking. Eighty points means full size, and 
uniform, proper color and typical form. A whole plate of misshapen 
specimens, off type, will be better than to have just one odd one on a 
plate. Though the fruit may be of good size, quality fair, color and 
form typical, some inferiority in the matter of blemishes enables us to 
throw out the plate entirely. In no case use four large specimens and 
one small. Have the size uniform as possible. 

I wish especially to impress the great need of careful packing. Some 
packages look as though the fruit had been dumped in. It is advisable 
to reduce the size of the exhibit rather than have poor fruit. It will be 
poor economy to put five plates of poor specimens in and sacrifice eight 
to ten points thereby, rather than lose two to four points on the size of 
the exhibit. These are hints to enable the superintendent to suggest 
helps to the growers and exhibitors, that they may do better in securing 
the awards and send in better fruits more carefully packed. 

Mr. Goodman — We have much trouble from delay by the express. 
How much allowance can the judges make for that? 

Prof. Taft — We can not allow full for bruised fruit. Some wrap and 
pack their fruit so that the delay is not so injurious. Over-ripe fruit put 
in with the green will make the mould spread to the hard ones. We have, 
however, made some allowance for the delays. 

President Whitten — The session has been exceedingly interesting, 
and I am sure all have enjoyed it. We are adjourned until tomorrow 
morning. 



THIRD SESSION— THURSDAY, JUNE 9, 10 A. M. 

SPRAYING — DISCUSSION. 

R. T. Kingsbury. — Sometimes I think the spray is what I want, some- 
times it fails, both dust and liquid. Neighbors who never use either 
have as much fruit and as free from insect and scab as mine, therefore, 
what is the use of spraying at all? The more I spray the less I know. 
The machines apply the dust all right and the formulas are thought to 
be right, but the sprayed parts of my orchard show a bad condition and 
it may be the sprays are not all right. 



62 State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Goodman. — I have used dust for four years in an extensive 
orchard, but I am still at loss to know just how far it is a success. We 
sprayed thoroughly last year over four hundred acres, but the frost 
killed all the blossoms and we stopped spraying-. We cover the trees 
and even the ground as with a light snow. This year we have been over 
the orchard four times to date, we began before the buds opened. But 
we are not sure of the results, but the liquid is no more sure. I think 
enough of it however, to continue. We must use one or both for good 
results. 

The Ozark hills are too rough for the liquid spray and we can not 
get water, so we use the dust. The cold and rain have so afTected the 
bloom this year that I can see no difference between the sprayed and 
the unsprayed plots. I am sure the dust will help if used at the proper 
time, with proper materials, etc., but we are often uncertain of the time 
of the development of insects and fungi, and in a large orchard it is 
difficult to do every thing on time. There is no certainty, but we should 
continue to experiment in this line. We can not set dates, or say a week 
later, etc. Go every morning if it is moist and dust from four o'clock 
to eight, it takes a week to get over the orchard and then we begin again. 
Positive results I can not give, but the spraying has helped to prevent 
the increase of germs and insects, so as a preventive it is a good thing. 

Sometimes a spot sprayed goes as good fruit as the sprayed, but 
we can not conclude from that, only the conditions are different anfl 
such as to give good fruit any way. We have used only lime with no 
poisons and some such plots have proven as good as where we used 
the fungicides. At least I am satisfied that it is worth while. Our 
orchards being in good condition when others are not, shows the spraying 
is preventive. 

Question — What formulas do you use? 

L. A. Goodman. — We get our materials from Leggett Bros., New- 
York City, they can supply Paris Green and also the dry Bordeaux in 
five pound packages. We also use Hammond's Grape Dust for fungus- 
on the apples. Lime alone is also good, 40 pounds of it can be slaked 
with lye water made from two pounds of concentrated lye dissolved in 
water. Sometimes we use sulphur in addition and we can now use the 
Bordeaux powder made by Dr. Bird's formula. 

T. H. Todd. — To make Bordeaux according to Dr. Bird's plan seems 
to be impractical for a large orchard. I would like to know about my 
rule and if it answers the purpose. If you take sulphate of copper, 
powdered fine and mixed it in the lime, would it have the same effect as 
Bordeaux. Bordeaux mixture is one product and not two. In a dust 



Slimmer Meeting. 63 

spray we have one or two, or three elements, according as we put the 
materials in. In mine the Bordeaux is the poison and lime the carrier. 

W. L. Howard — Bordeaux mixture proper is a chemical union and 
in a solution combines with the lime. In the dust form it is ordinarily- 
separate, there is no real union but only a mechanical mixture. 

E. H. Favor. — If quick lime is ground up and the sulphate of cop- 
per ground, when the mixture is applied the moisture on the leaf forms 
the chemical union. But with air-slaked lime such a union will not be 
formed, if the ground quicklime stands exposed to the air it will become 
slaked. 

T. H. Todd. — When I use air-slaked lime and the powdered sul- 
phate I find the same color when the moisture strikes the dust as in 
regular Bordeaux, the color is blue in the dust, I use twenty-five pounds 
of copper sulphate to one hundred of lime. 

Mr. Favor. — The insoluble compound is greenish, but we get the 
blue color a great deal. If w^e could use quicklime it might do, but we 
cannot get it. The air-slaked and the copper do not make true Bordeaux. 

Mr, Todd. — The powdered lime would burn the hands. 

Mr. Favor. — If the lime burns it must be quicklime as it gives off 
heat, but no amount of heat is given off with air-slacked lime. 

B. C. Auten. — It is impractical to pulverize copper sulphate so that 
it will carry in the air. The copper sulphate is heavy and descends pure 
on the men, hence the blue color. Does the lime counteract the scalding 
of the copper ? 

Mr. Favor. — This mechanical dust mixture burns more than the 
liquid because the copper is not finely divided and the particles do not 
scatter as well but stick together. The lime and copper sulphate cling 
together in separate balls and the burning that results is as bad as the 
fungi. The liquid scatters the particles better. We have been using at 
the experiment station both Mr. Maxiwell's and Dr. Bird's formulas. 

Mr. Todd. — I made the trees white with the powder and now the 
leaves are blue but healthy. 

Mr. Favor. — The air-slaked lime and the copper give an insoluble 
compound, and consequently does not burn the foliage. 

J. M. • Irvine. — Mr. Maxwell used the mechanical mixture and 
burned his foliage. He sprayed seven times and yet has scab in his 
orchard, the spray w-as ineffective and both apples and trees have the 
scab. Have you scab on your sprayed trees? 

Mr. Favor. — Yes, the sprayed trees have the scab badly this year. 
If the spraying is carried out faithfully we may control the scab next 
year. If we quit spraying early it gives the scab all summer to grow. 



64 State Horticultural Society. 

so we shall spray all summer and winter and hope to control the scab. 
The Ben Davis and Jonathan are not so bad with the scab as other varie- 
ties. We hope to discover some difference between the dust and the 
liquid spray, but we have not so far. The dead leaves caused by fire 
blight are very bad this year, and there are many spots burned with the 
spray, but they have not the same appearance, the scab has a sooty ap- 
pearance, but the burning by the spray is rusty like the stem end of the 
fruit. 

Prof. Whitten. — Mr. Favor it would be well to bring out the effect 
of cold compared with the blight. 

Mr. Favor. — The effect of cold causes a curling and shriveling and 
occasionally is spotted a little. Blight covers an area of the leaf surface, 
but makes no spots and the color is yellowish brown. 

R. T. Kingsbury. — My trees which were sprayed heavily show no 
burning, the blight and burn are not on the sprayed trees, but the spray- 
ing was no heavier than at other times. 

Mr. Todd. — Jonathan and Huntsman and other varieties are much 
affected. I sprayed one-half of a tree, which is affected, five times and 
can see no harm, but the unsprayed half looks blighted, while the next 
tree to it, also unsprayed, shows no blight, therefore, I can arrive at no 
conclusion. 

W. G. Gano. — In years previous we have had great difficulty with 
the liquid spray burning, we suppose by the last application. By using 
liquid for the first and second sprays and dust for the latter ones we hope 
to obviate the burning. Does the dust injure the fruit? 

Mr. Favor. — Those who have experimented with it say not, but I 
do not know. The liquid does scald the fruit. 

Mr. Auten. — Results of spraying are not evident the first year. One 
, advantage of the dust is that we can get it ready in the winter. The dust 

Note BY Secretary— The spraying should not be done while the trees are in bloom 
and for codling moth we spray after the petals have fallen. 

goes over the orchard and we may injure the fruit on the trees which 
are in bloom while we are spraying the others for codling moth. 

Mr. Irvine. — The Entomologist of the Georgia Experiment Station 
has a new method of combining the Bordeaux mixture, which he claims 
is better, as it is easier and cheaper than Dr. Bird's. 

C. H, Dutcher. — Were the conditions last year not favorable to 
the formation of poor fruit buds? Do we have imperfect buds when we 
have pale or white blossoms? The old saying is, red bloom foretells a 
good crop and white bloom no crop. 

Mr. Todd. — My orchard shed its leaves prematurely last fall, but 
now shows the best prospect. 




o 



05 



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>— I I— c 

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P 
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93 



Summer Meeting. 65 

Mr. L. A. Goodman, Kansas City, Mo. : 

Dear Sir — Since I reported to you on the condition of the apple crop, 
there has been such a change, that I feel that I should report it. There 
was then a good prospect for Willowtwigs, Ben Davis and Jonathan. 
They have since dropped off, until there is not 5 per cent of a crop in 
sight now. I think the excessive rains are the cause of most of the 
trouble. Some were ruined by the pollen being washed from the bloom. 
The Willowtwig, Ben Davis and Jonathan were wet so much that they 
turned black, then dropped. 

There is one thing I never saw before. Some trees would have 
part of the blooms to bloom, or all the blooms were out all right then 
part would drop off, while other bunches of blooms would all die, leaves, 
twig and all are there yet. Some entire trees would do this; all the 
blooms would die, including the twig or fruit spur that they grew on. 
This is something entirely new to me. Can you tell me anything about 
it? Is the condition here anything like a representation of the State? 

I am yours very truly, 
C. AuL. 

Smithville, Mo. 



DISCUSSION ON PEACHES, 

Louis Erb.^Peaches grown among apples do well and give a good 
crop and the apples also do well. The peaches take nutriment different 
from the apples and give something to the soil, but they may interfere 
when it comes to the spraying unless the dust is used, which does no 
harm to the peaches. At Cedar Gap in eleven years we had nine crops 
of peaches, but after that there were more trees planted and two hun- 
dred acres have been but an ornament and expense. Three years ago 
wt had a good crop, but in 1902 hardly any, and last year they were killed 
in March. This year we had a good winter, but on January i6th the 
thermometer registered ten degrees below zero and the peaches were 
winter-killed. In New York the temperature was thirty degrees below 
and yet the peaches were not killed. Why, I do not know. The trees 
seventeen and eighteen years old were strong and vigorous for a crop, 
but still they were winter-killed. We are never troubled with spring 
frosts. I have seen snow and ice on while they were in bloom and yet 
we had a full crop. With us they are safe after the weather is no longer 
below zero. 

P. A. Sylvester. — Our peach orchard in Washington county has an 
elevation of twelve hundred and fifty feet, and last winter although the 

H-5 



66 .S7(//(' Horticultural Society. 

temperature was eighteen and a half degrees below zero only the Elberta 
were killed. Then we had three freezes and ice froze next to the peaches, 
and the frost and wind took the crop on all the top trees but left the val- 
ley safe. 

B. C. Auten. — If it becomes warm the first of March and then 
freezes there will be harm done. The Elbertas were killed in the winter 
but some others were killed by the spring freezing. The Family Favorite 
and Crosby indicate good prospects. The Staminate Nectarine is also 
safe. 

Mr. Erb. — Paul Evans, Director of the Experiment Station at Mt. 
Grove, says to spray with white-w^ash and sweet milk, as sweet milk has 
the sticking quality. One man sprayed five hundred trees with this 
white- wash and had peaches when his neighbors had none. Iron pots for 
fire .are used in the California orchards to prevent danger of frost. 

Henry Wallis.- — One reason for its freezing in Missouri and not in 
New York is because there the weather is stable, while in Missouri it is 
changeable. We should not promote the late growth in the fall and 
should avoid late cultivation. 

Mr. Auten. — Glue put into the white-wash to make it stick hardens 
it so that it cracks, while the milk keeps it moist so that it stays on. 

Pres. Whitten. — We would like to ask the gentleman from Michigan 
about some of these points. 

Mr. Thompson. — It is well to prepare the packages of peaches in the 
best manner possible and if there is any defect in color we use tarlatan to 
overcome it. 



INSECT PESTS— THE "STIXG" IN THE APPLE. 

(J. M. Stedmia, Eatatnalo^'ist of th J Experiment Station, Oolumbia, Mo.) 

Since the "sting" in the apple has attracted so much attention re- 
cently, due to the immense damage it has caused, I will confine my re- 
marks today entirely to this subject. The "sting" in the apple is caused 
by the common plum curculio, Conotrachclus nenuphar, Hbst. During 
the past two years more especially, the plum curculio has "stung"' the 
apples of the Ozark region to such an extent as to cause very serious 
damage in all cases, and in many orchards has injured from ninety to 
one hundred per cent of the crop. Apples "stung" by these beetles are 
reduced from No. i grade to No. 2 grade, while those badly "stung" are 
reduced to No. 3 grade and culls. 

Since you gentlemen know that in commercial orcharding the profits 



StiiiiDiO' Meeting. 



67 



ai*c made (.11 Xu. i appks, it is very easy to understand the serious situa- 
tion caused by this pest. Several orchardists claim that this insect has 
caused them more trouble than that of all other insects and fungous 
diseases combined, not excepting the bitter rot. 

The so-called "sting" in the apple is caused by the beetle eating 
holes through the skin for purposes of feeding or for purposes of laying 
eggs. The long beak on which the mouth parts are situated is shown 
in Fig. I, which is a photograph of an adult plum curculio magnified 
five diameters. The beetles begin to cause the "sting" on the apples 
about the middle of ^day, while the apples are about the size of large 
cherries, and by the first of June begin to attract attention by the many 
punctures or "stings" they now make. The male beetles make only feed- 
ing punctures in the apples, while the female beetles make both feeding 
punctures and egg punctures. From my observations, I estimate that 
during May the females make from four to five times as many feeding 
punctures as egg punctures, and that as a result of the work of both males 
and females, we find about twelve times as many feeding punctures as 
tgg punctures on the apple. In all cases these punctures, whether for 
feeding or for the depositing of eggs, are known as "stings" among 
horticulturists. During June the females make almost as many egg 
punctures as feeding punctures. 

In making a feeding puncture the beetle eats a small hole through 
the skin by means of its mandibles or jaws, this hole being about one- 
tenth of an inch in diameter. It then eats the pulp about one-tenth of 




Fig. 1. 
an inch in depth, thus leaving a small cylindrical hole in the apple. Dur- 
ing July and August the beetles also have a habit of eating the pulp 
back under the skin as far as they can reach around the hole. These 
feeding holes then become very conspicuous, since the undermined skin 
withers, shrinks and turns dark, and the apple usually commences to 
rot at this place, thus absolutely ruining the apple for storage purposes. 
In making the punctures for the purpose of depositing eggs the 
female also eats the tissues of the apple and this is probably the reason 



68 



State Horticultural Society. 



why during the tgg laying season they do not make as many purely 
feeding punctures as they do earHer and later in the season. In making 
an egg puncture the female first eats a small hole through the skin, and 
then eats the pulp back about one-sixteenth of an inch, thus making a 
small cylindrical hole, usually quite parallel to the skin. She then turns 
around and deposits an egg in this hole. Having accomplished this, she 
then eats the tissue by cutting a small crescent shaped hole through the 
skin and into the pulp so as to partly surround and partly undermine the 
egg. Such a puncture is shown in Fig, 2, b and d, which is a photo- 
graph of portions of the apple cut away and magnified two and one- 
half diameters. 

As most of these egg punctures or "stings" are made during the 
rapidly growing season of the apple, if the eggs fail to hatch or the larva 
die early in their life, then the apple may outgrow the "stings," provided 
fungoid and other diseases do not attack it at this point. Such a "sting" 
from which the apple has partially recovered is shown in Fig. 2 e, and 
also at /, where the three smaller punctures are healing over. The large 
central one, however, will not heal because a fungoid disease has entered 
and the apple is starting to decay at that point. 




Fig. 3. 



Summer Meeting. " 69 

If the egg hatches and the larva lives long enough to eat its way 
into the pulp a distance of a quarter to a half inch and then dies, the 
apples, whether young or medium size, may, if no diseases enter at this 
point, outgrow the "sting" and leave a scar. This scar will be situated 
in a depression of greater or less extent, according to the age of the 
apple when "stung" and to the length of the life of the larva, and the 
depth to which it burrowed in the pulp, before it died. Such a scar in 
what is at this time a shallow depression, but will become greater as the 
apple grows, is shown in Fig. 2 g. By cutting open such a depressed 
scar, one will observe that the course of the young larva can be easily 
traced by the dark colored and harder tissue that forms a short thread 
where the larva ate its way. This tissue has a very bitter taste, becomes 
quite dense, and does not enlarge as does the surrounding tissue, and 
hence the depression increases as the apple becomes larger. It is in 
thic way that the bulk of our knotty apples are formed. A single apple 
may have one or many egg punctures or "stings," and these may be 
distributed throughout the season, so that we have single apples covered 
more or less with scars, depressions and stings. 

Such apples even though not attacked in these places by fungoid 
or other diseases, cannot be sold to be placed in cold storage ; but it must 
be borne in mind that these various "stings" open up the way for diseases 
to enter, and cause the apple to rot or decay at such punctures, and ab- 
solutely ruin them while yet on the trees. When "stung" apples are 
placed in cold storage they soon decay at the places punctured ; and since 
the adult beetles begin to make the feeding punctures or "stings" by 
the middle of May, while the apples are very small, and continue to do 
so throughout the apple growing season ; and since the egg punctures 
or "stings" are made in great numbers during the latter part of .May, 
and during all of June and the fore part of July; and also since the 
young beetles emerging along in August also make feeding punctures, 
thus resulting in the "sting^' of the apple throughout the entire season, 
it is easy for one to see the serious nature of this trouble — the "sting" — 
caused by these plum curculio in the apples. The plum curculio will 
live and breed in the fruit of the plum, peach, nectarine, prune, apricot, 
cherry, apple, pear, quince, wild plum, wild crab apple and hawthorn. 
However, it prefers our cultivated plums to other fruit and breeds better 
in them. It also breeds well in the peach, but does not do anything like 
so well in the apple. Hence it is that if plum and peach orchards are 
placed near apple orchards, such apple orchards suffer more from this 
infect than would otherwise be the case. Early in the spring the beetles 
feed on the developing leaves, later on the petals of developing flowers, 
and stiil later entirely on the fruit. 



yo State Horticultural Society. 

There is only one brood of the phnn curculio each year. The adult 
beetles hatch out for the most part during August and feed for a time 
by puncturing the apples. At the approach of cold weather they seek 
hibernating quarters by crawling under rubbish of all kinds, or by crawl- 
ing in the ground a short distance. There they remain during the 
winter, coming out the next spring in order to feed upon the young de- 
veloping leaves, which they do to a slight extent only. The old beetles 
die in the fall at the approach of cold weather. The beetles coming out 
in the spring from hibernating quarters begin to deposit their eggs about 
the middle of May and continue this egg laying until the middle of 
July. They do this work during a part of the day or a part of the night, 
or may work all day if it be cloudy. Fortunately for the apple growers, 
only a small per cent of the eggs deposited in the apples ever succeed in 
hatching. Of these eggs that do hatch into larva, fortunately, only a 
small per cent of them ever succeed in reaching the full grown larval 
existence. For some unaccountable reason the great bulk of them die 
by the time they are one-fourth grown. It seems necessary for the life 
and growth of these larva that the apples fall to the ground by the time 
the larva arc about half grown otherwise the larva appear always to 
die. If the apple drops, the larva continues to live and grow, and after 
becoming full grown, eats its way out of the apple and enters the ground. 
The entire larval stage in the apple lasts about three weeks. 

Wlicn the larva is full grown it leaves the apple and immediately 
burrows into the ground one or two inches, wiggles its body so as to 
pack the earth away and make a little cell, and there remains quiet for 
about two weeks ; it then changes to the pupa stage. The pupa stage 
lasts from two to three weeks, then transforms to an adult bettle, which 
at first is light brown in color and quite soft, but gradually becomes 
darker and darker, and remains in its earthen cell about ten days be- 
fore it digs its way out to the surface of the soil. The pupa stage, as 
well as the first week in the life of the adult beetle in the ground, are 
uncertain ones, since the pupae especiallx' are easily killed by cultivating 
tlie soil while they are in it. 

The adult beetles on emerging from the soil are lighter in color 
th.an the older ones but soon gain their proper color. They immediately 
seek their natural food, and can be found in good numbers during the 
latter part of July, and during all of August, feeding on the apples and 
making the punctures or "stings" already described. At the approach of 
fall these beetles seek (pi.trters in which to pass the winter, while the 
old beetles, which have not already died, perish. It will thus be seen that 
n■an^ of the old beetles are still at work in the apples by the tinie the 



Summer Meeting. 71 

young beetles emerge and begin to puncture them also, but for feeding 
purposes only. As the female beetles are quite slow in depositing their 
eggs, and vary somewhat in the time of beginning, we have some of them 
laying eggs in apples as late as the last of July or the first of August, 
at which time the young beetles are beginning to emerge in great num- 
bers. 

Remedies. — As a result of my experimental work, I can now say 
that it is perfectly possible, practical and comparatively easy to success- 
fully fight this pest in the apple orchard and to prevent its doing undue 
injury. In order to do this, however, we must take advantage of some 
weak points in the insects economy which we have described. 

The four principal habits we can take advantage of are : First, the fact 
that the adults hibernate during winter under rubbish and the hke ; sec- 
ond, that in the spring the adults feed to a certain extent on the de- 
veloping leaves before the trees bloom ; third, that the larva, in order 
to live and reach their complete larval stage, must be in apples that 
drop to the ground before the larva are much over half grown, other- 
wise they die; fourth, the fact that the full grown larva leave the apples 
and enter the ground an inch or two and there transform to pupa that 
arc easily. killed. 

It is well known to horticulturists that an apple orchard near a 
forest suflFers more from the "sting" than one out in the clear, and that 
the part nearest the forest is "stung" first. This is because of the fact 
that the plum curculio is found in certain wild fruits which grow abund- 
antly in our forests, and also because the beetles seek the timber to a 
large extent during the fall for hibernating purposes, and seek the nearest 
food early in the summer. This same rule holds good in regard to the 
proximity of peach and plum orchards, and hence it is well to have the 
plum and peach orchard as far as possible from the apple orchard. 

In visiting various apple orchards I noticed that those orchards that 
received thorough or even only slight cultivation suffer less from the 
"sting" than those that are allowed to grow up to grass and weeds. This 
fact is easily accounted for by the removal of hibernating quarters and 
the destruction of pupa. 

By spraying the apple orchard with arsenate of lead twice before the 
blossoms open, one can kill about fifty per cent of the beetles that eat 
of the young leaves at this time of the year. The spraying should be 
done very thoroughly, and if rains wash off the poison, the spraying 
should be repeated. It must be borne in mind, however, that this spray- 
ing- is not to take the place of other methods of fighting the insect. It 
is only a help towards lessening their numbers. If one is not going to 



/- 



^ State Horticultural Society. 



spray the trees at all before the blossoms open, it is doubtful whether it 
would be advisable to make a special spraying at this time for the plum 
curculio. But it usually is the case that orchardists wish to spray their 
trees before the blossoms open for fungous diseases (which in many re- 
sjjccts is the best time to do the spraying) or they wish to spray their 
orchards for other insects, in which case the addition of Paris Green or 
Scheele's Green with the Bordeaux mixture will be a great help. If one 
is going to spray for bitter rot, apple scab and other diseases before the 
blossoms open, and for codling moth after the blossoms fall, the addi- 
tion of an arsenical poison to the Bordeaux mixture sprayed before the 
blossoms open, will also kill large numbers of the curculio ; and the 
spraying with the arsenical poison after the blossoms fall, will not only 
kill the codling moth, but will also greatly lessen the curculio "sting." 

It is advisable not to add arsenate of lead to Bordeaux mixture, since 
a chemical change is likely to occur which will injure the foliage; but 
Paris Green or Scheele's Green can be added to Bordeaux mixture, by 
regarding the Bordeaux mixture as simply water, and adding to each 
ore hundred and fifty or one hundred and seventy-five gallons of the 
Bordeaux mixture, one pound of the Paris Green and three pounds of 
fresh lime. 

Since the larva of the plum curculio in the apple will not live unless 
the apples fall by the time the larva are half grown, and as the larva 
remain in the fallen apples for a week or so before they eat their way out 
and enter the ground, we have a very vulnerable point in which to fight 
the insects. To this end, all the fallen apples should be gathered each 
v/eek and destroyed. This can be done by hand picking, and then burn- 
ing the apples or feeding them to live stock, or live stock that will eat 
tlie fallen apples as fast as they drop can be kept in the orchard in order 
to eat them as fast as they fall. If only one method of fighting the plum 
curculio in the orchard is to be followed, this method of destroying all 
vmdfalls at least once a week is by far the most satisfactory. 

We can also take advantage of another weak point in the life history 
of this insect, viz., the fact that the larva all leave the apples and enter 
the ground about two inches in order to transform to the pupa stage 
during the latter half of July and the fore part of August, in which 
pupa condition the insects are easily killed by any unusual disturbance. 
Hence, by shallow plowing and thoroughly harrowing the orchard during 
the middle of July, and then harrowing the first and the fifteenth of 
August, one will rupture the earthen cells and destroy the great bulk of 
the pupa in the ground before they have transformed to the adult beetles. 

If poultry are allowed to roam through the orchard, especially while 



Summer Meeting. 73 

the plowing and harrowing is going on, they will pick up immense num- 
bers of these insects. 

If all three of the above methods of fighting the plum curculio in the 
orchard are followed, one can so rid the orchard of these insects in a 
year or two as to scarcely notice their presence. In other words, if one 
will spray the trees twice before the blossoms open with arsenate of lead 
and four times after the blossoms have fallen with the same arsenical 
poison at intervals of ten days, and when the apples begin to fall, gather 
them once a week and destroy them, or turn hogs into the orchard in 
order to eat them up, and then the middle of July plow very shallow 
and harrow very thoroughly, and then harrow again on the first and 
fifteenth of August, one can practically exterminate the plum curculio 
in the apple orchard. 



GROWING AND TRAINING THE VINES. 

(Ed Kemper, Hermann, Mo.) 

"Growing and Training the Vines," the subject assigned me is work 
that anybody can do after having a few little hints, and a few well trained 
grape vines should be in every garden trained to the fence, or in the 
yard trained to a neat arbor, or in the back yard trained to the wood shed 
or any building. They will not rot if trained to the aforesaid objects, 
will bear abundantly and with little care. For the first few years they 
have to be cultivated, but in after years this work is not necessary. If 
you have cultivated your vines good for one summer and they have made 
a strong growth, that growth has to be cut off entirely the coming winter 
or spring, no matter how strong it may be, this seems wrong to almost 
anybody, except the vineyardist, he knows that it is right. The next 
spring you may leave one vine two or three feet long, depending upon the 
vigor of the vines, also leave two spurs of two or three buds to get bear- 
ing canes the next year as bearing canes should come out of as young 
wood as possible. The third year you can leave two canes and of course 
two spurs and in future years you should always remember that the 
stronger the growth the more and longer canes you may leave, but they 
should not be over four feet, and if the growth gets poorer you have to 
cut less and shorter canes. 

Summer Pruning. — Pinch off one joint beyond the last bunch ; this 

should be done before blooming to force them quickly over blooming. 

Leave four to five sprouts from below for bearing canes and spurs for 

the coming year ; tear off all the rest that may grow out from below. 

. If you however want to train your vines high, you may do so. From 



74 State Horticnitural Society. 

the beginning leave one cane as high as you may wish, and then from 
there go to work as described herein before, or renewal system as it is 
called. 

To those interested in vineyarding I have to say that the renewal 
system is still the most popular here in Hermann. Experiments have been 
made to train the vines on "Oveftrellis," the entire vineyard is like an 
arbor. Already large vineyards have been made this way. but it still is 
under the "Experimental Stage," and will take several years to say some- 
thing definite about this training. Object is to do away with spraying. 

Today with you Fruit Grower Brothers, I would like to be, 
To meet you face to face, to learn and to see 
What great things God the Creator, has allowed us to achieve 
But again "till here no further," Ue must have said I believe. 

DISCUSSION ON GRAPES. 

Question. — Is this the proper season for layering? 

Mr. Wallis. — It is better to layer early in the spring. We use layer- 
ing to raise young plants from the young shoots. 

Mr. Erb. — I had a vineyard for twenty years but finally cut it down. 
Table grapes in Southwest Missouri are a failure commercially. Wine 
grapes are the only ones that are profitable. 

Mr. Wallis. — The Hicks is the finest wine grape. 

J. M. Irvine. — Northwest Missouri has good results from table 
grapes. 

Mr. Sylvester.— Pure grape juice, unfermented, ought to be profit- 
able as there is much shipped in and used from New York. 
Session then adjourned. 



l-( )URTH SESSIONt-FRIDAY, JUNE lo. 

After calling the meeting to order President Whitten gave a talk on 
shrubs, during which Vice-President Dutcher occupied the chair. 

NATURE SHRUBS OF ORNAMENTAL VALUE. 

(Prof. J. 0. Whitten, Columbia, Mo.) 

During the spring we have at the station been making a collection 
of some native shrubs and buslits and vines which are of ornamental 
value. Great interest attaches to something rare, especially if brought 
from some remote corner of the world, or if some novelty makes it at- 
tragtive, although it may be of uo more intrinsic value. You may fincl 



Summer Meeting. . 75 

wild bushes in the Botanical Garden of London and of Paris, which 
people admire when seeing them for the first time as we do one from 
Australia. We want new acquaintances and novelties, but for intrinsic 
beauty we find species from the prairies and woods equal to any. 

So I mention some Missouri shrubs that we see often and do not ap- 
preciate. Some species respond to cultivation and take on a new symmetry 
and freshness, as for example the Buck bush. We have tramped over it 
but it rarely calls the attention because it is so abundant. Still it is 
handsome, and you can not kill it, it grows without trouble. Plant it 
where it is at home and indigenous and it will make a perfect develop- 
ment and look finer than an imperfect and undeveloped foreign variety. 
An intrinsically beautiful but puny shrub grown poorly in uncongenial 
soil is not as satisfactory as one at home in peace and prosperity. The 
new growth on the Buck bush in spring takes on a pink tinge, the older 
leaves are dark and glossy, rich and luxuriant, but fade again to pale 
green and pinkish ; so we get all shades from sunshine to shadow. Grown 
in blue grass it will be ragged, but grown in the shrubbery border it is 
symmetrical. Another point of beauty is its fruit, so rich and prosperous 
in quantity it suggests a land of plenty, another its beautiful color. It is 
indeed a fit emblem of a rich state. 

The Flowering Dogwood develops finely on our Missouri streams 
and blufifs. It is an early flowering shrub with white blossoms, and color 
in the bracts under the flowers. This in comparatively small quantities to 
make a mass is efl^ective with the Buck bush to hide the stems and fill in. 
Red Bud is good for the main mass, with finer ones for the details of 
planting and finishing. Elderberry, like Dogwood, gives a large amount 
of color. It is not to be used close to the door step, but for screen to 
hide the stable fence. The coarse foliage melts into fine lines when 
at a distance. It is good for filling but not for fine detail. The fruit is 
a rich wine color. The June or Service berry grows in the tree and 
shrub forms. Put the tree in the rear and use the finer dwarf variety 
fci filling and finishing. 

For fine detail St. Johns Wort is good. It has rich yellow florescence 
and fine leaves, so that it bears close inspection and we do not need to 
take only the distant view. It blossoms late after others cease to bloom. 
[ wonder it is not grown more in the nursery. I remember a mass of it 
in Brussels which was much admired because it was rare, while we 
scarcely notice its beauty. The Butterfly Milk Weed has a luxuriant 
growth of foliage and handsome inflorescence, in August and September, 
after other things have blossomed. In rich soil it takes on an added 
luxuriance, and it cultivated is not the same as iu the pasture, but a 
Nvc-nder to your friends. 



76 State Horticultural Society. 

Vines. — The Trumpet Creeper can be used as a porch cover or as a 
shrub in a mass. The flowers are gaudy and showy. The leaf is finely 
divided, making it suitable for close-by places. The conspicuous blossoms 
and fine foliage make it handsome for a screen. The Five-Leafed Ivy 
clings to walls and is better than the Boston or Japanese varieties which 
are used in the east, but are not so effective here. When taken from the 
weeds and given culture you will hardly recognize this ivy as wild. 



HARDY SHRUBS. 

(Prof. H. 0. Irish, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo.) 

I have seen a specimen of a shrub related to the Dogwood (Cornus 
cerrissia) which grew a single stem and spread to cover a space twenty- 
five feet in diameter, it was not cultivated nor pruned, but taken care 
of itself and grown well balanced. It is perfectly hardy. 

In Kansas there is a collection of wild plants which have been culti- 
vated. It is a valuable collection and a sight worth coming miles to see. 

In the right place wild plants are not weeds; but do not let them in- 
terfere with your crops and gardens. Plants may be used for two pur- 
poses, either for the specimen or for a part of the landscape, there is a 
difference, and I would not use the same plants for the two objects. A 
bed of shrubs in the center of the lawn shows off the plants, but is not 
best for the picture. We are not confined to hardy varieties today, but 
hardy ones are preferred, because they take less care. 

Hardy Perennials. — Hardy Phlox Jias become popular and the number 
of varieties has greatly increased. The descriptions in the catalogues are 
sufficient for a means of choice. The blooms do not last as long here 
as in the East, for they blossom here for only three or four weeks. Of 
the Lillies the Crinum Longiflorum takes care of itself and produces a 
brge white bloom. 

The Common Rue is quite showy even when not in bloom. Spireas 
are numerous and beautiful in their varied and abundant bloom. Of 
hardy Chrysanthemums there are a hundred varieties. They are the last 
flowers of the season, blooming from September to October. As they 
are liable to injury from freezing it is better to have a little protection in 
the way of a mulch in the winter. The Common Yarrow is fine with a 
bright blue flower. Bell Flowers are not very common but hardy and 
showy and satisfactory. The stalks should be cut away after blooming. 
The Common Oriental Poppies are most showy, but require care and 



Summer Meeting. 77 

cultivation and a rich soil. The blooms will be from six to eight inclies 
across and show striking red in the garden. 

A plant to grow on a bank or terrace is Artemesia, the small variety, 
which grows two or three inches high. If you plant two dozen of them 
eighteen inches apart they will spread and in six months cover the ground. 
It does not get to be a nuisance as some others, and holds the soil well; 
Of the tender perennials for bedding, the old varieties are not as popular, 
but the rare ones appeal now to our fancy. The Geranium has some 
popular new forms which are better than the old. The best is S. A. 
Nutt, which is hardy and showy. Lantana is one of the best bedding 
plants and once established, blooms through the summer and is not in- 
fluenced by the hot dry months. 

Hardy Annuals. — These grow from seed sown, then after blossoming 
they seed themselves and come up again the next season. Portulaca may 
be used with pretty effect around rose plants, white by white roses. 
Portulaca are out of bloom part of every day and stands all conditions 
of weather. The California and Mexican Poppies are also prolific and 
attractive bloomers. Tender annuals must be seeded each year. Annual 
Phlox is one of the best, although it may not live through the summer, 
sc it is well to plant a second crop when the first one lags. Chinese pinks 
are not showy in beds but are satisfactory for vases. Zinnias too are 
satisfactory though they drop off in the summer as phlox does. 



THE PASSING OF THE BIRDS. 

(Otto Widmaan, St. Louis, Mo.) 

The question is often asked : Why is it that we have so few birds now 
•n places where they were plentiful formerly? Many are inclined to be- 
lieve that the gun alone is to be blamed for this rapid diminution of bird 
life in all well settled parts of the country. Fortunately we here in the 
Mississippi Valley cannot yet complain as much as those in the older 
paits of the United States, especially New England. When we take up 
a late list of the Birds of Massachusetts w^e find repeatedly the gloomy 
annotation "once common, now rare," and among them are such well 
known, beautiful species as the Red Headed Woodpecker, and the lovely, 
much admired Purple Martin. 

In Europe conditions are still worse ; much so in the United King- 
dom of Great Britian and Ireland, from where nearly all the larger birds 
have disappeared, and on the continent conditions are not much better 



/iS State Horticultural Society. 

in ir..'i'i\- parts. But luirope never did liave so much ti) lose as we have. 
Europe never had such beautiAil birds as we have. Europe had nothing 
which can compare with our Meadow l>ark, FHcker, Red Headed Wood- 
pecker, Yellow Bellied Sap Sucker, Scarlet and Summer Tanagers, Cardi- 
nal, Indigo Bird, Red-winged Blackbird, with our many beautiful Warb- 
lers, our Orioles. Yes, it has an Oriole, a nice, golden-yellow bird with 
black wings, but it is so rare that not one in ten thousand Europeans has 
ever laid an eye on it ; it is so shy that it seldom leaves the deep woods 
where it frequents the densest tree tops. 

The European Woodpeckers cannot compare with our Woodpeckers 
at all ; they are a comparatively plain looking set ; they have nothing 
which can come up to our gaudy colored Redheads or our Golden-winged 
Flicker; and the few kinds of woodpeckers they have are now so scarce 
and so shy that one may wander through rural districts and deep woods 
for days without meeting more than a single one. Europe had once a 
few brightly colored birds ; a Kingfisher with dress like our Blue Bird, 
a bright azure back and rich chestnut breast ; it used to be an ornament 
to all streams some fifty years ago. On my last visit to Germany two 
summers ago I did not see a single one. Those who lived in southern 
Germany fifty years ago will remember how closely the call of the Quail 
is connected with their walks through the field ; from right and left the 
lively "sexparweck" came to the ear from near and far ; now the Quail is 
almost a thing of the past ; in all my wandering through the fields two 
years ago I did not hear a single one, and my brother who lives in the 
country and passes daily through fields where Quails used to be plentiful 
said that he had not heard one for several years. 

Magpies and Jay Birds, the latter not nearly so beautiful as our 
Bluejay, but still a handsome bird, were formerly of common occurrence 
throughout all rural districts ; where are they now ? One has to keep a 
sharp lookout for days to detect a single one and has to use a field glass 
to observe it, so shy and retiring have they become in consequence of con- 
tmued persecution. 

Shall it come to this here? It will certainly come to it, if we do not 
take steps to keep them from a similar fate, with the only difference that 
we will lose so much more than the Europeans because our birds are 
indescribably more beautiful than theirs. 

To take steps toward prevention we must analyze the causes for 
their disappearance. The gun, it cannot be denied, plays sad havoc with 
all the larger birds, including some of the so-called game birds, and 
those whose fine feathers are serviceable for the adornment of our women, 
".'"he game laws try to preserve the game birds, and the Audubon societies 



SiiDuncr Meeting. 79 

are doing their best to suppress the trattic in bird feathers for miUinery 
purposes ; but the "man with tlie gun" who is responsible for the ap- 
proaching disappearance of all the larger birds, cannot easily be sup- 
pressed. All we can do is to correct his savage propensity by instruc- 
tion in the school room, and if possible, in the court room. 

A hunter sees in every large bird a competitor in the chase. He 
accuses every large bird of preying on game, poultry or fish, or on their 
young and eggs ; in short he feels it his duty to help in the extermination 
of every kind of hawk or owl, heron, crane, gull, cormorant or peUcan, 
and he is only too easily convinced that everything that flies does some 
harm in some way and should therefore be destroyed. 

I was surprised at the greatly reduced number of Storks in Southern 
Germany, wdiere they are great favorites with the people, especially in 
the country, not only for what they are supposed to bring — spring with 
their arrival and good luck with their stay — but also for what they take, 
as they are expert catchers of field mice. But the hunters found out 
that once in a while a Stork gets a chance to pick up a littei of newly- 
born hares, and such a crime is in the eyes of a hunter unpardonable 
and must be avenged whenever it can be done without exciting the ire 
of the populace. It is everywhere this dread of competition on the part 
of the hunters and the fear of the loss of a young chicken or duckling 
on the part of the farmer which seal the fate of the most useful of our 
hawks and owls, those who live mostly on mice and other injurious 
rodents, while the only two kinds of hawks who really do the mischief 
are seldom caught, being too quick in their movements and too watchful 
to be taken unawares. 

Here instruction of the right kind in schools and in the press is 
needed, and should be given freely, not only by our National Govern- 
ment, which does its share fully through the Department of Agriculture, 
but by all who take interest in the welfare of our country. 

Less than twenty years ago in whatever direction one traveled one 
could see from the railway car over almost every large cornfield one of 
our handsome Red Tailed or Red Shouldered Hawks watching for mice 
on a fence post, or could see a Marsh Hawk beating its way low over the 
meadows in quest of its favorite prey, field mice. Now, you may ride 
over these same roads for an hour before you spy a single one. What has 
become of them ? They are gone, killed by the zealous hunter or farmer 
who mistake them for the hawk which took his chick, while he should 
know that these kinds of hawks do not touch a bird as long as they can 
catch mice, frogs, snakes, craw fish, etc. As late as fifteen years ago 
those who traveled from St. Louis to Hannibal or between Belleville and 



8o State Horticultural Society. 

St. Louis had beautiful sights while riding through the Mississippi bot- 
toms. Hundreds of snow white Herons populated the lakes, wading in 
the shallow water or standing and sitting along their shores. There are 
no such sights to be had any more ; dreary and deserted appear the lakes, 
only once in a while a solitary Blue Heron may be sighted yet, and his 
days too are counted. 

Every now and then the newspapers bring the glorious news that 
Mr. So-and-So killed an eagle. We have only two kinds of eagles, the 
Golden Eagle and the Bald Eagle. The former was greatly in demand by 
the American Indians for its tailfeathers, and was always a rare bird ; 
the Bald Eagle, our emblem of liberty, is such an innocent chap, living 
mostly on fish and offal which he picks up from streams and their -shores, 
that we see no reason why its destruction should be regarded as a boon 
to mankind, and its killing as a deed of heroism. 

As a symbol of unrestrained wing power this king of all birddom 
inspires us with admiration by its large size and majestic flight, but, if 
its numbers continue to dwindle as they are doing now, the mounted 
specimens will soon outnumber the living birds and the next generation 
will place the American Eagle where we have now the California Vulture, 
on the list of animals on the point of extinction. Only a generation ago 
the California Vulture, a bird with a spread of wing of ten feet, ranged 
from the Columbia river to the Colorado river ; now a very few indi- 
viduals are left in the mountains of southern California. But the story 
of the California Vulture is only a repetition of that of the Great Auk, or 
the Pallas Cormorant and the Labrador Duck, not one individual of 
which species is in existence now, and all that is left of them are a few 
skins and bones in the museums and private collections. 

There are very few hunters, even of the educated and conservative 
class, who can resist the temptation to shoot at a large bird that happens 
to come into the range of their firearms, and in spite of all progress of 
culture and so-called civilization, the number of Nimrods is still on 
the increase. Neither is such an increase hard to explain. In the first 
place, it is the in-born love of nature coupled with the desire to make 
up for the expense of time and money by obtaining something of tan- 
gible, pecuniary value. Then, it is the result of false teaching on the 
part of the press, assisted by railroad companies who do their share by 
reducing rates to hunters and inducing their patrons to make frequent 
trips to favorite hunting grounds. 

The newspapers and railroad companies are right in telling their 
patrons that frequent trips into the country are conducive to the good 
health of penned-up city people, but I do not see what the gun has to 



SmiiDWr Mccfliii'. 8i 



'.b 



do with it. Uii the contrar}-, i tirnily beheve that, wtTe the gun substi- 
tuted by a field glass, tramps through woods and fields were ten times 
more conducive to the health and a hundred times more pleasurable. 

Can we not bring ourselves to admire the beautiful things in this 
v/onderful world without feeling any desire to capture or destroy? 

Most of the hunters admit that they do not kill their game for the 
little meat that they usually get out of it ; they do it neither for gain nor 
for the pleasure of killing; it is simply a perverted love of Nature, the 
same which prompts the child to pick the flower and after seeing it 
wither, throw it away. 

While man and his gun are the great destroyers of large birds, the 
smaller ones have many enemies among all classes of the animal king- 
dom ; but since these enemies have existed for untold ages, the birds 
have learned to guard against them, and have succeeded in holding their 
own in spite of all of them. Nature itself is a cruel destroyer : a severe 
rain and windstonrT may kill hundreds of nestlings ; a sudden rise in a 
river, an inundation of lowland, will drown thousands of helpless young ; 
winter's rigors reduce the number of the brave little birds who dare to 
risk their lives, but Nature always finds means to make amends for 
the damage which she does, may this be ever so severe. 

After the phenomenal period of glaciation throughout the south 
Atlantic and Gulf states in February, 1895, only one-tenth of all the 
Bluebirds of the Eastern United States returned to their breeding stands, 
nine-tenths having perished. Gradually their numbers increased, and 
today, nine years after the calamity, they are fully restored, Bluebirds 
being as numerous as they ever were before. 

Fortunately this loveliest of birds is one of the few who have adapted 
themselves so thoroughly to the new conditions that civilization imposes, 
and they have found so much favor in the eyes of all, that their future 
seems to be safe enough as far as human interference is concerned. I 
only wish I could say as much of many more species, but I cannot. 

Next to man there is no other enemy so diligent in the destruction 
of bird life as the house cat, because of its universal distribution and 
unchecked activity. Few people know that the cat is the arch-enemy of 
all ground-feeding and ground-building birds ; if it does not get the 
parent it is sure to get the young ones before they can fly. Many of 
our song birds are ground-builders, but they invariably disappear from 
neighborhoods where cats can roam. The Nightingale, the renowned 
songster of Europe, is a ground-builder. Its steady decrease, in spite 
of all protection, is mainly due to the cat. Some dogs are nearly as 
bad as cats in this regard. While visiting a large private park, where 

H-6 . 



82 State Horticultural Society. 

all conditions for the presence of Nightingales were given and where 
no interference from man was possible, none were present. Inquiry 
brought the answer that no cat was allowed in the park, but that the 
owner kept several dachshunds — German terriers — and allowed them to 
roam in the park. No ground-builder could raise a brood, all disap- 
peared. We see the causes for the decline of bird life aie manifold, but 
the most important of all is the change of former conditions of the 
heavily wooded regions into the present cultivated land, and with the 
last remnants of virgin forest many species of birds must disappear. To 
a certain degree some will adapt themselves to the new conditions, some 
w'Al not. Adaptation with many is a slow process. It took ages to form 
the present nesting habits, and to change them will be a matter of long 
time with a great loss of hfe. 

A bird which is used to build in the shelter of the deep forest cannot, 
even if it should try, possibly find the necessary conditions in a clear- 
ing, thinned wood, or park-like grove. The consequence will be that- 
most any attempt at reproduction will be frustrated, the species will 
become scarcer and scarcer, and finally disappear entirely from the local- 
ity. Many of our woodland birds nest in cavities in the forest: the tit- 
mice and chickadees find old woodpeckers' holes or rotten stumps in 
which they can carve their own holes. In our orchards they find no 
such places, though they would find enough insects and their eggs and 
larvae. If we would provide them with suitable nesting sites, they 
could be induced to remain in our fruit and ornamental gardens and 
would be a great help in the warfare against insect pests. 

Fortunately there is still some of the glorious primeval forest left 
in our State, and the object of this paper is a plea for the preservation 
of some of it. Once gone, the primeval forest can never be re-established 
again, and its unique plant and animal life will be lost forever. But, 
if individuals or societies who do not have to see that every dollar in- 
vested brings returns in cold cash, but who, from patriotic, humane and 
aesthetic reasons, like to do something for posterity, will take hold of 
such pieces of forest, favorably situated, they would benefit mankind 
as much as by founding libraries and donating universities. Such forests 
should be spared from the axe entirely; also from the fire; no grazing 
animal of any kind should be allowed in it; no cat or dog; no hunter 
and no vandal ; strong fences should protect it and efficient guards should 
police it; but the gates should be open to the public during daytime. 
Driveways and footpaths should cross it, with benches at intervals, and 
possibly a sheltering roof for visitors in case of rain. Such veritable 
forest parks would be of immeasurable benefit to all nature lovers and 



Slimmer Meeting. '83 

naturalists of every description. City parks are in their place a great 
blessing for many people, but a city park is no wilderness and should 
not be one. It is a different thing altogether; it harbors few wild 
animals and gives a chance to others to adapt themselves to such condi- 
tions as it offers, that is all. 

In Europe the indiscriminate cutting down of forests has been 
stopped as long as a hundred years ago, and the governments see that 
no tree is felled without permission of the forester. Here, too, the 
national government has begun sylviculture, but this offers no substitute 
for the original forest wilderness. Sylviculture resembles agriculture 
in so far as the forester wants only those things to grow which have a 
marketable value. He cuts down everything else and the result is a 
very clean forest with certain kinds of trees growing to perfection, but 
there is little or no undergrowth, no climbers, no dead treetops, no litter 
and decaying logs on the ground. Such forests are almost as monot- 
onous as a cornfield, with the only difference that trees take the place 
of corn. They are poor in birds and flowers and no comparison at 
all to our original Missouri forests with their fifty different kinds of 
trees and an equally great variety of climbers, shrubs and smaller plants. 
Here life of every kind abounds, birds of many species populate the 
treetops, others the branches, high and low; others again make their 
home in the undergrowth and some claim the ground floor itself for 
their domain, making their nests and raising their young in safety among 
ihe brush and brambles which so abundantly cover the ground and make 
access difficult or impossible to their enemies. 

A forest preserve, which comes nearest to our ideal, is found in 
the famous Yosemite Valley, a State Park within a National Park, where 
firearms, herds and fires, as well as the axe, are barred, where the 
policing is done by a state guardian assisted in summer by a detachment 
of U. S. cavalry. And what a paradise it is for the nature lover ! It is 
not its granite walls and waterfalls alone which make it so attractive; 
it is the undisturbed natural beauty of its vegetable .and animal life, its 
peace and quiet which make a sojourn within those high walls so exceed- 
ingly pleasant. Last summer during a short stay of three and one-half 
days I noted 57 different species of birds within those granite walls, and 
some of them were in surprising abundance. Nearly all were song 
birds and of extraordinary tameness. 

How different would all this be if the valley had not been a preserve 
almost since its discovery. Man would have cut down the beautiful trees 
to make fire wood ; they would have killed every living thing for gain or 
sport; grazing animals and fire \vould have done away with every wild 



§4 State Horticultural Society. 

lluwer, and where there is a parachse Uxlay there would be a desert or 
something very much Hkc it. 

Why can we not have such paradise spots in Missouri? The true 
Nature lover does not need grand scenery to be happy; Nature in its 
undisturbed state is all he wants. He sees the wrong which has been 
done to future generations through the destruction which is going on 
everywhere. The axe and the gun, fire and the plow are laying waste 
the broad land. You may look out of the car window for miles and 
miles without seeing more than a dozen kinds of wild flowers and those 
mostly of the commonest kinds. 

People would not flock from the country into the cities, if country 
life did not become so very monotonous. Just think a country without 
birds, trees and flowers, with nothing but fields and barb wire fences 
and shadeless, dusty roads! Would it be a wonder if such a hfe would 
be regarded as unbearable, and could we blame our sons and daughters 
for their growing dissatisfaction with country life? 

It is therefore of great importance to all, city and country people 
alike, that as much as possible of the beautiful in Nature be saved from 
destruction in the transformation of virgin soil into cultivated land. This 
can of course not be done without some sacrifice on the part of the 
owner, but does not our present fifty million WOrld's Fair prove that we 
, have lots of spending money for the higher and nobler aims in life? 
Let us hope that we, the fruit-growers of Missouri, will always bear in 
mind that we are willing to sacrifice a few of our cherries, grapes and 
berries for the good of the country and not do murder as long as there 
are other means to keep fruit-loving feathered songsters from our trees 
and vines. 

Mr. Erb — That was a most excellent paper, and I hope that the 
secretary will publish it in our report so that the sons of horticulture can 
read and learn. 

Pres. Whitten — You echo the sentiment of this audience. The 
horticulturist is a friend of the bird. 



BIRD LEGISLATION. 

(W.J. Blakely, President Missouri Audubon Society, St. Louis, Mo.) 

This world without birds would be a dismal place. Every tree 
would be a tombstone to the gentle beings that personify nature, and 
this end is inevitable as it seems to the friends of birds as we see the 
great destruction that is going on. Self interest is a proper feeling if 



Suinmcr Mcctiii^'. S- 



'£> 



it does not degenerate into selfishness. The hunter loves the pleasure 
of the chase, but also the addition to his table. Audubon loved birds 
and nature for their beauty's sake, and took note of the life about him. 
The agriculturist, the orchardist and the farmer love birds because they 
help preserve their products and add to the revenue by destroying those 
insects that prey upon their fruit. A year's produce is worth $i6o,- 
000,000, but ten per cent of this is destroyed by the bugs and worms that 
multiply and increase because of the destruction of birds. This destruc- 
tion amounts to eighty per cent of the wild insectivorous and game 
birds in a year, and the causes are murder, the venality of our legislatures 
and the sluggish indifference of the tax-payers in not forcing their repre- 
sentatives to vote for the laws. In New Jersey there were three attempts 
to get such a bill through. The first fish and game bill was turned 
over to a committee and there were many petitions for them to bring 
it in and they did finally, notwithstanding that only five days of the ses- 
sion remained. It was then turned over to the senate to a committee on 
miscellaneous business and they did not act. There was a disgraceful 
record and Missouri has the same. The last and the previous legisla- 
ture did the same with our bill on account of money from the game 
dealers. The president and secretary of the Audubon Society spent days 
and days trying to bring out this bill. After assurances they went home 
and stayed until alarmed, when they went again to Jefferson City. Col. 
Crisp said to us, "Go back, your bill is killed in the Senate by money." 
Your own representatives killed it. If you want to reproduce the birds 
and see the insects destroyed and the crops protected, instruct* your repre- 
sentative to vote for the bill to be introduced this year. If money kills it 
again it will be because the horticulturists have not had a true interest 
in it. All around us the states have laws as framed by the Audubon 
Society, they exist and are in force. You may spray, but there is 
nothing like the birds to get rid of the insects. The game birds are 
also insect destroyers. 

Money to pay the game warden and his deputies must be appro- 
priated, and so this should be incorporated in the bill. Tax the hunter 
as in other states and he will gladly pay. Let us redeem Missouri and 
set her in the line of progress, even Arkansas is ahead of us in this line. 
We must prevent the killing of robins, woodpeckers and such or they 
will be substituted for the disappearing game birds. They are killed 
for food and in wantonness, and for woman's vanity. In pity spare 
the birds, 

' 'For the great God who loveth us He made and loveth all." 



86 State Horliciiltiiral Society, 



MISSOURI FORESTS. 

(N. F. Murray, Oregon, Mo.) 

Originally Missouri was quite well supplied with forests of valu- 
able timber such as oak, walnut, sycamore, cotton wood, poplar, cypress, 
hickory, pecan, beech, locust, pine, cedar, etc. The larger forests are 
found in the southern part of the State, and include the pine, cedar, 
cypress and beech. In the northern part of the State some splendid 
forests were found along the Missouri river and her tributaries, mainly 
of oak, hickory, elm, hard maple and cotton wood. But these once beau- 
tiful forests are fast fading away to supply our own people, and those of 
less favored states who draw upon Missouri for a vast amount of lum- 
ber, cross-ties, piling, and posts. We have in the United States (approx- 
imately) thirty thousand saw mills, that cut up one thousand acres of our 
forests every hour to feed the remorseless jaws of commerce. The orig- 
inal growth of our most valuable forests is nearly exhausted. The for- 
ests of north Missouri have been robbed of their cream, and the pine 
of south Missouri will soon be a thing of the past; and her fine oak is 
going rapidly for cross-ties, piling, posts, and agricultural implements. 
What is true of Missouri forests, is also true of the forests of other 
states, they are fast melting away, and there is no hope of any relaxation 
on them, but on the contrary, there will ever be a growing demand for 
all kinds of lumber, for building purposes, for cross-ties, for pole lines, 
fuel, wood pulp, cellulose, etc. It may be of interest to note that the 
word "book" comes from the old germanic word for beech, because the 
Anglo-Saxons and Germans wrote on beechen boards before paper was 
used. Also that the word "library" comes from the Latin "liber," the 
bark of a tree. The first paper makers were hornets which scrape ofiF 
the weather-worn wood of stumps, rails and boards, and convert it into 
a kind of paper, out of which they construct their nests. The amount 
of* wood which is consumed in the manufacture of our paper is immense. 
A prominent New York newspaper uses one hundred and fifty tons of 
paper daily. To produce this amount of paper, two hundred and twenty- 
five cords of spruce wood are consumed. There are many other firms 
that use as much, and a greater number that use a less amount, and our 
supply of spruce wood is so nearly exhausted, that the Government is 
now experimenting to find out, if possible, other varieties that will do 
for paper. Our common postal card is made from the pulp of the tulip 
(our poplar). Common newspaper material is simply wood from which 



Slimmer Meeting. ' 87 

the bark and knots have been removed which is ground into pulp and 
then pressed into paper. Nearly all books are now made of wood pulp. 
The demand of the future will increase rapidly. 

Our two hundred thousand miles of American railways have and 
will continue to make a heavy draw upon our forests. It requires six 
hundred million cross-ties to lay them once, and ninety millions per 
annum to maintain them, to say nothing- of new lines to be built. 

Pole Lines. — The vast number of telegraph and telephone lines, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the lakes on the north to the Gulf 
on the south are rapidly exhausting the cream of our young forest 
growth. The ever increasing demand (usually at advanced prices) for 
all kinds of lumber, cross-ties, piling, bridge timber, posts, pulp and 
fuel, should be sufficient proof to convince every doubting Thomas in 
Missouri of the commercial value of our forests and our cultivated 
groves, and stimulate every land owneV in the State to a greater effort 
in this line of work. 

What can zve do to save our forests f — Nothing, simply nothing! 
The hungry jaws of commerce must be fed and our beautiful forests of 
Missouri are going, and will continue to fade away. While this is true, 
we have the consolation of knowing that it is within our power to re- 
forest all the land we wish to with the most valuable varieties of timber. 
Will we do it, and will it pay? These are vital and important questions 
that every land owner must settle for himself. We have before us a 
report of the Yaggy tract of five hundred acres of planted forest near 
Hutchison, Kansas, that has been under cultivation for twelve years. In 
that time they report that they have sold thirty thousand dollars worth 
of fence posts, which have been secured by thinning out, and leaving the 
larger trees which are now reported worth thirty thousand dollars. This 
will serve to give an idea of the immense profit in forestration. 

A large majority of the two hundred and fifty thousand farms in 
Missouri contain some rough spot, possibly some nook or corner incon- 
venient to cultivate, some hillside, or stony spot of little value to culti- 
vate, that might be planted to valuable varieties of timber. If all of 
our farmers would go to work and plant from one to twenty acres, owing 
to size of farm and suitability of land, with black walnut, black locust, 
catalpa, etc., and then care for them a few years, they would soon be- 
come a thing of beauty, a source of pleasure, comfort and profit to their 
occupants. 

In south Missouri we have a large amount of land from which the 
heavy timber has been cut, much of this land has a good second growth 
well worthy of the attention of the owners or of those who are seeking 



88 State Horticultural Society. 

cheap lands, they can be bought at from two to five dollars per acre, 
and, while they are rough and rocky, yet the second growth of timber 
will rapidly enhance their value, and pay as well if not better than any 
other investment, and that, too, without the worry and vexation that so 
often besets the fruit grower and farmer. 

At present we find in most all of the lumber yards of north Mis- 
souri, cedar posts from the Pacific coast selling at high prices, and they 
will last no longer than black locust posts, enough of which might have 
been grown on the farms of Missouri to supply all our own wants at a 
trivial cost. 

We of the present owe it as a duty to coming generations to reforest 
a portion of our lands. We have been reaping where nature planted 
the forests with a lavish hand, then let us plant forests and groves with 
a liberal hand, and thus provide a blessing for those who shall come 
after we are gone to our reward. * 



EVERGREENS. 
A Plea for Their Use and Not Their Abuse in Landscape Planting. 

(Sid J. Hare, Kansas City, Mo.) 

My first recollection of an evergreen carries me back to my child- 
hood. When scarcely three years of age, I saw an evergreen, and I 
have always remembered it because it was so ridiculous. I can give no 
other reason why the recollection of this tree has remained in my mem- 
ory these many years. It was one that had been sheared into a series 
of balls, one above the other, reminding one of "time balls," of various 
sizes, all on one pole, the larger at the bottom, diminishing to the smaller 
at the top. I remember also that people's clothes were just as ridiculous 
in their cut as was the tree referred to. 

In some neighborhoods the topiary craze seemed to be infectious. 
Evergreen trees were sheared into all manner of ridiculous forms, pea- 
fowls, tea-pots, pigs, cranes, bears, chairs. We send missionaries to the 
heathen Chinese who distorts the foot of his child, yet we do even worse 
in many ways. There was a time when it would have been a sight 
good for sore eyes to have seen a natural evergreen tree. Times have 
changed, yet today there still lives some old fossil of former days who 
now practices the art of butchery on our city shade trees, and hopes to 
keep them looking "just so round like a bullet," as one said to me not 
long since. 



Summer Meeting. 89 

We have no fear for those who read ; it is only for those who do 
not that we may still look for such barbarous methods, for our daily 
papers and our magazines are full of good articles telling when and 
how to prune ; volume after volume has been published on plant cul- 
ture and care. These, with lectures and lantern slides, we hope will 
eventually educate all. 

When it comes to real features, real lasting features in a landscape, 
we must turn to the evergreens, for winter and summer they remain 
the same, changing only in brightness as the seasons come and go. 

As for color we now have varieties enough to satisfy the most 
fastidious, from black-green to yellow-green; blue-green to silvery 
bronze, and brown-greens, purple tinted and cream, all these in varying 
forms from the upright, fastigatc, pyramidal, spreading, round-headed 
oval, to drooping, weeping, angular, low, flat, creeping and climbing 
forms, what more could we ask? W^ith them we can effect the sub- 
lime to the ridiculous, th- :.'irele?s to the precise in our planting. 

The uses of evergreens are many. In the landscape their value 
ranges from hedges or fences, to enclose grounds, to pot-plants for 
windows, or porch decorations. Planted as screens they hide objec- 
tionable features in the landscape ; for windbreaks they protect our homes, 
our orchards or our gardens. As back grounds for other planting they 
give contrasts and help intensify the bright-colored fruit and bark of 
many deciduous trees and shrubs in winter; for ground covers where 
grass refuses to grow ; and for individual specimens on the lawn. 

Aside from their value in the landscape, their economic value in 
the trades in furnishing lumber, oils and varnishes, make them of great 
value to the home builder. I am glad to say that there are few places 
left where they furnish means for an idle man to kill time shearing 
them into nonsensical forms. 

To give you a list of those you should use in planting your home 
ground is not necessary, since catalogues describing them can be had 
for the asking. No yard is too small, no, not even the house without 
a yard, "the city flat," to be without some evergreens. In our city 
flats we hang our yard out of a window. During the summer we can 
plant annuals and vines : in the fall we can replace them with a few 
select dwarf or young evergreens ; fill in between with Santolina and 
Vinca minor, and occasionally stick in a fresh branch of holly, lucothia, 
California pepper or huckleberry, and you have a touch of green outside 
the window that will help to reduce the outside temperature about to 
per cent in appearance. 

In the yard a little larger than that hung out of the window we may 



90 State Horticultural Society. 

have something a little more pretentious and elaborate. We can begin 
with an evergreen screen for the garbage can, and at least shut it out 
from full view of our neighbor's dining room, or we may plant a screen 
to shut out the view of our neighbor's cow lot or trash pile, that our 
guests do not view it while seated at our table. 

A bed of evergreens can be equally as attractive as a bed of shrubs, 
and afford us pleasure 365 days each year instead of five or six months 
of this time. One may arrange them in formal designs or as irregular 
border, using the taller growing varieties in the center or back ground, 
and the lower growers in front, bordering with the nana and pigma 
varieties, and filling in with the ever green vine Vinca minor and the 
silvery white Santolina, with a Yucca now and then to assert its con- 
trasting growth, and to protrude its bayonet-like leaves above the drift- 
ing snow. 

Broad-leaved evergreens are not enough used and some of us for- 
get that they really belong to the evergreen family, because we see them 
so seldom, and we associate evergreens with pines, arborvitaes, firs and 
spruces. Mahonias, hollies, laurels, ilex, box, yuccas, privet, some mag- 
nolias and some ferns, when given protected situations where the sudden 
thaw of a winter sun does not burn the south side of them, do well enough 
to warrant their use. Some of them stand even the changes of our 
climate without this precaution. 

There are many plants half evergreen, the leaves of which remain 
green until late winter or early spring ; among these are a few vines and 
herbaceous plants that retain the summer colors and fall tints to make 
their presence appreciated. 

Bright colored fruit and bark, seed-pods and spikes, unique and 
curious, all combine to make winter attractive to the lover of nature. 

I will close with a few kind remarks to those who object and criti- 
cize the use of evergreens in the planting of home grounds and parks 
"because they remind one of a cemetery." How ridiculous and far- 
fetched is such an educated dislike for these beauties of the vegetable 
kingdom. I wonder they do not object to bread made on a board since 
coffins are made of the same material. Why not rule out marble and 
granite in the construction of our homes and public buildings for the 
same reason. 

There is not a tree or shrub, evergreen or deciduous, used in land- 
scape work, that may not be found in our cemeteries ; in fact, the mod- 
ern cemetery contains a greater variety of the rare and beautiful trees, 
shrubs and plants, than are to be found in our city parks or in private 
grotuids ; and all plant lovers have learned this and go there in prefer- 
ence to the parks to learn of the plants suitable to that locality. 



Summer Meeting. 91 

The beauty of a picture is enhanced by its proper framing, a gem' by 
its setting; a song by its harmony of sound free from discords. In the 
home ground harmony is as essential as in music — harmony of colors, 
harmony of form, harmony even in contrasts, without discord — planting 
that enhances the beauty of the house and brings out its architectural 
features, and causes one to see something attractive and pleasing to the 
eye. How different the planting appears in our home grounds ; many 
show the mark of skill and taste, while manv more show the work was 
that of a tree vender who planted what he had to sell, not what should 
have been used, reminding one of a fine painting in a cheap frame. 

Few home grounds are in keeping with the house and its interior 
decorations, and many "look like a stray box on a park lawn" as one 
writer recently expressed herself. In beautifying a home ground a defi- 
nite plan should be decided upon, then follow it. 

The following letter was read : 

Kirkwood, Mo., June 8, 1904. 
Dear Mr. Goodman — My father is very ill from a trouble from 
which there is but little reason to hope that he can ever completely re- 
cover, though he may be temporarily better. He wishes me to send his 
greetings to the Horticultural Society, which he had anticipated much 
pleasure in attending. I also inclose his brief paper which it would 
please him to have some friend read. I have copied it and hope it will 
be found legible. 

Should my father's condition improve so that one of my sisters can 
be spared to accompany me, and other circumstances are favorable, I 
will go in on Friday to read my paper on insects. 
With best wishes and regards. 

Yours sincerely, 

Mary E. Murtfeldt. 



SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL TREES FOR STREETS. 

(By Ohas. W. Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo.) 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen — The privilege has been ac- 
corded me of presenting some thoughts and observations on what has 
always been a favorite theme. 

The object of planting trees along streets and highways is two-fold, 
namely, for use, comfort, and for adornment. The shade of trees on 
streets in cities on hot summer days is as grateful and desirable as an 



92 State Horticultural Society. 

open fire of hickory or maple wood in midwinter; one will gladly walk 
a square farther to enjoy the former rather than to endure the fierce 
blaze of the sun when tlie range of temperature is from 90 to 100 degrees 
even in the shade. 

The choice of trees for the purpose under consideration does not 
include all the species and varieties that may be seen in the park or on 
the extensive lawn. It is limited to those of proved adaptation on ac- 
count of hardiness under — in some cases — unusual and unfavorable con- 
ditions, and because of certain characters of form, foliage and flowers. 
These qualities do not always receive due consideration. The variety 
of tree generally planted is apt to be the one most readily obtainable. 
For instance, in our little city of Kirkwood about thirty years ago Mr. 
John Hofifman. a public spirited citizen of ample means, bought what 
nursery men call "a block of elms," of a European variety. Some of 
these he planted himself along certain streets. Others he sold or do- 
nated to friends to be used in the same way ; hence, Kirkwood became, 
like New Haven on a smaller scale, a "city of elms." Some of these 
trees still live in good form and vigor, but a large proportion succumbed 
to the drought of three years ago. The elms of which New Haven, 
Connecticut, boasts are so tall and spreading that their branches inter- 
lock over the drives and the same is true of those of Kirkwood, although 
those surviving are probably scarcely one-third the age of the Eastern 
trees. 

Experience has proved that the elms, especially our native species 
(Ulmus americania and rubra) are among the best for shading both 
city streets and country roads. Rockford, Illinois, has been called the 
"Forest City," because the streets are so lined with trees that the city 
seems actually to stand in a forest. Here the varieties of maples pre- 
dominate. The Norway maples have far overshadowed all other kinds 
and seem peculiarly well adapted to the soil and climate. Before some 
of the residences the Norway and the black maple or box elder {Negundo 
aceroides) stand side by side, the former more formal and symmetrical, 
the latter more graceful ; the one a very dark green, the other almost 
yellowish, presenting a beautiful contrast. Our friend, Willard P. Flagg, 
a well known authority on trees, singled out the box elder as his especial 
favorite. It yields to training, but needs a careful pruner. 

The sugar maple has always been a highly prized street and road- 
side tree. So much admired is it in Kirkwood that very few of the 
more extensive residence lots are without one or more specimens, and a 
wealthy resident recently paid an extravagant price for the removal of 
a half dozen larsre trees from some obscure position to the front of her 
residence. This species, like the Norway, is of rather slow growth. 



Summer Meeting. 93 

As is well kiiuwii, the pride uf the Ljcnnan Enipcrui' and ui all 
Berlin is the famous drive and walk "Unter den Linden," although the 
trees do not appear so very imposing to Americans used to the towering 
forest growths of this country. The European Linden thrives well in 
every part of Missouri. Its foliage is more delicate and glossy and its 
habit of growth handsomer than in our native species, and, so far as it 
has come under my observation, it is a perfectly hardy tree. In my 
native city in Germany, I well remember a beautiful linden allee or walk, 
where no driving was allowed. Abutting against one end was a longer 
one shaded by horse chestnuts which, when in flower with their pinkish 
spikes of bloom, each about a foot long, resembled nothing so much as 
a German Christmas tree, with hundreds of lighted candles. This was 
a lovers trysting place and, as it was open to the public, needless to say 
it was much frequented by the youths and maidens of the city. 

The white ash {Fraxinus Aincricana) should not be overlooked in 
making a selection of trees for planting. It is handsome in form and 
foliage, and of quite rapid growth and has but few insects enemies. For 
rapid growth and beauty of foliage the soft or silver maple {Acer dasy- 
carpiim) has deservedly many admirers and in many towns is the most 
numerous of all the street and lawn trees. When planted to a good depth 
and in rich. soil its shade does not kill out the grass, a.j is a prevailing 
objection to it, nor until it is very old does it throw out the brace roots 
so near the surface of the ground as to be objectionable. 

The Ailanthus, introduced into this country from China more than 
a half century ago, and only objectionable on account of the ill smell- 
ing pollen from the staminate blossoms, is of such quick growth and 
such great endurance of unfavorable conditions that it ought not to 
be omitted from any list of city shade trees. The pistillate trees are 
really very handsome with their tropical looking leaves and rose tinted 
blossoms and winged seeds, and were there any characters by which 
they could be distinguished, when young, from the male trees, would 
deserve a prominent place in this list. 

The sycamore or plane tree (Platanus occidentalis) although grow- 
ing naturally along river bottoms and rich low lands, adapts itself readily 
to city conditions, where it in a very few years affords ample shade to 
sidewalks. The principal objection to this tree is the sensitiveness of 
its foliage to frost either late in spring or early in the fall. This causes 
the leaves to drop unseasonably and litter the sidewalks and lawns. 

Here and there in Missouri, Illinois and Iowa we still see rows of 
Lombardy poplars. I confess I like them, especially in the country, as 
land marks. It is true they hug themselves so closely with a noli me 



94 State Horticuttiiral Society. 

tangerc air that they do not afford much shade. I'hey are also gross 
feeders, though not directly inimical to other trees. The Carolina poplar 
also is growing in favor and some roads known to the writer are lined 
with them, alternating with the soft maple, the varying shades of foUage 
producing a very pleasing effect. 

As blossoming trees the two of prominent beauty are the horse chest- 
nut (Castania) and our native {Catalpa speciosa). In some cities entire 
streets are lined with these, and in the blooming season it is diff'icult 
to decide which is the most showy. The horse chestnut, taking into 
consideration its greater compactness and beauty of foliage, is generally 
ranked as superior, but, on the other hand the Catalpa grows more 
rapidly and begins blooming at a very early age, and, if given a little 
training becomes a tall and elegant tree. 

These include very nearly all the trees best adapted for shading 
streets and roads, and most of them thrive in all, except the most 
southern and most northern sections. They include a sufficient variety 
to prevent a wearisome monotony of form and habit. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NEW FRUITS. 

Your committee on new fruits desire to submit the following: 

1st. A Seedling Strawberry from Mr. Turner from Johnson 
county. 

Mr. Turner says this berry was produced by himself two years ago, 
by crossing the Marshall and Candy. It promises to be a good bearer. 
It is a vigorous grower, a perfect bloomer, ripens later than the Marshall 
and earlier than the Candy. We find as follows : 

Size. — Large, possibly not so large as the jMarshall, but decidely 
larger than the Candy. 

Firmness. — Firmer than the Marshall — a much better shipper. 

Color. — Dark red throughout, ripens evenly and is attractive. 

Form. — Roundish, smooth, regular, good shape, early, persistent, 
abundant. 

Stem, short, good size, strong. 

Quality, good, not quite as sweet as Marshall, hence not likely to 
be injured by insects before picking. 

It is a desirable berry and may become a favorite ; is worthy of a 
name and should be further propagated. The name Turner is short, 
easily written and in no way objectionable. Hence we recommend it to 
be named Turner in honor of its producer. 

2nd. A Seedling Strawberry from Mr. Bower of Monett, Mo. 

The producer, Mr. Bower, says it is a cross between the Brandy- 



Summer Meeting. 95 

wine and the Marie. Plants are strong growers. Ripens last week of 
May. 

Size — Large. 

Firmness — Good, and will ship fairly well. 

Color — Light red throughout, ripens unevenly, otherwise attractive. 

Form — Irregular in shape, elongated, somewhat rough, but not 
enough to make it specially objectionable. 

Calyx — Persistent, abundant. 

Stem — Short, strong, good size. 

Quality — Medium to good. 

We think this seedling will become desirable. May be a favorite. It 
is worthy of a name and we recommend its further propagation. 

Bower is a short word, easily written and to us unobjectionable; 
hence recommend it be named Bower in honor of its producer, 

K, B, WlLKERSON^ 
C. H, DUTCHER^ 

Committee. 
The motion to accept this report was seconded and carried. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON AWARDS. 

The following awards are recommended : 

For single boxes largest berries — 

W. E. Bower, Monett $2 00 

A, T. Nelson, Lebanon i 75 

H. W, Jenkins, Boonville i 50 

E, S. Katherman, Warrensburg 75 

For single boxes, best quality — 

Chas. Steiman, Dalton 2 00 

A. T. Nelson, Lebanon i 75 

E, S. Katherman & Son i 25 

W, E, Bower . i 00 

Single boxes firmest fruit — 

W, E. Bower , 2 25 

A. T. Nelson 2 25 

E, S. Katherman & Son i 00 

Best Seedling — 

E. S. Katherman 3 50 

W, E. Bower 2 50 

Best new variety — A. T. Nelson, for Uncle Jim 6 00 



96 Sfatc Horticultural Society. 

Best commercial variety — 

A. T. Nelson, Gaudy 2 50 

H. W. Jenkins, Greenville 2 00 

E. S. Katherman & Son, Warfield i 50 

For collection of five commercial varieties — 

E, S. Katherman & Son, for Haverland, Warfield, Greenville, 

Tenn. Prolific and Brandywine 4 50 

H. W. Jenkins, for Ridgeway, Haverland, Bubach, Greenville 

and Warfield 4 00 

A. T. Nelson, for Gandy, Haverland, Bubach, Excelsior and 

Bradley 3 50 

Chas. W. Steiman, for Haverland, Aroma, Bederwood, 

Gandy and Parker Earle 3 00 

For collection of five varieties for family use — 

A. T. Nelson, for Gandy, Bradley, Bubach, Ruby and Haver- 
land 6 GO 

E. S. Katherman & Son, for Crescent, Brandywine, Warfield, 

Greenville and Tenn. Prolific 5 00 

Henry Schnell, Glasgow, for Clyde, Marie, Haverland, Bu- 
bach and Windsor Chief 4 00 

Collection of ten varieties — 

A. T. Nelson 12 00 

J. E. Hall, Warrensburg 10 00 

Henry Crecelius, Mehlville 8 00 

Crate arriving in best condition — 

H. W. Jenkins 4 00 

A. J. Russell, Butterfield 3 50 

A. T. Nelson 3 00 

A. J. Russell 2 50 

G. T. Tippin, Nichols 2 00 

For single boxes — Aroma 

H. W. Jenkins " i 25 

Chas. W. Steiman i 00 

Henry Schnell 75 

Bubach — 

A. T. Nelson i 25 

H. W. Jenkins i 00 

Henry Schnell 75 

Crescent — 

E. S. Katherman & Son 3 00 

Gandy — 

A. T. Nelson 3 00 



Slimmer Meeting. 97 

Haverland — 

H. W. Jenkins 7° 

E. S. Katherman & Son 65 

Henry Schnell 60 

A. T. Nelson 55 

Chas. W. Steiman 50 

Jesse — 

E. S. Katherman & Son 3 00 

Sample — 

A. T. Nelson 3 00 

Splendid — 

Henry Schnell 3 00 

Warfield— 

H. W. Jenkins 3 00 

Senator Dunlap — 

Henry Schnell 3 00 

Total $141 00 

We also found upon the tables several entries by Messrs. Katherman, 
Steiman, Schnell and Jenkins, for which no provision had been made, 
and hence no award is given them. 

Garland Park of Washburn also enters twelve boxes. 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. R. Taft, 
Orlando Harrison, 
W. P. Stark, 

Committee of Awards. 

Prof. Taft. — One of the difficulties in making this report has been 

that we could not get all the committee together at one time, and, part 

of the fruit was on the tables the first day and part of it later, so could not 

be judged alike. 

The report of the committee on awards was adopted by motion. 



FINAL RESOLUTIONS. 

We, your committee on final resolutions, beg leave to submit the fol- 
lowing report: 

Resolved, That we do most heartily express our appreciation of the 
magnificent horticultural exhibit of our State at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition. We are gratified that by its extensive collection, artistic 

H— 7 



98 State Horticultural Society. 

installation, it places Missouri among the first, at this, the greatest of 
all World's Fairs. 

Resolved, That we do most sincerely express our full appreciation 
of all the influences and labors that have made it possible to work this 
great achievement. To the Hon. Frederick W. Taylor, Chief of Horti- 
culture, we extend our most hearty congratulations upon the successful 
manner in which he has carried out this great work for the entire fair, 
and especially for his courtesy and interest manifested towards our 
Society, and extend to him a vote of thanks for his favoring this session 
with his presence and interesting address. To Prof. J. T. Stinson, Pomo- 
logist of the World's Fair for his efficient services contributed to the 
great work of making the World's Fair Horticultural exhibit a crown- 
ing success. To the Missouri Commission we especially express our 
full appreciation of their manifest interest in making Missouri's exhibit 
a credit to the State, to the galaxy of states composing the Louisiana 
Territory, to the nation of which we are so proud, and to the World, and 
making it the pride and joy of every Horticulturist of Missouri, our 
beloved Society, and every citizen of the State, by setting apart so liberal 
an amount of the State appropriation for the Horticultural Department, 
by their untiring labors, and standing faithfully by those directly in charge 
of the work. To Superintendent L. A, Goodman, our efficient Secretary, 
we extend the glad hand of congratulation and deepest assurance that all 
his labors are recognized in their fullest sense. His crowning work in 
Horticultural labors bringing together the greatest fruit exhibit prob- 
ably ever made in the history of the world by any state is indeed gratify- 
ing to us, and to him we say well done good and faithful servant. To 
ail fruit growers of the State and all members of the Society who have 
contributed to the success of our exhibit in any way, the Society feels 
indebted and expresses its sincere thanks to them. We extend con- 
gratulations to Dean H. J. Waters, and those associated with him in the 
Agricultural Department of Missouri, upon the magnificent exhibit which 
has been prepared and installed by them, and assure them that every 
citizen of Missouri will be proud of their work which so ably credits our 
great Agricultural interest. No citizen of Missouri should miss seeing 
our Agricultural and Horticultural exhibits. We also extend thanks to 
the Santa Clara County Prune Growers' Association for a box of most 
excellent French prunes, and to Mr. Galloway, Superintendent of the 
Oregon Horticultural exhibit, for a box of Italian prunes. 

Geo. T. Tippin, 
James M. Irvine, 
c. h. dutcher. 
The resolutions were unanimously adopted. 



ADDITIONAL PAPERS. 



NOMENCLATURE. 



Over twenty years ago the Society adopted the rules of the American 
Pomological Society as then sent out in their report. The Society has 
followed these rules in the naming of all the fruits which have been pre- 
sented for name or which have been shown at any of our meetings, 
never allowing the renaming of any old apples and always insisting 
en only one word for a name. 

Our Society therefore, by the action of its Executive Committee 
gladly acquiesces in the "New Rules of the American Pomological 
Society." 

In order that our Society may fully understand the rules of nomencla- 
ture as adopted by the American Polomogical Society at its last meet- 
ing in Boston, and approved of all our State Horticulture Societies of the 
United States, it has been ordered by the Executive Committee that these 
rules be embodied in our report, and the report of W. H. Ragan, Expert 
in Pomological Nomenclature as far as it refers to some of our Missouri 
fruits, be published for the benefit of our fruit growers, and those con- 
templating the orchard business. 

It was also decided that in view of the statements which have been 
sent out, and in justification of the action of the Society in its decisions, 
and in order to re-affirm the position it has taken in regard to its find- 
ings as to the names of our Missouri apples and nomenclature in gen- 
eral, the following should be prepared and published : 

A WISE COURSE REGARDING NOMENCLATURE. 

It seems to us that the annual horticultural meetings should take 
note of the importance of a standard nomenclature. This is a matter 
of direct interest to both fruit grower and nurseryman. Fortunately 
a standard is available; the subject has been considered by the leading 
men of the great fruit industry. At the expense of considerable time 
and money, the American Pomological Society composed of the best 
thought and the ripest experience in fruit matters, has prepared a list 
of names of fruits of this country which is rightly regarded as the 
standard. . The nursery trade has had occasion during the present year 
to note the importance of having such a list and of guiding its actions 
by it. 



102 State Horticultural Society. 

In its report at the Boston meeting of the American Pomological 
Society, in September 1903, the committee on nomenclature which had 
been engaged four years in formulating a code of rules for the more 
perfect naming of fruits, said : 

"In the light of past experiences, the unrestricted naming of fruit 
varieties by originators, discoverers and introducers has resulted in 
complexity, confusion and frequent duplication of fruit names, alike 
destructive to scientific accuracy in pomology and detrimental to the best 
interests of both amateur and the commercial fruit grower." 

The Code of Pomological Nomenclature, adopted by the American 
Society at the Boston meeting, consists of five rules which may be sum- 
marized as follows : 

RULE I — Priority. No two varieties of the same kind of fruit shall 
bear the same name. The name first published for variety shall be the 
accepted and recognized name, except in cases where it has been applied 
in violation of this code. 

A. The term "kind" as herein used shall be understood to apply to 
those general classes of fruits which are grouped together in common 
lisage without regard to their exact botanical relationship, as apple, 
cherry, grape, peach, plum, raspberry, etc. 

B. The paramount right of the originator, discoverer, or mtro- 
•ducer of a new variety to name it, within the limitations of this code, is 
recognized and emphasized. 

C. Where a variety name through long usage has become 
thoroughly established in American pomological literature for two or 
more varieties, it should not be displaced nor radically modified for 
either sort except in cases where a well known synonym can be advanced 
to the position of leading name. The several varieties bearing identi- 
cal names should be distinguished by adding the name of the author who 
first described each sort, or by adding some other suitable distinguishing 
term which will insure their identity in catalogues or discussions. 

D. Existing American names of varieties which conflict with earlier 
published foreign names of the same, or other varieties, but which have 
become thoroughly established through long usage, shall not be dis- 
placed. 

RULE 2 — Form of names. The name of a variety of fruit shall 
consist of a single word. 

A. No variety should be named unless distinctly superior to ex- 
isting varieties in some important characteristics, nor until it has been 
determined to perpetuate it by bud propagation. 

B. In selecting names for varieties the following points should be 



Additional Papers. 103 

emphasized : Distinctiveness, simplicity, ease of pronunciation and spell- 
ing, indication of origin or parentage. 

C. The spelling and pronunciation of a varietal name derived from 
a personal or geographical name should be governed by the rules which 
control the spelling and pronunciation of the name from which it was 
derived, 

D. A variety imported from a foreign country should retain its 
foreign name, subject only to such modification as is necessary to con- 
form it to this code or render it intelligible in English. 

E. The name of a person should not be applied to a variety dur- 
ing his life without his express consent. The name of a deceased horti- 
culturist should not be so applied except through formal action by some 
competent horticultural body, preferably that with which he was most 
closely connected. 

F. The use of such general terms as seedling, hybrid, pippin, pear- 
main, buerre, rare-ripe, damson, etc., is not admissible. 

G. The use of a possessive noun as a name is not admissible. 

H. The use of a number, either singly or attached to a word, 
should be considered only as a tem-porary expedient while the variety is 
undergoing preliminary test. 

L In applying the various provisions of this rule to an existing 
varietal name which has through long usage become firmly imbedded in 
American pomological literature, no change shall be made which will 
involve loss of indentity. 

RULE 3 — In the full and formal citation of a variety name, the 
name of the author who first published it shall also be given. 

RULE 4 — Publication consists ( i ) in the distribution of a printed 
description of the variety named, giving the distinguishing characters of 
fruit, tree, etc., or (2) in the publication of a new name for a variety 
that is properly described elsewhere ; such publications to be made in any 
book, bulletin, report, trade catalogue or periodical, providing the issue 
bears the date of its publication and is generally distributed among 
nurserymen, fruit growers and horticulturists; or (3) in certain cases, 
the general recognition of a name for a propagated variety in a com- 
munity for a number of years shall constitute publication of that name. 

A. In determining the name of a variety to which two or more 
names have been given in the same publication, that which stands first 
shall have precedence. 

RULE 5 — Revision. No properly published variety name shall be 
changed for any reason except conflict with this code, nor shall another 
variety be substituted for that oriq-inallv described thereunder. 



104 State Hortiadtjiral Society. 

These rules are brief, even in their full form, and we suggest that it 
would be well to incorporate them in the published proceedings of every 
horticultural society. They should be given wide dissemination and 
should be available for all nurserymen and fruit growers at all times. — 
American Fruits. 

The official report of the U. S. Department of Agriculture at 
Washington, D. C, by Prof. W. H. Ragan, expert in Pomological Nom- 
enclature just published, gives a list of all the varieties of apples from 
1804 to 1904, (100 years), aggregating about 14,000 names and their 
synonyms. 

This publication being the result of a number of years of study, 
investigation and practical examination of hundreds of specimens from 
all parts of the country, by all the experts in tliat department, is the most 
correct report on nomenclature ever given to the world and will be 
accepted by all Horticultural Societies as correct. 

The following is a report of the names of some apples and their 
synonyms as found in Bulletin No. 56, published by the Department of 
Agriculture. 

"GANO, synonym Black Ben Davis, Payton, Red Ben Davis. 

"Black Ben Davis, synonym of Gano. 

"Black Ben Davis, synonym of Ragan. 

"Red Ben Davis, synonym of Gano. 

"REAGAN, synonym Black Ben Davis, Ragan [Ragan?] — Now 
thought to be Gano. 

"Ragan (incorrectly) synonym of Reagan. (Reagan now believed 
to be Gano.) 



THE DECISION OF THE COMMITTEE. 

December 10, 1903. 
"To the Missouri State Horticultural Society : 

"Gentlemen. — Your committee appointed to investigate the origin 
and characteristics of the Black Ben Davis and Gano apples respectfully 
beg leave to report as follows : 

"Inasmuch as some horticulturists are positive in their opinions 
that Black Ben Davis and Gano are two distinct varieties and others 
were equally positive that they are one and the same variety, the 
committee decided to secure all possible data concerning the origin 
of Black Ben Davis and Gano, to visit bearing orchards where the 



' Additional Papers. 105 

trees and fruit could be compared and to secure fruit that could be 
kept in storage and compared from time to time during the winter 
and spring. 

"A letter was addressed to the introducers of Black Ben Davis, asking 
for data concerning the origin of this variety and the location of the trees 
from which they secured their scions, in order that the committee might 
visit these trees. This request was promptly responded to by the 
introducers. One of the leading members of their firm accompanied 
the committee to the Arkansas orchard from which they secured their 
Black Ben Davis scions. Every possible effort was made by them to 
put the committee in possession of the necessary facts and materials for 
the investigation and they co-operated with the committee throughout 
with enthusiastic zeal to facilitate a thorough and impartial investigation. 

"The committee was able to locate then the original Black Ben Davis 
tree so far as it was known in the neighborhood, but could obtain nq 
positive evidence as to whether or not this tree was a seedling. It 
was found also that the variety had locally sometimes been called Reagan, 
in honor of the owner of the farm at the time the variety was being 
propagated there. The introducers used the name Black Ben Davis, 
selecting the word Black in honor of the owner of the place where the 
first tree started in the neighborhood and the name Ben Davis because 
the apple was of the Ben Davis type and in some respects resembled 
the latter variety. The committee also saw Black Ben Davis growing 
on younger trees in the neighborhood of Lincoln, and took specimens of 
fruit and twigs from various places to compare with Gano. 

"Since Gano has been named and has been disseminated as a dis- 
tinct variety attention has frequently been called to^ old trees of this 
variety, growing here an.d there in Missouri and adjoining states. In 
some cases the old Jacks orchard in Missouri has been definitely traced as 
the source from which these trees came. In other cases where the source 
from which the trees came cannot be definitely determined the orchards 
frequently contain Ben Davis and other varieties which were being dis- 
seminated mainly from the old Jacks orchard at about the time these trees 
must have been planted out. Two trees of Gano have been definitely 
reported from an old orchard in Kearney, which was planted out about 
1840, the two Gano trees being apparently of the original planting. 

"The committee secured fruit from the Black Ben Davis trees in the 
Bain orchard and also from other young trees of the same variety grow- 
ing in the vicinity of Lincoln. Fruit was selected from old and young 
trees in different orchards in order to fairly represent the variety as grown 
under different conditions. Fruit was also secured from the Gano trees 



io6 State Horticultural Society. 

to compare with the former variety. In order to fairly test the keep- 
ing qualities of Black Ben Davis fruit from Ben Davis trees was secured 
from the Bain orchard where they were growing under conditions com- 
parable with those of Black Ben Davis. It is generally admitted by fruit 
growers that the Ben Davis and Gano are much alike as to keeping 
qualities. Twigs were also secured from the same trees so a study of 
their characters might be made. Each member of the committee took 
portions of these specimens and kept a part of them in cold storage and 
a part of each in ordinary cellars, so as to observe them at different times 
during the winter. 

"Some of the points of difterence which different fruit growers 
have from time to time stated to exist between Black Ben Davis and 
Gano are that the former possessed a more yellow flesh, was firmer 
and a better keeper and possessed a more sprightly flavor, especially 
toward spring than did Gano. Some have also suggested that there 
was a slight difterence in the shape and that the former might be of 
higher color. After a careful comparison of the apples once each 
month during the winter and spring the committee are unable to find any 
difference between Gano and Black Ben Davis. Black Ben Davis 
differed no more from Gano than did the individual specimens of each 
sort dift'er among themselves. Both Ben Davis and Gano kept as well 
as did Black Ben Davis. So far as the committee could see Black Ben 
Davis and Gano were of the same color of flesh, of the same flavor and 
of identical varietal character throughout. In each variety certain speci- 
mens kept better than others and the firmer specimens of each sort were 
more crisp and of better flavor when cut from time to time than were 
the riper specimens of the same variety. 

"Some authorities have suggested that there was a difference between 
the twig and leaf characters. The two-year-old wood of Black Ben 
Davis has been pronounced more hairy than that of Gano and the vena- 
tion of the leaves has been said to differ. This committee has not been 
able to distinguish any difference between the trees, twigs or leaves that 
did not exist to an equally marked degree between different specimens 
of the same variety. 

"The phenology of Black Ben Davis and of Gano has been re- 
corded for trees of similar age in the same orchard, where they were 
given similar treatment. There was no dift'erence in the time of starting 
into growth in spring, in the time of blossoming, in the color or other 
characters of the flowers or in the time of shedding of the leaves lu 
autumn. 

"Specimens of Black Ben Davis and Gano were taken to Washing- 



Additional Papers. 107 

ton by two members of the committee and submitted to test by the 
pomologist and his staff on March 3, 1903. This staff of officials com- 
prised Col. Brackett, Pomologist ; Wm. A. Taylor, Pomologist in charge 
of field investigations ; G. Harrold Powell, H. P. Gould and W. P. 
Corsa, assistant pomologists, and Allen Dodge of the clerical force. 

"The fruit was examined and tested by each of the above men 
separately. Neither the identity of the two lots of apples nor the opinions 
expressed by others concerning them were shown to the examiners; 
though the conditions surrounding the growth and subsequent condi- 
tions of storage were explained to them. 

"It was the opinion of the staff, with one exception, that the two 
lots were one and the same variety. Mr. Dodge of the clerical force 
expressed the opinion that the lot marked (Gano) contained specimens 
of slightly firmer 'texture and of slightly greater acidity, which might 
be due to the varietal difference. In other respects he also pronounced 
them to be the same. 

"The committee secured this opinion from what should no doubt 
be considered the highest -source of opinion in such matters in the 
country, not to any way bias the opinion of the committee, but in order 
to present the strongest possible evidence that could be secured from 
a test of the fruit alone. 

"After finding no dift'erences, either in the fruit or in the trees by 
which they can be separated, your committee is forced to conclude that 
Black Ben Davis and Gano are one and the same variety ; and that their 
having been regarded locally as being different sorts is only another 
case where isolated trees of variety, having been brought to notice in 
somewhat widely separated neighborhoods, have each for a time been 
given different names and each been honestly regarded as being of dis- 
tinct seedling origin. The original notes, correspondence and other data 
upon which this report is based are herewith delivered into the possession 
•of the society." 

J. C. Wl£lTTEN, 

J. C. Evans, 
W. T. Flournoy, 

Committee. 

"N. F. Murray moved that the report of the committee be received 
and adopted and that the committee be discharged. 

"The motion was seconded and carried unanimously." 

Since the report of the Committee was adopted by the society, 
every member of the PZxecutive Committee during the World's Fair took 



io8 State Horticultural Society. 

special pains to watch all the specimens of the Gano and so called Black 
Ben Davis that were shown at the World's Fair. Specimens were shown 
from Oregon, California, Washington, Colorado, West Virginia, Iowa, 
Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas and possibly other states and in every 
instance they were pronounced identical. Specimens varied in size, 
shape, color, and quality, but in no instance was there any greater dif- 
ferences tlian could be found on the same tree, and no greater variation 
could be found in any specimens than occur from different localities or 
caused by different soils and climate. There were far greater differ- 
ences in the shape and appearance and color of the Winesap, grown in 
Missouri and that grown in Oregon or Washington, than in the Gano 
as above mentioned. Not one, of the twenty or more judges on the 
fruits, although they came from all parts of the country ever made a 
report that the Gano and the so-called Black Ben Davis were different, 
but on the contrary every one of them who were shown the specimens 
and asked to name them invariably called them Gano : even Prof. Van 
Deman, in the presence of Prof. Ragan, said that "He could not see any 
difference in the quality, texture, or size of the specimens, but thought 
there was some difference in the color and markings." 

In testing and examining hundreds of specimens from all over 
the land we confess our inability to find any difference in the nature or 
quality, and in no instance did we find the flesh "yellow like a wine- 
sap" or any other color except the regular color and texture and quality 
of the flesh of the "Gano." 

One year later the U. S. Pomologist, G. B. Brackett, re-affirmed his 
decision, as given to the committee, that those apples were identical. 
The other members of the staff, Messrs. Ragan, Powell, Taylor and 
Gould, judges at the World's Fair, gave it as their opinion after further 
examination that the two apples were the same. 



APPOINTMENT OF THE COMMITTEE. 

The acceptance of this committee appointed by Mr. Robnett and a 
desire for its appointment is given in the following letters: 

Columbia, Mo., August 22, 1904. 

The enclosed shows that C. M. Stark was willing to go to Arkansas 
and work with the committee, also thought them O. K., even to Flournoy 
and Evans at that time. D. A. Robnett. 



Additional Papers. 109 

Louisiana, Mo., October 8, 1902. 
D. A. Robnett. — We thank you for your kind favor, we appreciate 
your fairness and consideration and it is a great satisfaction to have such 
a man at the head of the Mo. State Horticultural Society. Our C. M. 
S. has received a friendly letter from our mutual friend Prof. Whitten, 
which he fully appreciates as he enjoyed being with the professor very 
much, in fact Col. Evans, Mr. Flournoy and others. Again we say it is a 
satisfaction to have an honest man in a public position which means so 
much to the great State of Missouri. 

Stark Bros., N. and O. Co., 

W. P. Stark, Treas. 

Louisiana, September 9, 1902. 
D. A. Robnett. — It is needless to add that we shall be glad to do 
everything in our power to aid the committee in getting the real facts 
in the case. 

Stark Bros., N. and O. Co., 

C. ^L Stark^ President. 

The following letter gives ]\Ir. Flournoy's report in November, 1902: 
"While on a recent trip to Arkansas with others of the committee to 
visit the original Black Ben Davis trees growing on Mr. Bain's place in 
Washington county, to show what the Black Ben Davis might be in 
variations, I took on the 24th of September two small inferior striped 
apples from two of the trees. The apples were striped just as any 
ordinary Ben Davis. I took the only striped ones found ; this may ac- 
count for others, who might come after, not finding such fruit and 
possibly I might have found more such specimens if such ones had not 
been removed by previous visitors." 

From these reports and records it is plainly seen that the Executive 
Committee and the State Society have been pursuing the right and 
iDroper course to help simplify and correct the nomenclature of our apples. 
Then all these insinuations and innuendoes and attacks and charges 
made upon the Horticultural Society, the Executive Committee in gen- 
eral, the Treasurer especially, and the Secretary in particular, were made 
because the .Society reasserted the finding of the committee and re-af- 
firmed its belief in the justice and uprightness of its decisions. 

If there ever were any doubts about the similarity of these two 
apples there is certainly now, no question in the minds of the Exe- 
iiutive Committee that they are identical and the Society has done only 
the right thing in endorsing their former decision. 



no State Horticultural Society. 

As a conclusion to this whole matter, then, the Executive Committee 
finds as follows : 

1. The "Gano, Black Ben Davis Committee" decided correctly when 
they said, there was no difference between the two. 

2. The State Society did right when it endorsed the findings of this 
comimittee unanimously. 

3. The U. S. Pomologist and the Department of Poniolog>^ by all 
its staff have given their decision that the two are identical. 

4. ■ The careful personal examinations made every day during the 
World's Fair by every member of the Executive Committee, justify their 
hearty approval of this finding. 

5. The various judges who passed on the fruits shown at the 
World's Fair never called them distinct varieties. These judges were 
some twenty or more of the most expert pomologists in the United 
States and came from all parts of our country and not one of them 
pronounced them different. 

6. The U. S. Department of Pomology, Prof. W. H. Ragan, 
Expert in Nomenclature, has published a record from the Department and 
he declares the Black Ben Davis is a synonym of Gano, just the same 
as he declares the N. Y. Pippin a synonym of Ben Davis. 

7. The "Black Ben Davis," now listed as "Black Ben" by some, is 
the same in every respect, shape, size, quality, texture and color of 
flesh ; color, spots or dots, characteristics of stem and blossom and keep- 
ing qualities ; growth of tree and productiveness, each varying as to color 
and stripes somewhat, because of locality, soil and climate. No dif- 
ference can be discovered which would justify the payment of any greater 
prices for the trees than for Gano. 

GANG APPLE. 

Although this apple dates back to the year 1839, the first record 
we have of the appearance of the Gano apple before the State Hor- 
ticultural Society for name is found in its annual report of the year 
1883, where it is described as follows hy the Committee on New 
Fruits. The apple was shown by A4r. Gano of Platte county and 
supposed to be a seedling: 

"Size, above medium; slightly oblong, varying to roundish ovate; 
color, beautiful bright carmine to dark red ; stem, medium in size and 
length, set in a deep cavity surrounded by greenish russett; calix 
closed or partly open in a medium basin ; flesh white, tender, medium 
juicy, mild, sub-acid ; core and seed large ; skin thick ; quality good to 
very good; season, early winter; well worthy of trial." 



Additional Papers. m 

In our State report for 1884 there is a quotation from the Com- 
mittee on Fruits exhibited at the fifth annual meeting of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Horticultural Society, in January, 1884, which reads 
as follows : 

"Of the new and promising varieties in the [Missouri list are, 
the Cano, by W. G. Gano of Parkville, etc.'' 

From our printed reports we also find that specimens of the 
Gano were sent to Chas. Downing-, both in the fall of 1883 and the 
early part of 1884. who was delighted with the "beautiful specimens," 
"so large and handsome/' and acknowledged them as a new variety 
and authorized us to name it the Gano, which name had already been 
given it by the Missouri Valley Horticultural Society. 

In 1884, also, Mr. Gano offered to turn over to the Society all the 
scions that could be obtained from the original tree, for the purpose 
of propagation and distribution through the Secretary of the State 
Horticultural Society. These scions were delivered to Mr. M. But- 
terfield and to Blair and Kaufman for propagation. 

The apple was also CKhibited at the State meetings as shown by 
the reports of the Society for 1885 and 1886. In 1887, Mr. Butterfield 
and Blair and Kaufman presented to the Society these trees which 
were distributed to the different State Societies ; also to prominent 
local Societies of Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas. 

In the report of. 1886 an apple called the Payton was exhibited 
which was decided to be the Gano, and. in the same year, a question 
was asked about an apple called the Black Ben Davis, and the answer 
was given that it was the same as the Gano. In the report of 1899, 
Prof. J. T. vStinson of the Arkansas Experiment Station exhibited 
apples called the Black Ben Davis, Ftris and Ark. Belle, and the 
committee, in making their report on these, decided "they are so 
much like Gano, that the committee are not able to distinguish be- 
tween them and the latter well known sort." 



FINANCIAL STATUS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Executive Committee believe it due the members of the 
Society that the following statement made by the secretary and pub- 
lished in August should be embodied in this volume: 

T. Each and every step of our Society work has been taken with 
the full knowledge and united action of the Executive Committee. 



112 State Horticultural Society. 

2. By order of the Executive Committee, Mr. A. Nelson, former 
treasurer, deposited one thousand dollars in his own name as treas- 
urer for one year at four per cent, and renewed this deposit at the 
close of that year for one year longer. 

3. When Mr. Nelson died, y\r. Butterfield was appointed in his 
place. The deposit certificate which was for one year, was finally re- 
turned to the Executive Committee. They found it would take some 
time to get matters settled and the transfer of the money made, so 
finally decided to let it remain where it ^vas until a treasurer could 
be elected at the next meeting. 

4. Mr. Gano was elected treasurer, and this fund was finally 
adjusted; but from the close of the second year mentioned above till 
the time of final settlement, it drew only two per cent. The fund at 
this time amounted to $1,092.62. 

5. Upon the advice of an attorney, the Executive Committee 
decided to deposit this money in the name of the Society. The Vice- 
president of the Mississippi Trust Company, in which the money was 
deposited, also advised us to deposit in the name of the Society, so 
that the Treasurer, who ever he may be, could draw the money upon 
a written order from the Executive Committee, signed by the Presi- 
dent and Secretary. This money was so deposited by order of the 
Executive Committee, and has been drawing two per cent interest 
ever since. This money is just as much in the hands of the Treasurer, 
and subject to his check, and to his check onl}^ as any other money; 
but requires an order of the Executive Committee, mstead of the 
President and Secretary alone. 

6. The last report of the Treasurer shows that there was nine 
hundred and ninety-two dollars and sixty-two cents and accrued in- 
terest in the hands of the Trust Company; and the check book and 
bank book show that only one check has been drawn on this fund — 
that of one hundred dollars — for desks and chairs for use at the 
World's Fair Exposition, and then to belong to the State Horticul- 
tural Society. 

7. The report of the other money in the hands of the Treasurer, 
showing receipts and disbursements and the dates thereof, is accord- 
ing to the plan ordered by the Executive Committee years ago, and 
one which has always been followed because of its simplicity, and 
the belief that it was as good and as safe a plan as any other. 

The Secretary has often collected money due the Society, charged 
himself therewith, and used it to defray current expenses before the 
State appropriation was available. But when available, full settle- 




«— t 

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fa 

m 

Q 
J 

o 
^ <i 

- O 



O 



Additional Papers. 113 

ment was made with the Treasurer, and all receipts and disbursements 
entered upon the Treasurer's books. Furthermore, when no funds 
were coming in, the Secretary would use his own money to pay So- 
ciety bills, always keeping an accurate account of debits and credits 
till funds were on hand, when he would be reimbursed. Of this 
every member of the Executive Committee was cognizant and had 
full knowledge of every dollar so used. This led to the plan of" 
settlement by balances, always followed by the Secretary and Treas- 
urer, approved by the Executive Committee, for they knew it was 
safe, fully protected the work of the Society, kept the little bills 
always paid up, thus saving a vast amount of annoyance and red- " 
tape to those furnishing material or rendering assistance. The 
seventy-two dollars sent to the Secretary by the Maryland Society 
was received, used and reported to the Executive Committee, and 
then to the Treasurer in perfect accordance with the above plan. 

8. No State Society of our land has done more work or earned a 
better reputation for work done, and no Society stands better among 
fruit growers. State or National Societies, than does the Missouri 
State Society. No State Society has done as much for the develop 
ment of the fruit interests of its State, or shown such wonderful 
results as the Missouri State Society. All of which is the result of 
the unity of effort among the members of the Missouri State Society ; 
and this unity will never cease among the fruit growers. 

9. No Society of our country has done what this Society has 
done. At every Horticultural gathering, at every fruit display made 
at Expositions, and at every World's Fair that has been held in this or 
foreign lands for the last twenty-five years, we have upheld the honor 
of our State, sometimes without a dollar of appropriation by our Legis- 
lature, and yet we show a savings fund in our hand of over two thousand 
dollars. 

Then Avhy this issue? For twenty-two years the members of this 
Society have expressed their confidence in the Secretary by annually 
electing him to this office, and at the last meeting formally affirmed 
their implicit confidence in the Secretary and out-going Treasurer. 

But other issues of which the Society is now fully cognizant, have 
arisen. The Executive Committee tried in a friendly way and in every 
possible manner consistent with honor and fidelity to adjust some 
of these controverted matters; but failing in this, the Society upon 
the recommendation of the Executive Committee, re-affirmed its 
former resolutions and decisions unanimously. Thus it gave our 

n— 8 



114 State Horticultural Society. 

fruit growers plainly to understand that the Society reasserts its behef 
in the justice and uprightness of its decisions. 

The work of the Executive Committee, the work of every officer 
individually, the united and harmonious work of all the members, 
make the record of the Society for the last twenty-five years one that 
will stand well in comparison with that of those persons who have 
never lifted their hands in any way, or under any circumstances to 
the upbuilding- of our Society by word, or assistance in fruits, or m 
time or money in a single one of its enterprises. The Society has 
made its record and maintained its position because of the assistance 
given it directly by our fruit growers, in all its displays, and to thetu 
belongs the credit. 

L. A. GOODMAN, Sec'y. 



STATEMENT BY G. T. TIPPIN. 

We do not believe, nor does any one who is not directly inter- 
ested, and is acquainted with the facts and workings of the Missouri 
Horticultural Society, that the inspiration and objects of the attack 
upon the officers of the Societ^^ had their conception in the desiie to 
do the Society good or protect its interests. Exactly the opposite 
was intended, as far as the Society was concerned, and more especially 
was it an excuse to accumulate free advertising. 

No demand has ever been made or investigation asked for by 
any one except those interested in the Gano-B. B. D. decision, and 
that not until after the recent meeting, when they had failed to sus- 
tain their contention with reference to the Gano-Black Ben Davis. 
The attack was made out of petty spite and was not supported by a 
single member in the State outside of those directly interested. 

The Society, in taking steps to justly settle the Gano-B. B. D. 
question, did so for the interest and protection of the public and not 
to injure any individual. In doing this it only discharged one of the 
important functions of its offices, a duty it owed to the public in 
imparting correct inforniation upon all questions of Horticulture 
for the benefit of those directly engaged in its pursuits. If claims 
made by individuals as to special merits of grafting on whole roots or 
renaming new varieties, the latter on a par with the first, are not 
•sustained, the public is benefited. 

The Society has only done its duty, and criticism emanating 
from those who are not willing to submit to the honest and fai;- find- 



Additional Papers. 115 

ings of those in charge of the work done in the interest of the pubhc 
good and correct nomenclature, can do no harm. These contentions- 
have not been worthy of consideration in the past, nor are they at 
present, for the pubHc does not give more than an ordinary patent 
medicine advertisement- weight to news matter that has to be paid 
for to get into print, and only in as far as they cast a reflection upon 
the officers of the Society would we make any reply. 

If all the citizens of JMissouri could have been at the St. Louis 
meeting it would not be necessary to do even that. The officers of 
the Society court investigation, and in this connection I desire to 
state that, while some through spite have tried to cast reflections- 
upon Secretary Goodman, the records of the Society are open to the 
public. Every cent of its funds are accounted for with a nice balance 
in the treasury, part of which is deposited with the Mississippi Valley 
Trust Company, St. Louis, in the name of the Society, subject only 
to the check of the Treasurer by the authority of the Executive Board. 
Formerly this money was deposited in the name of the Treasurer, 
subject to check by the authority of the Secretary and President. 
This was the case when Treasurer Nelson died. The funds being 
in his name at the time, it took some time to get it in shape so it 
could be checked out. 

After consLdting with legal authorities and the officers of the 
Trust Company it was decided that it would be best to deposit this fund 
in the name of the Society subject to the check of the Treasure!, 
after being authorized by the Executive Board. This was done so in 
case of the death of the Treasurer, his successor could check it out 
on the same authority without any delay as was before experienced- 

I have been a member of the Society the past two years, during 
which time the Gano-B. B. D. investigation was made, which has 
caused all the trouble (and had the findings of the committee been 
on the other side there would not have been any trouble and no 
charges), and if they could have succeeded in getting the Society to 
rescind its action there would be no trouble now. 

No act iji this connection has been to serve any selfish or per- 
sonal interest. 

Recognizing the importance of the work done by our Society for 
correct nomenclature, and in view of the fact that many of the most 
serious experiences and losses to fruit growers come from misnaming 
varieties, the National Pomological Society, at its last annual meeting, 
took similar steps looking to tlie correction of abuses along the same 
lines, adopting among others, the following: 



ii6 • . State Horticultural Society. 

"As in article three, that in the h'ght of past experiences the un- 
restricted naming- of fruit varieties by originators, discoverers and in- 
troducers has resulted in complexity, confusion and frequent duplica- 
tion of fruit names, alike destructive to scientific accuracy in pomology 
and detrimental to the best interests of both the amateur and the 
commercial grower. 

Also Rule 2, article A. "No variety shall be named unless dis- 
tinctly superior to existing varieties in some important characteristic, 
nor until it has been determined to perpetuate it by bud propagation." 

At the recent meeting of the Missouri Society in St. Louis, no 
objection was made except from the source referred to and the ques- 
tion raised by them was satisfactorily explained to every one but 
themselves, and unanimously sustained, and when, as you haVe stated, 
the parties casting reflections by innuendo were asked by the Society 
to put their charges in writing, they failed to do so. 

Jt .was the general opinion of all those fully acquainted with the 
matter that the object of their pernicious attack was to force the 
Society, rather than to submit to the insinuations, to shut them off. 
Then they could say they could not get a hearing before the Society 
on account of prejudice and use the statement as an advertisement. 

The frequent use of the statement "that it was the first oppor- 
tunity" they had had to present their grievances, leaving the impres- 
sion that such opportunity had been denied them, when they or no 
one else had ever been denied any opportunity before the Society, 
gave proof of this conclusion. One of the Starks asked to be ap- 
pointed on the finance committee, probably for the same purpose, 
thinking more than likely he would not be appointed, but when he 
was appointed, made an excuse that he could not serve. 

We are not one who believes in condoning the misdeeds of a pub- 
lic officer, political or social, nor are we willing to see them wrongly 
condemned. 

We are- so familiar with all the facts and motives patent to this 
case that we would be derelict of our duty did we remain silent. We 
do not claim that any one is dishonest in their views, claims or opin- 
ions in this controversy. 

The Society unanimously adopted a statement at its last meet- 
ing reaffirming its position on the Gano-Black Ben Davis contro- 
versy. This statement was recommended by the Executive Board 
after being duly considered. They declined to accept a statement that 
had been submitted to them for their signatures, compromising the 
former action of the Society. 



Additional Papers. 117 

This original statement is in the possession of the Board, those 
members of the Board having signed it having erased their names 
after discovering its full purport, thereby annulling the whole thing, 
and consequently it never became a signed instrument. We have 
understood that some who claimed to have a copy of the original 
would publish it. However, we do not think any one would resort 
to demagogery like this, even for advertising purposes, as in fact, 
the copy was never signed at all and would be a forgery, as the 
original never became an instrument in fact. — George T. Tippm, in 
American Truck Farmer. 



MISSOURI HORTICULTURE. 

The following articles were prepared at the request of Walter William 
editor of the book "State of Missouri," published by Missouri World's 
Fair Commission as giving a somewhat complete record of Horticulture 
in Missouri, her opportunities, her successes and her possibilities, and the 
position of the State Society in this work. 

L. A. GOODMAN, 

Superintendent and Secretary. 



MISSOURI FRUITS AT WORLD'S FAIR. 

No one can enter the Horticultural building without being favor- 
ably impressed with ^Missouri's large and artistic display of fruits. 
At the entrance is a fountain and palms breaking the harsh lines of 
the large entrance space. At the top of the arches are statues of 
Pomona and Flora and over the main aisle another large arch over 
which stand guard two or more statues of tlie same goddesses. Just 
back of the main entrance begins the fruit display proper. Large 
beautiful tables mirror-covered; tables in pyramid form for plate and 
jar exhibit; a large pyramid next to the wall, where are a thousand 
jars of all the fruits grown in Missouri ; the exhibit of the Missouri 
State University Agricultural College, consisting of over 400 jars 
and 200 varieties, all help to make the exhibit one never even ap- 
proached and one hard to excel. 

First, then, there are 2,400 jars of fruit of over 430 varieties, em- 
bracing nearly all the varieties of fruits grown in Missouri, showing 
what Missouri is capable of producing both in a commercial way and 



Ti8 State Horticnltnrci Society^ 

in an amateur way also. Here are to be seen all the more prominent 
fruits of Missouri in an educational exhibit. 

The space occupied by Missouri is much larger than any other 
state — 7,000 square feet — and is kept entirely filled to its utmost 
capacity. There are on the tables about forty barrels of apples all 
the time and from twenty-five to thirty barrels have been used every 
week during the summer to keep it up to the best standard. During 
the peach season there were on the tables at one time about fifty 
];ushels of peaches. 

Since the opening- of the strawberry season there has been no 
time but some of the tables have been filled with fruit of their season. 
Sixty-five varieties of Strawberries, fifteen of Raspberries, twelve of 
lilackberries, and Currants, Gooseberries and Dewberries in abundance 
during their season. The Grape season is not passed, and yet over one 
hundred varieties have been shown. Peaches and Plums of every 
variety which we grow have been on the tables. Pears and early Apples 
of their time and season have been on the tables for the education of 
ihe visitors. Now the later Apples are being in evidence in large 
quantities and of peculiar beauty and perfection, making the fruit 
exhibit of Missouri the largest and finest and most comprehensive 
of any ever shown. 

Lessons learned. The value of care in cold storage. The tem- 
)>erature of 32 degrees as the best. The keeping qualities of different 
varieties. The value of adaptation of varieties to different soils and 
climates and elevation. The variation of varieties in different locali- 
ties, as to color, size, shape and quality. These and many other ques- 
tions are presented to the student in horticulture and offers us a fine 
field for investigation. 

The Horticultural Exhibit at the World's Fair will be the most 
notable event in Horticultural Exhibitions that we have ever had, and 
with the record kept by the judges, as they are keeping, this exhi- 
bition will be worth much to the fruit interests of the West and to 
Missouri in particular. 

L. A. GOODMAN, 

Supt. Mo. Hort. Exhibit. 



CARLOAD OF MISSOURI PEACHFS GIVEN AW^AY. 

Thirty thousand ])cople ate peaches in the Horticultural building 
nt the World's Fair on Monday, August 15. The unique feast was 



AJJitiotta] Papers. 119 

held to celebrate Missouri Peach Day at the Exposition, and all that 
was necessax}' to obtain an invitation to join the banqueters was to 
clinib tlie Horticultural hill. The combination of Children's Day 
• and -Missouri Peach Day was viewed with some anxiety by the emer- 
gency hospital corps, but no serious cases were reported. 

A carload of ruddy Eiberta peaches from Howell county had 
been collected for distribution by L. A. Goodman, superintendent of the 
-Missouri exhibit, and were the best that could be found in the famous 
Ozark mountains fruit districts. The announcement that one peacfi 
was to be given every visitor brought the largest crowd that has ever 
visited the Horticultural building in a single day. Although children 
appeared to predominate in the long line that stretched from the dis- 
tributing point in the Missouri section to the east wall of the building, 
there were thousands of mammas, papas and big brothers and sisters 
present, and they enjoyed the feast as heartily as their tiny charges. 
At 5 o'clock in the afternoon the estimated supply of 50,000 peaches 
was exhausted, with several hundred disappointed visitors still in line. 
The peaches distributed were donated by the Missouri State Commission. 

The ^[issouri exhibitors were so delighted with the success of 
their first Peach Day that they are considering the announcement of 
another similar day for the near future. Superintendent L. A. Good- 
man stated that \\hile the day had been appointed primarily to afford 
a popular demonstration of the quality of goods delivered by the peach 
trees in Howell county, it had been found a very effective medium 
lor attracting larger crowds to both the palaces of Agriculture and 
Horticulture. 

"Tn the latter building there are 430 varieties of products on 
■exhibition all the time," said he. "Before the season closes there 
will be 500 varieties of fresh fruits to be seen here. 

"In the past five years the State of Missouri has climbed from 
tenth to lirst place in the list of Horticultural states. She has five 
times the acreage of orchard land to be found in any other state. 
The Ozark mountains fruit district is conceded to be the tinest in 
the West; not only for the production of apples and peaches, but for 
the growing of strawberries. Two thousand carloads of strawberries 
were shipped from that section this season. 

"Along the Missouri river are tliousands of acres of Loess lands — 
glacier formation, and the finest fruit land in the world. Now. in the 
course of plantation in this district are orchards of from 500 to 1,000 
acres each, and witlnn a short time J^Iissouri will be first in horti- 
cultural value as well as in scope. ]\Iissouri now has 24.000.000 apple 



120 State Horticultural Society. 

trees in orchard. New York ranks second with 18,000,000. The de- 
velopment of the fruit industry in the West for the past few years has 
been phenomenal — 300 per cent increase in the last fifteen years. The 
red lands of the Ozarks and the loess lands along the Missouri river, 
are unquestionabl}' the finest fruit lands in the world. We suggested 
the appointment of a Missouri Peach Day at the World's Fair in order 
that these facts might be demonstrated to the public. We shall 
probably ask for another day of the same sort." — Am. Truck Farmer. 



THE MISSOURI HORTICULTURAL DISPLAY AT THE 

WORLD'S FAIR. 

(L. A. Goodman, Superintendent.) 

Upon entering the Llorticultural building from the north, you 
at once enter the Missouri fruit display. A beautiful facade sur- 
rovinds the space, the State seal stands above its large arches and the 
letter "]M" on its shields. Cornucopias of fruits correctly colored are 
above each arch and electric lights on the lower span give a beautiful 
effect to the whole design. One of the center spaces is covered with 
a pagoda which is of itself a fine display. A small fountain is at each 
end of the pagoda covered with a pyramid of glass which is loaded 
with apples. At the entrance is a larger fountain, water plants and 
palms surrounding it. The tables, cases and exhibit pyramids are of 
special design covered sides and bottoms with plate glass mirrors 
giving a beautiful eftect. The exhibits now consist- mostly of apples; 
about 40 barrels are kept on the tables continually, and these are 
generally almost perfect specimens. It takes about 20 to 25 barrels 
of apples each week to keep up the display. Ten to twelve barrels 
are put on the tables ever}' Monday and every Thursday, removing 
those which arc decayed. 

These apples have to be taken from the cold storage as we come 
to them, thus sometimes getting one person's, or county's exhibit, 
and at another time some other county. "When these apples, or, in 
fact, fruits of any other description, are put on the tables they are at 
once entered for the judges to pass upon; first, entered in the name 
of the person who grows them ; second, all difterent individual's ex- 
hibits are entered in the name of the county where they are grown ; 
and third, all county exhibits are entered in the name of the State. 
As soon as these entries are made the judges are notified and they 
pass upon them, giving them a score of points, and this score is re- 



Additional Papers. 121 

tained until the close of the Exposition, when the awards will be 
made. 

LESSONS FROM COLD STORAGE. 

The keeping of the apples put into cold storage last fall has 
given every one in the Horticultural building some good practical 
lessons. If we can profit by them we have one of the most valuable 
results of this exhibit that we can secure. 

First — Then the fruit must be properly grown, well colored, 
properly picked, well handled and packed, put at once into cold stor- 
age, held at the correct temperature, and for long keeping wrapped 
in paper. 

The great differences in the keeping quahties of different varieties 
are plainly shown. Some varieties keep without scald or other injury, 
while others seem to be injured by the same temperature. This dif- 
ference (from our present knowledge) seems to be due to the varieties 
themselves, and not to condition of temperature. The trouble seems 
to be in the skin of the apples themselves. It may be possible that 
those varieties which scald worst may have to be put into a different 
temperature colder or warmer than the varieties which do not scald, 
or it may be that some chemical can be used in the room which will 
help resist the scald. 

To our surprise and delight we find such varieties as Jonathan 
coming out in good condition on September ist after being in the 
storage for one year. 'Jlie Gano is proving a good storage apple. The 
Ben Davis where well colored shows a good record also. Willow 
Twig and Clayton again prove their value as storage apples. 

The best temperature we have thus far found is 32 degrees, or 
perhaps i degree lower. The government reports on the results of 
this display will bring out all the facts more strongly. 

Our exhibit has been one beyond criticism, by even the most artistic, 
and the largest one in the whole building, occupying about 7,000 square 
feet of space, entirely filled full of the best Missouri fruits. 

We have thus far had a fine showing of early fruits, strawberries, 
raspberries, currants, gooseberries, blackberries, cherries, early apples, 
pears, peaches and plums of almost every variety grown in Missouri. 
Our exhibit has been one beyond criticism even by the greatest 
fault finder, and we shall keep the display up to the high standard we 
have adopted. Our 2,400 jars of fruit, put up last summer, consisting 
of over 400 varieties, is the most complete display ever attempted by 
any state, and, with the fresh fruit shown this summer, will make the 



122 State Horticultural Society. 

largest collection of varieties ever collected and shown. The exhibit 
is one which is the pride of every Missourian and the wonder of every 
visitor. It is doing more to extend the interest in the fruit lands of 
the State than was even expected it would. 

There are certain lessons to be learned by the fruit grower in 
the examination of the various State shows that are well worth the 
learning. First, the adaptation of varieties to special localities and 
the increase of value in color, size, quality and productiveness, where 
so adapted. It is certain that some varieties should never be planted 
in some localities. Second, the value of the subsoil in giving character 
and quality to the fruit, and healthy growth and long life to the tree. 
Third, that care and cultivation are as necessary to success as is atten- 
tion to business in any other calling. 



HORTICULTURE IN MISSOURI. 

(L. A. Goodman.) 

Years ago "Horticulture in Missouri'' would have been a by- 
word of our Eastern people, but in 1904 it is an acknowledged fact 
and very important factor when considering the fruit interests of our 
Nation, and at this date we can truly count on Missouri as holding 
the first rank. 

The ciiniate of this central West is a modification of all of the 
East and West, and North and South combined, having neither the 
rigors of the North nor the heat of the South, nor the extreme 
humidity of the East nor the droughty conditions of the West. Being 
in the center of this grand Nation, and partaking of the good things 
from the four quarters of the land as to location, it has also taken the 
good things of climate from these same four quarters. 

Location, peculiar as it is, the value is not the least by any means 
of the State, even in a horticultural way. On the highway of the East 
to the West as well as the West to the East, and the North to the 
South, it is more favorably located for the growing and distribution 
of fruits than any other of our states. 

Geologically, the location embodies the semi-mountainous dis- 
trict, the bottoms of the lakes, the "loess" of the glacier formation 
and the loam of the river deposits. The soils are such, that for fruit- 
growing we can find the best that the world affords. Not all the 
lands of Missouri are fruit lands by any means, and there is where 



.Additional Papers. 123 

the mistake has been made by the failure of some of the orchardists 
throughout the State to observe this fact. 

Without question, the best soil in the world, for fruits, is the 
"Loess" formation, along the Mississippi and Missouri river bluffs, 
and some few of our lajger rivers in north Missouri. This "loess" 
is of wonderful fertility and depth and is very specially valuable for 
fruit production, allowing the roots of the trees to penetrate to a very 
great depth, ofttimes 20 to 30 feet, giving the rains an opportunity 
to penetrate easily and quickly when they come, and allowing the 
moisture to rise promptly when the weather is dry; this makes the 
ideal soil for fruit-growing. 

The Ozark uplift stands close second to this "loess," and wherever 
the lands are underlaid with the red-clay-porous-shale, through which 
the water filters easily we here find also in south Missouri ideal lands for 
fruit-growing. 

To a greater extent does the Ozark region spread in south ^^lis- 
souri, than in any other state, and this "red soil of the Ozarks" has 
become noted the world over in the production of the "big red apple." 

Not only the apple, but also the strawberry and other berries, 
the grape, and especially the peach, is in its peculiar home where it 
reaches its utmost perfection. The naming of the Ozark region now, 
at once causes one to lose sight of everything but the fruit district. 
And when speaking of the strawberry, the peach, the red apple land 
at once the Ozark region of South Missouri is called to mind. The- 
iron in the soil and the lime in the subsoil all give character, quality, 
color and size to the fruit. 

The grand river system of our State is one which gives us an- 
other peculiar advantage for fruit-groAving. The Mississippi along 
the east border, the "Missouri through the center of the State and along 
the western border. The smaller rivers branching off from it on the 
north and south with its many hundreds of tributaries give on their 
hills many thousands of acres of good fruit lands and the best of air- 
drainage, which is just as important as water drainage. 

These hills are virtually the fruit lands of our state. They are 
usualh^ underlaid with subsoil which is porous enough to let the water 
sink when weather is wet and rise when it is dry. Water flows off 
these hills easily and quickly, and the cold air in early spring, late 
fall or cold winter flows down just as easily and just as quickly, and 
just as surely, and it is just as necessary in each instance. 

The gravelly soils come next in order. The timber lands always 
being best, provided the subsoil is porous enough. In fact, the subsoil 



124 State Horticultural Society. 

is a very much more important factor than the top soils and undoubtedly 
these timber lands has abundance of this kind. 

Rainfall is just sufficient for the best growth of fruits. Plenty 
of rain when needed in the spring- and early summer, and less in 
the fall and early winter. The record kept at Columbia for the last 
number of years gives the following results which plainly shows how 
regular and timely the rain supplies our State : January, February 
and March the rainfall is over two inches each month ; in April, May, 
June and July it is nearly five inches each month. In August and 
September over three inches each month. In October, November 
and December again over two inches each month, making a total 
about fort}^ inches per year. 

The flora of our country seems to centralize here in Missouri. 
That from the North, running well down in Missouri. That from 
the East, extending well over the entire State. That from the South, 
spreading up into and onto the Ozark mountains, while that from the 
vast prairies of the West laps over our western border, and as a 
result, all the State shows the most wonderful adaptability of its soil 
and climate, to the production of all kind of fruit and tree growth, 
as is evident from the development now already made. This adapt- 
ability of our land to the production of all manner of wild fruits, not 
only native fiere but those also which have been brought in from the 
four points of the compass is a very important fact to keep in mind 
when locating fruit lands in this country of ours, and Missouri occu- 
pies this peculiar condition that is needed for the production of our 
tame fruits. 

So as these natural flora from the four points of the compass 
seem to all overlap here in Missouri, we begin to understand how 
favorable a position Alissouri occupies for fruit growing. The native 
wild crab and June berry of the North seems perfectly at home here 
and with them flourish the southern pawpaw and persimmon, th<„ 
"Missouri banana" and "Missouri fig." The Northern and Southern, the 
Eastern and Western grape as well as all their cultivated varieties 
seem perfectly at home in the fertile soils of our 3kIissouri hills. 

The Soulard crab, the native plums are all of them fingers point- 
ing to Missouri as their home, while sand plum and sand cherry of the 
sandy West seem happy and contented when they get into Missouri soil. 
All these items of nature prove surely and truly that ^Missouri 
has a wonderful adaptability of soil, subsoil, climate and elevation for 
all these fruits to thrive so happily and perfectly. 

What is true in these matters is just as positively true in regard 



Additional Papers. 125 

to all our tame or cultivated varieties of berries, cherries, plums, 
grapes, peaches and apples. 

No wonder, then, is it, that Missouri has taken such wonderful 
strides in this fruit business in the last score of years? When we 
see orchards covering our lands by the thousands, and that of not 
only a few acres but of orchards of hundreds, and of thousands of 
acres, we understand that it is all on account of its adaptability as out- 
lined by the wild fruits which grow and succeed within its border. 

Horticulture in Missouri began with the first settler way back 
more than one hundred years ago. When the pioneer came to make 
his home among the Indians and wild beasts, he brought with him 
seeds and seedlings, scions, cuttings, grafts; and wherever the log 
hut was built there the fruits of civilization were planted and grown, 
each year, little by little improving and bettering and developing; 
and we are reaping the result of their careful selection of seeds and 
cuttings and scions. About twenty-five years later we find a wonder- 
ful improvement in the varieties produced ; grafted or budded trees 
were planted and orchards of budded or grafted fruits began to be 
scattered over the state in the more settled portions or, as was more 
often the case, these old seedling trees were top grafted over again 
to some good budded variety until whole orchards were turned from 
a lot of wildings, to a lot of civilized fruits which made their owners 
happy over these new fruits. There are apple trees now standing 
in Jackson county; Montgomery county, Jasper county, and St. 
Charles county, which vv'ere planted eighty years ago and are now still 
bearing- fruit. Some of these trees are nine feet around the bodies 
and one of them has a spread of branches of over 100 feet and has 
borne over no bushels of fruit in a single year. One section of a 
tree nearly 100 years old grown in Jackson county measures 10 feet 
in circumference and is shown in the Horticultural exhibit at the 
World's Fair. 

For the first twenty-five years of the last century we find, 
fruits for the farmer's use with little market for surplus to be the 
condition, which confronted the horticulturist. This was the time of 
almost spontaneous growth, at least it was the time when orchard 
trees grew with little care and less cultivation. All that seemed to 
be needed was to plant the trees and nature would take care of them. 
Little trouble was had with insects, less with the fungous diseases, but 
more loss was sustained from birds than any other cause, and as a 
result the farmer and fruit grower began the war upon birds which 
continued for fifty years, until our feathered songsters and friends 



.126 State Horticultural Society. 

have become almost entirely exterminated, before we found that 
they were the farmers' best friends, and now, almost too late, we arc 
seeking- to protect them in every way possible. What a careless, ex- 
travagant, destructive man our American settler did become to his 
own best interest in the destruction of all that was meant for his hap- 
piness in this goodly land of ours. Sadly now we are reaping the 
result of this profligate plan of the destruction of our forests, bird 
life, and the loss of fertility of our soil iiy careless cultivation. 

About the middle of the last century an impetus was begun in 
fruit growing because of the demand of our towns for fresh fruits, 
and when fruit growers began to plant orchards of twenty or forty 
acres there came the cry that "there will never be a market for them.'' 
Rut some brave hearts did plant and did care for, and cultivate their 
orchards well and began to realize some dollars for their good judg- 
ment and labor. 

MISSOURI STATE SOCIETY. 

In the year 1858 the interest seemed so great and the possibilities 
so vast that a few enthusiasts began the discussion of a united effort to 
help themselves in their experience and to let other people know of 
the empire west of the Mississippi river. 

In the winter of 1859, therefore, pursuant to a call, there met in 
Jefiferson City some of these men and organized the Missouri State So- 
ciety. Of this organization it is only necessary to say that its history is the 
history of Horticulture in Missouri. Its first president was Norman 
J. Colman, the first Commissioner of Agriculture at Washingtpn, 
and now still editor and proprietor of Colman's Rural World. 

For forty-six years, therefore, this society has been doing valiant 
battle for the cause of Missouri horticulture and the results have more 
than fulfilled the most sanguine prophecies. From this time of the 
first organization of this society we find more and larger orchards 
being, planted as transportation advantages seemed to be provided for 
their marketing. Again, we find the same cry being made that when 
all these trees came into bearing fruits would not be worth the gath- 
ering, and again we find that the demand was greater than the supply. 

About twenty-five years ago there was another advance and 
great development in orchard planting all over our State and we then 
began to see the planting of our large and commercial orchards of 
forty, eighty, one hundred, five hundred, and even one thousand acres^ 
over many parts of our fruit soils. How did the cry again go up 
"Now surely you will see the fruits drop down to zero mark." 



Additional Papers. 127 

But shipping- facilities having improved, new markets being 
offered, buyers coming from other lands and the demand grovi^ing 
faster than the supply, prices seemed to increase rather than grow 
less. 

From that time to the present has the growth been steady and 
upward until at this date we have a few orchards of over 1,500 acres, 
a number of orchards over 1,000 acres, a very large number of over 
500 acres, and thousands of them over 100 acres, to say nothing of 
many, many more of 'the smaller and yet the most profitable orchards 
of them all. 

About this time also began the wonderful development of the 
Ozark region of South Missouri, and the extensive plantings there 
made have been the wonder of our pushing West, the astonishment of 
the Eastern fruit growers, and entirely beyond the belief of the people 
living across the waters. It is certainly amusing to hear the expres- 
sion of some of these foreigners when visiting our largest orchards and 
seeing where peach trees are bearing loads of peaches where only three 
years before was the virgin forest; such things are beyond their belief. 

No more wonderful work has taken place in this wonderful State, 
in this wonderful West, than this work of fruit growing in Missouri. 
A few years ago we were the tenth in the list of States, then ten 
years ago we were fifth, but in 1900 we find that we are first in number 
of trees in apple orchard, and by 1905 we shall be first in peach or- 
chards also. 

In 1890 Missouri had about 8,000,000 apple trees, while in 1900 
the number had increased 150 per cent or 12,000,000 more, making a 
total of over 20,000,000 apple trees in orchard. In 1905 we have esti- 
mated the apple trees in Missouri to be fully 25,000,000. These trees 
are in a large measure young trees, and not in bearing and other 
states still lead us in value of products for this reason. As soon as 
these trees come into bearing and the late planting of peach trees also 
we shall find that Missouri occupies the first position in apple orchards, 
and its products ; the first in peach orchards, and its products, and 
the first in strawberry plantations and its products. 

The peach trees of Aiissouri were four and one-half million in 
1900 and in 1905 will number at least 6,000,000 trees. 

'Other states follow Missouri as follows: New York second, Illi- 
nois third, Ohio fourth. Missouri has shown the largest increase in 
orchard and increase in plantings. Since 1900 apple planting, peach 
planting also, has increased accelerating rapidly ; well trained good 



128 State Horticultural Society. 

business men have investigated the subject thoroughly and have 
invested hundreds of thousands of dollars in the enterprise as a' com- 
mercial investment. Professional men are investing their savings in 
orchard lands and orchard planting as a safe and profitable invest- 
ment, one which improves in value as it grows older, and one which 
will always pay well for money properly and judiciously spent under 
intelligent direction of an orchard man. 

We find today the same cry going up louder than ever, "You 
can never sell your fruits,'" "the market is more than supplied," 
"overproduction" is still what we hear. But times have changed, de- 
mands have increased, markets have opened, railroads have provided 
quick means of distribution, refrigerator cars are delivering all their 
fruit to distant market in splendid condition. The large cities are 
asking more and more for fresh fruits, fruits from the tree to market 
in good condition. Manufacturing centers are wanting more fruits 
and less meat. Mining sections demand every day abundance of fresh 
fruits as one of the best health preservers to be found. Demand from 
districts in the north, south and west where fruits cannot be grown 
have increased a hundred, yea even a thousand fold, and people gen- 
erally are using more fruit, more people are using fruit and more 
people everywhere are using more fruits of all kinds and where they 
used it a part of the time, they are now using it all the time. Markets 
are opening across the waters and the call each year is more and more 
for American fruits until now millions of barrels are taken by Europe 
and many millions more can be used just as well if they can only 
secure them. 

The question is not one of "over production," but one of "distri- 
bution." The supply is not greater than the demand, but the supply- 
ing this demand by the railroad companies is required. 

Adaptability is the question for us to settle, and we may say the 
only question for us to settle. Missouri has the climate, the soil, the 
subsoil, elevation, the location, the rain-fall, the water drainage 
through the rivers, the cold air drainage down the valleys from the 
hills, the varieties or kinds of fruits which succeed well, the plans and 
manner of cultivation, the men of intelligence and knowledge who are 
able to do these things, and the main question to settle is the adapta- 
bility. 

Adaptability of soils, and subsoils, kinds and varieties of fruits 
to these soils and elevation, adaptability to markets, to demands, 
adaptability of varieties to certain soils, and peculiar locations, to resist 
diseases, to being exempt from attacks of insects, to keeping qualities, 
to ease of gathering and handling. 



Additional Papers. 129 

This study of adaptability is one of the most important in all the 
line of study and still the hardest one to settle finally and correctly. 
It is one which needs a lot of experience and observation to settle 
profitably. 



TT[E MISSOURI HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

(L. A. Goodman.) 

The Missouri State Horticultural Society is now forty-six years 
old. The first meeting was held at Jeflterson City, January 5th, 1859, 
and it was called the Missouri Fruit Growers. Prof. Swallow, N. J. 
Colman and George Ilussman were among the members ; Colman', 
president, and Hussman as secretary. Their discussion was then on 
varieties of apples. In September at St. Louis, they were again 
called together, and the third time that year at Jefferson City, in De- 
cember. William ^Tuir was then made secretary. Colman had 700 
pear trees and they discussed pear blight. One great difficulty they 
had was to straighten out the varieties of apples, some of them having 
a half dozen or more names for the same kind. The meeting of Sep- 
tember, i860, was held at Hermann. At St. Louis in January, 1861, 
again at St. Louis in January, 1862, and still again in January, 1863, 
did the society convene at the same place. It was at this meeting that 
the name was changed to ^Missouri State Horticultural Society. 

In the year 1881 this Society met in the old hall of Agriculture in 
Columbia, to organize and put the society on a footing equal to that 
of other states. From that small gathering of six persons, there went 
out on impetus of will and work that has accomplished much in the 
interest of fruit growing in our State, until today we need not fear 
the best of any of our sister states in any competition that may arise, 
or in the lessons they may give to the fruit grower. 

The growth of- the Society and of the fruit industry has been a 
steady, regular solid growth, one which develops with the intelligence 
and knowledge of our workers. It is not of spasmodic or uncertain 
kind which grows only for a day and is then cut down like the grass 
of the field; but this continued, earnest, energetic, intelligent, and sys- 
tematic planning and working has made the State today what it is in 
orchards and vineyards and small fruits. What this Society has had 
to do with this work is already written in the hearts of men and their 
lives, as well as in the library of twenty-three volumes it has issued. 

H— 9 



130 State HorticnUural Society. 

The Society by its officers and working members, has visited 503 
towns of tlie State and told them how to develop the fruit industr\-. 
It has sent out articles of instruction and practical information from 
more than a thousand men of experience in fruit growing-. It has pul)- 
lished, in circulars and reports, information that has brought to this 
State buyers from nearly every northern and eastern state to take our 
fruit products. It has sent ou.t over 100,000 volumes of the annual 
reports of the society, and the work of experienced fruit growers. 
Who will say wdiat these 100,000 volumes. State reports of 400 pages 
each, have accomplished?' Who^ will measure the results? Over 
200,000 letters and circulars of information, of instruction, of advice, 
as to location of orchards, character of soils, varieties to plant, how- 
to grow, prune, cultivate, gather, market aad make money out of 
fruits have been distributed. Only those who are thus called upon to 
answer these questions can realize the magnitude of this one item of 
its work. 

But let me call your attention to another and more important part 
of our society work, and that is in teaching our members how^ to think 
and how to^ study and how to learn. It has taught them how to see 
and how to draw conclusions fromx what they see. This is science. 
It has taught them how to observe closely what they do. It has 
taught them to apply their thoughts (and control them) to one sub- 
ject for a definite time. All this is education. It has taught them to 
use their brain more and their hands none the less. It has opened 
up a field for our young people to enter, in the realm of thought and 
study and observation that they never knew before, and it has led 
them to think that there is something more "than drudgery on the 
farm. It has opened up to them a new life and new interest in wdiat 
they do. Did you ever realize what a difference it makes in your 
work if you are working to some end or to accomplish some result, 
or to prove a fact, or to discover some new plan of operation, or to 
create some new fruit, than if you simply worked and worked wdthout 
any end in view? One is pleasure, the other drudgery. Well, this is 
part of our w'ork, and a very important part, too, and w^e have been 
in love with it all these years, and we are happy that we have such 
•results to show, and have a hand in producing them. 

For twenty 3^ears, or until 1882, the work of this faithful band was 
to sow the seed, sow the seed. About this time the Society w^as at its 
lowest ebb. Troubles wdth varieties, the great mixture of Eastern 
varieties scattered all over the west and their entire failure as money 
producers discouraged thousands from planting commercial orchards 



.ideational Papers. 131- 

to any extent. But this nicctino- of '83 in Kansas City, the then 
wonder of our State, gave a renewed impetus to our fruit growers, 
and from that time began the upward turn of our Society. From that 
time to this, the last twenty years, there has never been a gathering 
of fruit men but the Society was the leader, never was there a National 
gathering of horticulturists but the Society stood up for Missouri, and 
showed the Missouri fruits whenever opportunity offered, and has 
never gone away empty handed. Over and over again, has this 
Society taken as its burden the honor of the State, and carried her 
fruits to a winning goal. At Boston, at Rochester, Cincinnati, Phila- 
delphia, at St. Louis over and over, year after year; at Grand Rapids,. 
New Orleans, New York and Columbus ; at the Mississippi Valley 
meetings ; at the American Horticultural Society, at the American 
Pomological gatherings ; at the World's Fair at Chicago, Omaha. 
Paris, Amsterdam, we see our society doing- valiant service for the 
State. 

While thinking these matters over it occurs to me that I should 
give a synopsis of vvhat this society has done in this way to help the 
fruit interests of our vState. In this matter I shall not go- back of my 
own participation in this work. Outside of the State reports issued 
and the personal contact at the State meetings, I feel free to say that 
the greatest and best results to the fruit industry have come from 
displays of fruits made in other parts of our country. It brings to us 
thousands upon thousands of the best people that our country can pro- 
duce, and brings our State prominently to the notice of other people. 
In 1880 then we began the first of these great displays in the Mer- 
chants' Exchange at St. Louis. For ten days the Exchange was a 
bower of beauty, a sea of fruit. Our display was the admiration of 
all the eastern people as well as western, and as a result of that ex- 
hibit we brought away $400.00 in 20 premiums. At the Kansas City 
and the Kansas State exposition the Society captured more than 
$500.00 in premiums. At the American Pomological Society meet- 
ings the society was awarded a Wilder medal as follows : At Cincin- 
nati, at Rochester, at Boston, at Grand Rapids, at Philadelphia, all 
these occurring between 1876 and 1886. Meetings every twO' years. 
Again at New Orleans in 1883 under the Mississippi Valley Horti- 
cultural Society, a display was made, and again in 1885. A car load 
of fruit was taken for exhibition to the Cotton Centennial. This col- 
lection was made entirely by the State society, and shown by favor 
of the railroad company, and money paid out of our own pockets,, 
which was afterwards refunded by the legislature. As a result we 



132 State Horticultural Society. 

secured 26 prizes and $500.00 in money. At the St. Louis Fair for 
three consecutive years the society won prizes of $100 each year on 
"best collection" and 12 other prizes of small amounts. In 1888 the 
society kept up an exhibition at the St. Louis Exposition for 40 days 
and 40 nights. At this exhibit we had 3,500 plates on the table. No 
award was made for this, and only a letter from the exposition was 
secured. At the close of this exhibit there were on the table nearly 
100 barrels of fruit. In 1893, at Chicago, was made the greatest show 
ever attempted. For six months the tables were filled with fresh 
fruits and the society received six awards, besides special mention 
for artistic display. Again the Society stepped into the breach and did 
the whole of this immense amount of work, preparing the year before 
all the jar exhibits and putting a car load of the finest specimens in 
cold storage in Chicago, to draw from. The management of this 
exhibit was in the hands of President Evans, and he untiringly and 
devotedly gave his time and means to this work for nearly two years. 
In 1894 the society again kept up its show at the St. Louis Exposition 
for 40 days, and it became the means of bringing many fruit growers" 
and buyers to our State and interesting many others. For this dis- 
play we received about $250.00. 

In 1895 again the society did this same work. No awards were 
made in either case, but the State received the sarne beneficial re- 
sults. These two exhibits cost a great deal of time and care and a 
large amount of fruit donated by our fruit growers. The Society 
earned $160.00 in money. 

Again and last in 1S98, the society took up the fruit show at 
Omaha. For five months there v/as never a day but that the tables 
were full of fresh fruits. Beginning with the strawberry and follow- 
ing with each fruit in season, there was made a special show of straw- 
berries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, plums, peaches, pears, 
quince, apples and all the wild fruits of the woods on the tables during 
their season. Some 78 awards were made the Society. 

I venture the statement that we will never begin to realize nor 
appreciate the results obtained by the influx of new comers directly 
and indirectly as a result of the Society's work, so faithfully done by 
its loyal members. Not only this, but we see many drawn close to 
our Society and taking a lively interest in her welfare, whom we have 
never seen put their shoulder to the wheel before. This new help 
and power will assist us in another step forward, if we will but unite 
in a vigorous pull. There are many strong men in our State whose 
influence and power we shall appreciate, if they will but put their 



Additional Papers. 133 

experience and their successes at the use of Society. They would 
gain also, and be men of larger and grander power. 

Practical questions, solid facts, correct experiments, true results, 
sure conclusions in every department, are the things we are seeking, 
and we have the men who can do these things when called upon. No 
truer or more faithful or more devoted people can be found than are 
the men of our Society, who for twenty-five years have responded 
to every call made upon them, for time, money or fruit, for the good 
of the State, A noted man once said Missouri has such wonderful 
resources in the grains, grasses, live stock, fruits, flowers and vege- 
tables, in the mines and woods, in the manufactures, railroads, com- 
merce and trade. But all these do not make a State. "It takes men." 
It takes men to make a State Society, and happy are we in the fact that 
Missouri has plenty of just such men as have made this Society one of 
the best in the land. 

For the last forty-six years, but more especially for the last 
twenty-five, have we been trying to teach these facts to our people 
and to instill them into the hearts of our fruit growers. First, a love 
for the work. Second, a study of your business. Third, adapting the 
experience of others. Fourth, perseverance, application, industry, 
energy, enthusiasm for the work. Fifth, think for yourself, watch 
your work and draw conclusions from what you see. 

« 

THE HORTICULTURAL SCHOOL OF THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

This school is an opening wedge that will in a few years have 
the educational feature so prominently before us all, and the practical 
application made so plain that we will wonder why it was that these 
things were not brought out before this late day. Here comes a class 
of students bent on learning something of a particular topic, and their 
minds are ready to receive, and their thoughts are ready to be directed 
in just that path which will do them the most good and bring them 
the best results. This Horticultural school and the Experiment Sta- 
tion are doing this work. We find, too, that this school is directing 
its work in the lines suggested by the State Society. 

The line of investigation so well outlined by Dr. Schweitzer of 
selection of typical trees, is being well put into use. Trees, the most 
hardy, the most productive, the most regular in bearing, have been 
selected and the scions used in grafting. This continuous selection 
will be of as much value to us as is the selection of typical seed corn 
or seed wheat. Followed up, this will of itself give wonderful results. 

Again, this horticultural education should have its beginning 



3 34 State Horticultural Society. 

right at the University. Our teachers need to be properly directed ; 
then they will take hold of the work and give us just such teaching 
as we need in our j^ublic schools. The Society has brought this mat- 
ter so emphatically before the people that the}' are discussing- it in all 
directions. At Shaw's Garden the topic was up for discussion one 
whole evening. Teach! Teach! Teach! Teachers who know how 
to do are what we want, in order to present this subject clearly and 
prominently before our schools. Teaching pupils how to think is 
lietter than cramming into them bushels of knowledge. 

It looks now as though cur grand State is to be the Mecca of 
apple growing for the west, and, indeed, for fruit growing in general. 
Our spacious rich Aalleys and high table lands, our sunny slopes and 
airy heights, and above all, oui highly organized mineral soils, and 
our central location give us advantages which are combined in no 
other State so fortunately and i:)roftabl\- as in Missouri. — American 
Truck Farmer. 



THE OLD FRIEND, BEN DAVIS. 

(L. A. Goodman.) 

We will take care of him for the good he has done and the good 
he will yet do for us. I wish I had known I'enjamin of old, but not 
knowing him, I ^vant to say in addition to what I have said : The 
Ben Davis :s one of the best market apples, pays the most money per 
bushel, bears the most, and pays the best per acre of all varieties. 
The following- are ten reasons win it is one of the best market apples : 

First, it is a good grower in the nursery. 

Second, it makes a handsome tree in the orchard. 

Third, it bears young. 

Fourth, it bears oftener and more abundantlv than anv other. 

Fifth, the apples are usually large and fine. 

Sixth, they alwa3'S sell well. 

Seventh, they cook well before they are ripe. 

Eighth, they cook well when ripe. 

JSFinth, they are the best for drying purpose. 

Tenth, there is money in them. 

The other best apples for Missouri are the Gano and Jonathan. 

I see much is now being said against good old Ben Davis. It 
may be that much is true for eastern or n<^rthern grown Ben Davis, 



Additional Papers. 135 

l)nt for southern grown, and Ozark and ^Missouri grown Ben Davis, 
the accusation is not warranted. Well grown, picked at the proper 
time and kept properl}^ the ^Missouri Ben Davis is a good apple. It 
is the best apple to cook, to evaporate, to keep, to ship, and while not 
equal to Jonathan by any means, it is really a good apple to eat, if the 
above conditions have been met. We find it giving us apples when 
others fail. We find it in demand, when we have no other friend to 
call upon. The great trouble has been that it is also grown where it 
is of very poor quality, and should never have been planted, and its 
reputation has had to sufrer in consequence. 

The fact that the Ben Davis is not wanted as much as usual is 
no argument against good Ben Davis. I have seen the time in ^Slich- 
igan when Baldwin were not wanted, but no one would condemn it 
on that account. 1 have seen the time here in Missouri when Wine 
.^ap and Janet were not wanted by the buyers, and yet we all know 
tliem to be good apples. Too many jump at conclusions and sa}' all 
Ben Davis are alike, and then condemn them all alike, whereas if they 
only looked into the matter more closely they would buy varieties 
grown where they are adapted to the soil, location and climate, then 
there would be no complaint forthcoming. We have only to cite the 
utter failure of some of the eastern and northern varieties grown here 
in Missouri ; for example, there is no comparison in the quality of the 
"Snow" grown in the north and in Missouri, those of the north being 
so far superior to those grown in the south. I have tested over and 
over again the Ben Davis grown in Michigan and Wisconsin with 
those grown in Missouri^ and the dififcrence was so perceptible that 
no one would have called them the same, by the taste alone, but the 
Missouri grown was so superior in quality to those from the north 
that they could be called good apples. 

Buyers some years are shunning the Ben Davis because of the 
indiscriminate use of those grown in all localities in previous years. 
But even this was not an unmixed evil for that year, because there 
were none others to be had, the evil eflfects came the next year, be- 
cause all kinds of Ben Davis were put upon the market. The Ben 
Davis is too profitable an apple, loo prolific a bearer, too good for 
evaporating and making into butter or jelly, too large and handsome, 
too good a shi]:)per. too good for cold storage, too good a keeper, too 
good to cook, and there withal, too good to eat, to lightly be thrown 
aside because a few buyers have blundered in their judgment of what, 
where and when to buv them. 



136 State Horticultural Society. 



SOCIETY WORK. 

(L. A. Goodman.) 

Our work continues to grow and grow, and the demands upon 
the Society and the calls upon our fruit men increase as each year 
rolls by. The coming to Missouri of thousands of people from other 
states has created a new impulse among our people and we are get- 
ting more and more calls every day for information and advice as to 
orcharding, location, soils, varieties, training and cultivation, nurseries 
and where to secure trees, insect pests and how to destroy them, 
marketing, buyers, cold storage and all kindred subjects, until our 
office becomes like a horticultural paper, a bureau of information, and 
a school of instruction. A labor of this kind is a work for the good of 
the people, and it well behooves us not to hide our lights, but be free 
and generous with what we know. No doubt that many a man of 
our Society could have made more money if he had kept all things 
to himself or worked things out for his own profits, than by giving 
them freely to the pubHc, but of what use is such a man to his State? 
It is this continual giving out that makes a man rich in heart and 
mind, and causes his fellow-man to admire, respect and love him. 
Our fruit growers are almost universally of this kind, and I could 
call to your mind a number of such in our State and Nation whom 
you surely delight to honor. 

We wish to confess before you and to you how much we owe to 
the unselfish support of our grand army of fruit men all over the 
State for the position which this Society occupies among the societies 
of the Nation. It is because these have never failed when called upon 
to uphold Alissouri, it mattered not how much effort or labor or time 
or money even it may have cost, it is because of the unity of feeling, 
this sympathy in aim, this faithfulness of labor that we are today 
what we are. 

The fact is, simply, that we are stepping upon a higher plane of 
horticulture year by year ; we are learning new facts day by day ; we 
are grasping some of the v/onderful opportunities which are opening 
to our views ; we are realizing the wonderful possibilities of our loved 
profession; we are beginning to see the magnitude of this fruit busi- 
ness ; we see before us a field as broad as our land — avenues, opening 
in all directions for young men and women, and positions ready and" 
waiting, with no one to fill them. 



Additional Papers. 137 

Botany and its delightful study, the knowing of our plants, shrubs 
and trees by name, learning the uses and actions of leaves, roots, 
branches and bodies, watching the development of flower or bud 
growth, learning how plants grow, how plants feed, seeking to find 
if possible if there be any way to feed plants, and trees and fruits so 
that we can know the results as we know the effect of corn on our 
hogs and cattle, feeding our strawberries so that the berry will be 
firm instead of soft, growing our trees so that they will be more hardy. 
The improvement of our apples by selection of special individual 
trees, for propagation is being more and more brought to our atten- 
tion. I am so thoroughly convinced of its value that I hail with glad- 
ness a confirmation of the statements I have made so many times. In 
geology you will see another opening for study ; the knowledge of 
our soils, knowing where certain varieties will succeed best, seeking 
out the secrets of our soils have so long held. 

Today I say that there opens up no broader or more desirable 
profession in all this land of ours than this one of horticulture, no 
better line for study if you want to study, no better opportunity for 
investigation than is here offered you, no surer gain from a field of 
work than Pomona and Flora stand ready to pour into your lap, no 
more delightful scope of thought and beauty, of love and intelligence 
than is placed before you in the decorating of our waste places for 
planting our yards, our parks, our orchards. 

If we have anything to be proud of, after being proud of our 
State, it is to be proud of the development of horticulture, which has 
given us avenues of profit and pleasure, open ways for any to follow, 
as well as great work still to do, great studies still to be pursued and 
great problems still to be solved. 

Our work has grown and grown until now its influence is felt in 
every state of the Union ; and I speak the truth soberly and earnestly 
when I say that no other state has a better State Society nor more 
earnest worlcers than has -Missouri ; and with unity and sympathy of 
feeling, all pulling together, united and strong, we shall step upon a 
higher level of usefulness. There are grand possibilities before us yet, 
and it is our aim and ambition that our Society attain this highest point. 

HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS. 

This school at St. Louis, in connection with the Washington 
University, gives an opportunity for a few boys or girls to get a 
practical education in greenhouse work, botany, fruits or vegetables 
or ornamental tree planting, and a four years' course is provided for 



138 State Horticultural Society. 

the student. This is one of tlic best schools of the kind in the land 
and shows us how to educate our heads ^vhile we are educating our 
hands. 

The State has also provided an Experiment Station at Mountain 
Grove whose work it is to secure all the information it can from 
practical fruit growers, also to carry on a series of experiments for 
themselves, and give these results to the people of the State. If any 
information is wanted by the fruit growers of the Ozark region, or if 
the)' have any diseases or insects troubling them, or if any person 
wishes to know about soils, varieties, cultivation, pruning or any other 
matter, he is at perfect liberty to inquire of this institution or call 
upon the stafif for assistance or information, and they are ready to re- 
spond and give the answer. This is of untold value to the fruit 
grower. 

The Normal Schools are also taking up this line of study in their 
required course and teaching the teachers how to teach this study of 
"tree life" so as to be of value to young people of the State. They 
are bringing up these matters so that everyone or anyone has an op- 
portunity to learn about these items if he only wishes to do so. 

AGRICUI^TURAL COLI.KGE AND EXrERIMENT STATION. 

The last and best educator and helper in all these departments 
of this work, the theory, the principle and the practical facts in regard 
to fruit growing, the greatest instructor of them all is the University 
of the State, the Agricultural College and the Experiment Station. 

Here any young man or yf)ung woman can get the best horti- 
cultural education that can be obtained anywhere in the land with- 
out money and without ])ricc. Here he can secure the study of 
sciences, the theory of fruit growing, and the practical work as well 
in the orchards and vineyards, nursery and green houses, garden and 
hot beds, so that the student may know thoroughly well what to do 
and how to do it. 

Horticulture in Missouri would surely be incomplete without the 
presentation of the advantages for the study of horticulture at oiir 
Agricultural College. Other states like New York with its Cornell 
University has a greater reputation for its Horticultural School because 
of its age, but no state cfifers greater advantages for this study in 
all of its branches, nor better opportunity for the practical work than 
does the Horticultural School of the Missouri State University. Here 
the young man will find the teachers in Chemistry, Botany, Ento- 
mology, Geology, Agriculture and Horticulture the c(|ual of any of 
those that can be found anywhere in the land. 



Additional Papers. 139 

Missouri, Uien, offers to the horticulturist the finest chmate, 
abundance of rain-fall, the best soil and subsoil the proper ekvation 
of land, for water and air drainage, the most central geographical 
location, the peculiar adaptation of varieties to our orchard lands, the 
most extensive markets in the country, railroad facilities the best to 
be found, the most complete arrangement for securing the experience 
of the best fruit growers for teaching the principles of h'uit growing, 
and above all, the best equipped Horticultural School that can be found 
anywhere in the United States. All these good things only await your 
coming and the utilizing nf iheni. 



VALUE ()!•" ORCHARDS. 

(L. A. Goc'dman.) 

The orchards of tlu- SlaU- run up into millions of dollars, reaching 
llnrty millions for the apple orchards themselves, ten millions for 
the peach orchards, three millions for the other orch.ard fruits, and at 
least five millions for the berry and grape plantations. The value of 
the products from these orchards and fruit plantations Avould be far 
up into the millions also in a seasonable 3-ear. The apple crop, the 
next full crop we have, will Ijc worth $12,000,000. The peach crop, 
84,000,000. the other fruits $1,000,000, and the berry and grape crops 
$3,000,000 more, making the value divided about one-third for North 
Missouri and two-thirds for South Missouri, and in ajjout three years 
the valiie will be added to about 50 per cent. 

Cold storages arc now taking care of our apple crop so com- 
pletely that varieties which could not ])e held years ago can now be 
(.asily kept for months in a temperature of 32 degrees where they will 
hardly change in texture. These cold storages are being built all over 
the State in our large cities, so that abundance of room can now be 
furnished the fruit grower or the apple buyer, and prices are kept 
uniform throughout the whole season, very nearly. 

Canning factories and evaporators and cider mills are also being 
Iniilt in all the smaller towns and on the large orchards so that they 
can take care of all the surplus fruits of all kinds and still secure 
some profit from them. 

Horticulture in ^^lissouri would not be complete without the 
flowers, vegetables and nursery stock all over the State. The floral 
and green house interests of the State are some of the largest in the 



140 State Horticultural Society. 

country and this work is growing and increasing in proportion as 
rapidly as the other horticultural interests. Hundreds of thousands 
up into millions of dollars of flowers and plants are sold each year, 
and yet it has not reached its climax. Nearly every community has 
its green houses and flower gardens and the cities are demanding as 
one of their necessities, rather than luxuries, flowers every day. The 
sales in our l;arge cities are something astonishing to those who have 
not examined into it closely. Value $2,000,000. 

The truck gardens for vegetable growing are another strong 
feature in the horticultural line. The truck business about and around 
our larger towns and cities has grown to such proportions that hun- 
dreds of thousands of people are daily employed in the work and their 
products have become worth dollars beyond our belief. Many of the 
smaller towns nearb)' the larger towns and cities have begun to 
develop this same business in connection with fruit and flower grow- 
ing and much money is made by the growers of these horticultural 
products. Many of these smaller towns still offer to the truck growers 
golden opportunities for this growing of vegetables, and shipping 
them to our large cities more cheaply than persons can haul them 
into market. Value $3,000,000. 

The nursery interests stand as the foundation stone of the fruit 
interests, for without good reliable nurseries to grow our trees we 
should never have our large commercial orchards. To these good re- 
sponsible nursery men who sell trees upon honor, we owe the large 
expansion in our fruit interests. Hundreds of the very best men of the 
State have been making this a study for years and they have become 
as expert in this line of work as have our fruit growers in their line. 

Nurseries are now scattered over the State so largely that no 
man needs to go far or send far for his orchard trees. These nurseries 
can supply every demand that our people can make upon them and 
then have some to send to other states for planting. 

The State has within its borders a number of the very largest 
nurseries, and trees are shipped to almost the ends of the earth. What 
the value of these nurseries is or the capital employed, or the value 
of stock sold, or the number of trees, plants and vines scattered over 
this State every year no one can tell, but their value runs up into 
millions of dollars and a fair estimate has been made of $4,000,000. It 
is fortunate that all trees and plants do not live and bear, for if they 
did the nursery men's business would soon be over. 

The last feature of this horticulture in Missouri, but by no means 
the least, is the educational advantages which Missouri offers to the 



Additional Papers. 141 

» 

student of these kindred subjects, and the different means of obtain- 
ing these items or facts or experiences which helps to give the man 
success in his enterprise. 

First, then, is the fact that all our public schools are taking up 
this nature study, and learning that plants and trees are alive just as 
much so as are cats and dogs and cows and horses, and what they 
need is treatment as if they were alive, not as dead. This instilling 
into the minds of these young lads and lassies this fact of hfe and 
growth and propagation and improvement makes them interested at 
once in plant growth and fruit production. 

Second to these are our local Horticultural Societies scattered all 
over the State in over sixty different counties where the real practical 
knowledge of fruit growing in all its branches and all the experiences 
of every member is at the services of every other member. These Local 
Societies are a power to themselves, to their counties and to the State 
in no small way. 

The influence of the State Horticultural Society during the 46 
years of its existence has been a power for good which no man can 
estimate. Probably to it, more than any other influence, does the 
State owe its prominence as the first in orchards in all this Union. 
It has been working faithfully and honestly and earnestly during all 
these years, and especially the last twenty-five years, to give true 
facts of experience, as secured from the best fruit growers about the 
State, about the soils, varieties, cultivation, care, pruning, insect pests, 
fungus diseases, picking, packing and marketing so that every man 
can know if he will only read or study or question. It has helped to 
locate and direct more settlers to this State and direct them as to care 
of orchards than any other influence. It stands always ready to give 
exact facts, as far as it is possible to obtain them, to every citizen of 
the State and thus help save them from loss when planting their 
orchards. 



FRUIT GROWING IS A BUSINESS. 

(L. A. Goodman.) 

A business it is getting to be. The berry business alone is such 
that it takes a hundred thousand men, women and children to pick 
them when ripe. Hundreds of thousands of acres of our best fruit 
land is adapted to berry growing. There is no fruit, not even except- 
ing the apple, which produces such an abundance of fruit every year, 



142 Sfafc Horticultural Society. 

icrrows .so surely, yields so quickl}-, and is so productive and so profit- 
able as the queen of fruits, the strawberr}-. Some parts of the State 
are becoming noted as the greatest strawberry districts of the world. 
Hundreds and even thousands of acres are planted to berries near 
some of our Central Missouri towns, especially down in the southern 
part of the State. Instances of such are Neosho. Peirce City, Sarcoxie. 
Monett, Marionville, West Plains, Olden, with hundreds of places where 
smaller acreage is grown. Car loads are shipped from many of these 
berry centers each day and in some instances lo, 12 or 15 car loads 
per day, while the total product from these centers will be 20 to 100 
car loads each per season. Each car load will hold about 600 crates 
and brings from $600 to $1,200 per car. This work jjrings many peo- 
ple into the places, gives employment to thousands of them, returns 
good money for the labor and makes many happy homes. 

Instances can be given where the sales from these berry planta- 
tions run up into larger amounts, like $200, $300 and even $500 or 
more dollars per acre, but they are ofttimes misleading because the 
large amounts are the exceptions and not the rule ; $100 to $200 
per acre is a good average crop. The advantage of the berry business 
is its quick returns. Good, proper soil and porous subsoil planted to 
the best varieties in April will the next year produce a beautiful crop, 
and only a partial failure can come when the rains come too copiously 
and prevent gathering, or it is too dry so that they will not ripen. 
The very best of care and cultivation must be given them the first 
year and after the ground has frozen in the early winter cover them 
with straw. Among the best varieties are the Crescent, Warfield, 
Aroma, Parker Earle, Bubach, Haverland. There are others probably 
just as good, and the only thing to do is to study the adaptability of 
varieties to the soil and location. 

All the other berries pay well when properly cared for and planted 
in congenial soil and adapted to the location. Of the Black Caps, the 
Hopkins, Ohio, Kansas, Evans and Cumberland are the best. Of the 
Reds, the Cuthbart, Thwack, Louden, Miller. Of blackberries, the 
Early Harvest, Snyder and Taylor, and among the dewberries, the 
Lucretia. 

The grape along the Missouri river hills and in some parts of the 
Ozark is as truly at home as it is on the borders of the Rhine or in the 
Chautauqua belt in New York or the southern shores of Lake Erie in 
Ohio. While the grape industry is not carried on as extensively as 
are the other fruit industries, yet it might be, could be, and should be, 
done just as profitably. No better grape soil in the world than the 



Additional Papers. I43 

loess hills of the Missouri river and all they need is proper selection 
of varieties, and proper care and cultivation, and results will be as- 
sured. 

Missouri occupies a notable position in regard to great men in both 
the berry line and grape growing by the niiroduction of new varieties. 
Among them are Herman Jeager of Neosho, Jacob Rommel of Mor- 
rison, Samuel Miller of Bluffton. J. C. Evans of Harlem, and George 
Hussman, formerly of Columbia, Mo. 

One of the most profitable fruits for Xorth ^Missouri is the cherry. 
"When cherries are ripe even baby wants one." The cherry does 
much better from the Missouri river north. The southern part of our 
State seems to have too long summers for this northern fruit and the 
trees shed their leaves too early in summer or fall and thus become 
summer killed or summer injured and the winter finishes them. The 
high dry hills along the [Missouri river and north seems peculiarly 
adapted to this fruit production m a very profitable degree. 

Three or four or five varieties are the profitable ones to grow in 
a commercial way and they give us a succession of the fruits for a 
considerable season. The markets are always calling for the cherry 
and they are never supplied. The call from the west for the appetizing 
cherry is becoming greater and greater each year and the supply does 
not keep pace with the demand. No better opening offers to the fruit 
grower than the planting of large commercial orchards close to good 
transportation lines for shipment to our large cities, small towns and 
the far west in particular. A number of orchards containing a hun- 
dred or two hundred acres of cherry orchard would bring returns 
beyond our imagination and make Missouri the cherry state as well 
as the peach and apple state of the Union. Among the best varieties 
are Early Richmond, Ostheim, English Morello, Dyehouse, Montmorency 
and Wragg. 

The next fruit in importance and the one most grown over the 
State and only surpassed by that king of fruits, is the luscious peach. 
The peach grows everywhere in the State, but in its perfection and to 
the greatest profit in a commercial way only the high hills of the 
river bluffs on the "loess" formation, and on the Ozark mountains 
where there is the proper elevation and congenial soil with proper 
porous subsoil. 

The most entensive development in peach growing has been noted 
here in Missouri that was ever known, probably. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of acres of the red lands of the Ozarks have been cleared of 
their black jack oaks and other scrubby timber and planted to the 



144 State Horticultural Society. 

peach, bringing luscious fruits to eat instead of the bitter acorn. In 
three years from planting many of these orchards have brought in 
money, returned more than the cost of the land and clearing, fencing 
and the planting, the cost of the trees and their care for three years. 
Points in Southern Missouri now ship not only their car loads, but 
their train loads of peaches every day during the Elberta season. 
Oftentimes a small town like Olden or Koshkonong in South Missouri 
have shipped a train load consisting of ii, 12 or 13 cars of peaches 
from their small station in a single day. There are thousands upon 
thousands of other acres there adapted to this peach growing and only 
waiting the hand of the husbandman to open and plant and cultivate 
and gather. Lands which are cheap, which never will be cheaper in 
the world, lands which are well located, lands which will produce 
profitably, lands which will increase in value rapidly, lands awaiting 
the settler to come and occupy, lands which will give returns to the 
planter, as they have done in thousands of other instances, these 
lands await your coming. 

Not onl)^ however, are these the only peach lands, but the bluffs 
along the Mississippi river and the Missouri river and its large tribu- 
taries are just as valuable for peach growing as are these Ozark lands 
if they are only properly planted and cared for. Close to a body of 
water, high above the valleys, having good air and water drainage, 
rich soil and porous subsoil, in this famous "loess" formation, are hun- 
dreds of thousands of acres of other fruit lands all through Central 
Missouri that are the very best lands for peaches and all other fruits 
that can be found anywhere in the State, and, of course, anywhere else 
in the world. There is one thing we are proud to boast of and that 
truthfully, Missouri does not have to go out of the State for climate, 
soil, rain-fall, locations for fruit growing nor for fruits themselves 
nor in fact any other good thing. When we say it is the best in Mis- 
souri it is the best in the world. Among the best varieties of peaches 
are INfountain Rose, Champion, Carmen, Family Favorite, Elberta, 
Old Mixon, free and cling, Pickett's Late, Wheatland, Salway, Wil- 
kins, Bonanza, Henrietta. 

The last and greatest fruit, the king of them all, the apple, has a 
greater breadth of kingdom than all the rest. It is marketed over more 
of the land and pays greater returns for the time and labor expended 
than the others. It i*s a great mistake to think that it will pay in 
a commercial way anywhere, on any soil, upon any locality, or in 
every kind of subsoil, even in the State of Missouri. 

As before stated, Missouri holds first rank in apple orchards, and. 




El. 

D 

So 

a u 

H 05 
P 

O 

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Additional Papers. 145 

it will be to our greatest benefit to see that it not only holds the 
banner as to numbers, but as to quality of fruit, care in handling and 
packing and marketing, as well as to the care and cultivation, spray- 
ing and management of the orchards themselves. The best apple 
lands in the world without any exception are the "loess" hills along 
the Missouri river and why more of these lands have not been utilized, 
improved and developed has been a wonder to all our fruit men. Mis- 
souri contains more of these lands than any other state in the Union. 
The next best land are the Ozark hills when underlaid with the red 
cla)'- shale mixed with iron and lime and potash. Here we have seen 
the greatest development that was ever known, more than 500 per 
cent during the last ten years. 

This improvement has been due to the assistance and energy and 
push of the railroads seeking to develop the resources of that land 
as rapidly as possible, for the returns come to them first and last and 
best of all. 

The grower gets his results in the shape of dollars after the rail- 
roads first take their toll. The railroads can easily and quickly make 
or break a community of fruit growers by their fostering care in the 
one case or by their overcharges in the other case. The greatest lesson 
of success in the history of the State has been shown by the railroads in 
the case of the Ozark fruits, and their acts show plainly for themselves 
more strongly than words. 

The virgin soils, with its scrubby oak growth, or the grand 
forests of the river hills which only need to be removed when the apple 
orchard is ready and willing and anxious to take its place and bring 
dollars to its owner. It is right in the one instance to remove the large 
forests when they are ripe and ready for gathering, and there plant 
the apple orchards, or to exchange the scrubby black jack oaks for the 
beautiful and profitable apple trees. Lands thus taken and planted 
and cultivated and pruned and sprayed will be just as sure to return 
crops to its owners as will the planting of a field of corn or sowing a 
crop of wheat. No more risk in the one case than in the other, not 
absolutely sure, but at least reasonably sure. We have no certainty 
of any matters here below and must be satisfied if we do have failures 
once in a while. Accidents and discouragements have occurred and 
always will occur. 

The planting of varieties must be considered as the next essential 
requisite to successful commercial orcharding. These varieties must 
be what the markets demand at that particular location or failure will 
result. If markets demand the early apples then plant some of them. 

H— 10 



146 State Horticultural Society. 

If they want fine quality alone in winter or fall apples then plant them. 
If the demand is for shipping long distances then plant those varieties 
that handle and keep well. 

The requisites for success are, therefore, first, porous subsoil ; 
second, good soil ; third, varieties adapted to the soils — that is, hardy 
and productive — fourth, varieties adapted to the markets ; fifth, prop- 
erly caring for the orchard (cultivation) ; sixth, spraying for diseases 
and insects ; seventh, picking, handling and packing with a guarantee 
behind them. 

The apple industry, apple orcharding in [Missouri, in a commercial 
way, then is only in its infancy. Not one hundredth part of the avail- 
able good hard lands in the State have been touched, and as the 
orchards of the east and north grow less and less each year those of 
Missouri will grow more and more, greater and greater until we shall 
see the most wonderful expansion of the fruit growing business that 
it has entered our hearts to conceive of. The only limit that can be 
made is the limit of transportation facilities and the means in the 
hands of the railroads to handle the business. 

The location of our State is peculiarly well situated for the mark- 
eting of all kinds of fruit. Railroad facilities are the best and lines 
run in every direction with good connection to all points of the coun- 
try. Apples we expect of course will go south, but are not even 
surprised when orders are received for the shipment of hundreds of 
crates of peaches dail}^ as far south as even Galveston and all interme- 
diate points. Still more surprised are people tO' get orders for thou- 
sands of crates of strawberries from the same direction. The Rail- 
road company, the Refrigerating car companies, the Express com- 
panies are all three of them doing their very best to distribute this 
fruit to the best advantage so that returns will be profitable to tlie 
fruit grower. It is a well known fact that if the fruit grower cannot 
make some money he will soon quit the business and so if, the trans- 
portation companies cannot help do this work to the advantage of the 
fruit grower then both of them must lose their business. 

Berries, peaches, apples, are the three money makers from Mis- 
souri in all directions, over all districts, under all favorable conditions 
of soil, and may be called the universal fruits of Missouri. While the 
grape, plum and cherry are also money makers when conditions are 
favorable as to location, soils and adaptability, many of these fruits 
not only find a market in the cities, but also in many of our smaller 
towns, and here we find the very best markets obtainable. Home 
markets are the best markets any fruit grower can find and should be 
encouraged and fostered in every way possible. 



Additional Papers. 147 



For locations where early apples find a g-ood market the following- 
are among the best: Yellow Transparent, Early Harvest, Red June, 
Benoni, Early Pennock, Duchess, Lowell. 

For fall varieties, Maiden Blush, Wealthy, Jeffries, Grime's Gol- 
den, Jonathan, Rome Beauty. 

For winter, Gano, Ben Davis, Winesap, York, Black Twig, Ingram, 
White AMnter Pippin, Huntsman. 

The picking, packing and marketing of these fruits are important 
considerations if we wish to secure and maintain a good reputation 
for fair, square dealing with the buyer. We must either let the buyer 
pack his own fruit or we must guarantee what we pack so that the 
buyer will feel safe in buying. Good, sound, ripe, well colored, fruit, 
free from scab or insect pests, must be our standard and must be 
strictly adhered to if we are successful. To this end all fruit growers 
are working and the new comer to Missouri will find here every op- 
portunity to maket and everyone to help him maintain this reputation. 
He not only gets the help of those in his community, but also the 
assistance and reputation of others and of the State itself in dis- 
posing of its products. The advantage of this reputation is hardly 
appreciated enough by those who have never tried its value. But 
when the reputation of th(j State or county or location has once been 
made everyone who comes into that location reaps the benefit of it. 
It is much easier to sell if you have buyers hunting you than if yoii 
have to seek after the buyer. In the one case they come to you and in 
the other case you go to them. 



WINTER MEETING. 

NEOSHO, NEWTON COUNTY, DECEMBER 20, 2L 

22, 1904. 



FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING, 



"The annual meeting of the Missouri State Horticultural Society 
was held at Neosho on December 20, 21 and 22, and was, beyond ques- 
tion, one of the most successful meetings ever held by the Society. It 
was the concensus of opinion that the beautiful town of Neosho, situated 
in the very heart of the famous fruit growing section of the Ozark coun- 
try, was a most ideal place for the meeting of the Society. It was to the 
imtiring zeal and efforts of Mr. F. H. Speakman, and his associates in 
the preparatory work that this opinion among the members present was 
so general." — From American Truck Farmer, St. Louis, Mo. 

! 

FIRST SESSION— TUESDAY, DECEMBER 20th, 8 P. M. 

The meeting was called to order by President Whitten. The opening 
prayer was given by Rev. Henry Marshall. Miss Patterson played a 
beautiful piano solo. 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 

(Mayor T. W. Lamson). 

In addition to the customary greetings, expressing our appreciation 
of a convention of practical earnest brainy men, we especially welcome 
you because your instruction results in adding wealth to the community 
and comfort to the people. 

Land is a safe investment for the present and future. It is the basis 
of productive wealth and the reliance of the toiling mases of humanity. 
The trend of population is to centralization. As the years pass, relatively 
more people congregate in cities and towns, lessening the number of 
people who grow cereals, meats and fruit, and increasing the number of 
people who consume bread, meat and fruit without producing either. 
Under these conditions, tillers of the soil should be the money makers 
of the future. Every farmer should read the merited compliment to 
agriculture told in the wonderful story of American agricultural pros- 
perity by the Secretary of Agriculture in his annual report. We are 
•dazed by statements that the corn crop of 1904 would pay the national 



152 State Horticultural Society. 

dtbt and interest and leave much corn in the granaries of the farmer; 
that the value of the products of the American farm for 1903 and 1904 
exceeds the world's production of gold since the discovery of America. 
He who reads will not ask whence comes the wealth of the land. Modern 
Agriculture offers great inducements to men of energy and determina- 
tion to till the soil. Its requirements are too exacting for the indolent 
man. No trade or profession demands greater care or more skillful 
management. 

Fortunately, the privilege of membership in organizations like this, 
requires no man to enter the field of Agriculture a stranger to the soil or 
its possibilities, because here the object lessons of every community are 
focused. The intemperate, the theorist without practical ideas, men 
wanting in business judgment, failures, are not instructors, but here prac- 
tical men submit definite results. Text books and schools of instruction 
are necessary and proper, but the practical horticulturist should learn 
more in the sessions of this convention than could be learned elsewhere 
in the same time. 

Agriculturalists should be contented. It requires a financier to count 
the value of their 1904 crop — more than five billion dollars. Their bank 
accounts in the agricultural states of the Mississippi valley have increased 
more than 200 per cent in the last six years. One hundred eminent 
fiiianciers were recently interviewed to ascertain the foundation of their 
business success. They came from every section and sphere of life. A 
majority had only a public or high school education — eighty-eight gave 
the farm as their home. The farm is the great school for the develop- 
ment of those traits of character that make for success. 

Successful agriculture depends largely upon diversified farming, 
iudicious selection, practical and thorough cultivation, organization and 
markets. Organization is a necessity. We live in an age so rapid that 
the tenure of life is too limited for the individual to stand alone. In all 
of the great industries of today, the individual is last in organization. 
Tabulated reports of allied interests are essential to the farmer, and furnish 
him and his best friend, the purchaser, with definite information. Market- 
ing a fruit crop is half the battle for success. Every grower is not a 
business man, and his output is limited to his acreage. By uniting with 
his neighbor, the output is increased and a larger market available. 
Marketing requires employing trained talent, and when well done, good 
prices are secured. The 20th century farmer who succeeds is an all 
round business man. He studies the soil and its needs. With judicious 
selection and thorough cultivation, he can estimate annual yield and pro- 
fits as definitely as other avocations. Modern farms are fields of diversi- 



Winter Meeting. _ 153 

* 

fied interests. A portion is devoted to forage plants of known value and 
fed to best stock ; another part to horticulture and set to desirable trees 
and vines. In the future every avenue will be made to pay interest upon 
investment. 

The modern farmer is a combination of brain and muscle, and, or- 
ganized, is an educated power in the land. His services are in demand 
wherever men of character and determination are wanted. In the field 
of literature and commerce, he is respected in every sphere of Hfe. 

Twenty years ago the farm mortgage was the terror of Southwest 
Missouri. There was apparently no hope for the farm but bondage to the 
money lender. This has changed. Farmers are freer of debt, and it 
ia a fact that farmers have bank accounts in excess of merchants and other 
business men. Success has come from land development and practical 
experimental demonstration that our soil and climate conditions are 
favorable for a diversity of horticultural enterprises. Horticulture, 
which should be known as the mortgage lifter of Southwest Missouri, and 
organization, have give us this rapid growth. A few years ago, a few 
k^cal men, who have walked the floor until weary, saw, and grasping the 
opportunity, gathered the scattered aimless and antagonistic threads of 
local horticulture and wove them into an organization. Organization 
everywhere, means the same thing. It means control, and control means 
prices for products that justify the labor and energy expended in pro- 
duction. Neosho has ceased to be a cheap market for local products, and 
we are glad because we all, in varying degree, share the profits of pros- 
perous horticulture. 

The welcome Neosho extends you is most cordial. We are sure 
your sessions will be interesting and profitable. We hope you will carry 
home pleasant remembrances of our prosperous city and people. 



WORDS OF GREETING. 



(J. B. Graves Neosho, Mo.) 



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen of the State Horticultural Society: 
Representing the Neosho Fruit Growers' and Shippers' Association, 
of which I am a member, and for them, I am here to extend to you the 
glad hand ; to give you a warm and generous greeting. There is no 
body of organized laborers on the earth, in the earth, or under the earth 
to whom we would give a more enthusiastic greeting than to you horti- 
culturists of our own beloved State, together with your guests and co- 



154 State Horticultural Society. 

laborers from sister states and territories; for you and your predecessors 
. are and have been the unpaid agents though whose wisdom and energy, 
and patience, and sacrifices one of the greatest and best industries of our 
C'.)mmonwealth has been built up. 

This is a wonderful age in which we live — wonderful on account of 
the stupendous progress that has been made in all departments of thought 
and action ; marvelous on account of the rapid improvements in all trades 
and professions. Be it said to the undying honor of the pioneers of 
horticulture in Missouri, living and dead, that they were not left behind 
in this onward march. They were not asleep when others were awake. 
They were not indifferent when others were electric. They were not 
standing when others were stampeding. Not willing to be left in the 
rear, covered by the dust of oblivion from the wheels of the general 
progress, they forged forward to the very front with their investigations 
and discoveries, trampling beneath their feet all obstacles and difficulties, 
and planted their ensigns of victory along the firing line. And as they 
made their triumphal march they were beautiful as an army with banners. 
It is the achievements of those grand men, made under dark and dis- 
couraging circumstances, that have put us in possession of the brilliant 
potentialities of the present hour. 

Be it said also to the credit of you horticulturists of the present gen- 
eration that you are the worthy sons of your noble sires. Filled with 
their spirit imbued with wisdom, and fired by their zeal and success, you 
have wrapped about you their fallen mantels, and are walking in the light 
which thev discovered. With brave hearts and skillful hands you are 
mightily pushing forward the work which they so nobly began. You go 
ranging abroad in hitherto unexplored regions of plant life seeking the 
goodly pearls of horticultural truth, and when you have found them you 
sound the trumpet, call us together, and give them to us freely without 
money and without price. It is your object to search out the highest 
wisdom and adopt the best methods of doing things, for your own sakes, 
and not only so, but so to instruct and enthuse the fruit growers of the 
land as that they shall be able to produce plenty of choice fruit for all 
our own people at a fair price, and to break into the great. markets of the 
distant Orient to feed the hungry millions with the fragments that re- 
main after our own people have eaten and are full. It is for these reasons 
that we meet you and greet you. 

I cannot forbear to mention that it is the work of Secretary Goodman, 
Col. Evans, W. G. Gano and others, long time officers of your Society, 
that have made it what it is. Years ago they took hold of its work when 
it was but a nucleus of its present self. Through their unselfish devotion 



■Winter Meeting. 155 

to its interests, through their tireless energies in its behalf, through 
their unsleeping zeal, their sound judgment and sterHng worth, they 
have bought it up to its present proportions and power. They have 
budded, and grafted, and pruned, and sprayed and fertilized your Society 
so that it has become a tall and fruitful tree. Although planted here 
low in the Mississippi valley its top can be seen by New York on one 
hand and California on the other. It now has the proud distinction of 
being one of the best fruit societies in the world. The men whose work 
made it such deserve the thanks, the praise, the confidence and the love 
of the fruit growers of Missouri, and they have them. It is more than 
a pleasure to have these veterans among us. It is a delight. We greet 
you as our helpers, as our teachers and trainers, and as our gracious bene- 
factors. 

We fondly cherish the hope that during your itinerancy here we 
shall be able to receive at least a modicum of the knowledge which you 
have come so generously to impart, and to find your enthusiasm which 
you hope not to lose. May our hearts burn within us while you talk 
to us by the way and unfold to us the mystery of the production and 
disposition of good fruit. May we be inspired by your teachings and 
example "to forget the things that are behind," the dying year with its 
early floods and latter drought, despoiling our fields, to "reach forth 
urto the things that are before," the coming year with its labors and 
triumphs; and to "press forward towards the mark for the prize" of 
every persistent, progressive fruit grower — success. 

May the blessing of the Most High be upon your convention in all 
its work, and at its close, may we all feel that we have attended a real 
fruit Chatauqua. 

Vocal Solo — Miss Diva Rudv. 1 



RESPONSE TO ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 

(President Whitten.) 

In behalf of the Society I desire to thank the people of Neosho for 
their cordial greeting. We realize fully how much this cordial welcome 
signifies, coming from the people of Neosho, for this Society has met 
here before and has experienced the hospitality of your city and of your 
people. It is a great pleasure to us collectively and individually to again 
renew these pleasant relations and to consider with you the subject of 



156 State Horticultural Society. 

horticulture, a subject in which you are so largely interested, and not 
only financially but from the aesthetic and the home improvement stand- 
point as well. 

In the two able addresses to which you have just Hstened the full 
Significance of the broadening influences of horticulture has been pointed 
out. Perhaps no where in the State can we find a locality where horti- 
culture means more to the people or where the people in turn have con- 
tiibuted more to horticulture in its various aspects. Your orchards and 
gardens demonstrate that your wealth and industrial activity rest largely 
upon your horticulture; the excellence of these orchards and the intel- 
ligent care bestowed 'upon them show that you are awake to this fact, 
and that you are making the most out of the natural opportunities which 
surround you. You are located in a section which presents beautiful 
natural surroundings, green hills, clear streams, salubrious atmosphere — 
just the place for a home ; your beautiful homes, surrounded with orna- 
mental plantings show that you appreciate and develop these natural 
advantages to the upbuilding of home life. 

The word home evidently signifies to you all that it should mean 
in the English language, and particularly in America. Our word home 
is translated in other languages by use of the same word that means 
house, or the domicile which shelters one. In this country the word home 
means not only the house, but it embraces the grounds about it, the shade 
trees, shrubs, clustering vines — in fact the entire surroundings. It em- 
braces all the tender associations, memories and traditions which cling 
to one's place of birth. It affords a unit, out of which grows patriotism, 
love of country and native land. It is the unit of our civilization and of 
our strength as a people. In our language home means more than a 
mere post office address. The homes about Neosho demonstrate the fact 
that the above facts are to you a living reality. They are not merely good 
liouses, they are homelike. 

The man who plants a large orchard or berry field and succeeds with 
it does well, he who combines with it a home, where horticultural knowl- 
edge and skill beautify the place with trees and flowering plants does 
better. The proceeds of the former support life, the associations and 
traditions and the aesthetic enjoyment which grow with the latter make 
life. The interests of this Society do not stop with the orchard, the in- 
fluences of its work also extend to the home and its surroundings. We 
have met then in good a place for our work, and our work has auspic- 
iously begun. 



Winter Meeting. I57 



SOME REMARKS ABOUT SPRAYING. 

(E. H. Favor, Assistant Horticulturist, Oolumbia, Mo.) 

The growers of good fruit today never expect to get much from their 
orchards unless they use some method of spraying to destroy insect 
pests and fungi which injure the health and productiveness of the trees. 
The operation of spraying has been practiced in some form for a great 
many years, but the methods and materials which we now use were un- 
known until just twenty years ago. Previous to that time plants were 
sprayed with various substances, none of which had much effect in 
controlling fungus diseases. 

At the present time the commonest fungicide in use is Bordeaux 
mixture in the liquid form. Within the past few years orchardists have 
called for a spray mixture which could be more easily applied than the 
liquid Bodeaux mixture, and this has given rise to the many dust pre- 
parations which are now springing into existence. All investigators are 
agreed that the best substance to use in controlling fungi is some form 
of copper, and the spray mixture must be an inexpensive substance which 
can be applied with ease and facility. There are many serious objections 
against the use of our standard Bordeaux mixture, the principal one of 
which is the amount of labor required to apply it. This difficulty, how- 
ever is overcome, so it is said, by the use of a dust spray. 

Investigations as to the efficacy of liquid sprays have been quite 
thoroughly and carefully made and we know well how to use them, but 
the dust mixtures have so recently come into existence that they have not 
yet been well enough studied for their real usefulness and value to be 
known. The Missouri Experiment Station during the past summer tried 
some of the dust preparations which are being recommended for orchard 
use, with a view of finding out something of their value as fungicides and 
to devise better and easier methods of preparing them. It needs not be 
said to any one who has tried to make up any of the dust sprays that 
some more rapid and less disagreeable way must be devised before they 
can be made at home with the ease of the old standard liquid Bordeaux 
mixture. During the progress of the work at the Station last year it 
was found that a much easier method of making up the dust invented 
by Dr. Bird could be had. At the winter meeting of this Society last 
year Dr. Bird gave a demonstration of the method of making up the 
dust according to his formula. Up to that time this dust had never been 
prepared in a commercial way, and the work of the past season has clearly 
shown that this method is impractical for the commercial place. • The 



158 State Horticultural Society. 

time required for shifting the dust through the very fine sieves and the 
great amount of irritating dust which fills the air and nose of the makers 
rendered its preparation not only difficult but expensive. An easier and 
cheaper way might be briefly described, as follows: Take four pounds 
of blue stone and dissolve in four gallons of water in a wooden tub ; 
in another tub slack four pounds of quick lime and as soon as slacked to 
u\t finest powder possible add four gallons of water and allow to stand 
till cool. These two lots are then poured at the same time, into a third 
vessel and stirred till no greenish streaks are visible in the blue mass. 
Two hundreds pounds of air-slacked lime are then poured out in a heap 
on a clean dry floor, and an opening- made in the top of the pile suffi- 
ciently large to hold the eight gallons of blue material. The blue material 
is then poured slowly into the pile of air-slacked lime and quickly mixed 
with it. We have found that a garden rake or hoe is the best tool to 
use in mixing these materials, and the work can all be done in about 
half an hour. As soon as the hquid mass has all been added to the lime 
and the whole well worked together it should be immediately run through 
a sand sieve and spread out on the floor as thinly as possible to dry. 
This will take two or three days or perhaps more if the Aveather is wet, 
but as soon as thoroughly dried sift again, using a fine sieve, one slightly 
finer than window screen wire. In doing this, one will enjoy less in- 
convenience from the irritating dust if he can stand where a gentle draft 
v^ill carry the dust away from his face, and less dust will fly if the sifting 
is done as close to the floor as it is possible to work. The use of a much 
finer sieve, one having sixty or eighty wires to the inch is highly recom- 
mended, since it will give a much finer and more thoroughly mixed 
powder, and less waste, but the great amount of time required to sift 
through the fine sieve probably will not pay for its use. 

Now as to the value of the various spray mixtures ; during the past 
season the dust mixture as prepared according to the formula of Dr. 
Bird, was used by the Station in two commercial orchards, together with 
the dust made up according to Mr. Maxwell's formula, and the standard 
liquid Bordeaux mixture. In one of these orchards the entire crop of 
apples was lost, owing to the fruit having all been entirely killed by scab, 
in spite of the sprayings which were given. In the other a fair crop was 
had with the following results : The plat sprayed with liquid Bordeaux 
mixture gave 50 per cent of the crop as No. i apples ; the plat sprayed 
with Dr. Bird's mixture gave 29 per cent of No. I's, and the plat sprayed 
with Mr. Maxwell's gave 30 per cent of No. I's. It is our intention to 
carry on this experiment for series of years, spraying the same trees with 
the same materials each year and perhaps after eight or ten years some 



Winter Meeting. I59 

definite conclusion can be reached as to the value of either of these spray- 
ing materials. Although the work of the past season seems to have 
given some definite result as to the value of these materials, no reliance 
should be placed on them, because of the many conditions surrounding 
the experiment, such as the weather, severity of the attack of insects or 
fungi, time of application and general condition of the orchards, all of 
which will vary from year to year. 

In closing I would say that no matter what spray mixture you are 
using, spray thoroughly or not at all, and don't get discouraged because 
the scab got your apple crop this year. Keep the spray machines going, 
for in that one has to put much of his dependence of getting a good 
crop. "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," and the ap- 
pearance of any disease on our fruit trees should only stimulate us into 
more thorough work, rather than discourage us into doing nothing to 
save the trees and the crop. 



CULTURE IN THE HOME. 

(Mrs. Asa Chandler, Randolph, Mo.) 

"Could ye but bid the hand and pen, 

From the dead years again to come, 
That once imbued with magic power. 

Wrote words of 'Home Sweet home,' 
Think you he'd tell of broad estates, 

Of gilded halls and sumptuous fare? 
Were these the best that life could give, 

Then happiness were rare." 

When Howard Payne composed the song "Home, Sweet Home," the 
words which convey such depth of feeling, he must have had in his 
mind's eye the Cultured Home, and if we follow the course of his sweet 
strain, we find it can be ever so humble, there is no place like home. We 
believe we can take him as good authority, as his song became so popular 
seemingly to express the sentiment of the people. It is yet so loved and 
reverenced. 

Home has a greater depth of meaning than just a dwelling place. 
"Home is the sacred refuge of our life." It has been so beautifully ex- 
pressed in these lines : 

' 'Tis where we find a sure retreat. 

Tossed by the storms of life, 
And from its blessed influence 

Take new courage for the strife." 

"Tell me about home life," said a philosopher, "and I will foretell 
the destiny of your country. As the families, so the nation of families." 
Then of what vast importance that the home should be right. 



i6o State Horticultural Society. 

"A stream cannot rise higher than its fountain." 

What we want is higher, better, more ennobHng principles implanted 
within our youth. Only the cultured home can attain this. When we 
consider how much depends upon the attributes of the home, the far- 
reaching influence that goes out from under its roof; the subject is broad. 
There are so many essential points, I scarce know which to mention as 
the first requisite. However, we shall give order pre-eminence, as it was 
"God's first law." If we would study nature more and apply it to our 
home life our lives would be much more peaceful and serene. The world 
needs more cultured homes, homes that will cast out rays of refinement. 
I am sure this cannot be done from disorderly homes. The old adage 
wears good : "A place for everything, and everything in its place." 

Cleanliness comes next to mind; it "is next to godliness." I know 
it is a constant warfare with broom and brush for our weapons, yet the 
good housewife's mind is broadening, and I am glad that today she 
realizes that she has a field of labor other than the confines of the kitchen. 
She should learn to do her work with method and system and some sleight 
of hand, and still have clean homes. 

Books and magazines must be in the cultured home, but very little 
of the daily paper. The literature must be such that will give pure 
thoughts. A table well filled with horticultural matter will give as- 
piration and inspiration. Country life should be there. Its beautiful 
engravings that interest young and old. Bailey's Encyclopedia is an 
education in itself. Our own Fruit Grower, that is a real personal friend. 
The National Fruit Grower, The American Truck Farmer, and a host 
of others. "t 

Flowers must be in this home. The surroundings inviting. Some 
may argue that they have no means to beautify the home. I will admit 
that money is a great convenience when rightly applied. More palatial 
homes can be built with plenty of means at one's command. But, alas, 
how many hopes have been blasted and parents' hearts wrung and for- 
tunes squandered by allowing their children the too free use of money. 
As pertains to the boy, as to the girl, every wish being gratified, petted 
and pampered. We ask, is she fitted to meet the realities of life and fill 
the place God has assigned her, the true wife and mother. I cannot be- 
lieve that money is the one most essential thing in making a happy home ; 
but time, strength, energy and contentment can produce it. 

We need to get the child so enraptured with the home life that he 
or she will not want to leave it. Love, kindness, sympathy, patience must 
be practiced in this home. Dr. Parkhurst writes: "A benediction re- 
mains upon a man or woman whose heart is printed with lines of grace 



Winter Meeting. i6i 

and sweetness caught from scenes enacted in a home dominated by mo- 
tives of love and sacrifice and piety. The most natural years of our lives 
we live while we are children, and there is always rest and purification in 
getting back in touch with them. When the burdens press a little heavily 
and the future is thick with uncertainties, the wish will sometimes shape 
itself that we might be back again among our free, fresh childhood days." 

It is in the every day of life that the world's best work is done. Some 
one has so ably put it : "Anybody can do well on special occasions. Any- 
body can do a heroic thing once or twice in a lifetime, but it requires 
more strength to be faithful in the ninety and nine commonplace duties 
when there is no special motive to stir the soul to its best effort, than it 
does for one stern conflict which calls for heroism." 

Sweet content must reign. Live within our means and be happy. 
Better is a little with righteousness than great revenues without right. 
Be content to do a little, and we will be a link in the great chain of 
humanity. "Life's fullest gifts are poured about the feet within whose 
soul is found content." And thus we find from the cultured home de- 
pends much. The influence is untold. A few lines from the sweet poet — 

' 'Tissues of life to be, we weave in colors all our own, 
And in the field of doubting we reap what we have sown." 

Piano duet — Misses Patterson and Harvey. 

Aspects of Fruit Growing — Prof. S. A. Hoover, Warrensburg, Mo., 
was read and will appear later. 

President Whitten. — Tomorrow we take up the orcharding question, 
and will be glad to see you all here at 9 o'clock sharp. Until then we 
stand adjourned. 



SECOND SESSION— WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 21, 9:30 A. M. 

After the call to order by President Whitten, prayer was offered by 
Rev. W. J. Simmons, 

The subject of the morning session was the apple orchard, and the 
first paper was on Pruning and Cultivation, by A. T. Nelson, Lebanon, 
Mo., which will appear further on. 

TREATMENT OF THE ORCHARD AFTER IT COMES INTO 

BEARING. 

(D. Lowmiller, Parkville, Mo). 

There are not many of us here today who have not tried it, realize 
the magnitude of the undertaking, and the necessary amount of work 

H-11 



i62 Sftitc HorticnJtnral Society. 

rc(|uired in the proper care and treatment of an orchard after it conies 
into bearing. Obstacles and disappointments innumerable are often our 
portion, and we of the faint heart are prone to quit and place the blame 
exactly where it does not belong. 

Now, in my way of thinking, if you want to have a good bearing 
orchard, and I take it that we all want it, then you must start at the be- 
ginning, begin with the selecting of the trees, and select them carefully, 
because more depends upon a right selection than many of us think, and 
especial attention must be paid to the kind of tree, to the soil, to the 
climate, to the slope and to the digging of the holes and setting, because 
it takes all this and more, too, to produce a fine, thrifty, rugged tree, 
and without such a tree, you can't expect a prolific bearer, at least, 1 
have learned not to expect it. 

Then comes the season you have to contend ; if it is a cold, wet spring, 
like last spring was, you are almost sure to be knocked out, with the very 
best treatment you could possibly give. 

This is where it stands you in hand to have your trees in the very 
best and healthiest condition in which it is possible for them to be. Then, 
and then only, can you depend upon them to withstand the adverse season 
and weather, and still maintain their vigorous, rugged, healthy con- 
dition; this cannot be without working on them for years beforehand. 

I will give you my way of treating a bearing orchard. It is prob- 
able that there are many people here who will not agree with me along 
these lines, but remember in criticising me and my plan, that individuahty 
and stick-to-it-ive-ness does more to accomplish results than all the 
theory and science in the world; any way, such has been my experience, 
and experience of the right kind is a millionaire compared with theory. 

When one meets with such success for three years as I have with 
my orchard, the third year being an off year, and my neighbors' orchards 
being almost a failure, and not only here, but in the whole country, the 
experience is worth following up. 

Please do not think for a minute that I am laying out a plan for 
every fruit grower in the State. I am not ; it is possible that nine-tenths 
of you would fail, and then I would have to hide ; I am simply giving 
you my experience and my plan, and you can adopt it or not, just as 
you please; there are so many failures that there can be no iron clad 
rule, but each one must rely solely upon his own orchard and his own 
judgment. Where one succeeds, others fail. 

In my orchard work I use the liquid spray, which I think is far 
superior to the dust ; it adheres better, absorbs quicker, and penetrates 
to every little nook and corner in the leaf. T have an Empire King pump 



Winter Meeting. 163 

» 

with a hundred gallon tank, two hose attached, using a double vermicelh 
nozzle. It takes three men to handle the outfit. 

I use the regular Bordeaux mixture and for two years have used 
Paris green as an insecticide; this year I used in its stead Disparene, 
which has given me much better results, as my fruit is rusted but very 
little. In going through the orchard, I spray from both sides of the wagon 
to center of tree, making two stops at each tree, following back next 
row till orchard is finished. So thorough has my work been done, that 
when my orchard is completed it looks as though it had been painted. 

My first spraying is done about four days before the buds open, and 
my next about the time when blossoms are falling, just before the calyx 
closes ; this, I think is the most important spray. But spraying is not all 
it takes to raise good apples; it takes thorough cultivation, and that, 
too, till the middle of July or the first of August, owing to the season. 
In cultivating I use Clark's cutaway orchard plow. 

One plowing I throw to tree, the next reverse, throwing it from the 
tree, thus keeping my ground perfectly level, repeating this from four to 
six times a season. For cover crop, I let nature furnish it, running mower 
over ground a couple of limes, so as not to allow any weeds to go to 
seed. Now, these are just the high bumps of my plan, leaving out all the 
minor details and attentions. It may be your plan too, for there is noth- 
mg new in this world, and common sense and good judgment suggest 
the same thing to one man that it does to others. 



The fruitage of the apple tree, 

Winds, and our flag of stripes and stars 

Shall bear to coasts that lie afar. 
Where men shall wonder at the view. 
And ask in what fair-groves they grew; 

And sojourners beyond the sea 
Shall think of childhood's careless day, 
And long, long hours of summer play, 

In the shade of the apple tree. 



La Plata, Mo., December 18, 1904. 
Hon. L. A. Goodman, Kansas City, Mo. : 

Dear Sir — I am sending you the paper on girdling. Use it as you 
see fit. Could not think of any way to put the treatment of the injured 
tree only in plain language, and you may change that if you see lit. I 
simply told our experience. Wish I had used the method on all my 
\'ork and M. B. Twig in June, 1903, as it would have made us over a 
thousand dollars this year. I send you under separate cover two photo- 



164 State Horticultural Society. 

graphs showing the girdled York tree with 93/2 bushels on, and the tree 
standing next to it with a bushel on. You will notice that while the apples 
do not show very plain the limbs are touching the ground. In the picture 
of the treated tree we got part of the tree next to it and the left side does 
not show so full, but it was. A successful meeting is my wish. 

Yours truly, 

J. E. May. 



SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENTS IN GIRDLING FRUIT TREES. 

(J. E. May, La Plata, Mo.) 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen — After listening for two or 
three years to the talks and discussions on the girdling of fruit trees in 
order to bring them into bearing, I decided to experiment on some apple 
and pear trees growing on my farm that did not bear, although old enougli 
to do so, and telling our Secretary of my success, he asked me to pre- 
pare a paper on the subject. The paper will be short, as the experiment 
was conducted only during the present year, having girdled the trees 
during June of 1903. We planted our orchard during the spring of 1895 
and up to the present time Ben Davis trees have given us four crops, 
while such varieties as York Imperial, Mammonth Black Twig and 
Wealthy have only produced a few scattering apples. After thinking the 
matter over for some time I decided to girdle a tree of each of the varieties 
that did not bear, and so on the 9th of June, 1903, took my knife and 
proceeded to the orchard and took a strip of bark from a York, M. B. 
Twig, Babbit and Wealthy, and also girdled one branch of a Flemish 
Beauty pear nine years old, that had scarcely had a bloom during the 
nine years. Should say that on the Wealthy I only girdled one branch. 
I did not tell my family what I intended to do, but after I had finished I 
took some strips of the bark in and they asked what I had been doing, 
and told them I had concluded to make my trees bear or know why. The 
hired man said, "They are dead trees, sure," and my son said, "They will 
be wilted before night," and they looked at me as though I was a fit 
subject for the asylum, but the trees failed to die or even wilt, and in 
a day or two one could see the new bark forming where the cut was 
made. It was with a great deal of interest all watched those trees dur- 
ing the fall of 1903 and spring of 1904. 

At blooming time the trees and branches girdled were white with 
bloom, as were most of the other trees with the exception of the Wealthy 



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YORK, GIRDLED, 1903. CROP, 1904, 9M: BUSHELSu 
J. E. MAY. LA PLATA. 




YORK, NOT GIRDLED. CROP, 1904, 1 BUSHEL. 
J. E. MAY. LA PLATA. 



Winter Meeting. 165 

and pear, which only showed a few blooms where not girdled. It looked 
a good deal as though we would have had about as many apples if the 
trees had not been touched. It was only a few days, however, before we 
noticed the bloom on the ungirdled trees showed signs of blasting, and 
in a few weeks there were scarcely any apples on them, while on the 
girdled trees the blooms stayed and set large quantities of fruit, which 
hung on well and colored very much more than on the other trees. In 
order to know what we gained by girdling we picked and measured the 
?.pples from the treated York tree and also from one growing by the side 
of it not treated, and there was a difference of 8J/2 bushels in favor of 
the girdled tree ; we picking 95^ bushels from it. In the case of the Black 
Twig the difference was about the same. The Wealthy branch treated 
nearly broke under the weight of fruit, while the balance of tree had 
scarcely an apple. The result proved the same in case of the pear tree. 
Had we girdled our York and Black Twig trees in 1903 our apple crop 
would have been over 2,000 bushels greater this year. Do you blame 
us for girdling them this year? 

Now, a word of caution, and I am done. Don't take your knife and 
go to your trees "just any old time" and girdle any old way. Judgment 
must be exercised in this as in spraying. Some spray at the wrong time 
with the wrong mixture, or use it too strong or not strong enough and 
get no good results, or perhaps kill their trees, and then condemn the prac- 
tice. In our girdling this year we had an experience on some 200 seven- 
year-old trees that, had we not been on the watch would have proved 
disastrous. Three days after doing the work we were out looking at the 
trees and found the thick sap had dried up and wood getting dry and 
trees in good shape to die. To say we were somewhat wrought up would 
be putting it mildly. Don't like to be laughed at, you know, and then 
did not like the idea of losing 200 seven-year-old trees. We started 
two men at once to binding them up, putting fresh cow manure on the 
wound and binding it on with strips of cloth, and today every tree is 
healed over in good shape. Think the sap was not thick enough and too 
hot and dry when the work was done, and so I say use caution and do 
the work on a day or days that are damp and cloudy if possible and notice 
that the sap under the bark is thick, and use care not to injure it, and 
you can make your trees bear and pay for their keeping. 

DISCUSSION ON PRUNING AND CULTIVATION. 

Secy. Goodman — Mr. May undertook the above experiment at my 
suggestion, and I am glad to note his report. In confirmation of this 
plan I can quote similar results from girdling over 1,500 apple trees be- 



1 66 State Horticultural Society. 

longing to the Ozark Orchard Co. The varieties were Ben Davis, W. 
W. Greening, Winesap and Jonathan, and in every instance the trees 
have not only borne more apples, but the apples have hung on the trees 
much better. I consider this girdling as important as any step in culti- 
vating or pruning, especially where the trees grow too rapidly. 

Captain Lincoln, Bentonville, Ark. — I have one hundred acres all 
in orchard and I endorse nearly everything said in the two papers. 1 
believe in pruning, cultivation and buying good trees and planting right. 
I also believe in doctoring trees and advise putting on manure as you see 
it is needed. As soon as the ground thaws go over the orchard with 
ashes, put the wrappers on and look after the trunks and wounds. It 
is a question what to do with the ends of the limbs which are too thick 
and hold too many blooms, so that they cannot hold all of the fruit 
formed. I say cut out the bushy limbs and open up the tree. L believe 
in clovering the orchard. I have had it three years and mow it while it 
is fresh. 

W. A. Gardner. — I would like to ask Capt. Lincoln what about 
heading the trees? 

Capt. Lincoln. — Mr. H. P. Gould of Washington, D. C, asked for a 
model Ben Davis tree to photograph and chose one, the limbs of which 
came out as high as my neck. My idea of an ideal tree is for the head 
to be about four or five feet from the ground after twelve years ; for 
when only eighteen inches high the limbs lie on the ground and have to 
be cut off. The limbs must come out horizontally from the trunk. 

W. H. Barnes, Kas. — We are between two fires if the head is five or 
six feet high then the limbs and apples are too high. President Well- 
house says we can't afford to pick apples over twelve feet high. 

Capt. Lincoln. — My oldest trees are twelve years and no limb rises 
over twelve feet from the ground, because they are grown horizontally. 

F. H. Speakman. — What time should we trim the tops. Some trees 
have thick heads, but we don't know when to trim for best results, that 
is, to thin and not lose too much wood growth. 

H. B. Francis, Kas. — The advice of eastern growers has made 
failures here. You should get your trees from the nearest rehable nursery, 
plow and fertilize and subsoil. Grow the orchard on level ground or 
else the rain will run off. It is just the easiest thing in the whole apple 
business to have the trees make branches so as to get the fruit from the 
ground. Never cut the center out and you will never have a high tree. 
Grow only one tree on a stem and not three or four. Shorten the outside 
limbs the second year from planting. Concentrate growth to the center. 
Later the branches droop low enough so that you can gather most of the 



IV inter Meeting. 167 

fruit with a »tep ladder. Don't lean a tree to the southwest, but let the 
center grow over as the wind makes it, then shorten in the side limbs and 
branches will come out and balance the top so that the tree will set even. 
■If the branches come out on the northeast side and make that side heavier 
so that it will be blown over by the southwest wind, the tree will become 
sunburned. Sunburn comes from freezing, which loosens the bark so 
that it dries out and fungi and borers get in. Keep the sun ofif of the 
trunk of a tree in the winter and there will never be any sunburn, for it 
is in the winter that sunburn occurs. Protect the trees with wooden 
wrappers. The wind doesn't blow the apples off if the limbs hang low. 
I once ran across a nurseryman who was going to revolutionize the ap- 
ple business by selling apple trees budded on seedling roots, but it can't, 
be done. It is easy to grow a tree according to my plan. I have put my 
ideas down in this little book and have given some of these ideas to you. 

Capt. Lincoln. — I will say in answer to Mr. Speakman's question, 
that I selected ten rows of trees and pruned the trees at different times 
throughout several months of the year, I began in October and finished 
the 17th of July. When a gentleman asks when the best time is to prune 
I show him the trees. The best time to thin out the little branches is from 
the time they begin to bloom, up to the time that the apples are as large 
as hickory nuts, 

W. A. Gardner. — If you prune in June it will take the tree just a 
year to get to the same stage again. Mr. L. H. Bailey says prune "when 
the knife is sharp." That is the best time. 

T. C. Love. — I differ with Capt. Lincoln about having the limbs 
droop ; for apples which hang to the limbs even if these are on the ground 
take on a good color if they stick to the limb. I agree with the Captain 
that the apples color up well on the limbs above twelve feet. I am using 
twelve foot ladders but I believe I will have to have eighteen foot ones 
made to pick my fruit. I believe in heads so as to run the mower and 
cultivator under. On my trees the limbs come out four feet from the 
ground so that I can't cultivate when the apples are large. When the 
limbs are drooping they will be bent still more by a heavy crop of fruit, 
but as soon as the crop is picked the limbs straighten up. Any that stay 
down should be cut off. I agree with Mr. Gardner that the best time to 
prune is whenever a limb needs to be taken off. I carry a knife and 
shears with me every time I go through the orchard and cut where it 
is needed. I like the disk harrow to work the soil with, as it is better 
and cheaper than the cutaway. I pull the dirt away from the trees for 
eight or ten inches. The disk harrow pulls the grass down and you must 
go over it with a spring-tooth harrow ; then mow, to keep down the weeds, 



i68 State Horticultural Society. 

E. G. Mendenhall, Kinmundy, 111.— As regards the pruning business, 
it becomes a very important part to watch the limbs and keep those that 
cross cut off. It takes study to cut off the unnecessary limbs. We 
shouldn't hurry as, at the best, we often find that we have missed limbs 
that cross and rub. This pruning c?.n't be done in one year. February and 
March are the best months to begin in, as we can tell better when the 
leaves are off. Cut off the limbs close to the body and smooth, and paint 
well, give a second coat if it is freezing. 

Pres. Whitten. — What cultivator would you use? 

N. F. Murray. — I will say use Clark's Cutaway harrow. 

L. C. Wilson. — I say the same. It is the best for the sod, if you use 
an ordinary harrow on the sod and then use a double four-foot cutaway 
you will see the difference. 

J. C. Evans. — I am glad to see that the tendency among the 
orchardists is toward more thorough cultivation. I have been preaching 
this, but people are too slow to adopt it because they are so greedy. We 
think we can make twice the profit on eighty acres that we could on forty, 
but I think we could double it on forty by good cultivation, spraying, 
plowing, washing and wrapping the trees and all these things that mean 
good care. 

E. G. Mendenhall. — We cultivate late in the fall and early in the 
spring to get the insects out. 

Dr. Whitten. — We need a tool to turn the soil over. 

N. F. Murray. — I have been interested in the disc harrows, as I 
have not been able to get my trees to do as well as I wanted them to. 
We do not study sufficiently the individuality of the variety and the 
location. I was in an orchard of the Panhandle of Virginia, in which 
they were using thirty foot ladders to pick the apples from trees which 
were sixty years old. In another orchard they fertilized heavily with 
barn yard manure and bone meal. Successful men do something and we 
must concentrate our attention and our work. We must cultivate and 
put in clover and disc down in the fall. The matter of pruning depends 
on the age and variety of the tree and nature of the orchard ; in some 
cases it is necessary to cut the tree down. I do not believe in an orchard 
forty feet high nor very old. Missouri orchard life is about twenty years, 
and it doesn't pay to try to get them to live longer. The Clark's Cutaway 
harrow is the best paying implement. I would not do without it if it cost 
$100. 

T. C. Love — If turning the soil is what is wanted I prefer the solid 
disc as the cutaway will not turn as much of the soil, but leaves solid 
bits between. 



Winter Meeting. 169 

L. C. Wilson — I would like to ask what is gained by turning the 
soil? 

Dr. Whitten — Briefly we might say the gain is in the killing of the 
weeds, airing and pulverizing the soil, letting the spring rains soak in and 
letting the roots air out. Cultivation and turning the soil releases the 
plant food, mellows and slacks the earth so as to increase its capacity 
for holding moisture and food. It improves available food material as 
well as the mechanical condition of the soil by actually turning it over. 
Warming is important in the early spring as the roots should start when 
the buds do. The turning destroys the fungus spores if done at the right 
time and also the insect eggs by burying and covering or by bringing to 
the top so as to freeze or bake them. 

L. C. Wilson — I have asked this question and it has been answered 
and I hope it will be remembered by these young men for this is one 
of the most important operations in orchard culture. 

E. G. Mendenhall — I would like to ask Col. Love if he has ever 
used a cutaway?? 

Col. Love — No, I have never used one, because I do not think it will 
cultivate the surface of the soil as well as the solid disc. 

Mr. Mendenhall — If a cutaway is used on sod it cuts clear under the 
grass and across to the other line of the disc and the same with soil. 
The grass is turned up in ribbons. This machine will cut weeds as 
high as a horse's back and by going across four ways the weeds and soil 
will be well stirred. 

J. W. Graves — How would a disc work on stony lands such as we 
have around Neosho? 

Mr. Wilson — The cutaway slips over stones and cuts more than the 
others. 

]\Ir. Mendenhall — The discs will not be injured by the stones. 

N. F. Murray — We have used both kinds in the orchard and the 
difference is that the solid disc will not cut with as much force, but slides 
over the hard parts, while the cutaway comes down harder and cuts 
better. 

B. C. Auten — How many horses does it take to pull a four foot 
cutaway. 

Mr. Wilson — For a 16 disc it takes a good, stout team. One team 
can do it, but it has to be a good one. A cutaway finishes and throws 
both ways in and out. 

Mr. Auten — At the fair I saw a traceless harness, can any one tell 
me if it is any good? 

W. H. Barnes — A neighbor of mine has one hanging on a fence that 
any one can have for the asking. 



170 State Horticultural Society. 

B. Logan — The Clark cutaway is too high in price. I hke it all 
right, but prefer the New York harrow made by Johnson Plow Co., at 
half the price. 

J. A. Orr — There is a difference in soil, the sandy soil does not 
need such deep turning. 

J, M. Irvine — I would like to ask if any one knows of an orchard on 
the Missouri river hills that is cultivated in this way and the soil does 
not wash. Is this cultivation given all the spring and until August. 

D. Lowmiller — I give this kind of cultivation to my orchard until 
July and when it washes go across and turn the soil over the other way. 
My land is not very steep. 

J. M. Irvine — On a piece of the experimental orchard at Parkville 
the rain had washed the hills badly. 

H. B. McAfee — That is so, and that method is a disadvantage in 
steep land. Mr. Low^miller's is not so steep. The soil washes less, 
if well cultivated and a cover crop grown, than where the cultivation 
is spasmodic. The Clark cutaway is right according to our experience, 
but you have to keep away from our limestone rocks, 

N. F. Murray. — The best orchard I ever had was on Missouri 
river hill kmd and was cultivated and it washed, but we never omit 
cultivation because land washes in a corn field. I cultivated, manured 
and put clover on part of the time, and after the orchard was cut off 
the land gave sixty bushels of corn per acre. This orchard paid me 
$800 per acre in twenty years. 

G. W. Logan. — We have used Clark's cutaway several years and 
before that had trouble with washing. First we put manure on, but 
the fertilizer washed to the low parts and since we have with the 
cutaway thrown the ridges together, this holds the water well. My 
soil is poor red clay and tended to wash badly, but I can now control 
the washing by the Clark's Ctitawa}'-. When the cow pea vines had 
been cut the second time you couldn't tell the cow peas had been 
there. The cutaway turns over the vines and works the soil fine and 
kills the weeds and grasses. There is no better implement for orchard 
cultivation made. 

J. W. Hitt. — In a five-year-old peach orchard which is in fine 
condition the soil never has been turned, for it gets too hard by turn- 
ing. It is impossible to use a harrow around Koshkonong because 
we have so many rocks. We have had thirty-five hundred loads of 
rock hauled off of a hundred acres. 

B. C. Auten.— I plow with a bull-tongue to stir the soil, but not 
to turn it. This brings the small stones up and keeps a stone mulch 
and prevents washing. I use a spring-tootl] harrow to stir the rocks. 



Winter Meeting. lyi 

Mr. Furgason. — In a field of sixteen acres which was very steep 
nothing- but corn had been grown for sixteen years and all this time 
it had been cultivated with a bull-tongue plow. We began using a 
hill-side plow which in turning left a smooth surface and nothing to 
hold the water and in two years had gulleys that a horse couldn't 
jump. I believe that the little furrows of the bull-tongue allowed the 
water to spread out, but with the turning plow big furrows were left 
and washed. In an old orchard the dirt was thrown up to the trees 
like a mound and next year plowed away from the trees, thus leveling 
the ground. 

J. A. Orr. — Water will cut our hard flint soils unless they are 
filled with humus. Humus takes up the water like a sponge, but if 
the humus gets used up the water tears out the soil. If the ground is 
kept open and porous the water will sink in, therefore, we must use 
clover and cow peas to get humus which holds the water and lets it 
out in dry weather. 

L. A. Goodman. — In cultivation we lose sight of one important 
matter, that is of rotation. We find that in this Ozark land the soil 
burns out with thorough cultivation. We have adopted this plan. In 
the fall we plow as shallow as we can and turn up the earth as rough 
as possible and continue this plowing all winter. This gets the land 
ready for sowing clover or cow peas next spring. If the ground is 
planted with cow peas for one season we then have the best of con- 
ditions for seeding clover the following spring. In some parts of the 
orchard we leave this winter-plowed land alone and let weeds grow 
for cover crop. This is the cheapest cover crop we can get. In our hun- 
dreds of acres of orchard we cannot easily treat all alike so allow the 
weeds to grow on parts of it each year. Where the trees are in bear- 
ing we run the mower to cnt the weeds. Part of this winter plowing 
we leave for summer fallow, part we plant to corn and part to cow 
peas. We leave the orchard in clover only two or three years. The 
ground that washes we winter plow and leave rough with a weed 
mulch plowed under which helps to keep it from washing. We could 
not plow some of the rocky land at first very well, but after the winter 
plowing it can be broken without any difficulty. Owing to the rota- 
tion of cow peas, corn, Aveeds, summer fallow and clover we have the 
land in good condition. Turn the clover after two years, not before. 

Mr. Furgason of Howell county. — When we left off cultivating 
and let the weeds grow for mulch we had fifteen or eighteen inches 
growth on the trees. 

W. A. Gardner. — I came to a point Avhere I could not plow, then 
I gathered Japanese clover around the trees and had the best crop 



1/2 State Horticultural Society. 

of apples in the section, and the trees were healthy. The mulch was 
better than constant cultivation, and paid because there was less ex- 
pense. The bodies were healthy and the trees made a beautiful 
growth. There has been no plow in this orchard for sijiT years, the 
trees are from nine to thirteen years old. The insects did not bother 
much and the trees were not spra)'^ed. Bitter rot was not half so bad 
as when we cultivated. This is true alsO' of two other orchards in 
the midst of the bitter rot district. The bitter rot struck in the top, 
the dust rose from the adjoining orchards which were cultivated 
and where cultivation was given under the trees we have bitter rot 
first on the bottom limbs. We are now getting rid of bitter rot and 
our orchard is comparatively covered with a mulch of Japanese 
clover. I believe the mulch keeps down the spores of bitter rot. 

Member. — I agree with, Mr. Gardner in my observation that the 
orchard cultivated had bitter rot and lost trees. I approve of the 
mulch. 

DISCUSSION ON SPRAYING. 

Mr. Shank. — I tried spraying for two years, but was not satis- 
fied. The first year I prepared my own dust and failed entirely on 
apples. I'his year I sprayed more thoroughly, eight or nine times, 
and failed to get any apples that keep, all had the fungus. 

Mr. Hall. — The canker worm got into my orchard, but I saw a 
sermon by Prof. J. M. Stedman in The Western Fruit Grower and 
tried his receipt of Paris green and lime. I sprayed once, then the 
wet Aveather set in and then the harvest which kept me from spraying, 
but when I examined the trees I could find no living worms, but 
plenty of dead ones, and I had a pretty crop of apples. I sprayed 
again this year, and had a good crop of apples. 

G. T. Tippin. — Success is governed by local conditions, certain 
things cannot be successfully used in one place and be as satisfactory 
in another. For it is often a matter of climatic conditions. I have 
been somewhat skeptical about spraying, but it is conceded that suc- 
cess comes oftener to those who spray than those who do' not. This is 
seen from experiments in Illinois, New York, Michigan and other 
states. As a general proposition success comes to those who dili- 
gently spray. 

Many spraying solutions have been recommended to farmers 
and horticulturists for apple trees and potato vines. The Canadian 
government has made extensive experiments with a spray and has 
recommended its general use. Some of the best orchards have had 



Winter Meeting. 173 

repeatedly clean crops where this spray has been used. Following is 
the solution recommended : 

Twenty pounds of blue vitriol, i pound of white arsenic, i pound 
of Paris green, 2 pounds of sal soda, 87^2 pounds of lime and 250 
gallons of water. 

Prepare the arsenic by boiling one pound of arsenic with two 
pounds of sal soda in two gallons of water for forty-five minutes. 

Dissolve vitriol and strain in your barrel or tank, filling two- 
thirds full with water. Slack the lime in another barrel or tight box, 
and add enough water for the other third ; then through wire screen- 
ing strain your lime water in with the vitriol and keep well agitated 
while doing so. Then add the Paris green by dissolving in a little 
water, agitating well, then add the arsenic solution, again agitating. 

This mixture gives best results by using as soon as made, as 
after standing two days is considered worthless. 

Spray apples, first, just as buds begin to swell; second, just before 
buds break open ; third, just as soon as blossoms fall. 

Spray potatoes just as soon as the bugs begin to eat the vines, 
again just before the potatoes blossom. 

You need not be afraid of burning the foliage with above solution, 
if properly made and agitated, so spray very thoroughly and see the 
apples grow free from worms and scab, and the potatoes from bugs 
and blight. 

For each spraying of apples seven gallons should be used for each 
average sized tree. 

W. A. Gardner. — I do not mean to say that spraying is not good. 

L. A. Goodman. — The Canadian formula, it seems to me, Avould 
cost too much in a large way and be too much trouble, as it is more 
work than other formula. 

Prcs. Whitten. — I do not intend to advertise by calling on men 
who have machines to sell, but we would like to hear from Mr. 
Johnson on dust spraying. 

Mr. Johnson. — Mr. President and fellow members: I appreciate 
the opportunity your kind invitation affords me, of laying before you 
a condensed statement of the comparative results as obtained and re- 
ported to me by the growers, who have used both systems. What 
we are interested in as growers is results in the orchard. The simple 
statement of the subject on your program, spraying, liquid and dust, 
materials, machines and time, ir, sufficiently comprehensive to draw- 
out the best points in both systems, and indicates that our worthy 
Secretary has a broad and intelligent view of the situation. I wish 



174 State Horticultural Society. 

to commend the course you have taken, Mr. i'lesident, to get at the 
facts, as the practical work in the orchard has developed them. The 
individual experience of every grower, who has used both systems is 
good, the collective experience of a large number of growers, under 
varying conditions, climatic and otherwise, on all kinds of fruit grown 
m our diversified climate is better. Our reports this season cover 
Ml the fruit growing sections of the United States, on all kinds of 
deciduous fruits and vegetables as well as the citrus fruits of Florida 
and Southern California. Our reports also embrace the application 
c»i the dust process to the Walnut Blight in California, as conducted 
under the auspices of the Walnut Growers Association of Southern 
California, with the result that the disease has been controlled. In 
i;eneral, the reports show, without exception, that on all kinds of 
stone fruits, grapes, all kinds of vines, gooseberries, currants, straw- 
ben its, potatoes and all kinds of vegetables, the dust proces.s is far 
superior to the liquid. The past season has developed the j'act that 
the f'T)^ formulae are the only ones that can be used successfully on 
peach and grape rots. The Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
D. C. instituted a comparative test for the peach rot at Fort Valley, 
Cf-i , under the direction of Prof. Scott. We had the pleasure of meet- 
ing Prof. Scott at tlie World's Fair, and he reports tha'; his tests 
were without result, owing to the absence of rain in the section in 
Vv^hich he operated, the rot did not develop, the first time that section 
has been free from it in eleven years. We also had the pleasure of 
a visit from Prof. Woods, of the Division of Plant Pathology at 
Washington, D. C. He stated to us that the dust process was the 
only successful one for the treatment of the rot, and that the depart- 
ment was now engaged in perfecting the dry formula. As an in- 
secticide, the reports show the dust formula to be superior to the 
liquid for the same purpose, due, no doubt, to a more perfect distribu- 
tion of the arsenic, and the limitation of the arsenic necessary in the 
liquid form, being removed by the change of the conveyor from 
water to dry form. On Scab Fungus, the reports of the past season 
show, that as between the two systems it is six of one and half a dozen 
of the other. In our own orchard we had complete control of the 
disease on the foliage and fruit. We do not mean by this that our 
fruit was free from scab, but we do mean, that the application of the 
dry formula we used killed the fungus on both foliage and fruit, but 
owing to the excessive rains, we could not keep the dust on our trees, 
and the fungus stole a march on us between times. We sprayed our 
apples eight times, peaches, plums, cherries and grapes four times 



Winter Meeting. 175 

each. We had a good crop of 'J'riumph peaches, a variety that is very 
susceptible to rot and hard to handle, but we harvested them in good 
condition. In other sections cf the country where they had not the 
adverse climatic conditions we have had, and where the fruit set full, 
the percentage of No. i fruit outranked liquid sprayed orchards, both 
in yield and in quality. During the last season, we used our Sal Bor- 
deaux preparation exclusively in our work. In this preparation the 
sulphate of copper is held in suspension until applied to the tree and 
fruit, then nature furnishes the moisture to dissolve the bluestone on 
the tree instead of in the compounding tank. We did not urge our 
old friends, who have stood b}' us from the first, and some of them 
now present, to use this specially prepared blue stone. We concluded 
they knev/ as much and perhaps more, in regard to combining the 
blue stone with lime than we did, and we wished to test its work on 
our own ground. We laid the facts before them as we had found them 
in the laboratory, sent them samples of the Sal Bordeaux, and allowed 
them to use their own judgment. We believe we have the solution of 
the difficult problem of combining the blue stone with lime in this 
preparation, avoiding all chemical combinations until after the sul- 
phate of copper has done its work. We sent samples of this com- 
pound to various experiment schools including our own, requesting an 
analysis to determine this point, whether it contained as much, or 
more, or less sulphate of copper than the. 4-4-50 formula. We regret 
to "Say that we v/ere not successful in this as none of the colleges 
complied with oiir request. From our own experience, and that of 
others, who used the preparation, we will increase the ratio of the 
Sal Bordeaux in our formula next season. In the dry process, we have 
gained a ver}' decided advantage over the liquid, from the fact that 
the danger of burning the foliage and rusting the fruit is entirely 
overcome, the only question to be determined is, the proper ratio 
to use for best results, practical tests in the orchard can alone de- 
termine this, but we can use the arsenic in dry form, of any required 
strength, and on any kind of foliage; therefore, the question of ad- 
justing the ratios is simply adapting the means to the desired end. 
The simplicity, ease of application, and the total absence of the 
danger element in the dry process appeal very strongly to the practical 
grower. This point was very forcibly illustrated by a commercial 
grower from Mississippi, who visited our booth at the World's Fair 
in August. He returned to the Fair near its close, and coming to our 
exhibit, after looking over the machines again, he said, "I want one 
of your 'Cj'clones ;' since I was here before, I have read your book on 



176 State Horticultural Society. 

Dust Spray; i have corresponded with several of your references, 
and 1 sized the situation up this way. The dust spray is yet in a crude 
state; it has had no help from our colleges; it has stood the test of 
practical orchard work, pitted against the liquid process, perfected and 
improved, as far as money, time, and ability can perfect it and has 
more than held its own on its merits. When the dry process gets 
the recognition its merits deserve, we will have little use for the old 
system." Our experience at the World's Fair, and our correspondence 
since its close fully warrant the statement of our friend from the 
South. The system is now used in every section of the United States 
and four foreign countries, and is engaging the best thought of the 
best minds engaged in agricultural and horticultural work through- 
out the world. We learned, during the World's Fair, from the repre- 
sentatives of the agricultural and horticultural interests of France 
and Germany, that these countries are in advance of us in the use of 
dry fungicide and insecticide, and that where the dry process has 
been introduced it has superceded the old system; this is especially 
true in regard to the treatment of their vineyards. Mr. B. K. Brant, 
the president of the Orange and Lemon Growers' Association of 
Southern California, has used the dust exclusively for the last three 
seasons. His neighbors use the liquid. We sent Mr. Brant some 
dust to experiment on the San Jose Scale last spring; in writing to 
us about it, he states, 'T have used the dust exclusively for three 
seasons ; my farm is as clear of all kinds of insects as my neighbors, 
who have used the liquid, and I have protected my crops at one-third 
the cost they have ; so I shall continue to use the dust." We met Mr. 
Brant's neighbor, to whom he referred, at the World's Fair. We told 
him what Mr. Brant had written; he replied, '"'That is just about the 
size of it." Mr. Chairman, these are the conditions as we find them 
from reports in our possession. Our statements are necessarily con- 
densed, as we do not wish to take up too much time of the meeting, 
If it is the desire of any member present to get fuller information 
on any point of interest to him, I will cheerfully answer any questions. 

E. Fosley, Neosho. — For a wash to keep the rabbits off, use 
I bucket of white wash, i tablespoon of copperas, i tablespoon of car- 
bolic acid. 

H. G. Richardson. — Please explain why it is best not to spray 
while the trees are full of bloom. 

Prof. WTiitten. — We can accomplish all that is needed by the 
spraying before and after the blossoming. The spray is sure to fall 







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Winter Meeting. lyy 

on the tender parts of the blossom and the essential organs are sen- 
sitive to the spray poison, so the flower will be injured, and we get 
an imperfect pollination, and consequently imperfect fruit. The spray 
also poisons the bees. 

W. D. Maxwell — Spraying is one of the most important questions 
that confronts the orchardist and is not fully solved. Spraying is the 
only check for insect and fungous pests. I have been spraying for fifteen 
years, for eight years I used the liquid spray three or four times a year 
according to the best authority and with some success. I heard of the 
Hillis dust spraying. I began experimenting with the dust. I plotted 
off the orchard and sprayed with the dust and liquid on difiterent plots 
and had apples even the bad years where I used the dust. In fact for three 
years I had fine success with the dust but the last two years I have lost 
out although I sprayed eight times. I don't think any man ought to 
spray when the blooms are out as it hurts the blossoms and the bees. 
This spring I had fine prospects but the last of May the rain and fog 
came and the fruit was gone in four days. I believQ that we can get 
a perfect Bordeaux in the dry form. We have it good now. The lime 
is an advantage alone, slack it with caustic soda. I never expect to spray 
with the liquid again. 

D. Lowmiller. — I used the liquid but did not use the dust on account 
of the rain. My neighbors sprayed with the dust but had no crop. I 
had a good crop of apples and my trees held their foilage well, the leaves 
began to be shed on the loth of August and there were none left by Sep- 
tember, but the foliage was fine, dark and smooth. I used Paris Green as 
an insecticide. The Ben Davis I sprayed twice but they did not come out 
in good condition. Disparene gave me best success. 

G. T. Tippin — It is best for the tree that the foliage should be 
conserved. 

President Whitten announced the appointment of committees as 
follows : 

On Fruits — J. C. Evans Jr., Olden, Mo. ; G. T. Lincoln, Bentonville, 
Ark. ; W. T. Burkam, St. Louis, Mo. 

On Finance — N. F. Murray, Oregon, Mo., B. Logan, Logan, Mo. ; 
Dan Lowmiller, Parkville, Mo. 

On Obituary — G. T. Tippin, Nichols, Mo. ; W. G. Gano, Parkville, 
Mo. ; W. H. Barnes, Topeka, Kas. 

On Final Resolutions — J. ]\I. Irvine, St. Joseph, Mo.; J. F. Christian. 
Neosho', Mo. ; H. S. Wayman, Princeton, Mo. 



H— 12 



178 State Horticultural Society. 



THIRD SESSIOxM— WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 21, 2:30 P. M. 

STONE FRUITS AND STRAWBERRIES. 

PEACH SEEDLINGS. 
(Rev. John Brereton, Springfield, Mo.) 

I am not here to advocate planting seedlings but to plead for hardy 
fruits adapted to our respective localities. We want good fruit, but 
anything that bears is better than the best that is always barren. I am 
a champion of seedling peaches because they bear. Old settlers say 
their trees have missed but two crops in thirty-six years. 

To assume that seedlings are no good, because the average is small 
and tasteless, is like assuming that humanity is a failure, because few 
equal Washington, Lincoln, Beecher and Moody. But of these four 
giants only two had a pedigree. History proves that those of lowly 
origin occasionally move to the front. Horticulturists niay be guilty 
of the caste spirit in fruit planting as the Brahmin is in family exclusive- 
ness. In America it is often but one generation from the bottom of the 
social scale to the top, and vice versa. So in fruits ; the standards lose 
stamina, while the despised and unknown rise to prominence. 

A Chinese tradition tells of a peach tree which bore fruit only once 
in a thousand years, but he who was fortunate enough to sample a 
specimen became immortal. There is much comfort in this to those who 
have been waiting for their Elbertas to bear. The story also tells of 
another tree which bore annual crops, but was guarded by a hundred 
demons, because its fruit v/as said to produce instant death. This last 
tree was the parent of the Ozark seedling and the devils are the agents 
and commercial growers who tell us that seedlings are no good. 

Every well known variety was once a chance seedling — not one 
having originated by purely scientific methods. They are popular be- 
cause of success amidst local conditions. The mistake has come from 
assuming that they would yield equal results in other localities. Time 
has proven that each locality must find varieties adapted to its own soil 
and climate. 

G. F. Espenlaub has said: "To improve the hardiness of peaches, 
selected seeds of the hardiest varieties, should be planted ; when these 
come into bearing, the choicest and hardiest among them should be 
cared for and the inferior and tender cut out. Each generation would 
thus move a step toward the ideal-" 



py inter Meeting. 179 

James Lavelle says: "Before planting, first visit all orchards in 
your neighborhood, selecting such varieties as have done well amidst con- 
ditions similar to your own." 

J. H. Hale recently said: "There has been a peach craze for the 
past few years. They are all planting Elbertas, and the whole thing will 
go to smash as soon as all these trees come into bearing." But Mr. 
Hale's fears are groundless. Half of the Elbertas planted will never 
bear, so nature saves man from his own madness. 

Colonel J. C. Evans, in 1893, said: "We can never raise peaches 
commercially with the kinds we have. We must find new kinds, hardier 
than those we now have." His son, Dr. Paul Evans, is now seeking to 
solve this problem, at Mt. Grove, by searching for hardy, annual bearing 
varieties, 

'Mr. Goodrich, of Illinois, says : "We are looking for a hardy 
peach, adapted to our peculiar changeable climate. Crosby succeeds in 
Massachusetts, but does not succeed in New Jersey. We have twelve 
sub-stations scattered all over Illinois to test varieties for each locality." 

Mr. Kreybill, of Olden, said: "The peach is a fruit of locality. 
Some will succeed over a wider range, while others are suited only to 
a particular locality. There are local kinds, all over the country, equal 
in quality and much more reliable than those catalogued." 

Mr. Baxter, of Illinois, says : "We have a fine yellow peach, earlier 
than Elberta, large, better in quality, which produces hundreds of bushels 
to Elberta's ten. It comes almost true from seed." If this be true, 
would it not be foolish for Mr. Baxter and his neighbors to plant El- 
bertas if they can get ten times more and better fruit by planting a seed- 
ling ? 

Rolland Alerrill, the noted Michigan fruit grower, has won phenom- 
enal success by selecting buds from the best trees that bore in his locality. 
He continues this selection of trees, and even branches, which show spe- 
cial qualities, for his new orchards. 

Mr. N. F. Murray says: "We must select our scions and buds from 
the most healthy and vigorous trees that produce the largest and best 
fruit. We believe that in this manner our American horticulture must 
be improved." 

Prof. L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University, says : "Progress lies in 
selection. Look for a plant which shows indications of your ideal, save 
the seed carefully, plant apart and in turn save the seed. Nature gives 
us many starting points, but few are skillful and patient enough to save 
and improve them. Plants cannot be bred with the same precision as 
animals. In the animal vv-orld each parent is either male or female. 



iSo State Horticultural Society. 

In plants each parent is generally both male and female, with variations 
in every limb. The element of chance is therefore lOO to one against 
exact reproduction, even when tlu' most scientific methods are followed." 
Prof. Bailey made 312 eii'orts to cross different varieties; 223 refused to 
cross or yield seed, 89 gave results, but none of them were of any 
practical value. He agrees with Darwin that nature abhors hybrids, yet 
in her own way and time produces valuable varieties. Man's work con- 
sists in selection of the fittest, and destruction of the unworthy. 

Verlot, the French naturalist thinks variations are purely accidental 
in the first initial movemient. Man must take the hint, and by selection 
get a distinct variety. 

Carrieres, another authority, says plants begin all deviations from 
the normal, by what we call an "accident," the cause of which is un- 
known to science. We can do little toward producing variations, but 
varieties most often spring up spontaneously. Our work is to take ad- 
vantage of and improve them by continual selection. 

These authorities are quoted on the scientific phase of the question, 
to show the fallacy of supposing that nurserymen have some magic 
power to create new things. Indeed new creations are less liable to ap- 
pear in a nursery than in ordinary gardens and farms, where nature is 
allowed much of her own way, and where the commercial spirit has not 
crushed out all sympathy with everything, but the almighty dollar- If 
we approach this problem for the purpose of making money we shall 
fail ; but if we produce peaches that bear every year, from June to No- 
vember it will double the value of every home by increasing family at- 
tachment for its fruits. The plant breeder must have no time tO' make 
money, and live above the commercial spirit. Truth and beauty must be 
the first and final aim. If money comes, it is all right, but if like other 
inventors and discoverers, he lives and labors in poverty, let the 
consciousness of usefulness be his sufificient reward. The discoverer of 
a new fruit differs from the expert cultivator, who simply compels plants 
to do better work temporarily, while a superior plant may double prod- 
ucts for all time, in all places, for everybody. Burbank suggests possi- 
bilities of improvement in cereals showing that if every ear were made to 
produce but one grain more, it would increase our annual products 50,- 
000,000 bushels. 

I am not here to assert that seedlings will bear more regularly than 
budded fruit, for I do not think budding alters the nature of the tree. 
There are seedlings that seldom bear, and thousands of seedlings are 
worthlessi when they do bear. What I advocate is the selection, and 
propagation of varieties that do bear, and the best that bear. It is but a 



Winter Meeting. i8i 

few years since the Elberta was a chance seedHng. The original tree 
was probably as tender in bud as any of its descendants. If it had been 
transplanted to many of our orchards it would probably have yielded a 
crop once in ten years, while some of our seedlings, equal to it in some 
respects, bear a crop nine years in ten. This is no special reflection on 
Southern and Eastern peaches ; other fruits fare no better. There are 
about i,ooo varieties of apples catalogued; yet we would not risk a dozen 
of them in a commercial orchard. Varieties of sterling worth at the 
East, as Baldwins, Famuse, Russets, Greenings, are worthless in Mis- 
souri, while our Ben Davis, Jonathan, Grimes Golden and York Imperial 
may be as useless there. Berries succeeding in one section are often a 
total failure in another. The habit of ordering stock from highly colored 
catalogues is as vicious as speculating on Wall street. Georgia, Iowa, 
Connecticut and California have their charms, but Missourians should 
stand up for their own state. Before the days of flashy catalogues, our 
old settlers had peaches every year. Like the prodigal, we left our 
father's house for other lands. We have tried the husks, but now are 
coming back to find enough and to spare still growing on the old farm. 

Don't allow prejudice to blind us to facts. Even if a million seed- 
lings are worthless, we may find one of royal quality ; let us separate and 
propagate it. Over a bushel of apple seed was planted by Mr. Gideon, 
in Minnesota without results. For ten years he kept on sowing more, 
and at last grew one splendid apple — the Wealthy. This was sufficient 
reward for a thousand failures. Weir raised a million soft maples to 
get one cut-leaf- 

But happily we are not left to grope in the dark or wait for new 
productions. Nature has already given us a starting point. There are 
many very fine seedlings that bear annual crops. These await our selec- 
tion and adoption into the horticultural family of approved fruits. Dur- 
ing the past year I have examined thousands of bearing trees, and from 
Among them selected about ten very fine, heavy bearing, healthy, higfh 
flavored luscious beauties, worthy of any orchard. In size many are 
larger than those called Elberta shipped from Arkansas. They were 
white, cream, yellow and red. They ripened from July to October. 
Many measured ii inches around, weighing 14 1-2 ounces. They were 
free from rot and some of the trees yielded five bushels. In beauty they 
were a study for an artist. As to shipping quality, I don't know — and 
don't care, as I am working not in the interest of commerce, but in the 
interest of the home, where I hope to see every child gathering big 
peaches, in his own dooryard. However, some of the late varieties 
might have been shoveled into freight cars like turnips, while others 
were tender as French candy. 



i82 State Horticultural Society. 

These trees are all individual specimens, differing in variety and time 
of ripening. Some are evidently derived from Old Mixon and Heath 
families, others were covered with Indian blood. They have never been 
propagated, and stand where nature started them. Some are sheltered, 
others stand apart ; some in shade, others on the south side of buildings, 
in the blazing sun. Several in thickets where other seedlings crowd 
them," in a struggle for existence, but out of the same foot of soil grew 
the large free-stone, luscious enough for the epicure, while beside it, with 
branches interlocked, grew seedlings, with fruit not larger than hickory- 
nuts — and about as juicy. Some of these trees have a record of missing 
but one crop in fifteen years. Yet they are chance seedlings, growing 
from pits thrown carelessly by some unthinking hand. Nature seems 
to have given them power to resist our changeable winters, and while 
as fine as the best, they seem as hardy as the worst. 

It would not be wise to assume that because they are seedlings, they 
are hardy. I assume nothing, but simply find them bearing every year, 
therefore conclude that they are hardy. The Alabama Experiment 
Station found budded trees hardier than seedlings. Some report the 
Elberta hardier than seedlings in their locality. Then plant it there, and 
everywhere it bears. But why should we plant anything which has borne 
but one crop in ten years for our neighbors? After fifteen years' study 
of the fruit problem in the Ozarks, I have decided to propagate from 
trees of native origin. O'zark fruits for Ozark orchards, is the solution 
of the problem on the Ozark plateau. Let each locality coin for itself a 
rule to fit its special environment. To you these may seem but theories 
now, but after testing them under many methods of culture, for a few 
years, we may appear before you again and give facts. In the mean- 
time, let your neighbors and horticulturists experiment and patronize 
agents, while you plant the best that bear in your locality. 



SUCCESS IN GROWING PEACHES. 

(W. G. Uano, Parkville, Mo.) 

Remember that we are way down in Southwest Missouri and I 
do not want to put a blanket on what has been said. I do think that we 
can grow peaches in any part of the State. We as fruit growers of 
Missouri have lost sight of a part of the State for we have a section 
where we can grow peaches and that oftener than one year in ten, even 
the Elberta. I refer to the north half of the State from St. Louis to 
Kansas City and to the Iowa line. We have men who have grown 



Winter Meeting. 183 

peaches for more than twenty years on the loess formation along the 
Missouri river but they had some bad years and became discouraged and 
thought that the Ozark land in south Missouri was the only place to grow 
peaches. We abandoned growing peaches and moved to south Mis- 
souri and lost sight of our own neighborhood. I was fortunately in- 
terested in the establishment at Olden but after five years I found we 
had crops as often in north Missouri as we had in Howell County. In 
the past thirty years I have a very faint recollection of any injury to the 
blossomi by frost. We are pretty sure of a peach crop if they come safely 
to that period. Our greatest amount of injury comes from the late 
winter colds. Our efforts in the last five years along the .Missouri river 
have succeeded beyond expectation. We have had all varieties from 
early to late on this loess formation and they compare well in quantity, 
size, color and quality, with those grown in any other part of the country. 
We are overlooking one of the important things in peach growing when 
we overlook the soil on the Missouri river hills. We should take advan- 
age of what we have for we have no better place than the loess soil along 
the river bluffs for all kinds of fruit. 



THE PEACH BUSINESS OF KOSHKONONG. 

(J. W. Hitt's Sons, Koshkonong, Mo.) 

It was with great reluctance that we accepted your Secretary's invi- 
tation to read a paper before this Society, for the reason that it seems 
rather presumptuous on our part to address a body of men far more ex- 
perienced in all matters pertaining to the culture of fruit. However, we 
feel highly complimented and appreciate the courtesy with the utmost 
gratitude. 

It m'ay be of interest to some to know how Koshkonong got its 
name- It is said that a former official of the railroad named it after 
Lake Koshkonong in Wisconsin, and a resident of Wisconsin defines it 
as an Indian word meaning wild rice. But now, when the name is men- 
tioned people think of peaches. We are sure there is no wild rice. If 
there was anything -wild sown it was mostly oats. 

You are possibly all aware of the fact that the raising of peaches at 
Koshkonong is practically in its infancy. We have been residents there 
for only ten years, yet we saw the first orchards set and have seen every 
year since an increase in the acreage until now there is in the neighbor- 
hood of 5,000 acres, and almost entirely Elbertas. Anyone who under- 



184 Sfafc Horficiilfiiral Society. 

stands, if only from observation, the natural growth of trees, can set a 
peach tree and give it the proper cultivation and care to cause it to grow 
and produce fruit. And that is the extent of knowledge with which 
many of our growers set their first orchard. What we have learned 
since is by actual experiment and practical work. 

I will state briefly how my brothers and myself start a new orchard. 
We prefer ground that has been cultivated two to four years. If new 
ground is to be used, after clearing the timber we break and cross break 
with double team, using a bull-tongue and colter. This is a slow process, 
but does the work and does it better in our rough country, according 
to our judgment, than anything we have tried or seen tried in our part 
of the State. We grow our own trees and began by setting them in the 
orchard 16 feet apart, increased that to 17 feet and again to 18 feet, and 
will in the future set 20 feet each way- We use a pick-mattock for set- 
ting the trees and dig the hole and plant the tree at the same time. In 
order to do this it is necessary to trim the roots closely, but we do not cut 
to a straight stick, as advocated by Mr. Stringfellow. Others growers 
in our vicinity dig a large hole, but we cannot see that the trees are bene- 
fited thereby. The first two years we cultivate thoroughly until middle 
of summer; after that one or two cultivations, according to conditions, 
after the crop is set, is all that we deem necessary. In trimming we 
try to shape the tree so that the limbs can support a heavy crop and 
the crop be picked with the least possible expense. As near as we can 
judge from reading we grow and care for our orchards similar to the way 
in which it is done in other sections. We have come to the conclusion, 
however, that growing the peach is the smallest part of the successful 
management of a large orchard. The picking, packing and marketing, 
so as to bring fair profits, we think far more difficult than growing a 
first grade peach. 

The labor question with us is one that requires some thought and 
time beforehand. We have no large towns or cities near to draw from 
and there come times when one is much worried about getting the re- 
quired amount of labor at the right time. 

For packing at Koshkonong the six-basket carrier is the favorite 
package, after trying several different kinds. The California box was 
used a few years back rather extensively but is now practically dropped. 
The growers are not fully satisfied with the six-basket carrier and there 
is some talk of making trial shipments from the next crop in bushel 
baskets- 

The marketing of our crop is one of the hardest problems we have 
to solve. We have worked with associations both local and general ; we 



Winter Meeting. 18= 



"& 



have worked individually ; and still we are not satisfied with the un- 
certainty of a profit after a crop is grown, gathered and packed ready for 
shipment. We are looking forward to the time when, with the increased 
acreage, we will be compelled to devise cheaper methods of handling a 
crop. While we are not alarmed yet about an over-production of first 
grade fruit ; still we realize the fact that a continued increase in the set- 
ting of peach orchards, especially of one variety, will necessarily have 
some effect on the profits, and we will be compelled to make a correspond- 
ing decrease of expenses. Now to make a reduction of expenses m a 
business it should, necessarily be proportioned in all branches of the 
business. Suppose that we can succeed in growing our peaches cheaper, 
picking and packing them cheaper; then can we persuade the railroad 
companies and express companies to give us cheaper transportation. 
We might say to them that we would stop shipping, but that would be like 
the Irishman who was being lowered into a well. When about half 
way down he asked to be pulled up again. The man at the top asked 
him why, and he said : "That's none o' yer business ; if ye don't sthop 
lettin' me down, Oi'll cut the rope." 

We are aware of the fact that methods and rates of transportation have 
often been discussed before your Society, at the same time the peach busi- 
ness of Koshkonong is greatly affected by the same and we feel obliged 
to refer to it in this article although we ourselves know very little about it. 
We have no remedies to offer, but we know there is something "rotten 
in Denmark." For instance, two express companies handle our fruit be- 
tween Koshkonong and Kansas City. One as far as Springfield, 130 
miles, and the other from Springfield on 200 miles. They gave us a 
rate the past season of $1.00 per hundred to either point and also to all 
intermediate points- If the two companies can handle 100 pounds of 
fruit to Kansas City for $1 we cannot understand why the first company 
should have $1 to carry it less than half way. During last peach season 
a gentleman came into our packing shed and gave us the names of 
about fifteen dealers of fruits at points between Springfield and Kansas 
City, who said they could not get good peaches and wanted us to make 
them shipments. We had to decline because the express rate was so 
high that we could do better by loading in refrigerator cars and shipping 
by freight, which we did as far as possible. We have no figures that we 
can quote on a peach crop, but will give a few on a crop of strawberries 
picked this past season. Five hundred and eighty-five crates sold on 
the markets for $877.70. After express charges, commissions, cost of 
crates, picking and packing were deducted the grower had left $215.74. 
The express company received $237.83, or $22.09 more for carrying the 



i86 State Horticultural Society. 

berries to market than the grower received for a year's labor caring for 
them. You will note that the berries sold for an average of $1.50 per 
crate. Up until the last two days they averaged much moie than that, 
but when the price of berries drops to $1 per crate we have to stop ship- 
ping at Koshkonong, because there is no money for the grower- 

In conclusion we would say that the peach business at Koshkonong 
differs very little from the same business in any other section. While 
we have not been forced into a fight against disease and insects, yet 
we do not know what the future holds in store for us. Our trees have 
gone into winter with a good supply of fruit buds and bid fair to yield 
a splendid crop next year. We would be pleased to have any or all of 
you visit us at harvesting time and feed you a Koshkonong peach that 
has ripened on the tree. You could also get a better idea of the peach 
business at Koshkonong in that way than by having listened to the 
reading of this paper. 



THE TR AN SPORT ATIO'N QUESTION FROM A FRUIT GROW- 

• ERS' VIEW POINT. 

(Louis Erb, Memphis, Teiin.) 

It is now nearly twenty years since I first heard of the Missouri 
State Horticultural Society. Colonel Evans was then its president and 
Mr. Goodman its secretary. After I got well acquainted with these two 
men, I felt that tlie afifairs of the Society were in good hands. 

When some years later I joined its ranks and became a member, 
I learned to look upon Colonel Evans, as did the children of Israel, 
upon their leader several thousand years ago. Like many others I re- 
garded him as the Moses of this Society, who was destined by Provi- 
dence to lead — not the children of Israel — but the children of Missouri, 
out of the wilderness and into the promised land- That he did great 
good in bettering the cause of horticulture in Missouri, while he was 
our Moses, no one will deny. 

I don't know where he led others, but instead of leading me to Mt. 
Sinai, as the Moses of old would have done, this modern Moses led me to 
Mt. Ozark, right to the top of it, and I am there yet. 

The climate up there is so healthy, the elevation so lofty and the at- 
mosphere so ethereal that good men never die. And even if they did 
die, the crops as a rule are so short there wouldn't be any money to bury 
them. So I expect to stay there till the sheriff runs me off, or a 



Winter Meeting. 187 

Kansas blizzard blows me back to dear old Tennessee. The other Moses 
died on Mt. -Nebo many, many years ago, but our Moses is with us 
yet. 

His mission on earth is not finished. He is as ready today as he 
ever was, to give the members of this Society, and all others who may 
seek it, the benefit of his knowledge and experience without money and 
without price. Therefore, I say, as ilMozart did, on one occassion in con- 
gratulating a worthy friend on his birthday : "May he live and prosper 
till he is a hundred years old, and not die till he is a thousand." 

But while Colonel Evans is no longer at the helm of our ship, as he 
was twenty years ago, Mr. Goodman is still our Secretary. 

He, like Colonel Evans, has stood by this Society in times of weal 
and times of woe, in weather fair and weather foul. 

We have good reason to look upon him as one of the main pillars of 
our temple and as a leading champion of our cause. This Society has 
confidence in his ability and his integrity, and believes that he will always 
do his part to assist in guiding and directing our ship of state — even over 
the occassional rough seas of dissension — into the haven of prosperity 
and harmony. 

If I mistake not, it was General Dix who said on one occassion, 
"If any man attempt to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the 
spot." I believe I am safe in saying that should any man, or any set 
of men attempt to lower the banner of our Society, its members will 
treat them likewise. At any rate, we will defend the honor of our 
Society, and if long and faithful service is an index to a man's personal 
and ofi:'icial character, we will stand by our Secretary. 

The (Missouri State Horticultural Society was organized in 1859 
mainly for the purpose of educating and instructing its members how to 
grow fruit by an exchange of mutual experience and investigation. Those 
who have belonged to the Society for many years, attended its meetings 
and read its reports regularly can testify how well this purpose has been 
accomplished up to the present time. But no matter how much progress 
the grower may have made. in producing a higher grade and larger quan- 
tities of fruit, because of the aid received from this Society, it would 
benefit him in a financial way but little, without finding a proper market 
for it- How to find a proper market, it becomes necessary to consider 
the question of transportation. 

During the early period of the existence of this Society, and even 
as late as twenty years ago, the production of fruit was not so great as 
to make this question of as vital importance as it is today. In discussing 
this question of transportation, as briefly as I can, I will say in the 



i88 State Horticultural Society. 

outset there is nothing gained by simply denouncing the transportation 
companies. It is too often the case that fruit growers individually or 
collectively, call them all kinds of hard names, when their product is 
spoiled by delay in transit, or their profits eaten up by excessive freight or 
express charges. And this is generally the last of it till the next season 
comes 'round when new causes for complaints turn up, and c-alling hard 
names again becomes the order of the day. 

Now wouldn't it be much better for the fruit growers to go to the 
proper officials of the respective transportation lines, state their griev- 
ances in a respectful, intelligent manner, and demand such redress as 
may be due them under existing circumstances? Often I have heard 
some of my fellow horticulturists, who are good church members, and 
otherwise very respectable men, "cuss out" the local agent for all the 
wrongs they are made to suffer. But when I ask them "Have you made 
your complaint in proper form to headquarters?" they invariably reply 
"there is no use in that, they are all a set of highway robbers." 

Now my experience is that the railroad companies, as a rule, are not 
unfriendly to the interests of the fruit growers, but they are in business 
to make all the money they can for their stockholders, and will charge 
as much freight as they consider any commodity will stand, especially if 
there is no competition to regulate them. Some years ago I had a con- 
versation with the traffic manager of a leading railroad regarding rates 
on apples and other fruits, and showed him plainly that they were ex- 
cessive in comparison with other commodities and with rates prevailing 
in other sections of the country. He answered me very frankly that his 
first duty was to serve his company, but if I could convince him that it 
was to the interest of the railroad to make lower rates, and at the same 
time do justice to the growers and shippers, he would be glad to consider 
the matter. He did consider it, and after conferring with other officials, 
made the reduction I requested. 

I am of the opinion that the railroads in Missouri, generally, are in- 
clined to foster and encourage fruit growing, not particularly from a 
sense of philanthropy, but because they believe it is a goose that will lay 
them lots of golden eggs- My orchards are located on the line of the 
Frisco System and I have frequently had occassion to confer with its 
officials for many years regarding transportation of apples and peaches, 
as well as fertilizers, barrel and box material, etc., and I am free to con- 
fess, that I have always been met in a liberal spirit. For an example T 
will state that the rate on apples to Memphis — 243 miles — is 17c per 
hundred, and on box and barrel materials, as well as fertilizers, loc per 
hundred for an equal distance. I regard these rates as reasonable. The 



Winter Meeting. 189 

rate on apples to Texas points, however, is too high — being 58c per hun- 
dred and as Missouri should be in position to supply that market, I 
made it my business last fall, while in St. Louis, to see the general freight 
agent of the Frisco in regard to this matter. 

I told him that the Texas market for apples belonged legitimately 
to Missouri and Arkansas — but especially to Missouri — and we wanted a 
rate, that would enable us to capture it. I used this argument "If you 
will make us a rate that will enable us to come in and shut the other fel- 
lows out, we will supply the apples, while you carry the freight, and all 
the money will stay in Missouri ; but if you keep on charging 58c per 
hundred, the eastern apple men who have a low rate on account of w^ater 
facilities, will get a part of it and the eastern railroads and steam- 
boats the balance, and we will both be left in the lurch." 

As we have no apples in Missouri this year to amount to anything, 
I did not press the matter for immediate action, but before I left, Mr. 
Voorhees assured me that he was glad I had called and brought the 
matter before him, and promised that he would take it up in due time. 
He said, himself, that "Texas belonged to the Missouri fruit growers," 
(and I thought when he said so that he made a very sensible remark), 
and he led me to believe that a material reduction in freight rates would 
be made by next season. For your information I will say that I am 
shipping vinegar from Memphis into Texas common points at 38c per 
hundred. This is "finished product-" Now why should the rate on the 
"raw material" be 58c from Missouri, which is several hundred miles 
nearer? The proud state of Missouri has always stood by Texas until 
very recently and is therefore entitled to fair treatment. The interest of 
the railroads and the fruit gowers is largely mutual in its character. 
Both are in business for monev and not for health. We need the rail- 
roads and they need us. 

It is my opinion that all the fruit growers' Societies and Associations 
should act in harmony in matters appertaining to markets, transporta- 
tion and refrigeration. Committees should be appointed to confer with 
the railroads, express and refrigerating companies. If transportation is 
found unsatisfactory, freights too high, or not properly equalized, refrig- 
erating insufficient or too costly, let the committees, at the expense of the 
growers and shippers, visit headquarters and seek redress. I have no 
doubt there are some things the higher railroad officials like to be in- 
formed on. They are not fruit growers like we are, and do not know 
the comparative value of the different kinds of fruits in tTie different 
seasons. 

For instance, a car load of Kieffer pears seldom sell for more money 
than a car load of apples, and yet many of the railroads charge 5c per 



igo State Horticultural Society. 

cent more freight on them. Kieffer pears are no more perishable than 
apples- In fact, they are more like rocks during the early part of the 
shipping season and can be used for ballast if necessity should arise. 
But the railroad presidents and managers who eat only fancy California 
Bartletts and pay 5 cents a piece for them, think a high rate must apply for 
anything called pears. That is the reason some honest fruit growers, with 
more sense than they are given credit for, stencil the barrels containing 
common Kielifer pears "Fancy Ben Davis Apples." Should any of them 
ever be arrested and tried for this offense my verdict, if I were on the 
jury, would be "Not Guilty." 

Then again there are years when there are large peach crops, and a 
car load of peaches, will not sell for as much as a car load of apples. 
When these conditions exist as they often do, since peach trees have been 
planted all over the country in such enormous quantities, why should the 
freight on a car of peaches be double that of a car of apples? The rail- 
road people will tell you because they are more perishable and have to 
be carried faster. They forget that the grower pays an extra charge 
for icing, and lose sight of the fact that ordinarily a car load of apples 
travels about as fast as a car load of peaches. It takes from six to seven 
clays to get a car of peaches to New York or Boston, and from seven 
to eight days to get a ear of apples there, so where is the difference in 
time that warrants the difference in the charges? Whenever growers 
and shippers can't transport peaches to markets that will consume them 
without losing money by the operation, they will soon quit the business 
and one of the geese that lays golden eggs for the railroads will be villed. 
Let the railroad companies understand this fully, and they will not let 
the goose die. 

What I have said of peaches applies in a large measure to straw- 
berries also. 

You are, no doubt, all aware of the abuses that have existed for 
many years in the private car line refrigerating business. Thanks to the 
work of the Commission Merchants' League for what it has done, and 
is still doing, for the relief of the fruit growers in this direction. In- 
stead of paying private car lines an enormous profit for this service which 
all comes out of the pockets of the poor, fruit growers, the time is near at 
hand when the railroads will supply this service to us at actual cost- 

And while I am on this subject of refrigeration, I will read an ab- 
stract from a letter I received recently from Mr. C. B. Ayers of Chicago, 
who is president of Commission Merchants' League of the United States. 
It runs as follows: "Vice President Robbins of the Armour car lines 
in his testimony before the Interstate Commerce Commission, stated that 



Winter Meeting. 191 

his line transported 6000 cars of peaches out of Georgia this past year, 
and in figuring these 6000 cars of peaches on a basis of the pubhshed 
tariff of Armour & Co., produces the fact that for this service the 
Armour car Hne took $396,000 out of the pockets of the growers of 
peaches in the state of Georgia in one season." 

This is an awful lot of money for icing alone, and the question which 
this statement naturally suggests to a thinking man is this, if Armour & 
Co. got $396,000 out of the Georgia peach crop in one season, what did 
the growers get ? P>om all that I have been able to find out, they simply 
worked for Armour & Co. and the railroads, and got nothing for them- 
selves. Those growers who were lucky enough to sell a few cars at load- 
ing points made something, but entailed a loss on the commission mer- 
chant who made the purchase. I can picture to myself that in conse- 
quence of this sad state of affairs there will be no happiness on Christ- 
mas day among the families of the Georgia peach growers. 

Therefore all that is needed is for the horticulturists of the country 
to stand by the Commission Merchants' League and make proper efforts 
to have such laws enacted by the national government that will forever 
protect us from such unjust monopolistic greed. 

As we have arrived at a period when fruit is shipped almost alto- 
gether by the car-load, the unreasonableness of the express companies is 
less oppressive to us fruit growers than it used to be, and we can say 
to them: The time has come for the "wicked to cease from troubling, 
and for the weary to be at rest." As a rule the express officials are very 
fine men, and I have the very highest regard for them personally, but 
officially I don't like them. They want all the cream, and leave us the 
skimmed milk. I am not an aristocrat like my friend Colonel Agee of 
the Southern, but I want cream on my peaches and strawberries just as 
much as he does. But I must do Colonel Agee justice. If he owned 
the Southern Express Company himself (and I am sorry he doesn't), I 
believe that he would give us rates over his line that would justify us 
in giving him a large amount of business. 

I like to ship by express to markets that are easily glutted by car- 
load shipments, and if rates were reasonable, it would be profitable to 
do so. If we should have a good crop of peaches and other small fruits 
next season, I suggest that a council of war be held between the fruit 
growers and the express companies. Colonel Agee is a diplomat; and 
maybe we can get him and his fellow conspirators to come down a peg 
or two, by showing them our goose that may lay them golden eggs. 

But unless they do come down, and show a willingness to divide up 
with the fruit growers, we will tell them that our goose hangs high, and 
that they will get no golden eggs. 



192 State Horticultural Society. 

With the increased production of peaches and berries, it is often 
the case in good crop years that the large markets to which car-load 
shipments are made become overstocked. This generally results in heavy 
losses to growers and shippers. Therefore ways and means shoiad be 
found to avoid this condition. It has occurred to me that there are 
plenty of people living in smaller cities and towns in different sections 
of the country, who would be glad to have our fruit, if it could be 
brought to their doors in suitable quantities and at reasonable pr" \ 

One of the ways to accomplish this is for the railroad companies to 
grant us the same advantages that are now enjoyed by the watermelon 
growers — that is, make us a reasonable through rate on full cars with 
proper refrigeration to certain points, with the privilege of stopping off 
and supplying each city or town with its respective requirements. This 
will enable the growers to dispose of a large quantity of their fruits in 
the smaller markets, and thus avoid over-crowding the larger ones. I 
hear a good many well meaning, and otherwise intelligent men, talk 
about the over-production of fruit. It is my opinion that if the fruit 
growers suffer at all, it will be more from under-consumption than over- 
production. As I said on a former occasion, there are more people in 
the United States who do not get enough fruit than there are of those 
who get too much. All we need is proper distribution and reasonable 
transportation. And this, as I have already intimated, can largely be 
accomplished by co-operation between the growers and the transporta- 
tion lines. 

As an example of what this kind of co-operation has accomplished in 
another state, I will mention that they have in New York an organization 
called "The New York State Fruit Growers' Association," which has 
had considerable experience along this line during the present year. Mr. 
B. J. Case, an apple grower of Sodus, N. Y., who is a member of the 
executive committee, told me on his recent visit to Memphis, that in 
1903, there had been a great scarcity of labor in his section through 
which is located the Rome and Watertown railroad, a branch line of the 
New York Central. 

In consequence of this scarcity of labor, hundreds of thousands of 
bushels of apples had not been picked, thousands of acres of cabbage 
rotted in the fields and large quantities of potatoes had remained undug. 
This year, he said, the same conditions had stared them in the face, so 
they called a meeting of their association, and invited the officials of the 
New York Central railroad to attend. At this meeting, which was largely 
attended by the members of the association, as well as by a very repre- 
sentative delegation of railroad men, the wants of the growers were made 



WJ ' 




Winter Meeting. 193 

known, and the result was that the New York Central Railroad Company 
agreed to furnish and did furnish from some of the large cities, thou- 
sands of laborers, and carried them over their line at less than one-half 
the usual fare, so that all the various crops could be gathered in proper 
time. Furthermore, to enable the farmers to move large quantities of 
windfall apples in bulk to New York, Philadelphia, and other cities — a 
distance of 400 miles — the New York Central made them special rates of 
I2C per hundred pounds. To Southern points covering distances of 
from 12 to 15 hundred miles, they made a rate of 35c per hundred 
pounds, on their No. i apples in bulk or barrels. 

What the New York Central has done in the way of co-operation 
with the fruit growers of the East, I believe the Frisco system and other 
lines will do in the West. All that is required on the part of the Mis- 
souri fruit growers and all others who are interested in the development 
of the fruit interest of this great state, is to make known their wants 
through their various organizations, at the right time, and the proper 
place, before the railroad officials and they will be met in a liberal spirit 
because it is good business policy to do so. That it pays the fruit growers 
to co-operate and act in harmony was demonstrated by the Ozark Fruit 
Growers Association last summer in marketing the peach crop. Although 
it was the first attempt, it is generally admitted that much better results 
were obtained than would have been otherwise possible. 

As I have already stated, it is to the interest of the railroads to 
encourage and foster horticulture, because it is a goose that will lay 
them golden eggs. In this connection it may be proper to call your 
attention to the fact, and I do so without desiring in the least to dis- 
parage the good work that has been done by other roads in Missouri and 
Arkansas in the same direction, that the Frisco system and the Frisco 
Land and Immigration Association has done more to develop the horti- 
cultural interest of the Ozarks during the past three years, than ever 
before in its history. 

The credit for this work is largely due to Mr. S. A. Hughes, general 
immigration agent and his able assistants. 

In a letter which I received from Mr. Hughes a short time ago 

he wrote me as follows : "The class of immigration which has settled 

in the Ozarks during the past three years, has been a good class, most 

of it originating in northern Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and 

Minnesota. These people were attracted to the Ozarks largely by the 

publicity given this section as a fruit growing section, and you have 

but to take a trip from St. Louis to Neosho in daylight you will see many 

new orchards of from 80 to 160 acres located on both sides of the track 

and extending entirely across the State, 
n— J3 



194 State Horticultural Society. 

"This department is in receipt daily of many inquiries regarding the 
Ozark country, as to its adaptability to the growing of fruit. 

"During the month of May I made the trip to Western Missouri 
and was somewhat surprised to learn that the people of that section 
knew simply nothing of the Ozark country from a fruit growing stand- 
point, and they were greatly surprised to learn that in one year some 
4,000 car loads of apples were shipped over our line, and the great bulk 
of them from the Ozark country. As a result of the recent advertising 
and personal solicitation in Western New York, a number of gentlemen 
have visited the Ozarks and have come back favorably impressed with 
the country, and are inducing immigration to that section as a great 
apple producing territory. 

"In the handling of fruit lands in the Ozarks during the past three 
years, it has been my pleasure to drive across the country with a prac- 
tical fruit man, in investigating the soil, and general adaptability for 
the raising of fruit. I remember driving over some 3,000 acres in 
Laclede county, Missouri, in company with the president of the Board 
of Horticulture of Iowa, and a thorough investigation was made. Some 
50 or 60 excavations at a depth of about 18 inches were made in search 
of hard pan, but we were agreeably disappointed, and fruit experts who 
were with us gave the Ozarks in general, a very favorable endorsement 
as a fruit growing section. 

"In the handling of immigation to the Ozarks we have been very 
careful in selecting the section from which our immigration originated. 
That is to say, we would not place a prairie land man from the state 
of Illinois in the Ozarks for general farming purposes, but we go into 
southern Illinois, say Clay and Washington counties, and into the fruit 
sections of Wisconsin and Michigan, western New York, Iowa and 
Minnesota, and, while the people in the above named sections may not 
be accustomed to the rocky nature of the Ozark country, as a rule they 
are impressed with this section as a fruit growing country by reason of 
the general adaptability of the soil, and I know of very few failures 
where the people have handled the proposition in the right manner." 

No matter what their motives may be, to a reasonable man no better 
evidence than Mr. Hughes' letter is necessary to convince him that the 
railroads and especially the Frisco system are the friends of horticulture 
in Missouri. 

The managers of railroads, as a rule, are shrewd men, and can 
readily see on which side their bread is buttered ; they also know the dif- 
ference between a turkey and a buzzard. And as human nature is weak 
even with the best of intentions, it is possible that sometimes in fixing 



Winter Meeting. i95 

freight rates instead of taking part of one bird and part of the other, 
they may conclude to take all turkey and leave us the buzzard. It there- 
fore behooves us fruit growers to see to it that bright men are put at 
the head of our organizations to champion our cause, so that v^e get 
a fair deal. 

In nearly all the large cities the merchants and manufacturers have 
found it to their advantage to organize freight bureaus to protect their 
interests in all matters appertaining to transportation. They pay their 
managers salaries ranging from $3,000 to $5,000 per annum, and con- 
sider it money v^ell spent. All complaints such as excessive rates, dis- 
criminations, car famines, poor service, etc., are referred to these bureaus 
for adjustment. The managers of these bureaus then confer with the 
managers of the railroad companies, and in nine cases out of ten, satis- 
factory arrangements and adjustments are made. 

But if, as it sometimes happens, the railroad companies are un- 
willing to comply with the reasonable demands that ^re made upon them, 
these same freight bureaus appeal to the courts or the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, and generally succeed in obtaining redress. 

As the interest of the horticulturists of Missouri is one of great im- 
portance, and as their prosperity largely depends on reasonable and 
proper transportation, in order to find markets for the product of their 
labor, would it not be well to pattern after the merchants and manu- 
facturers in the cities and establish freight bureaus, or such other or- 
ganizations that would answer the same purpose? 

From what I know, the railroad companies, as a rule, are not antago- 
nistic to these freight bureaus, but rather welcome them as a means of 
adjusting all differences between the shippers and themselves, in an in- 
telligent, fair and reasonable manner. 

In conclusion I will state that, while I may not have handled this 
subject of transportation as well, or as satisfactorily as some one with 
more ability and greater experience might have done, I trust that what 
I have said, and the suggestions I have made, will be of some benefit 
t^ the members of this society. 



IS THE CYCLE COMPLETE? 

(J. O. Evans, Harlem, Mo.) 

In the meaning of this question is there such a thing as a cycle? 
We are told by the scientists that the movements and positions of the 
planets cause disturbances on our earth such as extremes of heat and 



196 State Horticultural Society. 

cold, wet and dry, floods, hurricanes, cyclones, etc., and that sometimes 
certain of the planets get into and remain for a time in some unusual 
position towards other ones, and that that is what causes most of the 
disturbances on our earth, and that when these conditions continue for a 
series of years it is called a cycle and during the continuance of that 
cycle we may expect conditions unusual and disastrous, not only to the 
farmer and fruit grower, but more or less to the entire commercial world. 

Now let us assume that there is such a thing as a cycle and then try 
to locate one, which I think is an easy task for the average fruit grower 
of Missouri. Surely we can all agree that we are in the midst of one 
of these cycles at the present time. If we all had a sufficient knowl- 
edge of astronomy we might be able to say just when the present cycle 
began and when it will end, and where it will end, but without that 
knowledge we can only judge by actual experience of the past, and by 
that and matters of record for the future. We all still remember the 
extreme and disastrous drouth of 1897 when not only our orchard trees 
suffered by thousands, but forest trees died in some sections of the State 
by the million. The next (1898) was a fairly good year, but our 
orchards had not recovered from the severe shock of 1897 when that 
mem.orable cold spell of February, 1899, came and finished such trees 
as were partly killed by the drouth and killed and injured many more 
in nursery and orchard. The year 1900, like 1898, was a fairly good 
year, but the orchards and forests had not sufficiently recovered from 
the disasters of the previous years to withstand the greath drouth of 
1901 and again the orchards and forests suffered greatly. 

As a result of all these troubles our orchards have not recovered 
and being so weakened in vitality have not been able to withstand the 
rigors of the years 1902-3-4. As a rule the apple orchards of Missouri 
have not had a good, healthy crop of foliage or fruit in all this period. 
The past year, however, 1904, has shown a marked improvement. The 
foliage on the average orchard has shown more health and vigor and 
the wood has made a better growth than any year during this period, 
and the fruit buds for next year seem to be in perfect condition. Is 
the cycle complete? How are we to tell? The improved conditions of 
the last year are encouraging and lead us to hope that we are near the 
end. The great famine referred to in the Good Book lasted seven years, 
and after that were years of plenty. The present cycle has lasted seven 
years. 

Is it unreasonable to hope for years of plenty in the near future? 
Has all this series of disasters taught us anything? I believe that all 



Winter Meeting. I97 

will admit that orchards that have had the b»sst care are in much the 
best condition. It has been demonstrated that thorough cultivation is 
still the watchword for the orchardist. 



STRAWBERRY GROWING. 

(L.J. Hartman, St. Joseph, Mo.) 

Best Commercial Varieties to Plant. — August Luther is the best 
early, followed by Aroma, Bubach, Brandywine, Haverland and Clyde. 

Strawberry land may be found all over the country, on the hill- 
sides, on the mountains, and in the valleys. Although strawberries grow 
on most every kind of soil, there are soils that are better suited to their 
wants, and where they will reward the producer with better returns. 

When early berries are desired, select a southern slope, but if later 
berries are wanted, a northern slope is preferable. If you have neither, 
plant a patch somewhere about the farm where you can raise enough for 
your family, some for the birds and for the honey bees. Really, the 
best soil for berries is timber land, bordering on streams, or the slopes 
near the foot of hills. Land where sweet potatoes, melon vines or cab- 
bage grew the year previous is good soil for strawberries and all small 
fruits. 

The strawberry patch may be of any size which will afford the great- 
est convenience. It may contain from one to five or ten acres, or even 
a few rods in the garden. When the patch contains acres, it should be 
crossed by roads both ways, wide enough for wagons, for hauling manure 
and straw for winter protection. 

Preparation of soil for Planting. — We do not approve of spring 
plowing in Missouri, as we often have dry spring seasons. Hence, we 
plow our ground in November or December, when the ground is not 
frozen. Soil should not be harrowed until spring. A few days before 
planting, and again just before beginning to plant, we run a smoothing 
board or leveler over it. 

Planting the Strawberry Patch. — For horse culture plant in rows 
three and a half to four feet apart, and in the rows plants may be set 
from 12 to 15 inches apart. When plants are high in price the distance 
between them may be lengthened to 18 or 20 inches. With good culti- 
vation and a moderate season for plant growth the space will be filled 
up, making it a well matted row of plants. Do not set plants on a dry, 
windy day. For setting plants hardly any two men adopt the same 



198 State Horticultural Society. 

methods or use the same kind of tools. While some planters use a 
spade and a boy to carry the plants, others mark off the rows with a 
narrow shovel plow, opening a furrow three or four inches deep. Boys 
follow, dropping- the plants, while men follow them packing the soil 
firmly around the plants. We use a line in planting, and for each line 
have two men with bright garden trowels or dibble, and a small box 
or basket of plants trimmed and roots moistened in water. 

The Strazvberry Plant. — At the start the berry plant is feeble. It 
has been torn from its mother soil, where it first had life. - It has stood 
the racket of being packed and shipped probably from 500 to 1,000 
miles, and then if it falls into the hands of a person unacquainted with its 
needs it may die in a few short hours. So, Mr. Planter, you must nurse 
this weak prince of the berry kingdom carefully for awhile, until it be- 
comes used to its new home. Its tender roots are its mouth, and if 
your soil is dry you must give it a drink of water. 

Matted Row or Hills. — Lately much has been written about the hill 
culture of strawberries, and many tests have been made by the Experi- 
ment stations and large commercial growers of the country, but it is 
now the sense of the majority of berry growers that the wide, continued 
matted row is the best method of berry culture, with possibly one single 
exception, the Parker Earle. Its natural tendency is to grow in hills. 
In the hill culture system there is more danger of plants being heaved 
out of the ground by continued freezing at night and thawing out dur- 
ing sunshiny days of the winter and spring seasons. 

The word "perfect" follows the names of all staminate strawberries 
and the word "imperfect" after all the pistillate varieties. It is thought 
the imperfect varieties are the most productive, but not so firm, yet are 
less liable to be killed by the frost. In our planting for market we use 
an equal number of perfect and imperfect varieties. That is four rows of 
perfect and four rows of imperfect sorts. 

Don't set strawberries on a dry, windy day. 

Don't employ or allow small boys in the berry field. 

Don't use old or second-hand crates for berries that are to be shipped 
to distant markets. 

Don't be everlastingly grumbling about the weather, whether it be 
sunshiny, wet or dry, hot or cold. 

Don't kill the sweet honey bee ; it is your best insect friend. It can 
fertilize 10,000 imperfect strawberry blooms in a day. 

Don't allow plants or trees to lie four or five days at the express 
office and then abuse the nurseryman if they do not all grow. 



Winter Meeting, 199 

Don't wait for your neighbor to do all the experimenting with new 
varieties, and then try to get his plants at the price of the standards. 
Encourage the originators of new fruits, do some experimenting your- 
self, and keep a sharp lookout for the ideal strawberry. 

Don't double or quadruple your acreage the year after you have 
had good prices. Three thousand berry growers might do likewise. 
Don't you know that the largely increased acreage will knock the bot- 
tom out of the market. Great losses to growers and dealers follow 
glutted markets. Be moderate in your planting, and your profits will 
be large. 

DISCUSSION ON TRANSPORTATION. 

J. M. Irvine — The Iowa Society has a standing committee on rates 
and transportation. Last week I attended the Iowa meeting and the 
question of marketing came up, and a committee was appointed to in- 
dorse a recommendation of President Roosevelt along this Ime in his 
recent message to Congress. The Missouri Pacific and Frisco roads have 
done a good deal for the fruit growers in south Missouri, but north 
Missouri has not done much. There is an inconsistency in the rates 
made by the Burlington and Chicago & Alton and other lines in north 
Missouri and Iowa. The railroads give a rate of sixty-seven cents 
per hundred from St. Joseph, Missouri to Nebraska, but from Rochester, 
New York, to Nebraska the rate is fifty cents per hundred. Iowa is 
alive to this matter and is going to do something. I think this should 
be taken up by this society and something done for the orchardists in 
north Missouri. 

Sec'y Goodman — This society has a Committee on Transportation 
consisting of G. T. Tippin, Nichols, C. C. Bell, Boonville, and A. T. 
Nelson, Lebanon, and this committee has done some good work, but 
can do more. 

E. G. Mendenhall — The Illinois Central Railway gives good rates 
on fruit shipped to Chicago, the rate is twenty cents per hundred or 
about thirty cents per barrel. I made a motion in the Illinois society to 
have a committee go before the Railway 'and Warehouse Commission 
and ask for special rates on pears. I was appointed on that committee 
and we got the same rate for pears as for apples ; at first only by the 
barrel, but now we get such a rate on pears by the basket also. 

G. A. Atwood — At the next meeting of the Berry Growers Associa- 
tion we have invited the Frisco officials and want them to be there, this 
meets two weeks from yesterday, and we want all other horticulturalists 



200 State Horticultural Society. 

to be present. The Ozark Fruit Growers' Association shipped two 
hundred and twenty-five cars of peaches and had success from every car 
load sent out. 

S. R. Young (Industrial Agent Missouri Pacific Ry.) — The ques- 
tion of transportation and rates is an all absorbing one throughout the 
fruit belt of the United States. This question is the first to be considered 
by a man when he thinks of planting an orchard, and usually, he has 
many imaginary grievances stored up. The first question asked is, are 
we going to have better fruit rates when in reality he doesn't know what 
the rates are. When the market is bad and you get poor returns you 
want to kick about the transportation charges ; when the prices are good 
you do not think of complaining. Sometimes the bad returns are due 
to bad packing and bad picking. I am going to speak not only from 
the standpoint of the railway, but also from that of a commercial fruit 
handler. I at first condemned the railway and got their ill feelings. I 
began with the local station agent instead of going to the proper official, 
when I gave it to him pretty rough he would say that he would take it 
up with his superiors; later I wrote a rough letter to the general agent 
and- so got turned down. I always got the worst of the deal, but was 
finally whipped into submission, and I then began to learn how to handle 
them so as to get favors. I soon saw that I had to change my tactics 
according to the proverb that you can catch more flies with molasses 
than with vinegar. Fruit growers make the mistake of going to the 
wrong officials to make their complaints and not asking the right offi- 
cials in the right way. The railway officers are not fruit growers, but 
are financiers, they do not know the competition of the market nor the 
perishableness of the fruits and for that reason we should go to them in 
a business way and explain our matters fully. The railway companies 
are beginning to appreciate the horticultural men and are willing to help 
them as they do not want to kill the goose that lays the golden &gg. In 
the last few years they have appreciated the great goose of the horti- 
cultural interests of the United States that gives more golden eggs than 
any other. 

In the matter of refrigeration we do not want to overlook the fact 
that it costs a large amount of money to ice from point to point. It 
takes five tons to ice the car at the start and three tons to re-ice it on 
the route, this costs $24.00. The timber to brace the car costs $3.50 and 
$1.50 for the man to do the work. The cost to ice and ship a car of 
peaches from Olden to Boston costs $100.00 or $85.00 to New York, 
$65.00 to Chicago. Some of us once asked the railway company to let 
us do our own icing and it was granted, but we did not do it. I 



Winter Meeting. 201 

thought we would save $25.00 a car by doing it but we would have 
lost $50.00 a car. In the drouth year Armour's handled the icing and 
re-icing of our cars in first-class shape at the usual cost. If he had 
done it ourselves that year we would have had to ship the ice for south 
Missouri from Iowa at a cost of from seven to eight dollars, so it was 
better for us that a regular refrigerating company should do this part 
of the business. In Michigan a few years ago I was in the peach 
business and found that I could ship a car to Missouri and ice it for 
$20.00. The railroad company did not have stations to re-ice for peaches 
and strawberries at the proper time so that I found that where I saved 
$50.00 in not re-icing I lost $100 in spoiled fruit. 

Louis Erb — The Commission Merchants' League mean to compel the 
railroad companies to re-ice. For a car of Jonathans shipped to New 
Orleans in September, four tons of ice were used at a cost of $10.00, and 
it went through in the right shape. 

S. R. Young — Fruit business is a peculiar business, there is always 
much to learn. I am a student and learn something new. every year. 
Apples do not require so much ice as peaches and strawberries. What 
I say I have learned from my own experience. The railway companies 
have learned that ft is necessary to work in conjunction with the growers. 
It is the inclination of the railway companies to work for the interest of 
agriculture. In the last few years they have arrived at the conclusion 
that their interests and those of the grower are identical and both inter- 
ests advance together. 

W. A. Gardner — We have had an example of the diflference between 
refrigerating charges by Armour and by the Illinois Central Railway. 
The railway from Milan to Chicago charges $30.00, while Armour's com- 
pang charges $60.00 from Humboldt to Chicago, the same distance. It 
will not be long until all the railway companies will be furnishing their 
own cars and then we will get refrigeration at cost. The Armour com- 
pany is not in it for their health. There is much difference between the 
private car lines and those of the railway and we should do all we can 
to encourage them to furnish the cars. 

N. F. Murray — The papers this afternoon are of a high grade, but 
I want to refer to an item mentioned by Mr. Erb. I know of a case 
where the charges were only $11.00 more on a car shipped from Mary- 
land than on one shipped from St. Joe to a nearby town. The rail- 
road companies will not do much until we go to them in an organized 
way. The growers should be organized and look after their business. 
We have never gone to the Burlington as an organization without getting 
concessions. We have secured the reduction from $100 to $70 on a car 



202 State Horticultural Society. 

of summer apples. Our standing committee on transportation should 
go to the railroads and let them know our needs, 

G. T. Tippin — The membership of this Society is open to all, you 
should become voting members by paying $i.oo a year. Members of 
the local societies receive the books and . information, but they are not 
voting members. We want all to become voting members and build up 
the State Society as also their local organizations, and this will give 
more prestige when we ask for our rights. 



EXPERIENCES IN A STRAWBERRY DISTRICT. 

(H. G. Richardson, Neosho, Mo.) 

My first experience in the strawberry patch was picking on an extra 
day. The patch was planted to Warfields and other small varieties. 
I was given a crate half full of boxes to pick in, as the owner of the 
patch was short of trays. It did not take me long to make up my mind 
that there was very little money in the berry business, especially for the 
pickers. 

In order to get pickers, we have been forced to discard all but the 
larger varieties. Some of the best pickers earn from $2 to $2.50 per day 
during the best of the season. 

My father decided to plant a berry patch, and after reading on the 
subject, he decided to try the hill system, so he put me in the patch to 
keep the runners picked ofif. The more I picked, the more they seemed 
to grow. Finally the fall of the year came and with it the plants stopped 
their growth. The plants were large, with a lot of crowns, and we ex- 
pected to reap a large crop of large berries, but were disappointed in 
the size of the fruit as there was more fruit set than the plants could 
properly develop. 

We now prefer the matted row. We planted the rows about 4 feet 
apart with plants 3 feet apart in the row. Cultivate both ways until 
the runners start, then stop the cross-cultivation ; hoe only enough to 
keep the patch free from weeds. During the early part of the season as 
we hoe, we spread out the runners so as to get the rows even. 

In the fall when the runners become too thick, we take a light 
potato hook which we call a scratcher, and pull out the weaker plants. 
Those that do not come out with the scratcher we pull off by hand. 

For preparing new land, we prefer a bull-tongue plow — plowing 8 
to 12 inches deep both ways during the winter. 



Winter Meeting. 203 

The wild berry plants are hard to get rid of in this locality. The 
winter weeds should be cut out as they will cause the berries to form 
buttons. Berries on high land succeed best during seasons of late 
frosts. A few years ago our locality was short of plants for setting on 
account of the dry weather. Our growers sent off to a number of dif- 
ferent localities for plants and received a lot of things that a Missourian 
would hardly call strawberries. We now try to get plants near at home 
that we know are true to name. Do not plant a lot of varieties as it 
makes a lot of trouble at gathering time changing pickers from one 
variety to another, as different varieties have to be handled differently. 

Some have tried sorting the berries at the shed, but this is too 
much work and bruises the berries. Sorting should all be done by the 
pickers in the field. 

Some have heard glowing accounts of large returns from small 
investments in berry growing and have decided that all they have to do 
to make their fortune, is to hire a lot of berry plants stuck in the 
ground — anything that is called a strawberry would answer the pur- 
pose. Such people have usually harvested a large crop of disappointment. 
Those who plant varieties adapted to their locality and give good care, 
are reasonably sure of good returns for their labor invested. 



MARKETING THE COMMERCIAL STRAWBERRY CROP. 

(Dr. E. L. Beal, Republic, Mo.) 

The commercial strawberry crop of South Missouri and North- 
west Arkansas ranks well with the other fruit crops ; and with many 
farmers is second only to the cereal and live stock interests. The soil 
and climate are favorable to the production of strawberries of such 
splendid size, firmness and high flavor that no part of the country 
excels this section, except the Hood River valley and parts of North 
Carolina. Our natural advantages are good and sufficient, but the 
problem of properly marketing the crop is producing in the commer- 
cial strawberry grower, unmistakable symptoms of premature old age. 
The story so rosy and flattering emanating from the market centers 
has been told us so often that it is getting really old. We have had 
the same experience of jolly good letters, detailing the many reasons 
why certain firms can handle the crop so profitably to us — the high 
quotations, and the many favorable conditions there that when we had 
finally poured into the markets our entire crops and noted the dif- 



204 State Horticultural Society. 

ferences between markets on paper in the winter and the actual re- 
turns in June that we naturally think of two certain attractions on the 
Pike — "Creation" and "Hereafter," and now after a few yearly repeti- 
tions of this experience, with its sad awakening the commission man's 
rosy letter does not awaken in the breast of the strawberry grower 
the enthusiasm it formerly did. To say that results have been far 
from satisfactory is putting it very mildly. I once heard an eminent 
surgeon describe what he termed a very perfect and successful sur- 
gical operation. The operation was said with some emphasis to have 
been a complete success — after a respectful silence in deference to the 
greatness and skill of the operator, I asked with some temerity what 
became of the patient. Oh, said the surgeon, he died, but the opera- 
tion was successful. Sometimes when reading these attractive letters 
I have felt somehoAV like the operation of marketing the fruit may 
have been successful enough, but the grower occupied the position 
of the unfortunate patient : and that with our present mode of market- 
ing the crop the success of the plan is manifestly to the advantage 
of the fellow at the other end of the line. 

TWO SIDES TO THE QUESTION. 

There are toO' many $2.50 and $3.00 quotations which finally wind 
up with a tardy remittance to the grower of 50c to 90c per crate. 
This result, however, is not always the fault of the firm to whom the 
shipment is made. There are at least two sides to all questions, and 
the strawberry question is no exception to the rule. If we intend 
to grow a surplus for commercial shipment, we must plant such 
varieties as are known to be large, uniform in size, good color and 
firm enough to carry well. They must be picked at the proper time, 
and honestly crated. If we start the crate tO' market with the good 
ones on top and the poor ones covered up, we invite the suspicion 
of the commission man and he at once loses any trace of faith in our 
integrity, and we may rest assured that our example will be followed 
by him in his future dealing with us. We can not expect the com- 
mission m.an to deal honestly with us if we paint the package all 
over and all through with dishonesty in glaring letters. He will 
certainly go us one better. The worst feature, however, of this 
manner of packing is the fact that it is unfair to the consumer. If 
we defraud the consumer (who, by the way, usually pays high enough 
for our goods), we certainly deserve the skinning which the man in 
between sometimes gives us. The old proverb that honesty is the 
best policy is certainly as true in this, as in any other case. Our 



Winter Meeting. 205 

plan of marketing- is faulty, and, I think, wrong. Still it is much 
belter than it was before we had local organizations. At the present 
time, one or two organizations consisting of most of the growers in 
one locality get together, form an association, govern themselves by 
uniform rules, work in harmony, and ship the product in car loads to- 
gether. This is good as far as it goes. It has made it possible for 
most of us to stay in the business, but it doesn't reach far enough. 
There are more than twenty such associations in this belt, each load- 
ing and shipping on the same day. These berries are scattered out 
more or less independently and within two or three days we usually 
find that some markets have been neglected while others have two 
or three times as many as they can dispose of to good advantage. 
Then the neglected market gets excited, sends out inflated quotations 
and the result is that too many are sent there, and it gets the same 
sort of a dose the other one got on the day before. 

So it see-saws all through the season and by the time the grower 
gets in all his belated returns, if he isn't bilious he certainly looks it. 

EXCESSIVE TRANSPORTATION RATES. 

Another serious drawback to the grower is the excessive rate 
charged by transportation companies for hauling berries to market. 
I say excessive because in certain districts where competition is 
strong, the refrigerator lines carry berries for the simple mileage rate, 
with the icing added at cost. They certainly are not losing money at 
this rate, which, by the way, is about one-third of what we have to 
pay; for they continue to do this year after year, and seem very 
anxious for the business even at the low rate. Then again you will 
notice the same cars we use for strawberries, hauling ordinary freight 
all the balance of the year for the ordinary mileage rate. If there is 
any good reason why a refrigerator car is worth three times as much 
during strawberry time as it is one month before or one month after, 
then I certainly fail to see it. If we could get the ordinary mileage 
rate for refrigerator cars, and pay a reasonable price for the neces- 
sary ice, it would make a wonderful difference m the width of the 
gap between the market price and the net returns. I do not think, 
however, that growers will be able to secure this result under the 
present system of organization. It is in my opinion of the highest 
importance that all our organizations get together and market the 
entire product from one fountain head. We have at various times in 
the past tried to do this, but there have been too^ many mental reser- 
vations. We must try again and try harder. If we can not find 



2o6 State Horticultural Society. 

enough men in our local associations who have the time, the energy, 
and the ability to properly attend to this, then we had better select 
some men, or an organization of men outside of our local associations, 
who are capable and honest and whose interests are closely identified 
with our own, and let them handle the crop. This would not be 
altogether an experiment for it proved to be a great success in the 
marketing of last year's peach crop. There is, in my opinion, only 
one rational and satisfactory method of disposing of the crop, and 
that is to get it all under one head and sell it on track for cash. This 
can be largely done if we get together. 

SELL BERRIES ON TRACK. 

When commission men buy on track, they will not overcrowd 
their markets for the simple reason that their money is invested, and 
they will protect it as far as possible. If one firm in the market is 
buying on track and another getting goods on consignment, the 
fellow with the consignment is very apt to use the consigned goods 
as a club to make war on his neighbor who is paying cash. He doesn't 
lose anything on the deal, for the grower is furnishing the ammunition 
and yet he gets hurt on both sides. For on the consigned goods the 
returns are too low and the commission man who has been buying 
on track soon gets enough of the punishment and he is then looking 
for a very low price himself, or, he stops buying altogether and takes 
his chances on consignments to make up his loss and provide him with 
the necessary iunds for a visit to the seashore later in the season. 
Commercial strawberry growers need lots of money and need it right 
now. For this reason cash sales are much more desirable than con- 
signments. There is no question in the mind of a veteran grower 
that returns from consignments are usually slow, and the slower 
they are the smaller they are. In fact, I have seen them so slow 
that the gi^ower only got tlie commission. When they get slower 
than this the grower is politely asked to lose his berries altogether 
and help pay the freight. If we get together and protect the com- 
mission man who is willing to buy, give him an honest package, and 
stop sending consignments to his market, we can succeed in market- 
ing our crop for a profit. If we continue to act separately there is 
only one chance of success, and that is a short crop. Let's lay down 
petty jealousies and all get together. If we can't do so in one way, 
let's do so in another, but by all means let's get together. 



Winter Meeting. 207 



A DISCUSSION ON STRAWBERRIES. 

L. C. Wilson. — I was very much interested in Dr. Beal's paper, 
but he didn't go quite far enough. I live in a place where your South 
Missouri berries have come in competition with mine, and I lost my 
money and you yours at the same time. When there were more ber- 
ries at home than St. Joe could handle you sent two car loads there, 
putting the price down from $1.50 to 90 cents a crate in one day. 
The commission men gave you nothing for your berries, and but 
little for ours. This fact fits Dr. Beal's ideas. I ask the growers in 
South Missouri to ask when our berries are getting ripe and not to 
ship your berries to our place; consult with us, and don't get into 
competition with us on our own market, and make us both lose money. 

L. J. Hartman. — The Bederwood sells on our market, but not 
the Brandywine. I sell one grocer 40 crates a day ; he wants a bright 
red berry, and says it is the best seller we have. 

L. C. Wilson. — One grocer will buy one variety from one grower 
but not the same variety from another grower. 

N. F. Murray. — The same thing that Mr. W'ilson instanced oc- 
curs also in our town of Oregon ; we have berries shipped in there 
when ours are ripening. How shall we prevent this overlapping? 

Member. — This last season was a very unusual one; the Nortli 
Missouri berries ripening more nearly at the same time as ours than 
ever before. 

J. M. Irvine. — That is so. In all parts of the State berries ripened 
together and on our way to the National Nurseryman's Association, 
in June, the members from New York saw elderberries in bloom all 
the way from New York to Mobile. 

Pres. Whitten announced that a conference of strawberry growers 
was called at the Spring City Hotel after this session. 

Louis Erb. — Dr. Beal's paper I consider one of the best we have 
had. 

S. R. Young. — There is standing on the track near the station, 
the IVIissouri Pacific car, containing a collection of grains which has 
been on exhibit at the Farmer's Institute. The fruit which we had 
from the Missouri exhibit at the World's Fair is all gone. You are all 
invited to inspect this car, and I shall be glad to show any of you 
through it. 



2o8 State Horticultural Society. 



COMBINATION OF ASSOCIATIONS FOR WORK. 

(Prof. A. A. Stark, Logan, Mo.) 

We trust that at length the time is come when fruit growers will 
not need to be told that combination is a source of greater profit to 
them. On every hand we have living examples of the results of com- 
binations. But to know without action renders the knowledge use- 
less. Combination is the key that unlocks the door to greater suc- 
cesses and profits. Combination is the point at which we must now 
apply the force to draw our interests to a greater success. All other 
interests are combined; we are scattered to the four ends of earth. 
They work shoulder to shoulder; we are working separately. If they 
find it profitable to combine, why not fruit growers? 'We sometimes 
blame others for our failures, when we are not doing all we can to help 
ourselves. If God helps only those who help themselves, then surely 
we need not look to Him for any greater success until we have moved 
from the siool of disunion to that of union. 

Our local associations are just where the individual fruit grower 
was twent}^ years ago. He found it necessary and profitable to join 
his interests with other men in the same line of business and form 
local associations. It now appears more profitable to join these asso- 
ciations into central combinations. One of the strong points in favor 
of centralization is that it will be a creature of power. It can get con- 
cessions and favors where a local association would not have the 
right to get or even ask. For example, take the buying of package 
material. The central association could place the order for the whole 
district early in the season. The manufacturer, knowing exactly 
how much material to make up could take a less figure for his product. 
He could ship his goods by the train load. If a car load is hauled 
cheaper per hundred weight than a single hundred weight, could not 
a train load of material be hauled cheaper than a single car? Again, 
being an organization which represents many, it could get better ship- 
ping facilities. The car companies would furnish spacious refrigera- 
tors and not "hen coops." Ice could be furnished at a reasonable 
price and always put in at the proper time and in suflficient quantities. 
Freight rates could be reformed. Our fruit would not be hauled out 
of the way, just to give a friendly road the business. The accomplish- 
ment of these needs alone would amply repay us for all that com- 
bination might cost. But this is not all. Uniformity is a factor of 
success. Under centralization we could have a uniform package, uni- 










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3 
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Winter Meeting. 209 

form picking, uniform packing, uniform grading and uniform distri- 
bution. 

The last named is of vital importance to our success. If we hope 
to have our fruit properly distributed, we must do it ourselves; not 
trust it to another. How can the different associations, miles apart, 
know to what point others are shipping? They can not. The result 
is one fruit market gets more fruit than it can consume, and another 
has a fruit famine. Fruit goes "up" in the latter and "down" in the 
former. "Colored" prices are sent out from the famine market to 
draw fruit their way. Everyone makes a rush; the famine is broken 
and a "glut" prevails. Under centralization there would be no im- 
natural congestion. Every market would be normally supplied; none 
would feast to-day and starve to-morrow. 

Centralization would materially aid in driving out of business two 
unprofitable and dangerous men — the dishonest grower and commis- 
sion merchant. Any dishonesty on the part of a grower could be re- 
ported by the purchaser of the fruit or the association's agent to the 
central association. It could mete out justice to the violator. The 
dishonest commission merchant preys upon one local association as 
long as possible and then seeks new territory to work his "graft." 
Under centralization, he has but one point to work upon. Having 
been found out here, he is done. 

We can not successfully bring a point against centralization. 
But just how to bring about an effective working organization seems 
to be a much misunderstood question. We could have one composed 
of representatives from the local associations, having one member 
for each one hundred acres in the local association. The organization 
to be incorporated under the laws of Missouri. The actual work of 
the central association to be done by an executive committee. It 
could have the entire disposal of all car lots of fruits harvested for a 
distant market. Provided, that a local association could make a sale 
after having first given notice to the central association of the price 
and destination. The money of such a sale to be payable to the cen- 
tral association : Provided, that such moneys should not be prorated. 
The committee, knowing the destination of all cars, could easily pre- 
vent an unnecessary amount of fruit gathering at one point. The 
board of directors could be formed of one member from each local 
point. The executive committee to be members of this board ex- 
officio. During fruiting and shipping season, this board should meet 
at least once a week and review the work done and suggest plans 
for the future. 

H— 14 



2IO State Horticultural Society. 

The central association should have the power to send a man to 
the receiving stations to see that ice in sufficient quantities is placed in 
the cars. Also an experienced man could be sent to our greatest fruit 
markets. His duty would be to report the condition of the fruit on 
arrival ; the time it arrives ; the amount of ice in car ; and whose fruit 
had or had not carried well and the probable causes. These reports 
would teach us much. l"he central association would have power to 
appoint and pay one shed grader for each local association and one 
field inspector for each two local associations. The field inspector 
could give instructions in the field, how to pick, pack and grade the 
fruit. This is a step toward uniform grading. At the close of the 
season each local association would receive the same price per pack- 
age for a like grade. The expenses of the central association could 
be defrayed by a lev}^ made on the gross returns of all the local asscn 
ciations. If we could follow these or similar lines of work, we would 
no longer have our forces divided by our little, partial, local interests. 
We could have an organization second to none in this great land of 
combinations. 



LOWER EXPRESS RATES. 

Willow Springs, Mo., Sept. 26, 1904. 
L. A. Goodman, Kansas City, Mo. : 

Dear Sir. — I am requested to write to you in behalf of our Horti- 
cultural Society. We have concluded we pay too much freight, espe- 
cially express. Can't the question of lower express rates be brought 
up all over the State at once, and insist on lower rates? Can any- 
thing be done through the legislature? We will have to quit fruit 
business if we can't get relief. Hoping to hear from you in regard 
to this matter. Yours respectfully, 

Enoch Brown, 
Secretary Willow Springs Society. 

Answer. — It would be Avell to take up this matter at the State 
meeting and have it discussed. Think you better prepare an article 
for this purpose and read at next meeting. 

Mr. Goodman, Sec. State Horticultural Society: 

Dear Sir.- — Some time ago in your correspondence with the sec- 
retary of our society, you requested that we prepare a paper on the 
subject of express charges, to be read at the next State meeting. In 



Winter Meeting. 211 



•^^ 



compliance with that request, our society appointed a committee foi 
that purpose. Your committee after due reflection and after con- 
sulting- several of our ablest lawyers, approach this question with a 
great deal of hesitation. It is like David going forth to battle with 
Goliath. Nevertheless, knowing our cause is just, we will cast our 
pebble and let time declare the effect of our throw. It is admitted 
by all that express charges are exorbitantly high, and when the com- 
panies are appealed to they tell us plainly to go to Texas or some 
other warm climate, and the holding up continues for all the traffic 
will bear. It has been suggested that we seek redress through the 
Legislature of our State. While it is admitted that the Legislature has 
a perfect right to pass a law regulating express charges, but past ex- 
periences has certainly taught us that such a course would prove 
abortive ; for all laws of that character, both State and National, have 
proven to be ineffectual, either from the defect of the law itself, or 
from their non-enforcement. Again, a State law would be futile for 
other reasons. A large part of our products go to other states, and 
where a road crosses its line and returns to the State, that according 
to the decision of our Railroad Commissioners, nullifies the law, and 
we would still be left to the mercy of the rapacious greed of the 
express monopoly. No, gentlemen, the day for patch-work and reme- 
dial measures has past, the case is a desperate one and needs heroic 
treatment. Must we then sit supinely still and let this legalized bandit 
continue to rob us in the future as it has in the past and acknowledge 
ourselves incompetent to deal with our OAvn servant and say to them 
thus far shalt thou go and no farther? There is a remedy, a sure and 
effectual one. One that will be universal in its application, founded 
in absolute justice, and one that will meet every emergency. It can 
be expressed in one short sentence, two words, "Government Owner- 
ship." Your committee are fully conscious that we may be treading 
on forbidden ground, but notwithstanding the sign, "Keep off the 
grass," we boldly take the step. Going into politics, are you? No, 
we are always in politics. Politics means the science of g-ovemment 
and if we are to be denied the right of exercising our prerogative as 
American citizens, we had far better abandon our organization at 
once. Almost every question with which we have to deal is either 
directly or indirectly a political question. The temperance question, 
the subject of good roads and the education of our children are one 
and all political questions. It is passing strange that all other classes, 
except the producers of wealth, can and do seek government aid. But 
the producers and wage-workers must lay like Lazarus.and be thank- 



212 State Horticultural Society. 

ful for the crumbs that fall from the rich man's table. We have 
simply hinted at this subject. We hope it will be taken up and fully 
discussed, and if this article should be the means of aiding in some 
small degree in bringing- about the much needed reform your com- 
mittee will feel that they have been amply rewarded. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. H. Thomas, 
G. H. Johnson, 

C. I. CUSHMAN. 

Committee. 
This was referred back to committee to include freight rates as 
well as express. Our society met last Saturday and decided to get 
up a petition and have all fruit growers to sign it and send it to the 
Legislature. We as a society appeal to all fruit growers to do the 
same and I think we can get lower rates, both express and freight. 

Enoch Brown^ 

Secretary. 
The meeting adjourned until the evening session. 



FOURTH SESSION— WEDNESDAY. DECEMBER 21, 8 P. M. 

The first number on the program was a piano solo, a Fantasie by 
Chopin, which was most artistically rendered by Miss Patterson. 

For the first paper of the evening Mr. H. S. Wayman read his 
article on The Local Fruit Farm. 



THE LOCAL FRUIl' FARM. 



(H. S Wayman, Princeton, Mo.) 



No subject will appeal to more people than that of fruit grow- 
ing, because so many people are interested in it financially or other- 
wise. And because it is an honorable business. I might say a God- 
given occupation, for when the creator laid out the Garden of Eden 
and made it both beautiful and useful, with trees and plants, he placed 
man therein and intended for him to be a horticulturist and today we 
look in wonderment at the great army of tillers of the soil who have 
kept the faith and are fashioning the similitude of that garden. As 
President Roosevelt says in his message to Congress, "Nearly half 



Winter Meeting. 213 

of the people of this country devote their energies to growing things 
from the soil." Wm. Jennings Bryan says, "He who plants a tree 
plans for the future and gives evidence of his interest in posterity." 

What grander monument can man erect to his own memory and 
what greater blessings can he leave to his community than that of a 
home adorned and made useful with trees and plants? One of our 
sister states defines horticulture as "the sweetheart, the bride, the 
summer dream, the poem of agriculture," and says, "The asperities, 
the common places, the prosaic details, of corn and wheat and hogs 
and harrow become tinged with the moonbeams of sentiment and all 
the alluring and mellifluous words come at our call when we enter 
the gardens and orchards." 

There are times and conditions, however, that would require all 
of the typical Missourian's philosophy to enjoy such supreme content. 
But such conditions are usually the fault of the man, for in these en- 
lightened and modern days the lives of two or three orchards to- 
gether with that of your own, need not be sacrificed in learning what, 
when and how to do. Refer the matter to your Experiment Station. It 
is paid for doing this kind of work ; read the horticultural reports and 
papers, they are published in your interest; consult your local fruit 
grower: he has "no ax to grind" and will cheerfully give you much 
valuable and reliable information. Meet with your local and State 
societies; they are interested in your welfare and will do you much 
good, and then most important of all, go to work; for as Ruskin 
says, "The law of nature is that a certain quantity of work is neces- 
sary to produce a certain quantity of good of any kind whatever. If 
you want knowledge you must toil for it, if food you must toil for it, 
and if pleasure you must toil for it." Hence with the liberal applica- 
tion of brain and brawn, the "sta3ang" qualities and the endowment 
of a hardy perpetual enthusiasm, success will be your crown, but with- 
out these qualities better seek some other field, for 

' 'You can not expect to be reapers and gather the bright golden ears 
Unless you have first been sowers and watered the furrows with tears." 

The development of the fruit farm is measured by the develop- 
ment of the man and the development of the man is measured largely 
by his instruction and training when a child; hence the character of 
our future horticulturists depends largely on its course of instruc- 
tion in our public schools. Various projects along this line have been 
taken up and much good accomplished, yet they were unable to reach 
the great masses. The schools of Missouri having realized this and 
the necessitv of some clear connected instruction in this channel are 



214 State Horticultural Society. 

taking up the work along with other lines. This is being done in 
various ways, chiefly in nature work, laboratory instruction, and 
experimental gardens. True, this work is just beginning, and several 
years will elapse before the plan will be in general operation, but the 
plan in its inception promises great things. 

Park College of Parkville is taking great interest in horticulture 
in an experimental way, evidence of which I saw a few weeks since 
at the St. Louis Fair when it was my privilege to assist in unpacking 
and placing on display a barrel of Jonathan apples of the 1903 crop 
from their experiment orchard, which was the best barrel of storage 
apples in the Missouri exhibit. The condition, quality and packing 
were perfect and Park College should indeed be proud of such a 
record. 

In our own school at Princeton, of which Prof. Fred L. Appleby 
is superintendent, they are making a beginning of nature work through 
all the grades and our Board of Education has just expended as a 
starter two hundred dollars on laboratory apparatus for the High 
School. In connection with Biology much instruction along agricul- 
tural and horticultural lines with experiments is being given this 
year. These subjects are interesting to most all pupils, developing 
their own natural actions and awakening them to the beauty and 
utility of things that are usually passed by without interest or even 
knowledge of their existence. While this line of thought may seem 
foreign to my text, yet I firmly believe our future successful horti- 
culturists will build from this very foundation and it should be most 
carefully laid, for "as the twig is bent the tree is inclined," and the 
young man or woman thus talented and trained will enter the fields 
of fruit growing a potent factor, broadening its possibilities and add- 
ing thereto still greater achievements of success. 

The local fruit farm should grow all kinds and varieties of fruit 
that succeed well on that particular portion of the earth. No certain 
list of varieties will succeed in all localities and on all soils alike. 
Hence, study the conditions of your location. Avail yourself of all 
possible information and combine it with your best judgment, follow 
up with the same care that you start in with, be industrious and 
watch the results. The time for operating the fruit business in a 
careless, haphazard way is past. You can no longer set out your 
trees in the yard or hog lot and let nature, the stock and the neigh- 
bors do the rest. You must use the same care that you would to suc- 
ceed in any other line of business. You can no longer bring your 
berries to market in the milk pail and your grapes in the wash tub 



Winter Meeting. 215 

and your apples in the meal sack. Handle your fruit well, carefully 
grade, closely pack it in attractive packages and make it as nice in 
appearance as if you were going to ship it to some foreign market, 
for I believe the people of your home market are just as good as 
the people of anywhere else and like just as good fruit and will re- 
spond to such treatment with a demand for more of such fruit than 
you can grow. 



THE CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL— MY EXPERIENCE AND 

AIMS. 

J. W. Robinson, Springfield, Mo.) 

Agriculture is as old as man. Arid the first man Adam was the 
first horticulturist; the garden in the East of Eden his own as a gift 
from his Maker. Who, upon placing him in it said, "Dress and keep." 
How exalted the calling and how dignified the labor in pursuing it, 
since it was God given and directed. Realizing that it was not good 
for man to be alone in the enjoyment of this rich inheritance. He gave 
him Eve for a helpmeet. How happy this pair must have been while 
in the enjoyment of their Eden home as they wrought among its 
luscious fruits and fragrant flowers ; and how strange that they should 
over-leap the bounds of His authority and thus abuse their high of- 
fice and blessed privileges. (The Adams are not all dead yet, not 
even in Missouri.) There was a tree in the midst of the garden, the 
fruit of which they were forbidden to eat. It is supposed tO' have been 
an apple tree loaded with fruit, beautiful to look upon and pleasant 
to the taste. Such as our own Ben Davis or Jonathan grown to 
perfection only here in the "Land of the Big Red Apple." Is it any 
wonder that our mother Eve, whose bump of curiosity was over- 
developed, should be tempted to taste one of those apples and having 
done so and desiring her husband (woman like) to share its sweet- 
ness with her, induced him to take a bite also. By this transgression, 
then, came death and all our woes. The earth was cursed with thorns 
and thistles and noxious weeds. 

Dark and gloomy indeed must have been the prospect to Cain — 
the first agriculturist — when upon receiving his penalty as a murderer 
he exclaimed : "My punishment is greater than I can bear." Ban- 
ished from Eden, to face the ills of life, they went forth to toil and 
sweat for their bread. From the days of this first tiller of the soil 
to the present a war of subjugation has been waged against these 



2i6 State Horticultural Society. 

pests — the product of sin. But Divine Justice is ever tempered with 
mercy. God's law^s are inexorable and unchangeable whether they 
be natural or spiritual. At the same time He inflicted this penalty 
for this first transgression of law, the promise was given that the 
seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head. And this rain- 
bow of hope and promise spanned the ages from the first Adam who 
was of the earth earthy into the second Adam who was the Lord 
from heaven, who should come with healing in his wings, ushering in 
the morning of the glad day as seen by prophet of old when he ex- 
altingly exclaimed : "The wilderness and the solitary place shall be 
glad, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." The 
finger of time was ever pointing toward the Messiah, and the glad 
morn ushered in by this coming is hastening on toward the noonday 
of the Sun of Righteousness. 

Scientific research ; a study and better understanding of nature's 
laws, is but the outgrowth of religious liberty and christian civiliza- 
tion. And these we can proudly say are the products of American 
soil, fostered and protected by Caucasian manhood, which is leading 
the world in everything that enlightens, elevates and blesses it. Our 
public school system is one of which we may well be proud, for surely 
we merit a place in the front rank of the educational world. But to 
my mind there is one very important branch in the course of study 
as it now is that has not been provided for, viz. : Agriculture. Why 
should this, the most comprehensive of all sciences, be ignored while 
we are preparing our children for all other vocations? It matters not 
that he ever owns a pig, or plants a tree, the way should be made 
plain and easy for the young student to know something of how 
animals and plants grow. The laws governing these makes agri- 
culture a science to which all others must pay tribute. The coming 
agriculturist who is ambitious and expects to be in the front, whether 
he pursue horticulture or general farming, must begin preparation in 
the common school and finish in a higher institution, such as our own 
State Agricultural College at Columbia. This institution, equipped 
as it is for educating along its lines of study, is an honor to our com- 
monwealth and will more and more add dignity to the labor of the 
tillers of the soil. And whenever instruction is begun in the common 
schools, especially of the rural districts, this institution will have to 
enlarge itself in every way in order to meet the demands for the in- 
struction it gives. 

As one who has gained what little he knows largely by experi- 
ence and observation, T would advise the young farmer, or the one 



ly inter Meeting. 217 

intending to be, to avail himself of the means at hand for informa- 
tion, for by this (in the language of Prof. Bailey), "We are now 
able to comprehend that the soil is a compound of inorganic and or- 
ganic materials. A realm of complex physical and chemical forces 
and the scene of an intricate round of life. We must no longer think 
of it as mere dirt. ^Moreover, we are only beginning to understand 
it, and as the very soil is unknown to us, how complicated must be 
the great structure of agriculture which is reared upon it." 

In the foregoing thoughts, so imperfectly put, I have tried to 
emphasize the importance of cultivating the cultivator, believing that 
this being well done, the question of how to cultivate the soil will be 
already solved. 

A few thoughts now in reference to my experience and I will 
relieve your patience. Cultivation cannot always be applied to crops 
by an arbitrary rule. Uift'ering conditions call for different methods, 
and when these are met and you, like myself, are short on a knowledge 
of what the books would instruct you to do, use good common sense. 
One thing, however, may always be relied on as the proper thing to 
do. Make thorough preparation. There is no plant or seed but de- 
lights in a deep mellow seed bed and labor done in bringing the soil 
to this condition is usually saved by taking the place of after culti- 
vation. I will give my experience in the cultivation of an eleven 
acre field this last season, planted in three acres of potatoes, one of 
Stowel's evergreen corn and seven of field corn. This field had been 
in clover the past three years and used for pasture. And I attribute 
the good yield of potatoes largely to it. It is the best growing crop 
for renovating and keeping up fertility I know of. I turned this 
ground with a No. 40 Oliver Chilled plow the latter part of February, 
plowing about six inches deep. The latter part of March I double- 
disked it both ways and followed with the springtooth harrow. I 
furrowed it off with a two-horse cultivator, plows three feet apart, 
using the large shovels making but one row at a time, one shovel 
following back in the same row the second time. This thoroughly 
cultivated the rows on each side and in the bottom of the furrow. 
The seed was Alinnesota, Early Ohio and Burbank, cut in one and 
two e3'ed pieces and dropped as straight as possible about fifteen 
inches apart, stepping on each piece, pressing it firmly into the mellow 
soil. The covering was done with the same plow used in laying off, 
changing the shovels a little so as to. slightly ridge the dirt over the 
row. I like this way of planting better than any I have tried, because 
in planting you thoroughly plow the ground and the seed is put in and 



2i8 State Horticultural Society. 

all covered the same depth. On account of the cold wet spring they 
did not come through the ground for about a month, at which time 
I ran a deep furrow through the middles with a large shovel plow 
and in a day or two followed with a springtooth cultivator, going 
close to the plants. This cultivator — properly named the "Daisy" — 
is the best implement for general cultivation I have ever used, being 
easily adjusted to suit any crop, such as SAveet potatoes or strawber- 
ries. This and a two-horse sulky weeder were the only ones used, 
going over it at least once a week until the potatoes had begun to 
grow, the Ohio's being almost large enough to eat. The yield from 
the two acres of Burbanks was over 300 bushels and one acre of 
Ohio, 100 bushels. An acre along side the potatoes was planted in 
Stowel's evergreen corn, preparation and cultivation the same, except 
the corn was drilled sixteen inches apart, in rows 33^ feet. I sold from 
this over $40.00 worth of roasting ears and have some left for seed. 
The balance of field, about seven acres, was planted in Bloody Butcher 
corn of extra fine seed. Preparation was the same as rest of the field, 
drilled with two-horse drill in two rows, three feet ten inches apart, 
sixteen inches in the rows. The same weeder and cultivator were 
used in the cultivation. I consider the weeder the most efifective 
because it got in its work in time to kill the little weeds and lightly 
stir the surface after each rain. The springtooth cultivator stirred 
deeper, but never more than two inches. When the corn was tassel- 
ing and shooting, a 14-tooth one-horse harrow was run through it 
once. This was I think the finest field of corn I ever saw, both in 
appearance and yield. It is still in the shock and 1 am not able to 
give the yield. Good judges have estimated it as high as 100 bushels 
per acre. Now, why did this eleven acres of ground yield such 
unusually large crops, the proceeds of which in cash at a conserva- 
tive estimate being $550.00? Aly answer follows: Good ground, 
made better by being three years in clover, thorough preparation be- 
fore planting, the best of seed planted in the right time, rain enough 
to supply needed moisture, shallow^ cultivation enough to prevent its 
escape and not deep enough to destroy a rootlet. 

Had there been a dry spell in August and September as is often 
the case the results would have been different. I am persuaded, how- 
ever, that an ordinary drouth may be in great measure overcome by 
early deep plowing or subsoiling and working thoroughly to a fine 
and compact bed, thus forming a reservoir to retain the moisture fur- 
nished by the spring rains and prevented from escaping by repeated 
shallow cultivation. I have said nothing about weeds — which it is 



Winter Meeting. 219 

said pump from the soil, moisture at the rate of 400 pounds to one 
pound of dry weeds — for the reason that with the cultivation given 
as sug-gested, there will be none. These curses for Cain's sake will all 
be killed in infancy. I consider it a matter of the greatest importance 
that the ground be clear of weeds, whether it be in cultivated crops 
or kept in grass. The prime object in all cultivation being to form a 
mulch; removing everything that would take moisture from the trees 
and plants. 

For the apple and peach orchard my experience prompts me in 
saying that for the first four or five years after planting, popcorn is the 
best paying crop, as well as the one least hindering the growth of 
young trees. I will add that the fruit buds now formed are unusually 
abundant, plump and healthy, giving promise of a plentiful yield. 

In all the efforts put forth in our chosen calHng, our aims should 
be to faithfully use the rich inheritance committed to us in trust by 
a beneficent Providence, remembering that we are his tenants at will, 
and instead of burying or misusing the talent we each posses, use it 
for the advancement of ourselves and our fellowmen. "In the morn- 
ing sow thy seed and in the evening withhold not thy hand." Some 
of us are now .toiling in the evening shadows and though we may 
not enjoy the fruits of our labor, they who take our places will rest 
in the shade and eat the fruit of the trees of our planting. 

Eden was lost by our first parent's sin, let us be diligent in our 
efforts in helping to again restore it. 



Mrs. Keller sang a vocal solo, "My Rosary," and responded with 
an encore, "Spring Is Here.'" 



Sedalia, J\Io., Dec. 19, 1904. 
Hon. L. A. Goodman, Sec'y State Horticultural Society, Westport, 
Mo.: 

On account of serious illness in the family, 1 shall be prevented 
from attending the meeting at Neosho. I regret this very much, as 
I have never seen the bright little city, and have read much about its 
enterprise and progress. I thank the Society for the courtesy extended 
me and beg to remain, very sincerely yours. 

Mrs. Geo. E. Dugan. 

In the absence of Mrs. Dugan her paper was read by Miss Marie 
L. Goodman. 



220 State Horticultural Society. 



THE TRUE VALUE OF FLOWERS. 

(Mrs. George E. Dugan, Sedalia, Mo.) 

"Life is real, life is earnest 

And the grave is not its goal; 
Dust Ihou art, todust returnest 

Was not spoken of the soul." 

How many times we have heard this quotation, yet how little 
real thought we have given to it. Life is the chief thing in all the 
world, the best thing in all the world, and the most mysterious. From 
the standpoint of life — little as we comprehend it — let us discuss flow- 
ers, one of the greatest blessings the Creator has bestowed upon a 
heedless and often ungrateful people. We are so accustomed to think 
of ourselves as the only real manifestation of God's love and power, 
that we ignore other forms of life, or regard them merely as acces- 
sories, or appendages to ourselves. J.Ian in his boundless egotism 
does not concern himself much about other phases of life. Unless 
he happens to be a naturalist of some sort, he is too apt to lose sight 
of the grandeur and beauty pertaining to those manifestations in 
which he has no particular interest. To a large nuipber of otherwise 
intelligent persons, a plant does not represent life at all, yet nothing 
grows that does not live, and I am inclined to believe that some 
plants have an instinct, which might almost be called intelligence. 
Victor Hugo once said, "All life is a part of the one great life that is 
the moving power of the world." When we realize this truth, we 
feel a solemn awe, as we stand in the presence of the great trees, at 
whose feet nestle the wild violets. Ruskin has written, "That which 
wc foolishly call vastness is, rightly considered, not more wonderful, 
not more impressive, than that which we insolently call littleness." 
It would be difficult to estimate the value of a flower from a material 
standpoint. As the intellectual life is higher than the physical, so is 
the spiritual higher than the material. We cannot value a flower, as 
we do a beefsteak, or a cabbage head, because the financial is the very 
least part of the true value of flowers. 

The influence of a rose is not perceptible to a gross mind, yet the 
value is there, as real as though it were perceived ; the sad thing 
about it is, the grossness of the undiscerning mind, and its unper- 
ceived but nevertheless real loss. The grandeur of any character lies 
wholly in force and fineness of soul. Beauty has its own unique 
place in the world ; we may ignore it, and fail tO' profit by its lessons, 
but it is here for a purpose, and its purpose is to lift us up to higher 



Winter Meeting. 221 

planes of thought. 1 recall here, that I have been told my essays are 
not practical, that they are visionary and of no use. I have replied to 
this friendly criticism by saying that I did not wish them to be prac- 
tical, and that I intended them to be visionary, for I claim that the 
spiritual is of far more value than the merely practical, and that the 
things unseen are of much greater v^orth than are those we behold 
with our limited natural vision. As a florist is superior to a butcher, 
so is the work that appeals to the soul higher than that which appeals 
only to the material sense. He who grows a plant assists life in its 
struggle for light and development upward into beauty, while he 
who kills an animal not only destroys a force concerning which the 
greatest sages have ever remained ignorant, but he also destroys a 
portion of the refinement belonging of right to his own soul. It is a 
fact well iVnown that the Japanese who have made floriculture a 
special study, and who have done more than any other nation to ad- 
vance the science of flower growing, were not until recently a meat 
eating race. When we really become as civilized as we think we are 
we shall not only cease slaughtering animals for the purpose of eat- 
ing them, but shall also cease murdering each other, either in wars, 
or stealthily in the dark places of earth. Do you ever pause in your 
hurried career, my dear materialist, to ponder on the command of the 
Saviour, who told his deciples "to consider the lilies, how they grow?" 
not when they grow, nor where they grow, but how? They toil not, 
neither do they spin, yet they are abundantly cared for; as we might 
be, if we loved, and trusted, and sometimes waited for the manifesta- 
tions of the One "who so loved us that He gave His only begotten 
son, that we might not perish, but have eternal life." That son told 
his followers to consider the lilies, not merely to glance at them, and 
turn away, but to consider them. To consider means to reflect deeply, 
to think seriously, to make careful examination, to study. This is 
what I would have you do in reference to the value of flowers. I 
could tell you how to grow them, any florist's catalogue can do this. 
I do not need to tell you that you must have fertile seed, that the soil 
must be rich, light and well prepared, that you must keep the weeds 
from crowding them, that some are hardy, and others tender, that 
you must plant seed in the springtime, and that they must have sun- 
shine and moisture ; you all know this as well as I do, but you may 
not know that it would be better to sell one of your daily loaves of 
bread (even if you had but two) and buy a flower to feed your soul. 
If I can, in this essay, cause one person to consider the true value of 
flowers, I shall have accomplished more by far than as though I should 



222 State Horticultural Society. 

stand here for an hour and tell you things that you know quite well, 
and have known always. He who' cares for flowers will find a way 
to grow them. Aly mission is to try to make you care for them. If 
they were not of great value in the economy of creation, there would 
not be such a bewildering variety of them, each vieing in loveliness 
with the other. 

The true value of flowers was exemplified at the great World's 
Fair in St. Louis. What would the grounds there have been 
without these silent, beautiful, brilliant creations? They seemed to 
be about the only spiritual and spiritualizing things there. Amidst 
all the beauty, they were the most beautiful, amidst all the marvels, 
the most wonderful, and how profuse they were everywhere; along 
all the terraces, in the sunken gardens, in plats by the wayside, on 
the slopes leading up to the great Agricultural and Horticultural build- 
ings, in the small lakes, along the lagoons, surrounding and dignify- 
ing nearly all the states' buildings, and everyone of the foreign build- 
ings, there they were in all the radiance and richness of their wonder- 
ful colorings, their variety of textures, their brightness of foliage; 
truly might one have said, with the great Hugo, "When I see a little 
child, or a beautiful flower, I feel that it would be no sin tO' worship 
them." Human life, with its varied experiences, its fleeting joys, and 
many sorrows, would be much sadder than it is, were there no floral 
emblems of God's care and love on earth to soothe and cheer our 
hearts. 

On all festive occasions we use flowers. Did you ever think 
of this? And how much less festive these occasions would be with- 
out them. They symbolize every phase of human emotion ; they 
make radiant the wedding day, and whisper of the resurrection when 
lying in fragrant masses on the caskets of our dead. I have known a 
rose to woo back to health and strength the life of a little child, the 
joy that pulsed through its faintly beating heart when it held in its 
weak hand the fragrant flower, set its pulses going at a steadier and 
better pace, and because it was made glad, it began to get well. In. 
times of loneliness, of depressions, of sorrow, have you not seen the 
bestowal of a few flowers from the hand of a friend bring light to an 
eye dim with weeping, and peace to a heart over-burdened by many 
cares? My friends, the commercial value of flowers is the smallest 
part of their true worth. Their value lies in their ability to make 
human beings see the spiritual side of life and sometimes get clear 
away from all the hard practical facts (however essential these are) 
and to spend some precious soulful moments in considering the lilies. 



Winter Meeting. 223 

Tn all ages, among all civilized people, in all nations, flowers have 
been loved and cultivated by many. They should be loved and culti- 
vated by all. They have always been the chief inspiration of the 
poet, and the joy of every normal child. Visitors to the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition must have learned much concerning the true 
value of flowers, besides having gained a great deal of practical knowl- 
edge concerning them. He must have observed the democratic idea 
prevailing in all the planting, how few solitary plants there were, 
and what acres of gorgeousness in the massing of them. He must 
have seen that wherever possible straight lines were avoided, and the 
open spaces always left, which served two purposes, one of which was 
to have the soft rich green of the luxuriant grass as a foil to intensify 
the beauty of the blossoms, the other — and more important — to allow 
the sun's rays to have unobstructed access to the plants. Those 
miniature gardens of Japan must have had his attention, and he 
must have noticed the landscape pictures in their construction. It is 
said that many gardens in Japan are a combination of pictures and 
poems, with the poetic idea predominating; this will illustrate what 
I mean when I say we must love flowers for what they express, and 
what they teach. We must love them not for their financial worth, 
but for their spiritual beauty. 

Again I quote from Longfellow: 

"In all places, then, and in all seasons 
Flowers expand their light and soul-like wings, 

Teaching us, by most persuasive reasons. 
How akin they are to human things. 

And with child-like credulous affection 

We behold their tender buds expand, 
Emblems of our own great resurrection, 

Emblems of the bright and better land." 



LANDSCAPE GARDENING AT THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 

EXPOSITION. 

(C. A. Chandler, Kansas City, Mo.) 

The work of building the Fair was divided into its respective de- 
partments with chiefs at their heads. Mr. Geo. E. Kessler of Kan- 
sas City was chosen chief of the Landscape Department and the work 
done is proof of his ability. 

The large amount of territory covered by the Exposition and the 
short space of time in which the work must be completed made the 



224 State Horticultural Society. 

landscaping one of the gigantic problems of the fair. In order to 
give the proper results, in some places large trees must be moved. 
Some three hundred or more ten or twelve inch trees were moved 
and planted along the lagoons. These trees were found growing in 
the park and were successfully moved with a loss of only three or four 
out of the lot, and furnished shade to many a weary visitor during the 
hot summer months, besides forming views and vista which brought 
out the grandeur of the architecture of the buildings and the statuary. 

The Engineering Department was supposed to do the rough 
grading. They wore away hills and filled up many hollows, but when 
the landscape gardener began his work he found it was indeed rough 
grading — piles of clay, piles of rock, piles of lime, whole seas of mud 
through which a team could neither pull nor swim, train loads of old 
lumber, scaffolding and trash of every description and the time for 
opening of the Fair rapidly drawing near. The landscape work added 
the finishing touches. It followed the graders, the electrician, the 
water men, the gas men, the telephone men, the sewer diggers, the 
carpenters, the plasterers, the painters and too often there was a feel- 
ing among them — well we will get our part done — not thinking of 
the landscape man. Much of our work when away from buildings 
was carried on from the start; of course, I mean by this practical 
part, the actually doing of the work, while long before there were 
many plans worked out in the offices of the department. 

Now as to the kind of landscape work that was done; there are 
in landscape art three distinct styles; first, the natural, where every- 
thing is made to look like nature, as if it belonged there or grew 
there, as it were, here trees, shrubs and fiowers are arranged in 
groups and not in rows ; second, the formal style where plants are 
put • in rows and made to form geometrical figures ; and, third, the 
picturesque style, very little of the latter, however, was used. 

Examples of the formal style are found in the Cascade Gardens, 
the Fine Art Court, the Sunken Garden, the Plaza of Orleans and 
Machinery Garden, the surrounding architecture of these places called 
for this formal style. 

The natural style was used in many parts of the grounds ; for 
instance, beside the buildings and along the lagoons. A good example 
of this style was the large plantation on the hillside south of the 
Educational building, also along the south side of the Transportation 
building. Here first a finished grade was established, then the out- 
line of the bed staked out and a hole dug where every tree or shrub 
was to be planted. These holes were filled with soil hauled from dis- 



Winter Meeting. ' 225 

tant parts of the grounds and in them was planted the best shrub- 
bery that could be found In the United States. Here the object was 
for immediate effect, so no attention was paid to future growth be- 
yond one year. Trees such as poplars, ash, willows, maples, box 
elder, catalpa, alianthus, sycamores, etc., were used for high points of 
the plantation, often planted two or three feet apart. Then came the 
grouping in and about these of shrubbery, such as Lilac, Deutzia, 
WeigeHa, Forsythia, Robinia, Philadelphus, Spiraea, Dogwood, Rhom- 
nus, Tamarix, Viburman, Berveris and many others, planted so thick 
that one could scarcely see through a plantation, and then buck bush, 
sumach and perennials worked in between. Then when the warm 
days of spring came thousands upon thousands of green-house plants 
were brought from the green-houses on the grounds and worked in 
among the shrubs and in a two-foot border around the shrubbery 
plantation. The green-house plants were worked in natural, irregular 
groups the same as was the shrubbery, according to size, color and 
texture of foliage, color of flowers, etc. Some colors go well together, 
as gray and red, while red and pink do not. Some textures of foliage 
go well together, as the castor bean, the banana and the canna, these 
harmonize. Among the green-house plants were canna, banana plants, 
brought from Florida, geraniums, ageratun, lantana, phlox, marigolds, 
petunia, poppies, pansies, balsams, asters, alyssium, coreopsis, stocks, 
zinnia, portulaca and others all worked together in one grand harmonious 
whole. 

Taken as a whole, the landscape was grand beyond description. 
Looking between rows of trees and masses of shrubbery the visitor 
w^ould see broad vistas of lawn bordered by flowers, fine buildings and 
statuary, while a closer observation, during every month of the Fair 
would reveal the beautiful bloom of the shrubbery and the many 
harmonizing colors of the bedding plants. 

Without the landscape work the Fair would have been very plain, 
indeed, the buildings would have looked tall and bare and the statuary 
have lost half its beauty. 

A piano solo was now played by Miss Sybil Harvey. 



U-15 



??6 ■ Sfafc Horilnilfiiral SocictV, 



THE HISTORY, ACHIEVEMENTS AND MISSION OF OUR 

SOCIETY. 

(C. A. Dutcher, First Vice-President, Warrensburgi Mo.) 

The history of all that is great and good in this world is the history 
Of growth from below up; from small beginnings to great achievements. 
The sum total of all these beginnings can scarcely be enumerated by 
those most interested at the time ; surely not by those who came years 
afterward. The history of this Society is no exception ; for while it is 
the history of great things achieved, the history of its small beginnings 
forever form an integral part thereof. 

At Columbia, in December, 1898, my acquaintance with the Hon. 
Norman J. Colman really began. He was present at that meeting and 
the welcome accorded him was like that of a guest of honor. I did not 
understand it, but soon learned that he, more than any other man, was 
regarded as the father of our Society. 

Prior to 1859, in pursuance to a call for a meeting for the purpose 
of advancing and directing the fruit growing interest of Missouri and 
the west, a few persons met at Jefferson City, and organized by calliiig 
Prof. G. C. Swallow to the chair. The names of eighteen gentlemen 
are mentioned as being in attendance, but others are referred to as being 
present. Of the eighteen, Mr. Colman himself remains unto this day. 

At that first meeting Mr. Colman was most properly elected Presi- 
dent of the Missouri Fruit Growers' Association, the name then adopted. 
1 his office he held till January, 1862. He was again President 1878 to 
1880, succeeding J. C. Evans, who became President in 1876. The 
history of Mr. Colman, then from 1859 to 1880 is the history of this 
Society. At this time the Society was of age, being just twenty-one 
years old. It may be interesting but sad to note that of all the grand 
men who served in official capacities during this time, Mr. Colman and 
Mr. Evans are the only ones now with us, or in any way active in the 
Society. A short retrospect of these years would not, therefore, be out 
of place. 

The year 1859 was a busy one, for in January they organized, in 
September they held a call meeting in St. Louis, and their first annual 
meeting in December at Jefferson City. The constitution adopted at the 
organization provided that any person could become a member by paying 
$1.00 annually. This was liberal enough; perhaps too liberal for a 
Fruit Growers' Association. None were barred. Farmers, mechanics 



Winter Meeting. 227 

and their hired hands; tree peddlers as well as nurserymen were ad- 
mitted on the same basis. Men and women too, not only of Missouri, 
of any other state could be admitted. Whatever may be thought of 
such liberality in these later years, be it said to their honor, all who were 
admitted seemed to have sought membership, uninfluenced by mercenary 
motives, prompted by a favorable opinion of the institution, a desire for 
knowledge, and a sincere wish of being serviceable to their fellow crea- 
tures. While the business of the Society was intrusted to the President 
and Secretary, the same as to the Executive Committe composed of the 
elective officers, at a later date, and is even now the case, all were 
workers. Mr. Colman when not in office served on many committees, 
lectured, read essays, and made many reports. Mr. Murtfeldt's pen 
v.as a fertile one in those days, as well as in these later years, almost 
to the day of his death. Mr. Evans was active in many ways from the 
time his name first appears on the list of members, talking up the "loess 
formation of the Missouri River Bluffs," with even more vigor than 
now. The name of W^m. Stark early appears, and he was an active and 
valuable member. The reports of Mr. Stark from the old ninth congres- 
sional district, and many of the papers read by him were most excellent. 
Ihey would read well today and be helpful to many. 

The year i860 was not such a busy one for the fruit growers. The 
only meeting that year of which any record exists was a called meeting at 
Hermann, on September 7th. That meeting must have been a unique one, 
for a single line in the minutes says: "A large number of seedling and 
specimen apples was presented to the association," and the rest of the 
entire record is devoted to grapes and wine. What relation this had to 
no annual meeting that year, I do not know, but they adjourned to meet 
at the St. Louis Fair grounds September 25th. No minutes of such a 
niceting are of record. From this time on, however, an annual meeting 
was held each January, with an additional November meeting in 1868 
and '70, and a December meeting in 1876 and '80, with the exception of 
1869, '71 and 'yy. No meetings were held in these years, for in the years 
immediately preceeding, two meeting were held. 

The second annual meeting was held in St. Louis, January, 1861. 
Yes, in 1861. Who among us having gray hair don't remember that 
year with thankfulness that it can never come again to our beloved 
country? Yet they had a fine meeting, a full record of which is pre- 
served. President Colman's opening remarks were very felicitous, and 
for a few days at least they forgot their "commercial and financial dis- 
tress," and the political difficulties of great magnitude that threatened 
them. They calmly discussed seed time and harvest "with the full con- 



228 State Horticultural Society. 

viction that, notwithstanding these troubles, the soil shall still yield 
its rich returns to a hungry world, and wheat and corn and fruit and 
wine shall be still as much demanded and can be as fully supplied as ever." 

The next meeting was held at same place in January, 1862. Pres. 
Spaulding recommended that the name of the association be changed to 
Missouri State Horticultural Society, as one giving "a wider range of 
purpose, embracing all the objects of horticultural design and improve- 
ment." The suggestion was acted upon and the name changed accord- 
ingly. 

The January, 1863 meeting, held in St. Louis, was a working one. 
The number of Vice-Presidents was reduced from seven to five. The 
firsi published report of the Secretary was read at this meeting. In it 
Mr. Muir uttered a great prophecy. He said "The time is rapidly ap- 
proaching when the membership in this Society will take high rank in the 
community, and when this Association will be regarded as one of the 
greatest agents that exists in working out the great future of our State." 
Our subsequent history clearly demonstrated the wisdom and foresight 
of the Secretary. At this meeting a committe was appointed to memori- 
alize the State Legislature in regard to the Agricultural interests of the 
State. This seemed strange to me, and especially so when I learned 
that the Missouri Agricultural Society had an existence at least four 
years before the Fruit Growers' Association was organized. How much 
longer I know not, but surely the Agriculturists ought to think of us 
very kindly. 

The committee agreed at once to petition the Legislature to accept 
the conditions of the Agricultural College Act of Congress, and to pass 
an act establishing a State Board of Agriculture. How successful they 
were may be seen in the fact that on December ist, following, the act 
v/as passed, the Agricultural College proposition accepted and at Colum- 
bia you can now see an Agricultural College equal to the best. 

But the strangest thing of it was that all this was accomphshed with- 
out the presence and assistance of the ladies. In his report of this meet- 
ing, Secretary Muir made a strong plea that they should arrange and 
"have a large supply of ladies for meetings, to check any tendency to 
acerbity in all our future meetings." 

The first mention of an opening prayer was on January 12, 1864. 
Morning prayers are also mentioned in these minutes. I would not con- 
clude from this however, that these good men were as negligent in their 
prayers as they seemed to have been in availing themselves, as Mr. 
Muir said, "of the powerful aid of woman in promoting the cause of 
Horticulture." 



Winter ■ Meeting. ■ 229 

The reports of 1865 and '66 were hard to find ; but a perusal of them 
paid well for the labor. The 1865 meeting was held in St. Louis. Presi- 
dent Mudd occupied the chair. Politically and socially these were times 
in Missouri that tried men's souls. It was January loth, but no one 
dared hope that the cruel war would end as soon as in April following. 
Mr. Mudd's opening paragraph was full of reHgious fervor, and thank- 
fulness for the "ever watchful care and guardianship of Him, who ruleth 
all things." He then said 'Tt appears to me to be a just cause of con- 
gratulation to the members, that we have not only been able to keep up 
our organization as a Society, while much of our State has been over run 
by war's destroying trains, but have also made much valuable improve- 
ment in Horticulture and Pomology, both in planting and improved arts 
01 cultivation, and in improved varieties of many fruits introduced among 
our people. Ours is the only State Society organized to promote any 
rf the interests belonging to the great family of Agriculture, which has 
been able to maintain its organization and annual convention." 

From this address we learn that nothwithstanding the Legislature 
had, at our instance, passed an act establishing a State Board of Agri- 
ciilture more than two years before, owing to the indifference or neglect 
of some gentlemen named in the act, three separate attempts to organize 
the Board had proved abortive. This indifference and neglect on the 
part of the farmers greatly endangered the establishment of the Agri- 
cultural College. Less than three years remained, and had it not been 
for this Society, the State no doubt woud have lost the 330,000 acres 
oJ land conditionally donated by Congress to provide for the endowment 
of such a College. 

The first published Treasurer's report was made at this meeting, 
and showed receipts, $112.00; disbursements, $109.70, balance on hand, 
$2.30. The Secretary said in this report, "The fact that our meetings 
here from year to year increased in attendance and in interest, even dur- 
ing those years of fearful fratricidal conflict, shows that our Society 
may well be recognized as one of the fixed facts of our social life." He 
refers with much congratulation to the fact that at the last annual meet- 
ing they had secured the 1866 meeting of that "indefatigable body, the 
American Pomological Society," to be held in St. Louis. 

True to the pace set at Hermann five years before, grape culture re- 
ceived much attention at this meeting. They appointed a committee to 
memorialize the Legislature for the protection of orchards and vineyards, 
and another committe to ask for the passage of a dog law. Why this 
law, does not appear from the record, but earlier in the session Mr. Col- 
man stated that Captain Blossom had to pick his apples early as they were 



230 State Horticultural Society. 

being stolen. From this I conclude they wanted the law to keep the dogs 
in the orchard. It is well to notice, however, that the further statement 
was made that Captain Blossom's apples were keeping better than those 
of any one else. Thus from a mere circumstance they learned a fact too 
few of us heed today. "Pick your apples just in time. To keep in the 
best condition apples as well as pears should be gathered before they are 
quite ripe." A Ben Davis September \\ ind fall will keep longer and cook 
better than an over-ripe one, though picked and handled ever so care- 
fully. 

The seventh annual meeting, January, 1866, was an important one. 
Being the first after the close of the war, the Association of the Nation's 
Chief Magistrate, and the emancipation of four million people held as 
slaves, our brethern found themselves confronted with new and momen- 
tous questions. But with Rev. Mr. Peabody to bear them upon the wings 
of earnest prayer to the Throne of Grace ; with Henry T. Mudd to out- 
line the work in his opening address ; with Secretary Muir to make valu- 
able suggestions, and with Norman J. Colman, Dr. Morse, Dr. Spauld- 
ing, Dr. Clagett, Mr. Guye, Mr. Murtfeldt, Mr. Elliott, Mr. Stark and 
Prof. Hussman, and a host of others for counsel and work, he who ac- 
quaints himself with the grandeur of these men by reading the history 
of this Society as I have done, will not wonder that they rose equal to 
any occasion that presented itself. Upon this period I would love to 
dwell; and the more I read it the more I realize my inability to do it 
justice. Read it for yourselves. You will find it in the first Agricultural 
Report, 1865, a copy of which you can now find for the first time in the 
Secretary's library. The respects of this meeting were largely directed 
to Washington, and while I had not time to follow out the whole history, 
I doubt not that one "Philadelphia huckster," Mr. Newton, Commissioner 
of Agriculture at Washington, lost his oflficial head. They were too 
busy for a Treasurer's report, and the little balance of $2.30 last re- 
ported, is lost to history for ever more. 

In spite of the fact that the Secretary displayed a little bad temper 
because he thought the business committe had somewhat encroached upon 
his prerogatives, the 1867 meeting was a great meeting. The minutes 
cover 166 pages in the Second Annual Report of the State Board of Agri- 
culture. The second Treasurer's report printed, is found in these minutes. 
W. C. Flagg's paper on the apple is a veritable classic. I wish it might 
be reproduced in our minutes in the near future. The discussion on the 
report of the special committee on the location of the Agricultural Col- 
lege was fine. At the close of this meeting Henry T. Mudd retired from 
the presidency, having served in this capacity five consecutive years. He 



Winter Mcciiiig. 231 

was recalled in 1873 and 74. Wm. Muir continued as Secretary four 
3^ears longer, serving in all twelve years, from 1859 to 1871, and was 
again recalled in 1875. For three years he was both Secretary and 
Treasurer. J. C. Evans was President in 1876 and '77, having held tlo 
previous office, and N. J. Colman followed for two years longer. 

Without going into the labors of these great men in greater detail, 
I can truly say a careful persual of all the reports from 1868 to 1880, 
will show an ever increasing interest in the work, a commendable im- 
provement in all the departments of Horticulture, and a constant ful- 
fillment of Secretary Muir's prophecy in 1863. These men were cer- 
tainly "working out the great future of our State." 

They had, however, some troubles of their own. They began with 
no money. The $1.00 from each member was their only income, and when 
there was a deficit, a pro rata assessment was made upon each member. 
Still the second Treasurer's report, made in 1867, shows a balance from 
1866 of $74.80, and closes with a balance of $130.55. In January, 1868 
there was a balance of $78.43, and in November, $66.00. In 1869 there 
was no meeting, there having been two meetings in 1868. hence no 
financial report. In 1870 the Treasurer reported a balance of $39-35' 
but makes no mention of the last balance, $66.00. In 1871 no meeting. 
In January, 1872, the Treasurer did not report the receipt of any balance 
whatever, but closes his report with a balance of $668.10 oti hand. This 
increase was due to the fact that the membership fee had been raised to 
$2.00 and $750 had been received from a State appropriation of $1,000.00, 
made in 1871. 

In 1873 the Treasurer reported a balance of $391.35, and stated 
there is an outsanding warrant of $75.00, and a quarter's salary due the 
Secretary, $50.00, which leaves $266.35. He then deducted the Secre-- 
tary's salary for the whole of the ensuing year, and artlessly remarked; 
"thus leaving at the ^-nd of the year, a balance unexpended, of $66.35." 
Had he deducted the whole expense of that year, he could easily have: 
wiped out the entire surplus. He surely was much interested' iu' the Sec-- 
retary. 

Concerning this unique report. Treasurer Bush stated the next year, 
1874, "I have never received a cent from my predecessor, and only $2.00 
annual membership fees, including my own. The Legislature made no. 
appropriation, and I could not, therefore, receive anything from the 
State treasury." The financial statement of the Committee on Exhibition 
of Fruits in the fall of 1872, showed a deficit of $299.85. They issued 
certificates of indebtedness to all creditors, a popular kind of warran^ 
f,rQm about. 1870 to 1875, but very unpopular in 1898. They then resolved. 



232 State Horticultural Society. 

"that owing to the present financial condition of the Society, the Secre- 
tary's salary be suspended for the present year, unless the asked for ap- 
propriation by the Legislature be obtained." 

At the next annual meeting, 1875, the Treasurer sent in no report, 
nor any balance on hand, but sent word that he was sick and asked that 
a substitute be appointed. Mr. J. C. Evans was accordingly appointed 
Treasurer without books, without money, and of course he could make 
no report. The Centennial, 1876, came on apace, but still no Treasurer's 
report. Such a condition may seemi surprising with such men as Mudd 
and Alien, Hall, Muir, King and Lewis, Riley, Wm. Stark, Bush and 
Swallow holding all kinds of offices, serving on all kinds of committes, 
reading many papers, yet the treasury in this miserable condition for 
three years. Mr. President, had you appointed a committee to examine 
into the condition of the treasury in this early day, your committee would 
have struck a hot trail. 

Careless or negligent or both, these officers may have been ; that 
they were dishonest is no where charged in the record. Incompetent book- 
keepers, too, they may have been, but that they were unfaithful is not re- 
corded. At the close of the first day's session of this '76 meeting a special 
financial committee, consisting of J. C. Evans, H. T. Mudd and G. W. 
Gage, was appointed to examine all accounts, but especially the accounts 
of the Ex-Treasurer of 1873. In December of this year the Treasurer 
simply reported $19.00 from his predecessor, and a balance of $19.30 on 
hand. We know not what the special committee accomplished, for no re- 
port is found. I have not mentioned the name of this Treasurer, for it 
would do no good to open up the case in these days of "statute limita- 
tions" and "constitutional rights." 

In 1877 no meeting. The minutes of the January meeting, 1878 were 
lost for several years, but parts of them found and published in pamphlet 
by L. A. Goodman, after he became Secretary in 1883, but no part of 
the Treasurer's report was found. But let no one connect him with any 
of the mishaps, for up to 1881 he was just one of the committee on 
flowers — simply that and nothing more, officially. 

The report of the January meeting, 1879, is not in our collection. 
But I learned from Mr. F. A. Sampson, Secretary of the State Historical 
Society at Columbia, that it is in the 13th Annual Agricultural Report, 
that the only reference to the Treasurer's report is "Prof. Riley, Treas- 
urer during 1877, presented his report for that year. Prof. Riley donated 
to the Society the amount of balance due him." If some one will find 
the 13th Agricultural Report and place it in our library in the Secretary's 
office at Kansas City, we will then have a complete record, at least so 



Winter Meeting. 233 

far as one was ever made. As to the numbering of our reports I wish 
to say one thing. Up to 1878 the number of the repert equaled the age 
of the Society. Had that plan been followed our next report would be 
the 45th. Whereas it is to be the 47th. This was occasioned by calling 
the restored report for 1878 the 20th ; whereas it was the 19th, and then 
we had two meetings in 1880, and as no subsequent break to offset one 
of them as in former years. Hence the age of the Society equals the 
number of the report less two, and has done so since 1880. 

We come now to January, 1880. The committee on appropriations 
reported $625.00 in the hands of the Treasurer, and a debt of $378.29, 
mostly on account of Fruit Exhibits at Rochester, New York. Mr. Col- 
man is in the chair. His address at the opening of this meeting was simply 
grand. I wish I could read it to you, or have each one read it for him- 
self. He evidently realized that the Society was now of age and thought 
his own active years in its behalf rapidly drawing to a close. We now 
know that he was wrong in so thinking, but such was his thought. Prof. 
Swallow, Prof. Hussman and himself were the only ones present who 
helped to organize the Society in 1859. How fitting it was that he who 
presided over the first meeting should preside over the last meeting of 
this period of 21 years. The father stayed with the boy until he was 21 ; 
in afifection the boy is with the father yet. 

Thus closes our first period of 21 years with financial perplexities not 
a few — other perplexities many. Fungus diseases and insect depreda- 
tions had begun to multiply. Early in the period the suave tree peddler 
was abroad in the land. Nurserymen had learned how to never be "just 
out" of any particular kind of tree called for. Orchardists ordered good 
trees and got inferior stock, paying exorbitant prices therefor. Indeed 
in the meeting for organiztion these latter difficulties were discussed at 
considerable length and with still more earnestness. Mr. Minor moved 
"that this Association recommend to cultivators of fruit to patronize Mis- 
souri nurserys in preference to those of the eastern states." From his 
remarks we learn that these peddlers had taken nearly $4,000.00 out of 
Cole county alone the fall before ; and he estimated that from the entire 
State — and that meant really only a small part of it — hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars went annually to the East for fruit trees of various kinds. 

Mr. Mudd in 1866, in speaking of the tree peddler, said: "Have 
they not done more to injure the fruit growers of the west than have 
blight and frost? A planter had better take a rattlesnake to his house 
than an oily tongued tree peddler to his confidence." Mr. Mudd surely 
had had some trouble of his own, and we have them today. By tree 
peddler is not meant the properly authorized agent of a reputable nursery, 



234 State Hoi'licullural Society. 

bringing needed information of what his firm has to offer to the 
orchardist in any given season. This is as legitimate and necessary with 
the nurserymen as with wholesale clothing or dry goods merchants. The 
tree peddler is a faddist. He rides a hobby and never gets his steed 
.groomed at an Experiment Station, or by a Professor in a Horticultural 
College. His selling price is three or four times as much as your home 
nurseryman will gladly take. You may not recognize him the first time 
he comes around, but you will the second, especially if you wait as did 
Mr. Minor, Mr. Mudd and their neighbors. Their trees fruited and were 
not true to name. Old varieties had been re-named. Even then the 
"whole root and piece root controversy had an existence. And while the 
Horticulturists of that early day set their faces against every fraud and 
■attempt to deceive, they were saved from the sure cure for pear blight. 

Thus far the history seems almost like ancient history, and were it 
not for a few men whose names I have mentioned, notably Col. Evans, 
I would be tempted to so label it ; but I fear he who feels and looks so 
young and vigorous would not stand for it. It was a necessary period 
and in it was laid the foundation for the then future. 

The January meeting of 1880 was the last of its kind. For four years 
they held only December meetings, and the meeting of this year was the 
last over which Mr. Colman presided. The Treasurer reported a balance 
of $160.20 on hand. The debt of $378.29 had been paid and all expenses 
to date. From this time Mr. Evans held the Treasurer's portfolio for 
four years, being associated with Tracy, Ragan and Goodman on the, 
executive committee. In 1881 they secured $2,500 appropriation from the 
Legislature, and in December the Treasurer's balance was $1,425.46. At 
this meeting Mr. Goodman was elected President, and Mr. Tracy Sec- 
retary. At the next meeting, December, 1882, these gentleman were re- 
versed, Mr. Goodman becoming Secretary for 1883 and Mr. C. M. Stark 
as Vice-President, was added to the executive committee. Mr. Stark 
held his position for two years and Mr. Goodman is still Secretary. 

In this year, 1882, work began in earnest. For the first time the 
executive committe had money to do with. That year closed with $572.00 
in the treasury and no debts. In 1883 the balance was $592.19. Mr. Evans 
was proving himself a valuable Treasurer. At the annual meeting of 
this year, Mr. Goodman made his first report as Secretary. Through 
circular blanks sent to postmasters, county officers and school teachers^ 
in addition to those on the roll already interested in Horticulture, he 
obtained tlie names of many men and some women too- — widows, no 
doubt,, who owned an orchard, be it ever so small. This helped in cor- 
respoadence an.d. in. adveirtising. 'Che. Secretary earnestly advocated, a. 



Winter Meeting. 235 

summer or semi-annual meeting. The first one was held at Springfield 
the next year, June, 1884, and from that time to this, 1904, two meet- 
ings — one in June, the other in December, have been regularly held. In 
1884 ^Ir. Evans passed from Treasurer to President, and served 14 years. 
The treasury ran low in '84 and half of '85, the balances being as low as 
.$75.00 and S83.53 respectively. But in December, 1885 it was up to 
$626.47: and till 1890 the balances stood from $174.26 to $989.32. In 
that year the cash available balance was small owing to the fact that 
$1,447.76 was tied up in a Nevada bank. In June, 1892, however, the 
balance was $591.98, and in December, $636.61. 

In 1891 Mr. A. Nelson was elected Treasurer and held this position 
to the day of his death — almost ten years. The executive committee 
consisted of J. C. Evans, President ; N. F. Murray, First Vice-President ; 
Samuel Miller, Second Vice-President ; L. A. Goodman, Secretary and A. 
Nelson, Treasurer. In June, 1892, 'Mr. Goodman reported progress 
made with the exhibits for the Chicago Fair, and in December the 
premiums from our exhibits at New Orleans, Philadelphia, Grand Rapids, 
Rochester, Boston and three exhibits at St. Louis. The Treasurer's re- 
port at this time shows a balance of $302.31, as "savings" from these 
premiums. This is nearly the beginning of the financial prosperity of 
our Society. If 1892 did not close a period somewhat peculiar to itself, 
it opened one. ^^'ith all the grand achievements of the first period, it 
closed with a decreasing treasury ; this period closes with an increasing 
one. If that was like ancient history; this is like modern. If only a few 
of the former workers were present then, many who helped to bring 
this to a glorious close, are here to day ; and we shall not forget that our 
third and present period owes much to the accumulating forces of the 
second, as the second was indebted to the first. 

The year 1893 was an important one in the history of this Society. 
In it occurred great changes. Heretofore the President and Secretary 
could draw on the State Treasurer when they needed money and there 
were funds available. From the "savings fund'' now on hand — the 
Society's own money — the Secretary and Treasurer kept all bills paid 
up, and wdien needed would draw on the State Treasurer for such 
amounts as would reimburse our own fund. This was done several times 
each year, and continued to the time of the adoption of the articles of 
incorporation passed early in session of this year. Soon after the passage 
of this act the Executive Committee met and accepted its provisions. At 
the semi-annual meeting at Columbia, in June following, the act was 
adopted by the Society as a part of its constitution, and the executive 
committee at its next meeting authorized the President and Secretary 



236 State Horticultural Society. 

to draw upon the State appropriation by requisition on the State Auditor, 
signed by the President and Secretary, and attested by the Society seal, 
whenever funds were needed. But it was found that under the new 
law no money could be drawn until it had been spent, receipted bills 
shown, and an itemized account made to the State Auditor. The old 
plan then had to be continued, at least in part. 

As often as it seemed necessary an itemized statement was sent to 
the State Auditor, and requisition made upon him to cover the same. 
Sometimes this requisition was made covering the expenses of the Society 
for one, two or three months, as the case might be. All these bills were 
paid from money belonging to the Society, and when the amount was 
refunded by the State Treasurer, it all belonged to the Society Itself. In 
reality the Society at no time has any State money in its hands. The 
bills were paid as now, from our "savings fund," and the State simply 
refunds the amounts previously paid out. It is impossible, therefore, for 
us to squander one dollar of the State funds. 

This fund began now to increase from membership fees provided foi 
by the act of incorporating and from premium awards taken by the Society 
The wisdom of the Executive Committte in creating such a fund was 
fully demonstrated by the operation of the new law, under which the 
Society was reorganized in 1893. Had it not been for this fund, every 
account would have been held up for at least one month or carried by the 
Secretary and Treasurer, till a requisition on the State Treasurer could _ 
be made. As it is the Treasurer always has enough of the Society funds 
on hand to pay these bills as soon as the accounts are allowed and war- 
rants drawn. This plan has been annually approved by the Executive 
Committee, and the order renewed upon the organization of each new 
Executive Committee. This the Board had a right to do, and in fact is 
the only body with authority to so order. This arises not simply from 
the fact that the business was intrusted by resolution to the President and 
Secretary in 1859, and to the Executive Committee, composed of the elec- 
tive officers, by an amendment to the constitution in 1883, but by the 
articles of incorporation in 1893. By that enactment the State recog- 
nized the Executive Board as now constituted, as the only agency in the 
Society in all business transactions between the Society and itself. 

The cash balances for the next year, 1894, were low, for our money 
was invested in the Chicago Fair exhibits. But in June the Secretary 
said in his report, "The World's Fair matters have all been settled up, 
and the commission has paid to the Society all the moneys expended 
for the display made there. Money had been advanced all along through 
the year by the Society to pay for fruits, express and expenses in col- 



Winter Meeting. ^37 

lecting fruits, which has now all been paid back to the Society." It is 
well for us to remember that when, by the operation of law, available 
money was not in the treasury, the Secretary did not hesitate to advance 
it for the Society. I find that as far back as 1886, he advanced during 
the year $316.36; in 1887, $383.44; in 1888, $569.52 — the expenses of 
the fruit show being that year $872.28 — and in 1889, $175.60 more than 
he drew from the treasury and collected from fees. The Treasurer's re- 
port shows, however, that by the close of the year all the amounts had 
been refunded to the Secretary when State funds became available. At 
the December meeting of this year, the Treasurer reported "Balance 
from World's Fair, $165.80, and from St. Louis exhibition, $150.70." 
In December, 1895, the Treasurer reported cash from St. Louis exposi- 
tion, $236.81. 

In December, 1899 J- H. Davidson, Treasurer of the Horticultural 
Committee of the Missouri Commissioners of Omaha Exposition, re- 
ported $323.70 advanced by State Horticultural Society for printing and 
fruit, and at Farmington, in December, 1900, Mr. Nelson reported the 
same $323.70 received from Omaha Exposition. At this same meeting 
the Secretary said, "The expense of the Paris Exposition was paid from 
money we had saved from our annual appropriations and from former 
displays." Such an experience as our Executive Committee had in making 
an exhibit in far off Paris, without a dollar of appropriation from our 
Legislature was enough to induce the action taken at Chillicothe, Janu- 
ary 8, 1900, and so accurately reported by Treasurer Nelson on page 
260 of that year's report. Mr. Nelson reported $1,179.32 as the total 
"savings fund," and by a vote of the Executive Committee, he was directed 
to deposit $1,000.00 with the Mississippi Valley Trust Co., St. Louis, 
Mo., at 4 per cent, that, as he said, "we may always have something to 
use in case of necessity." 

This money he deposited in his own name as Treasurer, and it was 
so deposited at the time of his death, November 10, 1901. This fact 
occasioned the board some little trouble ; but it was finally arranged with 
the Trust Co., as all such things are arranged in time, and re-deposited 
in the name of the Missouri State Horticultural Society, subject to the 
Treasurer's check, upon the order of the Executive Committee, and 
countersigned by both the President and Secretary. Greater safeguards 
cannot well be provided, and it so stands today. 

The year 1901 found us getting ready for the St. Louis World's 
Fair — the great Louisiana Purchase Exposition, just closed. In De- 
cember the Secretary reported the purchase of two hundred large jars 
at a mere nominal sum for use at this Exposition, and expressed "the 



238 State Horti cultural Society. 

hcpc that the State would place at our disposal enough money to make 
by far the greatest show ever attempted." But this was not done in 
any sense in time "for use in 190 1 and '2, and early part of 1903. In 
reality it was never "placed at our disposal," for as we have seen, 
under the present law the money had to be spent, receipted bills 
shown, and an itemized account made before a dollar could be drawn. 
And in this case a great big Missouri Commission of able bodied and 
careful men, stood between us and the State Auditor. What then was to 
be done ? 

It took large amounts of ready cash through all these months of 
getting ready for the show. We simply used the Society's funds, when 
money was on hand, and repaid it when the State money could be drawn. 
But if somebody had to advance money in getting ready for exhibitions 
at Chicago, Buffalo and Omaha, how much more for the St. Louis 
World's Fair? And it was done the same old way, $800 and more a 
month. He will never ask for our thanks, but L. A. Goodman, as Super- 
intendent of our Horticultural exhibit at St. Louis, deserves, and to him 
is due, the lasting gratitude of every friend of Horticulture in Missouri. 
The year 1902 closed with $240.96 in the treasury, and not one check 
drawn against our Trust Co. fund ; but an order made for one or 
more, to the amount of $200, December, 1903, at Columbia. 

It has long been the practice of our Society to defray the expenses 
of its delegates to other State meetings. In December, 1902, our Sec- 
retary, L. A. Goodman, received $72.00 in full of his expenses to the 
Maryland meeting, the same as did Mr. Robnett, to the Illinois meet- 
ing, and Mr. Gano to the Kansas meeting and Mr. J. M. Irvine to the 
Boston meeting. In February, 1903, the Maryland Society paid Mr, 
Goodman's expenses by sending him a draft for $72.00. Of course this 
money belonged to the Society, and might have been forwarded to the 
Treasurer at once. But we have shown above "that when by the opera- 
tion of law, available money was not in the treasury the Secretary did 
not hesitate to advance it for the Society." This was the case when the 
$72.00 was received. Hence he used this money to further our interest 
at the World's Fair, just as he had for two years, used other funds of the 
Society, collected by himself, "keeping an accurate account of debits and 
credits till funds were on hand." All these transactions were reported to 
the Executive Committee from time to time, but not to the Treasurer as 
such till State money "could be drawn, when both the Treasurer and the 
Secretary himself would be reimbursed. 

Slightly irregular this may have been, but not hidden ; "for every 
member of the Executive Committee was cognizant and had full knowl- 



Winter Meeting. 239 

edge of every dollar so used." The $72.00 simply followed' tfie course 
of dues and other money collected by the Secretary under certain cir- 
cumstances, and in due time appeared as a credit on the Treasurer's ac- 
count. This is the whole of the "alleged irregular methods and mis- 
management of the funds of the Society on the part of the Secretary," 
and seems to me to be a full explanation of a transaction that has re-- 
suited in much criticism of the Secretary. Of these facts the critics were- 
not ignorant, for they had been told to them, "at sundry times and in: 
divers manners." I trust we shall hear no more of the so-called hidderu 
"inside workings of the Society." 

As the history of 1904 is not all made and none of it published, 1903 
must close our third and last period. I stated above that 1891 marked 
the beginning of our financial prosperity. The subsequent facts herein 
stated abundantly substantiate the claim. But dollars and cents by no 
means mark our entire progress. Orchards have increased by the hun- 
dreds, and the acreage of fruit by the thousands. Fruit men from the 
north and east have come to us by scores and helped to make an in- 
creased demand for nursery stock. This large influx by immigration in- 
creased the home demand for "wheat and corn and fruit and wine," gs 
Mr. Colman put it in 1861, and if we in any way helped to bring about 
the results of the last election, some of us didn't mean to. 

Surely we have done our part in "working out the great destiny of 
our State." A reading of the papers, discussions and resolutions for 
the second and third periods into which I have divided our history, cover- 
ing a period of twenty-three years, will show you that we have stood no 
less for honest dealing than did our predecessors, nor have set our faces 
less "solidly against every fraud and attempt to deceive." This is not at 
any time a pleasant duty, but owe we it to all new men, whether young or 
old just beginning in the business of orcharding. In the performance 
of the duty, however, we should be careful. As I said in Springfield in 
1892, so say I again, "Let every claim be thoroughly and carefully in- 
vestigated, lest we be found throttling original investigation and thought- 
ful invention." 

After reading through a stock of Horticultural Reports four and a. 
half feet high, I confidently affirm that such seems to have been the 
course and well recognized duty of all our predecessors; though the 
doctrine did not assume form and take on formal declaration till June, 
1892, as recorded in that report, pages 89 and 90. It was then resolved 
among other things, "that it is the sense of the Missouri State Horti- 
cultural Society that it owes to the Horticulturists of the State all the 
protection and advice consistent with the position it occupies." 



240 State Horticultural Society. 

Indeed were I called upon to write a formal platform, I could do 
no better than to copy those six resolutions, with their four preceding 
whereases. If people will pay $35.00 a hundred for trees from other 
states, principally north and east, rather than patronize their home 
nurserymen, who have reputations to make or to lose, men who will 
gladly correct any mistake, and with mc have always made good any de- 
fective stock when pointed out to them, we can't prevent it. We warn, 
we advise. We resolve and print our resolutions. We report and print 
our reports at great expense, and still men bite and are bitten. But a great 
majority heed the warning and reject the oily tongued spieler; hence we 
must and shall continue in the future as in the past. We have, as all 
know, accomplished much, and by fair and honest dealing, we expect to 
achieve far greater things. 



FIFTH SESSION— THURSDAY, DECEMBER 22, 10 A. M. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

The morning prayer was offered by Mr. J. W. Graves. 
As the reports of the committees were not ready, the President 
called for the report of the Secretary. 

REPORT OF SECRETARY. 

(L. A. Goodman.) 

No more remarkable year in all our history than that of 1904. Not 
especially in the fruit line, although that has been much better than 
was expected but in the line of development and improvement, in ex- 
tension and intensive work, in study and examination, in new ideas and 
experiences, and especially in preparation, handling, keeping and ex- 
hibiting of fruits at the greatest of World's Fairs. The great work of our 
society members has been to make the greatest show ever attempted and 
to keep it up for seven months. 

The success of our exhibit and the general approval of the public, 
the special compliments of the expert fruit grower, the peculiar satis- 
faction of every man from Missouri, and the generous awards given by 
the expert judges in the way of fifty more medals than any other state; 
all show that Missouri did herself proud in the greatest fruit show 
ever made. 







O ? 



5 ^ 

|i 



O 



Winter Meeting. 241 

During the summer the Executive Committe has held three or four 
meetings at St. Louis to so help order things, as they always do in all 
exhibitions, that the greatest good would come to the different parts of 
the State, and for the glory of the Horticultural Society and its members, 
who have so faithfully stood by us in every item of this work. There 
could not have been two years selected out of the last ten years when it 
would have been so hard to make a large and complete selection of fine 
fruit for exhibition purposes, and this exhibit caused an extra large 
amount of work for everyone, and made more gray hairs and wrinkles 
for your Secretary than any five years of other work. 

To the Society, to the Executive Committee, to its officers and 
especially to its members, does the State owe its obligation, for, without 
their united effort we would have failed in our grand display and our 
just reward of 412 medals, which are ours. Eight grand prizes — one for 
the large and complete exhibits of fruit ; one for the great beauty of its 
installation ; one for the fine special educational features of the display ; 
and others equally as important; 28 gold medals to counties and large 
growers; 174 silver medals; 202 bronze medals. 

The space covered by our exhibit was 50 per cent more than any 
other state and comprised over 10,000 square feet. This space was sur- 
rounded by the most beautiful facade, decorated with the typical fruits 
and flowers of Missouri in relief, by arches illustrative of bending 
branches ; a beautiful pagoda, representing a summer house, this sur- 
mounted by cornucopias with Cupids guarding the fruits and flowers. 
Statues of Pomona and Flora, medallions of Missouri, the Great State 
Seal over it all. The finest relief map of the State, representing all of 
the best fruit lands. Tables, pyramids, glass shelving, mirrors, vases, 
punch bowls, urns, all filled just as full as they could hold all the sum- 
mer long with the fruits of the season, and with apples. Eight cases 
(300 of all kinds) of large photographs of orchard and fruit scenes, 
illustrating berry plantations, orchards, packing, shipping, etc., were a 
feature that gave prominence to many parts of our State and its fruit 
industry. 

Jars (2,400 of them) of all sizes, filled with fruits of the previous 
season put up in liquid. This exhibit was the most complete one ever 
attempted, comprising all the important fruits of the State in great 
variety, of more than 430 varieties and 21 different kinds of fruit. This 
exhibit was the greatest attraction all the year round, in spite of the 
fact that there was so much fresh fruit on the tables. At the close of the 
exhibition we had on the tables about 75 barrels of apples, about 7,500 
plates, the largest exhibit ever made by any state at any of our large 

H— 16 



^4- State Horticultural Society. 

expositions, or any other place. These apples and other fruits supplied 
during the summer came from 96 different counties, and there were over 
1,700 entries made during the year, by more than 500 persons, some of 
them, being for only one plate of one variety, others sending in a succes- 
sion of fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, 
peaches, cherries, plums, pears and apples, thus making a complete ex- 
hibition of their own. 

HEARTY SUPPORT OF THE COMMISSION. 

While we have had the earnest and hearty support of our best fruit 
growers in every part of the State, responding to our every call for fruit 
and for assistance whenever needed, yet we must not forget that the Mis- 
sour* Commission has been behind it all, and has been the best friend of 
the fruit exhibit. At no time have the Missouri Commission and Mr. Bon- 
foey, the Chairman of our Department, failed to give us the most constant, 
hearty and earnest support in every detail of the work, as to fruit and 
flowers as to plans of the exhibit, as to installation, as to help necessary 
for the daily work in caring for the exhibit, and as to the fruit men of 
our State in giving their time and knowledge for the entertainment and 
instruction of visitors. In every detail have v^'e to thank our Commis- 
sion and Mr. Bonfoey for their most hearty co-operation in our every 
effort during not only the time of the Fair, but for their best wishes and 
hearty support shown in every detail during the whole of the year of 
preparation preceding the opening of the great exhibit. 

A FEW WORDS IN EXPLANATION OF THE AWARDS. 

1. No exhibit of any state was in competition with that of any 
other state. No state was awarded a prize on best or largest or most 
perfect exhibit. 

2. No variety or collection of varieties was in competition with the 
same variety from any other state ; for example, no state or person of 
any state took a prize for best Jonathan. 

3. No awards were given for best of any variety or on best collec- 
tion of apples or peaches, or largest collection, or largest specimens, or 
most perfect exhibit, or most artistically arranged. 

4. Not more than one award was given to any state, or person, or 
county ; for example, no one received an award on collection of apples, 
collection of peaches, collection of grapes, or collection of berries sepa- 
rately, but his award was made on all of them combined. 



Winter Meeting. 243 

5. If this combined collection was awarded enough points by the 
judge, it might receive the grand prize or the gold medal or the silver 
medal as the case might be. 

6. All the awards are made on a scale of points, embracing: Size, 
color, condition, quality, extent of exhibit. Every day as the fruits were 
put on the tables the judges passed on them and made a score. At the 
close, these scores were added up and the awards made on the result 
of the scores thus recorded. 

7. Every state, every county, every person therefore, gets an award 
upon the merits of the exhibit, and not in competition with any other 
person or county or state, but on its merits — just the plan, by the way, 
that our State Society has proposed and followed so satisfactorily for 
the past ten years, and in our opinion the only correct plan. 

8. If an exhibit secured enough points to entitle it to grand prize 
or gold medal or silver medal and then continues to make entries, the 
last entries may be entirely lost, so far as awards are concerned. For 
example, the State of Missouri made enough entries to entitle her to 
three grand prizes for extent and size of exhibits, but, according to their 
ruling, only one award could be made to the State on her exhibit. 

For example : We had enough apples alone, enough grapes alone, 
enough other fruits alone to secure a grand prize, but entering them 
all in the name of the State secured to us only one prize on extent of 
exhibit. The same is true of county and personal exhibits, they might 
have enough grapes, or strawberries or peaches or apples to entitle them 
to a gold medal, but they would, in this case, get only one under this 
ruling. This has cut us out of many an award, for we had on the tables 
more than three times the quantity of fruit necessary to secure points 
enough which would entitle us to the prizes awarded. 

I tell you this in explanation of the awards which many cannot under- 
stand. But as an actual fact, the truest award given us was the uni- 
versal verdict of the visiting people that Missouri had the most ex- 
tensive and most complete exhibit in the building, and this exhibit was 
not for day, but for all days, every day, special days, all the time, from 
the beginning to the end. The extent of our exhibit can be understood 
by the following record of kind and variety and number of plates which 
have been on exhibition during the whole of the seven months of the 
Fair : ■. 



244 



State Horticultural Society. 



430 varieties, 2,400 jars of fruit of all kinds, 21 different kinds that grow in the state. 
1,200 barrels of apples were used of 1903 crop during the 7 months. 
400 barrels of apples were used of 1904 crop during the 5M months. 



No. 
of 
va- 
rie- 
ties. 



Kind. 



Quantity. 



Time on Exhibition. 



No. of 
plates. 



196 

64 

124 

36 

72 

12 

18 

4 

6 

2 

24 

8 

2 

12 

6 
2 
2 



48 
650 



Apples 

Peaches 

Grapes 

Pears 

Strawberries... 

Cherries 

Plums 

Apricois 

Quinces 

Nectarines . . 

Raspberries 

Blackberries.. 

Dewberries 

Mulberries 

Currants 

Gooseberries . . 
Huckleberries 

Paw Paws 

Persimmons. .. 

Crab Apple 

Thorn Apples.. 
Nuts 

22 kinds. 



1.600 bbls. ( 
4,800 bu. f 

300 bu. 

l.OOU plates. 

1,000 

1,000 

1,500 

1,000 

100 

100 

50 

1,000 

1,000 

100 

50 

500 

500 

100 

25 

50 

50 

25 

1,000 



7 montlis. May 1 to Dec. 1 . . 

5% months, .luly 15 to Dec 1 
2H mouths Aug 15 to Nov. 1. 
4 months, Aug. 1 to Dec. 1.. 
2 months. May 15 to July 15 . 
2 months, .Tune 1 to Aug. 1.. 

2 months, July 15 to Sept. 15 
1 month, Aug. 1 to Sept. 1. 

3 months, Sept. 1 to Dec. 1 . . 
1 month, August 

1 month, June 

2 months, July and August. 
1 montli, June 

1 month, .June 

2 months, June and July 

1 month, June 

1 month, June 

1 month, October 

2 months, Sept. 1 to Dec. 1.. 

7 months . . 



96,000 

,000 

,000 

000 

,000 

500 

000 

100 

100 

100 

,000 

,000 

100 

50 

500 

500 

100 

25 

50 

50 

20 

,005 



111,150 



All the waste apples were either given to visitors or sent to Orphan Asylums in and 
about St. Louis 

500 bushels of peaches were given away on August 16th to 40,000 people. These came 
from Howell County.— Elberta. 

500 bushels of apples were given away on October. 4th to 50,000 people. These came from 
Newton County.— Jonathan. 

Making, as a total, over 133,000 plates of fruits used in the exhibit, an amount of fruit 
never before approached in any exhibit ever made in the world. 

9. It is easy to see from this large amount of fruit shown and the 
number of entries made and the haste in which this had to be done, and 
the dimness of SQjne of the names on the packages, that a number of errors 
must have crept into the report of awards, both as to names and places. 
It is easily to be understood also why some did not receive as high a 
prize as they were entitled to, because of the difference of the judgment 
of the different judges, some of them grading much higher than others 
in their scoring and all the judges serving only about two weeks each : 
For example : One judge scoring high might award a gold medal, while 
another scoring low might award a silver medal, since they differ only 
five points from the lowest of gold to the highest of silver. But taking 
the whole number of awards and the whole work done by the 25 judges, 
their scoring has been a very satisfactory one indeed, and we should not 
find fault with them without just cause. The only wonder is that it 
was carried through so perfectly. 

Prof. L. R. Taft, Chief of Jury of Awards, says of the INTissouri 
Exhibit : 



Winter Meeting. 245 

"Of all the states making exhibit, Missouri easily takes first rank 
upon its general exhibit. As might be expected, the display of apples 
from this State far surpassed those from any other in the size of the ex- 
hibit, and for the most part they had been well grown. While there was 
a very large display of Ben Davis and similar varieties, the proportion 
of Jonathan, Grimes, Huntsman, York and other varieties of high quality 
was very noticeable. There were also from Missouri some 3,000 large 
jars of processed fruit." (430 varieties, 21 kinds.) 

REGULAR WORK. 

Notwithstanding all this extra work which the State Society and its 
members have been doing, we have not lost sight of our regular work. 
There have been hundreds of letters to answer just the same as usual, 
as to location, soils, lands, varieties to plant, results of other work in 
cultivation, spraying and pruning, a continual call for information and 
statistics. 

Reports have been called for more than usual, more printed matter 
has been given to the public, more call for the fruit crop reports and more 
criticism of that report as sent out, possibly, but still as results have proven 
more nearly correct than any other of the reports sent out. Twenty per cent 
of an apple crop has been very nearly correct, as the results have indi- 
cated. From the finest prospect as shown at blooming time, the crop 
dropped to nearly zero through all Central Missouri and a small part 
of Southern Missouri ; and. in only a very few instances has the crop 
been a paying one, a full crop, or even one-half of a crop. 

Prices have been low, grades have been poor, buyers have been 
few, packages have been dear, insects have been prevalent, and yet, in 
spite of it all, we have had many bushels of peaches, many barrels of 
apples, many crates of berries and many baskets of grapes. 

The Horticulturist, ever hopeful, looks to the bright prospect ahead 
in the trees and vines and plants for the new year, and in the promise 
that the fruit buds now give for a bountiful crop again. 

The fruit growing districts are now so extensive that the place 
which makes the best showing for crop of fruit secures the buyers, 
and the place which reports a very light crop loses the buyers, so that a 
very small crop is hard to sell, unless it be to the local market. Where- 
ever, therefore, we find a local market, there we may be sure the best 
prices will rule. The best business plan of the fruit grower is to de- 
velop the local market for himself and thus make himself independent 
of the regular buyers. This is good business sagacity and enterprise, 
you may be sure. 



2^6 State Horticultural Society. 



SOME LESSONS LEARNED. 

These lessons cannot be separated from the show of fruit made 
during the year. First, then, varieties. Which are the best? Why are 
they best? Where are they best? What is the best? 

At no exhibition was there the opportunity to observe the various 
varieties and their different characteristics as at the World's Fair. The 
early apples were a surprise to most of us, because of their great varia- 
tion. From North Missouri, the Yellow Transparent, the Early Pen- 
nock, the Jeffries, the Duchess, the Wealthy, are notable instances be- 
cause of their size, color, quality and market value. From South Mis- 
souri, the Sops of Wine, the Benoni, the Lowell, the Maiden Blush, 
the Fulton, seemingly better adapted to this district of high upland on 
river bluffs and tops of mountains, because these give quality and size 
and color to the fruits. For the late fall and winter we find Jonathan 
and Grimes, and York, Gano and Ben Davis the universal favorities ; 
while following closely are Black Twig, Winesap, Clayton, Ingram as 
nearly universal. Huntsman and W. W. Pippin are the best yellow ap- 
ples. Rome Beauty, Gilpin, Lansingburg for special locations. 

Some of the newer ones should be tested in a more general way be- 
fore any recommendation can be given, because we must consider the 
hardiness and adaptability and productiveness of the apples, as well as size, 
color and quality, before planting. 

The next most important lesson came from cold storage experience 
The best cold storage apples are the Gano, Ingram, Clayton, Jonathan, 
Ben Davis, Winesap, Willow Twig, in the order named. The only apples 
of which we had specimens of 'oi, '02, '03, '04 were the Gano. We had 
these apples of the above four years' growth on the table during the whole 
of the month of November. Quite a record, indeed. 

Of the 1,200 barrels put into storage in October, 1903, the Gano and 
Jonathan came out best. These apples (as all our exhibits) were kept 
at a temperature of 32 degrees — just freezing. There was no day from 
the opening of the Fair until its close that we did not have apples of 1903 
on the table in great abundance. Oft times we had tables filled with 
apples of 1903 and 1904 of the same variety so nearly alike that they 
could not be separated — a wonder to all who saw them and triumph for 
cold storage. 

Gano, Jonathan, Winesap. Ben Davis, Willow Twig. Janet, Ingram, 
Gayton, Huntsman, W. W. Pippin, Rome Beauty, Pr>^or's Red. Black 
Twig, Gilpin, Lansingburg, Limbertwig and others of the crop of 1903 



Winter Meeting. 247 

were on the tables on December ist, in a perfect state of preservation. 
Maiden Blush gave out in June, Wealthy in July, Grimes in August, 
York in September, Rome Beauty in October. These are examples, and 
other varieties followed in one or another of these classes. 

We feel sure that as a general rule apples must be picked as soon 
as ripe, well colored, while still firm and hard ; handled carefully, put 
at once into cold storage, cooled down as quickly as possible, held at 32 
degrees without variation, and, if held until late in the season, then 
wrapped in paper, and if for show purposes then double wrapped. 

The next most important lesson was the adaption of varieties to 
soils, subsoils, elevation, location and climate. This is such a broad 
and open field that we have not the time to discuss it, only to say that 
it is one of the most important of all the questions in the face of the 
fruit grower — this question of adaption and the variation of varieties 
due to soils and elevation and climate. JNIany very plain lessons were 
before us during the summer and were well worth the study of our fruit 
men. 

The most interesting of any of the questions was this of variety. 
Some of the older and familiar apples were under new names as new 
varieties. Others were found under different names from different 
states, and yet they were the same variety. The only criticism we have 
to offer for the whole management was the failure to provide a strong 
committee on nomenclature, so that all apples would be properly 
named. This renaming of old varieties and having them passed upon 
as such because of the variation caused By climate is simply un- 
pardonable, and one which does not have the approval of any horti- 
cultural society. 

Other lessons of spraying, packing, marketing, kind of packages, 
time of shipping, results obtained from orchards or berry plantations, 
methods of selecting specimens, making exhibits, making entries, 
judging by scale of points, all require a separate paper and time for 
their discussion, and some of these have been well presented by the 
able papers at this meeting. 

But the best lessons of all are the ones which our young men and 
maidens, and the older ones as well, have learned in realizing the fact 
that there are abundant fields to explore still, a thousand of nature's 
secrets yet to unfold, a world of knowledge yet to be secured, un- 
known facts to be yet established, a field as broad as the universe, 
where every incentive is to seek the explanation of facts, and obtain 
knowledge. All of these ready for the student to take and use if he 
will. Information that we can have if we put out our hands to grasp 



248 State Horticultural Society. 

it, but facts and knowledge such as we can keep and make our own, 
only if Ave use them. We can have what knowledge we take and use, 
but no more forever. 

At the close of this season, the most important one in our history, 
I wish to congratulate the members on the position they occupy in 
our grand Union of States. Missouri stands way in the lead in our 
apple industry, in the peach output, in the berry shipments, in the 
broad orchard lands along our great rivers and the tops of our moun- 
tains, in the opportunity still open for development and improvement, 
in all the wonderful possibilities of our wonderful State, in the organi- 
zation of our State Society forty-seven years ago, and its annual gath- 
ering without break in all these years, in the grand organization and 
the influence of our State Society and its wonderful achievements 
during the past twenty-five years ; and above all, we wish to con- 
gratulate the grand, good, noble, unselfish, patriotic men and women 
without whom all the grand possibilities of the State would have been 
lost. To you, then, who have stood so faithfully by us in all this 
work and worry and labor, be all the honor and glory of a successful 
and united Society, and the glorious results of our World's Fair dis- 
play. 

This has come to you as a just reward for your faithfulness and 
unity of action as was promised to you by your officers and Executive 
Committee twenty-three years ago under the reorganization at that time. 

To-day, therefore, as we stand beneath the grandeur of our ac- 
complishments, we shall feel proud of what we have been and what 
we are, and pledge anew our devotion to our cause, and in happy re- 
membrances of our individual friendship and our united work and 
its result, be glad that we ever knew each other, and had a hand in 
making this Society the best in our land, and this State the grandest 
fruit State in our glorious Republic. 



Adair. 

Andrew. 

Atchison. 

Audrain. 

Buchanan. 

Boono. 

Bollinger. 

Barry. 

Bates. 

Barton. 

Chariton. 

Cooper. 

Carroll. 

Clay. 

Cole. 

Christian. 

Clinton. 



COUNTIES. 




5 have made exhibits : 




Crawford. 


Howard. 


Cass. 


Howell. 


Caldwell. 


Holt. 


Cape Girardeau. 


Henry. 


Camden. 


Iron. 


Callaway. 


.lackson. 


DeKalb. 


.Tohnson. 


Dade. 


.Tasper. 


Daviess. 


.Tefferson. 


Dallas. 


Knox. 


Dent. 


Livingston, 


Franklin. 


Lewis. 


Onindy. 


Lawrence. 


Greene. 


Laclede. 


Gasconade. 


Lafayette. 


Gentry. 


Linn. 


Harrison. 


Miller. 



Pettis. 


St. Charles. 


Platte. 


Ste. Genevieve, 


Pulaski. 


Shannon. 


Phelps. 


Stone. 


I'erry. 


Shelby. 


Pemiscot. 


Scotland. 


I'utnam. 


Schuyler. 


Ray. 


Texas. 


Randolph. 


Taney. 


Ripley. 


'5'ernon. 


Halls. 


Washington. 


]{evnolds. 


Wright. 


Saline. 


Warren. 


St. Francois. 


Webster. 


St. Louis. 


Wayne. 



Winter Meeting. 249 

Macon. 

Montgomery. 

Marion. 

Moniteau. 

Morgan. 

Monroe. 

Z^IcDonald. 

Slercer. 

Newton. 

Nodaway. 

Oregon. 

Ozark. 

Osage. 

Polk. 

Pike. 

Following is a partial list of fixtures used in our World's Fair 
display : 

24 tables (flat and pyramid, 6x8 and 6x12 and 6x4.) 
12 three-shelve glass shelving, 12 in. x 4 ft. and 12 in. x 6 ft. 
I wall pyramid, 10x60 feet. 

1 pyramid, with recesses, 8x40 ft. center. 

2 large fruit stands with 3 urns and 6 large glass bowls, 8x12x14 

feet. 
14 large glass show cases, 3x8x4^^ ft., with three glass shelves 
on inside. 
I- large table, semicircular, 4x32 ft. 

1 center piece, 8x8x12 ft., recessed, brackets and 8 punch bowls. 

2 glass shelving cones with fountain, 6x8x10 ft. 

I large fountain with palms and trees and flowers and ferns, at 

entrance. 

Railroad train complete in running order, run by electricity over 

eliptical track, 300 feet in circumference. The most beautiful train 

ever made, and furnished by the 'Frisco Railroad Company, and kept 

running continually. Cars always loaded with apples. 

Following is a list of awards given us by the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition Company : 

AWARDS. 

Grand Prizes, S; Gold Medals, 28; Silver Medals, 174; Bronze Medals. 

202; Total, 412. 

This list of awards has not been revised by the Superior Jury. I 
have asked for a rehearing on some of the awards, because they should 
be corrected, modified and some persons and some counties given a 
higher award, as their exhibits justly deserved. I think this will be 
granted and this record will then be corrected. — Secretary. 



250 State Horticultural Society. 

Grand Prizes. 

Missouri Commission — Exhibit of Fruits and Nuts. 

Missouri Commission — Installation. 

State University, Hort. Department, Columbia — Educational features 

of Display. 
State University, Dept. of Geology, Horticulture and Agriculture — 

Map in relief. 

State University, Dept. of Botany — Mushroom Culture. 

Missouri Botanical Gardens — Research and Practical Work. 
Michel Plant and Seed Co., St. Louis — Bedding Plants. 

H. J. Weber & Sons, St. Louis— Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 

Gold Medals. 

State University, Horticultural Department, Columbia — Methods of Pre- 
serving Fruits. 

St. Louis Seed Co., St. Louis — Bulbs and Plants. 

■Jas. B. Wild & Bros., Sarcoxie — Ornamentals, Evergreens and Shade 
Trees. 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis — Chrysanthemums. 

State Horticultural Society — Exhibit of Fruits and Nuts. 

State University, Horticultural Department — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Missouri Commission — Fruits in Glass Jars. 

W. Schray & Sons, St. Louis — Canna, "Superior.'' 

James Young, St. Louis — Geraniums. 

Michel Plant & Seed Co., St. Louis — Palms and Plants. 

C. Young, St. Louis — Palms and Plants. 

Dust Sprayer Mfg. Co., Kansas City — Sprayers. 

Boone County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

Cooper County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

Jackson County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

Howell County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

Laclede County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

McDonald County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

Platte County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

St. Charles County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

St. Francois County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

St. Louis County — Exhibits of Fruits. 

W. G. Gano, Parkville — Exhibits of Fruits. 

D. Lowmiller, Parkville — Exhibits of Fruits. 
Olden Fruit Co,, Olden— Exhibits of Fruits, 



J V inter Meeting^ 25 t 

Ozark Orchard Co., Goodman — Exhibits of Fruits. 
H. W. Thies, Ferguson — Exhibits of Fruits. 

Silver Medals. 
W. L. Rock, Kansas City — Chrysanthemums, Carnations and Decorations. 
Fred C. Weber, St. Louis — Chrysanthemums. 
C. & M. Wild, Sarcoxie — Peonias. 
C. & M. Wild, Sarcoxie— Dahlias. 
C. D. Young, St. Louis — Dahlias and Roses. 
A. G. Greiner, St. Louis — Cacti. 
W. C. Young, St. Louis — Petunias. 
St. Louis Seed Co. — Lawn Grass Seed. 
Schisler and Co. — Lawn Grass Seed. , 
Carroll County — Exhibit of Fruit. 
Chariton County — Exhibit of Fruit. 
Adair County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Barry County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Bollinger County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Buchanan County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Carroll County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Chariton County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Christian County — Strawberries. 
Clay County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Clinton County — Apples. 
Crawford County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
DeKalb County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Dent County — Apples. 
Franklin County — Fruits. 
Greene County — Exhibit of Fruils. 
Grundy County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Holt County — Apples. 
Howard County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Jasper County— Exhibit of Fruits. 
Jefferson County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Johnson County — Strawberries, Apples. 
Lafayette County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Lawrence County — Exhibit of Fruits. 
Lewis County — Apples. 
Livingston County — Plums and Apples. 
Mercer County — Apples and Pears. 
Miller County — Exhibit of Fruits. 



252 State Horticultural Society. 

Morg-an County — Apples. 

Newton County — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Nodaway County — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Oregon County — Apples and Peaches. 

Ozark County — Apples. 

Pettis County — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Putnam County — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Ripley County — Peaches and Apples. 

Texas County — Apples. 

Vernon County — Apples. 

Washington County — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Wright County — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Geo. Addis, DeSoto — Fruits. 

Jap. Allison, Rushville — Apples. 

G. A. Atwood, Swedeborg — Apples. 

J. W. Agee, Spring Garden — Apples. 

S. P. Bailey, Versailles — ^'Vpples. 

J. W. Beatty, Excelsior Springs — Apples. 

C. C. Bell Fruit Co., Boonville— Apples. 

T. C. Berthold, Bismarck — Pears and Apples. 

J. M. Bissel, Rushville — Apples. 

M. H. Brommer, Boonville — Apples. 

J. S. Butterfield, Lees Summit — Fruits. 

E. C. Butterfield, Blue Springs — Apples. 

Al. Butterfield, Farmington — Exhibit of Fruits. 

C. R. Gartner, West Plains — Apples. 

J. F. Childs, Buckner — Apples. 

A. H. Chevally, West Plains — Apples. 

E. R. Clough, Lebanon — Apples. 

C. W. Cochran, West Plains — Apples and Peaches. 

Hiram W. Cook, Potosi — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Henry Crecelius, Mehlville — Exhibit of Fruits. 

R. Daken, Skidmore — Apples. 

W. T. Davis, Easton — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Dr. W. T. Drace, Keytesville — Apples. 

J. A. Durkes, Weston — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Chas. Eisenhardt, Bellfontaine — Peaches. 

Lsaac Elliott, Trenton — Apples. 

Alec. Flemmg, Cuba — Apples. 

S. F. Fletcher, Lebanon — Apples. 

Lewis Fetson, Keytesville — Apples. 



Winter Meeting. 253 



H. Gassen, Lexington — Apples. 

S. H. Graden, Parkville — Apples. 

L. D. Grover, Cuba — Apples and Pears. 

J. H. Hall, Warrensburg- — Strawberries. 

C. P. Harper & Co., West Plains— Fruit Exhibit. 

Ed. Harriman, Utica — Apples. 

T. G. Henley, Spring Garden — Apples. 

John W. Hitt's Sons, Koshkonong — Apples and Peaches 

A. J. Hoefer, Jefferson City — Currants. 

G. S. Homan, Easton — Fruit Exhibit. 

John Howe, Pacific — Grapes. 

Martin Plurt, Keytesville — Apples. 

Adelia N. Jackson, West Plains — Apples and Peaches. 

J. P. Jaynes, Neosho' — Strawberries. 

J. H. G. Jenkins, Spring Garden — Apples. 

H. W. Jenkins, Boonville — Strawberries. 

E. S. Katherman, Warrensburg — Strawberries. 

S. L. Keis, Mountain Grove — Apples. 

H. Krause, Farmington — Apples. 

G. W. Logan, Logan — Apples. 

J. W. Ludwig, Grabeel — Apples. 

Ed. C. Luther, Oakville — Peaches. 

W. O. Mather, Oakville— Peaches. ' 

J. F, Marsh, Steelville — Apples. 

W. S. Martin, DeKalb— Apples. 

J. E. May, LaPlata— Fruit Exhibit. 

J. F. Maxwell, Parkville — Apples. 

J. W. McAdow, Weston— Apples. 

J. A. McMaster, Macomb — Apples and Peaches. 

L. C. McSpadden, Salem — Apples. 

J. T. Mounts, Maryville — Apples. 

T. J. Murphy, Wallace — Apples. 

J. F. Murphy, DeKalb — Apples. 

Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis — Grapes and Figs. 

Alfred Nahm, Augusta — Exhibit of Fruits. 

Henry Nier, Nursery — Peaches and Grapes. 

A. T. Nelson, Lebanon — Exhibit of Fruits. 

New Haven Nurseries, New Haven — Peaches. 

A. L. Norton, Calumet — Apples. 

G. T. Odor, Holt — Apples. 

C. H. Oetting, Mansfield — Apples and Pears. 



:354 State Horticultural Society. 

H. H. Park, Springfield — Fruit Exhibit. 

Park College, Parkville — Apples and Pears. 

J. L. Pelham, Neosho — Apples. 

Mrs. A. Patterson, Wellston — x\pples. 

C. O. Raine, Canton — Apples. 

C. L. Reynolds, Mountain View — Apples. 

G. W. Roberts, Boonville — Apples. 

A. J. Robertson, Elmont — Apples. 

A. S. Ruder, Sappington — Fruit Exhibit. 

J. C. Ruder, Afton — Fruit Exhibit. 

A. Ruebling, Augusta — Apples. 

J. J. Shaeffer, Verona — Strawberries. 

T. C. Salveter, St. Charles — Berries. 

J. W. Scott, Sullivan — Berries. 

A. J. Seabring, West Plains — -Apples and Peaches. 
G. L. Sessen, West Plains — Peaches and Apples. 
G. H. Shepard, Lamonte — Apples and Pears. 

L. Slegler, St. Charles — Apples. 

L. J. Slaughter, Grain Valley — Apples. 

F. H. Speakman, Neosho — Apples and Strawberries. 

David Stanton, Faucett — Apples. 

C. W. Steiman, Dalton — Fruit Exhibit. 

Steiman & Schulte, Dalton — Apples. 

T. W. Stevenson, Trenton — Apples. 

B. F. Stewart, Rushville — Apples. 

J. L. Stilwell, Doniphan — Peaches and Apples. 

J. L. Staebler, Boonville — Apples. 

L, Southworth, Sargent — Apples. 

M. C. Surface, Kansas City— Apples. 

Dr. L. S. Talbot, Easton — Apples. 

George T. Tippin, Nichols — Strawberries. 

Topozark Orchard Co., Sunlight — Apples. 

Henry Trampe, Black Jack — Apples. 

H. Theime, Springfield — Grapes. 

E. L. Vance, Lees Summit — Apples. 

J. A. Vandeventer, Mound City — Apples. 

F. Vogt, Goodman — Apples. 

P. A. VanVraken, Grain Valley — Apples. 
S. R. Walker, Liberty — Exhibit of Fruits. 
W. S. Walker, Sullivan — Apples. 
H. S. Wayman, Princeton — Exhibit of Fruits. 



Winter Meeting. ^55 

Isaac Wells, Weston — Apples. 

•H. J. Weber & Sons Nursery Company, Nursery — Exhibit of Fruits. 
J. B. Wild & Bros, Sarcoxie — Exhibit of Fruits. 
L. RI. Wood, Boles— Apples. 
C. R. Worley, Mansfield — Apples. 
L. Zellner, Granby — Grapes. 
A. L. Zimmermann, Weatherby — Fruit Exhibit. 

Bronze Medals. 

Callaway County — Apples. 

Camden County — Apples. 

Cole County — Fruit Exhibit. 

Gasconade County — Grapes. 

Greene County Horticultural Society, Springfield — Fruits. 

Knox County — Apples. 

Linn County — Gooseberries. 

Pike County — Apples. 

Polk County — Apples. 

Randolph County — Fruit Exhibit. 

Ray Count}^ — Apples. 

Ste. Genevieve County — Peaches. 

Saline County — Apples. 

Wayne County — Apples and Pears. 

Webster County — Apples. 

Benjamin F. Adams, Bristle Ridge — Apples. 

A. Allbaugh, Farmington — Strawberries. 

W. H. Allen, Boonville— Apples. 

M. S. Arnold, Liberty — Cherries and Plums. 

W. L. Allen, Boonville — Apples. 

J. O. Allen, Huntsdale. — Apples. 

Jos. D. Barber, Wallace — Apples. 

E. P. Biggs, Lutesville — Fruit Exhibit. 

Eli Elakeley, Doniphan — Peaches. 

Mrs. R. P. Bland, Lebanon — Apples. 

A. J. Blanton, Parkville — Pears. 

J. P. Dolan, Burnham — Peaches. 

Mrs. J. Bond, Spring Garden — Apples. 

C. S. BoDth, Hillsboro — Peaches. 

W. E. Bower, Monett — Strawberries. 

Brandsville Fruit Company, Brandsville — Apples. 

H. F. Brockschmidt, Freistatt — Strawberries. 



256 State Horticultural Society. 

N. N. Browning, Verona — Strawberries. 

Frank Bruno, Wellston — Peaches. 

Ed. Bucksach, Dalton — Plums. 

John Burke, Excelsior Springs — Apples. 

J. M. Charles, Graham — Apples. 

T. S. Caskadon, Dalton — Apples. 

J. H. Christian^ Neosho — Strawberries. 

E. R. Clare, Lees Summit — Apples. 

A. Clingingsworth, Earmersville — Apples. 

J. C. Cobb, Odessa — Pawpaws. 

Frank Cockrell, Liberty — Pears. 

John Conrad, Olden — Peaches. 

John Conner, Jefferson City — Apples. 

Jake Cox, Princeton — Pears. 

W, S. Crouch, Wakenda — Apples. 

J. A. Crowley, Lawson — Apples. 

Mrs. Curfman, Maryville — Fruit Exhibit. 

S. L. Dart F'ruit F'arm, Anderson — Apples. 

Mrs. D. Davis, Boonville — Apples. 

J. D. Davis, DeKalb— Apples. 

Dix & Davis, Jefferson City — Apples. 

G. A. Dietz, Olden — Strawberries. 

Downing & Besterfield, Bowling Green — Apples. 

G. W. Dutton, Williamsburg — Apples. 

Frank Eastman, DeKalb — Apples. 

N. P. Eckles, Parkville — Apples. 

E. E. Eiler, Weston — Apples. 

Frank Elder, Tha3^er — Peaches. 

William Eine, Catawissa — Pears. 

E. C. Evans, Eureka — Apples and Peaches. 

J. C. FIvans, Harlem — Persimmons. 

August Eves, Wellston — Peaches. 

H. P. Faith, West Plains — Apples. 

O. M. Fry, Louisiana — Apples. 

J. L. Finnell, Keytesville — Apples. 

D. Gibson, Irondale — Apples 

A. H. Gilkeson, Warrensburg — Apples. 

J. W. Goode, Boles — Plums. 

S. D. Gregg, Independence — Raspberries. 

L. E. Grigsby, Rockport — Apples. 

L. E. Hammond, Skidmore — Apples. 



Winter Meeting. 257 



Wm. Hearst, DeKalb — Apples, 
Flem Harris, Lee"s Summit — Plums. 
Hermann Grape Nursery, H^ermann — Grapes. 
J. A. Hobson, Tacoma — Apples. 
Henry Holtgrove, Oregon — Apples. 

D. W. Hunt, Huntsdale — Apples. 
Ben Hoskinson, Doniphan — Apples. 
Howe & Son, West Plains — Peaches. 

E. M. Hutchinson, Sargent — Apples. 
R. B. Ingraham, Marshall — Apples. 
W. A. Irvine,' Springfield — y\pples. 

J. M. Jackson, Smithville — Apples. 
R. Jackson, "Neosho^ — Strawberries. 
C. S. Jenkins, Rocheport — Apples. 
Jack Jeninson, Forest City — Apples. 
Jenkins & Jenkins, Spring Garden — Apples. 
vS. PI. Johnson, Parkville — Apples and Peaches. 
AV. E. Jennings, jMoberly — Peaches. 

E. Kahnika, Dalton — Plums. 

W. K. Kavanaugh, Selma Farm — Apples. 

Ed. Kemper, Hermann — Grapes. 

Knoxall Fruit Company, Olden — Peaches. 

Mrs. E. Krumsick, Washington — Apples. 

J. Lambert and J. H. JMurphy, Wallace — Peaches. 

M. Lathrop, Trenton — Apples. 

B. Logan, Logan — Strawberries. 

W. S. Lutes, Lutesville^ — Strawberries. 

F. Luehrman, Lexington — Strawberries. 
Manhattan Seed and Land Co., Deslodge — Peaches. 

C. T. Mallinckrodt, St. Charles — Apples and Peaches. 
F." Martin and F. Taylor, Lamonte — Apples. 

E. L. Mason & Son, Trenton — Apples. 

H. Miller, Graham — Apples. 

S. M. Mason, Jefferson Barracks — Peaches. 

R. M. Massey, Kearne)^ — Apples. 

Levi Mane, Cuba — Apples. 

L. A, McCombs, Carrollton — Apples. 

Scott McCormick, Monett — Strawberries. 

McQueen Bros., Verona — Strawberries. 

J. F. Mealer, Bals — Peaches. 

A. J*lehl, Afton — Peaches. 

H— 17 



258 State Horticultural Society. 

Henry Meyer, Bridgeton — Grapes. 

W. M. Meyersick, Union — Pears. 

H. Miller, Graham — Apples. 

W. H. Mikesell, Doniphan — Apples. 

Charles C. Miller, Boonville — Peaches and Grapes. 

J. B. Millsap, Latty — Apples. 

J. C. Monsees, Beaman — Apples. 

James G. Montgomery, Maryville — Apples. 

Mrs. Montgomery, Maryville — Currants and Gooseberries. 

B. F. Moors, Weston — Apples. 

Mount Pleasant Wine Company, Augusta — Grapes. 

A. W. Mueller, Augusta — xA.pples. 

R. W. Mueller, Augusta — Apples and Peaches. 

William H. Mueller, Ferguson — Peaches. 

J. H. Murphy, Farley — Apples. 

N. F. Murray, Oregon — Apples. 

Louise Murtfeldt, Kirkwood — Peaches and Pears. 

Peter Nold, St. Joseph, Rural Route No. 2 — Pears. 

J. L. Northington, Nevada — Apples. 

George W. Null, Maryville — Apples and Peaches. 

Oberle Bros., Weldon Springs — Apples. 

A. W. Orr, Mt. Vernon — Strawberries. 

Fred Getting, ]\Iansfield — Apples. 

Ozark Plant Company, Logan — ^^Strawberries. 

Henry Getting, ]\Tansfield — Apples. 

Ed. Otto, Washington — Apples. 

George F. Parson, Littlerock — Chestnuts. 

S. L. Peer & Son, iNlansfield — Apples. 

J. C. Pfeister, Liberty — Apples. 

E. L. Pollard, Summerville — Apples. 
Amos Probst, Kirksville — Apples. 

F. W. Quick, Doniphan — Apples. 
P. Raines, Unionville — Apples. 
W. J. Rippeto, Easle)^ — Apples. 
J. W. Reed, Bolivar — Apples. 

John R. Rice, Walnut Ridge — Apples. 
N. S. Richardson, Canaan — Apples. 
Gus Riske, Augusta — Apples. 
Wm. Robinson, Cottbus — Apples. 
D. A. Robnett, Columbia — Apples. 
Andrew Roost, Old Orchard — Peaches. 



Winter Meeting. 25,9 



Edward Roberts, Easton — Apples. 

G. R. Robertson, Marshall— Apples. 

Simon Rousch, Edina — Apples. 

M. Schoposse, Louisiana — Apples. 

C. J. Samersby, Macomb — Peaches and Apples. 

Benjamin Sams, Warrensburg — Apples. 

Mrs. L. E. Scammon, Olden — Peaches. 

Albert Schieber, Odessa — Plums and Pears. 

H. Schnell, Glasgow — Fruit Exhibit. 

C. D. Schutte, Lutesville— Strawberries. 

C. C. Schupbach, Chadwick— Strawberries. 

H. C. Shire, Odessa — Pears. 

Albert Schieler, Odessa — Plums and Pears. 

E. E. Siler, Weston— Apples. 

J. P. Sinnock, Moberly — Cherries and Gooseberries. 

Sloan Bros., Burnham — Peaches. 

Chas. Smith, Neosho — Strawberries. 

L. P. Snyder, Shaw — Apples and Peaches. 

R. W. Smith, Rocheport — Apples. 

Guy Slead, Alansfield — Apples. 

Adam Stein, St. Charles — Apples. 

W. J. Sullivan, Doniphan — Apples. 

C. Thorp, Weston — Apples. 

Michael Tobin, Maryville — Apples. 

Chas. Tuebner, Lexington — Peaches and Nuts. 

Henry Utland, Lexington — Apples. 

S. H. Van Trump, Orrick — Apples. 

Henry Wallis, Wellston — Grapes. 

Fred Warnhoff, Cuba — Peaches. 

Waveland Fruit Farm, Olden — Peaches. 

William Westerfelt, St. Charles — Apples. 

West Plains Fruit Company, West Plains — Apples. 

W. E. Williams, Nevada — Apples. 

C. H. Williamson, Utica — Apples. 

W. J. Wilson, Wakenda — Apples. 

G. R. Wise, Wellston — Peaches. ^ 

M. S. Wycoff, Unionville — Apples. 

T. K. Whitmeyer, West Plains — Peaches. 

C. R. Williamson, Mt. Vernon — Apples. 



6o State Horticiilfitral Society. 



200 



"the MISSOURI BOOK. 



The boo]< known as the "State of Missouri" is a work issued by 
the Missouri Commission of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, of 
six hundred pages with t,200 original photographic ilkistrations, and 
is filled with information about all our great industries and concern- 
ing every county in the State and their special advantages. It is 
worth}" of being placed in the library of every home in the State. A 
new edition will be published, including a list of all awards made to 
Missouri exhibits at the fair. Copies of this book may be secured 
free of charge until the supply is exhausted, by the head of any 
family sending thirty-five cents, for the postage, to Walter Williams, 
Columbia, Mo. 



REPORT OF TREASURER, W. T. FLOURNOY, DECEMBER, 

1904. 

DISBURSEMENTS. 
1904. 

June II, Premiums $141.00 

Warrant Xo. 554 $141.00 

June II, W. T. Flournoy, Ex. Committee, May 16. . . . 23.55 

J. C. Whitten, June meeting I3-30 

W. T. Flournoy, June meeting 16.25 

Warrant No. 555 53.10 

June II, W. G. Gano, expenses, June meeting $23.70 

C. H. Dutcher, expenses, June meeting 18.45 

Warrant No. 556 42. 15 

Tune II, D. A. Rofeinett, Ex. Com., May 16 $11 .20 

D. A. Robnett, expense June meeting 16.85 

G. T. Tippin, expense June meeting 21 .75 

Warrant No. 557 49.80 



Winter Meeting. 26 1 

June II, Deposit in Miss. Valley Trust Co $500.00 

Warrant No. 558 500.00 

June II, L. A. Goodman and Asst, expenses $22.00 

Salary of secretary for June 66.66 

Salary of typewriter 20.00 

Warrant No. 559 108.66 

July 19, J. C. Whitten, expense June meeting $5-00 

P. O. bill 20.00 

Freight and express 18.40 

Salary of secretary for July 66.66 

Salary of typewriter 20.00 

Bond of treasurer 10.00 

Warrant No. 560. . 140.06 

July 20, Tribune Printing Co., reports $278.47 

Warrant No. 561 278.47 

Aug. 6, Express, etc $2 . 20 

J. S. Butterfield, expense June meeting 20.30 

C. H. Williamson, expense June meeting 5-85 

Warrant No. 562 28 . 35 

Aug. 24, Post-card and paper $13-75 

Freight 7.15 

P. O. bill 5.00 

Salary of secretary for August 66.66 

Salary of typewriter for August 20.00 

Warrant No. 563 112.56 

Aug. 24, J. C. Whitten, Ex. Committee meeting $11 .30 

W. T. Flournoy, Ex. Committee meeting. ... 15-55 
C. H. Dutcher, Ex. Committee meeting n • 15 

Warrant No. 564 38 . 00 

Sep. 16, Scotford S. & S. Co $3 ■ 50 

Hudson-Kimberly Pub. Co 65 . 75 



262 State Horticultural Society. 

K. C. Paper House 10. 16 



Warrant No, 565 79-41 

Sep. 16, W. G. Gano, expense St. Louis and return. . . $15.00 
C. B. McAfee, expense St. Louis and return. 10.00 
S. A. Hoover, expense St. Louis and return. 16.50 



Warrant No. 566 41 -50 

Sep. 30, Express $6 . 48 

P. O. bill 6.00 

Salary of secretary for September 66.66 

Salary of typewriter 20 . 00 

Warrant No. 567 99-14 

Oct. 18, Express and telegrams $8. 18 

P. O. bill 5.20 

E. Westman, stenographer 5- 00 

Crescent Printing Co 3-25 

Salary of secretary for October 66.66 

Salary of typewriter. 20.00 

Warrant No. 568 108 . 29 

Nov. 12, Expense C. H. Dutcher, Ex. Com., Oct. 5.. $10.15 

Expense W. G. Gano, Ex. Com., Oct. 5 12.55 

Expense W. T. Flournoy, Ex. Com., Oct. 5... 16.05 

Warrant No. 569 38-75 

Nov. 21 Express, paper and stamps $8. 50 

Salary of secretary for November 66 . 66 

Salary of typewriter for November 20.00 

P. O. bill 25.00 

Warrant No. 570 120 . 16 

Dec. 13, W. G. Gano, St. Louis and expenses $16.00 

C. H. Dutcher, St. Louis and expenses 9-35 

J. C. Whitten, St. Louis and expenses 19-85 

Warrant No. 572 45 • 20 



Winter Meeting. 263 

Whitehead and Hoag Co., 1,000 badges $45-35 

Warrant No. 573 45-35 

Dec. 26, Scotford S. & S. Co., 2,000 programs $15.00 

K. C. Paper House, 1,000 wooden plates. ... 3.50 

Warrant No. 574 18 . 50 

Express, $1.15, $0.75, $1.65, $1.05, $1.30, 

$16.50 $22.40 

Expenses of L. A. Goodman and typewriter to 

Neosho and return and meals 12.00 

Salary of secretary for December 66.66 

Salary of typewriter for December 20.00 

Warrant No. 575 121 . 06 

Premiums on fruit at Winter meeting $50.50 

Express on fruit at Winter meeting 10.88 

Hotel bills 50. 80 

Stationery 2 . 90 

Meals and hack hire. . 6.20 

J. S. Butterfield, expenses 15 -OO 

Warrant No. 576 136.28 

Dec. 30, Expenses Neosho meeting, H. S. Wayman, 

R. R. fare $10 . 30 

H. S. Wayman, hotel bills i .70 

C. H. Dutcher, R. R. fare 8.60 

Other expenses .90 

W. T. Floumoy, R. R. fare i .85 

W. T. Flournoy, 'bus and hotel .75 

Warrant 577 24.30 

Dec. 30, Expenses Neosho meeting, S. A. Hoover, 

R. R. fare ' $14.00 

S. A. Hoover, hotel 2 . 80 

W. H. Chandler, R. R. fare 8.55 

W. H. Chandler, hotel .75 



264 State Horticultural Society. 

J. C. Whitten, R. R. fare 9 . 50 

J. C. Whitten, meals 3.25 

Warrant 578 38.85 

Dec. 30, Expenses Neosho meeting, W. G. Gano, R. 

R. fare $6.05 

W. G. Gano, meals i . 20 

Mrs. M. D. Chandler, R. R. fare 5.90 

Mrs. M. D. Chandler, hotel 3 . 00 

P. O. bill 33.55 

Warrant 579 49 • 70 

Receipts. 

June 7, Balance on hand $347.45 

June II, Reed, of State Treasurer 791 .36 

July 20, Reed, of State Treasurer 813 24 

July to December memberships, L. A. Goodman. ... 41.00 

Memberships, W. T. Flournoy 49.00 

Sept. 30, Reed, of State Treasurer 398.96 

Dec. 30, Reed, of State Treasurer 746 44 

Total $3195-45 

Total disbursements 2458 . 64 

Balance $736.81 

The accounts since the meeting of the Society have been approved by 
the Executive Committee. 



ACCOUNT OF FUNDS IN HANDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

TRUST CO. 

July 9, 1900, Deposited by A. Nelson, Treasurer $1000.00 

July 17, 1901, Interest on $1,000 40.00 

Balance $1040 00 

July 21, 1902, Interest on $1040 $31 .20 

Balance 1071 . 20 



Winter Meeting. 265 

July 21, 1903, Interest on $1071.20 $21 .42 

Balance 1092.62 

June II, 1905, Deposit 500.00 

Paid out of above by W. G. Gano, Treas 1592.62 

For two desks and four chairs $100.00 

For Couch 40 . 00 

Total... 140.00 

Sept. 16, Warrant 619, E. C. Butterfield, Expenses to 

St. Louis, 13 days $35-75 

F. H. Speakrnan, expenses St. 

Louis, 12 days 34-25 

Total $70.00 

Nov. 21, Warrant 621, N. F. Murray, Expenses St. 

Louis, 6 days 22 . 50 

J. C. Evans, Expenses St. 

Louis, 10 days 30.00 

Hy, Schnell, Expenses St. 

Louis, 10 days 28. 50 

Total $81.00 

Dec. 13, Warrant 620, N. F. Murray, Balance 3.85 

H. S. Wayman, Expense St. 

Louis, 6 days 22 . 50 

W. G. Gano, Expense St. Louis 

6 days 12.00 

Total $38.35 

$189.35 

$329-35 

Balance in Miss. Valley Trust Co $1263.27 

Not including interest earned in 1904. 



266 State Horticultural Society. 



REPORT OF FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

Mr. President, your committee on finance beg to report that they 
have looked over the receipts and vouchers of the Treasurer and find 
his report to be correct. 

N. F. Murray, 
Daniel Lowmiller, 

Committee. 

J. M. Irvine — I move that the report be accepted. 
The motion was seconded and carried. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON AWARDS. 

Your committee on awards find as follows : 

D. Lowmiller, Parkville — 16 varieties, 64 plates $10.00 

F. H. Speakman, Neosho — 10 varieties, 114 plates 10.00 

J. M. Hall, Neosho — 4 varieties, 50 plates 6.00 

J. E. May, LaPlata; — 2 varieties, 50 plates 3 -oo 

Mrs. H. T. Wheeler, Kansas City — Preserves and jellies. ... 5- 00 

F. Vogt, Goodman — 4 varieties, 6 plates 3- 00 

John Roeschi, Neosho — 2 varieties, 4 plates 3- 00 

F. J. Gettings, Neosho^ — 2 varieties, 10 plates 2,50 

H. W. Cook, Potosi — 2 varieties, 23 plates 2.50 

Payne Sisters, Everton — i variety, 15 plates 2.00 

Chas. W. Steiman, Dalton — 3 varieties, 8 plates 2.00 

R. S. Garey, Neosho — 2 varieties, 3 plates i . 50 

Total $50. 50 

We find also a small collection of models of apples, made by Miss 
Rubart, Columbia, Mo., and exhibited by Wild Bros, of Sarcoxie, 
which deserve honorable mention. 

We find also a single specimen of Brewington Pippin, presented 
by Mr. Wild. This apple was introduced by T. T. Lyon. 

J. C. Evans-, Jr., Olden, Mo. 
Geo. T. Lincoln, Bentonville, Ark. 
W. T. BuRKAM, St. Louis, Mo. 

Committee. 



Winter Meeting. 267 



REPORT OF OBITUARY COMMITTEE. 

To the Missouri State Horticultural Society: 

Your committee with deep sadness, shared by every member of our 
society, herewith submit for record upon the pages of the minutes, this 
tribute in memory of the Hon. Charles W. Murtfeldt of Kirkwood, 
whose recent death took from our ranks and leadership one of our most 
valuable and beloved members and officers. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

In the death of Charles W. Murtfeldt of Kirkwood, on July 13th 
of the present year, this society suffered the loss of its oldest member 
in years and one of the few oldest in association. He has worked 
with it and for it in its infancy and rejoiced in its rapid growth in 
membership, in influence, industrial and commercial, and in its present 
stage of development into an educational institution second to none 
in the State, and its interests continued to be dear to him to the very 
last. A brief sketch of his life may, therefore, be of interest to those 
present at this meeting. 

Charles WilHam Murtfeldt was born in the city of Bueckeburg, 
the capital of one of the small principalities in the north of Germany, 
and received practically all his schooling in the grammar schools of 
that city. In 1833 he emigrated with his parents and only brother to 
this country, engaging in the mercantile business in New York, after- 
wards in agriculture, dairying and fruit growing in Illinois. 

In 1844 he followed his father to St. Louis, but soon after, becom- 
ing fascinated while on a visit to his brother-in-law, with the noble 
prairies, the beautiful groves and many crystal streams of Northern 
Illinois, he resolved — all ignorant as he was of the duties and econo- 
mics of the profession — to give up mercantile business and become a 
farmer, and in 1850 he acquired a fine and fertile tract of land in 
Ogle county not far from Rock river, to which he removed his family. 
For a specialty he chose the dairy business, as marketing butter in 
St. Louis, to which there was easy transportation by steamboat on the 
Illinois river, was less expensive of time and money than hauling 
wheat to Chicago, a distance of ninety miles. His father, ever an 
enthusiast in flower and fruit growing, about this time disposed of 
his property interests in St. Louis and joined his son in Illinois, 
superintending the planting and care of large orchards, grape vines 
and ornamental shrubbery on both farms, so the subject of this 



268 State Horticultural Society. 

sketch was enabled to become experimentally familiar with this branch 
of agricultural industry also. About the same time he assisted in or- 
ganizing-, and was for several years secretary of the Ogle County 
Agricultural Society, one of the earliest in the state to hold annual 
fairs, which had quite extended celebrity for the excellence of their 
management and the variety and superior quality of the exhibits. He 
was also a very enthusiastic member of the State Agricultural Society, 
at which he was a successful exhibitor of dairy, farm and orchard 
products. 

In the early fifties he made his debut as an agricultural writer, his 
valuable contributions appearing in the Prairie Farmer of Chicago 
and the Valley Farmer, "the precursor" of the Rural World, while 
more distinctly literary articles were welcomed in other leading 
periodicals of Chicago and other cities. 

In 1863, in order to secure better educational advantages for his 
family, he exchanged a portion of his farm for a small but well stocked 
nursery just outside the city limits of Rockford, 111., where for several 
years he conducted a thriving business and increased his knowledge 
of horticulture and gardening. During this period his pen was em- 
ployed in editing an agricultural page in the Rockford Register and 
for two years a German edition of the Prairie Farmer. In the autumn 
of 1868 Col. Colman, having been elected Lieutenant-Governor of 
Missouri, offered the editorship of the Rural World to Mr. Murtfeldt 
and the latter, accepting the position, removed with his family to St. 
Louis. 

The following year he was elected Secretary of the State Board 
of Agriculture, a position retained for three years. In the meantime 
he had removed his residence to Kirkwood, where, on the five acre 
ground of the new home, many farm enterprises, on a small scale, 
were carried on, and much fine fruit and a wealth of beautiful flowers 
.were annually produced. 

In 1874 he took a position in the LT. S. Sub-treasury of St. Louis, 
which he continued to fill for thirteen years, keeping up his interest, 
however, in all matters of the farm and garden and his association 
with the agricultural and horticultural societies of Missouri and 
neighboring states. 

In 1890, having retired from active business, he became a special 
contributor to the agricultural page of the semi-weekly Republic, 
with the editors and publishers of which he maintained for fourteen 
years the most cordial relations and his weekly contributions to this 
journal included much of the best and most varied literary work of 



Winter Meeting. 269 

his life. After his death Mr. J. R. Trueheart, editor of the semi-weekly 
edition, wrote to his daughter : "I hardly need say that I feel deeply 
the death of your father, as a personal and professional loss. For 
fourteen years he was always personally a most welcome visitor and 
his writings most welcome contributions to the Republic. His broad 
information, his native intelligence, his zeal and enthusiasm in all 
things pertaining- to rural life placed him, in my estimation, among the 
foremost of rural writers in the United States. In his prime between 
three score years and ten and four score, and beyond the latter limit, 
his work was better than that of many a man of equal parts at sixty." 

This flattering tribute, from one of such distinguished ability and 
fine judgment in literary matters was much appreciated by the family. 

As a man of high character and deeply religious nature Mr. Murt- 
feldt needs no introduction to this Society. He was for many years 
an elder in the' Presbyterian church in Kirkwood and ever active and 
zealous in every church worlv and enterprise and ever happy in public 
or private to speak a word for the jMaster. 

His long service in this Society has not only left its mark upon 
our printed pages, but has also indelibly impressed itself upon the 
hearts of those who knew and came in contact with him. His in- 
fluence which Avas always toward a higher and better life will never 
die. While he rests from his labors every horticuturist can say, he 
has done his life work well, which is much to leave to us, but more 
that he has given to this Society, his dearly beloved daughter, JMiss 
Mary, whose able services are ever prized. 

To the famil}^ we extend our most sincere sympathy in the 
irreparable loss and feel assured that they are not among those who 
mourn without hope. 

We recommend that a copy of this memoriam be sent to the 
family, and that it be spread upon our minutes and printed in our 
report. 

Geo. T. Tippin, Nichols, Mo. 
William H. Barnes, Topeka, Kas. 
W. G. Gang, Parkville, Mo. 

Committee. 

Mr. J. C. Evans moved that the report and resolutions be adopted 
by a rising vote. A motion was put and the Society stood to adopt 
the resolutions. 



270 State Horticultural Society. 



REPORT OF SPECIAL FINANCE COMMITTEE. : 

Pres. Whitten. — In the absence of Mr. Greensfelder, chairman 
of the Special Committee on Finance, who was unable to be present 
on account of a meeting of the State Board of Agriculture, I will 
comply with his request and read the report which I have received 
from him. Other members of the committee are also unavoidably 
absent. 

Columbia, Mo., Dec. 7, 1904. 
Professor J- C. Whitten, Esq., Pres. Mo. Horticultural Society, Co- 
lumbia, Mo. : 

Dear Sir — Have received this day a letter from Mr. Geo. B. Ellis, 
Secretary of the Missouri State Board of Agriculture, notifying me 
that the President of the Board had appointed me a member of the 
auditing committee and to make a report at the next annual meeting 
of the Board to be held Dec. 20, 1904, 

This will prevent me from being present at the meeting of the 
Horticultural Society at Neosho, which is to be held on the same day, 
I therefore hand you the report of the committee, appointed by you 
to examine into the expenditure of a certain fund of your Societ}", 
which I had prepared to read at the, Society meeting. Sorry I am 
of the conflict of meetings, as I should have been glad to be with you. 

Yours truly, 

M. B. Greensfelder. 

Clayton, September 14, 1904. 
Professor J. C. Whitten, President of the Horticultural Society of 

Missouri : 

Dear Sir — On August 3TSt, 1904, you appointed as a committee 
M. B. Greensfelder, Clayton, Mo., chairman ; Professor S. A. Hoover, 
Warrensburg, Mo. ; Capt. C. B. McAfee, Springfield, Mo., to act as 
per resolutions adopted at the meeting of your Society held the 7th 
day of June, 1904, which reads as follows : 

"I move you, Mr. President, that a committee of three be ap- 
pointed to investigate this fund of $1,000.00 or more, for which no 
report was made to this meeting by the treasurer, ascertaining who 
is the custodian of this fund, and (2) by whose authority they are 
acting; (3) ascertaining from what source the fund was derived, 
tracing it from its incipiency down (4) to the present date; (5) in- 



Winter Meeting. > 271 

forming- the Society who has been handhng it; (6) what additions 
have been made to it; (7) who has been drawing warrants or checks 
against it and for what purpose such disbursements have been made. 
This committee further to have the authority to at once take posses- 
sion of this fund and turn it over to the treasurer who is the proper 
custodian of all funds belonging to the Society." 

On Sept. 8, 1904, the gentlemen named by you met at the Horti- 
cultural Hall, World's Fair Grounds, together with Treasurer W. G. 
Gano of Parkville, and Secretary L. A. Goodman, and as answers 
to the questions asked in above resolution, report as follows : 

1. The custodian of the fund is the Mississippi Valley Trust Co'. 
of St. Louis, in account with the Missouri State Horticultural Society. 

2. Checks, when drawn on this fund, are signed by the Treasurer 
of your Society by order of the Executive Committee. 

3. The source from whence the fund was derived, tracing it from 
its incipiency, is as follows : 

On December 10, 1892, there was a balance in treasury of $302.31, 
as per report herewith submitted as it appears on page 140 of the 
report of 1892. 



272 



State Horticultural Society. 



Carthage, December, lo, 1892. 
Report of A. Nelson, treasurer of the Missouri State Horticultural 
Society, for the year ending December 10, 1892. 



1892. 



Junes... 
.July 16.. 
Aug. 8.. 
Sept. 10. 
Oct. 8.... 



RECEIPTS. 



Nov, 5. 



1892 

June 9. 

June 9. 

July 11 
July 14 
July 14 
July 14 
Aug. 3. 

Aug. 3. 
Sept. 5 
Sept. 6 

Oct. 5... 

Nov, 4. 

Dec. 10. 

Dec. 10. 
Dec. 10. 

Dec. 10. 



Balance on hand at last report . 
Draft from State Treasurer 



Membership 

Draft from State Treasurer. 



Total 

Membership... 
Nevada Bank. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 

Warrant No. 189, postofflce, $13.93, express, $2.55, railroad Jefferson 

Uity, $12.55, salary fur April, $66.66 

Warrant i\o. 190, postofflce. $.<0.44, printing, $:.'0 00, railroad St. Joseph 

$7.30. salary for May. 566.66 

Warrant No. 191. postofflce, $13.08, express, $i.lO, salary for June. $66.66 

Warrant No. 19:i, expense at (Jhlllicothe, ca>h piid for express, etc 

Warrant No. 193, expenses at Uhillicothe for society 

Warrant No. 194, premiums at .summer meeting 

Warrant No. IP-i, postofflce bill $87. 3i, freight $5.18, postofflce cards, 

$6.50, railroad to St Louis, $13, salary July *66.66 

Warrant No. 1W6, 40 mounted birds 

Warrant No. 197, A. Nelson, expenses to St. Louis 

Warrant No. 19S, posioffloe, $13.17, freight and express, $7.68, salary 

for August, $rt6.66 

Warrant No. 199, Tribune Printing Uo., r^-ports 

Warrant No. 200, postofflce, $3.i.7^, express, railroad and printing. $37,55, 

salary for September and October, };i33..i3 

Warrant No. 201, pustofflije. S-5.951, printing aad plates, $J3. 30, expenses 

at Uarthage, $17.35. salary for November, $ 6.60 

Warrant No. 20i, premiums, $90, postofflce, tablets, etc.. $8.80 

Warrant No. 203. expenses J. O. Evans, N. F. Murray, S. Miller, A. 

Nelson, M. E. Murtfeldt, etc 

Warrant No. 201, balance due on birds ., 



Balance in Treasury . 



$591 98 
208 33 
208 66 
208 33 
208 33 
21 00 
208 33 



1,654 96 
24 00 
36 19 



$1,715 15 



$95 69 

124 44 

84 S4 
37 05 
78 40 
30 00 

173 46 
40 55 
13 80 

87 51 
60 50 

203 66 

143 29 
98 80 

125 35 

7 50 



M.413 84 



$302 31 



A. NELSON, Treasurer. 



We, the Committee on Finance, having examined the accounts of 
the Treasurer and the warrants issued by the President, would report 
that we have examined the same, and find them correct. 

G. W. Hopkins, 
Henry Speer^ 
A. B. Sloan^ 

Committee. 

On pages 260 and 261 of the report for 1900 there is printed as 
follows : 

Report of Treasurer A. Nelson, Lebanon, Mo., Dec. 6, 1900. 

I am glad to be able tO' report to you such a prosperous condition 
of our finances. While we have been well treated by our State in 
all its appropriations, yet we have been all this time doing something 




- « 



o 



Winter Meeting. 



272 



for ourselves also; and we have taken part of this fund of our own 
making and put it in a safe place for keeping, so that we may always 
have something to use in case of necessity. 

At the close of our report on December 10, 1892, as will be seen 
on page 140 of the report for 1892, we had on hand of our savings 
$302.31. 

The Society has earned and received in cash from 



World's Pair In sPttlement, June, 18P4 

From St. Louis Exposition in November, I8!M 
From St. Louis Kxposition in November, 189") 
From Omaha Exposition 

Total 



$165 80 
150 70 
23(5 81 
323 70 

$1,179 32 



This money was paid for the Society by the officers giving their 
time and energy for the upholding of the glory of our State in its fruit 
displays, and should be kept for some special purpose for the work 
and honor of the Society. Of this $1,179.32, by a vote of the Execu- 
tive Committee, 1 have deposited with the Mississippi Valley Trust 
Co. of St. Louis, Mo., $1,000 drawing four per cent interest for one 
year, and hold their certificates for the above amount. 



.Tune 30... 


RECEIPTS. 

900, balance on hand. . 

luly. Cash from htate Auditor 


$329 78 

l,ri6 05 

4H0 H9 

323 70 

40 00 

17 00 




Dec. 7 


•ciober, cash from State Auditor 

I'Vom Omaha Exposition 

Membership 40, A. Nelson 






Memberseip 17, L. A. Goodman 






Total 








$2,367 22 




DISBUHSE.\1ENTS. 

Deposited with Mississippi Valley Trust Oo 


$1,000 00 



Farmington, Mo., Dec. 6, 1900. 
Mr. President — We, your committee, beg leave to report that we 
have carefully examined the accounts of Treasurer Nelson, finding 
due credit for all moneys received and vouchers for all moneys paid 
■and the same to be correct as reported. 

Geo. T. Tippin, 
J. C. Evans, 
T. R. Peyton, 

Committee. 
4. The $1,000 deposited with the Trust Company realized for the 
first year $40.00 interest; for the second year at 3 per cent, $31.20; 
for the third year, at 2 per cent, $21 .42 ; so that on July 21, 1903, there 
was on deposit $1,092.62. 



n— 18 



274 State Horticultural Society. 

On page 269 of the 44th Annual Report for 1901, the Committee 
on Finance report as follows : 

"The Committee on Finance beg leave to report that they have 
carefully examined the treasurer's report and find the same to be 
correct. Vouchers accompany the report showing the disbursements 
of all moneys paid out. We also find certificate of deposit in Missis- 
sippi Valley Trust Co. bank to the credit of the Missouri State Horti- 
cultural Society for $1,071.20, dated July ly, 1901. 

Geo. T. Tippin, Chairman, 
H. S. Wayman, 
F. H. Speakman. 

On motion, report of Committee on Finance was accepted." 

5. As to who has been handling it, is answered that the fund 
has been out on interest from 1900 up to date, with one draft made 
upon it as will appear later on. 

6. On the 13th day of June, 1904, an addition of $500 was made 
to the fund by order of the Executive Committee of your Society, 
so that with interest accumulated the're was a balance of $1,512.52 
at this date to the credit of the Society, as per deposit book sul-)mitted 
to us of the Trust Company. 

St. Louis, Sept. 13, 1904. 
Mr. M. B. Greensfelder, P. O. Box 96, Columbia, Mo. : 

Dear Sir — Referring to your favor of 12th inst., I beg to advise 
the balance to credit of account Missouri State Horticultural Society 
at close of business today is $1,477.61. This account is subject to 
check of the Society when signed by the Treasurer. 

Your very truly, 

H. C. Ibbotson, Assistant Secretary. 

7. The only draft made on the fund to date was ordered by the 
Executive Committee and a check was drawn by Treasurer Gano 
December 21, 1903, for $100.00, which was used to pay for two deiiks 
and four chairs bought by the Society from G. B. Carstarphen, trustee 

■ of U. S. Trust Co., which furniture is now in use at the Mo. Exhibit 
in' Horticultural Hall at St. Louis, and after the Fair will be subject 
to the order of your Executive Committee. On page 197 of the 46th 
Report for 1903, you find as follows : 

"The Society also has on deposit in the Mississippi Valley Trust 
Co. at St. Louis $992.62 and accrued interest. 



Winter Meeting. 275 

We, your Committee on Finance, have examined the report of the 
Treasurer, together with the vouchers and bills, and find all correct 
as reported. 

(Signed) T. H. Todd, New Franklin, 
Henry Schnell, Glasgow, 
W. T. Flournoy, Marionville." 

The ■$100.00 expended for the furniture is deducted from the 
fund as reported by the Finance Committee. 

8. The fund being already subject to the joint order )f the 
Treasurer and your Executive Committee on deposit at the Mississippi 
Valley Trust Co., there was no action necessary on the part of this 
committee to make use of authority granted to take possession of the 
fund and turn it over to the Treasurer. 

September 30, 1904. 
The difference between $1,512.52 on hand Sept. 8, 1904, and 
$i.477-6i in Trust Company on Sept.- 13, 1904, is accounted for by an 
accretion of interest amounting to $5.09, and a draft on the fund for 
$40.00 to pay for a couch now in use at World's Fair headquarters. 
Thus reporting, we are, 

Yours truly, 

M. B. Greensfelder^ 
S. A. Hoover, 

Committee. 
Springfield, October 13, 1904. 
M. B. Greensfelder : 

Dear Sir — If I failed to sign and approve report, it was an over- 
sight. T do approve it; and to save time authorize you to sign my 
name to report. 

Yours, etc., 

C. B. McAfee. 
P. S. — Been absent for the last week. — Mc. 

J. M. Irvine — I move that the report be accepted and the com- 
mittee be discharged. 

C. W. Steinman — I second the motion. 

The motion was carried and the report was accepted and com- 
mittee discharged. 

Princeton, Illinois, Dec. 19, 1904. 
To the officers and members of the Missouri State Horticultural 

Society — Greeting : 

This is to certify that the bearer, Mr. E. G. Mendenhall of Kin- 
mundy, 111., is a duly authorized delegate from the Illinois State Hor- 



276 State Horticultural Society. 

ticultiiral Society to your annual meeting to be held at Neosho, Mo., 
Dec. 20-22, 1904. 

L. R. Bryant, Secretary. 

Hannibal, Mo., Dec. 20, 1904. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman, Sec'y Mo. S. Hor. Soc'y, Neosho, Mo. : 

My Dear Sir — For the last two weeks I have expected to be with 
you at this meeting. So sure was I of this that I had myself appointed 
delegate to represent the A. A. G. Congress at your meeting. Yes- 
terday I received a message from Chicago requiring my personal at- 
tention to matters of much importance to me in Lincoln county, Mo., 
and will go there today to remain until Friday. 

T need not say how much I regret this for I am never so much 
at home as in a meeting of Horticulturists, and I feel that you are 
having a good meeting. I now delegate my credentials as delegate 
of A. A. G. C. to you and authorize you to represent the Congress 
at your meeting. You will remember the fees are $3.00 and $2.00, 
and I will also say that while Missouri has held first place as to num- 
bers all along to this year, Illinois has taken the lead at this time, and 
unless w^e hustle we will drop into second place. The printer is now 
at work on our report, and I hope to have it out early in January. 
To all new members I will send all three of our reports and one of 
our buttons. 

I enclose list of old members who have not renewed and who are 
likel)'" to be in attendance at your meeting. Again regretting my 
unavoidable absence and wishing you a grand and successful meeting 
I am 

Very truly yours. 

T. C. Wilson. 

It will pay any apple grower to become a member and secure all 
these reports. Mr. T. C. Wilson, Hannibal, Mo., is the Secretary, and 
all orders and memberships should be sent to him. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

N. F. Murra3^ — I am proud and happy to say that we have plenty 
of material with which to fill the positions of honor that are ours to 
give. The rule of this Society is that no officer except the Secretary 
can hold his position for more than two terms, but our precedent is 



J^k' inter Meeting. 2yy 

for all the officers to hold their positions for the two terms. The 
present incumbent of the office of President has filled most ably this 
position, I therefore take pleasure in putting in nomination for re- 
election the Hon. J. C. Whitten. 

The nomination was seconded by W. P. Stark and C. W. Steiman, 
also by Louis Erb for Tennessee and by Capt. Lincoln for Arkansas. 

N. F. Murray. — I move that the rules be suspended and the 
Secretary cast the unanimous vote of the Society for Dr. Whitten 
for President. Motion was seconded by a number of members. 

Applause followed and Mr. Murray put the question which was 
unanimously carried and the Secretary cast the vote and declared Dr. 
Whitten elected. Calls were heard over the house for a speech. 

Pres. Whitten. — I had thought that at the close of my present 
term the position should go to some one who is practically interested 
in fruit growing. Last year I accepted the position as a special 
courtesy and appreciated it more than I can tell. I am busy in my 
professional work with other things, but I assure you that the extra 
amount of work and energy required for the duties of this office have 
for the last year been a great pleasure to me, because I get in profes- 
sional touch and close acquaintance with the other officers and mem- 
bers of the Society. I have felt that at the end of this year all courtesy 
had been fulfilled, but in accepting your graciousness I aim even more 
grateful and want to express my heartfelt appreciation. I mean to 
serve and work with you and do as you wish. The position is that of 
servant to the Society and I solicit your co-operation. The service 
of the Society is a great pleasure and privilege to me and I thank you 
for it. 

The next office is that of first vice-president, and nominations 
are now in order. 

Louis Erb. — I nominate Mr. Dutcher. 

The nomination was seconded by Mr. Murray and Mr. Burkam 
and by Capt. Lincoln on behalf of Arkansas. 

G. A. Atwood. — I move that we suspend the rules and the Secre- 
tary cast the unanimous vote of the Society for Mr. Dutcher for first 
vice-president. 

C. W. Steiman seconded the motion which was carried and the 
Secretary cast the ballot. 

Pres. Whitten. — You have elected Mr. Dutcher as first Vice-presi- 
dent, and nominations are now in order for second Vice-president. 

Mr. Murray. — I put Mr. W. G. Gano in nomination, and as I hear 
no other name I move that we suspend the rules and the Secretary 
cast the unanimous ballot for Mr. Gano as second Vice-president. 



2/8 State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. A. Chandler and Air. Steiman seconded the motion. The 
motion was put and carried and the Secretary read the vote and de- 
clared JNIr. Gano elected. Call for a speech. 

W. G. Gano. — I thanked you last year for electing Prof. Whitten 
and Mr. Dutcher, but I can do it again. 

C. H. Dutcher. — This is all according to the scriptural idea that 
the first shall be last. The Republican party is represented by an 
elephant and the Democratic by a long eared but not a sick mule, 
probably because he was too stubborn to go to the polls. I have en- 
joyed all the courtesies that you have extended, and all that I am en- 
titled to and more and I will do so again. I do not balk now as I did 
not in November. I will attend the meetings, do as I am told and 
do my level best. 

H. B. McAfee. — I think I speak the sentiment of this Society 
when I say that we do not throw empty boquets, but give these re- 
elections because of duties and work performed and grand achieve- 
ments accomplished. 

Pres. Whitten. — Nominations for Secretary are next in order. 

F. H. Speakman. — I put in nomination our present Secretary, Mr. 
L. A. Goodman. 

Mr. Evans. — We have had a tolerably good Secretary for the 
past year, and I think it would be well to give him another year's 
trial, and maybe he will come to be a first class Secretary. I move 
that the rules be suspended, and that Mrs. Moore cast the unanimous 
vote for Mr. Goodman as Secretary. Motion was seconded by a num- 
ber of the members. 

Capt. Lincoln seconded the motion for Arkansas, Mr. Erb for 
Tennessee, Mr. Wheeler for Kansas, Mr. Mendenhall for Illinois. 
The motion was unanimously carried and Mrs. Moore cast the ballot 
and the President declared Mr. Goodman elected. Call for a speech. 

Mr. Goodman. — The success that has been given us in this work 
comes from your hearty support. I try to be a leader and helper 
but I could not be without your co-operation and united efiforts. The 
position that Missouri now holds with her Society now ranking as 
easily one of the first, is due to your union. I am sure my work for 
the past years has been that of love and my heart goes out to you 
for your appreciation and kindness to me ; to you, then, be the honor 
of our State Society's success. It was my ambition a few years ago 
that it should stand high, and hold the position that it now does- 
one of the first in the country. I thank you again for this honor to 
me and your hearty appreciation of my work. For twenty-two years 
I have worked with you in perfect unison, and I shall ever do so. 



Winter Meeting. 279 

Pres. Whitten. — Nominations for the office of Treasurer are now 
in order. 

Mr. Logan. — I nominate Mr. W. T. Flournoy and move to sus- 
pend the rules and have the Secretary cast the ballot. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. Steiman ; also by Capt. Lincoln 
for Arkansas, by Mr. Erb of Tennessee for himself and Mr. Lawhorn 
and by Mr. Mendenhall for Illinois. The motion was put and unani- 
mously carried. The Secretary cast the ballot and a speech was called 
for. 

W. T. Flournoy. — 1 thank you for the honor you have given me 
and I will do my best. 

N. F. Murray. — I believe in giving honor to a man while he is 
living rather than after he is dead. I move you that we elect Hon. 
Norman J. Colman as third Vice-president for life. 

C. W. Steiman. — I heartily approve and second the motion. 

C. H. Dutcher. — Mr. Colman is a worthy man and his work for 
this Society and as first United States Secretary of Agriculture, is entitled 
to the highest honor we can confer. 

The motion was put, and unanimously carried. 

Sec. Goodman. — This is the office of highest honor in the gift of 
the Society. It was first held by Samuel Miller, then by C. W. Murt- 
feldt as long as he lived, and is now given to Mr. Colman as the most 
honorable office that the Society can bestow. 

St. Louis, Nov. 30, 1904. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman, 4000 Warwick Blvd., Kansas City, Mo. 

Dear Mr. Goodman — I take this opportunity of congratulating you 
on the success that you have made on the Fruit Exhibit at the Exposition. 
I feel sure that the horticulturists of the State of Missouri will appreciate 
the efforts that you have put forth here. It is certain that the horti- 
cultural interests of Missouri have been helped by the exhibit that you 
have so successfully maintained. I also want to personally tell you that 
I appreciate the exceptionally agreeable relations that have existed be- 
tween the different superintendents in the Horticultural Building and this 
office. I feel that you are to be congratulated on having the hearty 
support of Hon. M. T. Davis, President of your Commission, and B. H. 
Bonfoey, Chairman of your Committee, for without their hearty support 
you could not have accomplished what you have done. 

Very truly yours, 
John T. Stinson, 

Superintendent of Pomology. 



28o State Horticultural Society. 



DESCRIPTION OF SECTION OF GRAPE VINE EXHIBITED AT 

THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

This section of the grape vine was taken several feet above the 
ground. The part below though larger, was fractured. The part still 
above^ near the same size all the way for thirty-five feet being near 
fifty of main shaft to where it became attached to the top of a tall elm> 
as it was in a thick forest the vine now branched out in every direction 
forming a network among the tops of trees adjacent for say, fifty feet 
square. 

This being too high up for the boys, a harvest for the raccoon and 
birds. As to the amount of fruit, we are left to imagine a good crop 
on such an immense space. 

This vine grew on Cane Island Farm of W. H. Fugate, Pratt, 
Missouri, Ripley County: 26 inches in circumference; 100 years old. 

Easton, Mo., Feb. 5. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman — I am in receipt of a letter from you and I 
find it very interesting reading. While no doubt you have accumulated 
a few more gray hairs and wrinkles in serving us you have reaped laurels 
for yourself and we may reasonably hope laid up useful knowledge that 
will aid us in the future. I regret very much that I could not give the 
exhibition more of my time, but I am just ever so thankful that I ever 
beheld it at all in all its wondrous magnificence. I am also glad that 
I met you there and that I was not disappointed in the man, I also want 
to thank you for whatever you may have done in securing an award for 
Dr. I. S. Talbot of Easton, an old christian gentleman whose work is 
about done and who will certainly rejoice that his efforts in scientific 
horticulture have been rewarded by a prize on apples grown by him on 
his eighty-acre orchard here, coming as it does from the World's Great- 
est exhibition. Thanks, also, for award given my co-worker, G. W- 
Homan of Easton, on exhibit of fruit. For myself, to say that I am 
proud would not express it, yet if only our State were victorious, I were 
well repaid for the part I performed. How like we all are to the fellow 
who carried bricks back and forth from one side of the street to the 
other, "We are all carrying bricks." Again let me thank you in behalf 
of the cause, for those of the future who will reap what you have sown, 
who will speak with praise of the valuable work done by such noble- 
men as L. A. Goodman. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. T. Davis, 

Easton, Mo. 



Winter Meeting. ' 281 

Baden Station, No. 30, Dec. 14, 1904. 
Mr, L. A. Goodman : 

Dear Sir — Looking over the premium list of Missouri fruit exhibit 
at the World's Fair, I had the pleasure of seeing my name among the 
silver medal awards. I should be pleased to have you send me the infor- 
mation as to where I could obtain the medal which I am anxious to pos- 
sess. Awaiting your reply, I remain, 

Chas. H. Trampe, 

Baden Station, St. Louis. 

R. F. D. Route No. 30. 

Randolph, Mo., Feb. 8, 1905. 
Friend L. A. Goodman — We acknowledge receipt of your report of 
exposition, which we have read. We send you greeting and congratulate 
you that you could make so full and favorable report, it not only com- 
memorates the present but will be a stepping stone for the future con- 
quests. 

The peaches I fear are gone. This exceptional cold winter cora- 
pels us to remain at home. 

Sincerely yours, 
Asa Chandler and Wife. 

Corvallis, Oregon, June 28, 1904. 
Secretary L. A. Goodman, Kansas City, Mo. : 

Dear Sir — I am in receipt of a bundle of your 46th report. I find it 
a very interesting volume. The cuts are a credit to any publication and 
you are to be commended for such selection and finish as permeates the 
whole volume. 

Sincerely, 
E. R. Lake, Secretary, 

Oregon State Hort. Soc. 



-fc>^ 



Holt, Clay County, Mo., Jan. 20, 1905. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman, 400 Warwick Ave., K. C, Mo. : 

Dear Sir — In reply to your card wiU say as the apple trees all lost 
their leaves in August and first of September, except Ynrks and Jon- 
athan, I do not look for many apples this season. Peaches are all dead 
on low land, haven't examined them on high land. I think plums and 
cherries are all right. There are no raspberries here to amount to any- 
thing, blackberries and strawberries are in good shape. I have a half 
acre under intensive culture. I think it shows the finest prospect in the 



282 State Horticultural Society. 

State. If they do as well as I expect will write something- about them 
for the summer meeting. Have a few of the newer varieties on trial. 
I find, like Fuller, many kinds do well under high culture, that fail 
under common usag^e. As I was unable to attend the World's Fair 
have often wondered how my apples showed up. 

Fraternally, 

G. T. Odor. 

Vista, Mo., January 31, 1905. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman : 

Dear Sir — I want to acknowledge the receipt (at this late date) of 
the Horticultural report you sent me promptly on request. 1 have read 
every article in it, I value it highly and think any one with no previous 
experience could successfully grow and prepare for market any of the 
fruits or berries described, besides there is other very useful information 
that it contains. Thank you also for the information regarding the 
culture of ginseng and the nut trees. 

Yours truly, 
Geo. D. Bkatschi, 

Ithaca, .\\ Y., Nov. 16, 1904. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman, St. Louis, Mo. 

My Dear Goodman — I shall vote you a medal for your promptness 
in forwarding such a nice consignment of your mid-west apples for the 
benefit of my students. This is exactly what we wanted, and you have 
the grateful thanks of yours truly and the boys. 

Hoping that your exhibit will have a very satisfactory finish, 
believe me, 

Yours sincerely, 

John Craig. 

Baring, December 28, 1904. 
Hon. L. A. Goodman : 

Dear Sir — As I have been making some observations of the condi- 
tion of the different varieties of fruit trees, and also of small fruits, I 
will state that the condition of young orchards is fairly good, but older 
trees not very good, as apple scab has prevented them from making a 
healthy g-rowth and caused the leaves to have a sickly apearance. As 
there are scarcely any commercial fruit growers near me, there was 
practically no spraying done, and as the forepart of the season was wet 
and cold, scab had full sway. I had intended to send you some fruit for 



.Winter Meeting. 283 

the World's Fair, but did not find any worthy of exhibit. We had a 
good crop of pears, a half crop of plums and cherries and some fair 
strawberries. No peaches, but peach trees made a fine growth, and if 
we have moderate winter once again, we may expect a good crop of 
peaches once more. Strawberry beds are in the best condition with 
me that they have been for years. My pear trees have shown no blight 
for three years, while those of others not far from me have blighted 
and died more or less every year. It seems strange that mine have re- 
mained healthy as I manure and cultivate mine every year, and that 
others in sod and not cultivated should blight and die. As most claim 
that trees highly manured and cultivated would surely invite the blight. 
Well sir, I will not change my mode of care for my trees, as long as 
they continue to do as well as they have. Dear ^Ir. Goodman I have 
been vexed and sorry, to read in the Western Fruit Grower, in regard 
to the Black Ben Davis hiuddle and also of the charge of some financial 
irregularities, casting a reflection on some of our best, most honest, and 
trusted men in our State Society, to whom great thanks and gratitude 
are due from at least every fruit grower in our and also neighboring 
states. Now if the Black Ben is so near like the Gano as tO' deceive, 
even good judges of fruit, where would the honor come in, to intro- 
duce it at a high price, as something new, and above price. I hope you 
will have, or have had a rousing good meeting, this winter, and as I 
have never been so fortunate as to be present at any of the meetings 
of our State Society, I am never the less present with my best wishes, 
and kindest regards. jMy dear sir, if you have any copies of the 46th 
annual report of our State Horticultural Society, I would be ever grate- 
ful to you for one. I also hope to receive present years report, as I 
am getting too old for traveling, but would be glad to learn how our 
State exhibit compared with other states, that had better fruit crops. 
We had within 48 hours, rain, sleet, and snow, with a young bliz- 
zard all day yesterday, clear today, with two below zero this morning- 
Ground was very dry all this fall, with no rain for nearly three months. 
I will close with best wishes for you and family and for a happy new 
year and hope the Giver of all good, to whom be praise forever, will be 
pleased to bestow upon us His blessing and a bountiful year next season 
is my prayer. 

Yours very truly, 

Peter Dailing, 

Baring, Mo. 



284 State Horticultural Society. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR THE GOOD OE OUR SOCIETY. 

(N. F. Murray, Oregon, Mo.) 

Our worthy secretary has been very Hberal in assigning me a broad 
subject, one that might take in an endless variety of suggestions, all 
of which might either directly or indirectly prove to be for the good of 
our Society, but I shall be brief and speak plainly to the subject present- 
ing for your consideration some of the more important things we may 
do for the good of our Society. 

All personal interests and ambitions of each individual member 
should be subservient to whatever is for the general good of the Society, 
and all questions, of whatever nature, that can not be agreed upon and 
amicably settled, within the Society in a reasonable time, should be 
thrown out and left to a verdict of the common people. We should have 
a home for our Society, permanently located, where we could have a 
spacious room in which to hold our meetings and where all our annual 
meetings should be held, and in addition, to this we ought to have rooms 
for our library, and our jar and other fruits. 

I would suggest Columbia as a suitable place for a permanent home, 
for the reason that it is centrally located, a seat of learning, the home of 
our State University with all of its departments, and splendid equipment ; 
and if located there it would give an opportunity to all of the students to 
attend our meetings, which would certainly be of special interest to the 
students of agriculture, and horticulture. In addition to this it would 
place our library within the reach of the students, interested in the pur- 
suit of horticulture, which in the end would certainly reflect credit upon 
the work of our Society. Our little library of splendid reports contain- 
ing the best thoughts of our most able and practical horticulturists, 
should be enlarged by continually adding thereto not only our own re- 
ports, but in addition thereto the very best works obtainable on horti- 
culture, forestry and landscape gardening. 

It would no doubt help the Society very much if all the individual 
members would read and study a library more thoroughly than we do, 
and then put the knowledge gained into practice; and in order to get 
time to do this I suggest that we relegate a very large percentage of the 
worthless literature, that now invades our homes, to the waste basket and 
to the bon-fire. It would be for the good of our Society and the indi- 
vidual as well if our young men would give less time to sport and more 
to the study of horticulture- I am not forgetful of the old saying that 



H"' inter Meeting. 285 

^'all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," but I wish to add that all 
play and no work makes Jack a very worthless boy, and a trifling good- 
for-nothing man. 

I believe it would be for the good of our Society and the great 
satisfaction of the public if we would give less time, thought, and 
worry to Old Ben Davis and his several sports, that are but very little, 
if any better than the old gentleman himself, and spend more time, 
thought and care on brother Jonathan, Grimes Golden, Wealthy and 
other high grade apples that are in demand for table use. 

It will bring new life into our society and prove a glorious boon to 
•each individual member if we will all get to work and pull ourselves out 
of the slough of despondency into which we have drifted, by reason of 
the very lean years through which we are passing, but let us take on new 
hope that better seasons for the fruit grower are near at hand. It is 
a law of nature that one extreme follows another, and now having had 
a number of very imfavorable years, we are sure to have good years to 
come. It is a long lane that has no turn. No night so long as to pre- 
vent the return of day. Xo storm so dark and raging as to prevent a 
returning calm. 

And remember "If thou faint in the day of adversity thy strength 
is small." I know quite well that human nature at best is weak and 
liable to give way under repeated disappointments and as fruit growers 
w^e are surely having them, but who has not? Those engaged in gen- 
eral farming have their failures and disappointments, in many places in 
the last few years they have in various ways lost all or part of their 
crops, yet be it said to the credit of the American farmers, that by their 
energy and perseverence, they have in the last two years, according to a 
recent report of the Agricultural Department, produced more in value 
than all of the gold mines of the World have produced since Columbus 
discovered America. 

Too many of our fruit growers are now giving way to discourage-^ 
ment and neglecting their orchards. On a recent trip east I observed 
that most of the apple orchards of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, 
Pennsylvania and West \^irginia were old and for the most part were 
neglected and going down into a state of decay, and scarcely any new 
ones are coming on to fill their place. In some places I found them 
picking apples from very old large trees, with umbrella shaped tops, 
where it required ladders thirty feet long to reach the fruit, and it took 
a good stout man to elevate one of these ladder, although made of light 
material. And I pause to suggest that it will be for the good of our 



286 Slate Horticultural Society. 

Society, and for our physical endurance, to cut orchards down before 
they reach such an age and size and plant new ones. 

One of the most successful orchards visited was that of W. F. 
Brown and Brothers, at Browndale, Hancock Co., West Va. It con- 
tains one hundred and twenty-five acres, and has proved a financial suc- 
cess. A portion of this orchard is on second Ohio River bottom land, 
some on a very steep hillside running up two hundred and fifty feet high, 
and ten acres is on a comparatively level hill top, their best crop was in 
1896 when the one hundred and twenty-five acres produced ten thousand 
barrels which sold for seventeen thousand and five hundred dollars. The 
ten acre lot on hill top referred to was first planted with Northern Spy 
thirty-three feet apart each way, and at eight years of age they were 
grafted with Willow Twig; at seventeen years from top grafting and 
twenty-five from planting it produced three thousand barrels, an average 
of eight barrels to the tree (the two best trees produced twenty barrels 
each) but how is this to help us out? Let me tell you the secret — this 
ten acre hill top was very poor land when planted, so poor, that it would 
only bring five bushels of wheat to the acre, but Mr. Brown and Brothers 
are wide awake intelligent gentlemen, that understand their business, 
and hang on to their business with the indomitable will that will only 
surrender to man's last enemy. They fertilized, pruned and cultivated, 
in one year they hauled and spread upon this ten acre orchard two 
hundred wagon loads of barnyard manure, and in addition applied one 
thousand pounds of bone meal to the acre. 

Now I suggest that it will help our Society very much, and prove 
profitable to the individual members, if we imitate the example of Mr. 
Brown and Brothers, and other successful fruit growers, not that we are 
to do the identical same thing they have done, for our land and climate 
here in iMissouri is better than theirs, and the same intelligence, and per- 
severence that has given them a measure of success on their poor land, 
would have given better results here. One thing is certain to my mind 
if we expect success in the future with our orchards, we must continue 
to put out new plantings from year to year, cultivate, prune, manure, 
fertilize and spray,and last but not least I suggest for the good of our 
society, that "United we stand, divided we fall," if the latter it will be 
to our everlasting shame. 



Winter Meeting. 287 



APPLES AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

(J. C. Evans, Harlem, Mo.) 

The recent World's Fair presented a fine opportunity to make com- 
parison from the various states and from different sections of some of 
the states. Take, for instance, one apple of a certain variety from each 
state and you have about four different and distinct types 
which show each its own peculiarity in size, shape, color, texture and 
quality. A committee from the American Pomological Society took up 
one by one all the leading varieties and made notes on their variations. 
These notes will be published in the next report of that Society. From 
that report some valuable lessons may be learned as to what varieties 
to plant in the different localities, etc. We have seen by this great 
exhibit that apples of some kind or other may be grown most everywhere 
in the United States and some in Canada, but not everywhere are they 
profitable as a commercial crop. Some of the Northern states, since the 
introduction of some of the better Russian varieties, are producing some 
very fine apples and not a few of them. Of course, they have not the 
high quality of the standard varieties grown in the Middle states, nor do 
they keep as well. They made a fine exhibit on the tables. 

The Pacific coast arid mountain states are producing some very fine 
apples, and will doubtless ere long be felt in the commercial world. 
Their apples, especially from the mountain states, are comparatively free 
from insect marks and are large and well colored, and were very attractive 
on the tables. 

The Southern states' do not pretend to grow apples commercially 
to any great extent, but some of them made a very creditable showing 
of fair size, good quality and well colored fruit. 

Canada was very well represented, but like our Northern states her 
apples all carry more or less Russian blood, and as a rule are smaller 
than the same varieties grown farther south. New England and the 
eastern middle states were in evidence, but the more western middle 
states made such exhibits as to show at a glance that the commercial 
orchards of America are just west of the center of population. The 
peculiar characteristics of varieties from the different sections are not 
described here because the report of the American Pomological Society 
committee will give it more fully than can be done in a short paper. 
In that report a complete description of each, giving size, form, color, 
texture, quality, etc., with a photograph of one whole and one-half of 
each variety, will be given. By this report we will be able to judge 



388 State Horticultural Society. 

what varieties are best suited to each particular section of country. I 
will mention the name of one apple, the Jonathan, because it has proved 
to be by far the best keeper in cold storage. I will also mention one 
other that seems to be doing well everywhere ; it was on nearly all the 
tables and attracted more attention and brought forth more remarks than 
any one other variety. It was always large, well colored and beautiful. 
It is the Wolf River, and I know of but one use to put it to and that is 
to show. All together it was the grandest aggregation of apples ever 
seen in the world and the orchardist who did not see it has missed the 
golden opportunity of a lifetime. 

DISCUSSION ON VARIETIES AND PRUNING. 

E. G. Mendenhall (111)— I take it for granted that these papers go 
on record but I wish to take exception to the statement concerning high 
trees in Illinois. We have no fifty foot nor thirty foot trees and we 
have as many young trees as any state. 

N. F. Murray. — I told only of what I saw in northern 111., where 
they have some big old trees but I know they have better ones farther 
south in the state. My native state of West Virginia is one that is 
guilty of having worthless old trees, I think it is advisable to cut down 
the fifty foot trees and plant new ones. In the eastern states I saw no 
new orchards. The Ben Davis is very poor there and ought not to 
be grown. 

Prof. Whitten. — I have made several trips lately into Illinois and 
can say that Illinois has some fine young orchards that are beauties. I 
can bear out what Mr. Mendenhall says. 

Mr. iMendenhall. — Do you grow Kennards Choice in the Ozarks? 
In south Illinois this is being grown quite extensively and there is noth- 
ing better. I believe that if you are not growing it it might be worth 
while to try it in the Missouri Ozarks. 

Prof. Whitten.— At the Illinois State Society meeting I saw some 
of this variety and it was most attractive. 

G. T. Tippin.— There is one small orchard of it near Springfield, 
the quality is equal to that of Jonathan and it stores well. 

Capt. Lincoln.— There is one small orchard of this variety in Benton, 
County, Arkansas and it seems to be good. 

Prof. Whitten.— Kennards Choice grows as large as a Northern 
Spy, has a high red color over a deep yellow skin which occasionally 
shows and adds to the richness of the red like the York, only it is more 
attractive than the York. It is about the size of the Mammoth Black 
Twig and is a good keeper. 







m 

Q 

eg 

S 



o 



ar^. 



:/ 



Winter Meeting. 289 

'Mr. Mendenhall. — The Kennards Choice sold this year for $5.00 per 
barrel. 

W. P. Stark. — Kennards Choice is of the Wine Sap type but a 
more vigorous tree, it bears as early as the Missouri Pippin and gives 
favorable results for the first several crops. It is being planted in South 
Illinois and seems to be giving satisfaction but is subject to scab and for 
that reason we are not pushing it. 



PRUNING AND CULTIVATION OF AN ORCHARD. 

(Ohas. W. Steiman, Dalton, Mo.) 

Pruning is to the fruit tree what training is to the child ; both should 
commence in the nursery. The average fruit grower should pur- 
chase thrifty, first-class, two-year-old trees, direct from the nursery. Trees 
should be heeled in immediately upon arrival, and kept thus until ground 
is ready for planting the following spring. During the fall months the 
ground should be plowed preparatory for spring planting. Early in 
spring the ground should be harrowed well when sufficiently dry, and 
the trees to be set out. Each tree should be examined while planting it. 
Cut off with pruning shears all multilated roots and broken branches ; 
also cross branches and any branch that has grown to form a fork. At 
this time prune no more than absolutely necessary. For every cut is a 
wound and checks the tree's growth. While planting, the most promi- 
nent branches should be placed so as to be on the side of the prevailing 

.. winds and to shade the tender trunk. 

" When through planting, do not for once entertain the idea, ''your 

work is now finished thou good and faithful servant ;" but the trees look 
to you henceforth for protection, care and sustenance. They should be 
protected from stock and the ever present rabbit, and cared for, in 
giving the ground thorough tillage. Trees like animals need feeding; 
as they cannot walk, fertilizing food must be brought to them sooner or 
later. Wrap all trees as planted, either with veneer or wire cloth screen. 
This facilitates close cultivation to trunk of tree with the plow and pre- 
vents rabbits and borers doing damage. One sided, broken down, dilap- 
idated trees, so often seen in young orchards, teach us the wisdom of 
having a good stock fence around the orchard. 

Young orchards should have thorough cultivation and weeds kept 
under control, especially the soil around the trees should at all times 

n-19 



290 State HortictiUural Society. 

be mellow. There is no tool as yet invented, to take the place of the 
hoe to accomplish this result. We hoc our trees several times each season, 
even as late as September, and find that they respond to this treatment 
readily in growth and fine appearance. Where orchard land is fertile, 
and not too hilly and broken, crops, such as corn, potatoes, cow peas, 
pumpkins, vegetables or berry fruits may be grown thereon to profitable 
advantage. Never put timothy, wheat or oats in an orchard and let it 
come to maturity. We cultivate our orchard always one way, this 
leaves a strip of uncultivated land in between the trees, but all weeds are 
kept down with the mowing scythe and left as mulch. This strip be- 
comes very fertile, as no crops are taken from it, and further, the tree 
roots are never cut oli' or molested by plowing. We find that the 
trees can withstand the winds much better. Thorough cultivation is the 
means of bringing and preparing the food constituents contained in 
the soil, to and for the tree rootlets, which are so willing to assimilate 
whatever nourishes them. 

Young trees thus cared for should make a good growth the first 
season, so that pruning for symmetry and future usefulness may be be- 
gun the second spring. A tree should be viewed from all sides and 
then pruned carefully. A well-balanced, low-headed tree, having no 
cross branches or forks, with branches far enough apart to let in light 
and air should be our ideal. Remember you are placing the structure 
for the future tree ; therefore be able to give reason for every branch 
that is taken off. Again, most pruning of an apple orchard should be 
done before fruiting age. Some varieties need more pruning and thin- 
ning than others, for example, Jonathan needs more than Ben Davis : 
such varieties as Winesap need very little. 

Peaches should be cut back and thinned each spring before bloom- 
ing period, while young apple trees may be pruned until July. 

Pear trees have more advocated systems of pruning perhaps than 
any other fruit, except the grape vine. Some writers say, "Prune fan 
shape," some preach pyramid form, others find their consolation in head- 
ing low and topping, wishing the tree to spread out, while still another 
class are absolutely certain that pruning is injurious to a healthy tree, 
and a tree grown for the purpose of bearing pears should never be 
touched with a knife. To which class do you belong? 

In summing up the whole matter, love your trees while they are 
young, cultivate and hoe about them. If they look puny, feed them 
with barnyard fertilizers. "Train tliem up in the way they should grow, 
then when they become old they will not depart from it." Train your 



Winter Meeting. 291 

boy*s hair to look neat, your trees also. Labor so that you may expect 
good fruits and good fruits will crown your labors abundantly with 
unexpected measure. 

DISCUSSION ON PRUNING. 

Mr. Smelzer — In our part of the country it is detrimental to the 
peach trees to prune just before they bloom, any other time is better, 
even after the fruit is as large as a hickory nut. 

Mr. Steiman — I said before the trees bloom and not just before 
blooming. 

N. F. Murray — I had two hundred peach trees not cut back and 
got a half bushel of peaches off of them the next season, but the trees 
made no growth. Those cut back made six feet of growth. Those cut 
back are hardier and not killed so easily by five degrees. The new 
growth may come from the cut limbs, but this does not account for 
those not cut which still stand. Cut back the weakened trees and they 
will be better than when not cut. You will have more fruit and better 
and easier picked when the peach trees are pruned. 

W. G. Gano — Would like to ask Mr. Smelzer if he cuts the peach 
back before the fruit sets or after? 

Mr. Smelzer — We cut back in the winter if we want more wood 
growth, and prune while the trees are dormant if they are weak. We 
prune also when we thin the fruit. But I don't do as much of it as I 
used to, because I don't think it is necessary. 

Mr. Erb — At Van Buren, Ark., I saw a crop of ten bushels on three- 
year-old trees. These trees bear more peaches if not pruned. They are 
left to grow twenty feet high and are loaded so that the branches were 
bent. The trees were twenty feet apart and overlapped. They had to 
haul the fruit out on sleds, as the wagons cannot get through. Maybe 
this will prove too much for the tree. Mr, Culver of Koshkonong said 
he was not going to prune, but w^ould let his peach trees grow. . 

G. T. Tippin — These trees were not cut back after the second year. 
The theory of cutting back was based on the idea of getting fruit on the 
lov/ limbs. Mr. Stewart has done differently ; he cuts fifteen to eighteen 
inches high and leaves three or four buds to grow, and this forms a sad- 
dle instead of the ordinary crotch. So, instead of splitting, the limbs 
bend down and go back when the fruit is removed. In thia way no bad 
forks are formed. We get too much branching and top by cutting so 
often. 

G. A. Atwood — I know of one orchard of one hundred and ten 
acres from which we had six car loads of peaches. 



292 State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Tippin — From three three->ear-olJ irees, six inches in diameter, 
there were gatherd ten bushels of peaches. 

Mr. Smelzer — Those who are opposed to pruning come to it after 
awhile. I am in favor of pruning severely. The man at Van Buren 
is now beginning to prune in this orchard. If these gentlemen were 
to go through it now they would find the men at work cutting off some 
of the lower limbs. He has to keep the low limbs cut off, as the peaches 
on them do not color and take the substance from the other. He 
started his trees too low, so he has to take the under limbs off, as the 
fruit falls from tliese before it is ripe and his trees are not over five 
years old. Another man. also I know prunes after from three to five 
years. I do not believe in. heading too low. I prefer three to four feet. 

Mr. Tippin — I don't want to leave any confusion. I was referring 
to the three-year-old orchard and not to an orchard which had been 
pruned. I think pruning is necessary. 

L. C. Wilson — If you cut close to a shoot, that will grow, and no 
other, I had peaches last year on limbs as big as my finger and from 
dormant buds. 

D. McNallie — I left some trees not pruned in order to save the" 
peaches on them, and do not need to prune them to-day, because so many 
limbs and twigs died, but where I pruned I have many new limbs. 
This may be due to the season or the variety. 

D. Lowmiller^I am a delegate from the Missouri Valley Society 
and rise to invite you to hold the next winter meeting of this State So- 
ciety at Kansas City. 

A. Chandler — I think, too, that 'we should have the next meeting 
with the Missouri Valley at Kansas City. 



SIXTH SESSION— THURSDAY, DECEMBER 22, 2:30 p. m. 

Mr. G. A. Atwood introduced the following resolution ; its adop- 
tion was moved by Mr. Murray and seconded by Mr. Tippin and was 
carried : 

Resolved by the Missouri State Horticultural Society, that the 
President and Secretary of this Society be requested to attend the an- 
nual meeting of the National League of Commission Merchants which 
vvrill assemble in the city of New Orleans January 11-13 proximo, as 
delegates from this Society, and that they be instructed to co-operate 
with the league in its efforts to secure just rates for the transportation 



Winter Meeting. 293 

and refrigeration of fruit from Railroad and Refrigerator Car Com- 
panies, through the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Con- 
gress of the United States. 

Mr, C. H. Dutcher moved that the title, third Vice-president for 
life be changed to Honorary Vice-president for life. Mr. W. L. Howard 
seconded the motion, and it was unanimously adopted. 

T. C. Love. — At the Springfield meeting a motion was carried that 
the President of this Society appoint a committee of two members 
to help secure an amendment through the Legislature that the Trustees 
of the Mountain Grove Experiment Station be practical fruit growers. 
The Legislature is again in session, and I would suggest that the 
chair be directed to now carry out the appointment of such a com- 
mittee. 

J. T. Stinson. — I would like tlie members of this Society to under- 
stand this matter and I believe it is not the best policy for this Society 
to undertake to dictate to the Legislature or the Governor what should 
be done. I raise the point of order that as the resolution was intended 
for the last Legislature and the committee was not appointed it does 
not apply now. 

J. A. Orr. — I move that we renew the resolution to appoint a 
committee to secure an amendment that shall make the future Trustees 
of the Mountain Grove Station only practical fruit growers. This 
Station should be controlled by some one who understands fruit grow- 
ing the same as other institutions that have some who understands 
their business. The law requires that the trustees of the Institute 
for the blind, or at least one of them, should be an expert oculist. 
vSome of the trustees of the Soldiers' Home must be old soldiers and 
of the Lunatic Asylum some one trustee must be an expert in diseases 
of the mind. 

Mr. Dutcher. — That resolution was amended from the first form 
to read a fruit grower instead of a fruit grower from South Missouri. 
I second the motion that we re-enact that resolution to memorialize 
the Legislature to make such an amendment. 

J. T. Stinson. — I do not believe that it is the best policy to pass 
such a resolution. The present trustees are some of the best fruit 
growers in South Missouri, as Mr. Culver of Koshkonong and Mr. 
McAfee of Springfield. T know the Governor and these men per- 
sonally, and that they are as careful for the Institution as some of the 
men who are seeking the place. The Society is going to the Legis- 
lature for its own appropriation this year, and I believe that we should 
leave this matter as it now is. 



294 State Horticultural Society. 

Col. Love. — The gentleman does not seem to understand; the 
point is not to remove the present Trustees, but provide for fruit 
growers in the future whenever there is a vacancy. The proposition 
is that the men who arc on at present are all right, but we want to 
put fruit growers on when the terms of the present members expire. 
The fruit growers are as well able to govern that institution as others , 
they are good business men and managers, and they can be more 
economical in using and applying labor because. they know the busi- 
ness. This Station was made for South Missouri, and we don't want 
to have a struggle every two years, but want a permanent Station 
with fruit growers for the Board of Trustees. 

J. T. Stinson. — I know these men personally and have a high 
regard for them, and when you pass such a resolution you are cast- 
ing reflections upon them. You may say it is not reflecting on these, 
but it is, if the Governor has selected well. I do not think it advisable 
for the Society to dictate to the Governor. It is a bad scheme, and 
I want to protest against it. 

Air. Dutcher. — It was by a motion of this Society that the Legis- 
lature was induced to accept the Agricultural College Act, also to in- 
corporate the Agricultural Board, and to pass the Fruit Law, and 
even the Dog Law. We now ask the Legislature to recognize our 
work. We wouldn't have an Agricultural College if the Society had 
not used its influence at that time. It does not reflect on the men 
to ask the Governor to amend the act so as to have the Board of Trus- 
tees composed of fruit growers. I am in favor of this resolution. 

There may be objections to this resolution, but the gentleman 
has not brought any out. 

Question was called for and the motion was put and carried. 



THE OZARKS FOR FRUIT. 

(G. T. Tippin, Nichols, Mo.). 

My subject is broad, high and deep. The range of its title covers 
a vast area. The elevations vary from a common level to i,8oo feet 
above the sea. Its soil varies from the most fertile alluvial to the solid 
rock and its crop conditions from the slough of despair to the plateau 
of eminent success. Its experiences are as the sands of the sea, un- 
numbered, and while many wrecks are strewn upon its shores, upon 
its mountain sides and at its summit, yet, standing among these are 
the innumerable host of successes that contributed their share — if 
not more — to the greatest fruit show in the history of the world. 



Winter Meeting. 295 

Gratified over the conquest achieved at the World's Fair from 
llic Ozarks in Missouri and Arkansas, it is with some degree of pride 
that we present this subject at this time. Retracing our steps from the 
summit to the valley we will endeavor to discuss the question assigned 
us by our Secretary in the most practical way we can. 

The development of the fruit industry in the Ozarks has already 
reached such proportions as place it properly among the successful 
fruit sections of the country and its products have already taken their 
fixed place in the markets of the world. While the recent short crops, 
especially of our tree fruits, have a tendency to discourage — even to 
cause some with pessimistic inclinations to become disheartened, we 
believe that the possibilities of its development and the abundance 
of its Horticultural products have not been realized. The future is to 
see the fruit producing sections of the Ozarks yielding annually as 
large crops of all the varieties adapted to its soils as are now produced 
in the older states. You may ask upon what assurances we base our 
faith ; we reply, on the success that has already been attained and the 
multiplied advantages that are to come. True, there have been many 
failures, but in our discouragement we must not lose sight of the 
fact that in all this territory where all varieties of fruit have, been 
planted that are adapted to the locality, we find where one man only 
harvested fifty crates of strawberries per acre during the season ; an- 
other man harvested seventy crates per acre, one day's picking. In 
another locality one man only realizes one hundred dollars ($100.00) 
per acre, while his neighbor receives three hundred per acre for a 
single crop on the same kind of soil. 

In another section one man receives an average of sixty dollars 
per acre from a twenty acre apple orchard for ten years in succession 
while another did not realize twenty-five dollars per acre on a one hun- 
dred and fifty acre orchard. Again in another section of the Ozarks, one 
man sells three hundred dollars worth of Elberta peaches from one-half 
acre for one crop, while another did not realize that much from five times 
the land. 

While the territory of my subject is profuse with similar compari- 
sons these are enough to assure us, and all others who may cast their 
lot v/ith us, that in the Ozarks we are abundantly surrounded with the 
natural elements of success ; awaiting the application of intelligent 
selection of soils for what is desired to be planted ; of varieties suited 
to the location ; the application of culture and methods best suitable 
to the environment with Avhich we are surrounded. 

Space forbids my entering upon the discussion of what is the 
best soil for this yariety, or that, or cultivation for the other, at this 



296 State H orticultural Society. 

time. But with the natural adaption of the Ozarks for fruits, all these 
are and will be, successfully worked out by those desiring to engage 
in the profitable production of fruits. The fruit grower who observes 
most succeeds best, avoiding bitter experiences and profiting by the 
mistakes of others, who recognize that there is more profit in four 
hundred crates of strawberries grown upon two acres than if grown upon | 
four ; more profit in two thousand barrels of apples gathered from twenty 
acres than from forty acres of orchard ; two thousand crates of peaches 
from ten acres than two thousand from forty acres. 

The advantages that are to come to the Ozarks as a fruit section 
will be the rapid increase of the population of the larger western 
cities which are our natural markets ; the increase of railroad facili- 
^^ies ; the proper adjustment of freight and refrigerator rates in the 
ttansportation of our products ; the more thickly settling up of the 
fruit sections of the Ozarks and the- systematic planting of diversified 
fruits upon smaller farms as is now done in the older and more thickly 
settled fruit growing states. 

A number of varieties of cherries are a success ; most all the small 
fruits do well. Grapes are in their natural climate ; the strawberry 
reaches perfection ; the peach from soil and climatic conditions gathers 
'to itself the most luscious flavor, and the apple adorns itself with 
such beauty, quality and elegance that it is sought for in all the 
markets of this country and Europe. 

In conclusion, let me call attention to the proper pride we should 
all take in the character of the fruits we grow; appreciating that na- 
ture will do her part and that it is possil^le for us to so pack and 
market our fruits from the Ozarks in such a way as that the name will 
insure it an abiding place in all the markets of the world. 



POSSIBILITIES FOR PEAR GROWING IN MISSOURI. 

(.J. A. Durkes, Weston, Mo.) 

All the fruits of our orchards seem to thrive better in some locali- 
ties than others. Sites in a neighborhood but a short distance apart 
possessing some in^gredient in the soil or position in the land more 
favorable or necessary to the kind of fruit grown. The pear tree in 
its wild state is always found on dry soils and high locations. We 
read of very old and large trees in Europe. Blight, which has been 
so discouraging to us, is unknown there. True, the trees have not 



Winter Meeting. 297 

been forced into early bearing, but permitted to make a slow, steady 
growth for years. The pear tree has been grown in different sec- 
tions of the State very extensively. We have numerous records of 
success in the cultivation of pears. Early in the last century the 
neighborhood of Boston became famous for pears. The varieties 
named after some of the prominent growers are witness to their 
labors in this field. Later the region along the Hudson and Western 
New York were noted for their pear orchards, and at present are very 
successful with this fruit. The vicinity of Norfolk, Virginia, is espe- 
cially adapted to the Bartlett. California, with favored climate for 
fruit growing, is well known for the large shipments of pears made 
from there annually. ]\Iissouri, too, has numberless localities that 
are well adapted to the pear tree. The hills and uplands along her 
rivers will be good locations for pear orchard, the age of many trees 
and the fruitfulness annually, of which we have record, are evidences 
of the fact. JMr. Jacob Madinger for a number of years during his 
lifetime made quite a success in pear growing on his place near St. 
Joseph. About the year 1846 Mr. Sparks in Platte county planted a 
large pear orchard, principally Bartletts, that succeeded well and were 
very productive for more than thirty years. I may say here that 
during my experience of thirty-five years or more we can name only 
one failure with pears, while with apples we remember of four. A 
writer in the last number of the Fruit Grower makes this statement 
from Arkansas that pears do "powerful well" there, and are long 
lived. 

With the supposition that the Garber and Kieffer were hardier 
and could withstand blight better than other varieties, they are being 
planted to a very large extent, in fact, almost exclusively by all others. 
But we find them subject to the defects of all the other varieties and 
come to the conclusion that they must, like a Duchess, Bartlett or 
D'Anjou, receive similar treatment. The hardiness and great fruit- 
ing ability the Kieffer has caused it to be planted to such an extent 
that would seem to indicate over-production in the future. This may 
not be. The taste of the people may be formed to use it more freely, 
better ways of packing for keeping, so as to prolong the season, new 
and far away markets and other openings unthought of now, and 
with cold storage facilities, part of the problem is solved. The early 
perishable fruits now are in seasons weeks and months after time of 
gathering. By cold storage the Bartlett instead of having to be 
forced on market in September becomes a late fall pear, and so with 
other standard varieties. We want, however, more late keepers. All 



298 State Horticultural Society. 

growers ought to try and experiment with late keepers until we find 
some one or more that will fill the place. 

Yes we believe that there is hope for a better state of pear culture 
in Missouri. With such a diversity of soils, locations and the climatic 
range, it certainly would seem strange that with experiment and trials 
of many varieties in different sections of the State we should fail to 
make pear culture a fair success. Let us plant and experiment with 
various kinds until we find success in our labor, remembering Dow- 
ing's adage, that "for every tree lost, plant two in its place." 

DISCUSSION ON THE OZAKKS. 

N. F. Murray. — I am not here to tell about the Ozarks, but it 
woul-d be foolish for North Missouri to grow strawberries for the 
large markets, as our varieties do not have the solid hold up quali- 
ties. We can do well in a local market, but you have the ideal coun- 
try here for strawberry growing and in a commercial way. Also, I 
think you should grow enough grapes for the State and to keep us 
supplied without having to ship in New York grapes. In Dent county 
there is one vineyard of 200 vines. On October 15th I ate some 
grapes from these vines which were picked the 15th of September. 
Each bunch was in a sack and 1 have never eaten their equal outside 
of Missouri. There were not more than three bad grapes on each 
bunch. Why should we buy from New York and Ohio when we can 
grow our oAvn just as good? l"he Ozarks will come to be the greatest 
fruit country in the United States. 

Mr. Messick. — I find there is one thing that has been overlooked. 
I find in Illinois that we have an abundance of wood growth and the 
tendency to overpower the fruit growing element. In the Ozarks you 
have an abundance of fruit grovx^th and a lack of wood growth which 
overpowers the tree and causes it to run down. In Kansas the wood 
growth overbalances the fruit growth. In an orchard I just visited 
there was enough wood on fortv acres for eighty acres, and the fruit 
on this forty was too little. I think the time has come when the peo- 
ple will thoroughly understand tliis relation between the wood and 
the fruit producing elements. 

J. C. Evans. — It may seem a bit egotistical for me to say it, but 
in 1868 when William Muir was secretary of the Society I made the 
statement that the future fruit lands of Afissouri would be in the red 
lands of the Ozarks. 

C. W. Steiman. — If in South Missouri you cannot grow apples 
we invite you to come up to North Missouri. In North ]\Iissoi;ri vye 



Winter Meeting. 299 

have good fruit lands ; we have no great orchards, but we have the 
"loess" soil and the elevation and are comparatively free from diseases. 

G. T. Tippin. — The future of the Ozark fruit growing section 
depends on our market. We haven't the markets yet to start largely, 
and in view of the fact that we are so distant from markets it would 
be a good plan to plant cherries, pears (as yet only cautiously), 
plums, vines, and thus diversify our planting. Such a variety of 
fruits and systems of growing will give good crops every year. I would 
like to suggest that fruit growers try planting a block of different 
kinds of fruit; this would stimulate to greater variety and get us 
away from the idea of having one thousand acres of apples, all of on? 
kind. The people in the more th.ickly populated parts seldom have a 
failure Secause they have a greater number of kinds of fruits in 
bearing. 

Pres. Whitten. — I have been informed by a good many gentle- 
men that here in the Ozarks your trees are making more wood than 
fruit growth, that despite your trees bearing so much big fruit, for 
the last year you have been getting more wood growth than fruit. 

Mr. Brereton. — So many persons say they have some fine seed- 
ling peaches, but anything that will bear peaches doesn't deserve to 
be called a seedling if seedling means sourness and littleness. What 
we produce ourselves, if it is good, we ought to be proud of. 

J. W. Graves. — A gentleman invited us to come up to North Mis- 
souri when we can no longer grow fruit here implying that they have 
better land to grow fruit on than we have, but we grow fruit here in 
Newton county. It is true that we sometimes have scab, but from New- 
ton county came the apples which were given away at the World's Fair 
on apple day. 

Mr. Steiman. — But Mr. Goodman said that the best Grimes' Golden 
at the World's Fair came from North Missouri. 

Mr. Erb. — It seems to be understood that the apples given away 
at the Fair came from Newton county, but 1 know of one barrel that 
came from Wright county. In regard to grapes, Missouri grapes are 
not good for the table; table grapes from Missouri are a failure in a 
commercial way as they get the brown rot in a few years and it cannot 
be stopped for I have tried both Bordeaux mixture and paper sacks. 
For Missouri grapes we are confined to wine grapes, these can be grown 
successfully, but the people don't want the wine. 

Mr. Zellner. — We can grow better grapes than New York, but we 
must spray and it does not cost much. 

Mr. Murray. — I do not object to the grape juice if it is bottled be- 
fore it ferments; this unfermented juice is in great demand. I believe 



300 State Horticultural Society. 

table grapes can be grown here. Here in the Ozarks you have all of 
the elements necessary for fine fruits. The most perfect apples I saw this 
year were from the Ozarks. Here you have the firmness of the fruit if 
you can get the humus in the soil. Land can be bought for from five 
to fifteen dollars per acre, while in Colorado people pay a hundred dol- 
lars for the fruit lands and ship from there to Missouri. You should 
stand by the Ozarks as a fruit growing country, of course you have 
failures, but every part does. If we gave one-tenth of the care to our 
orchards and vineyards that the Pacific coast people do we would be 
loo per cent better off. 

Member. — I want to ask why a one-year-old tree had one hundred 
blossoms and at two-years-old bore two apples? 

Prof. Whitten. — The tree was probably girdled by a wire or a graft 
stricture, or by the rabbits, or was infested by woolly aphis, 

C. W. Steiman — In regard to growing fruit from year to year, 
I have seen in my home orchard that some years one variety will be bet- 
ter than others. I believe that we can have apples every year if we 
select the proper kinds or varieties so as to have some of them bearing 
and get some profit every year. 

D. MciNallie — We talk of failures in the Ozarks, but the fault is 
with the people. If our planting were more diversified, we would have 
fruit and we don't need to have a failure in a hundred years. As long 
as we confine our fruits to one particular line, we are going to have 
failures occasionally. Why should we have great plantations of one 
variety? Why not plant grapes, apples and strawberries? Why are we 
confined in this district to the strawberry? While the grape may succeed 
this year, the other kinds of fruit fail. I had a failure the years we had 
too many berries, so now I am putting out cherries, peaches, pears, plums 
and apples, not all Ben Davis nor all Elberta. I am putting out largely 
in all these, but using many varieties so as to have some fruit to eat 
whether I have any to sell or not. 

J. A. Orr — I have a tooth for grapes. At two years from planting 
my vines bore and I have had no failures since, except from neglect to 
spray. One year the new shoots froze because I pruned too soon, and 
they froze a second time, and then put out a third growth and we had 
grapes that year. I got a merchant in town to sell them, and after the 
first trial he was glad to get them. The Missouri grapes are better than 
any other. From the ist of August to November, I had my own grapes. 
I spray and then cover with paper sacks. 

Prof. Whitten — This year the Alissouri Experiment Station sent 
one hundred and seven varieties of grapes to the World's Fair, and they 



ly inter Meeting. 30 T 

were ahead of New York grapes and had bigger berries and better color 
than any other, but you in the Ozarks can beat us. 



I 



GRAPE GROWING. 

(Louis Zellner, Granby, Mo.) 

I consider grape growing very profitable, providing the profitable 
varieties are grown. I have tested at least sixty varieties, and, accord- 
ing to my judgment, I consider the following varieties profitable for 
commercial use : 

VARIETIES. 

Headlight — A very fine dark-red grape, resembling Delaware in 
quahty, but a little larger berry ; ripens about the 25th. of July. 

Moore's Early — A very fine black grape, larger than Concord ; 
ripens about the ist. of August. 

Moore's Dianuond — A fine white grape, a little larger than Con- 
cord ; ripens about the 7th. of August. 

Delaware — A light red grape, one of the very best in quality, ap- 
pearance and productiveness ; ripens about the loth. of August. 

Hicks — A black grape, far superior to Concord, of which it is a 
seedling; ripens about the 15th. of August. 

Beacon — A fine, showy black grape, but not best in quality; ripens 
about the 20th. of August. 

Niagara — A beautiful white grape, large bunches and berries ; 
ripens about the 20th of August. 

Kio^va — A fine black grape, berries medium, but large, compact 
bunches; quality, best; ripens about the ist. of September. 

Ozark — A very fine black grape; berries, medium; very sweet; 
bunches large, with heavy bloom; ripens about the 15th. of September. 

Stark Star — A black grape ; berries about the size of Concord ; 
bunch very large ; the most vigorous grower and productive late grape 
in existence to my knowledge; ripens about the ist. of October, but 
does not fully mature until frost has stripped the leaves from the vines. 

The above-named varieties can be successfully grown in Southwest 
Missouri. 

TABLE GRAPES. 

The following is a list which I consider profitable for table grapes : 
Green Mountain — A very fine flavored, sweet, white grape ; bunch, 
large; berries, medium; ripens about the ist. of August. 



302 State Horticultural Society. 

Erilliant — A large red grape; large bunch and berries very fine 
flavored and very productive ; ripens with Delaware. 

Worden — A very large black grape; quality much better than Con- 
cord, of which it is a seedling; ripens about the 15th. of August. 

Fern Aluiison- — A dark, purplish grape; large bunch; berries, me- 
dium; c[uality, very fine; ripens about the 15th. of September. 

Goethe — Very large pink grape; sweet and delicious; ripens about 
the 30th. of September. 

CULTURE. 

My experience in grape culture is as follows : I prefer an elevated 
location, as this very often keeps the young growth from being killed 
by late frost. I plant 10 feet in the row and 12 feet between rows. 
I cultivate shallow and as often as weeds start and keep the ground 
pulverized. I leave the first summer's growth on the ground, the fol- 
lowing winter I prune back to two buds from the ground, set my posts 
and put on one wire about 5 feet high and before the new growth 
starts in the spring I tie a binder twine below the second bud and to 
the wire, so that the young vine in the spring can run up to the wire. 
As soon as the vine has reached the wire, I pinch it off and start two. 
arms, running opposite directions. The third year I prune the arms back 
to three feet. These arms I wind about twice around on the wire and: 
tie the ends firmly. These arms can be lengthened according to the; 
vigor of the vines. 

Summer pruning is very important and I prefer pinching the young 
shoot oiT just above the last bunch. This should be done before the 
shoots get too long and tough, and rub off all the barren or weak shoots 
and all shoots that may start from the foot of the vine. 

SPRAYING. 

No certain rule can be given for spraying. We must be guided by 
the weather. The first spraying should be done before the buds put 
out. The next spraying should be done just before blooming. The 
spray should be as near a heavy fog as possible. I hope this may be 
of value to beginners in grape growing. 



Winter Meeting. 303 

GRAPE CULTURE. 

(J.G. Ruder, Affton.) 

By your request 1 will give you what ideas and experience on grape 
culture I have. Previous to the year 1901, 1 had not been extensively 
engaged in raising grapes. Aly vineyard is situated on a southeastern 
slope, the soil of which is a good loam, with clay subsoil, which I notice 
gives a good healthy foliage and insures good large bunches of grapes. 
My past method has been to train the canes to three wires, as the old 
method was, but my experience with this has been that the grapes are 
subject to being scalded by the sun. My new method, as shown by ac- 
companying cut, will keep the bunches more shaded and allow the better 
circulation of air. Severe pruning is essential to insure a good crop. 
As to fertilizing, I have used none other than well decomposed manure. 
Good cultivation is as necessary as the planting of best varieties. By a 
thorough cultivation we can keep the moisture in the ground for a 
longer period and thereby give them a longer time in which to be 
harvested. As to spraying, will say I have not used a spray on my 
fruit, but find that it will have to be done to bear a perfect crop. 

The oriole has been my greatest enemy in destroying grapes. Not 
like other birds will it take two or three berries from the bunch and de- 
part with them, but, instead, it will puncture and drain the juice from 
as many grapes as it possibly can. Sometimes a single oriole can de- 
stroy in a day every grape on two vines, if he is allowed to go unmo- 
lested. Many persons believe that this damage is done by bees, but by 
my experience a bee will never attack a grape unless it has first been 
punctured by a bird. The white grapes, however, are rarely attacked 
by birds. I cannot account for this in any other way than by assuming 
that the birds do not see the bunches, or, seeing them, do not recognize 
them as grapes of just as good a quality as the blacks. 

Varieties most profitably planted in this vicinity are Worden, 
Moore's Early, Concord, Niagara and Brighton, and I may add Norton's 
Virginia also. All above mentioned varieties have yielded from twenty 
to thirty pounds of fancy grapes per vine. 

So as to my experience, grape growing is a very profitable crop. 



304 State Horticultural Society. 

MY EXPERIENCE WITH THE MUNSON GRAPES. 

(M. Oliver Cole, Springfield, Mo.) 

Many persons learning of my experimentation with the Munson 
Plybrid grapes have manifested a desire for results. 

It is but fair to the originator, and the public as well, to give a de- 
scription of my soil, topography, etc. The situation is on the crest of 
the Ozark Mountain range, southern slope, elevation about 1,300 feet 
above sea level, two miles east of Springfield, Mo. The soil is prairie, 
formerly black, less than a foot beneath the surface a grayish clay, 
by continued cultivation and mixing, is now a dark clay loam, sub- 
soiled before planting. Beneath this, red clay, the surfact drainage is 
to the south and sufficient; the subdrainage is fair, but not ideal. The 
land is strong, will grow sixty or seventy bushels of corn per acre. As 
the soil is inclined to bake after summer rains, I almost invariably give 
it a shallow stirring after each rain. Cultivation is continued till ripen- 
ing of earlier fruits, then deferred till after pruning in late autumn, it 
then receives a shallow plowing, throwing the earth towards the vines, 
leaving an open furrow for winter and spring surface drainage. 

I have fruited seventeen of the Munson grapes three years, ten 
kinds one year, and have seven more to fruit next year. It should be 
borne in mind that grapes fruited on one soil only, often do not deter- 
mine what they may do in varying soils and situations. ]\Iy descriptions 
are true of their behaviour in my soil and mine only. Note : The Con- 
cord, Worden and Niagara succeed well; the Moore's Early, Moore's 
Diamond, Delaware and Brighton not so well. As the Concord is known 
to all I have adopted it as a standard for comparison. 

Descriptions : Frcsely, red, vigor below standard, health good, 
bunch two and a half by one and a half inches, berry size of Delaware, 
thick skin, but little else than skin and seeds, flavor very good. 

Rommel — White, puny, berry nearly large as Concord, bunch half 
that size, skin tender, pulp very tender, flavor sweet and very good. 

Brilliant — White, suffers some from cold winters, vigor less than 
standard, health poor, ripens unevenly, bunch and berry almost large 
as Concord. 

Beacon — Black, fair vigor and health, bunch and berry equal Con- 
cord, compact, good bearer, quality not as good as Concord. 

R. W. Munson — Black, fair vigor and health, bunch and berry 
nearly as large as Concord, flavor very good, imperfect pollinator. A 
good amateur grape. 



Winter Meeting. 305 

America — Black, rampant grower, vigorous, healthy, a most excel- 
lent arbor vine, bunch and berry a little less than Concord. Although 
an imperfect pollinator, by the aid of a suitable mate bears a full crop 
each year, needs thinning every season, needs sixteen feet in the row. 
This grape is rich in both acid and sugar and a very excellent fruit, but 
liked only by about one person in ten. It colors the fingers and lips 
purple. 

Carman — Black, wanting in vigor, berry small, bunch small, said to 
make very large bunch in the south, of exquisite flavor, very late. 

Gold Coin — Yellow, berry size of Concord, bunches short, vigor 
fair, healthy, poor quality. 

Fern Munson — Purple, black when fully ripe, imperfect pollinator, 
bunch and berry a size less than Concord, vigorous, healthy, good bearer, 
quality very fine. Will hang on the vines until frost. If this were a 
perfect pollinator it would be one of the most valuable acquisitions to 
date. 

Laussel — Black, bunch and berry about equal Fern, vigorous, healthy, 
but it pollinates so wretchedly as to be worthless. 

Lukfata — Black, berry large as Worden, bunches short, vigorous, 
very healthy, poor bearer, poor quality, 

Champanel — Black, bunch and berry large as Concord, vigorous, 
healthy, good bearer, fair quality ; if it had less acid and more sugar it 
would be a valuable market grape. 

Hussmann — Black, much wanting in vigor, berry small, bunch fair 
size, quality superior, this year failed to set any fruit, struck by mildew 
at blooming time. In quality this grape belongs to the aristocracy. 

Manito — Black, long straggling bunches, berry less than Concord, 
bears a full crop each year, flavor difficult to describe but not popular. 

Wapanuka — Yellowish white, wanting in both health and vigor, bunch 
about equal to Concord, berry nearly as large as Moore's Early, pulp soft, 
much like Rommel. This is the best grape in texture and flavor that 
I have yet known. It was struck by mildew this year at blooming time 
and set no fruit. If it only had health and vigor what a grand acquisi- 
tion this would be. Niagara and M. Diamond but hog feed compared 
to it. 

X L N ta — Black, bunch and berry large as Concord, health and 
vigor fair, imperfect pollinator, quality much like R. W. Munson but not 
so good. No fruit this year, mildew at blooming time. 

Bailey — Black, a little more compact bunch, otherwise it would pass 
in every respect for a Concord except a little too much acid and not 
enough sugar. This grape much resembles the Beacon. 

H-20 



3o6 State Horticultural Society. 

The following ten kinds I have fruited but one year. Both size 
of bunch and berry, quantity and even quality, often fail to be deter- 
mined by the first year's fruiting. Nevertheless there are some features 
that are interesting and somewhat accurate. 

Headlight — Red, almost identical in every way to Presley, not quite 
so seedy, good flavor, puny in vine. 

Hidalgo — White, fair vigor, bunch and berry also, flavor much like 
Moore's Diamond. 

Tankazi'a — Winter killed nearly to the ground. 

Palermo and Amethyst also. 

I observe Mr. Munson has discarded these last three from his cata- 
logue. 

Captain — Black, bunches very long, eight or ten inches, slim, com- 
pact, berry large as Concord, vigorous, too much acid. 

Cloeta — Black, rampant grower, made a few small nubbins only, but 
this is no indication of what it may do when older. 

Mr. Munson says : This is perhaps the best black American grape 
yet produced. It certainly has the necessary vigor or that distinction. 

Shala — Black, much like Cloeta. 

Blondin — White, a few nubbins only. 

Eleala — White, bunch and berry much like Concord, very vigorous ; 
in quality almost if not quite equal to Wapanuka, the berry being a 
httle more meaty than the latter. Attacked by leaf folder but it appeared 
to do no harm as it ripened, both fruit and wood perfectly. This is the 
most promising white grape I have yet met with ; but I observe Mr. 
Munson has eleminated it from his catalogue. 

Tamala — White, vigor medium, quality good, bunch and berry me- 
dium. Discarded by Munson. 

La Reine — Black, of all the most promising till nearly ripe, the pedi- 
cels mildewed and failed to mature a most promising crop. Discarded 
by Munson. I have tried several others, but the climate or soil not agree- 
ing with them, they died. 

I have also fruited the Hicks for 3 years, introduced by Henry 
W'allis of Wellstown, Mo. This is a good grape of the Concord type, 
but of much better quality. I see no reason why it may not supercede 
the Concord. 

Campbell Early — I have fruited this grape the last three years. If 
this grape had vigor sufficient to make it productive it would be the best 
black American grape yet produced. Everybody likes the fruit, and its 
keeping qualities are remarkable. 



Winter Meeting. 307 

Uncle Sam, or Stark Star originated by Joseph Bachman of Ar- 
kansas, have fruited it two years. Health and vigor good, very pro- 
ductive, enormous bunches, but over compact and so tenacious to the 
pedicel as to" tear the berries to pieces before they will separate from the 
cluster. Flavor too much like the wild grape. It ripens so late in the 
season the cool weather prevents its maturing a good flavor. It belongs 
farther south, but even there, in all probability will be but a good wine 
grape. 

During the last few years great progress has been achieved in the 
production of new kinds, but the way apparently is still open, for the 
honor of producing the perfect grape. 

DISCUSSION ON GRAPE GROWING. 

Mr. Zellner — Our vineyard is ten miles east of Neosho, we have 
four acres and have raised grapes for sixteen years without a failure. 

G. A. Atwood — I visited Mr. Zellner's vineyard and found no rot 
on his grapes. He won a prize at the World's Fair on an exhibit of 
forty-three varieties. One of the most profitable crops in Springfield is 
grapes. 

A. Chandler — I have more uniform success and profit on grapes 
in the neighborhood of Kansas City than on any other one crop. We 
ship to Minnesota and received one-half as much as on our own markets. 
Grape growing in South Missouri is by no means a failure, as we find 
here the right soil and place, and that there are fewer enemies here. 
Where the wild grapes grow as vigorously as here it is foolish to say 
that you can't grow grapes. They will be a success and yield more 
in the Ozarks than in other districts. 

N. F. Murray — I woud like to ask Mr. Zellner where and how he 
sold his grapes? 

Mr. Zellner — We have plenty of good local markets and we raise 
better grapes cheap enough to compete with the New York grapes, be- 
cause they have to pay freight. The cost of spraying is so little that we 
can easily afford to do it. The black rot is easy to control. We do not 
make a practice of sacking except to keep the grapes from the birds, 
never to keep them from fungi. 

Mr. Erb — I am glad to hear of these successes. Perhaps I took 
the wrong part of my ground. I took the southeast slope which was 
rocky, but I fertihzed it and followed the prescriptions in spraying. The 
Niagara succeeded for two years and after that it rotted. A^oore's Early 
is the only one that kept being a success. We must grow the varieties 
that are like the wild ones. 



3o8 State Horticultural Society. 

Mrs. A. Z. Moore — 1 know Mr, Erb's vineyard, but he is not the 
only one in our neighborhood to cut out his vineyard. One man pulled 
up his because he couldn't sell the fruit, another with two hundred vines 
gave away bushels and had many left, he sacked plenty of them, but 
couldn't give them all away. On two vines in an arbor there were six 
bushels, while on another vine, near by, all rotted. This one that rotted 
was an Elvira, those on the arbor were Concords. Grape vines can be 
used over porches with most artistic effect. 1 have two vines which cover 
fourteen feet of porch and reach twenty feet to a well and bear enor- 
mously. I have two wires from the porch to the well and trim the vines 
back every year to one branch on the lower wire. 

In regard to apples the reports were misleading for I saw an orchard 
within a few miles from me which, although it had scab, yet bore about 
eight thousand barrels of perfect No. i apples, which sold at from forty 
to twenty-five cents per bushel. 

Capt. Lincoln — I had apples this year so large that they were con- 
demned by three buyers. This year $1.50 was paid per barrel for ap- 
ples labeled No. i. 

Member — The grape business is developing in this section. I bought 
table grapes from Tvlr. Zellner this last season and sent them to my 
daughter in St. Louis and she reported there was nothing in St. Louis 
as fine. I heard the same also of his grapes at two other points. Mr. 
Zellner has raised as fine table grapes as are in the country and South- 
west Missouri does raise as fine grapes as New York. 

J. A. Orr — The Worden doesn't ripen evenly. Woodruff Red is 
fine, beautiful and large. The Hicks I consider inferior. The Early 
Ohio is also inferior. The Green Mountain is delicious, but the Concord 
is the main crop although it is not so good, it will grow from sixteen to 
eighteen feet a year, but this is too much. Two hundred pounds of 
bone meal and sulphate of potash to the acre is better than manure. 

Mr. Wilson — What experience has any one had with the Eaton? 

A. Chandler — I find it large and thrifty but not productive. 

Prof. Whitten — At the Station we find the same, it ripens very 
unevenly and often cracks. 

Mr. Wilson — One man had Eaton sell at St. Joseph for fifty per cent 
more than other varieties. 

Mr. Zellner — The Worden does ripen unevenly, but if it is not over- 
loaded it does much better. 

Mr. Chandler — That is true, if it is overloaded it does not ripen 
evenlv. 



Winter Meeting. 3^9 

H. N. Wild— Mr. Zellner's paper was very good and the varieties 
mentioned suit this country. The Delaware should be planted with cau- 
tion, ^^il^ ^1 

Mr. Erb — The Delaware and Brighton are wine grapes also. 

W. T. Burkam — Mr. President, as I have to leave early I would like 
to present the following resolution : 

As we are about to adjourn one of the most successful as well as 
most pleasant meetings ever held by the Missouri State Horticultural 
Society; and as the admirable arrangements for said meeting resulting 
in the comfort and pleasure of those in attendance, were largely due to 
tlie untiring work and zeal of our fellow members, Mr. F. H. Speakman 
and his associate workers here in Neosho ; be it therefore 

Resolved, That a vote of thanks be tendered Mr. Speakman and his 
co-workers by this Society, and this official expression of our gratitude 
be spread upon the minutes of this meeting. 

The motion to adopt this resolution was seconded and unanimously 
carried. "^ 



RASPBERRIES. 

(H. W. Jenkins, Plattsburg, Mo.) 

The Raspberry is the center one of the group of the big three berries 
v.'hich an All Wise Creator made to appease and gratify the taste of 
mian. First in time of ripening and also in popularity comes the "Big 
Red Strawberry." Then the really more valuable Raspberry, and last 
but not least — Everybodys' berry — the "Blackberry." Of course there 
are other berries, but none to compare with these three. Each separate 
and distinct from the other, yet alj so good and palatable that no fruit 
garden is complete unless each is represented. 

The raspberry is a native of both Europe and America and like all 
our fruits has been improved by cultivation and cross fertilization, till 
now we have well nigh reached perfection, both in size, color and quality. 
The raspberry is divided into two families, the red and black caps. The 
first is propagated from suckers from the roots. The latter from the 
tips of the canes. In both families the roots are perennial. The canes 
bi-annual, growing one season, bearing the crop and dying the next. 
The reds are not as prolific as the blacks, nor are they as generally- 
grown in Missouri, as they do better in a cooler and moister climate. 
Probably the best varieties among the reds are Cuthbert and Miller's 



310 State Horticultural Society. 

Red. The purple varieties, which are a cross of red and bh\ck, hkc the 
Shaffers Colossal mid the Coliiiiibian, have never proved satisfactory, 
canes are too subject to anthracnose and winter-kill too easy. 

The black caps are the most reliable and in every respect, hardiest, 
most prodnctive. easiest picked, and can be put to the most different uses. 
Amono- the nian\ varieties I consider the Cumberland the best all round 
berry. The Kansas is a good early one and the IMunger and Nemaha 
good late ones. The greatest enemy to the raspberry is anthracnose. 
\\hich attacks the canes, causing theni to die prematurely. The best 
remedy is to use means of prevention by keeping the patch clean of weeds, 
removing and burning tho old canes atul spraying with Boardeaux mix- 
ture which, if not a siu'c preventive, will at least hold this disease in 
check. 

In starting a new patch the ground should be well prepared, the 
same as for any other crop. The planting of black caps should be 
done in the spring as soon as the ground is fit to work. The red or 
sucker varieties can be successfully planted in the fall, but should have 
a nuilch of some kind thrown around for protection against the winter. 
The plants should be set in rows about 6 to 7 feet apart and plants 3 feet 
apart in the row. Give good cultivation, keeping the ground loose and 
free from weeds and grass. \Mien the canes get some 30 inches in 
height they should be pinched off to make them grow more stocky and 
throw out laterals. After the winter is passed the canes should be 
pruned and all the dead and discolored wood removed and even if the 
wood is fresh and grreen to the tips, the main stem should be short- 
ened to 3 feet and the laterals not left over 6 or 8 inches long. 

One of the best growers I ever saw, INIr. Boggs of Stotesburg, grows 
his berries by setting posts same as for grapes, and uses two wires, on the 
outside of the posts and canes, at about 3 feet from the ground which 
holds the canes up and keeps them tight so the wind cannot break 
them down. He removes all tho bearing or dying canes soon as the 
season is over which throws all the strength of the roots to th.e new 
canes. 

The raspberrv i? a very popular berrv from the fact that it ripens 
its fruit at a very opportime time, completing the gap between the straw- 
berry and blackberry, a season of about three or four weeks, giving 
the lover of berries a continual feast from the begrinning of strawberries 
to the close of the blackberries without a break. The raspberry is very 
popular with the good housekeeper because she can use it in so many 
different ways. It can be served either as fresh fruit with sugar and 
cream or made into jams or jellies, canned or preserved. \Mien cooked 



Winter Meetinij^. 311 

it does not shrink like the strawberry, nor lose its flavor. Or it can be 
worked up into soft drinks, such as raspberry wine or vinej^ar. The 
latter being a most delicious, grateful and cooling drink for those sick 
of fevers. A good formula for making the latter is as follows : Take a 
quart of black raspberries and a tea cup of cider vinegar which pour 
over the berries and let stand over night; draw oiT and strain, and add 
an equal quantity of sugar. Boil 10 or 15 minutes and bottle while hot. 
This makes a drink good enough for "Mrs. Chadwick," without the 
"bite of the serpent." 

As for the raspberry being a money-maker for the grower, we have 
never found it so. But it is a berry that is indispensable and cannot be 
discarded by the fruit grower, be he a commercial one or simply an 
amateur. It has its place and nothing will ever supercede it. 



CHERRY GROWING. 



(W. n.Litson, Nevada. Mo.) 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen. — The subject our worthy 
secretary has assigned to me, "Cherry Growing, for My Part of the 
State," is one which I doubt I can do justice to, however, I will do the 
best I can. 

First, will be the selection of the location for a commercial orchard. 
-\Iy first choice will be a red clay limestone land ; second, black lime- 
stone land; third, any dry sandy soil, in either case it should be high, 
well drained land, as the cherry will not stand wet land. 

Preparation of the soil. — If not already rich enough, I would use 
Ijarnyard manure enough to make the land produce 50 to 60 bushels of 
corn per acre, with ordinary season and good cultivation. Plow and 
harrow the land the same as any thrifty farmer would prepare it to 
raise a good crop of corn. 

Mark out the land one way by running a double furrow, with a 
two-horse plow. Plant cross-wise by stakes, setting the trees in the 
furrows, prune off all broken and bruised roots, spread out the roots 
in a natural position as possible; see that the dirt is well sifted in be- 
tween the roots, tamp the dirt as it is put in around the tree, but leave 
the top layer loose. Do not plant any deeper than the tree grew in the 
nursery. 

Selection of the trees. — Use nothing but first-class two-year-old trees 
four feet and up, entirely free from bruises and scars. Shorten the tops 



312 State HorticitltM-al Society. 

a little when planting. Buy direct from the nearest nursery and get them 
as fresh as possible, and under no consideration would I buy from a 
dealer or an agent. 

Time of planting. — I would prefer fall or early spring, never late 
spring. 

As to varieties, I will have to confine myself strictly to my county — 
Vernon — as there may be other varieties that would do well in other 
localities and not in Vernon. I will name them in order of preference: 
Early Richmond, commonly called Early May; English Morello, Mont- 
morency and Late Richmond. 

Cultivation. — I consider this one of the most important points in 
fruit growing and one of the most neglected parts. I believe there are 
mc're failures on account of poor, or no, cultivation, than all other failures 
put together. Cherries should have thorough cultivation the entire sea- 
son, not a weed allowed to grow ; this should be kept up for five or six 
years, then sowed to clover, mow the clover twice a year and leave it on 
the ground, never take it ofif or pasture the cherry orchard. 



SEVENTH SESSION— THURSDAY, DECEMBER 22, 8 P. M. 

The program for the evening was opened by a beautiful piano 
solo, variations of Home, Sweet Home, by Miss Patterson, which 
was enthusiastically encored. 

Vice-President Dutcher presided over the meeting. 



THE FIRST TWO YEARS IN A COMMERCIAL ORCHARD. 

(W. L. Howard, Assistant Horticulturist, Oplumbia, Mo.) 

It is to be hoped that the facts and figures to be given in this 
account will not be taken to apply perfectly to all localities, even in 
the State of Missouri. However, the figures for the different items are 
actual ones and represent the cost that was necessary for all purposes by 
one who found it necessary to hire all the work done and to pay cash 
therefor. The apple orchard is the only one that will be reported on. 

The first planting was done on land that had been in cultivation 
for several decades, although it had been in bluegrass sod for the 
past seventeen years. The soil is of the well-known loess formation, 
but the situation was almost a mile from the river and hence there 



Winter Meeting. 313 

was slightly more clay than would be found along the high hills and 
bluffs. The land was plowed in the fall, and the sod being very 
tough, some difficulty was experienced in turning the sod thoroughly, 
but all was finally plowed before freezing weather. 

The plowed land was marked off twenty-five feet apart each 
way, with a two-horse turning plow, one round being made in each 
furroAV, thus throwing the soil outward going each way. This left 
quite a furrow, which made it necessary to do but little digging to 
plant the trees. No attempt was made* to harrow or otherwise molest 
the remainder of the ground, this work being left until the follow- 
ing spring. The trees were unpacked in the field and heeled in at con- 
venient places in the furrows. Two-year-old trees four to five feet 
high were used exclusively. At the time of planting the tops were 
properly shaped and the roots pruned to correspond with the heads. 
All the trees were wrapped with common wooden veneer wrappers 
immediately after setting, as the rabbits were very plentiful and 
earlier experience showed that it would be necessary to thus protect 
the young trees as the}'- would be injured if allowed to remain un- 
wrapped for a single night. This was especially true along the 
borders adjoining some woodlands. Although planted as quickly as 
possible, cold weather came on and it was very difficult to wrap the 
remaining trees owing to the fact that the wrappers would freeze and 
would split when being placed in position. Finally, having run out 
of wrappers, there were a number of trees left that could not be 
wrapped. The last wrappers were used along the outside, leaving 
the unwrapped trees toward the middle of the field. The ground 
being frozen it was impossible to set them in the soil properly. How- 
ever, after the first thaw it was an easy matter to go along and shove 
the wrappers in the ground to the proper depth — about two inches, 
lliis was even better than if they had been buried in the usual way 
in the first place. 

The unplanted trees were left heeled-in in the field througliout 
the winter and came through in good condition, although it was neces- 
sary to construct a tight woven wire fence around them to protect 
them from the '•abbits. In the spring as soon as possible the plant- 
ing was resumed and all the trees wrapped as before. The land was 
rented to a farmer to be planted in corn, the rental being one-half the 
crop after being gathered, the cultivation of the trees during the 
season being paid for in cash. There were six rows of corn between 
each two rows of trees and one row left vacant where the trees oc- 
curred. The corn was drilled in the rows, in only one direction. 



314 State Horticultural Society. 

The season was exceedingly wet and it was very difficult for the 
tenant to secure a good stand of corn. He even planted part of it 
the third time. This late corn did not produce much, but the rains 
of late summer caused it to be moderately productive. The trees did 
not secure the cultivation that they should have had on account of 
the wet weather and the impossibility of securing help at the right 
time. However, on account of the rains they made very good growth. 
When they were in full leaf all of the leaves over several acres were 
stripped in a single night. Tliis devastation was apparently due to 
the ravages of May beetles or some similar insect which came out of 
the sod. This proved to be the first mistake in the work — planting 
the trees in freshly turned sod. Later in the summer the leaves were 
again stripped from some of the trees by caterpillars and it was only 
the wet season that prevented their being permanently injured. It 
was impossible to give the orchard personal supervision at all times 
during the season, which accounts for the last named insect doing 
the damage it did unmolested. 

The total cost of planting this land, including the price of team, 
drayage, freight, wire, wrappers, labor, etc., amounted to $7.30 per 
acre or 10 3-10 cents per tree. 

During the fall of 1904 another field was planted. This land was 
located on the river bluffs in the best of the loess soil. The planting 
was done on wheat stubble land that had been turned in late summer 
and was in splendid condition for the work. The rows were laid off 
with a chain made of wire, each link being 25 feet in length to cor- 
respond with the width of the rows. By means of this chain it was an 
easy matter to construct perfect right angles and hence it was not 
difficult to lay out the rows perfectly straight in both directions, even 
though the land was very uneven. A small stake about a foot in 
lengtli was stuck into the ground where each tree was to be placed. 
The holes were easily dug with shovels, these workmen being fol- 
lowed by two men who did the planting. 

The following are some of the items of expense on an acre basis. 
The two-year-old trees, including freight, drayage, etc., amounted to 
$3.08; 18-inch wooden wrappers, 25 cents; No. 20 annealed wire, 
fitting this wire in the wrappers, placing the wrappers on the trees 
and properly setting them in the ground, $1.27; cost of planting the 
trees, 85 cents ; making a total of $5.45 per acre. The difference in the 
cost of planting in 1903 and 1904 is perhaps due to two causes: The 
condition of the soil, that is, a stiff sod in one case and a thoroughly 
pulverized soil in the second place ; and the price of the trees — trees 
being much cheaper at the time of the last planting. 



Winter Meeting. 315 

It should be noted that the cost of cultivating the trees of the 
first planting during their first season of growth amounted to only 85 
cents per acre for the entire season, but this was abnormal because of 
the wet season and the impossibility of securing labor at the right 
time. They were not cultivated as many times as they should have 
been. The intention is to grow corn in this orchard again next sum- 
mer and it is estimated that if the season is normal it will cost from 
$2.50 to $3.00 per acre to properly cultivate the trees. The land 
has been let for the coming season to a tenant who will pay a cash 
rental that will amply cover the cost of maintaining the trees. This 
can be done for two or three seasons yet before it will be necessary 
to cease producing corn. Cow peas will be the crop to be grown when 
the soil shows signs of becoming impoverished from continuous 
cropping with corn. 

DISCUSSIONS ON ORCHARDS. 

T. H. Todd. — When you are cultivating the corn cultivate both 
wa}-s and do not omit the apple tree row ; use the double shovel and 
plow both ways and there will be little trouble to loosen with the hoe 
the hard part about the tree. Trees grow well so treated and even 
without the "hoe. 

Mr. Howard. — I expect to plant four crops of corn in my orchard, 
but would not advise this on a weaker soil. 

H. L. Messick. — When you take the wrappers off the bark will 
be tender. 

Mr. Hov/ard. — My man drills in his corn and could plow but one 
way. I have him plow close to the tree, but still I want the hoe used 
to pulverize the soil. I plant the tree the same as in the nursery or 
a little deeper so that it will be the same when the dirt settles. I prune 
l>oth roots and to]), cutting off half the length of the branches, shorter 
t(;nar(! the top and have the branches eighteen inches from the ground. 

Mr, Hitt. — What objection is there to using newspapers for wrap- 
pers and fastening with twine? 

W. L. Howard. — The paper wrapper v/ill keep out the borers and 
rabbits, but does not last. It is best to plant the trees perpendicular 
as when they are planted inclined they stay so. I prefer to have 
them straight and shade the trunk with the wrappers. I expect fruit 
the fifth year and by that time the branches will shade the trunk. 



3i6 State Horticultural Society. 



PERTILIZERS FOR THE ORCHARD. 

(Wm. H. Chandler of Missouri College of Agriculture.) 

For almost all crops the best fertilizer is stable manure. It con- 
tains all the elements that are necessary to apply to the soil, and its 
decay there improves the mechanical condition. That is, it makes 
the soil more loose or porous. Compared with the prices paid for the 
same amount of plant food in commercial fertilizers, a ton of fresh 
stable manure is worth about $1.50 to $2.50. It cannot be obtained, 
however, for the larger orchards of Missouri, so if fertilizers are ap- 
plied to them it must be in some other form. 

In taking up the subject of commercial fertilizers it is well to 
come to a clear understanding of what it is in them that the plant 
needs. As you probably all know, the elements of plant food that the 
soil is likely to be deficient in, are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. 
These have a definite action in the plant. Nitrogen gives vigor and 
health to the plant, causing a rich growth of stem and leaves. Where 
it is present in excessive quantities there is likely to be a very large 
wood growth at the expense of the fruit, and trees may continue to 
grow late in the season when they ought to be ripening up their wood 
for winter. This condition, however, is not likely to be found in any 
of our fruit soils. Nitrogen is not found in large quantities in fruit. 
A ton of wheat, for example, contains more than twenty times as 
much nitrogen as a ton of apples. Less nitrogen will be needed, then, 
for orchards than for grain crops. We may say that when the tree is 
in a healthy condition, making a fair wood growth, no nitrogen need 
be applied. This does not mean, however, that when a tree fails to 
make sufficient wood growth it is always due to lack of nitrogen, for 
lack of moisture, over fruiting, and other conditions more often pro- 
duce this elfect. 

The visible effects of phosphorus are much less marked than 
those of nitrogen. Experience shows, however, that it is very essen- 
tial to plant growth. It is especially important in the formation of 
seed, except in grapes ; this element also is found in much smaller 
quantities in fruits than in grain crops, so, perhaps fruit soils may 
not need as much phosphorus as do grain soils. 

Potash hastens the maturity of plants. It is of especial impor- 
tance to fruit growers. Lt is contained in all those acids that give 
fruits their acid flavor. Starch and similar compounds make up the 
large bulk of all fruits, and the formation of these is very closely 



Winter Meeting. 3^7 

associated with the supply of potash. \\ hilc an average grain crop 
removes from the soil a great deal more nitrogen and phosphoric acid 
than an average fruit crop does, the reverse is true of potash, and if 
the soil is not rather rich in potash much more of it will need to be 
supplied than of either of the other two elements. 

Nitrogen, when obtained in commercial form, is the most ex- 
pensive of these elements to supply, costing about sixteen cents a 
pound. It is supplied by nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, dried 
blood, tankage and many other materials. Phosphorus costs about 
four cents a pound, and is supplied by bone products, as bone meal, 
bone black, dissolved bone, etc., and by the phosphatic rocks of the 
southern states, especially Tennessee, South Carolina and Florida. 
Potassium costs about four and a half cents a pound. It is obtained 
as muriate of potash, sulphate of potash, kainit, etc., from the potash 
mines of Strassforth, Germany, and from cotton hull ashes, wood 
ashes, etc. Of course, it wouldn't be possible to secure wood ashes 
for the large orchards of Missouri, but it will certainly pay to use 
what can be obtained. Average unleached wood ashes contain about 
one and a half per cent of phosphorus and about six per cent of 
potash. Then at the price paid for these elements in other materials, 
unleached wood ashes are worth about six dollars a ton, or ten cents 
a bushel. Leached wood ashes are worth about two dollars and a half 
a ton. Ashes supply not only the potash, but also phosphorus in 
as large proportion as the orchadist is likely to need, and are rich 
in lime, which is a benefit to many soils. 

For the orchardist who does not wish to grow a rather high 
grade of fruit it usually will not pay to apply commercial fertilizers. 
It must be remembered that there is a very large, though constantly 
decreasing, quantity of these elements in the soil in an unavailable 
form, and that they are continually becoming available. Good culti- 
vation hastens this process very materially so that it will almost sup- 
ply the needed phosphorus if not the potash and nitrogen. 

Nitrogen at any rate should very seldom be applied in commercial 
fertilizers, for it can be supplied very much cheaper in leguminous 
cover crops. If the orchard is not cultivated, clover may be a good 
crop to grow. It is usually best to cultivate, though, so an annual 
crop is much better. In the north two ideal crops for this purpose are 
crimson clover and the vetches, especially the vetches. They may be' 
sown after the orchard has been cultivated for the first half of the 
season, and they will form a dense mat that stays partly green all 
winter, thus covering the soil fertility. They do not thrive satis- 



3t8 State Horticultural Society. 

factorily in more than a very few sections of Missouri. The best cover 
crop here is the cow pea. They should be sown about the last of June, 
and they will not seriously interfere with the cultivation of the or- 
chard, for it may be cultivated up until the time they are sown, and 
may be harrowed once after they come up, without doing any harm. 
If the orchard is fenced in so hogs can be turned in for a short time 
each day, some returns may be had from the crop besides its pro- 
tection of the soil and the nitrogen it furnishes. 

A ton of cow peas contains thirty-nine pounds of nitrogen. Tak- 
ing the low yield of a ton to the acre, we may be certain that besides 
this thirty-nine pounds, there will be in the stubble and the roots at 
least twenty-five pounds, making in all sixty-four pounds. At six- 
teen cents a pound this would amount to $10.24. Now, it must be 
remembered that much of this nitrogen came, not from the soil, but 
from the free nitrogen of the air, which other plants besides legumes 
cannot use. Just how much of it came from the air we do not know, 
but we do know that one such crop in three or four years will keep 
the soil rich in nitrogen, even when some gross feeding crop, like 
corn, is grown on the soil during the other years. 

If part or all of the crop is left in the soil, another benefit of such 
a crop is the humus, or decayed vegetable matter it adds. Humus 
seems to benefit the soil in three ways : It holds very large quantities 
of water, it holds nitrogen in the soil that otherwise would escape 
into the air, and what should be especially noted, it forms organic 
acids that dissolve rock particles in the soil, thus rendering avail- 
able other plant food, such as phosphorus and potash. 

I would say, then, that the cheapest and best way to fertilize an 
orchard is to grow a crop of cow peas in it at least once in four years, 
to use what stable manure and wood ashes can be obtained, and if 
it is seen to be necessary, to apply potassium in the form of muriate of 
potash and perhaps a little phosphorus in the form of dissolved rock. 
There may be orchards, however, where it is not desirable to grow 
cow peas, and where a complete commercial fertilizer is desirable. 
For such the following may be suggestive : 

Food elements, nitrogen per acre, 8 lbs. ; use per acre : 50 lbs. nitrate 
of soda; 60 lbs. dried blood; 100 lbs. tankage. 

Food elements, phosphoric acid per acre, 30 lbs. ; use per acre : 300 
lbs. bone meal ; 200 lbs. dissolved bone ; 250 pounds, dissolved rock. 

Food elements, potash per acre, 50 lbs.; use per acre: 100 lbs. 
muriate; 100 lbs sulphate; 400 lbs. kainit ; 900 to 2,500 lbs. wood ashes. 

Nitrogen is obtained cheapest in tankage, phosphorus in dis- 
solved rock and potash in muriate of potash or in wood ashes. 



Winter Meeting. 319 

This call only be suggestive. Different soils will require these 
elements in different quantities. The only way for a man to know 
just what his orchard needs is to determine "by experiment. The 
orchard might be divided into sections and a mixture of different 
proportions applied to each section. From the results of this a man 
might be able to determine just what his orchard needs. 

The vocal duet, "O That We Two Were Maying," was sung by 
Mrs. Kellar and Mr, Rathell and was heartily encored. 

The following paper was read for Mrs. Moore by Mrs. j. S. 
Butterfield : 



A WOMAN'S VIEWS OF HORTICULTURE. 

(Mrs. A. Z. Moore, Mouutain Grove, Mo.) 

It has been aptly said, "Eliminate women from all lines of public 
work and the affairs of the world will proceed as usual, but take her 
away from the home and disaster and ruin would inevitably follow." 
In the face of this fact, the most progressive of women need not offer 
an excuse for the prominence given to home work and duties. An 
ideal home life is the nearest conception we can have of the great 
gathering of loved ones in the "Land beyond the sun," and to reach 
either, or both of them, we give our greatest effort and most earnest 
thought. 

Progression after all is but mankind's desire for happiness. A 
reaching out and striving for those things that shall widen our knowl- 
edge, develop our latent powers and give greater scope for enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of life; and whether we strive but to please 
self, or to benefit all mankind, any achieved success gives another 
turn to the wheel of progress. Women were long held back by the 
fear of public censure, and the social conditions that made it seem 
bold and immodest to venture into the world beyond the home circle. 
In my grand- mother's day, even real robust health was a fact to be 
denied, and maidens were taught to restrain their appetites for fear 
of losing the languid, delicate look that was the acme of beauty. 
When, through force of circumstances, or of will, a few ventured into 
business and public life and were successful, there was almost a 
stampede away from the homes. It mattered not what a woman's 
inclinations were, or how closely home duties pressed, she must do 
something to prove to an uncaring, unbelieving public that she could 



320 Stale JlorticvUnra} Society. 

sink her more tender and gentle feminine qualities and standing up 
shoulder to shoulder with men, fight for and win place in business, 
public position and politics. For a brief time it looked as though the 
true home life was to be overthrown, and that boarding houses, with 
men cooks, together Avith men milliners, dressmakers and nurses, 
would supply the semblance of home to the nation's future great men 
and women. But when we got time to think farther, we began to 
know that great and good a thing as it was to help make laws for 
the good of men, it was a much better and greater thing to rear the 
boys and girls to honest, wholesome maturity, with broad sympathies 
and generous hearts, and with a purity of life gained through knowl- 
edge of nature's laws and not through ignorance. But woman never 
could go back to the home under the old conditions. She must bring 
the home up to meet her higher ideal and the changed condition of 
things. Never again will she fear to express an opinion, or to eat 
pork and beans in public, if she so desires, while weakness of mind 
or body will be carefully kept in the background, as they are the 
witnesses of our ignorance of nature's laws. 

What has all this to do with horticulture, you ask. Very much, 
for this is one of the few avocations which fully and beautifully com- 
bine with home life and training; for never again will women of 
ability sit down and cry over the inability of the. head of the house to 
buy her a new spring bonnet. She is a broader, wiser, more inde- 
pendent woman, and she will use her abilities best in helping those 
she loves, and incidentally, by example, by precept and by the quali- 
ties of character instilled into the minds of her children, help the 
whole world. 

What ofifers greater opportunities for such a life work than horti- 
culture? A home among plants, vines and trees, with lovely blos- 
soms and satisfying fruits, appeals to all that is artistic in a woman's 
life, while the practical features are visible every day in the year. 
The home mother can "look well to the ways of her household" and 
with the company and assistance of her little ones plant and grow and 
gather in the luscious fruits. If she but grow and train the grape- 
vine on the back porch or arbor, she may teach by practical lessons 
the very foundation of horticultural education. She need not stop 
in the dooryard, but reaching out from her home she may plant great 
orchards and grow them to maturity or she may take advantage of 
the work of others in this line and push her horticultural products 
into all the markets of the civilized world. With the aid of the type- 
writer and telegraph, her business influence may circle the earth 



jj:<i, 




-3 ^ 

O H 

^ > 

X 22 



IT i-i 






IV inter Meeting. 321 

while she sits by her desk in her own home, with her family around 
her, and if daint}'' lace work drapes her chair, and her feet rest upon 
cushions, who shall say her nay? No one has yet learned all there is 
to learn about horticulture and both practical and scientific knowl- 
edge can be gained in home work and study. Best of all, a woman 
need neglect nothing that is for the true good of the young minds 
about her, who need all the iielp that modern progressive women 
2 re so able to give. 

jMau}' fail to do anything while longing for special opportunity 
for greatness. I knew one wise woman, the daughter of a farmer and 
horticulturist, educated in the district and village schools, with home 
study and application, who later became a district school teacher. 
AVhen ''Nature Studies" first agitated the public mind, she came to 
•school one day witli a big red apple — a Ben Davis, I presume — any- 
way, just such an apple as every child at school had seen many times, 
and eaten as wel? and announced that this term they would study 
about the apple. Now everybody knew all about the apple. They 
knew how the agent came to the house to sell trees, and how father 
didn't want any, and mother did, and they got some trees, of course, 
and planted them and sometimes got apples. They knew apples had 
color and a stem, a core and some seeds, and sometimes a big fat 
worm comfortably living within. They knew an apple tree when 
they saw one, and knev/ the cows were fond of them, especially when 
ihev were vounsj and tender, and the older ones smiled to hear the 
■"teacher" speak of studying the apple all winter. Those lessons began 
with the planting of the seed, growing, pruning, fruiting, protecting 
from insects and disease, buddaig, grafting, cultivating, plant food, 
the flow of sap, and the wonderful secrets stored up in bud and leaf. 
The reason we had blossoms tliat attract and please the eye, soils 
and even the use of the apple, from dried apple pie all along the line 
of evolution until we reached the perfect specimen eaten out of hand, 
and much more was taught those eager boys and girls. It is practical 
lessons like these that are of real worth, and the adaptability of horti- 
cultural work to the various members of the home cannot be over- 
estimated. It gives scope for all our talents, scope for our energies 
and is one of the most fascinatins: avocations on earth. 



n-21 



322 State Horticultural Society. 



FUTURE PROSPECTS OF MISSOURI HORTICULTURE. 

(J. C. Whltten, Horticulturist, University of Missouri, Columbia.) 

Horticulture has its problems and its apparent drawbacks. In- 
sect enemies attack, • fungus diseases destroy, drought comes to mar 
our hopes, frosts cause the liowers to wither and die. The active 
horticulturist has before him a struggle for existence. Sometimes the 
struggle seems to be almost an unequal one. The ills that beset our 
plants sometimes all but destroy our hopes. Do we stop to think 
that out of all this apparent evil, good may sometimes come as a 
future reward? 

When our fruit crop fails for any of the above reasons it is but 
human to regret it. It causes discouragement even in the heart of 
the most resolute. Failure means not only sweeping away the legiti- 
mate fruits of our labor, but in some cases it even means the loss of 
our visible means of sustenance. Such drawbacks as this are sure to 
come from time to time in any business. Temporary inconvenience,, 
embarrassment, hardship or sometimes even want are likely to follow. 
For a time it is impossible to rejoice when privation occurs. It is 
equally legitimate, however, for us to realize that sometimes it is out 
of the greatest difficulties that better things are brought about. Some 
of the most serious disasters that have befallen the horticulturist have 
been the means through which future benents have arisen. 

For years Peter Gideon planted apple seeds in the northwest,, 
beyond the range of hardiness of any then known varieties. Thou- 
sands of apple trees were started from these seeds, only to die upon 
the approach of severe winters. He persisted, however, and after 
having grown trees from more than a bushel of apple seeds, all of 
which died in the struggle with a severe climate, he finally produced 
one tree which lived, bore fruit and has been handed down to us as 
the Wealthy apple. This variety is capable of being grown in very 
severe climates and mav be said to have removed the limits of com- 
mercial apple growing several hundred miles farther to the northwest. 
His persistent planting of trees in a climate where only discourage- 
ment at first came to reward him is what made his final triumph 
great. 

The tomato affords perhaps a more concrete example than the 
apple of the evolution of cultivated plant forms adapted to special 
purposes and locations. Almost within the memory of men now 
living it has been brought from a comparatively unimportant wild 



IV inter Meeting. 323 

plant to the position of one of our most important .garden vegetables. 
The history of its amelioration is well known to us for the reason 
that it has transpired within our own memory. Not many decades 
ago the tomato was often known as the love-apple and was grown 
mostly for ornament, much as the Jerusalem cherry is today. It was 
regarded as being dangerously poisonous. Even the hogs were said 
not to eat it. It belongs to the nightshade family, a group of plants 
most of which are poisonous, and this helped to intensify popular 
prejudice against it as a food. As we regard our delicious tomatoes 
today we are constrained to laugh at the old opinion that it was a 
poisonous plant. There was more ground for that impression than 
we now think, however. Not only did it belong to a poisonous groups 
of plants, but the unimproved forms were not only less toothsome,.. 
but they were an inferior food to the highly improved varieties ot 
tomatoes of the present. 'i 

The unimproved tomato had large seed cavities and very thin 
flesh. The seeds were very numerous and surrounded by an excess 
of watery and acetic juices. It had mostly deep wrinkles or sutures 
extending deep between the divisions of the fruits and these did not 
ripen evenly, so parts of the fruit were green when the outer wrinkles 
were ripe. With the abundant food supply given to it under culture 
and by careful selection, large, smooth, fleshy varieties, whose fruit 
ripens evenly throughout have been evolved. More important yet has 
been the elimination of the seeds to a large extent and the substituting 
in their place, thick, fleshy walls to the fruit so that the most edible 
part has increased, while the objectionaJDle seeds and their surrounding 
watery parts have correspondingly disappeared. The best varieties 
of today have thick, fleshy walls and partitions and very few seeds 
as compared with the wild plant or the early varieties. 

The improvement of this fruit has gone on so rapidly that we 
have round, compact tomatoes which are suited to different purposes. 
Some are grown for canning, some for dessert fruit. We have early 
and late varieties, those which are large and those which are small. 
In fact, it may be said that the tomato has been practically perfected 
as an edible vegetable or fruit within the lifetime of some of those 
who are present. 

In certain sections of the country the cotton growers have had 
their cotton fields laid waste by a wild disease which killed their 
plants. Large areas of cotton plants have at times been an entire loss 
to the farmer. The farmers, however, have persisted in planting. In 
recent vears it has been observed that in some of the fields where 



324 State Hortiailtitral Society. 

the disease has be^n most destructive that a few plants, scattered here 
and there have escaped the disease, while all of the other plants in 
the field have died. Instead of going to uninfected districts to 
secure seed the brilliant idea was suggested that these plants which 
lived through without taking the disease must be resistant to it. 
Seeds of these have been selected and in many cases their seedlings 
have proven" to .resist the disease like the parent which escaped the 
scourge. In this way strains of wilt resisting cotton have been pro- 
duced. It was by selecting from the fittest plant to live under ad- 
verse conditions which brought this about and wdaich promises to 
put cotton growing beyond the dangers of the wilt. 

A century ago the greater part of the named varieties of apple 
grown in this country were of European origin and most of these were 
at best only imperfectly adapted to our climatic conditions. The best 
proof of their non-adaptability is the fact that at the present time 
•more than ninety per cent of our varieties of apples are of American 
-origin. A'arieties better adapted to our conditions are being originated 
and are crowding out those which are less adaptable. 

A similar condition may be noticed in selection of varieties which 
are adapted to the west. Formerly we grew the same sorts wdiich 
were brought from the older states of the east. In recent years,, how- 
ever, western varieties, better adapted to our conditions are coming 
into prominence and are taking the place of the older sorts. Some of 
the most prominent commercial varieties of apples grown in ^Missouri 
today had their origin in comparatively recent }'ears in this very 
State. The Gano, Ingram, ^lissouri Pippin and Huntsman may be 
mentioned among these and many still newer sorts are continually 
gaining prominence. It may be said that Missouri and Arkansas 
seedling apples are destined to form the list of varieties which are to 
be grown in the Ozark region in the future. A similar evolution of 
adaptable forms is taking place in the case of the other fruits. 

Many of our most serious drawbacks in fruit culture in ^Missouri 
today are only paving the way to future success through the develop- 
ment of varieties which will resist our diseases or our peculiarities 
of climate. • Once some serious difficulty appears it is the signal for 
the orchardist to begin to look for some resistant form or some method 
by which this difificulty may be overcome. 

When I first joined the }>lissouri State Horticultural Society the 

question of how to get fruit to market was uppermost in the mind of 

the grower. No one then dreamed of shipping strawberries or peaches 

.to New England markets. At the present time methods of pick- 



IF inter Meeting. 3^5 

ing, packing, refrigeration and rapid transit have solved the difficulty 
so that now cur perishable fruits reach all the important markets- 
between the Rocky mountains and the Atlantic ocean. The difficul- 
ties of disposing of the fruit had to present themselves and to be 
worried over for a time before a solution of the problems could be 
worked out. 

The progress which is being made in commercial fruit growing 
reminds one of the old time notion that the Louisiana Purchase terri- 
torv could never become an integral part of the United States for 
the reason that its distance from the seat of government would pre- 
vent representatives fro-m reaching the capital until their term of 
office had expired. That seemed to be an insurmountable obstacle to 
our successful acquirement of the territory, but, you all know today 
what has .happened and how such bugbears fade away. 

We would take stronger heart in cur vocation if we could realize 
how steadily horticultural problems are being solved. The fact of 
the matter is that these changes take place so subtly and so naturally 
that we fail to notice the change and we look upon a present dif- 
ficulty, like apple scab, bitter rot or failure of fruit to keep as being 
a difficulty which is bound to stay with us always. 

If, however, we contrast the present conditions with the less 
favorable ones of the past we may get something of a view of what 
the future no doubt holds out to us. In fact, progress is going on at 
an accelerated rate and more is now accomplished in a decade than 
formerly was done in a half century. This view leads us to the con- 
clusion that while some of the trials of the fruit grower of the Ozark 
section may be hard to bear — temporarily, at least — that this section- 
is destined to be one of the greatest fruit regions of the world, and 
that the ver}^ problems you are now meeting are going to be the 
main stimulus to the accomplishment of that end. 



NUT BEARING TREES. 



(.T. T. Jackson, Chillicotlie.) 



The fruit men of the United States, and of ^lissouri in particular, 
have neglected and in a manner overlooked the importance of our 
nut bearing trees. There has been no individual nor organized effort 
put forth to preserve, protect or propagate these useful trees. They 
have been cut down without care for future use. Nut bearing trees 



326 State Horticultural Society. 

have many enemies, of which the farmers of Missouri and fire are the 
worst. Grazing by sheep comes next. Cattle and horses do their 
part, but not as much so as sheep. Snow and sleet are less harmful 
than live stock. Land slides, floods, the depredations of insects as 
well as fungi are enemies. Many of these trees are killed by light- 
ning and blown down by the wind. Even birds and squirrels, by de- 
vouring large quantites of nuts which if let alone would have grown 
into trees, add to the destruction of the kings of the forest. 

It is not the object of this paper to discuss the minor enemies of 
our nut bearing trees. For all trees of the forest have what we call 
their natural enemies. It is action and depredations of man upon 
these trees we want stopped. In the language of the poet, we would 
sa}'-: "Oh, woodman, let them stand, thy ax should harm them not." 
Nearly all the most serious harm to these trees comes from the care- 
lessness and penuriousness of man. The State should prohibit de- 
structive lumbering, and exempt from taxation all groves of nut 
bearing trees. The time is not far distant when we must pay the 
penalty for this wholesale destruction. Nuts are becoming scarce ;' 
there are not enough now to supply the demand. The next generation 
will search and search in vain for a supply of lumber which comes 
from these trees. The increasing demand is constantly finding a 
diminishing supply with a constant increase in price, and if the 
present generation does not turn over a new leaf and go to planting, 
the price of such lumber will soon be bej^ond the farmer's ability to 
pay. 

Another feature of the situation is that by a stoppage of the de- 
struction and by planting more of these trees would be the beneficial 
effect upon climatic conditions. This is sure to become of great im- 
portance as the years go by. And I believe that the planter of trees 
will yet become in the eyes of the people of as much importance as the 
expert horticulturist, or breeder of fine horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. 
In our hurry and bustle of today's business we are too apt to give 
little or no thought for the future welfare of the people of this great 
State. 

To all those who are making calculations on nut growing for 
pleasure, beauty or profit, there is to be found on every farm places 
well adapted for the growth of these trees. No matter how valuable 
•may be the land for farming purposes, it will be found that it is true 
•economy to set apart five, ten or twenty acre lots for the exclusive 
purpose of raising nut-bearing trees. No farm should be without 
this amount or more. The value of these wood lots will constantly 



Winter Meeting. 327 

advance as the years go by. In starting the wood lot I would com- 
mence with the pecan ; it is one of the best belonging to the hickory 
family. 

The Michigan Station reports that pecan trees obtained from 
Iowa have grown well at the South Haven sub-station since 1890, 
and proven entirely hardy. So we may rest assured that this State is 
well adapted for their culture. After the pecan I would plant the 
shell bark hickory, the walnut and butter-nut and chestnut, and in 
this wood lot I would set apart a place for persimmons, pawpaws and 
wild plums. In a word retain as far as possible the choice fruits and 
nuts of our forests. 

Considering everything, the spring is the best time to plant such 
trees in North Missouri, doing the work as early as possible. The 
fall may be the best time in the south part of the State. These groves 
will add a beauty to the farm and country, as well as a source of as 
much profit as can be secured from any other part of the farm. A 
start is easily secured. Bury the nuts before the ground freezes so 
that the seed nuts may be ready for planting in the spring. The trees 
may bear a few nuts at an early age, but paying crops cannot be 
expected under ten years and a full crop under twenty. The average 
crop runs from one to twenty bushels to each tree. 



FINAL RESOLUTIONS. . 

Whereas, by the invitation of the Neosho Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, the forty-seventh annual meeting of the Missouri State Horti- 
cultural Society was held in this beautiful city, we desire to express 
our appreciation of the courtesies we have received at their ITands. 
We thank them for their cordial reception and the preparations they 
made for our comfort, in the way of providing a well-decorated hall, 
providing accommodations for our members, etc. 

We appreciate the importance of horticulture in this part of the 
State, and note with satisfaction the evidences of prosperity which 
are on every hand. The growers of this part of the State are to be 
congratulated upon what they have accomplished, and we commend 
the work they are doing in the way of improving the horticulture of 
Missouri. 

To those who have furnished the musical numbers on our pro- 
gram we extend our thanks. To the railroads we are indebted for 
courtesies, and we especially commend the example of the Kansas 



328 Slate Horticultural Society. 

City Southern and 'Frisco systems in furnishing a one-fare rate for 
the round trip, and again express the hope that the time will come 
when all the railroads of Missouri will be glad to make this rate for 
all meetings of fruit growers held along their lines. 

We congratulate the State of Missouri upon the awards which 
have been won by Missouri fruits at St. Louis, and commend to the 
consideration of the commonwealth at large any body of men which 
has done so much for the State and her interests. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James M, Irvine, 
J. H. Christian, 
H. S. Wayman, 

Committee. 
The report of the committee on final resolutions was unanimously 
adopted. 

C. W. Steiman. — I believe every Horticulturist at this meeting 
has been benefited, and we can .-^Iso congratulate ourselves on our 
display and its results at the Exposition in St. Louis. We are pro- 
gressing and we want to hustle for tlie future. Next year there will 
be an Exposition at Portland, Ore. Now, if there had been no other 
exhibits than Missouri at our Exposition, would it have been great? 
No; but we saw others and compared them, and now the talk is of 
Missouri at the Fair. Shall we stay at home w-hen we have a chance 
to show California and the West what we can do? Let us select a 
committee to appear before the Legislature and ask for an appropria- 
tion with Avhich to make a show in Horticulture at Portland. We 
should have a good man to honorably represent our department. 

Sec. Goodman. — The Governor has selected Mr. Garver to super- 
intend the sending of exhibits to Portland, and he has already selected 
and we have packed all that he wants and could use of our exhibit at 
St. Louis, and has shipped it on. Missouri will be there. 

Piano duet by the Misses Patterson and Harvey. 

FINAL TALKS. 

Vice-Pres. Dutcher. — Before concluding our meeting we want to 
hear from some of our guests and members. I will first call on Mr. 
Young. 

Air. Young. — I would be ungrateful to depart from Missouri and 
the Societ}- without showing my appreciation of the great work which 
you have accomplished. It is almost impossible for me to adequately 
express this. It is my opinion that the railroad companies h'ave not 



ir infer Meeting. 329 

accorded you the treatment they ought to have. They have been 
generous in granting a half rate, but the least they could do is to give 
a little better rate for attending these meetings. I believe it is possible 
to get one cent per mile without regard to the number attending. My 
suggestion would be to take this up with the Industrial Agent of each 
system in the State. The Passenger departments are not interested 
because the Horticultural work and interests do not add to their 
department. In the Trafific department they look for an increase of 
tonnage and are hampered in extending what is due the Society. 
The Industrial Agent will come nearer giving the proper treatment. 
It will be a pleasure for me as Industrial Agent for the Missouri Pacific 
to take up this matter with my superior as the initial step and interest 
the other lines. It will be a pleasure to do anything to help out and 
build up this great Horticultural Societ}'. 

Air. Butcher. — Mr. Young we will call on you to help us get rates 
in the future. 

Air. Alessick. — I will be glad to use my influence in a similar posi- 
tion- on the Kansas City Southern. Some gentlemen asked for my for- 
mula ; I will give it briefly at this time. In a trough put brush at the 
bottom, then manure, then ashes, then manure, then lime and manure 
and ten pounds of sulphur, and when the trough is full throw on water 
and let it stand and soak for twenty-four hours; then put on water and 
leach out the manure like leaching ashes, until it is the proper weakness 
to use. This can be put on five thousand trees in three days and the 
results will be apparent in thirty days. Pull dry dirt over, and it will 
not lose by evaporation. When the mixture is leached in the trough 
use four ounces of tincture of iron to a barrel. 

Air. Butcher. — We would now like to hear from Kansas. 

Wm. H. Barnes, Sec. Kansas State Horticultural Society. — Hor- 
ticulturists are the finest people in the world, and are the same in all 
states. Apples, too, are as good on our side of the line as on yours, 
and vice versa. In the State Societies and the American Pomological 
the people are all intelligent and an upward going class of people. 
There is nothing finer than planting a seed or a tree, and there is 
nothing better to teach our boys and girls. That fruits and vegetables 
are coming more and more into our menu is due to the agitation and 
progression of our Societies. I am always glad to come to the Mis- 
souri Society meeting, and hope you will all visit us at our Kansas 
meeting next week. 

Air. Butcher. — We will now have a few words from Air. Graves 
of Neosho. 



330 State Horticultural Society. 

Mr. Graves. — It was ray pleasure to extend a welcome to this body 
in a few words of greeting, and I am not sorry I had that favor. We 
all appreciate the work of the Society and the benefit of the meeting 
here. What you have said and the way you have said it is encourag- 
ing to the fruit growers around Neosho. You knew something of us 
and our work and our fruits and our markets, and now you have 
encouraged and helped us by your suggestions and advice, and the 
outlook shown for the fruit business has also great encouragement for 
us, so we are glad you came and hope you will come again. 

Mr. Dutcher. — Col. Evans has been called the Moses of this So- 
ciety, and we will now listen to this leader. 

J. C. Evans. — I was here years ago when the lead of these hills 
was dug out and hauled to Boonville to the river boats. At that 
time there were five Indians to one white man, and there v/as no 
Carthage and no Kansas City ; but now I am thankful that I have lived 
to see this country dotted with beautiful cities and homes and mines 
and farm houses and churches and school houses. \Ve are all glad 
we came to Neosho for this meeting. I want to thank the ladies 
especially for the splendid music which they have given us. 

Mr. Dutcher. — We cannot close without some words from our 
Secretary. 

Mr. Goodman. — This is one of the very best meetings we have 
ever had, and the two welcome addresses the best we have ever 
listened to. I congratulate the people on the fine order maintained 
at the meetings and the enthusiasm shown for this work. 

Mr, Dutcher. — We have all had a good time, and I trust I -will be 
liere again. I bid you all a kind good-bye, and with best wishes thank 
3-ou all and wish you happiness evermore. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned until next June. 



Winter Meeting. 331 



REPORT OF THE MISSOURI COMMISSION TO 

THE GOVERNOR. 

B. H. BONFOEY, Secretary. M. T. DAVIS, President 



THE DEPART^^IENT OF HORTICULTURE. 

This department was organized by the appointment on April 16, 
1903,, of Mr. L. A. Goodman of Kansas City, Missouri, as Superin- 
tendent. Mr. Goodman had been secretary of the State Horticultural 
Society for more than twenty years and was not only one of the best 
posted and most enthusiastic, but one of the most successful Horticul- 
turists in the State. He owned large fruit farms in the southwest sec- 
tion of the State and seemed to be the man upon whom all the irmt 
growers of the State could agree as the proper man for this position. 
The main difficulty encountered in the beginning of this work was 
the inability to secure a sufficient number of glass jars in which to 
place the processed fruit. All such jars to be found in the wholesale 
"houses of St. Louis and Kansas City were purchased, and we are 
under special obligations to Faxon-Horton & Gallagher of Kansas 
City, and the Meyer Bros. Drug Co., Henry Heil Chemical Co. and 
Moffitt-West Drug Co. of St. Louis, for their consideration in selling 
to us their entire supply of these glass jars. 

After the purchase of these jars a printed circular was issued and' 
•mailed to the fruit growers throughout the State making an appeal for 
a large collection of fine fruits for exhibition at the World's Fair, and 
■suggesting rules for a general collection of fruit to be put up in jars 
and for the careful cultivation and fertilization of fruit plants, vines 
and trees in order to produce the largest and finest fruits. The ar- 
rangements for processing fruits were made to be carried on at St. 
Louis, Kansas City, Columbia and Springfield. To these points all 
fruit to be processed and placed in jars was shipped. In this connec- 
tion we are under obligations to the Guardian Trust Company of 
Kansas City for having furnished us fine rooms, heat and light free 
of charge the entire season for the work of processing fruits and 
storing the same until needed at the World's Fair. 

The Armour Packing Company of Kansas City also conferred a 
favor upon this department by furnishing a large amount of fruit 



33- State Horticultural Society. 

fertilizer without compensation therefor. The 3-ear "1903" furnished 
a very small and poor crop of fruit, and for tliat reason great difficulty 
Avas encountered in securing- a proper display. The State Horticul- 
tural Society having an organization throughout the State of the fruit 
growers of every section, rendered this department a very valuable 
service in securing from every section of the State, the best fruit pro- 
duced this year, representing every section of the State. The result 
of this work .was to secure some 2,400 jars ot high grade representa- 
tive Missouri fruit which made the most extensive and complete ex- 
hibit ever shown at any Exposition. 

The next important work was to secure during the months of 
September and October, IQ03, some 1,200 barrels of apples for use in 
the Missouri Exhibit during 1904. Owing to the poor crop, this also 
was a most difficult undertaking. It was necessary to make this dis- 
play cover as many parts of the State as possible and to represent all 
the best apples produced in the State. The gathering, selection and 
packing of these barrels became a work that was only successfully 
accomplished through the active support of the members of the State 
Horticultural Society throughout the State. All of this was accom- 
plished with a great deal of extra labor and unusual expense because 
of the great care it took to make such a collection when the crop was 
so short. The result was, how^ever, that we secured 1,200 barrels of 
the best specimens of apples ever gotten together, wrapped them in 
double thicknesses of waxed and tissue paper, packed them in barrels and 
sent them to previously arranged cold storage at the Armour Packing 
Co. of Kansas Gity, St. Louis Ice and Refrigerating Co. of St. Louis, 
Artesian Ice & Cold Storage Cc. of St. Joseph and the Springfield Ice 
& Cold Storage Co. of Springfield, Mo. 

And great credit is due to the following 64 men throughout the 
State, whose service from one to six weeks each was secured in gather- 
ing these apples: W. G. Gano of Parkville, C. A. Emery of Carthage, 
J. H. Marion of Fulton, J. H. ^turphy of South St. Joseph, S. H. \'an- 
Trump of Elniira, Wm. Mooney of Montreal, G. A. Atwood of Spring- 
field, J. W. Tippin of Nichols, J. E. May of La Plata, Polster Bros, of 
Warrenton, H. W. Jenkins of Boonville, F. H. Speakman of Neosho, 
J. S. Butterfield of Lee's Summit, Chas. Teubner of Lexington, D. 
Lowmiller of Parkville, C. Thorp of Weston, S. R. Walker of Liberty, 
N. F. Murray of Oregon, D. A. Robnett of Columbia, H. H. Parks of 
Springfield, A. T. Nelson of Lebanon, B. Logan of Logan, W. S. 
Crouch of Carrollton, C. T. Mallinckrodt of St. Charles, J. H. G. 
Jenkins of Spring Garden, H. S. Wayman of Princeton, C. H. William- 



JJ'iufcr Meeting. 333 

son of Utica, E. L. Alason of Trenton, George Meyer of Orchard 
Farm, Henry ]\Ieyer of Bridgeton, J. C. Whitten of Columbia, H. 
•Goehrig of Boonville, M. Butterlield of Farmington, Wild Bros, of 
Sarcoxie, C. W, Steiman of Dalton, T. H. Todd of New Franklin, 
C. C. Bell of Boonville, S. Y. Thornton of Blackwater, A. J. Davis 
of Jefiferson City, G. W. Null of Alaryville, \V. II. Skinner of Bethany, 
■C. Jewell of Nevada, B. F. Stuart of Rushville, S. P. Bailey of Ver- 
sailles, C. H. Dutcher of Warrensburg, B. H. Bonfoey of Unionville, 
Homan & Davis of Easton, G. H. Shepard of Lamonte, R. E. Down- 
ing of Bowling Green, A. W. Zimmerman of Amazonia, J. E. Roberts 
of Marysville, L. H. Tucker of Marshall, L. T. Davis of ^liami, J. E. 
Gladdish of Higginsville, Ozark Orchard Co., Goodman & Lanagan, 
J. Daniels of Lake City, II. W. Cook of Potosi and L. J. Slaughter of 
Grain Valley. 

When we reached the spring of 1904 the problem then presented 
Avas the plan to secure ripened fruit for display upon the tables during 
the AVorld's Fair. For this purpose a circular was prepared and sent 
to the fruit growers throughout the State making an appeal for a con- 
tinued supply of best ripened fruits in the State during the period of 
the A\^orld's Fair, and also giving explicit instructions as to the method 
of packing this fruit and the shipment of same by express to L. A. 
Goodman, Horticultural Bldg., World's Fair, St. Louis, Mo. The 
result of this circular and the personal correspondence of Mr. Good- 
man was to create great interest among the fruit growers throughout 
the State in sending their best ripened fruit to the World's Fair. 
Again, the fruit growers were able to furnish and did furnish a large 
and very representative class of this fruit which filled the tables of the 
Missouri Exliibit during the AVorld's Fair. In this general way the 
fruits secured carried out the ideas and plans of this department, to 
show the wonderful possibilities of Missouri's commercial fruit 
growing. 

The result of this organization, preparation and constant work 
was to finally install the finest, most complete, most unique and most 
artistic fruit exhibit ever made anywhere. Just within the main 
entrance of the Palace of Horticulture was located the Missouri ex- 
hibit and around its 7,700 square feet of floor space was an imposing 
facade charmingly decorated by fruits, flowers, statuary and other 
adornments. Encircling it, upon an elevated track ran a miniature 
fruit train, furnished by the Frisco railroad, loaded with the various 
Missouri fruits in their season. On tables, in glass jars, cases and on 
specially designed plates, ]\Iissouri's ^splay of fruit occupied this 



334 State Horticultural Society. 

large space. Every inch of space was filled with the finest of fruit. 
Nearly 200 varieties of apples were shown and for nearly five months 
fresh apples were daily upon the tables, while apples from cold storage 
were shown for the entire seven months of the Exposition period. 
Five hundred bushels of apples were given away on Apple Day, Octo- 
ber 4. Seventy-two varieties of peaches were shown, with fresh 
peaches on the tables daily from June 15 to December i. Over sixty 
bushels of different varieties were exhibited at one time, an unex- 
ampled picture. On August 15, Peach Day, five hundred bushels, a 
full car load were distributed to visitors. One thousand plates of 
pears, of forty-eight varieties, were shown from August to Decem- 
ber I. Among the other fruits shown, were one thousand plates of 
grapes with 124 varieties, one thousand plates of strawberries with 
sixty-four varieties, five hundred plates of cherries with twenty-four 
varieties, four hundred plates of plums with thirty-two varieties, sixty 
plates of apricots with six varieties, twenty plates of nectarines with, 
two varieties, one hundred and sixty plates of quinces with six varie- 
ties, three hundred plates of gooseberries with eight varieties, one 
hundred plates of currants with six varieties, two hundred plates of 
raspberries with twenty-four varieties, three hundred plates of black- 
berries with eight varieties, one hundred plates of dewberries with 
two varieties, twenty-four plates of mulberries with four varieties, 
one hundred and twenty plates of huckleberries with two varieties, 
and one hundred plates of persimmons, pawpaws, crab apples and 
thorn apples with eighteen varieties. Ten show cases of Missouri 
nuts, illustrating forty-eight varieties. There were two thousand four 
hundred jars of fruit in solution, illustrating four hundred and thirty 
varieties. Altogether six hundred and ninety-four varieties of fresh 
fruit were shown, a display unequaled by any State or Country. Out 
of the one hundred and fourteen counties of Missouri, ninety-six were 
actually represented by fruit. The Missouri Horticultural Society, the 
individual fruit grower and Horticultural department of the j\Iissouri 
Agricultural College contributed materially to the sources of the ex- 
hibit. The exhibit was' beautifully displayed and was especially 
popular. On its educational side it taught the adaptability of varieties 
to particular localities, the value of the soils and subsoils, elevation, 
cultivation, pruning and spraying, packing and marketing and cold 
storage, and various points which confront every fruit grower. 

This department was under the direction of Commissioner B. H. 
Bonfoey of Unionville, Mo., and the organization, preparation and 
installation under Mr. L. A. Goodman of Kansas City, Mo., assisted 
by Mr. John C. Evans. 



Winter Meeting. 335 



THE WORLD'S- FAIR MEDALS. 

(Prof. li. R. Taft, Chairman of Jury of Awards.) 

For several months frequent mention has been made in the papers 
of the medals that had been awarded to various states for their fruit 
exhibited at the St. Louis Exposition, but so far as the awards made upon 
fruit were concerned, anything that appeared previous to December i 
was a matter of mere surmise and had no basis whatever in fact. While 
the awards in most of the other departments were made in October, 
from the fact that entries in the Horticultural Department were made 
up to November 15, it was impossible to make up the awards previous 
to that time, and not a single award was made, much less announced, 
upon the fruit exhibit, until after that date. 

•The reports frequently seen that a certain state took the first prize 
upon its apples, another upon its peaches, and a third upon its pears 
or grapes, are also misleading and incorrect, as the awards were not 
made in that way, and in a strict sense were not competitive each being 
upon its own merits and without regard to whether there were similar 
exhibits or not. As was the case in other departments, the awards upon 
fruits were made after the exhibits had been scored, usins: a definite 
scale of points. This varied with the class of fruit, but in a general 
way it included "Extent of Exhibit," "Size of Fruit," "Color," "Form," 
"Flavor, and Texture," and "Freedom from Blemishes." In all cases 
the "Extent of Exhibit" was given 20 points as a maximum, while the 
others range from 15 to 25, according to their value in the different 
fruits, with a total of 100 points. It will be noticed that, counting out 
the score for "Extent of Exhibit," only 80 points could be made by an 
exhibit. This was arranged to adapt the scores to the rule that an 
exhibit scoring from 60 to 74 points should receive a bronze medal ; if 
from 75 to 84, a silver medal ; from 85 to 94, a gold medal, and when 
from 95 to 100 points were scored it should receive a grand prize. With- 
out the "Extent of Exhibit" score, it will be seen that it might have been 
possible for an exhibit of a dozen plates of Jonathan apples to secure a 
"Grand Prize," while, under the score cards used, a silver medal would 
be the highest award that it could receive. This virtually made a silver 
medal a "first prize" so far as the merit of the fruit itself was concerned. 
That considerable merit would be required to obtain a silver medal can 
be seen from the fact that if a cut of more than one point was made 



33^ State Horticultural Society. 

upon each of the characteristics considered in the score card, it could 
only obtain a bronze medal at most. 

The rules provided that no exhibitor should receive more than one 
award in one group, and as Groupe- 107 included all kinds of fruits and 
nuts, tree, bush, citrus and tropical, it will be seen tliat a fruit grower 
would be limited to one award. In many cases thirty or forty entries 
were made by single exhibitors, who showed apples from cold storage 
and, later on, made frequent shipments of small fruits, followed by the 
larger fruits as they ripened. In arriving at the award that should be given 
in such cases account was taken not only of the scores given the several 
entries that had been made from time to time by each individual, but 
of the number of plates and of varieties shown. Thus, a man who made 
a single entry of ten plates of peaches that were given a score of 75 
points would receive a silver medal, while several exhibits made by one 
person aggregating 500 plates and 30 or more varieties, would entitle 
him to a gold medal, if they scored at least 75 points. The grand 
prizes were only given to very large collective exhibits, and the awards 
were confined with two or three exceptions to the larger State exhibits. 

From the fact that there were only two awards that could be given 
higher than a silver medal, for one of which 300 plates might be a 
minimum requirement, while 2,000 would be required for the other, it 
was not possible to so grade the awards as to have them accurately rep- 
resent the value of an exhibit. To illustrate this, one man might obtain 
a silver medal with an entry of ten plates of apples, while another 
might have 200 plates of 20 varieties of equally good fruit and yet only 
get the same award as the man with ten plates of one variety. In the 
same way a gold medal would be the highest that could be secured upon 
a collection of 1,000 plates of fine fruit, while another collection of 300 
plates of no better fruit would also be given a gold medal. 

Several states are bragging upon the number of gold medals secured 
iipon their exhibits, but this may be misleading, especially if the number 
of other medals is overlooked. In some cases most of the fruit shown 
from a state came from half dozen persons, each of whom might re- 
ceive a gold medal. In such cases there would be comparatively few 
silver and bronze medals. Adjacent to it there might be another exhibit 
that was more extensive and of better fruit, but it might not carry oflf 
more than five gold medals. At first thought it would seem unfair for 
the smaller and inferior exhibit, to carry off more awards of gold 
medals than the other, but the apparent unfairness could be explained by 
the fact that while in the latter case there were only five extensive ex- 
hibitors, there were several hundred small exhibits most of which were 



Winter Meeting. 337 

awarded either silver or bronze medals. Another reason for the varia- 
tion in the number and character of the awards was that no entries in 
the names of individuals were made by some of the states during a por- 
tion or all of the season. Thus, while Canada made a very large and 
creditable exhibit it only received one award, a grand prize, as no entries 
were made in the names of individuals, and the jury had no means of 
knowing who grew the fruit. The same was true with several of the 
states for considerable periods. Some of the states, notably Missouri, 
California, Arkansas, Michigan, Washington, Oregon, Indiana, West 
Virginia and Colorado made collective entries for the counties from 
which the fruit came, and thus were able to add from 50 to 100 per cent, 
to the number of gold medals they would have other\yise secured. 

As to 'Tnstallation," the awards given are those based upon the size 
and extent of the exhibit, combined with the general effect produced by 
it and the care with which it was maintained. The architectural details 
were considered in making up this award. 

The other awards were based upon the exhibits themselves and in 
addition to one to the State itself, which was generally either a grand 
prize or a gold medal, in some cases included county as well as indi- 
vidual exhibits. 

Several of the States show a large number of "No Awards." While 
this in some instances was due to the entry of inferior fruit, in a large 
proportion of the cases it arose from the rule which limited the award- 
ing of a diploma and medal to exhibits consisting of. less than five plates 
of fruit if of one variety. Many of these exhibits that were not given 
an award consisted of one or two plates that scored from 75 to 78 points 
and had there been ten plates or more they would have been given silver 
medals. 

Of the foreign countries Canada made a large and attractive exhibit 
of both fresh and processed fruit. For the most part it consisted of ap- 
ples, but a creditable showing was made of pears, plums, cherries, goose- 
berries and other fruits. No entries whatever were made except upon 
the collective exhibit which received a grand prize, and the same award 
was made for the installation, which was quite attractive. Mexico main- 
tained during most of the summer and autumn a very interesting exhibit 
of tropical and sub-tropical fruit, including bananas, mangoes, mammee, 
pineapples, cocoanuts, oranges, lemons, limes, citrons and* tunas. This 
was also given a grand prize. With the exception of two large ship- 
ments of oranges from Japan, which came in poor condition and were 
rather inferior in texture and flavor, the only other fresh fruit from 

H-22 



338 State Horticultural Society. 

foreign countries came from Honduras. This consisted of bananas^ 
which were especially attractive on account of their size and color. 

Of the states making exhibits, Missouri easily takes first rank upon, 
its general exhibit. As might be expected the display of apples from, 
this state far surpass those from any other in the size of the exhibit and 
for the most part they had been well grown. While there was a very 
large display of Ben Davis and similar varieties, the proportion of 
Jonathan, Grimes, Huntsman and other varieties of high quality was- 
very noticeable. There was also from .Missouri some 3,000 large jars- 
of processed fruit. 

California was easily a close second to Missouri, with an even 
larger and better display of fruit in jars. The exhibit of citrus and 
sub-tropical fruits of all kinds was very creditable and this alone re- 
ceived more gold medals than was awarded to any other state except 
Missouri. Many thousand plates of oranges, mostly Washington navel 
and Valencia, and lemons were shown upon plates and in pyramids, while 
50,000 or more seedlings were used in decorating the facade which 
surrounded the California space in the Horticultural Building. During 
September and October large shipments of grapes of V. vinifera varie- 
ties were received and, although the apples were practically all of the 
;crop of 1903, and the exhibits of pears, peaches, plums and cherries 
owing to the distance and excessive freight rates were comparatively 
small, they attracted a good deal of attention owing to their large size 
and attractive appearance. 

New York kept up an extensive exhibit of fruit. During the early 
summer it was noticeable for the pears and grapes from cold storage,, 
but later on fresh fruits of all kinds were shown. In addition to the 
apples, the exhibits of pears, cherries, plums, and grapes from cold 
storage, but Perfection currant and Campbell Early grape were consideed 
worthy of gold medals. 

The Colorado exhibit also included a general collection of all kinds 
of fruit. It was noticeable for its uniformity and freedom from blem- 
ishes of all kinds. While not quite as large or as highly colored as the 
fruit from some of the other western states, it seldom scored less than 75 
points in a possible 80. 

Illinois had a large exhibit of Ben Davis, Winesap, Jonathan, Wil- 
low Twig, Huntsman and other apples, of pears, mostly Kieffer, peach- 
es, grapes and other fruits. While many of the specimens were very 
large and handsome, too little care was used in making the selection in 
the orchard and again when they were placed upon the plates, with ih(^ 



. Winter Meeting. 339 

result that the effect was. lessened by the considerable proportion of in- 
ferior fruit shown, especially during the late sunimer. 

From the point of perfection, so far as the size, form, color, 
freedom from blemishes, and the general uniformity of its fruit is con- 
cerned, no state equaled Oregon. The sweet cherries were especially 
good, while the pears, plums, prunes and peaches were above criticism. 
Early in November a carload of apples was received. These were shown 
in bushel boxes and attracted attention on account of their large size 
and high color, as well as the uniformity with which they were graded. 
Arkansas also made a very little creditable exhibit of apples, pears and 
peaches. The apples were largely Ben Davis, Winesap, Willow Twig, 
Arkansas Black and Mammoth Black Twig. Most of them were of 
large size and well colored. A large showing of Elberta peaches and 
Kieffer pears was also made. 

(Michigan and West Virginia ran a very even race, both as to the 
extent of their exhibits and the varieties shown. While the largest num- 
ber of varieties came from the former state, its slight advantage in the 
number of medals of the lower grades came from the fact that there 
were more exhibitors, each of whom could secure a medal if five plates 
that would score 75 points were shown. The decorated apples from 
Michigan and a display of several hundred plates of Mcintosh from 
West Virginia attracted a good deal of attention. 

While the exhibit from Iowa during the early part of the season 
was hardly up to the standard of most of the other states, owing to the 
failure of the apple crop in 1903, it gradually improved as the season 
advanced until at the close it was one of the most attractive owing to 
the large size of the Alexander, Wolf River, N. W. Greening and 
McMahon and other sorts that made up the bulk of the exhibit. The 
awards were somewhat reduced, however, by the low quality of most 
of these sorts. The exhibit occupied considerable space and towards the 
close presented a very handsome appearance owing to the flat installa- 
tion which was used. The tables were wide and the aisles narrow, so 
that from a distance it looked like a solid mass of fruit. 

Washington was more than a month late in opening its exhibit and, 
owing to the high express rates, depended almost entirely upon two 
carload of apples of the crop of 1903 from cold storage and a small ship- 
ment made in October. Not only did the largest apple on exhibition 
come from this state, but, taking the exhibit as a whole, the apples 
averaged larger than any others in the hall. While fairly handsome 
in appearance and uniform in shape and size, they were as a rule of 



340 State Horticultural Society. 

varieties of rather inferior quality, such as Ben Davis, Lawver and 
Mammoth Black Twig. 

Texas showed quite a number of varieties of apples and made a 
large and creditable display of peaches and grapes. The peaches were 
mostly Elberta, but quite a number of very promising seedlings were 
shown. The grapes were mainly from T. V. Munson and consisted 
largely of his 'hybrids. They are likely to be valuable at least in Texas. 
Several shipments of oranges and other sub-tropical fruits from south 
Texas indicate that these fruits will do well there. 

From the list of the awards given above, one can judge something 
regarding the extent of the exhibits from the other states. iManv of 
them had much merit, but this article is already too long. It should be 
mentioned, however, that ever\' one was pleased with the development 
along horticultural lines shown by the exhibits from Oklahoma, Indian 
Territory, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico and Arizona. From the 
latter territory the oranges compared well with the best from California 
and the pomeloes were almost free from the bitterness that is generally 
found in this fruit. 



CARE OF THE APPLE ORCHARD. 

(A. T. Nelson, Lebanon.) 

"Pruning and Cultivation of the Apple Orchard" is the subject as- 
signed me by our worthy secretary, Mr. L. A. Goodman. As these 
subjects have been discussed pro and con at every meeting of our 
Society, I hardly know that I can enlighten any one unless he be a 
new convert to the worthy cause. 

In taking up the subject of pruning, we, by rights, should start 
with the one or two-year-old tree as it comes from the nursery. I be- 
lieve it is as necessary to prune the roots as it is the tops. The mutilated 
roots should all be trimmed back to the healthy parts, as well as the 
long roots to 4 or 5 inches in length. In pruning the tops, I always 
leave the central branch the longest and prune the other branches so as 
to form the tree in a conical shape. Where the branches are too thick, 
cut one out here and there. A branch that is forked, cut off the poorest 
part. In starting an orchard the great success is at the planting of the 
trees. In the following one, two. three or four years we do very little 
pruning, and then only where a limb crosses another or a limb gets 
broken. In after years when the limbs grow too thick, it is proper to 
take out a limb here and there to admit a little sunshine and air. In 



Winter Meeting. 34^ 

pruning young trees I would always want to leave the lower limbs i8 
to 20 inches from the ground. I have been in a great many orchards 
that have never seen a pruning shear and they seem to do well ; possibly 
they would do 50 per cent better had they been pruned. It is certain 
that soil conditions have a great deal to do with pruning, as trees grown 
on deep, rich soil would require greater pruning than trees planted on 
our uplands of southwest ^Missouri. 

There are many ideas of cultivation, but the best cultivation is 
that which will give us strong, thrifty trees. I consider good and 
thorough culture of the most importance in growing fruits successfully : 
first, by getting the ground ready, that is, in the best possible condition, 
while the trees are growing. Now, this is not only necessary during; 
the growing season before your trees come into bearing, but especially 
is it true that during their fruiting the ground should be cultivated and 
kept in a pulverized condition, in order to have the best results when 
gathering the fruits. By thus keeping your ground in a loose, pliable 
condition, you counteract in a measure the efifect of droughts and en- 
able your fruit to keep on growing and to some extent prevent it from 
falling. 

There is no doubt in my mind that, for the first few years, cultiva- 
tion that will keep the soil loose and mellow, until the time when corn 
is laid by, is the best treatment. When trees are first planted we gen- 
erally plant five rows of corn between the apple tree rows. As the 
trees grow larger we drop off a row until trees are six or seven years 
old ; then we only plant three rows. This gives us ample room for cul- 
tivating between corn and trees and gives us partial return for our 
labor. In planting corn, it gives shade to the trees in the summer, and 
\vhen the stalks are left standing in winter, it serves as a windbreak to 
a certain extent. Take it all in all, I believe that corn is the best crop 
that can be grown in our young orchards, as in the spring you can 
break down the stalks, plow them under, thereby adding more humus 
to the soil. In my mind our fruit growers do too little cultivating. 



PROFITS IX HORTICULTURE AS CO-^fPARED WITH AGRI- 
CULTURE OR STOCK RAISING. 

(ISyAsa Chandler. Randolph, Mo., read before the Missouri Valley Horticultural Society.) 

Mv subject has scope enough, a_quarto volume could be written 
upon it. Tlie profits in any business will largely depend upon the 
personal equation of the man. We must recognize the fact that one 
party will succeed in business, while another will fail in the same 



342 State Horticultural Society. 

undertaking-. ]\Iy earlier years were. spent on the farm. I early 
learned to compute profit and loss in stock growing. 

Well, I remember, one of my neighbors having lost twelve hun- 
dred dollars worth of hogs in a few days from that dread malady — 
cholera. I have not quite recovered from my scare in this incident, 
though years have elapsed. The destructive capacity of this animal, 
the hog, need not be recited, although I will say that he will upturn 
your alfalfa and 3^our blue grass faster than you can replace them. 
Then if permitted he will go visiting, spreading consternation among 
your neighbors. The great law-giver, Moses, must have known all 
about hogs when he wrote the law, "Thou shalt not eat any abomin- 
able thing." They were "common" in his day, and that they are 
"unclean" needs no proof. In this later day we forget the law in 
many particulars and consider the dollar the only thing worth while. 

At my home in Clay county. Mo., blue grass grows luxuriantly. 
Some calves looked very tempting to me, but an experienced stock 
man said I could not handle them at a profit. The grass will still 
'grow here, but the wide prairie is the stock man's remunerative home. 
Then there is the Texas fever; have we immunity from that? It is 
l)y. no means certain, though better sanitary conditions and regula- 
tions have greatly reduced the risk. 

Now, a few words as to the sheep industry. Just after the Civil 
war, I sold wool at 65 cents per pound, and spring lambs at $7.00 
per head. Since that day the business has had reverses and severe 
coinpetitors in the wool market. ]\Iy father's flock was yearly beset 
by dogs. If I could make a law, I would put a tax cf $10.00 per head 
per annum upon all canines in the land. Not long ago one flock- 
master in Colorado lost six hundred sheep by a deep snow. An early 
winter storm was too sudden and severe, 3^et this same storm made 
glad hearts in the valley below by the increase in water for irrigation 
of the farm, the orchard and the vineyard. I learned recently that 
the officials of Montana have put up the bars and sa}' no more sheep 
for us from sister states. Perhaps they have scab and foot-rot enough 
of their own. 

In spite of all these ills our attention is drawn to the packing- 
house industry. How they multiply and expand each year, but their 
growth and prosperity must not be put beside the profit and loss 
account of the producer. His margin is frequently small, while the 
thrift of the packing- house industry is much in evidence at Kansas 
City, these latter da3's. Commissioner Garfield's report on the in- 
dustry does not coincide with the facts here, however plausible it 
.may be. We have no tabulated statement of the profits of one in- 



Winter Meeting. 343 

dustry as compared with another, nor can we show the dechne of 
any industry. Prosperity in most hnes of farm production is at higli 
water mark. 

Now as to Horticulture ; this has been our work for the last 
•seventeen years. We are famiHar with the changing* conditions in- 
cident thereto. We have seen frost, drouth, hail, blight and insects 
with all their accompanying and destructive effects. We have stood 
in the rain and sold berries at 40 cents per crate ; we have also en- 
joyed the bright sunshine and sold them at $4.00 per crate. Our 
balance sheet always showed favorable returns, large or small as the 
case might be. On a small acreage near a large city. Horticulture 
has the decided advantage. Large incomes may be cited in support 
of this proposition. A good asparagus bed will yield from $400.00 
to $700.00 per acre. I have done well with the whole catalogue of 
Horticultural products, with but little distinction as to profit, though 
the peach would be a leader if we could have it every year. 

More, that is to be prized above the profits of the business, is 
to be found in its pleasure and fascination. 

O pleasant orchards, emerald leaves 
And sliining fruit the summer weaves 
Into a jewel of design 
Finer than man will e'er refine. 

I will say to the young man of the city with broken health and 
doubtful salary, try the open fields. To the city girl, I say, that a 
fruit farm will beat your hard earned cash in point of reward and as 
Tierve tonic it is vastly superior to a department store. I know that 
I subject myself to criticism by inviting competitors, but this favored 
land is wide and only partly developed, to all critics I say there is room 
at the top ; climb up higher. ■ 



XyiFFKRENCE IN HANDLING FRUIT NOW AND THIRTY- 
FOUR YEARS AGO. 

(By W. G. Gano, Parkville, Mo., read at the Missouri Valley Horticultural Society.) 

. On coming to Missouri in 1870, my desire was to engage in fruit 
-growing. In March, 1871, I became connected with the Park orchard 
and nursery at Parkville, Mo. This orchard had produced a very 
bountiful crop of fruit the year 1870, and as the surrounding country 
in ttie vicinity of Kansas City had at this date a considerable number 
of orchards coming into bearing, the prices of fruit in the fall of 1870 
•were somewhat lower compared with former years. 



344 State Horticultural Society. 

The principal demand and only mode of transportation for our 
fruits was by wagon to the western plains. Our local city demand was 
veiy limited, being chiefly for immediate use, scarcely ever could wc 
sell a bushel to any store, the citizens occasionally bought a few 
bushel of Geniton apples and buried them in their gardens for home 
use. The general opinion and expression was that in a few years 
apples would- not be worth picking up off the ground ; that there would 
be so many growai they could not be used. We had neither commer- 
cial orchard, commercial varieties nor commercial value. 

At the time of taking- charge of the Park orchard in Alarcli, 1S71,. 
there were in the orchard 500 bushel of Geniton apples, these had 
become slightly frozen on the trees in October, 1870. They were 
afterwards shaken oft', picked up, and placed in piles, then buried. 
On April 14th they were sold at public sale, and I bought them for less 
than 10 cents per bushel. On the 15th day of April. 1871, I was on 
the Kansas City market with two wagon loads of these apples, which 
was my first experience in handling fruit on this market. Consequently,, 
this is my 34th anniversary of that occasion. 

At this date we liad not one single fruit distributing house in 
Kansas City, and 1 have no knowledge of there being one single 
bushel of apples shipped to or from this point. Cold storage was 
unthought of, refrigerator cars were ujiknown, and the masses of the 
people imeducated as fruit consumers, not knowing the valuable 
and necessary elements in fruit for toning and invigorating the human 
system in its every day usage ; they used fruit merely as a novelty. 

A few years later a change began to come, fruit growers began 
planting other varieties of fruits, and small fruits, berries, cherries, 
grapes, etc. Our cherries Avere picked wathout the stems and very 
frequently without the seeds. Then we began picking our cherries with 
stems remaining. And such a howl I and for a wdiile it was almost 
impossible to sell cherries on the Kansas City market that were 
picked wn'th the stems on. People thought it highway robbery to 
measure cherries in that way, but finally this mode of picking was 
adopted. 

Our small fruits were all handled in shallow boxes or trays, in 
shipping Or hauling to market ; those trays were placed on top of 
each other, two or more, and nailed together with cleats. At the 
market the berries or cherries were dipped out wath paddles measured 
in quart, half-gallon or gallon measures to the customers. Grapes 
were also handled in the same w-ay, and weighed out. Peaches and 
pears and soft fruits were handled in our local markets in various 
sized boxes, bee-gums, washing tubs, etc., and some of our more 



Winter Meeting. 345 

progressive fruit growers bought wooden water pails in which they 
handled their peaches, pears and soft fruits. This was a marked 
improvement, and many were the complimentary comments. Then 
the Michigan peach basket, and the one-third bushel box came, the 
IMichigan square cpiart berry box and the Leslie box; first the dry 
measure, then the standard berry box. And as the demand for fruit 
increased the commission men began handling fruit in a small way, 
and under very crude conditions with most unsatisfactor}^ results. 

In 1872 I shipped several cars of apples to Council Blufifs, Iowa, 
loaded in bulk in tight box cars. In 1873 we commenced handling 
our apples in barrels, and I recollect how astonished I was when I 
first saw the apple barrel press used, expecting to see the cider run 
out from the lower end of the barrel. At this date we thought it 
very necessar}^ to pick our apples and put them in piles in our 
orchards, in order to go through a sweat, as we thought to enable 
the apples to keep longer and better, not knowing that every day 
our apples lay in this condition that they were damaging and de- 
teriorating in value. We can now see how soon our apples become 
ripe and mellow lying on the damp ground in the orchard in those 
piles. 

When cold storage first began to be used for keeping fruit the 
results were far from being satisfactory, and the results can be 
attributed principally, to the condition the fruit was in when received 
at the cold storage. Cold storage will never make from small, knotty, 
wormy apples large smooth perfect fruit. Nor will it transform ripe 
mellow fruit into hard, keeping stock, and any mistake made in 
handling fruit can never be remedied by placing it in cold storage. 
It has been but a few years since one of our most enterprising fruit 
growers picked and barreled his apples very early putting them into 
an unventilated cellar, and after letting them remain there for six 
weeks hauled them twelve miles without repacking, every barrel 
loose and slack in packing, and placed them in cold storage. Can 
anyone wonder at the results? But at that time we heard the cold 
storage companies censured for the condition this fruit was in when, 
taken out, which was a very short time after being received. While 
cold storage is not perfect yet, at this date, and very many things are 
still to be learned in handling fruit, I feel sure that the fruit that 
was handled for the World's Fair at St. Louis came out of cold storage 
in better condition, held up longer on the table on exhibition than the 
same varieties did at Chicago, Om.aha, Paris or Buffalo or Charleston. 

Allow me to cite one instance of some Jonathan apples that were 
handled at St. Joseph, Mo., in 1903. These apples were handled 



346 State Horticultural Society. 

by the St. Joseph Cold Storage Co, They were grown at DeKalb, 
Mo., were carefully picked after they had become well colored, placed 
carefully in barrels and not headed. They were hauled on low wagons 
Avith springs, twenty miles to St. Joseph every day as soon as picked 
and loaded, and were placed in cold storage without heading up. In 
March, 1904, these same apples were just as hard, the stems were 
yet as green, as when picked. In repacking not two per cent were 
lost. Two hundred barrels were bought from this lot by the Mis- 
souri State Commission; they were not picked for exhibition nor 
selected, but just counted as they stood on end in cold storage. In 
]^.Tarch, 1904, these apples were double wrapped, first in tissue, then 
in parchment paper and headed in barrels, the work all being done 
in the same room in the storage house in which they were kept. 
They were shipped to St. Louis in iced cars and placed in cold storage 
and they kept perfectly. And as late as October and November, 1904, 
they were taken out in fine condition, still firm, juicy, and crisp, and 
the flavor was pronounced by experts better than the same variety 
grown that year. This is certainly a revelation beyond what we 
thought could be done with the Jonathan in keeping, even five years 
ago. 

It is only since cold storage has come to us that we have rated 
the Jonathan apple as a winter variety. Not only is this the case 
with the apple, but with all kinds of fruits. It is but a few years 
since, if a car of oranges was shipped to this or any other market, 
the shipper aimed to have his car sold to the dealer as soon as it 
arrived, and if the dealer held them for only a short time they had to 
be repacked. Now the dealers buy the same oranges at the same 
place, and stack them up in their store for months with scarcely any 
loss. The same is true in regard to our apples. When we first began 
using cold storage for our apples, the great objection was that they 
went down so very quickl}^ after being taken out. Now, if apples are 
properly handled before being taken into cold storage, and then 
properly handled in cold storage, the keeping qualities of the fruit 
after they are taken out are very much better than when our apples 
went into cold storage in a mellow and ripe condition. 

We now have in Kansas City fifty wholesale and jobbing fruit 
distributing houses. This increase is true not only of Kansas City, 
but of all American cities, and in many a much greater increase. 
We have now great cold storage plants, refrigeration in transit, and 
railroad facilities. And American fruits of all varieties are not only 
handled in every American city, but in almost every European city on 
the continent. We now have millions of fruit consumers, using it 



I 



Winter Meeting. 347 

not as a novelty but as a necessity of health. We now have com- 
mercial orchards, commercial varieties, and commercial value. And 
the more there is grown, the more there is consumed. And in quan- 
tity, quality and variety, and the difference in handling- fruit now, 
•compared with 30 years ago is very great. 



EDUCATIONAL PHASES OE FRUIT GROWING. 

(Trof. S. A. Hoover, Warreusburg, Mo.) 

Primitive man worked from necessity. He had no thoughts beyond 
his brutal wants, and these were few and simple. The seashore with its 
abundant life furnished him much of his food. The woods gave their 
share in the way of game and wild fruits. The hollow tree and the 
natural cave gave him protection from cold and the savage beasts which 
roamed the forests. 

As men multiplied and food and shelter became scarce, then man's 
inventive genius was developed. He built rude huts, made fish-hooks of 
bone, invented traps for catching animals and fashioned some rough tools 
out of stone. He did only what necessity compelled him to do. He had 
not yet developed into a being who works because his work gives him 
pleasure. Later his shelter became a home. He made some crude efforts 
toward decorations. At first his hand was to him knife, fork and table. 
His necessities compelled him to shape from the hard rock a knife. A 
smooth rock was used for a table and a piece of bark made a fairly good 
plate. He slaked his thirst by lying down and drinking from the brook 
or spring. When he could not reach the water in the usual way he dip- 
ped it up with his hand. After centuries of development he made his 
home, his table and his dishes beautiful because it gave him pleasure to 
•do so. This was a work of love and not of necessity. 

Eruit growing combines both necessity and pleasure. To civilized 
man, fruit has become as much of a necessity as bread. No man can 
fully enjoy either life or health without fruit. Not simply an apple for 
■himself or his family, but an abundance the year through, fresh, canned 
-and dried. 

But this is not all, fruit growing gives pleasure to man. No intelli- 
gent being enjoys life in its fullest without work. It is popularly sup- 
posed that Adam had nothing to do except to sit under the trees and en- 
joy the ripened fruit as it fell from the bough. But God had said to 
Tiim "dress the garden and keep it in order." Adam was therefore the 
"first fruit grower of whom we have any record. 



34^ State Horticultural Society. 

In all its stages from the placing of the plant or tree in the ground 
till the ripened fruit is gathered does it give pleasure. A man of the 
right sort, and by the right sort I mean one who from earliest childhood 
has worked with fruit in a small or a large \\ay, much prefers to grow 
his own fruit rather than to have some one grow it for him. To cultivate 
even a small strawberry bed will make one forget all about business wor- 
ries, and by the pleasure it gives may save one from a nervous break- 
down or from the insane asylum. - 

Fruit growing therefore gives both pleasure and profit. From these 
two considerations alone the tax-payer might ask that his child should 
have at least some elementary instructions in Horticulture. 

The objection urged by teachers is that our public school course is 
already overburdened. There is some truth in this, yet it is possible that 
we are teaching many things which are not of the slightest use to the 
child. \\'e compel him to study Greek myths, fairy tales and so-called 
language lessons and literature. Yet we fail utterly to give him a knowl- 
edge of the English sentence. We worry him over Julius Caesar, while 
he is unable to spell very conmion words. He is asked to figure out 
Coleridge's philosophy of life from reading the "Ancient Alariner," when 
it is doubtfid whether the poet himself could have answered that ques- 
tion. 

Teachers force the child to study the star-fish, sea-urchin and other 
marine forms and shut him off from everything pertaining to his sur- 
roundings. Thoughtless pedagoues seem to think they are doing the 
right thing when they set immature students to dissecting animals, sec- 
tioning plants and using the compound microscope. Such work, ac- 
cording to some of the best teachers in the United States, should not be 
attempted even in the high school. We are trying to make specialists 
of pupils before they become generalists. L. H. Bailey says, "The micro- 
scope is not an introduction to the study of nature." The same writer 
says, "Teach first the things nearest to hand. When the pupil has seen 
the common he ma>- be introduced to the rare and the distant. We live in 
the midst of common things." If we drop out the useless things we 
shall have plenty of time to study the useful. Pupils will certainly get 
much more pleasure and profit in studying an apple tree or a strawberry 
plant than in the dissection of a sea-urchin or of a cat. Prof. C. A. 
Whitman, Director of the Marine Biological Station at Wood's Holl, 
^Massachusetts, says in substance, that we have reached the limit of the 
laboratory. What we need now is the biology of the farm. 

Another objection urged against Agriculture and fruit growing is 
that it carries with it no culture. Only languages and literature, ac- 



Winter Meeting. 349 

cording to this theory, are culture studies. There is a reason for this 
idea. Our present schools have come down to us from the monastery 
of the middle ages. In this institution Latin only was studied. He who 
was a sfood Latin scholar was cultured. He who had not studied Latin 
was uncultured. Later Greek was added to this and still later Mathe- 
matics. Within the memory of many people now living these were re- 
garded as the only necessary subjects to be studied. The man who had 
taken a course in Latin, Greek, and Mathematics was a cultured man. In 
the first half of the nineteenth centyry a little Science was added. Chem- 
istry, then Physics or in some instances Physics came first. Biology, as 
a distinctive subject came still later. None of these additions were made 
without a battle. At the present time some of the universities, notably. 
Cornell, have so many courses that it is estimated it would take a man 
working six thousand years to complete all of them. The term culture 
is still used with reference to the languages and literature, and the sciences 
are not generally recognized as culture studies. We believe that this is 
a mistake, and that whatever subject or truth is presented in a peda- 
gogical way it carries with it culture. Just now Agriculture and Horti- 
culture are claiming a place in school sttidies, and we believe that properly 
taught they are equal to any other subject as a means of culture. We be- 
lieve also that we should not look backward to the Periclean age as the 
golden age in the world's history. The 20th. century is unquestionably 
better than any preceding century. If literature and language alone give 
culture, then such men as Newton, Huxley, Faraday, Tyndall and Agassiz 
were uncultured men. 

^Missouri is a great fruit growing State. It has more apple trees per 
capita than any other State in the Union. It sends to market more 
strawberries than any other State. Its strawberries are the finest in the 
world. In simple justice therefore the children of this magnificent State 
should get in the public schools at least an elementary knowledge of fruit 
growing. Instead of cat or crayfish dissecting let them study the straw- 
berry. Instead of racking their brains and making physical wrecks of 
themselves over the obscure poems of Browning, take them out into the 
apple or cherry orchard. Visit the best fruit growers in the neighborhood. 
See how they cultivate their trees and plants ; learn how they conserve the 
moisture in the soil ; how they prune ; how they spray and how they mar- 
ket their fruit. 

In the happy time coming every school will have its own garden, 
where each child may grow some useful plant. Many schools in Germany 
and all schools in France have these now. Shall Imperial Missouri re- 
m.ain behind the rest of the world? In the name of progress, and in the 



350 State Horticultural Society. 

interest of the coming generation, I plead for the rights of the Missouri 
boy and giri. Children thus taught will live purer and happier lives. 
They will not wish to leave the country with all its beauty and pleasures 
for the over-crowded places in the city, 

SUMMARY. 

Fruit growing shouJd be taught in the public schools, because : 
I. Fruit is a necessity io civilized man. 

It ministers to the aesthc.tic taste. 

It brings mental culture. 

It conduces to purity of life. 

It keeps the boy and the girl from'tIi^'".,umiatural and unwhole- 



5 



some life of the city. '" - 



X. 



\ 



• Springfield Mo., January 14, I905- 
L. A. Goodman : " , 

Dear Sir — At the last meeting of the Greene County Horticu^^tural 
Society, it was voted unanimously to send you the congratulations' ^^^ 
good wishes of the Society upon your re-election to the office of Secrei ^^Y^ 
of the State Society, and inform you that we will stand by you in all y '°^'* 
work in the interest of the State Society, and Horticulture at large. \ 

For myself I am more than pleased. I think the results of the Neos "^ 

meeting but prove the old saying that, "Right will in the end prevail ' 

and it certainly gives me great pleasure in sending you this message fror/* 

our local Society. We are having some severe winter weather, but d( ^ 

not think fruit is damaged yet. 

Yours truly, 

•r 
Earl B. Hopkins, 

R. D. 3. Secretary. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 




MISSOURI FRUIT EXHIBIT, WORLD'S FAIR, 1904. 
SHOWING BEAUTIFUL "FACADE." 



Miscellaneuns. 353 



HON. NORMAN J. COLMAN HONORED. 

(Letter from Col. J. C. Evans.) 

My Dear Friend Colman — At the recent meeting of the ^lissouri 
State Horticultural Society, at Neosho, Mo., an interesting history of the 
Society was presented by Prof. Dutcher of Warrensburg, which brought 
up many pleasant recollections of the past, in which you and I were both 
actors. The names of all the original members of the Society were 
mentioned, and the fact was developed that you are the only living person 
that was present at the organization of the Society forty-five years ago, 
and I am the next oldest member. You were the first President of the 
Society, and it was through your earnest efforts that it was organized, 
and it has proved a great blessing to Missouri. 

There has been a place of honor provided by the Society for all 
old-time workers, that of third Vice-president, and such noble workers 
for the Society as Judge Samuel Miller and Mr. C. \\\ INIurtfeldt, who 
had both been connected with the Rural World in former years, in the 
editorial capacity, had been honored by being elected to that position. 
Both have passed away, leaving that office vacant. 

By unanimous vote of the Society, that office was abolished, and the 
office of "Honorary Vice-President" was created and you, as the Father 
■of the Society, were unanimously elected to fill the position for life. I 
wish you could have been present at the meeting. I know the kind 
feeling manifested towards you, and the good words spoken, would 
have been fully appreciated by yon. It was only the oldest members, 
tho'^e who have been in touch with you, who have worked with you, that 
could enjoy it most. Most of our oldest workers have passed away, but 
you and I, and a few of the old school still remain to do what we can to 
help along the cause that our Society was organized to promote and 
which is so dear to our hearts. 

It seems that our tastes run together in another direction. We are 
both fond of camp Hfe ; delight to get out in the forests, and participate 
.in the chase and listen to the music of the hounds. I suppose you had a 
fine time, as usual, this fall in pursuit of deer. This grand sport cannot 
last long in our State. The march of civilization is fast putting an end to 
it. It is only we older ones, who have spent many of our happiest hours 

H— 23 



354 ' State Horticultural Society, 

in this sport, who know how to appreciate it, and what we will miss 
when the deer are all driven out of the State. I hope we may yet be able 
to get together in the same camp and have one good hunt before bidding 
one another adieu forever. I left home on the 9th of November and 
went to my old hunting grounds in Oregon county, and we had one of the 
best hunts we ever had. I killed the largest deer I ever saw, and got 
the finest head of horns ever brought out of that county. Yours truly, 

J. C. Evans. 

Remarks — We do not suppose that the writer intended this letter for 
publication, and we hope he will pardon us for the liberty we have taken 
in publishing it. If there is any one man deserving the highest honors 
the State Society can bestow, it is J. C. Evans. He has been with it in 
good times and bad times. He has been its helping hand on all occasions. 
For tvv'enty years, yes, we believe for thirty years, he was its efficient, 
hard-working President. He and Mr. L. A. Goodman, the Society's 
accomplished Secretary, have given it the highest standing throughout 
the entire country. They have made prominent the wonderful advantages 
Missouri possesses as a fruit growing State. They and Hussman, Miller,. 
Nelson, Murtfeldt and a host of other good men have in their time done 
work of inestimable value to Missouri. 

— Caiman's Rural World. 

HONOR TO NORMAN J. COLMAN. 

The following official letter has been received from the Secretary of 
the Missouri State Horticultural Society: 

Hon. Norman J. Colman, St. Louis, Mo. : 

My Dear Mr. Colman— It is with the greatest pleasure that I notify 
you officially, as Secretary of the Missouri State Horticultural Society, 
of some of the good things said and done at our last State meeting at 
Neosho, Mo., December 20-22, 1904, relative to yourself. 

A resolution was passed unanimously, creating the office of Honorary 
Vice-president for life, and electing you to this position. This was done 
as a slight recognition of your valuable services in promoting the cause 
of Horticulture in this wState, and in the United States in general. 

First, as one of the organizers of the Missouri State Horticultural 
Society in 1859, when fruit growing was in its infancy. 

Second, as President for many years of the State Horticultural 
Society, you have been one of the most prominent promoters and de- 
velopers of the fruit interests of Missouri. 

Third, as editor and publisher of Colman's Rural World, for more- 



I 



Miscellaneous. 355 

than fifty years past, you have been the leader in this development of 
Missouri fruits and other Horticultural interests. 

Fourth, as United States Commissioner of Agriculture at Washing- 
ton by your broad, comprehensive and progressive work for the depart- 
ment, you first secured recognition of Agriculture as worthy a place in 
the President's cabinet, and became first Secretary of Agriculture for the 
United States. 

Fifth, as Secretary, v^e therefore much more honor you because 
of what you did while in charge of the department at Washington. 

First, you established the Department of Pomology, which had never" 
been recognized as worthy of such notice, and by the appointment of a. 
worthy man as the head of that division — Prof. H. E. \'an Deman — youi 
raised the standard of pomology, which has been expanding until it now; 
covers the whole land and is known all over the world. 

Second, you established the Division of Vegetable Pathology, which 
has done so much for our Agricultural and Horticultural uiterests. Mil- 
lions upon millions of dollars had been lost annually by t!ie ravages of 
blights, molds, rusts, smuts, and other vegetable diseases, and no com- 
missioner before your time had appreciated this great loss or had taken 
steps to devote a special division to the study of tlie causes of these 
diseases, or the remedies therefor. Under your appointment of Prof. 
B. T. Galloway, a native Missourian, as head of this division, winch he 
so ably and creditably filled, and which he still occupies, it has become 
one of the most valuable divisions of the Department of Agriculture. 

Third, you established the Division of Ornithology and JMammalogV;, 
one of great importance to both the fruit grower and general farmer. 
The object of this division, as I understand it, was to ascertain which of 
our birds are friends to the farmer and fruit grower, and which are de- 
structive to his crops. To this end the division was to investigate the food 
habits of our birds in relation to Agriculture, Horticulture, and Forestry. 
The same may be said in regard to mammalogy — only it applies 
to animals that are destructive to the farmer, such as the different varie- 
ties of gophers, field mice, striped squirrels, moles, minks, skunks, rabbits, 
etc. The able man whom you appointed as chief of that division — Prof. 
G. C. Merriam — still retains his position, and his annual reports are read 
with great interest and profit. 

Fourth, but the grandest of all the achievements for the farmer^ 
under your administration, was the establishment of the Experiment Sta- 
tions in connection with all the Agricultural Colleges throughout the 
United States. It was the action you took, and the foresight you dis- 
played that secured to us these indispensable appendages to our Agri- 



356 State Horliciiltural Society. 

cultural Colleges. Our Society has not forgotten that not long after you 
had taken your seat as Commissioner of Agriculture you called a con- 
vention of representatives or delegates from all the Agricultural Colleges 
in the United States to assemble at the Department of Agriculture build- 
ing at Washington, and that all the colleges honored your call, and re- 
sponded by sending delegates to that convention, making it one of the 
most important Agricultural Conventions ever held ; that the conven- 
tion honored you and itself by unanimously electing you President, that 
in your address you strongly urged the establishment of Experiment Sta- 
tions in connection with our Agricultural Colleges, so that scientific and 
practical Agriculture might walk hand in hand ; that that part of your 
address relating to this subject was referred to a special committee, and 
vou were added to that committee, and that committee evolved and re- 
ported the Experiment Station bill, which afterwards became, and now 
is the law, establishing Experiment Stations throughout the United States, 
which stations have conferred untold benefits and blessings upon Agri- 
culture, and which will be of inestimable value to future generations, and 
especially to the young men who will be educated at these noble institu- 
tions. 

Fifth, in order to complete and unify the great work of these institu- 
tions, scattered throughout the length and breadth of the United States, 
you established in the United States Department of Agriculture, the Divi- 
sion of Experiment Stations, placing at the head of it that able and ac- 
complished scientist. Prof. Atwater, which division is of incalculable ad- 
vantage to the Agricultural interests of the country by collecting, secur- 
ing and collating information from these ^•arious Experiment Stations, 
and publishing and disseminating what is thought to be the most valuable 
to the dififrent sections of the country. 

For these and many other reasons, my dear ]\Ir. Colman, do you 
Avonder that the fruit growers of our State, in annual convention as- 
rsembled, should show you honor by creating the ofifice of Honorary Vice- 
president for life, and unanimously electing you to that position? It is 
small recompense for your valuable labors, but it is the greatest honor we 
have in our power to confer, and while we give it, we assure you most 
heartily that your good works live and always will live in the hearts and 
minds of the fruit growers and farmers of this great State, which you 
have so highly honored. 

Believe me, yours most truly, 

L. A. Goodman, 
Secretary ^Missouri State Horticultural Society. 



Miscellaneous. 357 



LETTER FROM PROF. WRITTEN. 

Dear Gov. Colman — Now that }Ou have no doubt had time to hear 
officially from the Secretary of your election to the position of Honorary 
\'ice-President of the Missouri Horticultural Society for life, congratu- 
lations are in order from your Horticultural friends. I wish to ex- 
tend mine, not mainly upon this technical act of the Society (for certainly 
nothing which they could do in the way of an official act alone, perhaps, 
could in any way emphasize your merited honors), but upon the manifest 
feeling of the members at the time when this position was created, as 
the most honorable one in the gift of the Society, for the special pur- 
pose of expressing appreciation of the labors of one who is denominated 
"The Father of the Society." I assure you that this expression of the 
Society carried with it the uanimous and heartfelt desire of the Society 
members to voice a very tender sentiment of appreciation. With best 
wishes, very sincerely yours, 

Columbia, ^Mo. J. C. Written, 

President ■Mo. State Horticultural Society. 

LETTER FROM PROF. J. W'. SANBORN. 

Editor Rural World : I very sincerely desire to enroll myself in the 
list of those who are paying a very deserved tribute to Hon. Norman J. 
Colman. During my official connection with the State Agricultural 
College of ^lissouri, and with the State Board of Agriculture many 
years ago I was brought into frequent social and business relations with 
^Ir. Colman, as an oft'icer of both organizations. I found him not only 
a gentleman of great worth and a delightful companion, but an oft'icer 
above reproach. He was an ardent friend of the then struggling official 
and unofficial agricultural interests of Missouri, at a period when some- 
thing more than a passive interest was demanded. The present advanced 
condition of ^Missouri agriculture is very greatly due to his energetic 
and faithful services, and it is a great gratification to me to see a recog- 
nition of this fact, in his day, by so eminent and influential an organi- 
zation as the Missouri State Horticultural Society, in conferring upon 
him its highest honors for life, and to see the cordial support and en- 
dorsement of such well known and worthy men as Secretary L. A. 
Goodman, President J. C. Evans and others, who have justly gained 
more than a State reputation. 



35^ State Horticultural Society. 

Not the least of Mr. Colman's services to Missouri agriculture, and 
to agriculture in the nation as well, was the founding of Colman's Rural 
World, more than half a century ago — a paper that has always fearlessly 
advocated the highest agricultural interests of the State. It ranks among 
the ablest agricultural papers of this country. 

Very truly yours, 

J. W. Sanborn, 
Wilson Farm, Gilmanton. N. H. 



MID-SEASON PEACHES. 

(B.v Edwin H. Riehl.) 

It is settled fact in my mind that we have too many varieties ripen- 
ing in mid-season, which is about now. The markets always have been 
full at this time of the year, but now it is more so, since the favorite, 
Elberta, has become so popular. If peaches are planted to ripen at this 
season, let them be Elbertas, since no other variety will sell as well, or 
^ive the profit that these do. It is without doubt the most valuable 
variety ripening in its season, and other varieties ripening with it should 
not be planted, excepting, perhaps, in case of the family orchard. It wouM 
be well to have a good white peach, like Mixon, Stump or Washington , 
the last preferred ; or a good cling, like Hyslop, for variety, or in case 
Elberta should fail, which it sometimes does in severe winters. Yes, 
and for home use I would add another, the Captain Ede. Like Elberta, 
it is of a rich, yellow color, and, though smaller and for this reason not 
so desirable for market, it is more productive and ever so much better 
in quality. Now, some of you may say that nothing could be better 
than a well ripened Elberta, but you are mistaken there; just try them 
together and you will find as much difference between Elberta and 
Captain Ede, in favor of the latter, as between Ben Davis and Grimes' 
Golden apples. 

I did not bring up this subject because there are too many peaches 
on the market now, for such is not the case ; peaches are in demand and 
anything of fair size sells for a fair price. This, however, is not a big 
peach year. If it were, nothing but Elbertas would be in it. It is no 
trouble to get $1.50 per bushel for Elbertas now, whereas no other variety 
sells for more than $1.25. and they must be extra fancy to bring that. 

Those who think of setting peach trees should s-^lect varieties ripen- 
ing before and after Elberta, especially if for market. F')r early I would 



Miscellaneous. 359 

recommend Sneed, Greenboro and Alton. For late, Heath, Salway, 
Picquet's Late and Smock. It should also be borne in mind that late 
clings, if good, are always profitable. — Colman's Rural World. 



THE BREAKING PLOW. 

The following poem from the pen of Nixen Waterman appeared in 
the January number of Success. It is worth reproducing: 

I am the plow that turns the sod 

That has lain for a thousand years ; 
Where the prairie's v/ind-tossed flowers nod 

And the wolf her wild cub rears, 
I come, and in my wake, like rain, 

Is scattered the golden seed, 
I change the leagues of lonely plain 
To fruitful gardens and fields of grain 

For men and 'their hungry breed. 

I greet the earth in its rosy morn, 

I am first to stir the soil,, 
I bring the glory of wheat and com. 

For the crowning of those who toil ; 
I am civilization's zeal and sign. 

Yea, I am the mighty pen 
That writes the sod with a pledge divine. 
And promise to pay with bread and wine 

For the sweat of honest men. 

I am the end of things that were, 

And the birth of things to be, 
My coming makes the earth to stir 

With a new and strange decree ; 
After its slumbers, deep and long. 

I waken the drowsy sod. 
And sow my furrows with lilts of song 
To glad the heart of the mighty throng 

Slow feeling the way to God. 

A thousand summers the prairie rose 

Has gladdened the hermit bee, 
A thousand winters the drifting snows 

Have whitened the grassy sea ; 
Before rcte curls the wavering smoke 

Of the Indian's smoldering fire. 
Behind me rise— was it God who spoke?— 
At the toil-enchanted hammer's stroke. 

The town and the glittering spire. 

I give the soil to the one who does, - 

For the joy of him and his, 
I rouse the slumbering world that was 

To the diligent world that is ; 
Oh ! seer with vision that looks away 

A thousand long years from now, 
'I'he marvelous nation your eyes survey 
Was born for the purpose that here, today, 

Is guiding the breaking plow ! 



3^0 State Horticultural Society. 



THE SHADE. 

This tree, which stands with arms outspread. 

With leaves like fingers tremulous ; 

To seize all coolness overhead 

And softly waft it down to us, 
This tree— it means a hundred years 

Of rain and sun, of drought and dew. 
Before this shade which rests and cheers 

Into today's perfection grew. 

Some kindly one— forgotten now— 

May thoughtfully have placed the seed, 
Foreseeing that each reaching bough 

Would satisfy a worn one's need. 
Whoe'er he was, that unknown one. 

Who set the seed, or sproutlet slim, 
He knew not that he had begun 

What stands a monument to him. 

The trees— the kindly trees— that blaze 

With spring's green flame or autumn's blush, 
The sentry fires that line the ways 

Into the woodland's peaceful hush- 
Through all the years they slowly grow 

Until they shield the flowered sod ; 
The trees— the kindly trees— they show 

The patient thoroughness of God. 

This tree, which stands with arms outspread, 

Seems to pronounce while standing thus, 
A blessing, and to gently shed 

A benediction over us. 
The sunlight shuttles through the leaves 

AVith threads of gold that flash and play, 
Across the warp of shade it weave.s 

The mingled fabric of the day. 

— W. D. Xesbit, in American Truck Farmer. 



FRO'AI HOME ACRES. 

A sense of pureness of the air. 
Of wholesome life in growing thing. 
Trembling of blossom, blade and wing. 
Perfume and beauty everywhere,— 
Skies, trees, the grass, the very loam, 
I love them all : this is our home. 

Million on million years have sped. 
To frame green fields and bowering hills; 
The mortal for a moment tills 

His span of earth, then he is dead; 

This knows he well, yet doth he hold 

His paradise like miser's gold. 



Miscellaneous. 3^^^ 

I would be nobler than to clutch 

.My little world with gloating grasp; 

Now, while I live, my hands unclasp. 
Or let me hold it not so much 
For my own joy as for the good 
Of all the gentle brotherhood. 

And as the seasons move in mirth 

Of bloom and bird, of snow and leaf. 

May my calm spirit rise from grief 
In solace of the lovely earth ; 
And though the land lie dark or lit, 
Let me but gather songs from it. 

— R. W. Gilder. Atlantic. 



DUST SPRAYING. 

The golden medium we think is expressed by Prof. H. A. Surface, 
M. S., Economic Zoologist, Pennsylvania State Department of Agricul- 
ture, in his monthly bulletin for June, 1904, he says : 'Tor effectiveness, 
it has not yet been proven entirely equal to the liquid spray, for all insects 
and diseases of plants which have been treated by spraying, but with the 
same time, expense and effort, it can be made as effective as the old 
style methods of spraying with liquids, and this means that three times 
as many applications can be made, with less heavy work, less pumping 
for men, and pulling for horses, and without necessity of obtaining watei" 
for the work." 

During the past season two of the schools have produced and pub- 
lished the formula for a dry Bordeaux, having all the chemical properties 
of the liquid Bordeaux, but whether the growers wish to exactly copy 
after the chemical combinations in the liquid Bordeaux is still an open 
question. Mr. W. D. Maxwell who has had thirty-five years' experience 
in growing fruit, and who has used both the liquid and the dust, and the 
dust exclusivelv the last three seasons, stated before the Missouri State 
Horticultural Society at its late meeting at Neosho, Mo. : "I will stay with 
the dust, until the advocates of the liquid spray can offer me something- 
better than they have ever done." 

At the late meeting of the Kansas State Horticultural Society, held 
in Topeka, Kansas, Mr. Hale on whose Georgia farm the government ex- 
pert conducted the test last season to determine the relative value of both 
systems of spraying on peach rot, asked Mr. Goodman, Secretary of the 
Missouri State Horticultural Society, the following pointed question : 
"Mr. Goodman, if you had an orchard where water is available, and 
where the lay of the land is such that a wagon can be driven over it, 
would you use the dust process?" Mr. Goodman replied: "Yes, I 



Z^2 State Horticultural Society. 

would use both. I would not discard the liquid process for the dust, 
but would add the dust sprayer to my equipment and use both, for there 
are times when one cannot use the liquid practicably, when the dust pro- 
cess would be beneficial." Secretary Goodman, than whom no man 
knows better what he is talking about on fruit matters, has used the dry 
conveyor for four years. Mr. Hale, with his usual Yankee sagacity, 
goes to the best unbiased authority in his class of growers, and shoots 
the above question right at him in "open meeting." Mr. Goodman's an- 
swer is just as specific and direct as Mr. Hale's question and leaves no 
room for discussion or wabbling. 



SACKING GRAPES SUCCESSFULLY. 

(W. H. Ragan, Department of Agriculture.) 

Grapes have a number of enemies ; some are of fungous origin, others 
are insects, and still others are birds. They may be effectually protected 
and shielded from many enemies by the proper use of sacks. The sacks 
recommended for use are made of tough paper, and may be purchased 
cheaply by the thousand, if necessary, from dealers in supplies of this 
character. They are such as grocers use for putting up small packages 
for their customers. Those holding about one quart, known as two- 
pound sacks, are a good size for most varieties of the grape. A few 
varieties having very large clusters may require larger sacks. 

A single sack is to be placed over each cluster and made fast by the 
use of a pin, small wire or tie of some kind, and allowed to remain there 
until the friut is ripe and read)- for use. To be thoroughly effectual as 
a safeguard against the attacks of disease and insects, the sack must be 
placed over the cluster soon after the blooming season is past ; if possible, 
before the young grapes are larger than bird shot. A little delay will 
often give the germs of disease and depredating insects an opportunity 
to plant themselves on or in the newly formed fruit, when the sacks will 
fail to perform the good service expected of them. 

The sacks are easily and quite rapidly applied, especially where the 
vines are properly trained, as the fruit clusters will then be in easy reach 
of the operator and will be much fewer in numbers and of better size 
than if the vines were neglected. The expense of sacks and labor is 
trifling, and the good results are beyond question. They may be sum- 
marized as follows : Sacks, protect grapes from rot and mildew ; from 
various insects, including bees, wasps, hornets and flies of all kinds, and 



Miscellaneous. 363 

from the sting of the grape moth and curcuHo that produces the larva 
or worm that is so often found within the berry itself, and they protect 
them from the attacks of several kinds of birds that break the skin of 
grapes and invite further injury by bees and insects and from chickens. 
•Grapes that have been sacked are always clean and free from dust and 
smoke, and being sound may be allowed to remain for use much longer 
on the vine than those not sacked. Indeed, they may remain on the vine 
until they are in danger of being frozen, and if then cut when dry and 
laid away in a cool, well-ventilated room, with the sacks on, they may be 
"kept for use for a long time, after grapes that were not sacked are gone. 
The operator — perhaps the farmer's wife or daughter — equipped with 
sacks and pins or wires, slips the open mouth of a sack over the newly 
formed cluster of grapes and folding it down about the stem, pins it in 
place or makes it fast by passing a very small piece of pliable wire around 
the neck of the sack, and the work is done. The pins can be of the 
cheapest make, or if wire is used, it should be cut before-hand into 
lengths of about 4 inches. The mouth of the sack must be carefully 
folded about the stem of the bunch, or otherwise it may admit insects or 
disease germs or even rain water that will sometimes fail to find its way 
out through the sack, and it would thus spoil the fruit. A little. practice 
will soon render the operator expert m aflfixing the sacks. — Orange Judd 
Farmer. 



PARASITE FOR CODLING MOTH IS AT WORf 



IV. 



The long heralded and much advertised parasite for the codling 
moth is at last at work in the orchards of California. The first distribu- 
tions were made during the past week, eight colonies being sent out to 
orchards in different parts of the State, most of them going to localities 
in the Paparo valley. Other colonies will be sent out soon, distribution 
of the insect to be made to all of the principal apple producing sections 
of the state. 

Mr. George Compere, the discoverer and collector of this parasite, 
returned to San Francisco this week, after his long absence in Europe, 
and the colonization of the parasite is being made under his personal 
supervision, he and Mr. Ehrhorn having visited the various localities for 
the purpose of liberating colonies of the insects. 

Mr. Compere, who was seen at the office of Mr. Ehrorn this week, 
by a representative of California Fruit Grower, is enthusiastic over the 
possibilities of this little insect. But he does not count on mere pos- 



364 State Horticultural Society. 

sibilities. In liis mind there is not the slightest doubt that this parasite 
will prove to be effective in the destruction of the codling moth. And 
from the work being done by the insect in the office at the Ferry building, 
it would appear that Mr. Compere has good grounds for his belief. In 
this office are a large number of jars in which the parasite is at work on 
its enemy, and the industry displayed by the little creature promises 
much for the apple orchards of California, and eventually of the whole 
country. In every jar are a number of pieces of apple branches in which 
slits have been made. In these slits are the larva of the codling moth, 
and flying about in the jars or walking about from place to place on the 
sticks are the parasites busily employed in stinging the codling moth to 
death and laying on their bodies the eggs which are later to hatch out 
into other parasites. 

This parasite, which bears the formidable name of Ephialtes carbon- 
arious, is a slender little insect, the female xbeing about a half an inch 
long, exclusive of the ovipositor and its sheath, which are a little longer 
than the body of the Ephialtes. This ovipositor is very slender and it is 
with this that the parasite kills the codling moth and lays its eggs. The 
process is a very interesting one to watch. When the insect finds where 
one of the moths lies hidden under the wood is raises the posterior part 
of its body into the air, withdraws the ovipositor from its sheath and 
inserts it through the wood into the body of the moth, often jabbing it 
in several times. Then, as it withdraws the ovipositor it lays on the body 
of the moth an egg and immediately goes in search of another codling 
moth, where it repeats the process. How many eggs one parasite is 
capable of laying is not known, but it is probable that it lays about as 
many as does the codling moth. One of the curious facts concerning 
the latter is that nothwithstanding the great amount of study that has 
been put upon it and the large sums expended in research concerning 
the insect, nobody has yet determined the number of eggs that it lays. 
This is merely a matter of detail, one that could easily be determined by 
observation. That it has not yet been determined does not speak well 
for the carefulness of the work of some of the investigators. 

After being stung it takes the moth some little time to die — about 
twenty minutes. The natural heat of its body is sufficient for the hatch- 
ing out of the egg, which takes place within 24 hours after it is deposited. 
The larva of the parasite, which is a little, corkscrew-shaped animal, im- 
mediately begins to suck the juices of the body of its host, this constitu- 
ting its nourishment. It goes through the various stages of metamor- 
phosis, developing finally into a winged insect like its parent. 

Mr. Compere states that in Spain, where he obtained the parasite. 



Miscellaneous. 365 

climatic conditions are similar to those in this State. He says that he has 
even found the insect at work in parts of the country where there was 
5now. Consequently he is confident that it will have no trouble in adapt- 
ing itself to conditions in this country. It will, however, be probably 
about a year before any decided results can be looked for, as it will take 
about that long for the parasite to become established in sufficient num- 
bers to produce any marked effect. The success of this experiment means 
the saving to the country of many millions of dollars, as the destruction 
of the codling moth, it is estimated, would at least double the possible 
production of apples. — California Fruit Grower. 



NATURE STUDY. 

Nature Study, says Prof. S. H. Bailey, in the New York Evening 
Post, is not merely adding of more "work" or another "exercise" or 
period to the school. To lead the child to see and to know the things 
with which he comes daily into contact is Nature Study. It will be seen 
at once, therefore, that nature study is an attitude and a point of view, 
not a method or system. The methods will be as various as the teachers. 
Here and there it will be over exploited and over methodized; now and 
then the name will be dropped, and person will say that the subject is 
dead or is passing away ; but the essence of it can never pass away, be- 
cause it is fundamental to the best living. — Practical Fruit Grower. 



SPRAYING THE APPLE. 

Our Horticultural Msitor : 

The business end of this proposition is, does it pay? I am very sure 
it does not, as practiced by at least one-half of those who are trying to 
•spray. There is no other orchard operation so important or that will 
Ijring one-quarter the returns as spraying properly done. 

In the commercial apple growing section of Illinois we have found 
that winter or spraying when orchard is in dormant state with Bordeaux 
mixture or weak solution of blue vitriol does not pay. We get the best 
results b}^ making the first application when bloom buds begin to burst ; 
second application when the bloom is shedding or petals are falling ; third 
application ten days later. 

It pays well to make later applications in seasons that are favorable 
for the development of apple scab. 



Z^ State Horticultural Society. 

It should be understood that the greater part of the benfits of spray- 
ing come the following year. 

A. V. Shermerhorn, 

Kinmundy, Illinois. 



SPRAYING. 

(Read at the Arkansas State Horticultural Meeting, C. H. Dutclier Warrensburg. ) 

The importance of spraying can not be overestimated. A few fully 
realize this, and have agitated the subject much in the last ten years; yet 
many fruit growers are not properly aroused to its importance. Why? 
Ever since the days of Patrick Henry — how much longer I know not — 
it has been natural for man to indulge in the illusions of hope. Indeed, 
after so many years of agitation on this subject, the printing of so many 
papers in our reports, the publishing of so many articles in our journals, 
we are impressed with the fact that many of us are apt to shut our eyes 
against a painful truth, and listen to- the song of some siren that tells 
us not this year — the bugs may all be gone next — not this time — you have 
seen as good apples and as good orchards that were never sprayed as 
those produced by your neighbors who have sprayed, and sprayed again, 
almost from the time the trees were set out. 

Is this the part of wise men? Do you not know that that very 
spraying, that expenditure of some money and much muscle, if they 
used the liquid spray pump, fully accounts for your good orchard, and 
apples? Such men are simply parasites upon those engaged in a great 
and arduous struggle that every family in the land may have a reason- 
able supply of good and wholesome fruit upon their tables. You are 
disposed to be of the number of those who having eyes see not, and 
having ears hear not the things which so nearly concern our debilitated 
digestive organs, and a deranged and gorged condition of the liver — 
much of which can be and should be prevented by a sufficient supply of 
well matured and properly cared for fruit. 

Do you hope each year that this will be the last of the bugs? This 
is surely "indulging in illusions of hope." The enemy is upon us. In 
great numbers they are swarming round about us. We have fungi 
here and fungi there — and then more fungi. On this limb and upon that 
■ — a few here and more there ; and this will continue as long as heat and 
moisture prevail upon the earth. Today the tree is smooth and bright 
and healthy, and the buds are swelling — but tomorrow, behold! The 



Miscellaneous. 367 

apple bud louse is sucking the very life out of the buds. And this he 
will continue to do unless you give him a liberal supply of kerosene 
emulsion, or dust him with ground lime and concentrated lye. Then 
there are other insects of the same nature. They come into the world 
a-sucking — never get strong enough or dignified enough to eat or bite, 
but continue to suck their miserable lives away, as well as the life of the 
bud, leaf and limb upon which they feed. 

But this is only the beginning. Bud-moth, canker worm, codling 
moth and gouger are lurking in every secret place waiting their ap- 
pointed time. It will soon be here, and if we do not fight, "the next gale 
that sweeps from the north," and from the south, east and west as well, 
wall bring to our ears at least an imaginary chirrup, hum and whir of 
millions of these pestiferous enemies, besides many that come in the 
night as quietly and stealthily as a Japanese army or Togo's gunboat 
flotilla. 

"VVe must spray! I repeat it, sir, we must spray! We have no 
election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire 
from the contest. The war is actually begun, and it is vain to extenuate 
the matter. We may cry ease, ease ; but there is no ease ; and if we 
stand here idle, our fruit will be ruined, and we shall be swept from 
the woods, for such and such only will our orchards soon become." 

Gentlemen, if a bird law is a good thing, why not a spray law that 
would compel every raiser of fruit to spray his trees? Many would 
object, o£ course, but laws should be made to secure the greatest good 
to the greatest number. The objectors know they dO' fight insects on 
their hogs and chickens, calves, colts and kids, and if their neighbors do 
not help at least in this last case they get mad, and take their children 
out of school. 

But upon this enough for the present. We naturally ask how, with 
what, and when shall we spray ? The method and material used are 
so dependent they may be discussed together. There are tw^o methods. 
The old or liquid spray, the new or dust spray. In method these are 
quite different; in material, much alike. 

The old uses water as a conveyor, which has no value other than to 
make a heavy load, and on a warm, dry day facilitate fungous growth. 
The new uses lime for a conveyor, which is light, a well known fertilizer, 
very useful on all sandy land, and to no mean degree both a fungicide 
and an insecticide. 

For a fungicide the old uses copper sulphate, either in solution or 
as liquid Bordeaux. Only in a simple solution in water can they get 
copper sulphate on their trees, for the moment they add lime to neutralize 



368 State Horticultural Society, 

the free acid of the sulphate they form several inert compounds, and 
only one that has any fungicidal or insecticidal property. This is also 
true of the new method, if they dry slack their lime with the sulphate 
solution, or if they use the dry dust Bordeaux prepared by Dr. Bird. 
I do not know how this is with Leggett's Bordeaux, for I do not know 
how it is made. When last December I said : "Only when we can 
grind dry lime and bluestone together can we get a good Bordeaux, that 
is apply bluestone, sulphate or copper, to our trees," I was wrong on 
two counts. I have stated above that in a simple aqueous solution, the 
liquid spray men do put sulphate of copper on their trees, and in the 
second place, later experiments show that in the grinding of lime and 
copper sulphate together, the water of crystallization is set free and the 
same inert compounds are made. The latest method is to grind the 
lime and sulphate separately and mix them by sifting through a very fine 
sieve. When this mixture is blown upon the trees, powdered copper 
siilphate is placed directly upon the fungus, there to slowly but surely 
do its work. If this proves to be as effective as is hoped, it will be 
better than the water solution, for it is not at all limited in its application, 
while copper sulphate solution can be used only before the buds open. 
As an insecticide for all eating insects both schools use Paris Green 
or some other arsenical poison. The one adds it to their liquid Bor- 
deaux, the other to their powdered lime and sulphate. Each can add 
concentrated lye if deemed advantageous, while only the new school can 
add sulphate. Both agree in spraying for fungi throughout the season, 
and this is undoubtedly right. 

As an insecticide for sucking insects the old school uses kerosene 
emulsion ; the new, lime and a double strength of concentrated lye. 
Both have a caustic — the one soap — the other lime and lye. But the 
kerosene in the emulsion, a most valuable ingredient for the destruc- 
tion of sucking insects, can be used only by the old school. The 
greater ease, however, with which the lime and lye can be applied, and 
the cheapness of the dust, may fully compensate for the loss of the 
kerosene. 

As a fungicide that will not stain the fruit, the old school uses 
ammoniacal copper carbonate solution, instead of Bordeaux ; the new, is 
not afraid of staining anything. Their formulae are simple, and the 
mixtures easily made. For fungous diseases they use ground lime, 
ground copper sulphate mixed with lime, called "Sal Bordeaux" or "Dry 
Bordeaux Mixture," sulphur and concentrated lye, if deemed necessary. 
The lye is hardly needed if the lime is the best, fresh and well burnt. 
And the sulphur is hardly worth the cost and trouble as a fungicide. 



Miscellaneous. 369 

For insects that eat or bite the leaf, they simply add Paris Green to the 
fungicide. For plant lice and scale insects, they add a double portion of 
concentrated lye. In these formulae anybody's Bordeaux can be sub- 
stituted and any duster on the market may be used. 

As to the when to spray, I need say but little. Remember that the 
battle is not to the strong alone ; it is to the vigilant, the active. Watch 
vour trees. Examine them early and often. As soon as an injurious 
insect appears apply the proper remedy thoroughly and well. Use fungi- 
cides all the time. If you use liquid, make a fine, yes, a very fine spray, 
and quit before the tree drips. If you use the dry spray, enough 
material to make sufficient dust to be readily seen should be used. More 
is useless and a waste. The younger the larvae the easier it is to 
kill them. Spray for canker worm as soon as the eggs are hatched. 
Give another dose the next day and another the third. Spray for 
codling moth just before the bloom opens, and again as soon as the petals 
have fallen, but not while in bloom. Repeat in ten days, and then every 
two weeks through July and August to catch the second crop that injures 
our winter varieties. In conclusion I commend you to Prof. Bailey's 
wise words : "The trinity of successful orcharding is cultivation, fertili- 
zation and spraying." 



KEIFFER PEARS SELF-FERTILIZING. 

(Prof. J. C. Whitten.) 

Question. — I have a fine orchard of Keift'er pears, set two years 
ago. I would like to know if it is advisable to plant some Garbers 
near them in order to secure fertilization of the flowers, or does the 
Keiffer fertilize its own flowers? Is the Garber as .good a pear as 
the Keiffer? 

Answer. — Our experience with the Keift'er shows that it is capable 
of self-fertilization, and that it often produces good crops of fruit 
where its flowers do not receive pollen from any other variety. Some 
years, however, it fails to properly fertilize its own flowers, and I am 
inclined to the belief that it is wise to plant at least a small block of 
Garbers near it to secure better fertilization of its flowers. The Garber 
ripens ahead of the Keift'er and is out of the way before the latter comes 
on the market. It is no better pear than the Keift'er, in fact, hardly 
so good, but some Garbers may be marketed before the Keiffers are ready. 

H-24 



370 State Horticultural Societv. 



BEST PLUMS FOR MISSOURI. 

Question — I would like to ask what are the best varieties of plums 
for central Missouri. Will the Japanese varieties succeed along the 
Missouri river hills? 

Answer — Among the best varieties of plums for central Missouri 
are Shropshire Damson, which is about the most profitable European 
plum here ; Wild Goose, Wayland and Miner among the Americans, and 
Abundance, Chabot and Burbank among the Japanese. The Wayland 
ripens late, when the weather is cool for local preserving. The Japanese 
varieties are about as hardy as the peach and thrive wherever hardy 
peaches may be grown. The three sorts named do especially well in 
central Missouri and are large and fine appearing. 



BEST VARIETIES OE CHERRIES. 

Question — What are the best varieties of cherries for southeast Mis- 
souri ? I want to plant out a small orchard. I am told that the sweet 
cherries will not do well in the west. 

Answer — The Early Richmond and English Morello are the best 
commercial cherries for Missouri. Sometimes the Montmorency and 
some other sorts do well enough to justify plating of them, but the two 
first named are generally the most profitable. The sweet cherries do 
not thrive well in the West. — American Truck Farmer. 



MANAGEMENT OE HILLSIDE ORCHARDS. 

(Edwin H. Riehl, North Alton, 111.) 

Hillsides planted to fruit trees will, under proper management, often 
yield better profits than they could be made to do in any other way. I 
have found, as a rule, that the best results from hillside orchards are 
obtained when only an occasional cultivating is given, and that, quite 
shallow. Holes should be dug large, and in planting, the trees should be 
placed near the lower side of the hole, so as to be certain about getting 
trees in to the proper depth. Most of and the longest roots should be 
turned toward the upper side of the hole. And, in many cases, but little 



Miscellaneous. 371 

of the earth, thrown out in digging the holes, should be used in planting 
the trees ; good, mellow surface soil should be used instead. When 
trees are thus firmly set, invert the sod below the tree, and place thereon 
the earth thrown out in digging the holes. Now take out a sloping sec- 
tion of sod all around the margin where the hole was dug and invert 
about the tree, so as to form a sort of basin above each tree. This mav 
be then filled with good stable manure, but it should not touch the tree. 
In this way a hillside orchard may be grown very successfully without 
any cultivation whatever, providing, of course, that soil and location 
are favorable. For an established hillside orchard that needs feeding,, 
nothing is better than a good dressing of stable manure, hauled direct 
from the stable. The prevention of washing is another point in favor 
of manure for hillside orchards. 

Btid Selection — The subject of whether or not it pays to propagate 
from favorite trees, plants, etc., is still going the rounds of the press, and 
while most writers are in favor of the idea, we occasionally hear from a 
successful grower who thinks there is little or nothing in it. As for 
myself, I feel well repaid for the trouble I have gone to in such selecting 
in the past, and shall keep it up. Just think of the wonderful results 
obtained through the careful selection of corn for seed. And none the 
less marked have been our results in selecting the best hills of sweet 
potatoes each year for seed. If it pays so well with grain and vegetables, 
why should it not with fruits? If not already done, now is a good time 
to cut scions and cuttings, which should be packed away in moist sphag- 
num moss or damp sawdust, and stored in a cool cellar. 

Seeding the Orchard — If your stand of erass or clover in the orchard 
i? not good, and you wish it so, give the orchard a good harrowing just 
as early as soil is dry enough to crumble nicely. Sow seed as wanted,, 
and harrow again the other way. The harrowing will not injure the 
grass already established, but, on the other hand, will do it good. If 
peaches pull through, I will want my orchard in clover. I shall cut the 
first crop for hay and allow the second growth to remain on the ground. 
I don't like to cultivate during a season when trees are bearing, for the 
reason that fruit is more liable to rot, and all fruit that falls to the ground 
is soiled, and unfit for market. I would prefer clover because it is more 
beneficial to the soil than timothy and other grasses ; it matures early and 
the stubbles are not so apt to puncture the fruit that falls, much of which 
can often be disposed of in the local markets when not soiled or badly 
punctured. I have seen cases where enough was made from the fallen 
fruit in a peach orchard to pay the expenses of growing and handling 
the crop, which made the returns for picked fruit all profit. It is to be 



3/2 State Horticultural Society. 

hoped that some of us will be able to put these suggestions into practice 
the coming season. 

About Dust Spray — In summing up the many reports on dust spray- 
ing, it seems that it is not a complete success for general orchard work. 
It is to be hoped, however, that further experiments will reveal some 
methods of preparing and applying, that will give results equal to those 
of liquid spraying, as the former can be applied with greater ease and 
less annoyance than the liquid. There is no question in my mind but 
that the dust spray is the best to use on grape vines, currant bushes, 
potatoes, melons and other vegetable and small fruit plants. I have 
used it on such for a number of years and with best results. — Colman's 
Rural World. 



OLD SOLOMON'S TREE. 

(An Arbor Day Toem.) 

Old Solomon Gallup he planted a tree 

By the little log cabin he made. 
"There is nothin' like green stuff a-wavin'," said he, 
"And though I shan't live its full beauty to se^, 
There's other folks comin" along after me, 
And I reckon I'll give 'em some shade." 
So he planted a twig where the sunshine and rain 
Made sport of his little lone hut on the plain. 

The shower's of April fell gently and still. 

And the breezes of summer time blew. 
And the winter winds howled over meadow and hill, 
And the sun lent its warmth, and the frost sent its chill. 
And the snow cloaked the fields, and the ice choked the rill, 
But the little twig blossomed and grew ; 
And the robin that swayed on its first little limb 
Was sure that that tree had been planted for him. 

Old Solomon slept, and they laid him away, 

And the little log cabin came down. 
And where it had nestled, storm beaten and gray, 
.\ bigger house rose, mid the hammer's rough play. 
.'Vnd over its new painted gables so gay 

The tree spread its boughs like a crown ; 
And the young bride and groom, 'neath its green garments hem. 
Were sure that that tree had been planted for them. 

The years came and went, and a village was theye, 

A city whose race had begun : 
The prairie was checkered with street and with spa? re. 
And church spire and chimney shot high into air. 
But, grander than these, as a giant his hair. 
The tree shook its leaves in the snn ; 
And the children who danced where the cool shadows pla\ed 
Knew well 'twas for them that those shadows were made. 



Miscellaneous. 373 



Old Solomon Gallup, forgotten is he, 

And the cabin, few know where it stood ; 
But the robins still sing in the top of that tree, 
The lovers still whisper beneath it, and free 
The laugh of the children still rings— and to me 
It seems that his labor was good. 
And bird song and laughter and lover's low tone 
Are epitaphs better than those on a stone. 

— Joe Lincoln. 

— National Fruit Gron'cr. 



STERILITY IN THE JAPANESE PLUMS. 

(Prof. M. B. W.iite, U. S. Department of Agriculture ; 

Since my discovery of self-sterility in apples and pears, other in- 
vestigators have extended this principle to other fruits. Notably, Prof. 
Beach of the New York Experiment Station at Geneva has shown that 
many varieties of cultivated grapes are incapable of setting fruit from 
their own pollen and require cross-pollination with another variety. Goff 
in Wisconsin, Waugh in Vermont and Massachusetts, and Fletcher in 
New York state have extended this principle to plums. While in case 
of the Domestic plums self-sterility does not seem to be so definitely 
proved as with the Japanese and with the natives, it probably is only a 
question of experimenting to find that at least a certain amount of self- 
sterilitv exists. 

As to the self-sterility of Japanese plums, it being asserted by some 
that the}' are capable of fruiting with their own pollen, I am very well 
satisfied, both as to the result of the work of the investigators before 
mentioned and from experiments carried on recently in my own plum 
orchard, that the Japanese plums are practically self-sterile and require 
cross-pollination to insure fruitfulness. Not only the ordinary, common 
Japanese varieties, such as Abundance, Burbank, Red June, Chabot, 
Agen, etc., are decidedly self-sterile to their own pollen, but the related 
variety, the Wickson, a hybrid between the Japanese and Prunus Simonii. 

Furthermore, I have three trees of W^ickson planted in a pear orchard 
nearly half a mile from my plum orchard, and while they have bloomed 
profusely, they have never set a single fruit, although trees of the same 
age standing alongside other varieties in the plum orchard on the same 
farm have fruited heavily. 

The Japanese phmis are not only extremely fertile and fruit very 
heavily when cross-pollinated with the other varieties of their own group 
(as for instance Abundance pollen on Burbank, or vice versa), but they 
are also fertile when pollinated by the natives and probably most other 



374 State Horticultural Society. 

plums. \\'ith these plums as with other fruits, self-sterility obtains only 
in a relative degree. Under extremely favorable circumstances, with all 
conditions just right, doubtless they might be able to set a considerable 
number of fruits. 

The Kieffer pear, for instance, is commonly self-sterile, and re- 
sponds beautifully to cross-pollination.. However, under favorable con- 
ditions in certain seasons when the trees are well nourished and ex- 
tremely favorable weather occurs during bloom they will set fairly large 
crops of fruit under the influence of their own pollen. Under these 
favorable conditions, however, where cross-pollination is possible, the 
trees literally break themselves to pieces from overloading. 

The only safe way in planting out these plums, and in fact most of 
the fruit trees, except peaches and perhaps quinces, is to assume self- 
sterility and plant not more than from three to five rows of one variety in 
a solid block, placing the varieties, which bloom at approximately the 
same time alongside, so that insects can carry the pollen from one to 
another. No one can afford to take chances on self-sterility by planting 
a single variety, no matter how promising it may be. — Orange Judd 
^Farmer. 



THE ARRAXGEAIENT OF FLOWFRS. 

(Annice Bodey Callancl ) 

Some persons have a natural gift for arranging flowers artistically, 
just as some have a genius for painting, music or poetry. The Japanese 
are certainly so blessed; they do not follow our customs of arranging 
flowers, but place just one perfect blossom in a choice receptacle, yet 
they have a thousand fancies for arranging flowers, selecting them for 
certain occasions with regard to their color and sentiment. 

Those who have not the natural gift for arranging plants and flowers 
may do much toward improving their "sense of the iitness of things" by 
studying nature. She has her own rules for the use of color, whether 
she is painting a landscape or a carnation, and never makes a mistake 
in the arrangement. 

If you would know how much more pure are the colors of flowers 

than the paint of the artist, just give a dab of cadmium yellow or chrome 

yellow on a petal of the California poppy or a dab of pink madder on a 

pink rose petal, or a cobalt blue on a purple aster. One is surprised at 

:the dull, dead appearance of the paint. The artist soon learns the great 



Miscellaneous. 375 

influence colors exert on their surroundings and on each other, that yel- 
low makes purple seem more purple, that blue-green makes scarlet the 
more intense, that orange makes blue bluer, and pale olive green makes 
pink pinker. 

There is no color arrangement when yellow marigolds, purple pansies, 
pink phlox and crimson zinnias ate all hobnobbing in the same bouquet. 
It is best to make up a bouquet of single varieties of flowers, or of varie- 
ties that are harmonious. By the intervention of space or other color, 
they will not appear to be a constant warring of colors. O'ne would 
surely not prefer a cluster of pink and yellow roses when he can as easily 
have the color all pink or all yellow, or pink and white, or yellow and 
white. 

Nature's grandest effects invariably have a key — red, yellow, green 
or blue, and all other color is strictly subordinate or is merely a sugges- 
tion. Flower colors are too intense to allow of the huge conglomerate 
packs that are indiscriminately arranged by a careless hand. It does 
the flowers a gross injustice. Three or four blossoms with suitable 
■"green" artistically arranged have a much better effect than the hetero- 
geneous masses one not infrequently sees. Much or little green in a 
bouquet is merely a matter of taste ; it should, when possible, be of the 
same plant as the blossom. When this is not advisable, as in the nicotiana 
■or petunia, on account of the appearance of the fohage, or in the pansy 
■or sweet pea, when cutting the foliage destroys the plant, one can, by 
using taste, find some suitable foliage. The old-fashioned Southern 
Avood is fine to use with some flowers ; so is the Boston fern. Asparagus 
sprengeria is lovely. Smilax and ivies will be found to be very useful. 

White flowers always combine well with others of the same varieties. 
If care is taken in shading, all colors of the same flower may be made 
to look well together, though, as a rule, the simpler the better, as white 
and yellow chrysanthemimis, white and purple lilacs, white and purple 
asters. Never place more than two varieties of flowers in one cluster, 
and let one of them be a modest unobstrusive blossom. 

Arrange flowers according to their habits of growth. This requires 
a study of nature and her arrangements. Let the decorations be timely 
as Harrissii and candium lilies with ferns for Easter; chrysanthemums, 
asters, witch-hazel, etc., for Thanksgiving ; red berries, holly and re 1 
•carnations for Christmas, or such should at least be the keynote in the 
arrangement. 

Even after the vases and baskets are all filled, all is not done, for 
a wrong placing of them will spoil the whole effect. Nature has all 
out-doors, with a back ground of the living geen, the brown earth and 



2,y6 State Horticultural Society. 

the blue sky, while we have a red, yellow, blue or green papered room to 
contend with. 

The dainty and more delicate ones are best on a table or stand ; the 
large and showy appear well on the floor, such as peonies, goldenrod, 
gladiolus, etc., while the bright glowing, yet not large, are best on a 
mantel or at a distance. For a formal dinner a good arrangement is to 
have the flowers raised high and allowed to spray loosely, fountain fashion 
from the central epergne and from slender vases near the ends of the 
table. The favors at each plate should, of course, be of the same variety 
as used in the vases. 

The best flowers for the breakfast table are the dainty, airy or spic}- 
ones, as nasturtiums, with their own foliage, sweet peas or pansies. In 
the autumn cosmos and asters are fine. For the winter breakfast table 
the wide-awake, cheery Chinese prinn-ose is unsurpassed. Place the 
pot in a dainty jardiniere and put plant and all on the table. 

Other beautiful though simple and inexpensive arrangements will 
suggest themselves to all who take an interest in floral decoration. The 
receptacle should invariably be unobtrusive and suitable in size and shape ; 
clear glass is best. It is not itself noticeable, yet it is clear and sparkling, 
suggestive of water, and the stems and leaves show to advantage. Tlie 
flower holder should never divert attention from the flowers. The orna- 
mental vase is not suitable. If one has something of good shape, yet 
gaudy in appearance, it may be painted a sage green or dull brown, and 
will be found suitable for manv flowers. — National Fruit Grower. 



"BACK TO THE FARM." 

(Tresident of State University Says Agriculture Pays Better Than the Law.) 

Columbia, Mo., May 9. — President Jesse of Missouri University 
thinks that young men ought to study Agriculture in preference to law or 
medicine. In a recent publication he says : 

"Unless a boy has a deep-seated preference for some other profession 
it does not seem to me wise for him to ignore the great opportunities that 
Agriculture offers, whether he was born in the country or in the city. 

"In my opinion no other occupation offers so rich rewards, all things 
considered, as Agriculture oft'ers to those who are willing to train them- 
selves for it as earnestly and intelligently as they would train themselves 
for law or medicine. 

"If a boy will put the same amount of time and study into his train- 



Miscellaneous. 377 

ing for Agriculture that he would put into his training for law or medi- 
cine he will in the great majority of cases make more money, enjoy greater 
freedom, better health and develop stronger character." — The Intelli- 
gencer, Mexico, Mo. 

Prof. F. B. Munford, acting dean of the Agricultural Department, 
Alissouri State University, thinks an Agricultural education is worth more 
than a gold mine. He says : "I have had calls for at least fifty men during 
the past year at salaries varying from $600 to $2,500 a year. Agricultural 
papers want editors, owners of orchards, managers ; colleges, teachers, 
and the Department of Agriculture, research men. Most any kind of 
graduate of the department can start as experiment station assistant at 
S600 a year, while the good men have no trouble in getting much better 
salaries. The best field open to ambitious young men today is Agricvilture. 
It is the education that pays biggest dividends." Thus whether con- 
sidered as a political or financial asset a college education is becoming 
exceedingly valuable. — Colman's Rural World. 



FURNACE FOR DRYFIOUSE. 

(M. P. Wilson, Washington.) 

A furnace I have used for seven years in my prune evaporator in 
Washington, is a brick arch 15 feet long and about three feet high and 
20 inches wide, inside. The main point of. difference is in the cast iron 
flues running through the arch on an incline. When I put them in my 
furnace it cut my fuel bill to one-third, and a more uniform and steady- 
heat is obtained. These flues are 4-inch soil pipe, and the plastered in ; 
the lower end opens in the cold air box, which extends along each side 
of the brick arch, and the upper end into air chamber. My hot-air 
chamber is lined with sheet iron, although brick would be better, and is 
seven feet high ; the smoke pipe runs from the chimney directly over the 
arch, and an elbow carries it up to the upper floor, then to the ventilator 
flue, through which it passes, thus helping the exhaust or draft. 

My present holding capacity is 2,200 pounds of green fruit, although 
double this amount could be put in, and to good advantage. With less 
than one-third cord of four-foot pine wood per 24 hours, I can run 
through 800 pounds per day, and have averaged that amount for a 
week with unpitted Italian prunes. There is no trouble to get 150 degrees 
on lower trays, and we are compelled to run on lower temperature to 
prevent bleaching of green fruit on upper trays. One man at a time 



378 State Horticultural Society. 

handles it. I am a tinsmith, and got my ideas of heating from furnace 
work. One has only to recall the old shell boilers of 50 years ago and 
the present flue boilers to see the advantage of the flues through which 
passes a current of air. The more flues the more hot air; 15 feet, however, 
is pretty long for an arch, and unless one can fire from both ends eight 
feet would be better, although I experience little trouble. I use no grate 
bars and have but little ash. I run with damper in pipe turned half 
closed ; the pipe in tray room is seldom too hot to take hold of, showing 
but little waste heat. The total of perpendicular pipe is 22 feet, and of 
horizontal 16 to 18 feet. — Rural New Yorker. 



RELATION OF APPLE EXHIBIT TO EXPOSITION. 

(Extract from an address li.v Prof. J. C. Stinson, before the I. A. S. A.) 

"I am interested in both the apple grower and the apple shipper. I 
have watched with interest and gratification the growth of the Apple 
Shippers' Association for several years past. In addressing the as- 
sociation today I h^ve not prepared a paper for the reason I might try 
to say too much, and I would rather listen to other able speakers than 
consume your time with the few thoughts I have to bring out. 

"There are some good lessons to be learned by the fruit grower from 
the up-to-date shipper, along the line of caring for fruit from harvest 
to consumer. In the Palace, of Horticulture there is a complete exhibit 
of fruit, kept up by cold storage stock since the opening of the Fair, It 
is only recently that fresh fruit in any material quantities has been re- 
ceived. Should this year's crop prove an entire failure, each state has 
enough cold storage stock to keep its exhibit up in good condition until 
nearly the close of the Exposition. And each state will keep part of its 
space covered continually with cold storage stock, and use it to fill out 
where fresh fruit is lacking. 

'T believe the reason for the possibility of this is that the men in 
charge have been exceedingly careful in the methods employed in handling 
the apple from the time it left the tree until it was safe in the cold storage 
house. In all cases the apple was put in the car as soon as possible after 
being picked — and in ice cars at that. The fruit was then transferred 
from the various states to the cold storage plant here in St. Louis in 
these refrigerator cars, so it was kept cool constantly. If the apple is 
kept at one temperature continuously it will not spoil in cold storage 
half as soon as if subjected to a varying temperature. 



Miscellaneous. 379 

"I believe the apple shipper cannot do better than to stand for better 
packing among the growers and a more extensive and proper use of the 
cold storage. I can speak only from a limited experience of the methods 
follow^ed in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas and some few other states in 
the Mississippi Valley. Here is an opportunity for the apple shipper to 
stand for better methods, which will induce the grower to do much bet- 
ter along this line, and get his fruit into cold storage in better shape. 
Fruit is taken from cold storage all over the country in as good shape 
as here in St. Louis. Experiments by the United States Department of 
Agriculture and the various state Experiment Stations have settled 
definitely the best temperature for cold storage, and if the fruit can be 
kept at this temperature, one house is as good as another. 

"It pays and pays well to wrap all good fruit. We see examples of 
this almost every day in unpacking fruit for exhibition. Barrels of w^rap- 
ped fruit when opened w^ill scarcely contain half a dozen apples unfit for 
exhibit, and many barrels have been used entire on the exhibit tables, 
not one having to be discarded. On the other hand, we occasionally re- 
ceive a barrel of apples that have not been wrapped. Seldom more than 
half of these are fit specimens for exhibit, and it is not uncommon to 
find only a dozen or so we can use at all. I believe we will soon see the 
clay when all first grade stock will be shipped in wrappers. The apple 
shipper should emphasize this point in all his dealings for a short time, 
and get the grower started to better care for his fruit. The time is 
fast coming when fruit wull be shipped in small packages for the fancy 
market. This seems to be best for all concerned. Hence it will pay to 
wrap fruit and cater to the fancy trade. It is a business proposition and 
there is monev in it." 



WHEN AND HOW TO CUT SCIONS. 

When and how should scions be cut for grafting apple trees, and 
how keep them after cutting till they are used? I have 10 large trees 
of that absolutely worthless apple (except for hog feed) known as Ben 
Davis, and I want to graft them to something good to eat, as there is no 
market here for apples at a price that will pay for picking and drawing. 
In my own and my neighbors' orchards are plenty of good kinds, and 
I have seen grafting done, so I think I can do it. 

Stanton, Mich. E. H. 

Apple scions are best cut in autumn or early winter, before hard 
freezing, but may be cut any time after the leaves fall, and before the 



380 state Horticultural Society. 

buds swell in sprinj:;^. The best scions are iiuulc from one or two-year- 
old wood of thrifty bearing trees of the varieties desired. The selected 
wood should be smooth, bright and average about the thickness of an 
ordinary lead pencil. Do not use water sprouts if they can be avoided, as 
they are usually long in bearing, but well-ripened shoots from the upper 
portions of the trees. They may be cut in lengths of eight to ten inches, 
properly labeled and buried in the soil on the north or shaded side of a 
building until wanted, covering the soil with a board to keep out exces- 
sive wet. They may also he packed in dam]\ not wet, moss or sawdust 
and kept in a cool building or icehouse to retard the ])uds ; in short the\- 
must be kept cool and prevented from drying out until the stocks are 
ready to graft. Probably the best time to graft the apple, is when the 
leaf buds are beginning to open, provided the scions arc quite dormant. 
— The Rural New-Yorker. 



BENTON COUNTY, ARKANSAS, HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

From the President's report. 

.Ml these past years, it has strug"gled along doing what it could to 
help its own members ; and not being selfish, it has, through the generosity 
of the press of our city, published its proceedings and sent them broad- 
cast throughout Northwest Arkansas, and also to some extent in Mis- 
souri and elsewhere. The State of Missouri has one of the best and 
largest State Horticultural Societies in the United States, and its printed 
reports are second to none. We are proud of the fact that for several 
years past our Society has been honored by quotations from our proceed- 
ings being printed in their annual reports, showing that we arc "not with- 
out honor" at least in Missouri. We are grateful to the Missouri Society 
for this recognition, and especially are we thankful for a large number 
of its annual reports sent us gratis for several years past, as they arc 
full of the best instruction and knowledge on all Horticultural subjects. 

I. Hentiiorn. 

From the Secretar}"s report. 

The Society made the necessary apptiinlmenls to set the Fruit hair 
in motion and on the 19th, 20th and 21st of October, 1904, a Fair was 
held that was successful in every respect. This Fruit Fair seems to be 
well established in Benton county and too much praise cannot be given 
to the business men and farmers who pay the bills, and the men and 



Miscellaneous. 381 

women who have made the exhibits. Over two years ago the Horti- 
cultural Society appointed committees to work for rural free mail de- 
livery, and these committees, the postmaster at Bentonville and with the 
aid of others, have succeeded in having three routes established, and 
many farmers now have their mail brought almost to their doors. 

The Society is again under great obligation to the Missouri State 
Horticultural Society for their annual report. No State Horticultural 
Report is more valuable and its proximity to our part the state makes 
them especially useful to us. 

I. B. Lawton. 



HORTICULTURE THEN AND NOW. 

A paper read by E. L. Mason at the meeting of the Grundy County 
Horticultural Society in Trenton last Saturday. Published at request of 
the Society, expressed in an unanimous vote: 

Sixty years ago there were but few nurseries in the United States. 
Besides the limited means for transporting freight long distances and 
the high price of trees induced people who had a knowledge of grafting 
to grow their own trees. I recollect a small nursery in my father's gar- 
den, where trees were grown from seed and grafted when they reached 
the proper size, to such varieties as Northern Spy, Golden Pippin, Seek- 
no-Further, Newtown Pippin, Rambo, Spitzenburg and others — a class 
of apples, in point of quality, seldom excelled by varieties of the present 
day. 

In the pioneer days of Ohio, apple orchards were largely seedling 
trees, but as the fruit was mostly of an inferior quality they were after- 
wards grafted to better varieties. This opened the way for a class of 
professional grafters, who, in some instances were not over scrupulous 
about grafting an unnecessary number of scions, thereby making enor- 
mous bills against the orchard owner. Besides they practiced deception 
in grafting scions that were not true to name. As the country developed, 
the demand for trees became so great that new methods were necessary, 
and so root-grafting came into use. Instead of oiit-door grafting, apple 
seedlings were dug and the scions cut and put in the cellar before cold 
weather. Grafting was done from early winter into March, thus giving 
ample time for vast quantities of grafts to be made. When the warm 
weather of spring came the grafts were planted in the nurseries, and, in 
+he course of two or three years, the trees were large enough to be trans- 



382 State Horticultural Society. 

planted into orchards. Through this method millions of trees have been 
grown and planted over a vast scope of country, and millions in this day 
are being planted into the large commercial orchards of Missouri and 
other state. There are some advantages in propagating apple trees by 
budding, especially when scions are scarce of some new and valuable 
variety; but the fact that root-grafting can be done when little else can 
be done in the nursery, makes it extremely doubtful that nurserymen 
will find it to their advantage to propagate apple trees by budding, and 
still more there is no evidence that budded trees are superior to well 
grown root-grafted trees. 

Unscrupulous nurserymen, and the tree agents, are constantly try- 
ing to invent schemes to deceive people and thereby get a larger price 
for trees. Several years ago a bud scheme was worked by taking ad- 
vantage of unusually cold weather, which damaged the heart of the 
bodies and limbs of trees. The claim was made by agents that the dead 
heart of bodies and limbs came through propagating by root grafting. 
They said where the splice was made the union was imperfect and de- 
cay set in which eventually caused the entire tree to become diseased and 
worthless. The agents further claimed that budded trees were entirely 
exempt from black heart, but as it costs a great deal more to propagate 
apple trees by budding, the price necessarily would be much more. So 
the people bought the so-called budded trees at forty and fifty cents a 
tree, which, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, were only root-grafted 
trees cut back to the crown when one year old. 

Following the budded tree scheme came the whole-root theory. It 
was claimed that a scion grafted to a whole root caused the tree to have 
a deeper root system ; -that the union was more perfect when the scion 
was grafted above the yellow root in the crovv-n ; that the tree would make 
a more vigorous growth, bear better and live longer. Furthermore it 
was claimed that a scion grafted to the yellow part of the seedling did 
not make a perfect union ; that the roots of the tree grown from such 
a graft were mainly surface roots and were more easily affected by cold, 
heat and dry weather, consequently were not so productive and were short 
lived. 

I am aware that this whole-root story is believed by a few people, 
and is used extensively by tree agents, at the same time I will venture the 
assertion that there is not a single nursery in the United States that 
grafts scions to first-class seedlings and plants the entire root. Some of 
the nurseries may graft scions in the crown and make the root four or 
five inches long, but grafting a scion to an apple root twelve or fifteen 
inches long and planting that length of root in the nursery is all bosh. 



Miscellaneous. 383 

Really, what good is there in getting a tree to root deeply and then run 
a tree digger through the nursery row that only cuts eight or ten inches 
deep? What good will the tap root do the tree if it is cut off and left 
where the tree grew in the nursery? The story that Downing said the 
crown of the seedHng is the seat of life in the tree is simply a garbled 
statement, and has no foundation. It is an old and well established say- 
ing that "the scion ever over-ruleth the stock." Each variety has a root 
system peculiar to itself. Whitney crab, Xo. 2, has a strong, deep, well 
braced root system, while the root system of the Winesap is scant and 
irregular, and so on through the entire list of apples, which evidently 
must be caused by the influence exerted by the scion on the stock or roots. 

I once bought six thousand whole-root grafts of a whole root nursery. 
The roots averaged about half the size of a lead pencil and were from 
four to six inches in length. I paid an extra price for the grafts, but I 
believe the roots were culls. The trees grown from this lot of grafts 
were in no way superior either in strong, deep roots or well formed bodies. 
In fact, they made an unusual per cent of unsalable trees. My next plant 
was both crown and piece-root grafts. The cro\\Ti-grafts were tied in 
bundles by themselves and planted by themselves. The roots were first- 
class and cut to five inches. I gave the crown and piece root grafts the 
same cultivation and the same general care. When dug at three and 
four years of age there was no perceptible difference in depth of roots, 
of crown-grafted trees and piece-root grafted trees, nor in the general 
growth of the trees, unless it was that the crown-grafts w^ere not quite 
as smooth, especially at the crown where they were inclined to sprout. 

From this experience I decided that the so-called whole root trees 
failed to meet the claims made in their favor in point of a deeper root 
system and extra vigorous growth of trees, and that the claims made 
against the so-called piece-root trees in point of having only surface roots 
iind showing less vigor in growth of tree was also untrue. Furthermore, 
I decided that, as whole-root and piece-root trees were alike in groAvth, 
there was no good reason for asking more for one than the other. Con- 
sequently, I put them both at the same price. Judge Wellhouse, the 
Kansas apple king, gave his experience before the Kansas State Horti- 
cultural Society, as follows: 

"In 1876 we planted out about 20,000 grafts and some 4,000 to 5,000 
of whole roots. We had heard a great deal about these whole roots, so 
we planted about 5,000. We ran a dead furrow and put the lister in and 
made the furrow just as deep as we could get it, and when we planted 
the whole root we had to take a spade and dig still further down. We 
took them up at two years old and planted about 30,000 which were 



384 State Horticultural Society. 

from piece roots of the usual length, two inches. In the orchard there 
were two rows of Missouri Pippins and two rows of Ben Davis, on whole 
roots, planted in the spring of 1898, and growing there now. If any 
man can tell the difference, he can do more than I can. The only differ- 
ence I saw in them at that time was that the whole roots sent up more 
seedling sprouts and caused us lots of work, hut so far as longevity of 
the trees was concerned, 1 could see no difference. But they were terrible 
things to sprout. About nine-tenths of our two-inch roots, when we took 
them up from the nursery, had sent out roots from the scion, and the 
more we experimented in that line, the more we desired them in that 
way, and from that time on we have used only short roots, to get the roots 
from the scion, and have always been satisfied with them. Whenever 
you pay one mill more for whole root than piece root, you are out just 
that much money." 

The Kansas Experiment Station, after a long, careful test, decided 
that whole-root trees are in no way superior to piece-root trees ; but as 
apple seedlings vary in growth and hardiness, it was thought that a bet- 
ter plan would be to use a short root and a long scion, which in time 
would cause the tree to grow on its own roots, and thereby make the 
orchard more uniform in growth and hardiness. 

Prof. W. L. Howard, of the [Missouri State Agricultural College, 
says, on the subject of whole-root and piece-root: "Experiments con- 
ducted by the government fruit station, after experience with four years' 
growth, concluded there is no dift'erence in the growth and vitality of a 
tree, whether grown from whole or piece root grafts, and that whether 
nursery stock is called whole-root or piece-root." 

In conclusion, I will say there is no known way of propagating ap- 
ple trees so that they will be exempt from attacks of borers and other 
harmful insects, and the same is true of fungus diseases. Nor is there 
any system of propagation that will cause trees to thrive on poorly drained 
wet ground. In short, there is no such thing as apple trees that will stand 
all kinds of neglect and make a long-lived paying orchard. Good trees, 
good location, good soil, good cultivation and proper attention to every- 
thing necessary to make the orchard a success, will make trees live 
longer and pay better than all the whole-root nonsense in the world. 

Republican-Tribune. 



Miscellaneous. 385 



MARKETING THE STRAWBERRY CROP. 

How to market our strawberry crops to obtain the best results is 
one of the problems which confronts the Horticulturist of the southwest 
at the present time. This same question has been presented to them at 
the approach of previous seasons, and not only to them, but to the Agri- 
culturists and Horticulturists throughout this country, of which these 
two industries contributed their share towards putting it on its present 
high plane. 

Various ways of marketing have been suggested and much has been 
said against shipping on consignment to commission merchants. Associa- 
tions have been organized at various shipping points, and we believe with 
good results to shippers. We think that the organization of these associa- 
tions is beneficial to all concerned, and we believe it is a step towards the 
successful marketing of products, if properly conducted, but by the in- 
dividual shippers themselves. 

Where there are a number of small growers at a shipping point and 
all have a common market to which they ship, it pays them to organize 
themselves into an association, through which business with railroads, 
express companies and commission merchants may be transacted. It can 
frequently obtain better shipping facilities and cheaper rates than a 
single shipper could obtain. The interests of the growers at one ship- 
ping point are identical. They are in competition with growers of other 
sections of the country and they want to place their goods on the market 
at the least possible expense. A representative of such an association 
can often secure some concessions by an interview with proper officials 
of transportation companies. A statement of the local situation in the 
name of the association and a frank personal request on the part of the 
representative, often secures to a body of shippers some advantages that 
are worth much, and it next becomes the part of the shipper to perform 
his duty. 

He must, during his spare time, study what is best for himself, and 
especially, what is required in the markets of the country. He should 
then acquaint himself with the most modern methods of caring for the 
soil, and give the most diligent attention to his plants, trees, etc., or the 
branch of Agriculture or Horticulture he may be engaged in. Following 
this, he should study the best plan for picking his fruit, so that each 
piece is fully grown and matured. A neat and attractive package counts 
25 per cent, and with this inducement it seems that all shippers should 

H— 26 



386 State Horticultural Society. 

give this particular item special attention ; five cents worth of labor in 
packing means 25 cents more at sale. It then becomes the duty of the 
officials of the association to make such disposition of the shipments of 
the respective growers as will bring to them profitable results for their 
productions. While the mode of disposing of shipments differs with some 
associations, yet it is customary for the majority of them to ship on con- 
signment (when f. o. b. sales cannot be made) to one or more commission 
merchants in the various markets appointed by them prior to the open- 
ing of the season. 

Here great precaution should be exercised. The individual shipper, 
prior to becoming identified with the association, may have fallen into 
the hands of bogus or irresponsible commission merchants, who quoted 
high markets, and he received no returns for his products. Hence, we 
say, the association should use the utmost precaution in its selection, as 
the individual shipper expects them to remedy the above evil and looks 
to them for protection. 

The commission merchant which the association selects should be 
honest, should have the facilities for handling the shipments, and be 
established in the commission business for a number of years, as he is 
then capable of exercising the best of judgment (which is essential) ; also 
be good salesmen, and when such qualities, combined with capital to 
handle the business, are in the possession of individuals seeking trade, 
the sooner the association gives them consignments and sticks to them 
the sooner will the grower be rewarded for his labor, and confidence be 
maintained between commission merchant and shipper. 

The commission merchants must treat with the growers and shippers 
of this country as their commercial agents, employed by them to look 
after their interest on the markets and to protect them in every way that 
an agent does his employe. The future of the commission merchant de- 
pends upon his honesty and the legitimate manner in which he may con- 
duct his business. The future of the grower and shipper depends upon 
the quality of his products and his honesty in packing. Commission 
merchants alone cannot obtain all that is required to aid the producer in 
profitably marketing his crop. They need the assistance and the support 
of all who are handling perishable products, from the one who tills the 
soil to the one who disposes of what is raised. All must join hands for 
the purpose of obtaining the necessary results, and when all this has been 
accomplished many evils have been overcome and the Agricultural, Horti- 
cultural and Commission business will have been placed on a proper basis 
and greatly improved. The foundation on which any improvement must 
rest is a good understanding. Thoroughly good relations must first be 



MisceUaneous. 387 

established and then maintained. Much objection has been raised by the 
berry shippers of the southwest against shipping to eastern markets; 
but berries are consumed by the people, hence, we believe that the best 
markets are in the most densely populated sections of the country, which 
is in the east. The western markets, being nearer, lead some to think 
that the berries can be placed there in much better condition, but with 
the excellent railroad facilities now at the disposal of the shipper, distant 
markets can be reached with as little risk as near-by markets, and we 
believe prices in the east will always compare favorably with those of 
the west. 

Gluts and inferior stock are two great evils in the fruit and produce 
business that should be remedied. While the former is often due to im- 
proper distribution, the shipper is directly responsible for the latter. With 
the yearly increased acreage of strawberries, some may attribute, to a 
degree, the cause of gluts to an over-production. It is doubtful whether 
there ever will be an over-production. While the supply of berries and 
fruits has greatly increased, the demand has kept pace, until today the 
traffic in this trade is one of the great industries. 

There will always be a demand for berries and fruits, if of erood 
quality and nicely put up. It is very surprising that any shipper should 
persist in the practice of putting unsalable stock upon the market, when 
it is taken into consideration that the cost of packing and transportation 
is the same on poor products as upon better stock ; and not only this but 
the general demoralizing effect it has on the market is very' great. If 
all could only realize this fact it would cause the grower to look more 
carefully to varieties planted, mode of cultivation and picking, the ship- 
per would realize the necessity of honest grading, and the commission 
merchant would have less trouble and more time to properly dispose of 
receipts, get better prices and have less complaints from both shippers 
and consumers.— Practical Fruit Grower, Springfield. I\Io. 



THE WESTERN NEW YORK SOCIETY. 

A DISCUSSION OF APPLES. 

Prof. Craig, continued with a report on "Volunteer Experiment 
Orchards." Land owners planted 25 trees each of such varieties as they 
chose, the trees being given gratis by nurserymen. Each planter was to 
make certain definite experiments and report annually, but was not under 
any financial obligation to keep up the experiment. It was merely a mat- 



388 State Horticultural Society. 

ter of taking an interest in the experiment, also a matter of honor, as 
the trees were given. He gave quite a Hst of nurserymen, with the trees 
they would each furnish, varieties being designated ; also of men under- 
taking the experiments, 

Mr. Hammond told how he handled, stored and sold apples in 40 
lb. boxes. These boxes were taken to the orchard and iilled as picked. 
They were taken to the storehouse before night, and when sold, sorted 
and packed in the same boxes. The boxes were not exposed to the 
weather more than a few hours, and left the storage house bright and in 
good shape. 

Mr, Powell had at the present time 1,000 boxes of apples, Jonathans 
and Greenings, in storage, part being in bushel packages and some of 40 
lbs. He was hunting a market for them, but had no doubt of finding a 
profitable one. New York commission men were opposed to bushel 
packages or anything smaller than a barrel. Retail grocers sold almost 
entirely by the quart in two or four-quart packages, the contracted 
quarters of people in the city compelling them to buy in small quantities. 
Probably less than three per cent of consumers would at present buy 
as much as 40 lbs. at once. For this reason the retailers prefer to buy 
by the barrel ; they do not have so many packages standing around, and 
they measure out better, especially if the bushel is scant. The empty 
barrel also had some commercial value, and the box has not. The price 
of apples in boxes varied with the quality and care in sorting and pack- 
ing. He knew of two carloads of bushels selling at 70 cents per box. 
These were sold on commission. He has sold fancy apples at private 
sale (bushel packages) at the rate of $7 per barrel, and the customers 
wanted more. 

Mr. Van Deman said all Pacific coast apples were boxed, and they 
were all sold without difficulty. However, they did not box such grades 
of fruit as were often found in the middle of barrels packed in the east. 
Such apples were fed to the hogs or made into cider. There was little 
chance to work in culls into a box which contained but three or four layers 
of fruit, and the fruit grower who packed in boxes would find that he 
was, from force of conditions alone, marketing a better and more even 
grade of fruit than he had done in barrels, and this superiority will natur- 
ally command a better price than the former. This point should be given 
due credit. Another important point was that it took skilled labor and a 
barrel factory to produce barrels, and the empty ones have often to pay 
quite a freight tariflf to the station where filled. They are bulky to get 
from the station to the orchard, and about the only advantage a barrel 
has anv wav is that one can roll it instead of lifting and it can be packed 



Miscellaneous. 389 

quicker. Anybody can make a box. The lumber can be obtained in 
winter in shooks, and the boxes made in stormy weather, without any 
expense piled up on account of barrel trusts or skilled workmanship. 

Prof. Craig said he saw Spitzenburg apples sold from a box in a 
New York store "two for a quarter," and the bushel boxes were retailed 
at $5 each. A whole carload was as near alike as peas in a pod, and a 
box taken at random could be guaranteed to be as good as any other. 
It is such uniformity and conscientiousness in packing which gives a 
brand a reputation and a selling price far above what it costs to produce 
and pack. He would not pack seconds in boxes, or mixed or inferior 
fruit, expecting to get fancy prices. The size of the box used in Canada 
was II by 11 by 20 inches, holding a bushel. He spoke of western com- 
petition and .the rapidity with which some states were coming to the 
front in apple production ; 667,000 boxes of apples were grown in Colo- 
rado last year; yet there are growers in New York who imagine that 
Colorado is and always will be wholly a consumer of fruit grown in 
other states. New Yorkers have a very short haul to the seaboard, and 
if they will adopt uniform packages and the carefulness of the far west 
in packing, they can hold the export business and make money just on 
the difference in freight. 

Mr. Powell has spent a good deal of time investigating the big 
eastern mairkets and interviewing dealers. One dealer thought that per- 
haps a family trade might be built up in bushel boxes of fancy apples 
carefully wrapped in fancy wrappers, but there had not been enough of 
that sort of goods handled yet to demonstrate its practicability. 

Mr. Smith was somewhat pessimistic in his views of the new ways. 
The barrel was good enough for him. It could be rolled and could be 
quickly packed at a time when help was scarce and the season was crowd- 
ing. It would cost all the extra price to wrap each apple, put a man 
way behind with his orchard work, and in many cases be sihiply imprac- 
ticable. 

Mr. Hamman reiterated his previous statements, urging Mr. Smith's 
attention to the fact that the boxing method distributed labor through 
stormy weather and did not delay outdoor work. The boxes were filled 
with the fruit from the picking baskets and taken at once, or before night, 
to cellar or barn or storage room and piled up, to stand until stormy 
weather or the end of the picking gave time to sort and pack. There 
was less handling, less waste and less anxiety from weather changes 
than when apples were put in heaps on the barn floor or in the orchard. 

As regards boxes, Mr. Van Deman said that the Oregon growers 
m.ade one size of box, but of two forms, one being wider and narrower 



390 State Horticultural Society. 

than the other, so as to accomodate an extra and a first size, or grades. 
They are all packed in regular tiers and fit the boxes as nicely as oranges. 
The western apples do not grow to a uniform size. They grow more 
large apples in proportion to the waste than eastern growers, but they 
still have under-sized and imperfect fruit, which is left in the orchard, 
where much of the same grade in New York should be left. The barrel 
is an ideal package for concealing trash and stuff that never should be 
shipped. 

Country Gentleman. L. B. P. 



SPRAYING OF GRAPES. 

(Paper read at late meeting of Quinc5% Illinois, Fruit Growers' Association, 

by E. J. Baxter, Nauvoo, 111.) 

In the spraying of grapes, as well as in the spraying of all kinds of 
fruits whether for the prevention of fungus diseases or the destruction of 
insect pests, there are at least three cardinal points to be observed, if 
success is to crown our efforts. These are : 

1st. To use good, pure ingredients and to make the mixture prop- 
erly, for if it is not made as it should be, }ou might as well pour it out on 
the ground for all the good that will result from using it. 

2nd. To apply this mixture at the right time. This is also very 
important from the fact that we spray to prevent disease, not to cure it, 
and there is a time, if you delay beyond which all other sprayings can 
not remedy the damage done. 

3rd. To apply the mixture properly. This is equally as important 
as the two foregoing conditions, for although your mixture may be made 
with good pure ingredients and properly made and applied at the right 
time, and yet, if not properly applied you will still fail to obtain the best 
results, the saving of your crop. 

HOW TO MAKE THE MIXTURE. 

Procure the purest sulphate of copper (blue stone) that you can, the 
purer the better the success. Some sulphates of copper contain sulphate 
of iron or sulphate of zinc or both, in greater or less quantities. If it 
contain more than two to three per cent of these materials, it should be 
rejected as impure. 

For every fifty gallons of mixture you want to make at one time 
take six pounds of blue stone, put it in a common flour sack and suspend 



Miscellaneous. 391 

it in a wooden vessel containing more or less clean water, according to 
the quantity of vitriol you want to dissolve or the amount of mixture you 
wish to make. Six pounds of vitriol should never be dissolved in more 
than twxnty-five gallons of water — half the amount of mixture to be made 
and you can easily dissolve as many pounds in as many gallons of water 
in several hours if you wish to do so. The temperature of the water 
makes but little difference if any. The secret of dissolving the vitriol 
rapidly is to keep it as near the surface of the water as possible and to 
agitate it occasionally by plunging it up and down in the water. We find 
it more convenient to put enough vitriol to dissolve, to make a batch 
or two of mixture, the evening before we intend to begin to spray. 

Another ingredient necessary is good stone lime. This should be as 
free from grit and residue, after being slaked, as possible. There is a 
great difference in this respect, in different limes. Some limes will slake 
almost entirely, leaving no perceptible grit or residue. This grit or resi- 
due sometimes depends also upon the manner in which the lime is slaked. 
Great care should be taken in performing this operation. Be very care- 
ful that the lime does not burn in slaking, for if it does it is useless for 
your purpose — it will not blend with the vitriol water, and it will not 
make a perfect mixture. Such imperfect mixtures besides being no pro- 
tection against rot, are liable to scorch the foliage and injure the fruit 
of the vines to which it is applied. We prefer in early spring to slake 
all the lime needed for sometime — say at least a barrel at a time. We 
keep this slaked lime in a pit or in lime or sugar barrels sunk in the 
earth covering the lime with a little water to keep from drying. These 
ingredients — vitriol water and lime putty as we call it, you can prepare 
as suits your convenience, but they should never be misused — that is the 
Bordeaux mixture should never be made until you are ready to use it, 
and then use it the same day as made. Also be very careful never to use 
the fresh slaked lime while hot, in making the mixture. 

When ready to make your mixture ascertain the capacity in gallons 
of the vat, barrel, or vessel in which you are to make your mixture, and 
for every fifty gallons of capacity, take ten pounds of this slaked or 
putty lime and put it in your mixing vat or barrel. Then add a little 
water and work thoroughly with a hoe to dissolve the lime and as it 
dissolves keep adding water until your vat or barrel contains nearly one- 
half the quantity of mixture you w^ant to make. If your lime be gritty 
and there is much deposit after dissolving, this water should be strained 
through a fine sieve before adding the vitriol water. With the lime w^e 
use, we very seldom find it necessary to strain the lime water. 

Have in another vat or barrels standing along-side of vour mixing- 



392 State Horticultural Society. 

vat the proper amount of blue vitriol dissolved and diluted to nearly one- 
half of the amount of mixture you want to make, and when your lime 
water is all ready pour this vitriol water into your mixing vat, contain- 
ing the lime water as quickly as possible, stirring the mixture thoroughly 
the while with a hoe. Made in this way your mixture will be perfect, 
and you can apply it without any doubt of success, if applied at the right 
time. 

WHEN TO SPRAY. 

If the vineyard has never been sprayed before, and especially if the 
grapes have been rotting badly in previous years, I would recornmend 
that the vineyard, as soon as pruned in the spring, the brush and leaves 
dragged out and burned and the canes tied up, be thoroughly sprayed 
with a solution of sulphate of copper — four pounds of copper to fifty 
gallons of water and no lime. Spray thoroughly the canes and the trunks 
of the vines, the posts of the trellis and even the ground under the vines, 
and especially if there be rotted berries lying there. In this spraying 
and in this one only, you should make the vines and the posts of the 
trellis dripping wet.- If the vineyard has been successfully sprayed in the 
past, or if the grapes have not rotted to any serious extent this spraying 
may be dispensed with, and the first spraying made with the Bordeaux 
mixture a few days before the vines begin to bloom. Never use the pure 
vitriol water solution on any plants after the buds begin to open. 

Another spraying should be made with the Bordeaux mixture right 
after blooming time, when the berries are well set. This spraying, and 
the one just before blossoming are the most important of all the season, 
especially this one right after blossoming. If it should be omitted, all 
others will be of no avail. Other sprayings can be made from ten days 
to two weeks apart according to the condition of the weather, the more 
often and the heavier the rains the oftener should the spraying be done, 
up to about the first of July, in this latitude. If you spray after that date 
here you will very likely spot your grapes to such an extent as to injure 
them for market. If thought necessary later spraying can be made with 
the carbonate of copper and ammonia solution without any danger of 
spotting the fruit or injuring the vines, and it is almost effective against 
rot as the Bordeaux mixture. And yet we have had mildew and grape 
rot here as extensively and in as malignant a form as in any other place 
in the United States, previous to the timiC we began spraying. In fact 
to get a good crop of grapes in those days was the exception. Since we 
began spraying in 1890 we have never lost a crop, and we have never 
sprayed except as in an experimental way. after the 4th of July. 



Miscellaneous. . 393 



HOW TO SPRAY. 

Procure a good pump with plenty of force and the very best nozzles 
that are to be found in the market. x*\ good nozzle that will throw out 
plenty of fine mist, the finer the better — is of absolute importance. Poor 
pumps with scant force and poor nozzles that throw out a coarse spray 
are absolutely worthless for this purpose, and are excessively costly 
even as a gift. In applying the Bordeaux mixture, or any other spray, 
use plenty of force, and be sure to cover every part of the vine, fruit 
and wood as well as the foliage with as fine a mist as possible, and be 
careful not to continue to the point of saturation, so that the spray will 
run and drop. 

This course of treatment faithfully followed will save a crop of 
grapes in the worst infected vineyard that I have ever known. After 
from two to four years of this kind of treatment two sprayings in one 
season will be enough to save your crop in ordinary seasons. We have 
saved our crop for the past several years with .two sprayings. — Thp 
Fruitm.an, Mt. Vernon. Iowa. 



TO AUTUMN. 

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness ! 

Close bosom-friend of the maturing snn : 

Conspiring with him how to load and bless 

With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eaves run ; 

To bend with apples the moss'd cottage trees, 

And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core ; 

To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells 

With a sweet kernel ; to set budding more. 

And still more, later flowers for the bees, 

Until they think warm days will never cease. 

For summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells. 

—John Kf-ats. in the Century Magaziiio. 



TEX REASONS WHY PARENTS SHOULD ENCOURAGE 

HOME GARDENING. 

1. W^herever it has been tried, the children have been more willing 
to stay at home and have taken more interest in the home because they 
love pretty things. 

2. They have learned to be neat and regular in their work and to 
take a personal pride in it. that goes a long way toward keeping them 
good and happy. 



394 State Horticultural Society. 

3. It gives light and pleasant exercise in the open air and offers 
something than can be seen and enjoyed in return for the work. 

4. It gives safe companionship. 

5. It teaches many things about outdoor life that are worth much 
more than those learned in the streets. 

6. It makes the child feel that he does something for the home, and 
this is a great safeguard. 

7. It gives occupation and relieves much of the restlessness that is 
so trying to the mother. 

8. It gives a feeling of ownership and control that strengthens 
character. 

9. It will give flowers for the house all summer and fall. 

10. A flower garden is contagious. It appeals not only to its owner, 
but to a wide circle of people. In looking at it, neighbors begin to realize 
that their houses, their lawns, their walks, their doorways, their back 
yards are all great gossips that tell tales to everv passerby, and, unlike 
most gossips, they tell the truth. 



TREATING FRUIT TREES GIRDLED BY MICE. 

(Prof. A. T. El-win, Iowa Experiment Station.) 

During the recent cold period, when the ground was covered with 
snow, many fruit trees were badly girdled by field mice. Such trees, if 
left unattended, are very likely to die. The majority of them, however, 
may be saved by covering the injured portion with earth. The growing 
layer which lies just beneath the bark will form a new layer of bark if 
it is kept moist by banking up with earth for 2 or 3 inches above the 
girdled portion. The earth should be firmly tamped about the stem and 
pains taken to see that it is not separated by the tree swaying in the 
wind. 

Another effective method of treatment which is more trouble, but 
surer, perhaps, is to wrap the wound with broad strips of cloth coated with 
grafting wax. The wax is made, by boiling together : Four parts rosin, 
two parts beeswax, one part tallow. 

To make this work effective, the wound should not be allowed to be- 
come dried out, and no time should be lost in covering the girdled por- 
tion. In cases where the injury has not been too severe, this treatment 
may also prove effective in saving trees injured by rabbits. 

In this connection attention is called to the fact that trees mav be 



Miscellaneous. 395 

protected from injury by mice by mounding up with earth for a distance 
of 4 or 5 inches on the stem, each fall. A large number of young fruit 
trees are destroyed annually by mice which might be protected from in- 
iurv in this wav. 



METHODS OF DESTROYING SAN JOSE SCALE. 

The closing days of winter have been found to be the best time to 
fight the San Jose scale, as the mixtures employed for spraying are so 
strong that they should be applied only when the tree is in a dormant con- 
dition. Last fall, many growers in the neighborhood of Washington, D. 
C, found that their fruit trees had been attacked by the San Jose scale, 
and the Department of Agriculture was called upon for help. The official 
Entomologist declares that when the trees are heavily infested the best 
thing to do is to dig them out root and branch. By proper repressive 
and remedial treatment, however, an orchard can be protected from the 
insect pest. 

The means most strongly advised consists of the use of a lime, salt 
and sulphur wash. This is not effective unless followed by ten days or 
two weeks of comparatively dry weather; but given such favorable con- 
ditions, it has shown most satisfactory results. Experiments have 
proved that in most cases this wash is nearly as efficient as the treatments 
with oil and soap, and has at the same time the advantage of far less 
cost than these methods. It is a winter application and may be used at 
any time between January and the period of leafing. The formula is : 
Unslacked lime, ,"^0 pounds; sulphur, 20 pounds; salt, 15 pounds. Mix 
in a barrel with 30 or 40 gallons of water, and boil for several hours. It 
should then be diluted to make 60 gallons of wash, and may be prefer- 
ably applied at a high temperature. Smaller quantities can be prepared 
by employing the same proportions of ingredients. 

It should be applied every year, or as often as the scale develops in 
considerable numbers. It leaves a limy coating on the trees which acts 
as a deterrent to the young scale Hce, and unless washed away by rain, 
retains its value as an insecticide coating for some time. 

Another good treatment consists in dissolving fish-oil soap, made 
with potash lye, in water, boiling it at the rate of 20 pounds of soap to 
a gallon of water. If applied hot and on a relatively mild day in winter, 
it can easily be put on the trees with an ordinary spray pump. Pears 
and apples may be sprayed at any time during the winter; peach and 
plum trees are best sprayed in spring, shortly before the buds swell, as 



396 State Horticultural Society. 

if sprayed earlier, the solution seems to prevent the development of the 
fruit buds. While fruit trees are most liable to attack, berry bushes are 
also subject to injury, with the entire range of ornamental plants. 



ORCHARDS. 

(.T. H. Darche, Paikville, Mo.) 
KIND OF SOIL NECESSARY. 

First — What kind of soil is necessary for a successful orchard? 
Most any good, deep soil that will raise good com will grow an orchard. 
I have successfully raised apples and peaches on upland hard pan in 
Eastern Kansas, where the humus and surface soil was only three to four 
inches deep and underlaid with a cold, stiff, hard soil. Yet trees will 
grow faster and more thrivingly on deeper soil. One thing essential is 
good drainage. 

I have my farfn in the valley of the Arkansas River, where the 
whole valley is sub-irrigated or the water is on one level with the water 
in the river. The soil is a sandy loam all the way down, and the water 
percolates through the soil. We think we have the ideal soil for an 
orchard. At least we know what it will do, by what it has done, and 
count on having pretty good crops most every year, especially in apples.^ 

KIND OF TREES TO PLANT. 

Second — In planting, what kind of trees shall we plant — whole-root, 
piece-root, or budded tree 

The whole-root, as usually sold and delivered by agents, is a hum- 
bug, and as often grown by some of the brag large nurseries is just as 
much a humbug. The Kansas Experiment Station, after planting and 
cultivating for some years an orchard set with all three methods of propa- 
gation, decided that good trees are made by all three methods, and in 
measurements and thriftiness, upright growth and permanent hold on the 
soil, the good piece-root two-year apple is just as good a tree to plant 
as any other. Now, for a couple of illustrations. About 1886 and 1889 
I bought so-called whole-root apple grafts from eastern Kansas and 
eastern Missouri, respectively, for the very purpose of testing the whole- 
root theory as boasted of by these firms. In each case they were long 
piece-root graft about one and one-half to two inches longer than the 
usual piece of roots, and were probably all crown-grafts, but were cut 
off to piece-roots all the same. In the nursery row the whole-root grafts 



Miscellaneous. 397 

were planted on the west end of the rows and the piece-roots on the east 
end of same rows, without any Hne of demarkation, and in growing and 
digging I could never tell where the whole-roots ended or the piece- 
roots began. I defy any other man to do it, either. Again, three years 
ago this spring, on bottom land in Sumner county, Kansas, I planted 
out a large plot of whole-root grafts — genuine whole-root, branched-root 
grafts, about six inches long of root. Some were longer, but we cut 
any long top roots down to six inches and planted them by making an 
opening in the ground with a spade instead of the dibble. I thought I 
would see a larger and thriftier tree, with a better root system than 
ever before, but I must declare to you my disappointment that, while all 
kinds started out equally well, yet the boasted whole-roots did not keep 
up with the piece roots either at one or two years old. 

The truth of the matter is this : The largest, longest, straightest 
and thriftiest roots are made into piece-root grafts, the second size, the 
shorter and the branching roots are made into whole-root grafts, and the 
culls of all the smallest of all, those too small to graft at all, are lined 
out to bud on, for the wonderful whole-rooted — only nurseries — budded 
trees, at much higher prices, and as the only trees that will bear and 
never blow over. 

WHAT SHALL WE SAY ABOUT VARIETIES f 

Well, about varieties we differ, and we change our minds also as we 
try some and they go back on us. In 1882, in Illinois, I was told the 
Willowtwig was the apple, a bearer, a seller, a keeper, but the Willow- 
twig is a back number now. In 1884, in Missouri, the Janet or Janeton 
was all the rage. 

Well, in eastern Kansas in 1885 and in 1886 I was recommending 
Willowtwig and Janeton and Missouri Pippin and Winesap as standard 
varieties, with Ben Davis also in the lead (never as a side line), when 
I soon found Willowtwig was eaten full of holes by bugs and bees, 
worms and wasps, and you could get but a small per cent of sound apples ; 
also that when bruised at all it rotted quickly. It had to go. The Jane- 
ton on upland was small and scabby ; also it would, after fall rains, crack 
and burst open. You could not bank on Janeton only on heavy bottom 
or good timber land. Rawle's Janet was played out. The Missouri 
Pippin, while the youngest tree to bear of any, the heaviest bearer also, 
though of beautiful form and color, and a fair keeper, was only a com- 
mon apple to eat and cook, but being an upright grower, with a heavy 
weight of apples, the limbs would break, and it took lots of trimming 
to fix it up again, and many trees would die. So, while we find that 



398 State Horticultural Society. 

Brother F. Wellhouse has planted so largely of the Missouri Pippin, 
and as it bears so young and so full and grows so straight, it makes a 
good "filler" in alternate rows in close planting, yet I believe its days are 
numbered. The Winesap stands No. i in color, in keeping, in bearing, 
in flavor, but it is small potatoes, especially on upland, while down in 
the Arkansas river bottoms they average away up. I measured one of 
9 5-8 inches in circumference, and some planters, like the ^Missouri 
farmer on Janets, the jayhawkers want Winesap straight, but friend 
Lowmiller tells me on Missouri bluffs the Winesap has a tendency to 
scab. Now, about Uncle Ben Davis. So much has been said pro and 
con, and everybody is so well acquainted with him, why should I need 
to introduce hmi, only to say he gets there, the great, big, red-cheeked 
fellow. I have measured him twelve inches round the waist. 

What of the Jonathan? ]\Ir. Wellhouse says it is the biggest bearer 
and the greatest money-maker of them all, but pick him and sell him ; he 
will not keep, nor will he hang on the trees, though everybody likes 
him. The Grimes' Golden, a fair bearer, a golden Pippin, an excellent 
eater, but they say a short-lived tree and uncertain cropper. Mr. John 
Alter, of Kansas, said he would rather raise Ben Davis at 40 cents than 
Grimes' Golden at $1 per bushel. He said he could make more money. 
Among the latter day apples we are getting acquainted with more and 
more, are the GanO','York, Imperial, M. B. Twig and the Ingram. They 
are making more friends every day, and while they need a few more 
years' trial to be sure how well they wnll wear, they are winning golden 
opinions right along. 

Where, oh, where, are the apples of ray childhood? The Russett, 
the Greening, the Baldwin, the Belleflower, the Spy, the Canada Red, the 
Fameuse, the Dominie, the Newtown Pippin, the Spitzenberg — winter 
apples in the Eastern states — they are all fall apples here and drop off 
and rot, and do not suit our Western climate, with its long, hot days, 
continuing so far into the fall. 

Our best list for commercial orchards, according to the best author- 
ities, are Ben Davis, Winesap, Jonathan, Gano, York Imperial. M. B. 
Twig, Ingram, Grimes' Golden for winter apples, with Maiden Blush, 
Lowell, Rambo, Bailey Sweet and Wealthy for fall, and Harvest, As- 
trachan, Benoni, Cooper's Early, Yellow Transparent for summer. This 
is our best list in my opinion. 

CULTIVATION. 

What of it? Begin early, say April, and keep it humming till 
August. For a few years plant some cultured crop among the trees — 



Miscellaneous. 399 

never gTain or grass, and when the apple begins to bear, seed to clover, 
but give the peach clean culture always, and sow cow peas or other 
cover crop in fall. 

SPRAYING. 

We must spray if we would get away with the canker worm, codling 
moth and other insects ; also for scab and fungous diseases. My experi- 
ence is light, as I am a beginner in spraying for the latter, but the 
authorities are sure and the experiments facts, and facts are stubborn 
things, and we can't get around them. We may run up against them 
and we may get hurt by them, but we had better accept them and act 
accordingly. 

HARVESTING. 

Gather the fruit carefulh-. Don't say the apples are hard and the 
grass is soft and time is precious. Time is never too precious to do 
things right, to do them well. It took thousands of years to plant a coal 
mine. I haven't time. We have all the time there is. One moment 
succeeds another so quickly we cannot grasp them ere they are gone. 
What was, a moment since, the future, is now the present, and already it is 
numbered with the past, so quickly flies the time away. A friend said 
to me a few days ago when I remarked I had so much work crowding 
me I hadn't time : "See here, Brother Darche, a good while ago I 
made up my mind that I couldn't do all the work there was to be done, 
and I would have to let the other fellow help me do some of it, and 
since that I like it so well that I let him do more and more, and I take 
a rest once in awhile. I commend it to you." Now, friends, let the 
other fellow do some of it, if we can't do it all, but do it well, do it 
thoroughly, if it takes a leg. 

MARKETS AND MARKETING. 

Have a good local market. Don't ship to Chicago if you can get 
a fair market in Kansas City. But if Kansas City plays out, rush it 
to where people will appreciate a good thing — Chicago, St. Paul, Denver, 
Galveston, New York, England. I have shipped apples from Michigan 
to Chicago, from Missouri to San Antonio, and from Kansas to Pueblo, 
and made money each time. — American Truck Farmer. 



ERRATA. 



On Page 315 Black Ben Davis synonym of Ragan should be Keagan. 

REAGAN, synonym Black Ben Davis. "Ragan" LRagan ?] The word ' 'Ragan" should 
be omitted. 



INDEX. 



A 

Page. 

Act of the General Assembly 15 

Additional Ps^pers 101, 147 

Address of Welcome, Mayor T. W. Lamson 151 

Agricultural College and Experiment Station 138 

Agricultural College, The Horticultural School of 133 

Agricultural Crop of the United States 152 

Agricultural Education, Prof. F. B. Mumford, M. S. U 377 

American Apple Growers' Congress 276 

Annual Meeting, Forty-Seventh 151 

Annual Report 130, 245, 380 

Anthracnose on Raspberries 26 

Apple Exhibit, Relation of, to the Exposition, J. T. Stinson 378 

Apple Grower and the Apple Shipper, Louis Brb, Memphis, Tenn 51 

Apple Lands of Missouri, L. A. Goodman 145 

Apple Orchard, Care of, A. T. Nelson, Lebanon, Mo 340 

Apples at the World's Fair, J. C. Evans, Harlem, Mo 287 

Apples, Discussion of 387 

Apples, Varieties of 14. 47, 49, 147, 246, 288, 324, 381, 397 

Apple Trees in Missouri, Number of 30, 54, 127 

Appointment of Committees 27, 108, 177 

Arkansas, Benton County Horticultural Society 380 

Associations for Work, Combination of. Prof. A. A. Stark, Logan, Mo 208 

Awards, Explanation of 242 

Awards, List of 249 

Awards Received at the World's Fair, Number of 241, 338 

Awards, Reports of Committees on 95, 266 

B 

Back to the Farm, Pres. R. H. Jesse, Missouri State University 376 

Beal, Dr. E. L., Republic, Mo., Marketing Strawberries 203 

Ben Davis, The Old Friend, L. A. Goodman.: 134 

Bird Legislation, W. J. Blakeley, Pres. Missouri Audubon, St. Louis 84 

Birds, The Passing of the. Otto Widmann, St. Louis, Mo 77 

"Black Ben Davis" — Gano Controversy, Resolutions on 40 

B. B. D. Discussion 42 

B. B. D.— Gano, Decision 104 

B. B. D.— Gano Decision Re-affirmed 101, 109 

Bordeaux, Dr. Bird's Plan 62 

Bordeaux, Dry ' -. 62, 63, 157 

Bordeaux Mixture, Composition of 63, 158, 175, 390 

Bordeaux Mixture, Use of 48, 158, 392 

Brackett, G. B., U. S. Pomologist 108, 110 

Brereton, Rev. John, Springfield, Mo., Peach Seedlings 178 

Burkam, W. T., St. Louis, Mo., Motion by 39 

Resolution Offered by 309 

H— 26 



11 INDEX. 



c 



Page. 

Care of Orchards 45, 340 

Chandler, C. A., Kansas City, Mo., Landscape Gardening at the L. f'. E 223 

Chandler, Mrs. Asa, Randolph, Mo., Culture in the Home 159 

Chandler, W. H., Columbia, Mo., Commercial Fertilizers for the Orchard 316 

Cherry Growing, W. H. Litson, Nevada 311 

Codling Moth, Parasite for 363 

Cole, M. Oliver, Springfield, Mo., On the Munson Grape 304 

Cold Storage, Lessons from 121, 139, 246 

Cold Storage, Value of 345 

Colman, Hon. Norman J., Elected Hon. Vice-President 279, 2,93 

Honored -. 351, 354, 35'. 7 

Combination of Associations for Work, Prof. A. A. Stark, Logan, Mo 208 

Commission at the Exposition, The Missouri 32, 242 

Committee Appointment of the B. B. T>. Gano 108 

Committee, Executive, Rghts and Work of 10, 37, 101, 107, 109, 111, 115 

Committee on New Fruits, Report of 94 

Committee on Obituary 267 

Committee on Special Fund 40, 270 

Committees Appointed 27, 177 

Committees on Awards 95, 266 

Committees on Final Resolutions 97, 327 

Committees on Finance 35, 266 

Committees, Standing r 14 

Committee, Decision of the B. B. D. Gano 104 

Constitution 16 

County Societies 10, 141 

Crop Report 28, 245 

Crops, Rotation of, L. A. G 171 

Crops in the Orchard 45, 46, 47, 371 

Cultivating Implements, Discussion 168 

Cultivation of Orchards 47, 50, 163, 170, 290, 398 

Cultivation of the Soil, J. W. Robinson, Springfield, Mo 215 

Culture in the ITorae, Mrs. Asa Cbandler, Randolph, Mo 159 

Curculio in the Apple, Prof. J. M. Stedman 66 

Cycle Complete? Is the, J. C. Evans, Harlem, Mo 195 

D 

Delegate, Certificate of • ^75 

Discussion on: 

Black Ben Da\is— Gano Controversy 42 

Grapes ^ 74, 298, 299, 307 

Orcharding * 49, 165, 172, 291 

Peaches 65 

Pruning and Cultivation 165, 291 

Raspberry 26 

Spraying 172 

Strawberries 20, ?n, 2fl7 

Transportation 199 

Treasurer's Report '■ 36 

Diseases 1^ 

Display at the World's Pair, Missouri Horticultural 120 

Distribution 56, 189, 207, 209 

Diversified Planting 299, 300 

Dugan, Mrs. Geo. E., on Flowers 220 

Durkes, J. A., "Weston, Mo., On Pear Growing 296 



INDEX. Ill 

Page. 

Butcher, C. H., History of Society 226 

Motion by 39 

Resolution on E. B. D.—Gano' Controversy 40 

Dust Spray ..157, 372 ■ 

Dust Spray, G. C. Johnson, Kansas City, Mo 173 

Dust Spraying, Prof. H. A. Surface, Penn. Agr. College 3til 

• 

E 

Education Phases of Fruit Growing, Prof. S. A. Hoover 347 

Education, Horticultural 79, 130, 133, 137, 141, 213, 216, 376 

Election of Officers 276 

Erb, Louis, Memphis, Tenn., The Apple Grower and the Apple Shipper 51 

Transportation Question 186 

Evans, J. C, Is the Cycle Complete? 195 

Apples at the World's Pair 287 

Letter to Hon. N. J. Colman 353 

Evergreens, Sid. J. Hare, Kansas City, Mo 88 

Evolution of Varieties, Prof. .T. C. Whitten 322 

Executive Committee, Report on Finance .- 35 

Work 10, 37, 101, 107, 115 

Exhibit at the Exposition, Congratulations from John T. Stinson, Supt. Pomology, 

L. P. E 279 

Exhibits at the World's Fair 29, 244, 334 

Exhibits Made by the State Society 113, 131, 235, 237 

Exhibits of Counties 248 

Exhibits of Fruits, Number of Varieties and Plates 244, 334 

Experiment Station of Missouri 138, 157 

Experiment Station at Mt. Grove 53,138 

Express Rates, Lower 185, 199, 205, 210 

Exporting Apples 56 

F 

Favor, E. H., Ass't Horticulturist, Missouri Experiment Station, on Spraying — 157 

Fertilizers for 'the Orchard, W. H. Chandler, Missouri College of Agriculture 316 

Final Resolutions 97, 327 

Final Talks 328 

Finance Committee, Report of Special 270 

Finance Committee Reports 35, 39, 266 

Financial Methods, Statement by G. T. Tippin 114 

Financial Report, Executive Committee 35 

Financial Status of the Society Ill 

Flora of Missouri, Extent of 1-^ 

Flournoy, W. T., Report of Treasurer 260 

Flowers on the World's Fair Grounds 225 

Flowers Sold in Missouri, Value of 140 

Flowers, The Arrangement of, Annice Bodley Calland 374 

Flowers, True Value of, Mrs. Geo. E. Dugan 220 

Flowers (Ornamiental Shrubs) 74, 76 

Forests, Missouri, N. F. Murray, Oregon, Mo 86 

Forests, Preserving 82 

Fruit Farm, The Local, H. S. Wayman, Princeton, Mo 212 

Fruit Gi-owing, Educational Phases of. Prof. S. A. Hoover, Warrensburg, Mo — 347 

Fruit Growing Is a Business, L. A. Goodman 141 

Fruit, Handling, W. G. Gano, Parkville, Mo 343 

Fruits, Report of Committee on New 94 

Fruits, The Ozarks for, G. T. Tippin, Nichols, Mo 294 

Fruit Trees, Number of in Missouri 54, 127 



II INDEX. 



c 

Page. 

Care of Orchards 45, 340 

Chandler, C. A., Kansas City, Mo., Landscape Gardening at the L. P- B 223 

Chandler, Mrs. Asa, Randolph, Mo., Culture in the Home 159 

Chandler, W. H., Columbia, Mo., Commercial Fertilizers for the Orchard 316 

Cherry Growing, W. H. Litson, Nevada 311 

Codling Moth, Parasite for : — 363 

Cole, M. Oliver, Springfield, Mo., On the Munson Grape ..304 

Cold Storage, Lessons from 121, 139, 246 

Cold Storage, Value of 345 

Colman, Hon. Norman J., Elected Hon. Vice-President 279, 2.93 

Honored, •. 351, 354. 357 

Combination of Associations for Work, Prof. A. A. Stark, Logan, Mo 208 

Commission at the Exposition, The Missouri 32, 242 

Committee Appointment of the B. B. D. Gano 108 

Committee, Executive, Rghts and Work of 10, 37, 101, 107, 109, 111, 115 

Committee on New Fruits, Report of 94 

Committee on Obituary 267 

Committee on Special Fund 40, 270 

Committees Appointed 27, 177 

Committees on Awards 95, 266 

Committees on Final Resolutions 97, 327 

Committees on Finance 35, 266 

Committees, Standing r 14 

Committee, Decision of the B. B. D. Gano 104 

Constitution 16 

County Societies 10, 141 

Crop Report 28, 245 

Crops, Rotation of, L. A. G 171 

Crops in the Orchard 45, 46, 47, 371 

Cultivating Implements, Discussion 168 

Cultivation of Orchards 47, 50, 163, 170, 290, 398 

Cultivation of the Soil, J. W. Robinson, Springfield, Mo 215 

Culture in the Ilorae, Mrs. Asa Chandler, Randolph, Mo 159 

Curculio in the Apple, Prof. J. M. Stedman 66 

Cycle Complete? Is the. J. C. Evans, Harlem, Mo 195 

D 

Delegate, Certificate of • -^^o 

Discussion on: 

Black Ben Da\'is— Gano Controversy 42 

Grapes ^ 74, 29S, 299, 307 

Orcharding * 49, 165, 172, 291 

Peaches ■ 65 

Pruning and Cultivation 165, 291 

Raspberry 26 

Spraying 172 

Strawberries 20. r5. 207 

Transportation 199 

Treasurer's Report • 3^ 

Diseases -^58 

Display at the "World's Fair, Missouri Horticultural 120 

Distribution 56, 1S9, 207, 209 

Diversified Planting 299, 300 

Dugan, Mrs. Geo. E., on Flowers 220 

Durkes, J. A., "V^^eston, Mo., On Pear Growing 296 



INDEX. Ill 

Page. 

Dutcher, C. H., History of Society 226 

Motion by 39 

Resolution on E. B. D.—Gano' Controversy 40 

Dust Spray .157, 372 

Dust Spray, G. C. Johnson, Kansas City, Mo 173 

Dust Spraying, Prof. H. A. Surface, Penn. Agr. College 3bl 

E 

Education Phases of Fruit Growing, Prof. S. A. Hoover 347 

Education, Horticultural 79, 130, 133, 137, 141, 213, 216, 376 

Election of Officers 276 

Erb, Louis, Memphis, Tenn., The Apple Grower and the Apple Shipper 51 

Transportation Question 186 

Evans, J. C, Is the Cycle Complete? 195 

Apples at the World's Pair 287 

Letter to Hon. N. J. Colman 353 

Evergreens, Sid. J. Hare, Kansas City, Mo 88 

Evolution of Varieties, Prof. .T. C. Whitten 322 

Executive Committee, Report on Finance .• 35 

Work 10, 37, 101, 107, 115 

Exhibit at the Exposition, Congratulations from John T. Stinson, Supt. Pomology, 

L. P. E 279 

Exhibits at the World's Fair 29, 244, 334 

Exhibits Made by the State Society 113, 131, 235, 237 

Exhibits of Counties 248 

Exhibits of Fruits, Number of Varieties and Plates 244, 334 

Experiment Station of Missouri 138, 157 

Experiment Station at :Mt. Grove 53, 138 

Express Rates, Lower 185, 199, 205, 210 

Exporting Apples 56 

F 

Favor, E. H., Ass't Horticulturist, Missouri Exi)eriraent Station, on Spraying 157 

Fertilizers for 'the Orchard, W. H. Chandler, Missouri College of Agriculture 316 

Final Resolutions 97, 327 

Final Talks 328 

Finance Committee, Report of Special 270 

Finance Committee Reports 35,39,266 

Financial Methods, Statement by G. T. Tippin 114 

Financial Report, Executive Committee 35 

Financial Status of the Society Ill 

Flora of Missouri, Extent of 124 

Flournoy, W. T., Report of Treasurer 260 

Flowers on the World's Fair Grounds 225 

Flowers Sold in Missouri, Value of 140 

Flowers, The Arrangement of, Annice Bodley Calland 374 

Flowers, True Value of, Mrs. Geo. E. Dugan 220 

Flowers (Ornamiental Shrubs) 74, 76 

Forests, Missouri, N. F. Murray, Oregon, Mo 86 

Forests, Preserving 82 

Fruit Farm, The Local, H. S. Wayman, Princeton, Mo 212 

Fruit Growing, Educational Phases of. Prof. S. A. Hoover, Warrensburg, Mo 347 

Fruit Growing Is a Business, L. A. Goodman 141 

Fruit, Handling, W. G. Gano, Parkville, Mo 343 

Fruits, Report of Committee on New 94 

Fruits, The Ozarks for, G. T. Tippin, Nichols. Mo 294 

Fruit Trees, Number of in Missouri 54,127 



IV INDEX. 

Page. 

Fungi 157 

Fungicides 157, 368 

Furnace for Dryhouse, M. P. Wilson, Wash 377 

Future Prospects of Missouri Horticulture^ Prof. J. C. Whitten 322 

G 

Gano and Its Synonyms, W. H. Ragan, U. S. Dept. of Pomologj' 104 

Gano Apple, History of 105, 110 

Gano and Black Ben Davis, The Same Variety 107, lOS, 110 

Gano— B. B. D. Committee 104, 108, 110 

Gano, W. G., Parkville, Mo., on Growing Peaches 182 

On Handling Fruit 343 

Report of Treasurer 33 

Gardening, Home 393 

Girdled by Mice, Treatment of Fruit Trees, Prof. A. T. Erwin, Iowa 394 

Girdling Fruit Trees, Successful Experiments in, J. E. May, LaPlata, Mo 164 

Goodman, L. A., Secretary of Society, Reports 28, 240 

Missouri Horticulture 117 

On Sprays 62 

Orcharding 139 

Remarks on Finance 37 

Society Work 126 

Supt. Missouri Hort. L. P. E 117, 120, 331 

Grafting Methods 381, 396 

Grape Culture, J. C. Ruder, Affton, Mo 303 

Grape Growing in Missouri 142 

Grape Growing, I^ouis Zellner, Granby, Mo 301 

Grapes, Discussion on 74, 298, 299, 307 

Grapes, My Experience with the Munson, M. Oliver Cole, Springfield, Mo 304 

Grapes, Sacking Successfully, W. H. Ragan, U. S. Dept. Agr 662 

Grapes, Spraying of, B. J. Baxter, Nauvoo, 111 390 

Grape Vine at the W^orld's Pair, Description of 280 

Grapes, Varieties 74, 301, 303, 304, 308 

Graves, J. G., Neosho, Mo., Words of Greeting 153 

Growing and Training the Vines, Ed. Kemper, Hermann, Mo 73 

H 

Hare, Sid J., Kansas City, Mo., Evergreens 88 

Hartman, L. J., St. Joseph, Mo., Strawberry Growing 197 

Heading Apple Trees Ibij 

Hitt's Sons on Peach Business at Koshkonong, Mo 183 

Hoover, Prof. S. A., Educational Phases of Fruit Growing 347 

Horticultural Facts of Missouri, The Largest 30 

Horticultural Institutions 137 

Horticultural Reading 160 

Horticultural School of the Agricultural College 133, 177 

Horticulture, A Woman's View of, Mrs. A. Z Moore, Mt. Grove, Mo 319 

Horticulture in Missouri, L. A. Goodman 117, 122, 139 

Horticulture, Instruction in 130, 137, 213, 216, 348 

Horticulture, Profits in, Asa Chandler, Randolph, Mo 341 

Horticulture Then and Now, E. L. Mason, Trenton, Mo 381 

Howard, W. L., Instructor in Horticulture, Columbia, Mo., First Two Years in 

a Commercial Orchard 312 

Strawberries, Varieties of 21 



TNDEX. 



I 

Page- 

Insecticides 368 

Insect— Parasite for Codling Moth 363 

Insect Pests, Prof. J. M. Stedman, Mo. Experiment Station 66 

Insects, Spraying for 71, 368 

Invitation from Missouri Valley Society 292 

Irish, Prof. H. C, Missouri Botanical Garden, Hardy Shrubs 76 



Japanese Plums, Sterility in. Prof. M. B. Waite, U. S. Dept. Agr 373 

Jenkins, H. W. Plattsburg, Mo., Raspberries 309 

Johnson, G. C, Kansas City, Mo., Dust Spraying 173 

Jonathan 49, 147, 246, 398 

Judging Fruits, Prof. L,. B. Taft, Agricultural College, Michigan 60 

K 

Kemper, Ed., Hermann, Mo., Growing and Training Vines 73 

Kerosene Emulsion for Sucking Insects 368 



Lamson, Mayor, T. W., Neosho, Mo., Address of Welcome 151 

Landscape Gardening at the L,. P. E., C. A. Chandler, Kansas City. Mo 223 

Letters : 

C. Aul, Apple Crops 65 

Asa Chandler and Wife, Awards 281 

Prof. John Craig, Apples Received , 282 

Geo. D. Bratchi, Reports 282 

Peter Bailing, Fruit and Society 282 

Prof. E. R. Lake, Annual Report 281 

G. T. Lincoln, Orchards 50 

J. E. May, Crops 23 

Girdling 163 

Miss Mar^ E. Murtfeldt, Father's Paper 91 

G. T. Odor. Fruit Conditions 281 

John T. Stinson, Supt. Pomology, L. P. E 1'79 

Chas. H. Trampe, Awards 281 

T. C. Wilson, Apple Growers' Congress 276 

Lime in Sprays 62, 157, 367 

List of Members 5, 7 

List of OfCicers '. 5 

List of Societies 10 

List of World's Fair Workers 332 

Litson, W. H., Nevada, Mo., Cherry Growing 311 

Location of Orchards 44, 46, 145, 396 

Lowmiller, D., Parkville, Mo., Treatment of Bearing Orchard 161 

M 

Marketing 55, 59, 128, 189, 203, 206, 399 

Marketing the Strawberry Crop 203, 385 

Mason, E. L., Trenton, Mo., Horticulture Then and I\ow • 381 

Maxwell, W. D., St. Joseph, Dust Formula 15S, 177 

May, J. E., LaPlata, Mo., Girdling Fruit Trees 164 

Growing Fancy Strawberries 23 

Medals Received at World's Fair 241, 250 

Medals, The World's Fair, Prof. L. R. Taft 335 



Vi INDEX. 

Page. 
Mcnihershii) j^5 

Members, Honorary Life 5 

Members, Life 5 g 

Members, List of 7 

Mice, Treating Fruit Trees Girdled by. Prof A. T. Erwin, Ames, Iowa 394 

Mississippi Valley Trust Company, Funds in Hands of ....35, 112, 115, 264, 271, 273, 274 

Missouri at the World's Fair 338 

Missouri Book, The 260 

Missouri Botanical Garden, Invitation to Visit 43 

Missouri Commission at World's Fair 32, 242 

Report to Governor 331 

Missouri Fruits at the World's Fair, L. A. Goodman 117 

Missouri Horticulture 117, 147 

Missouri Horlicultui'e, Future Prospects of, Dr. .T. C. Whitten 322 

Missouri Peaches Given Away at the Fair 118 

Missouri State Horticultural Society 126, 129 

Moore, Mrs. A. Z., Mt. Grove, Mo., A Woman's Views of Horticulture 319 

Mulch in the Orchard 45, 47 

Murray, N. F., Oregon, Mo., Forestry 86 

Suggestions for the Good of the Society 284 

Murtfeldt, Chas. W., In Memoriam 267 

Murtfeldt. Miss Mary B., IjCttcr from 91 

Services Priced 269 

N 

Na'cure Study 321, 348, 365. 393 

Nelson, A. T., Lebanon, Pruning and Cultivating the Orchard 340 

Neosho, Meeting at 151 

Nitrogen 316 

Nomenclature 101, 114 

Nomenclature, Expert in Pomological, W. H. Ragan 104, ICS, 110 

Nomenclature, Rules of American Pomological Society on 102 

Nursery Interests, Value of in Missouri 140 

Nursery Methods ' 381, 396 

Nut Bearing Trees, J. T. Jackson, Chillicothe, Mo 325 

o 

Obituary Committee Report on Death of C. W. Murtfeldt 267 

Officers. Election of 276 

Officers, List of 5 

Orchard After it Comes into Bearing, D. Lowmiller, Parkville, Mo 161 

Orchard Care of the Apple, T. Nelson, Lebanon, Mo 340 

Orchard, Crops in the 45, 47, 49, 371 

Orchard Cultivation 45, 47, 163, 168, 170, 215, 290, 398 

Orchard, Fertilizers for the, W. H. Chandler Columbia, Mo 316 

Orchard, First Two Years in a Commercial Orchard, W. L. Howard, Columbia, 

Mo, 312 

Orcharding, Disciission 49, 315 

Orchards, J. H. Darche, Parkville, Mo 396 

Orchards, T. H. Todd, New Franklin, Mo 44 

Orchards, Management of Hillside, E. H. Riehl, Alton, 111 370 

Orchard, Soil, etc 44, 45, 145 

Orchards, Value of, L. A. Goodman 139 

Organization 153, 209, 385 

Ornamental Planting 74, 76, 88, 223 

Ornamentals (Flowers) 74, 76, 220, 223, 374 

Ornamentals ( Shrubs) 71, 76 

Ornamental Trees for Streets, Chas. W. Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo 91 



INDEX. VII 

Page. 

Ornamental Value, Shrubs of, Prof. J. C. Whltten 7-1 

Over Production 128, 192, 387 

Ozarks, Discussion on 298 

Ozarks for Fruit, G. T. Tippin, Nichols, Mo 294 

Ozark Soils, L. A. G 123 



Packing anfl Picking Fruits ...61, 147, 184, 200, 204, 3S7, 399 

Packing Apples 57, 379, 388 

Packing Strawberries '04 

Parasite for Codling- Moth 363 

Peach Business of Koshkonong, J. W. Hitt's Sons 183 

Peaches, Discussion on 65 

Peaches Given Away, Carload of Missouri 118 

Peaches, Mid-Season, E. H. Riehl, Alton, 111 358 

Peaches, Success in Growing, W. G. Gano, Parkville, Mo 182 

Peaches, Varieties 144, 358 

Peach Growing in Missouri 143 

Peach Pruning, Discussion 291 

Peach Seedlings, Rev. John Brereton, Springfield, Mo 178 

Pear Growing in Missoiiri, J. A. Durkes, AVoston. Mo 296 

Pear, Pruning the 290 

Pears, Self-Fertilizing, KeifEer, Prof. J. C. Whitten : 369 

Phosphorus Fertilizer 316 

Piece-Root and Whole Root 382, 396 

Planting, Cost of 314 

Planting Orchards .' 44, 396 

Planting the Strawberry Patch, L. J. Hartman, St. Joseph, Mo 197 

Plums for Missouri, Best 370 

Plums, Sterility in the Japanese, M. B. Waite. U. S. Dept. Agr 373 

Poems: 

Home Acres, R. W. Cilder 360 

Old Solomon's Tree, Joe Lincoln 372 

The Breaking Plow, Nixen Waterman 359 

The Shade, W. D. Nesbitt 360 

To Autumn, Keats , 393 

Portland, Oregon, Exposition at 328 

Potash Fertilizer 316 

Pruning and Cultivation. A. T. Nelson, Lebanon, ]Mo 340 

Pruning and Cultivation, Discussion 165, 291 

Pruning and Cultivation of an Orchard, C. W. Steiman, Dalton, Mo 289 

Pruning Apple Trees 45, 47, 288 

Priming Grape Vines 73. 302 



Rabbits, Wash for 45, 176 

Ragan, W. H., Expert in Pomological Nomenclature 104, 108, 110, 362 

Railroad Companies 188 

Raspberries, H. W. Jenkins, Plattsburg, Mo 309 

Raspberry, Discussion on 26 

Refrigeration 190, 192, 200 

Remedies for Curculio, Pest of Apple, Prof. J. M. Stedman 71 

Replants 45 

Report of Committee on New Fruits 94 

Report of Committee on Obituary. 267 

Reports of Committees on Awards 95, 266 

Reports of Committees on Finance 35, 266 

Reports of Secretary 28, 240 



VIII INDEX. 

Page 

Report of Society, Annual 130, 245, 281, 380 

Report of Special Finance Committee 270 

Reports of Treasurers 33, 260 

Resolution Concerning' B. B. D. — Gano Controversy, C. H. Dutcher 10 

Resolution of Thanks to P. H. Speakman and Associates. W. T. Burkam 309 

Resolution on Delegates to Commission Merchants League 292 

Resolution on Trustees of Mt. Grove Station 293 

Richardson, H. G., Neosho, Mo., Strawberry Experiences 202 

Robinson, J. W., Springfield, Mo., Cultivation, etc 215 

Robnett, D. A., Chairman Committee on Finance 36 

President — Remarks 19 

Ruder, J. C, Affton, Mo., Grape Culture 303 

s 

Sal Bordeaux Compound 175 

San Jose Scale Methods of Destroying 395 

Scab on Apples 158 

Science Applied with Profit, C. H. Williamson, Utica, Mo 46 

Scions, When and How to Cut 379 

Score Cards for Judging Fruits 60. 335 

Secretary's Reports 28, 240 

Seedlings, Peach, Rev. John Brereton, Springfield, Mo 178 

Selection of Buds 37 

Shade and Ornamental Trees for Streets, C. W. Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo ^. . 91 

Shrubs, Hardy, Prof. H. C. Irish. Missouri Botanical Garden 76 

Shrubs, of Ornamental Value, Native, Prof. J. C. Whitten, Columbia, Mo 74 

Societies, List of County 10 

Society, History and Achievements of Our, C. H. Dutcher, First Vice-President.. 226 

Society, Missouri State Horticultural 126, 129 

Societj% Suggestions for the Good of, N. F. Murray, Ex-President 284 

Society Work 113, 136 

Soil for Orchards 4€, 123, 396 

Soil, The Cultivation of the, J. W. Robinson, Springfield, INIo 218 

Speakman, F. H., Resolution of Thanks to 309 

Special Fund of the Society 35, 112 

Spray, Dust Form ...'. 62, 63, 157 

Spray Formula, Canadian 172 

Spraying 48, 162, 399 

Sprajang, C. H. Dutcher, Warrensburg, Mo 366 

Spraying Discussion 61, 172, 176 

Sprajang for Curculio, Prof. J. M. Stedman 71 

Spraying of Grapes, E. J. Baxter, Nauvoo, 111 390 

Spraying, Some Remarks About, E. H. Favor, Ass't Horticulturist, Columbia, Mo. 157 

Sprajang the Apple, A. V. Schermerhorn, 111 365 

Spraying WTiile Trees are in Bloom 64, 176 

Stark, E. W., Remarks on Treasurer's Report 36 

Motion on Special Fund 40 

Stark, Prof. A. A., Logan, Mo., Oi» Associations 208 

"State of Missouri" Book, Walter Williams, Editor 260 

Stedman, Prof. J. M,, Columbia, Mo., "Sting" in the Apple 66, 73 

Steiman, Chas. W., Dalton, Pruning and Cultivation 289 

SUnson, John T., Supt. of Pomology, L. P. E 279 

"Sting" in the Apple, Prof. J. M. Stedman 66 

Strawberries, Discussion on 20, 25, 207 

Strawberries, Growing Fancy, J. E. May, LaPlata, Mo 23 

Strawberries, List of Best Varieties 26, 142 

Strawberries, Notes on Varieties, W. L. Howard, Ass't Prof. Hort., Columbia, Mo. 21 
Strawberry Crop, Marketing the. Dr. E. L. Beal, Republic. Mo 203 



INDEX. IX 

Page. 

Strawberry Crop, Marketing the 385 

Strawberry District, Experiences in, H. G. Richardson, Neosho, Mo 202 

Strawberry Growing, L. J. Hartman, St. Joseph, Mo '. -.. 197 

Summer Meeting, St. Louis 19, 98 



Taft, Prof. L. R., on Judging Fruits 60, 97 

Taylor, F. W., Chief of Departments of Agriculture and Horticulture. L. P. E... 48 

Tippin, G. T., Statement on Society "Work 114 

Ozarks for Fruit 294 

Todd, T. H., New FVanklin, Orchards 44 

Transportation, Discussion on 199 

Transportation Question from a Fruit Grower's View Point, Louis Erb 186 

Transportation Rates 185, 205, 210 

Transportation for Meetings 329 

Treasurer's Reports 33, 260 

Treasurer's Report, Discussion on 36 

Treasury Accounts ., 229 

Truck Gardens, Value in Missouri 140 

u 

U. S. Dept. of Agr., W. H. Ragan, Expert in Pomological Nomenclature. .104, 108, 110 
U. S. Pomologist, G. B. Brackett, Quoted 108, 110 

V 

Varieties of: 

Apples 44, 47, 49, 147, 24<5, 288, 324, 381, 397 

Blackberries 142 

Cherries 143, 312, 370 

Evergreens 90 

Flowers 76, 225, 375 

Grapes 74, 301, 303, 304 

Peaches 144, 358 

Pears 297, 369 

Plums 370, 373 

Raspberries 27, 142, 310 

Shrubs 75, 76, 225 

Strawberries 21, 24, 25, 26, 142, 197 

Street Trees 92 

Varieties to Suit Locations 181 

Vine at T\"orld"s Fair, Section of Grape 280 

Vines, Growing and Training the, Ed. Kemper, Hermann, Mo 73 

w 

Wash for Trees 45, 176, 395 

Wayman, H. S.. Princeton, Mo.. The Local Fruit Farm 212 

"Welcome Addresses 151, 153 

"Welcome Addresses. Response to. President "Whitten 155 

Whitten, Dr. J. C As President 19, 277 

Missouri Horticulture 322 

Native Shrubs 74 

Remarks on Sprays 176 

Remarks on Cultivation 169 

Response to Addresses I55 

"Whole-root Trees 382, 396 

Widmann, Otto, St. Louis, Mo., Passing of the Birds 77 

"Williamson, C. H., Utica, Mo., Science in Fruit Growing 46 



X INDEX. 

Page. 

Winter Meeting 151 

Work of the Society, Regular 245 

World's Fair Medals, Prof. L. R. Taft, Chairman of Jury of Awards 335 

World's Fair, Missouri Fruit at the 117 

World's Fair, Missouri Horticultural Display at the 120 

World's Fair, Preparation for 29 

Wrappers, Tree 313, 315 

Y 

Young, S. R., Industrial Agent Missouri Pacific Railway — Remarks 200 

z 

I 

Zellner, Louis, on Grape Growing 301 



New York Botanical Garden Librar 




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