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Full text of "ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MYSORE ARCHEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 1937"

Call No 

sjiotild )be returned on or before 

below or fines will fee levied 
per day 



16 JKN 1971 




University of Mysore 



ANNUAL REPOET 



OF THE 



MYSORE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

DEPARTMENT 



FOR THE YEAR 1937 




BANGALORE 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS 

1938 



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same temple, 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 Administrative. 

Staff, Tours, Exploration and Conservation, Epigiaphy 1 
Manuscripts, Numismatics, Publications, Libraiy, Exhibition, Finance, The Work of the 

Department . . 2 

PART II Study of Ancient Monuments and Sites. 

Mataken 

Situation & 

Ramesvara Temple . , 3-4= 

History, Importance $ 

Conservation i 

Heggadadevankote 

Ancient Times . 4 

Chandranatba, Hoysala pillars, Mediaeval Fort ... 4 

Somesvara Temple , 5 

History and Geneial Description, linages ... . 5 

Yaradarajasvanai Temple . 5-7 

History and General Description, Outer wall, Niches 5 

Eaves, Eelievo Figures, Somasutia, Navaranga, Sukhanagi, Garbhagriha, Main Image, 

Lakshmi, Conservation . ie , 6 

Kittur 

Eamesvara Temple . 7-8 

History, General Description 7 

Mam Temple, Its Navaranga Dooiways, Images, Minor Shrines, Nandi, Conservation 8 

Jam Basti ... ... 8 

Ancient Site of Kirtipura . 9 1 

Sargur 

Somesvara Temple . 9-10 

General Description, Age .., 9 

Images 10 

Lakshmi-Narasimha Temple .. 10 

Age, General Description, Conservation, Inacuptions ... . * 1Q 



Lakshmikantasvami Temple ... . . 10-1 $ 

Situation . ... 10 

General Description and History, Outer View, Basement, Wall, Eaves, Wall Images 11 

Tower, Mukhamantapa and Navaranga, Mam Image, Vahanas, etc , Garuda Pillar 12 

Oil Mill, Utsava Vigiaha, Conservation I 



11 

PAGE 

Kotekere 

Temples - 18 ~ 14 

Venugopala Temple 13-14 

General Description, South Cell, North Cell, Mam Cell, Mam Image .. 13 

Stucco Image " 

Other Temples Ghandramaulesvara and Ganesa, Bamesvara, Chaluvar&ya 14 

Haghavapura 

Lakshml-Narayana Temple 14-16 

General Description, Wall 14 
Eaves, Somasutra, Outer sukhanasi, Yishvaksena, Garhhagriha Mam Image, Other 

archifeectural features 15 

Lakshnri Image .. 16 

Bamesvara Temple .. 16 

Lakshmana-samudra . * . . 16 

Hangala 

Varadaraja Temple . . 17-18 

Description, Outer Walls, Eaves, Mam Image, Madhava . 17 

History of Temple, Conservation . 18 

Himavad-Gopalasvami Hill 

Gopalasvami Temple 18-19 

Situation, Age, General Description, Eaves , 18 

Date, Navaranga, Sukhanasi and Garhhagnha, Main Image, Prospect from the Hill 19 
Gundlupet 

Vijayanarayana Temple 19-21 
Garbhagnha, Eaves, Somasutra, Main Image, Navaranga, Kattale Pradakshma, 

Materials of the Paravasudeva Temple Porch, Images , Tower . . 20 

Conservation , . 21 

Bamesvara Temple 21 

Comparison with the Vijayanarayana Temple, Conservation . 21 

Paravasudeva Temple , 22 

f Tri5 ambakapura 

Tnyambakesvara Temple 22-23 

Situation, General Description, Main Temple, Kalyanamantapa, Verandah, Porches 22 

Homogeneity of Structure, Chandrasila, Age of Temple, Parvatl Shrine 23 
*Terakanambi 

Lakshmi-Varadara]asvami Temple t 2324 

History and General Desciiption 23 

Images, Conservation 24 

Gopalasvami Temple . 24-25 

Yalue, General Description ^ 

Mam Image, Conservation ^5 

Miilasthanesvara Temple o 

* ^ 

Situation, Age of Temple, Images 05 

Anjaneya Temple OK OT7 

AtQ" A I 



Ill 

PAGE 

History, Description, Image 25 

Porch Pillars, Pillar Sculptures 26 

Sculptures on Ceiling 27 

Anjaneya Temple No 2 27 

Huhganamaradi 

Venkataiamanasvami Temple 27 

Situation, Temple and Images, Ponds and Inscriptions 27 

Naiasamangala 

Situation , ,. 28 

Ramesvara Temple , 28-35 

History, General Description, Qutei View, "Vimana, Basement 28 

Wall, Eaves, Tower, Bculptuies, South Face, West Eace 29 

North .Face, Somasutra, Navaianga Doorway, Navaianga, Beams . 30 

Central Gelling, Parasurama 33 

Ganesa, Sukhanasi 34 

Garbhagiiha, Nandi, .. 35 

Surroundings . 35-38 

Lmga, Insciiptions, The Saptamatuka Shrine ... 35 

Stray Images Surya, Kumara, Mahishasuramardini 36 

Janardana, Conservation 37 

Inscriptions 38 
Haradanahalli 

Anilesvara Temple . 38-39 

History, Paintings ... 38 

Lofty pillar , 39' 

Gopalakushna Temple .. ... . 39-40 

History and General Description , .. 39 

Main Image, Images in Navaranga, Description of Temple 40 

Yenkatay^ana Chatra . ., ... 40 

Haralakote 

Manipura 40 

fortifications . . 41 

Airjaneya Temple .. , 41 
Janaidana Temple Chola-Dravidian Type, General Description, Mam Image, 

Garuda Pillar . 41 

Virabhadra Temple, Hoysala Image .. 42 

Ancient Site, Inscuptions 42 

Chamara]anagar 

Janana Mantapa . 43 

Homma 

Janardana svami Temple , 43 

History* General Descuption, Images, Conservation, Ballala's Inscuption 43 

Bamesvara Temple 43-44 

Burned Temple . 43 

B2 



IV 

PAGE 

Ancient; inscnption ..... 44 

Bhutesvara Temple ., 44 

Alur v 

Situation , . . 44 
Desesvara Temple . . . 44-45 
History and General Description, Bull Mantapa . 44 
Conservation, Inscriptions, Sculptures in the compound 45 
Arkesvarasvami Temple 45-53 
Age of Temple, General Description 45 
Navaranga Doorway, Sculptures on pillars, porch pillars, South-east pillar, South- 
west pillar 46 
Norfch-West pillar, North-east pillar 47 
Sculptures on the Navaranga pillars, South-east pillar ... 48 
South -west pillar, North-west pillar 49 
North-east pillar .. , 51 
Conservation , . . 53 

Ehadravati 

Lakshminarasimha Temple . . . , . 53-54 
Oharmagin 

Ketesvara Temple . ... 54-55 

Age of Temple ... ... 54 

General Description, Conservation .. ... 55 

The Hill Port , 55-56 

Hill, 3?ort, Buildings 55 
Ranganatha Temple, Peculiar Mam Image, Panchamukhi Airjaneya, Tower, 

Modern Inscription, Bhutappa .... 56 

Kallumatha, Situation, General Description . . . 56 
Sulekere 

Siddhesvaia Temple . . . ... 57-58 

Situation, Mahadvara, General Description, Outer walls, Eaves, Tower, Porch, 

Navaranga, Navaranga pillars . . 57 
Ceiling and Stone Benches, Sculptures, Sukhanasi and Garbhagnha, Date of 

Temple, Shrine of Goddess . . 58 
3ere-BiIaehi- 

Ancient Site , 58-60 

Overground survey of site, Coins . 59 

Sante-Bennur 

Modern Temple, Site of Old Temple, The Musafirkhana, The Pond 60 

Conservation . . 6L 
Honnali- 

Malhkarjima Temple . . ... ^2 

Histoiy, General Descuptionj Sculptures, Ceilings and Pillars, Importance 62 

Honnah Fort 62-63 

Conservation, Viragals . . 63 



PAGE 

Kuruvadagadde 

Bamesvara Temple . 63-64 

Situation, General Desonption, Early structure, Sculptures . . 63 

Later structure, Inscriptions 64 

Nanditavare 

Amritalmgamanikesvara Temple . 64-68 

Situation . . 64 

Age of Temple, General Description, Outer Walls, Cornices, Wall Images 65 

Inner view ... 66 

Navaranga Doorway, Pillars, Ceilings, Sculptures, Noith Cell . 67 
Kesava, Talismamc Betel Grower, Sukhanasi, Garbhagriha, Bull-mantapa, Worked 

pieces, Conservation ... 68 

Nandigudi 

Isvara Temple 69-70 

Situation, Age of Temple, General Description, Sukhanasi Doorway, Perfora- 
ted Screens, Lintel . 69 
Dvarapalas, Sculptures, Navaranga Pillars and Ceilings, Bull, Surya Cell and 

Image ... 70 

Hanhar 

Hariharesvara Temple 71-72 

The Hanhar a Image A close study, Navaranga Doorway, Conservation 71 

Sermgapatam, Swinging Arch . 72 

New Stone Images 

Garuda *-- 7% 

Bherundesvara . 73 

PART III Numismatics. 

( wv~ 

PANDYA COINS 
Before 1200- - 

Pandya Eeudatories of the Cholas 74-75 

Later Pandyas (after 1210 A. D.) 

Maravarman Sundara Pandya I 76 

Maravarman Sundara Pandya II, or Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I 77 

Jatavarman Sundara Pandya, Maravarman Sundara Pandya I 78 

Maravarman Kulasekhara I - 79-81 

PART IV Manuscripts. 

MEMOIRS OF HYJDER ALLY FROM THE YEAR 1758 TO 1770 BY ELOY 

JOZE CORREA PEIXOTO 

The Manuscript 82-86 

Description, Date of Manuscript 82 



VI 

PAGE 

Contents 83 

Dates of Events, Importance ... 84 

The Author . 85 

Anecdotes Belative to the Else of Hyder All 86-119 

Hyder's Early Life, Seven Years' war m India . . 86 

Beduction of Dindigul, Preparations against the Invading Mahratas 87 

March against Ghennapatna ... , ... 88 

The ' Two Kings ' at variance, Khanderao's plot . 89 

Alliance with Mahratas, Hyder's Flight . . 90 

Hyder at Anekal, Occupation of Bangalore, Ineffective persecution of Hyder 91 

Faizulla Khan of Kolai, Arrival of Mngt-um Saib .. 92 

Eeduation of Patana (Sermgapatam) 93 

Execution of Eamarao, Helplessness of the Eaja, Eeduetion of Hoskote and Sira . 95 

Conquest of Chikkaballapura, Eolations with Mallerow, Capture of Kodikonda 96 

Pall of Madakasira, Capture of Penugonda, Misunderstanding between Hyder and 

the Bishop t . . 97 

Eelations with the Eaja of ChitaJdrug, Annexation of Bednur 98 

Siege of Yenur . . 99 

Surrender of ' Uda Purssu,' Eeduction of Savanur 100 

Capture of Bankapm, Eolation with Mahratas . . 101 

Invasion of Coorg and Kadapa, Invasion of Malabar ... 103 

Eeturn to Seringapatam . , , 105 
Alliance between Hyder and Nizam All, Capture of Cauvenpatam, Battle of 

Changama . . _ 106 
Battle of Tiruvannamalai, Eavages of Tipu, The Author leaves Hyder's 

service ... ... 107 

The Authoi ID Madras, Prepares to leave, 111 requitted by the English, Dangers of 

theYoyage , ^ 108 

In Ceylon, At Cochin and Tiavancore, Enroute to Bengal, Nicobar, Othei Isles, In 
Bengal ( 

Again m Coromandel, In Pondichery m 

Negapatam, the Treaty of Madras, How the English viewed the Treaty, Back to 
Hyder's Service, Extent of Hyder's conquests ... . 

A curious Incident, At Organim, Hydei's views on the English, Stiuggle with 
Mahratas , t 

Eetuin of Mir Sahib, Mahrata Successes, Arnvalof Ea]a Saib, Eeturn to Seunga- 



Discord with Faizulla Khan, Hyder's private Life, Nan]ara], Hyder's Sports 
Fortifications, Tipu, More Victories of the Mahratas, A Moor Feast, Oppression at 

Bednur 115 

Hyder, a IJsuiper, Degenerate Europeans, Hyder and the Eaja ... 116 

Other Victories of the Mahratas, A terrible war expected, Hyper's youngest son, 

Movement of Mahomet Aly, Information about Mohamet Aly 117 

Death of ISTarrjaraja Vodeyar, Grief of Nanjaraja, Mahrata Force i;s Hyder's , 118 

Hyder's Concubines, the author takes leave . ,, H9 



Yll 



PART V New Inscriptions for the year 1937 

HASSAN DISTRICT 
Amkere Taluk 



Lithio Eecords at Kamkatte 
Lithic Eecord at Chikka Kodihalli 

Do Honnaghatta 

Lithic Eeeords at Doddaghatta 
Lithic records at Halkur 
Lithic record at Eamapura 
Lithic records at Nagav6di 
Lithic record at Kalgundi 
Lithic records at Belur 
Lithic record at Konenl 
Lithic record at Tagare 
Lithic records at Halebid 
Do at Hulikere 



PAGE 
120-124 

124 

125-130 
130-132 
132-135 
135-142 
142-145 

146 
146-171 

171 

172 

174-187 
187-189 



Mysore District 

CEAMARAJANAGAR TALUK 

Lithic records at Hale Alui ... 189-191 

Do atUdigala . 191-192 

Do at Uganedahundi ... ... 193-196 

Lithic record at Kottalavadi *, 196-198 

Lithic records at Narasamangala . 199-203 

Tamil supplement 

List of Inscriptions published, in theEeporfe arranged according to Dynasties and Dates 205-211 

Appendix (A) Conservation of Monuments 212-215 

Do (B) List of Photographs taken during the year 1936-37 216-218 

Do (0) List of Drawings prepared during the year 1936-37 218 

Do (D) List of Books acquired for the Library during 1936-37 219-222 

Do (E) Statement of Expenditure 223 

Index , 225 



PART V New Inscriptions for the year 1937. 

HASSAN DISTRICT 
Amkere Taluk, 



Lithic Eecords at Kamkatte 
Lithic Eecord at Chikka Kodihalli 

Do Honnaghatta 

Lithic Eecords at Doddaghatta 
Lithic records at Halkur 
Lithio record at Eamapura 
Lithic records at Nagave"di 
Lithic record at Kalgundi 
Lithic records at Belur 
Lithic record at Konenl 
Lithic record at Tagare 
Lithic records at Balebid 
Do at Hulikere 



PAGE 
120-124 

124 

125-130 
130-132 
132-135 
135-142 
142-145 

146 
146-171 

171 

172 

174-187 
187-189 



Mysore District 

CHAMARAJANAGAR TALUK 

Lithic records at Hale Aim. ,,. 189-191 

Do at Udigala 191-192 

Do at Uganedahundi ... .. . . , 193-196 

Lithic record at Kottalavadi ... . 196-198 

Lithic records at Narasamangala , 199-203 

Tamil supplement 

List of Inscriptions published, in the Eeport arranged according to Dynasties and Dates 205-211 

Appendix (A) Conservation of Monuments . 212-215 

Do (B) List of Photographs taken during the year 1936-37 216-218 

Do (0) List of Drawings prepared during the year 1936-37 . 218 

Do (D) List of Books acquired for the Library during 1936-37 . 219-222 

Do (E) Statement of Expenditure .. . 223 

Index , 225 



Yin 



PLATE. 
I 
II 



III. 

IV, 

V 
VI 

vir 



VIII. 


(1) 




(2) 


IX. 


(1) 




(2) 




(3) 


X. 


(1) 




(2) 


XI. 


(1) 




(2) 




(3) 



XII. 



XIII 
XIV 

XV, 

XVI* 



Illustrations 

Bamesvara Temple, Narasamangala North view of Tower frontispiece 

(1) Ramesvara Temple, Kittur Base of Lion Pillar 

(2) Do Bull 

(3) Do Tandavesvaia 

(4) Ijakshmmarayana Temple, Baghavapura Yishvaksena 

(1) Sketch Map of Kittui 

(2) Lakshmmarayana Tetople, Raghavapura North-west view 

(3) Varadaraja Temple, Hangala North wall 

(1) Ground Plan of Lakshmikanta Temple, Mullur 
(2i) Do Bamesvara Temple, Narasamangala 

(1) Do Gopala Temple, GopaLisvami Hill 

(2) Do Lakshrmnarayana Temple, Baghavapura 

(1) Gopalasvami Temple, Himavadgopalasvami Hill, Yenugopala 

(2) Do do Processional image of 

Yenugopala 

(1) Desesvara Temple, Hale-Alur Durga 

(2) Pond, Santebennur Gandabherunda on a pillar 

(3) Paravasucleva Temple, Gundlupet Pillar 

(4) Do do Chikkadevaraja Odeyar 
(6) Varadaraja Temple, Hangala Vaiadaraja 

(1) Triyambakesvara Temple, Tnyambakapura South-east view 



PAG-E 



8 

10 
16 
18 

20 



do do 

(1) Bamesvara Temple, Narasamangala- 



Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Subrahmanya and Hanuman 
South-east view 
Bull 

Pillars m the navaranga 
Mahishasuramardmi 
Janardana 

South view of Tower 
West view of Towei 
Parasurama 
Kumaia 
Varahi 

Chamunda 

Virabhadra 

Dakshabi ahma 



22 
28 

30 
32 



(1) Saptaznafcrika Shrine, Narasamangala 

(2) Do do 

(3) E> do 

(4) Do do 

(1) Gopalakushna Temple, Haradana.halli Venugopala 

^2) Do Metallic figures of Varadaraja and Knshna 

(l) Arkesvara Temple, Hale-Alur Pillars of Nartdima3T{.apa 

/2) Do do Panels on either side of the doorway 

(1) Sketch Map of Hill Fort, Oharmagiu 

(2) Fort wall and Gate, Honnah 

(3) Fond, SanfrebennOLr Yiew from South-east 



40 
46 



60 



IX 



PAGE 

XYII (1) Ketesyara Temple, Channagin -Ground Plan , , 64 

(2) Maaike^vara Temple, Nanditavare-Kesava 

(3) Arkesyara Temple, Hale-llur-Doorway 

XVIII (1) Lakshmi-Varadara]a Temple, Terakanambi-Metallic figures of Tandava- 

Knshna and Yasoda-Instaa , ,66 

(2) Isyara Temple, Nandigudi-Sukhanasi Doorway 

(3) Eanharesvara Temple, Hanhar-Hanhara 

XIX (1) Do do Ground Plan ,, 68 

XX, (l) Swinging Arch, Senngapatam , , ,, 70 
(2) Do do (After collapse) 

XXI, (1) Garada, Kesava Temple, Belur 72 
(2) Bherandesvara, Belgami 

XXII, Pafldya coins . . 74 

XXIII Specimen pages of Peixoto's Memoirs of Hyder AEy , , 82 

XXIV, Stone Inscription of the Hoysala king Vishnnyardliana at Halebid 176 

XXV Stone Inscription of Peramaladeya Danniyaka, at Narasamangala 198 



PLATE I 




EAMESVARA TEMPLE, NAHASAMANG-ALA -NOHTH-VIEW OF TOWEB (p 30) 



Mysore Archmological Swvey ] 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF MYSORE. 



-*. 



ANNUAL BEPOBT FOE THE YBAE ENDING 30i'H JUNE 1937. 



PART I-ADMINISTRATIVE, 

There was no change mthe stall Dr M H, Krishna, M A, D, LITT (Lond), 
a continued to be the Director of Archseology in addition to 

his professorial duties at the University 

The Director toured m the Heggadadevankote, G-undlupet, Ohamarajanagar 

and Nanjangud Taluks of the Mysore District and 
Tours Shmioga, Channagin and Homiali Taluks of the Shimoga 

District, and Hanhar and Chitaldrug Taluks of the 

Chitaldmg District for the purpose of collecting epigraphs and information about 
architecture and also for inspecting the monuments for conservation purposes. 
The Assistant to the Director toured in the Belur and Arsikere Taluks of the 
Hassan District and Chamarajanagar and Gundlupet Taluks of the Mysore District 
mainly for the study and collection of inscriptions. 

Among the ancient sites studied were Channagm ? Ghitaldrug ? Kittur and Hale- 

Alur, Of the monuments studied two deserve special 

Exploration and Con- mention The Aikesvara temple at Hale-Alur has 

servation. numerous relievo sculptures of about the Ohola period. 

The Eamesvara temple at Narasamangala is a unique 

monument with some very fine sculptures. Its brick tower resembles the towers of 
the Nandi temple m many ways and suggests that the structure is* more than a 
thousand years old. The conservation of monuments was attended to arid the woik 
of preserving the temples at Belur and Halebld was pushed on with the co-operation 
of the Public Works Department and of the Committee appointed by Government 
foi their renovation, 

The total Dumber of inscriptions collected during the year is about seventy- 
five, the majority of which have been edited by the Assis- 

Epigraphy tant, Mr, E. Earna Eao, with the help of the Pandits and 

under the Director's instructions, Among the important 

finds may be mentioned an epigraph on the Dhvaja-stambha of the Kesava temple 
at Belur stating that the golden Khaga-dhvaja-stambha was set up by Jakkarasa> 

1 



2 

son of Tirnmarasa, subordinate of the famous king Knshnaraya of Vijayanagar. 
Another inscription at the same temple records a grant made to some Siva temple 
near Belur by Ballaja I, the Hoysala king in 1106 A D. The Basavanpur copper 
plates of the Punnad King Skandavarman, which were published as No 53 of 1936, 
were purchased for the depaitment. 

An interesting manuscript obtained during last year was the " Memoirs of 

Hyder Ally from the year 1758 to 1770 " by Eloy Joze 
Manuscripts. Oorrea Peixoto, a Portuguese m Hyder's service Its 

faintly visible writing was completely copied and the 
manuscript was studied for review. 

About fifty interesting coins were acquired for the departmental collection 

and 141 electro-type casts were got prepared for the com 
Numismatics show case of the Government Museum, Bangalore. A 

detailed study was made of the Pandya coins 
During the year the Annual Reports of the department for the years 1933, 

n .I. t . 1934 and 1935 were published and the report for 1936 

Publications, * r 

was prepared and sent to the press. 

From vanous sources including the Government of India Archaeological 

Department, about eighty-three publications were received 
Library, as presentations or on exchange, among these being a set 

of the works published by the University of Washington 
on Anthropology and the Social Sciences (vide Appendix D) 

At the Sex-centenary celebrations of the Vijayanagar Empire at Hampi the 
x i -i *.| department took an important part in the exhibition and 

the Director presided over the Historical Conference 

The receipts and expenditure of the department under budget heads amounted 

to Bs, 16,793-4-6 and Es, 16,793-4-6, respectively (mde 
Finance. Appendix E) A sum of Es 516-13-0 was realised by the 

Bale of the departmental publications and photographs 
during the year* 

The members of the staff and the Superintendent, Government Printing, 

Bangalore, co-operated enthusiastically m the production 

The work of tiie of the publications. The Director gratefully acknowledges 

Department. the appreciative opinions and reviews that have been sent 

to him by vanous scholars and journals. 



PART II-STUDY OF ANCIENT MONUMENTS AND SITES, 

MATAKERI 

The village of Matakeri, Heggadadevankote Taluk is situated about 29 miles 

south-west of Mysore and at the confluence of the Taraka 

Situation and Kapila rivers About a furlong further up the Taraka 

bridge and to the left of the main road between Mysore 
and Karapur, a cart-track leads to the place 

EAMlSYAEA TEMPLE 

The temple of RamesVara 1 at the confluence of the rivers appears to have been 
History constructed in three different stages 

The hnga with the mam temple housing it, but excluding the front porch may 
be assigned, at the latest, to the reign of Kulottunga Chola whose inscription 2 has 
been found in the village. To this period may also be ascribed the Nandi, the 
bahpitha and the dipastambha, as also the five hngas and the Sankaranarayana 
image enshrined in a row of cells at the north-western corner of the temple yard. 
The images of Durga or Kapahka, Graiiapati, Surya and Ohandra kept in the 
navaranga^ of the mam temple seem to belong to the same period 

The Parvati shrine with the beautiful image of the goddess, the mukhamantapa, 
and the kalyana-mantapa belong to the Vrjayanagar period 

The brick tower of the garbhagriha, the compound wall and other brick struc- 
tures within the area hail from the 19th century. 

Though the shrines are all simple in plan and the walls almost rid of ornamen- 
tation, excepting for a few rude figures, here and there, 

Importance. the following features appear to be important The base- 

ment cornice is of the old type as also the eaves which 

have a sharp curve The navaranga of the main temple is approached by flights of 
steps guarded, on the east, by yahs and, on the south, by elephants. Inside the 
navaranga the four central pillars are interesting specimens reminding us of Ohola 
work 

The Parvati image is beautiful, though it has a pointed hooked-nose, lips of 
the archaic smile type and exaggeratedly large hips 

But the most interesting image in the temple is that of Sankaranarayana. 
Though ugly m proportions, the type is rare and of great value since, like the 

1 It has been briefly noticed by the late B Narasimhachar m the Mysore Archaeological 

Report for 1913 

2 Ibid, page 34 ^also see supplement; to Epigraphia Oamatiqa, Mysore District _ 

i* 



Venkatesa figure, it furnishes another example of the Hanhara form of images 
popular in the Ohola period. 

The temple is a Muzrai institution but is much neglected. It deserves to be 

given a start in conservation by the removal of the 
Conservation. trees and plants which are grown even on the main 

structures, if necessary, * tree-killer ' may be supplied. 

The monument, for the sake of the image of Sankaranarayana, may be declared 
protected and included in class III The confluence is { picturesque amidst wild 
scenery ' and a much-frequented holiday resort 

HEGGADADEVANKOTE. 

ANCIENT TIMES 

Heggadadevankote is the headquarters of a taluk The fact; that the Taraka 
river flows here and the road passes from the south towards Hunsur must have 
given some importance to the place in olden times, though there are very few 
ancient inscriptions A re-sfcudy of its architecture, however, shows that it was a 
piospeious place as early as the Chola and Hoysala times It enjoyed perhaps a 
second period of prosperity under the Pallegars until it was captured by the Mysore 
kings 

In the quadrangle of the taluk office is set up an image of Ghandianatha which 

has the crescent symbol on its pedestal The figure is 

Chandranatha. seated ID yogasana and appears to be very old, possibly 

dating from about the llth or 12th century A D. It is 

said to have been found when the site of the overseer's lodge was excavated, Its 
damaged nose and upper lip have been mended in plaster A Srivaishnava caste 
maik has been engraved on its forehead by bigots 

In front of the Yaradarajasvami temple are to be found four potstone pillars of 

the lathe-turned and bell-shaped type "Very probably, 

Hoysala Pillars they may have belonged originally to the navaranga of a 

Jama Basti which must have been existing on the site of 

the overseer's lodge, where the image of Chandranatha is reported to have been 
discovered 

The mediaeval town which is about 300 yards square had a fort with four 

straight sides having corner aud intermediate bastions. 

Mediaeval Fort. The wall about 15 feet high including the parapet above, 

was of earth and was defended by a deep outer moat. 

The main gate was near the Uramundala-Anjaneya temple and led to the chief 
street or Hfyavidi which extended to the Lakshml-Varadaraja temple just behind 
which was the west gate with its Kotebagilu-An^aneya templq. The tJramundala 



Anjaneya is a relievo figure in the striking attitude, about 4J feet in height In the 
north-east corner of the fort are the rums of a deep and large kalyam or pond. 

SOMESVARA TEMPLE. 

Close by the Kalyani pond stands a granite temple of Somes'vara 
The Imga is perhaps an old one. But the rest of the temple including the 

garbhagrma, sukhanasi and navaranga, and the Vishnu 

History and General shrine on the north are all of granite and of the- late 
Description. Vrjayanagar or Pallegar times. The temple has no 

mukhaniantapa There is a porch to the south of the temple. 
In the temple are now kept small rude images of Chandikesvara, Yishnu, 

Mahishasuranaardini, Ganesa, Surya and two Nandis and 

Images. a naga stone which are all of the Pallegar times. In the 

navaranga is also kept an image of Parvati, about 4 feet 

high, showing the goddess standing on a lion pedestal The image though fully 
ornamented and with its hands having abhaya, padma, matangaphala and dana 
attitudes, is poorly made, its facial expression being made ugly by a broad nose and 
a curved mouth. One point about the image is that the horse-shoe-shaped torana 
is of the same stone showing perhaps that the Chola work was imitated m this respect 

VABADARAJASVAMI TEMPLE. 

The Varadaraja temple is the largest and most important of the monuments in 

the place. It appears to have been constructed in 

History and General different stages The mam temple consisting of the 
Description. garbhagriha, the sukhanasi and the navaranga is an old 

granite structure of the 14th century. The pa-talankana, 

the Lakshmi shrine, the prakara and the cloistered verandah are of the late 
Vijayanagar period. 

The basement has octagonal and other coimces The pilasters on the outer 

wall, while being surmounted by vase and cushion-shaped 

Outer wall, mouldings, have brackets above with ribbed ornamentation. 

An interesting feature of this type of temple is that on the outer wall, the 

south-west and north faces of the navaranga, sukhanasi 

Niches. and garbhagriha have shallow ornamental niches with 

canopies bearing lion-headed kirtimukhas and surmounted 

by boat-shaped sikharas. Between the sukhanasi and the garbhagriha on the outer 
side is a pillar arising out of a kalasa and on the pilaster is a fine canopy with & 



6 

The eaves have a sharp curve and bear a row of lion-headed kirtimukhas, while 

above the eaves is a row of lions and sea-horses These 

Eaves. horned sea-horses with crocodile snouts and fish bodies 

aie an. interesting feature peculiar to this type of temples. 
Under the eaves is a rounded cornice bearing, here and there, relievo images of 

Hanurnan, Garuda and Lakshml-Narasimha, Yoga-lNara- 
Relievo figures. - simha, and wrestlers (perhaps Hanuman wrestling with 

somebody). 

The somasutra has a finely shaped lead out issuing from a lion's mouth The 

north wall, particularly of the garbhagriha and sukhanasi 
Somasutra. has a fine appearance. 

The navaranga which originally had four granite pillars with sixteen-sided long 

shafts and ribbed brackets has been strengthened later on 
Navaranga, by two additional pillars. 

An open ankana at the west end of the navaranga leads through the sukhanasi 

doorway into the oblong sukhanasi where the central beam 

Sukhanasi. has a fine ornamental work on its under surface The 

structure here, both on the inside and outside, shows 

attempts at chiselling beautiful ornamental designs in low relief on granite pillars, 
bea.ms, etc. 

The garbhagriha ceiling has a rounded cornice and rows of garlands carved on 

the faces of the corner stones and is finely designed and 
Garbhagriha. flat with a creeper and a padma in the centre. 

In the sanctum stands a fine stone image of Yaradaraja, about 6| feet high 

including pedestal and torana The main image is that 

Main image of Janardana called Yaradaraja The god stands on a 

Garuda pedestal with a small- sized consort on each side. 

His hands are thus disposed abhaya with padma, chakra, sankha and gada Over 
the pilasters at the sides borne on ornamental brackets arises a fine torana with a 
beautiful creeper design and a high lion-headed top It is supported by chakra on 
the right and s"ankha on the left In front of the image are metal coins of Yishnu 
with consorts which appear to date fiom the late Yijayanagar times. 

The Lakshmi shrine contains an image of Lakshmi of the late Yrjayanagar 
Lakshmi. period. 

The surroundings of the temple are overgrown with vegetation Eut the 

courtyard and the rest of the temple are in good condition 

Conservation. The temple is an ancient structure with a beautiful image 

and deserves to be looked after The peepul and other 

plants growing over the roof should be removed. The structure is quite sound and 
will not involve much expenditure. It may be given a compound wall all round 



PLATE II 




1 RAMESVARA TEMPLE, KITTUR T3ASE OF 
LION PILLAR (p 7) 





2 RAMESVARA TEMPLE, KITTQR BULL (p 8) 




3 RAMESVABA TEMPLE, KITTUB 
TANDAYESVARA (p 8) 



4 LAKSHMINABAYANA TEMPLE, 
RAGHAV \PUBA-- VISHVAKSENA^ (p 15). 



and conserved as a second class monument The yagasala and pakasala for the 
ternple may be constructed m the south-east corner of the enclosure The priest must 
be told not to live inside the navaranga as he is doing now. The goddess' shrine 
may be provided with a battened wooden door to prevent the bats from entering. 



KITTUR. 

RlMESVARA TEMPLE. 

The temple of Bamesvara is the most important monument now standing in 

Kittur It has been briefly descubed in the reports of this 
History. department for the years 1913 and 1931 A study of its 

present structural condition along with inscription No 56 

(Epigraphia Carnatica IY ? Heggadadevankote Taluk) would suggest that the 
temple was almost entirely rebuilt in the early part of the 19th century by Kernpa- 
devajamma, mother of Airy a Lingara] Urs But in the course of its construction a 
large number of the old pieces of earlier days have been utilised, A detailed study 
would help us to classify these pieces as follows 

The Bamesvara Imga, the Mahirfhasuramardini figure in the navaranga, the 
dvarapalas of the south door, the large bull m the courtyard, the elephant and lion 
bases of pillars in the porches of the gateways can only be assigned to a period 
earlier than the Ohola They come from the late Ganga period, The lion base of pillar 
(PI II, 1) indicates Pallava connections Ghamunda suggests connections with the 
Nolambas who have given usja Chamunda ot similar design at Nandi and with the 
Ohola Chamunda of Bmnamangala The octagonal cornice of the garbhagnha 
basement, the sixteen -sided pillars of the navaranga, the two east pillars of the 
navaranga with their eight-ribbed sides, the navara-nga eastern doorway with its 
low-relief sculpture of Yakshas, dancers and scroll work, the pillars of the east porch 
and particularly their capitals, the bah pttha pillar with its vase-top, and low 
relievo sculptures appear to belong to the Ohola days or the 14th century , whereas 
the temple as it now stands with its stones ma.rked in modern Kannada figures 
and its brackets made of pieces of old ornamented pillars and the numerous smaller 
sculptures m the navaranga and the Vishnu shrine belong to the 19th century. 

The Bamesvara temple is a granite structure facing east, standing in the 

middle of Kitttir Its compound of modern bricks is 
General Description, entered by two small porches on the south and the east 

These porches contain old elephant bases and fluted 

pillars mixed up with modern materials. In the compound are the mam temple, 
the Panchalmga shrine on the west, the Parvati shrine on the north and the Nandi 
shrine on the east. 



8 

The main temple consists of a garbhagnha, a sukhanasi with a middle cross 

beam, a navaranga of six pillars and a northern sanctum 
Main Temple, and an eastern porch of three ankanas and a southern 

porch of one ankana. 

The east doorway of the navaranga is an elegant piece of granite work. The 

south doorway is guarded by two Saiva dvarapalas whose 

Its Navaranga Door- figures are peculiar* Their fanged mouths are open and 
ways their legs are crossed and their backs bent in a vigorous 

jumping attitude Their broad feet, their hands, their 

muscular thighs and calves, then broad chests, etc , are clearly carved adding a 
touch of realism to their otherwise grotesque shapes. They are fine pieces of 
sculpture 

In the navaranga are a number of sculptured figures mostly belonging to the 

18th or 19th century Surya, Chandra, Ganesa, Nagas, 

Images etc Three of the inost interesting figures are Anna- 

purna seated with bowl m left hand and ladel in right, 

Mahishasuramardm! standing in samabhanga on the head of buffalo, and Bhringi 
with hoise's head In the north cell of the navaranga are kept three sets of copper 
images 

1. Tandavesvara an old image with a modern consort (PI II, 3) 
2 Chandrasekhara and consort modern 

3. Chandrasekhara and consort an old image in tribhanga, greatly worn 
out The pose is fine It may be acquired for the museum 

Behind the north cell with entrance from the outside is the Vishnu shrine 

containing an image of Janardana with consort and two 
Minor Shrines. copper groups of Venkatesa with consorts The Parvati 

shrine contains also a 19th centtuy image. 

The Nandi facing Ramesvara is a beautiful piece of sculpture depicting a young 

bull of the " Baroda breed " (PI II, 2). Its finely worked 
Nandi. small snout> slightly curved horns and thin girths are 

peculiar 1 

The village is said to be an mam of the family of Ahya Lmgararj Urs. They 

may be exhorted to contribute liberally and keep the temple 

Conservation. in good rapair by removing the plants from the compound 

and the roof 

JAIN BASTI. 

About 70 yards to the south of the Bamesvara temple is a tiled house which 
is serving as a basti for a standing image of Sri Parsvanatha A large damaged 

1 See also notes on the bull at Naiaaamangala, p 35 



PLATE III 




DO 


I-H 
HH 
H 

O 



P 



pa 



w 

on 
W 



CM 




P 



CO 




fc 

H 



I 



9 

image is lying in front of it in the bushes It has two hands and one face, not 
three faces as stated m M A.. B , 1913, P 23 and appears to be the figure of a $aiva 
dvarapaia, not Kubera, as stated by B Narasimhachar Its pair was found near 
the Basavannana-gudi. 

ANCIENT SITE OF EJBTIPUBA 

Immediately to the north of Kittur and extending about half a mile east to 
west and north to south is a high ground sloping towards the north (See PI 111,1) 
It is cut into two by the cait-track leading to Jiyara next to which is the water 
course known as the Kalloni which reveals here and there walls and basements of 
bricks of large size and fine quality 

On the high ground to the east m the field of Doddanna and others small gold 
bits are said to have been found All over the high ground can be picked up pot- 
sherds of reddish hue, brickbats and beads of various kinds and imitation corals 
made of red faience 

The field belonging to Mr K. Anantaramiah, Assistant Professor of the 
University, is especially rich in these finds Two pits sunk here m 1931 showed at 
a depth of about 2i feet a pavement of kiln-burnt bricks placed on edge 

The finds extend to Basavannana-gudi on the northern slopes where appears to 
have existed an old temple of about the Ohola times. Its round-headed hnga, 
damaged trap stone bull, round pillar of the balipitha and one dagger-bearing dva- 
rapaia with a damaged face are yet standing without any roof or cover over them 
The Saiva image lying in the bushes near the Parsvanatha basti appears to be the 

pair of this dvarapaia. 

Excavation on and near Mr Anantaramiah's field, particularly in the form of 
a trial trench carried diagonally across it and extending from the Kallom north-west- 
wards, is suggested. CAD/*IID 

oAKliUK. 

SOMffiSVABA TEMPLE. 

Sargur was last visited m 1913 and brief notes were published about the 
monuments m the place in the report for that year 

To the north-east of the village close to the bend of the river Kapila, stands 

the temple of SornesVara which is in a dilapidated condi- 

General Description. tion. It has a garbhagriha, a sukhanasi and a hall of 

three ankanas north to south and only one east to west 

and a corresponding porch to the east 

There is very little evidence of any antiquity m the temple except a small 

mantapa of four pillars on the east which perhaps con- 
A tamed an image of Nandi. The pillars are of the lound 



10 

Ghola type with the pot moulding On the north is an old damaged image of 
Durga Very probably the temple dates from the Chola times, though it is 
unimportant as a piece of art work 

Tn the sukhanasi are kept images of the Saptamatnkas, Granesa, Suryanarayana., 

Durga and a "Nandi There were also found one linga- 

Images mudre-kallu, and three slabs, each about seven inches to 

nine inches square, bearing modern Kannada inscriptions 
whicn are unimportant 

LAKSHMl-NARASIMHA TEMPLE 

The LakshmT-Narasimha temple which is situated m the centre of the village 

is a structure probably of the 17th century An in scrip- 
Age, tion, E C TV, Hg. 49, which belongs to the reign of 

Kanthirava Narasara]a Vadiyar mentions an endowment 
to the temple 

The temple contains a garbhagriha, a sukhanasi and a navaranga of nine 

ankanas and a porch and patalankana, with a mahadvara 

General Description at some distance to the east To the left of the shrine 

there is a smaller shrine of Lakshml of about the same 

time. Though the doorways show good workmanship, they are of the early Mysore 
type. The Lakshrni-Narasimha group with its torana is all of one stone. 

Archseologically the temple is not important, but since it is the largest Hindu 

temple in the neighbourhood and Sargur is a large pros- 
Conservation perous place with a good Yaishnava population and many 

weavers, the temple deserves a more generous muzrai 

grant. It has been recently repaired The Lakshml shrine may also be repaired, 
a compound wall added and the kitchen and the yagasala constructed in the south- 
east corner of the temple This would enhance the usefulness of the temple 

On the whole, the antiquities of Sargur are a little disappointing Two new 

inscriptions were found on the sides of the Hanuman and 

Inscriptions G-aruda images kept on either side of the sukhanasi door- 

way of the Lakshmi-Narasrmha temple. 

MULLURU 

LAKSHMIK1NTASV1MI TEMPLE 

About two furlongs to the south of the village of Mullur stands on a high 

ground the temple of Lakshmikanta in the centre of what 
Situation. was originally a fort 



PLATE IV 








11 

The structure as it stands has an ornate garbhagnha of soapstone in the 

Hoysala style and a navarartga and inukhamantapa 

General Description (PI IV 1) of granite evidently constructed about 1625 A. 
and History. D when the lamp pillar and gateway weie put up as 

shown by an inscription upon the lamp pillar 

The outer view of the Hdysala portion is peculiar since it has a square shape 

with the centie of each side and each corner having a star- 
Outer View shaped projection. 

The basement is made of five cornices of the unworked dentil kind most of 

which were intended to receive leaf ornamentation or 
Basement makaia heads 

The wall is divided into the uppei and lower portions by an eaves-shaped 

dentil cornice with nail-headed drops The upper portion 
Wall of the wall has towers borne on single and double pilasters 

and having various interesting Hoysala shapes 
Eaves The eaves have dentils and nail-headed drops. 

The general look of the exterior is highly interesting in a country which is 
comparatively bare oi fine work 

Wall Images The large images on the walls are, commencing from the 

south-east 
Dancing Kubja 

Lakshmi-Narayana with female attendants 
Tandava-Ganapati with drummers 
Naiayana standing (6ankha, padma, gada and chakra) 
Mohini 
Three partly worked figures, of which the central one is perhaps Dhan- 

vantari (?) 

KManda-Bama (partly worked) 

Kesava (partly worked) 

Panduranga 

Tandava-Sarasvati 

Yaksha, dancing 

Lakshmi-Narasirnha 

Ugra-Narasirnha at back of temple 

Yishnu standing 

Mohini and monkey 

Surya (uuworked) 

Amara-Narayana 

Bah and" Vamana 

Trivikrama 



12 

Mo him with mirror 

Arjuna shooting fish 

Naga with shield and sword 

Indra on elephant 

Dakshmamurti 

Yenugopala 

Jlalingamard ana 

Brahma seated, holding rosary and phala 

Lakshmi-Narayana on Graruda 

A couple at love 

Vishnu standing, unfinished 

Bati with attendant 

Mamnatha 

KManda-Bama or Lakshmana 

Above Hayagrrva under the tower is an image of Venugopala 
The tower is said to have been standing about 20 years ago and to have been 
Tower. struck by lightning and brought down, 

The rnukham antapa is one of three ankanas north to south and one east to 

west and is a 17th century structure. So also appears to 

Mukhamantapa and be the nayaranga inspite of its cylindrical roughly shaped 
Navaranga granite pillars 

The sukhanasi, however, with its ornate indented square pilasters and its 
ceiling with a shallow padma dome and a padma pendant, and the garbhagnha 
with its ornate jambs, its Gaja-Lakshrai lintel and the cornice above and also the 
garbhagnha ceiling with its padma dome and pendant are all pure Hoysala work. 
In the sanctum on a Garuda pedestal stands an image of Narayana (5J 1 ) hold- 
ing sankha, padma, gada and ehakra and supported by a 

Main Image. consort on each side The torana and the group generally 

are much less ornate than the usual Hoysala work and 

could probably be assigned to an earlier date The shape of the symbols and the 
plain nabure of the torana, the conical kmta and the show of folds on the drapery 
are unusual to Hoysala work and common to Chola work. Perhaps the Hoysalas, 
found the image of earlier times and built a fine temple over it. 

In the navaranga aie kept fche vahanas of the deity, wz., Hanuman, G-aruda 

and the Horse, an image of Narnmalvar and two Naga 
Vahanas, etc. groups 

The pillar in front of the temple is a lofty one of 1625 A.D. and about 30' high. 

It is of good workmanship and massive. 

Garuda Pillar. 



13 

There is a stone oil mill in the south-east coiner of the main temple 
Oil Mill. 

In a recently built house in the village is kept a metal (bronze) image of 

Janardana (padma, chakra, sankha and gada) which 

Utsava Vigraha appears to hail from the Ghola times as suggested by the 

general shmness of the image, the disposal of the fingers 

holding chakra, the ears, the kirlta and the drapery Very probably it was the 
original utsava-vigraha of the temple It has a particularly fine face, though it is 
slightly worn out. His consorts are, however, unmistakably of the Pallegar days 
The plan of the temple is peculiar The villagers are prepared to give a 

contribution for the restoration of the tower about which 

Conservation. they are very keen Since there is no such ancient and 

ornate structure in the neighbourhood, the temple is 

worthy of preservation as a third class protected monument Government may 
consider its conservation 

KOTEKERE 

About three miles north of Begur is the village of ELotekere in the Grundlupet 

Taluk There are four temples m it, wz , of Venugopala, 
Temples. Chandramaulesvara, Ganesa and Ramesvara 

VENUGOPALA TEMPLE 

The largest of the temples is that of Venugopala It is entered by a large 

gianite inahadvara The building has a narrow mukha- 

Geieral Description. rnantapa of 1 X 3 ankanas and a navaranga of the Vijaya- 

nagar type with pillars bearing images of Yoganarasimha, 

<3*aruda> and Hanuman and having three towered cells at the back The south and 
north cells have a sukhanasi and a garbhagriha 

In the south cell is a small stone image, 3' high, of a seated goddess (abhaya, 

padma, padma and dana) with a swan on the pedestal. 
South Cell The vehicle must be a mistake for padma 

In the north cell are the images of Nammalvar and 
North Cell. Bamanuja. 

The mam cell which is guarded by two relievo dvarapalas has two plain sukha^ 

nasis. The mam image is that of Venugopala with a 

Main Cell. consort on each side and Garudaand cows on the pedestal. 

The torana is peculiar and has Adis"esha spreading his hood over the god's head. 

The front hands hold the flute, while the back hands hold 
Main Image. by the tip of the fingers chakra and sankha. 



14 

Above the dvarapalas and over the doorway is a stucco of Eanganatha with 

Sri, Kaven and Gautama. The temple is said to have 
Stucco Image. been constructed by two Vaisyas, Chmnada Komala Setti 

and Belhya Komala Setti and their families It is a large 

structure in good condition The three virnanas over the temple are peculiar m a 
Yrjayanagar structure. 

OTHEE TEMPLES 

The Chandramaulesvara and Ganesa temples are small one-ankana structures 

having atnsula and a Gdiiesa image, respectively 

Chandramaulesvara and 

Ganesa 

The Eamesvara temple is an insignificant structure of Vijayanagar times 

consisting of a garbhagriha, sukhanasi and navaranga of 
Ramesvara sis ankanas The structure is very much dilapidated 

The Chaluvarayasvami temple is a simple mono-celled structure with a brick 

tower above it and a mukhamantapa. Instead of the 

Chaluvaraya image a pair of feet on a high pedestal is enshrined in 

the cell. 

RAGHAVAPURA 

Eaghavapura is a road-side village about six miles to the north of Gundlupet 
on the Bangalore- Uoty Eoad It is a fine little place with a considerable antiquity. 

LAKSHMt-NiBlYANA TEMPLE 

The largest temple of the village is called the Lakshml-Narayana temple and 

occupies an important place in the centre of the village 

General Description and is visible from the road. It has no tower but has a 

garbhagnha, two sukhanasis, a navaranga, a prakara wall 

and a dvaramantapa (PI V, 2 ). The temple consisting of the grabhagnha and 
the inner sukhanasi is almost a twin of the corresponding part of the Varadara/ja 
temple at Heggadadevanakote Its outer wall has several interesting features. 
The basement is formed of three finely twisted cornices among which the 

octagonal cornice is conspicuous The wall has orna- 

Wall. mental niches bearing ornamental sikharas of the boat or 

square shape and pilaster-bearing kalasas, while at regular 

intervals its face is relieved by square- planned pilasters bearing biscuit -shaped 
mouldings (PI III, 2) These pilasters have ornamental creeper ornamentation, 
above which are, in ordei, the pot-shaped, the biscuit-shaped and the lotus-shaped 
mouldings, and the ribbed bracket. 



15 

The eaves are sharply curved and relieved at every two or three feet by hon 

faces from which flow out creepei designs which appear to. 

Eaves be leading on to kirtmmkha arches Above the eaves on 

the sides of the roof are rows of lions, sarabhas (long 
snouted and having horns) and rnakara heads. The roof has now disappeared 

On the north is a soma-sutra,, shaped like a tiger from whose open mouth 
Somasutra. springs the creeper which conducts the water oat 

There is a fine image of Vishva-ksena (?) seated in sukhasana and placed on a 

Graruda pedestal m the north cell oi the outer sukhanasi 

Outer Sukhanasi and is an example of high class workmanship (PI II, 4) 

Vishvaksena. It is only about 4 feefc high and the god (who holds abhaya 

withpaduia, chakra, sankha and gada) has his foot resting 

upon a lotus flower whose leaves and stalk are also seen The dignified and peaceful 
face, the beautiful contoui of the body, the finely contrasted chest and waist and the 
elegant limbs, the diapery with conventional folds and subdued ornamentation show 
that the sculpture is not inferior to the best Hoysala workmanship The tiara is 
conical instead of rising m tiers and the toiana is well designed, though not 
exubeiantly carved Since thiee of the lingers of the left hand holding the mace are 
broken, it is not being worshipped Any museum ought to be proud to have it in its 
collection. 

In 1821 A D. Narayana Danayaka made the village which was originally 

called Grommatahalli into an agrahaia named Raghavapura 

Gar bhagriha : Mam after his father Baghava Danayaka and set up the mscnp- 

Image* tion which is about 80 yards to the east of the temple. 

He appears to have set up the soapstone image of 

Narayana (sankha, padma, gada and chakra i perhaps since he bore the god's name 
The image stands in samabhanga with a consort on each side under a torana 
bearing the ten avataras after the usual Hoysala fashion It has a hooked nose 
and a mouth whose corners are turned up giving the centre of the upper lip an arc- 
like projection and the mouth a kind of archaic smile This smile is characteristic 
of the images produced in the early Vrjayanagar period All the thiee gods wear 
visible lower clothes and one of the goddesses has a breast-band This shows that 
the influence of the Dravidian style was already becoming conspicuous in Hoysala 
sculptures Among the ten avataras, Venugopala takes the place of Buddha between 
Balarama and Kalki 

The dome over the head of the god bears a shallow padma The inner 

sukhanasi has the characteristic partition beam and the 

Other Architectural underground cellar with its slab sliding on grooves The 
Features outer aspect of the mantapa has nothing remarkable. 

Bub the pillars inside are peculiar. Out of the square 



16 

bottom rises an octagon ornamented with petal designs and from it arises a slightly 
tapering cylinder which is surmounted by a bracket bearing ribbed ornamentation. 
The prakara wall of granite appears to have been intended to make the front into a 
large cross-mantapa with a verandah around the temple serving as a kattale- 
pradakshma. Corresponding to the somasutra of the main temple this verandah has 
an outlet for water which is made to fall upon a pot-bellied relievo figure which 
appears to represent either Narayana Danayaka or his father. The prakara has on 
the south wall a pierced stone window Outside the mahadvara there is a e T * 
shaped dvaramantappa with three sets of steps guarded by lions from whose mouths 
spring ornamented creepers The pairs on the north and south are remarkable for 
their fine execution 

In the sukhanasi are kept the images of Nammalvar and Bhashyakai which 
are of a later period. 

In the Vrj ay anagar period the south portion of bhe outer navaranga received the 

image of Lakshmi The goddess is seated in padmasana 

Lakshmi Image with drapery showing breast band and bears the archaic 

smile. Her hands are in abhaya, padma, padma and dana 

with the cross designs on the palm The torana has bird4ike makaras from which 
spring forth a cieeper, etc 

EAMBSVAEA TEMPLE 

ISFarayana Danayaka appears to have also provided the village with a $iva temple 
near the north gate of the old fort wall leading towards the tank. It is only 
slightly east of north to the Vishnu temple It has a garbhagnha ol one ankana 
and a porch of three, with cylindrical granite pillars as in the dvaramantapa of the 
Vishnu temple It contains the Bamesivara linga and a few small sculptures, 
the most interesting of which is one of Mahishasuramardmi standing in samabhanga 
on the head of a buffalo as at Nandi ? Bmnamangala. and Kittur. The pose is 
peculiar 

To the north of the village is a long, narrow and deep tank called Lakshmana 

samudra by Narayana Danayaka and provided with 

Lakshmana- samudra three shrines, one of which bears G-aja-Lakshml on the 

linlel and evidently hails from the Hoysala times. It 

obtains its water from the rainfall on the hills to the west and has been useful for 
irrigation. 

Near the Earnesvara temple appears to have been the old north gate or water 
gate of the village and here are a large number of slabs some of which bear mastikals 
and viragals among which may be mentioned a relief of Eavana with ten heads and 
four hands A new inscription of nine lines engiaved on a granite slab, about, 
4J" x 3", was also found. The characters are of the 16th century. 



PLATE 7. 





2 (P 14) 



GOPALA TEMPLE 

^A_&"VLajb- 

1 (P 18) 



Mysore At chaolog%cal Suivey ] 



17 

HANGALA 

VARADABUA TEMPLE 

Hangala is a prosperous roadside village about 6 miles to the south, of Ghindlu- 
pet OQ the Mysore-Ooty Road, The most important monument in the place is the 
temple of Varadaraja. 

It has a garhhagnha, a sukhanasi, two four-pillared inner navarangas and a 
Description narrow mantapa in front Structurally it belongs to at 

least three periods 

The garbhagnha and sukhanasi have worn out octagonal cornices on their 

basement and their outer walls are decorated with a 

Outer Walls number of niches and canopied pilasters But the tops 

of these canopies have geneiaily horse-shoe-shaped domes 

with interesting floral and othei ornamental de&igns and definitely horse-shoe- 
shaped m^et spaces (PI III, 3). Among the ornamental designs are also found 
wainors either defending themselves standing back to backoi fighting vhen enemies. 
The eaves aie sharply curved and have rows of horse-shoe-shaped kirfcimukhas 

either worn out or partly worked. This portion gives the 

Eaves impression of much antiquity and perhaps is to be assigned 

to the 1 1 th century or even earlier Some of the motifs 

remind us of Nandi more than of Bmnamangala and it is not impossible that this 
poition may be late Granga instead of Oho la. 

The image which now stands in the sanctum is that of Janardana with abhaya- 

hasta and is generally called Varadaraja (PI VII, 5) The 

Main Image image which is very much like that in Baghavapura is 

more beautiful and has no aichaic smile, being perhaps car- 
ved m the days of N arasima III Ballala whose Tamil inscription is found on the 
basement cornice to the north of the sukhanasi This Hoysala image does not 
appeal to have been the original image of the temple 

Could it be possible that in this sanctum originally stood the image of Madhava 

(Varadaraja) now kept in the navaranga along with two 

Madhava images of Namrnalvar? The image has abhaya-hasta 

and is m meso-rehef It now stands against the south 

wall of the inner navaranga It is not very beautiful but it reminds us of the large 
image of Madhava kept m the Madhukesvara temple at Banavasi Its hands are 
thus worked front right - abhaya with padma, the gada being shown m the field 
to the right, nghfc back and left back holding chakra and sankha with two fingeis , 
left fiont-the image appears to hold a lump of butter, which is very peculiar and has 
no parallel 

3 



18 

Since images of this type appear commonly m the temple at Talkad and at 

Banavasi, the date 10th century may be suggested for the 

History of Temple image and this may also be the date of the garbhagnha 

and sukhanasi. The inner navaranga appears to be 

definitely of the Hoysala period since it has round cylindrical pillars with wheel- 
shaped mouldings and domed ceiling and a doorway with projecting top cornices 
and indented square pilasters About 1300 A D in front of this navaranga stood 
very probably a small porch with two sixteen-fluted pillars These appear to have 
been used later in the Yijayanagar days for the south porch of the outer navaranga 
which with its pillars of cubical mouldings and octagonal connecting shafts and its 
eastern porch of a similai character is of about the 16th or 17th century. A new 
inscription was discovered on the outer octagonal cornice on the north side of the 
inner navaranga referring to the erection (?) of the tower m the year Sukla The brick 
vimana which now stands over the garbhagnha could thus perhaps be assigned to 
about the year 1629 A D. 

The temple is said to he leaky and the roof in the south-west corner of the 

navaranga requn es to be repaired The compound requires 

Conservation to be cleared of vegetation The temple may be proposed 

to be included under Cla&s II. 

HIMAVAD-GOPALASVAMI HILL. 

GOPALASVAMI TEMPLE 

The Himavad-Gopalasvann hill which stands directly to the southwest of 

Hangala is reached by a bridle path, the distance from 

Situation Hangala being about seven ruiles to the temple on the top 

of the hill The chief object on the hill top is the temple 
of Venugopala which faces north 

It appears to be mainly a structure of the late Hoysala times to which 

additions were made in the Yijayanagar period 



The original portion consists of a garbhagnha with its outer wall pilasters 

having cushion-shaped top mouldings, sukhanasi, and a 

General Description. large hall of six cylindrical pillars with ribbed brackets. 

(PI V, 1) It appears to have been open towards the 

south In front of this hall was a mukhainantapa of one ankana by three borne on 
cylindrical granite pillars. 

Over the upper part of this mantapa is a shortly curved set of eaves bearing 

kirtimukha ornamentation with a band above it carved with 
a procession of lions and sarabhas as at Heggadadevankote 



PLATE VI 




I 



19 

and other places in this area where we come across temples of the type having 
motifs suggesting affinity with the Chola ones 

But in view of the fact that the rest of the temple is Hoysala and that there 

is no other Chola vestige in the neighbourhood arid in view 

Date also of the occurrence of a complete temple of this type 

at Terakanambi 1 where occur these motifs profusely on 

monuments built by the Ummatur Chiefs, the inference has to be made that the 
sharply curved eaves and the bands of lions and sarabhas were features copied by 
the late Hoysalas after their conquest of and contact with the Tamil country. The 
brick tower is of the Vrjayanagar period 

In the navaranga there are three niches containing Qaruda, Ramannjacharya, 
M Vishvaksena, Nammalvar and Hanuman 

The sukhanasi doorway is guarded by dvaiapalas of poor workmanship. Over 
^ Ui * rl f Kit ^ ne ^ in ^ e ^ 1S a Oaruda-vahana group flanked by Nammal- 
i var on the right In the garbhagriha which has a Jcattale- 

pradaksJnna stands an image of Venugopala, (6' high) 

whose modest ornamentation, drooping end of the dhoti, straight -sided kirita 

and general lack of excellence of workmanship make 

Mam Image. possible its attribution to the late Hoysala period The 

image ol Venugopala depicts the god in the usual posture 

as standing cross-legged and playing on the flute, while the cowheids, cowherdesses 
and cows listen intently (PI VI, 1 ' The torana is serpentine and has not the ten 
avataras The ^s&m-w#r&&a is a good specimen of the Vijayanagar period. 
(PL VI 2) 

From the top of the temple and also the new forest lodge, called the Venn Lodge, 

fine views are obtained of the surrounding country The 

Prospect from the Hill Wynad ]ungles stretch to the west and beyond the 

southern valleys rise the magnificent Blue Mountains. 

The eastern view is obstructed by the Madigitti hill. To the north stretches 
the Mysore District with all its hills and plains including the Ghamundi hill 

GUNDLUPET 

VIJAYANABiYANA TEMPLE. 

The three stages of the architectural history of this temple have been mentioned 
in the Annual Eeport of this department for 1934 Here a more detailed study of 
the temple has been made with a view to supplement the account already published. 

1. See Infra, p 24 



20 

The garbhagriha, and the long sukhanasi with a middle cross beam have a 

character of their own On the outer walls we see the 

Garbhagriha. octagonal cornice and the basement, the pilasters 

bearing vase and pillar-shaped mouldings, shallow niches 

surmounted by canopies of boat-shaped sikharas and kalasas of the indented square 
type bearing ribbed ornamentation and supporting pilasters with ornament top. 
The eaves have a sharp curve and bear ornamental kirtmmkhas Above there 

is a frieze of lions and sardulas. 



The sornasutra is shaped like a ^tiger face from which shoots out a tapering 

ribbed duct. 
Somasutra 

In the garbhagriha, under a shallow padma dome with a central drop and on 

a G-aruda pedestal stands the image of Vrjayanarayana, 

Main Image correctly Janardana The image is a fine one, more 

than six feet high from the floor, and on the serpentine 

torana we have the ten avataras including the Buddha There is little doubt that 
this portion is a Hoysala structure built in imitation of Chola-Dravidian work 

In front of the sukhanasi there is a large navaranga with a plain floor and a 

long ceiling of the central aisle relieved only by a padma 

Navaranga, m the middle The pillars and pilasters are peculiar . 

while the pilasters have ribbed biackets, the pillars have 

sculpture-bearing cubical mouldings connected by shafts having 32 pointed stars 
Over the pilasters on the architraves above the beams of the navaianga hall runs a 
row or sculptured band bearing lions, sarabhas, etc It is difficult to escape the 
conclusion that thxs portion dates from the late Hoysala period, i e , somewhere 
about 1300 A D. 

Connected with the navaranga and running around the temple is the kattdle- 

pradafafona In front of the navaranga was originally 
Kattale Fradakshina a mantapa of 1 x 3 ankanas 

When the Paravasudeva temple fell into rum about 20 years ago its mukha- 

mantappa was removed and built as the patalankana of 
T* i the D Par L a - the Vyayanarayana temple The images of Paravasu- 
Temple : Porch; deva, of Lakshmi and of Andal and also two groups of 
g6S< metallic images belonging to that temple and one stone 

navaranga hall of this tempT* * **" *""** "* ^ 

The brick tower has an oldish look and possibly of the late Hoysala times. 
Tower. 



PLATE VIL 




1 DESESVAEA TEMPLE, HALE-ALUR - DURGA 
(p 45 AND p 52) 





2 POND, SANTEBENNUR GANDABHERUNDA 
OK A PILLAB (p 60 AND p 61) 





3 PARAVASUDEVA TEMPLE, 
GtTNDLUPET PILLAE (p 22} 

Mysore Arch&ological Survey " 



PAEAVASUDEVA TEMPLE, GUNDLUPET- 
UHIKE.ADEVABAJA WODEYAR (p 22) 



5 VAEADARAJA TEMPLE, 
HANGALA VAEADAEAJA (p. 17) 



21 

The tower is leaking and needs to be repaired The l.attale-p?adaJcsh^na is 

being used as the paJcaSala, yagasala and the store rooms. 

Conservation, Separate rooms for these must be constructed to the 

south-east of the temple or if that is not possible at least 

in the field behind the temple The outlet of water from the kaUale-pradakshina, 
should be repaired Probably it is near the somasutra or in the north-east corner 
of the kattale- pradakshina 



EAMESVAEA TEMPLE 

The following account of the temple may be taken as supplementing the one 
already published by the department l 

About a mile to the east-norLh-east of the Vvjayanarayana temple stands the 

old temple of Ramesvara which, in many features, 

Comparison with the resembles the Yijayanarayana temple. It has a grabha- 
Vijayanarayana Temple griha, a sukhanasi and navaranga and a smgle-ankana 

porch on the south and also on the east Its outei wall 

has the octagonal cornice, the niches, pilasters bearing ornamented biscuit-shaped 
mouldings, sharply curved eaves with rows of kirtimukhas bearing sculptures of 
gods, dancers and wrestlers, rows of fish-tailed lion-headed sea-horses and makara- 
heads with warriors inside them These features have a definite Chola look, 
though perhaps the art is to be attributed to the Hoysala who might have imitated 
thorn Tho figure sculptures are shallow and fine with the drapery showing and 
with stepped kmtas. The brick tower appears to be of the early Mysore days In 
the porches and m the navaraAga the pillars have long shafts bearing finely worked 
tlmty-two flu tings, \\hile the brackets have the ribbed ornamentation The lower 
cubical moulding of each pillar has sculptured images, rudely shaped but expressive 
and in the corners above these mouldings are the conventionalised hoods 

The temple is intact but is surrounded by marshes which are impassable m 

the rains An approach should first be made to the 

Conservation temple and, if possible, worship revived The foot-punts 

of cheetas could be seen m the navaranga which is 

covered with mud 

The front beam of the east porch is cracked and is m danger of collapsing 

unless a support is given immediately 

Over the south door above the cornice is a Kannada inscription measuring 
' x 4" (chaiactere about 3" square), It is perhaps of the 14th century. 

1 See M A E. 1934 



22 

PAEAVASUD1VA TEMPLE. 

On page 52, M A E 1934 has been described an image of Chikkadevaraja 
Odeyar on "the inner face of the second pillai to the south-west of the sukhanasi 
door way. It has now been illustrated m PI VII, 4, and a pillar of the porch now 
set up m the porch of the Vijayanarayana temple in PI, VII, 3. 

TRIYAMBAKAPURA 

TEIYAMBAKESVAEA TEMPLE. 

Tnyambakapura is a small village about 1-J- miles south-west of Terakanambi 

It contains a large temple of granite dedicated to 
Situation Tnyambakesvara (PI VIII, 1) 

The structure is in a large courtyard with mahadvaras to the east and south. 

Opposite to the east mahadvara is a lofty monolithic 
General Description pillar more than 40 feet high which is held in position 

by a small mantapa constructed around it. 

The mam temple consists of a garbhagriha and sukhanasi with e the walls 

ornamented with niches and pilasters, But the pra- 

Main Temple dakshma is covered completely In front of the 

sukhanasi there is a large navaranga hall of 5 x 5 

ankanas, the pillars being thick with cubical mouldings connected by octagonal 
shafts and the faces of some of the mouldings having carved relievos Near the 
north wall of the navaranga in two niches are kept fine groups of images, one of 
Subrahmanya on a peacock and another of Earn a, Lakshinana and Bita listening to 
the Eamayana read by Hanuman seated cross-legged with book in hand. 
(PI VIII, 2) On the south side of the navaranga is a Ganesa image 

The south-west corner of the quadrangle has been converted into a large 

kalyanamantapa of heavy pillars, 
Kaly anamantap a 

The verandah of the prakara which surrounded the courtyaid formerly has 

now disappeared, the wall itself being visible on the 
Verandah south on which side is said to have existed the King's 

Street 

The navaianga has a doorway to the south which has a porch of three 

ankanas Its eastern doorway has a porch of six 

Porches ankanas, some of the pillars being composite ones The 

eaves of this porch are heavy and ' S ' shaped, while the 
rest of the eaves of the temple are sharply curved. 



TRIYAMBAKESVARA TEMPLE, TBIYAMBAKAPUEA PLATE VIII 




1 SOUTH BAST VIEW (p 22) 




2 STTBRAHMANYA 

Mysore At chaological Sw vey ] 



(p 22) 



23 

That the temple must have been built at one and the same time is mferied 

from the fact that above the eaves the row of sea-horses 
Homogeneity of Structure runs unbroken around the main building 

In front of the east porch and between it and the small bull is a large chandra- 

sila circulai in form with an ornamental edge 
Chandrasila. 

There is no doubt that the temple existed about 1490 A I) when the Umrnattur 

chiefs put up their earliest inscription But when 

Age of Temple exactly the temple was constructed is an open question. 

The garbhagnha and sukhanasi suggest the late Hoysala 

period, while the composite pillars of the east porch and the high mabadvaias with 
then platam-bud pendants suggest the middle Yijayanagar period Possibly the 
temple was constructed somewhere between 1250 and 1350 It is worthy of note 
that the cylindrical pillars with ribbed brackets, as in the Gropalasvain] temple at 
Terakananibi are to be found here. On the north basement slab next to the east 
mahadvara on *the outside is an inscription in two lines in mid -Yijayanagar 
characters (size 2'6" x 1|") reading 

1 Honnamani Na 

2 garasiru 

This shows that the niahadvara was constructed in the Ummattur period. 

To the north of the main shrine is a smaller shrine whith a garbhagriha, 

sukhanasi and a porch containing a figure of Parvati 
Parvali Shrine. (abhaya, padma, padma and dana) In its navaranga 

is kept an image of Narayana whose shrine in the 
prakara verandah is said to have been dismantled some years ago 

TERAKANAMBI 

Terakanambi, 7 miles east of G-undlupet, is an old place which had its impor- 
tance during the Hoysala and Yijayanagar periods In the 15th centuij^ it was 
ruled by the Ummattur Pallegars who were conquered by Krishnadevaraya. There 
are several temples in the place and the neighbourhood 

LAKSHMl-YARADARAJASYAMI TEMPLE 

The Yaradaraga temple is a large structure which must have been built in at 

least two different stages, The garbhagnha and sukha- 

History and General nasi with then ornamental pilasters, wall niches, 

Description. octagonal cornice, sharply curved eaves, etc., is definitely 

of the Hoysala period* So also is the image of Yarada- 
raja or Janardana which is worshipped in the mam cell. As in the other temples 



24 

of this school a large many-pillared navaranga and a kattale-pradaksJima with a 
fine mahadvara bearing round and square pilasters, biscuit-shaped pillar mouldings, 
kalasas, etc , also belong to the Hoysala penod } perhaps to a very late date 3 includ- 
ing the tall Grarudagamba 

An extension has been made of the navaranga on the south where is kept an 
Image of Lakshmana made in the days of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II of Mysore It 
was about this time the patalankana and repairs to the northern wall and other 
parts must have been made by Jagapati 01 some similar pallegar. 

In the navaranga extension are stored a number of images brought probably 

from some Saiva temple, while ID the sukhanasi there 
Images aie moie than a dozen metal images some of which are 

rare and interesting w#., 

Yasoda suckling baby Krishna, (PI XVIII, 1)* 

Parthasarathi group the god standing with his right hand in chmmudra. 
Bania group brought from the Rama temple It has the Sudarsana chakra at 
the back and a small image in front, etc. 

The temple is a large old structure, but it is kept in an awfully bad condition. 

Several portions of the outer eaves have fallen and the 

Conservation. compound wall also is damaged But the worst thing 

in the temple is that, here and there, in all manner of 

unnecessary places (e g , in the mukhamantapa) brick walls have been put up con- 
verting into cells or rooms. The navaranga is very dark and the inner part of the 
temple is inhabited by a large number of bats. The whole temple is very dirty It 
deserves to be cleaned and set right The local people state that a considerable 
sum of money has been collected by them for the temple. Part of this may be 
utilised for the improvement of the temple The roof is leaking and needs repaus, 

GOPALASVAMI TEMPLE 

About a furlong to the soutb-east of the Varadaraja temple and facing north 
stands the Hande-G-opalasvairn temple 

The value of this temple in the study of the architectural history of the area 

is great since it is a rare case of a temple standing as, 

Value originally built without extensions and additions The 

temple is a typical structure of the South Mysore School 
of the Dravidian style constructed in the Hoysala days 

The temple has a garbhagriha and a sukhanasi with a cross-beam and bears, on 

the outer walls, the niches, pilasters, octagonal cornice, 

General Description lion-mouthed spout, and sharply curved eaves bearing 

kirtiraukhas and row of sea-horses Around this struc- 
ture runs the Iattale-pradaks7nna> while to their front is a laige-pillared hall of 25 



ankanas (5 x 5 eacbj. In front of the temple is a mukliamantapa of 3 ankanas to 
which 2 sets of steps lead from the sides and are flanked by creeper-bearing lions. 
The pillars are all of granite and cylindrical and have nbbed brackets 

In the sanctum there is an image of Venugopala (6' high) standing on a 

pedestal with G-aruda flanked by cows The god is 

Main Image supported by a consort on each side and has the Tamala 

tree and the serpentine torana with the simhalalata on 

the arch behind The figure is a good one, perhaps better than the one on the 
Gopalasvami hill, though very similar to it Since the nose of the god is damaged 
he is not worshipped. 

The outej wall is damaged in many places but the structure standing can easily 

be preserved and deserves to be preserved as an example 

Conservation of the School The roof needs repairs and bafcs should 

be prevented fiom entering the building by a free use 

of wire netting. The god's nose may be properly repaired and worship restored in 
the temple. 

MtTLASTHANESVAEA TEMPLE 

The structure stands in the field about 200 yards to the north-east of the 

Varadaraja temple and is its corresponding Siva temple. 
Situation 

The garbhagnha, sukhanasi and inner navaranga are of the Hoysala period, 

while the outer navaranga and its eastern porch are the 
Age of Temple works of Uinmattur Pailegars, 

The temple has two sets of Umamahesvara images, one belonging to itself 

and the other to the Somesvara temple 
Images 

ANJANEYA TEMPLE 

The Airjaneya temple which is just to the south of the Sri Rama temple faces 

north It is an interesting structure of the days of 

History. Kanthirava ISTarasaraja as seen by his inscription in the 

verandah. Kanthirava acknowledges the suzerainty of 
Venkatapatiraya in 1640 A D 

The structure is an example of Mysore Art during the period. It contains 
n . a garbhagriha, an open sukhanasi and a mantapa of bhree 

LPescrip ion, ankanas open in front 

The image is carved m the round, in the striking attitude and is very much 

better than the rude relievo images of Vrjayanagar 
Image. times 

4 



26 

The finest sculptural pieces in the temple are the four front pillars which have 

frontal ridden rearing lion brackets supported on sixteen- 

Porch Pillars. sided fluted minor pillars. The cubical mouldings bear 

carved images and are connected by sixteen-sided shafts 

having ornamental jewelled bands. Among the carved images may be noted the 
following 

Pillar Sculptures 

Man with radravina, 

Yogi with kamandalu 

Hanuman 

Hanuman bringing tidings of Sita to Eama 

Venugopala 

Graruda 

Kambha-Narasimha 

Yoganarasimha 

Varadanarasimha-abhaya, chakra, sankha and dana, 

Narasimha pursuing Hiranyakasipu 

Ugra-Narasim ha 

Narasimha standing with katihasta 

Laks hmi-Narasimha 

Lakshml-lSTarasimha seated on the coils of Ananta 

Laksh mi- Hay agrl va 

Matsya 

Kurma 

Yaraha 

Narasimha 

KaJki 

Yamana 

Buddha 

Parasurama 

Sn Barna 

Varadaraja (abhaya ? chakra, Sankha and dana) 

Kalin gamardana 

Vidya- Gan apati 

Baby Krishna moving on fours 

Yidyadhari 

The central ankana of the verandah has a raised ceiling underneath which, on 
the architrave, rows of figures are carved 



27 

Sculptures on Ceiling 

East 

(a) VisVamitra receiving charge of Kama and Lakshmana 
(Z>) Rama slays Tataka, Maricha and Subahu 
(c) Release of Ahalya 

South 

(a) Kama breaks Siva's Bow and he and his brothers are inairied 
(6) Defeat of Parasurama 

West 

Kama, his brothers and their brides meet Dasaratha 

AN JANE YA TEMPLE No 2 

To the east of the Anjaneya temple, descubed above, there is another temple 
of Afganeya just outside the fort wall, with a colossal image about 8 feet high. 
The image is finer than even Kanthiraya's Arganeya, its face being particularly 
realistic Its forehead has only the vlm-reklia Could it be asciibed to the 
Ummattur chiefs ? The portraits of a couple are carved on the inside of the 

navaranga doorway. 

HULIGANAMARADI 

VENKATAKAMANASVAMI TEMPLE. 

The Huliganamaradi hill from which a good view is obtained of the surrounding 

country is situated about four miles south-east of 

Situation Terakanambi. The temple of Venkataramanasvami on 

the hill is a structure of about the 16th century and has 
no architectural value 

It contains a garbhagriha, a sukhanasi, a navaranga and a mukhamantapa. 

The mukhamantapa is said to have been constructed by 

Temple and Images. one Dasa Kes"ava Setti about 200 years ago The image 

of the god Venkatesa in the sanctum is a good one In 

the sukhanasi are kept several metal imagers of which the present utsava-vigralia is 
said to be in use from about 1799 AD In the two cells on either side of the 
garbhagriha are enshrined Andal on the left and Godadevi on the right. In the 
long and narrow cell to the north of the navaranga is kept an image of Vaikuntha- 
Narayana. 

There are two ponds called Pushkarmi and Dhanushkoti on the hill The 

rocks nearby are engraved with numerous inscriptions, 

Ponds and Inscriptions mostly modern, giving the names of the devotees who 

visited the place in different times Among these names 
two may be noted (1) Nanjapparaja Urs; and (2) Rayasa Narasanna 



28 

NARASAMANGALA 

Xarasainangala is a little insignificant village about 10 miles to the south-west 

of Chamarajanagar and about 8 miles to the south-east of 

Situation, Terakanambi Since it is an out-of-the-way place, it is 

accessible only by country cait-track and its importance 

has been hitherto unknown. To the south-east of the village is a large mound 
which is strewn about with wrecks of ancient architecture and sculpture. On its 
eastern slope can be seen m the ground relics of ancient brick structures The 
bricks (12" X6") are very finely made and look like wire-cat bricks For the tower a 
thinner variety is used 

BAMESVABA TEMPLE 

The chief monument standing in the place is the temple of Bamalmgesvara. 

There is an inscription engraved on two slabs (E 3 IV 

HBrtol T- Ch 204 and 205; to the south of the temple It refers to 

certain grants made to this temple of Rarnanathadeva m 

the time of Viraballala III But the temple itself is very much more ancient, being 
probably at least 400 years older The structures m comparison with which it can 
be studied are the Bhoganandi temple at Nandi, the Chavundaraya Basti at 
Sravanabelagola, and the Kallesvara temple at Talkad, while its sculptures should 
be studied along with those of Ellora. Thus C 800 A.D may probably be assigned 
to it At this time this area was under the rule of the Gangas and it looks as if 
we have come across here a genuine Ganga temple dedicated to Siva 

The structure has a large garbhagriha, a nairow sukhanasi, originally open and 

General Description. n W P rovided Wlth a smallish doorway, and a navaranga of 

nme ankanas There is no porch or mantapa. (PI IY 2) 
The outer view is unimportant so far as the navaranga is concerned, (PI IX, 1) 
n . v . smce lfi ls ^closed by walls of bricks whose s'ize appears 

Outer View to bel2"x6"v^* But the outer wall of the garbha- 

. , t - , griha ai]d the vimana above it are objects of great 

merest ana deserve detailed study It is remarkable that this brick structure 

StUCC SC ^ toes * "m standing for over a 



The general look of the vimana suggests a parallel with the Dharmaraja-ratha 

v . of M allapuram and it appears to be midway between 

vimana j and the Nandi temple. There can be little doubt that 

u T Pallava architecture had great influence rmnn t^* 

architect who designed this temple mnuence upon the 

The basement has the ancient rounded cornice which is present m Pallava and 

Basement ^^ ar f 7 ltecture and tbe topmoBt basement cornice 

has rows of lions, sea-horses, makara-headed fish, etc. 



PLATE IX 




o 

CO 



Iz; 



w 



PH 
CO 



SI 



02 

I 

< 




CO 

cq 



CO 



B 
P 

o 

ra 




10 

CO 



ft 



P 

pq 



1 



Ca 

,5 
o 



29 

Above the basement the wall is broken up by pilasters which are either square 

01 octagonal These octagonal pilasters are used more 
Wall. especially for shallow niches over whose canopies stand 

images of the great gods m various attitudes. 

Under the eaves is a row of Yakshas and Apsarasand the eaves themselves are 

ornamented with large and small horse-shoe-shaped 
Eaves. kirtimukhas with deep hollows in them 

The tower itself is composed of two series of turrets, each turret having 

two storeys. The corner turrets are square in plan 

Tower with converging rounded domes, while the middle 

turrets have boat-shaped tops The former are similar to 

the sikhara of Dharmaraja-ratha and the latter to that of Bhima-ratha Each face of 
each turret is ornamented with stucco images of remarkable elegance Above the 
second set of turrets inns a cornice over which the corners are adorned by bulls 
as at Nandi The sikhara which is supported on each side by stucco images as at 
Nandi again is also shaped like the Nandi sikhara 

The sculptures, some of which are partly damaged, have a character of their 

our unusual in the other temples of the State. Their large 

Sculptures. chests and well developed breasts, their thin waists and 

low bellies, their slim limbs, their sparse ornamentation, 

their conventionalised but unobtrusive drapery and the dignified faces of such of 
them as exist make us find a parallel for them in the sculptures of Ellora and 
Mamallapuram more than m later sculptures 

Some of the more important stucco images on the outer wall and tower are 
these 

South Face. (From the bottom upwards) (PI. XI, lj. 
Andhakasuramardana 
Siva standing with foot on Nandi's head 
Two-armed Siva seated. 
Tandaveva*a with Uma seated in state 
Gajasuramardana (the pose is peculiar, since the face and chest are 

seen while the back of the hips is turned towards us) 
Dakshinarnurti with a smiling face. 



West Face (PI XI, 2) 

Vishnu on G-aruda. 

Vishnu treading on Bali's head. 

Ugra-Narasimha in two poses with Kayadu and Hiranyakasipu, 



30 

North Face (PI. I, Frontispiece) 

Siva and Parvati. 

Two-armed $iva standing with phalaksha 

Durga seated with Rakshasa on pedestal and flanked on the west 
by a Sun group and Durga dancing and on the right by seated 
Brahma, dancing Virabhadra and seated Vishnu 

Seated Bhairavi 

Above, Brahma seated. 

The somasutra emerges from a tiger's mouth and has a Yaksha sitting on it. 
Somasutra. 

The navaranga doorway which is of very hard darkish stone (trap) resembles 

some of the earlier Chalukya doorways. On the right 

Navaranga Doorway. ]amb, the dvarapala is standing with his left elbow resting 

on the handle of his mace, while the dvarapala on the left 

jamb has his body twisted so that his face and the back of his hips are both visible. 
He has trisula in the right upper hand The jambs and the lintel piece have each 
three scroll bands in the convolutions of some of which are flowers, Yakshas, lions, 
yalis, monkeys and swans 

On the outermost panels of these jambs the following figures may be noted as 
interesting 

^ght 8^de Monkey playing with cobia and holding a disc-like thing in its 

left hand 
Left ^de Yaksha tearing his mouth , Yaksha flying and in striking attitude 

like G-aruda 

The navaranga, though only about 18' square, has some very interesting 

features. It has four pillars (PI IX, 3) of hard soap-stone 

Navaranga. with* the proto-Chalukyan bell, vase and biscuit-shaped 

round mouldings with the abacus on a lotus and the brackets 

bearing deep-cnt horizontal nbs with a central floral band. The pillars flanking 
the sukhanasi, however, have octagonal shafts ornamented with floral and beaded 
hangings and the images of dancers and musicians Among these images is a king 
seated at ease and a queen standing admiring a flower. The stone pilasters imbedded 
in the walls have apologies for indented squares with vase mouldings 

The beams have all around the navaranga images of dancing, moving, fighting 

or wrestling Yakshas in various poses with heads sometimes 
Beams. shaped like monkeys, elephants, etc 

The details of these figures are given below 
Figures in the outer ankanas 



PLATE X 




31 



East 
1 
2. 

3-6. 
7. 
8 
9 
10 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

South 
18-22. 

23. 

24 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28 

29. 
30-32. 

33 

34. 
West 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

40. 

41 

42. 

43. 

44. 



Yaksha cymbalist > , ., , 

., t both playing 

drummer J & 

dancers in different poses. 

cymbalist playing. 

drummer. 

Babe Kushna lying on the Banian leaf with the left toe in his mouth. 
Yaksha dancing with sword and buckler (or is it Kamsa coming to 
kill Krishna ?) 

Another Yaksha with a mace and in the attitude of striking the 

above figure. Note the characteristic drapery of the sculpture 
Wrestling Yakshas scene full of life. 
Dancing Yaksha. 
Yaksha cymbalist 
Dancer 
Drummer. 
Cymbalist 

Dancers 

Yaksha with elephant's head, dancing (G-anesa ?) 

Dancer. 

Drummer 

Dancer 

Dancer. 

Drummer dancing 

Dancer with snake. 

Dancers 

Drummer 

Cymbalist. 

Yaksha cymbalist with monkey's head. 

Yaksha drummer. 

Yaksha Vina player 

Yakshas with heads of monkeys wearing kirita and dancing or 

fighting (is it a fight between Vali and Sugrlva ?) 
Yaksha dancing with cobra in the left hand. 
Yaksha dancer 

Yaksha dancer in a different attitude showing his back nice figure. 
Yaksha cymbalist 
Yaksha dancer. 



82 

45. Cymbalist 

46. Dancer with cobra 

47 Drummer. 

48 Flutist. 

49 Yakshas with beads of monkeys wearing kiritas and dancing 

51, Drummer with monkey's head 

52, Yaksha sitting with something in his right hand. 

53, Yaksha dancer with monkey's head 
North 

54 Yaksha drummer 

55 Dancer 

56. Yaksha clapping hands. 

57-60 Dancers. 

61. Cymbalist 

62 Drummer 

63 Dancer with the head of an elephant 
64. Dancer. 

65 Dancer with cobra The pose is that of flying in the air 

66 Dancei. 

67. Figure with a manuscript in the hands and in the pose of reciting 

passages therefrom 

68 Yaksha dancing with his belly converted into a large mouth and with 
no eyes or mouth on the actual face. The figure appears to represent 
Kabandha whose face was smitten, by the vajrayudha of Indra 
Outer row of figures on beams below the ceiling in the central ankana of the 
navaranga 
East 

1 Bama and Lakshmana conferring with Sugrlva 

2. Five monkeys aie proceeding with rocks on their heads to bridge the 

ocean, 

3. Nala bridging the ocean. 

4 Two swans flying in opposite directions, 
South 

5 Gaja-Lakshmi. 

6 Yaksha dancers and drummers 

7 Garuda (?) with human face, long beak-like nose and bird's body 
8. Two swans carrying tortoise (story of Panchatantra). 

West 

9 Two swans one proceeding forward, the other lying on ground 
10 Eanganatha lying on a five-hooded serpent Adisesha, Yaksha dancers 
and drummer to left. 



RAMESVABA TEMPLE, NARASAMANGALA 



PLATE XI 





1 SOUTH VIEW OF TOWEB (p 29) 



2 WEST VIEW OF TOWER (p 29) 





3 PARASUBAMA (p 33) 

Musoie Ai chcsoloc/ical Swvei/"\ 



4 KTJMAHA (p 36) 



33 

11 Two ducks. 
North. 

12 A row of four female figures one of whom rests her head on her right 

hand as if in grief, while a little further is a group ot Rakshasas The 
representation is evidently of Sita m Asokavana. 

13 Monkey riding on crocodile as in the Panchatantra sfcoiy. The croco- 

dile is sculptured like a fish. 

14 Corner figure A Yaksha is in the attitude of widening his mouth with 

his hands 

Inner row of figures on the beams below the ceiling of the central ankana 
East.- 

1. Figuie weaung kirlta and having chainara in his right hand 

2 Two elephants followed by two lions of which one is maneless 
South. 

3. Indecent figure of a Yaks hi 

4 Three elephants. 
West 

5. Swans, five in number. 
North. 

6 Indecent attitude of a Yaksha couple 

7 Yaksha 
8. Indecent 
9 Bird 

The central ceiling which is flat and divided into nine panels is a beautiful 

piece of workmanship second only to that of Aralaguppe. 

Central Ceiling In the central panel eight-armed Siva is dancing on the 

body of Andhakasura while an attendant is beating on a 

tnple-vase-shaped ghara Around Siva are the eight Dikpalakas, each mounted 
with his consort on his characteristic mount and followed sometimes by attendants 
Agm's sheep, Niruti's human vehicle, Vamana's makara with fish tail and elephant's 
trunk and without legs, and Kubera's horse which looks veiy much like a goat with 
his long eais drooping down are noteworthy 

Against the north wall in the navaianga is now seated on a high damaged 

pedestal a large two-handed image of what appears to be 

Parasurama Parasurama, seated with one knee resting on seat and the 

other folded up (PI XI, 3). His right hand holding a 

small mace-axe rests on the right knee. His left hand rests on the left thigh. His 
hair is loose and ends in ringlets He wears the inakara-kundala in his long ear- 
lobes and a jewelled diadem and necklets one of which has beaded pendants and 

5 



34 

hangings. He wears also the yajnopavlta and a jewelled loin-band on the lower breast. 
His waist cloth is not piornment As in the sculptures in Ellora and Elephanta 
the god's lower lip is thick while the upper one is thin He has a light smile 

The image of G-anapati which originally belonged to the Panchayatana group 

of this temple and is reported to have formerly existed 

Ganesa opposite to Para&urama described above (see B. C. IY 

Architectural Introduction) was removed to Kottalavadi 

about 30 or 40 years ago The temple erected there for the god was also inspected. 
The image is about 5' high including the pedestal The god holds tusk piece, 
ankusa (?), rosary and apupa The figure, though somewhat grotesque, is old, the 
limbs, particularly the trunk, appearing to be natural. On the pedestal is carved 
the figure of a rat 

The sukhanasi which was open originally is now closed in by a small doorway* 

The sukhanasi ceiling has a beautiful large rosette in relief, 
Sukhanasi while on the beams are the usual Yakshas in various 

attitudes as follows 
East 

(1) Yaksha dancers, one of them in the attitude of flying m the air. 

(2) Wrestlers 
South. 

(3) Yaksha playing with cobra 

(4) Yaksha sitting m yogasana 

(5) Yaksha drummer playing on a pot-like iabala placed vertically on the 

ground, 

(6) Dancer 

(7) Drummer 

(8) Cymbalist 

(9) Dancer, 
West. 

(10) Yaksha playing with cobra. 

(11) Naked Yakshl 

(12) Two Yakshas one holding the other 

(13) and (14) Elephant pursued by a lion. 

(15) Mane less Purushamriga 
North 

(16) Drummer. 

(17) Dancer. 

(18) and (19) Drummers 

(20) Wrestlers 

(21) Dancer, 



SAPTAMATBIKA SHEINE, NARASAMANGAL4. 



PLATE XII 




1 VARAHI (p 35) 





2 CHAMUNTlA (p 36) 




3 VIRABHADRA (p 35) 
Mysore Archceolcxjical Swvey ] 



DAKSHABBAHMA fp 36) 



35 

The garbhagnha which is about 10 feet square and about 7 feet high is low and 

has a large rosette on the ceiling. Under it on a huge 

Garbhagriha pani-pitha of darkish stone is a large hnga about 22" in 

diameter with a flat top and rounded edges It is of about 
the size of the Hoysalesvara hnga of Halebid. 

Directly opposite to the navaranga doorway is a recumbent bull, about 4 feet 

high, which with its small snout and short cuived in 
Nandi horns reminds us of the beautiful bull of Kittui (PL IX, 2) 

SUEROUNDING-S 

About 20 yards to the south-east of the temple is another hnga, smaller in size 

on a pitha whose middle cornice is rounded This is an 
Linga unusual shape 

To the south of the temple stand two slabs on which is caiveda big inscription of 

Yira Ballala (E. G IV, Ch 204 and 205) Corresponding to 

Inscriptions this to the north of the temple was dug up a Tamil inscrip- 

tion of the same king 1 Both refer to donations only 

To the south-west of the temple is a small shrine in which are eleven images 

of a largish size, three facing north, five facing east and 

The Saptamatrika Shrine, three facing south Their sculpture is remarkable because 

of the shmness of the waist and the fulness of the breasts 

and the mixed conical and stepped kmtas There is little doubt that they belong 
to about the time of the Kolaratnma temple and its colossal Saptamatrikas They 
are in order from the south-east 

( 1) Ylrabhadra playing on the Rudra-vina, and holding tnsula and damaruga, 

Nandi behind. He wears sarpakundala and beautiful jewelled diadem 
in front of the jatamakuta which reminds us of the diadems occur- 
ring in the Ajanta frescoes (PI XII, 3). 

(2) Brahmi (three heads visible) with swan on pedestal She holds abhaya, 

pa&a (?), and stylus , the fourth hand of every goddess generally rests 
on her left thigh. 

(3) Mahesvari Bull on pedestal, tnsula and damaiuga in the hands 

(4) Kaumari with peacock on pedestal and spear and poacock m the hands 
(6) Yaishnavl with Garuda on pedestal and prayogaehakra and sankha held 

between two fingeis in each of the back hands 

(6) Varahi Buffalo on the pedestal (very peculiar^ and a sceptre and pasa 

in the back hands (PL XII, 1). 

(7) Indram With elephant on the pedestal and vajrayudha (double trident) 

and goad m the back hands 

1 See Part V, infra, Inscription No 48 

5* 



36 

(8) Glianmnda With a prostrate man on the pedestal and flames darting 

from her head Her eight hands are thus disposed, right abhaya, 
sword, death's head mace, and daraaruga, left index finger pointing 
to head, holding Rakshasa's head, holding kapala, and resting on 
thigh. (PL XII, 2) 

(9) Gangs' a helping himself to sweets 

(10) Daksha-JBrahma, Nandi or Kubera with a pot belly, dwarfish stout legs 
and a sheep-shaped head with long hanging ears, no horns and a 
kirlta-makuta. The figure is two-handed holding a vase-like longish 
cup in the right hand and butter or fruit in the left, and wears 
yajnopavita (PI XII, 4) 

(11) Bhairava four-handed and seated (sword, drum, snake, bowl). The 
figure has canine teeth, dishevelled hair tied with a cobra and the 
girdle formed by anothei cobra. 

Just to the east of the Saptamatrika temple is an empty pedestal bearing 

seven horses Behind it lies a portion of the Surya image 

Stray Images: which formerly stood on it It looks as if little shrines 

Surya had been built for the Panchayatana and the Saptamatrikas 

around the main linga 
To the west of the Eamesvara temple are several viragals. ISlear them are 

lying several empty pedestals. There were also two 
Kumara. damaged but beautiful images, the first of which is a male 

figure. This image stands in samabhanga and holds in his 

two hands a spear and a cup (?). He wears a stepped kirlta, makarakundalas, half 
a dozen necklaces, the sacred thread, waist bands, etc. His torana rises from two 
rearing lions and its top is broken. The image has a damaged nose and face A 
remarkable point about it is the shmness of the waist and undulations near the 
knees, a feature observed on the images standing around the ikhara of the Bhoga- 
Nandi temple. The spear or sakti held in the light hand suggests that the figure 
may represent a two-handed and single-beaded Kumara (PI XI, 4). The other 
figure is that of Mahishasuramardmi (PL X, 1) She is eight-handed, ( trident, arrow 

sword, two fingers l if ted up as if the chakra has been 
Mahishasuramardini. thrown, sankha, bow, lifting up Bakshasa by the hair, and 

buckler) She wears a tall conical kirlta with a halo behind 

it, a jewelled diadem, makara-kundalas, necklaces, narrow breast band on her high 
breasts, girdles, etc The loin cloth has on it the conventional folds shown. Even 
the muscles on the belly of the goddess are shown. With her trident, she is 
spearing a beheaded buffalo which is being clawed and bitten by a short-maned lion 
and on whose neck she is treading with her left foot m the characteristic Ganga 



37 

fashion. The nose and lips of the image are damaged Oat of the severed head of 
the buffalo issues forth the demon Mahisha whose tuft is held by the goddess. 

In the lantana bushes to the north of the temple was found lying an image of 

Vishnu as Janardana (?) holding a matunga fruit in the 

Janardana right lower hand which rests on a mace ]ust beneath 

the elbow, prayogachakra in the upper right hand and 

s*ankha in the upper left hand, the left lower hand being in kaHliasta (PI X, 2). 
The image was originally about 6 feet high. The portion beneath the knees is now 
broken The god wears yajflopavlta, necklaces, armlets and wristlets, niakara- 
kundalas and kirita-makula with halo behind There is no phalaksha Beneath 
the floral torana on either side are seen the avatars of Vishnu On the right side 
the Matsya and Kurma are missing , but the Vaiaha, Narasnnha and Yam ana 
avatars are visible On the left side of the torana (the broken piece was however 
found among the ruins) are Paras"uraraa, Sri Rama, Balarama, Krishna, Buddha and 
Kalki all sculptured in the convolutions of the torana. The image is similar in 
technique to the other images lying round about and described above It also 
belongs to the same period It has now been removed to the west of the main temple 
where the other images are lying Very probably the donation mentioned in the 
newly discovered Tamil inscription of Immadi Eahutta Baya * is to this god. 
Behind the mscuption a portion of the brick basement of the old -Tanardana temple 
was found while excavating round about the inscription stone and it is near this 
spot in the bushes that the image was discovered Very likely it was also one of 
the images belonging to the Panchayatana group. 

All the images are fully worthy of preservation m a museum. 

Eound about the temple are lying pieces of pillars and other architectural 
members of the temple 

The two temples and the images and other antiquities lying around them are 

among the oldest existing in the Mysore State, They 

Conservation. contain some very fine pieces of Ganga architecture and 

sculpture. They should be declared c Protected 3 and put 

under Class I The brick tower which has been standing for over 10 centuries is 
a remarkable architectural piece It should be kept clear of vegetation which is 
growing upon it and the roof of the temple repaired completely The tower may 
be touched up so as to prevent water enteimg into it The neighbourhood should 
be properly levelled, kept clear of thorns and the members of the Arkalvad-,^ 
Panchayat instructed to repair the cart road to the village The preservation of 
the temple is an urgent necessity Both the shrines should be provided with 
battened wooden doors. 

1 See part V No 48 



38 

Among the inscriptions published in B. IV 3 Ch 204 and 205 were revised 

and found to be two parts of one inscription Three new 

Inscriptions inscriptions were found in the vicinity of the temple, 

one on a stone oil mill to the south-east of the Hama- 

natha temple, another on one of the ceiling slabs in the verandah of the 
Saptamatnka temple and a third, which is in Tamil characters, to the north of the 
mam temple as already stated 

HARADANAHALLI 

Haradanahalli is a large village four miles to the south of Chamarajanagar, It 
has two large temples, one dedicated to Anilesvaia and the other to Gopalaknshna. 

ANffifiSVABA TEMPLE 

The Amies' vara temple has become a huge structure by numerous additions 

made from time to time It has a large number of 
History inscription stones which are lined to the southern 

compound wall These help us to build up the history of 
the temple 

In the days of Viraballala III in 1317 A D., his officer Madhava Danayaka 
installed the natural Imga called Amlesvara and built the temple which must have 
consisted of the garbhagriha, the sukhanasi and the inner navaranga Perhaps a few 
years later was built the small shrine of Paivati on the north The outer walls of 
both of these have octagonal cornice, the pilasters with biscuit-shaped moulding, 
and the shortly curved eaves with shallow kirtimukhas About 1340 one of the 
cylindrical pillars of the inner navaranga was replaced. Between 1340 and 1370 
the outer navaranga with its southern porch of cylindrical porch and rounded 
railings, its sixteen-fluted hood-cornered pillars, its frontal verandah of 1 x 5 
ankanas, its rough looking fanged dvarapalas and the Ylrabhadra image (sword, arrow, 
bowl and shield), Tandavesvaia ceiling, the mukhamantapa of 15 ankanas with 
its sixteen-fluted pillars and its compositepillais and rounded railings and its finely 
ornamented bull were constructed It was probably about this time i.e , somewhere 
in the early Vrjayanagar period that the high mahadvara with the lofty brick tower 
and rows of sea-hoi ses and kirtimukhas and round and sixteen-fluted pilasters was 
also constructed. In the Vijayanagar period, probably 1660 A D , the Imga shrmes at 
the back with their painted ceilings, the Imga shrine on the south, the Sarasvati 
shrine (1480) near Parvatl's temple, the kalyanamantapa, etc , were constructed. 
The ceiling paintings at the back of the temple are worthy of study since they 

aie examples of later Vrjayanagai period parallel with 
Paintings those at Lepakshi and elsewhere Among these paintings 

ruay be noted the following 



39 

F^lst panel Siva seated with 10 hands abhaya, vajra, sword, padma, tns*ula, 
sarpa, sarpa, ghanta, flame, and flower. He is seated in padtna- 
sana and has five heads in two tiers, one of three and the other 
of two Aiound the panel are groups of parrots, rows of swans and 
caparisoned elephants and on the beams are various gods like 
baby Krishna, dancing Krishna, Grajalakshrui, Yishnu, Uma- 
mahesvara, Ganesa, etc A bhaJcta wears a long white coat 
and a cloth cap with an uttariya 

Second panel Umamahesvara with rows of pigeons around On the beams 
are found Sarnudramathana, Jalandhara samhan, the Dikpalas, 
the Imga being worshipped by several ladies and gentlemen all 
dressed in the Vrjayanagar style Date of the painting, circa 
1634 A D (Saka 1556) 

Th^rd panel Worn out, with a border of birds 
Fourth panel Andhakasuramardana 
Fifth panel Gajasuramardana. 
8^xth panel Large padma with border of parrots 
Seventh panel Virabhadra, greatly damaged. 
Eighth panel Sri Rama seated on throne with Sita and Lakshmana by his 

side On the beams are depicted Krishna's love scenes. 

Among the other paintings is an interesting picture of a Moslem king smoking 
the gudug^ld^ 

Ninth panel Siva and Parvati on Nandi (damaged painting) 
It is interesting to notice that about 1640 A D. the art of Fresco painting was 
still existing 

Opposite the Mahadvara stood until about twenty years ago a tall granite pillar 

with a thirty-two fluted shaft dating probably from the 

Lofty Pillar. early Yijayanagar period and being contemporary with the 

mahadvara. It was leaning on one side and on a rainy 

day came down with a crash and was broken into pieces The five pieces belong- 
ing to it three of the pillar, the circular neck, and the lotus capital are lying where 
they fell. 

GOPALAKKISHNA TEMPLE. 

About a hundred yards to the west of the Amlesvara temple is the temple of 

Glopalakrishna which appears to have been constructed in 

History and General two different stages The garbhagnha and the sukhanasi 
Description. with their pilastered and niched walls, their octagonal 

cornices, etc , appear to date from about the 14th century. 
The sukhanasi doorway has got two moustached dvarapalas On the lintel is art 



40 

image of Venkatesa. On the battened wooden door of the sukhanasi is a Kannada 
inscription reading D^araga This is probably the name of Ohikkadevaiaja Odeyar 
in whose time the extension of the temple was made with materials brought from 
Saiva temples 

In the garbhagrma stands instead of Venkatesa, a beautiful image of Venu- 

gopala of undoubted Hoysala workmanship (PL XIII, 1) 

Main Image The listening cows, the groups of cowherds, the finely 

worked tamala tree, the prabhavah though without the ten 

avataras and the general figure itself, are beautifully worked. Tradition says 
that the temple was originally intended for Venkatesa but that Chikka Devaraja 
Odeyar who fished out the Venugopala image from the kalyani at Melkote got it 

installed m this temple in the place of Venkatesa which is 

Images in Navaranga now kept in the navaranga Other images kept in the 

navaranga are Varadaraja (Janardana) and Krishna, (Pl 
XIII, 2) Visvaksena, Nammalvar, Bamanujacharya, Sri Devi and Bhu Devi 

Around the original temple has been constructed the kattale pradakshwa. The 

navaranga is of 20 ankanas in front of which is a mukha- 

Description of Temple mantapa of 3 x 5 ankanas The prakara is well cloistered 

with verandahs The pillars of the temple have nothing 

remarkable. In the sukhanasi are kept a fine Janardana group and the god's image 
has a very oldish look. There is also an image of Tandava-Knshna, 

VENKATAYYANA CHATRA. 

Venkatayyana Chatra is a large village about a mile and a half to the south of 
Haradanahalli It has a medium-sized temple of Venkatesa constructed about 
1676 AD by one Venkatayyangar who endowed the temple and a number of 
Brahman families connected with it 

The temple has a garbhagriha, sukha-nasi, navaranga and a prakara with clois- 
ters and has no distinguishing architectural features. In front of it is a finely built 
stone pond said to be about forty feet deep 

The temple possesses a nirupa of Krishnaraja Odeyai III, of which a copy has 
been made 

HARALAKOTE 

Haralakote is an ancient site three and a half miles south of Chamarajanagar 

and one and a half miles south-west of Eamasamudra In 

Manipura the inscriptions, of which there are five in number, it has 

been called Hattalakote This name probably became 

corrupted into Haralakote which is the name by which the site is now known 
This name Haialakote or Haralukote has been sanskritised into Manipura and since 



PLATE XIII 




tu 

CQ 




41 

Mampura was the capital of Babruvahana, Hattalakote is popularly described as the 
capital of that prince. 

There are two lines of fortifications the inner one perhaps of the Hoysala 

period and the outer one of about the Vijayanagar period 
Fortification Both of them were of earth and are reduced to mounds 



ANJANEYA TEMPLE. 

At the north entrance to the outer line of fortification stands the temple 
of Kotebagilu ArLjaneya, an unimportant structure of the Vijayanagar period 
with a colossal image of Hanuman sculptured in the round which resembles the 
Sugriva image at Terakanambi and faces to the front with all the teeth showing 



JANARDANA TEMPLE 

In the middle of the inner fortification stands a granite temple originally dedi- 
cated to ELes"ava and so named in the inscriptions of 

Chola-Dravidian Type Pratapa Narasimha (Ep. Car. IV 5 Oh, 98) The structure 

which is in the Dravidian style has no architectural 

importance The inscription proves that the Hoysalas even as early as the days of 
Narasimha continued to imitate the Chola-Dravidian type in this area 

The outer wall of the temple has the octagonal cornice, the biscuit-headed 

pilasters, the shallow niches, and the shortened curved 

General Description* eaves with kirtimukhas. The brick tower is of the late 

Vijayanagar times. The building has a small garbhagriha 

with a padma dome in the ceiling, two sukhanasis of which one is a small navaranga 
of four srxteen-nuted pillars and an open mukharaantapa The navaranga was 
repaired by the addition of some supports and an extra frontal ankana was added 
sometime in the Vijayanagar period 

In the garbhagriha there now stands instead of the disappeared Kesava image 

a relievo image of &rimvasa (abhaya, chakra, padma, 
Main Image katihasta) The image is of poor quality 

The temple turns west and about 50 3 T ards away on this side there stands a 

fine monolithic granite pillar about 45 feet high. It rises 

Garuda Pillar. out of a square base into an octagon from which springs a 

long sixteen-fluted shaft bearing the vase, an octagonal 

wheel with an abacus and a sunnapada-hke fimal The chief interest of the pillar 
is the fine proportions and the great height Some of the stones of the base have 
moved out of place and the base requires stiengthenmg. 

6 



VtRABHADBA TEMPLE 

To the south-west of the Janardana temple stands a small temple of Vira- 

bhadra of about the Vrjayanagar times Near it on the 

Hoysala Image ground lies an inscription of the time of Knshnadevaxaya. 

But the image is a beautiful one and may even date from 

the late Hoysala period. The god holds a sword, arrow, bow and shield and is 
attended by Dakshabrahma He weais moustaches and a kirita typical of the 14th 
century. He is called Bokkasada-Vtrabhadra and is said to have guarded the 
treasury, 

ANCIENT SITE. 

More than a furlong to the west of the Janardana temple lies a high ground 
with numerous mounds here and there It is strewn about with brickbats, brick 
basements and other structures, redware pottery and even beads It is said that 
occasionally gold coins are picked up in the area 

Corresponding to the Yirabhadra temple on the north is a high mound (Survey 
No. 491) which is called Basti-tittu. It is strewn about with the relics of an old 
temple, probably of a Jama one Beads and wooden combs were picked up on the 
site 

The basti mound has traces of a large collapsed "brick structure and also some 
unworked stones A diagonal trench sunk on it from north-east to south-west may 
give us the basement of the collapsed brick temple The western part of the area 
has now been converted into ploughed fields The portion now reserved, w#., 
Survey No. 491 eleven acres and 10 guntas should not be disturbed except 
with the concurrence of the Archaeological Department. It is a likely site for 
excavation. . 

The field to the west of the reserved giound is strewn with pottery. It should 
be acquired and preserved The two fields called Puttarangana hola (Survey 
No 498) and Surayyana Subbannana hola (Survey No 499) should also be acquired 
and preserved. Another trial trench may be carried diagonally across the north- 
east corner of Puttarangayya's field (No, 498) 

Near the basti mound there is an insignificant linga and on the east slope is a 
damaged figure of G-anesa in granite. This shows that there must have been 
another temple close by 

A new inscription was discovered on the sifee It is of the time of the Hoysala 

king Narasimha (S 12091287 AJD). Another frag- 

Inscriptions. mentary inscription was found near the pond to the south 

of the Afi/janeya temple. 



43 

CHAMARAJANAGAR 

The Chamaraiesvara temple and fche Janana mantapa were inspected The 

latter seems to have been constructed out of the materials 

Janana Mantapa brought from the temples m the neighbourhood, e.g , Tera- 

kanambi, Haralakote, Haradanahalh, etc There IB a 

stone tablet in English commemorating the birth-place of Charnaraja Odeyar in 
1774 The paintings on the wall represent to the left Kajarajesvari with cornucopia 
and sugarcane, and Chamundes"vari to the right. The monument which was built 
m 1826 by Krishnaraja Odeyar III in memory of his father is a protected one and 
is in a good state of preservation 

HOMMA. 

Homma is a prosperous village about eight miles from Chain arajanagar via 
Alur It has several temples 

JANARDANASVAMI TEMPLE. 

The Janardanasvami temple is a structure of the days of Ballala III recon- 
structed and piovided with brick and mortar walls about 
History forty years ago in the days of Mr. Knshnappa, Amildar 

The old basement with its octagonal cornice, the somasutra with the spout 

emerging from a tiger's mouth, the old doorway and the old 
General Description. sixteen-fiuted pillars with their ribbed brackets and the large 

padma and the central navaranga ceiling are all there 

The image of Venkatesa (about 4 feet high abhaya, chakra, sankha, katihasta) 

is standing in front of the garbhagriha doorway There 

Images. is no sukhanasi The image is not worshipped. It is a 

fairly good linage of the late Hoysala or early Vijayanagar 
type. To its right is a fine Ganapati image 

It is recommended that the image be installed and the navaranga refloored 
Conservation with the slabs collected at the back of the temple 

In front of the temple lies the large inscription of Ylra-Ballala III. Above the 

inscription is an anthropoid Gandabherunda flanked by a 

Ballala' s Inscription. dagger, damaruga and a sun on the left and the Tamil 

letter ka, a pillar, etc,, and a crescent moon on the right. 

EAM^SYAEA TEMPLE 

The Kames'vara temple is a small ruined structure with modern brick walls 
Ruined Temple and old octagonal pillars of a very plain type. It has a 

6* 



44 

small Nandi without trappings except for necklaces and head bands The 
temple shows no definite traces helpful for dating it. 

Close by stands the inscription stone (B. 0. IY, Oh 63) of the time of Sri- 

Purusha Ganga mentioning Ymitisvara. It is standing 

Ancient Inscription. in the midst of about an acre of land which has been let 

out by Government for gardening purposes 

BHtJTESYARA TEMPLE, 

About a hundred yards away to the north-east of the Bames'vara temple are 
the ruins of a damaged black stone Imga of Bhutesa known in the inscription as 
Mulasthanes"vara with an inscription of the time of Harihara II (1380 A.D ), 
standing to its east half buried m the ground. The pillars and btones of this 
Bhutesvara temple which stands close to the plantain garden of the Bhanbhogue of 
Kotehalh were taken away to Kotehalli and utilised for the Airjaneya temple there. 
This is a mile away from the Bhuteba temple 

ALUR. 

Alur is a prosperous village six miles to the north-east of Ghamarajanagar on 

the right or east bank of the small river Suvarnavati or 

Situation. Honnuhole. The site of Hale-Alur is in the midst of 

cultivated fields and gardens close to the river 

DESESVABA TEMPLE 

One of the oldest temples in the place is that of Desesvara, a structure con- 
structed in two different stages The garbhagriha contain- 

History and General mg a black Imga on an octagonal pitha, the small 
Description. sukhanasi, and the small sized navaranga about 12' x 12' 

with its four roundly chiselled trap stone pillars having 

the beginnings of the bell and vase moulding appear to belong to the Ohola days or 
even a slightly earlier period like that of the Gangas But the outer navaranga 
with its sixteen-fluted granite pillars, with its southern and its ribbed pillar brackets 
and hood corners belongs to the renovation effected in early Yijayanagar period 
with which is perhaps connected the large stone inscription of the time of Harihara 
dated S' 1325, standing on the south side of the temple 

The small bull mantapa stands opposite the temple. But the bull itself is in 

the navaranga The two western pillars of this mantapa, 

Bull Mantapa which are wrongly paired, of course, belong to the Chola 

or pre-Chola work One of them is of black stone and 
has the cubical base, the sixteen-fluted shaft, the beaded and creeper bands, and 



45 

the vase mouldings, while the other is a grey granite with the bell and vase shape 
mouldings rather ornamentally treated The grey pillar has a Tamil G-rantha 
inscription on its base. 

The temple is so completely ruined that it is difficult to repair it without much 

expenditure It will be better to retain it in the present 
Conservation. form giving supporting buttress walls where the stone 

walls are out of plumb 

A new Tamil inscription was discovered on a large slab in the north side of 

the navaranga l The inscription of Bajendra Chola 
Inscriptions (E C IV Ch. No 69) is not traced. 

Behind the De^esvara temple on the south- west end of the old compound are 

found ten sculptures of largish seated figures in granite of 

Sculptures in the the Saptamatjrikas with Ylrabhadia to the right and 

Compound G-anesa and Kapahka to the left To the north of the 

temple and close by it is a large seated granite relievo 

Durga in a vigorous and bernble attitude with eight hands and open mouth, names 
darting from her hair. (Pi VII, 1) Her hands hold dagger, vajra, short sword, 
long sword, svargahasta, buckler, bell (?), bowl The slender waist and limbs and 
the vigorous attitude of the goddess are chai acteristic of Chola workmanship 
On her pedestal is a beast whose identity is doubtful It has the snout of a boar, 
the legs of an elephant, and the tail of a mongoose or tiger or even crocodile. 
It is not clear what the creature is 

ABKESVABASVAMI TEMPLE 

The temple of Arkes*vara was perhaps constructed in the time of Bajendra 

Chola (C. 1020 AD ) as seen from the inscriptions on the 

Age of Temple. north basement cornices of the temple Since it is a 

definitely Chola structure, it is of great architectural 

interest, though* it must be admitted that it has entirely been rebuilt during 
recent years 

It consists of a small garbhagriha, a very small sukhanasi and a navaranga of 

about 12' X 12' with a flat central ceiling divided into nine 

General Description. panels and having Tandavesvara surrounded by the 

Dikpalakas The basement cornices are partly octagonal 

and partly round There is a small bull-rnantapa in front of the temple, containing 
a bull without trappings except for a head band In the navaranga are kept two 
images, one of Mahishasuramardini standing on buffalo-head (abhaya, chakra, 
sankha, katihasta) and another of Siva as Kapahka on bull pedestal (tn&ula, mace, 
goad, rosary and bowl) 

fc VNo. 42 _ 



46 

The navaranga doorway (PL XVII, 3) has on the jambs and the lintel a scroll 

band with dancing Apsaras as at Narasainangala 

Navaranga Doorway. On each side of the doorway is a dark stone slab with 

four vertical panels containing groups of musicians playing 
on drums, cymbals, flutes, rudravma and a violin-like instrument (PI XIV, 2) 
The chief objects of interest in the place are fche four pillars of the navaranga 

and the four pillars of the Nandi mantapa of which two 

Sculptures on Pfflars. are illustrated on PI XIV, i The pillars have square 

bases and lound shafts, the latter opening out into the 

slope of the mouth of a vase Over it is a lound loaf-shaped moulding and on top is 
a bracket which, where fully worked, has the horizontal ribs with central floral band. 
The base and shaft of each pillar are divided into horizontal bands, each containing 
a frieze of fine sculptures, in low relief, which are of much interest 

SCUI/PTUBES ON THE PILLARS OF THE POUCH 

South-East Pillar: 

Square base and round shaft 
Sculptures on base 

East Face Two persons one of whom is four-handed and perhaps a deity 
(Krishna?), standing with attendants to the left, and a boy 
carrying fruit s^m a basket on head to the right, 

South Face A king seateddn state with two attendants standing fco left 

West Face A king seated before a four-handed deity and offering flowers (?). 
The deity appears to hold sankha and chakra (?) in the right 
and left hands respectively The lower right hand is in 
chinrmidra and the lower left rests on thigh 

North Pace A royal couple proceeding on elephant. 
Sculptures on shaft containing three panels 

Bottom Panel Consists of a royal couple proceeding on horseback, and 
another on the back of an elephant with waruoi attendants in 
between them and on either side of them, while a king is 
seated in state with attendants on the west face of the panel. 

Middle Panel Depicts perhaps the fight between Duryodhana and Bhima 
with Krishna (four-handed) looking on and sage Vyasa (?) doing 
penance on a hill . 

The Top Panel has a row of Vidyadharas 
South- West Pillar: 

Sculptures on base 

East Face A. king and queen seated in state with a bearded figure (rishi 
Vyasa ?i, also seated, giving the royal couple instructions, 
while a priestly attendant stands to further left. 



PLATE XIV 



PH 



M 




Ca 
O 



47 

South Face A. king proceeding on horseback with umbrella-bearers and 
attendants. 

West Face Perhaps depicts the Kandalur SaLai victory of Bajendra Chola. 
An army of five warriors sailing m a boat towards a temple 
with a lofty gopuram The sea is represented by lines for 
waves and a sea-horse and fish. 

North Face A seated king receiving a message, with an attendant swords- 
man to further front 
Sculptures on the shaft three panels 

Bottom Panel Two elephants stand face to face with their royal riders 
perhaps of opposite flanks, while a cavalier, also a royal person- 
age, rides behind with an army of soldiers (with weapons 
like javelins, swords, bow and arrow) standing, in various 
positions. 

M.^ddle Panel Depicts the Mahabharata war on chariots and the 
Sarapanjara of Bhishma. 

The Top Panel once again has a row of flying Yidyadharas 

North-West Pillar: 

Square base and round shaft 
Sculptures on base 

East Face A warrior proceeding on chariot, with bow and arrow 

South Face A royal personage proceeding on horseback with attendants 

West Face A royal warrior piesentmg the head of an enemy to his king 
who seems to grieve at it 

North Face Two seated royal personages, one of whom sits on a throne, 

are depicted perhaps m the attitude of bewailing 
Sculptures on shaft three panels 

Bottom Panel Array of army consisting of chariot, elephant and foot- 
soldiers 

Middle Panel Fight on chariots with bows and arrows On the east 
face is an elephant carrying a warrior A severed head is 
shown in front of the chariot on the north face of the panel 
(Bhagadatta ?) 

The Top Panel Has a row of Yidyadharas. 

North-East Pillar: 

Square base and round shaft Sculptures on base 
East Face A palanquin is borne along. 

South Face A. king and queen seated in state and enjoying a dance 
West Face Damaged, but perhaps similar to above. 



48 

North Face A standing queen with attendants, receiving something from 

a warrioi 
Sculptures on shaft -three panels 

Bottom Panel Three queens seated, with the attendants standing and 

three elephantmen guarding with weapons 

Middle Panel K king in procession with drummers and swordsmen 
Top Panel Row of Vidyadharas. 

A procession of the Vidyadharas, I&vara, Brahma and the Ashtadikpalakas 
can be seen on the outer faces of the beams of the porch, 

SCULPTUKES ON THE PILLARS IN THE NAVAEANG-A 

South-East Pillar: Has a square base and round shaft 
The faces of the base have sculptures as follows 

East Face Two panels of sculptures The lower panel has a dancing group 
of drummers and cymbalists, In the upper panel stand two 
or three figures carrying sngar-cane bows, while a royal couple 
with attendants pay obeisance to them 

South Face Two panels In the lower is a royal lady seated In front of 
her aie three palm trees between which are seated some 
figures In the upper panel a queen is seated and four males 
stand in front Of the latter the middle two have their hands 
raised as if in wrestling. 

West Face Has also two panels of sculpture The lower depicts a royal 
person seated, while three persons forming a dancing group 
give a performance In the upper panel sit the royal couple 
in state with attendants, while above is a row of six female 
figures, evidently of persons belonging to the harem 

North Face Has also two panels The lower has a dancing group 
consisting of drummers and oybalists. In the upper panel 
stands under a gateway a loyal peisonage followed by three 
attendants and received by his two queens 

The shaft of the pillar has six panels of sculpture running round it. They are 
from the bottom upwards as follows 

Lowermost Panel On the east face is a king (has he ya]iLdpavita?) 
seated with his queen An attendant stands before him On 
the south face is a royal person (perhaps the same) seated 
with a boy before him. A lady attended by several persons 
reports to him something A procession on foot begins and on 
the west face we find three persons, all royal m lank, lying on 
ground one, that is, the lady by a river, the king by a 



49 

mountain, and the third by a river, with the attendants 
standing to furthei right In the next compartment the royal 
couple are seated on throne with attendants to the right 
(This scene perhaps refers to the adventures of a king on 
receipt of some information from a lady and the termination 
of the incidents by a marriage alliance) 

The second panel Prom bottom has a row mainly of standing attendant 
figures all round, except that on the east face is a dancing 
group consisting of three persons 

The third panel Depicts on the east face a king seated in state with his 
two queens to his left and an attendant standing to the right. 
Next, to the right is a royal personage (perhaps the same 
king) seated under a pavilion (perhaps representing his palace). 
An attendant stands behind him To further right we find a 
royal couple on an elephant proceeding towards the palace 
followed by an army of foot soldiers carrying swords In their 
rear, on the north face of the shaft, proceeds another elephant 
carrying a royal couple and followed by two swordsmen, 

The fourth panel Depicts on the east face of the shaft a king seated in state 
with another royal person (perhaps his son) also seated at a 
distance. Between them stand two persons of whom one 
appears to report something with folded hands. Behind the 
king are seated several of his queens with their attendants, 
while on their rear (that is on the west face of the pillar) is a 
horseman To the right of the latter person is what looks 
like a palace or temple towards which proceed a royal couple 
on horseback led by a troop of foot soldiers carrying swords, 

On the south face of the fiftTt panel are seated in state the king and queen. 
Their standing attendants and guards carry swords A 
dancing performance goes on. 

The topmost panel Contains a group of flying Vidyadhar as. 

South-West Pillar: 

The south-west pillar has no sculptures on it, except floral bands on the round 
shaft and cubical base 

North- West Pillar: 

Square base and round shaft. 
Sculptures on base. 

Bast Face Sculpture m two panels. The lower has an army of palanquin 
bearers carrying perhaps the queen of the king who follows 

oa horseback behind. 

7 



In the upper panel are two elephantmen having bows and 
arrows, while trumpeters march in front blowing their 
trumpets 

South Face Has three panels of sculpture The bottom panel has a row 
of five standing warriors with swords, etc In the middle 
panel the king is seated in state with his queen behind him 
and a chain ara-bearer standing in front, while some person, 
perhaps the prince himself, is doing homage with folded hands. 
The topmost row depicts a dance before the queen who is 
seated on couch with her attendants standing on either side. 
The dancing group consisbs of dancing girls accompanied by 
a drummer and a cymbalist 

West Face Contains two panels In the lower panel a king and queen are 
seated A messenger stands in front of the king proclaiming 
something at which the king has raised his right hand with 
the fingers pointing upwards The upper panel has a dancing 
group 

North Face Contains also two panels In the lower a prince proceeds on 
horseback followed by two foot-soldiers. In the upper panel 
are three warriors of whom two are shooting with bows and 
arrows 

The shaft of the pillar contains five panels of sculpture running all round it. 
Proceeding from the bottom upwards they are as follows 

Lowermost Panel Has an army of cavaliers and elephantmen. On the 
east face the first horseman is perhaps a king or prince since 
an umbrella is held over his head His consort is also seated 
behind him on the same horse The scene terminates in the 
shooting at a person who seems perhaps to be a captive A 
lady stands between him and the archer. 

Second Panel from the bottom On the south face a royal person is 
seated amidst his courtiers, with an attendant massaging his 
left leg. The next compartment shows (on west face) the 
queen mother and her valiant son seated with then- attendants 
standing On the north face of the next compartment a couple 
are seated, The east face depicts a pot-bellied woman lying on 
couch. A tremendous mythical bird is sculptured above 
her in the attitude of carrying her away. The last compartment 
depicts on the south-east face a boat in which are several soldiers 
and the pot-bellied woman 



51 

The Third Panel From bottom depicts on the east face a king seated m 
state with attendants on either side standing and a dancing 
celebration going on The next compartment also depicts on 
the south the king enjoying a dance Next, is a row of two 
swans (with long floriated tails like Mayuras) flying over hills 
to a temple enshrining a linga (north face) 

The Fourth Panel From bottom depicts the procession of the pot-bellied 
queen being carried in a hammock with the king riding on an 
elephant in front Dancers and musicians consisting of 
drummers and cymbalists celebrate the capture of the enemy 
who is perhaps the spouse of the pot-bellied queen and whose 
severed head is carried between two spikes by warriors walking 
in front of the elephant Above are sculptured makara, fish, etc. 

5 The Topmost Panel Has a row of flying Vidyadharas 

North-East Pillar: 

Square base and round shaft On the four faces of the base sculptures are 
carved in the following order 

Sast Face Two panels In the lower two notables perhaps a king and 
his queen, proceed on an elephant with spearmen on either side ; 
the upper panel has a group of drummers and heralds 

South Face Three panels of sculpture The bottom panel has a row of 
drummers and cymbalists , in the middle panel a king and 
queen are seated amidst the women of the harem, one of 
whom offers a cup of wine (?) to the king and another fans 
with fly whisk the queen who has a lotus m her right hand , 
tbe top panel has a row of three seated figures, of whom 
the central one is perhaps a chief 

West FaceQpn tains two panels of sculpture in the lower a row of four 
spearmen stan<J in front of a person who appears to be a prince 
and behind whom stands an umbrella bearer In the upper 
panel there are four figures of whom, the first and second from 
the right appear to be the queens waiting under a gateway for 
their lord. Coming towards them from above is a row of 
flying birds 

North Face This is also divided into two panelsan upper and a lower, 
the lower depicting perhaps a wood with wild beasts like the 
deer and the boars, and the upper, a group of hunters with their 
bows and arrows led by a king and queen on elephant This 
is evidently a hunting scene. 

rr* 



The shaft is divided into five panels of sculpture running round it From 
the bottom upwards they are as follows 

Lowermost Panel On the west face we find a royal personage on 
elephant issuing from a gateway and followed by his attendant 
warriors and drummers With his bow and arrow he fights 
through an army of spearmen, the chief of whom is seated on 
horseback who also has his bow and arrows The victor then 
proceeds on an elephant capturing the enemy's queens and 
leading them on another elephant behind him to the temple of 
Mahakali and pays obeisance to hei for the victory conferred 
on him The image of the goddess is like the one (but of a 
bigger size) set up north-west of the Degesvara temple. 
(PI VII, 1). She is seated m a vigorous attitude on a boar 
pedestal and has eight hands holding weapons like bow, ankusa, 
drum, sword, flame, arrow and bowl. She has disheveled hair 
and scullheaded kmta and wears lorn cloth and ornaments 
Second Panel from bottomOn the east face a royal couple issue forth 
on elephant with the spearmen and a palanquin m front. They 
then proceed on horseback, with the same spearm en m front, to 
the durbar hall where we find them seated on throne, Next to 
the durbar hall is the bedding room where the king is lying on 
his couch with the queen seated by his side 

Third Po,^ Beginning on the west face, the kmg or prince proceeds 
on elephant followed by drummers and carriers through a 
gateway Next are two elephants, the first guarded by a 
spearman and without a rider, and the second standing to 
further front with a soldier on its back holding a, goad This 
latter elephant stands before a seated kmg holding something 
resembling a vina and has m its trunk a person. Another person 
is thrown into the air between the two elephants The fact 
that the othei elephant has no rider suggests that the person 
thrown m the air is its rider and that he was captured by the 
person sitting on the back of the elephant standing before the 
seated kmg The scene evidently refers to the conquest effected 
by a Chola prince, perhaps Eajendia. The thrown enemy 
falls on a spike held by a man seated on the ground 

fourth Panel-A. row of three horizontally running compartments each 
consisting of seated roya] personages with attendants The 
first compartment on the east has a royal couple seated on the 
throne, the king having something resembling a vina m his 



53 

hands and the queen with her light hand pointing upwards, 
perhaps in the attitude of singing In the next compartment 
the queen alone is seated playing on a vina and having 
attendants on either side In the third compartment the 
royal couple are once again seated on throne holding something 
between them, while a lady to further right attended by a 
fan-bearei and two spearmen pays homage m squatting attitude 
and with folded hands This latter person appears to be the 
queen of the vanquished enemy and praying for pardon 

The fifth and the topmost row contains a group of flying Vidyadharas, 
each of them being two-handed, with the right pioclaiming 
the glory of the king throughout the world and holding lotus 
in the left. 

The four pillars of the navaianga, the ceiling, and the Nandi-mantapa pillars 

are fit to be shown in a museum. The sculptures show 

Conservation. perhaps the victouous exploits of Rajendra Chola ^he temple 

deserves to be protected, repaired, and provided with a door 
and a compound wall 

BHADRAVATI 

LAKSHMtNARASIMHA TEMPLE. 

For description, etc , see Mysore Archseological Report for 1931. 

Renovation. An estimate for about Bs 5,240 was sanctioned and subsequently 
owing to an additional expenditure of about Rs. 1,500 a re-revised estimate for 
about Bs 6,800 was countersigned It makes provision for the necessary acquisition 
of houses around, for the digging up and levelling of the compound, for enclosing 
the area with a size-stone compound wall, for resetting and cement-pointing the 
stone basement of tlae 4x1 ahadvara and reconstructing the temple platform Provision 
is also made for hghtirlg the temple with electricity 

The following additional improvements may also be included so as to restore 
the beauty and usefulness of the main building 

The outer walls, particularly the portions covered with white mortar should be 
scraped off and the old architectural mouldings cleared 

Cemenb-pomtmg should be done with cement coloured to match the neighbour- 
ing stone. 

The cone-shaped sikharas of the three cells are ugly modern structures They 
may be removed and the towers may, if possible, be completed in soapstone on a 

1 Op 0. Hayavadana Bao, Mysore Gazetteer, Vol. II, Part 1, pp 161 ff. 



54 

design matching the lower portions and resembling the stone sikhara piece lying m 

the compound 

The ugly ventilation tower may be removed and substituted with a low tower 
invisible from the compound and having a glass top and ventilators on four sides 
protected with expanded metal. 

The inside of the temple including its walls, pillars, and, particularly, the 
perforated screens and other sculptures should be carefully cleared as has been done 
at Belur The images of all the gods which are covered over with a thick coating 
of muck should also be fully cleaned 

The little mud platforms in the navaranga and all the wooden and bamboo 
structures inside the temple should be removed and all use of the inside of the 
temple for any purpose such as storing, etc , other than worship should be strictly 
forbidden 

The flooring inside the temple may be properly levelled and cement-pointed 

Electric lights may be installed so as not to be obtrusive to the view 

The present archak's house and other obtrusive structures and trees except the 
sacred Afaatfha tree should be removed and substitute structures be constructed 
with the archak's house and the pakasala and yagasala outside against the north 
wall, where they would be unobtrusive 

The broken light index finger of Venug6pa,la and the broken left hand of his 
left consort and the damaged kmta of Laksbmi m the Lakshminarasimha group 
may be repaired by a sculptor 

The weight of the roof must be reduced, the brick structures being removed 
and a concrete bed v> ith cement covering being laid, 

The ornamental supports on the platform steps do not match the architecture. 
A more suitable design may be adopted 

CHANNAGIRI 

Ghannagiri has a hill fort of about 17 70 A D with a Eanganatha temple inside 
it. To the east of this hill extends the small Taluk town which appears to have 
had some prosperity in the days of Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya m the 12th 
century A D and in the late Vijayanagar days. 

KETESYARA TEMPLE. 

The temple of Ketesvara known also as Kallesvara is a small and unimportant 

structure of the Chalukyan style. It is said to have been 

Age of Temple restored by a pious lady in C. 1142 as seen in the inscription 

to the south of the building. This record calls the hnga 
inside the temple c Ketesvara, ' 



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55 

The building has a small navaranga of four pillars, a sukhanasi and a 

garbhagriha on the west, a simple cell on the north and an 

General Description open ankana on the east. (PI. XVII, 1) The west cell 

contains a hnga which is of course the old Ket esvara Since 

it is split into two, the pieces are kept together by a metal band. In the north cell 
stands Kes"ava about 4 feet high, a fine image resembling the Hoysala type with the 
ten avataras on the prabhavall Its nose is damaged and its kirita is peculiar The 
open ankana on the east appears to have housed a Nandi image which has now 
disappeared At its back is a perforated stone window The outer wall of the 
temple shows three plain cornices below, while the wall is pmameuted with plain 
right-angled pilasters The towers of the temple have completely disappeared 

The roof is much damaged and overgrown with plants The building is not 
very important but its Kesava image and its finely shaped navaranga pillars are 
interesting 

The temple need not be included m the protection lists But it could easily 

be saved from ruin with a little effort It is the only 
Conservation ancient one in the town and with local co-operation the 

following things may be dons 

1. Its damaged walls may be repaired and the roof cleared of plants and 
covered with a concrete layer. 

C 2. A battened wooden door may be provided and wirs-netbmg introduced into 
the holes in the eastern window as at Halebid 
3. The flooring may be cement-pointed 

THE HILL FORT. 

The hill of Ohannagm which rises to a height of about 00 feet to the west of 

the town consists of a single soft dark rock covered with 
Hill earth which commands a wide plain which is now the 

Taluk. 

It is said that the hill was fortified m the Pallegar days by Ghannanimaji, 

queen of Eednur and was named after her. The fort 

Fort. (PI XV, 1) consists of two rubble walls defended by moats, 

the chief gate being on the north where the gradient is 

lowest. To the north-west close to the top is a natural hollow, the ram water collecting 

m which is a source of water supply for the hill On the north-east theie is another 

rock-cut honda with stone-cut steps This is a much better source of water supply. 

On the top of the hill is an area about a hundred and fifty yards m diameter 

m which are found a number of rubble basements of old 

Buildings buildings. Of these a round cavalier exists on the south- 

east 



56 

On the peak stands a temple dedicated to Sri Banganatha Architecturally the 

structure is quite unimportant though the two doorways 

Ranganatha Temple. might have been brought from some unimportant Hoysala 

temple The structure is all of brick and mortar with stone 

pillars of the Ikken type having square base, octagonal shaft, wheel moulding and 
a capital of dentil drops The image which may after all date from the 18th 

century is interesting iconographically It is called Bete- 

Peculiar Main Image. Banganatha and depicts Vishnu standing in samabhanga 

holding chakra and sankha in his back hands and arrow 

and bow m his front hands with a low Garuda pedestal below him and a consort 
in relievo on the prabhavali on each side The image is not handsome but is 
peculiar 

The temple has a wooden disc-like image of a five-headed Hanuman sitting on 

a demon The image is eight-handed and the attributes 
Panch-Mukhi Anjaneya. are not easily distinguishable as the image is much coated 

over with muck. 

Just to the south of the temple is the old flag-staff tower built of rubble stones^ 
T It is square in shape and its top commands a fine view of 

the country around 
Opposite to the temple is an inscription stating that it was repaired by the 

... _ . . order of Mr K, Snmvasa Bao, Deputy Commissioner, 

Modern Inscription. 01 1 ,, _, , 101D 

Shimoga on 16th February 1913 

To its south-west is a small shrine dedicated to Bhutappa which contains 

_. , the head of the god whose tongue proiects out of his 

Bhutappa ,, 5 & p J 

mouth 

KALLUMATHA 

About three furlongs to the east of Ohanuagiri close by the Holaikere road and 

at a level lower than it is a large mound of earth which 
Situation almost covers a Chalukyan stone temple now called 

Kallumatha 

It is almost exactly like the Ketes'vara temple in the town in kind and dimen- 
sions with this difference that the eastern Nandi ankana 

General Description. here is also converted into a cell. The original linga, 

Vishnu and Nandi have all been lost and the turned 

pot-stone pillars and doorways are covered with chunam On the south side most of 
the wall with its pilasters can be seen on either side of the doorway 

On the south-east stand two worn out inscriptions mentioned in M A. B 
1914 



SULEKERE. 

SIDDHB^VARA TEMPLE 

To the north of the embankment of the Sulekere tank is a small hillock on 

which is situated the temple of Siddhesvara which is 

Situation. approached through a stone gateway supported on either 

side by a two-handed dvarapala, having a mace m one of 

his hands The inside of the mahadvara has yagalis and is supported by pillars 

haying the square base, the sixteen and eight-pointed 
Mahadvara. shafts with the cubical, the pot, wheel and other mouldings 

generally met with m the buildings of the Keladi type 

The temple consists of a garbhagnha, a sukhanasi, a navaranga and a fiont 
General Description porch and is enclosed by a prakara of rubble masonry. 
The outer walls of the temple are quite plain. Those of the navaranga are 

raised up on a basement having four cornices of quite 

Outer Walls. simple workmanship but for the dentil drop at the corners 

The basement of the garbhagriha consists only of two 
cornices, which are different fiom those of the navaranga. 

The sloping eaves, however, run uniformly around the temple and at the four 

corners of the garbhagnha have dentil projections upwards 
Eaves The parapet is relieved at short intervals by stone rings 

and provided with stone conduits of simple design. 

The tower is a stepped pyramid as at Devavrinda and elsewhere, and on the 

west face has on each cornice a Mrtimukha which is rather 

Tower. peculiar. On the east face is a stone projection over the 

sukhanasi m front of which is a kirtimukha of plaster 
work bearing a Tandavesyara, group 

The original porch consisted of only two fluted pillars with stone benches 

running all round The outer face of the railing is 

Porch. divided by round pillars into panels having figures of 

elephants, lovers, lions, trunked swans, etc To this 

original porch was at some subsequent date added an extra ankana on the north 
The navaranga has three doors on the east, south and north, All of them to 

a greater or lesser degree appear to be m imitation of the 

Navaranga. Hoysala type. All the lintels have Gajalakshrni figures 

with designs of turrets on either side, some of them 
being curvilinear. 

The navaranga consists of twelve ankanas instead of the usual nine and has 

six pillars, two of which belong to one class, while 

Navaranga Pillars. the remaining four to another. The two pillars of the 

8 



58 

lormer class are of peculiar and elegant design haying square-shaped and bell 
and pot mouldings. The four of the latter class have each a square base, and a 
thirty-two fluted shaft with cubical, pot and wheel mouldings The pot moulding 
is relieved at each cardinal point by a small panel having the figure of a god, while 
the flutes have m the middle a band of scroll design 

The main ceiling of the navaranga has a simple padma design All round the 
Ceiling and stone navaranga along the walls run stone benches as at 

Benches. Doddagaddavalli and Keladi 

Against the western wall of the navaranga are kept on the stone bench a group 

of four Nandis and a relievo group of a royal couple riding 

Sculptures. on horse back The identity of the couple is doubtful. 

Against the northern wall on the bench is placed an image 

of "Vishnu as Janardana with the mace-hand damaged The bull kept in the 
navaranga was headless , but a disproportionately small head and hump have been 
added recently 

A G-ajalakshmi doorway leads into a small sukhanasi. In the garbhagriha 

appears in the midst of a low stone pedestal the top of a 

Sukhanasi and Garbha- natural rock the central portion of which has the shape of 
griha. a linga, with an indentation on the head 

The temple has numerous features as for e g., the pillars, the stepped tower, etc., 

which preserve the Hoysala tradition on granite But the 

Date of Temple. style is not Hoysala. An inscription placed near the 

mam doorway bears the date 1468 or 1546 AD On the 

dtpastaixibha is the standing image of a bhakta having the look of a Vrjayanagar 
period image It may well be surmised that the temple belongs to the early 
Vrjayanagar period when perhaps the Hoysala tradition was yet lingering 

To the south-west of the mam temple is the shrme of the goddess Durga 

having a garbhagriha and a porch of rude Dravidian pillars, 

Shrine of Goddess The doorway is m imitation of Hoysala type, The image 

however is a rude relievo of Kapahka form with two 

hands, the right holding a padma, and the left a kapala On the pedestal are 
carved the figures of two lions with that of an elephant between them 

KEREB1LACHI 

About one and a half miles from Sulekere, is the ancient site near Kerebilachi, 

On the way at the north-west corner of the tank and 

Ancient Site. close to the Santebennur road are two high grounds which 

are now covered with ploughed fields. Both of these 

show sign.3 of having had rubble and mud fortifications and there are clear signs that 
they were inhabited until about a hundred years ago There are nearly three 



59 

hundred Muslim families m Kerebilachi whose ancestors are said to have come 
from Baya-Vellur about 120 years ago. 

An overground survey of fche site showed the existence of earthen fort walls, and 

a Hanuman temple of potstone near the south gate with 

Overground Survey of the image facing to our left, in a striking attitude 
Site. Potsheids are strewn about the area and the mounds show 

here and there the foundations of old buildings In front 

of the Hanuman temple, and half -buried m the ground lies a finely worked potstone 
Chalukyan pillar which proves either that this was brought from elsewhere or that 
a Chalukyan temple existed nearby 

It is a pifcy that the numerous gold coins reported to have been found in the 

place have been melted The following eight copper coins 

Coins. were produced by three of the Muslim leaders of Kere- 

bilachi coin 1 by Mohadmkhan Sab of Kerebilachi, coins 
2 7 by Santebonnur Mohadm Sab and coin 8 by Mayakunda Mohadm Sab 

1 Ae, -large 
Obverse Kneeling G-aruda. 

_a_ 

Beverse Nagari 3 lines 

&rl pra 

Kn si ma 

r& ya 

2 Ae Small 

Obverse Standing Graruda. 
Beverse Not clear. 

3. Ae, Small. 

Obverse Tow-headed eagle (?) 
iBevetse * To be cleaned. 

4*, Ae. Small 

Obverse Beclimin^ bull to left 
Beverse Nagari legend 
First line not clear 
Second line perhaps Diva, 

5. Ae. Small. 

Obverse Umamahesvara (?) 
Beverse Nob clear. 

6. Ae Small, thm and wide. 
Obverse Beclimng bull to left. 

Beverse Chequered reverse with dots in interspaces. 

7. Ae. Small 
Obverse Bull moving to left. 

8* 



60 

Keverse Plough This is said to be characteristic of many coins found in this 
place, 

8. Ae. Large, Brjapur coin with Persian legend on hoth the obverse and 
reverse 

-s 

The information about the ancient sites and coins was obtained through one 
Majid Baig of Kere-Bilachi. 

SANTEBENNUR. 

To the west of the Musafirkhana at a distance of about a hundred yards, a new 

temple has been built by Mr M Venkata Rao, Inspector 

Modern Temple of Schools It is a building in size stones in mixed archi- 

tecture The object of worship there is a sculptured group 

of Sri Kama (?) holding chakra and 6ankha, bow and arrow, with Garuda on 
pedestal, Hanuman to right and Slta to left and a scroll band around head. It 
looks more like an old relievo in low relief 

Just to the south of the temple is said to have stood the old temple of Sri 

Rama which was dismantled by the Moslems * Its Garuda- 

Site of old Temple. kamba, having been struck by lightning, was used for 

making the pillars of the Dew temple. On the site of the 

old temple is now the Idga In the interest of public peace it could be removed to 
some other place 

The musafirkhana is a laige structme of granite having a large pillared hall 

with pointed arches It is evidently a plainly built 
The Musafirkhana mosque It is said that the stones of the old Sri Rama 

temple were freely used for this building and that the 

slabs covering the roof have under the concrete a large number of mutilated Hindu 
sculptures Inside the hall is amihrab with a stepped seat for the Koran. 

The most interesting piece of aichitecture in the place is the beautiful and 

large pond which is about 100 x 100 yards with the sides 
The Pond completely built of granite steps (PI XYI) Its main 

entrance is from the west while it has entrances also from 

the north, east and south At each of the eight cordmal points stood a tower form erly, 
but sis of them only are standing now, and there is a fine tower built on a rock 
m the centre of the pond and reached only by swimming. (PI XV, 3 ) These 
several towers have a peculiar character The structure of the first floor is invari- 
ably of giamte stone with the pillars bearing numerous Hindu sculptures like 
Hanuman (north-west tower), lotuses, figures of donors (north-east tower) Ganda 
bherunda, (PI VII, 2) dancing Krishna, etc But the structure on the first floor 
and the towers are all built m the mixed Hindu- Saracenic style so familiar to us m 
some of the V W anagar buildings like the Lobus Mahal, the Elephant Stables 
and tne Zenana compound towers at Hampe 



PLATE J5TI. 



AT 



SANTEBE NKUR 




(P 60) 



My soi e Ai chaolowcal Sw vey ] 



61 

The bricks are typically of the 18th century being broad and thm Pointed arches 
are freely used as also projecting balconies At the corners appear lotuses bearing 
cucumbers as in Mas]ids But the central towers are invariably of the Rtishnianda 
type This clearly shows an attempt of the Hindu builders to build on a mixed 
style There can be no doubt that the structures are Hindu primarily. 

The tower in the centre of the pond is the most remarkable It rises on a 
square base with two mmaret-like pillars on the east side The first floor has 
projecting stone balconies supported by mango-drop brackets but having pointed 
arches. The first floor is also of stone , but the tower and the highly ornamented 
parapet around it and the sikhara are all of brick and mortar, almost Indo-Moslem 
in style , but the fact that two rearing lions form the centre of the eastern group 
while rows of elephants, swans and Gandabherundas adorn the parapet, shows their 
Hindu authorship The Gandabherunda was an emblem of Achyutaraya of 
Vrjayanagar and later on was adopted by the Nagar Pallegars Perhaps it was also 
the emblem of the Tarikere Pallegars. 

The pond has two other towers The one over the drain leading water into 
the pond from the south is highly interesting It is a soap-stone stiucture of six 
pillars which are in imitation of Hoysala pillars Four of them are octagonal but 
show the disc ? the bell, the pot and the wheel mouldings, though the details of the 
beading work are not Hoysala. The two westernmost pillars are the most interest- 
ing since they are in exact imitation of Hoysala work, being even lathe-turned and 
polished But the sculptures like Krishna dancing with butter in his hand and the 
Gandabherunda guarding it from a group of birds belong to a different age 
(PL VII, 2 ) 

Since the pond is the only source of fresh water supply to the place and its 

towers are mteiestmg architectural experiments, they 

Conservation. should be carefully preserved The water should be used 

only for drinking purposes, the inlet and the outlet on the 

north-east being occasionally cleaned. The plaster work of the tower, m so far as 
it remains, may be artistically touched up and repaired Grass, etc , growing on 
them ma,y be removed The mghbourhood, particularly the pit on the south side, 
should not be allowed to be fouled, but should be kept clean No trees of any kind 
whatsoever should be planted or allowed to grow within a hundred yards of this 
structure 

The Musafirkhana is intact and m good repair. Cooking mside it should be 
strictly forbidden , a small kitchen may be built nearer the pond, if possible to its 
north where it would be unobtrusive. 

The decision of Government to use the building strictly for a non-religious 
purpose appears to be the best under the circumstances. The niche and the stepped 
seat near the west wall may be removed, thus preventing the provocation of 



62 

sentiments A separate place for the Idga may be provided and the Moslems of 
the village may be encouraged to construct) a good Mas] id in some other quarter 
There is a tablet recently put under the mihrab which reads 
" This building is a Musahrkhana and cannot be used as a Masjid Any 
violation of the purpose is punishable " 

HOMNALL 

MALLIKAEJUNA TEMPLE 

Honnali is an ancient place which appears to have been ruled by Permadi, a 

Ganga chief of Yedatore and a subordinate of the Ghalukya 

History. Trailokyarnalla Somes'vara The latter's chief queen, 

Hoysaladevi (perhaps the daughter of Nnpakama Hoysala) 

got constructed a small stone shrine for Mallikarjunesvara in the place which she 
calls m the inscriptions as Mallikesvara Tirtha (1055 A D ) 

The temple which has a tower of the Pallegar period and whose outer walls 

have been recently covered oyer with plaster, is a small 

General Description structure, architecturally unimportant. It has a small 

garbhagnha housing a natural hnga on a Jow round 

pedestal, an open sukhanasi and a low-roofed navaranga with an open extra ankana 
on the north and an extension ankana on the east 

It houses now a Saptamatrika' group with the face of Chamunda broken and 

supported by Ymadhari Virabhadra and GaneSa , a larger 

Sculptures. figure of Ganesa with tusk, goad, trident and apupa, 

naga stones, Bhairava with the left front hand broken and 

dancing Bhetaias partly mutilated, a Surya figure supported by Chhayas and having 

a serpentine torana with mango-drops and a Nandi which is not completely worked. 

The ceilings are all plain except the central one which has a relievo padma. 

The four central pillars have cubical mouldings connected 
Ceilings and Pillars by an octagonal shaft the corner faces of which have two 

fmtmgs each and a roughly chiselled wheel moulding. 
There is nothing remarkable about the temple except its antiquity and the 

sculptures which are of good quality 
Importance. 

HONNALJ FOET. 
(PI XY, 2), 

The old town which extends close upon the left bank of the Tungabhadra has 
a ruined fort wall roughly oblong in shape A moat runs around it but the stone 
facing of the wall has been almost completely removed. The east gate near the 



river, however, is intact. It is built of rough stones without mortar and has a 
pointed arch and pointed arch-like battlements strongly resembling Brjapur struc- 
tures By the side of the gate is a round bastion with a cannon platform. 

The local people have much sentimental regard for it, because it is connected 

with the history of their place With a small expendi- 

Conservation. ture it can be saved from rum. The damaged stone 

revetment under the cannon platform may be repaired and 

the stones cement-pointed The brick structure above may be removed or preserved 
and the rest of the structure repaired without interfering with its old architectural 
features No purpose would be served by preserving any other part of the fort 

The three viragals to the east of the Malhkarjuna temple are now buried m 

the eaifch They may be unearthed and kept in the 
Viragals* courtyard of the temple 

KURUVADAGADDE. 

BAMESVABA TEMPLE 

G-ovmakovi is a wayside village to the east of the road from Honnali to 

Shimoga and about 7 miles from the former About half 

Situation a mile to its east is an island in the Tungabhadra known 

as Kuruvadagadde and on it stands a temple of Bames- 

vara, A large stone lamp pillar with footrests faces it's south door. But the 
temple itself faces east. 

The temple appears to consist of two parts The earlier one consists of the 

small garbhagriha with a small sukhanasi with perforated 

' l^njeral Description. windows supporting the ]ambs, and a navaranga of four 
' t pillars having cubical mouldings connected by octagonal 

I *' "*' ; X l ([ I , f j * j , ^ rfi Jl f 

shaft! mouldings above The central ceiling l&frfi^^ :^ff^f 

" ' ^t if Y y ' " padma There is ^oMMiig.jij^a^bie ;%"^f t>fifet ' ^allef 
Early Structure. ' a'nd the whitewashed 'vMtfri^May "-btf of af f later ^date The 

sukhanasi and navaranga doorways are plamish Chalukyan 

pieces. 

In the navaranga are kept a number of interesting images 

Sculptures, 

' 1. About a dozen naga stones rather plain. 

2. Three bearded aiva yogis in padmasana with hands in yoga-mudra, 
with pointed beard and hair dressed in ]ata like turbans tied round 
their heads. They wear rudraksha garlands, rudraksha armlets, 
bracelets, large pendent ear-rings. On the side of each is the danda 



64 

and Jcamandalu The first has a serpentine torana with simhalalata. 
The second has the moon and sun near head, while the third has also 
a simhalalata The identity of these figures would be interesting. 

3 Surya standing* 

4. Yirabhadra 

5 Ganesa. 

6, Durga seated. 

7. Mahishasuramaidml. 

8, A small hnga 

9. Small Nandi 

The central ceiling has a shallow padrna and below it a damaged Mahrati 
inscription, 

To the east of the navaranga is an outer hall of (east to west) 3 X (north to 

south) 6 ankanas with a projecting extra ankana to the 

Later Structure east with a doorway. Here is a large recumbent bull 

whose thinness and conventionalised dewlap remind us of 

the Banavasi bull To the north of the hall is a small cell containing a small 
stone image of Bhairava standing under a serpentine torana of undoubted Chalukya 
or Hoysak workmanship The hall appears to be an additional structure of a 
later date built out of heterogeneous materials some of which are ornamented soap- 
stone pieces of Hoysala workmanship The south door is supported by peiforated 
screens Four finely fluted Chalukyan pillars of soap-stone are lying to the south- 
east of the temple 

Around the temple are a numbei of inscriptions the oldest of which dates from 

the 36th year of the Ghalukya Yikrama era The Hoysalas, 

Inscriptions the Yadavas and the Vijayanagar kings have left their 

records also and a large jatra, even now takes place on the 

island On the north-east side of the temple is lying a worn out Kannada inscrip- 
tion which is to be read It is probably of the Rashtrakuta times 

To the right of the south doorway has been built into the wall a fine large 
soap-stone slab bearing a Hale-Kannada inscription of probably the Yadavas 

The Mahratas appear to have had their share in the reconstruction of the 
temple as evidenced by a Marathi inscription on a pavement slab in the navaranga 
reading ' Sankarji Kasiranrji Yenkatadri ' , by the lamp pillar in front of the 
temple , and by the figure of Hanuman on the front face of the projection over the 
sukhanasi in front of the tower. 

IsLANDITAVABE. 

Nanditavare is a village about half a mile east of the high road from Hanhar 
Situation. to Male-bennur, the deviation being about eight miles 



PLATE 



KETESVARA TEMPLE 



(SKETCH PLAN.) 




2 MANIKESVARA TEMPLE, 
NANDITAVABE KESAVA (p 67) 

Mysore Archcsologtcal Survey ] 



1 (p 55) 





3 ABKESVARA TEMPLE, HALE-ALUR- 
DOOBWAY (p 46} 



65 

from Harihar. It has a Hoysala temple dedicated to Siva known as Anmta- 
linga-mamkesvara 

The temple appears to have been constructed by a Hoysala officer Manikanna 

in about 1220 AD, for his merit 
Age of Temple 

The structure is of soapsfcone and finely ornamented with beautiful sculptures. 

It has a garbhagnha, a sukhanasi and a navaranga of 

General Description. four pillars with a small northern cell But the porch 

which ought to have been in front of the navaranga door- 
way and the outer walls of the navaranga have all been covered over with a recent 
structure in the shape of a mantapa which is now used as a school, At the east end 
of the mantapa is a linga room containing a beautiful bull of soapstone. The 
vimana and its frontal projection which must have been very ornate, have all dis- 
appeared and a damaged Sala group is lying in the revetment to the south-west 
of the temple 

The plan of the garbhagriha is generally square but the outer walls have cen- 
tral projections and pilasters The outer wall of the 

Outer Walls. garbhagriha however is visible in all its old beauty though 

its sculptures are somewhat damaged It has five finely 

shaped cornices, three of which are beautifully sculptured the upper and lower 

ones with a tastefully designed creeper and the middle 

Cornices one with a row of rearing lions slaying elephants or fight- 

ing Sala 

The upper wall has a row o images almost two feet high without canopies. 

They are proportionally shaped and show high class 

Wall Images sculpture, though mutilated. They are, m order com- 

mencing from the south-east 

1 Indra with vajra, goad., mace and phala with elephant in the right corner. 

2 Four-handed and skeleton-bodied >iva (or Bhairavl ?) dancing. 

3 Bhairava. 

4. Brahma (?) with lotus, sruk, sruva and phala with an elephant-like 

animal near foot. 

5. Dancing Ganes'a 

6. Bati. 

7 Manmatha. 
8, 9 Two chamara-dharmis guarding a vacant niche over which rises a 

curvilinear turret of about nine tiers, . . 

10, 11, 12 Kodandarama with Lakshmana and Hanuman The last who is in 
the striking attitude and much damaged must have been a beautiful 
piece of sculpture judging by the pose of what remains now. 

9 



66 

Standing god (perhaps Harihara) sword, javelin, padma and phala 
with Garuda near the right foot, 

West Wall 

i 

14. Ardhanarlsvara with hands broken and bull and mangoose near feet. 

15. Mohmi at toilet, mirror in hand. 
16 Mohim standing in tnbhanga. 
17. Dakshmamurti. 

18, 19. Attending figures on either side of the west niche similar to the south 

one 

20. Mohmi with monkey, 
21 Mohmi with mango bunch. 
22. Mohmi with parrot. 

(All these are fine sculptures but damaged.) 
23 Harihara (broken, trident, chakra, broken) with bull and Garuda near 

feet. 

North Wall 

24. God standing (broken, goad, pasa and phala) with quadruped (broken) 

near foot. 

25. Siva standing (mutilated) with Nandi near foot. 

26 Arjuna with bow in right hand and kapidhva;ja in left. 

27. Bhima dancing two-handed, with broken mace and phala (mutilated) 

28, 29 North niche flanked by attendants and a fine mutilated Bhairavi group 
now kept inside it 

30 Unworked 

31 Parvati as Bhilll. 

32 Dakshinarnurti with long coat. 

38. Two-handed man (king ?) with dagger in right hand wearing short 
loin cloth, yajnopavlta, kuadalas and two high wooden sandals. 
Perhaps the donor Mamkanna. 

34 Parvati two-handed 

85. Siva standing (symbols broken except goad). 

36. Durga dancing (sword, trident, drum , bowl and man's head). 

Above the double cornice is a row of rearing lions fighting Sala. 
The parapet and she tower are completely lost. 

Since the front of the temple is covered up by a recent wall only the doorway 

is visible It has two chunam covered dvarapalas and 

Inner View, ornamental pilasters with an unworked lintel. The nava- 

ranga which is about 17' x 17' has four pillars of the round 



"PLATE XVIII 




W 



A 
! 

w 

03 





Ol 

co 
a 







67 

lathe-tamed type whose beading sculptures have not been completed The 

pilasters against the walls are of the indented square 

Navaranga Doorway. pattern. The ceilings are all blank, except the centra! one 

which is a beautifully carved piece, though flat In charac- 

ter. It is divided into nine squares by finely ornamented bands. In the centre is 

Tandavesvara dancing on the body ol Andhakasura %ith 

Pillars, Brahma to right and Vishnu to left The god is eight- 

handed In the panels around are beautifully carved 

figures of the eight Dikpalakas some of which deserve to he studied individually. A 

special feature of these nine panels is that the ground 

Ceiling* around each main sculpture is minutely carved into & 

large number of soldiers and attendants consisting of 

musicians, trumpeters, drummers, dancers, etc Special mention mav be made of 
Indra's fine elephant and Niruti's demon flying in the air But Kubettfs horse 
has an unnaturally long body 

In the navaranga are kept a number of fine sculptures 

Sculptures. 

1. Seated Sarasvati m a shallow niche on swan pedestal. It is much 

covered with muck and requires cleaning 
2 Saptamatrika panel 

4 MThtshLramardml m a fine large mehe The group peculiar since 

' the buffalo is absent. The lion IB thrust into the background and 

the goddess is spearing a rakshasa whom she has forced down oil his 

knees. The goddess holds m her eight hands spear, arrow, sword, 

Sakra, sankha, bow, shzeld and demon's forehead. The groap 



5. Br He ndes on a fine peacock and holds 

rosary, goad, Sakti, pasa and phala 
ft Uma-mahesvara-The stone is much worn by actions of water 

' 

B nake has seven hoods, whde h,s consort's has . 
8 . A /.nail Hand: ol a 1*. <We , ^^ 
The small cell to the north of ^^^ 

screens, in it on a siiuj-m; v<* v v\TT 2) 



. 

It is In 



68 

padtna, sankha, chakra, and gada particularly the first one finely chiselled out. On 

each side of him stands a group. On his right is Bhudevi 

Kesaya. holding garland (?) and kalasa G-aruda kneels in front of 

her, while a female attendant holds up from behind her a 

chamara to the god On the god's left near the mace stands LakshmT with phala 
and padina, a chamaradharmi behind her and young prahlada with uplifted right 
hand m front oi her Behind Lakshrni's attendant is an elephant Around the 
god's head is a fine torana of the serpentine type with a simhalalata above and the 
ten avataras around 

A peculiar magical appliance which is expected to cause betel leaves to grow 

well if ifc is ornamented with a thousand betel leaves and 

TaSismanic Betel taken out in procession is kept m the temple and has 

Grower. been described in^M A B 1 912 

The sukhanasi doorway is flanked by Eiarva dvarapalas and perforated screeus. 

There is Gajalakshmi on the lintel A Tandavesvara 

Sukhanasi group with Brahma and Vishnu is carved on the archi_ 

trave The donative inscription of Mamkanna is on the 

beam above The small sukhanasi has a shallow padma ceiling as also the garbha- 

griha In the latter, on a round pedestal is a small natural 
Garbhagriha. hnga with a tapering head 

Opposite to the temple in the recently erected, mantapa is kept a fine large bull 

of soapstone evidently of Hoysala workmanship, It is 

Bull Mantapa said to have been formerly housed in a shrine with the 

perforated windows that are now on either side of the 
shrine that now houses the bull 

To the south of the temple near the village well lie some more worked stone 
Worked Pieces pieces like the perforated screens, etc. 

The temple and its sculptures are protected monuments of Class III The in- 
side of the temple is kept in a very dirty condition and the 

Conservation. navaranga is a store house for gymnastic and other kinds 

of materials It should be cleared of all these and the 

flooring reset and cement-pointed One slab of the central roof has slipped and 
should be restored to its original position, if possible The outer walls of the 
navaranga probably bear sculptures inside its mud covering The latter should be 
removed and the original wall exposed at least on the north and south. The front 
mantapa, though recently built, is strong and may be allowed to remain as it is. 
The back of the temple should be cleared of thorn, etc., and the sculptured pieces 
like the Sala group which are lying around the temple may be preserved in the 
Bull mantapa 

The village road may be given a short extension so as to reach the temple. 



PLATE 



HARIHARESVARA TEMPLE 




(P 71) 



Mysore At chaologtcal Survey 



69 
NANDIGUDI. 

ISYAEA TEMPLE 

Nandigudi is a small village on the right bank of the Tungabhadia about 13 

miles south-west of Harihar as the crow-flies In the field 

Situation to the south of the village aad close to the river, stands 

an old temple of Isvara, in front of which is a viragal of 

930 AD. commemorating the bravery of a G-anga chief in the days of the 
Bashtrakuta emperor Suvarnavarsha. (Close to it was found a modern Kannada 

inscription) 

The temple itself shows signs of belonging to about the 10th century 

Age of Temple. 

It consists of a garbhagriha, a small closed sukhanasi and a navaranga which has 

six pillars with the centi al ankana very large. The outer 

General Description walls of the navaranga are completely covered up, while 

the place of the disappeared old tower is taken by an ugly 

modern one Though the outside of the temple is thus rendered architecturally 
worthless, the inside is ornamental and contains several good sculptures 

The garbhagriha which has a low relievo padrna in the ceiling has on a low 
square pedestal a largish linga with a tapering head The garbhagriha doorway 
has Gajalakshmi on the lintel bub is otherwise a plain one 

The sukhanasi which contains a small Nandi is unimportant except for its 

beautiful doorway of haidish black stone (PI XVIII, 2). 

Sukhanasi Doorway. Its jambs have each a Saiva dvarapala above whom rise an 

indented square pillar and three vertical floral scroll bands. 

On the outer side of each iamb, but carved in the same slab, is a perforated screen 
carved m the form of a creeper scroll as in the windows at Nandi The right or south 

screen has four flying Yidyadharas, two of whom are 
Perforated Screens. trumpeting and two others, a male and a female, are 

carrying flowers. 

The north screen shows a woman dancing (?) with upraised left hand 
accompanied by a drummer and flutist, while a man is seated with upraised right 
hand (either in singing or the appreciation attitude) and a drummer plays on a 

davane. 

The lintel piece which is about 7 feet long is interestingly carved. In the 

centre undei an elongated serpentine torana with hanging 

Lintel mangoes and without the lion face is Siva dancing as 

Gajasuramardana, though the elephant is absent. He is 
supported by a goddess and Brahma on the right and a goddess and Vishnu on the 



70 

left. On each side is a four-footed makara ridden by a god while to fuither 
north is a conventionally manned lion and to further south a human-headed manned 
lion or sphinx 

To further right as also to further left stands a >aiva dvtofepala of polished 

black stone, about sis feet high, with the hands thus 

Dvarapalas. disposed abhaya, trident, damaruga and mace. Each 

wears a jatamalmta, the archaic smile with the fangs 

showing, garlands and necklaces, yajnopavlta, armlets, girdles, anklets and other 
ornaments and hooded cobras wound round the trident and the mace The figures 
have an imposing appearance In contrast with the figures the toranas are carved 
in low relief 

Against the western part of the navaranga wall are placed a numbei of sculp- 
tures two Saptamatnka groups one of them with 

Sculpture Chamunda shown as goblin Durga, two G-ane^as, 

and one Mahishasuramardml treading on the buffalo 

with her right foot and spearing the demon emerging from its neck The 
buffalo's head and horns are realistically shaped The image of a seated Durga is 
worn out 

The four mam pillars of the navaranga are round lathe-turned ones of defi- 
nitely Chalukyan character The rope, the bulging bellied 

Navaranga Pillars and bell and the pot are finely done, though the wheel and 
CeUmgs u PP ei Portions are unpolished The pilasters on the north 

wall and a beam above them suggest that ancient reno- 
vators have rebuilt the temple The other pillars and pilasters are all very plain 
and right angled The central ceiling has a shallow padma in relief wmle the 
other ceilings are all plain 

The largest object in the navaranga is a large finely carved black stone bull. 
B Il} 1S ei & ht fg et long and six feet high and faces the linga 

Jt wears an ornamental headband, belled necklets and 

, , garland of bells, etc. Its snout is very narrow, its teeth 

showing and its tail slightly lifted m joy 

Behind Nandi, at the east end of the temple is a small cell containing a 

<; r fi g ure of Sar 7 a standing with a lotus in each of his 

aurya Ceil and Image two hands His nose is damaged, his pedestal missing, 

, hls Chhayas delicately chiselled out and his legs broken 

S':T; ! "- ,*"** - *">- '-^ed g >, 



''^^^ t5ranapanels The to 

and long It is no doubt an old sculpture which has seen rough days It 1S not 
elegant, since it is wide in the hips and too short for its 



size 



PLATE XX 




!Z5 



s 



125 




71 



HARIHAR 

HAEIHAEESYAEA TEMPLE 1 

In the image of Hanhara the right half is Siva and the left half is Vishnu 

(PI. XVIII, 3). The god stands knee-deep on a stone box. 

The Harihara Image He holds m his four hands abhaya, trident, chakra and 
A close study sankha and wears a combined ]ata and kirlta makuta, 

necklets, yajnopavlta, waistband, waist-cloth, waist- 
hangings, etc , and only a udud&ra and Jcauplna and no dl^o^^ The original image 
consisting of the head, and the legs up the knee are beautifully proportioned and 
show signs of water action. They and the torso are of a slightly brownish tinge. 
They probably hail from even the early Chalukya or Rashtrakuta times Evidently 
the image was intact when Polalva Dandanayaka built the temple for it But it 
must have suffered at the hands of iconoclasts and thrown into water until ib was 
restored probably by the Mahratas Since no new legs would help to support the 
image its broken kneestwere mounted on its old pedestal The nose and mouth 
were trimmed with cement and the light thigh was similarly fixed. Two supports 
each supporting a rude consort were made to support the two hands on each side 
The right shoulder is oiigmal and the left one is new The later additions are of 
soapstone and black with oil This is a unique instance of a broken image being 
installed. The pieces are , 
Old 1 The head, 

2 The torso with left thigh. 

3 The right thigh 

New 4 ffoght support with the right arms 

5 Left support with left shoulder and two left arms. 

For the plan of the temple see PL XIX The navaranga doorway is published 

m PI XV, 1 of the Annual Keport of this Department 

Navaranga Doorway, for 1932 with the wrong title sukhanasi doorway It is 

finely designed and elaborately carved The jamb contains 

two attendants above whom rise two pilasters and several flora,! scrolls, one band, 
of gryphons and another of a series of naga couples as m the Belur garbhagriha 
doorway but not so deeply carred. 

1. The houses to the south and east of the temple should be acquired and the 

compound extended to a quadrangle including the old 
Conservation gates. 

2. The road approaching the temple should be widened as far as possible. 

1 Described m M A,B 1932 



72 

3. The ground around the temple should , if possible, be lowered by a foot 

or two without detriment to the drainage 

4. Further whitewashing should be forbidden and the old whitewash should 

be scraped off all the stone surfaces including the finely carved 

doorways 

5. The monument and its inscriptions should be declared protected and a board 

should be put up prominently 

6 The ground of the east mahadvara should be lowered as far as possible, 
the original level being about three feet below the present level 

7. The breaking of cocoanuts and burning of large quantities of oil or camphor 
inside the sanctum should be stopped 

8 Electric lighting by means of concealed lights should be installed when 
Harihar gets a. supply of power 

9, It would be better to remove the shrme of BadabandeSvara and install the 

linga in the Bhairava shrine 

10 The steps leading to the river may be improved 

11. The temple is visited daily by a large number of devotees and the expendi- 
ture is worth incurring 



SERINGAPATAM. 

* 

On page 58 of the Mysore Archaeological Beport for 1935, a brief description of 

the Swinging Arch at SermgapTbtam has been given and in 

Swinging Arch the footnote it is mentioned that the arch collapsed on 

July 2nd, 1936 An enquiry was made by the Director of 

Archaeology accompanied by the Executive Engineer, Mysore District, about the 
causes of the collapse and a repoit was submitted to Government It was recom- 
mended that a fencing should be put up around the rums, the cracks and fissures 
filled m and a suitable explanatory note put up on a board close to it Restoration 
of the old structure to its original condition was considered to be archseologically 
unnecessary. The illustrations 1 and 2 on Plate XX show the arch in its original 
condition and after collapse. 

NEW STONE IMAGES. 

The image of G-aruda facing the Vijayanarayanaswa*mi Temple at Belur was 

found to be cracked horizontally. A new image was 

Garuda. got prepared at the hands of Mr. Javarayachari and 

sent to Belur for being set up It is illustrated on 
Plate XXI, 1 



PLATE XXI 




CO 

o. 



ffl 



P 








ra set UD on a tal 




at Belgami 
















alia 









1! 




u , 

MVQftYfl ft tiQ. 
JiLyiSUiDi ffl Udl 

/ i/ ] 

It is illustrate! on Plate 





u 









mth 




74 



PART III-NUMISMATICS. 

PAKDYA COINS 
(PI. XXII) 

Before 1200. 
PANDYA FEUDATORIES OF THE CHOLAS (?) 

A Standing and seated King, Fish and Crozier 1 . 

1* Ae. In two different sizes. 

Obverse Hude standing king of the Chola type with sceptre to left, and 

uncertain pellets under moon to right. 

Keverse Chola type seated king with large fish and crozier to right 
In the absence of a, legend, the rudeness of the king's figure compared with the 

Ghola issues suggests the date C 1120 

TYPE B : Standing King and Tamil legend. 

2, Ae .7 

Obverse : As on 1, rude standing king. 2 

Reverse Under moon, three-line Tamil legend, read by Elliot as Korkai 

Andar 

Kor7ca^ Andar or c Ruler of Korkai ' is an old Pandya title as thePandyas were 
formerly rulers of the great part of Korkai 

TYPE C Standing King, Fish and Tamil legend. 

3, Ae . 75 

Obverse . In circle of dots, standing king with pelleted lozenge and Tamil su 

reversed, to right 

[Reverse Fish with lamp on each side and Tamil legend around, reading . 

Sa ma ra Ko la Jca la 

Type D (i) 

Standing King, two Fish and^ Tamil legend. 

4, Similar to 3, but two upright fish on the reverse in place of fish and lampstands. 

Legend Sa ma ra Ko Id Jca la 

1. Illustrated in M A B 1934 PI XVIII, 21 ~~ 

2 SCSI. No 139 



PLATE XXII. 




PANDYA COINS (p 74) 



Mysore Arch<zolog^eal Survey ] 



75 
Type D (11) 

Standing King, Pish and Vira Pandyan. 

5 65 Half value. 

Obverse In ring of dots standing king of the Chola type. 
Be verse ID ring of dots between two larnpstands, two fish with crozier 
between them and above, Tamil legend 

Vita Pa 
n (tfa) y a n 

No definite attribution of this coin has been made here as the name Yira 
Pandya, like Mara and Sundara, is very common , for example there are five Vira's 
in the second half of the 13th century. The Chola figure suggests that the coin 
may be even a century earlier. A Vira Pandya is named on Raja Raja Chola's 
Boar type 

TYPE B Standing King and Elephant. 

6 Ae 6 

Obverse Very rude standing king 

Reverse In rude circle of dots, tusker elephant to left with lowered trunk and 
lifted tail, and Tamil Ma between conch and discus on top 

The rudeness of the lung's figure would place the com C 1170 It is doubtful 
if the elephant has any G-anga associations Ma may stand for some Maravar- 
man, perhaps the one preceding Jatavarman Kulasekhara I, who leigned from 

1190 to 1217 

TYPE E Bull and Fish. 

7 Ae 45 

Obverse In rude ring of dots, humped bull standing to right, with moon 

above and lampstand in front 

Reverse In ring of dots crozier between two upright fish* 
The Cbola bull would indicate the reign of Kulottunga Chola III (11784218 ) 

TYPE Gr Horse and Fish 

8. Ae 75 

Obverse -In circle of dots horse with arched neck prancing to right with- 

royal umbrella supported by two chamaras above 
Reverse In ring of dots, crozier between two fish bending outwards. Above, 

small couchant bull supported by chamaras. 

The obverse connects this coin with Raja Ra]a III Chola and the reverse with 
the Setupatis This com may belong to the early part (C. 1216) of the reign of 
Maravarman Sundara Pandya I (1216-39) before he revolted against Raja Ra]a Chola 
III The latter's supremacy appears to be acknowledged as the royal umbrella is 
placed above the horse and not above the fish, as is done on later coins. 

10* 



76 



LATEB PANDYAS 

(After 1210) 
MABAVABMAN STJNDARA PANDYA I ? 

1216-39. 
Ae .55 TYPE A King and Pish. 

Obverse Between small sun and moon, two fish bent outward with crozier in 
the middle. Above crozier is a crescent surmounted by a royal 
umbrella supported by chamaras 

Eeverse In circle of dots, king standing to front, wearing upper and lower 
cloth, upper body bare and hands joined in worship. Around, 
fragmentary Tamil legend which may be Sundara Pandyan. 
The fish are similai to No 8, but the umbrella is held over the Pandya symbol. 
This type appears to belong to the first years of Pandya independence from the 
Chola yoke. The Chola style lude king is substituted by a better one m a 
reverential attitude ; the king may have championed the Yaishnavas against the 
Saiva Cholas. 

TYPE B. Fish and Tamil legend. 

10 Ae 55 

Obverse . In ring of dots, two upright fish with crozier between them and 

cresent above 

Beverse Under crescent three-line Tamil legend 

Su (n) ta 7 a 

Pa n 

ti ya n 

This com may be that of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I or that of one of his 
subordinate contemporaries. 

TYPE C Boar and Pish. 

11 Ae .5 

Obverse Boar to right with moon and sun above 
Beverse Orozier between two fish and Tamil legend above 

Su (n) ta ra Pa 

. ya 

Probably a coin of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I. But the boar cannot be 
explained, unless it is assumed that as seen on some coins of Barja Baja, it had been 
adopted by the Cholas after their conquest of Yengi. This boar of the Madura 
Pandyas reappears on the (Madura ?) issues of Tirumala Bay a of Vijayanagar. 



77 

MARAVARMAN SUNDABA PANDYA II 1238-53. 

OB 
JATAVARMA.N SUNDABA PANDYA I 1251-70. 

TYPE D Pish, Bow and Nagari legend, 

12 Ai 6 Wt 592 

Obverse In linear ring, two fish upright, with strung bow to left and a 

weapon (tiger claws) to right , figure below uncertain 
Reverse In linear circle, three-line Nandi-Nagan legend with interlinear 

lines 

Sri Pa 

nda va na 
ra (?) pa 

This may belong to C 1240, when Jatavarinan II was the more powerful 
co-regent The dot in the third line cannot be explained The rest of the legend 
is clear The legend means ' the Pandava King ' 

TYPE E Pish, Conch and discus and Nagari legend. 

13. Ai 65 Wt 57 

Obverse Similar to No 12, but to left of fish is a discus (or flywhisk ?) to 
right a conch (?) , the fly whisks at the top aie conventionalised into 
crescents, and the uncertain symbol below is conventionalised 
into dots 
Reverse * Similar to 12, but legend in clear Nagari. 

Sri Pa 
nda (gJia ?) va na 

ra pa 

14. Ai . 65 Wt 57 6. 

Similar to No 13 3 but sun and moon near umbrella, conch and discus and 
reverse Nandi-Nagari legend conventionalised A small fish appears between the 
two large ones 

The difference in weight between No. 12 and the others is noteworthy There 
might have been a reduction in weight as happened in the West Ghalukya Empire. 
The Pandya standard was clearly different from the Ghola standard Nos. 12, 13 
and 14 may belong even to the reign of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I 

TYPE F Fish, Conch and discus, Kannada legend. 

15. Ai . 65. Wt 57 2. 

Obverse . Similar to 13, but conch and discus clear and spring out of two 
floral creepers. 



78 

Reverse In linear ring three-line Kannada legend with interlinear rules 

&rl Pa 

ndya da no, (???) 
jaya 

Maravarman Sundara Pandya II was a son of a sister of Vira Somesvara 
Hoysala. At this time Kannada influence was great at Madura 1 and this appears 
to be the reason for the existence of a Kannada legend on a Pandya coin more than 
any later conquest of the highlands by the Pandyas The legend Pandya 
Dhanamjaya means f Arjuna of the Pandyas." The Pandyas claimed descent from 
A rj una's son by a Pandya Princess 

TYPE G- Two Fish and Kannada letter, 

16 Ai 3 Wt. 6*6 (some specimens weigh 6 7). 
Obverse Two fish to left. 

Beverse Some doubtful lines , perhaps Kannada 

S a (mvatsara) 
13 

With the Kannada influence, the Telugu custom of showing the year of the 
reign also might have been introduced More probably these smaller pieces with 
Telugu figures may be the issues of some Telugu feudatories of the Pandyas like 
the Telugu Gholas of Nellore On one of the coins there appears to be the Telugu 
figure 25 which could apply, of all the later Pandyas, only to Maravarman 
Kulas*ekhara I as he reigned foi nearly 42 years Nellore was actually under 
Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I who crowned himself there between the years 1251 
and 1262 The fanam of 6 6 grains shows and the subsequent Yaraha standard 
of 66 grams suggests connection with the Telugu country and its East Chalukya 
(or Kadamba) standard 

JATAVARMAN SUNDARA PANDYA I (?) (1251-70) 
MABAVARMAN SUNDARA PANDYA I (1216-39) 

Type H 

17 Ae 65 

Obverse In circle of dots, two fish crossed, with dagger, discus, trident and 

conch in the fields 

Beverse In ring of dots, four-line Tamil legend. 

Ka oh chi va 

lu n Jcu m 

pe ru (m) 

a n 

1 S K Aiyangar, Muh, Inv p 46 



79 

Maravarman Suirdara Pandya I conquered the Chola country and assumed the 
title S&n&dM Va&angarulvya e He who conquered the Chola country.' The title 
on the coin KachcJiwalungum peruman, ' Eta who conquered Kanchi ' is very 
similar and may apply to Maravarman Sundara Pandya I. Or, as Jatavarman 
Siindaua Pandya I conquered Kanchi (C. 1260), the title may be one of the many 
he assumed. Jatavarmrn Sundara Pandya I took Kanchi, killed Gandagopala m 
hattle and restored the kingdom to his brothers (Chidambaram inscription) The 
rude ring of dots and the make of the coin are m favour of Maravarman Sundara 
Pandya I, the earlier ruler But the variation m the fish and the more prominent 
place taken by the symbols of Vishnu may indicate a little later period If the type 
is of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I, then the standing king and fish type described 
under him may be ascribed to Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I, 



I Fish, and standing Gamda, 

18. Ai 25. Wt GSFanam? 

Obverse Upright fish between discus and conch. 

Eeverse Anthropoid Garuda with hands joined standing to right in front of 
a sacred lampstand 

Attributed with hesitation. It may be one of Kulasekhara I as he was a devout 
Yaishnava and was probably responsible for the appearance of Garuda on the coins 
The com shows a reduction of the fanam weight from 67 to 63 grams, ^ e , from 
the East Chalukya to the Chola standard 

TYPE J Fish and Tamil letter. 

19 Ai 25 Wt 55 

Obverse Upright rude fish (between discus and conch ?) 
The attribution of this coin is very doubtful as the letter on the reverse is 
fragmentary and uncertain in its significance There is a further reduction of 
weight to 5 5. It is possible that the coin belongs to the early pait of the fourteenth 
century 

MARAVAKMAN KULASEKHARA I? 1268-1311. 

TYPE K: -Garnda on Fish 

20 Ae .7 Well made 

Obverse In circle of dots, kneeling to right on a fish moving to right with 
open mouth, is a fine anthropoid Garuda in vlrasana or heroic 
kneeling posture, with wings and arms open as when flying through 
the air, and wearing tall crown, armlets, bracelets, anklets and 
earrings 



80 

Beverse. In nag of dots three-line Tamil legend with interlinear rules, 
fragmentary on most specimens. 

8 a ma ra 

Jed la 
Jca la n 

The legend means c Tempestuous in battle ' 

TYPE L Garuda to left and Tamil legend. 

21 Ae . 65 

Similar to 20, but no fish on obveise , discus and conch on each side of crown ; 
Garuda holds snake in hand stretched in front and wears loin cloth, 

TYPE M Garuda to right and Pish 

22 Ae 5 

Obverse Similar to 21 but Garuda to right. 
Beverse Grozier between two horizontal fish 

This type with the crozier and fish still appearing may be earlier than the other 
Garuda types and may belong to the middle of the 13th century. 

TYPE N Garuda to right ^and Tamil legend 

23 Ae ,6 

Obverse Similar to 22 

Eeverse In ring of dots, three- line Tamil legend with interlinear rules 

BJtu va 

nl Jca 

vl ra n 

The legend means ' The only hero of the world,' Numbers 0, 21, 22 and 23 
have fine Garudas and show a very good condition of art. They are here described 
under Maravarman Kulasekhara I as his long reign of 42 years was highly pros- 
perous and peaceful and the king was a devout Vaishnava. The word Kolahala 
first appears m the title Parachahra Kolahala assumed by Sri Mara who died 
in 862. Some fish types with the title Samara Kolahala have often been attributed 
to him But the fine Garuda types with the same title would help to place all coins 
with that title four centuries later. The title itself appears to have been assumed 
by several Pandya kings The othei title Bhuvan&ka Vlran may have been assumed 
by Maravarman Kulasekhara I after his general Anya Ghakravarti had wreaked 
vengeance on Ceylon (0 1284) for the humiliation imposed on the Pandyas by 
Bhuvanaika Bahu of Oeylon (G. 1270) These attributions like most others m the 
Pandya series are only suggestive. 



81 

TYPE Feet and Tamil legend. 

(I) 

24 Ae .7, Irregular outline 

Obverse In circle of dots between conch and discus (?) a pair of feet in 
upright posture under a royal umbrella between sun (?) and moon. 
Reverse -In circle of dots indistinct three-line Tamil legend 



Ka I (i yu) 
~k& Ea (man) ? 

If the legend is KaUyuga Raman, the com may belong to Jatavarman Sundara 
Pandya I, who had the title Kodandaraman or to Maravarman Kulasekhara I who 
reconquered Ceylon like Kama of old The make of the com is in favour of the 
earlier date The feet are most probably those of Rama perhaps worshipped at 
Ramesvarain 



25 Similar to 24 but on the obverse there are only a pair of feet, conch and discus 
and crescent, The legend on the reverse is much effaced Elliot read it 
Kayal after Caldwell 3 but it appears to be a three-line inscription of which 
the second and third lines seem to read , 

ha la 

n 

May the specimen refer to the Kolahala type of coins ? 



82 



PART IV-MANUSCRIPTS. 
MEMOIRS OF HYDER ALLY FROM THE YEAR 1758 TO 1770. 

BY 

ELOY JOZE COEEEA PEIXOTO. 

THE MANUSCEIPT 

(PI. XXIII) 

This rnanusciipt was purchased m London by the late Sardar M N. Balaraj 
Uis when he visited England It is understood that another manuscript in English 
which is perhaps a fan copy of this manuscript exists in the British Museum and 
contains 176 pages The present manuscript was kindly lent to the Director of 
Archeology for study by Mrs. M. N Balaraj Urs to whom the sincere thanks of the 
Department are due. 

Though the writing is often difficult to read on account of the ink having faded, 

it has been possible to copy the manuscript in full. It 

Description contains 160 pages of foolscap size in three books In the 

margin, the numbers 34 (p 19; to 323 (p 159) are marked, 

suggesting that they correspond to the pages of a Portuguese manuscript, a 
translation of which is probably contained m the manuscript under review. 
Collections and mterhneal additions are made here and there 

There is no doubt that the manuscript is old as evidenced by the hand-made 

paper and the ink used as also by the eighteenth century 

Date of Manuscript. spelling and language employed The first two volumes 

have been written on a thicker variety of paper on which 

three different watei marks appear One of them is the fleui-de-lis The second 
is also &LQ fleur-de-lis placed on the top of a horse-sboe arch with the letters AVON 
mveited above the flowei The third one has a foutche perched on a shield which 
is supported by a flag on each side The fleur-de-lis has a crown ornamentation 
at the top and monograms below which appear to contain the letters G- M G 
in some cases and LABBIGrA in others The third volume of the Manuscript is 
written on a thinner variety of papei bearing a different water mark from those 
described above Thiee circular designs are placed vertically and are surmounted 
by &fourche The circle at the top has further the design of an inverted crescent, 
while the other two circles have the letters T G- 1 of which the first two appear 
inside the middle circle and the last inside the bottom one Thus the paper is of 
French make, probably of the monarchical period The uniformity met with in the 
ink used suggests that the entiie manuscript must have been written continuously 
during several days probably immediately after the translator started his task. 



PLATE XXIII 




I 



o 

ra 
O 







83 

The original was however written in 1770 as the author himself says so on page 
'this present year in which we write, 1770.' The last para giving information 
about the author's leaving India for good has prohably been added by the translator 
who was at Telhchery at the time when the author came down there leaving 
Hyder's service To him, in all probability, the manuscript must have been handed 
over Though his name is not known, it may he presumed by the circumstance 
that the manuscript is in English and was purchased in England that he was a 
European, most probably an Englishman 

The contents of the manuscript are just what its title states Memoirs of 

Hyder Ally from 1758 to 1770 giving chronologically 

Contents anecdotes relative to his rise in the army and eventually 

in the administration of the country. Incidentally there 

is also reference to important facts touching on Hyder's ability and character and 
also to contemporary politics of other powers and native states in so far as Hyder 
was drawn into it Since the author himself was serving in the army, such of 
Hyder' s campaigns in which he took part are recorded in great detail and theiefore 
would be of prime interest to military men 

A few points bearing on the character of Hyder are new, as, for instance, bis 
unscrupulousness in killing his mother with his own hands This matricide, which 
is not recorded elsewhere, requires corroboiation, it is true But it must be admitted 
that the author was not prejudiced against his hero inasmuch as he had great 
admiration for him with all his faults Though he had left Mysore service once before 
the Treaty of Madras and could have with advantage made his fortune elsewhere 
by serving Hyder' s enemies, he returned again to Hyder and even put up with the 
awkward situation of waiting to meet him for about two months and of again being 
appointed on only half of his former pay Likewise we have to consider the fact 
of the murder of king Nan]ara]a Wodeyar at Hyder's hands as almost true, though 
the Hyder-Nama and the Annals of the Mysoie Royal Family do not mention it. 
Hyder was certainly acting like a usurper throughout his career Wilks says that 
the king was stiangled in the bath at Hyder's instigation. If that were so other 
chronicles would have mentioned it, for the fact would have become public 
Peixoto says that the king was poisoned and there was no enquiry instituted beyond 
effecting the arrest of the surgeon who attended the king during the previous night, 
Hence the fact of the murder could not be talked of so well as to be known 
universally Since the author of the manuscript was a contemporary serving in 
Hyder's army, we may believe in his statement Moieover the date of the king's 
death as given by him tallies with the one mentioned in the Annals of the Mysore 
Eoyal Family, while that given in the Hyder-Nama is a year later and therefore 
not credible 1 

1 See infra page 118, foot-note 1 

11* 



84 

The dates mentioned by Peixoto generally agree with those stated by 

the Hyder-Nama, the Annals of the Mysore Royal 

Dates of Events. Family and other books on the History of Mysore, 

though there are slight differences here and there, which 

being within a few months are not in the mam so striking as to call the authority 
of Peixoto to question The few dates that need however some remark are m 
respect of the following events (1) Hyder's flight from Sermgapatam, (2) His 
conquest of Bednore, (3) Death of Nanjaraja Wodeyai. 

The last item has been dealt with above and m foot-note 1 on page 118. It would 
appear that Peixoto's account is coriect The second, too, is negligible as theie is only 
a difference of about two months between the date mentioned by Peixoto 10th 
Januaiy 1763 and that mentioned by Wilks close of March the same year Such 
as it is, the Hyder-Nama gives the date 19th January 1763 for the event and is nearer 
the date mentioned by Peixoto than to the one mentioned by Wilks The first 
item, however, shows a difference of about three months between the date known 
hitheito from the several sources (12th August 1760) and that mentioned by 
Peixoto The Mahratas were asked to come to Khanderao's help at a time 
(June 1760) when the major portion of Hyder's aimy was absent at Pondichery 
under Mugtum, Eydei's brother-in-law It is stated by Peixoto that, during the 
Ranizan (Jamzan), the Mahratas appeared one morning and so on Wilks states 
that Hyder escaped from Senngapatam on 12th August 1760 ;* while the Hyder- 
Nama gives the date S' 1682 Pramadi Siavana u 13 which corresponds to 24th 
August 1760 2 The difference between these two authorities is only by a few days 
and not controverting the period nanated by Peixoto It is just possible that 
Peixoto has mistaken the Mohurrum for the Ramzari 3 He, however, states in 
agreement with other writers that the river was impassable on account of the iams 
This could only have been m August But we need not suppose that Peixoto was a 
mere casual observer recoidicg events mainly from hearsay, though we need not, 
at the same time, think of him as a correct recorder of dates either, since he wrote 
his manuscript, according to his own statement, in 1770 which was the year in 
which he left Mysore Service 

The authenticity of the record is generally reliable since the events narrated 

find support from other sources for the history of Hyder 

Importance and since also it is apparent that the author has written 

with a healthy frankness and in a language quite in 

accord with his European nativity. The few errors that he has made, as, for 
example, his having mistaken Nanjaraj, the father-in-law of Krishnaraj II and 
Sarvadhikari as the second king, are minor only and may be condoned in a Portu- 

1 Histoiy of Mysore, Vol I, p 256 

2 M A B 1930, p 85 

S The Barazan itself fell m Apul during 1760, not in June as stated by Peixoto. 



85 

guese author While chronicling the events he has m no way exaggeiated and 
where he has given his opinions he has been judicious He has praised and 
condemned the Europeans and Indians alike. An account of Hyder from a pen of 
such an unbiassed person as the author of this manuscript would set at naught the 
writings of Eaghsh critics and Indian euologists who have made much of their own 
and too little of their enemies' activities or achievements 

Eloy Joze Correa Peixoto was the Captain of Infantry in the Portuguese 

state of G-oa By personal recommendation of the Viceroy 

The Author ot the State he enteied Hyder's service in April 1758 

when Hyder was contemplating a maich on Chennapatna 

in order to fight the Mahratas Peixoto was employed as the Chief of the Van 
Guard and of all the European Fusiliers and one regiment of Gienadiers In this 
capacity he served to the end of November 1767, taking part in almost all the 
compaigns of Hyder up to then and even helping him dining the period when Hyder 
was obliged to flee from Senngapatam to save himself from the scheming Khandeiao 

Though the author had a tnind to leave Hyder's seivice befoie 1767, he could 
not do so for want of orders from the Government of G-oa When finally the 
expected oiders came he obtained a peiinit foi passage thiough English territories 
with the help of some of the Emopean prisoners of Hydei who had been committed 
to bib care and eventually been given fieedom The English were anxious to see 
him retire from Hyder's service and were, therefore, only too glad to grant him the 
pei mat as also to extend to him a hearty reception when he arrived in their 
territories They even promised to c reimburse him his losses and expenses which 
he might sustain by quitting the Nabob's service', But when he politely refused 
to enter into their service against Hyder, they made it difficult for him to leave 
Madras. At last, however, he managed to obtain their permission, but nothing 
was paid to him, the pietext being that they thought the other Europeans m the 
service of Hyder would also quit him, which did not happen 

The author then left Madras on a ship, but near Ceylon the ship was wrecked 
He had thus to take another ahip on which he sailed only up to Telhchery It 
was impossible for him to go to G-oa since the Portuguese Government did not help 
him in this regard He therefore made up his mind to go to Bengal and accord- 
ingly left for that country on a ship which sailed for the place passing thiough the 
Andaman and Nicobar islands. From Bengal he wanted to pi oceed further on land 
through the North-west passes and therefrom to proceed to Europe by land-ioute, 
which, however, was impossible on account of the restrictions of travel imposed by 
the English. 

He had thus to sail back to the Coromandel coast The English had now made 
peace with Hyder to the lattei's great advantage At Pondichery the author was pre- 
vailed upon by some French officers to return to Hyder's seivice He left for Kolar 



86 

with them and eventually was taken m May 1769 back to Hyder s service, though 
on half of his original pay with charge over all the Europeans with firelocks 

For a year more, that is till about the beginning of August 1770, the author 
served in Hyder's army. But noticing the gradual decay in his army and its 
incapacity and also in disgust at the general disgrace of the Europeans who were 
then in service, he made up his mind to resign Under pretext of finding Europeans 
for his aimy, he left Hyder with his permission and as stated at the end of the 
manuscript went to Telhchery wheiefrom he proceeded for Tanjore Here he 
seived for sometime and then left for Goa from which place he took passage for 
Lisbon 

Some time aftei he left Hyder'b service, that is, in the same year 1770 as stated 
above, he recorded the anecdotes a summary of which only has been given in the 
following pages Comparative notes m respect of such of them as aie impoitant or 
differ from known authorities are given in the foot-notes 

ANECDOTES EELATIVE TO THE KISB OF HYDEB ALT 

Hyder All's fathei, Fatte Nayak (Fatenaique) was born at Devanhalli (Deunaly) 1 

Hyder himself was boin at Kolar (Cular) 2 The latter's 

Hyder's Early Life name was first Hyder Nayak (Aidernaique) when he 

entered the services of e the 2nd king at Senngapatam 3 , a 
kingdom as great as Mercara in the south '. 

The ' 2nd king ' fy e Nanjaraj) was in alliance with the French who had declared 

war against the English These two European powers 

Seven years' War in aimed at obtaining the support of the strongest ruling 
India, powers m India, and their army amounted to 90,000 and 

35,000 fighting men, respectively But the English were 

also m possession of good forts which the French coveted Of these forts two were 
of note mz. Arcot and Trichmopoly which were the bone of contention among the 
many Indian kings and Nawabs, the one on account of the title of the Nawab of 
Carnatic which it would bestow on its possessor and the other on account of its 
fortification and greatness 

1 See Wilks' Histoiy of Mysore, Yol I, page 149 Hyder's father, Pubte Mohammed, was 
born at Sira But see Hydei-Nama, M A B 1930, p 80 Hyder's father is said to have come 
fiom Bi]apur to Kolar and from thence to Sira 

2 At Sira (Suia) according to Earmani History of Hyder Nayak, by Col. W Miles, 
preface xix 

3 i e. Dalvoy Kaiachuri Nargara;) He was actually the Sarvadhikari He was so powerful 
that the author mistakes him for a king 

4 3?or the early history of Hyder see Wilks' History of Mysore, Yol I, and Hyder-N&ma 
(M A. B 1930). 



87 

Nanjara] was now preparing to attack Mohamet All who was an ally of the 
English Hyder was hut a commander of a small detachment of 300 men consist- 
ing of Horse and Foot 1 . During the three years thafc the siege of Triehmopoly 
lasted, he proved himself 'indefatigable J by the series of attacks and ' robberies* 
which he directed against the convoys of the English The siege, however, was 
raised by the raja in disgust, and he broke off from the French on account of the 
difficulties encountered 2 

Before leaving for Sermgapatam the Eaja ordered Hyder fco proceed to 

Dindigul (Dindmgal) for subduing the place, a& also others 

Reduction of Dindigul in its neighbourhood fco the authority of this provincial 

capital. Hyder's army now amounted to 1,800 men 3 

He was given the authority to l appoint and displace any governors or chiefs ' m 
those parts and was appointed as the General of the Province 4 

* With such good foitune ' Hydei executed his duty that he not only brought 
to subjection poweis which weie not expected before to be subdued but also got 
1 much spoils and nches ' of which the major portion he reserved for himself and 
sent the rest to the E^a with the lequest that he might be allowed to augment his 
troops The Ba]a complied without limiting the number 

Hyder was asked to come ovei to Seungapatarn immediately, since it was given 

out that the Mahratas threatened an invasion s On the 

Preparations against 15th of April 1758 he arnved accordingly with an army 
the invading Mahratas which now numbered c 3,000 men with Fire Arms, 1,200 

Horse, and people with match-locks and lances about 

1,000 men' Preparations went on briskly during the rainy season and some 
months of the dry season too and troops were further increased The author of the 
manuscript, Peixoto, now entered Hyder's service For the preparation of powder, 

1 This number agiees with the one stated by Wilts, Histoiy of Mysore, Vol I, p- 167 

2 For details see Wilks, idem Theie was domestic danger, too, which induced, him to retire 
Salabat Jung had now invaded Mysore to collect; the arrears of tribute (p 214) 

3 Wilks gives a different number (idem p 217) Hyder's resouices had increased be- 
fore he left Tiichmopoly Besides the usual appendages of a chief of lank, m elephants, camels, 
tents and magnificent appointments he was rated on the leturns and leceived pay for 1,500 horse, 
3,000 regulai infantry, 2,000 peons and four guns with their equipments See also M A B 1930 p 82, 

4 Dindigul is about 65 miles south-east of Triehmopoly This appointment, according to 
Wilks, ' may perhaps be consideied as the epoch at which the germ of that ambition began to unfold 
which terminated in Hyder's usuipation of the Government of Mysoie ' (op cit Yol I, p 216) 
The designation of the appointment was 'IToujedar of Dindigul' (idemp 218), Hyder's occupation in 
these parts was for the gieatei portion of the yeais 1755-1756 (idem p 219) 

5 This Mahiata invasion was foi the second time l?or details see "Wilks, idem pp 221-222 
In addition to this danger there was also the mutiny of the aimy at the capital, which required 
Hyder's presence (idem p 225) 



88 

cannon balls and arms, Hyder had the best of the English and the French smiths 
and carpenters 

Chennapatna was now in the possession of the Mahratas who held it for non- 
payment ot some tribute due to them It was now the 

March against Chenna- season for them to raid territories out of their jurisdiction 
patna and lay them under contribution. Hyder sent in December 

1758 1 an advance party of 1,100 under Kabir Khan 

(Kabircam) to occupy the place and by the time another party sent by him arrived 
there on the 5th of the month, the place had been taken Hyder despatched the 
Mahrata garrison in the place and even offered several of them service under him. 
Those who left the place were sent out in safety to inform the Mahrata ruler at 
Poona of what happened 2 

In the meanwhile, the Mahratas themselves under Gopala Bao and Sripant 
had passed the nver Krishna. As soon as they heard of the afiairs at Chennapatna 
all the troops were gathered in haste and an army consisting of about 45,000 men 
and 34 guns left straight for Chennapatna 

On their arrival at the place on the 26th, they hoisted also their colours On the 
27th a division of their horse advanced to reconnoitre the camp of the author , but it 
was repulsed On the 28th there was a little more of firing on both sides, which 
ended by the retirement of the Mahratas at 3 o'clock Hyder now resolved on an 
expedition and before next morning entrenched himself with his whole camp, 
thus surrounding himself with a wall full of redoubts to the utter surprise and regret 
of the Mahratas Until 3 p M on the 29th guns played on both sides The 
Mahratas took a bolder step in advancing with their Pmdaus on foot followed by a 
troop of hoi semen On Hyder's side was a certain Englishman, Captain John 
Moore by name, who with the assistance of a ' moor J destroyed so much of their 
army that the Mahratas suspended their activities for the next three days 

On the 4th day Hyder surprised them by firing till about 11 o'clock when the 
Mahratas who had advanced a little retired to their camp On the 16th (January 
1759) night Hyder was able not only to kill 'a great many men and horses but 
take also a great number of prisoners' among whom was their general On the 
21st the Mahratas appeared with their whole force which Hyder was ready to 
meet m battle From 8 to 10AM, severe firing was made on both the sides. 
A division of the Mahratas had begun to move when Hyder advanced with a 
Portuguese gunner by name Mancel Peryra and made up such a fire that the division 
was completely destroyed and the Mahratas had to retire to their camp which had 

1 It would appear from Wilks' account that the captuie of Chennapatna by the Mahratas was 
early in 1759 

2 This account differs from the one given by Wilks, (idem p 229) See also Hyder-Nama 
<M A B 1930, pp 84-85) 



89 

now been shifted to a place farther off from the first At last peace 1 was concluded 
at Sermgapatam and the Mahratas retired on the 23rd of February (1759 A,D ) 
When Hyder leturned to Sermgapatam he was received with " much grandeur and 
honouied with the post of General in Chief.' 2 

Misunderstandings arose between the ' two royal brothers ' 3 at Sermgapatam as 

a consequence of which the second laja left for Mysore 

The ' two Kings ' at (Mancur) where he stayed with his aimy inside the strong 
variance fort The 'first king', whom now Hyder served as a 

matter of policy in preference to the 'second king ' whose 

service he undertook first, oidered Hyder to drive his c brother " oat of the kingdom 
and even to destroy him, if necessary Accordingly Hyder marched against Mysore 
with an army of about 10,000 men consisting of 180 Europeans of different nations 
The ' second king ' had the support of an army which numbered nearly 6,000 of 
whom theie were two detachments of 600 and 400 commanded lespeolively by two 
Europeans Manoel Alves and Bento de Campos Had it not been for Hyder's 
intrigues with the yielding loreigneis through the authoi, theie would have been 
perhaps some difficulty in taking possession of the fort. Though one European 
was completely won over to his side, the foit was ably defended for upwards of 
three months In the long run the laja was obliged to quit for Konanur 5 (Cnnur) 
where he intended to take up, his residence Hydei, when he leturned to Sermga- 
patam, was well rewarded foi his success and given the title of * Hyder Aly ' with 
the injunction that whosoever should address him as Nayak thenceforth would have 
his tongue cub off. A poor man's tongue was actually cut off the very next day for 
his having, perhaps in ignorance, disobej^ed this proclamation 

Khanderao (Ganderau) was a trusted Brahman servant of Hyder, and a man 

of great experience in whose capacity and fidelity Hyder 
Khanderao's plot. had full confidence He was employed not only in all 

public business but was further entrusted with the work 

1 For the terms of the peace see Walks' op cit "Vol I, p 229 

2 Wilks (idem p 230) says that on this occasion the Raja welcomed Hydei by the name of 
' Futte Hyder Behauder ' and made him the commander-in- chief 

3 Peixoto has obviously mistaken Nan]ara] as the brother of the pageant Baja, while he was 
m fact his fathei-m-law and m that capacity was virtually exercising gieat authority oaimg little for 
the Ba/ja himself He was almost considered a usuiper when through Khandeiao and Hyder and by 
the intervention of the old dowager of Dodda-Devara] he was compelled to letire from public life and 
Hyder was made to serve m his stead Itor details see Walks, idem pp 230 if , see also MAR. 1930, 
p 85 Certainly the expression ' two royal hi others ' cannot refer to Devanaj and Nanjaia] since 
they were not ' royal' and since Devara] had expired m June 1756 long befoie Peixoto ]oined Hydei 's 
service 

4 ^e N"an]ara], the father-in-law, not 'brother' 

5 About 30 miles north-west of Mysore 



90 

of spying upon the Ba]a However, as he grew m riches and in confidence and 
esteem with the latter, he explained to him the real state of affairs that obtained in 
the kingdom and how powerful Hyder 1 had become so that the very commands of 
the Baja would not be obeyed unless they were ratified by Hyder. The Raja 
realised only too late his plight of incapacity and willingly left in Khanderao's 
hands the matter of rectifying the situation 2 

Khanderao convoked the Mahratas so that they might so regulate their 

march that they might arrive in Sermgapatam in June. 3 

Alliance with Mahratas At this time Hyder's camp was here , but the greatest part 

of it had gone to Pondicheiy with Mugturn Saib, a brother- 

m-law of Hyder Ah 4 The author and another brother-in-law of Hyder, by name 
Ismail (Esinal) Saib had also gone from thence, with the result that Hydei remained 
only with about 2 ? QOO men in all, horse and foot, including the Europeans 

Duimg the Bamzan (Jauison) the Mahratas arrived suddenly on a morning 

and after closing the gates of the city began filing at the 

Hydcr's Flight house of Hyder 5 who, however, commanded the inmates 

not to make even the slightest noise A ball however 

rolled and struck his old mother on the leg She cried out in pam and Hyder at 
once smote off hei bead 6 making thereby an example of her for others to keep 

1 Khanderao had now developed a disgust foi Hyder since the lattei had applied for the 
assignment of four moie districts, not being content with possessing alieady moie than half of the 
dominions of the State The discussions 'pioduced a considerable degree of irritation between Hyder 
and Khandeiao ' (Wilks, History of Mysore Yol I, p 233 , Hyder-Nama, MAE 1930, p 85 ) 

2 Foi details or the plot and of the paity conniving it see M A R 1930, p 85 and' Wilks, op cit 
Vol I, pp 255 ff Fiom the account given m the Annals of the Mysore Koyal Family it appears 
that Hyder, apart from being a usmpei, was most loyal to his soveieign, while Tipu was quite the 
opposite It is stated that Khanderao and ofcheis plotted against the mciease of his power and 
influence with the King, since they feaied that Hydei, being aware of all the deceipts they had so far 
practissd^on Government, would curb them if he was allowed to grow stionger (Vol I P 193) 

3 'Beenee Visajee Pundit' was already revaging the country between Balapui and Devanhalh 
to the north-east of Mysore (Wilks, op cit p 256) He was expected to amve m August not in 
June as stated by Peixoto , but see supia p 84 

;, L Pf WaS t0 c - perate Wlth the Fieilch a g^st the English m Arcot (Wilks, op cit pp 233 
and. 2oo n ; * 

had uot yet amved :t waa Khanderao who openea lhe fiie m 



6 It is difficult to beheve the matricide attributed to Hyder by Peisoto who farther sajs that 
t nTth fl T? , fe *a Senngapatam th Ism ^ Bib. a brother-m-law of Hydei He was alao 

ol !, f 8 ' T^ 1 u 6 ^ hm at AD6kal Whlle thus he ^ 6S ^ ^formation 

obviously from hearsay none else (whether Hmdu, European or Mohammedan) has been known up 

sMeTh^t'f w S , ^ \ S tbe Mohammeto * Hmdu wiitaB are concerned, lt as pos 

sible that the former would not and the latter could not record such a wicked act of Hyde , specially 

Oa * h *i* h8y W6re IUled by blm and hls son ' aDd *r ^ fame the Hmdu dy D aL wal 
to S h P-^ly be come forgotten owing to the lapse of t lme and the deaZof " 

ote not ^ r 6 I J * Am ng th6 *V' English were Hyder's enemies 
therefore not so ragularly in his service as to have known the fact intimately Peixoto's state- 

b 






91 

rigidly still For three days and nights he remained in this manner and then fled 
awa^ leaving his whole family l taking with him C BO horse and 11 camel with some 
money and jewels' Manosl Alves was killed and the other Europeans entered the 
service of Khanderao 

On the 18th ( August) the author who was ignoiant of the flight of Hyder leceiv- 

ed an older, piesumably from Hyder, to proceed m all haste 
Hyder at Anekal to Anekal (Anaquolu) marching only during the night 

times At break of the next day Hyder, whom he did nob 

expect, met him and made arrangements to complete his arms without the least 
default The Mahratas had now 'digressed' themselves m different platoons and 
occupied all the possible ' straights and roads * where they thought he might have 
retiied. On discovering that Hyder was at Anekal they surrounded the place ^ith 
their cavalry and particulaily secured the load that led to Bangaloie where they did 
not doubt Hyder would retire inasmuch as it was the nearest place with a strong fort 
With carefully studied pieparations for the maich to this destination which 

was not made known at first, and with stnct ordeis, on pain 
Occupation of Bangalore of death if violated, to the seveial adjutants Hydei left 

Anekal by a side tiack with the f links lighted ' according 

to custom While hib spies were continually engaged in mfoiming the movements 
of the enemy, the latter discovered Hyder's march and immediately broke their 
circle guarding the Bangaloie road By forming themselves into battalions they 
began a careful search when Hyder ordered all the links to be put out They then 
pi oceeded along the route so silently that until the fort of 'G-eguem 3 (?; was 
reached Hyder's movements were not at all discovered. Here he marched upon 
them so effectively that with little difficulty he proceeded light up to the gate of 
c Beigui ' (?) winch now was garrisoned by a Mahrata chief by name Gangadhara 
Panta It did not take much time for Hyder to occupy this place which he left 
very soon after stationing 150 ' Piadas ' only with matchlocks in it His intention 
was to reach Bangalore before day -break to prevent the Mahratas from discovering 
the weakness of his camp In this he was successful because the governor of the 
Bangalore fort had not yet come to know of what happened to him at Sennga- 
patarn 2 

Hyder's occupation of the strong fort of Bangalore which was one of the capitals 

of the My soi e kingdom, and his proven capacity as a 

Ineffective persecution general made the Ba/ja of Senngapatam to determine 
of Hyder upon his peisecution and bring all the places under his 

obedience The Mahratas were engaged for this purpose 



discussion of the date of Hydei's flight from Saimgapatam see supra p 84 
2 Peixoto says ' it was rumoured that if lie (the governor of Bangaloie) had known it he would 
not have come out ' (to meet Hyder), But the goveraoi of the place was Kabir Beg, a Mahomedan 
and a true fuend of Hyder (See M,A. B 1930, p 86) M M D D T says that he was Hyder's uncle. 
History of Hyder Shah, p. 41 

12* 



92 

with orders to invade and subdue or even burn and raze ' such of the villages as 
would not yield readily Hyder, however, was able to confound them all on various 
occasions with his ' sallies ' effectively The peasants as, for instance, at Yelahanka 
(Yelavanka) were ruthlessly dealt with so that they might thenceforth defend 
themselves against these foreigners who were not suffered to come within 8 leagues 
from Bangalore On the llth October (1760) above the 'G-att de Chocallo' in the 
neighbourhood of the ' JFort Shelduigo ' the Mahrata camp huge as it was, 
consisting of 35,000 men and 30 guns was worsted by the two brothers-in-law of 
Hyder, Ismail (Esmal) Saib and Mir Saib Further 'sallies' were, however, 
seemingly checked by Hyder in expectation of his brother-in-law Mugtum Saib from 
"Pondichery, whom he sent for almost as soon as he arrived in Bangalore. With 
him were also expected four European commanders, 150 private Europeans, 400 
Topasses and a huge army of Seapoys 

Kolar (Cular) was now almost a kingdom and Faizulla Khan (Farzulacam) 

was the Nawab 1 thereof by reason of his having been the 
Faizulla Khan of Kolar husband of the heness To his misfortune this queen died 

at this time and he was no longei claimed as a ruler He 

had therefore to leave the place immediately Hyder was very hospitable to him 
when he came up for succoui. Indeed in the early stages the Khan was held in as 
much reverence as Hyder himself He was also appointed to repel the onslaughts 
of the Mahratas, which were being made almost daily into the villages even within 
the neighbouihood of Bangalore. The author of the manuscript] had also been 
engaged in driving out. the hoides of these Mahrata 'Pmdares 3 On one occasion 
when he captured several of them at a village and brought them in bonds before 
Hydei, the Iattei 7 instead of thanking reprimanded him strangely' and, having 
liberated them, prohibited him from marching out agam without bis orders, 

Ineffectual struggles with the Mahratas were being carried on for over three 

months when, one day, the author received oiders to 
Arrival of Mugtum Sails march the next morning to a place which was not made 

known at first The fort of Anekal was leached by him 

in this manner and here he was informed that Hyder's brother-in-law Mugtum 
Saib had been surrounded 2 by the Mahratas and the king's forces from Seringa- 
patam The latter numbered about 8,000 men and Mugtum Saib's camp suffered 

1 This is anotliei mistake committed by Peixoto He has referred to Faizulla, Khan as the 
Nawab of Kolar (Cular), while, in fact he was the son-in-law of Dilaver Khan, the late Nawab of Sira 
The Mahratas captured the place in 1757 and had assigned a distuct with the town of Sira to the 
family of Dilaver Khan "Faizulla Khan consequently was working secretly foi the restoiation of 
the ancestral possessions of the family (Wilks, History of Mysore, "Vol 1, p 260) 

2. He had been compelled ' to take post undei Auchittydioog ' (Wilks, idem p 261) about 
48 miles south by east of Bangalore and 25 miles fiom Anekal 



93 

much for want of adequate supply of ammunition, etc Foi four days it was made 
impossible for the author to carry succour to him Faizulla Khan (Farzulla cam), 
Ismail (Bsmal) Saib and Mir Saib 1 were in command of the authoi's camp consisting 
of 1,400 Foot, 330 Horse, coolies with powder and ball 5450, oxen laden with 
victuals 400, camels laden with money 12, and woikmen to level the road and cut 
the bushes 500 With an otdered disposition this aimy inarched between the 
advanced ' piequits ' of the enemy to Telletnangal 2 where Mugtum Saib was 
encamped Mallerow 3 also had now come to help the enemy with his whole force, 
so that the three camps consisted of nearly 50,000 men and 40 pieces of cannon. 
Though it was possible for Hyder and his men to enter the fort of Tellemangal,' 
yet Mugtum was not to be found there and in the meanwhile the enemy bpgan to give 
much trouble and create great confusion However, it was not very long befoie it 
was known that Mugtum Saib, with wisdom, sought a stronger place of refuge 
about a league in distance from tne fort as a result of his havvng narrowly escaped 
from being utterly routed 

The allies deter mined first on reducing c Tellemangai ' and then on beating 
Mugtum Saib so that it might be easier for them to force Hyder to surrender by 
himself The troops of Mallerow suffered much and their Portuguese chief was 
taken prisoner with 16 private Europeans of different nations In the meanwhile 
the fort of c Tellemangal ' had to be evacuated owing to the indiscriminate decision 
of c Inebra Beg ' ( ? Kabii baig), a f outlet governor of Bangalore There was gieat 
loss consequently with much disoider among the troops Hyder therefore had to 
entreat the Mahiatas for peace and in this he was successful 4 The bhiee parties 
left for their respective temtones to the disappointment of Khanderao. 

Hyder now sought once again the help of the 2nd king ^ of Mysore, who was 

residing in Konanur (Cunur) Foit and asked of him his 

Reduction of Patana seal 6 with which he began to subdue the whole kingdom 
(Seringapatam) in his name by saying that the first king was only the 

king of the State and that it was the authority of the 

second to govern according to long-established custom. Thus Hyder went on 
conquering the provinces and changing the governors Those who offered to fight 
were ruthlessly dealt with and hanged, for e g , the governor of Magadi (Magari) 
Within a short time the whole kingdom excepting Seringapatam was subdued In 

1 According to Wilts ' Fazl Ulla Khan ' was in command of the whole fence (Histoiy of 

Mysore, Yol I p 261) 

2 Anchitty See note 2, p 92 

3 Is it Murara Bao ? See infra p 96 and footnote 1 
4. 3?or the terms of peace, etc , see "Wilks, op cit p 262 
5 IB, Nanjaiaj, the father-m-law of the king 

6. His seal as Sarvadhikan, which title he had not yet given up, though he had retired fiom 
public life 



94 

the latter place there was an army of 14,000 men consisting of 8,000 good Mahrata 
Horse, and 6,000 Infantry amongst whom were many Europeans, Artillery and 
Infantry whose chief was a Portuguese, J~oze Eodngues by name. These Europeans 
weie all in the service of Hyder at first before his flight from Senngapatam 

The army of Khanderao had now been sub-divided into three bodies, each 
sationedm different places at Senngapatam one in the isle, consisting mostly of 
horses , another in the fort , and the third m ' Madrapur ' which was a bazaar situated 
close to the river and the stone bridge over it which was ' upward of 160 yards long 
with a great and strong bulwark at its end constructed by Hyder, which could only 
be attacked in front ' 

While Khanderao was encamped at Mysore, Hyder marched from fort to 
fort augmenting his troops and at Tayur (Taiur) there accidentally arrived the 
Bishop D. Fies. Autono De Noronha, Mons Alain (Alem) and Mons Hugel (Higel) 
with succour, afc which Hyder was greatly satisfied I 

From Tayur ^ Taiur) Hyder went to Haradanahalh (Ardenaly) from where, at 
the Bishop's suggestion, the lattei was sent to c Irur ' with a detachment of 4,000 
men to intimidate the forts belonging to the kingdom of Mysore. Spreading a 
false report that he was descending the Ghats to attack Barnarao and thus 
drawing Khanderao bo the fort of ' Begmagor 5 , Hyder once again occupied Tayur 
(Taiur) and leaving the camp in the charge of Faizulla Khan (Farzullacarn) and 
Mugtum Saib, he inarched with the Bishop to Honanur (Cunui) to see the Harja 
(Nanjaraia) "While he was coming back with him Kanderao got notice and 
maiched with a laige army to meet the allies But the manoeuvres of Hyder were 
too much for him and leaving the army m charge of a 'rnoorist general' he fled 
back to Sermgapafcam Hyder destroyed his army putting to flight a great number 
While he was at c Tipur,' Khanderao was drawing his troops together at Seringa- 
patarn Thg greatei part of his men being at ' Madrapur/ Hyder thought of 
capturing this place tactfully Eleven platoons were ordered to advance upon the 
bulwark and 3 weie sent into the streets of Madrapm ' with orders not to fire 
unnecessarily, bub to rob and disturb Khanderao's people The bulwark was 
stoimed and many were taken ^prisoners But Hyder was obliged to march to 
Satyagal (Setegal) wheie, however, the king sought his peace by laying all the 
blame upon Khanderao and yet saying that no harm should be done to him. 
Hydei consented wibh l words of great maxim' 2 

In the meanwhile the fort of { Irur ' also where Eamarao was in command 
suuendered to Hydei, 'leaving all the implements of war, Horses and everything 
that belonged to the king of Sermgapatam ' Barnarao himself was eventually sent 

1 Op Wilks, Bistoiy of Mysore, Vol I, p 264 

2 Op the account given of the wars between Hyder and Khanderao by Wilks (w?empp 263 ff) 

Hyder practised on Khanierao certain stratagems not related by Peisoto 



95 

prisoner to the fort of Bangalore where Ibrahim (Ibram Saib, Hyder's uncle), was 
in command Sankesidurg (Samquesidrugo) was also taken and a governor of Hyder 
was left in possession of it ( Arva Cooxi/ the whole province of Dindigul with 
the adjoining principalities, Salem, Ohotu-Darapoor/ ' Bara-Dharapoor ' and several 
other places were also reduced Practically the whole kingdom had been subdued 
when Hyder left ' Imr ' for Sermgapatam once again and i with his usual inaxnus ' 
compelled the king to come to such terms as he desired One of the articles of the 
agreement was not to kill Khanderao, which he observed for a certain time. 1 

With the gates of Sermgapatam strongly secured, Hyder began 'a great 

examination * and in this Khanderao was obliged to 
Execution of Ramarao assist him All those who had acted against him were 

severely dealt with and their properties were confiscated, 

Khanderao himself was put in a cage and sent to Bangalore. After subjecting 
him to various indignities, Hyder one day ' ordered a gun to be brought in sight of 
Ganderau, Barneiau to be tied to the muzzle and fire set to it, which was done m 
Bengalur, and immediately a person asked Canderau if he had seen Ramerau fly 
and in this manner he kept Canderau in the cage upwards of a yeai J 

The places stipulated in the articles were governed by Mugtum Saib for Hyder 

The king's name was worth nothing Even the Eaja 2 in 
Helplessness of the Raja, whose name he had subdued all, was prevented from 

entering Sermgapatam c for he feared he should not be 

able to expulse him again as the place is very strong and he wanted to govern him- 
self all rightful lord ' 

Basalat Jung (Barsala Seng), brother of Nizam Ah, had now besieged Hoskote 

(Eskote) which was m the possession of the Mahratas 

Reduction of Hoskote He found it impossible to capture the place and so asked 
and Sira Hyder for help. Hyder accomplished the task so soon 

that Basalt Jung in appreciation of his ability, gave him 

the title of Nawab Hyder Jung Bahadur (Nabob Hyder Senga bader) 3 and asked 
him to take the fort of Sira which, also was m the possession of the Mahratas/ 
With little difficulty this place also was conquered and garrisoned/ 

1. The establishment of Hyder once again m full powei was m Juoe 1761 

2 ^ e , Karachun Nafrjaia;) 

3, But cp "Wilks, Histoiy of Mysore, "Vol I, op cit p 270 

4, Wilks says (lUd) ' The distress of this chief, and the whole character of the negotiation, may 

be inferred from the fact that for a nezer of thiee lacs of mpees, he agreed to invest 
Hyder with the oftce of Nabob of Sera , an office, a country and a capital, which were 
yet to ba conquered ' 

5 After capturing Hoskote, Hyder first marched to Doddaballapura (Great Ballapur) which he 
annexed and then proceeded to Sira, (Wilks, idem p 271). 



96 

Chikkaballapura (Chikka Balapor) was a very strong fort governed by a 

valorous rarja of the ' Telmga' caste. Many generals and 

Conquest of ChikkabaL chiefs had attempted in vain to conquer it Even the 
lapura. king of Sermgapatain once aimed at subduing it and had 

failed at which he taxed the kingdom very heavily and set 

apart a large amount as reward for him -who should at any time take the place. 
Hydeij moved by this hope of gain and the gain of fame, inarched upon the place 
accompanied by the Bishop Noronha The citadel was very well defended 
and it took about 11 days for Hyder to gain the citadel. But those within 
the fort took care to see that all the woiks of Hyder and 'the approaches which he 
made against the fort served for nothing ', whereupon Hyder decided upon making 
mines and blasumg the walls About 13 mines were dug up and ]ust when he was 
about to set fire he sent word to the raja to surrender himself But the raj a did not 
caie The explosion was effective partly in making about three breaches The people, 
however, rose up to the occasion without minding the loss they sustained, and both 
the Nawab and the Bishop were amazed at their firmness and constancy The next 
day, they made up with the raja and proceeded towards Devanahalli (Deunaly) 

Here Hyder remained for some time expecting some money due from the 
aforesaid raja, and was soon told of the raja's intention to refresh himself for which 
purpose he was going to one of his two forts in the mountains. It was also said 
that Mallerow 1 was coming to help him Hence Hyder, though he gave out that 
he was going to Sira, marched back to Ohikkaballapura, and easily captured the 
place since the raja had left the place The latter found it difficult to reclaim if It 
was gamsoned and put in order by Hyder in a few days, 2 

The territory of Mallerow was next} attacked. He tried to help the raja of 

Chikkaballapura and Hyder wanted to wreak vengeance up- 

Relations with Mallerow. on him At the very first encounter Mallerow was worsted 

as a result of the wondeis effected by the French Horse led 

by Monsr Hugel (Huegle), Mallerow was dislodged from all his forts and after 

sustaining a heavy loss he retired to bhe fort of BLodikonda (Curcunda). Hyder 

C ntu f K d'lc s\ followed him up and utterly defeated him he re* Mallerow 

left some garrison at the place and fled to bring succour 

1. The name given by "Wilks is Muiari Bow (idem p 274) 

2 The account given by Wilka (idem p 271 ff ) differs slightly The conquest of the place had 
been long desired by Hydei as he thought it to be indispensable to the safety of this part 
of the frontier The spirit of enteiprise and defiance which the inmates displayed for 
sometime was changed to one of despondency when the expected Mahrata aid failed due 
to Hydei's march against Murari Eao Hence the Pohgar made peace by piomising to 
pay 9 lakhs of rupees This was, however, not paid and the Pohgar retired to Nandidiug 
as it was a bettei place of defence Tbus Hydei eame back and captured Ohikkaballa- 
pura, being ' enraged at finding himself the dupe of a deception.' 



97 

The place was taken in the meanwhile and it was not possible for him to 
reclaim it. 

Hyder then marched to Madakasira (Marko Sira), another fort of Mallerow, 

which was very well garrisoned and very strong and situated 

Fall of Madakasira on a mountain. It took foui days for Hyder to effect a 

breach in the walls. His fhst commandant Joae Raus (a 

Portuguese) died, at which he was verv sorry. The other commandant Bento de 
Campos also died three days later and had it not been for the presence of Hyder 
and the French Bishop, the troops would not have made bold to mount the breach 
The authoi of the manuscript was ordered to gairison the citadel and the hill and 
not to stu without a second order from Hyder himself In the meanwhile the gate 
at the citadel was fired at by the Mahiatas themselves, which incident caused great 
injury to the tioops Even Hydei was covered with blood, but in spite of the 
leverses, he persisted and eventually effected a breach in the fort wall at which 
those within letreated to the top where the mountain is divided into thiee paits 
Hyder intimidated them and eventually compelled the goveinoi to deliver the 
place 

It was Hyder's determination to destroy Mallerow and take his whole kingdom 

He sent his brother-in-law Mir Saib to take Penugonda 

Capture of Penugonda which was a good fort and more defensible thao Madaka- 
sira. Mallerow, however, harassed him a great deal, being 

superior in strength But Mir Saib tricked him and lying m ambush fell upon 
him suddenly, with the result that Mallerow suffered a great loss and was compelled 
to ictire to G-ooti where Mir Saib followed him up and within a short time took the 
fort by escalade, being helped in this enterprise by Captain Anthony Ghnheiro de 
Faria and Captain George Warner, each of whom advanced with success from 
different directions Intelligence of this was sent to Hyder at Madakasira and 
Hyder ordered his biother-in-law to subdue Mallerow completely He thus marched 
to Midagesi (Madegasi), a fort captured by him formerly, and prepared himself to 
follow np Mallerow as far as Sandur 1 

While Hyder stayed at Madakasira, one day he did not send for the Bishop 

for the customary walk The Bishop therefore went up to 

Misunderstanding between him but found a principal person of the kingdom of 'Patana' 
Hyder and the Bishop occupying the seat which was usually being occupied 

by him When the two rose to receive him, the bishop went 

up straight to his usual seat and occupied it. The other person had therefore to 
sit down at another place. This enraged Hyder but he strove to hide his feelings 

1 Hyder's conquests of Kodikonda, Madakasira, Penugonda, Gootu and other pkoes are simply 
mentioned by Wilks (op cife p 275) But the details are known for the first time from 
Peixoto 

13 



98 

The consequent indifference with which the bishop was treated on this occasion and, 
further, his having been asked not to stretch his legs which piivilege he was usually 
allowed if he desired, irritated the Bishop who at once got up fiom his seat and 
asked if Hyder had no more business with him Hyder bluntly replied in the 
affirmative and even went to the extent of granting him the pass when it was asked 
for to leave his territories. The Bishop left immediately and m spite of Hyder's 
attempts to frighten him on his way, he managed to reach the kingdom of Sunda 
safely Learning that he was safe ' Hyder lepented of having permitted him to 
depait, 1 However he tieated the other Europeans in his army well, and they were 
glad that the Bishop had left them for good. 

Hyder marched to Sua with the idea of proceeding therefrom to the dominions 

of the Haja of Chitaldrug m order to bring him to his own 

Relations with the Raja terms legardmg the differences between them. Faizulla 
of Chitaldrug Khan (Farzullacam) was sent in advance with an army 

of 8,000 men to take some forts belonging to the Eaja, 

Hinyur (Irur) was captuied and here their differences being settled, Hyder sent 
for Faizulla Khan to join his camp * 

The territories of the kingdon of Bednur (Bedenur) were next attacked by 

Hyder Sante-Bennur (Santa Bedenur) was first 

Annexation of Bednur captured* The kingdom of Bednur was now ruled by a 

woiran unworthy of being a queen Her husband had, 

during his life time, adopted his nephew whom she did not like The prince was 
sent out of the town with some people who were ordered to kill him. But out of 
compassion they left him in the woods instead He was taken to the Baja of Chital- 
drug, who gave him protection and lecommended him to Hyder when their 
differences were settled A principal article of their treaty was that Hyder should 
subdue Bednur (Bedenur) and deliver the kingdom to the prince Since the people 
of Bednur were content with this information, Hyder had no ' difficulty m reaching 
the gates of Bednur The queen quitted the town and retreated to a hill called 
Durga 2 , leaving the place with a mine which was set on fire as soon as Hyder took 
the first gates The principal places were all garrisoned by Hyder and most of 
those who had fled away, were caught Bednur was annexed on the 10th of 
January 1763 ' 3 



1 These details aie not mentioned by Wilks 

2 BaHalarayanadnrga, 70 miles to the south of Bednur 

3 The account, as given by Wilks, of the annexation of Bednur differs slightly m certain 

P -75 ff). According to him a ]e tti, who used to shampoo the prince dailv, was 
by dislocating his neck The ]etti on the other hand tnnV hi -**** ^ -^^4,^^- 



, K , a.v, was 

fot?J? ^ 7 t 7 ^ " na k The ]6ttl D th6 ther hsmd took hlm * * P'otecfcon 
lltoT^nh ^ 0fwhl t u P8n athe P llgarof OhitaUmgwae approached by the pnnoe for 
help to regam h* patnmony. The prmce was thus recommended to Hyder who marched to Bednur 



99 

While the Barja of Chitaldrug remained at Bednur with the prince, Hyder 
proceeded as far as Mangalore subduing the piovmoes. He had no intention of 
giving the kingdom to the prince, when he saw that only this place could serve him 
' for a refuge if the wheel of Fortune should turn and he having against him powers 
with which he could not contend in the field ' 1 

The queen with her paraniom Lmgiah (Lunboia) 2 was captnied She therefore 
resolved to come to Hyder's presence The ISfawab received hei with ceremony and 
ordered her with hei women to be lodged in his own house together with the other 
women who belonged to him d 

While at Mangalore ELydei subdued many foifcs as fai north as G-okarna 

At Kundapur (Cundapooi) he stayed for a few days and 

Siege of Yeimr then proceeded to Bednur The author of the manuscript 

was some days later sent again to Mangalore with oiders 

to execute all such orders as he might receive from the governoi 'Mirzam Lute Fill' 4 
The lattei took him to Kumbla (Cornelong) where the foit was besieged by Uda- 
Purssu, 5 a prince of the woods near Nileshwar (Nehaserain) with an army of about 
1,000 Mairs who, ' though they were good soldiers/ did not keep any order The 
object of this expedition was to drive out the besiegeis As soon as the Nairs 
perceived their approach, they retneJ into a pagoda and fought terribly, though the 
walls were scaled on alLsides More than 400 of the author's people were killed by 



about the close of Januaiy 1763 The queen offered to puichase Hydei's letreafc several times which 
he xefused being guided by one Lmganna, a iormer minister It was not befoie the beginning 
of March 1763 that he ordered a noisy but teigned attack on the posts in his fiont, while he himself, 
guided by Lmganna, entered the city before any alaim was given The conquest of Bednur 
formed a new eia m the Histoiy of H^det (Wilks op cit p 281 Cp M *A B 1930, p 87) 

1 He gave the place, she name of Hydei-Nagai and piofessed to considei Sermgapatam as 
belonging to the Kartar (Wilks op c^t, p 279) 

2 The name given in the Hyder Kama is r?an]iah, MAR 1330, p 87 The name mentioned 
by Wilks is Nimbeia (op cit 279) 

3, But see Wilks, idem p 278 and note It is said that the Ram, perhaps even voluntarily, offered 
to convert to Islam and capitulated on the condition of being lemstated and with the assurance of 
due consideration for her rank and dignity Hydei , however, sent her with the pietendei to prison 
on the fortified hill of Maddagiri (idem p 279) wheie they remained until they were set fiee by the 
Mahratas m 1767 

4 Wilks says (idem p 280) that Lutf Ah Beg ' a brave and excellent officer of cavahy ' and 
in no way 'a naval engineer and lord high admiral ' was ordered 01 the preparation of a dockyard and 
naval arsenal on the Western Coast for the construction of ships of war 

5 The wai with 'Uda Purssu' and the invasion of his teiritones aie not mentioned by Wiiks 
or anywhere else so far as known 



100 

them However the place was taken before day break and all the Nairs were put 
to the sword 

The nest day the author inarched to Mangalore from whence the pagoda 

Irur, 3 the capital of ' Uda Parssu ' was attacked Barki 

Surrender of 'Uda Venkata Eao (Vargm Yengaterrong) commanded the 
Purssu ' expedition this time He was one of Nawab's important 

counsellors, though the u Nabob keeps his counsellors 

more out of state than for necessity, for whatever he does nobody knows before the 
hour of execution nothing takes effect what is debated in council and serves only as 
news to be taken of " It was now the ' outer ' end of May 17 6d and the beginning 
of the rainy monsoon Hence the expedition was not easy Uda Parssu and his 
family stayed m then Pagoda with an army of about 6,000 Nairs, whereas Barki 
Yenkata Eao had m all about 3 5 OUO men. Horse and Foot The author and Capt, 
loxe Bento were m the rear of the march conducting a three-pounder gun with 
much difficulty on account of ' the straightness of the road and the terrible woods.' 
*] he Nairs, though they were on either side, did not make bold to attack, Tbey 
were crying out according to custom, on both the flanks. Uda Purssu received 
succour m the meanwhile from Nilesvar (Nelhasaram) Bat they weie surrounded 
and forced to surrendei Uda Purssu retreated into the tower of his pagoda 
Since it was Hyder's order that he should be taken alive, Baiki Yenkata Eao 
had to use many tactics and hold out many promises for him to surrender 

He then was led with his family and children to Mangalore and therefrom to 
Bednur where he was well received by Hyder at first. Sometime later, however, 
he was asked by Naram Eao (Nanan raoj on behalf of Hyder, as to where he had 
hidden the treasure for which he was so famous, Uda Purssu tned to evade by 
giving false replies when the Nawab ordered him to be hanged (7th October 17 6B) 
After taking Bednur 1 Hyder ordcied Mir Faizulla Khan to subdue all the forts 

and places belonging to the Nawab of Savanur 2 who was 

Reduction of Savanur. counted as a great Lord in the neighboui hood A contin- 
gent of 6,000 to 7,000 men was despatched for this purpose 

The fort held out till the 17th of June and Hyder himself marched to the place 
That very midnight the fort was completely surrounded and early next morning 
filing began violently The enemy's camp was routed and taken with all its bag- 
gage and colours The Nawab of Savanur retired to the fort of c Avan' immedi- 
ately but was puisued by Hyder's men The same night he therefore marched 

1 Wilts adds the conquest of Soonda after that of Bednur (op c^t p 280-1) 

2 See Wilks (idem p 282) for the reasons which induced Hyder to invade Savanur Savanur 
formed a deep indentation into the territory of Hyder after his conquest of Bednur and Soonda The 
Nawab of the place had bent to the interests of the Mahratas '(idem p 235) and had even refused 
alliance with Hyder 



101 

back to Savanur leaving his garrisons at ' Avari ' which were all captuied It was 
now thought that Savannr would certainly fall. Many chiefs did not desire the 
total destruction of the Nawab of Savanur Hence they began to treat Coi terms 
of peace. The old mother of the Nawab hersell came to Hyder 1 and was leceived with 
great lespect Hyder agreed to raise the siege if her son would consent to 
his terms and come to his camp The conditions were thenpioposed and aceitam 
sum of money 2 was demanded of which it was stipulated that a part should be paid 
immediately and the balance some months later when Hyder would come back after 
capturing Bankapur from the Mahratas Though the Nawab of Savanur added 
himself a condition to the treaty to the effect that he would help Hyder in the 
siege of Bankapur with an army of 6,000, there was no attempt made on his part 
to fulfil the conditions and Hydei had to waste several days m the expectation of 
men and money from the Nawab A.t last Hyder sent some Biahmans under the 
caie of one Bhima Rao (Bum rao) to demand money^m lough terras from the 
Nawab The errand vvas carried in such excess that the Savanur sepoys killed 
several of the guard^ wounding Bhima Kao himself m the right aim Hydei was 
enraged at this to such an extent that he declared he would chastise eveiybody in 
the enemy's fort if the money was not paid within 3 days This deteimmation 
procured for him the amount 3 soon and when the Nawab of Savanur came to his- 
camp to see him he was made to wait for several days and when finally he 
admitted him into his presence he scolded him by saying that he was not a. 
worthy son of his mother and that for her sake he preserved bun for that time. 

The fort of Bankapur was then besieged and taken from the Mahratas Afzal 

Khan (Abuzal cam), brother of Mir Faizulla Khan ^Farzulla 

Capture of Bankapur cam) was left in charge of the place till it wab given back 

to the Mahratas under certain conditions Hyder then 

inarched back to Bednur capturing on the way several more forts belonging fco 
Bankapui (21st September 1763) 

At Bednur Hyder remained from September 1763 to the 27th of March 1764 

making great military preparations The Mahratas 

Relation with Mahratas had become envious of his growing power and detei- 

mmed to curb him Hyder came to know of then 

intentions and marched to fight them in order to prevent them irona invading his 
dominions While he was encamped on the banks of the river ' Eatah ' he received 

1, These details are not mentioned elsewhere 

2 Two lakhs of tupees (Wilks, op cit p 283) 

3 The Nawab of Savanur, Abdul Hakeem Khan, was a Pathan, "Wilks (idem p 288) says that 
he had not hoarded any treasure, nor had any credit with the Sowcars so that he was obliged to make 
payment in shawls, silks, gold clothes, carpets and other valuables equal actually to foui times the 
amount demanded 



102 

intelligence that the Mahratas were approaching with a big army of 20,000 horse. 
As was usual with him he ordered his troops to advance by platoons towards the 
enemy When thus they inarched close upon the Mahratas, Hyder found out to 
his consternation that their horse alone numbered more than 50,000 That whole 
day Hyder's ai my had to stand a terrible fire and suffer considerably, being surround- 
ed on all sides Though Hyder wanted to march out to the plain, he could not 
do so for fear of being molested by the Mahratas He therefore made e battery's ' 
and pie tended to fight when Madhava Rao, the Mahrata leader, wrote to him a 
Jettei praising the heioic actions said of him and desiring to meet him the next 
day in case he was a good soldier as he had heard, Hyder conferied with Mir 
Faizulla Khan and at midnight maiched with his whole camp to the fort of 
4 Menem * which was about two leagues from the place. The Mahratas were not 
slow m following him up, though the hilly region gave them, particularly to the 
Hoise, great difficulty m .marching But it was not long before the Mahratas 
discovered that Hyder was encamped in an advantageous place and that it would 
be futile for them to fight him They therefore broke up with the intention of 
attacking Bednm Hyder however quickly marched to Anekal to wait for them 
there But the appioach of the rainy season compelled Madhava Rao to retire 
leaving a portion of his camp under the care of G-opal Rau and Segipanta 

Hyder renewed his prepaiations and was contemplating throughout the season 
on how best he could despoil the Mahratas No sooner the rams ceased and the 
flooded rivers diminished m water than he marched out and began to p]under the 
Mahiata territories m the neighbourhood of Anekal Madhava Rao arrived from 
Poona now accompanied by Malle Rao The Nawab of Savanm had now joined 
the Mahiatas against Hyder. The time was now critical for Hyder The 
Mahrata foice ^as superior to his. Hyder had to exercise the greatest caie possi- 
ble , eveiy moment the walls of the fort were being examined. On the 16th of 
ISovembei 1764 the Mahratas encamped at Anavatti (Anoutim) within sight of 
Hyder's camp On the 17th they began reconnoitermg and the battle began m 
earnest on the 18th m open plain The battle continued for a Jong time with 
gieafe loss on both the sides and a greater number of wounded people on Hyder's 
side In the meanwhile Raghoba arrived to help Madhava Rao Five days after 
his arrival both the parties began to treat about peace Raghoba, however 
demanded a considerable sum of money and a sum of 3,60,00,000 rupees was offered 
to winch Raghoba would not agree War began again and continued till the llfch 



and 

the Mahratas also directed their movements At 'Sircapor' there 

r? ^ * > g T f ^^ ^ g d *"" Then 
Hyder retired to Morangary a fort belonging to Bednur, wherefrom he sent for 



103 

Mir Faizulla Khan and entienched himself m a situation defensible of itself/ 
On many occasions the Mabratas experienced loss and resolved therefore to adjust 
the terms of the peace which was concluded on the 23rd May 1765 l 

No sooner the Mahratas passed the river Tungabbadra than Hydei ordered 

Mir Faizulla Khan to invade Coorg- The eountiy of 

Invasion of Coorg and 'Aigur' m the neighbourhood was attacked first and 
Kadapa. taken Other places were then conquered one after 

another when Hyder otdered Mir Eaizulla Khan to go 

and reinforce the camp of Mir Saib, brother-in-law of Hyder, who had been asked 
to subdue the country of Kadapa (Garpe) whose Nawab c Muxa Mian ' WAS consi- 
dered as a powerful ruler He was a great friend of the Europeans, especially of 
the Portuguese ^ ho stood by his side His commandant Fiancis de Eoach had 
died in his service and with little difficulty Mu Saib and Mir Faizuila made him a 
tributary of Hyder 

Ah E,a]a was the Lord of Cannanore He mfoimed Hydei that he conld find 

much wealth if he invaded Malabai Hydei therefoie 
Invasion of Malabar effected the conquest. Mir Faizulla Khan was oidered to 

subdue the kingdom of Coorg and take it, while Hyder 

himself resolved to march for the conquest of Malabar Towards the end of 
January 1766, the march began from Mangalore, the army proceeding by land and 
a fleet consisting upwards of 80 vessels by sea 

The army marched by way of ' Mangiseram, Combelom, Decalla and Tekal 2 to 
Maday 8 ' the fort of which place was captured easily after passing a pretty large 
river m spite of this passage being defended by the Nairs The whole country was 
disturbed by robbing, setting the houses on fire and killing the Nairs without dis- 
cret.on The inhabitants ran away to the woods and some to Tiavancoie Though 
the kings of c Golastria, Samorm, Cotiote' (?) and others tried to conclude 
peace, Hyder would not hear The foit of Yalarpattanam (Balliapatam) on the banks 
of a river was then attacked and captured Ghirakkal (Cheruka) the capital of 
'Colastna/ next fell to Hyder's hands as the Nairs had themselves abandoned the place 
The Moplahs were enlisted in his army and the Nawab of Cananore was made the 
governor of the place The kingdom of Kottayam (Cotiote), said to be about 60 

1 TheMss Hyder-Nama, (MAR 1930 pp 8788, cp also Wilks op cit p 287) states that 
Hydei suffered a gieat deal m these wais and was placed m such desperate circumstances that he had 
to treat for peace All his conquests of the Mahiata territories weie restored , his claims on Ahdul 
Hakim Khan were relinquished and he agreed to pay the Peshva thiity-two lakhs of xupees Wilks 
says that the peace was concluded about the end of February , the date mentioned m the Hyder-Nama 
is 23rd March 1765 (S1G87 Parthiva Ohaitra su 2) 

2 May be Bekal which has a fine fort built by Sivappa Nayaka of Bednur 

3 Madayi or Pazhayangadi which has also a fort said to have been a canarese redoubt till 
about 1736 



104 

leagues m extent was then captured The Nair inhabit antb of the place fled to Telh- 
chery (Teley) or Mahe (Mohie) where the English and the French, respectively, 
protected them. A detachment was sent from Tellichery on behalf of the chief of 
Telhchery, which Hyder accepted He was glad to meet the chief with presents 

The country of the four Narahiars was then attacked and abandoned The 
king of Zamoim (Samorm) was captured at an annual feast to which Hyder sent 
500 of his men dressed as B rah mans At Calicut he was lodged m a Pagoda for some 
days and was then told that Nizamalv khan, i Suba of Dodecam ' was the lord of all 
these territories and that he ought to obey him and pay annual contributions to 
him. The king replied that he would arrange for this with his nephew and though 
it was already the beginning of May nothing was accomplished In fact his nephew 
had been fighting Hydei's men all this time Hydei eventually tound out that the 
king was deceitful and was contemplating on how to deal with him, when the king's- 
people set fire to the house m which the king and most of his people were burnt % 
The Nans were attacking Hyder's men every moment as they were waiting only for 
his letreat Hyder was obliged to leave the kingdom in charge of a goveinor 
and quit the place. After being in possession of it for about two years l he received 
fiona the king of Zamorin (Samonn) Rs 12,00,000 and delivered the kingdom on 
the 8th of March 1763 

Towards the end of May 1766 Hyder left Calicut and retired to Coimbatore 
(Gruimatur) belonging to the kingdom of * Mencur' But in July he had to come 
back to chastise theNairs who besieged Madanna (Madana) 2 in a pagoda as soon as 
Hyder had left the place The entire Nair country was plundered, their houses were 
burnt and a universal massacre of the Nair caste was ordered. The Nairs were 
hunted down and butchered Hyder gave ' Rupees 5 to any one who brought him 
the head of a Nair that was able to fight , if it was of an old man, he gave four, and 
if of a boy he gave three rupees ' A price of three rupees was also paid for every 
Nair woman captured alive Many women were thus captured and transpoited to 
distant places as presents to govetnors and chiefs Several incidents are related 
in the manuscript which recount the military trials of Nairsandthe indignities they 
suffered from at the hands of Hyder 3 

By the end oi August Hyder returned to Coimbatore (Guimatur) leaving 
almost all the troops at Palghat (Pahcafccherryj 4 . There was some trouble with 
some of the chiefs of the Horse here who complained against c Chamerao.' Since 
they could not be accommodated with good words and were also somewhat 

1 Wilks gives a different account; about Hyder's dealings with the Zamorin, foi winch see op 
cit pp 291-2 

2 This was ' a. civil goveinoi to whom Hydei had entrusted the fiscal arrangements of Malabar 
(idem p 293) 

3 Op also Wilks, ibid 

4 Wilks says (op cit p 294) that Hyder now ordered the erection of the fort at Palghat 



105 

rebellious in their replies they were oppressed for some days and finally turned 
away 1 

The Mahratas had now arrived for the collection of their annual tributes. 

Hyder evaded them for some time , but when he came to 

Return to Seringa- know that the army of Nizamali was also on the march, 
patam he resolved to fight them and ctccoidingly ordered Mir 

Faizulla Khan to quit the conquest of Ooorg and pioceed 
to Sermgapatam Mir Saib was ordered to retreat to Maddagm (Madegary) 

The 'first king' 2 of Sermgapatam had died by this time. Nan/jara,] (Raja Nande 
Eajah) who was in the fort of e Mencur ' claimed now the thione and sent word to 
Hyder that if the kingdom was not delivered to him he would go to war Hyder 
however had no intention of making him the king and avoided him when he tried 
to meet him on his way to Sermgapatam 

The Haja, in protest, began conniving with the Mahratas to regain his 
territories Hyder therefore pleaded some excuse for his not having met him 
earlier In the mean time the Mahratas had captured a great pait of Mir Saib's 
baggage and two great guns and forced him to Sira which also they took before long 
making Mir Saib himself a prisoner The news disturbed Hyder who was thus 
constrained to treat for peace with. them. He tried to bring the Raja to Sermga- 
patam under some pretext. The Eaja suspecting foul play evaded him though 
Hyder himself came over to him personally with the request Hence Hyder 
managed to send a messenger f Pmdecam' by name to him with oiders to bring 
him or to remain in the fort so that he may not stir out The Eaja seeing there 
was no other go accompanied the messenger but did not enter Bermgapatam for 
several days until he was almost forced to enter 3 By the end of April 1767 Hyder 
succeeded m making peace with the Mahratas on payment of Rs 36,00,000 4 

The people ab Sermgapatam now began talking all sorts of things about Hyder, 
that he wanted the kingdom for his son and so on To silence them Hyder placed 
a son of the 'first king' on the throne 5 . All the same nothing was being executed 
but by Hyder's orders 6 . 

1 This is not mentioned bv Wilks 

2 i e the de jure Ba]a Chikka Kiishna Raj Wodeyai 

3 Hydei's dealings on this occasion with Nanjaraj are not mentioned by Wilks, though he 
says (op cit p 307) that he was made a state prisoner a little later He says that while Hyder was 
absent in Malabar the pageant Raja died and that he sent ordeis to place Nairjara] Wadiyar, 
his eldest son, on the throne, which formality had been obseived long before Hyder's arrival at 
Sermgapatam (idem p 29-i) 

4 Wilks says (idem p 294=) that the peace was concluded in March foi 35 lakhs of rupees 

5 i e Nairj ara] Wadiyar* 

6 Op Wilks op cit p 294 A reduced establishment of the royal household was now enforced 

and Hyder's spies were posted within the palace gates 

14 



ica 

(Aly) was a son of Nizamulmulk (Nizaine of Maluco), brother of 
Nazir Jang (Narzazenagarj who was killed by the French 

Alliance between Hy- on the coast of Goromandel in 1751 He had entered into 
der and Nizam Ali an agreement with Madhava Rao to make war against the 

Nawab. He now detested the Mahratas for having 

made peace with Hyder leaving him alone to act as he pleased While he 
was encamped near Bangalore the Mahratas retired to Poona and Hyder went on 
fortifying the isle of Sermgapatam. Nizamali received from Mohamat aly cam ' 
succour consisting of 6,000 seapoys, 500 Europeans and many European officers 
under the general command of Colonel Smith Mohamed aly had also sent a 
detachment to take some of the Nawab's territories and this detachment took 
Cauvenpatani (Quabna Patana), Tripatur (Trepatur), c Auaubanrn, 3 etc He wanted 
to annex all the terntoiies below the Ghats and he proclaimed himself the Subadar 
(Suba) of Carnatic (Gamete) though Niaamaly was the acknowledged Buba of the 
Deccan (I)odecam) "When Hyder began to treat for peace with Nizamah, the 
latter dismissed Mohamet aly's troops and sent word to Hydei to meet him 
Nizamali broke his camp and came close to the foit of Chennapatna (China Patana) 
where he remained many days negotiating with Hyder Hyder however did not 
come in person but sent his son instead on llth June 1767 with Mir Saib and 
others This party was received well by ISfazamali and returned to Sermgapatam 
on the 19th of the same month Hyder was satisfied at the negotiations and in 
accordance with the agieement enteied into marched to help Nizam ah against 
Mohamet aly 1 

Tho army descended the Ghat of Chocalho ' on the 28th of July Mugtnm 

Saib was sent against Ambur while Hyder himself marched 

Capture of Cauveri- to Cauveripatam (Quabria Patana) which had belonged to 
pat am him formerly and which was now in the possession of 

Mahomet aly The fort was surrounded and the inmates 

surrendered themselves to Hyder who now gamsoned the place with bis own troops 
Information was received that Mahomet aly broke up his camp at Ambur and 

was marching straight to Arcot Word was immediately 

Battle of Changama sent to Nizam all about this and both the armies in- 
stantly left Cauveripatam (Quabria Patana) to prevent 

Mahomet aly from arriving at Arcot At Changaina Mahomet aly's army was 
overtaken while pretending to attack the enemy. Hyder marched to the strong 
pagoda of Tiruvannamalai (Trmamally). In the meanwhile certain partialities and 
treasons were noticed by Hyder in Nizam aly's army This distuibed him for a 
while The enemy began to move now and Hyder ordered his whole camp to 

1 These details are not mentioned by "Wilks 



107 

march upon the two nanks and engaged upwards of 20,000 of Nizamah's Horse to 
take possession of a little hill which was clase to the road wheie the army was to 
pass. Though the hill was taken, the cavalry could hold it only for a short time, 
for the enemy regained it soon from them, In the battle that ensued there was 
great loss on both sides and the Nawab himself was wounded a little 

The enemy then arrived at Tiruvannarnalai I Tnnamally) where they stayed 

for some days expecting succour which was being brought 

Battle of Tiruvannamalai. by Colonel Wood, but was inordinately delayed on account 

of the rains and passages of iiveis. Though Hyder 

wanted and in fact attempted to prevent this succoui from joining Col. Smith, the 
succour arrived and the* enemy now marched fiom Tiruvannamiilai (Trmarnally) 
Hydei too broke his camp and followed , but neither paity attacked the other 
On the second day of the maich there was some filing done but the loss experienced 
by Hyder was gieafc since the cavaliy of Nizamah did not execute wbat he 
oidered them It was evident that Nizamali was disaffected Col Smith was most 
valiaub and woith of all piaise He pressed upon the combined forces so effectively 
that all Nizamah's Horse retreated and though Hydei's aimy stood foi some time 
the fire, it had also to retire NizamaLi beat a shameful letieat in the night. 
Many were killed on the side of Hyder who now letired to Changama The enemy 
thus gained the battle on the 26th and 27th of September 1 

But the cavahy sent with Hyder's son, Tipu, to invade Mahomet aly's territories 

met with success They went very close upon Madras and 

Ravages of Tipu caused considei able loss to Mahornet aly AtSt Thome 

they robbed, destroyed and broke all that was possible and 

even bi ought some prisoners with them some of whom were European c Ecclesiaticks ' 
These were however committed eventually to the care of the author of the manu- 
script and sent with him to Madras in November 

Oauveripatarn (Quabna Patana) and ' Anabary ! having been gamed, the fort 
of AmbUr was attacked and taken But those within the castle held on firmly, 
while Gol Smith who was now at Velur despatched sucoom to them 

The people of Nizamali endeavoured to play treason Hyder being awaie of 
it desired Nizamali to keep his troops apart from his and strictly ordered his men 
not to go to Niziiiinali's camp. 

It was now that the author of the manuscript deteimmed to quit Hyder's 

service which so fai he could not do for want of orders 

The Author Leaves Hy~ from the Government of G-oa according to the lecommen- 
der's Service, dation made by the Count da Ega On the 27th of 

November he departed after obtaining some compensation 

1 Op Wilks (op oit pp 312-21) foi the accounb of the battles of Ohangama and Tiiuvanna. 

malai (Tnnomalle), 

14* 



108 

for the European prisoners committed to his care by Hyder. Through these 
prisoners he had obtained the permit for his passage through the English 
territories. 

Ool Smith himself, the general of the English army, met him near Velur and 

took him to the place where he entertained him well On 

The Author in Madras, the 1st of December the author departed for Madras and 

arrived there on the 4th Here he was immediately con- 
ducted to the Governor with whom he dined. For a mouth he stayed m Madras 
having hired a house for himself and doing nothing more than attending to the 
invitations to" dancing and banquet ting. When at last he proposed to leave the 
place, the Governor asked him to enter British service during the war with Hyder 
since he had a first hand knowledge of his army and movements But the offer was 
refused polibely by the author The G-overaor howevei promised to send him by 
the first ship that should arrive 

Some time later, having been prevailed upon by the counsel of a certain St 

Luberra 1 , the Goveinor desired him to sand to his 

Prepares to Leave presence such of Hyder's spies as happened to be in 

Madras. When the author expressed in disgust his desire 

to leave Madras immediately and even asked to be sent to Pondichery, the Governor 
posted a guard to watch his movements particularly during night, smce it was 
suspected that he ma.y without notice go away to Pondichery and from there back 
again to Hyder's service The author was greatly disconcerted at this and the next 
day he saw the Governor m person and told him that he was prepared to go to 
anj r place where he might be pleased to send him The Governor now promised 
to send him to Bombay on the ship that was expected from Bengal on the 9th. 

This ship commanded by Captain Ponem arrived on the expected day and on 

the 13th the author left for Bombay Though at first it 

111 Re quitted by the was promised by the English that thev would 'reimbuise 
English him his losses and expenses which he might sustain by 

quitting the Nabob's service ' nothing was paid to him 

under the pretext that the other Europeans did not also leave Hyder's service as 
they had expected. 

The ship on which the author sailed was leaky and people were constantly 

engaged m pumping out water. This was greatly fatiguing 

Dangers of die Voyage, to the workers Theie were in all about 116 persons on 

board. On the 17th the greatest risk was experienced 

since the depth of water in the ship was more than 6 feet At day break on 
the 18th land was sighted about 8 leagues far away from the island of Ceylon At 
about 10 o'clock two Dutch ships were met , but they would not come to rescue. 
1 St Lubm ; Wilks calls him an impostor (op cit p 338) 



109 

At about 7 o'clock m the night the port of Gale was discovered towards which the 
ship sailed and signals were made to the port Two boats ariived for help and 
suddenly the ship sank The author, the captain and six seamen jumped into 
the boats and helped others m the ship to the boats But with all their efforts 
they could save only about fourteen of them, for the ship burst before half of it was 
in water. 

The author reached the shore without fuither calamity A place of lest for 

the night was found. The Governor of the place 

In Ceylon received him well and even requested him to take 

service m the war with the Singhalese (Chingalese). 
But the offer was politely declined. 

On the 5th of February he embarked on a Dutch vessel for Cochin and arrived 

there on the 18th A Frigate from G-oa arrived in 

At Cochin and Travancore. Cochin on the 20th , but he was not taken on boaid. 

He therefore wrote to the governors of the place giving 
an account of his" career and anxiously waited for an answer which never came 

He visited Travancore. Its capital was Padmanabhapura (Perpenadavarao). 
It is said that the fort formerly belonged to the Portuguese and that their edifices 
were still existing The king was a Nair who knew the Portuguese language and 
sometimes dressed in European style. When the author paid his respects to him, the 
king even proposed to him to enter into his service to which he made modest 
excuses After obtaining the necessary passports signed by the king to pass 
through his territories he came to Cochin on the 29th of April 

From Cochin he went to Cannanore and fiom there to Tellichery The rainy 

season was approaching and the author now lesolved 

Enroute to Bengal not to go to Goa but to Bengal instead, The governor 

of Tellichery helped him with passage in a ship At 

Nicobar he alighted for some time to see the island The ( Deanes ' were building 

a factory there Almost all were sick with bad colour 

Nicobar. and swelled legs. The natives had now become civi- 

lized ; but their actions were more apish than human, 

They went about naked and were extremely distrustful m their bargains By way of 

the ' Andaman , Channbao, and Babasor ' isles he 

Other Isles arrived at 'Angelm' on the 26th November Here he 

disembarked in a i Bagera fo* 1 fear of the scarbuc ' 
and arrived in Calcutta on the 27th 

He stayed in Calcutta till the end of December viewing the edifices belonging 

to the English and other nations. He saw the governor 

In Bengal Mr Varelle who invited him to dinner of which he 

writes 'It is impossible that there can be made greater 



110 

Daily Expenses at any other place or Nation than what I saw in Bengal, for the 
country seats are magnificent, adorned in the English manner with all the Neat- 
ness, the plates are Numerous and abundant and the victuals are so many that 
nothing is wanting what might be desired as if it was in Europe ' 

He visited Mons Chavathe, the Governor of Chandranagore (Ohandernagor). 
Prom here he went to Bandel, a Portuguese place, the situation of which was the 
best in Bengal, He then saw almost all the European settlements m Bengal 
which were ID numerable and flourishing in commerce f Some of the G-randees ' 
with whom he spoke i complained of the insolence which they suffered from the 
English ' c In all Asia and places where I have travelled the Portuguese are so 
much desued ' 

By way of Cassimbazaar (Oazzimbazai) and Patna (Patana) he wanted to go 

by land to Europe but could not succeed ' being prohi- 

Again in Coromandel bited by the many Enghsh guaids which they have in 

all the roads and hinder the Europeans that are going 

into the Grand MogoFs Territory's } So he returned to Calcutta and embarked for 
Coromandel, arriving in Madras again on 17th January 1769 

The oppressions of Hyder in Madras were great Hence the governor placed 

a guard to follow his paces and make him a prisoner if 

In Pondichery he went out of the limits of Black Town The author 

therefore left for Pondichery where he arrived on the 

5th. of February The governor of the place Monsr Law was an ' affable and 
curteous oavallier, full of attention, very speculative and experienced m valour and 
attention with which he knew to deliver himself from all the msolency's which 
the English used in the war at Bengal at the time he was governor at Chander- 
nagor ' It was his opinion that it was manifest 'they (-z- e the English) bath 
gamed their greatest vistory's, more by words than by the violence of their 
arms ' 

Pondichery was formerly the G-aiden of Asia as well m greatness as in perfec- 
tion. It bad been entirely tased by the English in war times As a result of the 
conclusion of peace the English now contributed m part towards the expenditure 
of jebuildmg the city which was in progress an the time the author of the 
manuscript visited the place But 'the Erench nation, full of their ordinary 
haughtiness ' were rebuilding the city with l more fortifications than formerly.' 
The governor's palace was being built with c all perfection ' 

The author left Pondichery on the 10th and after visiting Tranquebar on the 
13th left for Negapatam on the 26th In the meanwhile he came to understand 
that Hydei was near Pondichery Tranquebar was a small place which had a 
very pleasant situation beaming with gardens and places of recreation, though it 
was a port of little commerce Negapatam was a Dutch place of great commerce 



Ill 

but situated ' in a place of no view, nor is it defendable , neither do the 

Dutch think of fortifying it The Governor is only 

s p nclined to his commerce and the same ai? the 

rest of officers' c Their infantry make themselves unworthy of the name of 
Military/ The same was the case m Ceylon, Cochin and other Dutch 
places 

At Negapatam the author stayed for some days waiting for news of Hyder 
He was told that he broke his camp at Valdaui ' So the author leturned to 
Pondichery It appeared that the English desired peace with Hyder and a few 

days later news actually arrived that peace was con- 

The Treaty of Madras. eluded, c which was less Honourable to the English 

than if they hath continued the war with the Nabob ' 

and that Hyder retired to Mulbagal (Molovagal) This was inevitable for ' the 
Nabob would not give them Battle in the plain and only strife to divide them, stop 
their convoys, coriupt their chiefs and other maxims which he uses with good 
fortune ' 

The author now returned to Madras and wished joy to the Governor and the 

councillors at the conclusion of the peace They only 

How the English viewed asked him not to make chem ashamed 'Otheis said 
the Treaty that it seemed to them that the time was ai rived in 

which the English Nation was to decline since experi- 
ence shewed it, that all knew that it was much declined in their time ' 

On the 27th the authoi was sent for from Pondichery by Monsr Chanobiaj 

Captain of Cavalry at Pondichery He theiefore 

Back to Hyder's Service, arrived thereon the 1st of May Here he was prevailed 

upon to leturn to the service of the Nawab and accoid- 
ingly left; for Mulbagal (Molovagal) on the same day. 

At Kolar (Cular) Hyder was now encamping The officeis who took the 
author with them saw Hyder immediately on their arnval and recommended that the 
author might be taken back to his service Hyder agreed and promised to see him 
at a more convenient time But he made him wait for two months, though he 
was sending for him every day When finally he saw him, he appointed him on 
half of his former pay and gave him charge over all the Euiopeans with firelocks. 
Hyder had now made many kingdoms tributary to him Even the powerful 

Nawab of Kadapa (Carpe) had become subordinate 

Extent of Hyder's Conquests The sum thafc Hyder leceived as tribute Mas enormous 

The destruction that Hyder caused in the territories 

conquered by him was also considerable It resulted in the greatest ruin of these 
countries like Kadapa (Carpe), Kurnool (Carnur), etc. Only the fort of Bellary 
(Balanm) had held on and the inhabitants were encouraged m this behalf since the 



112 

Mahratas were now threatening Hyder with invasion Hence Hyder entered 
into a treaty with the Foit and after receiving Bs 1,25,000 he marched from the 
place 1 

A cunons incident is recorded by the author, which is said to have happened 

at this time A seapoy gave there cuts to the general 

A Curious incident. of the Xawab's army for no other reason than 'his 

desire for killing a gieat person ' Of course he received 

capital punishment for this but ' he was much contented to die rather by his own 

will than to die m the Nabob's service for 30 rupees which he promised him bub 

which he never received entire, and always was wanting more than the third part * 

When the rivei Tungabhadra was passed Hyder received notice of the approach 

of the Mahratas Now he began to move his army 

At Organim slowly, gaming time and making the countries through 

which he passed tributary On the 26th of December 

1769 the fort of c Oigamm ' in Bednar was reached The Nawab's son left with 
Mir Saib to bring notice of the Mahratas On the 29th some troops returned 
having had some fight with the Mahratas Thereupon Hyder ordered his son to 
march to Senngapatam 

On the 13th some Englishmen arrived from Bombay with presents At first 

Hydei did not accept the presents and began speaking 

Hyder's views on the against the English He said that f they hath no fidelity 
English to treat friendship with them/ that under this great 

friendship they hath begun a war underhand and siezed 

all the Nabob's vessels (in Mangalore, Bengal and Bombay) and that the English 
Europeans were good to fight at ease, free from sun and small Marches, but that 
his soldiers without being Europeans fought with great Marches and m the sun, as 
they saw and if they did not keep their ranks as well as the Europeans did, he was 
contented that they finished all the wais with the same advantage as they hath 
hitherto done,' 

In the meanwhile news of encounter of Hyder's son with the Mahratas arnved. 

He was reported as being besieged at Magdi (Magary). 

Struggle with Mahratas But some time later news arrived that the Mahratas 

had bioken the siege and that Hyder's son had gone to 
Senngapatam in obedience to his instructions 



1. See Wilks op cit pp 373-4 Hyder failed at Bellaiy according to him and to compromise 
the reputation of his aims, he accepted the professions of dependency and the ' promise only of 
future contribution ' 

3 It would appeal from Wilks' account (idem p 374) that Hyder made incessant demands of 
assistance from the English for the expulsion of the Mahratas m conformity with the Treaty of 
Madias, which the English refused Hence, perhaps, his allusion to their infidelity 



113 

Hyder left l Orgamm ' to beat the Mahratas back, since they were molesting 
tbe country and taking 2 or 3 forfcs on some days On the way he gave exercise to 
his army in firing At Chennarayapatna (8ankarpatna; 3 a fort in the kingdom of 
Mysore (Mencur), he stayed for 4 days and then left the place by way of f Gaie- 
drugo ' to anothei small tort in the vicinity of which the Mahratas were encamping. 
At night their canip was attacked and robbed They were put into such confusion 
that they retreated early next day Hyder thereafter returned to Chennarayapatna 
in triumph, though the Mahrata camp consisted of 15,000 Horse commanded by 
1 Gopal Rao, Rastia Golpona and Ranojee Cancor ' and though Hyder's Horse and 
Foot together were only 8,000 (2,000 and 6,000 respectively). 

Some days later Hyder inarched to Hassan (Asane^ by way of Belur (Velar) 

and Aigur Here he was joined by Mir Saib, his 
Return of Mir Sahib brother-in-law with 3,000 Horse, who had come to 

1 divert ' the Mahratas. 

The Mahiatas were now capturing herds of cattle and hoises in places 

belonging to the Nawab Their ainiy was divided in 

Mahrata Successes several places and the greatest part had now been m 

possession of Chikkaballapui (Chica Balapoor) which 

was surrendered to them by the governor in spite of the fort having been sufficiently 
aamsoned and provided with defence At Chikkaballapur the whole Mahiata 
army was called together and it now consisted of 1,50,000 cavalry, 80,000 Pmdares 
on Foot and Horse back, 45 heavy cannon from 12 to 36 pounders besides aitillery, 
5,000 Eooket boys, 230 elephants and a great number of camels The army took 

up a camp of leagues, 

Hyder became thoughtful. He went to Belur and Hassan making prepara- 
tions While thus he was engaged Baja Saib arrived, 

Arrival of Raja Saib. having been all this time in the Mahrata army aad now 

reeonducted to Hyder. 1 He explained that he wanted 

to persuade the Mahrata not to give succour to Mahomet aly ^* 
paid him httle attention at which Raja Saib was disgusted, though he was under 
ob Station to Hyder Hyder had even thought of giving him m marriage his only 
SgdauX who had" been preserved by Modm Saib in spite of his custom of 

killing his daughters as soon as they were born 2 Ohikka- 

The Nawab's son now 'diverted' the Mahiatas in the vicinity oi : ChA ^ 

balUpur and retired to Bangalore with the loss of 4,000 

Return to Seringapata-n Horse. He then arrived at Senngapata* .and ^received 

his father who arrived there byway_of_ Narsipur artei 



1 Op. Wilks op. cif? p 376 

2 Cp. Hyder-Hama, MAE. 1930, p 102 

3 Hole-Narsipur 



15 



114 

making all his troops wash themselves m the river there and thus get rid of their 
cowardice m order to fight a superior torce After his arrival Hyder continued his 
preparations in the army 

There were about 900 prisoners at Sermgapatam who were brought to his pre- 
sence He ordered all their noses to he cut , but owing 

Discord with Faizulla Khan to the intervention of some people on their behalf, he 

then ordered universal chastisement with rods There 

was some misunderstanding between Ismail (Esmal) Saib and Faizulla Khan 
"When the matter was reported to Hyder, he seemed to encourage the discord. 
Faizulla Khan consequently did not present himself before Hyder when he arrived 
at Sermgapatam. This made Hyder to ask of him his accounts and make him 
answerable for a huge sum of money which he could not pay The Nawab sub- 
jected him to several indignities totally forgetting all the services rendered by him. 
In the meantime preparations were being made for the weddings of the 

Nawab's son Tipu Sahib (Tibesa), the son of Raja 

Ryder's Private Life. Nanjara] (Nande Rajah) and Raja Saib It was also 

i utnoured that Hyder too would marry He had already 

three wive3 and upwards of 4,000 concubines who had been distributed in all the 
countries but * principally housed at Bednur, Bangalore and Sermgapatam. The 
concubines were of all castes , there were even European mistresses among them 
Since their number was great he could not communicate with them all Whenever 
he pleased to have c divertisement ' with them he used to take a slow walk in his 
garden where these concubines had all assembled in two rows. Each had a nose-gay 
m her hands and the Nawab would take the nose-gay from those he wanted, which 
was the sign for them to go to him that night Besides these concubines the 
Nawab would also amuse himself with others who were brought to him by force on 
pain of death * 

Nan] a Ra] (Nande Raj ah) was a prisoner with his family Nothing could 

enter without being examined. There were guards 

Nanjaraj and sentries and a regiment posted round the palace 

When the marriage of his son was proposed a condition 

was stipulated to the effect that his son should be in the army as the ' lawful lord ' 
thereof and he himself must be assigned a fort, all to himself, yielding a revenue 
of Rs 4,00,000 for his expenses Hyder tried to bung him round in vain When 
he sent Ismail (Esmal) Saib to the Raja, the latter was furious and said that ( if he 
was without force, he was not without a royal spint J 

Sports were held for several days by order of Hyder sports like tigers fighting 

with elephants, fireworks and so on In one of the 
Hyder's Sports* sports two tigers were brought, of which on^ was a cub 

1 Op Hyder-Nama's account, M A B 1930, p 102 



115 

which, when let loose, injured several people. The men fell upon it with swords 
and killed it, at which Hyder laughed. On another occasion he ordered a 
royal tiger to be let loose in his garden to fight with two hogs reaied up bj 
himself, though he was a moor These two hogs, as soon as they saw the ti-er 
joined together to fight it The tiger climbed up a tree to attack them but was' 
forced to descend It leaped into a diy ditch and the Nawab ordered a Bocket 
Boy to throw rockets at it The tigei jumped on the man but before it could fall 
on him Hyder shot it dead 

The European prisoners were engaged Dy Hydei foi woik m seveial forts. 

Those at Senngapatarn gave the plan of the two batteries 

Fortifications which weie erected at the gates of the place Bimilai 

work was gofa done at Bangalore and othei important} 

places It was effective m repulsing the Mahrata invasions several times during 
the year 1770 

The Nawab's son f is as ciuel as can be said, wretches and of woise actions 

than can be found in any persou. No chief is de&uous of 

Tip accompanying him, foi he is imprudent, foi which leason 

his fortune will last no longer than his father lives, or his 

Disgrace which he has hath, change into victoiies of which he runs great risks, for 

there is not one person of jhis servants, or in the othei kingdoms that loves him 

Nafcuially, and if some make a shew outwaidly, they make a virtue out of necessity ' 

The Mahratas captured this year a number of forts, large and small, including 

'Asisdrugo' which had been well garrisoned and \\as in 

More Victoriei of the charge of Sadarkhan (cam) who was a good soldier. They 
Mahratas then divided their army into several divisions to subdue 

all possible places Hyder made no movement to quit 

Seringapatam and only presumed to fight from there He was exercising his army 
every day with all sorts of arms served in war. 

During the rnorith of May the annual feast 1 of the ' Moors ' consisting of 

penitence was held at Seringapatam Hyder ordered the 

A Moor Feast. celebration with more moderation than usird. BUE on 

the fourth day it was earned to some excess ^hich Hyder 
in sportive spirit condoned 

Hyder demanded an exorbitant sum from the G-overnox of Bednur, by name 

L Cuganur La ' who is said to have even received 

Oppression at Bednur chastisements As it was not possible for him to 

pay this amount he committed suicide saying that 

it was better to die than to suffer affronts from such ungrateful man as the 
Nabob. 5 The whole city of Bednur, moreover, was oppressed under orders of 

1 t, e , the Mohurram ^ 

ID* 



116 

Hyder. Those who weie suspected of having money were chastised until they gave 
up the whole for no other reason than that it was the Nawab's pleasure i This form 
of preserving the multitude, the Nabob only can attain to, for they shew by their 
quietness with which they live, after so many oppressions of their money, H onour and 
castes and are as much afraid of him on Earth as of God in the Heavens ' The 
Nawab used cruelty, killing, robbing and other oppressions without lemedy* 

During the period that Hyder remained as regent of the kingdom, he constitu- 
ted Moorish Governors and only his orders and seals were 

Hyder, a Usurper obeyed in a manner that it was construed as ' Zeal for 

the common good of the people ' Every fort was 

garrisoned and governed by Moor chiefs In Seringapatam Mugtum Saib, Hyder's 
brother-in-law, was the Goveinor and absolute lord who received his orders only from 
the Nawab. The income of the royal family * hardly served for the Daily ex- 
penses Jl and yet none ventured to speak in this behalf To a certain prisoner who 
cured the king of an ulcer, the king could give nothing but a billet to take from a 
merchant a piece of white linen of little value and even this under promise that 
the matter would be kept secret and the cloth asked of the merchant when he was 
alone Thus the great kingdom and the gieatness of the king m 1756 had dwindled 
into insignificance now 

The author sadly records that the Europeans whose service was sometime ago 

highly valued, had now become corrupted and disgraceful 

Degenerate Europeans, in the aimy They had no fear of god or precepts of religion. 

The great pays that are gained are expended with much. 

more liberality , the whole usually keep women and are given to all other vices that 
they not only lose their bodies but their souls likewise 
there are so many examples that not one happens to enjoy these money's 

5 



On the 27th of Ifebmary (1770) Hyde* visited the king eleven days after he 

ainved at Sermgapatam. He was received with all 

Hyder and the Raja. attention When he fell at his feet, the king tried to 

prevent him from that foimality There was also the 

Queen Mother 2 present at the meeting and she looked very grave Hyder 
reported of the Mahrata invasion and of the havoc committed by their force and 
also informed that they were demanding a great sum of money The king replied 
that he was not afraid of such invasions as long as Hyder guarded the country's 
interests He said c The security and Defence of the kingdom is in youi hand, and 
m me the confidence that you will prosper m everything ' 

1 Op Wilks op cit p 294 

2 Maharanl Laksbmammanni wbohyed up to 1808 



117 

The Mahratas took Maddagin (Madegaryj and garrisoned it 1 They took 

the king of Bednur and his queen mother with them and 

Other victories of the treated them well The queen died ten months later of a 
Mahratas. terrible melancholy, though the Mahratas promised to 

put her once again in the possession of her kingdom, 

The king was staying with fchem in the same hope of being reinstated There \\a^ 
a plot to hand over Nagamangala to the Mahratas On the 12th of April three 
Brahmans, were carrying a letter to them Hyder's men found them out and their 
noses were cut off 

The Mahratas had divided their army in three principal places 30,000 at Aui 

Anantapur, 20,000 at Bankapui, Dharwar (Darvai) and 

A Terrible War Expec- Savanur (Savnor), and 30,000 at Sura Madha\a Rao 
ted retired to Poona (Punah) with the remainder of the force. 

Hyder was also trying to defeat their projects A ternble 

war was expected in the month of November till the end of May Hyder had been 
sending out his men to enlist the service f Europeans and also of native-* foi the 
army. In fact it was rumoured that the people were being forced to join 
the army. 

The Mahratas had now arrived in the neighbourhood of Bednur On the 
28th Hyder despatched a contingent of 4,000 cavalry and 1,000 Piedars to frighten 
the Mahratas out of the place 

The Nawab s youngest and favourite son was Canm Saib, then about nine 

years old. He was sent for from Bangalore and received 
Hyder's Youngest Son. at Sermgapatam in all state 

A Jew from Madras arrived and informed Hyder that Mahomet Aly was now 

encamping with his army near Trichmopoly (Tritchono- 

Movement of Mahomet poly) and that Col. Wood was the general in command, 
Aly having been restored to that place which he had lost 

owing to a court martial which he did not deserve The 

army consisted of 20,000 seapoys, all good, and 2,500 Europeans, 12 field pieces, four 

12 pounders and two moitars The destination was not 

Information about known Some said that Mohamet Aly was proceeding 
Mohamed Aly to help the Mahratas, some otheis that they were 

oounng to help Hyder. The latter however was 

improbable 



This, accoiding to Wilks, was m 1767 A D (op cit p. 279) 



118 

On 2nd August the first; king * of Sermgapatam suddenly died 1 . He was not 

sick but was found dead in the morning e Though 

Death of Nanjaraja he was 12 years of age, he did show it m nothing 
Wodeyar, except in growth, and by all the rest of his actions he 

shewed such a Royal presence of spirit by which it was- 

judged that he would not suffer much time the subjection in which he was kept by 
the Nabob, but Death made an end of these hopes. 5 In the night he drank after 
supper a cup of milk which Hyder had sent him. Hyder pretended to be sorry 
and sent for the surgeon who replied that he left the king the previous night m sound 
health For this he was put into prison and condemned to pay a great sum into 
the Eoyal treasury c In this manner the Nawab shews his sorrow by the surgeon's 
prison and by the condemnation, utility to his treasury, where all the Nabob's 
interests do center.' During the burial even the silver vessels belonging to the 
royal family had to be brought from Hydei 's palace 

The grief of Nande Rajah J (the 2nd king or Dalvoy) was notable on this 

occasion. He saw that the ISTawab's tyranny appeared 

Grief of Nanjaraja every time more plain m endeavouring to extinguish the 

geneiations of the kings of that kingdom He also 

bewailed the New King, 2 for he believed that Hyder would soon dispose of him 
also Though Hyder was informed of these lamentations he only said that the 
Raja was out of his senses 

The Mahratas were becoming more and more formidable. The Nawab's force 

could not be compared to theirs , for his whole force then 

Mahrata Force vs consisted of 15,000 fire arms, 12,000 Horse, 2,000 Eocket 

Hyder's Boys, and 60,000 match-locks with which it was necessary 

to garrison the forts The custom of the troops was 

moreover bo fight behind the walls or m woods The Mahrata force on the other 
hand was mostly cavalry and numbered 300,000 Horse besides the considerable 
number of troops on foot, who were all well disciplined 

1 The date given in the Hyder-Nama (MAR 1930, p 93) is Saka 1694 Nandana corres- 

ponding to 1771 AD No reason for the sudden death is mentioned Wilks does not 
also mention the date of his death but says (op ut p 386) that ' Hyder, deeming him 
bo be no longer a safe pageant, ordered him without hesitation to be strangled in the bath ' 
The <3at given in the Annals of the Mysore Eoyal family is Saka 1693 Yiknti Srayana. 
su 15 Wednesday night 20 ghatikas, which coiresponda to the date given by Peixoto (i e + 
2 A..M 2nd August, 1770 AD). Since this date is correct and the authority of Peixoto 
tiustworthy, we may believe m the account of the death of the king given by him, 
though the Annals of the Mysore Eoyal family is silent on the cause of the king's, 
death. 

2 ^e , Chamaraja Wodeyar 



119 





to 






of 







er $ 





his conculines if for any reason he 

V 

', A 

at a servant on the 5th of the month (August), He 
her with his ora hand and ordered the staof the 
to he taken off 
With Hyder's leave to procure Europeans for the army, the 

Sermgapatam on the 6th (August) intending not to retain 
lie Author tales Leave again to the army 'on account of its nresent i 





120 



PART V.-NEW INSCRIPTIONS FOR THE YEAR 1937. 

HASSAN DISTRICT. 

ABSIKERE TALUK. 
1 

At the village Kamkatte in the hobli of Kamkatte, on the east face of the pillar 
to the west in the Sandhy&mantapa behind the Srmganathesvara temple 

Kannada language and characters. 



1. 

Note 

This short inscription contains only the name N&rasihadeva son of Devana- 
hebaruva. It is engraved below two relievo figures of devotees carved on the pillar. 
No date is given. The characters seem to belong to the 15th century. 

2 

At the same place, below the above record. 
Kannada language and characters. 

4 rls?c353d;> 
5 



2 to GOOD 

3 ;ysd&c 

* 

Note 

This records the construction of the Sandhy&mantapa (pavilion set up for 
Brahmans to offer their worship of Sandhya, eta, both morning and evening) by two 
persons, D&vana, Hebamva's (son) N&rasihyadeva and Timmanagalade'va on the 
10th lunar day of the dark half of Phalguna in the year Yuva The relievo figures- 
above are evidently those of these two persons. The first of these is also named 
in the previous nurnbei 

As regards the date, no Saka year is given but the characters are similar to 
those of the previous number and belong to the 15th centmy A D. Hence Yuva 
might be taken as S 1377 and the date as equivalent to 13th March 1456 A.IX 



19,1 

3 

In the same rnantapa, on the west face of the pillar to the east 
Kannada language and characters 



Note 
This contains merely a label or name Sankara, Bharati in chaiacters of the 

15th century 

According to the local tradition at Kamkatte, a guru of the famous Smarta 
Matt at Srmgen named Sankara Bharati lesided for some time in the above 
Sandhyamantapa at Kanikatte In the list of the pontifs of the ringeri Matt 
published m Bice's Mysore Gazetteer, 1897, Yol I, p 474, we find a name 
gankar&nanda after Purushottama Bharati and the date 14281454 is given to 
him In one of the kaditas of the same Matt dated 1451 , a gum named Sankara- 
bMrati is mentioned as the head of the Matt (M A R. 1934, p 130) Evidently 
this Sankarabharati or Sankarananda may have resided for some time at Kanikatte. 
The record may hence be assigned to about 1450 

Above the inscription is carved a relievo figure of Yishnu reclining on the five- 
headed Adi&sha This probably mdicabes that the guru was a devotee of Yishnu 

No king is named in this recoid 01 m the previous two numbers 



On a vlragal in front of the same Sandhyamantapa 

Size 4 f x 2' 
Kannada language and characters, 



cxJo 



Several letters m this vlragal on which are engraved the usual sculptme, of 
wamors fightmg with sword, celestial nymphs and Kailisa, are quite worn out and 
lost The bottom lines are also lost as the vlragal slab is bioken below. ^ 



122 

The record mentions the fighting and death of M&raya, aliya (son-m-law or 
nephew) of Jakkaya, sSnabdva of the village Anuvakere during a cattle-raid at 
Kalikatte (same as Kanikatte) 

No king is named nor date given The characters seem to belong to the 13th 
century A D Anuvakere is probably the same as the village Anuvagere or Anamgere 
m Kadur Taluk, Kadnr District (see E.C VI Kadur 119). 

5 

At the same village Kanikatte, on the pedestal of the stone image of K&sava 
standing in the navaranga of the Snnganathes"vara temple 

Kannada language and characters 
Jo s orteretf^d ri^sasra 3 

Sj | 3 

2 &33 w c& ?53a3o S333&& pi] j 



This records the setting up of the god Ghannik^sava by a person named 
Chavudasetti The characteis appear to belong to the 14th century A D. 

The name Ohavndasetti is however not quite clear as the letters before dasett 
in. line 3 are worn out and are quite indistinct. 



To the east of the same Srmganathesvara temple, on the 3rd viragaL 



Kannada language and characters, 

3 



4 r x 2 y 

s>rlo 



2 oto &>e&s3o ssofloir Rrtrd^ sr^TDcS fi 



Note 

There are a number of viragals near the Srmganathesvara temple The present 
record is inscribed on the 3rd of these viragals, 

It records the death of a warrior named Masanaya, son of maha [samanta ?] 
Macheya while recovering cattle from a raid A prayer to the god Siva comes at 
the end of the inscription. 

No king is named nor any date given. The characters seem to belong to the 
13th century when Kanikatte was subject to the rule of the Hoysalas. 



7 

On a 4th viragal at the same place 

Size 6'x4 f 

Kannada language and characters 
4 



1. &) ^sfc^ort adsJ^oa zaocSjtffsskd tsiDd^S ^ $&J%3 prt] 
2 crsdozoo 



Po$s3l & 5 f &rtlra\dc3 c3e fsJI 
j ><.,> x L J 

2 



a> 

3 d csrscy^crsjcytt^dsd tD"3c6 c3j3fsjrf s3Drt 



ca 
5, 



croo3o Q do 



. 

co 

7. sJd sran^ODG&dsS &rt&?1$ 33 

cO -J _o 



8 

ad 



This begins with the usual invocatory verse addressed to ^ambhu A warrior 
named Haley a, son of B&seb6va, worshipper of the lotus feet of Jagatvara (god) s 
is stated to have fought during a cattle-raid at the village Tumbulu, recovered the 
cows and died We next find it mentioned that the celestial damsels earned the 
warrior on his death to the region of gods Next comes the praise of the Jagatis> 
devotees of the god Jagatesvara They are described as calling Death to battle from 
the tops of hills 

The record abruptly ends here 

No date is given The characteis seem to belong to the 13th century A D 

Jagat&svara is the name of a Siva temple at a short distance from the viragal. 
It is referred to m several records of the place [E.C V Arsikere 48-52] and is now 
called Sante G-anapati temple (a iva temple) The Jagatis are described as a 
community living at Kanikatte and worshipping JagatSsvara and building tanks and 
Siva temples, etc , and brave m battle [E C V Arsikere 48 of 1051 ] 

The village Turnbulu cannot be definitely identified There is a village Tumbula 
m the T.-Narsipur Taluk, Mysore District Perhaps the place Tumbulu of the 

present record may be the same as the above Tumbula 

16* 



124 

8 

At the same village Kamkatte, on a slab lying broken to the south 

of the Kamathesvara temple 

Size 3' x l'-6". 
Kannada language and characters 



2 33, LD OH 3&D 



eO 

3, 



4 o cfcS 

5 o si) s39^ torSd 



3'xlf 
6 

7 
8 
9 



This registers the gift of a house measuring 15 spans (kai) in front of the 
S6mesvara temple belonging to him by a person named Ghandappa Butappa 
Virappa to a person named Yirappa who was a native of the village Agunda The 
inscription slab is also said to have beeo set up by the donor to mark the gift. 

The record is dated Monday 18th lunar day of the dark half of Sr&vana in 
the cyclic year Vikrama The date is not expressed in terms of any era The 
characters appear to belong to the 14th century A D and the date may be taken as 
equivalent to 21st August 1340 A D, a Monday as stated in the grant. 

Aggunda is a village in the Arsikere Taluk about 15 miles to the south of 

Kamkatte. 

9 

At the village Chikka KMihalli in the hobh of Kamkatte, 
on a viragal to the south 

Size 5'x2'. 
Kannada language and chaiacteis 



5' X 2 ; 

ooao ^TD^DCdoo* goste tft3 srsoi 83 S>D o oo 



3 3o3 SDO sg^l^oSss) ^jD^soto ^ciodoS tas 



4 ?^j3oQa3oa> esTi^ sSdoodSSo Sis A 



125 



00 



wsfcd 



g&s 

a) CO 



soza^ s&sflj >etf3oofo [stoo] 



ta 



This is a viragal inscription of the reign of the Hoysala king Narasnnha III 
(1254-1291) and records the death m battle for the king, of a warrior named 
S6Yiyanayaka, who is said to have been the chief of the village Chikkagondi, (same 
as the village Chikka Kodihalli) and who is also stated to have built a tank in the 
village* His wife named Machiyakka is said to have set up this stone (in his 
memory) in a jewelled pavilion. 

The date of the grant is given as S 1181 lUlaynkti sain Pfilgnna su 1 and 

corresponds to c ^6th January 1269 A D 

10 

At the village Honnagatta in the same hobJi of Kamkatte, on a stone 
set up near the waste weir of the tank 

Size 4' X 2 ; , 
Kannada language and characters 



4' x 2' 

Briers do 



ort 

" " _s -? 

&Of1 rfSJCdOSSCbOSSo 5J3OC5O 

i -j> *s,.T-f j-i ^epiac-^T-sr** sir^ y^./.ic JLALJ EJJ^JV vrfvs*. ^aerw'i i PI/SWVA^'> *~^ 



5 d 

6 

7 ssfc^d a& acsdrto d^rf rfd^o^ <o,^n^ ^odaodo 

8 

9 

10 



. , , ^^^ vry *{--<% sj jA^rr^^iif^ sSDdu^ts crsfci s3iOSj^3^ 

13 



126 



14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19. 

20 

21 

22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37. 

38 

39 

40. 

41 



35^)33 qtotos? 




rfcdoo 



oaas-o 



sto 



. 

t) 

o3osn> 



rrao 



FO 



rlo 2 >or1o 

DSd)^07l ^Jd^ 



sforlo 






tto 
srai?5 



tsraes^o 



rfetafcos&y F 

**J 

?. 

* 



dorl 



33^ 






ooat. 



OO 

a3o 

* c3Jd 



ed 



o 5c3 d 






oo 



s^d^orracdooo 



do 



2, 
3 

4, 
5. 



Transl^terat^on 
namas tunga-siras-chumbi-chandra-^b^maia-chaiave trailokya-nagara 

ram- 
bham mftla-stambhftya Sambhave [l Samkarasya kathitam katha-rasam 

Chandras^khaTa- 
gunanu-kirttanaia Mlakantha tava pada-s^vanam sambhavamti mama 

janutna-janmani !i 
koindam Talakadam kaikomdam m^letti Komga navayavadimdam 

komdam Yisbmive Ch61ana mamdalika- 
ra mamdegomdu tanu-mamdalamam !1 a Vishnu varddhanamgam bhav6- 

dbhave yenisi negalda pempi- 



127 

6. na Lakmadevige sutanudayisidam bhuvidita-yaso-vilasi Narasimha- 

nnpam !! 

7. pattada safci Echalegam nettane Narasimbanripatig ati-rrmdadimdam 

huttidan adika- 

8. vilasam [voitaje] bbuja-gah vlra-vikramam Ballalain" vn 8 saiadbi- 

vy aveshtit 6rwi-sani ave- 

9. nisi sukham balge charadiarkkataram sthna-satyam kshatia-putragrani 

vimala-yasam Pain- 
10. dya~vdamda-simbam Sniaia-riipara Poysanesam Yadukulatilakam Yira,- 

saragr a ma-Ra- 
il, mam vara-vira-^ri-sakbam vikrafDa-guna-mlayam ^Viraball^ladevam B 

svasti samasta- 
12. bhuvan&srayain dri-prifchvivallabham maha-iajadbirajani param6svara 

parau) abhatt&ra- 

13 kam Yadavakulambara-dynmam sarnyakta-chudarnam maler^aiaja mala- 

paro- 

14 lu-gamdan asahaya-sura samvarasiddhi giiidurggamalla chaladankarama 

mssam- 

15. kapratapa blmjabala-chakravartti Hoysana Viraballala-devanu sakala- 

mahi- in aradala- 

16. vam dushta-mgiaha-sishta-pratip&lanam geydu Uorasamndrada nelevidi- 

nolu sukha-sam- 

17. kalha-vmodadim prithvi-r^yam geyuttam irddu tafc-pada-padindpa-jfvi 

kula-k^nta-va- 

18 danaravimda-hiirja - * - kamna-knmdalan atyarjoita-t^ja-ramjitan 

enippa 

19 Maobidevamga va lalan^i-ratunain ila-vmute yempa Kuchavvegam puttidar 

Kkula- 
20. Lakshumt-pati Smganfttha vimala-prakhyatau a-Bitteyam Smgahya 

Hange G,m- 
31. gam Simgam ni]a-Vi]ayalakshumiramana- samgam smga-pya-natya- 

ramgam Simgam 
22 ripu-bhangan alte Ghanteya-simgam svasti sriman 

ativisama-haya- 

23. rtdha-praudha-iekh^-H^amtam VlrarLakshmi-ktotam kandn sutua bala- 

suvara-ganda ' alam kam- 

24. du kela-hidivam gamdam vam-^damdain I nlta-Chanakyam aehahta- 

vakya ' sri S6rna- 

25. natba-d6vara pada-iadhakam para-bala-sadhakarum appa Hinya- 

bherundan'a Mottada Ku- 



128 

26. sa Ghanteya Singaya-Nagayamgalu Satiyabbegereyam sarbba-badha- 

pari- 

27. haiavagi mey-jtvigendaluttav-irddu tamna hesaralu halliyam madi 

Machasamn- 

28. dravemdu tammayyana hesaralu kereyam kattisi rt-S6manatha-devara 

pratisbteyam madi 

29* a devara amga-ramga-bhoga narvedya nanda-divige kbanda sphutita 
]irnn6ddhara matha- 

30. pati tapodhanar-ah&ia-daiiakkam a-cbandrarkka-tarambaram salvamtagi 

Satiyabegere- 

31. yaMalagaudaNamnagatLdaE.amagaudan olagada samasta-praje-gayundu- 

galum Sim- 

32 gaj>ya Nagayyanu virddu saka varsba 1136 neya Bbava-samvatsarada 
Yaisakha su 

33. 10 S6mavara vyatipata samkraraanadamdu svasfci yama-niyama svadhya- 

34. ya dbyana dbarana Loaunarmshtana ]apa sainadbi sila-guna-sampannarappa 

Rudrasa- 

35. kti-devara putra Kalyanasaktiya kalam karcbcbi dbara-purbbakam inadi 

bitta datti hale- 

36. ya kereya bimde gadde salage 4 Santyabegereya himde rnodaltoyalli ga- 

37. de sa 1 beddale badaga-godiya kaleriya inuda salage 2 ko 10 priyadmd int i- 

38. dan eyde kava purushamg ayum jayasrlyum akke idam kayade kayva 

papige Kurukshetramga- 

39. lolu Yaranasiyol elk6ti-munimdraram kavileyam vedadhyaram kondudond 

ayasam porddugu vem- 

40. du saiidapuv i-sailaksharam dbainyolu " sya-dattam para-dattam va yo 

hare t a 

41. Yasumdharam [shashti] r-vvarusha-sahasram vishtayam jayate krinii 

guiu srl 

Translation 
Lines 1-12 

(Salutation to Sambhu ) May the story of Sankara be heard by rne in every 
birth of mine, as also the piaise of the good qualities of Chandras'ekhara O Nila- 
kantha, may I be devoted to your feet in every birth of mine. 

Yishnu conquered Talakad and marching upon Kongu captured it with all its- 
elements (of sovereignty) and seizing by their heads the mandalikas (subordinate 
chiefs) of the Chola subdued their bodies To that 7ishnuvardhana and the 
famous Lakm&devi who was praised as if she had issued from the mind (of Yishnu 
bh&vodbhave) was born the king Narasiinha, possessed of fame spread all over the 
earth. King Narasimha had to his joy by his anointed wife Echale a son Ballala 



129 

endowed with great charrn, prowess and heroism. May Yira Ballala Deva, possessed 
of steady prowess and pure fame, the chief of princes, a lion to the elephant the 
Pandya, handsome like Manmatha, lord of the Hoysanas, an ornament of the Yadu 
race, Rama in heroic battles, companion of the excellent goddess of prowess, abode 
of valour, live m happiness for ever, to last for as long as the moou, sun and stars 
endure, as the ruler of the earth surrounded by seas 
Lines 12-17 

Be it well While the refuge of the whole universe, favourite of fortune and 
earth, king of kings, supreme lord, supreme master, a sun m the firmament the 
Yadava race, crest-]ewel of righteousness, king over Male chiefs, punishei of the 
Malepas, unassisted hero, Sanivarasiddhi, Gindurggamalla, a Rama m moving battle, 
nissanka-pratapa bhuja-bala-chakravarti Hoysana Vira Ballaladeva was ruling the 
earth m peace and wisdom from his capital D6iasarnudia, punishing the wicked and 
protecting the righteous 

Lines 17-20 

To that Machid^va shining with great lustre and possessed of eai-imgs which 
the lotuses the faces of women of good hiith and Kucha ve, a 
jewel among women, and famous over the world were bom Smganatha, a Vishnu 
to his family, and Bitteya of puie fame 

Lines 20-37 

A Ganga to Han of Singali (?), sporting with the goddess of his victory, suc- 
cessful m his encounter with lions and destroyer of his enemies such is 
Glhanteya Singa (The meaning of this stanza is far from clear ) 

Be it well When the illustrious mahapas&yta, a bold Eevanta versed in 
riding the most vicious horses, lord of the goddess of vaJoui, punishei of those who 
on seeing a man hang around him, destroyer of those who when fchey see a person 
begin to beg him for favours (?), a Ghanakya m polity, never swerving from his word, 
worshipper of the feet of the god Soman&tha, destroyer of the enemy fcioops,-Zusa 
Qhanteya Smgaya Nftgayya of Hmya Bherundanamotta having received Satiyab- 
begere free from all imposts for his maintenance (meyjtvige) was ruling it he set 
up a village m his name and conducted a tank m his father's name calling it 
Machasamudra, consecrated the god Somanatha (within the village) and for the 
decorations and illuminations of the god, for the food offerings and peipetual lamps 
to the god and for repairs and renovations (of the temple) and for the feeding of 
the heads of matts and ascetics, for as long as the moon and sun and stars last, 
Maiagauda, Nannagauda, Eamagauda and other praje-gavundus of S^tyabegere 
together with Smgayya Nftgayya, made a grant m the saka year 1136 the year 
BMva, on the 10th lunar day of the bright half ot Va^kha, on Monday with 
Vyatipata and Sankramana (of the lands herein specified) to Kaly&nasakti, son of 
Eudrasakti-deva, possessed of the qualities of restraint, control of passions vedic 



130 

studies, meditation, concentration of mind, silence, repetition of mantras, and absorp- 
tion of mind m God, and washing his feet made the grant of land with pouring of 

water, 

(The details of the gift of land) four salages of rice land behind the old tank 
one salage of rice land behind the first bund of Santyabegere tank two salages 
and 10 kolagas of dry land to the east of the bank of the channel from the northern 
waste weir 
Lines 3741 

These letters on stone proclaim to the world that he who will lovingly protect 
this (charity) will live long, be successful and prosperous and that the sinful man 
who will not protect this but gets enraged at it will incur the ill-fame of killing 
seven crores of ascetics, tawny cows, and scholars in the Yedas in Kuruksh^tra, and 
V&ranasi He who confiscates gifts of land tnade by himself or by others will be 
bom as a worm m ordure for sixty thousand years 

Guru sri 

Note 

This record begins with the usual verse in praise of Sarnbhu and another 
new verse in praise of the same god 

The Hoysala genealogy down to Ballala II (1173-1220) is next given After 
this conies the eulogy of a subordinate of that king named Ghanteya Singa and it 
is nest stated that he ruled over the village of Satiyabbegere (now Satangere near 
Honnagatta) and built a village m his name and a tank in his father's name 
(Machideva) and a temple of S6manatha and made a grant of land for services in 
that temple The Praje-gavundus of the village Satiyabbegere joined m this grant. 

The gift of lands was made over to the Saiva priest Kalyanasakti, son of 
Eudrasakti. 

Ghanteya Smgaya is also referred to in another published record in the neighbour- 
hood (E. C V Arsikere 59 > Kalyanasakti and Budrasakti are also praised in 
E C. YI Kadur Taluk 112 and 151. 

The date of the grant is given as S 1136 Bhava sam. Yaisakha su 10 Somavara 
Yyatlpata Sankiamana and corresponds to 21st April 1214, a Monday. But no 
Sankramana takes place on that date 

The usual imprecations are found at the end of the grant. 

11 

At the village Doddagatta, in the hobli of Kamkatte, on the 1st viragal near 
the ruined Isvara temple 

Size 3x2. 

Kannada language and characters. 



131 



to 

2 33 53oid docS^ 3ddO ^^^ 

3 tooo;y3c>3 sfet)dcdo?3c)CdoiSSo erfcodd z&^ds^cido stedd 



o 

4 SDJ draa ^r^Fe^^rsddo ;y37ls3<3c> 

5 o^d d^ea ? *3jaofcd;d;& s3D3^ 

Note. 

Some letters in lines one and two are worn out and lost The record states 
that a general named Mareyanayaka, ma>neija-baliirbriyaka(\kLQ strong warrior of the 
house under the same dandyaJca (officer or general) marched upon the village Agunda 
daring a military expedition hy some enemy (not named) against theHoysala coun- 
try It is next stated that during this attack on Agunda, a warnoi named Marana 
Maleya (M&leya son ? of Mara) fought and died and that a peison named Bom- 
marasa of Asaramannu ? setup this vuagal in memoiy of M&leya N&yaka (evi- 
dently the same as Marana Maleya referred to before), son of the headman (gavuda) 
of the village Nagavedx 

Nagavedi is a village very near Doddagatta and Aggunda is not far off from 
Nagav^di No king is named nor laka year given. The record is dated Chitra- 
bhanu sam Bh&drapada ha. 3 Adivara The characters seem to belong to the end 
of the 13th century when there were frequent battles between the Y&davas and the 
Hoysalas. Chitrabh&nu of this record may therefore be taken as S 1204 Chitra- 
bliann and the whole date may be regaided as equivalent to 23rd August 1282 A. D , 
a- Sunday as stated in the grant. 

12 

On a 2nd vlragal at the same place 

Size 3 X2 
Kannada language and characters. 



3' x 2' 



17 



Note. 

This consists of two bands of letters the first of which is completely defaced 
and lost, A few letters are lost m line 1 in the 2nd band The record is thus 

incomplete. 

The epigraph refers to a battle at Kaleyana Hattana and the death of some 
warrior therein fighting on behalf of Pergade The deceased warrior's wife 

Masanakka is said to have set up this stone apparently as a monument m his 
memory 

No date is given but since the characters are similar to those of the previous 
viragal, the same date, IMS , 1282 may be assigned for this record also 

13 

At the village Halkur, m the same hobli of Kanikatte, on the 1st viragal. 

Size 3 x I 1 6". 

(4rsikere 64 Bevised) 

Kannada language and characters. 

I3o3o 




1 ]it8na labhyate Lakshmir nmt&napi surangana 

2 kshana-vidhvamsane kay6 ka chinta marane rane 

3 svasti srlmatu Sadharana-samvatsarada Palguna su 

4 dha panchami Brihavaradandu Hiriyabegereya 

5 Malhsetti turu-harivalli kadi sura-loka-praptanada 
6. atana putra Mayihsetti avara bava Kamisetti a- 



183 

7 taiia tamma Bokisetti mtivarige paroksha-vmefya] vagi B6- 
8. kikabbeya magalu Mahadevi nihsida virasasana mam- 
0. gala rnaha sri sri sri 

Translation 

He who is victorious in battle will obtain wealtb and lie wbo dies fighting will 
have celestial women (to attend on him) When the body is subject to death any 
moment, why should there be sorrow for death m battle? 

Be it well On Thursday 5th lunar day of the bright half of Phalguna m the 
year Sadh&rana ; Malhsetti of Hmyabegere fought during the attack on cattle and 
attained the region of gods For his son Mayihsetti, his brother-in-law Kaimsetti 
and bis younger brother Bokisetti m memory of these deceased, Mabadevi, 5 
daughter of Bokikabbe set up this vwastisana Good fortune 

Note. 

This is one of the several viragal records found near the mined Siva temple 
(Kall&svara) A very imperfect copy of the text of this inscription as also tbat of 
the next viragal was printed in p 420 of the Kannada texts of Hassan District 
Inscriptions No transliteration nor translation had been published before 

It begins with the usual verse in piaise of fighting in battle and records the 
death of Malhsetti of Hmyabegere and others in defending the cattle and erection 
of the viragal in tbeir memory by a woman named Mabadevi 

ISo king is named nor the Saka year given, the date of the record is stated to be 
Sadharana sam Phalguna su 5 Thursday The characters resemble those of the 
3rd viragal which is dated S 1216. Taking the nearest year Sdhrana, it corres- 
ponds to S 1232 and the whole date might be taken as equivalent to 24th February 
1311 A D , a Wednesday and not Thursday as stated m the record If bowever 
we take the corresponding solar month Mina, the date will be equivalent to 25th 
March 1311, a Thursday as stated m the grant Perhaps this is the date intended 

14 

On a second viragal at the same place [E, C. Y Arsikere 65 Revised] 

Size 3' x 2' 
Kannada language and characters 



3' x 2' 



afea 





134 



3 sj&statfol $n>s,3d5S to ov s&of a?3 



4 o 



5 d tcreftoco 

Note 

This also is similar to the previous record and begins with the same verse in 
praise of fighting in battle 

It recoids the death of Mallayya, son of Mallaguru, of Halkur while fighting at 
the entiance of the village The date is given as Yikrama sam Bhadrapada ba. 14 
Tuesday, No Saka year is referred to The letters of this Record are similar to 
those of the next record and Yikrama may be taken as S 120^ and the whole date 
as equivalent to 24th September 1280 A D 

15 

On a third vtragal at same place 
Size 3' x 2 f 



ca 



3 S SJOS4 OJ)O^_ w)2030 ?[SoS5^ dC$ S305^ S30 OO 

Cv 



4. 

3j 

& ed 



Note 

This also contains the verse found in the previous vlragals It records the 
death of Bayichayya, son of Arasalu Madayya while fighting against an attack by 
robbers on the road to Arasiyakere on trie llth lunar day of the bright half of 
Magha in S 1216 Vijeya, Vaddav^ra The date corresponds to Saturday, 9th Janu- 
ary 1294 AD. taking the year Vrjaya S 1215 

16 

On a 4th viragal at the same place 

Size3'xl f ~6" 
Kannada language and characters 



135 

4?5c&> 




This also contains fche verse in praise of fighting in battle We next find it 
recorded that a person named Mahya Jakkagauda fought during a cattle-raid at 
fialukur and attained the region of gods on Monday, 1st lunar day of the bright 
half of M^rgasira in the year Sobhakritu It is also further stated that his sons 
Hmyajiya, Bayichaya, Maleya and Chikka Bammaya set up this vlragalm memory 
of their deceased father The lecord is not dated m Saka era From the nature of fche 
characters used it is probable that the Sobhakrit of the record is S 1225 and the whole 
date may be regarded as equivalent to 10th November 1303 which is a Sunday and not 
Monday as stated m the grant. In case the solar month is taken, fche date becomes 
equivalent to Monday 9th December 1303 on which day the tithi of suddha 1 began 
21 ghatikas after sunrise 

11 

On a slab lying buried near the tank bund of the village R&mapura m the same 
hobh of Kamkatte 



Kannada language and characters. 



a&/D$d d drt0 OTSfcsgsd^ sfc# tf sfcos&ria 33 aoofc 




2. 

S. ^STD^SOO SDCtoWjCSo sSdsto^ pq A.F arato 

4, 



130 




20 

21 ^a Aocfcrt F doo d [o] 
22 



23 o3 

24 otoSd , 

o3 uJ Q 

25 o3o ^DOO:^^ ^ jlorlcoo ^) D-ssSooSv. ^"scOo^rf dFcSoo^odd 1 1 



26 ^/ad^ qSs&Fo aSaa ds c3tfsJs3&3i 



27 cdod 

28 rf rlocS 3oojsd loddon^c^d sJoo^-soJoe? crssSoo 

29 3o^OOCTc)Ga?33h ^Cd^r^JSOd ^^3030^ SoOODOD^a^ 

PO CO 

30 rio^ocS LS^Fl^od 83 sSEKfrTssSoS rf [ftq ^F oSoo^oSd c3 

31 ste 

32 ^^d tocra <stodsfej wstooDsJ iScxto aScJcS ^o3 s^aFofoo^odcS II 



33 OD <^S ^iSJOO^.n^Sj Stoo^jSJfl FCSJS^D S3 FK> rf ^rfi^O 5^^5q^030.FO S5i^0 5*3371 1 FO 
eo } ' n co a ?) " 



34 sfe>^&o3jD<> II ^^> ofo3o ^oSosJi^r^rQ-D.cdo q3D ^ qi^dea 

^^ tfl tu ^j y 

35 



36 



37 03o^^r1JFCJ ^^K7l F^035S3D Sfo&Sfcrra F35.F CTOrfrf F 



38 /0dtostoo a^ 



137 



WCT^S? qiosJo 



39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44, 

45 

46 

47 



ssrfdoo 



sto^rleroodrfo <>5& F 



sSdost 



& [D] 



dorl 

o^^ 
si o 












c3 






48 c3^ p] oo 3oo:>&dc3-soa3o 
49. fc> FS^O 3d^ sra^^3ds3do rlon 

(. ^/ 

50 






oo 



d ^ oo 



Translitej at^on 

1. namas tunga -siras-chnmbi-chandra-ch^inara-chaiave ! trailokya-nagaia- 

rambha- 

2. mtila-atambhaya Sambhave " Yadnvam^a-Kalpa-vrishadoJ odavida 

nija-sa- 

8 khe tanenaluk udaysidani sadamala [klj rtti-vilasam mudadim bhuva- 

naikavira Yineyadityam 1! vo- 
4 davidaKshirambudhiyolagudit6ditav^da Kaustubham tanenale Yaduvam- 

sadol udaysi- 
5. dam sad-amala-kirtti-vilasa Vxney&dibyam D sele-naduvin uruli-gurulma 

tolapa-dharada belapa 
6 kangal-abujtaanadi kalasa-kacha-dvaya-d^keye vilasita-vadarasi Keleya- 

ba.rasiye tanagam ! ' ye- 

7. reyan akbil6rvvig-enisirdd Breyamga-nripala-tilakanamgane cbaluvimg 

erevattu sila-gunadim nered 

8. ^johaladeyiyantTi nontarum olare If jettigaradataran adatalev otaje kali- 

gala mah^nubbavar mmuda- 

9 dimhuttidar Elcbaladevige nettane Ballala Visbnu Udayadifcyaru \\ komdam 

Talakadam kayikomdam 
10. meletti Komgan aTayaTadimdam komdam Vishnuve Gholana mamdahkara 

marodegomdu tana-niamda- 
11 lamam l! Talemale Kongu Nangali Yiratapuram Talakadu Koyatu- 

r baluhma Kanchi Bayapu- 
12. ra Ydlumale Komkana Ch^di Mftlavam suIahta-Ohakragotta Tuludesaman 

asrauiadimda konda bhu-la- 

18 



138 

13. lanegadbisan apratiman 6vade Yisbnu-nripalan urvviyolu 1! 
Yisbnuva Laksbmiya ku [la] va rddhisbnuv enalu negaldan 

14 Ikshuchapana volu bbrajishnuve simghada teradim Yishnuge pasarisida 

jasa-dhanam Narasimba-nripam " 

15 roanmi YecbaladeYiga a-Karasimha-kshit!4varangam negaldam bbumdbi 

Yikrama-mdbi yene Bhanu-suta- 

16 pratiinan atibalam Ballalam H mftdalu samcbalisittu Kancbi paduYahi 

ghuhttud ambliddhi yeddd- 

17 dit aggadaChetadesavanitum Pandy^vani-raamdalain kadolukude fcaguldu 

hokkadagi-datt uddama-samgrtaia- 

18 dolu kadittamtu biadumkuvamnar olar Ballala-bhupalanolu l! svasfci 

samasfca-bhuvanasraya drl prithvl-va- 
19. llabha maharajadbi-raja paramesvara parama-bhattaraka Yadava-kulam- 

bara-dyumani rayaehudamani Yasan- 
20 tika-devi-labdha-yara-prasada ! asramta-Tidya-vinoda ra]a-Sarvajna nripa- 

rupa-kamdaippa asahayastira Sanivara- 
21. siddhi giridurgga-malla cha [la] damka-Bama nisamka-pratapa Hoysala 

Yira-Balla [la d^] va Erabaregeya nelavidinolu ra- 
22 jyam-geyyuttamire [fca 1 tpada-padm6pa]ivi 1 svasti drimatu Hoysala 

Narasimha-devana inoneya n^yaka Ja- 

23. yagomda Nayakana sati Marave-n&yakitiya putra Macbeyanayaka kildi 

kutakke tupuva na- 

24. yakara gamda todarddara gala birada-bamgara samamta-gasani tappe 

tapuva tagnrddatti repuya Ma,cbe- 

25 ya-n^byakana sati GaDgavveya putra B^ineya-nayakana kirtti yemtemdade 11 

hutuvudu 

26 yodane dharmmam buttidud alayadafcu kabtanam kraroadimdam buttidan 

abbmava-Kamam nettane kamte- 

27. yaran olesa Nayaka Bamam l! edairuva-vamdirig amkusa kadu-cbeluvam 

dbarege Macbidevana putram todarddam- 

28. ge gandasamkole badavarig &dbaravalute N^byaka B^main H svasti samasta- 

vatfeugnna-sampannar appa 

29. Hullur-adiyagi Jay agenda Nayakana Hullur-^diyagi pada-mtila- 

pangrabar ada M^Lla- 

30. gamyumdaCbikkagavunidaObikkamala-gavTiindana [ki] rtti yemtendade J 

kere bana ,iave yeinbiva nere bbaritaxa 

31. madi kude Maiagavumdam paravadivettam ]agadolu Karekorala-pad^bra- 

birja^bbrmgan ivara devam B Hoysa- 

32. la Ylraball&ludevana Amaravatlkdteya bergade Ketayyana satu-kirbti 

yemtendade !l ene negald i-Ba- 



139 

33 llalana sanu-mantrigal enipa mantnvarggadol ar ssajjana vmutam ghana- 

shauryyam Manu-marggam Ketamallani- 
34. vasumatiyolu t! svasti yama myama svadhyaya dhyana dharana mdna- 

nushthaiia ]apa samadhi sila 

35 guna-sampannarappa Amaravabik6teya sarbbabadhe-parikaraY enisi ne- 

ga^da Holalakereya aruvatta- 

36 aru mahaganamgala kirtti yenteadade priyadimdairj kotan 1-koteya vimala- 

viprargge vidyavilasdda- 

37 ya-s6bharg uclgha-t^argg anupama-mahimaigg arfcta-danaigge kelu Ho- 

lalakereya gramavam visruta-vipala-ya~ 

38 s6-ramamam kirtti-kantasrayan a-Ballala-bhupam Yadu-kula-kula-dlpam 

dmesa [m] pratapa il svasti samasta vastu- 

39 guna-sampannarum saranagafca-jalanidhigalum nudidamte gamdarum 

asrita-]ana-kalpa-vriksharum mareyo- 
40. kkara kavaium tappe tappuvarum rajyapujyaium Siva-dhaimma-nnmmal- 

aruin appa Hoysanadesake pesaruyetta 
41 Holalakereya samasta-prajegavumdugalum Jayagomda Nayakanum 

Macheya Nayakanum Chikka- 
42 ganmdanu Malagaundanuv irddu Saka vaiusha sasirada niira hadinelaneya 

Eiakshasa-samvatsarada Ma- 
43. gha suda pavurnnami Vaddavara uttarayana-samktamanadamdu Mulas- 

tanad^vara uivedya namdadivige 

44 khamdarphulita ]iinn6ddharakkam mathapati tapodhanara ahara-danak- 

kavagi L^kulagama-samaya-samu- 

45 ddharanarum appa Kanyajiyana rnaga Somarasiya maga Bammarasiya 

kalam karchchi dhara-purvvaka- 

46 m madi bita datti hi[n]ya iumbma bayikalla inuda deseya modal&nya 

gadde salage vom- 

47. du ko 5 Attiyamanala gadde sa 1 ko 5 holagattada badagana kodiya gadde 
ko 10 vunm pa- 

48 du Iva] lu Halnkura dariya bedale mattar omdu nayakara kodageyolage 

beddale ko 10 imt i-dha- 

49 rmmavam pratipalisadaTaru G-amge Varanasi Kurukshetradalu saha^ra- 

brahmanaru kavileyu- 
50. mam komda dosake h6haru 

Translation 

Lines 1-2. (Invocation to Sarnblra) 
Lines 2-18, 

As if he were a branch springing forth m the Kalpa tree that is the Yadu race, 

was born Ymeyaditya possessed of pure and spotless glory and charm, the sole hero 

18* 



140 

of the universe Like Kaustubha rising up from the Milky ocean was born from 
the Yadu lineage Vmeyadrtya of good and pure fame His queen was the brilliant 
Keleyabbarasi of slender waist, curly locks, shining lips, bright eyes, lotus face, and 
breasts resembling water-pots (kalasa) Is there any one who has performed 
such mentonous acts of devotion (in previous births) as fichaladevi, an abode 
(erevattu) of beauty, full of virtues and the wife of Ereyanga, an ornament of 
kings and spoken of as the lord of the whole earth ? To IDchaladevi were born 
Ballala, Vishnu and Udayaditya, great heroes, overwhelmers of strong combatants 
and magnanimous Vishnu conquered Talakad, marched against Kongu and 
captured it with all the elements of sovereignty and seizing by their heads the 
chiefs (mandalika) of the Ghola subdued their bodies The matchless lord 
of the eaith, king Vishnu conquered without effoit Talemale, Kongu, Nangali, 
Viratapuia, Talakad, Koyatur, the mighty Kanchi, Rayapura, Elumale'Tirumale?), 
Konkana, Chedi, Malava, the beautiful Ohakragotta and Tulud^sa An augm enter 
of the progeny) of Vishnu and Lakshmi was born King Narasimha, who was 
the wide-spread treasure of the fame of Vishnu and who resembled Manrnatha 
and shone like a lion To that king Narasimha and the queen Echaladevi was 
born the powerful Ballala, a treasure on earth and full of prowess and an equal of 
Kama Kanchi (people of Kanchi) moved eastwards, the sea to the west produced 
great noise, the whole of the great kingdom of GhSra ran away, the Pandya kingdom 
entered into foiests and becarre hidden Who could encounter and fight against 
king Ballala and still live ? 
Lines 18-22 

Be ib well while the refuge of the whole universe, favourite of the goddess of 
good fortune and earth, mahar&jMhiiaja, supreme loid, supreme master, a sun to 
the firmament the Y&dava race, crest-jewel of kings, obtamer of boons fiorn the 
goddess Vasantika, indefatigable dehghter in learning, all-knowing among kings, 
aMamnatha in tbe form of a king, unassisted hero, Samv&rasiddhi, G-uidurgamalla, 
a R&raa m moving battle, of undoubted valour, Hoysala Vira Ballaladeva was 
ruling the kingdom from his residence at Brabarage 
Lines 22-28, 

A dependant on his lotus feet be it well M acheyan&yaka son of Jayagonda- 
nayaka, leader in battles of Narasimhadeva and of his wife Marave Nayakiti 
the fame of Rameyanyaka, son of Macheyan&yaka, a punisher of those who join 
an assembly and prove traitors, a fish hook to opponents, destroyer (bangara) of the 
titled, causer of anxiety (gasana) to sdmantas, cutfer and striker of those who mis- 
behave and of his wife Gangavve 

Dharma is born with man and regularity (alavn), strength and heroism were 
bom one after another (when Nayaka Kama was born) A new Kama (Manmatha) 
was born in Nayaka K&ma who would not make women fall m love with him. 



141 

Machidevas son Nayaka Rama was an elephant spear to wrong doeis, and very 
handsome He was a strong chain for opponents and a refuge to the poor 
Lines 28-34 

Be it well The fame of Malagavunda, Chikkagavuada, and Chikka Malagavunda 
who weie endowed with all the wealth and good qualities and who received Hullur 
and other places belonging to Jayagonda Nayaka from him as his dependants 

Malagaunda, a bee at the lotus feet of Siva, and master of donors, shone on 
earth, setting up tanks, groves and gardens in plenty 

The good fame of Ke"tayya, hergade of Ainai avati-kote belonging to the king 
Hoysala Yiraballaludeva 

Who among these ministers of the great Ballala kno\\n to be good ministers is 
eulogised by the righteous, is possessed of great prowess and follows the path of 
Manu ? It is Ketamalla 
Lines 34-38 

Be it well The fame of the sixty-six mah&janas of Holalakere which belongs 
to Amaravatik6te and is free of all imposts and who are possessed of the qualities 
of yama (control of passions), myoma ('restraint), sv&dhyaya (Vedic studies), dln/cma 
(contemplation), dhdrana (abstraction of mmd), manna (silence), ywpa (meditation) 
samddhi (absorption of mmd) and other good qualities 

King Ballala, a lamp to the Yadu race and bright like the sun, and a lefuge 
of the damsel of fame gave away lovingly the village Holalakere beautiful on account 
of its great fame spread far and wide to the pure Brahmans of this K6te, adoined 
with learning and chaimmg manners, and possessed of great splendour and matchless 
fame and liberal to the afflicted 
Lines 38-46 

Be it well. All the pra]e-gavundus of Holalakere, renowned in Hoy&anadesa, 
possessed of all wealth and good attributes, oceans to those who take shelter, 
champions who keep to their word, Kalpa trees to dependants, defendeis of those 
who seek then protection, false to those who are traitors, worshipped 
throughout the kingdom, and pure in their devotion to Siva, and Jayagonda- 
nayaka, Macheyanayaka, Chikkag&vunda and Malagavunda joined and on the full 
moon day of Magha in the year B&kshasa, 1117th year of Saka, on \ 7 addavara with 
Uttar&yana-sankranti made the (following) gift with pouring of water and washing 
the feet of Barnmarasi, son of S6marasi who was the son of Kariyajiya, upholder 
of the Lakulagama doctrine, for the food offerings, perpetual lamps, repairs and 
renovations of the Mulasthana G-od and for the feeding of the heads of mathas and 
ascetics 
lines 46-50, 

[Details of the gift made] Rice land of the (sowing capacity of) 1 salage and 
5 kolagas in the first bund to the east of the channel from the chief *weir a rice 



14-2 

land with the sowing capacity of 1 salage and 5 kolagas known as Attiya Manala 
G-adde a rice land of the sowing capacity of 10 kolagas in the northern weir of 
Holagatta one mattar of dry land to the west of the village, on the way to Halukur : 
dry land of the sowing capacity of 10 kolagas in the kodage land (rent-free land 
granted for the services) of the nayakas 

Those who do not maintain this charity will incur the sin of killing a 
thousand Brahmans and tawny cows in Gange, Yaranasi and Kurukshetre 

Note 

This record contains the usual verses m praise of the Hoysala dynasty up to 
Yira Ballala II (1173-1220) to whose reign it belongs 

A chief named Jayagonda Nayaka, money a-nnyaJca of King Narasimha and 
his SOD Macheya Nayaka and Macheya Nayaka's son Rama and certain gavundus 
who were ruling various villages like Hullur in subordination to Jayagonda Nayaka 
are next named. A person named Ketamalla, is next praised as the pergade of 
Amaravatik6le. Nest comes the eulogy of the six by-six maha]am.as (Brahmans) of 
Amaravati-kote to whom its hamlet Holalakere had been granted as an agrahara free 
of taxes by the King Ballala II 

We next learn that Jayagondanayaka, M&cheyanayaka, Chikkagavunda and 
the piaje-gavundus of Holalakere made a gift of some lands at that village for 
services m the jVIulasfchana Siva temple therein The Lakula pnest Bamniara^i 
son of $6marasi was entrusted with the management of lands The donors are all 
praised as Saivas 

The date of the grant is given as S 11 17 Rakshasa sarn, Magha su 15 Vaddavara 
Uttarayana Sankramana day It is equivalent to 17th January 1190 AD which is 
however a Wednesday and not a day of uttarayana-sankramana or Vaddavara 
If we take the solai rnontih corresponding, the date coincides with 15th February 
1196, a Thursday but not a day of Uttar&yanasankramana 

18 

At the village Nagav&di, m the same hobli of Kamkatte, on a slab set up to the 
south of the S6mesvara temple 

Size5'xr-9 ff 

Kannada language and characters. 



38,333 5' X 

ori 



143 

F<a<?D3o &O3G)o 3tosfc3^ 
(5 



20 . 



21 ?3j3<2o&3-s& oDsSoft ao->3;>or1oo 
22 



A CO 

23 d wo-s ^* cS^sSd^do . sSdsftoo 

24. 

25 

26 

27 

28. cdo 

^y eo eo 

29 w 35or1o sS&a c3 . ^SOD.^O s^^ cSo 

ed <J d 

-30 
31 



^dorSo?3-s>rt^ea5oorio tfort a^afcrto 




The msonption is full of lacunae as line c 
and are illegible. 



144 

The usual verse in praise of $ambhu and the verses in praise of the Hoysala 
genealogy up to Ballala (II) are found m lines 1 to 20 

Next comes the statement that Ballala gave the village Nagavedi for the 
maintenance (meyjivita) of his dependant named Maraya of Vammalige and that 
Maraya converted it into an agrahara village and had it granted by the king to 55- 
Brahmans 

We next find it stated that in the reign of the Hoysala king Narasimha III 
a descendant of Ballala II, all the mahajanas of Nagavedi, $ivaneyadann&yaka 
(a descendant of Maraya?) and the gavundus of the village and the prabhus 
made a grant of certain lands for the services of illuminations and decorations, 
food offerings, perpetual lamps and the feeding of ascetics m the temple of Bamm&- 
vara at fche village NagavMi 

The date of the gift of lands for the temple is stated to be Friday 10th lunar 
day of the dark half of Margas'ira in the year Yir6dhi > 1211 and corresponds to 
9th December 1289 A. D 

The lands granted consisted of 1 1) 3 salages of wet land near the principal 
bund of Hmyakere tank, (2) 1 salage of rice land to the west of the rice land of 
Gaudus, (3) another salage ? of wet land to the west of the wet land near the 
channel from the embankment of the same tank, (4) 8 kolagas of wet land to the 
south of the first bund given for planting a garden ? (5) one keyi of wet land inside 
Hinyakere to the east of the village, (6) one ~k,eyi of wet land near the east weir of 
the Kmyakere tank, (7) one ~keyi of wet land near the weir to the north of 
Hadavmavaddu 

All these lands are stated to have been made over to the Saiva priests Baira, son 
of Kalaka, Nagajtya and Devendrajlya for the temple services 

The usual impiecations follow next 

Certain plots of land are next said to have been granted as Jcodagi to Bamma- 
gauda and Jakkagauda 12 salages of wet land and 6 salages of dry land also 1 
salage of land behind the Bovanakere tank in the village Sivaneyanahalh. 

19 

On the left side (north side) of the inscription slab. 
Kannada language and characters 



2 
a 



5. . 050 



6 . Ob 

7 aSia cdo 

oi 

8 



10 



146 

Note. 

The record is very incomplete as several letters are lost being chipped off. It 
seems to legister the sale o* some land by Ballalajiya to some person (Ohettaya?) 
in consideration of the price received The transaction is stated to have taken 
place in the year Vikraina and as the letters in this recoid seem to resemble those 
of the previous one, Vikrama may stand for 6 1262 01 1340 A D 

20 

At the same place, below the above inscuption 
Kannada language and characters 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 






8 









10 
11 
12 
13 



Note 

This short recoid engraved on a side of the main inscription is probably of a 
slightly later date, viz., Isvara sain. Asvaytrja sn 2 Brmavara, the former being dated 
in S1211 Virodhi, 48 years earlier 

It records that the sthamkas Bairajlya, Nagajiya and Devendrajlya, (who were 
the donees in the main inscription) divided their shares in the property of the 
Bomme'svara temple at ISTagav^di Of the one-third share that thus went to Devendra- 
jiya, his grandson Deva]iya and Chikajlya of Halukur are stated to have become 
owners Chikajiya is stated to have given over his share of the wet and dry lands, 
threshing-floor, house and the eight rights of possession and property to hia younger 
sister Santave and his aliya (nephew ^ Devannawith pouring of water on Thursday 
2nd lunar day of the bright half of Asvayuja in the year Isvara 

No Saka year is given but as the grant by a grandson of the original donee 
referred to in the main record could only have taken place several years later, 
Isvara of the present record may be taken as SI 1259 which gives about 50 years for 
two generations from the original donee The date would then correspond to 26th 
September 1337, a Friday and not Thursday as stated in the grant 

It may be remarked that this record seems to be earliei than the incomplete 
inscription which was carved later on above 

19 



146 

21 

At the village Kalgundi, on a viragal to the north of the village 

Size 6' x 3' 
Old Kannada characters and language 



2 
3, 

4 



7 \ 

8 ( 
._ 30fe3 OJOO 

Q o3 00 

9 



5 tS6^ ^^dosSi^ 10 

6 srs^ s5 rl c 



This viragal belongs to the reign of the Ganga King Satyavakya Permadi and 
records the death of a wamor named Peggade Nayaka while fighting during a 
cattle raid in Kalgtmdipura (same as Kalgundi) 

No date is given The characters seem to belong to the end of the 9th century 
and Satyavakya may he the Ganga king Satyavakya Bachamalla II (870-907). 
Two inscriptions of the same king are found in the Hassan District (E G V 
Hassan 28 and Arsikere 99) The first of them is dated S 818 or A. D 896. The 
present inscription seems to belong to the same period 

Belur Taluk. 
22 

At the town Belur in Belur Hobli, on a slab in the western face of the plat- 
form round the flagstaff (garudagamba) in the Chennakesava temple 

Size 1' x 5' 
Kannada characters and Sanskrit language. 

sfcootf ^c&dosS rfttod rlozod stoSo s&sft s&osori 



I'x5' 



g 30S333 



ascfcf tfrsw <a^o^ s)05D ^sgjdo sSsra^ J 3 J 

~^ 



sortq^&idd 



147 

Transliteration. 

1. subham astu pratyartthi-pnthvMa-yasfimbur^si-Kumbhodbbavas sambhnta- 
-dharmma-kirttih ^rl-krisbna-bbumisvara-bbnfcya- varyyah Timmatmajd 
Jakka-nnpo vibhati ! prayana-vaitta-sravanach cba kechit 

2 prasthana-bhM-sravanat tafchanye ' Jakka-kshitipala-vipaksha-bhup 

vis"anti muktva sva-purain vanani 12 sitrnadd Hoyisalardes~a-iiiadhya 
vilasad-Velapuri-Kesavasyagie Bhava-same mtau saiadi tan-mass 
das"amyam 

3 tithaut ^rimat-Krisbna-nnpala-bbntya-nivaba-siesbbbas tu IimiBatinajd 

JakkSndrah kanakam ^Khaga-dhvaja-vara-stambham samasthapayat 
svastisrijayabhyudaya Sahvahana saka varasba 1436 sandu varttam&na, 

Translation 

G-ood fortune There sbmes Jakka-nnpa, son of Tnnrna, an Agastya fco tbe sea 
of fame of tbe bostile kings, obtamer of great merit and glory, and the foremost 
of tbe servants of tbe king Knsbna Tbe kings wbo are enemies of Jakka-Kshitipa 
abandon tbeir cities and enter forests, some on bearing of tbe news of bis expedition, 
and some on bearing tbe sound of drum at tbe tune of bis starting In tbe year 
Bbava, in the ritu (season) of sarad (autumn), in the month (of Asvayuja) on tbe 
10th lunar day, Jakkendra, son of Tirnrna and tbe foremost among the assemblage 
of servants of tbe illustrious king Krishna set up the excellent golden pillar with tbe 
sign of Graruda (Grarudastanibha) in front of (the god) Kes"ava m Velapuri which 

shines m the middle of the great Hoysala-desa Be it well In the year 1436 

/ 

of the auspicious Sahvahana era ' 

Note. 

This records the setting up of the Garudastambha (pillar with the image of 
G-aruda engraved thereon) in the Ghennake^ava temple at Belur in the reign of the 
Yijayanagar king Krishnaraya (1509-1529 A D ) by bis subordinate Jakkannpa, 
son of Timma (Saluva Timmaiasa? the famous minister of tbe above king) The 
date is given as 1436 Bhava samvatsara Asvayuja (saradi tan mase) su 10 and 
corresponds to September 28, 1514 A D The pillai is described as of gold and 
was probably covered with gold plate at the time it was set up 

23 

On a viragal originally found in the pavement of the Krittikdtsava-mantapa of 
the same Chennakesava temple at Belur and now kept in the northern mantapa. 



Iff 



Kannada language and characters 

19* 



148 



2 

3. 

4: 



16 



. 

o <*) 00 a, 



3j,S533E> 5'X2J' 

GS v$ 



6 iJjappaJoo s5oo^ cSdoesd ^^.CJDO dsscnjo^o s^ato o aJodo crscd^o 

N i O O 

7 



d sdeeocSo 
[j ^ortorto sS^otS dcoSU3arls? s3 




!T? anshterat ion . 
I. Band 

1 namas tunga-siras-chumbi-ohandra-Gliamara-charaT6 trailokya-nagar&ram- 

[bha] * 

2 mulastainbhaya Sambhave Saka-yarsha 1199 neya Dhatu-samvatsarada 

Jeshta ba 9 Ya damdu 

3. srlaiat-pratapa-chakravartti Hoysala bhu]abala-Vira-Narasimgarayana 

rajadhani Dorasa- 

4, mndrakke S6vuna-dala-mukhya Saluva Tikaroan eti baindu bitalli Kha- 

ipdeyaraya-ra- 



149 
II, Band. 

5. neya m&dida viravemtemdadeadatimdam Saluvam S&una-nnpatiganam 
basegotteyde bamdamtida D6ram- 

6 bhodhiyam muttidadurade kalakkeydi maramtu hoydam Yadurayam 

Narasimham pogalvma subha- 

7 tarn gopan udyanmad^bhain mudadimd iraru sasir kkudureya dalamam 

Dumrni-muttatti komdam !l atibalade Mararane- 

8 ya-suta Simgana, kuvara Eaneyam ponardmyalkaifcaie koti bhatarkkal 

satakhamdochchamdamagi pam- 
9, dalegekkidara " attida muttidamtinda Saluvanam Hanpalan ^ral a-thattu- 

man okkahkkidanu v6vade kaydu 

10. kadamgi poyye maigottanan nyye d^va-tati Khamdeyarayanu SnuganAt- 
ma]am nettane me- 

III Band 

11 ttufc 1-rnaseda Eaneyan amtiriyalke yaji-yolu li dhore dhore yemdu mudalisi 
bit lade Khamdeya- 

12. raya Baneyam dhuragali poydadahavadol attegal adidav eyde balpenarn 

rooredavu nettar emtu-desegain kala- 

13. ladudu khamdadimdegalpandavu kali] am karulamalegal uiwidav etta n6- 

Ipadam " an-biruda-BasaYa-Samkhaia 

14. dhuragali Kbamdeyada Baya Baneyan iiriyal sira paridu snbhatar-attegal 

uravaneyimd iriduv a- 

15. mma samara mganadolu i| alagalagam palamche deseyolkidigal tave suse 

sisakam talegala sirppugal gaganadimdavu 

16. . . gajativide ' ytonimdilege inulge karam kali Simgasumi d6rvvala 

bhata Baneyam S6 

IV Band is broken and lost 

Translation 

Salutation to 6ambbu In the Saka year 1199 Dhatu, on the 9th lunar day 
of the dark half of JySshtha, being Vaddavara, Saluva Tikkaina, the general of the 
S6vuna army marched upon Ddrasamudra, the capital of the illustrious Pratapa- 
chakravarti Hoysala Bhujabala Ytra Narasmgaraya. Theieupon Khandeya Ea^ya 
Baneya displayed his prowess thus 

When Saluva (Tikkama) heroically gave his woid to the Sevuna king and 
marching with troops attacked D6rasamudra, 5he brave warrior gopa (lit protector 
perhaps another name of Khandeya Baya), a powerful rutting elephant (to enemies) 
went to battle boldly, fell upon the enemy and killed an army of twelve thousand 
horse pursuing them as far as Dummi while the Yadu king Narasimha praised him. 



152 

famous for his victorious expeditions with invincible valour, ob tamer of the boons 
from Yasantikadevi, dehghfcer in bowing before the lotus feet of the god Mukunda, 
unassisted w&mor, &anivarasiddhi Gmdurggamalla, a Earn a in moving battle,. 
mssankapratapa-chakravarti. 

The king is stated to be residing at his capital Dorasamudra and is described 
as having made a gift of a village ., gatta in Balavmadu for the services of illumi- 
nations, decorations, livelihood of the priests and decorators and garland-makers. 

The date is given as S 1103 Plava sam-Ashadha su 12 Thursday and corresponds 
to June 25, 1181 A.D. but the letters after sayirada nthra in line 29 are not quite 
clear 

Ballavmad is a district which included parts of the present Belur and adjacent 
taluks and is often referred to m inscriptions (See BOY. Belur 58, 71, 85, VI 
Kadur 9, etc ) 

The remainder of the inscription is lost as the stone is broken off: after the line 32. 

The verses at the beginning contain the praise of the god Sambhu and the 
genealogy of S6ma from Vishnu, Brahma, and Atri The story of Sala is next 
given. After this Vmayaditya is praised as the sun arising from Udaya mountain. 
The birth of his son Ereyanga is said to have made Dharma stand on four legs m 
the Kali age. After this the letters in the lines up to 22 cannot be made out clearly. 



25 

On another slab found m the fort at Belur at the back of Nagappachar's house 
and now placed m the north mantapa of the Ohennak&s'ava temple at Belur 

Size 3' xl'- 6" 
Kannada language and characters 



mo* 

55 C 

00 ~ Q Q CO 

3' x U' 



cs 



3. 

4 



Qt 




Note 

This record describes the death of a warrior named Marakagavunda, son of 
S6vannagavunda m fighting m Tagarenad It is dated 3rd lunar day of the bright 



153 

half of Bhadrapada in S 1031 (the figure however is not ver/ clear) Virodhi corres- 
ponding to August 1, 1109 A.D No king is named but fighting for Tagarenad is 
often referred to ID early Hoysala inscriptions and the lecord may belong to the 
beginning of the reign of Vishnuvardhana, the Hoysala king Tagare is a village 
near Belur and Tagarenad consists of the district round that village. 

26 

On the slab found in the western fort wall at Belur and now preserved in the 
northern mantapa of the Chennak&sava temple at Belur 

Size 5' x 3' 
Kannada langauge and characters 






2. 

3 . sg/soSoojC&o sg/scd^^ 



4 ^ . odi^ ^^03^?* s3o^o II tsoho 

5. .030 C&> <2 



6 ^octoo as, 

' 



, 

a 



9 cdort 






10 

11. 



12. 

13. CTDS? ^u - p^j ^^SJ^F sfcSo 

OZOC3 

20 



154 

14 3tf5"s * ctowds'sotasaJM^ 

IOOD tf i^sra's' 

w 

15 30 rlv/D&i FdasoSo QD&J asftja FSW rfoq^oucdo 
$ doq3jz>e$5& 

^ \ 

16 ofod 

17 doe^dois 

18 . 
rr^o ^S)D |l S^^ 

19 



20. cS). 



[dj 

21 1251 ^srod & 

LJ Q 



22 as^dDorloo SoO^r? slorte 









23 <S eo3o f K)srsia sjja^srsQ ^^^-sa^odesrf cdood ori djo*.rt3oa 

a zd o 



24 $ ZOOD ^ cS^do rfosj rt,3o S)^^i.srs^ ^D^ F 



26 . ojDs>sto)^^,o OcScra^^ai ^oa-sdo deseed 

y <o a x 

^rte^^SsS 
27 






28 d rtodo sSd^^a ^sdjsSd rloc^o rtocScSjD^o .aod^d rtodo 

29 

30 So^oiod ^Kfdcjo 5jsc3do 

^ SoaAB3cS^csan)^o8ooBS) 




25 fcjyO^a^Oj^o, 5)od ^Ss^cJ ascSj^^aS ts^ II ^ ^^rto3o.o sJ sJarao s5rad djo^sD ? qr*ido 



32. dS&iSSDO 3J3GSfcc>&&&5oc3pS3 ^STcJ^SJ^O Z^^Od D7)Sn),FSOOg533t)dO WdO I erf 

c5 

sSaoSies sr^sfes sdssd^sfc 

-* o 

33 



34 
35 

36 

37 

38 
39 

40 
41 
42 
43 

44 
45 
46 

47 
48 

49 

50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 

58 

59 
60 

61 



tO J 



eO 



155 

05$ 



n A 



sss3C3ocSo 



* 



^5753 



scraocLrf 



FO 



o8joO^FRJaB7JOC3osraf\ 



sjoo 



F T&^3~ 



[33d] 




20* 



156 



Note, 

This record belongs to the reign of the Hoysala king Ballala IT 

A short account of the genealogy of the Hoysalas up to Ballala II is given in 
the first eighteen lines of the inscription But as several letters are chipped of 
and lost in each line it is not easy to make out the full purport of the verses 
contained therein 

The Hoysala genealogy is traced from Biahma who is said to have sprung out 
of the lotus-like navel of Yishnu like four lotus flowers issuing from a single lotus 
stalk. The story of Sala killing the lion with his dagger while staying m the 
temple of the goddess at Sasakapura and his adopting the lion (tiger) as his crest 
is also alluded to When Vinayaditya, his descendant was born, it is stated, that 
the eyes of the other kings were covered by darkness (namely , they became bewildered), 
though he was named Aditya (sun) His queen had the gait of a swan and the 
voice of a cuckoo and the tresses like a peacock's feathers Their son was Ereyanga, 
a master in firmness of character, in liberality, and in lenown 

Yishnuvardhana, son of Ereyanga by the queen Echale is next praised. As 
younger brother of Ballala (lit stiong peison) he nevei lacked prowess and as elder 
biothei of Udayaditya (lit using sun) he nevei lacked in brilliance His son by 
Lakumadevi was Narasiinha and Ballala was Narasimha's son by ffichaladevi 

The praises of Ballala (II) are sung next He had feet like the tortoise, long 
arms shining like the king of snakes and he was steady like a great mountain, and 
lofty like the elephants in the cardinal diiecbions. He ruled the earth with the might 
of his arm having sway over Talakad and Kanchi He was the uprooter of the 
Gurjara king, vanquisher of the pride of the Andhra king, a thunderbolt to the 
mountain the Ahira king and a light to Hoysala lineage The fierce kings who 
were hostile to him were like deer playing in the caverns of mountains in the wild 
parts of their kingdoms. 

From line 19 onwaids up to line 46 there are only a few lacunae in the 
inscription 

The usual titles aie given to Ballala II He is said to be ruling over Kongu, 
Nangali, Talekad, Banavase, Hanungal, Halasige, Huligere, Nolambavadi, Beluvala, 
B&gadage, Erambarage, Kisukodu, Kumrnata, Balla, Kuderi, Ayyanav&di, M^savadi, 
Kelavadi, Sindarige, Uchchangi and Lokkagundi and at the time of the inscrip- 
tion he is described as engaged in a northern expedition 

A subordinate of the king named Samanta Mara is next praised His father 
is said to be the Vyavahdri (merchant) Mara, supporter of the people, his mother 
Lokambike, an ornament to the world, his grandfather Bupamamky a, and his younger 
brother, the noble heroic Ohikka Tamma Samanta Mara is described as pumsher 
of those who wait for help, and who are haughty, of those who promise and then 



157 

break their promise, of those who are traitors to their masters, of those who swell 
with pride at titles, of those who seek a favour and then piove traitors to their 
helpers, of those who mingle with others and then do evil to them, of those warriors 
who prove treacherous to their masters He bound a todar of gold to his leg to 
show his fidelity to his master. 

We next learn that the above Samanta Mara who was a padiyata (attendant) 
to the king spent freely the money amassed by him and built a tank and an agrahara 
and also erected a temple His wife Bireyakka is next praised She is said to be 
& dwelling-place of politeness, faithful to her lord, full of good qualities, beaufcy and 
fame She is also praised as a Surabhi (celestial cow) for her dependants and 
a favourite of her relations. His younger brother Padiyara Chikka Tamma is next 
praised He is said to b^ a Jayanta bo good women, strong m aims, death to 
enemies, and an ornament to the Hoysala kingdom His brothei-m-law (mayduna) 
Pandyana Barmma is also eulogised as strong in battle, very liberal and full of 
fame He is said to have made several gifts to gods and Biahmans and constructed 
a big tank resembling S&vantaghatta 

We a,ie next given the titles of Samanta Mara the illustiious mahapradhana,, 
mahdpasdytdj paramavitsvdsi (highly trusted), an adamantine cage (sann&ha) to 
his followers, a destroyer of the Makara that is the enemy terntoiy, a Bhairava to 
enemies, a lion in battle, truthful in speech, death to the titled, striker of enemies 
with his hand, succourer of those who take lefuge in him, bestower of gifts without 
changing his mmd later, right arm to Viraballala and protector of the aiirjy 

We next learn that in the year Nala, Saka year 1118, S&manfca Mara created 
an agrahara named Elahakka in Maysenad district with the permission of the 
King Ballala m the piesence of the god Yajr^svara, set up the god Channakesava ? 
and for the expenses of decorations of that god and other expenses (uciuta-braya) 
constructed some new tanks and also converted Mattiyahala to the north of the 
agrahara into Savantasamudra tank and Teiideyakere into Brahrnasamudra tank 
and granted ten gadyanas from the income of the village Matti and Savantasa- 
mudra, 10 gadyanas from the income of Tendeyakere village and the tank Brahrna- 
samudra and 10 gadyanas from the original Siddhaya (fixed income) of Elahakka 
for the temple services This amount was deducted from the income due to the 
State for thoso villages and tanks and was made fiee ot taxes Further for the 
service of building a tank, Pandyana Bammaya was directed to be granted some 
wet ]ands behind the tank and dry lands to the extent of 12 salages. 

Next come the boundaries of the villages abovcnamed 

Owing to the lacunae m lines 46, 47 and 48 it is difficult to decide wheie 
S&manfca Mara built his temple and whether Vajr&vara or Channakesava was the 
name of the deity set up by him Elahakka now called Yelahanka is the name of 
^ village near Belur 



158 

+ 

The dating is incomplete. 6 1118 Nala corresponds to A D. 1196. The 
other details given are the month Ma (Magha or Margasira) and Bnhavara The 
date falls within the reign of Ballala II (1173-1220) A D 

27 

On a slab found m the north-east part of the fort at Belur and preserved m 
the northern mantapa of the Chennakesava temple. 

Size 3' X 2'-6* 
Kannada language and characters. 



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20 



The slab on which the i ascription is carved is broken across diagonally and a 
part of the stone is lost The result is that several lines are missing and many 
letters in each line especially at the top are wanting and the record is incomplete. 



159 

It belongs to the reign of the Hoysala king Ballala I (1100-1106) here called 
mahamandalesvara Tribhuvanamalla Ballala Poysalade" va and is dated SI 028 Vyaya 
corresponding to 1106 A I), The titles given to the king are mahamandalesvara, 
obtamer of boons from the god [Sam] kharadeva, delight er in musk, a Vidyadhara 
among the learned, worshipper of the feet of gods, supplicants and gurus, conqueror 
of the territories of the enemies, [punisher of] Malapas We have also at the begin- 
ning some incomplete lines which would seem to refer to the same king in one of 
them (line 8) we find the phrase abhava-mata-pravesam anam ilia, which might 
mean the religion of Siva does not find anyplace here. BalUlais known to have 
been a Saiva from other inscriptions Hassan, 65, 116, etc The nest line (9) 
also refers to the halo or splendour of Mahesvara (Mahesvara-prabhej Hence it is 
likely that the line 8 which is incomplete had some more words which probably 
altered the meaning of the phiase abhava-rnata, etc The line after that 
refers to the diksha and prokshana meaning initiation and sprinkling with 
holy water and yati-raja-rajanajnanvita, one who has the orders of the emperor of 
ascetics Ib is usual to call Kamamrjacharya, the Vaishnava reformer, as Yatiraja 
but whether Yatirajaraja also refers to him cannot be determined No connection 
has been established so far between Ramanujachaiya and the Hoysala rulers up 
to Yishnuvardhana. 

The object of the record is to register the gift of the viilage Erapalh for the 
daily worship of the god Ma . lesvara and of the villages G-aumanjapuia 
and . gundi for the daily worship of the god fichal^svara and for the 

services of offering music, vocal and instrumental, dance and recitation of s"astras 
and for worship on special occasions to both the gods A sum of six gadyanas was 
also granted for the perpetual lamps to both the gods, 

The record ends with the usual impiecatory veises sva-datfcam paradatfcam va 
and na visham visharnityahur 

28 

At Belur, on a slab brought from the north wall of the fort at Belur and 
preserved m the north manfcapa of the Ghennakesava temple 

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Trans htera t^on 

1 namas tunga-siras-chmnbi-chandra-chamara-chaiave irail6kya-nagararam- 

bha-mula-stambhaya Sambhave tat 6 Dvara [va]- 

2 tinathala Poysal^ dvipi-lamchlianah ]ata Saaapure t^shu Ymayadita- t 

bhupatih II & Vmaya [di] - 

3 tyamgam p&vana-chantre Keleyabara-sigav akhi lor vvl varan udayam 

geydam Srlvara-pada-padma-bhrimgan Ereya [mga] 

4. nnpam "eragadayamdxra talegalan eragipan eragipan arati-lakshniiyan 

idinmgeragada baliapimdam tanage^agipan Breyamgan atulavajeya- 

5. sriyam " a-narapatig ambhddhig anuna-gabhirateye samanisirppamfcire san- 

manini Yechalad^vi mandnayana-pprlti samamsire samam- 

6. sidal "ene negalda yirvvarggam tamrjar ]]aniyisidai alte Ball&lam Vishnu- 

rtripalakan Udayadibyanemba rauvarura udarar ahavadhiiar 

7. vntta II a^ arol madhyamanagiyum purTvapatamb6dhiyeyduvmam kude 

nitnirchohuvomdu nija-nih-pratyuha,-Tikramta- 

8 dudbhavadind uttarnanadan uttaraa-guna-bhra]ishuu Lakshmlvadhiidha-' 
van udvritfca-vir6dhi-daatya-mathanam sri Yishnu-bhupalakam ' 
Javanum tamnaya gamda- 
9. lachchanam enippa niiseyam tirddalam^uYinam kamdugavemdu kalugurgal 

& namrarigahi suyyalamjuviiiam t^]ada somkinimdav erneslgem- 
10 duddhatar nnodalamjuvinam vikrarua-vibhramam sogayisitt i-Vishnu- 

bhiipalanol " Dhanadam dakshina~vayuveke^tadedatt6 tidi ti- 
ll. llimnu vembinegam vairi-karoti-koti-mukha-nasaramdhradol mamdra- 
nisvararn unmal malayamlam sulidu kalakshepamam Viahuu-bhu- 

21* 



164 

12. pana jaitrorvvareyalli maduvudu Kavri-nadi-tlradol D Inan 6rvvam pora- 
gagi pelu puduve tejam kshatiiyamg Arkka-namdanan orvvam poragagi 

13 pelu puduv& danam bhubhujamg Abja-garbbhanu vorvvam poragagi pelu 
puduv6 cbaturyyam nnpamgemdu rnechchan ivam mattina bhuparam 
nnpavaram 

14, sri-rupa-Narayanam ll sthiran& kaiyole Dhatriyam mhsidam tejasvrye 
Yahmyam koragirppam kudalarppan Kanakasailam duravagi- 

15 rddamttansittn suckiye nnikshisidavar nih-papigal cheluvano Haranam 

mdhisal erutuvaippan adhikam sii Yishnu-bhupalakam ' ! moda- 

16 lol Poysalaraiya-lakshmiyodavam t6lbalupmm taldi tannudayam ramjise 

tainna, balupodave tamnarpp eie taninajne mire disachakia- 

17 man ottikondu Talakadam Gamgarajyakke tarn modaladam Yaduvam- 

sa-varddhanakaram Sri Yishnu-bhupalakam 1! dnrvvaiatidhara- 

18 dharemdra-kuhsam ii Yishnu-bhupalan ardderbettalu chirutodipogi 

bhayadimd abamdan ibamdan emdu nripalara kange lokavamtum 

19 tad-rupam agirppudum sarvvam Yishnumayam jagatt enipudem pratyak- 

shamaguddud^ ll padadolu Kurmma-svariipani nayanayugaladol Ma 

20 tsyarupam ghana-grlvadol Adikroda-rupam nadnvmol Nnsimhatvav afcnia- 

prabhavaspadadol E^matrayatvam mati-vikasanadolu 

21 Buddharupagi guj]agada Kalkitvakke meyddrada Hariyempain Yishnu 

]ishnu-piata,pani " jalanidhiyam kesar mmasage kudekalamkn- 

22 va badav^bgniyan taladolag irddalagi posadikkuva S^shana karnnanala- 

samchalanade mmna namjauu mulemdu mulippa podarppan ayagam 
23. muhdade ioyugum vi]ayavaiddhanan i-kah Yishnuvarddhanam li ivan-i- 

dakshma-bahudandadol odambattagi touppa matte vola yadiva - 
24 rahanettidadharitii-rnamdalanit^jadiindav aialdambujadantir ambaradol-i- 
rddatt ushnarugmamdalam savant sahasadol Naladi-narapalarv Yishnubhii- 

25. palanol li eleKaveriya van kude polasadatteindu hevaysutara keladol kupa- 

jalasiyappinegav a B^jendra Cholam bhu- 

26. ]a-baladidi Yishnu-nripala-stoeya penangal tan-nadi-puradol kalasal 

vikiama-keliyam meredan atyagi a-pratap6dayam " balasu- 

27 ttam kirtti suttam suhdu sulidu tekkeysiral kude s^shdjvala-kayam tivida 

p^ligeyol ire sardjatajandam dharitrl-talavellam 

28 tamna dirgghayuvene parasi parddalpinam kshatra-dharinrn6]vala-iani- 

y6ttumga-haimmyarppita-rnani-kalasam Yishnu pettam bedamgam " 
Dharadha- 

29. ro bujabalavatam Malavadhl^varanam Bh6]en &.jau vi]ita-ripun^ vard- 

dhita ya prasiddha sa bhutapdsana-mahita- 

30. bhu-bh6]an6 yasya purvvam Kauberasa-vi]aya-samay^ varnnyate kim sa 

vlrah ll bhii-slmachala-chakra-purnna-yasasa 



165 

31. sampftrnna-bimbodayah Vishnuli khe"charam indum ena-tilakam s 
sal-lamchhanah t&jas-tibi ataropy apurvva-himakrit pu- 

32 rvvam hasan sarvvada (h) eka-sthaua-sikhainanim vrjayate lokaika- 

chudamamh |! jayati dharani-ldkottamsit-atmiya-padah 

33 chatura-vibndba-goshthi-piaudba-vanl-vmodas sakala-Bharata-vidy&-hn~ 

dya-gambhira-bhavah vipula-Vijaya-Lakshroi-vallabho Vishnu-de" 

34 vab ' kanda H a Visbnuvarddbaaaingam srl-vadhuge samaiiaiu enipa 

pempma Lakbhmad^vige sutan ndayisidain bhuvidita-yas6-vilasi Nara- 
35. simba-nnpam " vrittam " tarala-vil6cbanamcbalake kemp initum bare 

bakkuv agalant ari-narapala-samkulada pandale kaige tuiamga-raji 

mam- 
36 durakke gajah salege dhauam nija-kCba-grihantarakke tad dhare kaditakke 

vundigegav 6lega\i Islarasiinbad^vana fi ari-bhtipar bbamdu meydo- 
87 ndad avayavadim t&rane krura-daity^svara-vaksha-lish^tra-nirddaruna- 

nakba-nikar6cbcbamda-d6tddamdamaBi bhlkara-]ihvaldrana-gtrniia,- 
38 nananiam oogeda knrddadeya samclialat k&sara bhiisvad 

kantbamam gbarg-gbara-gbana-ravamani-Narasiniha-kslaitlsam " vibha- 

vendrara sublia-danda-pa- 
39. tan ahita-piadbvaiusa-raksbadbipam subba-raUiakaranayakamnata-jagat- 

pr^nam budba-sri-dhanaisva bbavam tan eno lokapalateyan ^ka- 

40 yattamam madi nirad abbiriipa-stutana Narasimba-ksb6njpal6t- 

tamam " an-daityadbipa-YakBhamam khara-nakbanlL\!irQ.gahni p6~ 

41 Idu bal-gaiulaip. todida Narasimbari enal akkum vairi-vira-vani&vara-vak- 

sbastbalamam sva-kbadga-nakbara-vyagbatadim poldu bal-garulam todu- 
42, va Narasimhanripanam sarograma-ramgagradol !l misuguva taiakadn- 
rucbiymi Dugdbarnnava-pb6na-r6obiya desegalan avagain 

43 amabendia ylm migil enisi sobbisuvudu ... 
[Some lines are lost hero due to the slab being broken in the middle] . 

44 da-raaiala ( mamdahka-ghata-saippa ' ri\pa-Kamdarppa iiamadi prasasti- 

sabitam srlmat Tribhuvanamalk Talekadu G-amgayadi Nonambavadi 

45 Banavase Hanumgal Halasige Belvalam-gomda bbujabala Viragamga 

Piatapa Hoysala N&rasimhade"var Ddrasamudrada bldma- 

46 1 prithvt-t&jyam geyyuttam ire tat-pada-padmdpagivi Bittibdv^n-anvayav 

ademtene kamda ' ! eleyolage negaldan a Hoysala-bOvam [gam] 
47. Madikavvcgam puttida mrmmala-maljiy aneka-gunci-gana-nilayam tan 

enisi Bittibdvain dhareyol !l palavum sivalayamgala 
48 palavu sardvarainaii akbila-viavavaniyol palavum jirnnd-ddharaman olavim 

madisida Bittibdvam kritarttham H vritta " jana-vmuijam 
49. vrve-kamdhi sachchantasrayan atma-vamsa-varddhanan abhimana-M^ru 

sirjaiiagram dana-vm6di punya-bhajanan anavadyan emdn dhare 



166 

50, bannipud arkkarol eyde Bittibovanan iDa-t&janam guna-samajanan asrita- 

kalpa-bhtijanam H mrupama-charitram Mamdara-dhairyyan apara- 
51 guna-ganadharain Samkara-p&da-padma-bbaktam narar alave Bittibovan 

urjjita-teja W Haran. allad amnya-deyvava mrutam tan anya dharmina- 

buddhi- 
52. yan airivam paramarfctha Bittibovam dhareyol sat-ktrfcfciyimde pesaram 

padedam N vntta (l rasavat-chitrav aneka-patra palavum kutaragalim 

gotia-sai- 

53 Ia-saman6nnatamagi devakularaam tan mtidam k^ide maclisidam Belvuradol 

vichitram enal Igale Bittibovam karam vasudha-chakradol em- 

54 du banmsuvai old anaindadim samtatam " alii srlrnan maha Bittisvara- 

devarani subha-dinadal su-pratishthitam roadiy a-stlia- 

55. nada khanda-sphutita-jimnoddbarakkam d^vapujegam rarnga-bhogakkam 

ptijakadi-deva-paricharaka-janakkam brahmana parivraja d^santar tlsri- 

56. Uhara-danakkam srimat Pratapa Hoysala Narasimgha-devamge pc%da 

pujeyam kottu Bittibovam dhara-piirvvakam bitjisida 

57 datti temka-deseyalu hala maryyade badagalu koteyagalu gadi mudalu 
Suggalesvara-d6vara gadde varam sime haduvalu 

58. Hoysala-samudrada badagana k6diyaln Bittib6vam kalla turobam l^s^gi 

geysi kereya hale vodavugalam huli- 

59. salu savira honnarn kottu gonsida modal^n maryyade nandadivigege 

ganav am hatt okkala kala-tere dgulakke badagal amgadi- 

60 yim temkalu cbauvatadolagan eradu kto ddvange r^ja-vidhx pratishteyaln 

Bittibovain sri-nakaravam kareyalatti tambu- 

61 lam gottu sedeyakkiy-amgadi dambnla herimge ntir ele dharmma pattuge 

enit^dodam d^varige nadavamtagi bedikomda sedeye- 

62. nne telligai okkalalu I muvar asagaru art Jagatesvarakkom Bittt^vara- 

saluvamtu Saka varsha sasirad embhabftraneya Prabhava^ 



sam- 



63. vatsarada Pushya suddha chaturddasi Sdmavarad uttarayana- 
Bamkiatnanadamdu svast! yama niyama svadhyaya dhyana, dharana " 

64 manmauahthftna japa aamadhi ^ilaguna sampannar appa T6]6mdhi 

pamditargg l-sthanavam dhara-ptovvakam mad! Bitabflvam kotta 

65 sva-dattam para-dattam va y6 hartta vasumdhara ssa 8 htir warusha- 

sahasram v ls hthaya m jayate kr lmi h I na visham v is ha m xty ah u- 

66 r dsDvaJsvam v.sbam uchyate v ls ham ekakmam hanti devasvam 

pautrxkan, . sa m any6 ' yam dha rmma . setur Qnrip , nam 

67. bhavadbhih sarvvto Stan bhavmah partthwendran bhdya bhAyd 
Bamachamdrah priyadimd mt zdan eyde ka- 



167 

68 va manujamg yum jaya&riyum akke yidam k&yade kayva p&pige 

Kurukshetramgalol V&ran&siyol ekkoti-munlm- 

69 draram kavileyam ved&dhyaram komd adomd ayasam pordduguvemdu 

sandapuv i ail&ksharam dh&tnyol ' ! Suryannana maga Mahadevana 
barapa l! 

Translation 

Then the Poysalas, lords of Dvaravati, with the tiger as then crest were born 
in (ruled in) Sasapuia Among them was the king Vmay&ditya. 

To that Vmayaditya and Keleyabbarasi of pure character was born king 
ESreyanga, lord of the whole world and a bee at the lotus feet of Vishnu 

King Ereyanga would pounce on the heads of those who would not bend before 
him He would subdue the goddess of prosperity 'Lakshmi) of the enemies. 
With a prowess which made him not to bow down before others he would force 
the goddess of victoiy to come to him 

Like the sea getting great depth, that king got as his wife the good lady 
Echaladevi who brought delight to his mind and eyes 

To that famous couple were born the glorious sons Ballala, Yishnu-nnpalaka 
and Uday&ditya*generous, possessed of liberality and heroism in battle Of them, 
though the middle one, Vishnu-bhup&laka became prominent by the play of the 
unobstructed prowess of his aims which extended his kingdom from the eastern to 
the western ocean. He was dazzling with good qualities and (like the G-od Vishnu) 
was the husband of Lakshml and the destroyer of the demons, the enemies. Even 
Yama feared to straighten his (own) moustache, the sign of his manhood , enemies 
prostrate at his feet feared to breathe 3est his toe-nails might scorch up , the proud 
feared to look lest the flame of his* glory should consume their eyelids such was 
the brilliance of his valour 

Kubteu Why is the south wind delayed ? Why has it not set in yet ? 
" Because the breeze from Malaya is impeded by blowing into the nostuls of the 
myriad skulls of his enemies slain in king Vishnu's expeditions along the banks of 
the K&ven " 

Is there brilliance in any kshatriya excepting the sun ? Is there liberality in 
any kshatriya with the exception of Kama ? Is there wisdom in any king with 
the exception of Brahma? Thus thinking this foremost king, and a Narayana in 
form does not appreciate other kings 

Is he constant ? He has the earth m his arms. Is he bright ? He makes 
fire lose its brightness Is he liberal ? The Golden Mountain hid itself at a 
distance, Is he pure? Those who behold him will be free from sins Is he 
handsome ? He excels Manmatha who is able to infatuate Hara. 

First holding by the might of his arms the wealth of the Poysala kingdom 
which was his inheritance, his prosperity increasing, his might and prowess rising, 



168 

his authority spreading he brought all the regions under his control and capturing 
Talakad became supreme in the G-anga kingdom the promoter of the Yadu-vamsa, 
the king Vishnu 

"When king Vishnu, an irresistible thunderbolt to the mountains, the kings, 
roaring puisues them, kings fly panic-stricken crying with fear ' theie he comes, here 
he comes 'and the whole woild seems filled with his form to their eyes, thus 
affoidmg a clear illustration of the saying that all the world is pervaded by Vishnu 

The victorious king Vishnu is really Han, having the form of Tortoise m his 
feet, and the Fish in his eyes, the primeval Boar in his big neck, Narasimha m his 
waist, the three Eamas in the expanse of his glory and Buddha m the brightness 
of his intellect, but is not a Dwarf and has not assumed the form of Kalki 
(Gruel) 

This heroic Vishnuvardhana, ever victorious, will whenever he gets angry 
exhibit his powei of rage by telling 8sha that owing to the blood circulation 
m the veins of his ears, his poison is powerless -Sssha who stirs (hosadikku) the 
dead embers of submarine fire which shakes the waters of the sea when they are 
full of mud (The meaning of this stanza is not very clear) 

In his right arm she earth which the Pnmival Boar lifted up sits at ease and 
looks like a lotus expanding by his brilliance and the sun remains (steady) in the 
sky Aie kings like Nala equal to king Vishnu in power ? 

Behold, in oidei that Kajendra-chola, disgusted at the water of the Kav&ri 
suddenly becoming polluted, should be driven to the use of water from wells m the 
vicinity, Vishnu by the powei of his aim threw all the corpses of his army into the 
stream of the nver and caused his valoui to shine forth 

His fame spread everywhere and moving round and round embraced all 
regions Thereby the universe looked like a box filled with the bright body of 
Sesha The whole earth seemed to bless him that he might live long Such was 
the gieatness of Vishnu who was a fimal set up with gems on the lofty fine and 
bright mansion of kmgly duties (dharma) ' 

Dhara which was the stronghold of the Malava kings and which had been 
brought to great fame by king Bhoja, a conqueroi of enemies, he swallowed as if 
the preliminary sip (rtpMana) before devouring the whole eaith m his expedition to 
the north who can describe such a hero ? 

Vishnu excels moon in every way his fame filling all the limits of earth up 
to the mountains Vishnu is always fully bright and thus surpasses the moon who 
moves (only) in the sky Vishnu has tiger as his crest while the moon has the 



deer as his ornament Though filled with darling brilliance, Vishnu is a unique 

(before speaking to others. Bein 



riiance, isnu is a unique 
moon smi l mg always fiist (before speaking to others). Being the sole crest^ewel 

6 ^ m n Wh " ' CreSHeWel n]y at ne kce " 



169 

Victorious is Vishnudeva, favourite of the Goddess of victory, whose feet are 
borne over the heads of all the people in the universe, delighter in skilful talks in 
the assemblies of the learned men and deeply versed in the mysteries of the 
Bharatavidya (dancing, diamaturgy, etc) To that Vishnu vardh ana and the 
famous Lakshmadevi skilled in arts (bhavodbhave) was born king Narasimha, 
possessed of fame extending over the whole earth. The couit of this Narasimhadeva 
is such that as soon as a slight redness comes to his tremulous eyes (when he gets 
angry), immediately the lifeless heads of the hostile kings come to his hands, their 
horses come to his horse-stables, their elephants to bis elephant stables, their 
money to his treasure-house, their kingdoms to his registers fkadita) and seal 

When hostile kings appeared before him would not king Narasimha show by 
the parts of his body that he was a Man Lion the huge aims terrible on account 
of the nails piercing the breasts of the ciuel chief of demons, the fierce mouth 
distended with piotrudmg tongue, and the sharp tusks, the neck shining with 
bristling mane and the gieat fierce roar ? 

The foremost of kings, Narasimha is an embodiment of all the guardians of 
regions in himself and is worthy of praise He is an India in splendour, he is a 
dispenser of proper justice (Yarna), destroyer of enemies (Agm), lord of protection 
(Nairuti), master of rich mines of gems (Vaiuna), succourer of those who bow to 
him (Vayu), a wealtja to learned men (Kubeia) and a supieme lord (Siva), 

One should call king Naiasimha who in the field of battle, cuts through the 
chests of powerful enemy kings by the play of his sharp sword and pierces through 
their entrails as (the god) Narasimha who with his sharp finger-nails rent asunder 
the breast and took out the entrails of the king ot the demons (Hiranyakasipu), 
his enemy. 

Lines 42-48 This stanza is full of lacunae and the meaning cannot be 
made out 

Lines 44 46 

While a huge serpent to the mandalikas a Manmatha m beauty : possessed of 
these and other attributes, the illustrious Tribhuvanamalla, conqueror of Talek&du, 
Gramgavadi, Nonambavadi, Banavase, Hanumgal, Halasige, and Belvala, bhuja- 
bala Vlraganga Pratapa Hoysala Narasimhadevar was inling the earth in his 
residence at Ddrasamudra 

Lines 46 52. 

A dependant on his lotus feet, Bittibova's genealogy is as follows : Son of 
Hoysala B6va, and Madikavve, the pure-minded Bittideva prospered on earth being 
spoken of as the abode of numerous good qualities. The clever Bittideva set up 
with great love several Siva temples and constructed lakes and renovated temples 
and lakes in the whole earth. The world praises lovingly Bittibova possessed 

22 



170 

of the splendour of sun, fall of good qualities and a Kalpa tree to dependants as a 
treasure of wisdom, eulogised by people, shelter of good conduct, elevator of his 
family,, a Merum self-respect, the leader of good people, delighter in gifts, receptacle 
of virtues and free from faults Bittib6va of great splendour is possessed of 
unrivalled good conduct, is a Mandara m courage, endowed with unfathomable 
assemblage of good qualities, a devotee of the lotus feet of Sankara . Can men 
equal him 5 He does not ever know any god other than Hara, be is versed in bhe 
knowledge of dharma which is the highest obiect bo be attained (in the world) 
Biltideva won a name on earth with good fame 

Lines 52 57. 

People constantly praise with great delight Bittid&va for having built at 
Belvura a temple full of fine figures, numerous leaf-like designs (ane'ka-patra), 
seveial pinnacles, and lofty like a mountain and very beautiful on earth. Within 
that temple he set upon an auspicious day the god Bittis"vara and for the repairs 
and renovations of that temple, for tne worship of the god, for the illumi- 
nations, for the (livelihood of) the priests, attendants, etc., of the god, for the 
feeding of the Brahmans, ascetics, strangers, and dependants gave ptfclapitye to the 
illustrious Pratapa Hoysala Narasimghad&var and with pouring of water got the 

following grant (foi the temple) 

a 

Lines 57-62 

(The boundaries of the land granted) To the south the channel (halla) to 
the noith the moat of the fort to the east the rice Held of Suggal6svarad&varu . 
to the west the first bund in the northern weir of Hoysalasamudra, constructed by 
Bittib6va at a cost of thousand hons, aftei setting up a well-made stone sluice and 
filling up old pits (vodavu) of the tank He also set up six oil-mills to defray the 
expenses of a peipetual lamp (in the temple) and he also granted kala-teie (tax on 
threshing-floor) on six farmers and also two rows of houses m the square to the 
south of the shop to the north of the temple (The meaning of this sentence is 
not clear) While the god was being consecrated (taken in procession for the first 
time) m the principal street of the town, Bittibova sent for the nakara and honour- 
ing them with betel leaves he requested that for every shop of rice the merchants 
should give to the gods Jagatdsvara and Bittisvara one sede of rice and for every 
load of betel-leaves the merchants should give the god 100 leaves and the oil-mon- 
gers should give one sede of oil for each separate family This collection had to 
be given fco the god whatever the total quantity might be Three washermen 
. ub is not specified what these washermen gave). 

Lines 62-64, 

On Monday, the day of Uttarayana-sankramana and the 14th lunar day oi the 
bright half of Pushya in the year Prabhava being the Saka year 1086 Bittib6va, in 



171 

order that these services might be offered to the gods Jagate^vara and Bittisvara, 
bestowed with pouring of water this stlianu (trusteeship of the temples) to Tej6m- 
dhi-pandita, possessed of the qualities of yama, niyama, etc 

Lines 65-69 

The usual imprecatory verses sv.i-dattam paradattam va, na visham visham 
ityahur, samanyo 1 yam dharrna-setur nripanam, pnyadmd mtidan eyde kava 
manujang, etc 

Line 69 

The writing of Mahadeva, son of Suryanna 

Note 

This record gives an account of the setting up of the god JBitlisvara at B6lur 
by a subordinate of the Hoysala King Narasimha I named Bittibova He is also 
said to have made a grant of lands for this and another temple Jagate"svaia and 
even induced the naKcwa (merchants) of Belur to give a small tax in kind on 
the merchandise sold for the services of the above gods It is interesting to note 
that in another inscription at Belur, Bittesvaia is said to have been set up by 
Bittibova within the precincts of the Vishnu temple of Oheanakesava at Belur 
(MAE 1934, p 82), 

Bittib6va is said to be the son of Hoysalab6va and Madikabbe and is said to 
have constructed and lepaired several Siva temples and tanks 

The date of the giant is given as 1086 Prabhava sam. Pushy a su 14 Soma- 
vara, Uttarayana Sankramana day S 1086 is Tarana The nearest Prabhava is 
S 1069 Pushya su 14 of this year corresponds to Monday 5th January 1148 A. D, 
It is not a day of sankramana 

The donee Tepmdhi Pandita is also refeired to m the other inscription of 
Bittibova (MAE 1934, p. 82) 

29 

At the village K6neril in the hobh of Arehalli, on a viragai standing 
in front of the temple of Basavauna. 

Size 2' x 1' 
Kannada language and characters. 



2'xl' 



I 3. 

2 ^J3^?3^eeoo sfo^ea j 4. 

Note 

This records the death of a warrior named Bedagauda, ahya (nephew or son- 
m-law) of Masanagauda of the village K6neril during a cattle-raid after recovering 

22* 



172 

the cows. The event is stated to have taken place in the reign of Bittide'va same as 
Vishnuvardhana, Hoysala king (C 1111-1141 A D.) 

No date is given, The characters belong to the 12th century A D. 

30 

At the village Tagare in the hobh of Bikkodu, on an inscription slab set up 
in the temple of Basavannadevaru and worshipped as god Siva. 

Size 3' X I 1 - 6" 
Kannada language and characters 



" 



()} CO 



;37lCrsdQ$ 
3 
4 
5 
6 

crifci B orta3oo e d d ^rld 3o 



8 ^ oc3 es^ aSjSoca n^^orl^o taes 

* 



Q ^rfd s3d;y0 ^,2gggc^tsz3 S^O^D r\ 

*" -^ 

10 



12 orf 

13 e&; 
14 

15 

16 3003 9 

17 



18 eotoAo dj* [GJ] aw aaAds'o sJ^ ^SD^ pi 

19 ss^cd o 3o' asstejr ooav ^cdo 






20 dduo q^^asoo ED pa 



21 

22. ca* 6 s.3sj x 

23 
24 



26 tosr^ ccoo^ 
2T cto 5JMLOKB 



o e 



173 



30 
31. 

32 

t * c 

33. SJ33&C&3, e&9C&3e# tf &0k3 rl O S3 ^ ,Q ODiO 

id A ed ) 

34 3 s^aJodo 
35 



This record was incised on a slab set up upright in a Basavanna temple and 
as the figure of a Imga, and that of a priest with matted hair were also carved in 
thick lehef above the inscription to indicate a grant to the god Siva, the villagers 
were worshipping the stone as Siva The figure with the matted hair was igno- 
rantly identified with Nilamma, wife of the famous Yiras'aiva reformer Basavanna 
and an additional sanctity attached itself fco the stone in the minds of the villagers. 
Hence it was coated with oil and worshipped This practice has gone on appa- 
rently for several years and the letters of the inscription were covered with a thick 
coating of oily dirt and only the bottom lines weie visible It was with great effort 
that the villagers who belonged to the Yirasaiva sect could be persuaded to permit 
the stone to be cleaned. The process of cleaning took some time and caused 
considerable difficulty but a free use of soap, soapnut powder, and caustic soda for 
some hours removed the oily dirt thoroughly and the dirt inside the carvings of the 
letters was scraped oat and an estampage of the inscription was taken and the 
letters were deciphered 

The record begins with the usual invocation to 6ambhu and belongs to the 
reign of the Hoysala King Narasmiha I (0 1141-1173) 

Certain gaudus of the Tagaie twelve division including Chmnagauda, Tippa- 
gau<Ja, Chahadagauda are said to have made a gift of lands for the services of daily 
worship and food offerings to the god Annabesvara (called Annatesvara in lines 22 
and 29) This was probably ohe name of the deity in the temple wherein the 
inscription slab is set up 

The lands given are said to consist of 15 salages of rice land in the field 
called Lotas Field (Tavareyakey) in Tagare, three salages of rice la-nd below the 
channel of Vodagere, two salages of rice land below Hmyakere tank The gift 
was made rent-free It was laid down that 1 bundle of straw containing 5 kolagas 
of paddy in Asandi should be given for tnannu (meaning not clear) in Tagare 12. 
These lands and the right of the management of the temple are stated to have 
been acquired by a priest named Bajajlya for the payment of 50 gadyanas 

In connection with the daily services to the god Annatesvara it was laid down 
that 10 betel-leaves and 4 arecanuts should be offered For this Kusaboka's 
son Chandagauda is said to have made a grant. The details of the grant as 



174 

recorded cannot be clearly made out He is said to have made over the gana of the 
hltugattane of 5 kolagas in Asandi below Hinyakere tank and from this the 
priest Eajajiya had to offer the betel-leaves and arecanut daily. Further Chanda- 
ganda is said to have deposited a sum of 1 gadyana from the interest on which 
2 oil-lamps were to be offered daily to the god Two other persons, named JEaruva 
R&mayya of Saubhagyapura and Makisetti are said to have given 5 panas and 1 
gadyana and 5 panas, from the interest on which the priests had to offer 
more oil-lamps. Another person named Hmyamaneya Chaudagauda is said to 
have deposited five panas foi offering sandal paste to the god daily. The interest 
on this sum was to be utilised by the priests for the above purpose. 

The usual imprecation that those who protect the charity would get the merit 
of protecting seven crores of ascetics and tawny cows at Y^ranasi and those who 
\iolated would be guilty of five great sins is contained in the grant 

The date is given as S 1084 Chitrabhanu-samvatsara and corresponds to A. D. 
1162. No othei details of the date are found 

31 

At the village Halebid, m the hobli of Halebld on a slab lying in 
the bund to the east of the old weir of the tank 

Size 5'x2'-6" 

Kannada language and character 

60 rt 






OTO 

3 ^^. $? 

a 



^^ 

4. 












a j 



a8aAWs 



175 

Trans li teration. 

I Band 

1 svasti srimanu mahamam [da] lesvaram Talekadu Komgu Namgali 

Gamgavadi Nonambava- 
2, di Banavase Hanumgalu-gomda bhu [jabala] viragamga Samvarasiddhi 

giridurggaroalla chala- 

3 damka-Batnan asahaya-sura mssamka-pratapa Hoysala Ylra Ballala- 

devaru 

4 besasi vtleyava kottade f Sa.mkamade'van oddam ma [gu] lehi Uneyan 

aneyameh- 

5 kki kudureya kudureyame'likki alan ala melikki henarnayavagi 

II Band 

6. komd afctegalan adi tanna kayya hasa vopinam tandu nettara kadalam 
hansi Ba- 

7 llala de [va] na benna metti n6di mechchi muypam komdade Madevalhya 

kalagada 

8 ranaramgadah bilpagalu Aclichara-gamkeyaru viinanava komdu bamdu 

9 suralokakke otteya-patta sab am Achchaya- Sahani suralo- 

10 ka praptan^danu f pesanmdam kuladimdav i-cbaladolam vikbyati-vett- 

alumbada ? 
ML Band 

11 sanmanadane tanna inagam Mayidevanene negaldalu pattasaban- 

ad Achcba- 

12 Sabaniy-amgane madisidalu vira sasanavan a-Ghamdrarkka-taranibaram " 

Note 

This records a terrible battle at Madavalh between the forces of the Hoysala 
king Ballftila III (1291-1342) and the army of the S6vna king Sankama (1309-1312). 

It is stated that the mah&mandalesvaraj conqueror of Talekadu, Kongu, 
Nangali, Gangav^^i, Nonambavadi, Banavase, and Hanungal, Bhujabala Ylraganga, 
Samvarasiddhi, Gindurggainalla, a Rama in moving battle, unassisted hero, ms^anka- 
pratapa Hoysala Viraballaladevar gave the order for battle and the betel-leaf 
(vileyava kottade) to his general 

The chief of the camel force in the Hoysala side named Achchayas^hani is 
next stated to have distinguished himself in the battle He drove back the army 
of Sankamadeva, threw elephants over elephants, horses over horses, warriors over 
warriors, strewed the battle field with corpses, played with the headless trunks, cut 
off the enemy troops, his hand looking beautiful in the act and made oceans of 
blood flow His king Ballalade~va stroked his back (bennamutti nodi, metti being a 
mistake for mutti in line 7J, was pleased with his valour and praised it. 



176 

The above warrior is said to have fallen m the battle-field after thus displaying 
his prowess and celestial women are stated to have carried him to heaven m a 
mmfina (car). 

We next learn that the dead warnoi had a son named Mayideva and a wife who 
was highly respected for hei birth and firmness and fame and that liberality she set 
up this vlra-sasana 

No date is given but the record may be assigned to about 1310 A D. 

The battleplace Madevalli cannot be identified 

32 

At the same village Halebid on a slab lying below fche tank bund to the east 
of the old weii [Plate XXIV] 

Size 5' X 3' 

Kannada language and characters 
50 




^doorfja 

^srstf SM3 25o 

fi >* j , " ""^ " kv N ' w' "> ' "^"-'^"^ woorfsjv)ODr5f EvfcS^P^O 

9 T&Oij WLCI/O^ r?r^r-?=e ai?irt-^^__ J1 _&.^, , _ s > uv ^ ou l| ^<='^' 

10 
11 
12 



14 
IS 



L^^^=sss2s~r 
Hrrr=?sssi=:~- 



= S53SS?4==S.-^. 

; 



PLATE XXIV. 



STONE INSCRIPTION OE THE HOYSALA KING VISHNUVABDHANA AT HALEBID. 




(No 32 p 176) 



Mysore ArchcRological Survey ] 



177 



23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
SO 

31 

32 
83 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 
40 



1. 
2. 
3 
4 
5 
6, 
7 
8 
9, 
10 



[d] 



.asSafc 



sfetofl) 



o 



tomato jysc&sfefco 23^ sg)^ 3*5% 

?c3cdo 



ooesfofo 



ro 

33555teiFo 



OOdDCS 

^ 
rto 



23(3 d 



c3eS37)OCdjCJ 

N 



c5^s3d 



, 

' 

s^oo 



o 



en: 



[<3] 



;y*> [rt] 



stoas-a 



Transfateratzon 

namas tunga-siia^ oliuinbi-chandia-ohSmara-oh^ravd trail6kya-nagara- 

rambha-mula-stambha- 
ya Sabhave svasti samadhigata-pancha-maha-sabda mahamandale^vara 

Dvaravat!-pu- 
ravardsvaram Yadava-kulambara-dyutuani sarayaktva-chUdaraani Chola- 

kata- 
ka-stirekaram mandalika-ixi^iga-bentekaram Kerala-knla-pralayakalam 

Komga-kuranga-s^- 
rddulam ' Pandya-bala-jaladhi-badavaiialam Narasimhavarrnma-vamsavana- 

davanalam Adiyarna- 
mad^bha-kanthlravam Kalapala-kula-vilaya-Bhairavam Chemgm-girindra- 

vairadamdam Irumgo- 
Ia-bala-bahala-tam6-yibh6danamarfctandain J aaptakomkana-bhayamkaram ' 

Malavanripala-Madana-Sanika- 
ram Pallava-rajya-Lakshmlvallabham ' bhaya-lobha-durllabham ' Kadam- 

ba-mahi-mtambmf-;jlviteam sva- 
kiya-k6pa-pavaka-kabalit Andhra-d^sam I Viratapura-Tripnra-Trilochanam l 

Uchcbamgigirlm- 
dra-Saharal6chanam ' Hiranyagarbhbha-Tulapurushady-anSka-vidha- 

dana-santarppita-mahild- 

23 



178 

1 1. kani mja-karindra-karagra-chalana-matra-palayita-npu-nrip^nika n&m&di 
samasta-prasasti- 

12. salutam srimat Kanchi-gonda Vxkrama-ganga Vishnu varddhan a Hoysaja- 

deva p pesar-gonda-vava de- 

13. iaxngalan emsuvud avava dnrggamgalam bannisi p&lutirppud av&v- 

avampatigalam lekki- 

14 suttirppud embomd esakam kaiganme nalkum kadala tadivaram vikraina- 
krldeyim sadhisidaro bhu- 

15. Idkamam kshatnya-kula-tilakam vlra-Yishnu-kshitisam " antu s^dhisi 

Gangavadi-tombhattaru-sasiraraum 

16. NonambavMi muvafctir-chchhasiramum ' Banavase-pannir-clichliasiramum 

Palasige-verada^u- 

17. nuru-inam ' sukhadm-aldu rajyam geyyuttire tat-pAda-padm6pajlvi 

parabalakke bemgudam pa- 

18. ra (na)mganegemogamgudam ' patige kadadam I padeya moJkham n6dam ' 

manadolu rQachebanpar- 

19. nramam inetti taleyam kilvam i birudaram bemkolvan emba pesargal 

eseye ' B^nteya Tippeyanaya- 

20 kam Kamchigonda Vikrama-ganga VishnuvarddhanadSvam n ilyu kudurogav 
amuralim-gam kottu 

41 nadape Bittidevana nachcbmal atana mutfcayya Beohoheya-uftyakanu 

a tan a sup u tram 

22, K4rneya-nayakamgam atan ardhdhtoga-lakshiDi Bammavve-nAyakitagaiu 

g6tra-pavitranumparana- 

23. rl-putjanum I chatussamaya-sarnuddha [ra] nanum appa B^toya 

Tippeya-nayakanu atana 

24 Strr putriyaru S 



putra-kalatra-m^ra 
- D Hmyake^eya madana kddiyol 



281 io63 - 



. -djjjja -anou^a T.ppeyanayaka. me y ikl 

u gadde 



179 

31 layada muindana beddale mattarn. nalkumam Tippagattamumam devala- 

yada kharada sphuti- 

32 ta ]irnn6-ddharakkam derara mvMyakkarn matrbhigal ahara-danakkam 

pujangam nandadivige- 
33. gam inagi Nagarasi-panditara kalain karchchi dhar&-purvvakam madi bitta 

datti (l 
34 sasanam idavud elliya sasanam anttar eke salisuve nan. t-sasanaman eraba 

pa- 

35. takan a-sakalam Bauravakke galagalaniligum sva-dattam para-dattam va 

yo hareti va- 

36. sundhara shashthir-vvarsha-sahasram vishthayam jayate krimi " 1- 

dharmmaman alidayargge 

37 Varanasiya G-angeya, tadiyalu sahasia-kavileyum Brahmanaramam 
vadhisi- 

38. da dosha i dhammamam prati-palisidargge G-angeyalu sabasra- 

Brahraanargge sahasra- 

39, kavileyam danam madida pbalam " Gagavura Tippeyaka tamna gaumdi- 

keya ondara raam-nnam De- 

40 vange Jakkagau [di] olag&gi Na [ga] -rasige bit a mamgala maba ^ri feri 
srt 

Translation. 

(Salutation to Sambbu) 

Be it well Obtainer of tbe band of five musical instruments, mabamandale's'var a 
lord of tbe excellent city of Dvaravati, a sun in tbe firmament tbe Yadava race 
crest-jewel of righteousness, plunderer of Cb6la arrny, bunter of the beasts tbe 
mandalikas, tbe god of death in the destruction of tbe Kerala family^ a tiger to tbe 
deer tbe Konga, a submarine fire to tbe sea the Pandya army, a wild fire to tbe 
forest Narasimhavarma, a lion to the rutting elephant, Adiyamaj a Bbairava of 
destruction to the family of Kalapala, a thunderbolt to the great mountain 
Chengm, a sun in piercing the dense darkness the Irungola army, a terror to the 
Seven Konkanas, a Siva to the Manmatha the Malava king, favourite of the goddess 
of fortune tbe Pallava kingdom, free from fear and greed, lord of the damsel the 
JKadamba territory, swallower of Andhradesa by the fire of his anger, a Siva to the 
Tnpura that is Viratapura, an Indra to the great mountain Uchchangi, causer of joy 
to the world by numerous gifts including Hiranyagarbha and Tulapurusha, putter to 
flight of the army of hostile kings by the mere play of the tip of his great elephant's 
trunk possessed of these and other good attributes, the conqueror of Kanchi, 
Yikrama-G-anga, Vishnuvardhana Hoysalad&va 

The heroic king Vishnu, an ornament to the kshatnya race, conquered by the 
play of his prowess the whole earth to the borders of tbe four oceans, winning the 

23* 



180 

glory of conquering all the countries of renown, all the hill forts which are extolled 
and all the kings that are considered important. 

Thus conquering he ruled m peace the Gangavadi Ninety-six Thousand, 
Xonambavadi 32,000, Banavase 12,000, Palasige 1,200 

His dependent Benteya (hunter) Tippeya Nayaka, possessed of the titles of 
one \\ho never retreated from the enemy troops, nevei gazed at others' wives, never 
deceived his master, never cared for the army, trampled on the chests of those who 
hated him in their thoughts, plucked off their heads, and pursued the titled. 

On Vikrama-Ganga Yishnuvardhanadeva, conqueror of Kanchi, giving B&ntoya 
Tipppja Ndyaka, command of 100 horses and five hundred infantry troops : 

His grandfafchei a warrior of Bittidva was Eechcheya N&yaka, his son 
Kdineya Xayaka ? had by his wife Bammavve N&yakiti, the son Benteya Tippeya 
Xd}aka, pinifier of his race, a son to others' wives, protector of the four faifchs. 

While Benteya Tippeya N&yaka, whose wives were S6ve N^yakiti and Macliavo 

Xayakiti and whose daughters were Santave and Bammave and (sons) were Ohakoya 

Nayaka and Bammeya Nayaka lived in peace with all his sons, wives and friends: 

B&nteya Tippeya N&yaka built a lofty temple in the eastern waste woir of 

Hiriyakere in his capital Ddrasamudra and after paying obeisance to tho king 

V^hnuraidhana Hoysaladeva while he was residing at the sacred place Hulluni 

at the confluence of VaiadA in Banavasenad prayed to hum (for a grant to tho 

temple) , Thereupon in the Saka year 1063 Eaudri, on Thursday 15th lunar day of 

As^ija, while engaged m the great Tulapurusha sacrifice, Vishnuvardhana Hoysala- 

devaru granted with pouring of water 4 salages of rice land m the west weir of 

Tavaregatta below Hiriyakere and 4 mattars of dry land m front of tho land and 

Tippagatta for the repaus and renovations of the temple, for the food offerings to 

the god, for feeding guests, for the officiating priest and for perpetual lamps to 

Nagarasi~pan<Jita after washing his feet 

The evil man who asks what is this sasana, whence is this s^sana, who gavo 
it and why should I continue it will drop down quickly into Raurava, Ho 
who takes away land given by oneself or by others will be born as a worm in 
ordure for sixty thousand years 

Those who violate this charity will incur the sm of slaying thousand tawny 
cows and Btahmana on the banks of the Ganges Those who protect this grant 
Jill acquire the merit of giving away to thousand Brahmans, thousand tawny cows 
Tippeyaka of Gagavur gave away a mannu of land belonging to her office of ' 

along with Jakkagaudi fco Nagar&si for the god Good fortune 

Note. 



(C iml b fuiT t0 , the ; eig f f the km ^ Vishnuvardhana of the Hoy sala dynasty 
(C. 1111 to 1141) and is dated S 1063 Eaudn sam, Asviyup su 15 Thursday. S 



181 

is Baudri and S 1063 is Durmati. In neither of these years the tithi given coincides 
with Thursday. Taking the cyclic year as correct, the date corresponds to 28th 
September 1140 A D , a Saturday 

The king is said to have heen residing at Hullunitirtha at the confluence of 
Varada m Banavasenad. Hullum is also referred to in another record at Belgami 
(E C. VII Shikarpur 100) as the place where Somesvara Bhulokamalla, the Western 
Ohalukyan king is said to have encamped in his southern expedition The place 
has not been identified The additional information in the present record that it is 
situated at the confluence of the Varada river should help in locating it 

The king is also stated to have been engaged in the performance of the 
Tul&pumsha gift. 

The object of the record is to register a grant for a >iva temple set up by a 
subordinate of bhe king named Benteya Tippeya Nayaka near the eastern weir of 
the tank called Hiriyakere in Dorasarnudra Hmyakere is evidently the same as 
the tank Dorasamudra at Halebid and no >iva temple is now found therein But 
venous dismantled remains of a iva temple are found strewn throughout the tank 
bund of Dorasamudra tank and this would indicate that a Siva temple once stood at 
the spot referred to in the record but has now disappeared 

33 

On the broken cross-beam lying by bhe side of the middle sluice of the tank at 

Size 2' x 1' 
Kannada language and characters 



' x 1' 

s&dadd ^doSjay* srss?do 

2 dgsteao sooaJod sfcdaJod sjodsSd 3do3ja<&> 

3 s3;3jad;3 



4 d sdo^rl^ rtor1sraaa3i , 

Q o eO 

5 

6 - 

t) 

7 



8 

9 sfeja^cS^do I j)KJa3i5c>oaSy & donates* 

*** 



182 



10 

11, 

12 



a 



14 
15 
16 



13 030 $ I 

*Mf 

Transliteration. 

1. bahdode maledode malepara taleyol bahdnvan uditabha/ya- 

2. rasavasadim bahyada maieyada malepara taleyolu kaiyyidu- 

3. van odane Vmayaditya 5 ' toreyamtum kuliyamtum kerey& . 

4. dama negalda Gramgavadiya tombattaru-sasirm urola b&pp Ereyam- 

5. gana janakanantu dhaimmigal olare I! ghana-s'auryam Yadunandana- 

mnam pe- 

6. la satyavakya-Dinakrittanaya Vmayaditya-nnpalakan anupaman i 

7. tumban imbinim madisida f f Chalukya Vikramamkana kalam adomd adhi- 

kama- 

8. da vimsati sale tat-kaladal Isvara-varshadolu lirrmnannativa nesoda (?) 

9. madisidam Vinayaditya sthiram jiyat 
10, anupama kirtti muraneya Maruti a- 

11 ydeneja, samudra 

12 saD entaneya kula 

13. [pattane] ya nidhi prabhava 

14. Basaratha bhu 

15. tnguna 

16. tramge bhu 

Note 

The inscription is incomplete as several lines are lost between 11, 3 and 4 and 
several letters aie wanting in lines 10-15 and the rest of the inscription is completely 
lost as only a portion of the cross-beam has been found 



thatK, reignofthe Ho ^ la fang VinayHitya and states 
that he set np the sluice for the tank m the 2ist year of the Chalukya Vikrama era 
being the cyclic year jsvara This yeai corresponds to 1097 A.D. A similar 
record of his setting up a sluice foi the same tank Ddrasamudra at 
fame m the tank bund further off and is dated 1062 AJ> (B M A.K 

^ * ^ ^ oppo 



are said to have becone 



possessed of great valour deli r o v el e 1S Spoken of as 



183 






3to3fo orS &d3o o& 

-" zd 



o oqrscfo 



O 



the 10th treasure (nidhi) and is compared to Dasaratha (or Rama) The number 
96,000 occurring after Gangavadi is expressly stated here to indicate the number of 
villages in the kingdom 

34 

At the same village Halebld, on a pillar lying near the bund of the tank in 
the middle 

Kannada language and characters 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

r 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12. 

13 

14 

15 



IT 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 



25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

SO 

31. 

32, 



do 



Q 



oio 






O9 



Trans hteratwn. 



1. namas tumga-siras-chnmbi- 

2, chamdra-chamara-charave' trai- 

3 16kyam-nagararambha-mu- 

4 la-stambhaya Sambhave ' 

5. svasti samadhigata-pamcha- 

6 maha-sabda mahamam- 

7. daj&svara Tribhuvanama- 

8 ila-bhujabala-chakravartti 

9 H6sala Narasimha-devaru su- 
10 ka-samkata-vmodadi 

11. rajyamgaiuttire \ srlma- 

12. nmaha-pradhanam damdanayaka 

13. Kesimayyamgal damdanayaka 



184 

14. Bharatimayyamgalu damda- 

15. nayaka Udayiruayyamgalu 

16. mt-imbarum dharmmakke sahaya- 

17 ragi HPysila-devana deharada 

18 samayadalirddu Dumdubhi-samva 

19 tsara Chaitra suddha panehami Soma- 

20 varadandu srimatu Mallikarjju- 

21. na-devara naivedyakkam amgabho- 

22. gakkam srlrnatu Hoysala d^va- 

23 ru Srimatu Maileyamgalu Pamdi 

24 ta-devange daiapurvvakam ma- 

25 di bitta gadde Bidirakereya kelag a- 

26 ynura kambha i dharmnaamana- 

27 vanorbbam prati-pahsuvange 

28 Varanasi Kuraksh^fcra Praya- 

29 ge Argghya-tirthadalu k6ti-kavile- 

30 ya danageyda phala i dha- 

31 rmma 
32 



Note. 



This inscription lecords that certain subordinates of the Hoysala ki Nara- 
simha (I) named Mahap.adl^na Dandanayaka Ktomayya, DanLayal a Bhara- 



i yft muce oysaa ^ at ^ oi 

(worship of gods >) and also Malleya to make a grant for the services of the 

"" t00a0eferln8S ' "" e d ''^l 



o 

f 5 ^ of * la ^ ^low tho tank 



f ^ * ^ with tho 






the , 



5 

same as the Bharatimavva of t h. / J P> 5 ' He ls evi ^ntly the 

g-e* as Dundubh? r^oVa ; r t?;rM T* an^ **" f ^ Pr S6nt ^t 
the reign of Naraszla I x f 10 6 4 S??' ^ ^ ^ DUndubhl OOUr S 
4th Ma.ch 11 42 A D ; ^ ^ "** ^ tta year, the date corresponds to 
m the grant da7 being We ^esday and not Monday as stated 



185 
35 

At the same village Halebtd, on a pillai in the room to the south of the 
garbhagnha m the same Hoysal^svara temple (This was bi ought from the bed of 
the tank at Halebld) 

Kannada language and chaiacteis 






dob 2Fso&y3$c3s3d fc935rDF3 rio 



3 

O 

dowdo 



This record is incomplete as seveial letters at the end of each line are lost. 

It seems to record the gift of 3 salages of wet lands below the B61avagatta tank 
belonging to Hmyakere of Jivamgal and three hundred measures of dry land in 
Grangavura for the services of worship, repairs and innovations of the god Santinatha 
set up in a pattasale by Kavadeyara Jakkavve on behalf of or under the direction 
of the Jama guru Nayakirti-siddhanta-chandra The donor is named Surabhi 
Kumudachandra alias Nemichandrapandita, disciple of Nayaklrfeu The gr c ant was 
to continue in priestly succession from the guru to his disciple 

No king is named nor any details of date given The names Nayaktrti, etc , 
of the Jama gurus are very common and it is difficult to distinguish Nayaklrti of 
this record from others of the same name 

The characters seem to belong to the l^th century A.D. 

36 

At the village Halebid, on a vfragal kepc m a niche in the Nandirnaniapa of 
the Hoysales>ara temple 

Kannada language and characters 




24 



186 



3 

4 

m 
ca 

5 

6 



This records the exploits and death of a warrior named Benakaya S^ham, 
ahya (nephew or son-in-Jaw) of S6meya S^ham in a battle at Hinkere belonging to 
Anyara Kadur (or in a battle with the Areyas). This vlragal is stated to have 
been set up by Someya Sham 

The date is given as Yikan sam. Ph&lguna ba 11 Monday. The characters 
seem to belong to the 13th century and Yikto may be taken as g 1161 and the 
whole date as equivalent to Monday 20th Pebruary 1240 A D 

37 

On a slab in the dark room of the same KoysalSsvera temple at Halebid. 

4' XI' 6" 



4'xlJ' 



Ck) 

2 



3 - 



033d 



Note 



This inscription stone was ongmally preserved m a dark room used for the 
stores m fte Hoysal.svara temple It bears the marks of discus and 



stores m fte Hoysal.svara temple It bears the marks of discus and oon 
showuag that it records a grant to a Vishnu temple But it is ^ ^complete ^^nd 
some letters are lost being chipped off. incomplete and 

g6s ira BaMk 



ma uvah 6fe - 

B.nun 1 ,, et6re dtoll , othermcBptlm>sl!o(MAE > ",(, of 



iMoid Bee - to teto to 



187 
38 

At the same Tillage Halebld, on the lower side of the cross-piece m the door 
way of the garbhagnha of the Ranganatha temple 

Kannada language and characters 



ID 
2 



3 



4 

5 53d 



Note 

This records the gift of the above temple (the god theieof not being named) 
with the temple site by Baichaya Sahani } grandson of Lakeyasaham (who seems to 
have built the temple) to Vaijanatha, Ajjaya and Grummanna, grandson of 
Ankegumgal (?) The boundaries of the temple court are specified as the idjabidi 
(principal highway) to the east, west and north and empty space of 60 yards to 
south and another empty site to the north-west and all round boundary stones aie 
said to have been set up. 

The date of the grant is given as S 1161 Hemalambi sam. Magha ba 30, the 
holy occasion of Ardhodaya S 1159 is Hemalambi and taking this year the tithi 
given does not contain the elements necessary for Ardh6daya. But if we take 
Pushya ba Amav&sya, viz , the New Moonday on which Magha commences, the 
details will agree and the date corresponds to Sunday 17th January 1238 No 
king is named in the record. For Ardhodaya see M A B 1931, p 154 

39 

*> 

At the village Huhkere in the hobli of HalSbld, on a stone to the noith of the pond, 

Kannada language and characters 
rre^oti 
&> o 



2 53D&fc3o ^jsj^oaJDcaesi^ oto di eSo^aJD^S ers^a3o cSoKr^sfdo sjDo&>otf&3 



3 . 



JVote 

As the slab on which the record is engraved is broken and a portion of it is 
lost, the record is incomplete. It seems to register the repairs of the Jama temple 

24* 



188 

(basadi) at Homkunda, (a village near Balebld), by Bacheyadannayaka, brother-in- 
law (meyduna) of Meyduna Soineyadannayaka m the reign of the Hoysala king 
Narasimba. A tank is also said to have been repaired. 

The characters seem to belong to the close of the 13th century The date 
given, viz , Prajotpatti sam Chaitra su 1 Bnhavara may be taken as belonging to 
8 1193 Praj6tpatti. It would then be equivalent to 12th March 1271 AD., 
Thursday This falls within the reign of Narasimha III. 

40 

On a slab set up in the field of Marigauda to the west of the village Huhkere. 

Buses' 6"xl'-6" 
Kannada language and characters 



. 



2 

3 

4 

5 
6. 

T* djs^o rtocS r?oc$$d;>oz3 

8 



9 rt 

n ro 



10 agjaoto^ ^aiio^ <^^d 5n>d&oa3c3$S 
11 



13 

14 

15 d 



14 d S3Di3s3 33J3SkS3TdG50Gfc ^^ 43^^ OOft 



17. 3 63 des&rtfe3 d 

-* * 



18. 

19 

20 

21. dD j) [ sfcosfc&ssorf ^odo o 

22. 3U> 1 oo 



23. os^ e3g^ &ooi> 

t) 

24* 



189 



25 

26. 



PRAISE OF SAMBHU 

While the illustrious pratapa-chakravarti, loid of the earth, king of kings, 
ParamSsvara, lord of the excellent city of Dvar&vati, a sun to the firmament of the 
Y&dava race, crest-jewel of righteousness, king over Male chiefs, pumsher of 
Malepas, GS-andabh&runda, terrible m battle, unassisted hero, single warrior, mssanka- 
pratapa-chakravarfci, EEoysala Bhujabala Yira Narasimhadeva was lulmg the earth 
m peace and wisdom from his great capital D6rasamudra 

On Monday 1st lunar day of the bright half of Bh&drapada in the year Vyaya, 
1149th Saka year, Lehaka Heggade Mamchayya, son of Nilakantha Pandita, 
worshipper of the feet of Arnnfcalmgadevaru, M&diganda of Eanakigatta in Balagi- 
nad thirty and his younger brother's son Ballayya acting in unison received 18 
gadyanas together with presents of clothes and gave away with pouring of water and 
free of all imposts and as pmd&d&na, to last for as long as the moon, sun and 
stars continue, seven salages of earth called Kareya-Mannu, 2 salages of Mavma- 
mannu and 1 salage of Kninmaii, to G-andharbbarasi guru for the god Yisvan&tha- 
devaru belonging to Adi Gumm6svara 

Note 

This records the grant of some land for Visvanatha temple, by Lehaka 
Manchayva after receiving the price therefor of 18 gady&nas The date of the 
record S 1149 Yyaya sam Bh&drapada su 1 S6mavara is equivalent to 24th August 
1226 A.D , a Monday as noted in the grant. 

The king named in the record is Hoysala Narasimha II. 

41 

MYSORE DISTRICT. 

CHAMABAJANAG-AB TALUK. 

At Hale Alur m the hobh of Chandakavadi, on a slab at the entrance of the 

Ark6svara temple 

Size6'-9"x2'-6" 

Kannada language and characters. 



190 



tfoc&znft SJD<;ZOS? &9 wojDdo rnyfctf 






2. 
4 

6 

7 



s3ra& 



? (S 



8 

9 

10. 
11. 

12 

13 



23 

sg/s^rracS 



. ^J30rt [tf] 



cd 



o 537* c3JD 



[ftf] 



Note 

This record belongs to the reign of Vira Narasingadevarasaru and is dated S 1198 
Dh&tu sam Masi ba 30 Thursday corresponding to 4th February 1277 The date 
falls within the reign of the Hoysala king Narasimha III (1254-1291) who is named 
Vlra Narasingadevarasaru m the record 

The inscription registers the grant of some lands, dry, wet and garden m the 
village Aliiij free of taxes for services of the god Ark^svara therein. Alur is called 
Tenkanayyeyavale, the southern Ayyavale. The names of the donors cannot be 
clearly made out owing to some letters in the middle of lines 6 7 7 and 8 being quite 
worn out 

The usual itnpiecation occurs at the end of the inscription. 

42 

At the same village Hale Alur, on a slab in the navaranga of the De'se'svara 
temple 

Size 4' x 2'- 6" 
Tamil and Grantha characters Tamil language 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



Transl^terat^on 

svasti sii asahaysiira nissa [nka pra-] 
tapa Poysala srl Vira Valla, [Iad6] 
var prithivi-rajyam panni yarulamrka 
kkonda S61amandalattu Kan [kai] - 
kkonda Sdlavalanattu Pitta 
madu Aim Tiru-mulastanamudaiyar 
T&sinatharkku Kunangil Marakavu- 



TAMIL SUPPLEMENT 

42 

Afc ttte village BEale A.lu.1 in Ghamarajaiiagai Taluk, on a slab in tb.e 

riavaiallga of the X>6-5e4va.ia Temple, 



8 

9. 



11. 



IB. 



4' x 2'-6" 

and Grianfclia ChaLacteis Tarr>il Language 



2. 

S. u/f *u t^l<s)jrrr^ \ 



5. ^Q^e/roa^ri _ Q^=/TLp<si/6yr/5/r (5) 

6 /-o orrrs <S&L tu/r/r 



15. 

16 

17. 

18 



the Tillage Karasamangala m the hobli of JETaiadanahalh on a stone slab buned in the 
earth to the north of the Barnalinga Temple. [Plate XXV] 

Size d/xS'-G" 

Tamil and Grantha Oharacteis and Tamil Language 

Fiont Side 



, 
6. 



8. Qi-/(77jL>/r 



17 



21. 



23 
24 



2. eisdrsrr ^susar sx_ Lo"/r \ 

'2) 

3 

4 

O. 



<sn)fr 

7 



ear 



10. STO^^St) ^^/Tfl-tJ-j^ Ql_JQF) 
11. 
12. _ cz -< 

Back Side 



191 

8 ndan roakan Ankakk&mundan Pabha- 

9 va-sarnmachcharattu Hishabha-m&sattu a- 
10. mavase Somavarattu Kart ti- 
ll kkamal .... .... 

12 . selvadaga vaitta 

13 tirunandavilakk onru it-tha- 
14. ramattai alrvu-saivan Kenkai- 

15 yidai Kumari-yidai kkurar 

16 pasuvai kkonra brahmatik- 

17. kelvau aram-aravarkkaram alla- 

18 du tunai yillai Tesiy^chan-ma- 

19. kan Naranachto 



Note. 

This record is of the reign of Yira Vallala, probably the Hoysala king Vira 
Ballala II (1173-1220 AD) A certain gauda named Ankakkamundan, son of 
Kunangil Marakamundan is stated to have set up a perpetual lamp in the temple 
of D&sinatha at Alur situated in Mu dikonda-solaraandala and G-angaikkonda 

* 

861avalanadu The usual imprecation is contained at the end of the record The 
engiayer of the grant is named Naranachan, son of Desiyachari. 

The date is given as Prabhava samvatsara, Vrishabhamasa, Amavasye, 
Monday, with the constellation Krittika No saka year is given Taking Vira 
Ballala II, Prabhava corresponds to 1 207 A D The New Moon Bay of Vnshabha 
or Vais&kha, m this year corresponds to Saturday April 28, with the constellations 
Bharani and Krittika, This would make the constellation correct but the week- 
day is wrong It is difficult to account for the mistake in the name of the week day. 

Even if we take Ballala Ill's reign, the year Prabhava corresponds to 1327 
and Vrishabha Am&v&sya is neither a Monday nor has the constellation Krittika. 
Hence this day is not very probable The former date, viz , April 28, 1207 may be 
taken as the date intended though the week day is incorrect 



43 

At the village Udigala in the hobli of Harave, on a slab set up in front 

of the Mantesvtoi shrme. 

Size ^'-6'xl'-6". 
Kannada language and characters 



192 



rbfcoto 






t*$al ri ^o oo oo 



2 
3 

4 

5 ofodolcrasb o-s&o&d^ 

6 

t * w w^r > ' wu i rwww w. 



8 
9. 

10 
11 
12 
13 

14 



oJo rreorf 



r\ 



*z) 



23C3CO 



This msciiption is incomplete as a portion in the right side and fche bottom of 
the inscription slab are broken and lost 

The record belongs to the reign of the Vijayanagar king Sadasivaraya when 
Bamarajayade~Ya or Ramaraya was ruling the earth as stated in the record It is 
dated S 1473 Virodhiknt Jyeshta su 10, equivalent to May 15, 1551 A D 

It seems to register the grant of the village II diyagala (same as Udigala) situated 
m Hadmadu-smie with its hamlets as a kodagri to a chief (whose name is lost except 
the initial letter Si) of Arekothara (same as the present Chamarajanagar in the 
Mysore District) by Timmaraja Arasu of Nandyala who is stated to be the agent 

of the king B&mar&jayade'va 

44 

At the same village Udigala, on a stone set up near the temple 
called Bornmanagudi to the east 

Size 2' x 1'. 

Kannada language and characters 
eroarrao 



Note 

This records the gift as kodagi (rent-free land granted to some one for services 
lone) of a plot of land (probably the field near the msciiption stone) to Lmgeya. 
further details are given The characters seem to belong to the 17th century 



193 



45 

At the village Uganedahundi in the same hobh of Harave, oa a stone 
set up on the road to the south of the Basavesvara temple 

Size 2i' x 1' 
Kannada language and characters. 



godsS a020<i? ero7i;3c3 



Note. 

This inscription records the setting up of the ahove slab called Haaumana- 
kallu (it has a figure of Anjaneya above the inscription) for a person named Konaya 
by the chiefs of Uganekote The usual imprecation that the destroyer of the ahove 
would be guilty of the sin of slaying cows on the banks of the G-anges is next 
given. No further details are found in the record 

The characters seem to belong to the 16th century 

The object of the record seems to be to grant some land rent-free to the donee 
and the relievo-figure of AnjanSya carved appears to correspond to the Lmga and 
Vtatana carved on stones set up in lands to tnaik the gifts of lands to gods or 
Brahman s 

46 

At the same village, on a slab buried in the land of 
Madappa to the east 

Size 3' x 3'. 

Kannada language and characters 

25 



194 

3ori 



steJOsJg 



2, sS)SLSt) 

9 

3. 

4 5*3 

o 

5 
8 



sJgsJ 



^dricrt 



8 

9 

10 



Sosfc^d 






oort, 



cdod 



12 

14 






16 

<* V 

17 o3:d siort osstooorl 
18. oo ^^F sratfofosSE: 

^ ^^^ 



do 

tr oo GS 

sdddo to 



2 

3 

Front side 

1 svasti samata prasasti-sahita sriroa- 
2. man mahamandal^svara prufchivi-vallava 
maha-rajadhiraja Ylraganga Yishnu- 
varddhana-hoysala-devaru Gangavadi Tom- 
battaru-saTira-rajya suka-santafea-vinodadi 
pntuYt-rajyam geyutamire Sakavansha 
gat^shu sasirada aruvataidaneya Su- 
bhakratu-samvaehohaia Sravana bahula 
panclaami Sdmavaradalu Ennena- 
da Uguneyada hrodeyara Chavu- 
nda-gavimdana maga 



3 

4 
3 

6 

7. 

8 

9. 

10 

11. 



Back side 



(Lmga with a man with folded hands to its left) 

Bavaji 
yara so- 
rftpa 



195 

12 Chati-gavunda Ktayya-ga- 

13. vundana maga D&va-gavu- 

14 ndanu Eamad^vara d&v&lya- 

15. va madi a ondu pala mannu gana- 

16 denneyumam Chahkya-vamsada Devaji- 

17. yara maga Ramahnga-panditara ka- 

18. lam karchchi dhareyaneradu kotaru 
Pack side (across) 

1 svadattam paradattam ba y6 ha- 

2. rdti vasundhara" 6ashti ru 

3 varusa-sahasrani vishtayam jayate krimi 

Translation. 

Be it well While the illustrious mahamandal^svara, prithvt-vallabha, maha- 
rajadhiraja, possessed of excellent attributes, Vlraganga Vishnu vardhana Hoysala- 
dSvaru was ruling m peace and wisdom the Grangavadi Ninety-six Thousand 
kingdom 

On Monday, the 5th lunar day of the dark half of Sravana m the cyclic year 

^ _ *y i/ 

Subhaknt, 1065 years having expired in the Saka era 

The senior masters (herodeyaru) of the village Ugune in Ennenad named 
Chatigavunda, son of Chavundagavunda and Devagavunda, son of K&tayyagavunda 
set up a temple of B&mad&varu and after washing the feet of JtUrnahngapandita, 
son of Devajlya of Ohahkya-vamsa, gave him with pouring of water, one pala of 
land ? and the oil in the oil mill 

He who confiscates land given by oneself or by others will be bom as a worm 
m hell for sixty-thousand years. 

Note. 

This inscription belongs to the reign of the Hoysala king Vishnu vardhana and 
records the erection of a temple of R&mad6varu by the heads of the village "Dgune 
(same as Ugane-huiidi) and the grant of some land and a measure of oil extracted 
from the oil mill set up in front of the village to the priest Both the temple and 
the oil mill have now almost completely disappeared Although the temple is 
called Bamadevara-devalya (temple of Batnadevaru) the figure of a hnga is carved 
on the back of the inscription and the local people also speak of it as a Siva temple 
gone to rums recently To the left of the hnga is the figure of a person with folded 
hands and the letters Bavajiyara sorupa in Eannada are carved by the side of the 
figure Who this B&vajiyaru was is not stated in the record The donors are two 
gaudas, Ghatigaunda and Devagavunda The donee is B&malingapandita, son of 
D^vajiya. Apparently B&vajlya was a relative, perhaps a cousin of D^vajiya 

25* 



196 

Another peculiar statement in the record is regarding the statement that 
Bimahngapandita, the donee was of Chalikya-vamsa, Which was this Chalikya 
family ? Had this any connection with the well-known dynasty of the OhAlukya 
kings 9 Probably not, as the donee seems to have been a priest, perhaps a Saiva or 
KAltaukha Brahman as his name denotes and certainly not a kshatriya like the 
Chalukyas. 

Eegarding the date of the record there is some confusion, although it is 
expressed in words and not in figures The date is given as 8 1065 Subhakrit sam. 
SrAv ba fi Monday bufc S 1065 is equivalent to Budhirodgari and not Subhakrit 
according to lumsolar calendar. Even if we take the Jupiter cycle, the 
year S 1065 corresponds to Kshaya and not Subhakrit. The nearest Subhakrit IB 
S 1044 (AD 1122J Taking this year Srav. ba 5 is equivalent to 24th Monday 
July 11 22 AD though the tithi commences late at night. Perhaps this is the 
date intended 

The usual mrprecatoiy verse occurs at the end of the record, 

47 

At the village Kottalavadi, on a slab set up m a platform to the south 
of fche Basava temple (E IV, Chamara 3 anagar Taluk 191 revised). 

Size 5'x2'-3". 

Kannada language and characters 
es osrea n^sfca uatefcfrtoarf 



191 



3 rfc&j 3? s&sasjvS 

ta -j 

4 F^V] <& SSSSioS Zffc 

5^ '**' (y sw ~ fT} ~ ' ~ I "^ "** *"*' *irtrf s^ QA/W r i ^^ A 

fd I C37)TrT7iriSjo^rt r^rr-^^is^ w ~-> 3_j _,. ._ . L " 

6 

7 "*-\^ri -*-^ w *j " * v & *~^ 

8 
9 



<y 

10 



v-,^^ W v/wv wu^cOJO ^raoS ,SD3J i$$ rjA 

11, aj3c&> tf Etaro ^^ ^ttOT tf cxactoo d^ 
% ^^^^l^^S 

"- - ~[dj 



**, 

o aa 

d ^ 



197 



14 [&] 3rtd noS 

15 po] d s-aqftS s&s&^doo ^sjo&i s^ok^o^ofo craw. 

16 3313 



17 [rlo] d cjss&dsSotfjoocs rlocs as^ostoacS, sSsJ^r sr^aJaS [des] 

18 srsocSy idtf 3s3otfsj;3 ^iowddoo ^desrsrl^ sj^3do&jd rdoo] 



19 a^Fortsra do$doo 

20 qS^doo 33DD^cS ajdsSo 

Q 

21 



22 
23 
24 ^-scS^^d^oo ^d^esoaD ddeD^a^ja^o s3oso?boSi?ra 

25. 

26 c&> ^JD^ ^osj^dcs $^ u o srs 

27 ea^o^cSjD^o 2r,es3cJc3CTs&i ^o^^o^rsd rrfo] S^^A e 



28 cdo^^ostso sjddo y s&sqj5jcfoe8 r D cc5i 

<% 

29 ^doc^^cdo^es'-D o&Sdoo 

4 

30 
31 
32 



Translation 

Victorious is Jan&rdana, who causes success to the Bhagavatas that loye him, 
tlie master of K&nclii pun and the lord of Sri The s&sana of the 

auspicious All&lanatha which is the charter of righteousness is profound, sweet, 
clear, and brings happiness to those who bow to him. 

Be it well While the refuge of the universe, favourite of bhe goddess of 
fortune and of earth, king of kings, supreme lord, lord of the city of Dv&ra?ati, sun 
to the firmament, the Yadaya family, crest-jewel of righteousness, uprooter of the 
Makara kingdom, estabhsher of the Chola kingdom, the upholder of the Pandyas 
possessed of these and other attiibutes descending to him from his paternal 
ancestors the illustrious Some&yara's son Narasimhadeva was shining 

His son setter up of a sbone pillar at Kanchi, an Agastya to the ocean the 
eighteen ( ? ) forts, possessed of a character shining everywhere with infinite lustre, 
pratapa-chakravarti Hoysala bhujabala &ri Vira Ballalaraya was ruling the earth in 
D6rasamudra 

A dependant on his lotus feet the great son of Perum&ladandan&tha, who was 
a moon in causing delight to the blue lily the Modeya family, and was the son of 



198 

Bhimadeva, and the pumsher of adulterers, conqueror of Nilagiri, Immadi Rahut- 

taraya 

While the establisher of the Hoysala kingdom, a Rama in battle, Death to 
Eongas, pursuer of Arasuganda-B&rna, plunderer of the wealth of Vis&lamudre, an 
elephant to the lotus garden, the Pandya army, an adamantine cage to the refugees,. 
favourite of the goddess of glory, worshipper of the holy lotus feet of the god 
AMlan&tha, obtamer of boons fiom Parasara, the great Bhattar&ka, devoted to the 
vow of fikadasi, lover of cows and Brahmans, bestower of camphor and gold 
incessantly, brother to strangers and to wives of others, lord of Svastikapura, maha- 
mandiahka, and lord of nadu was governing the Padiualku-nadu in 

peace and happiness from his residence at Terakanambi 

Be it well In the year Saka 1225, the cyclic year Sobhakrit, on the 1st lunar 
day of the dark half of Ghaitra with the constellation Svati, the above Madhava- 
dannayaka and Ketaya-dannayaka set up the god Varadaraja All&lunatha at 
Terakanambi and granted with pouring of water for services of the god (some lands 
the details of which are lost) after obtaining the same (land). 

He who destroys the gift of land made by oneself or by others will be born as 
a ^orm in ordure for sixty thousand years 



Note. 

This record has been fully revised and re-published Some letters however at 
the end and beginning of many lines are lost due to carelessness while dressing the 
slab for getting up in the platform in the village Also one or two lines have 
been lost at the bottom probably due to the same cause 

The inscription belongs to the reign of Ballala III, son of Narasuaha III, the 
Hoysala king It is dated 6 1225, &6bhatat Ghaitra ba i with Sv&ti constellation 
corresponding to April 3, 1 303 A D on which date we find the Svati constellation 
after do ghatikas ending at sun-rise 

The epigraph records the setting up of the god Varadaraja called AllalamUha 



r r f Padm ^unad at Terakanambi, hie headquarters. 

IhisMMhav^dannayakawasthesonof Perumaludeva-dannayaka, who was the 
governor of the same kingdom and minister under Narasimha III Tho usual titles 

^ 



7 ? if ^f e ^ Ka ^- da ^ak aj who is known to have been he 01 
of Madhava-dann%aka is stated to have been associated with his father 



PLATE XXV 



521 



03 

a 



EH 
3 

< 
M 



g 

P 
(-3 

3 

P 
P3 

P? 
PH 

P=f 
O 

{2J 
O 



o 

CQ 



O 

R 

CQ 




OS 
rH 



00 

^H 

O 



Ss 



199 



48 

At the village Narasarnangala in the hobh of flaradanahalli, on a stone slab 
buried in the earth to the north of the Bamahnga temple [Plate 

Size 4'x2'-6" 
Tamil and Grantha characters and Tamil language, 



Transliteration. 
Front side 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5. 

6 



13 

14 

15 

16, 

17. 

18 



svasti srl Posala Vlrava- 
llajadevan prithivi-rajya- 
m panni yarula mkka 
Mudakkulaiyaril sriman 
maha-pradhanan inimadi-ra- 
huttarayan 



Eeverse 



Tamramulaiyile vit- 
ta kalani nalu salakai 
Jagatappapahyile man 
ayiramum vitten 
Perumadevanena 
idin vidaiyattat- 
tai i-dharnmattai 



7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



20 
21 
22 
23 
24, 



dharan sitakaragandan 
Perunia [la] de"va,-daaina- 
yikkar Narasmga-naanga- 
lafctii Janardhdhana-peru- 
malukku EaniasatDudratti- 
1 kile amudupadikkaga 



alippinavan Gran- 
gai-kaiaiyile go- 
vai vadhiohcha pavatte p6- 
van 

srl Alalanatha (Kannada 
characters) 



Translation 

Be it well While Posala Yira Vallaladeva was pleased to rule the earth : 
Peruma [la] deva-dannayakkar of the Mudakkulaiyar, mahapradhana, immadi- 
rdliuttardya, conqueror of Nilagm, pumsher of adulterers made a giffc for the 
services of offering food to the god Jan&rdana m Narasmgamangala of four ialdkoH 
of rice land below the tank Eamasamudra in Taniramulai and 1,000 mannu m 
Jagatappapah I, Perumadeva 

He who destroys this temple court (vidaiyMtam) and this act of chanty will 
incur the sin of killing cows on the banks of the G-anges. 

rl Allalanatha 

Note 

This belongs to the reign of the Hoysala king Vira Vallala-ddvan (Ballala IH) 
and records the grant of some wet and dry lands by his minister Peramalad^va- 
dann^yaka for services in the temple of Janardana in Narasmgamangala (same as 
INarasamangala). No Janardana temple is now found at Narasamangala. But a 



200 

fine image of Jan&rdana was found buried to the south of the Bamalmga temple,. 

was taken out during the tour Apparently a small temple of Janardana stood 
to the south of the Ramahnga temple. 

Though the inscription is in Tamil and Grantha characters the signature 
AlElanatha signifying the god Yaradaraja, the family deity of the donor Permnftla- 

is given m Kannada characters This indicates that Perumalad&va was a 
native of the Kannada country and was accustomed to sign his name in Kanna4a 
characters Ever since the bifurcation of the Hoysala kingdom in the time of 
Bimanatha, Tamil seems to have been often used for the inscriptions m the south 
and east of Mysore Hence the use of the Tamil language and the Tamil and 
Grantha script for the record m a Kannada area 

No date is given. The record belongs to the reign of Ballala III (1291-1842) 
and its date may be put down at about 1300 A D. 

49 

On the right side of the same temple 
Kannada language and characters 



i ;3oi2 a , . 

4 

o 

"" """" ' 5 



No*e 



date is given nor is the donor named 
The characters seem to b 
-de by Per^la-dann^a 



50 

OB a stone I null to the so.th of the same lU.aUng^ara tonaple 

at JSarasamangala 
Kannada language and characters. 



2. 




201 
Note. 

This is an inscription written on an oil-mill. Some letters at the end of each 
line are lost. 

The epigraph seems to record the erection of the oil-mill by a person named 
Kadagauda, son of Kautagauda, who was she son of Katade'va of M31ur for services 
of the god Ram anat hade varu (same as the -Ramahngesvara temple). 

The characters seem to belong to the 14th centuiy 

51 

At the same village Nara^aniangala, on a slab m the ceiling of the mukhamantapa 
in the shrine of the Saptainatrikas to the south-west of the same Bamsb- 
hng&svara temple. 

Size 5'x2'-6" 

Kannada language and characters. 

casters 



2. 
3 



4. rt 



G> 

5'X2}' 

&yQ 

5, 
6 



7 &3 ^jsdAoto rlcS 

1 G> 

8 ^c 



This records the gift of a nee land of the sowiog capacity of 24 salages as 
Tcodagi (gift of rent-free land) for the god JRtaian&tha of Narasimhamangala (same 
as Narasamangala) by the minister !nahpradh&na K&taya-dannayaka, son of 
M&dappa-dannyaka m the year Bh&va 

Ketaya-dannayaka, governor of Padmalknnad and minister during the reign of 
the Hoysala king Ball^bla III has been referred to m a previous grant, 

Regarding the date only the cyclic year Bhava is given and no other details. 
The characters seem to belong to the end of the 13th century or beginning of the 
-14th century As Ketaya-dannfryaka is the donor, the year Bh&va may be taken as 

equivalent to 1334 A D when Ballala III was king 

26 



202 



At the 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 



52 

same village Narasamangala, on a slab south of the Rcamabmgesvara 
temple (B 0. IV, Chamarajanagar 205) revised 

Size2'-6"x<2'-3". 

Kannada language and characters 

205 



e 



od 

.F 



RJ 



204 



ea 



sjorl 



Q 



cdo 



OD 



12 

13 dtf 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18. 

19 

20. 

21 



cO 



ov 



Z> 



rto/lcd: 



srs 



sracdo^^ ^ 



S m oontmuat1011 of tbe inscription No. 204 of Cara- 
Taluk and ie engraved on a slab adjacent to it The characters are sl lg ht?y 
worn out and the record as published before was full of lacunae. The mscr ptaon 
is now fully revised and re-pubhsbed. inscription 



, f 



The present record ngutets that during their rule of 



to on looms) 
-angala. It 






recorded that the village was granted free of all 



Nar asim ha- 
imposts and 






A ol 







given 






of 



es ol latfi ani togiir to ml the gift 

VIV v Q g Ij 

lit to the god Bamanitta roth pourmg of 

w 

4 1 1 1 1 /I 

of the sift is next stated to he the holy day ot 







o 






ing to 
and the i 





tie 






li 



of the village er 

u u 




to 












on 








8 





The usual iDrecata is at tie encl of the 





LIST OF INSCRIPTIONS PUBLISHED IN THE REPQBT, ARRANGED 

ACCORDING TO DYNASTIES AND DATES 



206 



LIST OF INSCEIPTIONS PUBLISHED IN THE BEPOBT 



Page 
in the 
Beport 


i Inscription 
number 
in the 
Beport 

j 


Date 


Ruler 


i 




G-ANG-A. 


! 






146 


21 


No date C 9th Century A D. 


Satyavakya 








Bachamalla II. 








HOYSALAS. 


181 


33 


21st ye_ar of the Ghalukya Vikrama 
era, Isvara-1097 A D 


Vmayaditya 


158 


27 


S 1028 Vyaya-1106 AD 


Ballala I 


152 


25 


S 1031 Virodhi sam. Bhad. su 3 


(Yishnuvardhana ?) 






, Aug 1, 1109 A D., 




193 


46 


S 1065, Subhakrit, Srav ba 5 


Do 






Monday-24th July,_1122AD 




176 


32 


S 1063 Baudn sam Asviyuja s"u. 


Do 






15 Thursday-28th Sept. 1140 








A.D 




171 


29 


No date 12th Century A D. 


Bittideva or Vishnuvardhana. 


183 


84 


Dundubhi Chaitra su. 5 Monday 


Narasimha I 






, (4th March 1142 A D?) 




159 


28 


S 1086 Prabhava Pushya su 14 


Do 






Sornavara Uttarayana Sankra- 








rnana- ? 5th Jan. 1148 A D 




172 


30 


Saka 1084 Chitrabhanu 1162 


Do 






, AD. 




160 


24 


S 1103 Plava Ashadha ^u 12 Thurs- 


Ballala II 






^ day (June 25, 1181 A D.) 




135 


17 


S 1117 Bakshasa sam. Magha &u 


Do 






15 Yaddavara Uttarayana san- 




153 


26 


, kranti (AD. 15th Feb. 1196?) 
SI 118 (1196 A.D) 


Do 


190 


42 


Prabhava sam Vnshabha masa 


Do 






Amavasye Monday (?) 28th April 


-A* VV f> 






1207 A.D, 




125 


10 


S 1136 Bhava sam Vaisakha du 10 


Do 






Monday (21st April 1214 A.D ) 


J-S\J 



207 
ABRANGED ACCOKDING- TO DYNASTIES AND DATES 



Contents and Eeniarks 



Records the death of a warrior named Peggade Nayaka, while fighting during a cattle 
raid in Kalgundipura, 



States that the king set up the sluice for a tank and eulogises him. 

Kegisters gifts to two Siva temples, pioviding for the daily worship and othei ser- 
vices including music both vocal and instrumental, 

Describes the death of a warrior while fighting in Tagaie-nad, 

Becords the erection of a temple of Eama by the heads of the ullage Ugune and stwae 
endowment to the priest who belonged to the Chahkyavamsa. 

Eegisters grant to a Siva temple erected by Benteya Tippeya Xayaka, a subordinate 
of the king The king is said to have been residing at Bullum-tirtha m Yaiada-saugama 
in Banavasenad 

Eecords the death of Beda-gauda, son-m-law of Masana-gauda of Konenl during a 
cattle-raid 

Eecords that certain subordinates induced Hoysaladeva to make a grant for the 
services of the god Mallikarjuna below the tank Bidirakere 

Eecords that Bittibova, a subordinate of Nardsimha set up the God Bittlsvara at 
Belur and made a grant of lands to this god and to God Jagatlsvara also 

Eecords that certain gaudas made a gift of lands for the services and daily worship 
of the God Annatesvara at Tagare , 

Eecords the gift of a village in Bakvinadu for the services of the God 

at Belur ? by Yrra Ballala II ,-,^,11 * / 

Eecords that Jayagonda Nayaka, Macheya Naj aka and Chikka-gauBda of 
made a gift of lands for services of Mulasthana Siva temple at that village. 



Eecords bhat Samanta Mara, a subordinate, created an 
God Chennakesava at Yelahanka He constructed two tanks 
and Brahma Samudra and granted also 10 gadyanas from the income o te vi ag a 

Eecords that a certain Ankakkamundan set up a perpetual lamp in the .tiupt 

Desmatha at 



*$ 6 * 



208 



List of Inscriptions published in the Eeporfc 



Page 
m the 
Eeport 


_. 

Inscription 
number 
m the 
Report 


_~ - 
Date 


Buler 


188 


40 


S 1149 Yyaya Bhad su 1, Monday 


Narasimha II . . 


124 


9 


-24th August, 1226 A J). 
1181 Kalayukti sam Phalguna 


Narasirnha III 






su 1 (26th Jan. 1259 A D ) 




186 


37 


C close of the 12th Cent 


Yira Ballala II 


JL\J\J 

187 


39 


PraptpattiChaitrasu. 1 Brmavara 


Narasimha III , . 






(12th March 1271 A D ) 




147 


23 


6 1199 Dhatu, Jyeshtha ba. 9 


Do 






Yaddavara (6th June 1276 A D.) 




189 


41 


A 1198 Dhatu, Masi ba. 30 Thurs- 


Do 






day (4th Feb 1277 A D.) 




200 


49 


C 14th Century 


(Ballala III?) 


142 


18 


S 1211 Yirodhi sam. MargaSira 


Narasimha III 






ba 10 Su (9th December 1289 








A.D) 




199 


48 


No date 


Ballala III 


196 


47 


S 1225, Sobhakrit Chaitra ba 1 


Do 






(April 3, 1303 A.D ) 




174 


31 


No date, C 1310 


Do 


201 


51 


Bhava, 1334 AD 


Do 


202 


52 


& 1258,, Dhatu, Magha ba. 14, 


Vira Ballala III 






Bn. Sivaratri, (30th January 








1337 AD). 










YlJAYANAGAEA. 


146 


22 


S 1436, Bhava sam Asviyuja 4u 


Krishrxaraya 






10 (September 28th 1514 A.D.) 




191 


43 


S 1473, Virodhiknt Jyeshtha s"u 10 


Radasivaraya 






(May 15, 1551 A D ) 





209 
arranged according to Dynasties and Dates 



Contents and Eemarks 



Eecords a grant of land for the Yisvanatha temple. 

Eecords the death of a wanior Soviyanayaka, Chief of the village of Chikkagondi 

Appears to record some grant of land 

Recoids repairs to a Jama Basti by Baeheya Dannayaka 

Describes an attack on Dorasamudra, the Hoysala capital, by the Sevuna general 
Saluva Tikama. A warrior named Khandeya Baya Raneya is stated bo have fought hard 
on the side of the Hoysalas and died in the battle 

Eegisters some grant of land at Alur for services of 6-od Arkesvara. 

Eecords the grant of the sthana or place of a trustee in the Janardana temple at 
Narasamangala. 

Eecords that the Mahajanas of ISlagavedi along with Sivaneyadannayaka made a grant 
of lands for services of illuminations, food offerings, and perpetual lamps of Bamme- 
vara at ISTagavedi. 

Eecords the gift of some wet and dry lands by the minister Perumala Deva 
Dannayaka for services in the temple of Janardana in Narasamangala 

Eecords the setting up of God Varadaraja by Madhava Dannayaka, G-overnor of 
Fadiaalkunad at Terakanarnbi. 

Eecords a battle at Madavalli between the forces of the Hoysala King Ballala III and 
the army of the Beuna King Sankarna 

Eecords the gift of a rice land for she G-od Eamanatha of Narasauiangala by the 
minister Mahapradhana Keteya Dannayaka 

Eegisters that some subordinates of the King Yira Ballala III, durmg their rale over 
Torenad, made a grant of the village Narasamangala with all its revenues for the service 
of the God Barnanatha of that place 

Eecords the setting up of the Garudastambha in the Ghennakesava temple at Belur 
by a subordinate of Knshnaraya named Jakkannpa, son of Timtna 

Eegisters the grant of the village Udiyagala, situated m Hadmadu-sime by Timma- 
raja Arasu of Naodyala. . 



210 



List of Inscriptions published in the Eeport 



Page 
in the 
report 



Inscription 

number 

in the 

report 



Date 



Buler 



185 



133 



134 



134 



132 



121 



36 



14 



15 



16 



13 



3 



Vikan,Phalba.ll,Monday-20th 
February 1240 A D 9 

Yibarna Bhad. ba 14th Tuesday 
24th September 1280 A.D.? 

S 1216 Vijaya, Magba su. 11, 
Yaddavara S a t u r d a y, 9th 

f January 1294 A.D 

Sobhakntu, Marg. su 1, Monday 
9th December 1303 A.D.? 

Sadharana, Phal. su. 5 Thursday 
~25th March 1311 A.D.? 

0, 15th Century 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



211 
arranged according to Dynasties and Dates 



Contents and Eemarks 



A Yiragal recording the_exploits and death of a warrior named Benakaya Saham in a 
battle at Hinkere with the ireyas 

Records the death of one Mallayya of Halkiir while fighting at the entrance of the 
village 

Eecords the death of Bayichayya while fighting against an attack by robbers on the 
road to Arasiyakere 

Yiragal recording that a certain Mahya Jakkagauda fought and died during a cattle 
raid at Halkiir. 

Eecords the death of Malli Setti and others of Hmyabegere and while defending the 
cattle of the place. 

Merely mentions the name of Sankara Bharati, a Snngeri Pontiff (?) It shows that 
this guru resided at Kamkatte for some time. 



212 



APPENDIX 'A 1 

* 

CONSERVATION OF MONUMENTS, 
During the year 1936-37 

(Based on th Anmd Report of the Government Architect, Bangalore ) 

The Government Architect and his Assistant toured m several distncts and inspected m all 

80 monuments The local officers m charge of the monuments were 
Inspection of Monuments mstiucted then and there to rectify the defects and damages noticed 

in the monuments and to keep the piemises perfectly clean and tidy 
Eenovation woik of the temples at Belur and EUiebid was earned on systematically and a sum 

of Es 35,000 was spent for the work during the year Proposals 
Renovation for the renovation of the following monuments weie also received 

during the year and were scrutinised 

(i) Temples and Bastis at Saligiama 

(11) Tenkataramanasvami temple at Alambgm 

On the question of ^classification of monuments, Government ordered that suitable rules should 

first be framed under the Ancient Monument Preservation Eegula- 

Rectification of Ancient tion before any classification can be attempted, and directed that the 

Monuments Director of Archaeology, the Muzrai Commissioner and the Chief 

Engineer should form members of the Committee for this purpose The Committee was not, however, 

able to meet during the year 

A statement of expenditure incurred during the year for the repairs and maintenance of Ancient 
Expenditure on Conservation. Monuments is appended 



213 



STATEMENT SHOWING THE EXPENDITURE INCUERED FOE THE 
EEPAIE AND MAINTENANCE OF ANCIENT MONUMENTS IN 
THE STATE DUEIN& THE YEAE 1936-37 



Arsikere 
Halebid 
Manjarabad 

Nandi 



Doddaballapur 

Hoskote 

Anekal 

Devanhalli 

Nelamangala 

Chennapalna 



Bhadi avati 

Keladi 

Ikken 

Belgavi 

Talgunda 

Udn 



Anmtapur 
Devanur 



Heggere 
Molakalmuru 



HASSAN DISTRICT. 

Isvara temple 
,,. Kedaresvara temple 
. Foit 

KOIAE DISTRICT 

Bhoga-Nandlsvara temple 
... Toga-Nan dlsvara temple 

BANGALOEB DISTEICT 

Gha4i Subrahmanya temple 
.. Monuments 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 

SHIMOGA DISTRICT. 

Lakshmmarammhasvann temple 

Bamesvara temple 

Aghoiesyara temple 
... Gandabherunda Pillar 

Pranavesvara temple 
... Lakshmmarasimha temple 

KADUE DISTEICT 

Amntesyara temple 
. Lakshmikanbasvami temple 

CHITALDEUG DISTEICT 

Jam Basti 

Asoka Inscuptions 



Amount of estimate Amount 
sanctioned spent 

Es a p Es a p 

620 00 581 8 

100 92 6 

1,000 00 411 



181 
170 



176 
170 



4409 12 6 3,824 9 

390 
1,985 12 348 15 

332 

120 

804 00 591 



5,854 2,669 

3,200 2,515 

1,314 00 493 

2,500 1,135 

1,500 1,448 

900 831 



115 
280 



20 
60 



110 
105 



20 
60 



214 



MONUMENTS, ETC., INSPECTED BY THE DIRECTOR OF 
ABCH^OLOGY AND HIS ASSISTANTS. 

During the year 1936-37 



(Asterisk denotes Protected Monuments.) 



MYSOEE DISTBICT 



Taluk 
Heggadadevanakote .., Matakeri 



Village 



Gundlupet 



Obamara] anagai 



Heggadadevanakote 



Kittur 



Sargur 

Mullura 
Kotekere 

Bagbavapura 

Hangala 

Himavad-Gopalasvami Hill 
Gundlupefc 



Ti ly amb akapnr a 
Terakanambi 



Huliganamai adi 
N ara satn angala 

Haradanaballi 

Venkatayyanacbatra 
Haralakote 



Monuments, etc 

Kamesvara temple 
Ancient site 
Somesvaia temple 
Yaradarajasvami temple 
Eamesvara temple 
Jam Basti 

Ancient site of Kirtipura 
SSmesvara temple 
Laksbminarasimba tenaple 
Laksbmikantasvami temple 
Venugopala temple 
Other temples 
Laksbminarayana temple 
Bamesvara temple 
Varddaraja temple 

Gopalasvami templ 

*Vi]ayanarayana temple 
temple 
tenaple 

Triyambakesvara temple 

Lakshmi Yaradarajasvami temple 

Gopalasvami temple 

Aiijaneya temple 

Venkataramanasyami temple 

Bamesvara temple and surrounding 
structures 

Anilesvara temple 

Gopalakushna temple 

"Venkatesa temple 

Ancient site of Manrpura Fort 

Anjaneya temple 

Janardana temple 

Virabbadra temple 



215 



Sermgapatam 



Shimoga 
Chennagm 



Honnah 



Hanhai 



Chamara]anagai 
Homma 



Hale-Alui 



Sermgapatam 



Janana 

'Ohamarajesvara temple 
Janardanasvami temple 
Eamesyara temple 
Bhimesvara temple 
Desesvara temple 
Aikesvara temple 
Vishau temple 
'Swinging Aich 



SHIMOGA DISTBIOT 



Bhadravati 
Ohennagin 



Sulekere 

Kere-Bilachi 

Sante-Bennur 



*Lakshmmarasimha temple 

Ketesvara temple 

Hill Bort 

Kallu matha 

Siddhe&vara temple 

Ancient site 

OM and Modern temples 

^Musafirkhana 



Honnah 



Nandi-Tavare 

Nand!gudi 
Hanhar 



Malkkarjuna temple 

*Iort 
Eamesvara temple 



OHITALDEUG DISTEICT. 

AmntahngamaHikesyara temple 

isyara temple 
. ^Hanharesvara temple 



216 

APPENDIX ' B \ 
List of Photographs taken during the year 1936-37 



Serial 
No 


Size 


Description 


View 


Village 


District 


1 


8FX6i" 


Bamesvaia temple 


Parvati 


Matakeri 


Mysore 


2 


6j* x 4|* 


Do 


Ganesa 


Do 


do 


3 


Do 


Do 


Intenoi view 


Do 


do 


4 


Do 


Do 


Sankaranarayana 


Do 


do 


5 


Do 


Do 


Durga 


Do 


do 


6 


st'xei* 


Varadaraja temple . 


Vaiadaraja 


Heggadade- 


do 










vankote 




7 


6i*x 4|" 


Do 


South-west view 


Do 


do 


8 


Do 


Do 


Noith wall 


Do 


do 


9 


8 V x 6j* 


Bamesvara temple 


South-west view 


Kittur 


do 


10 


Do 


Do 


Interior view 


Do 


do 


11 


Do 


Do 


Mahishasuramardhmi 


Do 


do 


12 


* Do , 


Do 


West doorway 


Do 


do 


13 


6i*x4i ff 


Do 


Annapurna bgure 


Do 


do 


14 


Do 


Do 


Metallic images 


Do 


do 


15 


Do 


Do 


Pront dooiway 


Do 


do 


16 


Do 


Do 


Bull 


Do 


do 


17 


8J* x 6i* 


Do 


Lion pillar 


Do 


do 


18 


Do . 




Garagasa 


Do 


do 


19 


Do , * - 


Lakshmikanta temple 


Lakhmikanta 


Mullur 


do 


20 


6^"X4f /r 


Do 


South-west view 


Do 


do 


21 


Do . 


Do 


Dipastambha 


Do 


do 


22 


Do 


Do 


Utsavavigraha (Metallic 


Do 


do 








figure) 






23 


8 J* X 6F 


Lakshmmarayana 


Lakshminarayana 


Baghavapura 


do 






temple 








24 


* Do ,, 


Do 


Vishvaksena 


Do 


do 


25 


6| X4f" . 


Do 


South-west view 


Do 


do 


26 

f\**+ 


Do 


Do 


North-west view 


Do 


do 


27 

f\r^ 


Do .. 


Do 


Water spout 


Do 


do 


28 


Do 


Do 


Stone steps 


Do 


do 


29 

ori 


Do 


Varadaraja temple 


Varadararja 


Hangala 


do 


oQ 


Do 


Do 


North wall 


Do 


do 


31 


QS X Qg 


Gopalasvami temple 


Gopalasvami 


Himavad- 


do 










Gopala- 












svami hill 




32 


Do 


Do 


Metallic image 


Do 


do 


33 


st'SeJ 2 


Bamesvara temple 
Triy ambakesvara 


Side view 
South-east view 


Gundlupet . 
Triyambaka- 


do 
do 






temple 




Dura 




35 


Do , 


Do 


Subramhanya and Hanu- 


Do 


do 








man 






36 


6i"X4|* ... ! 


Yenkataramanasvami 


South-east view 


Huligana- 


do 


37 


12'XIO* . 


temple 
Bamesvara temple 


Do 


maradi 
Narasa- 


do 


38 

orv 


10*X8" . 


Do 


West view 


mangala 
Do 


do 


39 

A f\ 


Do , 


Do 


South view 


Do 


u.x^ 

do 


40 


Do . 


Do 


North view 


Do 


\A-\J 

do 


42 


Do 


Do 
Do 


Back view 
Side view 


Do 
Do 


do 
do 



217 

APPENDIX B. contd* 



Serial 
No 


Size 


Description 


View 


Village 


District 


43 


srxer 


Bamesvara temple 


South east view 


Narasa- 


Mysore 










mangala 




44. 45 


Do 


Do 


Mahishasura m ardhini 


Do 


do 


46 


Do . . 


Do 


Ceiling 


Do 


do 


47 . 


Do ! 


Do 


Vishnu figure 


Do 


do 


48 


Do 


Do 


Paiasurama figuie 


Do 


do 


49 


6" X 4f" 


Do 


Pillars m Navaranga 


Do 


do 


50 


Do 


Do 


Stone image m Navaranga 


Do 


do 


51 


Do 


Do 


Doorway (front) 


Do 


do 


52 


Do 


Do 


North view of tower 


Do 


do 


53 


Do 


Do 


Stone figure 


Do 


do 


54 


Do 


Do 


Bull 


Do 


do 


55 


Do 


Do 


Linga 


Do 


do 


56 


8|-" X 4f " 


Saptamatiika temple 


Images 


Do 


do 


5763 


6-|" X 4-|,, 


Do 


Do 


Do 


do 


64 


8i" X 6 J-" 


Gopalakiishna temple 


Gopalakrishna 


Haiadana- 


do 










halh 




65 


Do 


Do 


Metallic figures 


Do 


do 

_ 


66 


Do 


Anilesvara temple 


Doorway 


Do 


do 


67 


6j" X 4 J" 


Venkataramana temple 


Dipastambha 


Haralakote 


do 


68 


Do 


Virabhadra temple 


Virabhadra 


Do 


do 


69 


12"xlO" 


Arkesvara temple 


Central ceiling 


Hale-Alur 


do 


7071 


10" x 8" 


Do 


Pillar in Navaranga 


Do 


do 


7276 


gl" x 6&" 


Do 


Do 


Do 


do 


77 


Do 


JDo 


Doorway 


Do 


do 


7879 


Do 


Do 


Panels 


Do 


do 


8095 


Do 


Do 


Pillar in front of mantapa 


Do 


do 


96 


Do 


Do 


IPionft view 


Do 


do 


9798 


Do^ . 


Do 


Pillars 


Do 


do 


99 




DesesVara temple ... 


Pillar in front of mantapa 


Do 


do 

TF 


100 


Do 


Do 


Mahishasuramardhmi 


Do 


do 


101 
102 


Do 

8i"*6j" ,. 


Do 

Lakshminarasimha 


Saptamatuka group 
South-east view 


Do 

Bhadiavati 


do 
Shimoga. 






temple 








103 


Do 


Hill 


North-west view 


Channagm 


do 

T 


104 




Do 


B ete-Ranganatha 


Do 


do 

*> 


105 


*1 fj ** \/ "1 f\ " 

-L <r\ j f 


Tank 


View 


Sulekere 


do 

-i 


106 


6J"X4|" 


Siddhesvara temple 


South-east view 


Do 

-r~\ 


do 


107 

108 


Do 
10" X 8" 


Do 
Honda and Musafir- 


Interior view 
View from North-east , 


Do 
Santebenrrar 


do 






khana 






An 


109110 


Qi x 6|-' J 


Honda and Tower 


Do 


Do 


do 

J_ 


111 


61" x 4f " 


Honda and base of a 




Do 


uO 






pillar representing 












Gandabherunda 




i 




112 


Do 


bird 
Fort gate and wall 




1 
Honnali 

T^ 


do 
do 


113 

114 


Do 


Isvara temple 
Bamesvara temple 


Suiya 

Saints i 


Do 

Kuruvada- 
gadde 


Ll\J 

do 


115 


Do 


Isvara temple 


Central ceiliog 


Nanditavare 


do 
do 


116 

117 


Do 
Do 


Do 
Do 


Kesava figure 
Doorway 


Handigudi 

T\ 


do 
do 


118 




Do 


Dv^rapala 


Do , . 


v-tU 



218 
APPENDIX B concld. 



Serial 
Ho. 


Size 


Description 


View 


Village 


Distuct 


119 


8l*x6| ff 


Hai mares vara temple 


Harihara 


Harihar 


Chitaldrug 


120 


Do 


Chennakesava temple 


Kesava 


Belur 


Hassan 


121122 


Do 


Do 


New image of Garuda, 


Do 


do 








front view 






123124 


Do 


Do 


New image of Garuda, 


Do 


do 








side and back 






125 


10* x 8' 


Do 


Plan (poition) 


Do 


do 


125 


12*X10* , 


Do 


Plan 


Do 


do 


126 


Do 


Bherundesvaia image 


3?ront 




t 






(new) 








127128 


6| ff X4f 


Do 


Do 






129 


Do ,., 


Do 


Back 






130 


12'xiO* 


Halmidi stone inscrip- 












tion of Kakutstha- 












varma 








131 


10" X 8" 


Do 








132 


6i*x4| 


Vijayanagar Centenary 


f 








pillai 








133136| 12'X10* 


Swinging arch at Se- 












ringapatam 








137 


10" x 8" . 


Stone inscription of 


j 










the Ganga king 












Satyavakya, Tandya, 












Nanjangud Taluk 








138 


arxer 


Punch marked coins 


Obveise 






139 


Do 


Do 


Reverse 






140 


10" X 8" 


Photograph of Tippu 












Sultan (in Zanana) 









List 

1 Ramanathapui 

2 Kudh 

3 Gorur 

4, Manjarabad 

5. N&gar 
6 Marie 

7. Do 

8. Mtdlur 

9. Kitfcur 

10. Heggadadevankote 

11 Santebennur 

12 Chennagin 

13 Gopalasvami hill 
3 4 Kagar 



APPENDIX "0" 

of Drawings prepared during the year 1936-37 

Bamesvaia temple Ground plan 

Eamesvara temple 
. Trikiitesvara temple 

Hill fort 

Hill fort 

Chennakesava temple 
- Siddhesvara temple 

Lakshmlkanta temple 

Lakshmlkanta temple 
. Varadarajasvami temple 

Pond 

Kete&vara temple 

Gopala temple 

Devaganga ponds 



Do 

Do 
Guide map (sketch) 

Do 
Ground plan 

Do 

Do 

Guide map 
Ground plan 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



219 

APPENDIX "D" 

List of books acquired for the Library of the Office of the Director of Archaeological 
Eesearches in Mysore, Mysore, during the year 1936-37 



SI 

No 



Title of the book 



Bern arks 



8 

9 
10 



11 
12 
13 

14-15 
16 

17 

18 

19-20 
21 

22 
23 
24 

25 
26 
27 

28 



Aiogya, its Jnana and Sadhana by J A. Isvara- 

murti 

The Mahabharata by Dr V Eaghavan M A , Ph D 
Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the 

yeai 1934, Kern Institute, Leydexx 
Annual Report of the Eajaputana Museum for 1935 
Annual Report of the Travancore Archseological 

Department, 1110 M B 
Epigraphia Indica, Yol XXII, Part V, 1934 

January 
Annual Eeport of the Watson Museum for 1935-36 

TheMysoreUmveisity Calendar for 1935-36, Vol I 

Do _ Vol II 

Pamparamayana Sangraha by Asthana Mahavidvan 
T Snnivasaraghavachar and D L Narasimha- 
char, M A 

Question Papers of the Mysore University Exami- 
nations for 1936, 
The Story of the Stupa by A H Longhurst 

Iconography of Buddhist and Brahmamcal sculptures 
in the Dacca Museum by N K Bhattasah. 

Annual Eeport of the Myaoie Archaeological Depait- 
ment for the year 1933 

Acoustics by E K Visvanathan, B A 

Taltvabmdu with Tattvavibhavana by V A. Bama- 
swamy Sastri 

Svarasiddhanta Candnka by Srinivasayajvan 

Picturesque Mysore (Printed at the Government 
Press, Bangalore 1936) 

Indian Pictorial Art as developed in Book-Illustra- 
tions by Di Hirananda Sastn, MA, M O L , 
D Litt Gaekwad's Archaeological Series, No I 

Epigraphia Indica, Vol XX, Part VI (April 1934) 

Epigraphia Zeylamca by S Paranavitana, Vol IV, 

Part 3 
Annual Eeport of the Archaeological Depaitment of 

the Ooehm State for 1934-35 
Annual Eeport of the Cmzon Museum of Archaeology 

for the year ending with 31st March 3936 
Epigraphia, Indica, Vol XXII, Pait VII, July L934 

The Eeport on the Twelve Copper-plate mscuptions 
found at Ghumh, Nawanagar State 

Patna-Gaya Eeporfc, Vol I Introduction and Books 
I and II by Buchanan 



Keceived fiom the Eegistrar, University of 

Mysore, Mysoie 
Purchased 
Sent m exchange by the Secretary, Kern 

Institute) Ley den 

Presented by the Government of India 
Presented by the Superintendent of 

Archseology, Tnvandrum 
Presented by the Government of India 

Presented by the Honorary Secretary, 

Watson Museum, Ra]kot 
Presented by the Eegistrar, University of 

Mysore 

Do do 

Do do 



Do 



do 



Presented by the Aiohseological Commis- 
sioner foi Ceylon, Colombo 
Presented by the Curator, Dacca Museum, 

Dacca 
Presented by the Director of Archaeological 

Eesearches m Mysore 
Presented by the Eegistrar, Annamaiai 

University 
Do do 

Do do 

Presented by the Government of Mysore 

Presented by the Archaaological Depart- 
ment, Baroda 

Presented by the Government of India 
Archaaological Department 

Presented by the Archaaological Commis- 
sioner, Ceylon. 

Presented by the Government Arch Geolo- 
gist, Trichur 

Presented by the Curator, Curzon Museum 
of Archaeology, Muttia 

Presented by the Government of India 
Aichseological Department 

Mahamahopadhyaya Harishankar Hathi- 
bhai Sastn, Jamnagar 

The Curator, Bihar and Onssa Eesearch 

Society, Patna, 



220 
APPENDIX I) contd. 



Si 
Ho 



Tittle of the book 



Bern arks 



29 Patoa Gaya Repoit, Vol II, Books III IV, 

Appendices and Maps by Buchanan 
30-31 Annual Repoit of the Mysore Aichssologioal Depart- 
ment for 1934 

32 Karnataka Mahabharata, Diona Parva Vol VIII 

( Kumaravy asa) . 

33 ; Annual Eeport of the Archaeological Survey of 
{ India for 1930-34 Part I, Section IIll 

34 Annual Report of the Aich geological Siuvey of 

India, for 1930 34 Part II, Sections IV IX 

35 j Dr S Knsimaswami Aiyangai's Commemoration 

volume 

36 Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, No 

49, Brjapur Inscriptions by Dr M Nazim 

37 i The Museums of India by S F Markham and 

H Hargreaves 

38 List of Arch geological Photo-Negatives Parfe II 

Corrected upto 31st March 1935 stored in the 
Office of the Dnec tor- General of Archaeology in 
India, Simla 

39 The Mysore Tnbes and Castes, Appendix (Index and 

Bibliography) 

40 ' Sri Mahabbaiatd, of Kalale VIrara]iah by N K, 

Venkatesam Pantulu of Anantapur Sabha- 
paivamu 

41 Sri Mahabharata of Kalale Viiarajiah by 1ST K, 

Venkatesam Pantulu of Anantapur Bhishma- 
parvamu 

42 The Annual Report of the Baioda Archaeological 

Department for 1934-35 

43 Gaekwad's Archaeological Series, No II-The Asokan 

Eock at Girnar by Dr Hirananda Sastn 

44 List of Archaelogical Photo negatives, Part I, 

Corrected upto 31st March 1935 

45 A Hand Book of Gwahor by M B Garde (1936) 

46 Publications of the Washington University in 

Anthropology Vol I, No 2 The Distribution 
of Kinship systems m North America. 

47 Publications of the Washington University in 

AnthropologyVol I, No 3 An analysis of 
Plains Indian Parfleche decoiation 

48 Publications of the Washington University m 

AnthropologyVol I, No 4 Klallam Folk Tales 

49 Publications ol the Washington University m 
! AnthropologyVol I, No 5 Klallam Ethnogia- 

phy 

50 j Publication of the Washington University m 

Authiopology Vol II, No 1 Adze, Canoe, 
and House types of the North-west coast 
1 Publications of the Washington University in 
| AnthropologyVol II, No 2 The ghost dance 
| of 1870 among the Kalmath of Oregon 



The Curatoi, Bihar and Onssa Research 

Society, Patna 
Presented by the Director of Archaeological 

Eeseaiches, Mysore 
Piesented by the Curator, Government 

Onental Library, Mysoie, 
Presented by the Government of India 

Archaeological Department 
Piesented by the Government of India 

Archaeological Department 
Purchased 

Presented by the Government of India 

Archaeological Department 
Piesented by the Museums Association,, 

London 
Piesented by the Government of India 

Aichgeological Department 



Presented by the Curator, Government 

Onental Library, Mysore 
Presented by the authoi. 



Do 



Presented by the Director 



of Archeology, 

Baroda 
do 



Presented by the Government of India 

Archaeological Department 
Presented by the Supeimtendent of 

Archaeology, Gwalior 

Presented by the University of Washington 

[Library, 

Do 



Do 
Do 

Do 
Do 



221 
APPENDIX D contd. 



SI 

No 


Title of the book 


Eemaiks 


52 


Publications of the Washington Qmveisity in 


Piesented by the University of Washington 

f" T* t 




Anthropology Vol II, No 3 Some tales of 


(.Library* 




the Southein Puget Sound Salish 




53 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol II, No 4 The middle 






Columbia Salish 




54 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol II, No 5 A further 






analysis of the first Salmon Ceremony 




55 


Publications of the Washington Univeisity in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol II, No 6 North-west 






Sahaptm texts, 1 




56 


Publications of the Washington Univeisity in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol III, No 1 Growth of j 




Japanese children born in America and in Japan 




67 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol III, No 2 Mythology of 






Southern pugeb sound 




58 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anfchiopology Vol III, No 3 Wishram 






Ethnogiaphy 




59 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol IV, No 1 The Indians of 






Puget sound 




60 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol IV, No 2 A sketch of 






Northern Sahaptm Grammar 




61 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol IV, No 3 Plains Indian 






Parfleche Designs 




62 


Publications of the Washington University in 


Do 




Anthropology Vol V The Sanpoil and 






Nespelem Sahshan Peoples of North-eastern 






Washington 


TN 


63 


Publications of the Washington University in the 


Do 




Social Sciences Vol I, No 1 Studies in 






Matriculation statistics intelligence ratings and 






scholarship lecords at the University of 






Washington 




64 


Publications of the Washington University m the 


Do 




Social Sciences Vol I, No 2 Causation and 






the Types of Necessity 




65 


Publications of the Washington University m the 


Do 




Social Sciences Vol. II, No 1 Tibeuus 






Caesar and the Eoman Constitution 




66 


Publications of the Washington University m the 


Do 




Social Sciences Vol II, No 2 The logical 






influence of Eiegel on Marx, 


T"v 


67 


Publications of the Washington University m the 


Do 




Social Sciences Vol II, No 3 A scale of 






individual tests 




68 


Publications of the Washington University in the 


Do 




Social Sciences Vol III, No 1 A study of 






mobility of population in Seattle 


an 



222 



APPENDIX D conoid. 



SI 

No. 


Title of the book 


Bemarks 



69 
70 
71 

72 
73 
74 



75 
76 
77 

78 

79 
80 

81 

82 
S3 



Publications of the Washington University in the 
Social Sciences Vol III, No 2 History and 
development of common school legislation in 
Washington* 

Publications of the Washington University m the 
Social Sciences Vol IV, No 1 John III, 
Duke of Brabant and the French Alliance, 
1345-1347, 

Publications of the Washington University in the 
Social Sciences Vol V, No 1 Suicides m 
Seattle, 1914 to 1925 (An Ecological and 
Behavionstic study) 

Publications of the Washington University in the 
Social Sciences- Vol V No 2 Pupil mobility 
m the public schools of Washington 

Publications of the Washington University m the 
Social Sciences Vol V, No 3 The Un- 
employed Citizens' League of Seattle 

Publications of the Washington University m the 
Social Sciences Vol V, No 4 County 
Finances m the State of Washington with 
particular attention to the financial problems of 
county welfare activities and unemployment 
relief 

Publication of the Washington University in the 
Social Sciences Vol VI, No 1 History of 
Common School Education m Washington 

Publications of the Washington University m the 
Social Sciences Vol VII, No 1 Utah and 
the Nation 

Publications of the Washington University in the 
Social Sciences Vol VIII, No 1 The cost of 
Municipal operation of the Seattle Street 
Bailway, 

Publications of the Washington University m the 
Social Sciences Vol VIII, No 2 (A plan for 
regional admimstiativedistricts in the Washing- 
ton State ) 

Publications of the Washington University in the 
Social Sciences Vol IX, No 3 An introduc- 
tion to some problems of Australian Federalism 

South Indian Inscriptions (texts), Vol VIII 
Miscellaneous inscriptions from the Tamil', 
Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada Countries 

The Coinage and Meteorology of the Sultans of Delhi 
by H Nelson Wright 

Eannada Eaipidi, Vol, I (1936) 

Archaeological remains and excavations at Bairat 
by Eai Bahadur Daya Bam Sahm, c I E , MA 



Presented by the University of Washington 

[Library 



Do 
Do 

Do 

Do 
Do 



Do 
Do 
Do 

Do 
Do 



Presented by the Superintendent, Epigra- 
phical Survey, Madras 

The Government of India 

The Registrar, University of Mysore 
The Director of Archaeology, Jaipur 



223 



APPENDIX ' E ' 
Statement of Expenditure for the year 1936-37 



Salaries- 
Director's Allowance (Bs 50 per month) 
Assistant to the Director (200-20-300) 
Aichitectural Assistant (200-20-300 half) 
Establishment 
Watchman for excavation area 

Travelling Allowance 

Office Expenses-- 
Ci) Contingencies 
(n) Museum 
(in) Punting charges 
(iv) Clothing to menials 
(y) Furniture 
(vi) Photographs for sale 

Library 

Eeceipts remitted to the Treasury 

(Sale proceeds of publications 
Do photographs 

Do unserviceable articles 



Rs a p Bs a p 

600 

3,600 

1,800 

6,210 11 

56 

12,265 11 

7T8 11 



699 15 6 

250 

2,075 14 



185 



3,210 13 6 
11 11 8 



367 7 

149 6 

9 8 4 



5 4 



Grand Total 



16,793 4 6 



225 



INDEX 

A 



PAGE 

Abdul Hakeem Khan, Nawab of Savanur, 

101, 103 

Achchayasaham, Hoy sola General, 175 
Achyutaraya, Vijayanagar King, 61 

Adi Anantapur, village, 117 

Adi Gummisvara, god, 189 

Adisesha, god, 13, 32, 121 

Adiyama, Ohola Viceroy, 179 

Aduvana* tax, 202 

Afzal Khan, general, lOl 

Agastya, sage, 147, 197 

Aggunda, same as Agunda, milage, 124, 131 
Agin, god of -fire, 33, 169 

Agunda, village, 124, 131 

Ahalya, wif?, of Gautama, 27 

Ahira, 'kingdom, 156 

Aigur, village, 103, 113 

Ajanta, cave temple, 35 

A]j ay a, private person, 187 

All Eaja, Lord of Gannanore, 103 

Aliya Lingara;) Urs, private person, 7, 8 
Allalanatha, god, 197, 198, 200 

Alur, village, 43, 44, 190, 191 

Alvars, saints, 20 

Arnaia-Narayana, god, image of, 11 

Amaravatikote, milage, 141, 142 

Am bur, place, 106,107 

Amntalingadevaru, god, 189 

Amntalmga-Mamkesvara, god, 65 

Anabary, place, 
Anamgere, village, 
Ananta, ^ocZ, group of, 
Anantaramiali, ~K, private per son, 
Anahbarim, place, 
Anavatti, r7o 

Anchittydroog, /or# ^^ 

Andhakasuramardana, painted figure, 39 
Andal, goddess, image, 20, 27 

Andaman, island, 85, 1^9 

Andhakasura, demon, ^^? ' 

Andhakasuramardana, stucco image, 



29 



Andhra, kingdom, 156 

Andhiadesa, do 179 

Anekal, place, 90, 91, 92, 102 

Angelin, island, 109 

Anilesvaia, god, temple at HaradanahaHi, 

38, 39 

Anjaneya, god, temple at HajalaAote, 41 at 

Tetalanambt, 25, temple oj ', 27, 

42, figwe, 5, $00?, 193 

Ankagamunda, private person^ 191 

Ankegurugal, do 187 

Annabesvara, #0$, 173 

Annals of the Mysoie Eoyal Family, work, 

83,84,90 118 

Annapurna, goddess figure, 8 

Annatesvara, god, 173 

Anuvagere, village, 122 

Anuyakere, do 122 

Apsaras, heavenly beings, 29, 46 

Aralaguppe, village, 33 

Arasalu Madayya, ptivatv person, 134 

Arasiyakeie, village', 134 

Arasuganda-Eama, title, 198 

Arcoij, place, 86, 106 

Aidhanarisvara, ^o<^, image, 66 

Ardhodaya, auspicious fame, 187 

Arekothara, s?^e as Ghfimaiajanagar, town, 

192 

Areyas, people, 186 

Any a Chakravaiti, Panama General, 80 
Anyara Kadur, ullage^ 186 

Arjuna, Mahabhdrafa hero, image, 1*2, 66, 78 
Arkalvadi, village, _ 37 

Arkesvara, ^r?, temple at Hale Al&t t 1 3 189 

^0fj 45 , 190 

Arkesvaiasvami, god, 45 

Arsikere, zfa^A and town, 1 

Arva Cooxi, /or^ 95 

Asandi, village^ 173j 174 

Asaramannu, /j/ac^, 
Asia, continent^ 

30 



226 

PAGE PAGE 

Asisdrugo, fort, 1 1 5 Avan, fort, 100, 1 10 

A^okavana, scene represented m sculpture, 33 Avon, legend on paper 82 

Atn, sage, 152 Ayyanavadi, province 156 

Attiya Manalagadde, afield, 142 Ayyavale, village, 190 

B 

Babasor, island, 109 Bankapur, ;?foice 101, 117 

Babruvahana, Legendary person, 41 Barki "Venkata Rao, general 100 

Backeyadannayaka, a subordinate of New a- Baroda, breed of bull, S 

wnkalll, 188 Basalat Jung, brother of Nizam Ah, 95 

Badabandesyara, god, 72 Basava, temple at Eottalavadi, 196 

Bagadage, province, 156 Basavanna, Virasaiva reformer, 173, god,!!!, 

Baichaya Saham, private person, 187 173 

Baira, or Bairajiya, Saiva priest, 144, 145 Basayannadevani, god, ' 172 

Balagmad Thirty, district, 189 Basavannanagudi, temple, 9 

Balapur, place, 90 Basavanpur^ village, copper plates of ', 2 

Balaraj Urs, Sardar, 82 Basavesvara, god, temple at Uganedahundi, 

Balaraj Urs Mrs , lady, 82 193 

Balaiama, god, image 15, 37 Basebova, private person, 123 

Balavinada, district, 152 Basti-tittu, ancient site, 42 

Bali, demon image 11, 29 Bayajiyaru, priest, 195 

Balla,#?*0zrc7zce, 156 Bayiohaya, private person, 135 

Ballala, Eoysala king, 17, 128, 140, 141, Bayichayya, ivarrwr, 134 

144 Bedagauda 5 private person, 171 

Ballala I, cfo 2, 156, 159, 167 Bednur, pZace ay7^ kingdom, 5r>, 84, 98, 99, 

Ballala II, do 130, 142, 144, 100, 101, 102, 103, 112, 

156, 157, 158, 114, 115, 117 

. 186 Beigur, fort, 91 

Ballala III do 43, 175, 191, Benee Visajee Pundit, general, 90 

198, 199, 200, Begur, village, 13 

-D n-i .,- , 201 Bekal , ^ 103 

Ba aJadeva, do 175 Belgami, wZZa^e, 73, 181 

ti&lM^iy^Saimpnest, 145 Bellary, place,' 111 112 

Ballalarayanadurga, ^Zace, 98 Belliya Komala Setti, private person, ' 14 

-Bajjavinad, same as Balavinad, district, 152 Belur, town, and taluJc, !, 2, 54, 72, 113, 

-Balla^ya, pnvate person, ipg 146 147 150 162 153 

Bauimagaiida, ^o 144 157 158 159 171 

Baminarasi, Sawa priest, 141,142 Beluvala, ptownce, ' ' ' 156 

-Bameavve Nayabfci, mothei of Benteija Belvala, do 169 

Tippeya NayaJca, 180 Belvura, some as jBe^r, 170 

Banavase, province, 156, 169, 175 Benakaya Saham, warnor 186 

Banaya^e, 1 JOOO, proimce, 180 Bengal, co^rz/, 85, 108 109 110 112 

Banayasenad, do 180, 181 Bengalur same as Bangalore, ' ' ' 95 

53 '^n *' 17j 18j 6 " B ^ nteya Tl PP^ a Nay^a, Ho^aZa ^^/, 

-UdiilUtil, GO 110 1 HO 181 

Bangalore, city, 2, 91 92 98, 95, 106, Bento de Campos, Captain, 89, 97 

113, 114 115, 117 Bete Ranganatha, cjod, 56 



227 



PA.GE PAGE 

Bhadravati, place, 53 Bueyakka, wife of Samanta Mara, 157 

Bhagadatta, Mahabharata hero, 47 Bishop D Pres Anteno De Noronha, captain, 

Bhagavatas, devotees of Vishnu, 197 94 

Bhairava, god, 36, 62, 64, 65, 72, Bishop Noronha, captain 96 

157,179 Bitteya, private 2^1 son, 129 

Bhanavi, goddess of, group of, 30, 66 Bittibova, Subordinate of NaiasimJia I, 369 

Bharatavidva, science of dancing and d? ama- I? * 171 

turgy, 169 Bittideva, same as Vishnuvarahana, 

Bharatimayya, same as Dandanayaka Hoysala, ling, 172, 180 

Bharatimayya, 184 B]ttlsvara god, 

Bhashyakar, saroe as Eamanuja, image, 16 Bittugattane, 

Bherundesyara, ^, 73 Black Town, Parf o/ 

Bhetalas,wi sculpture, 62 Blue Mountain, 

Bhilli, aowe as Parvati, 66 Boar and Fish, type of coin, 

Bhima, Mahabharata hero, image, 46 66 Boar type, cZo 

of Perumala-dandanatha, Bogayyardannayaka, mwws^r o/ 

O^o^r, 101 Bokikabbe, private person, 

JkrawiaZZ^wraw, 29 gokisetti, ^o 

Bhishma, Kaurava generalissimo, 47 Bokkasada-Viiabhadra, ^7 e, 

Bhoganaudi, ferny fa ^ Niwwfe, 28, 86 Bolayagatta, tenfc, 

Bh5]a, jfcm^ o/ M^^, 168 Bombay, city 

Bhrmgi, figure m Sculpture, 8 Bommanagudi, a temple, 

^ O A ^ / e/ _ _ A j A 



1/0, 1 
1'4 
110 



Bhima Kao, 



138 



108, 



Bhuvanaika 



o/ *,!, 

on 



56 Bommesvara, 
44 

80 """ ' " 65, 67," 68, 69, 
80 Brahmasamudra, tanl, 
134 



145 



12, 80, 
152, 156, 167 



ftla Ohoktayya Dannavaka, 
Bmnamangala, 






7, 



Bndd.a, 
Bull and 






C 



r, i , , 
Ca outta, 

Caldwell, solwlar, 

Cahcufc, Mfv, ., , 

Cananore, same as Cavnanore, 

Canderan, 



109, 110 Carcatic, country, 
gl Cassimba zaar, 

Cauvenp atam, . ino 

tla4 80,81,85,108,109, 
da , pnm te person 1*3 



JJ 



fort 



140 



Carirri Saib, 



's youngest son 



228 



PAGE P AGE 

Chalnvaraya, god, li Chennapatna, place, 85, 88, 106 

Cbaliwarayasvami, god, temple, 14 Chennarayapatna, place, 113 

Gharnai ajanagar, town and taluk, 1, 28, Chera, Kingdom, 140 

38, 40, 43, 44, 189 ? 192 Ghettaya, private person, 145 

Chamaraja Odeyar, Mysote lung, 43 Ohikajiya, fcaiva priest, 145 

Ghamaraja Wodeyar, do 118 Chikkaballapur, place, 96, 113 

Chanmiajesvara, god, 43 Chikka Bammaya, private person, 135 

Ghameiao, Military Officer, 104 Ghikkadevaraja Odeyar, Mysore ling, 40, 

Chanttmda, goddess, image, 7, 36, 62, 70 image, 22 

Chaniundesvaii, do 43 Chikkagavunda, private person, 141, 142 

Chamundi Hill, at Mysore, 19 Ghikkagondi, village, ' 125 

Chanakya, the famous minister of Chandra- Chikka Kodihalli, village, 124, 125 

gupta, 129 Chikka-Krishoa Eaja Odeyar, Mysore King, 

Chandagauda, private person, 173,174 105 

Chandappa Butappa Yirappa, private person, Chikka Malagavunda, private person, 141 

124 Chikka Timma, younger brother of Samanta 

Gnandikesvara, god, image, 5 Mara 156 

Chandra, god, image, 3, 8 Chmnada Komala Setti, private person, 14 

Chandramaulesvara, god, image of, 13, 14 Chmnagauda do 173 

Chandramauli, minister of Ballala II, 186 Cbirakkal, place, 103 

Chandramauliyanadeva, same as Gliandra- Chitaldrug, town, taluk and, district, 1, 98, 

mauli, 186 99 

Cbandianagore, place, HO Cbocalbo, gJiat of, 106 

Chandranatha, god, image, 4 Cbola, dynasty, period of, 1,4,1, 9, 10, 44, 

Chandrasekhara, god, image, 8, god, 128 45, 52, 78, dynasty, 17, 19 74 75 76 

Cbangama, place, 106, 107 country, 79, work of 3, 5, 12, 13, al, 45^ 

Changni, mountain, 179 standard of, 77, 79 kingdom of 179 

ChaDnagm, fo^n and taluk, 1, 54, 55, 56 197, royal family, 128, 140 

Ghannakesava, god, 157 Cbola bull, ^ of coin, 75 

Ghannammajl, queen of Bedmn , 55 Chola-Dravidian, type of ai chitecture, 20, 41 

Channbao, island, 109 Chotu- Darapoor, place, 95 

Cbanmkesaja, god, 122 Cochin, ^ 109 111 

Lhatigayunda, ^n^^rscw, 195 Goimbatore, do ' in^. 



unatigayunda, ^n^^rscw, 195 Goimbatore, do ' 104 

GhaYundagavunda, ^o 195 Colastna do 103 

Ghavndasetti, ^o 122 Combelom do 103 

GhaTimdaraya Bask, at Sravanabelaola, 28 Ooorff Hn im in^ 

OVir.llfl^oa firni'YBv n-f *A AN 5? . , _ 1UO J 1UO 



~, *- - J.W V-'WJ.CUQU.L.taj 

Ghavndasetti, do 122 Combelom 

Uiayimdaraya Bask, at Sravanabelgola, 28 Coorg, ao . u -< 1Un 

Chchayas, ^ 7 r o/, 62 3 70 Coromandel, do 85 106' 110 

s=x- ., U6 , ^ asfrfls: jssffi.^. ' ' is 

1>U, 15 4 I5d, 158, 159 Cugarur La, Bednur Governor, 115 

D 

Dalvov Kar?frWi \T Q ^, v5lQ Q _ ' 77 ^ J 66 ^ a saratha, mythological king, ' 27, 183 

j->ddvu> ^aracnnn iNanjaraja, Sarvadhikari, Decalla, Port, 103 

"no-nri^no^rtU^ T>U A oD JJeccan, division of India 106 

-L'ildl.U.ttlia V Lxi3i JlS ill Tfl T T I"Y^ 51T7 K7 O /r o/i Ji ^7 Jt 7~\ 7 i/ -'<"^i "(^', JL.\J\J 

v j j 01, u/ o tt uu/ LvuTLaije JL-so liar 'Q V\ orRhiTi of o"<~i/"lQ IQ^L 

Dandanayaka Udaymiayy^^T^ *' IS Dg "^ Vaxa ' 9 d > tem V le a * Hale ^, 44, 



229 



PAGE 

191 Dharapoor, place, 

191 Dharmaraja-ratha, 

59 Dhairna, 

195 Dharwai, place, 

145, 195 Dhvaja-stambha, 

86 r 90, 96 Doddaballapnra, place, 

145 Dodda Devaia], Mysore King, 

-, 120 Doddagaddav^ pZaoe, 

Devaraia, same as Gliikka Devaraja Wocleyar, Doddagatta, village, 

40 Doddanna, private person, 

Dora'samudia, capital of the HotjsaJas, 



Desmatha, god, 
Deftiyaohan, pnvate person, 
Deva, Ze0efw? orc com, 
Devagavtmda, private pe 1 ) so/?, 
Devanya, 8awa pi lest, 
Devanahalh, place, 
Devanna, private person, 
Devana-hebamva, do 



PIGB 

95 

28, 29 
152 
111 
1 

95 
H9 
08 
130 5 131 



Devendrajlya, 6aioa pnest, 
Dikpalakas ^^ of, 
Dikoalas do 

Ddaer Khan, N^ & of 8*ra, 



57 

144, 145 

33,45 Diavidian rfZ o/, 

39, S 7 Dummi, battle place, 

g D-ga, pM 

87 Duryodhana, 



Dhara, Oap^l;a^ o/ t/ie MflZam kingdom, 168 



149,150152m 

1M, f ^4^ 
lo 441 

149, loO 
J, 1ft ^ 

p, 



' 10J ' 



n , ^,, , , - j j 

East Ohalukya, standard, 



Ekadasi, 
Blahakka, milage, 
Elephanta, cave temple, 

Elliot,' scholar, 



B 



7K 7Q 
'> ' 



^ ^ 
74 > 8l 



Joze Oorrea Peixoto, author, 2, 82, 85 
" . 71, r ,,,, 7. ? uo 



n 
a 



Gontmenf} 



155, 167, 182 

85, 110 



F 



7 no QQ 
Paiznlla Khan ? general, 92, yd, 

Fatte Nayak, Haiders father, 
Pish and Standing Qaruda, 



114 Fleur-de-lis, zmfer mark on paper, 
) x ^ , Conch and discos Kannada legend, 

OD * ^ O f Gom , , 

^ ^ stL Conch and discus and Nagan legend 

coin, . na fime of coin 

Fish and Tamil legend, type of cow, /o, j, ^ ddurg0i 



of 



f 
Pwh Bow and Nagan legend, ^j/pe o/ 



Mohamn)e a, Hj/rfer's 



coin. 



230 



G 

PAGE P AGFI 

Gaja-Lakshmi, figure on Imtel, 12, 16, Garuda, type of coin , $Q 

32, 39, 57, 58, 68, 69 Gaiuda to left and Tamil legend, type of 

Gajasuramardbana, god, image, 29, 39, 69 coin 30 

Gale, place, 109 Garuda to right Tamil legend, do 80 

Ganapati, god, image, 3, 34, 43, 67 Gamda to right and fish, tijpe of coin, 80 

Gandabherunda, figure, 43, 60, 61 Gatt de Chocallo, fot t, 92 

foile, 189 Gaumanjapura, village, 159 

Gandagopala, t uler of Kanchi, 79 Gautama, sage, 14 

Gandharbbarasi priest, 189 G ogueni, fort, 90 

Ganesa, god, image, 5,3,10,13,14, Ghanteya Smga, an office?, 129 130 

22, 31, 34 36, 39, 42, 45, Gmdurgamalla, title, 129 140 

62, 64, 65, 70 152, ' 175 

Ganga, dynasty, 7, 17, 28, 36, 37, 44, G, M G Legend on paper, " 82 

62, 69, 146, 168 Goa, place 85, 86, 107, 109 

Ganga, private person, 129 Godadevi, goddess, 27 

Gangadhara Panta, genei al, 91 Gokarna, place, 99 

Gangaikkonda Solavalanadu, division, 191 Golpona, military officer, 113 

G&ngLv&fa, province, 169, 175, 182, Gommatahalh, milage, 15 

183 Gooti, place, 97 

Gangavadi Ninety-six thousand, Gopalaknshna, temple at Haradana- 

Piovince, 180, 195 halh 38 39 

Gangavur, ullage, 180 Gopala Eao, genet al, 88102113 

G-angavuia do 185 Gopalasvami Hill, 23 25 

Orange, raw, 142 Gopalasvami, temple at Himavad Gopali 

Ganges, do 180, 199 5M7?^^ J2iZZ, 18 

Garedrugo, ^Z^, 113 Gopalasvami, ^^^ at TeraJcanambi, 63 

Garnda, ^ w? 6, - 6, 10, 12, 13, 15, 19, Govmakovi, milage, 63 

20, 25, 26, 29, 30, 32, Gumrnanna, private person, 187 

35, 56, 60, 66, 68, 72, 79 Gundlupet, place, 1, 14, 17, 19, 23 

Garuda, on com, 59,79,80 Gurjara, Imgdom, 156 

H 

Hande-G6paJa^ami, temple of, 24 

192 Hangala, wZk^, ^ 1718 

6 i 1213 



1, 44, 189, 

af 1, 35, 55 Hanumanakallu, a 

, 176, 181, 182 5 IbS of Haimman 193 

igS^ gTSft " W " % 166 ' 16?' 170 

142; lo iltr t e alh ' mll d T 83 ' 40 ' S; S 

Haralukote, do 40 



231 

PAGE P AGE 

Han, qod, 129, 16R Hoysala, dynasty, 2 4 11 12 15 

' * * 



, 
Hanlui, utb-talnl, 1, pZoce, 64, 16, 17, 18, 19/20,' 21* 23* 

TT , 7 . , ()5 > 69 > 71 > 7 2 24, >i6, 40, 41, 42, 4Si 55, 

Hanhara, <?rf, ww^c of, 4, 66, 71 55, 57, 58, 61, 64, 65, 68, 

Hanhaia, Vijat/anatjar liny, 44 142, 144, 156, 157, 158 

Hanhara IE, r/o 44 159, 171, 172, 173, 175, 

HankatoSvaia, qod, temple at 180, 182, 184, 190, 191, 

MM thai, 71 195, 198, 200, 201, 202 

Haiipitta, Smina general, 150 Hoysala, royal family, 122, 125, 130, 

Hiirava Riimayva, tnwate person, 174 ' 131, 150, 151, 153 

Hassan, d^hici <md town, 1,113 Hoysala Bhujabala srl Yira Ballalaraya, 

HaUalakoto, mme as llamlalote, 40, 41 Ballala III, Hoijsala fang, 197 

Hayagrlva, god, imago, 12 Hoysala Bhujabala Vira Naiasimhadeva, 

Ho^padiwlovanakoto, taluL 1, 3, 14, 18 Narasimiia II, Hoysala hng, 189 

Himavad-Go^alaSvauai, Hill, 18 Hoysala Bova, father of B^tt^bQva^ 169,171 

Hindu- Raracomc, type of Awlntectnre^ 60 Hoysaladeva, private person, 184 

ILranya^atbha, giji, 179 Hoysaladesa, country, 147 

Ilirjiuynkasipu, demon, group of 26,29 Hoysaladevi, queen, 62 

Jf-hnkoio, pltwe, 186 Hoysalasamudia, tank, 170 

lloiyabogero, villacjp) 133 Hoysala Vira Ballaladeva, Hoysala ^?z^,140 

Ilmya Biulnindanaiaotia, place, 129 175 

l-Liiyajiytb, /;uw/0 pertton, 135 Hoysala Vliaballaludeva, ^ 141, 

Ihriyakoro, tank, 144, 173, 174, Hoysale^vara, temple at Halebld, 185, 186 

180, 181, 185 Hoysalesvara, ling a at do 35 

Ihuyainanoya Chaudagauda, private Hoysanas, same as Hoysalns, 129 

person, 174 Hoysana Yira Ballala deva, Hoysala hng, 

Iluiyur, vMage 98 129 

II iBior> oJt I [ycler Nayak, work 86 Hoysaladesa, Hoysala country, 147 

HiHtory of Ilydor Shah, do 91 Huhganamaradi, Bill, 27 

llmtory of Mysore, do 84,86, Huh^ere, province, 156 

87, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95 Huhkere, milage, 187, 188 

Hodako, t<w 202 Hullum, sacred place, 180 

Holagatta, tanJ^ 142 Hullnmtlrtha, saci ed place, 181 

Holalakorc, wllaoe, 141, 142 Hullur, milage, 141, 142 

Holalkcre, /^ 56 Hunsiir, ^OWTI, 4 

LLolo-Narasiimr, talnk and town, 113 Hyder, nawdb, 2, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 86, 

llomkunda, wZte^, 188 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 

Homma do 43 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, J06, 107, 

Honnaga.ua, do 125, 133 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116 117 

Honnah, taiuh and town, 1, 62, 63 Q P OQ QA 

Jlonnamani NTigaraBiru, legend in, on Hyder Ah, niwab, 8t> 3 ##, JO 

inscription, 23 Hyder-Nagar, place, W 

Honnuholo, nzir, 44 Hyder-Nama, work, 83 84, 86 88 90 99 

Horse and fish, type of com, 75 103 > lld ' 114 ' 

Hosfcote, jptoca, 95 Hyder-Nayak, 

I 



Ibrahim, Hyder's unole, ^ Ikken ^ o/ 66 

Idga, bmldwg, 60 ^ a2 Immadi Eahutta Eaya, ^^, 37, 198, 189 



232 

PAGE 

Indo-Moslem, type of architecture, 61 Irangola, hng, 179 

Indra, god, image, 12, 3-2, 65, 67, 83, Inn, pZow 94 . 9 5, 100 

Indram, 9 or7to, ^ '1 SalT^^-*"-^ o/^V^, 90, 

93 y ^' - 11 * 

100 Bvara, god, 48, 69 



J 

24 Janardana, god, temple atHaralulote, 41, 42 

, 170 



Jaina Basti, <flm^e *n^, , 53 

Jakka^auda, pnvate pa son, 1^4 Jatavarman II, Pandya King, u 

Jakkagaudi, do 180 Javarayachan .sculptor U 

Jakka-kahitipa, or JaUannpa, 147 Jayagondanayaka, piwate person, 140, 141 

Jakkannpa, a subordinate of the V^]aya- Jayanta, son of god, Indra, lo ( 

nagar King, Knshnar&ya, 147 Jlyaia, village, 

Jakkaiasa ^o 2 Jlvamgal, do 

Jakkaya, pnvate peison, 122 John Mooie, Captain, 

Jakkendra, sa??z s JaHannpa, 147 Joze Eaiz, Military Office?, 

Jalandbarasaiuhan, god, painted figure, 39 Joze Eodrigues, do 



Kabandha, demon, 32 Kaluyuka Eaman, legend on com, 81 

Kabir Beg, general, 8'2 Kallesvaia, ^o^, fewzy^ a ^ Talalad, 28, ^orf, 

Kabir Kban, cZo 88 ^ 4 ? 13 ^ 

Kachchi Valum Kum Peruman, legend on Kallom, watet course, J 

mn, 78 Kalluioatha, temple, 06 

Kadagauda, private person, 201 Kalpa bee, 139,141,170 

Kadamba, dynasty, 179 Kalyanasakti, gum, 129, 130 

Kadapa, place, ^ 103,111 Kalyam, pond, & 

Kailasa, al)0(1e of the god Sn'a, 121 Kama, god of loie, 140 

Ealaka, Sana pnest, 144 liaraathesvaia, god, temple at KamJcatte, 

Kaiamnkliaj sect, 195 124 

Kalapakj ling, 179 Kambadahalh, milage, 184 

Kala-teie } fax, 170 Kaiubha-Narasiraha, god, image, 26 

Kalayana Hattana, place of battle, 132 Kameya Nayaka, fatliei of Benteya Tippaya 

Kalgundi, milage, 146 Nayaka, 180 

Ealgundipara, rillage, 146 Kainisetti, private person, 133 

Kali Age, 152 Kamsa, demon, 31 

Kalmgamardana, ^o^, image, 12, 26 Kanchchivalungum Peruman, title, 79 

Kalki, incarnation of Vishnu, image, 15, 26, Kanohi, city, 79, 140, 156, 179, 180, 197 

37, god, 168 Kanchlpura, city, 



233 



PAGE 

Kandalur Salai, place, 41 

Kamkatte, village, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 
Kanthiiava, Mysore King, 25 

Kanthirava Narasaraja, Mysore King, 10, 25 
Kanthiraya, do 27 

Kapalika, /&0w?0 of, 3, 45, 58 

Kapila, river, 3, 9 

Karachun Nanjaraja, Sarvadlii'ka'n, 95 
Karapur, village, 3 

Kareyamannu, nawe o/ afield, 189 

Kanyajrya, Saiva priest, 141 

Kama, mythical hero, 140, 167, 182 

Karnool, pZcicd 111 

Kartar, King, 99 

Katadeva, private person, 201 

Katayya.gavunda, <#o 195 

Kaumari, goddess, 35 

Kaustubna,^?^ 140 

Kautagauda, private person, 201 

Kavadeyara Jakkavve, private person 185 
Kaven, r&yer, 167 

Kayadu, wife of Hiranyakahpii, 21 

Kayal, legend on coins, 81 

Keladi, kingdom, 57, .^8 

Kelavadi, province, 156 

Keleyabbarasi, ozteew of Vinayaditya, 140, 

167 

Kempadevaj aroma, motliei of Aliya Linga- 

raje Urs, 7 

Kerala, kingdom, 179 

Kere Bilachi, ancient site at, 58, 59, 60 

KeSava, god, temple at Belur, 1, image, 11, 

41, 55, 67, 68, 122, god, 147 

Kesimayya, subordinate of Narasimha I, 

184 

Ketaiualla, minister of Ballala IT, 141, 142 
ELetaya-dannayaka, minister of Ballala III, 

198, 201 

Ketayya, minister of Ball&la II, 141 

Ketesvara, qod, temple at Channagin, 54, 

55, 56 

^haga-dhvaja-stambha, pillar at Bzliir, 1 
Khanderao, Dewm, 84, 85, 89, 90, 91, 93, 

94, 95 

Khandeyaraya, Hoysala general, 149, 150 
Khandeya Eaya Raneya, do 149, 150 

King and Fish, type of com, 76 

Kiriyakere, tank, ^-^A 

Kirmani, author, & 



PAGE 

Kirtipura, same as Kittur, 9 

Kisukodu, province 156 

Kittur, capital of Punnfita, 1, 7, 9, 16, 35 
Kocfanda Raraa, god, image of, 11, 12, 65 
Kodandaraman, title of Jatavarman Sun- 

dara Pandya, 81 

KodiHonda, fort, 96, 97 

Kolahala, title, type of coin, 80 

Kolar, place, 85, 86, 92, 111 

Kolaiamma, goddess, temple at Kola?, 35 
Konanur, place, 89, 93, 94 

Konaya, pnvate peison, 193 

Konenl, village, 171 

Konga, Kingdom, 179 

Kongas, people, 198 

Kongu, province, 128, 140, 156, 175 

Konkana do, 140 

Koran, sacred book, 60 

JKoikai, piovvnce, 74 

Koikai Andai, titlr, 74 

Kote, same as Amaiavati Kote, 141 

Kotekere, milage, 13 

Kottalavadi, milage, 34, 195 

Kottayam, place, 103 

Koyatur, village, 140 

Krishna, go^, image, 24, 26, 31, 37, 39, 40, 46 

60, 61, 88 

Krishna, Yvjayanagar 'king, 147 

Knshnadevaraya, do, 23, 42 

Knshnappa, private person, 43 

Knshnaraja II, Mysoie king, 84 

Krishnaraja Odeyai, do, 40 

Krishnaraja Odeyar III, do, 43 

Krishnaraja Odeyai II, do, 24 

Knshnaraya, Vijayanagar Jung, 2, 147 

Krittikotsava-mantapa, a pavilion at Bslilr, 

147 
Kubera, god of wealth, image, 9, 33, 36, 67 

god, 167, 169 

Kuchaye, pnvate peno7i, 1^9 

Kuden, province, 1S6 

Kulasekbara 1 3 king, 79 

Kulottunga Choia, 0/zo^ ^z?^, 3 

Kulottunga Ghola III, do, 
Kumaia, same as Shanmukha, 
Kumbla, place, 
Kummata, province, 
Kundapur, place, 



36 
36 
99 
166 
99 



KunangdMatakamundan, private person, 191 

31 



234 



PAGE 



Kuravadagadde, place, 63 Kusaboka, private person, 173 

Eurma, incarnation of Vishnu, image, 26, 37 KUsa Ghanteya Smgaya Nagayya, an officer, 
Kurukshefcra, sacred place, 130, 142 129 



Labnga, legend on paper, 82 Lakula, Saivasect, 142 

Lakeya Sahani, private person, 187 Lakulagama, Saiva doctrine, 141 

Lakmadevi, queen of VisJinuvardhana, 128 Lakumadevi, queen of Vishnuvardhana, 

Lakshmana, brother of Rama, image, 12, 22, 166 

24, 27, 32 39, 65 LehakaHeggadeMamcnavya,/?rwa^ person, 

Lakshmana Samudra, tank, 16 189 

Lakshmi, goddess, shrine of 5, 6, image of, 1 0, Lehaka Manchayya, do, 189 

16, 20, 54, 68, goddess, 167 Lepakshi, pZo06, , 38 

Lakshmi, queen of Vishnuvardhana 140, Lmganna, a minister of Bednw, 99 

167 Lmgeya, private person, 192 

Lakshmi-Hayagriva, god, group of, 26 Lmgiah, an influential pet son at the Bednur 

Lakshmikanta, god, image, 10 court, 99 

Lakshmikantasvaim, god, temple at Mulltir, Lisbon, place, 86 

10 Lokambike, mother of Samanta Mara, 

Lakshmi-Narasimha, god, image of, 6, 10, 156 

11, 26, 53, 54 Lokkagundi, province, 156 

Lakshmi-Narayana, god, image of, 11, 12, 14 London, city, 82 

Lakshmi- Varadaraj a, god, temple of, 4 Luberm, Baine as Lubin 8t, 108 

Lakshmi- Varadaraj^svami, god, temple at Lubin, St., an impostor, 108 

TeraJianambi, 23 Lufcf All Beg, a governor, 99 

M 

4 Ma ' legend on coin, 75 Madhava-Danayaka, minister of Ballala 

Machasamudra, tank, 129 III, 38 

Macheya, private person, 122 Madhaya-dannayaka, same as Madhava- 

Maeheyanayaka, Hoysala General, 140, 141, danayaha, 198 

142 Madhava Eao, peshva, 102, 106, 117 

Maohideva, private person, 129, 180 Madhuke^vara, god, temple, 17 

Machideva, same as Maclieyanayaka, 141 Madigauda, private person, 1S9 

Machiyakka, pi ivate person, 125 Madigitti, Rill, 1 6 

Madakasira, place, Ql Madikavve, mother of Bittibova, 169, 171 

Madanna, governor, 104 Madrapur, fort, 94 

Madappa, private person, 193 Madras, city, 85, 107, 108, 110, 111, 117 

Madappa-dannayaka, same as Madhava- Madura, place, 76,78 

dannaijaJca, 201 Madura Pandyas, 76 

Madavalh, village, 175 Magadi, town, 93 

Maday ? /ort, 103 Magga, tax, 202 

Maddagm, place, 99, 105, 117 Mahabharata, worlc, 47 

Madevalh, same as Madavalh, 176 Mahadevi, serif e, 171 

Madhava, god, image, 17 Mahadevi, private person, 133 



235 



PAGE 

Mahakah, goddess, 52 Manmatha, God of Love, image of, 12, 65, 

Mahapasayta, title, 157 god, 129, 140, 167, 169, 179, 

Mahapradhana Bharata, Minister of Nat a- Manoel Peiyra, Captain, Military officer, 88 

simlia I, 184 Mantesvami, shnne at Udigala, * 191 

Mahapradhana Dandanayaka Kesunayya, Manu, the famous Hindu law-give? , 141 

subordinate of Narasimha I, 184 Mai a, mei chant, 156 

Maharam Lakshammanm, Mysore Queen, Maia, private person, 131 

116 Mara, Pandya King, 75 

Mahesvara, god, 59 Marakagavunda, pnvate pet son, 152 

Mahl, place 9 104 Marana Maleya, do 131 

Malusha., demon, in sculpture, 36, 37 Maia Baneya, Hoijsala Genet al, 150 

Mahishasuramardmi, goddess, image of, 5, 1, Maravarman Kulasekhaia, King, 79 

8, 16, 35, 56, 45, 64, 67, 70 Maiavarman Kulasekhaia I, do 78, 80, 81 

Mahometaly, Nawab of Arcot 106, 113, 117 Maiavarman Sundara Pandya I, Pandya 

Mahrata, people, 64, 71, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, King, coins of, 75, 76, 77 78, 79 

90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, Maravarman Sundara Pandya II, Pandya 

103, L05, 106, 112, 113, 115, 116, Kmg, corns of, 77, 78 

117 Marave Nayakiti, _p? ivate person, 14( J 

Majid Baig, private person, 60 Maraya do 122 

Makara, kingdom, 197 Maiaya, a subordinate of Ballala IT, 144 

MakiseUi, pnvale person, 174 Maie^^anayaka, Genet al, 131 

Malabar, place, 103, 104, 105 Maiicha, demon, 27 

Malaya, kingdom, 140, 168, 179 Maugauda, private person, 188 

Malagaucla,'^?"wa^ person, 129 Masanagauda, do 171 

Malagaunda or Malagayunda, private person, Masanakka, do 132 

141 Masana^a, waino 1 }, 122 

Malapas, people, 159 Masavadi, ptownee, 156 

Malaya, mountain, 167 Mataken, place, 3 

Male, cMefs, 129, 189 Matsya, an incarnation of Vishnu, 26,37 

M alo-Bonnur, place, 64 Mattiyahala, 7 esev voir, 157 

Malopas, people, 189 Mavmamanmi, name of afield, 189 

Maloya, private pet son, 181, 135 Ma^ideva, wartwt, 176 

Mahya Jakkaganda, warrior, 135 Mayihsetti, pnvate p&son, 133 

Mallaguru, ^ wate pei ton, 3 34 Maysenad, fc^ncf, Io7 

Mallayya, ^?o 134 Melkdte, p/ace, 40 

Mallo Eao, a MaJirata clnef, 93, 96, 97, 102 Melui, mUage, 201 

Malloya, jn ivate pe? son, 184 Memoiib of Hydei Ally, worl * 2 * 

Mallikaxjuna, god, temple at Honnah, 62, 63, Menem, same as Myw e Kingdom, 102 3 104, 
god, ^84, J-> 

Malhkarjund^vara, r;oc?, 62 Meicaia, pfoce, 

Malhkebvara, same as MalhJctojunelvara,, W MQWI, mountain, _ 

Malhkc^ara fortfw, 62 Meyduna Semeyadiuinayaka, a 

Malhsotti, private person, 133 o/ Nwanmha III, 

MamallapDiam,yZactf, 28,29 Meyjwito, 

Mandara, mountain, ^^V T' .7 8B 

Maugalorc, pZoo^ 99, 100, 103, 118 Miles W Co , fl^ ; 1Q 86 

Mangisoram, 2^, 10 g Mir Falzulla khan ' Gemml > m ^ 105 

Mamkanna, Hoijsala officer, 65,66,68 , 

Manipnra, same a* EaialulMe, 40, 41 Mir Eaoznlla, do 



236 

PAGE PAGE 

M. M D L T , autJun, ^1 Monsr. Hugel, do 96 

ilir Saab, Byder's brother-in-law, 92, 93, 97 M onsr Law, do 110 

103 105, 106, 112, 113 Moors, people, 115, 116 

Mirza.n Lute, Military Officer, 99 Morangary, place, 102 

Modeva /wm/y 197 Mopiahs, people, 103 

MoaiiSaib,M4for000K*f, 113 Mndakkulaiyar, /am*Zy, 199 

Moeol dynasty H Mudikonda-solamandala, district, 191 

Mobadinlhan Sab, prwate p6r*on, 59 Mugfcum, Hyder's brother-in-law, 84, 93 

Mobadm Sab, MayaJconda 59 Mugtum Saib do 90, 92, 93, 94, 95 

Mohadm Sab, of Santelennnr, 59 106, 116 

Mohamataly cam, Nawab, 106 Mukunda, god, 152 

Mohamet Ah, Hawaii 87, Mulastbanesvara, god, temple at leraka- 

Mohinl, goddess in sculpture, 11, 12, namli, , 25,44 

66 Mulbagal,^^, 111 

Mohurrum, Mohammedan month of festival, Mullur, do . 10 

84,115 Murari Rao, General, 93 

Moneya, nayaka, 142 Murari Eow do 96 

Monoel Alves, Captain, 89, 91 Muxa mian, Military Officer, 103 

MODS Alain <fo 94 Mysore, district, city, 1,3,83,84,90,94,113, 

Mons Cbavatbe, do 110 189 

Mons Hugel, do 94 Mysore, Kingdom, 4, b9, 91, days of 21 

Monsr Chanobra, do 111 Mysore, art, 25 

N 

ISfabab, title, 85 Nandi, Bull-god, 3,5,7,8,9,10,29,35,36,39 

Naga, figure, 8, 12, 67 44,46,55,56,58,62,64,66,67,69,70 

Nagajiya, Sawa priest, 144 3 145 Nandi, village, 1, 7, 16, 17, 28, 29, 69 

Nagalinga Matt 9 73 Nandidrag, hill, 96 

Nagamangala, town, 117 Nandigudi, village, 69 

Nagappachar, private person, 150, 152 Nanditavare, village, 64 

Hagar, ? wZers o/, > 61 Nandyala, kingdom, 192 

Nagarasi or Nagarasipandifca, Saiva priest, Nangali, fort and district, 140, 156, 175 

180 Nanjanagud, town, 1 

, 01 Nagavedi, village, 131 14 V 2, Nanjapparaja Urs, private person, 27 

144, 145 Nanjaraia, same as Nanjaraya, Sarv&dhi- 

, figure, 67 M?i, 94 

Namti, regent of the south western direction, Nanjaraja, Saroadlnlari, 86, 89, 

169 94, 

Xala, Ptiramc or mythological king, 32, 168 Nanjaraja Wodeyar, King of Mysore, 83, 84, 

Xainbiars, Priests, 104 118 

Kambi Jitteyapabhatta, priest, 200 Nanjaraj, same as Nanjaraja, sanQdhili&n, 

Naminalvar, Srivaishnava saint, 12,1^,16,17 84, 87, 89, 93, 105, 114 

19,40 Nanjiab, same as LmgiaJi, minister of 

Nanan Eao ? same as Narain Rao, a Rednur, 99 

military officer, 100 Narmagauda, private person, 129 

e Eajah, same as Nanjaraja, minister Narain Eao, officer under Hyder, 100 

ofEnshna Raja Wadeyar, Mysore king, Naianacban, private person, 191 

114,118 Narasamangala, milage, 1,8,28,46,199-202 



237 



Warasihadeva, pnaate person, 
M a SSdevkf same I a love, 

L>dJiai0 ^ j 



PAGE 

120 Nayakiiti, Jama, <juru 
120 NayikWa Siddhantachandra, 



PAGE 
183 



a, 



Narasnnhal, Hoyoia te<7, 156, 169/171^ Nehasmm 01 Nelhasaiam, same as 



N*unhhar, B , 
Narasnnhadeva, 



gcobar, 

, 140, 169, 197 Mafcauth. Pand, ^. 

Nda^a,^ o/ T ,r 

Nileshwar 01 Nilesvar, village, 






Nayaka Rama, a^ 



, s 

T Nizamah 01 Nizamah Khan, ??> o/ 

Narafflpur, mZZa^, H ydM 95, 104, 105, 106, 07 

x u 

, 140, 



62 



Orginim, name o/ a fari, 



O 



112 ' 113 



, . , 
Padmalkunad, hngdom, 

Padinalkunadu, ao 
Padiyara Chikka Tamma, a 

Ballala II, 
Padinanabhapma, 

Palasige, 1,200, 

Palghat, 

Pallava, architecture, 

Pailava, kingdom, 

Pallegar or Pallegars, ZowZ 

Panohalinga, *fcrmfl 

PaoGhamukhi injaneya, 
PanohaLantra, 



Panohayataaa, a 



, pitramc kmq, 
pnegf , 



,. q 
36, 8,1 

" 
184 



Fandya, A:IK^OW, crin*, 

, Kingdom and dynasty, 129 



, 



standard, 

. - ig pandya Dbananjaya, 

, 4 ,6, Id g^^ Bammaya, 

5 ' 7 S&manta Mara, t 

56 p^dyana Bomma, brother-in-law o 

o/, ^ gamanta Mat a, 
Q *> Jl 






238 

PAGE PAGE 

Paraehakra-kolahala, title, 80 Peramaludeva-dannayaka, a subordinate of 

Parama-Yisvasi, do 157 Narasimha III, 198, 199 

Parasara, sage, 198 Pindares, people, 92 

Parasuraina, sage, 26, 27, 33, 34, 37 Pmdan, do, 88 

Paravasudeva temple, at Gundlupet, 20, 22 Pmdecain, private person, 105 

Par^vanatha, Jama saint, 9 Polalva-dandanayaka, minister, 71 

Parthasarathi, #o^, 24 Pondichery, /oww, 84, 85, 9u, 92, 108, 110, 

Paivati, goddess, figure of, 5, 23, 30, 39, 66 111 

Parvati, goddess, shrme of, 3, 7, 8, 38 Ponern, Gap tain, IQg 

Patana, same as Senngapatam, 97 Poona, City, 8b, 102j 106, 117 

Patna, City, 110 Posala Vlra Vallaladeva, same as Ballala 

Pazhayangadi, foi t, 103 HI, 199 

Peggade Nayaka, loamoi, 146 Poysala, royal family, 167 

Peixoto, Portugese aittlwi , 83, 84,85,87, Pratapachakravarti Hoysala Bhujabala Vira. 
89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 97, 118 Narasmgaraya, same as jfyarasiniha III, 

Penugonda, /o? t, 97 r 149 

Permadi, Ganga chief, 62 Piatapa Hoysala Narasimghadevar, same as 

Perumala-dandanatka, a- subordinate of No.- Narasimha I 170 

ra&imha III, 197 Pratapa Naiasiraha, Hoysala King, 41 

Peiunialadannayaka, do 200 Punnad, Kingdom, ' 2 

Peruma[la] deva, do 199 Pomshamriga, a fabulous figure, half lion 

Peimnaladeya, do 200 and half man, 34 

Peiuiualadeva-dannayakkar, do 199 Puttaranga, private person, 42 

R 

Eaghava Dannayaka, father* of Naiayana EaraalmgeSvara, god, 28 

jDcm&ijaka, 15 Eamalmgesvara, temple, same as Eamalinga 

Eaghavapuia, village, 14, 15, 17 temple, 200, 201, 202 

Kaghoba, uncle of Peshwa Madhava Rao, Earnanatha, Hoysala ling, 200 

102 Eamanatha, ^orf, 201, 202, 203 

Eajapya, pnest, 173, 174 Eamanafcha, temple, 38 

Eajaraja, Ghola king, 75, 76 Bamanathadeva, god, 28 

Eajaiaja Chola do, 75 Eamanathadevaru, ^, 201 

Eajaiaja Chola III Chola king, 75 Eamannja, Srivaislmava teacher, image of, 

ixajarajesvan, goddess, 43 * -^ 

EajaSaib, Officer under Tlydet, 113,114 Eamanuiacharya, ^o 1940159 

Eajendrachola, Chola ling, 45, 47, 52, 53, Eamapura, village, ' ' 135 

TJ- ^ no 04 n/. or- o.o, ^ -, 168 ^amaiajayadeva, saww as Eamaraya, 129 

Earna, ^ ? 22, 24, 26, 27, 32, 81, 129, 140, Eamarao, general, 94 

-P-. AT . , -,, 152 ' 175 ' 183 > 198 Eaoaaraya, Vyayanagat ling, 192 

Rama ,IWWM as JVa^/^ Eama, 142 Eamasamudia, t^Zto/fl, 40 

Eamadeva, Blwna. ling, 1 50 Eamasamudra, tow*, 199 

Eamadevam,^ 196 Eamayana, work, 22 

Eamaganda, pnvate pet son, 129 Eamei au, friend of Khandemo 95 

Rama mga-pandi a, priest, 195, 196 Eamesvam, ^ 1 8 818 14 21 28 36 

Eamalinga, temple at Narasamangala, 199, ^ ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ^li 

200 Eamesvara, temple, at Gundlupet ' 21 



239 



PAGE 

ara temple, at 'Kittru , 7 

Do at Narasamangala, 1 

Do at Kuruvadagadde, 63 

Do at Ragthavfipura, 16 

BamoSvaram, saoted place, 81 

Barney anayaka, general, 140 

Bamzan, Mahammadan month offast^ng, 84 
Banakigatta, place, 189 

Baneya, same as Ehandeya, Eaya Baneija, 

150 

Eanganafcha, god, 14, 32 

Eanganatha temple at Qliannaqiri, 54 

Do a^ Halebid, 187 

Banoioo Oanooi, MaJiratta General, 113 

64, 69, 71 



Eastia Gopola, Haliratta Genet al, 

Batah, i iver, 

Eati, goddess, 

Bauraya, a hell, 

Eavana, demon ling, relievo figure, 

Bayapura, milage, 

Bayasa Narasanna, a devotee, 

Raya Vellur, place, 

Eechoheya Nayaka, a warnor, 

Begmagor, fort, 

Beyanfca, god, 

Budrasakti, guru, 

Budrasaktideva, ^rw, 

Bupamamkya, grandfather of 



PAGE 

113 

101 
12, 65 

180 
16 

140 
27 
59 



S 

Sa, leqeml on coin, 78 Sankarji Kasiram]i Venkatadn, a devotee, 64 

Sadarkhan, a mtZitor?/ officer, 115 Sankesidurg, > *, o 

Badasivaraya, Vyayanagar K*ng, 192 Santave, ^n^e p^oTi, 14& 

Saiva, SM*, 8, 9, 24, 40, 63, 68, 69, 70, 76, SaBte-Bennm, place, ?> w >f 

' ' ' ' 142,144,159,196 Sante-Qanapati, temple at Kamkatte, 123 

Sala, progenitor of the Hoysala family, 152, Santmatha, Jawa scant, 185 

156, Santyabegere, tank, 

group of, 65, 66, 68 Saptamatnka, gjoup of 



Salorn, , 7 

Baluvi, wwe of a family, 150 Saragur, milage, 

Sftluva Tikkama, ^ M ^arZ, 149, 150 Sarapanjara , 
Baluva Tiznma, ~^ , 



KainanU Mara, a 



' 



of BalMall Sa^kapnra, 
156, 157 , 
H 80 



10 
, ^u, 



^ 
of the Eoysalas, 






Samkharadova, god, 
Samonne, Aw o/ Oafoo<, 



152; i?3, 179 Satyabegere, do 



II, do 



146 

146 
146 



Sankamadova, flS 
Sankara, god, 
Sankara Bbarati, gnrw, 
Sankarananda, do 
Sankaranarayana, M 



, 140, 168, 175 

J i o/, 

' measure 

Seftipaata, 


' 



102 ' 






ffd7wraZ f 



102 



240 

PAGE PAGE 

Sermgapabam, place, 72, 84, 85, 86, 87, Sonaduvalangaruhya, title, 79 

89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 99, 1U5 Soonda, kingdom, 100 

106, H 1 2, 113, 114,115,116,317, Sovannagavunda, private person, 152 

118, 119 Soviyanayaka, warrior, 125 

Sesba, Sen pent God, 168 Sravanabelugola, place, 28 

Setupalis, legend on coin, 75 Sri, goddess, 197 

Seven Konkanas, Kingdom, 179 Sri Allalanatha, signature of Perumaladeva, 

Sevtraa, dynasty, 149, 150, 175 f 199 

Sex-centenary celebrations of the Yrjaya- Sri Devi, goddess, image, 40 

nagar Empire, at Hampi, 2 Snngauathesvara, temple at Kanikatte, 
Shanmukha, god, image, 67 120 122 

Shikarpm, talul, 73 Srmgen, Matt, 121 

Shimoga talul, town, and District, 1, 56, 63 Sri Kaverl, i iver, 14 

Siddhaya, tax, 157, 202 Sri Mara, King 80 

Siddhahngasvaim, sculptor, 73 Qrimvasa, god, image, ~ 41 

Siddhesvara, temple at Stilelere, 57 'Srlmvasa Rao, K, private person 56 

Smdange, pwvince, 156 Sri Pandavanarapar, legend on coin, 77 

Smgali, village, 129 Sri Pandya da na (in) jaya, legend on coin, 

Smga, Hoysala genei al, 150 78 

Smganatha, private pei son, 129 Sri Pandya (gha) va narapa, do 11 

Smgaya, same as Singa, 153 Snpant Mahrata, general, 88 

Smgayya Nagayya, private person, 129 Sn Parsvanatha, god, image of, 8 

Singhalese, people, 109 Sri Pra knshnaraya, legend on coin, 59 

Sircapor, place, 102 Snpurusha Ganga, Ganga lung, 44 

Sira, plate, 86, 92, 95 } 96, 98, 105, 117 Sri Rama, god, image, 25, 26, 37, 39, and 60 

Bita, wife of Rama, gtouy of, 22, 26, 33 Sri Ranganatha, god, 56 

39, 60 Snvaishnava caste marh of, 4 

Siva, god, image of, 2, 16, 25, 27, 28, 29, Standing and seated king Fish and Crozier, 

30, 33, 39, 45, 65, 66, 69, 7J type of coin, 74 

god, 122, 141, 168, 162, 172, St Thome, place, 107 

173, 179, 111 Standing kiog and Elephant, type of coin, 

Sivaneya-dannayaka, a subordinate of Nara- 75 

simhalll, 144 Standing king and Tamil legend, type of 

Sivaneyanahalh, milage, 144 coin, 74 

Sivappa Nayaka, chief, 103 Standing king Fish and Tamil legend, type 

Skandavarrnan, Punnata Jnng, 2 of coin, ' 74 

Smith Colonel, English general, 106, 107 Standing king Fish and Yira Pandyan, type 

108 of coin, 74 

Soma, god and progenitor of the Lunar race, Standing king two Fish and Tamil legend, 

152 74 

Somanatha, god 129, 130 Suba , title, 104, 106 

Sornarasi, Sawa priest, 141, 142 Subahu, a demon, ' 27 

Sooaesvara, god, temple at N&gav&di, 142 Snbrahmanya, god, image, 22 

temple at Saragur, 9, temple of 5, 25, Sudarsanachakra, discus, ' 24 

<_ ffd) 124 Suggalesvaiadevaru, god, 170 

Sornesvara, Ho^ala ling, 197 Sugriva, image of, 31 32 41 

Sonaesvara Bhulokarnalla, Ghalulya king, Sulekere, tank, '57*58 

181 Sun, group of' ' 30 

Someya saham, warrior, 186 Sunda, kingdom, 98 



241 



PAGE 



Sundara, Pandya fang, 
Sundara, do 

Suntara Pantiyan, legend on coin, 
Stmtara pa ya, do 
Surabhi, celestial cow, 



PAGE 



75 Surya, god, image of 3, 5, 8, 11, 36, 62, 64, 



76 



76 Suryanarayana, god, image, 

76 Suryanna, private person, 

157 Suvarnavati, river, 

Snrabbi Kumudachandra, Jama guru, 185 Suvarnavarsha, Esshtmluta ling, 

Surayyana Subbannanahola, a field, 42 Svastikapura, town. 




10 
171 
44 
69 
19 



T 



Tagadur, village, 
Tagare, village, 
Tagare 12, division, 
Tagarenad, district, 
Talakad, Kingdom 



Talekad, same as Talak&d, 
Talekadu, province, 
Talemale, place, 
Talkad, same as Talakad, 
Tandava Ganapati, god, image of, 
Tandava Knsbna, do 



203 

153,172 173 
173 

152, 153 
128, 140, 156, 
168 
156 

169, 175 
140 
18,28 
11 
40 



Tandava Sarasvatii, goddess, image of, 11 
Tandave&vara, god, image of, 8, 29, 38, 45, 

57, 67, 68 



Tamramulai, village, 

Tanjore, town, 

Taraka ? river, 

Tankere Pallegars, 

Tafcaka, demoness, 

Tavaregatta, tank, 

Tavareyakey, name of a field, 

Taytar, village, 

Tejomdhi Pandita, Saiva priest, 

Tekal, village, 

Telmgj caste, 

Tellemongal, fort, 

Telhchery fart, 83, 85, 86, 104, 109 

Tendeyakere, village and tank, 157 

Tenkanayyeyavah, another name for Alur, 



199 

86 

34 

61 

27 

180 

173 

94 

171 

103 

96 

93 



Timmanagaladeva, private person, 12^ 

Timmararju Arasu, Chief of Nandy&la, 192 
Titaruarasa, father of Jakkarasa, 2 

Tippagauda, private person, 173 

Tippn, son of Ryder, 90, 107, 114, 115 

Tipur, village, 94 

Timmala Raya, Vijayanagar hng % 76 

Tirumale, same as Tirupati, sacred place, 

140 

Tiruvannamalaij sacred place, 106, 107 
todar, gold ornament, 157 

Torenad, district, W& 

Trailokyamalla Somesvara, Chalutya kmg, 

62 

Traoquebar, milage, 110 

Travancore, kingdom, 1CB, 109 

Treaty of Madras, 83,112 

TribhTivanamalla, title, 169 

Tnbhnvanamalla Ballala Poysaladeva, same 

asBallalal, 159 

TribhTivanamalla Yikramaditya, Ghalukya 

king, && 

Tnchinopoli, fort, H 7 

Do do B8, 87 

Tripatur, same as Tirvpattttr, village, 106 
Tripura, demon, 
TriYikrama, god, 
Triyambakapura, village, 
Tnyambakesvara, temple at Tnyambala- 



Terakanambi, village, 19, 22, 23, 27, 28 41, 



T.Gr.I, letters in the watermark of some 

paper, 
Timrna, a subordinate of the Vnayanagar 

king KrishnaraycL 



Tulapumsha, a form of gift, 179, 180, 181 
Tuludesa, district or country, 140 

Tumbula or Tumbulu, village, 
Tungabhadra, river, 62, 63, 69, 104 
Two Fish and Kanaaja letter, a type of 
Pandya coins, 

32 



242 
U 

PAGE PAGE 

Uchohangi, fort and kingdom, 156 TJganekote, chufs t 193 

Do Ml, 179 Ugra Narasimha, image, 11, 26, 29 

Uda Purssu, a prince, 99, 100 Ugune, village, 195 

Udaya, mountain, 152 Uma, goddess, 29 

Udayaditya, Hoysala Pnnce, 140, 156, Umamahesvara, #0$, 25, 39, 67 

167 Do mark on coin, 59 

Udigala, village, 191, 192 UmmattQi, cfoe/s, 19, 23, 27 

TJdiyagala, same as &&0#tf, 192 Umraattur, Pallegars, 23, 25 

Uganedahundi, village, 193 Cramundala Anjaneya, temple at Hegqada- 

Uganehundi, do 195 devanakcte, 4 

V 

Yaddavara, & week day, 141, 142, 149 Yenkata Bao, M., private person, 60 

Varjanatha, private person, 187 Venkanayyanacliatra, village, 40 

Yaikuntha Narayana, #o<# ? 27 Yerikatayyangar, private person, 40 

Yaislmava, s^ctf, 10, 76, 79, 80, 159, 186 Yenkatesa, god, image of, 4, 8, 27, 40, 43 

Yaislmavi, goddess in sculpture, 35 Yenugopala, god, image o/,12, 13, 15, 18, 19 

Yaisya, sect, 14 25, 26, 40, 54 

Yajresvara, god, 157 Yenu Lodge, at G-opfilasvaim Hill, 19 

Yalarpattanam, place, 103 Yidyadhara, a class of gods, 46, 47, 48, 49 

Valdaur, place, 111 51, 53, 69, 159 

Yah, Monkey king in sculpture 31 Yidyadharl, celestial being, 26 

Yamana, god f image of, 11, 26, 33, 37, Yidya-Ganapafci, god image of, 26 

Yammalige, village, 144 Yijayanagar, dynasty, 2, 3, 5, 13, 14, 15, 

Yarada, river 180, 181 ' 16, 18, 19, 4 23, 25, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 

Yaradanarasimha, god image of, 26 54, 58, 60, 61, 64, 76, 1 17, 192 

Yaradaraja, god, temple of, 14, 17, 23, 24, 25 Yijayanarayana, god, temple at Q-undlupet 19, 

image of, 5, 6, 17, ^6, 40, god image, 20, 21, 22, 

198, 200 Yrj ay anaiay anas warm, temple at JBelur, 72 

Yaradaraja Allalunatha, god, 198 Yrjayappadasa Narayana, a VaisTinava 

Yaradaiajasyami, god temple of, 4, 5, devotee, 186 

Yaranasi, holy place, 130, 142, 174 Yikrama Ganga, title, 179 

Yaraha, god image of, 26, 37 Yikrama G-anga Yishnuvardhanadeva, Hoy- 

Varaha, standard, 78 sola kmg, 180 

Yarahi, goddess image of, 35 Vmeyaditya, Eoysala king, 152, 156, 167 

Yarelle, a military officer, 109 182 

Varuna, god -~ image of, 169 Vmeyaditya, Hoy sola king, 139, 140 

Yasantika, goddess 140 Vmitisvara, god, 44 

Yasantikadevi, goddess, 152 Yira Ballala, Hoysala king, 35, 157, 186 

Yayu, god, 169, 182 Yira Ballala II, ' do 142, 151, 191 

Yelapun, same as Bel&r, town, 147 Yira Ballala III, do 28, 38, 43, 202 

YelUr, place, 107, 108 Yira Ballala Deva, do 129 

Vengi, do 76 Yirabhadra, god, 30, 35, 38, 39, 42 45, 

Yenkatapatiraya, Vijayanagar king, 25 62, 64 

Yenkataramaaasvami, temple at Huligana Ylragangapratapa Hoysala Narasirnhade^ar, 

maradi, 27 same as Narasimha I, 169 



243 

PAGE PAGE 

Vlraganga Vishnuvardhana Hoysaladevaru, Vishnu, Hoysala hng, 128 140, 167, 168? 

same as Vishnuvardhana 195 179 

Vira Narasingadevarasaru, same as Narasi- Vishnu bh up alaka, Hoysala hng, 137 

mhalll, 190 Vishnudeva, do 168 

Vira Pandya, P&ndya Tung 74, 75 Vishnunripalaka, do 167 

Vira Pantayan, legend on coin, 75 Vishnuvardhana, do 128, 153, 156, 

Virappa, private person, 124 159, 168, 169, 172, 

Vira, Somesvara Hoysala, Hoysala king, 78 180 195 

Viratapura, same as Hanungal, 140, 179 VishnuYardhana Hoysaladeva, same as 

Vira Vallala, same as Ballala II, 191 Vishnuvardhana, 179, 180 

Vira Vallaladevan, same as Ballala III, 199 Vishvaksena, god y image, 15, 19, 40 

Visalamudre, town? 198 Visvamitra, sage 27 

Vishnu, god } shnne of 5, 8, image of, 5, 6, 7, Visvanatha, god, 189 

11, 12, 16, 29, 30, 37, 39, 56, 58, 68, 69, Visvanathadevaru, god, 189 

71, symbol, 79 god, 121, 129, 152, 156 Vodagere, tank 173 

167, 186 Vyasa, sage 46 

W 

Washington, city, 2 Wood Colonel, English G-eneral, 107, 117 

West Chalukya Empire, 77 Wynad, country, 19 
Wilks, author, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88 89, 90, 

92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101 

102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 112 

113, 116, 117, 118 



Yadava race, 129, 140, 179, 189, 197, Yama, Q-od of Death, 167, 169 

Yadavas, royal family, 64, 131 Yasoda, a mythical lady 24 

Yadu, race, 129, 139, 140, 141, 149, 151, Yatiraja, title of Eamanu^acharya, 159 

182, Yatirarjara/ja, title 159 

Yaduvamsa, race, 168 Yedatore, town, 62 

Yaksha, image, 7,11,29,30,31,3233, Yelahakka, place, 157 

36, 70 Yelahanka, village, 92 

Yakshi, celestial being, 33, 34 Yoga-Narasrmha, god, image of, 6, 13, 26 

Z 

Zamorin, fang of Calicut, 104 



WD 1486-GPB-850-31 TO 33