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OF THE 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1916 



IN TWO VOLUMES 

VOL. I 



WASHINGTON 
1919 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 
Washington, D. #., November 6, 1917. 
To the Congress of the United States : 

In accordance with the act of incorporation of the American 
Historical Association, approved January 4, 1889, I have the honor 
to submit to Congress the annual report of the association for the 
year 1916. I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

CHAKLJGS D. WALCOTT, Secretary. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, 

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, 
Washington, D. <7., October 10, 1917. 

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, as provided for by 
law, the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 
1916. The report is in two volumes, the first of which contains the 
proceedings of the association during 1916 and certain of the papers 
read at the thirty-second annual meeting of the association held in 
s Cincinnati in December, 1916. The second volume contains the 
twelfth report of the historical manuscripts commission, consisting of 
a large group of letters from the correspondence of Robert M. T. 
Hunter. 

Yery respectfully yours, 

WALDO G. LELAND, Secretary, 
The SECRETARY or THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

Washington, D. G. 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME I. 

Page 
I. Keport of the proceedings of the thirty -second annual meeting of the 

American Historical Association 35 

II. Report of the proceedings of the thirteenth annual meeting of the 

Pacific coast branch of the American Historical Association 121 

III. Seventeenth report of the public archives commission 133 

Appendix A Proceedings of the seventh annual conference of 
archivists 139 

Appendix B Report on the condition of the public records of the 
State of New Jersey by a committee of citizens 163 

Appendix C. South America as a field for an historical survey, by 
Charles E . Chapman 201 

IV. Proceedings of the thirteenth annual conference of historical societies. 211 

Appendix- Reports of historical societies, 1916 237 

V. Proceedings of the conference of hereditary patriotic societies 247 

VI. Report of a committee on the organization of a university center for 

higher studies in Washington 269 

VII Minutes of a conference on the foundation of a journal of Latin- 
American history 279 

VIII Tribute assessments in the Athenian Empire, by Herbert Wing 287 

IX. When did the Byzantine Empire and civilization come into being, by 

Paul van den Ven 299 

X. The life of a monastic Sho in medieval Japan, by K. Asakawa 311 

XI. History and pathology, by Ohalfant Robinson - 343 

XII Constantinople as capital of the Ottoman Empire, by Albert Howe 

Lybyer 371 

XIIL A. The Stuart period: Unsolved probl ems, by Wallace Notestein ... 391 
B. Unsolved legal and institutional problems in the Stuart period, 

by Roland G Usher 401 

XIV. Beginnings of the oldest European alliance: England and Portugal, 

1640-1661, by Guernsey Jones 405 

XV. Chinese social institutions as a foundation for republican government, 

by Edward T. Williams 419 

XVI. Admiral Charles Whiting Wooster m Chile, by Charles Lyon Chandler. 445 

XVII, Historic ideals in recent politics, by Joseph Schafer 457 

XVIII. American historical periodicals, by Augustus H. Shearer 469 

VOLUME II. 

Twelfth report of the historical manuscripts commission- Correspondence of 
Robert M. T. Hunter, 1826-1876, edited by Charles Henry Ambler. 

9 



CONSTITUTION. 



The name of this society shall be The American Historical Asso- 
ciation. 

II. 

Its object shall be the promotion of historical studies. 

III. 

Any person approved by the executive council may become a mem- 
ber by paying $3, and after the first year may continue a member by 
paying an annual fee of $3, On payment of $50 any person may 
become a life member, exempt from fees. Persons not resident in the 
United States may be elected as honorary or corresponding members 
and be exempt from the payment of fees. 

IV. 

The officers shall be a president, two vice presidents, a secretary, a 
secretary of the council, a curator, and a treasurer. These officers 
shall be elected by ballot at each regular annual meeting in the man- 
ner provided in the by-laws. 

V. 

There shall be an executive council constituted as follows : 

1. The officers named in Article IV. 

2. Elected members, eight in number, to be chosen annually in the 
same manner as the officers of the association. 

3. The former presidents, but a former president shall be entitled 
to vote for the three years succeeding the expiration of his term as 
president, and no longer. 

VL 

The executive council shall conduct the business, manage the prop- 
erty, and care for the general interests of the association. In the 
exercise of its proper functions, the council may appoint such com- 
mittees, commissions, and boards as it may deem necessary. The 

ll 



12 AMERICAN" HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

council shall make a full report of its activities to the annual meet- 
ing of the association. The association may by vote at any annual 
meeting instruct the executive council to discontinue or enter upon 
any activity, and may take such other action in directing the affairs 
of such amendment having been given at the previous annual meet- 
ing or the proposed amendment having received the approval of the 
executive council. 

VII. 

This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting, notice 
of such amendment having been given at the previous annual meet- 
ing or the proposed amendment having received the approval of the 
executive council. 



BY-LAWS. 
I. 

The officers provided for by the constitution shall have the duties 
and perform the functions customarily attaching to their respective 
offices with such others as may from time to time be prescribed. 

II. 

A nomination committee of five members shall be chosen at each 
annual meeting in the manner hereafter provided for the election of 
officers of the association. At such convenient time prior to the 1st 
of October as it may determine it shall invite every member to ex- 
press to it his preference regarding every office to be filled by election 
at the ensuing annual meeting and regarding the composition of the 
new nominating committee then to be chosen. It shall publish and 
mail to each member at least 20 days prior to the annual meet- 
ing such nominations as it may determine upon for each elective office 
and for the next nominating committee. It shall prepare for use at 
the annual meeting an official ballot containing, as candidates for 
each office or committee membership to be filled thereat, the names 
of its nominees and also the names of any other nominees which 
may be proposed to the chairman of the committee in writing by 
20 or more members of the association at least five days before 
the annual meeting. The official ballot shall also provide, under 
each office, a blank space for voting for such further nominees as 
any member may present from the floor at the time of the election. 

III. 

The annual election of officers and the choice of a nominating 
committee for the ensuing year shall be conducted by the use of an 
official ballot prepared as described in by-law II. 

IV. 

The association authorizes the payment of traveling expenses in- 
curred by the voting members of the council attending one meeting 
of that body a year, this meeting to be other than that held in con- 
nection with the annual meeting of the association. 

13 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Organized at Saratoga, N. Y., September 10, 1884. Incorporated by Congress, 

January 4, 1889. 



OFFICERS ELECTED DECEMBER 28, 1916. 
PRESIDENT : 

WORTHINGTON C. FORD, A. M., 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 

VICE PRESIDENTS: 

WILLIAM ROSCOE THAYER, 

Cambridge. 

EDWARD CHANNING, PH. D., 
Harvard University. 

SECEETAET : 

WALDO GIFFORD LELAND, A M., 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

TREASURER : 

CLARENCE WINTHROP BOWEN, PH. D., 
New Yorfc. 

SECRET ABY OF THE COUNCIL : 

EVARTS BOUTELL GREENE, PH. D., 
University of Illinois. 

CURATOR : 

A. HOWARD CLARK, A M,, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL: 

(In addition to the above-named officers.) 
(Ex-Presidents ) 

ANDREW DICKSON WHITE, L H. D., LL. D., D. 0. L., 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

HENRY ADAMS, LL D., 
Washington, D. C. 

JAMES SCHOULER, LL. D., 
Boston, Mass. 

JAMES FORD RHODES, LL. D., D. LITT^ 
Boston, Mass. 

15 



16 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

JOHN BACH McMASTER, A. M., PH. D., LITT. D., LL. D. f 
University of Pennsylvania. 

SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL. D., 

New Haven, Conn. 

JOHN FRANKLIN JAMESON, PH D., LL D., LITT. D., 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, PH. D., LITT. D., 
Tale University. 

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, PEC. D., LL. D., LITT. IX, 
Harvard University. 

FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER, PH. D., LL D., LTTT. D., 
Harvard University. 

WILLIAM MILLIGAN SLOANE, PH D., L. H. D,, LL. D. f 
Columbia University. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT, LL. D., D. C. L., 

Oyster Bay, N. Y. 

WILLIAM ARCHIBALD DUNNING, PH D , LL. D., 

Columbia University 

ANDREW c MCLAUGHLIN, A M., LL. B., 

University of Chicago. 

H. MORSE STEPHENS, M A, LITT. D., 

University of California. 

GEORGE LINCOLN BURR, LL D., LITT. D., 

Cornell University* 

(Elected Councillors.) 

EUGENE C. BARKER, PH. D., 

University of Texas 

GUY S. FORD, B, L., PH. D., 

University of Minnesota. 

QLRICH B. PHILLIPS, PH. D., 

University of Michigan. 

SAMUEL B. HARDING, PH. D., 

Indiana State Univetsity. 

LUCY M. SALMON, A. M., 
Vassar College. 

HENRY E. BOURNE, L. H D., 
Western Reserve University. 

CHARLES MOORE, PH. D., 
Detroit, Mich. 

GEORGE M. WRONG, M. A., 
University of Toronto. 



PACIFIC COAST BRANCH. 



OFFICERS ELECTED DECEMBER 2, 1916. 
PRESIDENT : 

EDWARD B. KREHBIEL, PH. D., 

Stanford University. 

VICE PRESIDENT: 
LEVI E. YOUNG, B. S , A. M. f 

University of Utah. 

SECRETARY-TREASURER ! 

WILLIAM A. MORRIS, PH. D., 

University of California. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 
(In addition to the above-named officers.) 

OLIVER H. RICHARDSON, PH. D., 

University of Washington. 

TULLY C. KNOLES, A. M., 

University of Southern California. 

ALLEN M. KLINE, PH. D. t 

University of the Pacific. 

EFFIE I. HAWKINS, 

Berkeley High School. 

23318" 18 2 17 



TERMS OF OFFICE. 

(Deceased officers are marked thus : t-) 



EX-PRESIDENTS : 

ANDREW DTOKSON WHITE, L H D , LL D , D C L., 1884-1885. 
1 GEORGE BANCROFT, LL D, 1885-1886. 
f JUSTIN WINSOR, LL D , 1886-1887 
1 WILLIAM FREDERICK POOLE, LL. D., 1887-1888. 
f CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL. D , 1S88-1SS9. 
1JOHN JAY, LL D, 1889-1890 
fWILLIAM WIRT HENRY, LL D., 1890-1891 
f JAMES BURRILL ANGELL, LL. D , 1891-1893. 

HENRY ADAMS, LL. D , 1893-1894 
tGEORGE FRISBIE HOAR, LL D , 1895. 
fRICHARD SALTER STORRS, D D., LL D , 1896. 

JAMES SCHOULER, LL D , 1897 
tGEORGE PARK FISHER, D. D , LL. D , 1898. 

JAMES FORD RHODES, LL D , D LITT , 1899. 
tEDWARD EGGLESTON, L. H. D , 1900 
tCHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, LL. D, 1901 
tALFRED THAYER MAHAN, I) C L , LL. D , 1902. 
tHENRY CHARLES LEA, LL D , 1903. 
tGOLDWIN SMITH, D. C L , LL D , 1904 

JOHN BACH McMASTER, PH D., LITT D , LL D., 1905. 

SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL D., 1906. 

J. FRANKLIN JAMESON, PH D., LL D LIIT D , 1907 

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, PH. D , LITT D , 1908 

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, PH D , LL D , LITT. D , 3909. 

FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER, PH D , LL D, LITT J) , 3910. 

WILLIAM MILLIGAN SLOANE, PH D , L H. D , LL D., 1911. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT, LL D , D C L , 1912. 

WILLIAM ARCHIBALD DUNNING, PH D , LL D , 1913. 

ANDREW c MCLAUGHLIN, A. M., LL B , 1914 

H. MORSE STEPHENS, M A , LITT D , 1915 
GEORGE LINCOLN BURR, LL D., LITT, D , 1916. 

EX-VICE PBESIDBNTS I 

tJUSTIN WINSOR, LL D , 1884-18S6 

tCHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL D., 1884-1888. 

tWILLIAM FREDERICK POOLE, LL. D., 1886-1887. 

t JOHN JAY, LL D , 1887-1889 

tWILLIAM WIRT HENRY, LL D , 1888-1890. 

t JAMBS BURRILL ANGELL, LL. D , 1889-1891. 

HENRY ADAMS, LL D., 1890-1893. 
tEDWARD GAY MASON, A. M., 1891-1894. 
tGEORGE FRISBIE HOAR, LL D., 1894. 
tRICHARD SALTBR STORRS, D D,, LL. D., 1895. 

JAMES SCHOULER, LL D , 1895, 1896. 
tGEORGE PARK FISHER, D D., LL D , 1896, 1S97. 

JAMES FORD RHODES, LL. D, D. LITT, 1897, 1808. 
tEDWARD EGGLESTON, L. H. , 1898, 1899. 
tMOSES COIT TYLER, L. H. D., LL D r 1899, 1900. 
tCHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, LL. D., 1900. 
tHERBERT BAXTER ADAMS, PH D., LL. D., 19Q1. 

10 



20 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

t ALFRED THAYER MAHAN, D. C. L , LL D , 1901. 

f HENRY CHARLES LEA, LL D , 1902. 

f GOLD WIN SMITH, D C. L , LL D., 1902, 1903. 

f EDWARD McCRADY, LL D , 1903 

JOHN BACH McMASTER, PH. D , LITT. D , LL D , 1904. 
SIMEON E BALDWIN, LL D , 1904, 1905 

J FRANKLIN JAMESON, PH D , LL D., LITT D , 1905, 1900. 
GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, PH D , LITT. D , 1906, 1907 
ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, PH D , LL D , LITT. D , 1907, 1908 
FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER, PH. D., LL D , LITT D , 1908, 1909. 
WILLIAM MILLIGAN SLOANE, PH D , L. H D , LL. D , 1909, 1910. 
THEODORE ROOSEVELT, LL D , D. C L., 1910, 1911 
WILIAM ARCHIBALD DUNNING, PH. D , LL D, 1911, 1912. 

ANDREW c. MCLAUGHLIN, A M , LL. B , 1912, 1913. 

H MORSE STEPHENS, M. A , LITT. D , 1913, 1914 
GEORGE LINCOLN BURR, LL D., LITT D., 1914, 1915. 
WORTHINGTON C. FORD, A M , 1915, 1916 

SECRETARIES I 

fHERBERT BAXTER ADAMS, PH D , LL D , 1884-1899, 
A. HOWARD CLARK, A M , 1889-1908. 
CHARLES HOMER HASKINS, PH. D , 1900-1913. 
WALDO GIFFORD LELAND, A. M , 1908 
EVARTS BOUTELL GREENE, PH D , 1914^ 

TREASURER ! 

CLARENCE WINTHROP BOWEN, PH. D , 1884 

CURATOR : 
A. HOWARD CLARK, A. M , 1889 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL: 

tWILLIAM BABCOCK WEEDEN, A M , 1S84-18SG. 

tCHARLES DEANE, LL D , 1884-1887. 

tMOSES COIT TYLER, L H D , LL. D , 1884r~1885 

EPHRAIM EMERTON, PH D., 1884-1885 

FRANKLIN BOWDITCH DEXTER, A M , LITT D , 1885-188T. 
tWILLIAM FRANCIS ALLEN, A. M , 1885-1887. 
1 WILLIAM WIRT HENRY, LL. D, 1886-1888. 
fRUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES, LL. D , 1887-1888. 

JOHN W. BURGESS, PH D , LL. D , 1887-1891 

ARTHUR MARTIN WHEELER, A M., LL. D , 1887-1889. 
tGEORGE PARK FISHER, D D,, LL. D , 1888-1891. 
tGEORGE BROWN GOODS, LL D, 1889-1890. 

JOHN GEORGE BOURINOT, C M G , D C. L , LL D, 1889-1*94, 

JOHN BACH McMASTBR, PH D , LITT D , LL. D , 1891-1894 

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, PH 0., LITT. D, 1891-1897; 1898-1001. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT, LL D , D C L., 1894-1895. 
t JABEZ LAMAR MONROE CURRY, LL. D , 1S94-1895. 

H MORSE STEPHENS, M. A., LITT D , 1895-1899 

FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER, PH. D., LL D., LITT. D., 1895-1899 ; 1901-1904L 

EDWARD MINER GALLAUDET, PH D., LL D., 1896-1897. 
tMELVILLE WESTON FULLER, LL D , 1897-1900. 

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, PH. D , LITT D , 1897-1900. 

ANDREW C. MCLAUGHLIN, A. M., LL B., 1898~1901 ; 1903~1906. 

WILLIAM ARCHIBALD DUNNING, PH D , LL. D , 1899-1902 
fPETER WHITE, A. M., 1899-1902. 

J FRANItLIN JAMESON, PH. D., LL D , LITT. D., 1900-1903. 

A. LAWRENCE LOWELL, PH. D , LL D., 1900-1903. 
. HERBERT PUTNAM, LITT D , LL. D., 1901-1904. 

GEORGE LINCOLN BURR, LL. D , 1902-1905 

EDWARD POTTS CHBYNEY, LL. D , 1902-1905. 
tEDWARD G. BOURNE, PH. D., 1903-1906. 



TEEMS OF OFFICE. 21 



fGEORGE P. GARRISON, PH. 3>., 1904-1907. 

tREUBEN GOLD THWAITES, LL D , 1904-1907. 
CHARLES MCLEAN ANDREWS, PH D., L. H D , 1905-1903. 

JAMES HARVEY ROBINSON, PH D, 1905-1908 

WORTHINGTON CHAUNCEY FORD, A. M , 1906-1909. 

WILLIAM MACDONALD, PH. D , LL D , 1906-1909. 

MAX FARRAND, PH. D., 1907-1910. 

FRANK HEYWOOD HODDER, PH M., 1907-1910. 

EVARTS BOUTELL GREENE, PH. D , 1908-1911. 

CHARLES HENRY HULL, PH. D , 1908-1911 

FRANKLIN LAFAYETTE RILEY, A. M , PH D , 1909-1912. 

EDWIN ERLE SPARKS, PH. D , LL. D., 1909-1912. 

JAMES ALBERT WOODBURN, PH D., LL D , 1910-1913. 

FRED MORROW FLING, PH D , 1910-1913 

HERMAN VANDENBURG AMES, PH D., 1911-1914, 

DANA CARLETO3ST MUNRO, A M , 1911-1914. 

ARCHIBALD GARY COOLIDGE, PH. D., 1912-1914. 

JOHN MARTIN VINCENT, PH D., LL D , 1912-1915. 

FREDERIC BANCROFT, PH D , LL. D , 1913-1915. 

CHARLES HOMER HASKINS, PH D, 1913-1916. 

EUGENE C. BARKER, PH D. t 1914 

GUY S. FORD, B L , PH. D., 1914 

ULRICH B PHILLIPS, PH D., 1914 

LUCY M. SALMON, A. M , 1915 

SAMUEL B. HARDING, PH D , 1915 

HENRY E. BOURNE, A B , B. D , L. H. D , 1016 

CHARLES MOORE, PH D., 1916 

GEORGE M. WRONG, M. A., 1916 



COMMITTEES APPOINTED DECEMBER 28, 1916. 

Committee on program for the thirty-third annual meeting John B. Mc- 
Master, chairman; Herman V. Ames, vice chairman; James H. Breasted, 
Walter L. Fleming, Howard L Gray, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Albert E. Mc- 
Kinley, Dana C. Munro, Augustus H. Shearer (ex officio). 

Committee on local arrangements. George W Pepper, chairman; William 
E Lingelbach, vice chairman ; Arthur C. Rowland, Raymond W Kelsey, J. J. 
Van No strand, jr. 

Committee on nominations Frank M. Anderson, Dartmouth College, chair- 
man; Charles H. Ambler, Christopher B. Coleman, H Barrett Learned, An- 
drew C McLaughlin. 

Editors of the American Historical Review Edward P. Cheyney, chairman; 
Carl Becker, Ephrairn Emerton, J. Franklin Jameson, James H Robinson, 
Claude H 'Van Tyne. 

Historical manuscripts commission Gaillard Hunt, Library of Congress, 
chairman; Dice R Anderson, Mrs, Amos'G. Draper, Charles H. Lincoln, Milo 
M. Quaife, Justin H. Smith. 

Committee on Justin Winsor prize Carl R Fish, University of Wisconsin, 
chairman; Edward S Corwin, Frank H. Hodder, Everett Kimball, Oswald G. 
Villard. 

Committee on Herbert Baxter Adams prize. Laurence M. Larson, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, chairman ; Sidney B. Fay, Robert H. Lord, Louis J. Paelow, 
Miss Ruth Putnam. 

Public archives commission. Victor H, Paltsits, chairman; Clarence W. 
Alvord, Solon J. Buck, John C. Fitzpatrick, George N. Fuller, George S. 
Godard, Peter Guilday, Thomas M. Owen. 

Committee on bibliography George M. Dutcher, chairman; Herbert E. Bol- 
ton, William T. Laprade, Albert H. Lybyer, Wallace Notestein, William W. 
Rockwell, Augustus H. Shearer, William A Slade, Bernard C. Steiner. 

Committee on publications H. Barrett Learned, Washington, chairman ; and 
(eos offtcio) George M Dutcher, Carl R. Fish, Evarts B. Greene, Gaillard Hunt, 
J. Franklin Jameson, Laurence M. Larson, Waldo G. Leland, Victor H. Paltsits. 

Committee on membership. William E. Lingelbach, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, chairman; Robert P. Brooks, Miss Eloise Ellery, Robert H. George, Pat- 
rick J. Healy, Edward M. Hulme, Waldo G. Leland (ex officio), Charles R. 
Lingley, Miss Eleanor Lord, John P. McConnell, Albert E McKmley, Frank E. 
Melvin, William A. Morris (ex offlcio), Miss Irene T. Myers, Paul F. Peck, 
R. C. Ballard Thruston, Royal B. Way. 

Committee on a bibliography of modern English history. Edward P. Chey- 
ney, University of Pennsylvania, chairman ; Wilbur C. Abbott, Arthur L. Cross, 
Roger B. Merriman, Conyers Read. 

Committee on history in schools. Henry Johnson, Teachers College, chair- 
man; Miss Victoria A. Adams, Henry E. Bourne, Henry L. Cannon, Philip 
Chase, Oliver M. Dickerson, Herbert D Foster, Samuel B. Harding, Daniel C. 
Knowlton, August C. Krey, Robert A Maurer, Nathaniel W. Stephenson, Rolla 
M. Tryon, William L. Westermann. 

23 



24 AMERICAN HISTOEIOAL ASSOCIATION". 

Conference of historical societies. Augustus H Shearer, secretary. 

Advisory board of the History Teacher's Magazine. Henry Johnson, Teachers 
College, chairman; Frederic Duncalf, Miss Anna B. Thompson, O. H. Williams 
(these four hold over) ; Fred M. Fling, James Sullivan (elected for three 
years). 

Committee on the military history prise. Robert M. Johnston, Cambridge, 
chairman ; Milledge L. Bonham, jr., Allen R. Boyd, Fred M. Fling, Albert Bush- 
nell Hart. 

Committee on cooperation with the National Highways Association. Archer 
B. Hulbert 



ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES. 



The American Historical Association is the national organization of those 
persons interested in history and in the promotion of historical work and 
studies. It was founded m 1884 by a group of representative scholars, and in 1889 
was incorporated by act of Congress, its national character being emphasized by 
fixing its principal office in Washington, and by providing for the governmental 
publication of its annual reports. Its present membership of 3,000 is drawn 
from every State of the Union, as well as from all the Territories and depend- 
encies, from Canada and South America, and from 13 other foreign countries. 
The association should appeal through its meetings, publications, and other 
activities not only to the student, writer, or teacher of history, but to the 
librarian, the archivist, the editor, the man of letters, to all who have any in- 
terest in history, local, national, or general, and to those who believe' that cor- 
rect knowledge of the past is essential to a right understanding of the present 

The meetings of the association are held annually during the last week in 
December in cities so situated as best to accommodate in turn the members in 
different parts of the country. The average attendance at the meetings is about 
400, representing 'generally 40 or more States and Canada, while from 75 to 
100 members usually have an active part in the program. But it is the op- 
portunity afforded for acquaintance and social intercourse quite as much as 
the formal sessions and conferences that makes the meetings so agreeable and 
profitable. 

The annual report, usually in two volumes, is printed for the association by 
the Government and is distributed free to members. It contains the proceed- 
ings of the association and the more important papers read at the annual meet- 
ings, as well as valuable collections of documents, bibliographical contributions, 
reports on American archives, on the activities of historical societies, on the 
teaching of history, etc. 

The American Historical Review is a quarterly journal of two hundred or 
more pages Each issue contains at least five authoritative articles in different 
fields of history, as well as selected documents, critical reviews of all new 
works of any importance, and a section devoted to historical news of periodical 
and other publications, institutions, societies, and persons. The Review is rec- 
ognized, both in this country and abroad, as the standard American journal 
devoted to history, and it easily takes rank with the leading European journals, 
such as the English Historical Review, the Revue Historique, and the His- 
torische Zeitschrift It is indispensable to all who desire to keep abreast with 
the historical work of the world, and of great value and interest to the general 
reader. The Review is distributed free to all members of the association. 

The association also publishes the Prize Essays, a series of annual volumes 
comprising the essays to which are awarded in alternate years the Herbert 
Baxter Adams and the Justin Wmsor prizes of $200 each, for the best mono- 
graphs in European and American history, respectively. These volumes are 
supplied to members at $1 each and to nonmernbers at $1.50. 

25 



26 AMEKICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

To the subject of history teaching the association has given much and con- 
sistent attention. Round table conferences have been held, committees have 
been appointed, investigations made, reports and papers read at nearly every 
annual meeting. The high standard of excellence in the teaching of history 
throughout the United States is due in no small degree to the association's 
activity in this direction. The Report of the Committee of Seven on history in 
the secondary schools, published in fS98 and supplemented in 1910, and the 
Report of the Committee of Eight on history in the elementary schools, published 
in 1909, form the basis of the present curriculum of history in most of the 
schools of the country. There is at present a standing committee on history 
in schools charged with the consideration of such questions as may come before 
it relative to the teaching of history Furthermore, recognizing the impor- 
tance of this phase of its work and its relation to the future citizenship of the 
Nation, the association in 1911 assumed a guiding interest in the History 
Teacher's Magazine, a monthly journal of the greatest practical value to the 
teacher of history. It is sent to members of the association at the special 
rate of $1 a year. 

Realizing the importance and value of the work of the many State and 
local historical societies, the association has from its earliest days maintained 
close relations with these kindred organizations. Since 1904 a conference of 
delegates of historical societies has been held in connection with the annual 
meetings of the association. At these conferences are considered the problems 
of historical societies for example, the arousing of local interest in history, 
the marking of historic sites, the collection and publication of historical mate- 
rial, the maintenance of historical museums, etc ; cooperative enterprises, too 
great for any one society, but possible for several acting together, are also 
planned. The most important of these enterprises, the preparation of a cata- 
logue of the documents in French archives relating to the history of the 
Mississippi Valley, is now nearmg successful completion. 

An important function of the association is the discovery and exploitation 
of the manuscript sources of American history. Thus, the historical manu- 
scripts commission, created in 1895 as a standing committee, has published In 
the Annual Reports nearly 8,000 pages of historical documents, including such 
collections as the correspondence of John C. Calhoun ; the papers of Salmon P. 
Chase ; the dispatches of the French commissioners in the United States, 1791- 
1797; the correspondence of Clark and GSnet, 1793-1794; the diplomatic cor- 
respondence of the Republic of Texas ; the correspondence of Toombs, Stephens, 
and Cobb ; the papers of James A. Bayard, etc. 

Realizing that the public records, which constitute the principal source for 
the history of any country, were generally neglected in America, and that this 
neglect had caused, and must continue to cause, irreparable losses, the associa- 
tion created In 1899 the public archives commission, the function of which was 
to examine and report upon the general character, historical value, physical 
condition, and administration of the public records of the various States and 
of the smaller political divisions The commission has now published reports 
on the archives of over 40 States, and has furthermore been instrumental in 
securing legislation providing for the proper care and administration ctf so 
valuable a class of historical material. Since 1909 the commission has held 
an annual conference of archivists, in connection with the meetings of the 
association, for the discussion of the more or less technical problems that con- 
front the custodian of public records. The commission also has in preparation 
a manual or primer of archival practice and methods. 

In the meantime the association is working actively to secure for the na- 
tional archives at "Washington a central building where the records of the 



ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES. 27 

Federal Government may be properly housed and cared for, instead of being, 
as at present, scattered among several hundred offices, where they are too often 
in the gravest danger from fire or other destructive forces. 

Bibliography, the indispensable tool of the historian and the guide of the lay- 
man, has not been neglected. The committee on bibliography has recently pub- 
lished A Union List of Collections on European History in American Libraries 
which has proved of the greatest value to librarians and students alike. A 
special committee is at present engaged in cooperation with a committee of Eng- 
lish scholars, in the preparation of a descriptive and critical bibliography of 
modern English history. For some years now there has been prepaiecl and pub- 
lished under the auspices of the association an annual bibliography of Writings 
on American History, which contains a practically complete list, in some 
3,000 items, of all books and periodical articles appearing during the year. 
It is generally recognized as the most complete and usable of all the national 
bibliographies. Bibliographies on special subjects have been printed from time 
to time in the Annual Reports; especially should be noted a Bibliography of 
American Historical Societies, filling over 1,300 pages, which was printed in 
the Annual Report for 1905. 

In 1904 a Pacific coast branch was organized, which, while an integral part 
of the association, elects local officers and holds separate annual meetings. Its 
proceedings are published in the Annual Reports In 1914 headquarters of the 
association were established in London for the benefit of the many American 
students working there in the Public Record Office and in the British Museum 
The association is enabled to share the building of the Royal Historical So- 
ciety, 22 Russell Square. At the same time plans were on foot to establish an 
office in Paris, where the hospitality of the Ministry of Public Instruction had 
been offered to the association. The war unfortunately made it necessary to 
suspend this project, but it will be taken up again at a more propitous season. 
Doubtless offices or rooms will in time be opened in other European capitals as 
the demands of American students may seem to justify such action. 

The association has from the first pursued the policy of inviting to its mem- 
bership not only those professionally or otherwise actively engaged in historical 
work, but also those whose interest in history or in the advancement of his- 
torical science is such that they wish to ally themselves with the association in 
the furtherance of its various objects. 

Membership in the association is obtained through election by the executive 
council, upon nomination by a member, or by direct application. The annual 
dues are $3, there being no initiation fee. The life membership is $50 dollars, 
and carries with it exemption from all annual dues. 

All inquiries respecting the association, its work, publications, prizes, meet- 
ings, membership, etc., may be addressed to the Secretary of the American 
Historical Association, 11*40 Woodward Building, Washington, D. C. To him 
also or to the secretary of the council, 315 Lincoln Hall, Urbana, 111., should 
be directed all communications relative to gifts or bequests for the benefit of 
the association. 



HISTORICAL PRIZES. 

Winsor and Adams prizes. 1 



For the encouragement of historical research the American Historical Asso- 
ciation regularly offers two prizes, each of $200 the Justin Winsor prize in 
American history and the Herbert Baxter Adams prize in European history. 
Each is awarded biennially (the Winsor prize in the even years and the Adams 
prize in the odd years) for the best unpublished monograph submitted to the 
committee of award on or before July 1 of the given year, e g., by July 1, 
1919, for the Adams prize in European history, and by July 1, 1920, for the 
Winsor prize m American history. The conditions of award are as follows: 

I. The prize is intended for writers who have not yet published any con- 
siderable work or obtained an established reputation. 

II. A. For the Justin Winsor prize. The monograph must be based upon In- 
dependent and original investigation in American history, by which is meant 
the history of any of the British colonies in America to 1783, of other terri- 
tories, continental or insular, which have since been acquired by the United 
States, of the United States, and of independent Latin America, It may deal 
with any aspect of that history social, political, constitutional, religious, eco- 
nomic, ethnological, military, or biographical, though in the last three instances 
a treatment exclusively ethnological, military, or biographical would be un- 
favorably received. 

B. For the Herbert Baxter Adams prize. The monograph must be based 
upon independent and original investigation in European history, by which is 
meant the history of Europe, continental, insular, or colonial, excluding con- 
tinental French America and British America before 1783. It may deal with 
any aspect of that history social, political, constitutional, religious, economic, 
ethnological, military, or biographical, though in the last three instances a 
treatment exclusively ethnological, military, or biographical would be un- 
favorably received. 

III. The monograph must present subject matter of more than personal or 
local interest, and must, as regards its conclusions, be a distinct contribution 
to knowledge Its statements must be accurate, and the author in his treat- 
ment of the facts collected must show originality and power of interpretation. 

IV. The monograph must conform to the accepted canons of historical re- 
search and criticism. 

It must be presented in scientific form. 

It must contain references to all authorities 

It must be accompanied by a critical bibliography. Should the bibliography 
be omitted or should it consist of a list of titles without critical comments 
and valuations, the monograph will not be admitted to the competition. 

1 Superseded by regulations adopted in 1917. 

29 



30 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

V. The entire monograph, including text, notes, bibliography, and appen- 
dices, must not exceed 100,000 words m length. The manuscript should be 
typewritten, and must be neat, correct, and in form ready for the printer. 

[In the typewriting of essays competitors are urged to use a strong, rather 
heavy paper, to have text and notes alike double spaced, and to number the 
notes consecutively for each chapter. In abbreviating the titles of works cited 
care should be taken to make the abbreviations clear and consistent. The 
typographical style as to capitalization, punctuation, spelling, etc., of the volumes 
already published in the series of Prize Essays should be followed.] 

VI In addition to text, footnotes, and bibliography, the monograph must 
contain nothing except the name and address of the author and a short intro- 
duction setting forth the character of the material and the purpose of the work. 
After the award has been made the successful competitor may add such per- 
sonal allusions as are customary in a printed work. 

VII. In making the award the committee will consider not only research, ac- 
curacy, and originality, but also clearness of expression, logical arrangement, 
and especially literary form. The successful monograph must be written in 
good English. The prize will not be awarded unless the work submitted shall 
be of a high degree of excellence 

VIII. The successful monograph shall be the property of the American His- 
torical Association, which reserves to itself all rights of publication, transla- 
tion, and sale, both in the United States and in foreign countries. 

IX. The manuscript of the successful essay, when finally submitted for print- 
ing, must be in such form, typographically (see Eule V) and otherwise, as to 
require only a reasonable degree of editing in order to prepare it for the press. 
Such additional editorial work as may be necessary, including any copying of 
the manuscript, shall be at the expense of the author. 

Galley and page proof will be sent to the author for revision, but, should 
changes be made by him exceeding in cost an aggregate of 10 cents per page, of 
the completed book, such excess shall be borne by him, and the amount will be 
deducted from the prize. 

An adequate index must be provided by the author. 

X. The amount of the prize, minus such deductions as may be made under 
Rule IX, will be paid to the author upon the publication of the essay. 

XI The author shall be entitled to receive 10 bound copies of the printed 
volume, and to purchase further copies at the rate of $1 per volume. Sxich 
unbound copies, with special title-page, as may be necessary for the fulfillment 
of thesis requirements, will be furnished at cost, but no copies of the volume 
will be furnished the author for private sale. 

The Justin Wmsor prize (which until 1906 was offered annually) has been 
awarded to the following. 

1896. Herman V. Ames, " The proposed amendments to the Constitution of 
the United States." 

1900. William A. Schaper, " Sectionalism and representation in South Caro- 
lina," with honorable mention of Mary S. Locke, " Anti-slavery sentiment before 
1808 " 

1901. Ulrich B. Phillips, " Georgia and State rights," with honorable mention 
of M. Louise Greene, " The struggle for religious liberty in Connecticut." 

1902. Charles McCarthy, " The Anti-Masonic Party," with honorable mention 
of W. Roy Smith, " South Carolina as a Royal Province." 

1903. Louise Phelps Kellogg, " The American colonial charter ; a study of its 
relation to English administration, chiefly after 1688 " 

1904. William R. Manning, " The Nootka Sound controversy," with honorable 
mention of C. O. Paullin, " The Navy of the American Revolution." 



HISTORICAL PEIZES. 31 

1906. Annie Heloise Abel, " The history of events resulting in Indian consoli- 
dation west of the Mississippi River." 

1908 Clarence Edwin Carter, " Great Britain and the Illinois country, 1765- 
1774," with honorable mention of Charles Henry Ambler, *' Sectionalism in Vir- 
ginia, 1776-1861." 

1910. Edward Raymond Turner, " The Negro in Pennsylvania slavery, servi- 
tude, freedom, 1639-1861." 

1912. Arthur Charles Cole, " The Whig Party in the South." 

1914. Mary Wilhelmme Williams, "Anglo-American Isthmian diplomacy, 1815- 
1917." 

1916. Richard J. Purcell, " Connecticut in transition, 1775-1818." 

From 1897 to 1899 and in 1905 the Justin Wmsor prize was not awarded. 

The Herbert Baxter Adams prize has been awarded to : 
1905. David S. Muzzey, " The Spiritual Franciscans," with honorable mention 
of Eloise Ellery, " Jean Pierre Bnssot" 

1907. In equal division, Edward B. Krehbiel, " The interdict : Its history and 
its operation, with special attention to the time of Pope Innocent III," and 
William S Robertson, " Francisco de Miranda and the revolutionizing of Span- 
ish America." 

1909. Wallace Notestein, "A history of witchcraft in England from 1558 to 
1718." 

1911. Louise Fargo Brown, " The political activities of the Baptists and fifth- 
monarchy men in England during the interregnum. 

1913. Violet Barbour " Henry Bennet, earl of Arlington." 

1915. Theodore C. Pease, " The Leveller Movement," with honorable mention 
of F. C. Melvin, " Napoleon's system of Licensed Navigation, 1806-1814." 

The essays of Messrs. Muzzey, Krehbiel, Carter, Notestein, Turner, Cole, Miss 
Brown, Miss Barbour, and Miss Williams have been published by the associa- 
tion in a series of separate volumes. The earlier Wmsor prize essays were 
printed m the Annual Reports. 

MILITARY HISTORY PRIZE, 

A prize of $250 is offered for the best approved essay on a subject In military 
history. The fields of study are not limited, but the Civil War is recommended 
as specially suitable. While the committee expects that the essays submitted 
will range from about 20,000 to 50,000 words, this is not intended as an abso- 
lute condition. All essays must be submitted in typewritten form, and sent to 
the chairman of the committee, Prof. R. M. Johnston, 275 Widener Hall, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., by August 31, 1918. 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Statistics of membership. 

I. GENERAL, 1915 AND 1916. 





1915 


1919 




1915 


1910 


Total membership 


2,926 


2,739 


Loss, total Continued 






Life 


120 


117 


Dropped 


77 


273 


Annual 


2.587 


2.388 


Gain, total 


290 


ft 


Institutions 


219 


234 


Life. . 




1 


Total paid membership 


2.374 


2,378 


Annual 


277 


235 


Delinquent, total 


552 


361 


Institutions 


13 


$ 


Loss, total 


277 


431 


Total number of elections 


273 


183 


Deaths 


32 


40 


Net gain or loss 


13 


-187 


Resignations 


168 


118 





















II. MEMBERSHIP BY STATES, DEC 19, 1916 





Number 
of 
members 


New 
members 
in 1916 




Number 
of 
members 


New 
members 
in 1916 


Alabama . - 


10 


1 


Nevada.. 


5 




Alaska 






New Hampshire 


29 


3 


Arizona 


2 


1 


New Jersey 


84 


12 


Arkansas 


4 




New Mexico 


6 




California 


169 


ii 


NewYork 


383 


29 


Colorado 


15 


2 


North Carolina . . 


30 


3 


Connecticut 


99 


6 


North Dakota 


3 




Delaware 


12 


4 


Ohio 


110 


8 


District of Columbia 


93 


10 


Oklahoma 


8 


1 


Florida 


5 


1 


Oregon 


24 




Georgia .. 


21 


3 


Pfiflinfiylvjvma 


189 


23 


Hawaii 


2 




Philippine Islands 


4 




Idaho 


4 




Porto Klco 


2 




Illinois 


208 


17 


Rhode Island 


28 


1 


Indiana - * . . 


61 


13 




28 


3 


Iowa 


46| 


* 4 


South Dakota 


8 


2 


Kansas . 


28 


3 


Tennessee ,,, T 


31 


5 


Kentucky 


21 


2 


Texas . 


33 


1 


Louisiana 


19 




Utah 


10 


2 


Maine 


24 


4 


Vermont 


8 


1 


Maryland 


55 


8 


Virginia 


64 


12 


Massachusetts . 


295 


18 


Washington 


30 


1 


Michigan . 


95 


6 


West Virginia 


17 


3 


Minnosotft 


49 


4 


Wisconsin 


84 


6 


Mississippi 


6 




Wyoming , 


6 




Missouri 


49 


7 


Canada 


34 


2 


Montana 


9 




Foreign. , 


52 


1 


Nebraska 


28 























23318 18 3 



33 



I. REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-SECOND 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN 

HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



CINCINNATI, OHIO, DECEMBER 27-30, 1916. 



35 



THE MEETING OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIA- 
TION AT CINCINNATI. 1 



r i 



The thirty-second annual meeting of the American Historical 
Association was held at Cincinnati on Wednesday, Thursday, Fri- 
day, and Saturday, December 27-30, 1916. Besides the advantages 
and pleasures arising from Cincinnati's geographical position, its 
climate, its picturesque situation, and its pleasant spirit of hospi- 
tality, the convention had those which always arise from holding 
nearly all its sessions under one roof in this case the comprehensive 
roof of the Hotel Sinton. The morning and afternoon sessions of 
one day were, however, held with great pleasure at the University of 
Cincinnati, where an agreeable luncheon was followed by entertain- 
ing speeches. For the highly successful arrangements which marked 
the sessions at every point, cordial thanks are due to the local com- 
mittee of arrangements, and especially to its secretary, Prof. Isaac J. 
Cox. Mr. Charles P. Taft, chairman of that committee, and Mrs. 
Taft entertained the association at a reception and tea, made mem- 
orable not only by their kindness but by the extraordinary beauty 
of their collection of paintings. 

Noteworthy among other social diversions was the "smoker" 
provided for the men of the association on one of the evenings, at 
the Hotel Gibson. In the rooms of the Auto Club, on the same even- 
ing, the women members had a subscription dinner. A reception 
following the exercises of one of the other evenings gave opportunity 
for general conversation and acquaintance, and, indeed, the meeting 
seems to have been particularly successful on the side of sociability. 
The rooms of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, Van 
Warmer Library, were thrown open to members on the day of the 
visit to the university. The chief clubs of the city offered the priv- 
ileges of their houses. 

One feature of the social aspect of the convention deserves a special 
mention, for it is susceptible of much further extension and if so 
extended may bring many useful results. This was the plan of 
devoting one evening, purposely left free of public exercises, to va- 
rious dinners of members interested in some special branch of his- 
torical study, at which informal conversations and discussions of its 
affairs may take place. Out of such dinners and discussions many 
valuable projects and suggestions may come, many steps in advance, 

* This account Is adapted from that in the American Historical Review for April, 1917. 

37 



38 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

for the promotion of this or that line of study in America of 
modern German or medieval economic history, of the Protestant 
Reformation or the industrial revolution, of American diplomacy or 
American agriculture or American religion or at the least much 
quickening of interest in advanced researches (which perhaps the 
association now does too little to foster), much interchange of 
opinion, much increase of helpful friendships. All that is necessary, 
in each such specialty, is to designate an energetic and judicious 
member to gather the appropriate company together at such dining 
place as the local committee may recommend. The undertaking is 
not more difficult than the organization of the breakfasts, of late 
somewhat frequent at the association's meetings, of those who have 
been graduate students at the same university pleasant reunions, 
but not likely to be so fruitful for our sacred science or profession as 
dinners of the sort described dinners of Fachgenossen. 

A small beginning of such a practice was made at the time of the 
Washington meeting. At Cincinnati it was but slightly extended, 
but there was a successful and profitable dinner of those concerned 
with European history, and another of those interested in the found- 
ing of a journal of Latin- American history. The project was can- 
vassed with considerable enthusiasm and a committee, of which 
Dr. James A. Robertson is chairman, was appointed to consider the 
matter further and, if the plan ultimately seems feasible, to devise 
machinery for bringing it into effect. Another conference, unac- 
companied by a dinner, and perhaps for that reason less affirmative 
in its results such is fallen man had been called to consider the 
foundation of an American jou'rnal of European history, mainly in 
order to furnish larger opportunities for the publication of tech- 
nical articles than can be afforded by a general historical journal or 
other existing means. The nature of the plan and its possibilities 
for the advancement of scientific research were set forth by Prof. 
George B. Adams and a" committee was appointed, with Prof. Dana 
C. Munro as chairman, to give it further consideration. It is to be 
expected, as a sign of healthy progress of historical study in the 
United States, that, besides many good journals of local history, an 
increasing number of specialized historical journals should arise; 
indeed, several have already come into existence. 

Still another informal conference, outside of those more formal 
meetings whose program had been arranged by the association, was 
that of members interested in the foundation in Washington of 
a center of university studies in history, political economy, and 
political science, which may do for those studies what the American 
schools of classical studies in Athens and Rome have done for 
those branches of learning, may furnish guidance to students in the 
three sciences named who come to Washington to avail themselves 



THIETY-SECOKB ANKTTAL MEETING. 39 

of its surpassing opportunities for such studies, and may provide 
them with the incentive of fruitful companionship in a common 
place of residence. Eespecting this project, which in the existing 
circumstances of the District of Columbia has rich possibilities, the 
committee appointed last spring submitted a printed report which 
appeared to meet with emphatic favor, and received the cordial 
endorsement of the executive council. 

Three allied organizations, the American Political Science Asso- 
ciation, the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, and the Ohio 
Valley Historical Association, met in Cincinnati in the same Decem- 
ber days, and joint sessions were held in some cases, with common 
profit. The number of persons who registered at the headquarters 
of the American Historical Association was 325. Most of those 
attending came, as was to be expected, from places comparatively 
near at hand, yet the range of geographical distribution was wide; 
an exceptional number of members were present from the Pacific 
coast. 

The program of the association's sessions, prepared by a com- 
mittee of which Prof. Henry E. Bourne, of Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, was chairman, deserved particular commendation for its 
breadth of range, and for the especial attention it assigned to recent 
periods and vital themes. History can not expect to be much re- 
garded by the present-day world if it has nothing to say of present 
or recent affairs ; and a society which has given such signal evidences 
of harmony and right feeling has surely no need to fear the divisive 
effects of discussion in fields in which historians are expected to 
have opinions, facts, and reasons, but in which they may also be 
expected or our training is naught to preserve good temper and 
the habit of seeing both sides. Sessions, therefore, devoted to recent 
phases of the European balance of power, to the great peace con- 
gresses of the nineteenth century, to the American period in the 
Philippines, and to the modern as well as the medieval portion of 
the history of Constantinople, and of China and Japan, did much 
to invest the whole meeting with exceptional interest and value. 
There was also a session for ancient history, one for general history 
(a nondescript miscellany of papers), one for English history, and 
two for American history, one of which was held as a joint session 
with the Mississippi Valley Historical Association. 

Taken as a whole the program was impressive. It may even 
be called formidable. Seventeen formal sessions in three and a half 
days is too much. It may well be doubted whether it is ever desir- 
able to have more than two sessions going on at the same time. On 
this present occasion, besides the sessions already mentioned for the 
reading of written papers on substantive portions of history, and 
the evening session in which the presidential addresses (of this 



40 AMEEICAK HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

society and of the American Political Science Association) were 
delivered, and the business session, there were conferences of archi- 
vists, of State and local historical societies, and of patriotic hereditary 
societies, a conference for discussion of the field and method of the 
elementary course in college history, and a conference of teachers of 
history in secondary schools. For a registration of 325, this is a 
very extensive program; but it was agreed on all sides that it was 
well composed, and in most particulars the participants, chosen 
mostly from among the younger members of the association, carried 
it out with intelligence and excellent success. 

By an arrangement not to be recommended for imitation in sub- 
sequent years, the presidential addresses were not delivered until 
the tenth of these 17 sessions. Indeed, as the annual business meet- 
ing had been the ninth, and as on that occasion the terms of officers 
had been defined as ending, each year, with the conclusion of that 
session, the odd situation was presented of the president of the 
American Historical Association reading his presidential address 
after he had technically gone out of office. After an address of 
welcome by Mr. Taft, who presided as chairman of the joint meet- 
ing, Prof. Jesse Macy, of Grinnell College, president of the American 
Political Science Association, delivered an address on the " Scientific 
spirit in politics." 1 The admirable address of Prof. George L. Burr, 
of Cornell University, president of the American Historical Associa- 
tion, on the "Freedom of History," was printed in the American 
Historical Eeview for January, 1917. 

The conference of archivists, presided over by Dr. Solon J. Buck, 
was sadly interfered with by the failure of trains to arrive on time 
and only two of the four papers mentioned in the program were read. 
The one, entitled " Some considerations on the housing of archives," 
was by Mr. Louis A. Simon, of Washington, superintendent of the 
drafting division in the office of the Supervising Architect of the 
Treasury, who as such has prepared the plans for the proposed na- 
tional archive building in Washington ; the other, on the " Problem of 
archive centralization with reference to local conditions in a Middle 
Western State," was by Dr. Theodore C. Pease, of the University of 
Illinois. 2 Mr. Simon's suggestions related chiefly to the problems 
of a large, or national, archive building. All the varieties of plan 
now most in favor indicate a marked differentiation of the space de- 
voted to administrative functions from the space assigned to actual 
storage of the records. The various forms by means of which this 
may be achieved, and through which the spaces devoted to adminis- 
trative officials, to physical manipulation and cataloguing, and to 
purposes of study may be related to each other, were described in 

1 Printed In the American Political Science Beview for February, 1917. 
a Both are printed in the present volume, pp. 147-154. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 41 

outline. On the principle, however, that much the greater part of 
the space must be storage space, the main consideration was given to 
the forms and varieties of stacks. 

Dr. Pease emphasized the thought that the problems of centraliza- 
tion of local archives must receive 'an independent solution in each 
State, in accordance with varying institutions and conditions, and 
professed to speak only, by way of example, of what was true in the 
single State of Illinois. His paper drew a distinction between cen- 
tralization applied to records useless for public business, in order to 
preserve them for the use of the historian or the student of society 3 
and centralization designed in the interests of economy, to bring to- 
gether in central repositories, at the State capital or in several cen- 
ters, records not of current use but having importance as legal monu- 
ments. Centralization in the latter sense will be the problem of 
the future. For centralization of the former variety, now some- 
times a pressing problem, Dr. Pease advocated clear and uniform 
criteria for deciding on the separation, tact in reconciling local sus- 
ceptibilities to it, and caution in removing papers from the neighbor- 
hood of other papers to which they stand related, and entered some- 
what into consideration of classes appropriate for transfer. There 
was some general discussion of the destruction of useless papers, 
and of the defects of local, especially township, record keeping. Dr. 
Gaillard Hunt, upon request, described the methods used by his 
division of the Library of Congress in the repair of manuscripts. 

In the conference of historical societies, the main topic of discus- 
sion was that of the federating and affiliating of local historical 
societies. 1 The chairman,- Prof. Harlow Lindley, of the Indiana 
Historical Commission, adverted to the timely importance of the 
theme in a period when a considerable number of States are cele- 
brating or are about to celebrate the centennial anniversaries of their 
entrance into the Union. Such commemorations, especially those 
organized by county committees, bring local historical societies into 
existence or into increased activity. The impulse ought not to be 
allowed to expire with the fireworks, and State historical societies 
or commissions should be able so to coordinate and supervise the 
activities of these societies that they may make definite and valuable 
contributions to the intellectual life of the State, with good results in 
enlightened citizenship. The modes in which such work is en- 
couraged and correlated in various States were outlined by a succes- 
sion of speakers, Mr. Thomas L. Montgomery, State librarian of 
Pennsylvania, describing the operations of the Pennsylvania Federa- 
tion of Historical Societies; Mr. A. F. Hunter, of Toronto, that of 
the Ontario Historical Society; Dr. George N. Fuller, that of the 

1 The full report of tbis conference is to be found on pp. 213-236. 



4 AMEB1CAK HISTORICAL 

Michigan Historical Commission, of which he is secretary; Mrs. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, that of the Illinois State Historical Society ; 
Mr. Nathaniel T. Kidder, that of the Bay State Historical League. 
Much information respecting such endeavors may be derived from 
the Michigan Historical Commission's bulletin entitled " Suggestions 
for local historical societies and writers in Michigan," which Mr. 
Fuller described, along with the relations between his commission 
and the State society, the county societies, the newspapers, the schools, 
and the women's clubs, and the procedure followed in bringing local 
societies into existence. In all the local work, special emphasis is 
laid on the collection and preservation of original materials. 

The most important event in relation to this conference was the 
vote of the association, pursuant to a recommendation of the execu- 
tive council, conferring upon the conference a semi-autonomous status 
and organization, with a definite membership, with funds of its own, 
obtained by small assessments upon member societies and commis- 
sions, with a program made by its appointees (their chairman to be 
ex officio a member of the association's program committee) , and with 
definite obligations of annual report to the parent body. The secre- 
tary of the conference is to be appointed, as now, by the executive 
council of the association, its other officers to be elected by the con- 
ference itself. At the instance of the conference, and largely by the 
generosity of the Newberry Library, provision has been made for the 
continuance by supplement, from 1905 to 1915, of Mr. A. P. C. 
Griffin's Bibliography of American Historical Societies, printed as 
Volume II of the association's Annual Report for 1905. 

The conference of the hereditary patriotic societies * was preceded 
by a luncheon of the representatives present, some fifty in number. 
The chairman of the meeting, Mr. Harry B. Mackoy, formerly pre- 
siding officer of two such societies in Ohio, set forth its purpose, 
which was to consider practical and desirable plans of closer co- 
operation between the historical associations of the country and the 
numerous hereditary patriotic societies. The latter are in part his- 
torical societies, with a membership of between 200,000 and 300,000, 
and constitute a great force for the development of historical inter- 
ests in America. No one could listen to the reports of historical work 
made on the present occasion, especially from the women's societies, 
without being deeply impressed with the merit of their activities, 
the fine spirit of patriotism animating them, and the possibilities 
and prospects of their achievement in historical lines. Reports were 
made on behalf of the National Society of the Colonial Dames of 
America, by Miss Cornelia B. Williams, their national historian; 
for the Daughters of the American Revolution, by Mrs. Thomas 

1 The proceedings of this conference are printed on pp. 249-208 of tbe present volume. 



AtflTOAL MEE^tfG. 43 



Kite, formerly vice president general of that society ; for the Society 
of the Sons of the Revolution, by Mr. Jackson W- Sparrow, ex-presi- 
dent of the Ohio society; for the National Society of the Sons of 
the American Revolution, by Mr. R. C. Ballard Thruston, ex-presi- 
dent general; for the Society of Colonial Wars, by Mr. Elmer L. 
Foote, of the Ohio society. The last report was illustrated by stere- 
opticon views of historical sites marked, monuments erected, and the 
like. A report from the National Society of the United States Daugh- 
ters of 1812, prepared by its president national, Mrs. Robert H. Wiles, 
was also presented. The discussion which followed centered mainly 
about the report made to the council of the American Historical 
Association by Dr. Gaillard Hunt, as chairman of its Historical 
Manuscripts Commission, in which attention was called to the assist- 
ance that might be rendered by hereditary patriotic societies and 
their members in the collecting, preserving, and rendering accessible 
many private manuscripts of historical value. A plan for such co- 
operation was outlined. 

Of the educational conferences, that which concerned the field and 
method of the elementary college course in history, presided over by 
ProL Arley B. Show, of Stanford University, was much the more 
profitable. 1 Previous discussions of the subject at the annual meet- 
ings of 1896, 1905, and 1906 were summarized by the chairman, who 
held that the time was ripe for some further standardization of first- 
year work in college history. Three requisites of the ideal course 
were, he maintained, that it should contain the best teaching mate- 
rials; that it should lie within the student's comprehension; and that 
it should prepare his mind for his later work in history. The method 
to be pursued, he thought, should be that which each teacher can do 
best, but it should be graded in such a manner as to fit into the higher 
work in history, and it should include some work in an historical 
laboratory and carefully supervised study. 

Four papers dealing with the field of the elementary college course 
were read by Prof. William A. Frayer, of the University of Michi- 
gan; Prof. James F. Baldwin, of Vassar College; Mr. Jesse E. 
Wrench, of the University of Missouri; and Mr. Milton R. Gutsch, 
of the University of Texas. The general opinion favored the main- 
tenance of but one general introductory course for all students alike. 
Even students who have covered the given field in the work of the 
secondary school were said to benefit by traversing the same field 
in the introductory college course. There was substantial agreement 
among the speakers in holding that the field , of the introductory 
course should be taken from European history, though there were 
differences as to what phase of European history should be treated. 

1 A complete report of tills conference is printed In the History Teacher's Magazine for 
April, 191T. 



44 AMEBIC \N HISTOKIOAL ASSOCIATION. 

The fields proposed were, in the order of choice, medieval and mod- 
ern history, general history, medieval history, modern history, and 
English history. 

In the discussion of the method to be pursued in this introductory 
course many interesting experiences were presented. The speakers 
were Messrs. Curtis H. Walker, of the University of Chicago ; Clar- 
ence P. Gould, of the College of Wooster; Wilmer C. Harris, of 
Ohio State University; Carlton J. H. Hayes, of Columbia Uni- 
versity ; Donald L. McMurry, of Vanderbilt University ; and James 
G. McDonald, of Indiana University. The general sentiment seemed 
to favor abolishing the formal lecture system, dividing the class 
into small groups of 25 or 30 students and placing each under the 
care of one competent teacher for the entire course. This method 
has been adopted at the University of Chicago, at Columbia Uni- 
versity, and at some other institutions, but it is very expensive, and 
it is always hard to obtain competent men who will take the section 
work. Many institutions reported a combination of the lecture and 
the quiz system, by which one or two lectures a week are given to 
the entire class, and small sections for conference or recitation are 
held once or twice a week. Particular emphasis was placed upon an 
adequate system of notebooks and on the need of an intelligent study 
of historical geography. The use of sources was incidentally dis- 
cussed, but was not strongly advocated for extensive use in the 
introductory course. 

The conference of teachers of history in secondary schools (Dr. 
James Sullivan, of the New York State education department, chair- 
man) had a much more miscellaneous program. Prof, Carl E. Pray 
of the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, Mich., advocated a more 
intensive study of historical personalities in the high schools, and 
illustrated his thesis by details from the lives of prominent Ameri- 
cans. Mr. Glen L. Swiggett, of the United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation, made an extended plea for adequate preparation in the 
secondary schools for consular service and similar government posi- 
tions. Dr. Frank P. Goodwin described the efforts made by the 
University of Cincinnati, in its elementary course in general history, 
to lay emphasis upon economic and industrial facts without failing 
to expound cultural values. Prof. Albert E. McKinley, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, showed some ways in which the teaching 
of history in the schools of France, Germany, and England had been 
influenced by the current war. 1 Prof. Samuel B. Harding, of Indi- 
ana University, pointed out the difficulties which the writer of his- 
torical textbooks has in maintaining an attitude of neutrality. He 
called attention to letters which had been received by his publishers 

1 See History Teacher's Magazine, May, 1817. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. , 45 

protesting against a proposed chapter of Neueste Geschichte added 
to one of his books in the process of preparing a new edition. The 
writers of these letters, from sentiments of nationality (not Ameri- 
can nationality), threatened the boycott in their State not only of 
all the speaker's books but of all other educational publications issued 
by his publishers. 

Theoretically the distinction between the sessions which have thus 
far been described and those which remain to be dealt with lies in 
the fact that the latter were sessions for the reading of formal papers, 
while the former were freer conferences, intended to be marked by a 
greater amount of informal discussion. But large as is the part 
played in professorial life by ex tempore discourse, not to say, in 
these days, by lively dispute, there seems to be a perpetual difficulty in 
composing our free conferences of anything but prepared papers. 
But at all events there is a distinction in that the papers now to be 
spoken of related to the substance of history rather than to its 
methods or organization. They covered a wide range, from ancient 
Mesopotamia to the Southern Confederacy. To the reader of these 
pages the order and method of their grouping at Cincinnati is a 
matter of indifference, and they may better be described in something 
approaching a chronological order. 

In any such order of arrangement, the first place may naturally 
be given to an essay by Prof. Alfred T. Olmstead, of the University 
of Missouri, on " Mesopotamian politics and scholarship," though 
it touched the latest as well as the earliest dates. The present war 
having brought a cessation to scientific field work in western Asia 
there is a good occasion for retrospect. Ancient history in the Near 
East has during these 80 years of its modern development been 
largely studied and aided by those who have been making modern 
history in that same region, and its progress, as the speaker showed 
in detail, has been conditioned by the course of politics. Scholar- 
ship has been nationalistic in character, and its phases have followed 
those of political control. The French and German archaeological 
investigators, backed by their respective Governments, have had 
large success in appropriating the Mesopotamian field. The German 
policy of removing important finds to Berlin has been pushed to an 
unjustifiable extreme. 

In the absence of its writer, a paper by Miss Ellen C. Semple, of 
Louisville, on " Climatic and geographic influences upon ancient 
Mediterranean agriculture," was presented only in outline, and its 
discussion by Prof. William L. Westermann, of the University of 
Wisconsin, was limited to a general criticism of the methods of reason- 
ing employed by historical geographers working in ancient history, 
though upon sound data, of the insufficiency of their training in those 
rigorous methods of criticism of sources which have been developed 



46 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

in ancient history, and of their failure to consider adequately the 
obvious variants from their general principles of the operation of 
constant geographic factors. 

Prof. Herbert Wing, of Dickinson College, in a paper on " Tribute 
assessments in the Athenian Empire," 1 rejected all notions that the 
frequent revolts in that empire were due to the tribute or to any 
constant economic cause ; they resulted, rather, from the ineradicable 
Hellenic idea of independence of cities. His main conclusions from the 
stelai of payments of tribute were : That the number of cities in the 
empire did not approach the thousand mentioned by Aristophanes, 
but probably lay between 300 and 400 at the utmost ; that the assess- 
ments were made for an indefinite period, and readjusted only on 
special occasions, most often in Panathenaic years for convenience, if 
at all, and at irregular intervals; and that estimates of the total 
amount, fixed in the beginning by Aristides at 460 talents, can be 
satisfactorily made only by careful study of individual years. 

The transition from papers in ancient history to papers in medi- 
eval history was marked by a contribution from Prof. Paul van 
den Ven, formerly of the University of Brussels, now of Princeton, 
entitled "When did the Byzantine Empire and civilization come 
into being? " 2 His main object was to controvert such opinions as 
that of Bury, that all lines of demarcation which have been drawn 
between the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire are arbitrary, 
and that, great as were the changes undergone by the empire sine 
antiquity, it never ceased to be the Roman Empire, and, changing 
gradually and continuously, offers no point at which one can prop- 
erly give it a new name. Prof, van den Ven criticized such views 
of unity and continuity as justified only in political doctrine but 
contrary to historical facts. From the time of Arcadius and Hono- 
rius, East and West began to be in fact distinct; Italy and Rome 
were no longer the center around which the empire revolved ; " By- 
zantine art," " Byzantine civilization," " Graeco-Rornan law," are 
accepted terms, corresponding to admitted facts ; a Christian, bureau- 
cratic government, centering at Constantinople, a society increas- 
ingly Greek and Oriental in character, justify a new term. 

Tlae first of the papers lying distinctly in the field of medieval 
history was that of Prof. K. Asakawa, of Yale tTniversity, on the 
"Life of a monastic sho in Medieval Japan. 8 He set forth at the 
outset the points wherein the Japanese sho of the twelfth century re- 
sembled the manor of medieval Europe and wherein it differed, and 
suggested that, after the entrance of the warrior into the sho, the 
latter came gradually to assume the aspects of the regular fief. He 

1 Printed below, pp. 289-297. 
'Printed below, pp 301-309. 
* Printed below, pp. 313-342. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 47 

then took up the history of the triple sho of Kono-Makuni-Sarukawa 
under the Buddhist monastery of Mount Koya as typifying certain 
phases of this conversion. This sho, originating as it did in com- 
mendations of lands, at first included varied and changeable tenures. 
It also comprised two classes of men, " landholders," some of whom 
were armed, and "cultivators" below them. During the feudal 
years, especially between 1333 and 1600, the multiple tenures tended 
to be simplified into grants held in fief of the monastic seignior; at 
the same time, some " cultivators " seem to have risen in status and 
formed the bulk of the new rural population, on the same level with 
the old "landholders," who no longer appeared as half warriors. 
The warriors had been largely differentiated and become profes- 
sional. By 1600 the triple sho had, in its institutional structure, 
been as nearly altered into a fief as a religious sho could be. Prof. 
Dana C. Munro, of Princeton, after the close of the paper, re- 
marked upon the light that students of medieval feudalism in 
Europe might derive from the comparative study of Japanese feudal- 
ism, upon the meagerness of the western literature upon the subject, 
and upon the resemblance of the sho to the fief rather than the manor. 

Upon the question, " Was there a Common Council before Parlia- 
ment?" Prof. Albert B. White, of the University of Minnesota, 
argued against the view, exhibited in many reputable books, that the 
English assembly which came to be called Parliament was at some 
earlier time called the " common council," a view sometimes giving 
rise to notions of primitive democratic or national traits. A search 
of the English sources from the Conquest to about 1250 has brought 
to light some 175 cases of the phrase commune consilium (never 
concilium). In more than half of these the meaning is either " public 
opinion " or the general understanding^ consent, or advice of groups 
more or less vague, often very small. In over 60 cases the " common 
counsel" came clearly from an assembly of considerable size, sum- 
moned for a definite purpose, but still the phrase means rather the 
result, action, or spirit of the group than the group itself. In five 
rather vague cases, from the reign of Henry III, the personification 
seems to lie in the direction of the council, but of the small council 
rather than the larger summoned assembly. 

An interesting paper by Prof. Chalfant Robinson, of Princeton, 
entitled " History and pathology," x presented a plea for a deeper 
study on the part of historians of the pathological aspects of human 
minds and characters in influential station, but was substantially a 
discussion of the individual case of Louis XI, based on the materials 
collected by Dr. A. Brachet in his privately printed monograph 
entitled " Pathologic mentale des Bois de France." 

* Printed below, pp. 345-369. 



48 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, 

Bridging the transition from medieval to modern history, the 
paper presented by Prof. Albert H. Lybyer, of the University of 
Illinois, on "Constantinople as capital of the Ottoman Empire," 1 
began with the time when the Turks under Mohammed II, acquir- 
ing a city that was not much more than an incomparable site covered 
with ruins, proceeded to rebuild it in their own way, with modest 
private residences but with substantial and sometimes magnificent 
public edifices. Their efforts to repopulate were also described, and 
the spontaneous processes by which, in a century and a half, a cos- 
mopolitan city of 700,000 or 800,000 people was formed ; likewise the 
avenues of commerce and the conditions of trade within the walls. 
In political life the strong central position of the city contributed to 
the durability of the Ottoman Government, established in the cluster 
of buildings at Seraglio Point. In religion Constantinople continued 
to be the metropolis of the orthodox church and became the seat of 
the Caliphate, the chief center of the Moslem faith, and the home of 
its principal university. The causes of its progressive decline and of 
its partial modernization in the nineteenth century were traced and 
the possibilities of its future development touched upon. 

The beginnings of a military power of quite the opposite curve of 
development were narrated by Prof. Sidney B. Fay, of Smith College, 
in a paper on the " Beginnings of the standing army in Prussia." 2 
The origins of the permanent active field army maintained by the 
Great Elector did not lie in the Thirty Years' War, but in the North- 
ern War of 1655-1680, during which he was compelled to create an 
army on a basis largely independent of his provincial estates. The 
paper traced his subsequent expansion and development of this novel 
force. 

A paper entitled "The Stuart period: Unsolved problems," 8 by 
Prof. Wallace Notestein, of the University of Minnesota, was limited 
by its author to the earlier half of the seventeenth century, and to 
parliamentary history. Despite the high merits and great extent of 
Gardiner's researches the speaker urged the need of more intensive 
study of the history of Parliament in this period, showing that a 
considerable body of new materials has come to light ; that old mate- 
rials, such as the Commons Journals and the widely copied manu- 
scripts of speeches in the Commons, are less authoritative than 
Gardiner assumed ; that the history of the Stuart Parliaments must 
be studied in the light, still imperfect, of earlier parliamentary 
development ; and that there is a range of problems respecting Par- 
liament which Gardiner left almost untouched such matters, for 

1 Printed below, pp 373-388. 

Printed in the American Historical Review, July, 1917. 

* Prof. Notestein's paper and Prof. Usher s discussion of it are printed together in 
the present volume, pp. 391-404. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 49 

instance, as the electoral campaigns for the Parliaments of James 
and Charles, the deeper questions of the character of their member- 
ship, and the rise of the organized opposition to the king. 

Prof. Notestein's paper was discussed by Prof. Roland G. Usher, 
of Washington University, St. Louis, who declared that the legal 
and institutional problems left unsolved by Gardiner were quite as 
numerous and significant as the parliamentary. Especially needed 
are studies of the growth and development of the administrative 
councils, the prerogative courts, and particularly of the courts of 
common law, instead of whose actual history in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries we have been content to study the views about 
its history which the judges of that time wrote down for us. A first- 
hand investigation must be made of the voluminous and scattered 
original records of all these bodies and of the materials bearing on 
their mutual relations. A critical edition of the first volume of the 
Commons Journals is also much needed. For researches so laborious, 
cooperative effort is required, and investigators in the earlier Stuart 
period, 1603-1640, are asked to communicate with Prof. Usher, or 
with Prof. A. P. Newton of the University of London, who desire 
to organize historical work in this period. 

In a slightly later period, a paper by Prof. Guernsey Jones, of the 
University of Nebraska, entitled "Beginnings of the Oldest Euro- 
pean Alliance " * treated of Anglo-Portuguese relations from 1640 to 
1661. The treaty of 1654, Portugal's penalty for assisting the Stuarts 
and defying the regicides, was the source of Portugal's " commercial 
vassalage," commonly but erroneously attributed to the Methuen 
treaty of 1703. It secured every concession which the English mer- 
chants trading in Portugal saw fit to ask for, and was long regarded 
by them as the Magna Charta of their privileges and immunities. 
Charles IPs marriage treaty of 1661, which determined the whole 
course of his foreign policy in a direction different from that of his 
original inclinations, was due at bottom to the desire of the English 
court to placate the commercial classes of London, by retaining 
Jamaica against the opposition of Spain, and by opening the way 
to the trade in India. 

Another of the papers in English history, that of Prof. Arthur L. 
Cross, of Michigan, on u English criminal law and benefit of clergy 
during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries," is printed in 
the April issue of the American Historical Eeview, as is also that 
which was read by Prof. Jesse S. Reeves, of the same university, on 
" Two conceptions of the freedom of the seas." 

In the same session as the latter, the session relating to conflicts 
concerning the European balance of power, Prof. William E. Lingel- 

i Printed below, pp. 407-418. 
23318 18 4 



50 AMEBICA2ST HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

bach, of the University of Pennsylvania, read an effective paper on 
" England and neutral trade in the Napoleonic and present wars." 1 
With many interesting details derived from contemporaneous docu- 
ments, he set forth the comparison between the English policy to- 
ward neutral trade in the Napoleonic wars and the efforts then 
made, through that policy, to preserve maritime ascendancy, and 
the policy and methods pursued toward the same ends in the present 
war. The seizures of neutral vessels in 1793, the parliamentary acts 
of 1795, and the crushing blows inflicted by and m consequence of 
the Essex decision and the Orders in Council of 1807 were exhibited 
as measures intended not only to protect Great Britain against the 
consequences of aggression and fraud, but to secure to her by the 
most extreme assertion of belligerent rights a complete commercial 
supremacy, not through the destruction of American and other neu- 
tral commerce, but through processes which compelled it to serve 
her own purposes. The system of licenses and its abuse were care- 
fully described. After a century during which the world had been 
comparativel} 7 free from maritime warfare and during which its 
opinion tended strongly toward favor of neutral rights as against 
the claims of belligerents, a tendency in which England as well as 
the United States had participated, the situation of the neutral, so 
far as the doctrines of international law was concerned, was much 
better in 1914 than at the beginning of the century, but the exigen- 
cies of Great Britain's situation led her to develop a system of 
control of ocean commerce far beyond any which the framers of the 
old Orders in Council had devised. The Order in Council of Au- 
gust 20, 1914, followed by that of March 11, 1915, constituted, in 
the language of the American Government, " a practical assertion of 
unlimited belligerent rights over neutral commerce within the whole 
European area and an almost unqualified denial of the sovereign 
rights of the nations now at peace." 

In a session specially devoted to the "great peace congresses of 
the nineteenth century,' 5 three cognate papers of high value were 
read on the congresses of Vienna, Paris, and Berlin, by Prof. Charles 
D. Hazen, of Columbia University; Mr. William K. Thayer, of 
Cambridge; and Prof. Robert H. Lord, of Harvard, respectively* 2 
It was intended that the papers should treat of the organisation 
and methods of procedure of these congresses and not of th$ir prob- 
lems or results. Thus, Mr. Hazen described the manner in which 
the congress of Vienna approached its problems, the character of 
its organization, if organization it can be called, when no plenary 
session was ever held; its method of procedure merely that of 
ordinary diplomatic negotiations, save for the mutual proximity of 

1 Printed in the Military Historian and Economist, April, 19 IT. 

3 Published together by the Harvard University Pi ess in a volume entitled Three Peace 
Congresses of the Nineteenth Century. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING; 51 

the negotiators and the machinery of its committee of five: Simi- 
larly, Mr. Thayer described the convening, personnel, circumstances, 
mechanism, and operations of the congress of Paris; Mr. Lord 
those of the congress of Berlin, with a much larger degree of atten- 
tion to its political events and results. 

Prof. Charles Seymour, of Yale University, in a careful and com- 
prehensive paper on the " Ententes and the isolation of Germany," l 
essayed to determine whether the conflict of alliances marked by the 
crises of 1905, 1908, and 1911 was due to endeavors of the triple 
entente to encircle and isolate Germany, or indicated merely a 'de- 
fensive struggle on their part to maintain the balance of ,p6wer. He 
first described the German interpretation of events, the theory of the 
Einkreisungspolitik, in accordance with which England was the 
center of a plot to isolate Germany and block her expansion. The 
Anglo-French entente of 1904, the Anglo-Russian convention of 
1907, the Anglo-French and Anglo-Belgian military conversations, 
the Eussian attitude toward Austria and Turkey, the course of these 
powers in respect to Albania, the check to Germany at the time of 
the Agadir episode, the Serbian intrigues against Austria, Russia's 
military preparations in 1913 all had received explanation in the 
light of this theory. The speaker held, however, that nothing in the 
agreements of 1904 and 1907 indicated an intention of isolating 
Germany, that the military conversations alluded to, and the British 
support of France in general, carried in them no evidence of any but 
a defensive policy, and that the lack of coordination in the diplo- 
matic activities of the entente powers during 1912, 1913, and 1914, 
and the nature of British treaties made with Germany in the same 
period were inconsistent with the German theory. , Prof. Berna- 
dotte E. Schmitt, of Western Reserve University, in remarks after 
the paper, agreed with these views, partly on the basis of diplomatic 
documents, partly because of the obvious desire of the Asquith gov- 
ernment to avoid trouble abroad in the interest of a domestic pro- 
gram of social reform. 

Other papers dealing most interestingly with the most recent 
periods of history other than American were those of Prof. Archi- 
bald C. Coolidge, of Harvard University, on "Claims upon Con- 
stantinople, national, geographical, and historic " 2 ; of Mr. Edward 
T. Williams, of the Department of State, on " Chinese social institu- 
tions as a foundation for republican government"; and of Dr. 
James A. Robertson on the " Philippine Islands since the inaugura- 
tion of the Philippine assembly." 8 

1 Primed in the Yale Review, April, 1917, under the title, " The Alleged Isolation of 
Germany " 

a Included in the volume published by the Harvard University Press, 
8 Printed in the Ameiican Historical Review, July, 



52 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Williams's paper 1 related mainly to present social institutions 
and to the present era of reform in China, which may be said to have 
begun in 1898, but he first described three earlier occasions on which 
large social reforms were undertaken: In 221 B. C. 5 when the 
Emperor Shi Hwang-ti attempted to abolish the feudal system, at 
the beginning of the Christian era, when the Emperor Wang Mang 
tried to abolish slavery and private property in land; and in A. D. 
1069, when the councilor Wang-shih entered on a similar program 
of drastic social legislation. In China of the present day most land 
is held in small parcels and cultivated by its owners; the family, 
not the individual, is the political unit. Such a system favors 
democracy, and experience in clan councils has been a valuable 
training for political association. Villages are practically autono- 
mous. The guilds, which are as powerful as those of Europe in 
the Middle Ages, often constituting the real municipal government 
of the towns in which they are placed, are democratic in organi- 
zation. Confucianism, in the opinion of the foremost native schol- 
ars, is not imperialistic in tendency, and Buddhism is distinctly 
democratic. The dense ignorance of the masses is the main obstacle 
to the success of republican institutions. The paper, however, which 
was replete with interesting historical examples, exhibited the re- 
markable progress made in the last four years of the Manchu 
regime in the establishment of representative government in city, 
province, and nation as strong evidence of capacity for self-govern- 
ment based on social institutions already existing and on long expe- 
rience in their operation. 

Prof. Kenneth S. Latourette, of Denison University, adverted 
to the hampering effects of particularism, the want of a truly 
national patriotism, but hoped that the civil service and the adminis- 
trative machinery perfected during long years of monarchy might, 
as they had done in France, carry over into a republican period, and 
promote and fortify centralization. Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck, of 
the University of Wisconsin, admitting the capacity of the Chinese 
and the value of their lower institutions as a basis for national self- 
government, commended the caution of the more conservative states- 
men of recent years in view of the want of immediate readiness and 
the immensity of the task of transformation. 

It remains to speak of the papers in American history, two of 
them relating to the Revolutionary period, two to the earlier portion 
of the nineteenth century, and five to the period converging on seces- 
sion and the Civil War. There Was also a paper by Mr. Augustus 
H. Shearer, 2 of the Newberry Library, on "American historical 
periodicals," in which their history and characteristics were com~ 
pendiously treated under appropriate classifications. 



p 421-443 
Printed below, pp. 471-476. 



THIKTY-SECOND ANKITAL MEETING. 53 

The paper of Prof. Arthur M. Schlesinger, of the Ohio State 
University, entitled "The Uprising against the East India Com- 
pany," 1 was an attempt to trace the actual execution of the boy- 
cott agreements of 1770 against dutied tea adopted in the leading 
Provinces of British America. From contemporary comments and 
official commercial statistics of the British Government it is ap- 
parent that these agreements were totally ignored in all places save 
New York and Philadelphia, which were the centers of tea smuggling 
in America. But this complaisant attitude toward dutied tea under- 
went an abrupt and radical change when a new act of Parliament, in 
May, 1773, provided that the East India Company might export tea 
directly to America i. e., without passing it through the hands of 
the various middlemen as before. Eliminating most of the middle- 
men's profits, this new act enabled colonial consumers to buy the 
company's tea cheaper than either dutied tea privately imported or 
smuggled tea. Hence colonial tea merchants, whether dealing in the 
custom*ed or in the contraband article, joined forces in fomenting 
popular opposition to the company, and this was enlarged by the 
fear of other merchants that the company might next proceed to 
extend its monopoly to other articles. Fear of mercantile monopoly, 
rather than of taxation without representation, was the mainspring 
of American opposition. 

The other paper in the American Revolutionary period was a 
careful study, by Prof. James A. James, of Northwestern Uni- 
versity, of " Spanish influence in the West during the American 
Revolution," dealing especially with the period before formal par- 
ticipation of Spain in the war against Great Britain. 2 The main 
matters described were the successful endeavors of the Virgina gov- 
ernment to obtain powder and other supplies from New Orleans, the 
activities of Oliver Pollock as agent of that government, the addi- 
tional activity display in assisting the colonies after the accession of 
Gov. Galvez, and the mutual dealings of Pollock and George Rogers 
Clark. The first paper relating to the ensuing period was one in 
which Mr. Charles L. Chandler, of Chattanooga, narrated the serv- 
ices which an American merchant captain and privateer, Charles 
Whiting Wooster, grandson of Gen. David Wooster, rendered as 
captain and rear admiral in the Chilean navy, 1817-1819 and 1822- 
1847. 8 

Dr. Reginald C. McGrane, of the University of Cincinnati, in a 
paper on the " Pennsylvania bribery case of 1836," gave an account 
of scandals which accompanied the effort of Nicholas Biddle and 
his associates to secure the passage of a bill granting a State charter 
to the Second United States Bank. Beginning their efforts soon 

1 Printed in the Political Science Quarterly, March, 1917. 

Printed In the Mississippi Valley Historical Review, September, 1917. 

Printed below, pp. 



54 AMEEICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

after it became clear that a renewal of the national charter by Con- 
gress was not to be expected, the advocates of the bank set out to 
achieve their desired result in the State legislature by three methods : 
By the constant work of skilled lobbyists upon the appropriate com- 
mittees in the two houses; by offering members of the legislature 
liberal grants for their respective counties in the form of projects of 
internal improvements to be carried out through applications of the 
bonus receivable from the bank; and by threatening the legislature 
that the act of incorporation should be secured from the legislatures 
of other States, in which case the advantages of the bank's capital 
would go t elsewhere. The bill passed the House by means of Whig 
and anti-masonic votes under the able leadership of Thaddeus 
Stevens, and then the Senate. The most significant feature of the 
struggle was the dramatic disclosure by one of the Senators of 
efforts to secure his vote by bribery. Investigating committees of 
the two houses exonerated the bank men of direct attempts at 
bribery, and it is plain that they had preferred to offer grant! in the 
form of schemes of internal improvement, rather than to use direct 
means. It seems not wholly certain whether the Senator involved 
in the scandal was their dupe or their tool. Yet it is known that 
$400,000 was withdrawn from the bank under suspicious circum- 
stances at the time of the recharter and that Biddle was willing to 
use this in case of dire necessity. 

Lastly, five of the papers related to the period of or leading to 
the Civil War those of Miss Laura A. White, professor in the 
University of Wyoming, on "Robert Barnwell Ehett and South 
Carolina, 1826-1852"; of Prof. Robert P. Brooks, of the University 
of Georgia, on "Howell Cobb and the Crisis of 1850"; of Prof. 
Ernest A. Smith, of Salt Lake City, on " The influence of the re- 
ligious piqess of Cincinnati on the Northern border States " ; of Prof, 
James R. Robertson, of Berea College, on u Sectionalism in Ken- 
tucky from 1855 to 1865"; and of Prof. Charles W. Ramsdell, of 
the University of Texas, on " The Confederate Government and the 
railroads." 

Miss White traced the radical and independent course of R. B. 
Rhett and his influence on the politics of South Carolina from hh 
entrance into the State legislature in 1826 and his action soon after 
in forcing Calhoun to bring forward his program of nullification. 
In Congress after 1837 he was prominent as a leader of the Calhoun 
faction. When Calhoun, defeated in the effort to obtain control of 
the Democratic nominating convention of 1844, decided to throw 
his full support to Polk, Rhett, intent on State action against the 
tariff, took the risk involved in opposing Calhoun and inaugurated 
the "Bluffton movement." Although Calhoun succeeded at the 
time in checking the movement for State interposition, the younger 



THIBTY-SECOHD AKNUAL ^MEETING. 55 

generation had been initiated into a more advanced stage of South 
Carolina radicalism. After the Wilmot proviso, Ehett for five years 
devoted himself to a struggle for separate secession of the State. 
against those who would move only in cooperation with other States. 
His failure at the time and the course by which in the end his in- 
fluence prevailed were clearly depicted. 

Prof. Brooks's paper sought to establish the fact that Howell Cobb, 
known afterwards chiefly as an ardent advocate of secession and 
of extreme southern views, had before that time been a Democrat of 
strong nationalist tendencies. In support of this view he cited his 
speeches on the Texas question, the Mexican War, and the Oregon 
question, and especially his conduct in respect to the compromise of 
1850, when he was Speaker of the National House of Representa- 
tives. He was one of the foremost advocates of that compromise, 
regarding it as the best obtainable adjustment of a dispute that 
looked ominous for the Union. Breaking with lifelong political asso- 
ciates, for most of its opponents in Georgia and in the South gen- 
erally were Democrats, he brought the people of that pivotal State 
to acquiesce in it, definitely committing Georgia to the compromise 
by the successful canvass he made for the governorship in 1851 on 
the Union ticket. The remaining part of the paper treated of thw 
disruption of the Union Party brought about by disagreement be- 
tween the Whig and the Democratic elements over the preliminaries 
of the election of 1852. Cobb was left stranded with only a small 
following of Union Democrats. His course on the issues of 1850 had 
so completely alienated him from the Democratic majority that he 
never regained his former popularity. 

In Prof. Robertson's paper x the close relation between the course 
of political parties in Kentucky during, the decade 1855-1865 and 
the features of the State's physical geography was established and 
was displayed on a series of maps specially prepared from returns 
of elections, both State and National. Yet the period was one of 
transition, and there was much shifting of sectional political senti- 
ment, concerned with the issues of State rights, union, secession, 
slavery, sound currency, internal improvements, and many minor 
interests. 

Prof. Eamsdell's paper on the " Confederate government and 
railroads " 2 was a study in war administration. The first outstand- 
ing fact,- the heaviest handicap of the South in waging war, was its 
lack of industrial development, which resulted not only in want of 
necessary supplies but also in the lack of sufficient men with training 
in industrial administration to organize and administer its resources. 
In 1861 the southern railroads were local short lines, light in both 

1 Printed in the Mississippi Valley Historical Review, June, 1917. 
Printed in the American Historical Review, July, 1917. 



56 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

track and rolling stock, unconnected, without coordination; and gen- 
erally inadequate to the work suddenly imposed upon them. They 
could not themselves combine or coordinate, and confusion and con- 
gestion of traffic resulted; they were unable to obtain supplies, and 
rapid deterioration set in. The government was unable to aid 
them, partly because of constitutional scruples, partly through a 
failure to comprehend the nature of the problem. It granted loans 
to build certain connections and it sought relief from congestion by 
supervision of its own freights, but it never found a remedy for the 
breakdown of the roads themselves. The consequence was the 
paralysis of the whole system of transportation and distribution, the 
starvation and disintegration of the Confederate armies, and the col- 
lapse of the government. 

The annual business meeting, presided over by Prof. Burr as presi- 
dent, differed from preceding business meetings in two important 
respects the one a matter of procedure, the other a matter of sub- 
stantial achievement, namely, the revision of the society's constitu- 
tion. Votes respecting procedure passed a year before had provided 
that hereafter the annual reports of committees should not be read in 
the business meeting unless their reading should be called for by 10 
members present or directed by the council. On the present occasion 
only two such reports were designated by the council to be read, and 
only these two were orally presented. The wholesale omission of 
the reports, with these two exceptions, was justified in this present 
year by the need to save time for due consideration of constitutional 
amendments and by-laws; but it may well be doubted whether at 
ordinary meetings the omission, which under the rule will usually 
take place, will be advantageous to the association. In ordinary 
years the doings of these committees are the most important activi- 
ties of the association, yet under the practice now inaugurated it will 
not be long before most of the members will know little about them. 
The present healthy spirit of interest in all affairs of the society will 
be in danger of declining for want of known objects on which to 
expend itself, and the committees may miss much helpful cooperation 
which might come to them from interested members as a result of 
oral presentation of their problems, plans, and achievements. 

The amendments to the constitution of the association which 
had been presented by tlie committee of nine at the business meet- 
ing a year before, and which, in accordance with the constitution, had 
been referred to the present meeting for action/ were unanimously 
adopted, as also the by-laws then recommended by the same com- 
mittee. The committee of five appointed to devise a plan for the 
taking over of the American Historical Review by the association 
brought in a report recommending and the recommendations were 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING, 57 

at once unanimously adopted that the board of editors should exe- 
cute an assignment to the association of all its right and title in its 
contract with the Macmillan Co. as publishers, together with a bill 
of sale of tangible property and good will, and that the affairs of 
the Review should for the present, and until other action of the 
association, remain in the hands of the board of editors under the 
same system as hitherto, except that they should make a detailed 
report of their accounts annually to the council and to the asso- 
ciation. The special committee on finance, appointed at the last 
annual meeting, recommended a more complete application of tfre 
budget principle, the keeping of separate accounts for the publica- 
tion fund and for the life-membership receipts, and a number of 
other improvements in the details of fiscal procedure. 

The report of the committee on nominations was presented by 
its chairman, Prof. Frank M. Anderson, of Dartmouth College. 
The committee had received primary ballots from 291 members. 
In accordance with its recommendations Mr. Worthington C. Ford 
was elected president of the association for the ensuing year, Mr. 
William K. Thayer first vice president, Prof. Edward Channing 
second vice president, Mr. Waldo G. Leland, Dr. Clarence W. Bowen, 
Mr. A. Howard Clark, and Prof. Evarts B. Greene were reelected 
to their respective offices of secretary, treasurer, curator, and sec- 
retary of the council; and the following six members were elected 
members of the council: Prof. Eug;ene C. Barker, Guy S. Ford, 
Samuel B. Harding, Ulrich B. Phillips, Lucy M. Salmon, and 
George M. Wrong. The amended constitution now requiring the 
choice of eight elective councilors, Prof. Henry E. Bourne and Mr. 
Charles Moore were also elected. Messrs. Charles H. Ambler, Frank 
M. Anderson, Christopher B. Coleman, Henry B. Learned, and 
Andrew C. McLaughlin, all nominated from the floor, were chosen 
as a committee on nominations for the ensuing year ; this committee 
has since chosen Prof. Anderson as its chairman. 

Of other matters in the history of the association much the most 
important is the endeavor, set in motion at the final meeting of the 
council, to increase the endowment of the association from its pres- 
ent figure of about $28,000 to that of $50,000. The movement is 
due to the initiative of the treasurer, Dr. Bowen, to whom, during his 
long service of nearly 33 years in that office, the organization is 
already so much indebted- 
All evidences, indeed, show convincingly that the American His- 
torical Association is now in the most prosperous condition, with 
resources and activities increasing, and interest widespread. 



58 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

PROGRAM or THE THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING- or THE 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, HELD IN CINCINNATI, 
OHIO, DECEMBER 27-30, 1916. 

Tuesday, December 26. 

Bureau of legistration, ninth-floor corridor, Hotel Sinton, open from 2 to 10 
p? m. ( Open on subsequent days from 8 a. m. to 6 p. m ) 

Dinner of Mississippi Valley Historical Association at 7 p. in. in assembly 
room of Hotel Sinton, followed by business session. 

Wednesday, December 27. 

1030 a. m. : Ancient history Parlor F. Chairman, William A. Oldfather, 
University of Illinois. " Mesopotamia!! politics and scholarship," Albert T. 
Olmstead, University of Missouri. " Climatic and geographic influences upon 
ancient Mediterranean agriculture," Ellen Churchill Sample, Louisville, Ky. 
" Tribute assessments in the Athenian Empire," Herbert Wing, Dickinson Col- 
lege. Discussion opened by W L. Westermann, University of Wisconsin 

10.30 a m. : American history. Ballroom, ninth floor. Chairman, Allen 
Johnson, Yale University "The uprising against the East India Company,'* 
Arthur M. Schlesm^er, Ohio State University " Robert Barnwell Rhett and 
South Carolina, 1826-1852," Laura A. White, University of Wyoming. " Howell 
Cobb and the crisis of 1850," Robert P. Brooks, University of Georgia. " The 
Confederate Government and the railroads," Charles W. Ramsdell, University of 
Texas. Discussion opened by Arthur C. Cole, University of Illinois. 

12 m : Meeting of executive council. Parlor F. 

1 p. m. : Subscription luncheon of members of hereditary patriotic societies In 
assembly room. The luncheon will be followed by a conference of hereditary 
patriotic societies. Assembly room. Chairman, Harry Brent Mackoy, Cincin- 
nati. The National Society of Colonial Dames of America, Cornelia Bartow 
Williams, historian general ; the National Society of Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion, Mrs. Everett Menzies Raynor, president general ; the National Society of 
the United States Daughters of 1812, Mrs Robert Hall Wiles, president na- 
tional ; the Society of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of Ohio, Jackson 
Wolcott Sparrow, ex-president Ohio society; the National Society of the Sons 
of the American Revolution, R. C Ballard Thruston, ex-president; Daughters 
of the American Revolution in the State of Ohio, Mrs. Thomas Kite, ex-vice 
president general, Miss Elizabeth Burckhardt ; the Society of Colonial Wars In 
the State of Ohio, Elmer L. Foote Discussion. 

3pm- Conference of archivists. Parlor F, second floor. Chairman, Victor 
Hugo Paltsits, New York Public Library. Remarks by the chairman. " Kules 
and regulations for the administration of archives," Thomas M Owen, depart- 
ment of archives and history of Alabama. Discussion: (a) "The custodian's 
point of view," Milo M Quaife, State Historical Society of Wisconsin; (&) 
"The student's point of view," Rev. Peter Guilday, Catholic University of 
America. " The housing of archives," Louis A Simon, Office of the Supervising 
Architect, United States Treasury Department. Discussion. " Binding, repair- 
ing, and restoration of archives," William Berwick, Government Printing Office. 
Discussion, opened by Clarence W Alvord, University of Illinois. " The prob- 
lem of archive centralization with reference to local conditions In a middle 
western State," Theodore C. Pease, University of Illinois. 

3 p. m. Discussion of the field and method of the elementary covirse In col- 
lege history. Ball room. Chairman, Arley B* Show, Leland Stanford Junior 



THIRTY-SECOND AJGHnjAL MEETING. 59 

University (a) The Field Should the same field be offered as a first course 
for all students^ If only one, what field should be chosen? If more tliun one, 
what alternatives should he allowed? Discussion opened by William A Frayer, 
University ot Michigan ; followed by James F. Baldwin, Vassar Colege . Jesse 
E. Wrench, University of Missouri; Herbert D. Foster, Dartmouth College; 
Milton It. Gutsch, University of Texas. (&) Method: The lecture system The 
text-book and quiz section Reference, reading and written work The his- 
toiical laboratory. Discussion opened by Robert H, George, Yale University, 
and Curtis H Walker, University of Chicago; followed by Laurence B. Pack- 
ard, University of Rochester, Henry R Shipman, Princeton University; Wil- 
liam K. Boyd, Trinity College, N. C. , Clarence P. Gould, College of Wooster ; 
Wilmer C. Harris, Ohio State University ; Carlton J. H Hayes, Columbia Uni- 
versity; Donald L. McMurry, Vauderbilt" University; James G McDonald, 
University of Indiana , H. Morse Stephens, University of California General 
discussion. 

[NOTE. Leaders of the discussion will be limited to 10 minutes each; those 
who follow, to 5 minutes; and those who take part in the general discussion, 
to 3 minutes ] 

5 p. m. : Conference of representatives of university departments of history, 
political science, and economics on establishment of a university center in 
Washington. For place of meeting and further information, inquire at bureau 
of registration, 

6 p. m. : Subscription dinner for the women of the various associations at 
tn.e Auto Club, Hotel Gibson. 

8 p. m : Recent phases of European balance of power. Ball room. Chairman, 
Wilbur H Siebert, Ohio State University. "The ententes and the isolation of 
Germany," Charles Seymour, Yale University; "Two conceptions of the free- 
dom of the seas," Jesse S. Reeves, University of Michigan ; " England and 
neutral trade in the Napoleonic and present wars," William E. Lingelbach, 
University of Pennsylvania ; discussion opened by Bernadotte E. Schinitt, West- 
ern Reserve University. 

10 p. m. : Smoker for the men of the various associations, Fountain Room, 
Hotel Gibson. 

Thursday, December 28. 

The American Historical Association and the American Political Science 
Association will hold their morning and afternoon sessions at the University of 
Cincinnati. 

The rooms of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, Van Warmer 
Library, will be open to visitors during the day. 

10 a. m : Conference of historical societies Room 37, McMicken Hall. Chair- 
man, Harlow Lindley, Indiana Historical Commission; secretary, Augustus H. 
Shearer, Newberry Library, Chicago. * .Remarks by the chairman. Report ot 
the secretary. General subject, Federating and affiliating local historical so- 
cieties< The Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies, Thomas L Mont- 
gomery, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg; The Ontario Historical So- 
ciety, A. F. Hunter, Toronto, Canada; The Michigan Historical Commission, 
George N. Fuller, Lansing, Mica.; The Illinois State Historical Society, Mrs. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, 111.; The Bay State Historical League, Na- 
thaniel T. Kidder, Milton, Mass. Discussion of report of committee on organi- 
zation and actives ,o the conference 

10 a. m. : Conference of teachers of history in secondary schools, room 23, 
McMicken Hall. Chairman, A. C. Thomas, State superintendent of education, 



60 AMERICAN HISTOEJCAL ASSOCIATION. 

Lincoln, Nebr. " Personality in tlie teaching of history," Carl B. Pray, State 
Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich.; Discussion, Victoria A. Adams, Chicago; 
"How may the teaching of history in schools be made more effective in 
preparing for business and the consular service?" Glen Levin Swiggett, United 
States Bureau of Education ; Discussion, Frank P. Goodwin, Cincinnati ; "The 
teaching of history as affected by the present war," discussion opened by Albert 
E. McKinley, University of Pennsylvania; Samuel B. Harding, Indiana State 
University ; and Shirley Parr, University of Chicago. Tentative report of com- 
mittee on history in schools, William S. Ferguson, chairman, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

10 a. m. History of China and Japan. Auditorium, McMicken Hall Chair- 
man, Payson J. Treat, Leland Stanford Junior University. "The Life of a 
monastic Sho in medieval Japan," by K. Asakawa, Yale University ; " Chinese 
social institutions as a foundation for republican government," Edward T. 
Williams, Department of State, Washington, D. C. Discussion opened by Dana 
C. Munro, Prineeton University, followed by Kenneth S. Latourette, Denison 
University ; Stanley K. Hornbeck, University of Wisconsin ; W. F. Willoughby, 
Institute for Government Research, Washington, D. C. 

12 30 p. m : Luncheon will be served at the university. Guests of both asso- 
ciations are requested to group themselves by regions, assembling for that 
purpose in separate rooms a few minutes before the luncheon. Brief addresses 
will follow the luncheon. 

3 p. m. : Annual business meeting. Auditorium, McMicken Hall. Reports of 
officers and committees. Votes on by-laws and amendments to the constitution, 
Report of committee on transfer of American Historical Review. Election of 
officers. For complete docket, inquire at bureau of registration. 

8 p. m. : Presidential address. Ball room, Hotel Sinton. Joint meeting with 
the Political Science Association. Chairman, Charles P. Taft, Cincinnati. 
Address of welcome. " The scientific spirit in politics," Jesse Macy, Grinnell 
College, president of the American Political Science Association. " The freedom 
of history," George L. Burr, Cornell University, president of the American 
Historical Association. 

10 p. m. : General reception tendered to the men and women attending the 
meetings of the various associations and to invited guests. 

Friday ; December $9. 

10 a. m. : Great peace congresses of the nineteenth century. Assembly room, 
Hotel Gibson. Chairman, George M. Dutcher, Wesleyan University. "The 
congress of Vienna," Charles D. Hazen, Columbia University ; " The congress 
of Paris," William R. Thayer, Cambridge, Mass.; "The congress of Berlin," 
Robert H. Lord, Harvard University. Discussion. 

10 a. m.: English history. Parlor F, Hotel Sinton. Chairman, Frances G. 
Davenport, Carnegie Institution of Washington. " Was there a * Common 
Council* before parliament?" Albert B. White, University of Minnesota; 
*' Beginnings of the oldest European alliance," Guernsey Jones, University of 
Nebraska ; " The Stuart period : unsolved problems," Wallace Notestein, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota ; " The English criminal law and benefit of clergy in the 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries," Arthur L. Gross, University of 
Michigan. Discussion opened by Roland G. Usher, Washington University. 

10 a. m. : General history. Library, Hotel Sinton. Chairman, Merrlck Whit- 
comb, University ot Cincinnati* "The beginnings of the standing army In 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL IVfEETItfa. 61 



Prussia," Sidney B. Fay, Smith College; "History and pathology," Chalfant 
Robinson, Princeton University ; "Admiral Charles Whiting Wooster in Chile," 
Charles Lyon Chandler, Chattanooga, Tenn. ; "American historical periodicals," 
Augustus H. Shearer, Newberry Library, Chicago. Discussion opened by J. 
Franklin Jameson, Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Clarence W. Alvord, 
University of Illinois. 

1 p. m. : Luncheon conferences of committees for 1917. Inquire at bureau of 
registration. 

2.30 p m. : American history. Library. Joint meeting with the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association. Chairman, Frederic L. Paxson, president of the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association. " Spanish influence in the west 
during the American revolution," James A. James, Northwestern University; 
" The Pennsylvania bribery bill of 1836," Reginald C. McGrane, University of 
Cincinnati; "Sectionalism in Kentucky from 1855 to 1865," James R. Rob- 
ertson, Berea College ; " The influence of the religious press of Cincinnati on 
the northern border States," Ernest A. Smith, Salt Lake City. Discussion, 
Charles E. Chapman, University of California; Homer J. Webster, University 
of Pittsburgh; David Y. Thomas, University of Arkansas; B. M. Coulter, 
University of Wisconsin. 

4.30 p. m. : Reception and tea to the members of both associations by Mr. 
and Mrs. Charles P. Taft at their residence, 316 Pike Street. 

6 p. m. : Arrangements will be made for groups interested in various fields of 
work to dine together and to hold informal conferences which may be prolonged 
into the evening. One of these groups will consist of those interested in the 
establishment of an Ibero-American historical review. Other subjects suggested 
or planned for are : " The development of science in the Middle Ages," " The 
Revolutionary and Napoleonic period," " Archival and manuscript sources of 
American history," " Problems of the teacher of history in the normal school 
and teacher's college," etc. For list of dinners and for bookings, inquire at 
bureau of registration. 

8 p. m. : Public session of American Political Science Association. Papers by 
former United States Senator Theodore E. Burton on Reforms in Administra- 
tion and by Hon. Carl Vrooman, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, on The 
Expansion of the Work of the Department of Agriculture. 

Saturday, December 30. 

10 a. m. : American colonial policy in the Philippines. Assembly room, Hotel 
Gibson. Joint meeting with the American Political Science Association. Chair- 
man, George L. Burr, president of the American Historical Association. " The 
Philippine Islands since the inauguration of the Philippine Assembly," James 
A. Robertson, Washington, D. C. ; " The education of the Philippine people," 
Frank L. Crone, Kendallville, Ind. Discussion opened by N. Dwight Harris, 
Northwestern University. 

10 a. m. : Medieval and modern Constantinople. Parlor F, Hotel Sinton. 
Chairman, Andrew C. McLaughlin, University of Chicago. " When did the 
Byzantine Empire and civilization come into being? ", Paul van den Ven, Uni- 
versity of Louvain; "Constantinople as capital of the Ottoman Empire," 
Albert H. Lybyer, University of Illinois; "Claims upon Constantinople na- 
tional, geographical, and historic," Archibald Cary Coolidge, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Discussion opened by Edwin A. Grosvenor, Amherst College. 



62 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

MINUTES OF THE A1TNTJAL BUSINESS MEETING 03? THE AMERI- 
CAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION HELD IN THE AUDITORIUM 
OP McMICKEN HAI/L, UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, CINCIN- 
NATI, OHIO, DECEMBER 28, 1916. 

The meeting was called to order at 2.15 p. m., President George L. Burr 
presiding 

The secretary of the association presented his annual report The total 
membership of the association on December 19, 1916, was stated to be 2,739, 
showing a net loss during the year of 187 The number of new members ad- 
mitted during the year was 244 The total loss during the year was 431 40 
by death, 118 by resignation, 273 for nonpayment of dues The secretary ex- 
plained that the new rule respecting membership adopted at the last meeting 
had operated to clear the rolls of a large number of members whose dues had 
remained unpaid for a year or more. The secretary emphasized the need of a 
quaiterly bulletin devoted to the interests of the association as an organization. 

It was voted that the report of the secretary be received and placed on file 

In the absence of the tieasurer the secretary presented the treasurer's 
report, which had been printed and distributed to those present. By unanimous 
consent the reading of the report was omitted. 

It was voted that the president appoint a committee to audit the treasurer's 
report and to report thereon at the next business meeting of the association. 

The president appointed Messrs. Allen Johnson and S. B. Fay a committee 
to audit the treasurer's report. 

The secretary of the council presented a report for the executive council. In 
accordance with the vote of the association at its last meeting the reports of 
the various committees and commissions were summarized by the secretary of 
the council, who stated that the council had voted to call for the presentation 
in full, by their respective chairmen, of the reports of the Justin Wiusor 
prize committee a*hd of the board of editors of the American Historical Ito- 
view. He also called especial attention to certain votes of the executive coun- 
cil as set forth in the minutes of that body, namely, the appropriation of $200 
for the support of the History Teacher's Magazine, the vote authorizing the 
committee on finance of the council to transfer credits from one item to another 
in the budget, the vote providing for the continuation of the Bibliography of 
American Historical Societies published in the Annual Report for 1905, and the 
vote providing for the publication of a quarterly bulletin. 

Recommendations of the council respecting the place of meeting in 1917, 
the fixing of a registration fee, the organization of the Conference of His- 
torical Societies, and the terms of office of officers and members of the council 
were presented by the secretary of the council for action by the association. 

These recommendations being duly moved and seconded were voted as follows : 

1. Voted: That the annual meeting of the association of 1917 be held in 
Philadelphia 

2. Voted : That at future meetings of the association, beginning with 1917, a 
registration fee of 50 cents be charged to cover the expenses incurred by the 
association in connection with such annual meetings. 

3. Voted* That the Conference of Historical Societies be organized on the 
basis of the following provisions : 

(1) That the Conference of Historical Societies be recognized as a semi- 
independent organization under the auspices of the American Historical 
Association. I 

(2) That its secretary be appointed by the councif of the association, and 
have the rank and functions of a committee chairman, reporting annually to 
the association. 

(3) That the conference appoint such other officers and committees as it 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 63 

(4) That the conference be supported by an annual assessment upon each 
society that becomes a member of it , such assessments to be upon the basis of 
1 cent for each member of such societies, but no society to be assessed more 
than $10 nor less than 25 cents. Commissions, State departments, surveys, 
etc , not organized as societies to pay an annual fee of $5. 

(5) That the conference have control of its own funds, but shall furnish 
an annual report of its expenditures and receipts to the association. 

(6) That the chairman of its program committee or such officer as may 
be charged with the preparation of its program, shall be ex officio a mem- 
ber of the program committee of the association. 

(7) That the conference prepare, as soon as possible after the annual meet- 
ing of each year, a report of its proceedings, together with such bibliographical 
and statistical information as it may collect. 

(8) That all publications of the conference be passed upon by the associa- 
tion's committee on publications and be issued under the auspices of the 
association. 

(9) That, finally, an appropriation of $50 for 1917 be made for the incidental 
expenses connected with the reorganization of the conference. (Such an item 
was included in the budget for 1917 ) 

4 Voted- That the terms of office of the officers of the association and of 
the members of the executive council chosen at any given annual meeting be 
for the year terminating with the close of the next annual business meeting of 
the association. 

Remarks respecting the proposed quarterly bulletin were made by the secre- 
tary o the association, by Mr. G. S. Ford, of the executive council; and by 
Mr. James Sullivan By unanimous consent subscription cards were distributed 
to those present and the sum of $18575 was pledged as a guaranty fund to 
meet the expenses of publishing the proposed bulletin in case the said expenses 
should be of such an amount as to involve the treasury of the association in a 
deficit. 

The report of the Pacific coast branch was presented by Mr. Edward Kreh- 
biel, piesident of the branch and its delegate to the annual meeting. He 
stated that the branch had held its thirteenth annual meeting on December 
1 and 2, at San Diego, Cal At its business meeting the branch voted to 
appoint a committee to investigate the feasibility of preparing a bibliography 
of the history of the Pacific Coast States and adopted the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation does hereby indorse the excellent work already accomplished and the 
plan of work outlined for the future by the California Historical Survey Com- 
mission. 

Furthermore, that the association most earnestly urges the continued support 
of this great project for calendaring the scattered records of our history, and 
that the association impress upon the California public the fact that what has 
been done will never attain the good end desired unless through the action 
of our legislature provision be made to have the results of the survey com- 
mission's work published. 

Officers of the branch were elected as follows : President, Edward Krehbiel ; 
vice president, Levi E* Young, secretary-treasurer, William A. Morris; council 
(in addition to the above), Oliver H Richardson, Tully C. Knoles, Allen M. 
Kline, Effie I Hawkins 

The reports of the historical manuscripts commission and of the public 
archives commission were read by title, their full reading not having been 
directed by the executive council nor being called for from the floor. 

The report of the committee on the Justin Winsor prize was presented by the 
chairman, Mr. Carl Russell Fish, who stated that the committee had voted to 
award the Winsor prize of 1916 to Richard J. Purcell, for his monograph 
entitled ** Connecticut in Transition, 1775-1818." 

The report of the board of editors of the American Historical Review was 
presented by Mr. Carl Becker. The board reported that it had cooperated with 



64 AMERICAN" HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

the special committee appointed at the last meeting to make recommendations 
respecting the procedure of transfer of the American Historical Review to the 
association; that it had considered various informal suggestions respecting 
means of publishing more articles in European history, and that, while it was 
In entire sympathy with any plan to encourage the publication of scholarly 
articles in that field of history, it thought it worth while to point out that 
during the last 10 years more than half the contents of the Review had lain 
In the field of European history; that increased cost of production had pre- 
vented the accumulation of any surplus during the past year, thus rendering 
impossible any payment to the treasury of the association ; that, contrary to the 
somewhat prevalent impression, the board did not discourage the offering of 
articles by young or unknown writers, but welcomed such articles, their pub- 
lication depending entirely upon their merits ; that no discrimination was made 
against any particular field of history, it being the desire of the board to have 
all fields represented, and, finally, that the board had considered the question 
of devoting more attention to the analysis or description of doctors' theses in 
history, but had found no practicable means of fulfilling this end in the Review 
Itself ; it was understood, however, that this object was in a fair way of being 
achieved by another means. 

The reports of the following committees were read by title, their full reading 
not having been directed by the executive council nor being called for from 
the floor: Board of advisory editors of the History Teacher's Magazine, com- 
mittee on bibliography, committee on publications, general committee, editor of 
reprints of original narratives, committee on history in schools, committee to 
cooperate with the National Highways Association. 

The amendments to the constitution which had been presented by the com- 
mittee of nine at the last business meeting, and which had been by vote of the 
association referred to the present meeting for action, were read by the presi- 
dent and, being voted upon separately, were unanimously adopted as follows : 

For Article IV substitute the following: 

ABT. IV The officers shall be a president, two vice presidents, a secretary, 
a secretary of the council, a curator, and a treasurer. These officers shall be 
elected by ballot at each regular annual meeting in the manner provided in the 
by-laws. 

For Article V substitute the following : 

ABT. V. There shall be an executive council constituted as follows: 

1. The officers named in Article IV. 

2. Elected members, eight in number, to be chosen annually in the same 
manner as the officers of the association. 

3. The former presidents, but a former president shall be entitled to vote 
for the three years succeeding the expiration of his term as president, and no 
longer. 

Incorporate a new article, to be numbered VI, as follows : 

ABT. VI. The executive council shall conduct the business, manage the prop- 
erty, and care for the general interests of the association. In the exercise 
of its proper functions the council may appoint such committees, commissions, 
and boards as it may deem necessary. The council shall make a full report of 
its activities to the annual meeting of the association. The association may by 
vote at any annual meeting instruct the executive council to discontinue or 
enter upon any activity, and may take such other action in directing the affairs 
of the association as it may deem necessary and proper. 

Change the number of Article VI to Article VII. 

The by-laws proposed by the committee of nine at the last annual meeting 
and by vote of the association referred to the present meeting for action were 
read by the president 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 65 

The first by-law was read, as follows : 

1. The officers provided for by the constitution shall have the duties and per- 
form the functions customarily attaching to their respective offices, with such 
others as may from time to time be prescribed. 

After brief discussion from the floor, it was voted that it be adopted. 
The second by-law was read, as follows : 

2. A nomination committee of five members shall be chosen at each annual 
meeting in the manner hereafter provided for the election of officers of the 
association. At such convenient time prior to the 1st of ^October as it may 
determine it shall invite every member to express to it his preference regarding 
eeery office to be filled by election at the ensuing annual meeting and regarding 
the composition of the new nominating committee then to be chosen. It shall 
publish and mail to each member at least 20 days prior to the annual meeting 
such nominations as it may determine upon for each elective office and for 
the next nominating committee. It shall prepare for use at the annual meeting 
an official ballot containing, as candidates for each office or committee mem- 
bership to be filled thereat, the names of its nominees and also the names of 
any other nominees which may be proposed to the chairman of the committee 
in writing by 20 or more members of the association at least five days before 
the annual meeting. The official ballot shall also provide, under each office, 
a blank space for voting for such further nominees as any member may pre- 
sent from the floor at the time of the election. 

Mr. F. M. Anderson moved to amend the by-law by striking out the first 
sentence as read and substituting therefor the following: 

The committee on nominations, except the first committee chosen, shall con- 
sist of five members, none of whom shall serve more than two years in suc- 
cession; two members shall be selected by the retiring committee on nomina- 
tions from its own membership; three members shall be selected by ballot at 
the annual meeting of the association from a list presented by the retiring com- 
mittee on nominations, it being understood that nominations may also be made 
from the floor or by petition. 

After discussion of the amendment it was voted to lay it on the table. 
It was voted to adopt the by-law as read. 
The third by-law was read as follows: 

3. The annual election of officers and the choice of a nominating committee 
for the ensuing year shall be conducted by the use of an official ballot prepared 
as described in by-law 2. 

It was voted that the by-law be adopted as read. 
The fourth by-law was read as follows : 

4. The association authorizes the payment of traveling expenses incurred by 
the voting members of the council attending one meeting of that body a year, 
this meeting to be other than that held in connection with the annual meeting 
of the association. 

It was voted that it be adopted as read. 

President Burr called ex-President William A. Dunning to take the chair. 

The report of the special committee on the transfer of the American Histori- 
cal Review was presented by Mr. G. L. Burr, chairman of the committee 

The first recommendation of the special committee being put before the meet- 
Ing for action thereon, was read by the presiding officer as follows : 

1. That the council be instructed to seek from the editors of the American 
Historical Review an assignment to the American Historical Association of 
all their right and title in the contract with the Macmillan Co. for the publi- 
cation of that Review, together with a bill of sale of such tangible property 
as may be vested in them as editors of that Review and of the good will thereto 
appertaining. And we recommend that on the back of the aforesaid contract 
with the publishers, if there be free space, this assignment of their said title 
and interest therein be typewritten and signed by the editors, and that the 
consent thereto of the Macmillan Co., publishers, signed by that company, be. 



66 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

appended. We recommend, further, that the aforesaid bill of sale be, so far 
as possible, an itemized bill, and that a consideration of some sort (such as the 
usual "one dollar") be named as a part of the transaction and duly paid to 
the said editors. 

Mr. Edward Krehbiel moved that it be amended by striking out the words 
"a consideration of some sort (such as the usual * one dollar')," and substi- 
tuting therefor the words " the usual consideration of one dollar." 

It was voted that the amendment be adopted. 

It was then voted that the recommendation be adopted in its amended form 
as follows: 

1. That the council be instructed to seek from the editors of the American 
Historical Review an assignment to the American Historical Association of 
all their right and title m the contract with the Macmillan Co. for the publi- 
cation of that Beview, together with a bill of sale of such tangible property 
as may be vested in them as editors of that Review and of the good will thereto 
appertaining. And we recommend that on the back of the aforesaid contract 
with the publishers, if there be free space, this assignment of their said title 
and interest therein be typewritten and signed by the editors, and that the 
consent thereto of the Macmillan Co , publishers, signed by that company, be 
appended. We recommend, further, that the aforesaid bill of sale be, so far as 
possible, an itemized bill, and that the usual consideration of one dollar be 
named as a part of the transaction and duly paid to the said editors. 

The second and final recommendation of the special committee being put 
before the meeting for action thereon was read by the presiding officer as 
follows : 

2 In order that the said transfer may be made at any time and that the 
management of the Review may be provided for from its date to the next sub- 
sequent meeting of this association, we recommend that, until the next subse- 
quent meeting of this association and till directed otherwise by this association, 
the present board of editors retain their functions in all respects as hitherto ; 
that they continue to cause their accounts to be kept by a treasurer of the board, 
a detailed report to be made by him to the council at its November meeting and 
to the association at its annual business meeting ; that they retain in his hands, 
as a working capital, such funds as are in his hands at the time of the transfer ; 
and that they continue to receive as hitherto the monthly subvention paid by 
the publishers for the editing of the Review and the share hitherto paid to the 
editors of the Review's yearly profits We recommend also that, till such fur- 
ther action, they retain the administration of these funds and of such other 
funds as may at any time be appropriated by the association or its council to 
the uses of the Review, and that the editorial purposes to which these funds 
shall be devoted, including the payment, at their discretion, of traveling ex- 
penses of the members of the board, be entirely within the control of the board ; 
and we recommend that, till further action by this association, the members of 
the board be elected by the council as at present, and for the same term of six: 
years; and that, until such further action, they retain the power to elect their 
own managing editor and their other officers. 

It was voted that the recommendation be adopted as read. 

The report of the special committee on finance was presented by Mr. Chess- 
man A. Herrick, chairman of the committee. The report having been printed 
and distributed, the reading of the report was, by unanimous consent, dispensed 
with. 

It was voted that the thanks of the association be extended to the special 
committee on finance and that its recommendations be carried out as soon as 
practicable. 

The recommendations of the special committee may be summarized as fol- 
lows: 

1 That the practice of having the routine clerical work of the secretary and 
treasurer done in one office, under the supervision of the secretary, be con- 
tinued. 

2. That the budget principle be more completely applied, and that to this end 
committee chairmen and officers present annually to the council, at its November 
meeting, estimates of the needs of the work under their charge, and that these 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 67 

estimates be reviewed by the council with regard to the probable income of the 
association, and that a budget of appropriations safely within the income of the 
association be presented by the council for adoption at the annual meeting. 

3 That balances remaining to the credit of any appropriation at the end of 
the fiscal year be made available for the payment of any bills incurred during 
the same fiscal year and chargeable to the said appropriation. 

4. That in the event of any appropriation being overdrawn, that fact be 
reported to the annual meeting for a deficiency appropriation or such other 
action as may be taken. 

5. That the amount now to the credit of the committee on publications be 
made available as capital for the operations of the committee, and that dis- 
tinct book records and a separate bank account be kept for the publications of 
the association. 

6. That the financial records of the association be kept in the form of (a) 
a standard cash book, (&) a ledger for appropriations, (c) a ledger for invest- 
ments and other assets. 

7. That a form of voucher check be employed which duly indorsed, shall con- 
stitute a receipt for payments made. * 

8 That checks be drawn by the secretary only on receipt of a bill duly ap- 
proved by the committee chairman or other person responsible for the expen- 
diture, and that no check be signed by the treasurer until it has been duly 
drawn and signed as above by the secretary. 

9. That for all expenditures formal bills be presented stating explicitly the 
purpose for which the expenditure is made. 

10. That all life membership dues be invested, and that a separate bank ac- 
count for the same be kept. 

11. That the funds of the association be invested in real estate mortgages, 
guaranteed by some reputable commercial organization. 

The report of the committee on nominations was presented by Mr. F. M. 
Anderson, chairman of the committee. He stated that 291 members had re- 
turned primary ballots indicating their preferences for the various officers 
and that returns had clearly indicated that it was the desire of the associa- 
tion to adhere to the practice of advancing the vice presidents and of reelecting 
members of the council who have served less than three years. The nomina- 
tions presented by the committee were as follows : 

President, Worthington G. Ford. 

First vice president, William Roscoe Thayer. 

Second vice president, Edward Channing, 

Secretary, Waldo G Leland. 

Treasurer, Clarence W. Bowen. * 

Curator, A. Howard Clark. 

Secretary of the council, Evarts B. Greene. 

Members of the council, Eugene C. Barker, Guy Stanton Ford, TJlrich ^B. 
Phillips, Lucy M. Salmon, Samuel B. Harding, George M. Wrong. 

The question being raised as to whether eight members of the council 
should be elected, in accordance with the constitution as amended at the pres- 
ent meeting, or six members, in accordance with the constitution prior to 
amendment, it was voted that the committee on nominations present two 
further nominations for membership in the executive council. 

The committe on nominations, through its chairman, placed the names of 
Messrs. Henry E. Bourne and Herbert E. Bolton in nomination for membership 
in the executive council. 

Nominations from the floor being called for, Mr. Charles Moore and Mr. 
Justin H. Smith were nominated for election to the executive council. 

Mr. Henry A. Sill nominated Mr. Edward Channing for the office of first 
vice president and Mr. Edward P. Cheyney for the office of second vice 
president. 

After remarks from the floor Mr. Sill withdrew his nominations. 



68 AMEKICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION. 

No further nominations being offered the presiding officer appointed Messrs. 
S. J. Buck, C. Patillm, R. H. George, and G. S. Godard as tellers, and ballots 
were distributed. 

While the ballots were being counted it was voted that nominations for 
members of the committee on nominations be called for from the floor. 

The following were nominated as members of the committee on nominations : 
Messrs. A. C. McLaughlin, H. B. Learned, C. H. Ambler, C. B. Coleman, F. M, 
Anderson. 

No further nominations being offered it was voted that the secretary be in- 
structed, by unanimous consent, to cast the ballot of the association for the 
gentlemen nominated for membership in the committee on nominations. The 
ballot was accordingly cast and they were declared duly elected 

It was voted that the committee on nominations be instructed to select one 
of its number as chairman. 

[At a meeting of the committee on nominations held after the adjournment of 
the business meeting, Mr. F M. Anderson was selected as chairman.] 

The result of the balloting was reported by Mr. S. J. Buck, chairman oi the 
tellers 

He stated that 67 ballots had been cast as follows : 

President, Worthington C Ford, 66 

First vice president, William R Thayer, 55 ; scattering, 4. 

Second vice president, Edward Channmg, 58 ; scattering, 3* 

Secretary, Waldo G. Leland, 64. 

Treasurer, Clarence W. Bowen, G4. 

Secretary of the council, Evarts B Greene, 63. 

Curator, A. Howard Clark, 64. 

Members of the executive council, Eugene C. Barker, 65 ; Guy Stanton Ford, 
65; Ulrich B. Phillips, 62; Lucy M. Salmon, 65; Samuel B Harding, 66; George 
M. Wrong, 57; Henry E. Bourne, 50; Charles Moore, 27; Herbert E. Bolton, 
26; Justin Smith, 24. 

The following having received a majority of the votes cast were declared 
duly elected: 

President, Worthington C. Ford. 

First vice president, William R Thayer. 

Second vice president, Edward Channing. 

Secretary, Waldo G. Leland. 

Treasurer, Clarence W. Bowen. 

Secretary of the council, Evarts B. Greene. 

Curator, A. Howard Clark. 

Members of the executive council, Eugene C. Barker, Guy Stanton Ford, 
Ulrich B. Phillips, Lucy M, Salmon, Samuel B. Harding, George M. Wrong, 
Henry E. Bourne. 

No one having received a majority for the eighth member of the council, it 
was voted that the secretary of the association be instructed by unanimous 
consent to cast the ballot of the association for that one of the three nominees 
who had received the highest vote. 

The ballot of the association was accordingly cast for Mr. Charles Moore, 
and he was declared duly elected. 

The meeting th,en adjourned* 

WALDO G. LELAND, Secretary. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 69 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY TO THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL 

ASSOCIATION. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO, December 28, 1916. 

1. Mem'bersMp. The member ship of the association on December 19, 1916, 
stood at 2,739 a lower figure than in several years The net loss of members 
during the year has been 187, as compared with the net gain last year of 13. 
There are 117 life members, 2,388 annual members, and 234 institutions. The 
total number of members admitted during the year has been 244, as compared 
with 290 during 1915. The losses have been as follows: By death, 40; by 
resignation, 118; dropped for nonpayment of dues, 273. The number of 
members whose dues are paid to date is 2,378 a larger number than at any 
time since 1913. The total number of delinquents is 361, which is the smallest 
number of delinquents at the time of the annual meeting in the last five years. 

It will be noted that the decrease in membership is more apparent than real. 
It is due mainly to the operation of the rule which was adopted at the last 
annual meeting and which provided that members whose dues remained unpaid 
on June 1st should no longer be carried on the roll. This has served to weed 
out a considerable number of members who were being carried on the roll 
though their dues had not been paid for a considerable period. The associa- 
tion must expect each year to lose between 200 and 300 members, and this loss 
is normally more than made up by the addition of new members. I wish to 
emphasize the importance of this matter of the welfare of the association. 
Experience has shown that the most effective way of securing new members 
is through the efforts on the part of those who are already members. 

2. Publications. A year ago the functions of editor were transferred from 
the office of the secretary to the chairman of the committee on publications. 
The present arrangement leaves to the secretary the collection of the material 
for the annual report and the preparation of the proceedings of the meeting. 
All other work, editorial and otherwise, is performed by the chairman of the 
committee on publications, who has during the past year devoted a large 
amount of his time to the arduous labors that have devolved upon him. 

The need of a list of members, or, better still, a quarterly bulletin which 
would include such a list, is more and more felt not only by the office of the 
secretary but by the members of the association in general. The last list 
was published in 1911 and is now, oi course, hopelessly out of date. The list 
of members of this association is practically a directory of the historical 
profession in America and is considerably in demand by members of that pro- 
fession. The continued failure to publish a list will inevitably result in con- 
siderable detriment to the association. 

3. Expenditures. The expenditures of the oflices of the secretary and treas- 
urer for last year are set forth in the treasurer's report and need not be 
repeated here. It should be noted, however, that the totals given in that report 
are very much increased by the fact that the annual meeting last year, which 
was held in Washington, made it necessary to charge against those offices 
a number of expenditures which ordinarily would not have been charged 
against them. An appropriation of $1,600 is asked for next year, which 
probably represents the normal needs of the two offices. 

4. Invitations. During the year invitations have been received to be repre- 
sented by delegates at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Political 
and Social Science, at the meeting of the League to Enforce Peace, at the 
American Congress of Bibliography and History at Buenos Aires in July, at the 
celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of 



70 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Newark, and at the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the 
founding of Rutgers College. The president, acting under authority conferred 
upon him by the council, appointed Mr. William Roscoe Thayer as delegate to 
the Rutgers celebration; Prof. Herman V. Ames, Prof. William I. Hull, and 
Prof. Robert M. McElroy as delegates to the meeting of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science ; and r*rof . William M. Sloane as delegate to the 
Newark celebration. Unfortunately it was impossible to find anyone who could 
attend the congress at Buenos Aires, but an official letter of greeting and con- 
gratulation was sent to the secretary of the congress on behalf of the asso- 
ciation. 

5. Doubtful enterprises. The secretary feels constrained to issue a warn- 
ing with regard to certain organizations styling themselves historical societies 
which have taken names closely resembling that of our association, but the pur- 
poses of which appear to be purely commercial. Numbers of people throughout 
the country have been led to confound those organizations with the American 
Historical Association, and it is desirable that everywhere members of the his- 
torical profession should be on their guard and should warn others. 

6. Deaths. During the year the association has lost by death some of its most 
distinguished and active members. The list is as follows : 

Joseph Anderson, James B Angell, Ferdinand Berger, Oliver W. Best, 
Francis E. Blake, James B. Book, John B. Cannon, Adolpho P. Garranza, Charles 
H Conover, Junius Davis, Henry S. Dean, W. J. De Renne, Russell S. Devol, 
Jeptha Garrard, Ernest F Gay, Clayton C. Hall, Richard Hudson, Elizabeth 
Hughes, Edson Jones, James M. Lamberton, George T. Little, Seth Low, Arthur 
T. Lyman, John James McCook, Mrs Donald McLean, William N. Merriam, 
Anson D. Morse, Clarence S. Paine, Samuel W. Pennypacker, John A. Patten, 
William B. Rawle, William Savidge, Charles E. Slocum, Elliott T. Slocum, Mary 
Elsie Thalheimer, Francis McGee Thompson, Mrs Herbert Tuttle, Mrs. Ellen 
H. Walworth, William T. White, William C. Wilcox. 

The family of Ex-President Angell have requested the secretary to express to 
the association their appreciation of the letters of sympathy which were wnt to 
them at the time of President Angell's death. 

7. Registration. The registration at the present meeting now stands at 
290. Last year 403 registered at the Washington meeting and 400 members reg- 
istered in Chicago. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. G. LELAND, Secretary, 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

Balance on hand, Dec. 21, 1915 $2,654.08 

Receipts to date: 

Annual dues - $7, 825. 79 

Life membership dues 50, 00 

Dividend on bank stock 200.00 

Interest on bond and mortgage ,_ 900* 00 

Loan, C. W. Bowen 1,000,00 

Publications- 
Prize essays $404. 73 

Papers and reports 63.05 

Writings on American history 44. 50 

Church history papers .- 1.00 

Royalties 202. 64 

Miscellaneous .80 

716. 72 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING* 71 

Eeceipts to date Continued. 
Rebates 

Committee on local arrangement 17.30 

Offices of secretary and treasurer 39 91 

Committee on history in schools 10 00 

$67 21 

Gift for London headquarters 150 00 

Miscellaneous 8. 90 

$10, 918. 62 



Total receipts to date _ 13, 572. 70 

Total disbursements to date 10,353.06 



Balance on hand, Dec. 19, 1916 P 3, 219. 64 

DISBURSEMENTS, DEC. 21, 1915, TO DEC. 19, 1916. 

Expense of administration: 
Secretary and treasurer 

Salary of assistant $520. 00 

Additional assistance and services of all kinds 120 40 

Postage 117. 17 

Telegrams, messenger service, express, money or- 
ders, fees, notary fees 28 29 

Stationery and supplies 190 66 

Furnishings 118. 75 

Printing and duplicating 241 45 

Lantern slides, prints, etc., for National Archive 

meeting, December, 1915 153 75 

Miscellaneous 9 20 

1,499.67 

Special account: 

Secretary and treasurer 

Salary of assistant $375 00 

Additional assistance and services of all kinds 115 85 

Postage 179. 11 

Telegrams messenger service, express money- 
order fees, notary fees 20. 26 

Stationery and supplies 12 22 

Printing and duplicating 11 00 

713. 44 

Payment of loan 1, 000. 00 

Secretary of the council: 

Printing 9. 25 

Stationery 12. 39 

21.64 

Executive council : 

Reporting council meetings of Dec. 27 and 28, 1915 69. 45 

Printing 25. 00 

Expense incurred in travel to attend meeting of coun- 
cil of Dec. 2, 1916 

G. S. Ford 75.20 

E. B. Greene 53 00 

S B Harding 52.52 

W. G. Leland 12.67 

U. B. Phillips 18.90 

C. H. Hasldns 10. 50 

J. F. Jameson 6.31 

323. 55 

Committee on nominations: 

Telegrams 17. 60 

Printing 7. 40 

25.00 



72 AMEBICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Miscellaneous expenses * 

Secretary and treasurer 

Auditing treasurer's report $20 00 

Postage 17 40 

Express, messenger service, money-order fees 1. 88 

Supplies 3 00 

Life membership certificate . 75 

Collection charges 10 03 

Pacific coast branch: 

Postage, express, printing, services 24 65 

Committee on nominations, 1915, printing 21. 10 

Committee on nominations, 1916, printing 15, 00 

Committee on bibliography, printing and binding 24 93 

Adams prize committee, express 4 28 

$143. 02 

Annual meetings: 

Committee on program, 1915, printing 19, 10 

Committee on program, 1916 

Services 13. 45 

Postage 35. 00 

Stationery 8.72 

Conference of historical societies 

Telegrams and postage 2 22 

Printing and duplicating 8. 50 

86. 99 

Publications : 

Committee on publications 

Printing and binding 612 03 

Wrapping and mailing 14. 07 

Postage and express 46 86 

Storage and insurance 95 18 

Advertising 17.75 

Stationery 3 72 

Editorial work 95 55 

885.16 

American Historical Review 4, 504. 00 

Standing committees : 

Public archives commission 

Postage and express 3 86 

Services 6. 00 

Stationery 5. 62 

Expense of preparing report on California archives 50. 00 

Expense of preparing report on Vermont archives-. 5. 32 

General committee 

Postage and services 23.04 

Stationery 28. 28 

Printing 20. 00 

Committee on bibliography 

Stationery 6. 19 

Printing and binding 18 81 

Committee on history in schools 

Stationery 6. 19 

Services _ 0,50 

182. 81 

Prizes and subventions 

Winsor prize committee- 
Stationery 3, 72 

Printing 5. 50 

Amount of prize after deductions 136. 20 

Writings on American history Appropriations for 1916 200, 00 

History Teacher's MagazineAppropriation for 1916- 400. 00 

745. 42 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 73 

Expenses of committee of nine : 

Printing $28. 00 

Expense incurred in attending meeting o committee 
of nine, Oct 9 and 10, 1915 

W G. Leland IS. GO 

I. J. Cox 43.61 

A. O. McLaughlm 61 20 

W. T Root 6S 95 

$222. 36 



10, 353. 06 

Net receipts, 1916 9, 918 62 

Net disbursements, 1916 I_I_I 9, 353. 06 



Excess of receipts over disbursements 565. 56 



The assets of the association are: 

Bond and mortgage on real estate at No. 24 East Ninety-fifth 

Street, New York, N. Y 20, 000. 00 

Accrued interest on above from Sept 29 to Dec 19, 1916 201. 87 

20 shares American Exchange National Bank stock, at $230 4, 600. 00 

Cash on hand 3, 219 64 



28, 021. 51 
Assets at last annual report 27,062.15 



An increase during the year of 959 36 



Among the assets of the association should be included : 

Publications m stock, estimate 5,800.00 

Furniture, office equipment, etc,, estimate 250 00 



6, 050 00 
REPORT OF THE AUDIT CO. OF AMERICA 

CLARENCE W. BOWEN, Esq, 

Treasurer of American Historical Association, 

5 East Sixty-third Street, New York City. 

SIB: In accordance with your request we have examined the books and 
records of your association from December 21, 1915, to December 19, 1916, in 
so far as they relate to your cash receipts and disbursements, and the assets 
on hand, for the purpose of determining the accuracy of the transactions for 
the period under review. The result of our examination is set forth in the 
following exhibits: 

Exhibit A: Comparative statement of financial condition for the years 1914, 
1915, 1916. 

Exhibit B : Condensed statement of income and expenditures from December 
21, 1915, to December 19, 1916. 

Commentary The cash receipts were verified and were found to have been 
deposited in the bank. The cash disbursements were all verified with properly 
approved and receipted vouchers. The balance on deposit in the National Park 
Bank was reconciled with the balance as shown by your check book and as. 
contained in Exhibit A The bond and mortgage on real estate, together with 
all necessary papers connected therewith, were found to be on deposit with 
the Union Trust Co. of New York, Fifth Avenue and Sixtieth Street, and were 
examined. Two stock certificates of the American Exchange National Bank, 
of 10 shares each, were also on deposit with the Union Trust Co. and were 
shown to us. The items of "Publications in stock" and "Furniture and 
office equipment " are shown as valued by you in your statement of assets. All 



74 



AMEEICAK HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 



of the books and records submitted for our examination were complete and 
in excellent order. 

Certification: We take pleasure in certifying that the statement of the 
treasurer showing the cash receipts and disbursements is in agreement with 
the books and records of the association, and m our opinion represents a true 
and correct accounting therefor. We also certify that the attached exhibits 
represent the true financial condition of the association as at December 19, 
1916, and the true income for the period December 21, 1915. to December 19, 
1916, with such qualifications as are contained in the body of this text. 

Respectfully submitted, 

THE AUDIT COMPANY OF AMERICA, 

MITCHELL LEVENTHAL, 

Supervising Accountant 
NEW YOEK, December 26, 1916. 

EXHIBIT A. 

Comparative statement of financial condition, 1914, 1915, 1916, American His- 

toncal Association, 



Assets 


Dec 19, 
1916. 


Dec 21, 
1915 


Dec. 23, 
1914. 


Bond and mortgage on real estate 24 East Ninety-fifth Street, New 
York 


$20,000.00 


$20,000 00 


$20.000,00 


Accrued interest on above from Sept 29 


201. 87 


208 07 


214. 52 


Bank stock 20 snares, American li/xchange National Bank. . .... 


4, 600, 00 


4,200.00 


4,200.00 


Cash, in bank, National Park Bank 


3.219 64 


2,654 08 


2,382.96 


Publications in stock estimated valuation 


5 800 00 


5, 800. 00 


5,800 00 


Furniture office equipment, etc ... 


250 00 


250 00 


250.00 










Total assets . .. ... 


34,071 51 


33,H2.15 


32, 847. 48 











EXHIBIT B 

Condensed statement of income and expenditures, Dec. 21, 1915, to Dec. 19 t 
1916, American Historical Association, 



Analysis 


Items 


Items 


Totals. 


INCOME. 

Dues 




$7,875 79 




Investments 
Interest on mortgage ($20.000, at 44 per cent) ... 


l $893 80 






Dividend (5 per cent, 20 snares American Exchange National Banlc) , . 


200 00 


3AOO Qf\ 




Publications 




716 72 




Miscellaneous 




226. 11 












Total mrorae 






$9 912 42 


EXPENDITURES 

Administrative 




2 012 88 




Annual meetings 




' 86.99 




Publications 




885 16 




American Historical Review 




4 504,00 




Standing committees , ..,.. 




182 81 




Prizes and subventions 




745 42 




finmTrnttftft nf njtfi T . TT ... , . miJ ,, .^ L 




222 36 




Special account 




713 44 












Total expenditures , 






9 353 05 


Netincome 






559 3d 


Appreciation in market value of securities 






400 00 










Total increase 






959 36 











*The auditors included only earned interest to Dec. 19, whereas the treasurer's re- 
port includes interest m elved. That accounts for the discrepancy of $6 20 between the 
total income as indicated in the former and the total income as Indicated In the latter. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING* 75 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE COUNCIL. 

DECEMBEB 28, 1916. 
The American Historical Association. 

GENTLEMEN: The formal business of the executive council has been trans- 
acted this year at two meetings, the first held as usual in New York on the 
Saturday following Thanksgiving Day and the second at Cincinnati on Wednes- 
day, December 27. 

At the New York meeting a considerable portion of the time was required 
for the reception and consideration of reports from the various committees. 
In the past such reports have also been presented orally to the association at 
its annual meeting. By vote of the association last year, however, the pre- 
sentation of these reports at the annual meeting is now limited to those specifi- 
cally Directed by the council or specifically called for by 10 members of the 
association. In consequence of this change in practice, it becomes necessary 
to extend the scope of this report in order to indicate some of the more im- 
portant activities of the various committees. In view, however, of the crowded 
condition of the docket this survey will be made as brief as possible. 

The Historical Manuscripts Commission has had in hand the preparation for 
the press of the R. M. T. Hunter papers, which have been collected and edited 
by Prof. C H Ambler, and which it is proposed to include in the annual report 
of the association for 1916. The commission is now planning, with the ap- 
proval of the council, a systematic effort to draw out the manuscripts of the 
American Revolution now in private hands. In the carrying out of these plans 
the commission is depending largely on the cooperation of the patriotic societies 
formed to commemorate the achievements of the Revolutionary generation. 
In some instances definite assurances of such cooperation have already been 
given, and there is every reason to expect an equally cordial response else- 
where. In this connection I desire, on behalf of the council, to acknowledge 
the generosity of Mr. Justin H. Smith, of Boston, a member of this commission, 
who has contributed $150 for the furtherance of its work. 

One of the oldest and most useful of our committees is the Public Archives 
Commission. By the publication of a series of reports on the archives of the 
several States the commission has not only furnished information to students 
but has stimulated to a marked degree public interest in the more adequate 
care and more effective organization of State records. The last of these reports 
are those on California and Vermont, which are to be included in the published 
report of the commission in 1915. The commission has also taken an active 
part in the movement for a Federal archives building in Washington, but its 
chief present undertaking is the preparation of a manual for archivists or 
" Primer of archival economy." It is expected that this manual will be ready 
for the press by the close of the present year. 

Of the prize committees, that on the Adams prize has had no award to 
make this year. The award of the Winsor prize will be announced by the 
chairman of that committee. At the New York meeting the council con- 
sidered an interesting proposal from the publications committee looking to- 
ward a radically different use of the funds now set apart for these two 
prizes, with a view to stimulating productive scholarship in some other form 
than that of the doctoral dissertations to which these prizes have for the 
most part been awarded. The proposal was laid over for consideration at the 
November meeting of 1917. The chairman of the publications committee was 
also able to report a marked improvement in the format of the prize essays, 
as illustrated in the new volume by Mr. T. C. Pease on the Leveller Move- 
ment. 



76 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The committee on bibliography, which for several years rendered such ex- 
cellent service under the chairmanship of Mr. Richardson, is now much 
cramped by lack of funds. There are two enterprises now taking definite 
form under the directions of this committee, one a bibliography of American 
travel, in the special charge of Mr. B. G. Sterner, and the other a list 'of his- 
torical serials in preparation by Mr. Shearer. In close relation to the work 
of the committee on bibliography is the publication of the "Writings on 
American history," whose continuation has been made possible largely through 
the public spirit of the Yale University Press. The council has authorized 
a continuance of the association subsidy for the coming year to the amount 
of $200. 

The index of the papers and reports of the association, which has been pre- 
pared by Mr. D. M. Matteson, is now approaching completion, and is expected 
to go to press in 1917. The appropriation for this purpose has made 4ifficult 
demands on the budget of the association, but the work when completed will 
add immensely to the usefulness of our publications. 

The European war has naturally interfered seriously with the cooperation 
of historical scholars and continues to prevent progress on the " Bibliography 
of modern English history." It is a pleasure, however, to be able to record 
that through the generosity of Mr. Dwight W. Morrow, of New York, the 
association will be able to continue its grant to the London headquarters. 

The association has always recognized its responsibility for advancing the 
standard not only of historical scholarship but of historical teaching. Tangi- 
ble results of this interest have appeared m the well-known reports of the 
committee of five, the committee of seven, and the committee of eight, deal- 
ing with the problems of secondary and elementary schools. Two years ago 
a new standing committee on "history in schools" was organized The im- 
mediate impulse for this action came from a request of the college entrance 
examination board for a more exact definition of the requirements in various 
fields of history. The committee has interpreted its functions broadly, and is 
now hard at work on the preparation of an outline to which contributions 
have been made by teachers in all sections of the country. 

It will be generally recognized that one of the most effective agencies now 
at work for the guidance and stimulus of teachers is the History Teacher's 
Magazine, edited by Mr. A, B. McKmley, and supervised, for this association, 
by a board of advisory editors. The magazine has now received for several 
years a subsidy of $400 from the association, in consideration of which mem- 
bers of the association have been entitled to receive a reduction of $1 in the 
subscription price. During the past year there has been a highly encourag- 
ing increase in the subscription list, with the prospect that the magazine may 
in the near future become definitely self-supporting. For the coming year the 
council has voted to grant the reduced subsidy of $200. 

The importance of the work represented by the committee on history in 
schools and the History Teacher's Magazine is just now emphasized by the 
publication of a report by a committee of the National Education Association 
proposing a radical reconstruction of the elementary and secondary school 
programs in the social sciences. The whole position of history as a school 
subject may be vitally affected, for better or for worse, by the extent to 
which the historical scholarship of the country, as represented by this asso- 
ciation, can be effectively brought to bear on these educational problems, 

The action taken by the council at its formal meetings are set forth In the 
printed minutes, including the committee assignments and the estimate of Ex- 
penditures for 1917. Attention is called to the votes taken in connection with 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 77 

the budget, empowering the council committee on finance to authorize transfers 
from one item of the budget to another and excluding all changes without such 
authority. This arrangement makes possible a certain flexibility which is 
quite essential, and at the same time provides an orderly method of securing 
that result. The council has under consideration various plans for increasing 
the resources of the association, but at present is able to make no definite re- 
port except as to one or two details which will be noted below. 

Considerable attention has been given to the problem of securing a more 
effective organization of council business, including the formation of certain 
standing committees to relieve the council meetings of unnecessary detail and 
provide for urgent matters arising in the intervals between council meetings. 
The nucleus of such an organization already exists in the council committees 
on finance and on appointments. A careful memoir on this subject has been 
prepared by the secretary of the association and will be discussed at a meeting 
of the council this week. 

Two years ago the Conference of Historical Societies requested the council to 
provide for a systematic survey of historical agencies, including a continuation of 
the Bibliography of American Historical Societies published by the association 
in the annual report of 1905. As indicated in the minutes, the council has been 
enabled, through the generous cooperation of the Newberry Library of Chicago, 
to take steps toward the proposed continuation of the bibliography to 1915. 
There is also under consideration a plan for the issue of a handbook of his- 
torical agencies. 

The council presents the following recommendations for adoption by the 
association:* 

1. That in acceptance of an invitation received from the University of Penn- 
sylvania the annual meeting of the association for 1917 be held m Philadelphia. 

2 That at future meetings of the association, beginning with 1917, a registra- 
tion fee of 50 cents be charged to cover the charges incurred by the association 
in connection with such annual meetings. 

3, That the following action be taken respecting the organization of the Con- 
ference of Historical Societies : 

(1) That the Conference of Historical Societies be recognized as a semi- 
independent organization under the auspices of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation. 

(2) That its secretary be appointed by the council of the association and 
have the rank and functions of a committee chairman, reporting annually to the 
association. 

(3) That the conference appoint such other officers and committees as it 
may find expedient. 

(4) That the conference be supported by an annual assessment upon each 
society that becomes a member of it/; such assessments to be upon the basis of 
1 cent for each member of such societies, but no society to be assessed more 
than $10 nor less than 25 cents ; commissions, State departments, surveys; etc., 
not organized as societies to pay an annual fee of $5. 

(5) That the conference have control of its own funds, but shall furnish 
an annual report of its expenditures and receipts to the association. 

(6) That the chairman of its program committee, or such officer as may be 
charged with the preparation of its program, shall be ex officio a member of 
the program committee of the association. 

(7) That the conference prepare, as soon as possible after the annual meet- 
ing of each year, a report of its proceedings, together with such bibliographical 
and statistical information as it may collect. 

(8) That all publications of the conference be passed upon by the asso- 
ciation's committee on publications and be issued under the auspices of the 
association. 

(9) That, finally, an appropriation of $50 for 1917 be made for the incidental 
expenses connected with the reorganization of the conference. (Such an item 
was included in the budget for 1917.) 



78 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Conference of Historical Societies was first held, in accordance with a 
vote of the executive council, at the meeting of the association in Chicago in 
1904, and has since been a regular feature of the annual program. Its relations 
with the association have never been clearly defined and the resolutions now 
reported were adopted on the recommendation of a committee consisting of 
the secretary of the association and the secretary of the conference as the 
result of their experience with the work of the conference. 

4. That the terms of office of the officers of the association and of the mem 
bers of the executive council chosen at any given annual meeting be for the 
year terminating with the close of the next annual business meeting of the 
association. 

The following vote was adopted by the council : 

Resolved, That the executive council report to the association that, in view 
of the desirability of a quarterly bulletin, the council is prepared to proceed 
with this, provided it may be done without involving an excess of the associa- 
tion's expenditures over its revenues in the coming year. The council suggests 
that an immediate effort be made to raise for the purpose a guarantee fund 
of $300. 

A statement regarding this recommendation will be made by the secretary 
of the association. 
Respectfully submitted, 

EVAKTS B. GREENE, 
Secretary of the Council. 

REPORT OF THE DELEGATE OF THE PACIFIC COAST BRANCH. 

# 

The thirteenth annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American 
Historical Association was held in San Diego on Friday and Saturday, Decem- 
ber 1 and 2, 1916 With this session the branch reached the last important 
center of the Pacific coast proper, having previously met in San Francisco, 
Berkeley, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, and Stanford University. Considering 
the position of San Diego it is off the common routes of travel and over 18 
hours by the best trains from San Francisco the meeting was well attended 
and was certainly representative, there being present members from Portland, 
the universities of Oregon, Utah, Nevada, and California, the University of 
Southern California, Stanford University, and Pomona College, to mention but 
a few. 

As the branch serves a limited clientele, its members are thrown into a per- 
sonal touch which has developed a group spirit highly desirable In view of the 
scattered locations of western institutions and which makes the maintenance 
of the branch well worth while. ^ 

There were three literary sessions the general session, the organization 
session, and the teachers' session. The chief interest centered in the organiza- 
tions session, at which a report on "The work of the California Historical 
Survey Commission " was presented by Owen C. Coy, secretary and archivist of 
the commission. 

Prof. Henry Morse Stephens presided at the annual dinner, at which the 
president of the branch, Prof. Joseph Schafer, of the University of Oregon, 
read his stimulating address on "Historic ideals in recent politics." There 
were the usual after-dinner remarks by representatives of various Institutions 
and organizations. 

The annual business meeting, held on Saturday morning, heard and adopted 
the reports of the secretary and the various committees. The followling reso- 
lution deserves to be presented here: 

Resolved, That the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Associa- 
tion does hereby indorse the excellent work already accomplished and the plan 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 79 

of work outlined for the future by the California Historical Survey Commis- 
sion. 

Furthermore, that the association most earnestly urges the continued support 
of this great project for calendaring the scattered records of our history, and 
that the association impress upon the California public the fact that what has 
been done will never attain the good end desired unless, through the action of 
our legislature, provision be made to have the results of the survey commission's 
work published. 

Prof. Wier, of the University of Nevada, moved the appointment of a com- 
mittee to investigate the feasibility of preparing a bibliography of the history of 
the Pacific Coast States. The motion was carried, and the committee subse- 
quently appointed by the president was as follows : Prof. H. E Bolton, chair- 
man; Profs. H. Morse Stephens, Levi E, Young, Jeanne E. Wier, Edmond S. 
Meany, Rockwell D. Hunt, Mr. George H. Himes, and Father Joseph M. 
Gleason. 

The nominating committee, Prof. H. E. Bolton, chairman, proposed the fol- 
lowing names, which were approved by election President, Edward Krehbiel ; 
vice president, Levi E. Young , secretary-treasurer, William A. Morris ; council 
(in addition to above), Oliver H. Richardson, Tully C. Knoles, Allen M. Kline, 
Effie I. Hawkins. The council was instructed to select the place of the next 
session, and the undersigned was named delegate to the meeting of the parent 
association in Cincinnati. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EDWARD KREHBIEL, Delegate. 

REPORT OF THE HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS COMMISSION. 

The correspondence of Robert M. T. Hunter, collected and edited by Charles 
Henry Ambler, professor of history at Randolph-Macon College, Virginia, 
has been made ready for the press. This work was begun three years ago and 
is the twelfth report of the Historical Manuscripts' Commission, of which the 
members were Worthington C. Ford, chairman, Clarence W. Alvord, Herbert 
E. Bolton, Julian P. Bretz, Archer B. Hulbert, and William O. Scroggs. The 
enterprise goes to the credit of that commission and not to the commission 
which is now reporting. * 

At the meeting of the council of the association last December it was thought 
that the Hunter correspondence might become a part of the publications of 
the proceedings for 1915; but, as that seems to be impossible, it is now sub- 
mitted, in the hope that the council will direct that it be printed as a part of 
the proceedings for 1916. 

The commission now lays before the council another project upon which it 
requests an expression of opinion. 

It has seemed to us that the association would be performing a service to 
historical science if at succeeded in drawing out from individual owners those 
documents which have historical value and which are now inaccessible. The 
owners whom we have in mind are not those collectors of autograph documents 
whose possessions are reasonably well known and are either accessible or 
inaccessible, according to the varying dispositions of the collectors, but the 
single documents, or small groups of documents, in the possession of the 
descendants of the man who wrote them. These descendants may have an 
Interest in history and a knowledge of it, or they may not have either. Their 
occupations and surroundings may be such that they are not brought into con- 
tact with the scholarly movements of the country. It has seemed to the com- 
mission that it would be an interesting experiment systematically to endeavor 
to ascertain what historical material now lies hidden in their hands. The 
experiment could best be begun, the commission thinks, with the descendants 



80 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

of the participants in the American Revolution, not only because of the im- 
portance of that period of our history, but because a large proportion of the 
descendants have organized themselves into associations for patriotic purposes 
and can be reached through their societies. Accordingly, the chairman of 
the commission communicated informally with James Mortimer Montgomery, 
president general of the Sons of the Revolution, to ascertain tentatively 
whether that organization felt disposed to lend its assistance in collecting 
historical documents Mr. Montgomery replied in favorable terms, and 
the secretary of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York, Mr. 
Henry Russell Browne, sent the chairman certain copies of letters and docu- 
ments, which he had received in reply to a circular which had been sent out 
by the society two years before in consequence of an effort of the War De- 
partment to obtain records of the Revolution. It should be said in passing 
that the plan of the War Department was abandoned, for want of sufficient 
funds to carry it out, and that its revival does not seem to be piobable; but, 
e\en if it should be revised, it would be limited to a publication of the mili- 
tary records of the Revolution. The papers which Mr. Drowne sent the chair- 
man of the commission included the following : 

An orderly book of Asahel Clark, ensign in the Continental Army, containing 
orders of Generals Putnam and Washington; John Paul Schott's account of 
his services in the Continental Army; a collection of Franklin, Genet, John 
Paul Jones, and of Revolutionary letters, in the possession of a banker in New 
York, who offered to allow copies to be made of them; letters of General 
Schuyler ; a diary of Captain John Barnard, Third Connecticut Regiment, 1780, 
along the Hudson River; an account, by J. F. Caldwell, of the killing of his 
mother by the British at Elizabethtown ; letters of Alexander Hamilton, as aide 
de camp, 1780; of General Washington, John Hancock, Aaron Burr, 1777, as 
aide de camp ; and " The Drowne Papers," letters dated 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 
and 1778, being Revolutionary material of unusual interest. 

These papers are from one society in one State. It seems certain that an 
appeal to the members of all the Revolutionary societies will result in a col- 
lection of documents having considerable historical value. The work of editing 
these papers could be done by this commission or by some one designated by 
the association. If the plan seems feasible to the council authority for the 
purpose of inviting the cooperation of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution 
and the Sons of the American Revolution is the only measure needed. 

If such authority is given it is suggested that a small appropriation be made 
to pay for copying the documents. Probably $150 would be sufficient. 

GAILLAUD HUNT, Chairman. 

JUSTIN H. SMITH. 

CHABUES H. AMBLES. 

M. M. QUAI:FE. 

REPORT OF THE PUBLIC ARCHIVES COMMISSION. 

[The complete report of the Public Archives Commission, with appendices, Is 
printed on pp. 133-209 of the present volume.] 

REPORT OF THE BOARD OF EDITORS OF THE AMEKIGAN HISTORI- 
CAL REVIEW. 

The board of editors of the Review beg leave to report to the association on 
the following five points: 

First. In accordance with the statement at the last annual meeting of its 
readiness to do anything in its power to meet the wishes of the association in 
regard to the vesting in the association of ownership and control of the 
Review, and at the request of the committee appointed to bring about such a 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 81 

transfer, the board laid before that committee suggestions for accomplishing 
the desired result Such points in these suggestions as commended themselves 
to that committee will doubtless be laid before the association in its report. 

Second. The board has discussed repeatedly, though without definite result, 
informal suggestions for the increase of the size of the Review, or for greater 
frequency of appearance, or other means of giving facilities for the publica- 
tion of more articles in the special field of European history. The board 
wishes hereby to express its entire sympathy with any plan to encourage the 
production and publication of scholarly articles in that field of history and 
its desire to be of service to that end At the same time, to prevent miscon- 
ception, it is well to mention that, on a computation covering the last 10 
years, more than half the contents of the Review has laid in the field of 
European history, less than half in that of American history. 

Third. The increased price of paper and expense of labor in printing the 
Review has prevented the accumulation of any surplus during the year. The 
board of editors has therefore found it impossible to make any payment to 
the association as has been done in recent years. 

Fourth. Communications made to the board seem to indicate that there is 
a somewhat prevalent impression that the editors do not desire articles pre- 
pared by comparatively young or unknown writers and prefer to publish 
articles by historians of established reputation. This is an entire misconcep- 
tion and not at all the policy of the editors of the Review. The managing 
editor and the other members of the board of editors are anxious to correct 
any such misapprehension. They welcome articles from any contributors, 
and, in deciding which articles should be published, the merits of articles are 
alone considered the age or youth of the contributor makes no difference. 

The same is true concerning the field of history. It has never been the 
practice of the board of editors to select articles from one field rather than 
another, and it is their desire to have all fields of history represented without 
discrimination. 

Fifth. The question of devoting more attention in the Review to the analysis 
or description of doctors' theses in history has been under consideration, but 
no practicable means of fulfillng this end in the Review has presented itself. 
This object, however, is understood to be in a fair way of being achieved by 
other means. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EDWAJRD P. CHEYNET, Chairman. 

REPORT OF THE ADVISORY BOARD OF EDITORS OF THE HISTORY 
TEACHER'S -MAGAZINE. 

In the report of the History Teacher's Magazine made to the council last 
year there was a slight note of discouragement. A net loss of eight subscrip- 
tions in the period from November 25, 1914, to November 10, 1915, seemed to 
indicate that the limit of circulation had been reached and that the existence 
of the magazine could be guaranteed only by a subsidy indefinitely continued 
or by a cut in the cost of production so substantial as to impair the usefulness 
of the magazine. Happily, that cloud has now been lifted. In the period from 
November 10, 1915, to November 9, 1916, the magazine fell short by only $19.92 
of being self-supporting The circulation increased from a total of 1,964 to a 
total of 3,263, and the receipts from a total of $4,400 32 to a total of $5,287,27. 
The net publisher's profits in 1915 were $340,53. For 1916 the net profits are 
$980.06, a gain of $639.53. 
23318 19 6 



82 AMEKICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The magazine could, therefore, apparently continue publication without any 
subsidy whatever. It does not, however, seem either wise or just to withdraw 
at this time all outside support. Dr. McKinley conducted the magazine for 
some time at a financial loss, and since the renewal of publication has rendered 
a service to the cause of history teaching far beyond his annual allowance of 
$600. It is doubtful if any other man in the country of equal ability could 
have been prevailed upon to give the time and energy which Dr. McKinley has 
given. He himself has not complained, but to those of us who are aware of 
the sacrifices which he has made, it seems a fair arrangement to continue in 
part existing subsidies. 

There is every reason to expect that the Association of History Teachers of 
the Middle States and Maryland and the New England History Teachers' Asso- 
ciation will each appropriate, as heretofore, $100. If the American Historical 
Association can appropriate $200 it will be entirely safe to drop altogether the 
individual guarantee fund. This would mean a reduction of $600 in the total 
of existing subsidies, an amount, it will be observed, about equal to the gain 
in the earning power of the magazine during the current year In making the 
request for an appropriation of $200 from the American Historical Association 
it is proper to state that 668 members of this association are at present receiv- 
ing the magazine at the reduced rate of $1 per annum. 

The only change in editorial policy to be reported at this time is a larger 
recognition of the elementary field and of the new junior high school. It is 
hoped early in 1917 to begin publication of a series of 14 articles dealing 
specifically with the problems, materials, and methods of teaching adapted to 
these stages of instruction The articles are to be contributed by the chairman 
of this committee. 

A detailed statement of receipts, expenditures, and subscriptions is appended 
to this report. 

Respectfully submitted, HENBY JoHNSON) chairman. 

NOVEMBER 29, 1916 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE. 

Receipts Nov. 10, 1915, to Nov 9 5 1916 : 
Subscriptions 

789 at $2.00 $1, 578. 00 

587 at $1.70 997 90 

1,175 at $1 00 1, 175. 00 

9 at sundry 16.58 

$3, 767. 48 

Advertising 391. 80 

Sundries (back numbers, etc.) '_, 128.49 

American Historical Association appropriation 400. 00 

Guarantee fund (individual) 400.00 

Middle States Association 100. 00 

New England Association 100. 00 



Total receipts 5, 287. 27 

Total expenses ~ ... 4, 307. 21 



Balance 980. 06 

Expenditures Nov. 10, 1915, to Nov. 9, 1916: 

Printing and mailing magazine _. 2,146.55 

Printing circulars, etc 218. 00 

Clerical help, postage, books, sundries, mailing machine 682. 66 

Advertising 200. 00 

Editorial expense for contributions 460.00 

A. E McKinley 600.00 



Total expenses . . 4307. 21 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 



83 



CIRCULATION STATEMENT OF THE HISTOEY TEACHEB'S MAGAZINE. 

Subscription list: 
Subscriptions 

At $2 00 _ $1, 065 

At $1.70 I 720 

At $1.00 1, 312 

Total paid subscriptions 3, 007 $3, 09? 

Guarantors 77 

Exchanges, etc 89 

Total mailing list 3, 263* 

jeQspirals: 

Of the paid subscribers there are arrearages of 

$2 00 subscriptions 420 

$1.70 subscriptions III, 176 

$1.00 subscriptions ^ 291 

887 

$2 00 

3 months arrears 327 

2 months arrears 72 

1 month arrears 21 

$1.70 

3 months arrears 93 

2 months arrears 53 

1 month arrears 30 

$1.00 

3 months arrears 162 

2 months arrears 82 

1 month arrears 47 

Membership subscriptions : 

Members of American Historical Association 668 

Members of other history or teachers' associations 644 

CIRCULATION OF THE HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE BY STATES. 



State. 



Number 

of 

subscrip- 
tions. 



State 



Number 

of 

subscrip- 
tions 



New York 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania.. 

California 

Massachusetts. . 

Ohio 

Missouri 

Michigan 

New Jersey 

Texas 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota , 

Iowa 

Washington.... 

Kansas 

Indiana..... ... 

Nebraska. . ., 

Connecticut 

Maryland 

Colorado 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

Oregon 

Kentucky 

Oklahoma.. ... 



258 
231 
196 
180 
175 
168 
154 
128 
123 
123 
120 
116 



Georgia 

North Carolina 

New Hampshire 

Alabama 

South Dakota 

Maine 

Louisiana 

West Virginia 

South Carolina 

North Dakota 

Mississippi 

District of Columbia. 

Montana 

Florida 

Idaho 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

Arkansas 

Utah 

Wyoming 

Nevada 

Arizona., 

Delaware 

New Mexico 

Foreign 



32 
32 
31 
25 
26 
26 
25 
19 
18 
18 
18 
17 
17 
16 
16 
14 
12 
11 
1) 
9 



4 
2 
30 



84 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The appropriation for the committee for the past year was $25, which has 
permitted no expenditure beyond the cost of the necessary stationery and corre- 
spondence. 

Each of the members of the committee has been personally interested in the 
work of historical bibliography and at the beginning of the year was engaged in 
some specific task m that line During the year each has made some progress 
with his undertaking At the beginning of the year no one had his particular 
piece of work sufficiently advanced to consider publication, even had the appro- 
* priation for the committee permitted it. During the year two members of the 
committee have advanced their work so that the problem of publication should 
be met in the coming year. The work of the several members of the committee 
will now be described, following an alphabetical order. 

Prof. Laprade has for some time been engaged on a bibliography of English 
publications from about 1770 to about 1806, the period of the American War for 
Independence and of the early years of the United States. At least two other 
members of the committee are also interested to some extent in this field of 
work, and no doubt will be able to cooperate with Prof. Laprade if his work 
should develop in such a way as to make it desirable for the committee to 
undertake its publication at some future date. 

Prof. Lybyer has likewise been engaged for a considerable time on a bibli- 
ography of the history of the Ottoman Empire, on which he is making steady 
progress. While this work is, perhaps, likely to be published under other 
auspices than this committee, its importance must not be overlooked. 

Prof. Lybyer has also outlined a plan for a comprehensive bibliography of 
the present great war, a copy of which is appended to this report. There are 
very strong reasons which may be advanced for the desirability of such an 
undertaking, which would req[uire a considerable amount of funds and much 
work for its completion. More or less satisfactory lists of publications in 
England, France, and Germany have appeared or are in process of publication. 
A comprehensive publication would combine all these, supplement them in their 
own field, and then, what is more important, add the works in other European 
languages, for which proper bibliographical aids are not available. Prof, 
Lybyer argues rightly that the very best time to begin the work on such an 
enterprise is the present. The first installment of the work would include 
publications to the end of 1915, and additional parts would cover successive 
later periods of publication. The committee on bibligraphy can not consider 
this undertaking unless adequate funds can be placed at its disposal, but if 
such funds were forthcoming the committee would stand ready to organize the 
project. 

Prof. Notestein is interested in a bibliography of English parliamentary 
materials, 1603-1689, which would not be without value to the students of 
American history. 

Prof. Rockwell has published in the course of the year a "List of Books on 
the Assyrian or Nestorian Christian " as Appendix A to his pamphlet on " The 
Pitiful Plight of The Assyrian Christians in Persia and Kurdistan " (New York, 
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, 1916, pp. 62-66), and 
Armenia A List of Books and Articles, With Annotations" (ibid., pp. 8), 
which may be mentioned as the work of a member of the committee, though not 
published under the auspices of the committee. 

Prof. Rockwell also has in press a list of books on the German Reformation 
which he has prepared in association with Mr. G. L. Kieffer and Mr. 0. H. 
Pankokee in view of the Cfuadricentennial of the Reformation, in 1917. 



THIRTY-SECOND AISTKTTAL MEETING. 85 

Prof. Rockwell has long been interested in the bibliography of American 
church history. The late Prof. Samuel Macauley Jackson published, in the 
twelfth volume of the American Church History Series (New York, 1894), 
"A Bibliography of American Church History, 1820-1893" (pp. 441-513). This 
was a select bibliography, and a considerable number of additional slips pre- 
pared by Prof. Jackson is now the property of Union Theological Seminary. 
Prof. Rockwell suggests three undertakings in this connection : First, the publi- 
cation of a supplement of Prof. Jackson's work for later publications, which 
might bear some such title as "Bibliography of American Church History, 
1893-1918 " ; the second is the completion of Prof Jackson's work for the period 
1820-1893 ; the third is the extension of the work backward to cover the period 
prior to 1820. Prof Rockwell suggests that the celebration in 1920 of the 
tercentenary of the landing of the Pilgrims might fittingly be commemorated 
by the publication of a complete " Bibliography of American Church History, 
1620-1920." Such an enterprise is certainly commendable and might well be 
accomplished through the cooperation of this committee with the American 
Church History Society and other organizations It is to be hoped that genuine 
progress on this undertaking may be reported a year hence. 

Mr. Slade, of the Library of Congress, is making a study of the sources for 
the debates in the First Congress. 

Dr. Shearer, who has been a member of the committee for some time, was 
engaged under the former chairman of this committee in cooperation with 
another former member of the committee in the preparation of a bibliography 
and location list of historical periodicals Dr. Shearer was assigned the section 
on American periodicals, while the other section was assigned to his co-worker. 
Dr. Shearer has practically completed his part of the undertaking and is pre- 
pared to publish it in cooperation with the other two persons concerned if 
that should still find favor, or perhaps, with the generous assistance of the 
Newberry Library, of whose staff he is a member. The present committee has 
been ready to welcome the cooperation of all former members and has been 
ready to cooperate in every practicable way in any effort to advance research 
and publication in the field of historical bibliography. The matter of giving 
credit to the committee on bibliography for any specific piece of publication is 
of trivial account provided useful work gets done and published. Dr. Shearer 
will present at the Cincinnati meeting a paper on "American historical periodi- 
cals," which will show some of the results of his work. The chairman of the 
committee wishes to express his appreciation of the generous spirit displayed 
by Dr. Shearer in the somewhat difficult situation which has developed with 
regard to his work. 

Dr. Steiner has in hand the bibliography of American travel, which was 
transferred from a special committee to this committee some years since. 
He and Mr. Louis H. Dielman have secured from the Library of Congress a 
complete set of its cards relating to the subject, and also have arranged with 
the Library of Congress for the printing of a considerable number of addi- 
tional cards for titles in other libraries. They have also included all titles 
from their own libraries, the Peabody Institute, and the Pratt Library in 
Baltimore, and have added other titles from second-hand catalogues and 
other sources. Dr. Steiner and Mr. Dielman feel that the time has come to 
print a title-a-line list for circulation to other libraries to secure the addition 
of other titles, and possibly information of the location of copies, especially 
of the rarer works, in the various libraries. The chairman and Dr. Steiner 
are investigating methods and costs for such publication. On the basis of a 
rough estimate, the chairman included in his report to the council of the as- 
sociation at the Thanksgiving meeting a request for the appropriation of $500 



86 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

to cover the cost of the necessary clerical work in preparation of material 
and for the printing of such a preliminary list. Unless the council is able 
to provide such an appropriation, it seems that an effort to obtain the needed 
funds from private subscription should be made. Further delay in this under- 
taking is undesirable in itself, and, furthermore, this project should be com- 
pleted as soon as possible, so as to give right of way to other projects, such 
as the ones suggested by the several members of the committee, especially 
the one proposed by Prof. Rockwell. 

The chairman of the committee has for some years contributed certain 
bibliographical notes to the quarterly issues of the American Historical Re- 
view, and his humble bibliographical contributions have thus been published 
during the past year. 

The chairman wishes to express his appreciation of the work done by the 
other members of the committee during the year, and to express his hope 
that the day is not far distant when the American Historical Association will 
be able to place at the disposal of this committee, in common with others, a 
reasonable annual appropriation which should afford to workers in historical 
bibliography the encouragement and incentive of a suitable channel for pub- 
lication. 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEOKGE M. DUTCHER, Chairman. 

PEOJECT FOB A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GEEAT WAE. 

Inasmuch as an immense amount of material on the great war, in many 
languages, is appearing and will continue to appear, a great deal of which, 
while possessing much value, is in small editions and unbound, and whereas 
the one nation which is at the same time great, wealthy, intellectually active, 
and neutral would seem to be best suited to sustain such a project, it is pro- 
posed that the committee on bibliography of the American Historical Association 
undertake the task of preparing as complete as practicable a bibliography of the 
great war. 

The following general plan is suggested : 

1. The bibliography shall contain all ascertainable separately printed pieces 
of material books, booklets, pamphlets which are produced in connection with 
thj war. 

2. Only such newspapers and periodicals shall be included as grow directly 
out of the war, and these shall not be analyzed. The classification of general 
periodical articles and reviews shall not be attempted. 

3. The languages included shall be English, French, German, Italian, Rus- 
sian, and possibly all other European languages. It may be desirable, further- 
more, to prepare separate annexes (which would probably in no case be very 
large) for some non-European languages, such as Japanese, Chinese, Turkish, 
and Arabic. 

4. The work of collecting titles shall be apportioned among a number of per- 
sons, ordinarily one language to each. English may be subdivided into material 
produced in England, Scotland, Ireland, the separate British colonies, and the 
United States. Special campaigns and phases may be assigned to individuals. 

5. One principal volume shall be prepared of material between August 1, 
1914, and December 81, 1915, one for each subsequent year of the war, and later 
volumes as may seem desirable. An initial volume may be prepared on the 
preliminaries and antecedents of the war. 

6. A small directing committee shall be chosen which shall perfect the plan 
and supervise the entire work. 

7. The financing may be arranged with the help of the American Historical 
Association, the universities a&d libraries of 'the United States, other associa- 
tions, and individual subscribers and contributors in America and abroad. 

8. An edition of at least 1,000 copies shall be prepared, on durable paper, in 
plain, durable binding. 

9; Since mudi of the literature can most easily be located at the time of Ita 
first appearance, the project should be entered upon immediately* 



THIRTY-SECOND AKNTTAL MEETING* 87 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS. 

On behalf of the publication committee I beg to submit this report covering 
the year 1916. As chairman of the committee I have had oversight of the 
following : 

1. The twelfth report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission. 

2. The annual reports in part for 1914 and 1915, respectively. 

3. The Herbert Baxter Adams prize essay of 1915, ' The Leveller Movement," 
by Dr. Theodore Calvin Pease, now associate in history in the University of 
Illinois. 

These three tasks have involved me in a considerable amount of correspond- 
ence and have absorbed at least three full months of time. Of the special 
appropriation of $200 made at your annual meeting in Washington last Decem- 
ber, I have used in necessary ways chiefly for assistance in proof reading 
the sum of $95 55, leaving on December 19 a balance of $104.45. Generally 
speaking, then, the publication committee, so far as editorial functions are 
concerned, have expended about one-half of the special appropriation. Permit 
me to comment briefly on the three tasks. 

1. Although dated December 30, 1914, the twelfth report of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission did not come into my hands until January, 1916. It 
consists of the "Correspondence and papers (1826-1885) of Robert M. T. 
Hunter," and has been edited by Prof. Charles H. Ambler, of Randolph-Macon 
College, Ashland, Va. An examination of the material, the editorial apparatus, 
and in particular the introductory narrative by the editor, led me to recom- 
mend a delay in publication until Mr. Ambler could make it more nearly com- 
plete. Accordingly, with the consent of the present chairman of the commis- 
sion, Dr. Gaillard Hunt, the editor was requested to enrich the material if 
possible, to reconsider and rewrite the introductory narrative, and to make 
consistent and careful the explanatory notes. The manuscript has only very 
recently been returned to Dr. Hunt. It can now be readily prepared for 
printing. But because of the delay, it would seem best that it should appear 
as part of the annual report of the association for 1916 a suggestion, I may 
add, which Dr. Hunt has accepted as a recommendation. 

2. Only the papers composing the first volume of the annual report for 1914 
came tinder my supervision last March; at that time th.ey were in galley 
proof. With Volume II of the report a general index covering the papers 
and reports of the association for a period of 30 years (1884-1914) and com- 
piled by Mr. David M. Matteson I have had nothing to do. The two volumes, 
since printed by the Government, should be distributed to members shortly. 

The single-volume annual report for 1915 is now in galley proof. This 
means that we are a few months ahead of our usual schedule. Owing, how- 
ever, to difficulties in securing papers and the decision last summer not to in- 
clude for reasons already indicated Prof. Ambler's collection of R. M. T. 
Hunter papers, the volume will be comparatively small. Aside from special 
reports two of these concerned with the archives of California and Ver- 
mont, respectively there could be included only nine out of approximately 26 
papers listed on the program of the Washington meeting last December. Of 
the remaining 17, four including Prof. Stephens' s annual address were taken 
by the American Historical Review; eight others appeared in some variety 
of periodical ; five, for reasons best known to their respective authors, were 
withheld and not obtainable; one paper was discarded, as its author failed to 
appear at the session when it was to be reafl ; and one paper was excluded for 
reasons of public policy by the authorities of the Smithsonian Institution. 



88 AMEBICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

To only one incident in this connection have I space to refer. A paper 
served as the basis of a careful discussion to which five scholars were asked 
to contribute. Abstracts of the discussion which had been prepared by two 
speakers it was decided to print. With every effort neither your secretary 
nor I was able ever to get more than a clue to the basic paper, although it 
was printed recently in one of the popular magazines. It is probably not 
possible or fair to demand of participants in our programs that they print their 
papers in the annual report, but the incident just outlined suggests that any paper 
which affords the basis for discussion discussion which involves others besides 
the leading author in careful effort ought by rule to be furnished for printing 
in the annals of this association. It shows also that your annual report is 
likely to partake of the nature of a scrapbook 

3. The work of editing and printing the prize es^ay in European history calls 
this year for particular comment. The work has involved changes, not radical 
but sufficiently notable, I hope, to arouse the interest of such members of the 
association as care for some improvement in the form of these publications. 
The edition of Dr. Pease's essay, The Leveller Movement, is limited to 750 
copies, a number slightly smaller than it has been customary to issue. This 
figure does not include the special paper-bound edition of 100 copies for 
which the author pays the cost. The entire edition is now printed and will 
be ready within a month for distribution to subscribers. 

The new format is the result of suggestions made from time to time during 
recent years expressive for the most part of dissatisfaction with the old 
style. It was developed early in the spring by Mr. Leland, myself, and a 
representative of the Waverly Press, Baltimore a house that has done the 
printing in a painstaking and careful way. We hope that the essays hereafter 
published in the new form may make some appeal to a wider public Our 
object was to increase the attractiveness of the volumes in the series by 
making them conform to well-recognized standards of book making. Accord- 
ingly we have enlarged the type, sought for a simpler style of lettering on 
the cover, reduced the emphasis on the prize-essay features, and tried in the 
present instance to relegate the longer bibliographical notes and the discussion 
of technical points chiefly interesting to a very limited number of readers 
to the ends of the chapters rather than to allow such matters to mar the 
pages primarily devoted to the narrative. The new format, it should be 
added, has met the approval of every member of the present * publication 
committee. 

Of the nine prize essays thus far printed and on sale we have sold 8,619 
copies for, approximately, $3,850, incurring a net loss of over $2,000. There 
remain 'almost as large a number of copies i. e , 3,421, or 1,039 bound and 
2,382 unbound copies as yet unsold, valued at about $3,000. On these there 
is an annual charge for storage and insurance. Until very recently the cus- 
tomary edition of every essay was 1,000 copies. An analysis of the sales up 
to date reveals the fact that only three essays have been sold in excess of 
500 copies as follows: Notestein's Witchcraft, 611; Carter's Illinois Country, 
552 ; Krehbiel's Interdict, 510. 

Over 400 copies have been sold of Cole's Whig Party, 417 ; Turner's Negro 
in Pennsylvania, 406. 

Over 300 copies have been sold of Brown's Baptists and Fifth Monarchy 
Men, 347 ; Williams' s Anglo-American Isthmian Diplomacy, 322. 

Over 200 copies have been sold of Barbour's Earl of Arlington, 267. 

Over 100 copies have been sold of Muzzey's Spiritual Franciscans, 187. 

Generalizing on the basis of these figures, it would seem hereafter to be 
unwise to issue editions of over 750 copies; an edition of 500 copies would 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 89 

as a rule be sufficiently large to supply the demand. Without exception, thus 
far, the Winsor and Adams prizes have been awarded to doctoral dissertations 
On the whole, though highly specialized and important, such work is bound 
to remain of slight general interest. It is not really matured into ripeness 
or significant in any superlative degree. 

H. BARRETT LEAKNED, Chairman. 
DECEMBER 19, 1916. 

REPORT OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The general committee begs to report, in addition to the usual activities, 
the publication of a leaflet describing the work of the association, 1 and the 
result of the rule adopted by the association last year and now applied for 
the first time. The rule reads : 

The January and subsequent issues of the Review will not be sent to mem- 
bers until their current dues are paid Members whose dues remain unpaid 
after June 1 will not be carried upon the roll of the association, but they 
may be reinstated at any time thereafter upon payment of the dues then cur- 
rent. 

One notice, in the form of a special letter from the secretary to the delin- 
quent member, followed in case no response was received by another signed 
by the treasurer, was sent out in connection with each case. As a result '83 
of the delinquents paid up while 273 were dropped 114 for arrears in dues 
since September 1, 1914, and 159 for arrears in dues since September 1, 1915. 
It is manifestly very difficult to get members to pay dues of more than one 
year's standing, and the rule is, therefore, in the estimation of the committee, 
very salutary from the standpoint of the general interests of the association. 

In addition to the loss of members through the operation of the rule regarding 
delinquents, fewer new members have been secured this year, so that on Novem- 
ber 15 the statistics showed a total decrease of 207 in the membership. This 
will, of course, be considerably reduced by additions before the annual meeting, 
the date for which statistics for previous years are compiled. 

Despite this, however, your committee feels that it is imperative to stimulate 
a greater degree of active cooperation among the rank and file of the society's 
members The response to the request by the secretary for suggestions for new 
members in connection with the blanks sent out early in May reveals an unpar- 
donable apathy. The notice was sent to over 2,700 members and only 44 were 
returned. Of the persons whose names were sent in on these blanks, 33 have 
joined the association fairly conclusive proof that a very moderate increase 
of support by the members at large would bring exceptional results. 

Because of the reduction of the appropriation for the general committee last 
year from $200 to $75, the work was, of necessity, somewhat curtailed. This 
was further emphasized by the fact that some of the items charged to the 
current appropriation were on last year's account, not having been sent to me 
in time for the financial statement of December last. In view of this, the 
committee has been obliged, in connection with the printing of the leaflet, 
referred to above, to exceed somewhat the sum authorized in the appropriation. 

In the report for last year, your committee said: "If a modest growth of 
about 300 members is all that is desired, no increase in the appropriation for 
1916 will be needed. On the other hand, if a policy of real expansion, which 
I am confident would be successful, is to be undertaken, the usual appropriation 
of $200 or more should again be made.'* I can add nothing to this save the 

l Keprxnted above, pp 25-33. 



90 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

statement that it appears to me even more urgent this year than it did last 
that the work of the committee should not be impaired for lack of funds, and 
I respectfully suggest that, in view of the more stringent regulations concern- 
ing delinquents, the usual appropriation of $200 be granted the committee for 
the coming year. 

Many suggestions have come to your committee concerning the advisability 
of changing the annual dues from $3 to $5, of the possibility of substituting 
the History Teacher's Magazine for the annual reports in the case of members 
especially interested in secondary school work, etc. ; and it seems to the com- 
mittee that at some time in the near future these very important matters should 
receive the special consideration of the association. 

Your committee also begs again to draw attention to the need of a handbook 
containing the list of members, the by-laws, and a statement of the purposes 
and activities of the association. Now that the weedmg-out process has been 
largely done and a purged membership list obtained (there are now no members 
on the roll whose dues are not paid to September 1, 1916), there would be less 
variation in the list of names, save for the addition of new members, which 
might be cared for by a reprint from the names on the mailing list or, better 
still, through the proposed " Quarterly Bulletin," a project your committee 
heartily indorses. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the general committee, 

WILLIAM E. LIN<GELBACH, Chairman. 

NOVEMBER 24, 1916. 

REPORT OF THE GENERAL EDITOR OF THE SERIES, "ORIGINAL 
NARRATIVES OF EARLY AMERICAN HISTORY." 

No volume of this series has been published since the last annual meeting 
of the association. The nineteenth volume, Narratives of the Early North- 
west, edited by Miss Louise Phelps Kellogg, of the Wisconsin State Historical 
Society, was then in the press. The reading of page proofs had been nearly 
completed in March and the volume, but for delays on the part of the pub- 
lisher, might have been brought out in the spring. Although war conditions 
caused some delay in completing the illustrations, it was my full expectation 
that the volume would come out this autumn namely, in late November and 
this could without difficulty have been achieved, but the publishers have chosen 
to put the volume over until February. It will no doubt be issued then. 

With the issue of this volume the series will be brought to its conclusion 
and the present general editor will be functus officio* The series was intrusted 
to him by the council in December; 1902. Since then he has brought about the 
publication of the following 19 volumes, which, taken together, embrace the 
most important narratives for the history of America and the United States 
down to the early years of the eighteenth century, beyond which it has not 
been proposed that the series should extend : 

The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot, 985-1503. Edited by Profs. Julius ES. 
Olson and Edward G Bourne. 

The Spanish Explorers in the Southern United States. Edited by Messrs, 
Frederick W. Hodge and Theodore H. Lewis. 

Early English and French Voyages. Edited by Dr. Henry S. Burrage. 

Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1618. Edited by Prof. W, L. Grant. 

Narratives of Early Virginia, 1606-1625. Edited by Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, 

Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606-1646, Edited by Mr, Wil- 
liam T. Davis. 

Winthrop's Journal (History of New England), 1630-1649. (2 vols.) Edited 
by Dr. James K Hosmer. 

Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664. Edited by Dr. J. B\ Jamesou. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 91 

Johnson's Wonder-working Providence of Sions Saviour in New England. 
Edited by Dr. J. F. Jameson. 

Narratives of Early Maryland. Edited by Mr. Clayton Colnian Hall. 

Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708. Edited by Mr. Alexander S. 
Salley, jr. 

Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, Delaware, and West Jersey, 1630-1707. 
Edited by Dr. Albert Cook Myers. 

The Journal of Jasper Danckaerts, 167&-1680. Edited by Rev. B. B. James. 

Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706. Edited by Professor George 
L. Burr. 

Narratives of the Indian Wars, 1675-1699. Edited by Dr. Charles H Lincoln. 

Narratives of the Insurrections of 1688. Edited by Prof. C. M. Andrews. 

Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1710. Edited by Prof. Herbert 
E Bolton. 

Narratives of the Early Northwest Edited by Miss Louise Phelps Kellogg. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. F. JAMESON. 

DECEMBER 12, 1916. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON HISTORY IN SCHOOLS. 

Apart from considering a number of specific inquiries made to it by indi- 
viduals and associations like the College Entrance Examination Board, the 
committee on history in schools has been engaged during the year in carrying 
on the work of defining the fields of high-school history in accordance with the 
instructions given to it at the conference held in Washington. The vote taken 
on that occasion was as follows: 

That the committee on history in schools be requested to prepare a more 
precise definition of the fields of history on the basis of a list of essential topics 
to be emphasized and a list of topics for collateral reading. That the Com- 
mittee on History in Schools of the American Historical Association be re- 
quested to cooperate, or correspond with the similar committee of the National 
Education Association. 

It was understood by us that we should have the active collaboration in this 
work of the sectional history teachers' associations, and our first step was, ac- 
cordingly, to assign the responsibility for the definition of each field that came 
in question to one of them. Ancient history was in this way assigned to the 
New England History Teachers' Association; medieval and modern history to 
the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and Maryland; 
American history to the teachers' section of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association ; English history to the history section of the California High School 
Association ; modern European history, including English, to the Commission on 
Accredited Schools of the Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of 
the Southern States. Each of these associations immediately appointed a care- 
fully selscted committee, which was instructed to have its report in readiness 
in time for us at the Cincinnati meeting. The committee in California, for 
which Prof Cannon acted as editor, and which consisted of the following mem- 
bers : Miss Crystal Harford, Richmond Union High School ; Miss Charlotte M. 
Lord, Los Angeles Polytechnic High School ; Clifford E. Lowell, Berkeley High 
School ; William A. Morris, professor of English- history, University of Califor- 
nia ; John R, Sutton, vice-principal Oakland High School ; Miss Hettie A. Withey, 
Colton High School, has already submitted a very- carefully constructed topical 
outline of English history. The committee of 'the New England History Teach- 
ers' Association, consisting of Mr. Albert Farnsworth, 3 Carleton Street, 
Methuen y Mass.; Mr: S. P. R. Chadwtek, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, 
N. BD; Dr. Jessie Law, Springfield High School, Springfield, Mass.; Prof. 
William Dodge Gray, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. ; Miss Ruth B. Frank- 
lin, Rogers High School, Newport, R. I. ; Dr. Ellen Davison, Bradford Academy, 



92 AMEKICAST HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Bradford, Mass., together with Mr. Philip Chase, Milton Academy, Milton, 
Mass., ex officio as president of the association, presented a topical outline of 
a somewhat different character from that adopted in California to the regular 
autumn meeting of the association, and on the basis of the criticisms there 
received that it was too detailed in character, omitted too little, and gave in- 
sufficient assistance to teachers as to how the topics and subtopics should be 
handled in teaching the committee has undertaken to put in our hands by 
December 10 its report modified in the sense of these criticisms. The other 
committees, under the direction of Mr. Daniel C. Knowlton, Central High 
School, Newark, N. J. ; Mr. Oliver M. Dickerson, State Normal School, Wmona, 
Minn.; and Mr. N. W. Stephenson, College of Charleston, Charleston, S. C., 
are hard at work, but have not as yet presented their reports to me. I hope 
to have four, if not all five, o these reports in my possession before the Cin- 
cinnati meeting. 

We have, however, been alive to the fact that our report to the American 
Historical Association can hardly meet with approval if it is simply the com- 
posite of five sectional reports. It is not clear in advance, for example, that 
a definition of modern European history, made on the basis of experience in 
the southern schools, will meet the needs of schools in New York or Chicago, 
nor is it evident that a definition of ancient history made by a New England 
committee on the basis of its experience and best judgment will be acceptable 
to the Middle West. Accordingly, we proceeded further and asked individual 
teachers, with successful experience, in all parts of the country, to put into our 
hands additional definitions of the five historical fields. To this request we 
have had generous response, and I have already in my possession 22 definitions 
prepared by teachers. All tins material will be considered both in advance of 
and at the Cincinnati meeting of the committee. 

Accordingly by December the committee will have In its possession the requi- 
site information with which to proceed with its task 

This is clearly an exceedingly difficult one, as well as one of very great 
importance. The difficulty lies in the fact that while a great majority of those 
who have expressed themselves on the matter want a more precise definition 
of the fields, there is obvious disagreement as to what are the essential things 
in each field, and some divergence of opinion as to how far the report should 
include instruction to teachers. I hope that after our meeting in Cincinnati 
we may be in better agreement on these points. The importance of the work 
consists in the undoubted influence in the right or in the wrong direction 
which a definition of this kind will exert. When it is remembered that a very 
large percentage of all teachers actually engaged in teaching history in sec- 
ondary schools is undertaking the work for the first time each year, and that 
many of the most conscientious and experienced among the history teachers 
look to us for help, it is perfectly clear to me, at least, that this work of defini- 
tion is bound to affect seriously the teaching of history for some time to come. 

I should like, therefore, to recommend that the committee on history in schools 
be constituted in 1917 in such a way that it may have a chairman with the 
requisite freedom from other occupations and interest m this specific subject ; 
that he may have in his own neighborhood a nucleus of the membership of 
the committee to serve with him as a subcommittee on this specific task; and 
that it may not lack funds with which to work. 

Your committee in the course of the year has met from several different 
sources the intimation that it should proceed to revise the work of the com- 
mittees of seven and five, and block out anew the fields of history to be taken 
in each year of the high-school program. The intimation usually takes the 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 93 

form of a request for the reduction of the attention given to history in the 
interest of civics and economics. It has seemed to me that a campaign of this 
sort for the construction of a new program in the so-called social sciences is 
an entirely separate thing from the campaign generally favored by teachers 
for a more precise definition of the fields of history already recognized. Ad- 
vocates of the social-science program, however, are wont to demand a topical 
as distinct from a chronological treatment of history, and they are apt to 
believe in the inclusion of topics concerned mainly with " the march of civiliza- 
tion." It may well be that if the history program is to be attenuated, as 
demanded by these persons, some such hop-and-skip method will be necessary. 
However, I have thought it best that our committee should deal with one thing 
at a time, and have, accordingly, left definite action on this request to its 
successor. I shall be surprised, however, if its successor will not soon be re- 
quired to give serious attention to this matter. 

Through the kindness of Harvard University I have been able to carry on 
the correspondence of the chairman of the committee without charge. The 
individual members of the committee have also done their own secretarial 
work. This has involved a considerable expenditure of money on their part 
in certain instances. The appropriation made to the committee last year 
was only sufficient to pay for the multigraphing of the reports of the sectional 
associations for distribution among the members of the committee. It seems 
clear that the committee can not possibly carry on its work nest year without 
a larger appropriation. Certainly, if it prepares its report for publication, it 
will need substantial assistance. On the other hand, I should like to observe 
that, should its report be published, it ought to yield in royalties a very sub- 
stantial amount annually. In this connection a certain complication has arisen. 
As you know, the New England History Teachers' Association Is collaborating 
actively with us. It has reached a point where its publisher is demanding 
that it issue a new edition of its well-known syllabus. This syllabus has for 
years 4 been a valuable source of revenue to the New England History Teachers* 
Association Clearly a new edition would be a competitor with our report. 
On the other hand, if I understand its president aright, the New England 
History Teachers' Association would be willing to issue no new edition in the 
event that it received a share of the profits to be expected from the report 
of the committee on history in schools. 

I find it difficult to make a precise estimate of the amount that .will be 
needed by the committee for 1917. I have computed that the expenses of the 
committee this year for stenographic assistance alone, if they had been charged 
to the association, would not have fallen short of $100. I do not see how next 
year's committee can continue this work and meet its expenses with an appro- 
priation of less than $150. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM SCOTT FERGUSON, Chairman. 

NOVEMBER 16, 1916. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUSTIN WINSOR PRIZE. 

Tour committee report that thev recommend for the Wmsor prize for 1916 
the essay of Mr. Richard J. Purcell on " Connecticut in Transition, 1775-1818." 
Respectfully submitted, 

CABL RUSSELL FISH, 
DECEMBER 28, 1910. 



94 AMEJEUCAN HISTOKICAl ASSOCIATION. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON COOPERATION WITH THE 
NATIONAL HIGHWAYS ASSOCIATION. 

Having been appointed by the American Historical Association at the Wash- 
ington meeting in 1915 a committee of one to cooperate on behalf of that asso- 
ciation with the National Highways Association, I accepted the appointment and 
so advised the president of the latter association, Mr. Charles Henry Davis, of 
Cambridge, Mass., whereupon a division of historical highways was created, 
of which I was made chairman. The purpose of the division was to take up 
the problem of the naming of American highways, by securing the cooperation 
of those historically inclined in the various States of the Union, 

In accordance with the custom of the National Highways Association I was 
asked to appoint a number of gentlemen who should form the division of which 
I was chairman ; men whose names would carry weight in an effort to interest 
historical societies in the work of the division. After considerable correspond- 
ence the following gentlemen agreed to serve as sponsors for the work of the 
division : Mr. John H. Finley, commissioner of education of the State of New 
York ; Mr. Edmund J, James, president of the University of Illinois ; Mr. Solon 
J. Buck, superintendent of the Minnesota Historical Society; Mr. Samuel C. 
Mitchell, president of Delaware College; Mr. Emerson Hough; Mr. Livingston 
Farrand, president of the University of Colorado; Mr. William A. McCorkle, 
es>governor of West Virginia; Mr. Stewart Edward White; Prof. Herbert E. 
Bolton, of the University of California ; and Prof. Levi E. Young, of the Uni- 
versity of Utah. It is expected to complete this list by the addition of one or 
two members representing the South. 

The plan of procedure involves preparation of a circular, which is to be sent 
to all the State historical societies and commissions, calling attention in de- 
tail to the wisdom and good sense of preserving the historical names of the 
highways of the various States. Before doing this, however, I have desired to 
secure a tentative expression from various parts of the country as to the prob- 
able attitude of these societies to such a project; for in many cases the his- 
torical societies and commissions in our States are involved in more lines of 
work than their volunteer officers and limited appropriations can properly con- 
duct, and it has seemed wise to ascertain whether, on top of everything else, 
these gentlemen cared to consider this very worthy but entirely new project 
involving no little correspondence, etc. 

As the result, therefore, of personal investigation and conference and quite 
a range of correspondence, I am able to submit that the general plan of this 
committee and the scheme of* its work (of which I knew nothing before my 
appointment) certainly meets with the strong approval of a large number of 
local organizations. I have been quite amazed at the response received verbally 
and by letter from all parts of the country and from many of the strongest 
historical organizations in the United States. In a note addressed to such or- 
ganizations, as I could not personally consult, I outlined the scheme as follows : 

The plan is now to circularize the various State historical societies and to 
propose that in each State they appoint a committee of five to take up this mat- 
ter within each Commonwealth. Before preparing this circular I am trying to 
get an impression by correspondence from a number of representative societies 
as to their probable attitude toward this question. It is believed that if an 
effort to save the old historic names is made at once a good deal could be ac- 
complished. It was suggested at the Nashville meeting of the Mississippi Valley 
Historical Association that in many States statutes might be passed to place in 
the hands of the historical societies the right to name the roads of a State, 
Would your society be interested in this work? Have you local conditions that 
are exceptional? Any advice or suggestion made unofficially or otherwise would 
be very gratefully received. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 95 

To show the attitude of a number of such societies in favor of this work 
and also the objection of others for various reasons I will give some brief 
resumes of reports received, verbal and written : 

The New Hampshire Historical Society approves the idea and desires to 
know what further action it shall take. 

The Massachusetts Historical Society, through its president, expresses "its 
interest in this excellent work and its willingness to further it." 

The Rhode Island Historical Society "would be very glad to cooperate" 
and designate their committee on marking historical sites as the proper com- 
mittee to cooperate in the work. 

The New York State Historical Association at its annual meeting at Coopers- 
town indorsed the action and proceeded to authorize the president to appoint 
a committee of five to represent that State 

The New Jersey Historical Society, through its corresponding secretary, 
made a vague reply, the corresponding secretary stating that he was uncertain 
whether the society would be interested in the work or not. 

No final reply was received from the secretary of the Pennsylvania Historical 
Commission. 

The Secretary of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society replied 
that he did not "know of any conditions in this State in which our society 
would desire to dictate the names of any roads," and that the society had so 
much legislation to look after that anything new was looked at apprehensively. 

The Kansas State Historical Society expressed every readiness to cooperate. 

From the ktandpomt of this work Colorado is one of the most important 
States in the Union, and there I was privileged to do considerable personal 
work. As a result, the Colorado State Geological Board will cooperate cordially 
In the work. On October 9 the board voted unanimously "to offer their 
services in such a capacity, as the committee for the State of Colorado." 
This extraordinary indorsement of the work on the part of Colorado was 
exceedingly encouraging because of the strategic position of Colorado in our 
national network of highways. 

The attitude of the Nebraska State Historical Society will be favorable to 
the work. That of Montana will probably be lukewarm. 

The California State Library, which plays the part of State historical 
society, gave great encouragement to the proposed plan A -number of local 
associations In California have spontaneously agreed to assist in the work, 
as California has taken a more advanced position in this matter than any 
other American State; for by its assembly bill No. 1016 (an act not signed 
by the governor) was submitted a plan by which the important historical 
roads of that State should by law bear appropriate historical names. 

Illinois will favor the effort here proposed. The Wisconsin Historical 
Society reports favorably on an effort to have the legislature empower the 
society to name roads of that State and will work toward that end. 

Indiana has appointed a committee to cooperate. 

Nevada and Minnesota will assist ; also Kentucky. 

It is to be noted that this preliminary suggestion advocating the appointment 
of local committees, though merely a request for advice and suggestion, actually 
resulted in several instances in the appointment of such committees 

Therefore, from the above, I think we have certain proof that the original 
suggestion from the National Highways Association was a valuable one. I 
think it proper for the American Historical Association to continue in coopera- 
tion in this matter with the highways association. 

My suggeston will be that a formal circular shall now be prepared calling 
attention to the dropping, ignoring, or supplanting of the old-time highway 



96 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

names and the substitution of other names or colors in their place ; that such a 
practice bids fair to obliterate names that are rich in tradition and local signifi- 
cance; that such substitution will have an injurious effect on us as a people 
who cherish the past, especially on the youth who have the right of inheritance 
of these old names associated with events and heroes whom they are taught 
to honor. 

This circular should invite all the State societies or commissions to appoint 
a committee of five to take up the problem each in its own State, seek such 
legislation and promote such study in discussion and compromise as local cir- 
cumstances suggest and demand 

I would also advise that specific efforts be made within a certain prescribed 
area to see what can actually be done in the way of securing cooperation and 
legislation. If in a single State (to begin with) good results from discussion 
and legislation can be secured it will be an object lesson of value to all other 
States. 

If I am continued on this committee I would be glad of any suggestion and 
advice that the council can give. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ARCHER B HULBERT, Chawman. 



REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON THE TRANSFER OF THE 
AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

At your last annual meeting it was by vote resolved " that it is the opinion 
of this association that full ownership and control of the American Historical 
Review should be vested in the association, but that the present connection of 
the said Review with the Carnegie Institution of Washington and with the 
Macmillan Co., publishers, be continued " ; and it was further resolved " that 
the president, the first vice president, the secretary of the council, the secretary 
of the association, and the treasurer be instructed to ascertain what arrange- 
ments can be made to effect that end and report at the next annual meeting of 
the association." 

The committee thus created and instructed begs leave now to submit its 
report. 

As, not only from the wording of your resolution but from the report of the 
committee of nine, by whom it was first formulated, and from the discussion 
upon that report and these resolutions in your annual meeting, it was clear that 
there was in the thought of the association no change in the relations with the 
publisher or with the Carnegie Institution, but only a transfer to the association 
of such rights in the Review as are now vested in the editors, your committee, 
organizing itself before leaving Washington, addressed itself first to the edi- 
torial board. 

That board, dealing with our communication in its May meeting, expressed 
to us its entire concurrence in the proposed transfer and its readiness, when- 
ever requested by the association to do so, to suggest to the Macmillan Go. to 
execute a new contract similar to that now existing, in which the association 
shall be substituted for the board as a contracting party. The board of editors 
expressed, too, its willingness, after the execution of the new contract, that 
the Macmillan Co. should transfer to the association all property, financial 
claims, and liabilities which may be bound up with ownership and control of 
the Review. 

For the Carnegie Institution, regarding whose attitude we had asked also 
information, the editors replied to us: "That the ownership of the Review 
should be vested in the American Historical Association would, we are in- 
formed, be entirely acceptable to the Carnegie Institution, which holds the 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING, 97 

association in high regard, and would not expect ever to undertake any radical 
change in the department of historical research without seeking the advice and 
counsel of experts who are members of the association." 

Assured thus as to the cooperation of the editors and of the Carnegie Insti- 
tution, we next, before addressing the publishers, sought legal opinion as to the 
best form for a valid transfer, and were advised to seek, instead of a new 
contract, an assignment to the association by the editors of the present contract 
with the publishers, together with a bill of sale of their tangible property and 
their good will Accordingly, in addressing ourselves to the Macmillan Co., we 
asked their assurance " that the transfer proposed say, in the form of an 
assignment by the editorial board to the American Historical Association of 
all its right and title to the Review and a quitclaim of its property rights in 
connection therewith would meet no objection" on their part and might hope 
for ratification by them. They promptly replied, through Mr. Brett, their presi- 
dent, that they could not, as it seemed to him, make any valid objection or 
withhold their approval of an assignment by the editorial board of the Ameri- 
can Historical Review of their rights in the contract for the publication of the 
Review, which they have with this company, unless in giving their permission 
for the transfer of this contract the Macmillan Co. were considered to acquiesce 
to the wording " full ownership and control " and thus to relinquish any rights 
of the publishers. And Mr. Brett added : " I am anxious, of course, to meet 
your views in the matter and to arrange for a transfer of the agreement as 
you desire, not alone because we wish to do whatever the editorial board think 
best to be done in the matter, but also because it seems to me the move is a 
right and proper one under the circumstances." We assured him, in reply, 
that we were confident that all the American Historical Association has had 
in thought is a transfer to it of such right and title in the Review as may now 
be vested in the board of editors, and that his approval of such a transfer is 
therefore all that it has had any desire to ask from him. 

We are prepared, therefore, to report that we find no obstacles to the pro- 
posed transfer to the association of the rights of the editors in the American 
Historical Review, and that the only expense connected with that transaction 
itself would seem to be the nominal consideration (doubtless the usual "one 
dollar") which we may feel it wise to name in the proposed bill of sale as 
consummation of the transfer. 

There is, however, a possible further liability already mentioned in the 
report of the committee of nine as perhaps incident to such a transfer. It is 
that " the postal laws, as construed by some authorities, require the associa- 
tion, if it owns the Review, to reduce the subscription price now charged non- 
members ($4) to $320 per year." It seemed to us wise to ask the managing 
editor to secure from the Post Office Department a ruling on this question. He 
was so good as to go in person to the appropriate Assistant Postmaster General 
(the Third), and the permanent official summoned by him as an authority was 
sure that the law as to the subscription price must be applied m the case of 
ownership of the Review by the association. We thought it best, however, to 
ask also from the publishers whether they had any data for an opinion as to 
the bearing of this law ,on our postage in case of the change proposed. Mr. 
Brett replied that the action which is proposed in transferring from the editors 
to the American Historical Association their rights m the contract for the 
publication of the American Historical Review would not, it seems to him, 
affect the position of the Review in any way whatever under the postal laws 
and regulations. In view of this difference of opinion, due doubtless to diverg- 
ence of view as to the relation of the publishers to the Review, it would seem 
23318 19 7 



98 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

to us wise (unless the association feels that the risk of this expense, amounting 
at present, if incurred, to about $250 a year, should be a bar to all thought of 
the transfer) that the matter be left for the publishers to deal with after the 
transfer is effected. 

Certain other matters discussed by the committee of nine, such as the eligi- 
bility of editors of the Review to serve as officers of the Association or as voting 
members of the council, have seemed to us to fall in no wise within the purview 
of our committee. Nor has it seemed to us to matter to the question of transfer, 
with which alone we have to deal, whether the board should continue to elect 
its own managing editor, as is recommended by the committee of nine, or 
should be elected by the council on the nomination of the board, as is suggested 
to us by the editors These, if the transfer be effected, can be dealt with at 
any time ; and we feel warranted only in urging that, to avoid complication of 
issues and discussion which may easily embarrass the transfer itself, all but 
the most necessary changes be left to a subsequent meeting 

We recommend, then, in case the association is still of the opinion of last 
year as to the wisdom of such a transfer: 

1. That the council be instructed to seek from the editors of the American 
Historical Review an assignment to the American Historical Association of all 
their naht and title in the contract with the Macmillan Co for the pub! cation 
of that Review, together with a bill of sale of such tangible property as may 
be vested in them as editors of that Review and of the good will thereto apper- 
taining. And we recommend that on the back of the aforesaid contract with 
the publishers, if there be free space, this assignment of their said title and 
interest therein be typewritten and signed by the editors, and that the consent 
thereto of the Macmillan Co , publishers, signed by that company, be appended. 
We recommend, further, that the aforesaid bill of sale be, so far as possible, an 
itemized bill, and that a consideration of some sort (such as the usual "one 
dollar") be named a*s a part of the transaction and duly paid to the said 
editors. 

2. In order that the said transfer may be made at any time and that the 
management of the Review may be provided for from its date to the next 
subsequent meeting of this association, we recommend that, until that 
next subsequent meeting of this association and till directed otherwise by this 
association, the present board of editors retain their functions in all respects 
as hitherto ; that they continue to cause their accounts to be kept by a treas- 
urer of the board, a detailed report to be made by him to the council at its 
November meeting and to the association at its annual business meeting; that 
they retain m his hands, as a working capital, such funds as are in his hands 
at the time of the transfer; and that they continue to receive as hitherto the 
monthly subvention paid by the publishers for the editing of the Review and 
the share hitherto paid to the editors of the Review's yearly profits. We re- 
commend also that, till such further action, they retain the administration of 
these funds and of such other funds as may at any time be appropriated by 
the association or its council to the uses of the Review; and that the editorial 
purposes to which these funds shall be devoted, including the payment, at 
their discretion, of traveling expenses of the members of the board, be entirely 
within the control of the board; and we recommend that, till further action 
by this association, the members of the board be elected by the council as at 
present, and for the same term of six years, and that, till such further action, 
they retain the power to elect their own managing editor and their other offi- 
cers, 

Subjoining to this report our correspondence with the editorial board and 
with the publishers of the Review, we have the honor to subscribe ourselves, 
Very respectfully, 

WORTHINGTON 0. FORD, 

EVARTS B. GREENE, 
WALDO G. LELAND, 
CLARENCE W. BOWEN, 
DECEMBER 23, 1916. By GEOBGE L - BuBE > Chairman, 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 99 

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 

Your finance committee elected by the association December 29, 1915, has 
interpreted its commission as applying to the general financial operations of 
the association and not to the auditing of accounts. The committee has held 
numerous meetings during the year and has examined with care the operations 
of the treasurer's office and the business system in use, the vouchers, the hooks 
of record, and the canceled checks for the year 1915. The committee has 
also conferred with the treasurer and the secretaiy as to the conduct of the 
business- of the association and after such meetings, examination, and confer- 
ence it begs to report as follows: 

Wo believe the present practice of having the routine clerical work of the 
secretary and the treasurer done m one office under the supervision of the secre- 
tary to be economical and entirely satisfactory, and we recommend that it be 
continued 

We believe the policy which has been in operation for some years by which 
the council has adopted a budget for the several committees and branches of 
work of the association to be eminently desirable, and we would recommend a 
continuance and more complete application of the budget principle. It would 
appear that experience has fairly demonstrated that the needs of the several 
committees and branches of work, and the income of the association can be 
estimated with reasonable accuracy. It is our belief that a right relation can 
be established and maintained between income and expenditure only through 
a budget system To this end we recommend that the chairmen of the several 
committees and those responsible for the various branches of work present to 
the council annually at its meeting in November a statement of the estimated 
needs of the work that falls under their supervision and that these needs be 
reviewed by the council with due regard to the probable income of the associ- 
ation for the coming year and that a budget be made up and recommended 
by the council for adoption at the annual meeting in December We would 
further recommend that the budget of appropriations be kept safely within 
the income of the association. 

In carrying out this system it is further recommended that unexpended bal- 
ances of any item at the end of any fiscal year may become available for the 
payment of bills incurred during the fiscal year for which this balance remains, 
even after the year has been closed. 

In the event of any committees or branch of the work exceeding in expendi- 
ture the amount appropriated for its use, this fact shall be reported to the 
annual meeting in December for an additional appropriation to meet the deficit, 
or for any other action which the meeting may take. 

In carrying out the recommendations of the council concerning the operations 
of the committee on publications, which recommendations were passed Decem- 
ber 27, 1912, your committee would further iceommead that the $1,000 voted 
to bo set aside as the capital for the operations of the committee on publica- 
tions and similarly any surplus of receipts over expenditures for publications 
since the above date, or $1,000, less any losses from the operations of the 
committee on publications sm^e December 27, 1912, be made available as 
capital And it is recommended further that hereafter distinct book records 
and a separate bank account shall be kept for the publications of the associa- 
tion. For book records under this head we would recommend a simple columnar 
sales book, showing in a summarized form exactly the returns on each publi- 
cation and the returns on publications as a whole, and in addition a standard 
cash book of simple form which will show the income and expenditures for the 
publication item as a whole. 



100 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

As books of record for the other operations of the association we would 
recommend that a standard cash book be kept, showing the different items of 
receipts and expenditures, and that m conjunction with this there be opened 
each year ledger accounts for the appropriations made to each committee and 
branch of the work, and for the expenditures as they are made. By this 
procedure it will be possible to keep accurate records of the operations of the 
association as a whole and to check off expenditures against each item m the 
budget. The secretary, by this means, will find it possible to notify the chair- 
men of committees and those responsible for expenditures m the several 
branches of the work, of their approach to the limit of the appropriations 
made and thus the expenditures of the association can be kept under control. 

It is also recommended that there be opened ledger accounts for the different 
assets of the association, including the items of investments, office equipment, 
cash, stock of publications on hand, etc , so that the ledger will present a 
complete record of the financial condition of the association. 

Supplementary to the above, the committee would recommend a form of 
voucher check which will provide m connection with each check drawn a state- 
ment of the item of expenditure for which it is drawn and which will have 
blanks for the signatures of the secretary and the treasurer of the association. 
We would recommend that no checks be drawn by the secretary until he has 
received a bill, approved by the chairman of the committee or person respon- 
sible for the expenditure. We would recommend that no checks be signed by 
the treasurer until he has received the voucher check duly filled out and signed 
by the secretary as above stated and accompanied by the approved bill for 
which the check is drawn We would further recommend that the check be so 
worded that its indorsement will constitute a receipt for the expenditure for 
which, it is drawn. In carrying out this policy of expenditure it is further 
recommended that all chairmen and other agents shall submit formal bills, 
stating explicitly the purpose for which the expenditure is made. 

The committee recommends that there be kept a book account of dues 
received for life membership so that the association may have a record of 
the amounts received for that purpose and of the obligations which it has 
assumed on account of life membership. The committee would raise the ques- 
tion for the consideration of the executive council and the treasurer whether a 
separate investment of life membership dues is not practicable. Certainly a 
separate book account for them is desirable and there can scarcely be two 
opinions on the statement that the use of life membership dues for current 
expenses is a shortsighted and ill-advised policy. We recommend that here- 
after all life membership dues be invested. 

The committee interpreted its commission as including a consideration of 
the investment of the funds of the association. We have examined the bond 
and mortgage for $20,000 on the property at No. 24 East Ninety-fifth Street, 
New York City, and the certificates for 20 shares of American Exchange Na- 
tional Bank stock and find these documents m regular form, For the protec- 
tion of the treasurer, in the interest of security, and to guard against deprecia- 
tion in value, however, it would appear that the permanent investment of funds 
of the association should not be stocks or bonds. Heal estate mortgages 
which are guaranteed by a reputable commercial organization probably offer 
the oest form of investment possible for an association of this sort, and we 
recommend that the funds of the association be invested in mortgages of this 
kind. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 101 

The committee further reports that it has had prepared various blank forms 
for columnar sales book, cashbook, ledger, and voucher check which will be 
presented as part of its report at the business meeting in Cincinnati. 
Respectfully submitted, 

HOWARD GRAY, 

ARTHUR C, HOWLAND, 

CHEESMAN A HERRICK, Chairman. 

Special Committee on Finance. 
PHILADELPHIA, December 11, 1916. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS, 

As chairman of the committee on nominations I beg leave to submit the 
following report : 

In September the committee, acting through the secretary of the association, 
sent to all members of the association a circular letter and blanks for an in- 
formal ballot upon officers for the year 1917. Both the circular and the blanks 
used for balloting were quite similar to those employed the year before. The 
circular, however, sought to secure the correction of a defect which had been 
clearly manifested in the two preceding years viz , the virtual throwing away 
of many votes by casting them for men who were life members of the council 
or had already served three years as elected members. As this time relatively 
few votes were wasted in that manner it would appear that the change produced 
the desired result. 

Responses were received from 291 members, omitting a few on which no 
actual choices were put down. Many of the blanks, however, were filled out 
only in part. Very few members expressed their second and third choices. 
The voting indicated clearly that the responding members desired that the cus- 
tomary advancement of the first vice president to the presidency and of the 
second vice president to the office of first vice president should be adhered to ; 
also, that the elected members of the council who have served less than three 
years should be reelected. It likewise indicated a nearly unanimous desire for 
the reelection of the present incumbents in the offices of secretary, treasurer, 
curator, and secretary of the council. For second vice president and one 
elected member of the council the votes were so widely scattered that no clear 
indication of the wishes of the association was indicated. 

In view of this result the committee prepared a brief report which was sent 
to the members of the association, along with the first edition of the program 
for the Cincinnati meeting Wherever the voting seemed to indicate clearly 
the wishes of the association that pieference was followed, in other instances 
the committee acted upon its own best judgment. The report recommended the 
election of the following officers for 1917 : 

President, Worthmgton C Ford ; first vice president, William Roscoe Thayer ; 
second vice president, Edward Channing, members of the council, Eugene C. 
Barker, Guy Stanton Ford, Ulnch B. Phillips, Lucy M Salmon, Samuel B. 
Harding, G. M. Wrong; secretary, Waldo G. Leland; curator, A. Howard Clark; 
treasurer, Clarence W. Bowen ; secretary of the council, Evarts B. Greene. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANK MALOY ANDERSON, Chairman. 

DECEMBER 6, 1916, 



102 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

MINUTES OE THE MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE 
AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION HELD IN THE LIBRARY 
BUILDING, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK CITY, DECEM- 
BER 2, 1916. 

The, council met at 10 a. m. with President Burr in the chair. Present : 
Messrs. W G Ford, Thayer, Leland, Bowen, G. B Adams, Dunning, Jameson, 
Turner, G. S Ford, Harding, Haskins, Phillips, Miss Salmon, and the secretary. 

The following chairmen of committees also attended the meeting. Messrs. 
Bourne, Cheyney, Dutclier, Hulbert Hunt, Johnson, Learned, Lingelbach, and 
Paltsits 

The secretary of the association presented his report showing that the mem- 
bership of the association on November 15 was 2,719, as against the enrollment 
on corresponding dates of 2,989 m 1915 and 2,913 in 1914. It was pointed out 
that this decrease resulted from the enforcement of the rule adopted by the 
association at its last annual meeting providing that members whose dues re- 
mained unpaid should not be carried on the rolls after June 1 Certain ques- 
tions raised by the secretary m this report were acted on as follows: 

1 It was voted that the secretary of the association, acting for the council, 
be authorized to continue the present liberal policy regarding the admission of 
new members. 

2. The secretary was requested to secure full information regarding societies 
which, by name or otherwise, appear to assume the position or functions of 
the American Historical Association. 

3. It was voted, as the sense of the council, that the association do not send 
delegates to the meetings of organizations whose purpose is action in other 
fields than those of history or science. 

The secretary of the council reported briefly. 

The treasurer presented his usual preliminary report, including a summary of 
receipts, disbursements, and assets as follows: 

Statement of Treasurer, Nov. 29, 1916, 
Balance on hand Dec 21, 1915 $2, 654 08 

BECE1PTS, DEC 21, 1015, TO NOV. 20, 1010. 

Annual dues - $7, 186. 59 

Life membership dues 50.00 

Dividend on bank stock 200.00 

Interest on bond and mortgage 000.00 

London headquarters 150.00 

Loan, 0. W. Bowen 1,000.00 

Publications 

Prize essays ... $381,53 

Papers and reports 49.30 

Writings on American history 35 50 

Church History papers _..__ 1.00 

Royalties 140.24 

Miscellaneous - . 80 

608, 37 

Miscellaneous : 
Rebates : 

Committee on local arrangements- $17 30 
Montague Mailing Machinery Oo._ 39. 91 
Committee on history m schools- 10, 00 

67, 21 



THIRTY-SECOND ANHUAL MEETING. 103 

Miscellaneous Continued. 
Rebates Continued. 

Early issue of American Histor- 

$0 40 

List of members 3. 50 

Sale of old typewriter 5. 00 

$76 11 

$10, 171. 07 



12, 825. 15 
Net receipts _____________________________________________________ 9, 171 07 

Net disbursements _______________________________________________ 8, 852 57 

Excess of receipts over disbursements _____________________________ 318 50 

Balance on hand Nov. 29, 1916 ____________________________________ 2, 972. 58 

ASSETS NOV. 15, 1016. 

Cash on hand _________________________________________ $2,972.58 

Bond and mortgage on real estate at 24 East Ninety-fifth 

Street, New York, N Y _____________________________ 20,000 00 

Accrued interest on above (Sept 29 to Nov. 29, 1916, at 

4i per cent) ---------------------------------------- 150.00 

20 shares of American Exchange National Bank stock 

at $230 _____________________________________________ 4, 600. 00 

- 27, 722. 58 



Assets last annual report (Dec 21, 1915) _________________________ 27,062.15 

An increase during the year of ____________________________________ 660. 43 

Reports were received from the following standing and special committees: 
Committee on finance, historical manuscripts commission, public archives com- 
mission, committee on the Justin Wmsor prize, committee on the Herbert Bax- 
ter Adams prize, board of editors of the American Historical Review, board of 
advisory editors of the History Teacher's Magazine, committee on bibliography, 
committee on publications, general committee, editor of the reprints of original 
narratives of early American history, committee on a bibliography of modern 
English history, committee on history in schools, committee on indexing the 
papers and proceedings of the association, committee on the military history 
prize, committee on program for the Cincinnati meeting, committee on head- 
quarters in London, and the committee to cooperate with the National Highways 
Association. 

It was voted to refer the financial proposals of the several committees to the 
committee on finance for consideration and report at the next meeting of the 
council. 

It was voted that the historical manuscripts commission be encouraged to 
proceed with its plans for collecting the manuscripts of participants in the 
American Revolution, so far as practicable, but without committing the asso- 
ciation to the expenditure of money. 

The public archives commission was requested to report at the next meeting 
on the practicability of having the proposed " Primer of Archival Economy " 
issued for the association by a publisher. 

Certain questions raised by the chairman of the Justin Winsor prize com- 
mittee with respect to the " Conditions of Award " issued by the Winsor and 
Adams prize committees were considered and acted upon as follows : 

1 It was moved to recommend to the association that the first sentence in 
paragraph 5 of that announcement be amended to read as follows : " The mono- 
graph must not exceed 100,000 words in all" (instead of "should not exceed 
100,000 words in length"). The motion was laid over to give opportunity for 
consultation with the chairman of the publication committee and the chairmen 
of the two prize committees. 



104 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

2. It was agreed that the proposed modification of the suggestions relating to 
the form of the essays was a matter to be dealt with by the prize committees in 
consultation with the committee on publications. 

In the course of the discussion attention was called to the fact that the 
requirement of a critical bibliography was mandatory, arid the secretary an- 
nounced that he would so inform the chairmen of the committees. 

The chairman of the committee on publications having presented a proposal 
for abandoning the present plan of awarding the Adams and Winsor prizes, it 
was voted that the subject be placed on the docket for the November meeting 
of 1917. In the meantime, the president was authorized to appoint a committee 
to consider and report upon the whole subject The chair appointed Messrs. 
Dunning, Leland, and Phillips. 

The editor of the reprints of original narratives of early American history 
reported that the forthcoming volume, to be issued early next year, would be 
the concluding number of the series. 

The chairman of the committee on a bibliography of modern English history 
having reported the continuance of conditions which prevented further progress 
at this time, it was voted that the work of that committee be suspended, as 
during the past year. 

Mr. Jameson reported the receipt of a gift from Mr. Dwight W. Morrow of 
$150 to be applied by the association for the maintenance of the association 
headquarters in London The treasurer of the association was authorized to 
pay this sum to the treasury of the London headquarters. 

It was voted to continue the committee appointed last year to cooperate with 
the National Highways Association. 

The determination of the printed matter to be distributed at the annual meet- 
ing of the association was referred to the committee on finance with power to act. 
It was voted that the president of the association with three other members 
of the council to be named by him be appointed a committee on appointments 
to report its recommendations at the next meeting of the council. The chair 
appointed as additional members of the committee Messrs. Harding, Haskins, 
and the secretary of the council. 

A communication was received from the University of Pennsylvania, through 
its provost, Dr. Edgar F. Smith, inviting the association to hold its annual meet- 
ing of 1917 in Philadelphia. In accordance with the resolution adopted by the 
council, November 28, 1914, it was voted to recommend to the^ association that 
the invitation be accepted and the meeting be held in Philadelphia accordingly. 
It was voted that Prof. E. P. Oheyney be appointed chairman of the program 
committee. 

After some informal discussion it was voted to recommend that a committee 
be appointed to consider the place of meeting of the association in 1918. Messrs. 
Turner, Bowen, 1 and Dunning were appointed as such a committee. 

The proposal that the November meetings of the council be held in alternate 
years in the East and in the West was discussed, and the sense of the members 
was taken informally. It was voted that the committee on finance be instructed 
to consider the proposal and report at the next meeting of the council on the 
feasibility of such a meeting in the West in November, 1917. 

It was voted that Mr. Leland be requested to draft a memoir concerning the 
probable future of the work of the council and the projects of rearrangement 
of the time and place of meeting to meet the situation, and that this memoir be 
communicated to the members of the council at Cincinnati. 

Mr. Jameson reported briefly on the " Writings on American History " and the 
importance of the continued support of that publication by the association. 

*Mr. Bowen having declined service, the president appointed Mr. Harding. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING* 105 

It was voted, to defer for consideration at the next meeting of the council the 
proposed publication of the list of members and quarterly bulletin. Similar 
action was taken on the request of the conference of historical societies for a 
survey of historical agencies. 

In response to a request from the Pacific coast branch for the appointment 
of a committee on college instruction in history, the secretary was instructed 
to say that the council, though interested in the proposal, does not at present 
see its way clear to organize a new committee. 

Mr. J. A James, chairman of the former committee of eight on history in 
elementary schools, having proposed a revision of the report of that committee, 
it was- similarly voted that the council does not see its way clear to organize 
such a committee at this time 

The secretary of the council was authorized to send to the members of the 
council copies of such reports of council committees as might appear important 
for consideration in advance of the next meeting 

The importance of increasing the financial resources of the association was 
informally discussed, and the subject was referred to the committee on finance 
for consideration and report. 

The secretary of the council was requested to convey to the authorities of 
Columbia University the thanks of the council for their hospitality in provid- 
ing a place of meeting 

It was voted that the next meeting of the council be held at Cincinnati on 
Wednesday, December 27, at twelve o'clock, noon 

The council, having continued its session through the lunch hour, adjourned 
at 5 p. m. 

EVAETS B GKEENE, 
Secretary of the Council. 

MINUTES OP THE MEETING- OF EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OP THE 
AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION HELD AT THE HOTEL 
SINTON, CINCINNATI, DECEMBER 27, 1916. 

The council met at 1230 p. m., with President Burr in the chair. Present: 
Messrs. G S Ford, Phillips, Barker, Harding, Leland, Jameson, G. B. Adams, 
Turner, MacLaughlm, Dunning, and the secretary. Mr E. B. Krehbiel also at- 
tended as a delegate for the Pacific Coast Branch. 

The report of the committee on appointments was received, and adopted, 
with amendments, and with the understanding that the selection of the gen- 
eral committee be referred to the two secretaries with power to act. The 
list of committee assignments follows 

Historical manuscripts commission. Gaillard Hunt, chairman; M. M. 
Quaife, Justin H Smith, 1A& Amos 0. Draper, 1 D. R. Anderson, C. H. Lincoln. 

Committee on the Justin Winsor prize. Carl Russell Fish, chairman; 
Everett Kimball, E. S Corwin. W E Dodd? Oswald G. Villard 

Committee on the Herbert Baxter Adams prize Laurence M Larson, chair- 
man ; Sidney B Fay, Louis J. Paolo w, Ruth Putnam, R. H Lord. 

Public archives commission. Victor Hugo Paltsits, chairman ; Clarence W. 
Alvord, Solon J. Buck, John C Fitzpatrick, George S. Godard, Thomas M. 
Owen, 0. N. Fuller, Peter Guilday. 

Committee on bibliography. George M. Butcher, chairman; William T. 
Laprade, Albert H, Lybyer, Wallace Notestein, William W Rockwell, Augus- 
tus H, Shearer, William A Slade, Bernard C. Steiner, H. E. Bolton. 

1 Names of new members in italics. 

*F. H. Hodder appointed in place of W. E Dodd, wlio declined to serve. 



106 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

Committee on publications. H. Barrett Learned, chairman; George M. 
Dutcher, Carl Russell Fish, Gaillard Hunt, J Franklin Jameson, Laurence M. 
Larson, Victor Hugo Paltsits, W. G. Leland, E B. Greene. 

General committee. 1 William E. Lmgelbach, chairman; Eloise Ellery, Irene 
T. Myers, Paul F. Peck, Royal B Way, W. G. Leland, W. A. Morris, R. P. 
Brooks, R H George, P J. Healy, E. M. Hulme, C. R. Lingley, Eleanor Lord, 
J P. JttcConnell, A E. McKinley, F. E. Jttelvm, R. C, B alia? d-Thrus ton, with 
power to add to their membership. 

Committee on history in schools. Henry Johnson, chairman; Victoria A. 
Adams, Henry E Bouine, Henry L. Cannon, Oliver M. Dickerson, Herbert D. 
Foster, Samuel B. Harding, Robert A. Maurer, Nathaniel W. Stephenson, 
Philip Chase, D. C. Knowlton, A C. Krey, R M. Tryon, W. L. WestO'nuatm. 

Conference of liisloiieal societies A H Shearer, secretary. 

Advisory board of tJte History Teachers Magazine Fred M. Fling, James 
Sullivan, reelected for three years, from January 1, 1917. 

Editor of the American Historical Review. Carl Becker, to succeed himself 
for the term of six years, beginning January 1, 1917. 

Committee on program. J. B McMaster, chairman ; H. V. Ames, vice chair- 
man ; J. H. Breasted, W. L. Fleming, H L Gray, C J H. Hayes, A. E McKm- 
ley, D. C. Munro, A. H. Shearer (ex ofiicio). 2 

Committee on local at'tangements, thirty -third annual meeting. Goor^o W. 
Pepper, chairman ; W E Lmgelbach, vice chairman ; A. C Howland, H. W. 
Kelsey, J J Van Nostrand, with power to add to their membership. 

Committee on cooperation mth the National Highways Association.- -A. B. 
Hulbert. 

The resolution proposed by Mr Vincent, respecting the attendance of <om- 
niittee chairmen at the council meeting in November, was considered, and In Id 
on the table. 

Voted, that there be a subscription dinner of the council on the occasion of 
the November meeting 

It was voted as the sense of the council that the term of office of ottl^ors and 
members of the executive council chosen at any given meeting be for th ^ our 
terminating with the close of the next annual' business meeting of the asso- 
ciation. 

It was voted that the general committee be designated henceforth as the 
committee on membership. 

It was voted to recommend to the association that at future annual meetings 
of the association, beginning with 1917, a registration fee of 00 cents be 
charged, to cover such expenses of those meetings as are borne by the asso- 
ciation. 

The estimate of expenditures for 1917 was approved, as follows: 
Estimated income : 

Annual dues $7, 900 00 

Life members' fees 100. 00 

Publications 500, 00 

Royalties 200* 00 

Investments 1, 100, 00 

Gifts 300.00 

Miscellaneous 50 00 

Registration fees ^ 150, 00 



10, 800. 00 

Unexpended appropriations, 1916 1, 288. 83 

$11, 588, 83 

1 Name changed to committee on membership 

3 List of members at agreed upon after ^consideration at the meeting ot the council, 
Dec. 29. 



THIETY-SEOOETD ANNUAL MEETING. 107 

Estimated expenditures : 

Secretary and treasurer $1, COO 00 

Executive council 300 00 

Secretary of the council 50 00 

Committee on nominations 50 00 

Pacific Coast Branch 50 00 

Committee on program, 1917 150 00 

Conference of historical societies 50 00 

Committee on publications 724 84 

Editorial services 250. 00 

Cumulative index 1, 000 00 

American Historical Review 4, 500 00 

Historical mamismpts commission 150 00 

Public archives commission 50 00 

Committee on menibeiship 75 00 

Committee on bibliography 10 00 

Committee on history in schools 50 00 

Adams prize 200 00 

Writings on American history 200 00 

History Teacher's Magazine 200 00 

Special committee on finance 50 00 

Held m trust 525 00 



10,234 84 

Overcharges, 1916 744 16 

Bills payable, Dec. 19, 101G. 318. 21 

11, 297. 21 



Estimated surplus 291 - ^ 2 

It was voted that, in case of emergency, the standing committee on finance 
be authorized to transfer funds from one item in the budget to another and 
that no such transfer be made without such authority 

It was voted that when the council adjourns it adjourn to meet at 12 m. on 
Friday, December 29, in parlor G, Hotel Smton. 

It was voted that the repoits of the Winsor prize committee and of the board 
of editors of the American Historical Review be presented by their respective 
chairmen. 

It was resolved that the executive council report to the association that, 
in view of the desirability of a quarterly bulletin, the council is prepared to 
proceed with the publication of such a bulletin provided it may be done without 
involving an excess of the association's expenditures over its revenues for the 
coming year The council suggests that an immediate effort be made to raise 
for this purpose a guarantee und of $300 

On behalf of a special committee appointed to consider various proposals 
of the conference of historical societies, Mr. Leland presented a report, which 
was acted upon as follows : 

I It was voted to authorize the continuation of Griffin's Bibliography through 
the year 1915 or later on a plan similar to that followed by Mr. Griffin, but 
excluding all reprints of articles otherwise noted, and the publication of this 
continuation as Volume II of the annual report being published at the time 
of its completion. It was further voted that the generous offer of the Newberry 
Library of Chicago to cooperate with the association to the extent of allowing 
Dr. A. H Shearer, of its staff, to compile the proposed continuation be grate- 
fully accepted, and that the thanks of the association be extended to the New- 
berry Library for this service. 

II It was resolved that the council looks with favor on the plan to issue 
a handbook of historical societies and that the subject be placed on the docket 
for the meeting of the council in November, 1917. 



108 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

III. It was voted to recommend to the association the adoption of the follow- 
ing recommendations respecting the conference of historical societies: 

(1) That the conference of historical societies be recognized as a semi- 
independent organization under the auspices of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation. 

(2) That its secretary be appointed by the council of the association and 
have the rank and functions of a committee chairman, reporting annually to 
the association. 

(3) That the conference appoint such other officers and committees as it 
may find expedient. 

(4) That the conference he supported by an annual assessment upon each 
society that becomes a member of it, such assessments to be upon the basis 
of 1 cent for each member of such societies, but no society to be assessed 
more than $10 nor less than 25 cents Commissions, State departments, surveys, 
etc , not organized as societies, to pay an annual fee of $5. 

(5) That the conference have control of its own funds, but shall furnish 
an annual report of its expenditures and receipts to the association. 

(6) That the chairman of its program committee, or such officer as may 
be charged with the preparation of its program, shall be ex officio a member of 
the program committee ol l the association. 

(7) That the conference prepare, as soon as possible after the annual meet- 
ing of each year, a report of its proceedings, together with such bibliographical 
and statistical information as it may collect. 

(8) That all publications of the conference be passed upon by the associa- 
tion's committee on publications and be issued under the auspices of the asso- 
ciation. 

(9) That, finally, an appropriation of $50 for 1937 be made for tho inci- 
dental expenses connected with the reorganization of the conference (Such 
an item was included in the budget for 1917.) 

Mr. McLaughlm was appointed to represent the council at the con Terence of 
historical societies. 
Adjourned. 

EVABTS B. GKKENE, 
Secretary of the Council. 

MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE 
AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION HELD AT THE HOTEL 
SINTON, DECEMBER 39, 1916. 

The council met at 1230 p. m. The chair was taken at different times by 
ex-President W. A. Dunning and* First Vice President William K. Thayor. 
Other members present: Miss Salmon, Messrs. Barker, Bourne, G, S. Ford, 
Harding, Phillips, Leland, Burr, Jameson, McLaughlin, Turner, and the secre- 
tary. Mr. EL' B. Krehbiel also attended as the representative of i\n> PucUlc 
coast branch. 

On reconsideration of the membership of the program committee, it was voted 
that Mr. J. B. McMaster be appointed chairman for the Philadelphia meeting 
and Mr. H. V. Ames vice chairman, and that the other members 'of the com- 
mittee be as agreed upon m the session of December 27. 1 

The secretary of the council reported the membership of the general com- 
mittee, 1 as agreed upon by the special committee which had been appointed with 
power to act 



* For the final list ot this committee see the minutes of Dec. 27* 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 109 

It was voted to indorse the proposal for a "Residence center for higher 
studies " in Washington. 

It was voted to send the thanks of the council to Mr. Justin H. Smith, of 
Boston, for his gift of $150 to be used m furthering the work of the historical 
manuscripts commisson. 

It was voted that the council approve the suggestion of the treasurer looking 
to an increase in the endowment of the association, and refer the details of 
procedure to the council committee on finance with power to act. 

It was voted as a recommendation to the association that the annual meeting 
of 1918 be held in Minneapolis. 

It was voted as the sense of the council that the annual meeting of 1919 be 
held m New Haven. 

The secretary of the association presented an invitation to participate in the 
International Congress of History and Bibliography to be held in Buenos Aires 
in 1922. It was voted to refer this invitation to a special committee, to be 
appointed by the chair, for the purpose of suggesting appropriate methods of 
cooperation by the association m the plans of the proposed congress. 

It was voted that the subject of the adjustment of the ^financial procedure of 
the council to the votes adopted by the association at its annual meeting on 
December 28 be referred to the council committee on finance for consideration 
and for report at the next meeting of the council. It was voted further that 
the committee on finance be empowered to act on those matters in which imme- 
diate action appears appropriate. 

The secretary of the association presented a memoir proposing a system of 
standing committees designed (1) to distribute the work of the council among 
its members, (2) to secure a more effective preparation of business for consid- 
eration by the full council, (3) to provide for the exercise of certain executive 
powers in the intervals between meetings of the council. The council thereupon 
voted to establish four standing committees, with duties and powers as follows : 

1 Committee on finance. Duties Consideration of all matters of finance and 
financial methods ; the preparation of estimates of income and expeditures ; the 
consideration, from the financial point of view, of all appropriations asked for ; 
the final preparation of the budget, after action by the council. 

Powers : To prescribe methods of accounting ; to transfer credits from one 
appropriation to another; to authorize expenditures against a contingent or 
miscellaneous appropriation ; to perform such acts pertaining to the finances of 
the association as may be made necessary in the event of an emergency which 
can not await action by the full council. 

2 Committee on the docket. Duties Preliminary consideration of reports of 
committees; preliminary consideration of all new business; distribution to 
members of the council prior to its principal meeting of a rsum of committee 
reports and of new business ; preparation of the dockets of the council meetings 
and of the business meetings of the association ; to formulate procedure. 

Powers : To render temporary decisions in questions of procedure, or of the 
interpretation of the constitution and of the votes of the council or association ; 
to set the times for receiving reports from the committees, etc., of the asso- 
ciation 

3. Committee on meetings and relations, Duties: To receive all invitations 
to the association respecting the annual meeting, reporting thereon, with recom- 
mendations ; to make recommendations to the council respecting the times and 
places of its meetings ; to consider all matters involving relations or coopera- 
tions with other societies, institutions, etc. * 

Powers : To cause to be made the necessary arrangements for the meetings 
of the council ; to appoint, between meetings of the council, delegates and repre- 



110 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

sentatives to meetings, congresses, celebrations, etc. ; to authorize the president 
to call extraordinary meetings of the council. 

4 Committee on appointments. Duties * To make recommendations to the 
council respecting appointments to committees, commissions, etc 

Powers . To fill vacancies in committees, etc , between meetings of the council. 

The above committees shall he named by the president as soon as possible 
after the annual business meeting Each committee shall include at least one 
elected member of the council and such of the olliceis as may be appropriate 
for the eflective conduct of its business 

It was voted that the next meeting of the council bo held at New Yoik on 
Saturday, December 1, at 10 a. m 

It was voted that the council committee on finance be empoweicd to take the 
necessary steps for the publication ol a quarterly bulletin 

It was voted that an item appropriating $250 he added to the budget adopted 
on December 27, for the purpose of establishing a quarterly bulletin 

It was voted that the council committee on finance be authoiizccl to act for 
the council in carrying into eflect the votes of the association at its meeting 
of December 28 respecting the transfer to the association of the American 
Historical Review 

The council adjourned at 3.30 p. m. 

EVAIITS B GREENE, 
Secretary of the Council. 

SPECIAL KEPORTS PBESENTED TO THE EXECUTIVE COTTNCIL. 

1. MEMOIR ON THE OKGANIZATION OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL.* 

At the meeting of the executive council in New York, on December 2, 1010, 
it was voted that the undersigned " be requested to draft a memoir concerning 
the probable future o the work of the council and the pi ejects of rearrange- 
ment of the time and place of meeting to meet the situation, and that this 
memoir be communicated to the members of the council at Cincinnati." 

In the memoir here presented it has been assumed that the amendments to 
Articles V and VI of the constitution, to bo voted on at the animal business 
meeting on December 28, 1916, will be adopted. Article V, as amended, provides 
that the council shall be composed of the officers of the association (seven in 
number), of eight elected members, and of the tormor presidents; but a form or 
president is entitled to a vote in the council only for the three years succeeding 
the expiration of his term as president. 

Article VI defines the duties of the council as follows : 

The executive council shall conduct the business, manage the property, and 
care for the general interests of the association In the exercise of its proper 
functions the council may appoint such committees, commissions, and boards 
as it may deem necessary The council shall make a full report of its activities 
to the annual meeting of the association The association may by vote at any 
annual meeting instruct the executive council to discontinue or enter upon any 
activity, and may take such other action in directing the affair's of the associa- 
tion as it may deem necessary and proper. 

From the wording of the above article, from the general tenor of the report 
of the committee of nine, and from the practice of the association it is clear 
that the latter, while holding the council accountable to it for all its acts, 
nevertheless expects and desires it to exercise all executive powers except as 
they may be limited by the, constitution, by express legislation, arid by the 
exercise on the part of the association of the powers of initiative and veto. 



1 Acted upon at the meeting of Dec. 29, 1916. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. Ill 

The problem, therefore, is to determine the form of organization and the 
time and place of meeting that will enable the council most effectively to 
perform the duties and exercise the powers intrusted to it. 

I. ORGANIZATION. 

The general practice of the council has long been to transact all business as 
a committee of the whole Nearly all matters have come directly before the 
full council and have been discussed ab mitw in all their aspects. Special 
committees of the council have, however, frequently been appointed for the 
fuller consideration of specific matters. For some years it has been the practice 
to name a committee on appointments at the November meeting, whose duty 
it has been to make suggestions to the council at the December meeting respect- 
ing appointments to the committees and commissions of the association. In 
the same way, since 1912, a committee on the budget has been appointed, to 
which have been referred all requests for appropriations A year ago this 
latter committee was expanded into the present committee on finance. 

In place of the present rather desultory form of organzation I recommend 
that a system of standing committees be adopted. 

The object of such a system is threefold: (1) To effect distribution of the 
work of the council among its members , (2) to prepare m a more effective man- 
ner, for consideration by the full council, the various matters of business; (3) 
to provide for the exercise of certain executive powers between meetings of the 
council. 

The standing committees should be four in number with duties and powers 
as follows : 

1. Committee on the budget Duties Consideration of all matters of finance 
and financial methods ; the preparation of estimates of income and expendi- 
tures , the consideration, from the financial point of view, of all appropriations 
asked for ; the final preparation of the budget after action by the council 

Powers * To prescribe methods of accounting ; to transfer credits from one 
appropriation to another; to authorize expenditures against a contingent or 
miscellaneous appropriation ; to perform such acts pertaining to the finances of 
the association as may be made necessary in the event of an emergency which 
can not await action by the full council, 

2 Committee on the docket Duties : Preliminary consideration of reports of 
committees ; preliminary consideration of all new business ; distribution to 
members of the council prior to its principal meeting of a re'sume' of committee 
reports and of new business ; preparation of the dockets of the council meet- 
ings and of the business meetings of the association; to formulate procedure. 

Powers* To render temporary decisions in questions of procedure, or of the 
interpretation of the constitution and of the votes of the council or associa- 
tion; to set the times for receiving reports from the committees, etc., of the 
association. 

3 Committee on meetings and relations Duties To receive all invitations 
to the association respecting the annual meeting, reporting thereon, with recom- 
mendations ; to make recommendations to the council respecting the times and 
places of its meetings; to consider all matters involving relations or coopera- 
tion with other societies, institutions, etc. 

Powers- To cause to be made the necessary arrangements for the meetings 
of the council; to appoint, between meetings of the council, delegates and rep- 
resentatives to meetings, congi esses, celebrations, etc.; to authorize the presi- 
dent to call extraordinary meetings of the council. 

4. Committee on appointments Duties: To make recommendations to the 
council respecting appointments to committees, commissions, etc. 



112 AMEKICA1T HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Powers : To fill vacancies in committees, etc , between meetings of the council. 

The above committees should be named by the president as soon as possible 
after the annual business meeting. Each committee should have on it at least 
two elected members of the council, and such of the officers as are necessary to 
the effective conduct of its business As these committees have executive powers 
the nonvoting members of the council would sit on them only in a deliberative 
capacity. 

II MEETINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 

There should be at least three stated meetings of the council. 

The first should be held as soon as possible after the annual business mooting. 

The second should be held at the most convenient time during the fall, pre- 
sumably as at present, on the Saturday after Thanksgiving 

The third meeting should be held as near the opening day of the annual meet- 
ings as possible. 

The first meeting will allow the council committee assignments to be made, 
the new members to be inducted into their work, and new business to be con- 
sidered without loss of time 

For the second meeting the single day of Saturday should suffice if the pro- 
posed committee system renders effective service. If the time, from 10 o'clock 
to about 5 o'clock, now allotted proves insufficient the expedient might be re- 
sorted to of holding a session on Saturday evening or on Friday afternoon, al- 
though this latter time will probably be required for the meetings of the com- 
mittees. 

For the third meeting of the council special provision should be made by 
the program committee of the association. I believe it to be both practicable 
and desirable to have the annual meetings commence with an evening session 
on December 27, except when that day falls on Saturday or Sunday, in which 
case the meeting of the council could be called for noon or for early in the 
afternoon of December 27, Furthermore, it is desirable that the annual busi- 
ness meeting be not held earlier than two days after the meeting of the 
council, that amount of time being necessary for the preparation of the report 
of the council and for the printing of such matter as may bo distributed at 
the business meeting. 

The committees of the council being small bodies can transact much busi- 
ness by correspondence, and they should be allowed and expected to do so. 
Certain meetings will doubtless be necessary, especially just prior to the council 
meetings of November and December, but the exact times of these meetings 
should be left to the respective committees. 

The question of the place of the November meeting remains to be considered. 
Heretofore that meeting has invariably been held in New York, which has 
probably been the most convenient place for the council as a whole. Wash- 
ington would be an appropriate place for this meeting, especially in view of 
the fact that the principal offices of the association are located there, as re- 
quired by law. The suggestion has been made that meetings sho\il<l be held 
alternately in the east and in the west. Probably, however, it is not desirable 
to adopt any fixed practice. Eather the question should be determined each 
year on the basis of the following considerations : 

1 The travel expense incurred by the 18 voting members of the council. 

2. Train schedules and connections. 

3. The place of the annual meeting; this last factor to be considered so as 
to avoid, if possible, obliging members to make two long trips within the space 
of a single month. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 



113 



The consideration of the factors enumerated above is among the duties of 
the committee on meetings and relations, which should present a brief report 
with recommendations to the voting members of the council not later than 
April 1 of each year. Members should indicate to the chairman of the com- 
mjttee not later than April 15 their opinion respecting the recommendations, 
and the committee should then, taking these opinions into consideration, fix 
upon the place of meeting, notifying all members of the council to that effect 
not later than May 15. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. G. LELAND. 

2. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON A PALACE OF MEETING FOE THE ASSOCIATION 

IN 191S. 1 

The committee is informed that invitations have been received from Atlantic 
City, Baltimore, Chicago, Cleveland, Columbus, Louisville, Minneapolis, New 
York City, Pittsburgh, Providence, St Augustine, St Louis, San Francisco, 
i>nd Springfield, Mass. 

Assuming that the 15 years, 1903-1917, constitutes a reasonable period on 
which to base an estimate of the lelative bunion of travel upon the present 
membership of the association, we find that in that period meetings in the 
various sections defined l>> the United States Census Office are as follows: 

New England, 2- Providence (190G), Boston (1912). 

Middle States, 3* New York (1909), Buffalo (1911), Philadelphia (1917). 

Total North Atlantic, 5 

South Atlantic, 4- Baltimore (1905), Washington and Richmond (1908), 
Charleston and Columbia, S. C (1913), Washington (1015) 

North Central, 5- Chicago (1904), Madison (1907), Indianapolis (1910), Chi- 
cago (1914), Cincinnati (3916), 

South Central, 1. New Orleans (1903). 

Mountain, 0. 

Pacific Coast, A special meeting was held in the summer of 1915 at San 
Francisco m connection with the Panama-Pacific Exposition 

To determine the question of the convenience of the mass of the associa- 
tion's membership and the relative claims of different regions, it is necessary 
to group the membeiship as well as the meetings by sections 

The membership of the association is divided sectionally as shown by the 
following table, which also exhibits the number of 'meetings 1903-1917, inclu- 
sive, and the percentages of the members and meetings * 





Member 


Per cent 


Meetings 


For cent. 


United States .. .. . ........... 


2.739 


100 


15 


100 


New England. . . ... .... . 


486 


17 7 


3 


2U 


Midcllo States . 


658 


2i 


3 


20 


South Atlantic States , . 


328 


12 


4 


26 


East North Central States . . 


61 


21 


5 


33 


West North Central Stato^ 


211 


7 5 








East South Central States ^ 


69 


2.5 


1 





West South Central States 


65 


2 


o 







57 


2 








Pacific States . . 


227 


8 



















1 Acted upon at the meeting of Dec. 29, 1916. 
23818 19 8 



H4 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

Regrouping under other classifications we have: 





Me nbers 


Percent 


Meetings. 


Per cent. 


North Atlantic 




1,144 
397 

901 
1,472 

1,467 


41.7 
14.5 

30 
50 
50 


6 
5 

16 or 7 
39 
6 


40 
33 

40 




South Atlantic and East Soutb. Central 




Area made up of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Del- 
aware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, and West 
"Virginis accessible to "Washington 






Stntss in wliolo or part west of AllesliEnies 









1 Buffalo 

2 Including Buffalo 1, and Washington 2. The former, situated west of the Alle- 
ghanies at the edge of the interior, and the, latter the official headquarters 

The factor of concentration of productive historical scholarship and of 
library and other historical data interesting to visiting members has not been 
taken up, partly because it was difficult to apportion and partly because it is 
important to hold meetings in less active regions for the purpose of stimula- 
tion of historical interest. But the committee are aware that it is a factor 
affecting attendance, as are also the convenience of winter travel, hotel ac- 
commodations, etc. 

Taking up the various sections under more general groupings, the North 
Atlantic States (including the New England and Middle States of the census 
classification), have had about an equal percentage of meetings and associa- 
tion members during the last 15 years. If we go back 20 years and assume 
that no larger proportion of members existed then (i. e. 40 per cent), which is 
probably not the case, the section has had eight of the 20 meetings, or 40 
per cent, almost the same percentage as its present membership. But during 
the last 10 years, while the North Atlantic section as a whole has had four 
meetings, or 40 per cent, New England has had but one meeting, or 10 per 
cent, though its membership is nearly 18 per cent. New Haven has had no 
meeting for 20 years, though Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York 
will by 1917 have each had two and Washington three 

In New England the choice seems to be between New Haven and Spring- 
field. Both are accessible to perhaps 900 or 1,000 members resident within 
about 200 miles of these cities. Springfield has sent invitations from the 
convention bureau of the Springfield Board of Trade setting forth its admir- 
able hotel facilities, the fine municipal group of buildings, including the 
municipal auditorium. It is neighboring to various important colleges, in- 
cluding Amherst, Mount Holyoke, Smith, and Williams, which would prob- 
ably be interested in making such a meeting a success. But it has no his- 
torical department in its own midst, the last New England meeting was in 
Massachusetts, and New Haven has had no meeting for 20 years. New Haven 
would welcome the association, her hotel facilities are now good, and Yale 
is a noted center of historical activities. It seems probable that by the usual 
practice of the association in promoting its officers there will be a New Bag- 
land president in 1918. If an eastern meeting is held the committee prefers 
New Haven. 

In the 15 years the North Central States have had five meetings, or one- 
third of all ; in the 20 years, six, or 30 per cent ; and in the 10 years, three, 
or 30 per cent, while the Buffalo meeting attributed to the North Atlantic 
lies on the boundary between the two sections. The present membership of 
the section is 772, or 28 per cent. But these figures do not fully represent 
the situation, for the 561 members resident in the old northwest, or east north 
central part of the section, have had all of these meetings, or about one- third 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 115 

of the Association's meetings with a little over one-fifth of the association's 
membership, while the west north central or trans-Mississippi Middle 
West have had no meetings, although they possess a membership of 211, or 
about 6$ per cent of the association's and over a fourth of the section's 
membership. 

If the Middle West is to be the location of the next meeting on the basis of 
apportionment of membership and past meetings, it must be by virtue of the 
claims of the part beyond the Mississippi. St Louis would seem to have 
the best claim of any city in that region, by reason of its accessibility, his- 
toric interest, hotel conveniences, libraries, and winter climate. 1 Invitations 
have been received from the historical department of Washington University, 
the State historical society, and various civic organizations 

In the past it has been the association's policy to hold frequent meetings 
at the association's national headquarters It has not been conceived that 
on this account the more considerable number of members m the northeast 
ought to be deprived of their share of meetings. Much of the advantage of 
such meetings is due to the purely regional attendance, and a strict enforce- 
ment of a policy that should credit Washington meetings to the North At- 
lantic section, would prevent proportionate local attendance in the north- 
eastern region, which has much the largest membership of any single section. 
Washington is, in practice, no more accessible to considerable parts of New 
England than it is to large portions of Ohio and Indiana, or the border States 
of the South. The census office classifies it with the South Atlantic States 

If we omit Washington from consideration as being national headquarters, 
and Buffalo as being equally western and eastern, and lying beyond the Alle- 
ghanies, the sections east and west of the Alleghanies having about equal mem- 
bership, the east has had 8 of 20, 7 of 15, and 5 of 10 meetings. Counting Wash- 
ington and Buftalo with the east, the east has 7 of the 10, 9 of the 15, and 13 of 
the 20 meetings. Two important modifying facts should be noted: The Asso- 
ciation's western membership has grown relatively in these years, and it is of 
doubtful utility to add the mountain and Pacific States to the western classifi- 
cation m view of the experience in actual attendance at western meetings from 
these regions. The distance of the Pacific slope especially has caused the mass 
of the members of that section to rely upon the Pacific Coast Branch for meet- 
ings. It is not to be assumed that the Pacific coast would feel that their in- 
terests were immediately or effectively promoted by increasing the proportion 
of middle western meetings. 

Considering the shares of North and South (divided ]py Mason and Dixon's 
line, the Ohio Kiver, and the Missouri Compromise line),, we find that the 
North has about 2,100 members and the South about 640. The South has had 6 
of the 20, or 5 of the 15, or 3 of the 10 meetings selected for consideration. In 
other words, while the South's membership is about 23 per cent, it has had 
between 30 per cent and 33 per cent of the meetings. 

If we omit Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia from considera- 
tion, the remaining southeast of the Mississippi with 218 members, or 8 per 
cent of the association, has had two of the 15 meetings, or 7 per cent, not 
reckoning the Richmond joint meeting with Washington. Or taking all the 
South (east and west, as above) outside of Pelaware, Maryland, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, the membership is not quite 400 (14 per cent), with three 
meetings in the last 15 years, or 20 per cent (counting the Richmond meeting), 
or two in the last 10 years (again 20 per cent). So the South has had its share. 

If we examine another region, the area included in western New York, west- 
ern Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan, the membership is, roughly estimated, 

1 Minneapolis^ invitation was received after this report was drafted. 



116 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



not over 400 The region has had three meetings since 1898 This ipakes its 
percentage both of members and of meetings about 15 per cent for the 20 years. 
In 10 years there have been two meetings, or 20 per cent. It has, therefore, 
had its full share. 

Segregating the Mississippi Valley (construed as the North Central and 
South Central States), it is found to hold about 33 per cent of the association 
(923). During the last 15 years sis meetings have been held therein, or 40 
per cent ; in the last 10 years, three meetings, or 30 per cent, not counting 
Buffalo, which is on the dividing line ; in the last 20 years, 35 per cent. It has 
therefore had its proportion on the basis of distribution of membership. 

Summing up, it seems to the committee that the choice lies between New 
Haven and St. Louis The North Atlantic section has had almost exactly its 
proportion of meetings on the basis of its proportion of members; the North 
Central States, with only about half the membership of the North Atlantic sec- 
tion, have had within one as many meetings in the 15-year period Taking the 
10-year period, these disproportionate sections have had an equal number of 
meetings, provided that we except Buffalo, as on the boundary between the two. 

Even if we should regard Washington and Baltimore as belonging with the 
North Atlantic (which, for reasons already given, does not seem proper), and 
if we omit Buffalo as common to East and West, this enlarged North Atlantic, 
with half the members of the association, will have had m the 20-year period 
12 meetings; in the 15 years, eight; and in the recent 10 (1908-1917, inclusive) 
years, five. 

If we go to New Haven there will be two eastern meetings in succession 
Philadelphia and New Haven. There are precedents for such combinations, 
as New Haven and Boston, 1898-1899 ; Washington and Philadelphia, 3901-1902; 
Baltimore and Providence, 1905-1906; Washington and New York, 1908-1909; 
and perhaps Indianapolis and Buffalo, 1910-1911, should be included 

Respectfully submitted. 

FKEDEKICIC J. TURNER, Chairman. 

REGISTER OE ATTENDANCE AT THE THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL 
MEETING OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, CIN- 
CINNATI, DECEMBER 27-30, 1916. 



Adams, G B. 
Adams, Victoria A. 
Allen, F. H 
Allison, John M S. 
Ambler, Charles H. 
Anderson, Frank M. 
Andrews, Arthur I, 
Asakawa, K. 
Ault, Warren O. 

B. 

Baker, John W. 
Balch, Ernest A, 
Baldwin, James F. 
Bancroft, Frederic. 



Barker, Eugene 0. 
Barss, Katharine G- 
Beard, Charles A. 
Becker, Carl L. 
Beer, William. 
Benjamin, Gilbert G, 
Benton, Blbert J. 
Black, James C. 
Boak, Arthur E. Tl. 
Bond, Beverley W., jr. 
Bonham, Milledge L., jr, 
Boucher, C. S. 
Bourne, Henry H3, 
Bradford, J. B, 
Bramhall, Edith C. 
Brandt, W. I. 
Brooks R. P. 
Buck, Solon J. 



THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 



117 



Burr, George L. 
Byrne, Eugene H. 

C. 

Cahall, Raymond D. B. 
Callahan, J. M. 
Carpenter, Pearl. 
Carpenter, William S. 
Carter, Clarence E. 
Chandler, Charles L. 
Chapman, Charles B. 
Chase, Philip P 
Chitwood, Oliver P. 
Church, Fredeiic C. 
Clark, Arthur H. 
-Clark, Dan E. 
Coleman, Christopher B. 
Collier, Theodore F. 
Collins, Maria C. 
Coohdge, Archibald C. 
Coulter, E. Merton 
Cos, Isaac J. 
Critchley, Bertha M. 
Crofts, Frederick S. 
Cross, Arthur L 
Crothers, Hayes Baker. 
Cumings, Mary M. 
Curtis, Eugene N. 

D. 

Davenport, Frances G. 
Dawson, Edgar 
Dickerson, Oliver M. 
DickorS, Maria P. 
Dilley, Frank B. 
Donnan, Elizabeth. 
Dorris, Jonathan T. 
Dunning, William A. 
Dutcher, George M. 

E. 

Edwards, Martha L. 
Ellery, Eloise. 
Evans, Austin P. 

F. 

Fairbanks, Elsie D. 
Farr, Shirley. 
Fay, Sidney B. 
Fellows, Geo. Emory. 
Fish, Carl R. 



Flick, Alexander C. 
Foote, Elmer L. 
Ford, Amelia C. 
Ford, Guy S. 
Fox, Leonard P. 
Frayer, William A. 
Fuller, George N 

G. 

George, Robert H. 
Gewehr, W. M. 
Gipson, Lawrence BL 
Godard, George S 
Goodman, Byrne P. 
Gould, Clarence P. 
Gregg, Frank M. 
Green, Henry S. 
Greene, Evarts B. 
Greenfield, K. Roberts. 
Greve, Charles T. 
Griffith, Elmer C, 
Grose, Clyde L. 

H. 

Hall, H. Paul. 
Hamilton, J G. do R. 
Harding, Samuel B. 
Harlow, Ralph V. 
Harris, Fielder B. 
Harris, Wilmer C. 
Harvey, A. Edward. 
Haworth, Paul L 
Hayes, Carlton J H. 
Haynes, Geo. H. 
Hazen, Charles D. 
Hedrick, Charles E. 
Henshaw, Lesley. 
Hershey, Amos S. 
Hickman, Emily. 
Hobart, Mrs. Lowell F. 
Hockett, Homer C. 
Hodder, F. H. 
Hoover, Thomas N. 
Hubbell, Geo. A. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 
Hull Charles H. 
Humphrey, E. F. 
Hunt, Gaillard. 

J. 

Jack, Theodore H. 
James, J. A. 
Jameson, J. Franklin* 



118 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 



Jernegan, Marcus W. 
Johnson, Allen. 
Jones, Guernsey. 
Jones, Paul V. B. 



Kellar, Herbert A. 
Kelsey, Rayner W. 
Keogh, Andrew. 
Kerner, Robert J. 
Kmgsbury, Joseph L. 
Klingenhagen, Anna M, 
Knight, George W, 
Krehbiol, Edward. 
Kull, Irving S. 



Lamott, Rev. John H. 
Lander, Charles A. 
Larson, Lawrence M. 
Latane*, John H. 
Latourette, K. S. 
Learned, H. Barrett. 
Leet, Grant. 
Leland, W. G. 
Lindley, Harlow. 
Lingelbach, William E, 
Little, C Roy. 
Lowe, Walter I. 
Lybyer, Albert H. 
Lynch, William O. 

M. 

McClure, C. H. 
McDonald, James G. 
MacDonalcl, William. 
Mace, W. H. 
McGrane, Reginald O. 
McKenzie, Minnie E. 
McKinley, Albert E. 
McLaughlin, Andrew 0. 
McLean, Ross H. 
McMurry, Donald L. 
Macy, Jesse. 
Magoffin, Ralph V. D. 
Marshall, Thomas M. 
Martin, A. E. 
Martin, Thomas P. 
Mathews, Mrs Lois K. 
Middlebush, Frederick A. 
Mitchell, Margaret J. 
Montgomery, Thomas L. 



Moody, V. Alton. 
Moore, David R. 
Moore, J. R. H. 
Moses, Bernard. 
Mowbray, Ralph H. 
Munro, Dana C. 
Muzzey, David S. 
Myers, Irene T. 

N. 

Noble, D. S. 
Notestein, Wallace, 
^ussbaum, F. L. 

a 

Ogg, Frederic A, 
Oldfather, W. A. 
Olmstead, Albert T. 

P. 

Page, Edward C. 
Palmer, Herriott C. 
Paltsits, Victor H. 
Park, James 
Patterson, David L. 
Paullin, C. 0. 
Payne, Charles E. 
Paxson, Frederic L. 
Pease, TheocToie C. 
Pence, Mrs. Gwen J. 
Perkins, Clarence. 
Phillips, "Clinch B. 
Pierson, W. W. 
Plum, Harry G. 
Potter, Mary. 
Pray, Carl E. 
Priddy, Mrs. Bessie L. 
Putnam, Mary B. 



Q. 



Quaife, Milo M. 

R. 

Rammelkamp, C. H. 
Ramsdell, Charles W, 
Randall, James G. 
Reeves, Jesse S. 
Rice, Sara F. 
Riggs, Sara M. 
Riker, Thad W. 
Riley, Franklin L, 
Risley, A. Wood. 
Robertson, James A. 
Robertson, James R* 



THIBTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 



119 



Robinson, Chalfant. 
Robinson, Morgan P. 
Root, W. T. 
Ross, Eaiie D. 

S. 

Salmon, Lucy M. 
Schevill, Ferdinand. 
Schlesmger, Arthur M. 
Schmitt, Bernadotte E. 
Schurz, William Lytle. 
Schuyler, Robert L. 
Scofield, Cora L. 
Scott, Jonathan F. 
Scrugham, Mary. 
Severance, Frank H. 
Seymour, Charles. 
Shearer, Augustus H. 
Shilling, D. C. 
Shipman, H. R. 
Shoup, Earl L. 
Show, Arley B. 
Shultes, Florence. 
Siebert, Wilbur H. 
Sill, Henry A. 
Sioussat, Mrs Annie L. 
Sioussat, St. George L. 
Smith, Ernest A. 
Smith, Justin H. 
Snow, Alpheus H. 
Sparks, Edwin E. 
Steefel, Lawrence D. 
Steele, Esther C. M. 
Stephens, H. Morse. 
' Stephenson, Carl. 
Stevens, Wayne E. 
Stone, Alfred H 
Stone, Mrs. Mary H. 
Stubbs, Adeline A. 
Sullivan, James. 
Swain, J. W. 
Sweet, W. W. 
Swiggett, Glen L. 



Thayer, W. R. 
Thompson, C. Mildred, 
Thompson, Frederic L. 
Thompson, James W. 
Thruston, R. C, B. 
Townsend, H. R. 
Treat, Payson J. 
Trimble, William J. 
Turner, Frederick J. 



U. 



Usher, Roland G. 

V. 

Van Loon, Hendrik W. 
Van Tyne, C. H. 
Violette, E. M. 

. W. 

Walker, Curtis H. 
Walmsley, James E. 
Warner, Clarance M. 
Way, Royal B 
Weber, Mrs. Jessie P. 
Webster, Homer J. 
Westermann, William L. 
White, Albert B. 
White, Laura A. 
White, Paul L. 
Whittlesey, D. S. 
Wilkinson, William J. 
Wing, Herbert. 
Wittke, Carl 
Woodburn, James A. 
Wrench, Jesse E. 
Wyckofe, Charles T. 



Z. 



Zeliqzon, Maurice. 
Zook, George F. 



NONMEMBERS. 



Albray, Sarah A. 
Barnes, C. C. 
Benedict, Ernest M. 
Booth, Dr. E R. 
Burkham, Anne P. 
Cornwell, Mrs. Irene D. 
Dutch, William. 
Gano, John V. 



Goodwin, F. P. 
Guerard, A. L. 
Harrison, Mary T. 
Hering, Hollls W. 
Hubbart, H. C. 
Johnson, George H. 
Jones, Mrs. Robert R. 
Kerr, Eicy C* 



120 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



Kidder, Nathaniel T. 
Kmgsbury, Josepli B. 
Kite, Thomas. 
Kite, Mrs Thomas. 
Mackoy, Harry B 
Morgan, Mrs Arthur D. 
Murdock, Mrs. J. R. 
Neff, S. D. 
Nichols, Edith. 
Oldfather, H. 
Oliver, John W 
Palmer, Martha M. 
Patterson, Burd S. 



Pauly, Mrs. Charles A. 
Perrm, John W. 
Ragsdale, George Til den. 
Rubel, Mrs Henry M. 
Russell, James H. 
Shoemaker, Michael M. 
Southworth, Constant. 
Sparrow, Jackson W. 
Thomas, David Y. 
Trendley, Mary B. 
Vance, Selby F. 
Williams, Cornelia B. 



Register of attendance l>y States. 



States. 


Mem- 
bers 


Non- 
mem- 
bers 


States. 


Mem- 
bers 


Non- 
mem- 
bers. 


Arkansas 




1 


New Hampshire 


3 




California 


6 




New Jersey 


4 




Connecticut 


10 




New York 


27 


1 


Delaware . . 


1 




North Carolina 


2 




District of ColLinibiii 


12 




North Dakota 


1 




Georgia 


2 




Ohio... 


40 


25 


Idaho 


1 




Oklahoma 


1 




Illinois 


29 


2 


Pennsylvania 


12 


2 


Indiana 


18 


4 


Rhode Island 


2 




Iowa 


8 




South Oai oliiia 


1 




Kansas 


2 




Tennessee 


5 




Kentucky 


6 


2 


Texas .... 


3 


1 


Louisiana,.. .. . . 


2 




Utah 


2 




Maryland 


3 




Virginia 


4 




Massachusetts 


16 


1 


West Virginia 


4 




Michigan 


16 


1 


Wisconsin . . 


15 




Minnesota 


6 


1 


Wyoming . . . 


1 




Mississippi 


1 










Missoun 


11 






284 


41 


Nebraska 


1 























II. REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PACIFIC COAST BRANCH 

OF THE AMERICAS HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



SAN DIEGO, CAL., DECEMBER 1-2, 1916. 



By WILLIAM A. MORRIS, 

Secretary of the Branch. 



121 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
PACIFIC COAST BRANCH OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSO- 
CIATION. 



By WILLIAM A. MORRIS, Secretary, 



The thirteenth annual meeting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the 
American Historical Association was held in jS^n Diego December 1 
and 2, 1916. The opening session and the annual dinner, Friday aft- 
ernoon and evening, December 1, were held at the TJ. S. Grant Hotel. 
The Saturday sessions convened on the exposition grounds; in the 
morning at the New Mexico Building ; in the afternoon at the Cris- 
tobal Cafe. Notwithstanding the distance of San Diego from many 
Pacific-coast centers, the meeting was characterized by an unusually 
full and representative attendance of college teachers and officials 
of historical organizations. Local arrangements were ably managed 
by a committee consisting of W. F. Bliss, chairman, Allen H. Wright, 
Dr. N. A. N. Cleven, Mrs. Margaret V. Allen, and Miss Harriet L. 
Bromley. The work of the program committee was organized and 
supervised by the chairman, Robert G. Cleland, who had the assist- 
ance of Edgar E. Robinson, Ralph. H. Lutz,and Herbert L.Priestley, 
and also of Miss Jane E. Harnett, with whom rests the credit of the 
program of the teachers' session. During the Saturday morning 
session the president, Prof. Joseph Schafer, of the University of 
Oregon, was in the chair ; at the first and last sessions the vice presi- 
dent, Prof. Jeanne Elizabeth Wier, of the University of Nevada. 
During a portion of the last session Prof. Robert G. Cleland also 
presided. 

The opening paper of the Friday afternoon session was presented 
by Prof. Waldemar C. Westergaard, of Pomona College, whose sub- 
ject was " The United States iix the Caribbean." Declaring that an 
air of provincial insularity has hitherto surrounded colonial history, 
the speaker showed that by the early seventeenth century Spain was 
compelled to resist colonizing attempts of foreigners in the Carib- 
bean. Among these in the course of the century were even Cour- 
landers and Brandenburgers. While the struggle was in progress 
the natives disappeared. The Spanish longest maintained them- 
selves in St. Lucia and the Windward Isles. The French remained 
the strongest Caribbean power until the English victories of the 

123 



124 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION^ 

War of the Spanish Succession. The history of the bow of islands 
extending from Porto Rico to Trinidad is bewildering. The tenure 
of the larger islands in contrast with that of the smaller has been 
relatively permanent. The flock of settlers who were attracted is 
explained by the wealth of Spain. The buccaneers were practically 
legalized pirates; the private establishment of regular colonies was 
a more respectable means of reaching the same goal. The map 
explains how these isles guarded the routes of commerce between 
the Spanish mainland and Europe. The Darien project of William 
Paterson is an excellent example of such an attempt. After it was 
broken up Spain retained its annual fair at Porto Bello undisturbed. 
Commercial joint stock companies were a means of furthering colo- 
nization. The first of these, the Dutch West India Company, dates 
from 1621 ; the French company from 1636 In the time of Colbert 
the Danes established themselves on the Isle of St. Thomas. The 
labor problem was the great one. No one was too exalted or noble 
t>- refuse to profit from the negro slave traffic. It attracted the 
capitalist's wealth and the widow's mite. The capitalists oi' the 
Barbadoes in the seventeenth century were prominent enough to 
broach representation in Parliament. The presence of Nelson and 
Eodney in West Indian waters is explained by the economic struc- 
ture reared on the sugar industry. The discovery by a French 
scientist of a process which was to replace cane by beet sugar sounded 
the death knell of the West India planter aristocracy. Within a 
dozen years the British garrisons have been withdrawn from two 
islands. The Colossus of the North now looms large. 

The thought of American domination was so far absent that the 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty was not opposed in the United States on na- 
tionalistic grounds. Next came the problem of Maximilian. The 
De Lesseps project consolidated American interest in the canal and 
its failure allayed fears of French domination. Cleveland's cham- 
pionship of Venezuela revealed a surprising patriotic sentiment in 
regard to the Caribbeans. Intervention in Cuba, the annexation of 
Porto Eico, the construction "of an American canal, and American 
control of administration in Haiti and San Domingo have established 
our position. The aggression of European financial interests leads 
the United States to feel the possibility of foreign intervention. In 
the meantime planters are again hopeful and cacao and fruit promise 
new prosperity. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of the paper Prof. 
H. Morse Stephens dwelt on the importance of a knowledge of 
Caribbean history. The history of America includes also the en- 
deavors of France and Spain and of the other interesting peoples 
who settled on the mainland and the islands. American history, so 
Prof. Stephens maintained, is a phase of European history. Spanish 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE PACIFIC COAST BRANCH. 125 

civilization in America was important long before Jamestown, and 
it is important to get rid of the conception of American history as 
a unit. Prof. Herbert E. Bolton was called upon by the chairman 
and spoke to the same effect. He pointed out that while the mam 
stress has hitherto been laid upon a 50 years' struggle between France 
and England the struggle with Spain began practically from the 
settlement of Jamestown, and the Americans were fivals of the 
Spanish in their movement all the way across the continent to Cali- 
fornia. Prof. Bolton also stated that in 1676 the population of the 
little colony of Barbadoes was just twice that of New England, three 
times that of the middle colonies, and 50 per cent larger than that 
of all the southern colonies. The Rev. Joseph M. Gleason, con- 
tinning the discussion, spoke of the romantic details which foster in- 
terest in West Indian history. One of the great tragedies of Irish 
history occurred through the exiling of thousands to the Isle of 
Montserrat. There were large numbers of natives here who spoke 
only Irish. The condemnation of the Jesuit orders was due to their 
commercial success in the West Indies. Prof. F. J. Klingberg advo- 
cated the study of the West Indies, particularly the British Islands, 
to gain historical perspective. 

The second paper of the afternoon, which was given by Prof. Tully 
C. Knoles, of the University of Southern California, was entitled 
"What is nationality?" Prof. Knoles asserted that for hundreds 
of years nation and nationality were one. The leadership of princes 
gave it new connotation and the ties of blood gave way. After 1815 
came a recrudescence of the European state system. The unification 
of Germany was a result of many forces, chief of which was the pas- 
sion for nationality. But while the German Empire is a complex of 
national units it does not include a racial unit. In Belgium where 
there is no unit of kindred there is yet strong national consciousness. 
Switzerland, divided in race and religion, is nationalistic to a degree. 
The virility of Polish nationality is illustrated by the fact that to- 
day it is as strong as ever. Jewish nationality is of a very different 
type. The Jew, a remarkably good citizen and soldier, yet marries 
in his own circle. 

Treitschke and the work of the historian are forces to be reckoned 
with, and economic influence is subtle and potent. The nineteenth 
century is that of the expansion of nationality. National patriotism 
became the national creed. America, through immigration, has re- 
versed the customary process of building nationality. The local 
spirit of foreign groups is overcome by the spirit of liberty, by the 
public schools and the fashion of being American. Jews and Poles 
find intermarriage dissipating their national strength. The develop- 
ment in America of nationalism is along lines contrary to those fol- 
lowed in Europe. The test which has been proposed of giving a 



126 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

man a gun to determine for which power he will fight, so that 
speaker held, is not the test which holds for the United States. 

Prof. E. B. Krehbiel, in discussing the paper, stated that there is 
a very general tendency to confuse nations and nationality. It is 
not language nor race nor religion which makes a nation a unity, 
but common-mindedness, a spiritual unity. If it is true that "a 
nation exists when its component atoms believe it to be a nation," 
intermarriage recedes in importance. Formerly a personal relation- 
ship, loyalty, fealty to man, took the place of patriotism, although 
this was not so true in the church as in civic relations. After the 
French revolution came the spirit of attachment to a group. The 
problem in the United States is that of discovering a soul or pur- 
pose on which we can unite. In the search the speaker hoped there 
would be found an aim international and altruistic. 

The paper of Prof. Levi E. Young, of the University of Utah, 
was on " Town and municipal government in the early days of 
Utah."' Prof. Young stated that the records of meetings of 62 of 
these committees are extant. He compared them to the town meet- 
ings of New England. Both civil and religious matters were dealt 
with at the same session. He cited instances of ward meetings in 
Salt Lake City in 1852, which were called to order by the bishop 
and which considered the setting of shade trees and the supplying 
of water to irrigate them. The stimuli holding people together were 
two religious and economic. These meetings opened with prayer; 
they were held in the meeting houses, but, since every town was on 
a mountain stream, one of the first acts was to measure the water 
and appoint a water master. Industrial towns of southern Utah 
were described as they were organized in the fifties, and it was stated 
that San Bernardino, Cal., was settled in 1847 by Mormons, who 
organized it upon the New England type. The speaker then nar- 
rated an account of the. formal organization of Salt Lake City, which 
received its charter in 1851, touching upon the powers and activities 
of the city council in regard to educational matters. In conclusion 
he cited a petition of the territorial legislature to Congress in 1852 
praying for aid to build a road to San Diego to bring the people 
of Utah into touch with the intellectual life of the Pacific coast. 

In the discussion which concluded the session Prof. Rockwell D. 
Hunt called attention to the fact that the lands described by Prof. 
Young were those through which passed many of the pioneers of 
the Pacific coast. He cited instances to show that the people of Utah 
were far in advance of the Spanish in their recognition of the eco- 
nomic advantages of southern California. In conclusion he held 
that to get a world view a beginning may be made at home and that 
the program of the afternoon showed symmetry and coherence. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE PACIFIC COAST BRANCH. 127 

At the dinner in the evening Prof. H. Morse Stephens presided. 
In delivering the annual address the president of the Pacific Coast 
branch, Prof. Joseph Schaf er, took as his subject " Historic ideals 
in recent politics." 1 His aim was to show how some of the national 
ideals have been changing. The ideal of national isolation, a pre- 
dominant factor in the election of 1898, has been shattered. The 
ideal of national hospitality, which means the taking in of any and 
all who may come to our shores, was held to have carried us to the 
point of threatening our national institutions unless stronger regu- 
lation be placed on the granting of citizenship. The ideal of free 
lands furnished by the Government to become a source of wealth 
for all has given place to the conception that the State shall assure 
business profits to the individual. Finally, Prof. Schaf er maintained 
from statistics of increased acreage value of land that the only 
solution of the problem of agricultural production is the education 
at public expense of men who can farm on a scientific basis. 

Prof. Jeanne E. Wier dwelt upon the relations of Nevada to the 
neighboring States and urged greater cooperation between the States 
of the Pacific coast in the gathering and preserving of historic ma- 
terial, as well as in the preparation of an adequate bibliography. 
Mr. James M. Guinn responded on behalf of the Southern California 
Historical Society, and Mr. George H. Himes, speaking for the 
Oregon Historical Society, described his work of the past 18 years 
in gathering material. The other speakers were Judge M. A. Luce, 
of San Diego, Prof. Rockwell D. Hunt, Prof. Edward Krehbiel, the 
Eev. Joseph M. Gleason, and Allen H. Wright, city clerk of San 
Diego, who presented each guest with an impression of the seal of 
the city and explained the significance of its design. 

The Saturday morning session began with an address on "The 
work of the California Historical Survey Commission," by Owen C. 
Coy, the secretary and archivist of the commission. Mr. Coy ex- 
plained that the members of the body, which was organized October 
9, 1916, are unsalaried, and that its object is not the collection 
of material, but a historical survey. The principal sets of documents 
being examined and listed are the records of the counties since 150, 
United States land offices and other Federal offices, and those of the 
State at Sacramento. The collections of the Bancroft Library at 
Berkeley, of the Southern California Historical Society at Los 
Angeles, and of the San Diego Pioneer Society are also to be exam- 
ined, as well as documents and collections of papers in private hands 
and periodicals in public libraries. The collection of reminiscences 
is another phase of the work. Father Engelhardt offers aid with the 
Benedictine records and Father Gleason with those of the arch- 

1 Printed in the present volume, pp. 459-468. 



128 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

bishopric of San Francisco. The publication of the results of the 
survey will require several volumes, the reports on county record^ 
and newspaper material each filling a volume. 

In his address, "Thirty-three years of historical activity," Mr. 
James M. Guinn, secretary of the Southern California Historical 
Association, gave an account of the work of that organization. Mr. 
Guinn stated that this is the oldest historical association west of the 
Kocky Mountains. The present secretary is one of three surviving 
founders. The society has published 32 annuals and has brought 
out nine volumes of historical material, much of which was in this 
way first put before the public. Its library consists of 5,000 volumes. 
It is doing and has done much to preserve material for future State 
histories. 

At the business session which followed, the committee on nomina- 
tions, consisting of H. E. Bolton, K. D. Hunt, and the Rev. J. M. 
Gleason, reported the following nominees : 

For president, Prof. Edward Krehbiel, of Stanford University ; 
for vice president, Prof. Levi E. Young, University of Utah; for 
secretary-treasurer, Prof. William A. Morris, University of Cali- 
fornia ; for the council, in addition to the above officers, Prof. Oliver 
H. Richardson, University of Washington; Prof. Tully C. Knoles, 
University of Southern California ; Prof. Allen M. Kline, University 
of the Pacific ; Miss Effie I. Hawkins, Berkeley High School. 

The report of the committee was adopted, the secretary was in- 
structed to cast the ballot, and the persons named were declared 
elected for the ensuing year. 

The auditing committee, J. M. Guinn and N. A. N. Cleven, re- 
ported that the accounts of the secretary -treasurer had been inspected 
and were in good order. On motion the report was adopted. 

The committee on resolutions, George H. Himes, F. J. Klingberg, 
and Miss Olive Thompson, reported resolutions commending the 
work of the committee on arrangements, of which Prof. Bliss was 
the efficient chairman, expressing gratitude to the program com- 
mittee, and especially to Prof. Cleland and Miss Harnett, for their 
work in bringing before these sessions such a wide divergence of 
interest and subject matter, commending to public attention the 
work of the California Survey Commission as set forth in tho care- 
fully prepared preliminary report of its secretary and archivist, and 
urging upon every member in California of the Pacific Coast Branch 
of the American Historical Association all possible effort to secure 
appropriations to publish properly the information gained by the 
commission. The report was adopted. 

A special committee consisting of the council was appointed to 
draft an additional resolution in regard to the work of the survey 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE PACIFIC COAST BBAHCH. 129 

commission. Their report, wMch was made and adopted at the 
afternoon session, was as follows: 

t Resolved, That the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation do hereby indorse the excellent work already accomplished and the 
plan of work outlined for the future hy the California Historical Survey 
Commission. 

Furthermore, that the association most earnestly urge the continued support 
of this great project for calendaring the scattered records of our history , and 
that the association impress upon the California public the great fact that 
what has been done will never attain the good end desired unless, through the 
action of our legislature, provision be made to have the results of the survey 
commission's work published. We sincerely trust that this wise action be 
taken as soon as possible. 

Prof. Edward Krehbiel was elected delegate of the Pacific Coast 
branch to attend the meeting of the council of the association to be 
held at Cincinnati in December. 

Miss Jeanne E. Wier moved the appointment of a committee to 
investigate the possibilities of an organized movement for the prepa- 
ration of a bibliography of the history of the Pacific Coast States. 
Prof. H. M. Stephens stated that the main problem is that of ex- 
pense and suggested that the committee should consider the cost of 
clerical work and of publication and also the possibilities of coop- 
eration among universities. The motion was carried, and the per- 
sonnel of the committee was subsequently announced as follows: 
H. E. Bolton, chairman, H. Morse Stephens, Levi E. Young, Miss 
J. E. Wier, George H. Himes, E. S. Meany, the Rev. J. M. Gleason, 
and K. D. Hunt. 

After the adjournment of the business session a tour was made of 
the historical exhibits on the exposition grounds. The collections 
of the San Diego Pioneer Society were first inspected, and the 
curator, Mrs. Margaret V. Allen, gave an address on her work, in 
the course of which was explained the importance of many of the 
choicest articles of the exhibit. A visit was then made to the 
ethnological buildings, through which, in the absence of Mr. Edgar 
Hewett, the director, Mrs. Donald Morgan, conducted the party, 
giving much information in regard to the exhibits, especially those 
illustrating the Maya civilization. 

The first paper on the program of the afternoon session was pre- 
sented by Mr. W. L. Stephens, superintendent of schools at Long 
Beach, on the "Motivation of history in the elementary school." 
Mr. Stephens stated that history in the school aims at a knowledge of 
the past to help the student understand what his fellows are doing 
to-day. It aims at observation and sound judgment, the training 
of the reasoning powers by a study of cause and effect, and the 
making of the citizen. The teachers will also have opportunity to 
23318 19 9 



130 AMEKICAIT HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

give appreciation of perseverance and of moral qualities. In this 
responsibility rests most heavily upon the teacher of the first six 
years. There is here unusual opportunity for visualization. Thei 
motives for study must be formulated if the subject is to have an 
aim. There must be a goal to reach. The importance of concrete- 
ness and dramatic treatment was dwelt upon and a method shown 
of grouping lessons about the setting of problems such as " Stumbling 
upon a continent " and " Trying to get around it." In conclusion, 
it was held to be important to give understanding of some vital 
problems even if some pages of the textbook remain uncut. 

Miss Sara L. Dole, of the Manual Arts High School, Los Angeles, 
in her paper on the " Development of initiative in the high-school 
student of history " held that history is not to be studied merely for 
the past, and doubted whether the history teacher has justified the 
position of the subject in the modern high school. The aim should 
be the making of present-day thinking more concrete, and the under- 
standing of the social situations of to-day, an appreciation on the 
part of the student that life is changing. The speaker held that 
under the present curriculum the student has not a sufficient chance 
to think for himself, and that it is of no use to teach ancient history 
until the student knows the terminology of government and of every- 
day life. Objection was also made to the two-year course in Euro- 
pean history, as making against interest, and instead were advo- 
cated semester courses, each dealing with a single phase of develop- 
ment. Concrete methods were advocated, especially the socializing 
of teaching through the occasional management of the class hour, or 
parts of the class hour, by the class, and through debates and reports 
on topics. The importance of standardizing material equipment 
was urged as well as the agreement by history teachers upon 
standards. 

In the discussion of the two papers the secretary expressed high 
appreciation of what had been said regarding history in the grades, 
and held that the observations made were also applicable to work 
in secondary schools. He doubted the necessity of a general change 
of curriculum in schools and believed that there existed a sufficient 
amount of freedom to allow for specific interests in individual com- 
munities which may call for some modification. He commended as 
a source of initiative on the part of the student the use of supple- 
mentary reading which calls for comparison and powers of judg- 
ment, and urged as a means of holding interest a good variety of 
teaching methods such as had excellently been described in the two 
preceding papers. Mr. Roscoe Ingalls, of the Redondo High 
School, urged the advantages of the supervised study period and 
told of his experience in supervising supplementary reading. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE PACIFIC COAST BRANCH. 131 

The program was continued by the paper of Dr. Frederic W. 
Sanders, of the Hollywood High School, on " Eesearch work for the 
junior college student." After a discussion of the course of study 
in junior colleges, during which he urged the claims of the history 
of American foreign relations, the speaker explained that the term 
" research " as applied to junior college work is questionable. He then 
discussed the process by which written reports are prepared by the 
students in his school, dealing especially with the requirement of a 
formal bibliography and the advantages of such work. In discuss- 
ing the paper Dr. 1ST. A. N. Cleven, of the San Diego Junior Col- 
lege, stated that the aim in the preparation of papers like those just 
described is to carry students on to really creative work. 

In the absence of Prof. E. D. Adams, of Stanford University, who 
was to have spoken on "History teaching in the secondary school 
from the standpoint of the college and university," Prof. Edward 
Krehbiel spoke, dwelling upon the desirability from the college 
point of view of a certain amount of fact learned which may be de- 
pended upon and not duplicated. He also held that it is much 
easier to criticize than to remedy high-school teaching, pointed to 
the advantages which accrue to the college teacher through the pos- 
sibility of varying his teaching program, and in conclusion pointed 
to the possibility of avoiding staleness in the schools by a change of 
method. The meeting then adjourned. 



III. SEVENTEENTH REPORT OF THE PUBLIC ARCHIVES 
COMMISSION, WITH APPENDIXES. 



DECEMBER 27, 1916. 



VICTOR HUGO PALTSITS, Chairman, 
476 Fifth Avenue, New Tori City. 

CLARENCE W. ALYORD, 
University of Illinois. 

SOLON J. BUCK, 

Minnesota Historical Society. 

JOHN C. FITZPATRICK, 
Library of Congress. 

GEORGE S. GODARD, 
Connecticut State Library. 

CHARLES MOORE, 
Michigan Historical Commission. 

THOMAS M OWEN, 
Alabama Department of Archives and History. 



133 



CONTENTS* 



Page. 

Seventeenth report 135 

Appendix A. Proceedings of the seventh annual conference of 

archivists 141 

Appendix B. Report on the condition of the public records of the 

State of New Jersey 165 

Appendix C South America as a field for an historical survey, by 

Charles }. Chapman , 203 

134 



REPORT OF THE PUBLIC ARCHIVES COMMISSION. 



The public archives commission has the honor to submit its report for the 
year 1916 and to make recommendations with respect to its plans for the 
year 1917. 

On June 2, 1916, the printer's copy of the report of the commission for 
1915 was transmitted to the secretary of the American Historical Association. 
It contains an account of the joint session of societies held in Continental 
Memorial Hall, in the interest of the National Archive Building and a sum- 
mary of legislation relating to archives and history during the year 1915, 
deduced from an examination of the session laws of forty-four States. In 
appendixes are presented extensive reports on the public archives of the 
States of California and Vermont. 

Efforts were not lacking in the furtherance of the plan for a national 
archive building The chairman of the commission kept himself in touch 
with Senator Poindexter, while Dr. Jameson and Mr. Leland did what they 
could at Washington, in consultation with persons m authority. The record 
of congressional action is shown below in the summary of legislation during 
the year. Apparently it opens the way for the choice of a site and the adop- 
tion of architectural plans, as well as for the necessary appropriations, since 
it removes the original requirement of inspection of archival buildings in 
Europe and other investigation abroad, betore progress could have been made 
at Washington. 

With the completion of the California and Vermont reports, the commission 
temporarily suspends its activities in this field, in order to concentrate its 
attention upon the Primer of Archival Economy. In the last report we said: 

Materials toward the preparation of a Primer of Archival Economy have 
been secured for five or six chapters. The actual preparation of the Primer 
may now be left to a small subcommittee of the commission, in cooperation 
with contributors. The chief obstacle in the way of its completion is the 
need of a fund for publication. 

The commission is able to report more progress in the presentation of con- 
tributions at the current conference of archivists relating to the housing, 
repairing, and binding, as well as the centralization of archives. A tentative 
report was offered to the executive council at its New York meeting a few 
weeks ago, in which the chairman of the commission presented alternative 
plans for financing the publication of the primer, which, being on file and 
under consideration by the council, need not be repeated here. 

Newspaper accounts told that on January 16, 1916, William Smith Hall, the 
main building of Washington College, at Chestertown, Md., was wrecked by a 
fire. The flames spread rapidly, resulting in a considerable loss of historical 
documents, including some in the handwriting of George Washington. 

In the year 1916 but 20 of the 48 State legislatures held sessions, which were 
generally short, and the legislation enacted was hardly more than the routine 
of appropriation and supply bills. Sundry regulative measures for copying 
records were enacted, but these have no archival significance, as they concern 
only such matters as fees and legal proofs. 

135 



136 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The following acts constitute the small grist of archival legislation enacted 
during 1916 ; this summary has been contributed by Mr. Fitzpatrick : 

United States, ch. 183, June 28, 1916. Be it enacted by the Senate, etc., That 
paragraph 4 of section 21 of the public buildings act, approved March 4, 1913, 
vhich reads as follows : " That before the said designs and estimates are com- 
pleted inspection shall be made under the direction of the Secretary of the 
Treasury of the best modern national archive buildings in Europe, and consulta- 
tion shall be had with the best authorities in Europe on the construction and 
arrangement of archives buildings," be and the same is hereby repealed; and 
the acquisition of a site for a national archives building, and the construc- 
tion of said building according to the terms of said act of March 4, 1913, is 
hereby authorized without such inspection and consultation in Europe. 

Louisiana, act No. 185, House bill 360, approved July 6, 1916. An act to 
amend and reenact section 3 of act 242 of the acts of the general assembly of 
'he State of Louisiana for the year 1912, entitled "An act to declare what 
records, writings, accounts, letters, and letter books and copies thereof shall be 
oublic records; to provide for the examination, copying, photographing, and. 
taking of memoranda for public records, and to authorize certain persons to 
examine, copy, photograph, and take memoranda thereof; to define the duties 
of all persons having the custody of public records ; to provide for the preser- 
vation of all public records ; and to provide penalties for the violation of this 
act." 

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana, 
That section 3 of act 242 of the acts of the general assembly of the State of 
Louisiana for the year 1912 be amended and reenacted so as to read as follows : 

SEC. 3. Be it enacted, etc , That the provisions of this act shall not apply to 
any records, writings, accounts, letters, letter books, photographs, or copies or 
memoranda thereof in the custody or control of the supervisor of public accounts 
unless otherwise provided by law, nor shall the provisions of this act apply to 
any records, writings, accounts, letters, letter books, photographs, or copies or 
memoranda thereof in the custody of or the control of the examiner of the State 
banks. 

SEC. 2. Be it further enacted, etc., That all laws or parts of laws in conflict 
herewith be and the same are hereby repealed. 

Massachusetts, ch. 141, approved April 24, 1916. An act relating to the dis- 
posal of certain records and accounts of the State Board of Agriculture. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

SECTION 1. The records and accounts formerly kept by the State Board of 
Agriculture under the provision of section 4 of chapter 210 of the acts of the 
year 1891, which chapter was repealed by section 10 of chapter 1905, may be 
destroyed or otherwise disposed of by order of their lawful custodian, and any 
proceeds received in the course of their disposal shall be paid into the treasury 
of the Commonwealth 

SEC. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Rhode Island, chapter 1397, approved April 14, 1916. An act in amendment of 
section 2 of chapter 645 of the public laws passed at the August session A. D. 
1910, entitled "An act creating the office of State record commissioner as 
amended by chapter 822 of the public laws, passed at the January session 
A. D. 1912." 

It is amended by the general assembly as follows : 

SECTION 1. Section 2 of chapter 645 of the public laws, passed at the August 
session A. D. 1910, entitled " An act creating the office of State record commis- 
sioner as amended by chapter 822 of the public laws, passed at the January 
session A. D. 1912," is hereby further amended so as to read as follows : 

" SEC. 2 Said record commissioner may appoint a deputy record commis- 
sioner, and may employ a clerk at an annual salary for such clerk of not ex- 



SEVENTEENTH REPOBT OF THE PUBLIC ABOHIVES COMMISSION. 137 

ceeding $700, and may incur such expenses as may be necessary in the proper 
administration of his office, but not to exceed the sum of $100 annually ; and a 
sum not exceeding $800 shall be annually appropriated to pay the salary of such 
clerk and for said expenses ; and said sum or so much thereof as may from time 
to time tee required shall be paid upon properly authenticated vouchers ap- 
proved by the secretary of state. 

" SEC. 3. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act dunng the 
fiscal year ending December 31, 1916, the sum of $200, or so much thereof as 
may be necessary, be, and the same hereby is, appropriated out of any money in 
the treasury not otherwise appropriated; and the State auditor is hereby di- 
rected to draw his orders upon the general treasurer for the payment of said 
sum, or such portions thereof as may from time to time be required upon re- 
ceipt by him of properly authenticated vouchers approved by the secretary of 
state. 

" SEC. 4 This act shall take effect upon its passage and all acts and parts of 
acts inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed " 

The proceedings of the seventh annual conference of archivists, including all 
the papers prepared for the occasion, are printed as Appendix A. 

Appendix B consists of a " Report on the condition of the public records of 
the State of New Jersey" prepared by a committee of citizens of that State 
during the present year for presentation to the legislature and printed as a 
State document It has been compiled for the purpose of calling the attention 
of the legislature to the necessity of making adequate provision by law for the 
preservation and administration of the State archives It will serve to supple- 
ment the admirable report on " The Public Archives of New Jersey," prepared 
by the late William Nelson, which was printed by this commission in the Annual 
Report of the American Historical Association for 1903, Volume I, pages 479-541, 
and it is hoped that its publication in the present connection may aid not only 
in serving the special purposes for which it was prepared, but also in calling 
attention in other States to the dangers which threaten the public archives 
unless adequate provision is made for their proper preservation. The thanks 
of the commission are due to the committee for permission to reprint its report. 
Appendix C consists of " South America as a field for an historical survey," 
by Dr. Charles E Chapman. It is a summary account of some of the principal 
bodies of archives m Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile, and Lima. 
Respectfully submitted. 

VICTOE HUGO PALTSITS, Chairman. 

CLAKENCE W. ALVOKD, 

SOLON J BUCK, 

JOHN C. FITZPATRICK, 

GEORGE S. GODARD, 

CHABLES MOOBE, 

THOMAS M. OWEN. 



APPENDIX A. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH CONFERENCE OF ARCHIVISTS. 



139 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 

OF ARCHIVISTS. 

The Seventh Annual Conference of Archivists was held in the 
Hotel Sinton, at Cincinnati, Ohio, on Wednesday afternoon, Decem- 
ber 27, 1916, at 3 o'clock. Owing to the poor railroad facilities the 
chairman and other members of the commission, as well as intended 
participants in the conference, arrived in Cincinnati many hours 
behind schedule; in fact, after the conference had adjourned. It is 
evident that no Nation-wide conference should ever again be held on 
the first afternoon of the annual meeting of the American Historical 
Association. The chairman traveled with a contingent from New 
York in a special bar, with councilors aboard, and therefore had 
every reason to believe that he would arrive in Cincinnati hours 
before the conference ; but it took 12 hours to go from Cleveland to 
Cincinnati, and no opportunity was available to communicate with 
headquarters. 

In the absence of the chairman, as stated, Dr. Solon J. Buck, a 
member of the commission, presided. The original program, as 
printed, could not be carried out, therefore Dr. Buck announced a 
rearrangement. The following abstract of the stenographic report 
shows the order that was followed, and to it are added the complete 
papers of Mr. Simon, Mr. Berwick, and Dr. Pease. 

A paper prepared by Louis A. Simon, of the Office of the Super- 
vising Architect in the United States Treasury Department, entitled, 
" Some considerations on the housing of archives," was read in his 
absence by C. Oscar Paullin. In the discussion which ensued the 
following gentlemen participated : James Sullivan, of Albany, N. Y. ; 
Gaillard Hunt, of Washington, D. C. ; George N. Fuller, of Lansing, 
Mich. ; Thomas P. Martin, of Cambridge, Mass. ; Milo M. Quaif e, of 
Madison, Wis.; and the acting chairman. This discussion resolved 
itself rather into a debate over the accumulation of archives and the 
problem of deciding what papers may or may not be destroyed under 
official supervision. The debate brought out a diversity of opinion, 
yet led to no unanimity of plan. 

A paper on " The problem of archive centralization with reference 
to local conditions in a Middle Western State," by Theodore Calvin 
Pease, of the University of Illinois, was read in person. The acting 
chairman, in announcing the paper open for discussion, said : " The 
general subject of the centralization of local archives is one that 
archivists will certainly have to face in this country before very long, 
and it has been faced, I understand, in some European countries; 
but there seems to be very little sentiment in this country in favor of 

141 



142 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

transferring considerable bodies of archives from their original de- 
pository to a central building. Does any one care to discuss this 
subject?" 

Mr. MARTIN. I am just wondering how many of the States have 
recently given any explicit authority to any body or any official 
in the State for the transfer of material of this kind from the coun- 
ties to any central government point in the State. I just ask for in- 
formation. 

The ACTING CHAIRMAN. There are a number of States where such 
powers have been given. So far as I know, in no State has the cen- 
tralization actually taken place to any extent, with the exception of 
Connecticut, where a considerable quantity of local court records 
have been centralized in a central locality ; otherwise I do not know 
of any State in the Union where any progress has been made. 

A DELEGATE. The Connecticut movement has been brought about 
by the effort of local historical societies. 

Mr. SULLIVAN. The law of New York permits the records to be 
sent to Albany. There has been quite a quantity sent to us. I can 
not say they are of much value; they are largely chattel mortgages, 
conditional bills of sale, and vouchers. If we are going to start in 
and preserve them for future history, we are going to start in the 
preservation of personal property. The State education building at 
Albany, which is very large, is not large enough to store this mate- 
rial from all the counties in New York. 

THE ACTING CHAIRMAN. Who has the authority to determine what 
shall be sent in county authorities? 

Mr. SULLIVAN. They have to get the consent of the Superintendent 
of Education. We can, if we wish, order them to send any of the 
records we deem fit to be sent there. Some of them have, without 
asking us, boxed them up and sent them. We did not want them. 
We prefer telling them that they can destroy certain archives. They 
do not wish to do that. By virtue of an advertisement which came 
out in the newspapers with reference to the minutes of a town board, 
one volume of which was sold for $500, and then went to $5,000, they 
find it important to keep such documents. We have not physical 
room to take care of all the records of the counties, towns, and vil- 
lages if they all decide to send their archives to us. 

Mr. MARTIN. Is not it possible to draw a line between two kinds of 
records? When the towns were first organized they kept their rec- 
ords ; later, when the State government required records to be kept, 
you copied certain information on a certain form and made a re- 
turn. After the return is made and the record is kept in the State 
department, what is the use of keeping the local record ? 

Would it not be well to collect the records previous to 1800? I 
worked some in Vermont and found IP local towns, as, for instance. 



CONFERENCE OF ARCHIVISTS. 143 

at Williston, that the town clerk has no office except in his own 
house, which is an old farmhouse, subject to all the clangers of de- 
struction. Something ought to be done to compel him to surrender 
those records to some central archive for care at least, until the 
town can take care of them. 

Mr. QUAIFE. I think when records are destroyed a few of them 
should be preserved. Ten thousand would not be much more valuable 
than half a dozen. 

Mr. SULLIVAN. You ought to keep sufficient documents of all classes 
for historical purposes. 

Mr. QTTAIFE. I should like to enquire concerning the local officials 
of New York ; you must have different standards in New York than 
in Wisconsin. 

Mr. SULLIVAN. The local officials are the same as elsewhere; 
human nature is very much the same. One said they made a bonfire 
10 years ago and burned up everything in sight. 'There is respect 
for authority in Albany. The counties are practically all very good 
in keeping their records in fireproof receptacles. Outside of Buffalo 
the cities are very good. They are just as slow as any other parts 
of the country in making returns. It has required endless cor- 
respondence to get any returns from town clerks. They range in 
salaries from $8,500 to $100 a year. The thing which impresses one 
most in examining the town documents is the illiteracy of the town 
clerks. It is most lamentable that we have to deal with that type 
of public official. As long as we regard those local offices either as 
charitable institutions the places where the salary is so low that 
they pass them around and each one feels it to be a burden; or as 
political rewards, as in counties where some clerks receive $5,000 or 
some, as in Albany, have the fee system and get from $11,000 to 
$20,000, things will be unsatisfactory. In places where they are kept 
on salaries they are almost always kept year after year and become 
very expert. In cases like Albany they are usually allowed to hold 
the office two terms; then the party, thinking they have accumulated 
sufficient to pay the party debt, lets the office go to another member 
of the party. The present clerk was formerly a senator in the State. 
His fees are very large. That is the type of men we have there. We 
do not know how to get rid of them until we change our whole system 
of political government in this country. 

A paper on " The repairing and binding of archives," by William 
Berwick, of the United States Government Printing Office, was in 
the hands of the chairman and unfortunately stranded with him 
en route to the meeting. An impromptu discussion of the subject 
as a stop-gap ensued. A digest thereof follows : 

The ACTING CHAIRMAN. Mr. Gaillard Hunt has brought with him a 
illustrating the work done by Mr. Berwick in repairing manu- 



144 AMEEICAK HISTORICAL A&SOCIATTOtf. 

scripts, and has agreed to take Mr. Berwick's place on the program 
in an informal way. 

Mr. HUOT. The question we have been considering here has been 
about the destruction of archives. Mr. Berwick's paper was about 
how to prevent archives destroying themselves. Mr. Berwick has 
had greater experience than any other man in the United States 
along that line. After the Albany fire he took charge of the sal- 
vage, and more recently he undertook the preservation of some old 
county records. The method he employs in the Library of Con- 
gress goes back to experiments of some 15 years ago, the experi- 
ments having been made first with liquids; but the liquids were 
found to stiffen the paper. Then the plan followed in the Vatican 
by the librarian of the Vatican, of placing the sheet of paper between 
two sheets of crepelme, was tried, and has been adapted to American 
purposes. This book gives an illustration of how the manuscripts 
are preserved. 

Broadly speaking, for archives' preservation there are two great 
schools the one is the German, the other is the Italian school. At 
the head of the German school is Dr. Edwin Pussey, of Dresden. 
He took an invention known as Zapone, first used for preserving 
dispatches, telegrams, or notes that might be sent in bad weather 
from one field to another. Dr. Pussey applied it to manuscripts. I 
have seen in Dr. Pussey's laboratory in Dresden a paper immersed 
in Zapone, and then in water, which had been there for two years. 
The trouble with the original Zapone was that it was highly inflam- 
mable, a sort of liquid celluloid. Dr. Pussey has made improve- 
ments of it; he says it is not now inflammable. While a very im- 
portant invention in its own field, as far as our experience goes, 
Zapone is not a practical means of preserving manuscripts. 

The head of the Italian school is the subprefect of the Vatican, 
Father Franz Ehrle. He invented the method of placing the sheet 
of paper between two sheets of gauze, with paste that has some 
poison in it for the benefit of the bugs. That method, as we apply 
it, is only applicable to paper. As far as our National Government 
goes, there is very little that is on parchment. When the Govern- 
ment started business it was presumed it had parchment, and a 
bureau was established known as the Bureau of Eolls and Libraries. 
They had the Articles of Confederation, but it was assumed that as 
the fundamental documents of Great Britain are rolls, the funda- 
mental documents here would be rolls. As a matter of fact there is 
only one roll in the custody of the United States Government. The 
Articles of Confederation were written on narrow strips of parch- 
ment. The Bureau of Eolls and Libraries ought to be called the 
Bureau of Roll. 



CONFERENCE OF ARCHIVISTS. 145 

Every repairer, after he gets to a point, proceeds to make the 
documents subordinate to himself so that it shall not only be pre- 
served, but shall be an exhibition of his workmanship. I found our 
system had become so elaborate in the United States that when I 
went to Italy and saw the system in vogue in the Vatican, I found 
the lazy Italian turned out ten times as much work as we did in the 
United States. The reason is, our work is superfine. It is all very 
well for a rich collector, who has gotten possession of some choice 
documents or letters, such as those of Lady Hamilton, to turn them 
over to the repairer, the result being a beautiful piece of work and 
fine binding, and the kind of thing to show to a guest after dinner. 
That is not a suitable treatment for an official manuscript. If an 
official manuscript has a hole, it should not be hidden. In the 
Declaration of Independence, among the signatures, there is a hole. 
The hole came right in the middle of Abraham Clark's signature. 
The repairer inlaid a piece and carried over the name of Abraham 
Clark so that you have a perfect signature. That is not our idea 
of the proper preservation of an important document. 

(The book of specimens was then examined by those present.) 

The ACTING CHAIRMAN. If we can come to order for a few minutes 
we will be able to complete the conference, and I think this book 
will be available for consultation when the conference is over. 

I am sure that we are all very much obliged to Mr. Hunt for this 
interesting discussion, and I should like myself to emphasize two 
points which he made one, the importance of taking care, from the 
standpoint of the archivist, that deception is not practised by the 
repairer of manuscripts. I myself have seen manuscripts repaired, 
and the repairers take particular pains that no one could tell whether 
or not the manuscript had been repaired. The other point is, that 
such superfine work as is sometimes done is simply impossible in gen- 
eral work. In the consideration of the preservation and care of our 
rather large collection of manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical 
Society we have to find some less expensive and more rapid method 
for insuring the preservation of these manuscripts. 

I am sure we will all be glad to hear from Mr. Bancroft now. 

Mr. FREDERIC BANCROFT. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, seeing the 
question, the repairing, restoring, and mounting of manuscripts, re- 
minds me of the experience I had in this connection. It was prob- 
ably the beginning of work of this kind, in the United States Gov- 
ernment. It came about in this way. I became librarian of the 
State Department in the summer of 1888. I was librarian ; that was 
the common name; the proper name is the chief custodian of rolls 
and libraries. Mr. Hunt is quite right; it ought to be called the 
bureau of roll. He was one wrong; there were two rolls, one the 
23318 19 10 



146 AMEKTCAST HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

articles of confederation, the other the Constitution of the United 
States, which was in a long tin box. I can not tell, looking back 30 
years, whether my going to read the proof was upon the request of 
Mr. McMaster or not. I asked my assistants where the Constitution 
was. They said it was in the other room the room Mr. Hunt is 
very familiar with. It was in six or eight sheets, each sheet rolled, 
and placed in a round tin box. I was very much shocked at the 
state of affairs I found. You could not take it out without pressing 
it down like that. [Indicating.] I began to make inquiries. My 
assistant said that Mr. Dwight, my predecessor, was going to get 
these repaired ; he was going to get these mounted. I said, " Let us 
do it." I was directly under the assistant secretary of State. I went 
to him and told him the condition and said, " Sha'n't we do some- 
thing?" He said, "Certainly; anything you like. What do you 
suggest? 55 I said, "I do not know anything about it; someone, 
somewhere, knows how to put this in better condition." There was 
no one in the Government service who had had any experience. Do 
you remember, back in 1888, anyone who had mounted manuscripts ? 

Mr. HUNT. I think it was done by the printers themselves. 

Mr. BANCROFT. I found there was one man in Brooklyn who 
knew about it, and also a firm in Philadelphia. I went to see the 
man in Brooklyn, found he was a man of some skill, but not the 
kind of man who ought to be trusted with those documents. I went 
to Philadelphia and saw Fosterman & Nicholson. I immediately 
saw they were experts. * 

[Here followed an explanation of the manner in which Congress 
appropriated $2,000 for the repair work.] 

Mr. Bancroft then said : I went to see Fosterman and Nicholson, 
I told them: " We have but $2,000." Their men drew pretty large 
wages. We needed two or three men. They sent them over and we 
had just enough to pull through that year. I went back; it was 
not so difficult as I expected the second year. When I went back 
the second time I was afraid we would run into difficulties. Mr. 
Nicholson used to come over occasionally. I said : " Mr. Nicholson, 
we may be coming near to the end of our rope unless you agree to a 
certain plan and make the Government feel a little bit independent." 
"What is that?" "It is rather unwelcome to you. You will have 
to teach some one in the Government to do the work." He said 
that was not what the specialists were there for. I said : " Then the 
work will have to stop." He finally consented. We got another ap- 
propriation. They brought two women from the Government Print- 
ing Office and carried on the work. Did not they begin with the 
Madison papers? 

Mr. HUNT. The Continental Congress. 

Mr. BANCROFT. I am certain the Madison papers were begun early. 



CONFEBENCE OF ARCHIVISTS. 147 

Mr. HUNT. First the Continental Congress, then Madison, and 
then Monroe. 

Mr. BANCROFT. I could not say for certain ; it is over 20 years. The 
work was fairly started. It was sent to the Library of Congress. 
They found experts, got additional men, the thing was grafted on 
to the other work, and from year to year the plan has been im- 
proved. Mr. Hunt has doubtless improved on Mr. Ford. And there 
is the whole proposition. 

The ACTING CHAIRMAN. Is there any further discussion on this 
subject of the repairing and binding of manuscripts? Are there 
any further matters to come before the conference at this session? 
If not, I think the conference will be adjourned. 

SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE HOUSING OF ARCHIVES/ 

By Louis A. SIMON. 

Examination of the arrangement of the buildings devoted to 
archives, or of portions of buildings used for that purpose, reveals 
differences of plan that may be ascribed partly to local conditions, 
but in the main must be regarded rather as evidence of the differing 
points of view as to the storage and the manner of handling the 
material placed in the archivist's care. 

From the extensive buildings in which the National archives of 
European Governments are kept, down to the smaller repositories 
for their provincial archives, one finds illustrations of certain guid- 
ing principles which have governed the arrangement adopted in dif- 
ferent cases, and it may serve as a basis for discussion to recall some 
of the characteristics found and the deductions drawn from them. 

The earlier arrangement of archives buildings, in which the rec- 
ords were stored in a multitude of small rooms ranging along circu- 
lation corridors, may be dismissed as obsolete and the discussion 
centered on the different stack types of buildings which have been 
generally accepted as tending to meet the modern demand of the 
archivist. 

As a fundamental principle, all of the better plans indicate a 
marked separation of the space deroted to administrative functions 
as differentiated from the space for the actual storage of the records. 
The simplest form of this separation is expressed by an independent 
building arranged for administrative purposes and a second build- 
ing containing the stacks, connected by a corridor to the first. As 
an advance on such an arrangement, there is the building with a cen- 
ter administration pavilion flanked on either side by a wing forming 
the stacks. The natural limitations of such a scheme are soon* 
reached, fixed as they are by the permissible length of wings so ar- 
ranged. From the latter form of building it is but a stop to the 



148 AMEBICAST HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

multiplication of stacks projecting from the central pavilion and 
arranged in various ways; for instance, the stacks may project at 
right angles from the main face of the building, forming one or 
more open courts. Other stacks may be added to the first to form a 
closed court; again, a number of stacks may project in parallel order 
toward the rear, forming the gridiron type, or all the stacks may be 
placed side by side in solid order, forming the block type of plan. 
And finally, an indefinite number of changes may be rung on these 
types, to suit the local conditions and the point of view of the 
archivist. But whatever may be decided on as best meeting the 
needs of any individual case, a successful plan must be the direct 
outcome of the predetermined method of storing, using, and con- 
trolling the archives, and the decision to be reached leads to a study 
of the following : 

1. The successive movements of the material from the time it is 
entered at the receiving platform until it is deposited in its allotted 
place in the stacks ; its subsequent movement to the users of the docu- 
ments, and its return to the stacks. 

2. The disposition of the major divisions of the building i. e., of 
the space for personnel of administration, for users of the archives, 
for the stacks proper, with attached working spaces. 

A study of these questions leads in turn to the further study of 
the cost of operation by different systems, the question of the volume 
of records to be provided for and the probable increase in that 
volume. 

Accepting as an axiom that economy of operation is induced by 
directness and simplicity of plan, the grouping together of the 
strictly administrative offices with the working spaces tends toward 
effective organization; by placing with these also the space to be 
used by the public, it is possible to obtain a maximum of control and 
at the same time the isolation of the stacks from the remainder of 
the building. 

The tendency to associate the idea of a public library with that of 
an archives building, while natural because of certain similarities of 
function, may readily lead to initial errors in planning. The dif- 
ference in these two classes of buildings centers around the propor- 
tion of the stack space to other portions of the plan. In a public 
library the stack space required may be only 20 to 30 per cent of the 
total cubic feet of space in the entire building, whereas in an 
archives building of considerable magnitude the stack space may 
readily reach 80 per cent of the total, with the result that the stacks 
become the dominating factor of the scheme. For this reason a 
detailed study of the stack unit is of first importance and carries 
with it the necessity of considering the methods to be adopted in 
filing the records. 



CONFERENCE OF ARCHIVISTS. 149 

It may be assumed that archives may be filed in one or more of a 
number of ways. They may be bound in volumes or may be un- 
bound and kept as loose sheets. If in the latter form the sheets may 
be in folders, portfolios, or small portable box cases. While bound 
volumes and some other forms of filing are readily accommodated on 
library shelving of ordinary character and dimensions, loose sheets 
may in some cases require the vertical system of file cabinet, or the 
closed front stacks used in some of the Europeon buildings. Fur- 
thermore, material of special value which requires to be segregated 
from the main mass of the records may require an unusual amount 
of vault space or other form of separate compartments, all of which 
has direct bearing on the type of stack unit to be adopted. 

Having determined on the form to be adopted for filing records, 
the amount of material may readily be expressed in cubic feet; and 
in order to forecast the size of stacks required, it is necessary to 
interpret cubic feet of documents in terms of cubic feet of stack space 
and square feet of floor area in stack units. 

With plain open shelving, and with shelving 12 inches deep, two 
tiers of shelves, placed back to back, aisles 3 feet 2 inches in width 
between each double tier of shelves, and a center aisle 5 feet wide, 
extending the length of the stack, each square foot of floor space 
may be made to furnish about 2-J- cubic feet of shelf space; or, 
expressing the shelf space in terms of cubic feet of stack space, a 
stack unit arranged as described should furnish cubic feet of actual 
shelf space equal to about one-third of the total cubic feet of space in 
the stack unit. 

With the known volume of the records to be stored and the size 
and number of stacks deduced by the basis given, it yet remains to 
decide on the disposition of the stacks in the plan. Aside from the 
determining factors to be found in the local conditions in any par- 
ticular case, the disposition of the stack unit in the plan will be 
much affected by the question of the degree to which concentration 
of the material is sought. In buildings having a number of stack 
units the extremes are represented on the one hand by stack units 
separated by wide light areas, and on the other hand by the stack 
units placed side by side in solid formation without intervening 
spaces, as in the block type of building. In a collection of records 
which promises to ultimately be of great magnitude, economical 
operation would naturally suggest the greatest concentration con- 
sistent with the proper use of material, while collections of more 
modest proportions would lend themselves to a more open, and 
therefore a more attractive, arrangement. In an extreme case con- 
centration of stack units may be carried to the point of abandoning 
all idea of natural lighting, depending entirely on one of the vari- 
ous artificial lighting systems applicable to such an arrangement. 



150 AMEBlCAftT HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

This, with a properly arranged heating and ventilating system and 
humidity control, gives a latitude in stack arrangement entirely 
independent of changing conditions of the outside atmosphere. 

In the accommodations to be arranged for the administrative per- 
sonnel, the manner and cost of operation and the extent of the 
operations determine the best arrangement. 

For collections of limited volume and slow growth a few simply 
arranged offices and working spaces with their accessories, so placed 
in the plan that the stacks are easily reached and controlled, will 
meet the usual needs. In the extensive collections of great Govern- 
ments, however, the subdivision of the space devoted to administra- 
tive functions becomes more of a problem. Here provision is to be 
made for several rooms for the archivist and his immediate assist- 
ants and a board room for meetings, space for the attendants of 
various classes, and spaces for sorting, cleaning, repairing, photo- 
graphing, and cataloguing, all arranged as may best serve the inter- 
related purposes of the different parts of the building. 

Viewing the archives building from the standpoint of that re- 
stricted portion of the general public who become users of the rec- 
ords, that plan would undoubtedly be looked upon as the most suc- 
cessful, which gives the freest use of the archives consistent with 
their character as public documents. However, unlike the conditions 
obtaining in a public library, the users of archives are dealing with 
original records, the loss of which would be irreparable, and a large 
reading room open to the free circulation of the public must be re- 
placed by some arrangement that permits the exercise of supervision 
in the least objectionable way, the main reading room for the public 
with its reference library being supplemented by having a number 
of small rooms for individual use in research work. 

The ideal arrangement would, perhaps, be one so placed that the 
circulation between the reading room and the stacks, as well as the 
circulation between the reading room and the public corridors, is in 
intimate relation with the delivery desk. The concentration of con- 
trol at that point, both for the general reading room and the re- 
search rooms, and such rooms as the public may require for copying 
by photography or other means, gives the necessary control without 
a too obvious and objectionable supervision. 

The problem of housing archives has the quality of drawing down 
on the designer a sense of responsibility to posterity that very few 
other problems possess. A successful plan calls for a directness of 
treatment entirely free from strained efforts for monumental effects 
secured by the sacrifice of the real needs. Simplicity of conception 
will make for content in the archivist and comfort to the user, while 
a bad plan means anathemas visited on the memory of the designer 
for generations to come. Whatever degree of success be achieved, 



CONFEBEHCE OF AEOHIYISTS. 151 

the plan of an archives building demands a careful study of the 
details and of those intimate relations of the various functions, which 
have been merely touched on in this very brief outline of the general 
subject. 

THE PROBLEM OF ARCHIVE CENTRALIZATION WITH REFERENCE 
TO LOCAL CONDITIONS IN A MIDDLE WESTERN STATE. 

By THEODOBE CALVIN PEASE. 

The subject with a small part of which this paper will treat 
the centralization of local archives in the United States is one on 
which I think it is as yet impossible to generalize. The elements 
of the problem are too complex, varying with the nature of the 
records, the use to which they are put, and the local facilities for 
preserving them, so that a different solution is required in each 
section and almost in each State. As to the general principles that 
should underlie all the various cases we can at present hardly speak 
with authority. Accordingly, I shall venture only to present to 
you certain conclusions of my own, applicable perhaps in a measure 
to conditions in a single State conclusions based partly on my ob- 
servations in a good many Illinois county courthouses, partly 011 
the compilation of the data from all the counties of that State. In 
presenting them I profess that I consider them a contribution of 
but the humblest sort toward the formulation of principles in any 
degree capable of broad application or even of use in Illinois itself. 

If within the limits that I have thus set myself, I may be per- 
mitted to dogmatize, I would say first, that any scheme of central- 
ization must be executed throughout local depositories uniformly. 
It must be possible for the investigator to apply a simple set of 
rules and to determine in a moment whether the material he seeks 
is to be found in the central or in the local depository. Of course, 
this statement should not be taken as denying in any sense the 
necessity of removing immediately to a place of safety a precious 
document subject in a local depository record office to imminent 
danger of destruction by fire or decay. Yet such cases should be 
regarded as the exceptions to a general rule, which should be posi- 
tively adhered to in general. 

A second question is really the most difficult question of all 
that as to what records should be centralized. In fact, this ques- 
tion can be answered from at least two widely diverse points of view. 
First I may take the one that seems to merit the most immediate at- 
tention at present, and assume that the material to be centralized is 
that of value. to the historian or more generally to the social scien- 
tist. Having stated this answer in broad terms, let me hasten to 



152 AMEBICAF HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION*. 

limit it from another side. The archivist should not consider cen- 
tralizing any set or series of records likely to be used in the business 
of the county for the purpose for which it was originally designed. 
I might go further and say that ordinarily a record should not be 
removed to a central depository until the enlightened public opinion 
of the local community has been reconciled to its departure. The 
archivist should always place himself eye to eye with the member 
of the local community. He should remember that the record in 
question may be dear to local sentiment or pride. He should try 
even to appreciate the point of view of those who hold that the 
record was originally made by a considerable expenditure of local 
moneys or by the fees received from persons residing in the com- 
munity, and that, accordingly, a sense of pecuniary ownership should 
be soothed by an appeal to local generosity. Above all, he should 
remember that he is dealing with a democracy and must respect 
its opinion. He must understand that he can not, like Plato's phy- 
sician to slaves, rush about from one patient to another and insist 
on the dose for each; rather, he must deal as a physician with 
freemen and not attempt a cure till he has won and convinced the 
reason of his patient. By any other course he will inevitably lay 
up trouble for himself and will endanger the prosperity of the 
archive work he has at heart. In centralizing a given body of rec- 
ords he may even find it advisable to secure a specific act of the 
legislature directing the work, and to approach the local custodian 
in the character of a fellow-servant of the Commonwealth anxious 
only to carry out its laws. 

In determining what records in a county are of current use and 
what are not in a county, the archivist will find usually that the 
convenience of the clerk has laid down his solution for him. The 
records of most common reference will be shelved in the office, or, 
if the county is so fortunate, in the vault. Those that have outlived 
their usefulness will be relegated to a storage vault or perhaps to 
a dust bin or attic. These last for the present should be the ones 
to be considered as subjects for centralization. 

In deciding which of these are worth taking it is probably well to 
bear in mind that ordinarily various books or papers referring to 
the same transaction should not be separated to different de- 
positories. For example, in the case of the records of courts, case 
papers, fee books, dockets, etc., should not be separated from the 
volumes containing the court records of the cases to which they 
refer. In the case of probate records it is unwise to separate the 
proceedings of the court from the various separate records of wills, 
inventories, appraisements, sales, etc. And other instances might be 
cited. Sometimes the principle just suggested may be violated for 
the moment, when it is important to save from destruction a record, 



CONFERENCE OF ABCHIVISTS. 153 

cognate volumes to which are in use; but always the intention should 
be ultimately to reunite the series. 

The question next arises, What records under these circumstances 
are fit subjects of centralization? At present, from the point of 
view of the Illinois record offices, not a very extensive or valuable 
set of materials. The most valuable field, perhaps, is in the sets of 
early election returns, which for the days of viva voce elections 
afford valuable information as to party alignments and unions. 
Next, perhaps, come the early assessors' and collectors 5 records, with 
the earlier records of tax judgments ; though in most States afflicted 
with the general property tax, these records in more recent years 
are a better index to effrontery and ability in tax dodging than to 
anything else. The county commissioners' or supervisors' record, 
the record of the county's government, though but little used, is 
the record that most frequently stands as a monument to local 
pride, and a wise archivist will hesitate long ere he touches it. 
The records of criminal cases are of prime value to the student of 
social conditions in the past. But these records too often are in the 
same books with chancery records, which no local abstractor or 
worker in land titles will as yet suffer to be touched, any more than 
he will part with the local records of deeds and mortgages. Finally, 
the archivist will find that much old record material is of as little 
value to the historian as to the county official, and this may well, 
under the provisions of laws providing for the destruction of specific 
bodies of material from time to time, be committed to the flames. 

I have reserved for the last the phase of centralization which I 
think is the one that will confront us in the future that of estab- 
lishing central depositories for records of importance as legal monu- 
ments rather than as historical sources. As nearly as can be told at 
present, most rural counties in the Middle Western States are not 
apt to increase amazingly in population and wealth ; and while they 
should be compelled forthwith without exception, to construct 
fireproof vaults or detached offices for the records they have at 
present, it is probably too much to expect them to house in such 
fashion the accumulations of future centuries. This can be done 
most economically in a central repository, or perhaps in several 
located in various sections of a State. As time goes on it will 
be found that a county's records of its early land transfers, chancery 
partitions, wills, settlements of estates, and executions, while still im- 
portant legal monuments, will be written more and more in full into 
abstracts of title, so that immediate reference to them is no longer 
common. Such records from the various counties of the State can 
be assembled for certain specified dates in a central repository, to be 
recruited continually with accessions of advancing dates, as time 
goes on and the local record offices become crowded. They will be 



154 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

there, neither as of antiquarian nor as of scientific interest, but solely 
as the legal monuments of the commonwealth. 

In closing, let me reiterate briefly that the centralization of local 
records into State depositories should be considered from two differ- 
ent aspects : One is concerned with removing to a place of safety and 
convenience records important to the social scientist, but of 110 further 
use for the purpose to which they were originally designed. The 
other looks to relieving a hundred-odd small local depositories of 
early records, important as legal monuments, but likely in the future 
to be less and less used day by day, by depositing them in a central 
archive repository, where they may be preserved economically, both 
for the use of the student and for the ease of mind of the title 
holder. 

THE REPAIRING AND BINDING OF ARCHIVES. 

By WILLIAM BEBWICK. 

The system of repairing manuscripts in the Library of Congress 
was adopted, about 16 years ago, as an experiment based upon Father 
Ehrle's experiments and the methods in the Library of the Vatican 
and set forth by him before the conference of archivists at St. Gall, 
Switzerland. Tested, developed, and adapted to our own peculiar 
needs here in America, it has proven fully competent to all the 
demands made upon it; and its basic principles may now safely be 
regarded as correct and the best known, so far as absolute preserva- 
tion and repair are concerned. It is elastic and can be made to yield 
splendid results where time and expense are important factors as 
well as beipg ideal where these two factors are subordinate to the 
historical value of the manuscripts involved. 

We are constantly asked by librarians and historical societies for 
particulars as to our methods, and our advice has been followed with 
profit. The subject is a large one. I myself have been working at 
this business since 18 years of age, and am only too well aware of 
the fact that, though we have solved thousands of problems, there 
are thousands more still confronting us. They arise daily ; I could 
almost say with truth that every individual manuscript presents 
something of a new problem ; and, added to our repairing difficulties, 
there is one that I may be pardoned for mentioning, I hope. It is 
that of intelligently dealing with the State or city official who has 
only an hour to spare before having to catch a train and wants to 
learn all about repairing manuscripts in that time, so as to practice 
on the work when reaching home. 

To those of you who may have had instruction in manual train- 
ing in cabinet or forge work in the technical schools, no more need 
be said. The difficulties encountered by the man of untrained hands. 



CONFERENCE OF AECHIVI&TO. 155 

BO matter how great his intelligence, are many. As with dancing, 
the intelligent man can readily see the movements to be made 
in other words, get them into his head but getting them into his 
feet is another matter. As an instance, a very small difficulty ex- 
perienced by a university woman to whom I had, unofficially, given 
some instruction, was that in placing the hinge strips upon a manu- 
script she found that they failed to stick at either end and she had 
to lift up and repaste the ends with a small brush. This wasted time 
and was annoying. What was the matter? Why didn't the ends 
stick? She had pasted the entire strip. Said I, " When you lift up 
the strip after pasting it the pressure of your fingers at either end 
removes the paste, so it won't stick there." " Well," said she, " even 
so, I have to pick the strips up, don't I? So how can that be 
helped " ? " Why," said I, " moisten your fingers with paste before 
picking up the strip." Simple? Columbus and the egg. 

To repair manuscripts, tools are necessary ; and, while certain con- 
ditions require special tools, the usual daily needs are few. A letter- 
press, not smaller than 15 by 20 inches. This is for pressing the 
manuscripts in the various stages of repair, for it can be laid down, 
as a general rule, that a manuscript that has been moistened should 
never be allowed to dry out except under pressure. A bun'dle of 
wood-pulp boards (which I shall hereafter refer to as boards), cut 
slightly smaller than the bed of the press. It is between these that 
manuscripts are placed while drying, both in and out of the press. 
Wooden boards and weights for lightly pressing manuscripts (bricks 
covered with manila paper will do excellently for this) ; a double 
boiler, in which to make paste; a couple of paste brushes (one large 
round one and one quite small one) ; a tin flour can, in which to keep 
your flour; a bone paper cutter or folder; a knife with a 6-inch blade, 
such as bookbinders use, and which must be kept very sharp ; a steel 
eraser, which must also be kept very sharp, for scraping the edges of 
patches; a sheet of zinc, on which to cut and trim the manuscripts; 
a steel straight edge, about 18 inches long, and one 10 inches long; 
a heavy table, whose height from the floor should be properly gauged 
to the workman; a large sponge and water basin. Then there is 
needed a small sack of the best bleached flour for making the paste ; 
a small sack only, for it is difficult to keep flour from becoming 
wormy even though you store the sack in the tin canister. The recipe 
for the paste it is unnecessary to give here. I will only say that 
such paste can be used until it becomes sour, when it is best for the 
health and disposition of the repairer to make up a new lot. 

Before any real repair work is done upon manuscripts they should 
be cleaned and pressed; that is, all the wrinkles removed and the 
smudgings of dirt lessened, as patching can not be done properly un- 
less the sheet of paper is perfectly smooth. To accomplish this, if 



156 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

the manuscript is much, begrimed but the paper still retains its life, 
it should be immersed in warm (not hot) water, in a flat pan similar 
to a photographer's developing tray, and rocked gently for a time. 
This is a perfectly safe proceeding for any manuscript dating before 
the year 1800 that is not mildewed or brittle; after that date the 
quality of the ink is doubtful, and, though much of the writing of 
the first decade of the nineteenth century is safe, too much care 
can not be used in dealing with it. Any manuscript in ink that has 
the slightest tendency to run must never, of course, be moistened. 
The difficulties encountered in the aniline and cheapened inks of 
the early twenties and thirties are many and varied, and, while there 
are methods by which they can be handled with comparative safety, 
such a discussion can have but little interest here, 

After the tray bath the manuscript is removed and placed between 
fine-grained towels or sheets of blotting paper stretched flat on the 
table and the upper towel or blotter rubbed with gentle pressure for 
a few moments. Never under any circumstances rub in the slightest 
upon a damp manuscript. If the manuscripts are not soiled or in 
need of a bath they should be sandwiched between sheets of damp 
(not wet) newspaper (never the Sunday colored supplement) a 
single sheet of manuscript, then a single sheet of newspaper, another 
manuscript, another news sheet, etc. After three or four hours the 
manuscripts, removed from the news sheets, should be placed between 
sheets of smooth, white, unglazed pulpboard a single sheet of man- 
uscript between two sheets of pulpboard. The pulpboard is suffi- 
ciently porous to absorb moisture, and best adapted for this par- 
ticular need. A pile of these may be placed at one time in the press. 
Here they should stay about 10 hours, care having been taken in 
placing them between the boards that no edges are turned or wrinkles 
folded in. At the end of that time the manuscripts are dried out 
perfectly and present a marvelously better appearance. 

After taking the manuscripts from between the boards, divide 
them into several groups. In group 1 will be placed the manuscripts 
that need no repairing, for there really are a few such. Group 2 will 
be those that need repairing only, the paper of which still retains 
sufficient life to justify passing them over for some years after 
repairing without covering with crepeline. Group 8 will be those 
that need both repairing and crepelining ; and group 4 will be those 
manuscripts written only on one side of the sheet, which can be best 
and quickest repaired by lining. If a manuscript consists of two 
separate leaves, and the writing is hard to decipher, it is best to 
place a small pencil mark on the lower right-hand corner of page 2 
and a similar mark on the lower left-hand corner of page 3. These 
marks save time when reassembling the collection after the repairing 
is finished. This reassembling or collating must be, for the repairer. 



CONFEBENCE OF ABCHIVISTS. 157 

a purely mechanical operation. He has no time to become acquainted 
with the historical character or contents of the manuscripts he han- 
dles. I am often asked if the old papers that pass through my 
hands are not most interesting. I suppose they are; but the repairer 
sees only a damaged paper, and he has little time to give to Washing- 
ton's or Ben Franklin's handwriting, which may happen to be on 
that paper. Considering the fact that so many of the manuscripts 
in the Library of Congress relate to the Revolutionary War, it is, 
perhaps, just as well for the sake of my feelings that I have no time 
to read them, for I was born a British subject in London. 

One of the first things to remember in repairing manuscripts is 
the necessity of saving all scraps of old paper that are unmarked 
by writing. Their value as repair material is inestimable. From 
this accumulated store of paper pieces should be selected as near as 
possible the color, thickness, and weight of the manuscript to be 
repaired. Some attention must be paid to this point, for it should 
be remembered that after the patches are put on they become a 
part of the original manuscript, and so share in all the influences 
that work upon it during the remaining processes. If there is con- 
siderable difference between the manuscript and the patch, moisture 
of the paste, etc., will cause uneven pull when the document is drying 
out in the press, with results that are oftentimes disappointing and 
always unsatisfactory. Let us suppose we have made a proper 
selection of paper for the patch. Shave or bevel the edge of the 
patch and also the side of the manuscript on which there is the 
least writing. The edge of your knife must be kept keen for this, 
which is a slow and delicate operation, similar to that of the beveled 
joints of the cabinetmaker, only with us the material is, of course, 
paper instead of wood. Now paste the edge of the manuscript re- 
quiring the patch and lay the latter on the manuscript. Lay a sheet 
of clean paper over it and rub it down well with the bone folder; then 
place it between boards and press tightly. Leave it in the press 
until dry, which will take about three or four hours. If after taking 
it from the press the patch shows a thick edge, scrape it lightly with 
the steel eraser. If the manuscript is frail it should be covered with 
crepeline; so proceed as follows: Put a thin coat of paste on the 
manuscript with the brush, and carefully lay the crepeline on ; then 
place between sheets of paraffin paper, put between boards, and put 
in press for 15 minutes; then remove from the press, take off the 
paraffin paper, and again place between sheets of pulp board, under 
very slight pressure, until dry. One side of the manuscript must not 
be crSpelined unless the other is also, for the resultant unequal strain 
will curl it with a curl that no amount of pressure can ever reduce. 
Above all, the operator should beware of attempting any repair 



158 AMEBICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

work upon a manuscript of value unless he knows exactly how the 
paper will act during the process. Sheets badly torn, but written 
only on one side, should be lined with ordinary book paper, using 
paste for that purpose. Badly torn sheets covered with writing on 
one side only, but with an indorsement or address, should be lined ; 
but the lining sheet should first have an opening cut therein at the 
proper place and sufficiently large to expose the indorsement or 
address. This opening should be cut with the knife, using the small 
straightedge as a guide. Never use scissors where a straight cut is 
need, for a straight cut longer than an inch or two is impossible with 
scissors. 

A large part of the repair work depends upon a knowledge of 
paper and an ability to recognize and foresee the way in which paper 
will act under treatment. The single difference between laid and 
woven paper, which is discernible at a glance, becomes pluralized 
fourfold when the paper has aged ; and to one unexpected action in 
paper in good condition is to be added a dozen when the life of the 
sheet is nearly gone. With some old paper the fiber remains and can 
be built upon and trusted; with others it crumbles to dust at the 
touch. It is no unusual thing to find your paper dried out like tin- 
der and as brittle as the thinnest of thin Japanese wood. 

A few years ago the record book of Apprentices of the Cutler's 
Guild of London was sent to the Library of Congress to be repaired. 
It was in terrible condition so terrible that it took weeks just to 
separate the leaves preliminary to repairing them. Sir Purdon 
Clarke, at that time director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in 
ISTew York, saw some of the sheets before they were repaired, and ex- 
pressed doubt that anything could be done with them. When he 
was shown the finished pages he said it was marvelous. Knowing 
Sir Purdon's knowledge of wonderful things, we felt somewhat 
elated over his opinion of the work. Now, mark the difference. Sir 
Purdon called one of his staff, showed him the finished sheets and one 
or two of those still unrepaired, and the first question the man asked 
was, "How many sheets can you do in an hour? " It is true that 
such a question may properly be asked with certain classes of manu- 
scripts, but to assume such an attitude toward a manuscript that is 
historically priceless shows a sad lack of proper appreciation of the 
value of the records of the past to us. 

Of course it is not every manuscript that needs the very best and 
most careful work, and where collections are large some of the 
processes may be dispensed with. I am quite sure, however, that any 
manuscript that is treated in what might be called a first-aid-to-the- 
injured manner will, in the course of 20 years or more, have to be 
repaired again, and this time it may be found that the necessity 



CONFERENCE OF AUCHIVTSTS. 159 

of undoing the former repair work will not add much, to the life or 
condition of the manuscript. 

I am well aware that this is only a very sketchy outline of the 
work of preparing manuscripts, yet I do not see how it can be other- 
wise. Could I note every particular point that could be recalled 
and arrange them in symmetrical rows of what-to-does and what-not- 
to-does, the sum total of them all would add up to 5,000 directions 
or rules, for the very first manuscript you would take up to repair 
you would probably find a need for the five thousand and first rule, 
which would not be there. 

I have not touched upon the organization of a repair department, 
because that is a matter that depends largely upon conditions; yet 
some attention must be paid to this point. A record of papers re- 
ceived must be kept and a working system devised for the proper 
parceling out of manuscripts among the repairers in such wise that 
individual manuscripts can be generally kept track of, and that colla- 
tion, after the collection is finished, is not a difficult and time-wasting 
job. In the Library of Congress we have ruled sheets and a system 
of numbering. The manuscripts lose their identity while in the 
repair room, and we know them only by numbers. As I said before, 
we have little time for reading them or noticing them in any other 
way than that of repair necessities. Again, this is just as well, for 
it is sometimes hard, even for a repairer, to escape poetic justice, as 
was the case when I repaired the Franklin manuscripts of the 
American Philosophical Society. I asked Dr. Hays how it happened 
that the papers were in such a terrible condition; many of them 
were stained hopelessly and even had bits of mud still sticking to 
them. " Why," said he, " the British soldiers broke open the house 
and scattered these papers over the street and stamped them into the 
gutters when Sir William Howe captured Philadelphia during the 
Eevolutionary War." So, there was I, an ex-Britisher, trying to 
repair the damage done by other Britishers 130 years before. 

This is but one of the sufferings of a repairer. There are many 
others; and if, when you organize your repair shop, you should 
desire that your repairers live to a ripe old age, let me beg of you to 
establish this rule: All collections of manuscripts are withdrawn 
entirely from consultation and can not, under any circumstances, be 
used by historians while they are in the repairer's hands. This is a 
rule the absence of which will break the spirit of an Edison. They 
try hard to maintain it in the Library of Congress, but now and 
again they fail, and the effect of that failure is pushing me slowly 
toward either a sanitarium or an asylum. Therefore, if you desire 
long years of valiant service from your repairers, I beg of you to 
inscribe this rule in letters of fire over the door of your repair room. 



160 AMERICA^ HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

In conclusion, it may not be amiss to say a few words as to binding. 
The advantages of binding collections of papers are too obvious to 
enlarge upon, so I will confine myself to a few general statements 
of the means of bringing manuscripts into this desirable condition. 

After cleaning and pressing, the documents may be mounted upon 
sheets of uniform size and of a quality of paper dependent upon the 
expenditure permitted. Good quality white linen ledger is excellent, 
and it should be cut so that the manuscript can be mounted thereon 
with the grain of the paper, the grain of the mounting sheet running 
vertically to insure flexibility in opening after binding, a thing im- 
possible if the grain of the paper be horizontal. A good quality 
rope-manila paper is cheaper, is the strongest of papers, and, in the 
lighter weights, possesses great flexibility. Its color, under some cir- 
cumstances, may be considered an objectionable feature, and manu- 
scripts mounted on this paper never are as pleasing to the eye as 
when white paper is used for the mounting sheet. Manuscripts 
should never be mounted unless they are to be bound at once, as 
handling in mounted form while unbound greatly increases the lia- 
bility of damage. The mounting sheet should allow at least a full 
inch and a half on the left beyond the established size of the page 
desired for the binder to fold and stitch, and the established size of 
the page depends upon the average size of the manuscripts to be 
bound. A margin of 2 or 3 inches all around the manuscript is 
ample, but if there are many extra large papers in the collection a 
size must be decided upon that will accommodate them with the least 
amount of cutting and hinging and, at the same time, not increase 
unnecessarily the size of the volume for the sake of a small percent- 
age of the papers. A good average size for the mounting sheet is 10 
inches wide by 14 inches high, exclusive of the necessary extra mar- 
gin for the binder. In the case of military muster rolls, returns, etc., 
which are apt to be unusual in size and proportions, an average 
should be struck and the rolls cut and hinged thereto. Drastic as 
this may seem, it is, in the end, a safeguard and protection to the 
manuscript, as the risk of damage by awkward investigators is much 
greater to large papers than to large papers cut and hinged to a 
smaller size with reenforced folds that serve as a protection. The 
general method of mounting is with strips of the lightest weight 
architect's tracing linen, about one-half inch wide, impinging equally 
upon the mounting sheet and the manuscript, with a fraction of an 
inch free from paste, to permit free play to the hinge. 

I give these details as to mounting to impress the idea that manu- 
scripts can not be successfully mounted in blank books, as much 
as anything else. The only safe way is to mount your papers upon 
loose sheets and then bind the sheets. There are many things to 
be considered other than those I have mentioned, such as varying 



CONFERENCE OF ABCHIYISTS. 161 

the position of the manuscript hinge on the mounting sheet, so as 
to prevent a thick hump in one spot in the volume, which inter- 
feres with the binder doing a good job : but I will finish by advising 
that all bound volumes of manuscripts should be given the protec- 
tion of a slide box for each volume. 

Where manuscript volumes, like old letter books, journals, ac- 
count books, official records, etc., are still in the original binding, 
it is best to strive to retain this binding as long as possible, for sen- 
timental if for no other reasons. For such volumes a buckram- 
covered box with hinged flaps is best, some care being taken to 
have the snap fastenings or lie tapes so arranged as not to in- 
terfere with the boxes easily sliding in and out on the shelves, like 
books. 

As to the size or thickness that should be allowed to a volume 
of bound manuscripts, any convenient number of sheets may be estab- 
lished; but a thickness of over 2 inches will be found cumbersome 
to handle, and with increase of difficulty in handling comes in- 
creased danger of accident to the manuscripts. The various forms 
of binding and different binding materials are of small moment 
compared with the work of bringing the manuscript material to 
the point where the binder is needed; and a knowledge of the 
various leathers and buckrams, finishes and letterings, etc., while 
desirable, is not essential where a competent foreman of binding 
can be consulted. 

23318 -19 11 



APPENDIX B. 



REPORT ON THE CONDITION OF THE PUBLIC RECORDS OF 

THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

By a Committee of Citizens: 

NELSON B GASKILL WILLIAM M. JOHNSON 

HIRAM E. BEATS E. E. WALKER 

WILLIAM LIBBEY ' CABLOS E. GODFREY 

JOSEPH S. FRELINGHUYSEN THOMAS S. CHAMBERS 



163 



REPORT ON THE CONDITION OF THE PUBLIC RECORDS 
OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY. 

By a committee of citizens, Nelson B. Gaskill, Hiram E. Deats, William L/ibbey, 
Joseph S Frelinghuysen, William M. Johnson, E. R. Walker, Carlos E. God- 
frey, Thomas S. Chambers. 

I. CONDITION OF THE PUBLIC RECORDS. 

Intelligence has no doubts as to the great importance of pro- 
tecting and preserving public records. Public records are memory 
in the concrete. They are the links of civilization through the ages. 

EUROPEAN ARCHIVES. 

For centuries nearly every European country has systematically 
preserved its public records. In England, especially, will be found 
the British Museum and the Public Record Office, containing records 
for a thousand years, which are so accurately arranged as to be avail- 
able easily for either historical purposes or as evidence in court. 

AMERICAN ARCHIVES. 

In the United States no methodical plan of archives for public 
documents was inaugurated during the first century of its existence. 

Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Maryland, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Wisconsin, Illinois, and other States have 
in the years since the first centennial of our nation enacted legislation 
for the safeguarding and restoration of public records. The States 
of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Alabama, 
Mississippi and others have especially illumined the way in this 
necessary work by establishing either a department of archives or 
a department of public records. For more than a quarter of a 
century the Bay State has continued the work, until now its records 
of the past are almost wholly retrieved and methods are ordered by 
law protecting records in the making and the keeping, from the 
smallest hamlet to the greatest of municipal departments; and this 
undertaking has been more recently and successfully followed in the 
States of New York and Connecticut. In this endeavor they are 
but responding to an impulse common and natural to all people aa 
the years of their maturity lengthen. 

Of all the States of the Union New Jersey has premier cause 
and greatest need for care in protecting its records of the past and 
in safeguarding the making of its records now and for the future. 

165 



166 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

CONDITION OF THE PUBLIC RECORDS OF NEW JERSEY. 

The innumerable details associated with this broad subject can be 
more readily and intelligently grasped by speaking of them in 
terms of generality and furnishing specific illustrations under appro- 
priate titles. 

RETAINED STATE PAPERS. 

It is a matter of serious concern to know that, with respect to the 
ancient records of New Jersey, there exist to-day in the statehouse 
thousands of pieces of original manuscripts scattered here and there 
in boxes or tied up in bundles and otherwise, receiving practically 
no care or attention, and which are more or less accessible to the 
marauder. Necessarily they are not accessible for public inspection, 
nor have they been collated or calendared, but a superficial examina- 
tion of them demonstrates their historical value, pertaining as they 
do to most every phase of the government and of the development of 
New Jersey from 1676 to 1825 and later. 

ABSTRACTED RECORDS. 

One of the most alarming features connected with our ancient 
records has been their abstraction, a practice which has been in vogue 
for more than a century; and our investigations show that a large 
portion of them are now possessed and controlled by private inter- 
ests, to the exclusion of the citizens of this State who are by law 
entitled to a gratuitous examination of them for legitimate purposes. 

On their face these papers are public documents of New Jersey 
and constitute part of our most precious and valuable treasures. 
These missing documents consist in part of such manuscripts of ex- 
ceptional value as the royal grants leases and releases of the ter- 
ritory and government of the Province of New Jersey and of East 
and West Jersey, respectively; the quintipartite deed dividing the 
Province into East and West Jersey; the concessions and agree- 
ments between the proprietors and inhabitants of West Jersey ; and 
the instrument surrendering the powers of government of the pro- 
prietors to the Crown in 1702. 

The remainder of the manuscripts missing are chiefly the royal 
instructions to the governors ; messages of the governors to the gen- 
eral assembly; journals of the governor and council, and of the 
general assembly; petitions and memorials to the governor, and to 
the legislative assembly; correspondence and official letter books of 
the governors; journals of the provincial congress; petitions, memo- 
rials, and other miscellaneous papers connected therewith; journals 
of the first constitutional convention; minutes and dockets of the 
various courts; town and township records; boundary-line papers; 



PUBLIC RECORDS OP NEW JERSEY. 167 

muster and pay rolls, and other military papers; vital statistics; 
church records; and a variety of miscellaneous papers and records 
of historical importance incident to the established government and 
to the social and economic condition of the people, extending from 
1664 down to the early portion of the nineteenth century. A selec- 
tion of these missing papers will be found calendared in Section II 
of this report. 

Causes of abstraction* The abstraction of our ancient records 
from the various departments of the State government and from 
the municipalities thereof is not a new discovery. It may be traced 
to three distinct causes : 

First. In the time of the past the public records of New Jersey 
were regarded by their proper custodians hs the private property of 
the individual holding office, because under the fee system he was 
required to purchase all of his stationery, and for this reason many 
records and official papers were retained by the retiring official from 
office. This was the personal observation of Mr. William A. White- 
head, and by him publicly expressed as early as 1854. (N. J. Hist, 
Society Proceedings, 1st series, Vol. VII, p. 88 ; see id., Vol. IX, p. 5.) 

Second. There can be no question but that many of the public 
records were also obtained by persons through the medium of the 
courteous public officials, and otherwise acquired by them under the 
lax system which then and now to some extent prevailed in many 
of the public repositories, occasioned in part by the overcrowded 
condition of the record vaults. The easy manner in which many 
papers of historical interest were procurable in the bygone days is 
exemplified by the number that can now be found filed with the 
Revolutionary pension claims of Jerseymsn in the Pension Bureau 
at Washington. 

Third. There is ample evidence to show that many very valuable 
records were obtained by persons after they had been cast away 
from their proper places by their indifferent and careless custodians. 
This practice is clearly pointed out in a statement made by the late 
William Nelson, in the Paterson Guardian for March 10, 1913, when 
favoring the passage of a pending legislative measure providing 
for the preservation of our public records, which., in part, read : 

There is need for something of the kind. The carelessness regarding the 
old records of counties, townships, and even cities is deplorable. When the 
Passaic County records were moved to the new courthouse a number of older 
books were thrown away. I found among them the original record book of 
Saddle River Township and have it yet. Sometimes the descent of estates 
depends upon these records. Yet they are thrown away as of no value by 
people who either do not take the trouble to inquire about their importance or 
do not care if they do know. 

The same thing happened in Essex County, and I suppose it has everywhere. 
By and by a case will come up in the courts that needs the information con- 



168 AMEEICAST HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION*. 

tained in these records to secure the rights of an individual or a family. 
Meantime they have been destroyed, as I have outlined. 

I believe this bill is a necessity and outlines a method by which such diffi- 
culties will be prevented in the future. * * * 

Disposition of abstracted papers. Usually the abstracted archives 
referred to are kept intact in certain families for generations ; some- 
times they are divided among them and by them given away to 
individuals, historical and genealogical societies within and beyond 
the State, or sold at auction in the larger cities of the United States. 
They have otherwise been disposed of by will to private interests; 
abstracted in bulk and offered for sale; and in rare instances they 
have inadvertently reverted back to the Suite, and have been other- 
wise acquired by consent, by purchase, and by demand. These 
varied conditions are briefly illustrated, as follows : 

Papers retained in private families. The original grants leases 
and releases given by James, Duke of York, for the territory and 
government of the Province of New Jersey, and of East and West 
Jersey, respectively, accompanied with near 200 kindred papers, are 
now possessed by a certain family residing in an adjoining State, 
as is the quintipartite deed for the division of the Province into 
East and West Jersey. A calendar of a few of these papers will 
more particularly illustrate their value : 

Original lease for a year from James, Duke of York, to Lords Berkeley and 
Oarteret for the whole of New Jersey, dated June 23, 1664. 

Original release of the same, June 24, 1664. 

Original lease for a year from James, Duke of York, to Sir George Carteret 
for half of northern New Jersey, dated July 28, 1674. 

Original release of the same, July 29, 1674. 

Original instructions from Sir George Carteret for the government of his 
Province, July 31, 1674. 

Original quintipartite deed between, Sir George Carteret, William Penn, 
Nicholas Lucas, Gawen Lawrie, and Edward Byllinge, dated July 1, 1676, 
dividing the Province into East and West Jersey. 

Original release of Elizabeth Carteret, widow and executrix, and the trustees 
of Sir George to the first 12 proprietors for all of East Jersey, dated January 
1, 1681-2. 

Original release of James, Duke of York, to Edward Byllinge, William Penn, 
Gawen Lawrie, Nicholas Lucas, John Eldridge, and Edmund Warner for West 
Jersey, dated August 6, 1680. 

Original deed from William Penn to Robert Barclay for one twenty-fourth 
of East Jersey, dated September 22, 1682. 

Original order of the proprietors relative to laying out of lands, and censur- 
ing Govs. Lawrie and Rudyard for their manner jf doing it, dated July 3, 1685. 

Revocation of all Gov. Lawrie's powers by order of the proprietors, 1687. 

The deed from James, Duke of York, for West Jersey, dated 
August 6, 1680, and "The concessions and agreements of the pro- 
prietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of West Jersey," bearing date 



PUBLIC BECORDS OF HEW JERSEY. 169 

March 3, 1675-1676, was a few years ago possessed by a certain person 
residing in New Jersey. 

More than a century and a quarter ago a certain official of one of 
the most important record offices of the State abstracted nearly all 
the records of his office upon his retirement therefrom, and his suc- 
cessor did likewise when he withdrew some 16 years later. These 
papers are now held intact by their respective descendants residing 
in New Jersey. The records of the first official referred to have 
been examined by a member of this committee. They contain mat- 
ter of rare historical interest,but they were too numerous for us to 
calendar. They are packed away loosely and otherwise in boxes 
and trunks in sufficient quantity to load a single wagon. The pres- 
ent head of the family expresses a willingness to turn them over 
to the State authorities should anyone be duly authorized to receive 
them. 

There is said to be a large collection of State documents belong- 
ing to a family previously of New Jersey, in storage in a neighbor- 
ing city, which will probably be offered for sale at auction in the 
near future. The advice comes from a reliable source, but for pru- 
dent reasons no specific inquiry has been made of them. 

Private donation of records. In the course of research we have 
been enabled to obtain many lists of valuable State papers which 
have been donated by persons to certain individuals and other pri- 
vate interests, a selection of which will be found calendared under 
Section II. It is noteworthy to mention that some of them have 
been possessed by Virginia families and that the famous Answer to 
the Elizabethtown Bill in Chancery was given to a certain genealogi- 
cal society. 

Disposition of records ~by will. One of the most remarkable in- 
stances coming to our knowledge in the disposition of public records 
is one in which a certain prominent citizen of the State, who after 
disposing to a certain person by his last will and testament, duly pro- 
bated, " many documents relating to the general history of the State, 
its settlement, etc." (evidently state papers), bequeathed to certain 
private interests " my bound volumes of manuscripts lettered ' New 
Jersey Manuscripts, 5 'Boundary Papers,' original 'Minutes of the 
Provincial Congress,' 'Minutes of the Legislature,' and other New 
Jersey miscellaneous documents that may not be especially desired 
by members of my family ; * * *." The " Minutes of the Legis- 
lature" more specifically refers to the original manuscript jour- 
nals of the general assembly for the years 1751-1752, 1777, 1778, 1779, 
1780-1781, 1782-1784, 1786-1788-1790, 1806-1808. 

Acquisition of records. In 1870 the late Hon. Garret D. W. 
Vroom by mere chance obtained several invaluable manuscript rec- 



170 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

ords from a negro man servant of a deceased statesman, who was 
ignorant of their value, and who found them in clearing up the house 
and office of his late employer in Trenton. They consisted of the 
Journal of the Governor and Council of East Jersey from December 1, 
1682, to April 29, 1703 ; Minutes of the Assembly from November 10, 
1703, to January 31, 1710 ; and the Journal of the Council of Safety 
in 1777-1778. They had been in private possession for no one knows 
how long, and upon their recovery they were immediately deposited 
in the State library by Judge Vroom. 

Acquisition of records by consent. Some eight years ago Dr. 
Carlos E. Godfrey, in pursuit of his official duties, discovered a 
quantity of original muster rolls of New Jersey troops in the Revo- 
lutionary War in possession of the State authorities of Massachu- 
setts at Boston. Upon representations made to the executive of that 
Commonwealth the latter induced the legislature to consent to their 
return to the State of New Jersey. 

Acquisition of records ~by purchase. On April 6, 1910, by direction 
of Gov. Fort, the Docket of the Supreme Court of the Colony of 
New Jersey from 1763 to 1770, and the Docket of the Burlington 
County Court from June Term, 1765, to October Term, 1772, were 
purchased at public auction in New York City. 

Again, from another auction house in New York, on June 17, 
1913, was purchased by direction of Gov. Fielder the orginal Minutes 
of the Governor and Council from September 26 to October 26, 1770, 
and from March 11 to May 16, 1774; besides many other interesting 
and valuable manuscript state documents of New Jersey. 

Acquisition of records by demand. About 1873, Col. James S. 
Kiger, formerly of the adjutant general's office, discovered an im- 
mense quantity of original military papers and other kindred records 
at the residence of a former State official, then deceased, who had 
abstracted them from the files of his office. Upon demand they were 
surrendered to the State. 

Without being more definite, some years ago upon 'the death of a 
certain prominent State official, the vaults of his record office were 
ransacked after business hours by certain persons having access 
thereto, for the purpose of gathering together what they conceived 
were the private papers of the deceased. Subsequently, however, 
one of the principal auction houses in a neighboring city issued a 
catalogue for circulation, containing a calendar of the individual 
manuscripts alleged to belong to the estate of the deceased official, 
with an announced date of their sale. 

Nearly every item offered for sale in the catalogue showed upon its 
face that the original was a state document. In abundance were to 
be found such important documents as the original Minutes of the 
Council and General Assembly, Messages of the Governors, Petitions 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF NEW JERSEY. 171 

to the General Assembly, and other innumerable papers and records 
belonging directly to the decedent's public office of the greatest his- 
torical importance. Upon the personal demand of the governor on 
the executors of this estate for the immediate return of these papers 
to the statehouse, near 2,000 priceless records were restored to the 
archive of the State. It is fair to say, however, that it is not be- 
lieved that the official referred to ever claimed ownership to the 
papers in question. 

Within the last two years another large collection of New Jersey 
state documents of unusual historical value was advertised to be 
sold by a certain auction house in New York City, alleged to belong 
to the estate of a prominent citizen of New Jersey. Following the 
precedent established in the former case, Gov. Fielder instructed the 
attorney general to demand their immediate return to the statehouse, 
or upon failure thereof to institute proceedings for their recovery. 
Through this agency the collection was promptly surrendered and 
delivered in Trenton to the attorney specially retained to enforce 
their return. 

A selection of some of the most important papers of the few thou- 
sand that have either been offered for sale or sold at public auction 
within the past 15 years have been calendared in Section III to 
illustrate their general character. 

ABSTRACTION OP SPECIAL, DOCUMENTS. 

Collections of the secretary of state. In the Harvard University 
Library will be found, in the Sparks's collection, a series of tran- 
scripts made in June, 1826, by Jared Sparks, the historian, selected 
from originals then in the office of the secretary of state of New 
Jersey, of which the following is the inventory, indicating that these 
papers were then in the possession of the State : 

Memorial of the New Jersey Brigade, April 17, 1779. Letters from Washing- 
ton, 1777-1780, 1782, 1783. Letters from Gen. Heath, Kobert Morris, Franklin, 
Henry Laurens. 

Proceedings of a commission, March 26, 1777, etc., to regulate the price of 
labor. 

Declaration of Maryland, 1778. 

Convention at Hartford, 1780. 

Secretary of Congress, August 24, 1785, to the governor of New Jersey. 

Letters of Abraham Clark, 1780, 1781. 

Correspondence of Washington and William Maxwell, 1779. 

Letters from New Jersey troops, 1779. 

Letters of William C. Houston (1780), John Fell (1779), Nathaniel Scudder 
(1778), Washington (1777), Elias Boudinot (1777), and Daniel Colman (1777). 

It is scarcely necessary to say that none of the originals in the above 
list of documents can now be found anywhere in the State's pos- 
session. 



172 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Livingstones correspondence. In 1848, by authority of a joint reso- 
lution of the legislature approved March 9 of that year, a publication 
was issued, entitled " Selections from the Correspondence of the Exec- 
utive of New Jersey from 1776 to 1786." It necessarily contained the 
correspondence from and to William Livingston, governor of New 
Jersey from 1776 to 1790. 

The published senate journal for January 17, 1848, as does the 
resolution itself, shows that the originals of this correspondence 
were then located both in the State library and the office of the 
secretary of state. But, like the collection of manuscripts which 
Jared Sparks copied in the latter office in 1826, the originals have 
disappeared from the archives of the State. The collection was un- 
doubtedly abstracted from the State, and afterwards disintegrated, 
as evidenced by the fact that the original letters from Jonathan D. 
Sergeant to the speaker of the assembly, dated Baltimore, February 
6, 1777, and from Abraham Clark to the speaker of the assembly, 
dated Baltimore, February 8, 1777 represented in the publication 
referred to at pages 24 and 25, respectively now form part of the 
Emmet Collection of Manuscripts in the New York Public Library 
and respectively known as items No. 795 and No. 2862. 

However, in January, 1860, the original correspondence of Gov. 
Livingston's, then bound in seven large folio volumes and containing 
about 1,000 letters, was offered* for sale to certain interests in New 
Jersey by Mr. C. B. Norton, of New York City. Subsequently, Mr. 
Norton disposed of the collection to Mr. Samuel L. M. Barlow, of 
New York; and after the death of the latter, it was acquired by a 
wealthy gentleman residing in New Jersey through a public sale 
effected in the American Art Galleries, in the city of New York, on 
February 8, 1890, for the sum of $240. The auctioneer's catalogue 
described the Livingston Correspondence, in part, in the following 
language : 

This famous collection of over 1,000 Letters, Petitions, &s, for the most 
part addressed to William Livingston, while he held the position of governor 
of New Jersey, is generally of an official character, the earliest, 1775, the 
latest, 1782, * * *. The whole carefully mounted and bound m 8 folio 
volumes, half Russia (in a wooden case), including a complete Index and 
Digest of the whole. 

Without seeing this collection of manuscripts it is impossible" to 
say whether it is composed of the same identical papers of Gov. 
Livingston's which was possessed by the State in 1848. It is suffi- 
cient to say, however, that when Chief Justice Green saw Mr. Nor- 
ton's collection in January, I860, he expressed a decided personal 
opinion that they were part of the official correspondence of a gov- 
ernor of New Jersey, and necessarily constituted a portion of the 



PUBLIC BECOBDS OF KEW JBKSET. 173 

archives of the State. (See N. J. Hist. Society Proceedings, 1st 
Series, Vol. IX, p. 5.) 

Minutes of the provincial congress. The original Minutes of the 
Provincial Congress of New Jersey in 1775 and 1776, once possessed 
by the State, were given away to certain private interests by the last 
wiU and testament of a gentleman probated many years ago. 

Some 60 years ago the original memorials, petitions, and other 
communications presented to the provincial congress were possessed 
by a particular family in Virginia, who then turned them over to 
certain private interests in New Jersey, where they now remain. 

Other papers presented before the provincial congress in 1775 
and 1776 were offered for sale at auction in New York in November, 
1915, but upon the demand of Gov. Fielder they were surrendered 
to the State, 

Journals of the constitutional convention. The manuscript jour- 
nals of the convention which framed the first constitution of New 
Jersey in 1776, previously possessed by the State, are now in the 
custody and control of certain private interests. 

Revolutionary military rolls. By the language expressed in joint 
resolution No. VI, approved March 9, 1881 (Laws of 1881, p. 307), 
the muster and pay rolls of the troops of New Jersey in the Revo- 
lutionary War were loaned by the State authorities to the General 
Government at Washington for the purpose of verifying the claims 
against the United States for pension and bounty lands and were 
never returned to the State. 

Other war rolls. In a certain genealogical society of one of the 
New England States will be found several cavalry rolls of New Jer- 
sey troops engaged in the Pennsylvania Whisky Insurrection in 1794. 
They consist of the pay roll of the field and staff and the major's 
command of the Second New Jersey Cavalry, the pay rolls of Capts. 
Henry Vanderveer's and William Steel's troops, and the muster roll 
of Capt. Bernard Hanlon's troop from Trenton, which, of course, 
belong to the State of New Jersey. 

In another State will be found a mass of original rolls of New 
Jersey troops for the year 1715, and on the face of them they are 
State property. They consist of the muster rolls of Col. Thomas 
Farmer's militia regiment, comprising seven companies, with a 
record of 579 officer^ and men; the muster roll of Capt. Joseph 
Seeley's company, "ye South Side of Cohansey, November the 16, 
Anno Dom. 1715," comprising 74 officers and men; the muster roll of 
Capt. Daniel Kumsey's company, "in ye county of Salem," compris- 
ing 134 officers and men; the muster roll of Capt. John Lloyd's com- 
pany, " in Piles Grove in ye county of Salem," comprising 59 officers 
and men; the muster roll of Capt. Enloye's company, from Penns 



174 AMEEICAN HISTOEIOAL ASSOCIATION*. 

Neck, Salem County, comprising 75 officers and men; and the muster 
roll of Lieut. Thomas Maskell's company, comprising 85 officers and 
men. 

Legislative proceedings. The first report of the public record 
commission, published in 1899, contains the following paragraph on 
page 4: 

Your commissioners desire to call especial attention to the remarkable fact 
that there does not exist m New Jersey a complete set of the laws of the 
colony, province, and State; nor is there known to exist anywhere a complete 
record of the legislative proceedings from 1665. - 

With respect to the legislative proceedings on f page 21 of this 
report the commission say : 

The proceedings of the various legislative bodies of New Jersey during the 
proprietary or colonial period appear m all sorts of out of the way places: 
In the records of the Freehold or Middletown town meetings ; in the records of 
the Monmouth county court of common right; in the records of the courts of 
Cape May, Salem, Burlington, and Woodbury; in the records of the supreme 
court at Trenton ; in the book of patents and deeds, in the office of the secretary 
of state at Trenton; and perhaps elsewhere. 

This statement is subsequently followed by a bibliography of the 
printed proceedings of the provincial assembly from 1710 to 1776, 
which shows that the proceedings for the following dates are not 
possessed by the State in the State library: December 6, 1710, to 
February 10, 1711; July 6, 1711, to July 16, 1711; December 7, 
1713, to March 17, 1714; November 27, 1716, to January 26, 1717; 
April 8, 1718, to April 12, 1718 ; January 13, 1719, to March 28, 1719 ; 
March 7, 1722, to May 5, 1722; May 25, 1725, to August 23, 1725; 
December 9, 1727, to February 10, 1728; December 12, 1728, to Janu- 
ary 9, 1729; May 7, 1730, to July 8, 1730; April 10, 1740, to July 
31, 1740; October 2, 1741, to November 4, 1741 j 1 October 10, 1743, 
to December 10, 1743; 1 October 9, 1746, to November 1, 1746 ; May 4, 
1747, to May 9, 1747; October 21, 1748, to December 16, 1748; Sep- 
tember 25, 1749, to October 20, 1749; June 3, 1754, to June 21, 1754; 
April 24, 1755, to April 26, 1755 ; March 9, 1756, to March 16, 1756; x 
October 10, 1757, to October 22, 1757, 1 

This condition of our legislative proceedings creates a strong sus- 
picion that many of these records were in the past abstracted from 
the collection intended to be kept by the State. Copy of many of 
these missing proceedings can be found in the Public Record Office*n 
London, while others are to be found in certain public repositories 
in this country. 

CONDITION OF MUNICIPAL RECOEDS. 

It was manifestly beyond the province of this committee to inves- 
tigate the condition of the public records contained in more than 

1 Imperfect copies. 



PUBLIC EECOEDS OF FEW JERSEY. 175 

500 political divisions of the State. What we have said relative to 
the " causes of abstraction " of our ancient State records, page 5 
[supra, p. 167], applies with equal force to the municipal records. 

Legislative exposure. The congested conditions and the loss and 
destruction of many of our municipal records have been exposed by 
the legislature in the preambles to chapter 190 of the Laws of 1883 
(p. 236) and chapter 105 of the Laws of 1897 (p. 193). In other 
legislative acts provision has been made from time to time for the 
preservation of maps and other records which have become obscure 
or mutilated by use (Laws 1889, p. 49 ; id., p. 64; Laws 1902, p. 236; 
Laws 1915, p. 167). 

Editorial exposure. The editor of the Philadelphia Record, in the 
columns of his paper for May 31, 1915, broadly states the deplorable 
condition of all public records in the following language : 

There is something peculiarly American in the condition of affairs revealed by 
the effort of the State of New Hampshire to prevent the sale in this city of 
interesting Revolutionary letters and papers which it claims were taken from 
the State archives. Whether they were or not there can be no doubt that it is 
true, as charged, that there has been the most shocking and inexcusable care- 
lessness shown in the preservation of records, National, State, and municipal, 
in practically every part of the country. Documents of great historic interest 
and value have been given away, stolen, sold, or cast off as junk because the men 
supposed to look after them were too ignorant to know their importance or too 
dishonest to safeguard them. This is shown by the repeated appearance in 
sales of letters, papers, or records which are really official and which belong to 
the people as a whole When they have passed into private hands it has gen- 
erally been through crookedness or ignorant indifference to duty. 

With the greater interest now taken in State and local historical matters it is 
probable that this dishonest practice is much less common than it was, but evil 
has already been done. Priceless papers relating to the Revolution and eolonia^ 
history have been lost, and many belonging to the Civil War era are constantly 
turning up in private collections. This is all indicative of a very crude and 
imperfect civilization. Collectors are largely to blame, and after them the neg- 
ligent custodians. It is to be hoped that in the twentieth century we will show 
more intelligence and honesty in the matter. 

The editors of some of the leading newspapers of the State have 
expressed themselves, in part, as follows : 

The Jersey (City) Journal, March 13, 1913: At present there is no place 
where old records can be kept, and many of them have been lost or thrown 
away as rubbish. This is true mainly of local municipal records, and in no 
section has the damage from ignorance or carelessness been more felt than in 
Jersey City, where many of the old minute books and other records have been 
lost. 

The Sunday Call, February 27, 1916: The true and complete story of this 
State can not be told because of the carelessness and indifference with which 
its documents and masses of other material have been treated in the past. 
The history of Newark's 250 years is but imperfectly told as a result of the 
same neglect from early days. This is more or less true of every community in 
New Jersey, and it is a condition which this commonwealth shares with all of 
the others. Every now and then we read of one document or another of 



176 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

priceless value being in the possession of some individual when it should be 
preserved for the benefit of all the people. * * * These old things have a 
certain practical educational value, distinct and apart from the sentimental. 
Properly preserved and intelligently made use of, they become a fixed asset to 
the State or the community where they are safely housed and exhibited. The 
modern public and private schools are steadily preparing the rising generation 
for a far keener appreciation of the history of the neighborhood in which one 
lives. 

Elizabeth Daily Journal, February 29, 1916: Documents of great historical 
value are scattered throughout the State. Little effort has been made in the 
past to collect and file them in places of safety. Small interest has been taken 
in preserving masses of material relating to the past of our old Common- 
wealth, its separate counties and communities. * * * It is certainly high 
time that some definite action were taken in this direction. 

New Brunswick Times, February 28, 1916: It is a matter of public knowl- 
edge that for years the public records and archives of the State and other 
political subdivisions, in more or less abundance, have frequently been cata- 
logued and sold at public auction in the larger cities for fabulous sums. Some 
years ago a collection of several thousand pieces of valuable New Jersey State 
records, advertised to be sold at auction, were recovered for the State by Gov. 
Yoorhees through a threat of their impoundment if they were not forthwith 
returned Under similar circumstances and in like manner, another quantity 
was recently acquired by the direction of Gov. Fielder At other times both 
Oovs. Fort and Fielder have found it economical to purchase from their emer- 
gency funds small lots of important records from these auction sales. 

Daily State Gazette, February 15, 1916 : Too little attention has been paid to 
this important work (preservation of public records) in the past, with the 
result that many valuable records of the early history of the State have fallen 
into the hands of collectors of such documents and are sold as curiosities. 
They are really the property of the State, and should be in the State's keeping. 
This is a work that other States have undertaken and are carrying on at con- 
siderable expense. New Jersey has an interesting history. There is no State 
in the Union that should be more vigilant in preserving its records than this, 
and there is probably no State in the Union that has been more indifferent to 
its duty in this direction. 

In the course of our investigations, however, we have accumulated 
certain information which will enable us to know something relative 
to 'the condition of our municipal records. 

County records. In 1869 there existed an exceptional circum- 
stance in the surrogate's office of Bergen County, which endangered 
titles to property and of the rights of persons concerned therein. It 
was the case where a deceased surrogate had pocketed the fees of his 
office for about 22 consecutive years, -without entering matters re- 
quired by law to be made upon the record books of his office, such as 
the recording of wills, letters testamentary granted thereon and the 
like, and the proceedings of the orphan's court for that county. (See 
New Jersey Laws of 1869, p. 894.) 

The Third Annual Report of the Commissioner of Public Records 
of Massachusetts (1888), in speaking of wood pulp in the manufac- 
ture of paper, incidentally said : " We could with some trouble and 
expense give the experience of a county in New Jersey which had to 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF HEW JERSEY. 177 

replace a large number of record books on account of the first ones 
having so much wood in them." If these records deteriorated so 
rapidly, may it not be reasonable to assume that similar conditions 
may exist in other record offices within the State, where inferior blank 
records were purchased as cheaply as the conscience of the record 
official would admit under the fee system? 

A docket of the Burlington County court, from June term, 1765, 
to October term, 1772, was sold at auction in New York in April, 
1910, and purchased by the State for $75. 

The poll books of Camden County, 1856-1869, are now possessed by 
private interests. 

The original proceedings of the freeholders and justices of Essex 
County, from 1735 to 1%9, are now possessed by private interests* 

The docket of Gloucester County court, A-1754, from September 
term, 1754, to December term, 1761, is controlled by private interests, 
as are the poll books of the same county from 1856 to 1869. Another 
docket of Gloucester County, from 1761 to 1765, was advertised to be 
sold by auction in New York in December last. The clerk of Glou- 
cester County recently wrote a member of this committee, in part : 

We are short of some records that should be here. There can be no excuse for 
anyone having any court records in their possession. They are the property 
of the county and should be here for anyone to examine. 

Certain minutes of the courts of general sessions of the peace and 
common pleas for Middlesex County, X748-1751, and other similar 
records belonging to that county are also possessed by private 
interests. 

City records. During the past summer an effort was made to ascer- 
tain the extent of the public records of certain cities, which have 
existed under one form of government or another for more than a 
century. The clerks of some of the cities responded in part as follows : 

Bridgeton : " Our city records do not extend back prior to the year 
1855." 

Burlington : " To my knowledge the city has no records prior to 
1825." This city was incorporated May 7, 1732. The original oaths 
of allegiance to King George II of Great Britain, sworn to and sub- 
scribed by the mayor, common council, aldermen, and constables of 
Burlington, from 1735 to 1758, was sold at auction in New York in 
December, 1916. 

Gloucester : " Our records go back to about 1850. Previous to this 
time I know nothing about." 

Jersey City : " Our records extend back to December 1, 1 832." 

Paterson: "In a fire, which wiped out the business section of 
Paterson in 1902, the city hall was destroyed. All official records of 
the city prior to that date were lost*" 
23318 19 12 



178 AMEBICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION"* 

Perth Amboy : " The only thing I can find that looks like a public 
record prior to 1825 is one minor ordinance dated 1818. There is 
not much in the way of record in my office for any period back of 
1872, when the present charter of the city was granted by the State 
legislature." This city was incorporated originally on August 4, 
1718. 

Plainfield : " I beg to say that the information you desire is not 
easily obtainable at the present lime. Our facilities for filing have 
been so limited that things have not been kept up in very good shape. 
We are, however, building a new city hall, which will probably be 
ready for occupancy in about a year. At that time all the documents 
which are now stored away in our vaults will be recatalogued and 
put in such shape that they can be easily examined." 

Kahway: "The oldest records I have is the record of births, mar- 
riages, and deaths, and they only go back to 1849." 

Salem : Mr. George W. Price, secretary of the Historical Society 
of Salem County, writes in part: "Some years ago I made a per- 
sistent effort to find the early town records of Salem, but without 
result. They were extant in the 1860's, as shown by affidavits of 
persons who saw them, nevertheless I have been unable to find them 
in recent years." 

Town and township records. The following townships have ex- 
isted under one form of government or another for more than a cen- 
tury, and the condition of their public records is as follows : 

The record book of Saddle Kiver Township, Bergen County, con- 
taining over 300 manuscript pages, extending from 1789 to 1836, 
alleged by Mr. William Nelson to have been cast out of the Passaic 
County office, was sold at auction in New York City i$ November, 
1915. 

The records of Piscataway Township, Middlesex County, running 
from 1696 to 1790, disappeared some time after 1850. 

The town clerk of Woodbridge Township, Middlesex County, re- 
ports that his " Records go back to about 1666." Daily's History of 
Woodbridge, preface, page 3, shows that the first two volumes of these 
old records are in a dilapidated condition; and in 1859 a portion of 
these records were found, after their loss was extensively adver- 
tised and a reward offered by the town authorities for their return. 

The clerk of Bound Brook says: "The records in my possession 
only date back from 1890, at which time this borough was incor- 
porated ; prior to that time it was under a board of commissioners. 
I assume that these records may be examined at the Somerset County 
clerk's office." The county clerk of Somerset County writes : " We 
have nothing in this office pertaining to the public records of Bound 
Brook." 



PUBLIC EECOKDS OF NEW JERSEY. 179 

The only records of Middletown, Monmouth County, from 1667 
to near 1700, were reputed in 1872 to be in possession of the town 
clerk. 

The clerk of Middletown Township, Monmouth County, in- 
forms us 

There are no ancient records of Middletown Township in my possession. 
Some time ahont 1898 I understood that a number of the books of the township 
were destroyed by fire, but I do not think there were any records destroyed 
prior to 1875. Where they are I am unable to tell, as they were never handed 
to me. My records do not go back of 1898. 

"We have no records of the time you mention (1825)," says the 
clerk of Shrewsbury Township, in Monmouth County, continuing, 
he adds, " You will probably find them at Trenton, if there are any." 

The town clerk of Freehold writes : 

I am unable to give you any information relative to the records of the town 
of Freehold prior to 1869. 

The borough clerk of Princeton says : 

We have a record book commencing 1813, births and deaths, etc., and records 
of council. 

The old record book of Maidenhead (now Lawrence) Township, 
Mercer County, commencing in 1716, after remaining in private 
hands for a century was turned over to the clerk's office of Mercer 
County about 1909. 

The docket of Benjamin Smith, justice of the peace in Trenton, 
commencing in 1788 and also containing many records of marriages, 
was given away to private interests some years ago. 

The clerk of Northampton Township, Burlington County, by 
which township Mount Holly is governed, reports: "The earliest 
minute book which I am able to find in the vault dated only 1847." 

The Chesterfield Township, Burlington County, record book, ex- 
tending from December 15, 1692, to December 2, 1711, was sold some 
years ago at public auction, and is now located in the District of 
Columbia. 

The record book of Mansfield Township, Burlington County, be- 
ginning January 1, 1697, and ending September 15, 1773, was sold 
at a Philadelphia auction sale on April 25, 1906, for the sum of $100. 

New Jersey -New York records inseparable. It is not generally 
known by the average local historian in New Jersey, much less by its 
intelligent citizens, that a bulk of our earliest colonial records, both 
under the Dutch and English regime, were retained in New York 
upon the separation of this province from that government in 1738, 
and even since important papers of a latter date are yet to be found 
among them. The record office of East Jersey was not established 
at Perth Amboy until January 8, 1713, and it is uncertain when the 
records of West Jersey were directed to be kept in Burlington. 



180 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

These invaluable public papers relate both to East and West Jer- 
sey and to the several town governments and people thereof. Among 
them will be found the original minutes of our first legislature ; mes- 
sages and proclamations of, petitions and memorials to, the govern- 
ors; privileges granted to the several towns, and the appointment 
or election of certain civil and military officers thereto for a series 
of years subsequent to 1672 ; census of these towns in 1673 ; organi- 
zation of the several courts, proceedings thereof, and its decisions in 
*the trial of various civil and criminal causes; military rolls and 
kindred papers ; and sundry ecclesiastical matters and that relating 
to the social and economic condition of the people of New Jersey. 

Many years ago these papers were copied at the expense of a few 
thousand dollars of State funds, but the transcripts have been with- 
held by private parties, as have other transcripts which, by law, 
should be in the State's possession, costing many thousands of 
dollars. 

HUTILATION OF PUBLIC RECORDS. 

The piratical practice of mutilating public records by abstracting 
a manuscript page because it contains a rare autograph of a distin- 
guished person or reference to a valuable historical item can not be 
too strongly condemned. Whether committed by a collector or for 
purposes of sale, the perpetration of this outrage is only too common. 
And the auction rooms advertise the crime. 

To illustrate, a well-known auction house in Philadelphia a few 
years ago advertised to sell on a certain date a document bearing 
the scarce signature of John Hart. In the catalogue was added to 
the announcement : "An original page from the manuscript minutes 
of the Legislature of New Jersey, containing the resolution in refer- 
ence to sending commissioners to the New Haven convention to 
regulate labor, manufactures, etc. Signed as speaker of the house." 

In the same catalogue was listed another similar item, which read : 
" New Jersey Council of Safety. A page from the original minute 
book containing minutes of the meeting held at Haddonfield, March 
18 and 19, 1777." 

Again, a typical example of the vandalism which is committed 
upon our public records is exhibited in Liber A of the Woodbridge 
town records. The first portion of this volume is made up of the 
original records of surveys, deeds, and other legal instruments in 
Woodbridge, Middlesex County, extending from 1668 to 1731, and the 
remaining part contains the proceedings of the town meetings for 
about the same period. Yet some person had the temerity to disin- 
tegrate this record volume more than 50 years ago, and with his com- 
pliments presented the first portion thereof to certain private inter- 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF NEW JERSEY. 181 

ests, which necessarily knew the manner in which these invaluable 
records were obtained. 

PRICES OBTAINED BY SALE OP PUBLIC RECORDS. 

The value of public documents should not be established by the 
auctioneer. Nevertheless, there is an annual increased demand for 
the acquisition of manuscripts of all kinds, and the prices obtained 
for them at public sale is governed largely by many circumstances, 
especially their condition and the historical importance of the sub- 
'ject they respectively contain. 

A general knowledge of the market value which has been estab- 
lished at auction sales in recent years for some of our State docu- 
ments will illustrate their importance, as follows : 

The New Jersey copy of the original deed authorizing the survey 
for the boundary between New York and New Jersey, accompanied 
with a manuscript map of the line, dated July 25, 1719, sold in 1913 
for $2,600. At the same sale the original agreement between the 
governors of East and West Jersey, determining the boundary lines 
between these two provinces, dated September 5, 1688, brought 
$1,220. 

The original minutes of the general assembly between September 
26 and October 26, 1770, was purchased by the State for $16. 

The messages of the following governors to the house of assembly 
brought the prices specified: Gov. Belcher, January 13, 1747-1748, 
$2.25; Gov. Boone, November 28, 1760, 75 cents; and Acting Gov. 
Hamilton, June 16, 1746, $6.50. 

A petition from the College of New Jersey to the general as- 
sembly, January 2, 1781, brought $31 ; another one from the inhabit- 
ants of Railway, March 28, 1765, brought 30 cents; while one from 
Capt. Daniel Neil and officers of the Eastern Artillery Company, of 
New Jersey, September 16, 1776, sold for $15. 

The letter from Gov. Franklin to his attorney general, January 22, 
1768, brought $6.50, while another to the council and the general as- 
sembly, June 22, 1776, sold for $50. 

The letters from the following persons to Gov. Livingston sold 
for the prices affixed to them : Gen. Nathaniel Heard, April 8, 1777, 
$2.50; and another from the same person, May 10, 1777, $10; Capt. 
Frederick Frelinghuysen, August 25, 1777, $35 ; Gen. Silas Newcomb, 
August 20, 1777, $5.50; Gen. Matthias Williamson, September 26, 
1776, $16 ; Gen. Israel Putman, April 25, 1777, $29. 

The letter from Mahlon Dickerson to the legislature, October 27, 
1815, apepting the governorship, brought $2.20. The resignation of 
John De Hart as a member of Continental Congress in 1776 sold 
for $22. The account of Abraham Clark against the State for his 
attendance in the Continental Congress from November 15, 1782, to 



182 AMEKICAST HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

October 31, 1783, brought $47. The report of the commissioners for 
building the secretary's office at Perth Amboy, October 8 to Decem- 
ber 2, 1762, sold for $7.50. The pay warrant of Ellis Cook, as a dep- 
uty in the Provincial Congress, March 2, 1776, brought $13. The 
document appointing Joseph Woodruff " Water bayliffe and public 
notary of the county of Salem/' August 26, 1703, sold for $23. And 
the application of Agnes Heard to the Middlesex County court, 
July 21, 1761, to keep a public house went for $2. 

ACCESSIBILITY OF PUBLIC RECORDS. 

Generally there is no difficulty in gaining access to the public 
papers in any well-regulated record office. Where these public re- 
positories are overcrowded, the records are not only insufficiently 
protected against fire and theft, but they are not easily accessible. 

The situation is entirely different with the public records in 
private possession. If a person is granted permission to examine 
any public papers he is fortunate enough to locate in private posses- 
sion, he must be subjected to the vexatious delays incident to obtain- 
ing the desired permission, besides the traveling expenses attached 
thereto. In so many instances persons will positively deny that 
they have possession of any public records when they have, and by 
other persons they will regard it as an intrusion to be asked the 
question, 

It is impossible for persons to gain access to public records pos- 
sessed by private interests, such as historical and genealogical societies, 
semipublic libraries, and the like, unless you are a member of the in- 
stitution having them, duly elected, and upon payment of the annual 
dues. Some exceptions are made to this general rule by certain insti- 
tutions as a matter of grace, however, where persons desire access to 
special records for a limited time, providing you pay the fees they 
exact for the privilege. To illustrate, a member of this committee, 
during the past summer, asked permission from one of these institu- 
tions to examine the original answer to the Elizabethtown bill in 
chancery, and he received the following reply : 

In reply to your favor of the llth instant, this society has in its possession 
the original manuscript of the answer to the Elizabethtown bill in chancery. 
We will allow you to examine this manuscript in our society building, but, as 
a nonmember of the society, we will have to charge you $1 a day during the 
time that you are examining it. It can not be taken out of the office of the 
society, and we can not, under any circumstances, permit it to be photographed. 

The famous original Elizabethtown bill of chancery is properly 
possessed by the chancery office in Trenton, while the original answer 
thereto is unlawfully retained by certain private interests beyond the 
State, demanding fees from the citizens of New Jersey for the privi- 
lege of examining one of its own State documents. 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF NEW JERSEY, 183 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Thus we might continue to relate other innumerable details con- 
cerning the condition of our public records. We can only report what 
we said in the beginning : " Of all the States of the Union New Jersey 
has premier cause and greatest need for care in protecting its records 
of the past, and in safeguarding the making of its records now and 
for the future." 

Where are the public credentials of New Jersey? The original 
grants and kindred papers are in private possession, as are many of 
the original journals of the general assembly; the journals of the 
Provincial Congress and of the constitutional convention of 1776; 
messages and official correspondence of the governors; petitions to the 
general assembly; court dockets and minutes; town and township 
records ; and other innumerable records and manuscripts of priceless 
value. 

They have all been, abstracted from the official files, and many have 
been thrown out of public office as junk by careless and ignorant 
officials. They have been given away by the sacred instrument of the 
last will and testament, and otherwise disposed of. They have been 
mutilated and destroyed for personal gain. Again, many of these 
valuable historic records have been floating around the auction houses 
of the country for the past 70 years, sold and resold, and the spoils of 
the plunder divided between the auctioneers and the marauder. 
These conditions are startling and shocking to the senses of man- 
kind in this age of civilization. The evil should be immediately 
stamped out for all time. 

No less abominable, however, is the condition of the public records 
of certain municipalities of the State, from which we have been 
fortunate in obtaining any information whatever relative to the ex- 
tent of their archives and records. Take the cities of Perth Amboy 
and Burlington, for example. Their clerks substantially tell us that 
they have no records for the first 250 years of their incorporated 
existence; and the records in most of the remaining municipalities 
we have specifically referred to are practically in the same con- 
dition. 

The extent of the records in other political divisions of the State 
yet remains to be seen. If these conditions are not checked, the 
present records of many of these offices will be obliterated 50 years 
hence. 

Because of the advanced position which New Jersey has taken upon 
educational lines through the annual appropriation of millions of dol- 
lars to enhance and extend our public school system, the rising gener- 
ation is steadily preparing for a far keener appreciation of the his- 
tory of the State and the neighborhood in which they live ; and noth- 



184 AMEBICAST HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

ing could be more conducive to their enlightenment than the preser- 
vation, collation, retrievement, and the accessibility of our public 
records. 

II. CALENDAR OF PUBLIC PAPERS SELECTED FROM A THOUSAND OK 
MORE MANUSCRIPTS IN PRIVATE POSSESSION. 

BOYAL GEANTS POWEK OF GOVICENMENT, ETC, 

Original lease for a year from James, Duke of York, to Lords Berkeley and 
Carteret for the whole of New Jersey, June 23, 1664. Original release of the 
same, June 24, 1664. 

Original lease for a year from James, Duke of York, to Sir George Carteret 
for half of the northern portion of New Jersey, July 28, 1674. Original release 
of the same, July 29, 1674. 

Original quintipartite deed dividing the Province into East and West Jersey 
differently from the grant to Sir George Carteret in July, 1674, dated July 1, 
1676 

Original release from James, Duke of York, to Sir George Carteret (the grand- 
son and heir of the first Sir George) for all of East Jersey, dated Sept 10, 1680. 

Original release of Elizabeth Carteret, widow and executrix, and the trustees 
of Sir George to the first twelve proprietors for all of East Jersey, Jan 1, 1682. 

Original release of James, Duke of York, to Edward Byllinge et al. for West 
Jersey, Ang 6, 1680. 

** The fundamental constitutions " sent to the Province of New Jersey in 1683 
by the twenty-four proprietors 

Memorial of the proprietors of East Jersey with proposals upon which they 
offer to surrender their government to the Crown, July 5, 1698 

Original instrument of the surrender of the powers of government of the 
proprietors of East Jersey to King William III in 1702. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE EXECUTIVE. 

To ov. Philip Carteret: July 31, 1674. 

To Gov. William Burnet : Nov. 30, 1721 ; June 3, 1722 ; Feb. 23, 1723 ; Mar. 
23, 1727. 

EXECUTIVE MESSAGES TO THE COUNCIL AND GENEBAL ASSEMBLY. 

From Gov. Jonathan Belcher Feb. 22, 1750. 
From Gov. Josiah Hardy. Jan. 8, 1762. 

EXECUTIVE PEOCLAMATIONS. 

From Gov. Jeremiah Basse: May 24, 1698. 

From Gov. Robert Hunter: Aug 9, 1711; Dec. 28, 1718. 

From Gov. William Burnet: July 23, 1726. 

EXECUTIVE CORRESPONDENCE. 

tetter books of Gov. Jonathan Belcher, September, 1747, to October, 1748; 
October, 1750, to August, 1752 ; and July to December, 1755. 

Letter books of Gov, Francis Bernard, 1758-1760. 

Correspondence of the Earl of Dartmouth to Gov. William Franklin, 1773- 
3775. 

Letter books of Gov. Lewis Morris, May, 1739, to March, 1746. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

Minutes of the governor's council, Dec. 8-10, 1746 ; Mar. 18-19, May 6-11, 1747. 
Manuscript declaration and protestation of the governor and council against 
James Carteret, May 28, 1672. 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF NEW JERSEY. 185 

MINUTES OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL AND THE GENEBAL ASSEMBLY. 

Minutes of the Legislative Council : June 2-12, 1680 ; Oct. 19 to Nov. 2, 1681 ; 
Sept. 20 to Oct. 23, 1686 ; Mar. 12, 1687 ; Sept 28, 1692. 

Minutes of the General Assembly: 1751-1752; 1777-1779; 1780-1781; 1782- 
1784; 1786-1790; 1806-1808. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY MISCELLANEOUS. 

Return of the deputies elected to the General Assembly, May 22 to June 2, 
1680. 

Expulsion of William Douglass, member of the Legislative Council of Ber- 
gen, " on account of his being a Roman Catholic," June 10, 1680. 

Document signed and sealed by the High Sheriff of Monmouth County, Apr. 1, 
1772, certifying to the election of Edward Taylor and Richard Lawrence as 
members of the General Assembly. 

PETITIONS AND MEMORIALS TO THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL ASSEMBLY, ETC. 

Petition to the General Assembly for a lottery in Perth Amboy, May 20, 
1765 

Petition of the Goaler at Burlington to the Governor and Council, April 20, 
1771. 

Memorial of the Freeholders of Hunterdon County to their representatives 
in the General Assembly, May, 1771 

Petitions and Memorials of the Eastern and Western Proprietors of New 
Jersey to the Legislature in 1775. 

Petition from the Inhabitants of Toms River to the Council and General 
Assembly, Dec. 10, 1781. 

Petition from John Fitch to the Legislature, Mar 14, 1786, requesting a 
grant of the exclusive privilege of constructing boats impelled by steam. 

Memorial to the Legislature in behalf of idiots, epileptics, and insane poor, 
1845. 

COMMITTEE OF SAFETY. 

Votes and Proceedings of the Committee of Safety of New Jersey, January 
and March, 1776. 

Proceedings of the Committee of Safety of Shrewsbury, from May 27, 1775, 
to Mar. 6, 1776. 

Proceedings of the Committee of Correspondence of Shrewsbury, May 27, 
1775, to Mar. 6, 1776. 

Letter from the Committee of the People of Essex County to the Inhabitants 
of Monmouth County, June 13, 1774, commenting on the events at Boston re- 
garding American liberties, and recommending a general meeting at New 
Brunswick on July 21. 

Letter from the New York Committee of Safety to the Committee of Safety 
of New Jersey, Sept. 27, 1775. 

Letter from Lord Sterling to the Committee of Safety, Mar. 17, 1776, rela- 
tive to the necessity of suspending the operation of the civil law during the 
campaign. 

Letter from the Committee of Inspection of Freehold to the Inhabitants of 
Shrewsbury, Mar. 6, 1775, urging the election of Delegates to the Provincial 
Congress. 



186 AMEBICAST HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

PBOVINCIAI, CONGRESS. 

Minutes of the Committee of Safety and Provincial Congress, Jan 11 to 
Feb. 6; Feb. 27 to Mar 2; June 21 to July 23, 1776. 

Orders of the Provincial Congress and Convention of New Jersey relative 
to the militia, June 14 and Aug 11, 1776. 

Articles of Association of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of Pequanock, 
Morris County, pledging to sustain the action of the Continental and Pro- 
vincial Congresses, May, 1775. 

Pledge of certain officers of the 1st Militia Regiment of Middlesex County, 
Feb. 24, 1776, to carry into execution the orders of the Provincial Congress. 

COUNCIL OF SAFETY. 

Memoranda of evidence against Tories for the Council of Safety, Dec. 1, 1776. 
Affidavit taken before the Council of Safety, Aug. 19, 1778, respecting the 
movement of the Indians on the frontiers. 
Letter from Gen. Philemon Dickinson to the Council of Safety, Sept. 7, 1778. 

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 1776. 

Journals of the convention which framed the first Constitution of New Jersey 
in 1776. 

BOUNDARY LINES. 

Report of the attorney general on the ancient boundaries of the Province of 
New York, and showing the necessity of reannexmg Connecticut, New Jersey, 
Delaware, and Pennsylvania, Aug. 6, 1691. 

Application for the royal approval of the act of the Assembly for running 
rhe New Jersey -New York boundary line, 1753. 

Decision of the commissioners to settle the boundary line between New Jersey 
and New York, Oct. 7, 1769. 

CENSUS. 

Census of Elizabethtown, Newark, Woodridge, Piscataway, Middletown, and 
Shrewsbury, Sept. 14, 1673. 

CHUECHES. 

Letter from Gov. Hunter to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
Dec. 5, 1712, relative to their purchase of the Tatham house and plantation 
at Burlington. 

Petition of John Bishop, Henry Rolph, and other freeholders and inhabitants 
of Woodbridge for a license to build an Episcopal Church, May 19, 1714 

Charter of the Baptist Church in Hopewell, Hunterdon County, Dec. 5, 1769. 

CIVEG OFFICERS. 

Return of June 30, 1680, showing that John Ward and others were chosen 
overseers of Newark. 

Return of New Jersey appointments, July 21, 30, 1680. 

Return of July 21, 1680, showing certain persons chosen overseers of 
Piscataway. 

Return of the town officers elected in Bergen, Aug. 17, 1680. 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF NEW JERSEY. 187 

Salaries of the necessary officers in New Jersey, Dec. 13, 1705. 
Return of the sheriffs of the several counties to be commissioned, Nov. 25, 
1711. 

COUBTS. 

Gloucester County Docket A 1754. September term, 1754, to December 
term, 1762. 

Minutes of the Courts of General Sessions of the Peace and Common Pleas of 
Middlesex County, July 19-20, 1748 ; July 16-17, 1751. 

Proceedings of the Freeholders and Justices of Essex County from 1735 to 
1789. 

Docket of Benj. Smith, justice of the peace m Trenton, beginning in 1788, 
which contains records of many marriages. 

Papers containing the indictment of John Penwick for assuming to be Lord 
Chief Proprietor, his trial, sentence, and appeal to the King denied, between 
October, 1676, and Aug 22, 1678. 

Names of the justices and clerk of the monthly courts at EHzabethtown, July 
3, 1680. 

Proceedings of the Court of Sessions held at Piscataway, Sept. 3, 1680. 

Dates of commission of certain persons to be judges of the Court of Common 
Right in Monmouth County, Dec. 30, 1692. 

Warrant issued at St. James appointing William Trent chief justice, Feb. 7, 
1724. 

Decree of the Court of Chancery, Aug. 20, 1744, m case of Daniel Smith vs. 
the Heirs and Executors of Gabriel Stelle. 

ELECTIONS. 

Schedule of votes cast in Sussex County in Oct., 1792, for Representatives 
in Congress, council, and assembly, and sheriffs and coroners, 

ELIZABETHTOWN BILL, 

Answer to the Elizabethtown bill in chancery. 

ESTATES. 

Petition of Thomas Olive, of Burlington, for letters of administration on the 
estate of Thomas Palmer, deceased, Oct. 31, 1681. 

3TERBIES. 

Petition ef Joseph Fitz Randolph to the assembly for exclusive ferry privi- 
leges between Staten Island and New Jersey, Apr. 23, 1729. 

Petition of Anthony White, of New Jersey, to the assembly for a ferry from 
Staten Island and Bergen Point, July 10, 1764. 

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE AND MAGISTRATES. 

Return of magistrates elected in Bergen, Aug. 18, 1673 ; Aug. 25, 1674 ; July 
27, 1681. 

Return of the magistrates of Burlington, May 21, 1680. 

Dates of commission of the several justices of the peace in Middlesex County 
In 1688. 



188 AMERICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

LAND TITLES. 

Claim of the Inhabitants of Newark in 1766, by virtue of Indian purchases 
made by the first settlers thereof in 1667. 

Opinion of the Council of Bast Jersey Proprietors concerning the invalidity 
of Nicoll's grants, and Indian purchases against the title of Berkeley and Car- 
teret, given in 1700. 

Authority from Lieut. Gov. Ingoldesby to John Rudyard to purchase land in 
West Jersey from the Indians, Nov. 17, 1708. 

LOAN OFFICE. 

Letter from Jona. Deare, clerk of the general assembly, to John Johnston, 
Nov. 23, 1776, transmitting an order of the house to transfer the loan office 
money to Richard Smith, treasurer. 

Sis books of accounts, bonds, mortgages, etc., of the commissioners of the 
loan office for Burlington County from 1776 to 1778, with sinking fund quotas 
of the several townships in the county from 1775 to 1784. 

MILITIA. 

Return of the officers appointed for the town of Bergen, Sept. 4, 1673. 

Return of the officers of Elizabethtown, Newark, Woodbridge, Piscataway, 
Middletown, and Shrewsbury, Sept. 14, 1673 

Military appointments for Freehold, Middletown, Shrewsbury, Manasquan, 
and Shark River, Mar 2, 1704. 

Muster roll of Col. Richard Ingoldesby's independent company of grenadiers, 
Oct. 25, 1714. 

List of substitutes furnished by certain persons to be enlisted in His 
Majesty's service, Aug, 1746 

Pay roll of Capt. James Parker's company, May 8, 1747. 

Orders to the officers of militia of Monmouth County to keep a watch at 
the highlands of Navisink, and to prepare signals and beacons, Apr. 24, 1755. 

Muster roll of Capt William Skinner's company, on the northern frontier, 
May 6, 1755. 

List of officers recommended to the Provincial Congress for the 1st Somerset 
Regiment, Jan. 26, 1776. 

Return of the officers of the Third New Jersey Continental Regiment, Oct 
26, 1776, with notes of their professional capacity. 

Return of Gen. Newcomb's brigade, stationed at Woodbury, Nov. 18, 1777. 

Muster and descriptive roll of Col. Frelinghuysen's recruits for the New 
Jersey Continental line, May 21, 1778. 

Order book of Third New Jersey Continental Regiment, May 26 to Sept. 4, 
1779. 

PBOPEIETOBS OF EAST JEBSEY. 

Order of proprietors directing an examination into the affairs of the province, 
Oct. 21, 1685. 

Settlements by receiver general of the quit rents with the people of Newark, 
Achqueckennuck, Bergen, Hackensack, Saddle River, Woodbridge, and Raritan 
River, 1707 to 1726. 

Book of Accounts of the Treasurers and Agents, Sept. 12, 1771, to July 11, 
1842. 



PUBLIC RECOBDS OF STEW JEESEY. 189 

PROPEIETOKS OF WEST JERSEY. 

Instructions of William Penn and others to the commissioners sent by them 
to West Jersey to arrange their affairs with John Fenwick and provide for 
the survey and settlement of the country, Aug. 6, 1676. 

Account of the disposal of shares or proprieties by Edward Byllmge, from 
Mar. 12, 1676, to Aug. 21, 1678. 

Protest of certain citizens to the assembly against a body styling themselves 
a Council of Proprietors for West New Jersey, Dec. 11, 1711. 

Letters from Lewis Morris to his son, Lewis Morris, jr., dated Chelsea, Eng., 
Aug. 1 and 29, 1735, saying the West Jersey Society requests all their books 
and papers, excepting bonds, be sent to England; and "requesting special infor- 
mation relative to the title of " Pamphilia," m Salem County. 

PROVINCIAL AGENTS, 

(20) Letters from Joseph Sherwood, agent for the Province in England, to 
Samuel Smith, treasurer, from 1761 to 1766. 

Letter from the committee of the house of assembly, Dec. 7, 1769, informing 
Dr. Benjamin Franklin of his appointment as agent of the Province of New 
Jersey in England. 

PUBLIC ACCOUNTS. 

Accounts of Thomas Gordon, receiver general, of the revenue of the colony 
of New Jersey for two years, June 23, 1712. 

Accounts of the paupers maintained by the township of Woodbridge from 
1797 to 1801. 

Accounts of Col. Peter Schuyler, as colonel and paymaster of the New Jersey 
Regiment in 1759 and 1760, as settled by a committee of the general assembly. 

Accounts of Andrew Johnston, treasurer of East Jersey, from December, 
1761, to May, 1763, submitted by his executors to the committee of the as- 
sembly. 

Certificates of unpaid obligations of New Jersey, 1782. 

EATABLES. 

> 
Eatables for Freehold Township, Monmouth County, in 1776. 

BIOTS. 

List of rioters in Middlesex County, called the Amboy riot, August, 1747. 

List of persons indicted for high treason, in Amboy riots, August, 1747. 

List of persons indicted for riots in Somerset County quarter sessions and 
removed into the supreme court, May, 1747. ' 

List of rioters in Essex County returned upon a record of view filed in the 
supreme court in May term, 1746 

Affidavits of certain persons taken by the council, Oct. 11-16, 1749, with 
reference to the riots in New Jersey, and the manner in which they pretend 
to hold their lands. The above five (5) papers laid before the legislative coun- 
cil by Gov. Belcher, Nov. 19, 1747. 

A statement of facts concerning the riots and insurrections in New Jersey, 
and the remedies attempted by the governor and the legislature to put an end 
to them, reported to, the council, Jan, 9, 1748, and agreed to by them. 



190 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

TORIES. 

Warrant of Gov. Livingston to arrest certain Tories, July 25, 1777. 
Official estimates of the value of the property left by John Terrill, Philip 
Kearny, Thomas Crowell, and others, refugees, 17S3. 

TOWNS AND TOWNSHIPS. 

Book containing original records of survey, deeds, and other legal instru- 
ments in TVoodbridge from 1668 to 1731. 

Privileges granted by the Dutch commissioners to the several towns in New 
Jersey, Aug. 18, 1673. 

Directions of the proprietors in England for laying out " Perth Towne " 
(Perth Amboy), Sept. 21, 1683. 

Chesterfield town docket, Burlington county, Dec. 15, 1692, to Dec. 2, 1711. 

The poll of the freeholders of Hunterdon County, Oct. 9, 1738. 

Petition of 404 inhabitants of Newark to the King in council, 1750. 

Assessments made in Middletown in 1761. 

Assessments made in Perth Amboy in 1801, 1803, and 1804. 

Town committee minutes of Newark from 1811 to 1815. 

TREASURY. 

Deposition of Stephen Skinner, treasurer of East Jersey, as to the robbery of 
his office, July 25, 1768. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Names of persons who took the oaths at Elizabethtown, Shrewsbury, Middle- 
town, Piscataway, Newark, and Woodbridge, September, 1673. 

" Propositions for ye Settlement of Pamphiha by the Governor," 1699. Note : 
Pamphilia was in Salem County. 

Letter from Gov. Cornbury to the inhabitants of Bergen, May 16, 1706, calling 
for stockades to be built to repel an attack on New York from a French 
squadron. 

Letter from Thomas Gardiner, of Burlington, to Secretary Clarke, request- 
ing him not to grant a license for the marriage of his daughter, May 3, 1711. 

Papers concerning the instructions of the governor and council to Col. 
Abraham Van Camp, of Sussex County, November, 1754, to adopt measures 
for the protection of the inhabitants on the frontiers. 

Orders for the arrest of Petrus Smoke, sheriff of Sussex County, and other 
persons for ousting Philip Swartwout from his lands, Oct. 11, 1759. 

Papers relating to lands and settlers on the Passaic River, etc., from 1756 
to 1773. 

List of prisoners in Morristown goal, August, 1777, sent to the governor 
and council. 

III. CALENDAR or PUBLIC PAPERS SELECTED FROM SEVERAL THOU- 
SAND MANUSCRIPTS SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE IN VARIOUS AUCTION 
HOUSES SINCE 1900. 

EXECUTIVE MESSAGES TO THE COTJNCEL AND GENEBAX ASSEMBLY OK LEGISLATTJBE, 

From Gov. Jonathan Belcher : Aug. 20, 1747 ; Nov. 19, 1747 ; Dec. 19, 1747 ; 
Jan. 13, 1748 ; Jan. 19, 1748 ; Feb. 17, 1748 ; Get, 21, 1748 ; Nov. 28, 1748 ; Sept. 28, 
1749; Oct. 5, 1749; Feb. 22, 1751; Apr. 29, 1754; Aug. 7, 1755; May 31 1757; 
Aug. 29, 1757. 



PUBLIC BECOKDS OF NEW JEBSET. 191 

From Gov. Francis Bernard: Mar. 10, 1759. 
From Gov. Joseph Bloomfield : Jan. 25, 1811. 
From Gov. Thomas Boone * Nov. 28, 1760 ; Apr. 1, 1761. 
From Gov, Mahlon Dickerson : Oct. 23, 1816. 
From Gov. William Franldm : Nov. 30, 1765 ; Nov. 21 1775. 
From Acting Gov. John Hamilton : June 16, 1746. 

From Gov. Josiah Hardy : Dec. 4, 1761 ; Sept 21, 1762 ; * Dec. 10, 1761. * 
From Gov. William Livingston : Aug 29, 1780 ; Sept. 28, 1781 ; Dec. 9, 1782 ; 
June 12, 1783 ; Oct. 25, 1787 ; Jan. 8, 1790 ; May 19, 1792. 
From Gov. Lewis Morris : 1738 ; Oct., 1743. 
From Gov. William S Pennington : Jan. 11, 1815. 
From Acting Gov. John Reading: 1758. 
From Gov. Isaac H. Williamson : Nov. 4, 1817 ; Jan. 15, 1818. 

EXECUTIVE ANSWEHS TO THE ADDRESSES OIF THE ASSEMBLY. 

From Gov. Jonathan Belcher : Aug 1747 ; Nov. 17, 1748 

From Gov. Lewis Morris: 1738; 1740; (2) 1741; 1743; (2) 1745. 

EXECUTIVE PROCLAMATION. 

From Gov. William Burnet Aug. 18, 1725 ; Apr. 3, 1727. 
From Acting Gov. John Hamilton : June 14, 1746. 

EXECUTIVE PEOCLAMATIONS. 

Gov. Jonathan Belcher. Letter from the Lord Commissioners, Nov. 25, 1748. 

Gov. Joseph Bloomfield. Letter to Adjutant-General Hunt (no date). 

Gov. William Burnet. Letter from the Board of Trade, July 9, 1723. 

Gov William Franklin. Letter to Cortlandt Skinner, Attorney General, Jan. 
22, 1768 ; letter to the council and general assembly, June 22, 1776. 

Gov. Josiah Hardy. Letter to John Smith of Burlington, Nov. 8, 1762, giving 
his reasons for a constitutional council in New Jersey. 

Gov. Richard Howell. Letter from Thomas Jefferson, Apr. 26. 1793; letter 
from John Neilson, of New Brunswick, July 20, 1793; letter from Thomas 
Jefferson, Feb. 16, 1801. 

Gov. William Livingston. Letter from Elias Boudinot, Oct. 23, 1782 ; letters 
from the President of the Continental Congress, Dec. 14, 1779, April 13, 1783; 
letter from the Secretary of the Continental Congress, July 17, 1782; letter 
from the Continental Navy Board, Aug. 29, 1777 ; letter from Col. Elias Dayton, 
May 5, 1777; letter from Col. Samuel Forman, April 7, 1777; letter from 
Frederick Frelinghuysen, Aug. 20, 1777; letter from Gen. Alexander Hamilton, 
Sept. 26, 1789; letter from Gen. Nathaniel Heard, Apr. 8, 1777; letter from 
Robert L. Hooper, Nov., 1777 ; letter from William C. Houston, Dec. 20, 1779 ; 
letter from Thomas Jefferson, Aug. 18, 1790 ; letter from Gen Benjamin Lincoln, 
Oct. 23, 1782 ; letters from Gen. William Maxwell, Jan. 24, 1777, Apr. 25, 1777 ; let- 
ters from Chief Justice Robert Morris, July 5, and Nov. 12, 1777; letter from 
Joseph Nourse, Jan. 19, 1778 ; letter from Samuel Osgood, Sept., 1786 ; letter 
from Gen. Israel Putnam, Apr. 25, 1777; letter from Justice Isaac Smith, 
Mar. 28, 1777; letter from Gen. John Stark, Oct. 18, 1776; letter from Gen. 
Adam Stephen, Oct. 22, 1776; letters from Justice John Cleves Symines, June 
29, 1777, Feb. 14, 1780 ; letter from Gen. George Washington, Sept. 3, 1781. 

Gov. William S. Pennington. Letter from Gen. Aaron Ogden, May 31, 1814; 
letter from Joseph Bloomfield, June 30, 1814. 

Gov. Thomas Pownall. Letter to Acting Gov. John Reading, Mar. 11, 1758. 

1 Imperfect copy. 



192 AMEBICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 



Minutes of the governor and council, Sept. 26 to Oct. 26, 1770; Mar, 11 to 
May 16, 1774; July 18, 1777, to Oct. 7, 1780; Nov. 9, 1780, to Feb. 29, 1796. 

EXECUTIVE MIS CELL ANT. 

A series of manuscript records, 1708-1734, comprising orders of the governors, 
lieutenant governors, acts of assembly, etc. 

Addresses of the council and general assembly to the governors, and messages 
of the governors to the council, etc., from 1710 to 1749 18 pieces. 

MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL ASSEMBLY, ETC. 

Minutes of the council and general assembly, June 13 to Aug. 21, 1766 ; Apr. 
12 to May 7, 1768 ; Apr. 24 to Aug. 21, 1771 ; Nov. 21 to Dec. 20, 1771 ; Aug. 21 
to Sept 17, 1772; 1776. 

A page from the original minutes of the general assembly, containing the 
resolution for sending commissioners to the New Haven convention to regulate 
labor, manufacturers, etc. (1776), signed by John Hart speaker of the house. 

Minutes of a council for the general assembly, Oct. 2, 1694. 

Messages (3) of the council to the house of assembly in 1749-1750. 

LETTEBS ADDEESSED TO THE COUNCIL, GENERAL ASSEMBLT, OB LEGISLATURE. 

Letter from Charles Reed to council, Sept. 7, 1757, saying that John Reading 
had refused to administer the government of New Jersey upon the death of 
Gov. Belcher. 

Letter from Justice Robert Morris to the assembly with reference to the law 
limiting prices and withholding the necessities of life in New Jersey. 

Letter from John Hancock, President of Congress, to the general assembly, 
Oct. 2, 1776. 

Letter from Gen. William Winds to the legislature, Sept. 25, 1777. 

Letter from officers of the New Jersey Brigade to the legislature, July 30, 
1778. 

Letter from Gov. Richard Howell to the legislature, Nov. 18, 1799. 

Letter from Oliver H. Perry, acknowledging the vote of thanks of the legis- 
lature in 1813. 

PETITIONS AND MEMORIALS TO THE GOVERNOR, COUNCIL, AND GENERAL ASSEMBLT. 

Petition from the owners of Bloomaries in Morris County, Oct. 6, 1751, pray- 
ing to be exempt from tax. 

Petition from the inhabitants of Hanover Township, Morris County, Mar. 9, 
1756, concerning the frontiers and supporting troops by tax. 

Petition from the inhabitants of Princeton, Apr. 11, 1758, praying that bar- 
racks may be built there. 

Petition from the inhabitants of Burlington County, Mar. 8, 1763, regarding 
the killing of sheep by dogs. 

Petition of the inhabitants of Rahway, Mar. 28, 1765, for erecting a dam on 
Rahway River at Elizabethtown. 

Petition of the inhabitants of Perth Amboy and Middlesex County, May 8, 
1765, to rebuild the courthouse at Perth Amboy. 

Petition by Rev. William Tennent, May 27, 1765, for reimbursement for the 
removal of the Indians from Cranbury to Brotherton. 



PUBLIC RECORDS OF l&EW JERSEY. 193 

Petition of Shepard Kollock, asking to be appointed State printer. 

Memorial of the inhabitants of Bergen County, May 3, 1783, protesting to 
interpreting the 5th and 6th articles of the treaty with Great Britain so as 
to allow traitors, felons, robbers, murderers, etc., to return back and enjoy 
privileges of citizenship. 

Petition of the inhabitants of Trenton and Nottingham, Feb 24, 1786, for 
corporate powers. 

Petition of the citizens of Perth Amboy, May 29, 1786, for the general 
assembly to select that town for its sittings. 

Petition from the inhabitants of Bethlehem Township, Hunterdon County, 
Oct. 16, 1794, against dividing the county 

Petition of William Henry Harrison (9th President of the United States), 
Oct. 10, 1810, concerning his title to land in New Jersey. 

Memorial of Aaron Ogden, Oct. 29, 1813, praying relief regarding steamboat 
navigation 

Petition of the inhabitants of Maidenhead Township, Hunterdon County, 
Dec., 1815, asking the name of the township be changed to " Lawrence." 

CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. 

Resolution of the Continental Congress addressed to the convention of New 
Jersey in October, 1775, signed by the President and Secretary, calling for 
New Jersey troops in the Continental Army. 

Resignation of John De Hart as a delegate in the Continental Congress, 
addressed to the General Assembly of New Jersey, dated Elizabethtown, 
Nov. 13, 1775, and giving reasons therefor. 

Resolves of the Continental Congress of June 2 and Sept. 10, 1781, trans- 
mitted to the legislature. 

Oaths of allegiance of the delegates of New Jersey in the Continental 
Congress between 1781 and 1783 required by law. 

Receipt of Lambert Cadwalader to the State of New Jersey, Oct. 26, 1787, 
for pay as a delegate in the Continental Congress. 

COMMITTEE OF SAJTETY. 

Miscellaneous papers from the Monmouth County Committee of Safety, Oct, 

1775, relative to the capture of the tender of the sloop of war Viper. 
Certificate of John Hart to the payment of the salary of John Pope, May 15, 

1776, as a member of the Committee of Safety, 

Deposition of Isaac Potter before the Committee of Safety, Apr. 7, 1777, 
against Joseph Salter, a Tory. 

Affidavits of various residents of New Jersey, giving evidence before the Com- 
mittee of Safety against their townsmen who were aiding and abetting the 
British, taken mostly before Gov. Livingston ; 18 pieces. 

PBOVINCIAI, CONGBESS. 

Order for the payment of salary to Jesse Hand as a member of the New 
Jersey Provincial Congress, Feb. 27, 1776. 

Pay warrant of Ellis Cook as a deputy in the Provincial Congress, Mar. 8, 
1776. 

Several letters on various subjects addressed to the Provincial Congress in 
1775 and 1776. 

23318 19 13 



194 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

COUNCIL OF SAFETY. 

Original act of the general assembly forming the Council of Safety, March 15, 
1777, signed by John Hart, speaker. 

A page from the minutes of the Council of Safety, containing the minutes of 
Mar. 18 and 19, 1777. 

CONSTITUTIONAL CONTENTION OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1787. 

The original report of Peter Tallman concerning Articles of Federation and 
Union of the States. 

Authenticated copy of the report of the Annapolis convention, Sept. 14, 1786, 
forwarded to the New Jersey Legislature, as to its decision as to the best 
mode of formulating a plan of Government or Constitution of the United States. 

Petition of the delegates from New Jersey to the Constitutional Convention 
in Philadelphia to the legislature, June 1, 1787, asking to be allowed to employ 
a secretary, messenger, and doorkeeper. 

Original printed copy of the Constitution of the United States, transmitted to 
the legislature by its delegates in the Constitutional Convention in 1787. 

Original copy of the amendments proposed to be added to the Constitution 
in 1789, presented to the legislature by the Congress of the United States. 

ACADEMIES AND COLLEGES. 

Petition by the trustees of the Newark Academy to the legislature, Nov. 11, 
1794, for an act of incorporation. 

Petition to the legislature in 1795 for a lottery to complete the academy in 
Nottingham. 

Petition from the trustees of the College of New Jersey (Princeton Uni- 
versity) to the legislature, for a lottery to raise $25,000 to establish a professor- 
ship in mathematics and astronomy. 

Petition of the College of New Jersey to the general assembly, Jan. 2, 1781, 
asking for a reduction in the quorum of members of the corporation, and relief 
for the damage done to the buildings by the enemy and by quartering the 
militia therein. 

BOUNDARY PAPERS. 

Agreement made between Daniel Coxe, governor of West Jersey, and Kobert 
Barclay, governor of East Jersey, London, Sept. 5, 1688, determining the 
boundary lines between the two provinces. 

Manuscript deed and map authorizing the survey for the boundary line be- 
tween New Jersey and New York (New Jersey's copy), dated July 25, 1719. 

Brief of claim on the part of New Jersey, and the proof offered in support 
of it, taken before the commissioners appointed by His Majesty, for settling 
the boundary line between that province and v New York; answers and ob- 
jections thereto made by the agents of New York, dated Sept. 28, 1769. 

Petition of the eastern proprietors to the legislature, Dec. 6 1783, praying 
that the Lawrence line, ran in 1743, be confirmed and made final against all 
controversies. 

Documents (19) relative to the boundary line between East and West 
Jersey, between 1775 and 1796 ; being mostly petitions to the general assembly. 

CHTJKCHES. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to build the Keformed Dutch Church 
of Bergen, 1794. 



PUBLIC KECOEDS OF NEW JERSEY. 195 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to complete tlie Presbyterian Church 
in Caldwell, 1795 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery in behalf of the First Presbyterian 
Church in Elizabeth. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to rebuild St John's Church in Eliza- 
beth, 1803. 

Petition to the legislature by Col. Samuel Forman for a lottery of his farm 
for the benefit of the Episcopal Church of Fort Moninouth, 1795. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to complete the Episcopal Church in 
New Brunswick, 1786. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to complete the Presbyterian Church 
and Academy in Newton, 1801. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to rebuild the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in Perth Amboy, 1787 

Vestry minutes of St. Peter's Church at Perth Amboy, 1795-1796. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to repair St. Peter's Episcopal Church 
at Spots wood, 1796. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to finish the Presbyterian Church in 
Trenton, 1812. 

Petition to the legislature for a lottery to build an addition to the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Woodbridge, 1793. 

CIVIL OFFICERS. 

Return of officers elected in Hopewell Township, Hunterdon County, Mar. 
2, 1761, and signed by John Hart. 

Resignation of Abraham Clark as clerk of the house of assembly, June 11, 
1766. 

Certificate of election of Joel Fithian, sheriff, and James Ewmg and Joshua 
Brick, coroners, in Cumberland County, Aug. 11, 1776. 

Qualification of John Stevens as a member of the legislature, Sept. 7, 1777. 

The affirmations of members of the general assembly in 1778-1779. 

The bonds of John Stevens as State treasurer, Dec. 11, 1781, and* Dec. 20 7 
1782. 

Certificate of pay to Abraham Clark as a member of the assembly, Dec. 23, 
1784. 

Oath of Maskell Ewing as clerk of the general assembly, Get 26, 1790. 

Letter of Richard Ho well to the legislature, Nov. 1, 1798, accepting the office 
of governor. 

Letters of Joseph Bloomfield to the legislature, Oct. 25, 1804, and Oct. 27, 
1809, accepting the office of governor. 

Letter of Mahlon Dickerson to the legislature, Oct. 27, 1815, accepting the 
office of governor. 

COURTS. 

Docket book of the supreme court, March term, 1763, to September term, 1770. 

Docket book of the Burlingtqn County court, June term, 1765, to October 
term, 1772. 

Docket book of the Gloucester County court, April term, 1761, to April term, 
1765. 

Docket book of Garret Van Houten, justice of the peace in Bergen Township, 
Bergen County, from July 4, 1812, to Sept 19, 1820. 

Record book of cases for debt settled in court from June 13, 1812, to June 8, 
1814, kept by the clerk of the court in Trenton, 300 pp. 



196 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Application of Agnes Heard to the Middlesex County court, July 21, 1761, for 
license to keep a " Public house of entertainment." 

Petition of certain lawyers to the general assembly, May 30, 1765, praying 
that Frederick Smyth might be retained as chief justice. 

Petition of Justice John Berrien to the governor, June 16, 1766, complaining 
of the chief justice appropriating all the fees of the court 

Petition from the justices of the supreme court to the legislature, Sept , 1779, 
praying that the court may be fixed at some one place during the Revolutionary 
War. 

Resignation of Joseph Bloomfield as attorney-general of New Jersey, May 
16, 1792 

Resignation of Mahlon Dickerson as justice of the supreme court, 1815. 

Resignation of William Rossell as justice of the supreme court (IS ). 

ESTATES. 

Inventory of the estate of Thomas Lambert, dated Feb 24, 1703, and signed 
by Gov. Oornbury 

Petition of Samuel Dick, of Salem County, to the legislature, Oct 2, 1780, 
concerning the inheritance of Job Shreeve. 

HIGHWAYS. 

Petition of the inhabitants of the city and county of Burlington to the 
general assembly, Nov 25, 1747, for altering the road to Cooper's Creek. 

Petition of the inhabitants of Essex County to the general assembly, Feb 
14, 1674, in reference to opening a new road for traveling between Philadel- 
phia and New York 

Petition of the inhabitants of Elizabethtown to the legislature, May 28, 
1765, for a road through Bergen. 

MILITIA. 

Petitions of several captains of the Somerset Militia to the Committee of 
Safety, July 31, 1775, relative to fines for neglect of militia duty. 

Petition of officers of several companies of Minute-men in Moninouth County 
to the Committee of Safety, Sept 29, 1775, recommending officers for com- 
mission. 

Memorial of Jonathan Phillips and Philip Moore, of Maidenhead, to the 
Committee of Safety, Oct 16, 1775, offering services of the Minute-men. 

Memorial of Aaron Longstreet, of Middlesex County, to the Committee of 
Safety, Oct. 18, 1775, offering his services as captain. 

Recommendation for field officers by the militia of Cape May County to the 
Provincial Congress, Oct 22, 1775 

Memorial of Seth Bowen, of Cumberland County, to the Provincial Congress, 
Dec. 1, 1775, offering his services as captain 

Application of Benjamin Whitall, of Woodbury, to the Committee of Safety, 
Jan. 10, 1776, for a command in Col. Maxwell's regiment. 

Petition of William Clark, of Burlington, to the Committee of Safety, Jan. 
11, 1776, for lieutenancy. 

Memorial of Major Ephraim Anderson, of Hunterdon County, to the Com- 
mittee of Safety, Jan. 12, 1776, for the appointment of field officer in Maxwell's 
regiment. 

Petition of the officers of the 2d battalion of Cumberland County militia 
to the Provincial Congress, Jan. 16, 1776, recommending field officers. 



PTJBLIC ftCOltf> OF KEW JEBSEY. 197 



Petition of the inhabitants of Newark to the Provincial Congress, Apr. 8, 
1776, recommending Captain Wheeler to command a company of grenadiers. 

Recommendations of the Monmouth County Committee of Safety, Apr. 17, 
1776, favoring the appointment of Captain Stillwell to be appointed captain 
of the first company to be raised in the county. 

Warrant of Abraham Clark on the treasurer, Apr. 18, 1776, for payment of 
arms and military stores 

Letter from Joseph Borden to the convention of New Jersey, Aug. 11, 1776, 
giving number of troops raised in Burlington County, with names of the cap- 
tains. 

Petition of Captain Daniel Neill and officers of the Eastern Artillery Company 
to Gov Livingston, Sept. 16, 1776 

Letter from Gen Matthias Williamson to Gov. Livingston, Sept 21, 1776, 
relative to the condition of the Eastern Artillery Company. 

Instructions from the legislature to the commissioners appointed for raising 
four battalions for service in the Continental Army, 1776. 

Letter from the field officers of the 3d battalion of Middlesex County Militia 
to the Council of Safety, 1776, recommending ceitam persons for commission. 

Petition of the commissioned officers of the several regiments in Monmouth 
County to the legislature, Feb. 21, 1777, praying that Col David Forman may 
be appointed brigade commander. 

An order given by the Council of Safety to Maj. Samuel Hayes of Essex 
County, July 10, 1777, for the apprehension of certain disaffected persons. 

Letter from Gen Silas Newcomb to Gov. Livingston, Aug. 20, 1777, giving an 
account of the capture by Major Ewing of certain persons of Downs Township, 
Cumberland County. 

Letter of Gov Livingston to Gen. Silas Newcomb, Sept 20, 1777, containing 
certain military instructions. 

Letter from Gen. David Forrnan to Gov Livingston, June 9, 1780, giving an 
account of the capture of Captain Barnes Smock and others. 

Instruction given by James Ewing, auditor of accounts, to John Little, pay 
master of the Gloucester Militia, Aug. 20, 1782. 

Remonstrance of the officers of the New Jersey Brigade to the legislature, 
May 23, 1783. 

Petition of Major John Conway to the legislature, Nov 13, 1783, relative to 
the settlement of his accounts and the history of his company. 

Official list of the enrolled militia in the Lower Springfield Company, Bur- 
lington County, made Aug. 81, 1801. 

OATHS OF AIXEGIANCE. 

Oath of allegiance to King George II sworn to and subscribed by the mayor, 
common council, aldermen, and constables of Burlington between 1735 and 1758. 

Oath of allegiance to the United States taken by certain citizens of Sussex 
County, 1787-1788. 

Oath of allegiance of the judges and justices of Passaic County on its forma- 
tion, in 1837, with dates of commission and the time they were severally 
sworn in. 

KROVINCIAL AGENTS. 

* 

Letter from Richard Partridge, English agent of the colony of New Jersey, 
London, Jan 23, 1752, in reference to the surrender of the government of New 
Jersey to the Crown in 1702. 



198 AMEHlCAltf HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Accounts of Richard Partridge, English agent of the colony of New Jersey, 
with the colony of New Jersey, Dec. 9, 1750, to Jan. 15, 1755. 

Order made in council by Gov, William Franklin on the treasurer, May 21, 
1773, to pay Dr. Benjamin Franklin 25 pounds, proclamation money for services 
as agent of the province of New Jersey at the Court of Great Britain. 

PUBLIC ACCOTJNTS. 

Accounts of Samuel Tucker, treasurer of New Jersey, Feb 4, 1777. 

Public account rendered by Abraham Clark to GOT. Livingston, Mar. 31, 1777. 

Account of John Oleves Symmes with the State of New Jersey for furnishing 
arms and clothing in 1777. 

Account rendered by Abraham Clark to the treasurer of New Jersey, June 30, 
1784, for his attendance as a delegate in the Continental Congress from Nov. 
15, 1782, to Oct. 31, 1783. 

Account of Josiah Ilornblower with the State of New Jersey, Dec. 17, 1786, 
for his attendance in Congress. 

A letter from Abraham Clark to the legislature, Oct. 20, 1791, giving a detailed 
statement of the public accounts of New Jersey during the Revolutionary War. 

Account of Abraham Clark with the State of New Jersey, Oct. 22, 1791. 

Account of William S Penmngton against the State for services as circuit 
court judge, May 11, 1805. 

EATABLES. 

Return of the ratables for Saddle River Township, Bergen County, Aug. 20, 
1811. 

Return of the ratables of the city of Perth Amboy, taken in July, 1786. 

KEPOKTS. 

Report of the commissioners for building the secretary's oifice at Perth 
Amboy, Oct. 8 to Dec. 2, 1762. 

Report of the New Jersey commissioners appointed to quiet the mutiny in 
the New Jersey brigade in January, 1781. 

Joint report of the commissioners of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, settling 
the jurisdiction of the islands m the Delaware River, Dec 2, 1785. m 

SIAVEEY. 

Petitions (6) from the inhabitants of Morris County to the legislature, about 
1806, asking the repeal of the act of 1804 for the gradual abolition of slavery. 

Petitions (6) from the inhabitants of Bergen County to the legislature, about 
1806, asking the repeal of the act of 1804 for the gradual abolition of slavery. 

Petition from the inhabitants of Burlington County to the legislature for an 
act for the gradual abolition of slavery in the State, dated 1796. 

Petition from the inhabitants of Hunterdon County to the legislature for an 
act for the gradual abolition of slavery in the State, dated 1796. 

TOBIES. 

* 

List of suspected persons and Tories in Bergen County in 1776. 
Petition of Daniel Grandin and other Tories in Salem goal to the governor 
and council, Mar. 19, 1777, asking for a speedy trial. 



PUBLIC KECOEDS OP jtfEW JEBSEY. 199 



Letter from Gov. Livingston to Major Samuel Hayes, July 10, 1777, furnishing 
the names of the disaffected persons to be apprehended by his command and re- 
turned to the Council of Safety. 

Warrant given by Gov. Livingston for the arrest of suspected persons in 
Hunterdon County, July 31, 1777. 

Bond given to Gov. Livingston by Benjamin Barton of Sussex County, Aug. 
29, 1777, agreeing to remain within two miles of his house. 

Petition of Abraham Van Emburgh to the legislature in 1789 that he might be 
relieved of the inquisition found against him in 1778. 

TOWN AND TOWNSHIP RECORDS, 

Proceedings of a town meeting held in Elizabethtown, Mar. 10, 1767, for ap- 
pointing the freeholders, surveyors, and overseers of the highways, overseers of 
the poor, and assessors. 

Record book of Mansfield Township, Burlington County, from Jan. 1, 1697, 
to Sept 15, 1773 

Minutes of the town meeting at Perth Amboy, Apr 13, 1795. 

Record book of Saddle River Township, Bergen County, from 17S9 to 1836. 
300 pp. 

TREASURY. 

Papers (10) relating to the robbery of Jonathan Whllledin on Nov. 3, 1773, of 
money collected for taxes of Cape May County, with depositions. 

Petition of certain prominent citizens of New Jersey to the general assembly, 
Jan 12, 1774, requesting the removal of Stephen Skinner, treasurer of New 
Jersey, for shortage of his official accounts. 

Papers (9) relating to the robbery of Samuel Tucker, treasurer of New 
Jersey, by the British, Nov. 30, 1776; containing his letter to the legislature, 
Jan. 20, 1777, explaining the affair, with affidavits 

Documents (7) relative to the robbery of the State treasury in October, 
1803, with depositions of various persons; and report of the committee ap- 
pointed by the legislature. * 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Sundry petitions to the legislature by citizens asking to be reimbursed out of 
forfeited estates for damages sustained in the Revolution; for clemency in the 
cases of several Tories convicted of treason and sentenced to be hung, etc. 

List of the freeholders of Somerset County in 1753. 

Document appointing Joseph Woodruff " Water bayliffe and public notary of 
the county of Salem/* Aug. 26, 1703. 

Declaration by the governor and council denouncing the uprising of the 
people against the Quakers, Sept. 8, 1682. 

General return of the buildings in the State of New Jersey owned or rented by 
the United States, May 6, 1780. 

Warrant of Chief Justice Brearley to William Kelsey, sheriff of Cumberland 
County, Dec. 1, 1780, for the arrest of Richard Howell, attorney at law, for high 
treason. 

Petition of the freeholders of Burlington County to the general assembly, 
Nov. 23, 1775, asking to have a resolution passed to discourage independency. 



APPENDIX C. 
SOUTH AMERICA AS A FIELD FOR AN HISTORICAL SURVEY. 



By CHARLES E. CHAPMAN, 

Assistant Professor of History, University of California. 



201 



SOUTH AMERICA AS A FIELD FOR AN HISTORICAL 

SURVEY. 



By CHAELES B. CHAPMAN, 
Assistant Professor of History, University of California. 



There can be no question that 'the excellent series of guides to 
material in foreign archives for the history of the United States, 
published by the Carnegie Institution, has already resulted in con- 
tributions to history, of recognized value, and enhanced our reputa- 
tion in the world of scholarship, and will do so yet more in the future. 
It is hardly necessary to argue the value of these publications. A 
very real question arises, however, when one asks where such his- 
torical surveys ought now to be undertaken, whatever may be the 
institution or institutions to engage in the work. While the great 
war lasts, and perhaps for a number of years after its close, it will 
hardly be worth while to send men to Europe, and the same thing 
is true, in only less degree, as regards Asia. It is the purpose of this 
article to argue for a campaign in South America and to present cer- 
tain data to show that the countries of the neighboring continent 
are apt to yield a rich harvest of valuable manuscript material, of 
which historians have as yet made little use. A preliminary question 
remains as to the method to be followed. 

The plan of the Carnegie Institution has been to seek only such 
material as related directly to the history of what now constitutes the 
United States, and to make general descriptions of the archives and 
bundles, or volumes, in which it is found, selecting only what seemed 
to be the more important American items for individual mention, 
and omitting material, however important for other purposes, if it 
had no direct bearing on the history of the United States. The 
omission was justifiable in the case of guides to European archives, 
for it certainly is not necessary for American historians to do pioneer 
work in European history, or in the case of such works as Bolton's 
guide to materials in Mexico, where the purely local items concern- 
ing the United States were so numerous as to require a volume 
in themselves. As for Central and South America and the Caribbean 
area, however, it would seem well to modify the system thus far em- 
ployed by the Carnegie Institution, to the extent of making general 
descriptions of all of the material, with an inclusion in the indi- 

203 



04 AMEBICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION 

vidually mentioned items of the more important documents with re- 
gard to the lands themselves where they are found, as well as those 
relating directly to the United States, Xot much of the necessary 
pioneer work has yet been done in Latin America, and no people 
are better equipped with men and funds than ourselves, and except 
for Latin Americans, no others are more interested than we are. 
Many will agree with the writer that the two Americas are indis- 
solubly bound up with each other, whether they like it or not, com- 
mercially, politically, and perhaps in yet other ways. It is becom- 
ing generally recognized that the United States can not live unto 
itself, as it has been doing in the past, and is it not well that our 
historical work should follow the trend of the present and probable 
future interests of the country I Who will deny that Latin America 
is a vital factor of inestimable importance in the foreign relations 
of this country? Is it not desirable, then, in our own interests, as 
well as in theirs, and in the interests of historical scholarship in 
general, that we should seek a better understanding of the Latin 
American countries through the study of their past ? 

During a visit of nearly six months in South America, in the year 
1916, the writer had an opportunity to make a superficial survey of 
a number of important archives. The result of his investigations in 
Buenos Aires, Santiago, and Lima will now be set forth, not that 
they constitute a guide to the archives of those cities, although they 
may be useful as a preliminary, and without any assertion of entire 
accuracy or due proportion, but as some evidence to show that a 
South American historical survey, on the broad basis suggested in 
tlus article, would bring a rich return, 

A. BUENOS AIRES, 

1. ArcMvo General de la Nation. This is one of the most impor- 
tant archives in South America, and the conditions for work are of 
the best. Nothing could exceed the courtesy of its chief, Jbs6 I. 
Biedma, or its secretary, Augusto S. Mallie. Permission to work 
must be obtained from the Sub-Secretaria de Instruccion Publica, on 
previous advice of the head of the archive, but any duly accredited 
scholar may be almost sure of obtaining the necessary permit. Few 
archives are so entirely at the disposal of investigators, for all docu- 
ments, without limitation as to date, are available, except such as 
may injure a third party. By law, all ministries of the Government 
are required to send their papers to the archive when they are five 
years old, but the law has not been very well complied with. 

There are perhaps 10,000 or more bundles x in the archive, and they 
are gradually being bound into volumes, three men being employed 

1 A " bundle," or legajo, as used in this article, may be estimated to contain about 
2,000 pages of material, for a page of about 8i by 11 inches. 



SOUTH AMERICA AS A FIELD FOR AN HISTORICAL SURVEY. 205 

on the work. By far the greater part of the documents relate to the 
colonial period, and in this respect the archive is extraordinarily 
rich; Senor Biedma believes it to be the richest archive in South 
America for Spanish colonial material, in part because the docu- 
ments cover the whole region of the Kio de la Plata country, extend- 
ing even into Boliva, and in part due to the scattering of the formerly 
much richer archives of Peru. The collection here is especially valu- 
able for matters of real hacienda, or finance, which, of course, was the 
foundation stone of Spanish colonial administration. 

There is a most praiseworthy spirit of cooperation on the part 
of the archivists with historical workers; Biedma himself is a ver- 
itable enthusiast. Two volumes of documents have already been 
published by the archive, one for the revolutionary period, and the 
other of royal decrees (cedulas) from 1580 to near the close of 
the seventeenth century. Incidentally, a heater was installed in the 
room for investigators a luxury that the archivists in other rooms, 
Biedma among them, did not enjoy for themselves. 

2. Museo del General Mitre. The valuable collections of this insti- 
tution, which include books, coins, medals, and much else, as well 
as manuscripts, were given to the nation by General Mitre, who was 
not only an Argentine president, but an all-round scholar and his- 
torian as well. There are about 100,000 manuscripts of original cor- 
respondence, dating from the earliest colonial times, down to the 
year 1900. The museo has published 40 volumes of documents, but 
they are only a drop in the bucket, and relate almost wholly to 
Mitre's work. There is a one- volume index of colonial documents, 
but it is far from containing an indication of all the colonial docu- 
ments in the collection. Investigators are free to use anything the 
museo has, and a rough, temporary index of manuscript material 
has been provided for their use. They may be sure of the coopera- 
tion of archive officials, among whom is the well-known Argentine 
scholar, Eomulo Sabala, secretary of the museo. 

<?. Facultad de Filosofia y Letras. This college of the University 
of Buenos Aires is worth mentioning, not for the number of its 
manuscripts, though it is appreciable, but because of the work that 
it is doing under the efficient direction of scholars like Doctor Moli- 
nari and others. Fourteen volumes of documents have already been 
published. 

4. Other archives of Buenos Aires Other archives, indicated to 
the writer as being particularly rich in manuscript materials, and 
more or less available to historical investigators, were those of the 
Biblioteca National, Biblioteca del Congreso^ Archivo de Tri'bimales^ 
Archivo de Correos, and the private collections of Enrique Peiia 
and Ramon Qarcano. 



206 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

B. SANTIAGO. 

1. BiWiofeca Xacional. The archive of this library is by far the 
most valuable in Chile for historical students, since certain other 
Government archives are not open to the public. Conditions for 
investigators are nearly ideal. Permission to work is granted with- 
out any formalities whatever ; all that one has to do is present him- 
self and begin, and about the only rules are that one may not disfigure 
or steal a document. As yet not many investigators have taken 
advantage of the opportunity to use this archive, but they ^may be 
sure of a welcome when they do come. The director, Tomas Thayer, 
is not only one of the best known historical scholars in Chile, but 
is also the superlative of amiability and courtesy. North Americans 
have a certain claim on Mm, since he is descended from a Massachu- 
setts family of the same name. His great-grandfather was captain 
of a A Boston ship," which was on its way to China, a little over a 
century ago. The voyage came to an untimely end at Valparaiso, 
and Senor Thayer's grandfather, who was also on board, took up 
his residence in Chile. 

The archive contains material dating from the colonization of 
Chile, in the sixteenth century, down to the year 1817. Naturally, 
most of the documents are for the eighteenth century, but there are 
also a great many for the earlier periods. All are in an excellent 
state of preservation, for destruction from humidity and the book- 
worm are unknown in the excellent climate of Santiago ; the writing 
in documents two centuries old is as clear as if written but yesterday. 
In addition, the most commendable care is taken of the collection. 
There are about 6,500 volumes, of approximately 700 pages each, 
which have already been bound. As much more material remains 
for binding. About 3,000 volumes relate to Audiencias not to the 
territory embraced by the jurisdiction of an audieneia, as in the case 
of the well-known sets in the ArcMvo General de Indias of Seville, 
Spain, but to acts of the audiend-a itself, such as cases at law and 
resideneias. A three-volume catalogue of this set has already been 
published. There are nearly a thousand volumes of Esmbanos^ a 
set rich in materials for the social and economic life of colonial Chile. 
The set called Contaduria, dealing with affairs of real hacienda, con- 
tains about 5,000 volumes, commencing with the year 1609. Over 
a thousand volumes are devoted to the correspondence of the captain 
generals and related matters. There are about 500 volumes concern- 
ing the Jesuits in Chile, and these papers are valuable for historical 
data with regard to the Philippines, Panama, Porto Rico, and 
Mexico, because of the ramifications of the Jesuit order. In addition, 
there is a miscellaneous aggregation of volumes which can not be 



SOUTH AMERICA AS A FIELD FOB AN HISTOBICAL SURVEY. 207 

characterized by a single word or phrase. Among these are the docu- 
ments on which the Chilean historians Gay and Vicuna Mackenna 
relied in writing their works. The miscellaneous group also includes 
about 30 volumes of copies procured at the Archivo General de 
Indias. Senor Thayer believes that the archive over which he pre- 
sides is the richest in South America in colonial material, a belief 
in which Senor Biedma, of Buenos Aires, would not share. 

2. Archivo Jeneral de Gobierno, and other Government archives. 
Except for matters related to courts of law, the official administrative 
papers of the Chilean Government, from 1817 to 1902, are kept in the 
Archivo Jeneral de Golierno. The papers of later date than 1902 
are to be found in the various ministries. Matters of justice are 
in the archive of the Tribunales de Justicia, where conditions are 
similar to those encountered in the Archivo Jeneral. The last-named 
archive contains some thirty thousand volumes of about seven hun- 
dred pages each, divided according to the ministry from which they 
came. All are well taken care of, and are kept in excellent, glass- 
fronted cases. A suitable person might obtain permission to use 
the archive, by applying to the minister in charge of the department 
from which the papers had come, but the collection is considered a 
private archive of the Government, and investigation is not invited. 

c. LIMA. 

1. Scattered archives. The history of archives in Lima is a tale of 
the great number and extraordinary wealth of the documents, and of 
disintregation and lack of organization. Vast quantities of docu- 
ments have undoubtedly been utterly lost, many have passed out of 
the country into foreign hands, and perhaps the majority that still 
remain have gone into private archives, which are usually inacces- 
sible to historical scholars. Many notable Peruvian historians, such 
as Paz Soldan and Mendiburu, have relied upon documents belong- 
ing to themselves in compiling their histories, but the great ma- 
jority of these private collections have not been made use of at all. 

On October 9, 1916, while the writer was in Lima, a bill was intro- 
duced in the Peruvian Congress for the formation of a national ar- 
chive, for the custody, preservation, deciphering, cataloguing, and 
publication of documents ; documents of the colonial era and the first 
50 years of the Republic were to be gathered there, being taken from 
the ministries and other governmental depositories where they now 
exist, and documents now in private hands were to be acquired, when 
possible. It is doubtful if anything comes of this, even if the bill 
is passed, for there is very little real interest in history in Peru, and 
no demand worth mentioning for organized historical or archival 



208 AMEBICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIAITON'. 

work. 1 The bill itself calls for an appropriation of only one thous- 
and pounds a year, out of which all expenses, salaries included, are 
to be taken. 

2. The national archive. A national archive, though not as an 
organized, working institution, already exists, the documents being 
in the care of the Billioteca Nacioncd of Lima. The place where 
they are kept was closed, while the writer was in Lima, and no date 
seemed to have been set for its reopening. 2 It contains what is left 
of the once great public archive of Lima, with documents dating 
from the earliest colonial times down tp the first year of the repub- 
lic, in 1824. Since 1824 public documents have been kept in the 
different ministries of the government. The writer was told that 
existing archives would probably be open to students, but none of 
them ever come. 

Even before the close of Spanish rule the dispersion of this wealth 
had begun, for retiring officials often carried away the documents 
that interested them. Under the republic not much thought was 
given to archive material, and great loss occurred through unlawful 
sales by grafting officials, local disturbances, lack of care, and 
ravages of the bookworm, which is very active in Lima. In 1878 a 
definite attempt was made to organize the archive, and 10 manuscript 
volumes of indices were prepared. At that time there were 1,401 
bundles and 726 large folio volumes, principally devoted to Tdbacos, 
with a considerable amount of material also under the headings of 
Inguisicion and Tempordlidades-JesuUas. The figures follow: 
Bundles: Temporalidades-Jesuitas^ 239; Inquisition, 361 ; Censes, ST; 
Tabagos, about 446; Pol^ora^ naipes, etc., about 64; Audiencia de 
Guzco, 105. Folio volumes: Temporalidades, 79; Tabacos^ 647. 

The work done in 1878 was rendered of no avail by the disastrous 
war with Chile, which broke out in 1879. The national archive did 
not suffer from spoliation by the Chileans so much as some other 
institutions did; nevertheless, a great many documents were muti- 
lated, others carried away to Chile, and many sold in Lima which 
have since been added to private collections; even the indices were 
lost. For several years the documents were thrown together almost 
utterly without care, but after the war was over an attempt at the 
physical preservation of the documents was made. In 1890 valuable 
colonial materials were taken from other depositories and added 
to the national archive. The principal sets in these acquisitions were 

1 Such were the views expressed to the writer by Dr. Carlos Wiesse, professor of 
history at the famous University of San Marcos, of Lima, and a historian of note, and 
hy the indefatigable archaeologist and historical scholar, Carlos Eomero, of the Biblioteca 
Nacional of Lima. 

1 The information set forth, in this paragraph was taken from the Revteta, de archives 
y IttbUotecas na&oncdes (now defunct), v. I, no. 1 (1901), pp, XIX-LXXSXJI (sic), 
supplemented by conversation with Sefior Carlos Eomero. 



SOUTH AMERICA AS A FIELD FOE AN" HISTORICAL SURVEY. 209 

Cajas Reales del Virreynato, Aduanas, Heal Tribunal de Cuentas, 
and Tribunal del Consulado. Nobody seems to know how great a 
quantity of materials still remains in the archive, but there are 
probably upward of 2,000 bundles and nearly a thousand folio 
volumes. 

3. Biblioteca National. This institution has a collection of 340 
volumes of manuscripts, of which some 300 were the selection of the 
eminent Peruvian scholar, Eicardo Palma, from the documents of 
the national archive. 1 Naturally, these documents are of great value 
and some of them are being published from time to time in the 
Ooleccion de libros y documentos referentes a la historic del Peru, 
edited by Senor Romero. 

4. Santo Domingo and San Francisco. The convents of these two 
orders, and those of other orders or churches, in less degree, have 
archives recording the activities of their organizations in Peru, 
mostly in the colonial era. Santo Domingo has 300 volumes of 
manuscripts, and San Francisco about half that number* Scholars 
would be permitted to use them. 

D. OTHER ARCHIVES. 

An indication has been given of only the principal archives of 
three South American capitals, and, in the case of those of Buenos 
Aires and Santiago, of those which are perhaps the best equipped 
and most progressive in the continent. If reports which the writer 
has heard on every hand may be believed, particularly the references 
made at the congress of bibliography and history, held at Buenos 
Aires in July, 1916, there are numerous repositories of unexplored 
material scattered over the southern Republics. One must not think, 
either, that all of the valuable materials are to be found in archives 
of the greater countries. For example, there are not less than 6,000 
bundles in the national archive of Paraguay, most of them bearing 
on the colonial period, according to Senor Diaz Perez, head of the 
Biblioteca Nacional, of Asunci6n. 

In fine, materials in great quantity and probably of great value 
exist in South America. Publication of documents is going on at 
some of the principal archives, but even at the present commendable 
rate it would take a great many years, perhaps centuries, before the 
greater part of available material of value could be published. Is it 
not worth our while to make an organized effort to find out what 
exists? 

iThe forty-odd volumes, other than those selected by Palma, are of a miscellaneous 
nature There is one manuscript volume of cetreria dated 1884. There is also a 
manuscript copy of about 1450 of L<5pez de Ayala's famous chronicle of the reigns of 
Pedro the Cruel and the kings immediately following. 

23318 19 14 



IV. PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL 
CONFERENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 



CINCINNATI, DECEMBER 28, 1916. 



211 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL 
CONFERENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 



The thirteenth annual conference of historical societies was held 
Thursday, December 28, in McMickin Hall, University of Cincinnati. 
The room was not very accessible, so that there were not as many 
present as in 1915, but those who came were there for a purpose and 
were interested in the procedings. 

The chairman introduced Mr. Joseph Wilby, president of the His- 
torical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, who welcomed the mem- 
bers of the conference. He spoke of the formation of the society in 
1831, with the dual name, which gave it the nickname of " Hissoc." 
The " philosophy" in the title, he explained, was mainly in the way 
of keeping an even keel. It was organized in Columbus, and the best 
people have always been connected with it. After 18 years it moved 
to Cincinnati and joined the Cincinnati Historical Society which had 
been established in 1844. It has never received State aid, but has a 
fund of $77,000, and receives $10 a year from corporate members. 
Its nearest historical neighbors are the Filson Club at Louisville, and 
the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society at Columbus. By 
its charter it is to accumulate and preserve material for American 
history, but particularly for the history of Ohio, and this it has done, 
so that it has most complete collections for Cincinnati, for Hamilton 
County, and for Ohio, and indeed, a good showing for general 
history. For 11 years it has issued a quarterly, for publication 
is another provision of its charter. The society now has 27,000 
bound volumes, 80,000 pamphlets, and much manuscript material. 
Mr. Wilby said there were two difficult propositions upon which to 
instruct the community ; one, to preserve from waste much interesting 
family material; two, to keep for historical purposes of to-morrow 
much of what goes into the wastebaskets of this morning. He ex- 
tended a cordial invitation to Van Wormer Hall, adjacent to the 
university, the home of the society. 

The chairman, Prof. Harlow Lindley of the Indiana Historical 
Commission, opened the business of the conference with the follow- 
ing remarks : 

Because of the limited time at our disposal and the fullness of our program, 
the chairman will make his introductory remarks very brief. The theme for 
our conference is a very timely one, especially for the middle section of our 
country* 



214 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

We are just entering upon a series of State centennial activities. Indiana 
has occupied the stage during the year 1916. Then follow the States of Mis- 
sissippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, and Missouri, and while these States are 
observing the anniversary of their admission into the sisterhood of States, 
others farther west are observing their semicentennials. 

These \ears of attention to things historical will emphasize the need of a 
centralizing agency for the coordination, the conservation, and the direction of 
our historical interests. For instance, m the enthusiasm of the centennial 
anniversaries, many county and local historical societies will be either or- 
ganized or rejuvenated. These are capable of performing valuable service, 
but the tendency will be, as it has been in the past, for them to languish 
for the want of intelligent direction and incentive. 

A State historical society or commission should be able to so coordinate 
and direct the activities of these societies to the end that they might make 
distinct contributions to the State. Without a coordinating and supervising 
agency it is too much to expect that a desirable consummation will be realized. 

In a questionnaire addressed by the Indiana Historical Commission to the 
county centennial chairman, covering various phases of this year's work, ap- 
peared this question : " What do you consider to have been the most helpful 
and permanent results of your celebration ? " Two closely-related facts stand 
out above all others in the answers the arousing of a new interest in State 
and local history, and the creation of a community spirit and consciousness. 
The two are supplementary to each other, and in a word express the vital 
significance of all celebration al activities, which we hope to do. 

As our civilization becomes older we appreciate more and more the history 
of the past, and as a result the facts of local history are unearthed and re- 
hearsed and pioneer heirlooms are rescued from the oblivion of a thousand 
attics and displayed to an appreciative citizenship. All this will present 
a tremendous potential asset to an enlightened citizenship. The important 
question thus arising is whether all this shall be conserved and utilized, or 
frhall it be allowed to dissipate for want of proper focus and direction, and in 
order to secure permanent results it is vitally important that a supervising 
State agency be provided. With the encouragement and direction which a 
State agency could give, this very important work could be made to continue 
with system and benefit. 

Thomas Lynch Montgomery, State librarian of Pennsylvania, was 
the first speaker. He told of the Pennsylvania Federation of His- 
torical Societies, of which he is treasurer. He introduced the sub- 
ject by referring to the organization of the American Philosophical 
Society in Philadelphia in colonial days. It had some historical 
interests, but as science was more emphasized a little band broke 
away in 1824 and organized the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
In 1858 the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society was or- 
ganized at Wilkes-Barre. These were the earliest historical societies, 
but gradually others sprang up all over the State. 

The State library was established as a part of the legislative busi- 
ness of the State and for many years only such books were included 
as might help the legislator in understanding the philosophy of 
government and the making of the laws. An easy transition included 
books concerning the State and its various units and biographies of 



COOTEKEKCE OF HISTOBICAL SOCIETIES, 215 

its principal characters. It was not until comparatively modern 
times, however, that it became an historical library. The late Dr. 
William H. Egle, who was State librarian for 12 years, spent most of 
his appropriation on historical work. He himself edited a publica- 
tion called " Notes and Queries, 5 ' given up to genealogical data. He 
was editor of the Archives and gathered the material for his " His- 
tory of Pennsylvania." There was not, however, even in his time, any 
specialization along these lines. It was simply a fact that he was 
more interested in the history of the State than in any other phase 
of the work. The speaker said when he first came to Harrisburg he 
saw at once the absolute need of a department to take care of the 
historical papers of the Commonwealth and, after providing for the 
salary of the custodian, a further sum was appropriated for the 
maintenance of the division of public records. This division took 
over all the historical papers which were not necessary in the per- 
formance of the daily work of the departments and repaired and 
bound them up chronologically for the use of students. Special at- 
tention was given to the military papers and in the publication of 
the fifth and sixth series of the Pennsylvania Archives were included 
all records of service which could be found in the various libraries of 
the country. A vast amount of local material had been collected by 
the county societies and many papers published for the infrequent 
meetings of such organizations. These papers were sent to members 
in good standing, but no list of such material was available. A few 
got together and organized a meeting in Harrisburg to arrange for 
some cooperation on the part of these societies, and the result was 
the formation of the Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies. 
The meeting of this Federation takes place each year in Harrisburg 
on the third Thursday of January. The features of these meetings 
are the presentation of a report giving a list of local societies, the 
names of their officers, the number of members, number of meetings 
held, and the titles of the publications issued, papers read, and ad- 
dresses delivered in these various meetings. A further report gives 
the publications of the year concerning Pennsylvania and noteworthy 
works by Pennsylvanians. Last year there was added a new com- 
mittee which deals with the necrology of the State. The federation 
numbers some 41 societies. 

This federation acts as a historical clearing house for the various 
local organizations. Many efforts have been made to extend its 
activities but it has so far declined to be led*from its original purpose. 

Quite as important as the regular work of the meetings themselves 
is the association of the various people interested in local history. 
At this time new workers are continually looming up and forming 
affiliations with those interested along the same Hnes. The friend- 
ships thus made have been many in number, .and as the delegates 



218 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

often come a day before the meeting or stay until the following day, 
their association with the State library is that much the closer. 
One of the effects produced by these meetings was the formation 
of a committee to make recommendations as to marking the historic 
spots throughout the Commonwealth. In 1896 a very good report 
was issued upon the history of the frontier forts and recommenda- 
tions were made at that time that each of these sites be appropriately 
marked. Nothing, however, was done, as no appropriation was made 
for this work. In 1913 it was thought better to provide a legislative 
enactment for a historical commission, to be appointed by the gov- 
ernor. Senator Sproul pushed the bill with a great deal of vigor, and 
it became a law at that session. This commission cooperates with the 
various associations in marking historic sites, with the result that al- 
most all the frontier fort sites have been marked, and 15 descriptive 
monuments have been placed on the battlefield of Brandywine. The 
historical idea reaches its climax in the suggestion of Gov. Brum- 
baugh that a historical highway be mapped out by the highway com- 
missioner for a boulevard extending from Washington's Crossing 
through Camp Hill, Pennypacker's Mills, Valley Forge, Paoli, and 
Brandywine. This boulevard, if built, will have adequate markers 
provided by the commission for its entire length, and would form a 
most interesting afternoon's trip through the most beautiful suburbs 
of Philadelphia. 

Mr. A. F. Hunter, secretary of the Ontario Historical Society, 
Toronto, was unable to be present owing to the war, and his paper 
was read by the secretary, as follows : 

FEDERATED HISTORICAL SOCIETIES IN ONTARIO. 

By A. F. HTJNTEB. 

For the first 10 years of its existence (1888-1898) , the Ontario His- 
torical Society was solely a federation of local historical societies. 
Then a departure in 1898 made an extension of its membership so as 
to include annual members at $1 per year, as well as delegates from 
the local societies admitted without fee. The cramping experiences 
which had called for this revision of the constitution were thus re- 
moved, and the organization, reestablished on a broader basis ; but by 
including individual members directly it did not force the society to 
give up its federal character in its relations with the local societies. 

This dual system of federating the historical societies at the same 
time that a general society is maintained, has worked fairly well, 
perhaps partly because of the fact that the act of the Ontario Legis- 
lature incorporating the provincial society adds to the affiliation be- 
tween this organization and the local society a feature that is not 
usual, viz., the society in affiliation with the Ontario society becomes 



CONFERENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 217 

thereby an Incorporated society, with power to hold property, without 
having to go through the customary form of getting incorporation by 
an expensive process in the legal offices. The passing of resolutions 
by both societies, when duly recorded in the minutes of each, com- 
pletes the incorporation of the applying society, as well as its affilia- 
tion, without further trouble and with no expense. The act which in- 
corporates the Ontario society is chapter 108, Ontario Statutes, 1899. 
There is provision for levying an annual fee from each affiliated 
society, if necessary, but as these societies are needy (several of them 
leceiving State aid as the central society does), the fee has not 
hitherto been levied. 

In the administration of the dual function involved in the system, 
for the past 18 years no serious difficulty has arisen, although some 
mistakes occur on the part of those who do not understand the con- 
stitution ; but this is a usual mishap in every line of work. There 
is no objection coming from either class of participants (annual 
members or delegates) , so we may conclude that it is fairly workable. 

Including the societies that were in existence at the time of the 
reorganization, 41 societies altogether have affiliated with the On- 
tario society, but of this number about half are decadent and mori- 
bund, as is usually the case with such organizations, the activity of 
each depending on the types of persons engaged in promoting it at 
any particular time. 

It is not pretended that perfection has been reached, or that there 
are no defects. The divergent interests at play, for example, when 
all these societies are collecting books, pamphlets, and other mate- 
rials for themselves, might become a stumbling-block, but it 'has 
proved to be held subordinate. And there is the chronic lack of 
funds, felt keenly by all active societies, but in the prosecution of this 
end this has not proved dispersive or destructive of good-will 
among the societies. 

Amongst the accruing advantages it may be noted that the ex- 
change of ideas on subjects relating to the management and welfare 
of the various societies is made easier, and is a useful factor to all. 
The promotion of an effort by one of the societies gets the benefit 
of the force of all when brought forward in the central society, as 
for example, a memorial or monument of some kind having a general, 
as well as a local, interest. 

After the final settlement of the functions of the society on the 
above lines, some of the more active members realized that the large 
amount of historical material of an official kind in the executive de- 
partments of the provincial Government ought to receive special 
treatment. Accordingly they urged the appointment of an officer 
to take the care of the official records of the Province, and hence 
arose in 1903 the archives department of Ontario, which is authorized 



218 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

to perform these services. With, the Ontario Historical Society still 
pursuing the unofficial materials of history, and the archives depart- 
ment the official materials, there does not seem to be danger of over- 
lapping of work. 

In addition to these agencies, the historical department of the 
Provincial University, Toronto, has issued since 1896, a carefully 
edited Annual Review of Historical Publications relating to Canada, 
covering fully the historical literature of the Dominion in general, 
and of the Province in particular. 

With all these different forces at work, therefore, the field of his- 
torical research for the Province, not to speak of the archives depart- 
ment at Ottawa, including in part the same ground, seems to be 
fairly well covered. 

Dr. George N. Fuller, secretary of the Michigan Historical Com- 
mission, followed, on the relation of the commission to the local 
societies. He said: 

Michigan has a State historical society, a State historical com- 
mission, and about a score of local pioneer and historical societies. 

The State society had its origin in 1873 in the pioneer spirit of 
the county societies. Its first publications were mainly pioneer 
reminiscences contributed by members of the county societies, and its 
membership is still largely made up of pioneers and their descend- 
ants. It has now about 600 members distributed mainly in the 
counties containing the larger cities. The annual meeting is held 
in Lansing in May. An autumnal meeting and a midwinter meeting 
are held by invitation in other cities of the State. 

In 1886, contemporary with the new general interest in historical 
study and with the change of the name of the State society from 
u Pioneer " to " Pioneer and Historical," the society began to publish, 
along with the pioneer reminiscences, series of documents transcribed 
mainly from Canadian archives through the public-spirited activity 
of Mr. C. M. Burton, of Detroit. To do this publishing the State 
granted funds ranging from $500 to $4,000 a year. With the steady 
increase of interest, however, in collecting and publishing source 
materials and properly caring for the earlier State archives there 
arose a demand for funds which the State refused to grant to the 
society as a private corporation, whereupon the trustees of the 
society, in harmony with the history department of the university 
and tie governor of the State, secured in the legislature of 1913 an 
act creating the Michigan Historical Commission, a State depart- 
ment of history and archives, with an appropriation of $5,000 a 
year in addition to practically unlimited printing facilities. As the 
governor appointed its six members mainly from the trustees of the 
society, and as the creative act gave unlimited power to the com- 
mission to cooperate wifck the society, the society received both an 



CONFERENCE OP HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES. 219 

administrative and a legal unity with the commission. It has with 
it a close administrative unity. For example, vacancies in the mem- 
bership of the commission are filled, if possible, from the member- 
ship of the board of trustees of the society, and vice versa. The 
president of the State society is a member of the commission, the 
secretary of the society is secretary of the commission, and the 
members of the commission constitute a working majority of the 
trustees of the society. The two bodies act, therefore, in perfect 
harmony. 

With the State society and the commission are in a manner affili- 
ated the county pioneer and historical societies. It is the opinion of 
the State organizations that the county societies, if properly organ- 
ized, officered, and encouraged, may become, as it were, active hands 
and fingers to the State in collecting valuable manuscript and printed 
materials now widely scattered in private homes. The commission 
is now attempting, both directly and through the membership of 
the society, to make very emphatic the need of systematically devel- 
oping this collecting activity in all of the old pioneer societies, of 
reorganizing these societies upon this basis, and of forming new 
societies in the counties where there are none. 

The process of establishing a new county society involves impor- 
tant preliminaries. Through our field worker, or by correspondence, 
we determine upon some one with the necessary initiative, energy, 
tact, and zeal for the work in a given county whom the president 
of the State society may appoint as the society's chief worker in the 
county. This person assists us in selecting similar representatives 
for the townships and cities, who are appointed in their respective 
townships chairmen of committees made up of vigorous and inter- 
ested pioneers, and the teachers of the townships. It is through the 
teachers mainly that the homes are directly touched. The teachers 
encourage the children to report on what they find of historical 
value in their homes. Specific things to look for are mentioned in 
a circular which is supplied to the teachers by the commission and it 
is carried home by the children to the parents. These reports by 
the children are in some places made a part of the English work 
in the schools. The reports are sent by the teachers to our township 
representatives, who then get in touch directly with those homes 
which promise important finds. Reports of the township repre- 
sentatives are sent to our county representative, who, in turn, has 
the gist of the important reports published in a historical column 
in the county paper, which the people look for as a permanent 
feature. Through the county paper the township workers and the 
teachers are kept in eager touch with each other's finds. Our county 
workers send us clippings from the historical columns, together with 
whatever suggestions may occur for improving the work, and keep 



220 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION-. 

us in touch with each county. We file these clippings at the office 
in the capitol, and from them we make up, from time to time, bulle- 
tins of information for wide distribution over the State. The 
quarterly bulletin of the commission, recently projected, will con- 
tain in its news column notice of the essential collections of materials 
made in the counties. 

In most counties it is not difficult to find a competent person who 
is willing to do this work as a labor of love. Often it happens that 
this person can be chosen from the membership of the State society, 
but often in the organization of the work assistance is needed which 
incurs an expense beyond what a willing worker should be expected 
to defray. Quite recently the commission has considered favorably 
the question of paying annually to each chief worker in the counties 
a small sum to cover the necessary expenses, and to offer annual 
prizes for the best collection of original manuscript materials. In 
addition the commission has favorably considered the advisability 
of paying the expenses of the chief worker in each county to the 
annual meeting of the State society, at Lansing, to report upon 
these collections and to discuss methods and experiences. 

Obviously this work could be carried on independently of county 
societies. But the society can have important functions. Its organi- 
zation may focus public thinking aroused by this preliminary work, 
and afford an occasion for public expression of historical interest; 
it may bring to the chief worker of the county, who ususally becomes 
the secretary of the society, a powerful social stimulus, and set each 
recurring meeting as an event toward which to work ; it may bring 
clearly to the attention of all interested the ideals toward which the 
State society and the historical commission are working; and it may 
quicken public sentiment to instruct members of the legislature as to 
the wishes of the people respecting legislation in the interests of the 
history of the State. It is worthy of note that Gov. Ferris was one 
of the chief benefactors of the Mecosta County Historical Society, 
and that his successor, Gov. Sleeper, is president of the Huron 
County Historical Society. 

When the time is ripe in a county for the organization of the 
society, an appropriate appeal is made through the newspapers of 
the county summing up the results of the preliminary work, calling 
attention to the functions of a county society in aiding the State 
work, and publishing a constitution for the proposed new society to 
be changed to suit local conditions at the time of the meeting. Such 
a constitution the historical commission has published in its Bulletin 
No. 2, which is intended to secure uniformity of organization 
throughout the State and to relate the county societies through the 
proper officers and activities organically with the State society. A 
little before the time set for the first meeting, which is usually held 



CONFERENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 221 

at the county seat, our State field worker, as a representative of the 
State society and of the commission, goes to the county and assists 
the local worker in making the needful preparations for the meeting. 
This representative is present at the meeting and speaks upon the 
work of the State society and the commission, the benefits to be de- 
rived from affiliation of the local society with the State society, and 
accepts new memberships in that body. Each member of the new 
society receives a copy of the commission's bulletin entitled, " Sug- 
gestions for local historical societies and writers in Michigan," 
which contains a constitution and by-laws, and brief paragraphs on 
such subjects as the function of the local historical society, the ele- 
ments of a successful society, arousing and directing individual inter- 
est in collecting source materials, curious versus useful materials, in- 
terviewing pioneers, charting Indian mounds, marking historic sites, 
celebrating anniversaries, the use of group pride in the study of 
foreign elements of the population, the relation of the school to the 
society, local clubs as centers of interest in history, the public library 
and the local museum, methods of preserving clippings and manu- 
scripts, general suggestions to writers of local history, suggestions 
for the treatment of a large settlement area, suggestions for a sketch 
of county history, types of outlines for sketch of township history. 
At this time special stress is laid upon the collecting of historical 
materials, rather than upon the writing of history. It is urged that 
original materials such as letters, diaries, memoranda, journals, note- 
books, anything readable left by the pioneers, be read at the society's 
meetings, as well as papers compiled from them. 

The officering of the county society usually includes all of our 
active preliminary workers. Our county worker is naturally a can- 
didate for secretary, and the township workers for corresponding 
secretaries. An active president is chosen from among the pioneers 
of the county. An executive committee is named to include gener- 
ally the mayor of the county-seat, city or village, the president of 
the chamber of commerce, or corresponding organization of business 
men, the county-school commissioner, the superintendent of schools, 
the city librarian, and the president of the society. The society's 
secretary is also secretary of the executive committee. 

There need only be mentioned further the possibilities in getting 
the young people interested who have had the advantage o attending 
the State university or some of the numerous colleges of the State. 
Of all people in the State the young need to be schooled in the func- 
tion of the study of State history, an 3 the young college folk are 
their natural leaders. To encourage the attention of young people 
in the public schools to State history, a prize contest has recently 
been organized by the Michigan Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion and the Michigan Federation of Women's Clubs, cooperating 



222 AMEBICAK HISTORICAL AS&OCIATIOH. 

with the Historical Commission and the State Department of Public 
Instruction. The prize essays for 1915-16 are published in the com- 
misions's bulletin Xo. 8. 

The county pioneer society, as largely a social gathering, has per- 
formed in the history of the State an important function, of gather- 
ing pioneer reminiscences and keeping alive an interest in the past. 
In all counties where these societies exist the pioneers are found in 
heartiest sympathy with the recent movement which has come along 
with the new interest in studying the State's history and are willing 
in every way to help to reorganize the old societies for greater effi- 
ciency in collecting historical materials. To make the new societies 
efficient, however, the State recognizes, as it does with everything else 
that it really believes in as being for the good of the State, that it 
must provide the necessary financial assistance. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer "Weber, of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
followed. She told of the growth of historical societies in Illinois, 
the formation of the State society, the organization of the State his- 
torical library, of which in 1903 the State Historical Society was 
made a department. In Illinois there are 102 counties, arid there are 
36 county societies (at present nearly all affiliated with the State 
society). This includes the great Chicago society, which has very 
" modestly affiliated." These affiliated societies on December 7, 1916, 
held a meeting for the first time. Delegates were present, reports 
were read, but no papers. It was a very great success. Every society 
reports its officers and activities yearly. The effect has been beneficial 
on the State society, and it is hoped also on the local societies. 

The discussion closed with an elaborately prepared paper on the 
Bay State Historical League, by Nathaniel T. Kidder, vice president 
of the Bay State Historical League. 

BAY STATE HISTORICAL LEAGUE. 

By NATHANIEL T. KIDDEB. 

When President Smith, of the Bay State Historical League, asked 
me to go to Cincinnati as a delegate to the conference of historical so- 
cieties I did not at first realize that I was expected to read a paper 
about the league, and while appreciating that one must not criticize 
the judgment of his superior officer, I can n,ot help thinking that a 
better choice might have been made. However, having undertaken to 
give some account of the origin, work, and aims of the league, I had 
first to decide how to get together materials to aid me, and the best 
method seemed to be to collect all available printed matter emanating 
from the organization. I wrote to many of the early members, I sent 
a circular letter to all the societies in the league setting forth my 



CONFERENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 223 

desire to get a complete set of all publications, including notices of 
meetings this set to be deposited with the Milton Historical Society 
if possible but asking for loans where items were too much prized 
to be given. The response has been most gratifying and has resulted 
in my obtaining, or at least seeing, nearly all of the publications. 
The list of these shows where each item may be seen, the larger part 
being with the Milton Society. The league should have a set as well. 

The sketch of the Bay State Historical League, which follows, is 
made up almost wholly from the material thus collected. It may be 
noted here that the league has no State affiliation ; that it depends for 
its funds entirely on the annual fees of the constituent societies ; and 
that these societies are represented by delegates, as will be seen in 
the by-laws. 

Publication I. It appears that the idea of a federation of historical 
societies, which at first was projected to include only Middlesex and 
Essex Counties, originated with John F. Ayer, 1 who was then presi- 
dent of the Somerville Historical Society. February 9, 1903, Mr. 
Ayer wrote to the presidents of seven historical societies, suggesting 
that they meet to consider federation. 

March 3 four gentlemen, including Mr. Ayer*, and representing 
four societies, met and discussed the desirability and feasibility of a 
federation, and it was decided to invite the societies in the counties 
already mentioned to send each a delegate to a meeting for further 
deliberation. 

On March 13 such a meeting was held, all the societies of the two 
counties having been invited to be represented, and 12 societies were 
represented by 14 delegates. Mr. Ayer stated that the meeting was 
called to get the sentiment of the delegates as to the formation of a 
society by which certain historical societies might cooperate. He 
further stated that he felt that such a union, even if it gave only 
information of what each society was doing, and how doing it, might 
give an impetus to historical research. A committee on organization, 
consisting of seven members, was formed, to report at a meeting to 
be called by them when ready to report. 

The committee on organization called a meeting, which was held 
April 3, 13 delegates from 12 societies being present, and made a 
leport in the form of a set of by-laws. After careful discussion and 
some amendment the by-laws were adopted as below, and a temporary 
organization of the league was effected as follows: President, John 
F. Ayer, Somerville; secretary and treasurer, George O. Smith, Lex- 
ington; executive committee, F. Gaylord Cook (Cambridge), David 
H. Brown (Medford), George Tolman (Concord), and Howard 
Mudge Newhall (Lynn). 

1 See memoir by Somerville Society. 



224 AMERICAH HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

BY-LAWS. 

AETICLE I. 

Name This league shall be called the Bay State Historical League. 

ABTICLE n. 

Objects. The objects of this league shall be (1) to encourage the formation 
of historical societies; (2) to encourage the existing historical societies in 
prosecution of historical study and the dissemination of historical knowledge, 
in the institution and maintenance of historical memorials and anniversaries, 
the collection, preservation, and publication of historical material, and to bring 
such societies into a closer relation with one another ; and (3) other-wise to 
promote historical interests. 

AETTCLB m. 

Membership. This league shall consist of such of the following historical 
societies as shall, within three months of the adoption of these by-laws, fulfill 
the conditions of membership therein contained, and shall assent in writing 
to these by-laws by their representatives thereto duly authorized : Somerville, 
Medford, Maiden, Lexington, Billerica, Bedford, Shepard of Cambridge, Dan- 
vers, Peabody, Esses: Institute of Salem, Newburyport, Lynn, Watertown, South 
Natick, Wakefield, Arlington, Tufts College, Ipswich, Littleton, Concord, and 
Essex. 

This league shall have power at any annual meeting or special meeting to add 
other historical societies to its membership, provided, however, that every 
application for membership in this league shall first have been approved by the 
executive committee thereof, and at least 10 days* notice of such application 
and approval shall have been given to each society belonging to the league. 

AETICLE IV, 

Officers. The officers of this league shall be a president, a secretary, a treas- 
urer, and an executive committee of seven persons, consisting of the president, 
secretary, and treasurer, ex officio, and four others, of which seven not less 
than three persons shall constitute a quorum. Their duties shall be as are 
indicated in their respective names, and they shall be elected at the annual meet- 
ing, and shall hold office until their successors are elected. The treasurer shall 
pay no bills without the approval in writing of the executive committee. 

ABTICLE V. 

Meetings. The league shall hold its annual meeting on the third Wednesday 
in May of each year, unless otherwise directed by the executive committee, and 
also such special meetings, and at such hours and places as shall be indicated 
in the call for the same by the executive committee ; at any such annual meeting 
or special meeting each society belonging to this league shall be entitled to be 
represented by its president and secretary, or alternates, and to constitute a 
quorum at least five societies must be represented. 

ARTICLE VI, 

Dues. Each society of this league shall pay, as a condition to admission to 
membership, an admission fee of $2, and shall also pay an annual tax of $1 in 
advance. Such annual tax shall be payable at each annual meeting for the year 
next ensuing, and the failure for one year after such annual meeting to pay 
such tax shall be deemed a forfeiture of membership in this league by such 
society, unless and until such forfeiture be waived by the league at any subse- 
quent annual or special meeting. 

ABTICIJS YET. 

Amendments. The amendments to these by-laws, of which due notice shall 
have been given in the call of any annual meeting, may be adopted at such 
annual meeting by the vote of two-thirds of the societies then and there repre- 
sented. 



CONFEBEKCE OE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 225 

Publication II. The report of the executive committee made to the 
meeting of June 4, 1904, and issued as a leaflet, 9J inches by 6 inches, 
may be considered as Publication II if I am not mistaken. It has 
nearly disappeared from sight, and I am indebted to the Marblehead 
society for being able to see it. The text in this is practically all re- 
peated in Publication IV as a part of the record of the 9th meeting. 

Publication III shows a settling and clarifying of the objects and 
work of the league. As stated on the title page, it contains " a list 
of the societies comprising the league, with names of the secretaries ; 
a list of titles and the writers of papers read before certain of its 
(the league's) members during the years 1902-1907." 

The following is quoted from page 4 : 

The secretary of the Bay State Historical League will be pleased to answer 
communications from local Historical societies anywhere in Massachusetts de- 
siring information concerning the purposes of the league, or to arrange for a 
conference with the executive board with a view to increasing the interest in 
or efficiency of their organizations. 

A list of officers of the league next follows for 1906-7. On page 
6 we find a recommendation of very great practical value for strug- 
gling societies : " The executive committee recommends that the sec- 
retary of each local society add to his mailing list the addresses of 
the other societies which are members of the league, so that notices 
and other circular matter may be sent. Thus the experience of one 
society will be suggestive and beneficial to $11 the others." 

Publication IV. Pages 5 to 41 are given to an account of pro- 
ceedings at the meetings from which I cull details of moment in the 
league's history. Let me say at once that the proceedings of the 
league are too voluminous to quote at length, and that my excerpts 
are chosen not so much on a basis of giving the most notable events, 
as with the intention of illustrating the wide range of subjects cov- 
ered by its meetings. 

Perhaps it should be noted, too, that the league has no regular 
headquarters, but holds its meetings in various towns of the com- 
monwealth, with the societies which comprise the league. Fifty 
meetings have been held in 17 cities and towns, with an average rep- 
resentation of about 20 societies. 

The sixth meeting of persons interested in the formation of the 
Bay State Historical League, and which resulted in a permanent 
organization, was held May 20, 1903, in the home of the New Eng- 
land Historic Genealogical Society, 18 Somerset Street, Boston. It 
was voted that the executive committee notify the several historical 
societies of the State of the formation of the league and invite them 
to join. 

At the seventh meeting, February 18, 1904, it was announced that a 
list of vital questions had been sent to the several societies of the 
23318 19 15 



226 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

State. This was for the purpose of making a complete list of all the 
societies, their officers, members, -work, aims, methods, publications, 
lectures, and collections, the intention being to publish these data in 
codified form. The matter was referred to a committee of one to 
bring in a report. 

Mr. John Albree, as the committee of one just referred to above, 
reported at length at the eighth meeting of the league, held April 
30, 1904. It does not appear that this report was printed in full, but 
many interesting details of the report and the discussion which fol- 
lowed are given in the pages of Publication IV. Stress was laid on 
the desirability of not only storing and preserving the records of 
the past, but also making them available for ready reference. 

Thus early in the league's existence were discussed the main lines 
of work for local societies, and stress laid on the importance of pre- 
serving and filing the facts of history in the making. The work of 
one society suggests work for another, its subjects of discussion in- 
spire, and its essays, when not dealing with strictly local subjects, 
may be repeated before other audiences. At the league's gatherings 
the members of the various societies meet, after the formal exercises, 
individuals interested in their own special lines exchange views and 
give and receive encouragement. Too narrow or even too broad a 
vision may leave out some detail worth observing, even as there is a 
middle distance which bifocal spectacles do not make clear. We do 
not always appreciate our local newspapers as they come out week 
by week, but files of old ones are at least curiosities and often prove 
of inestimable value. An item, that Jedidiah Holbrook is reshingling 
his barn may some day prove a guidepost in biographical research. 
Some uniform system of filing all local material would save much 
time, and these meetings tend toward such a happy conclusion. 

For all means of preserving the records of the past, and of the 
present as well, the league stands. It realizes that at present the 
number of individuals interested in this work is limited, but believes 
that a campaign of education should be carried on, teaching more and 
more the value of intelligent research and comparison of the past 
with the present. The events of to-day are better understood through 
a knowledge of the past. No person's experience is unique; we can 
all learn from the experience of others. 

At the ninth meeting, held in Lexington, June 4, 1904, the execu- 
tive committee presented a " plan of united action." The policy of 
the league was more definitely set forth, along the lines of the seventh 
and eighth meetings, and there was added the custom, since main- 
tained, of listening to a short sketch of the town where the meeting is 
held and visiting the chief points of interest 

The tenth meeting, held in Boston, February 25, 1905, was espe- 
cially interesting. Its chief feature was a paper read by Charles 



COOTEBENCE OP HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES. 227 

J. H. Woodbury, of Lynn. This was afterwards printed and dis- 
tributed among historical societies of the country under the title 
" Cooperation Among Local Historical Societies " ( Waltham, Press 
of E. L. Barry, 1905). 

Many suuggestions were made of useful work, and g circular was 
sent to the societies belonging to the league which set f orth the most 
important. 

At the eleventh meeting Hon. Charles Francis Adams read a paper 
on " Town history, its value and study." 

At the thirteenth meeting, June 2, 1906, a vice president was for 
the first time elected. 

The record of the fourteenth meeting shows that it had by that 
time become the custom for the society acting as host to provide a 
lunch. 

At the seventeenth meeting Miss Helen T. Wild, of Medford, in 
the course of a paper there read, said that " the custom that many 
historical societies have of asking all the members to write out their 
genealogy as far back as possible, for the archives of the organization, 
is useful." From such simple beginnings an interest might grow 
which would mean much to the individual as well as to the archives 
of the society. Miss Wild cited an instance of a tax record serving 
as a proof of a man's age. Thus another class of record was proved 
worth studying. Her suggestion that children be taught history by 
taking them to an historical site and encouraging them to ask ques- 
tions is a humane reversal perhaps of the ancient custom of taking 
them to the bounds and there beating them that they should remember 
the location. 

At the eighteenth meeting among the speakers of the day was 
Sidney Perley, of Salem, who laid special stress on the value of 
genealogy. 

Publication V begins with the records of the nineteenth meeting, 
April 18, 1908. 

At the twenty-second meeting, June 12, 1909, the executive com- 
mittee was directed to ask of each society belonging to the league a 
yearly report of its work and a list of its publications. 

In the record of the twenty-fourth meeting we read: 

Gen. John B. Oilman, of the Grand Army of the Republic, referred particularly 
to the final disposition of the relics of all Grand Army organizations. In 
accordance with the oath administered to every post commander, these must 
eventually be turned over, either to a local historical society or to the public 
library. It >s, therefore, very important that the historical societies keep in 
close touch with the Grand Army posts. 

Many extracts from the discussions, sometimes very spirited, held 
at various meetings might be made, had we more time. It should 



228 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

always be borne in mind that the chief object of the league was and 
is to awaken interest among the delegates attending the meetings 
with the hope that they would inspire the members of their home 
societies. 

One can read between the lines of the records that there was, up to 
about five years ago, some little difficulty at the financial end of affairs, 
as witness the change in article VI raising the annual tax from $1 to 
$'2 in advance. Again, there seems to have been some difficulty in 
getting the component societies to make an annual report, as this 
was more than once suggested. As the league grew, rather more 
power was conferred upon the executive committee, as is shown by 
a vote conferring on the executive committee the power to appoint 
the nominating committee. 

Before this audience it is not necessary to enlarge on the interest 
of searching for the records of the past, but what is not quite so 
obvious as the interest, when acquired, is the desirability, aye, the 
necessity, of spreading this interest amongst the public, so that the 
clearing out of old attics may be done with due consideration for the 
data which may be locked up in old diaries, letters, bills. It is one of 
the main objects of the Bay State Historical League to emphasize 
all this, and to get the warning to the housekeepers in all the Massa- 
chusetts villages before the last of the old attics are cleared out. 

Ko intelligent study of history can be carried on without compar- 
ing notes with the outside world. If we are studying the history of 
a small township in Massachusetts or in Ohio, we very often find 
that we must get facts from over the border of our territory, and 
it is certainly encouraging to find that our neighboring towns are 
working on similar lines to ours and ready to cooperate in running 
to earth elusive facts which we are pursuing. 

This volume of the publications ends with 13 pages of " speakers 
before the historical societies (belonging to the league) and their 
subjects," from 1908 to the date of issue. Such lists are, of course, 
full of suggestion. 

Publication VI. The proceedings of the meetings of the league 
here recorded are not generally full reports of the meetings, but 
give in condensed form the chief items. 

I now wish to mention a paper read at the meeting of April 26, 
1913, "Methods of research to be used in local historical societies," 
by Charles K. Bolton, A. B., librarian of the Boston Athenaeum, a 
paper which he had read before the American Historical Association, 
and now repeated by request. Other speakers followed, and the dis- 
cussion of the subject seems to have been unusually full, bringing 
out the importance of accumulating accurate data and using them 
skillfully. 



OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 229 

The balance in the treasury of the league shows an improvement 
about this time. During two years 10 societies were added to the 
membership. 

At the meeting of January 17, 1914, Mr. Edwin D. Mead read a 
paper on Benjamin Franklin, the day being the anniversary of Ms 
birth. The president of the Lynn society gave some description of 
the acquiring of that society's quarters. The meeting of April 25 
was held in Lexington. The president of the local society said that 
the Lexington Society was fortunately situated in a fertile field for 
its work. His account of the accomplishments of the society was in- 
spiring to anyone with similar aims, and brought forth the recom- 
mendation that every society try to have an attractive home, if pos- 
sible an old historic house. Several delegates spoke of the work in 
progress by their home societies. The record of the meeting closes 
with a memorial to Ex-President John F. Ayer, who died on April 
20, 1914. The last clause of this memorial reads: "To him should 
justly be awarded the honor of organizing the league, and he lived 
to see it securely established as an active influence in the work 
originally marked out for it." 

The fall meeting of the league took the form of a field day in 
Greenfield and Deerfield. The business session was held in the 
rooms, then newly opened, of the Greenfield Historical Society on 
the evening of the first day of the excursion. Judge Francis Nims 
Thompson, of Greenfield, gave an address on the early history of the 
Deerfield Valley (set forth at length in Publication VI). The next 
day the visiting party went over the territory described in the ad- 
dress, with Judge Thompson as guide, and broke up in South Deer- 
field. 

The meeting of January 16, 1915, was held in Milton. The subject 
of " How Can Children Best Be Taught the History of Their Own 
Towns? " was the chief question of the meeting. Some description 
was given also of the publications of various societies. 

The meeting of April 10, 1915, at Framingham South Village, 
being the day following the fiftieth anniversary of the surrender of 
Gen. Eobert E. Lee, was commemorative of that event. Col. Thomas 
L. ^/ivermore read a paper on the Appomattox campaign, illustrated 
by a large map. 

The next meeting was held in Plymouth. Then came the meeting 
of March 25, 1916, in the old statehouse in Boston, the home of the 
Bostonian Society, and the paper was by Mr. Worthington C. Ford, 
editor of the Massachusetts Historical Society, on " The Formation 
of Local Historical Societies." 

Two more meetings, at Canton and Mendon, respectively, bring 
this story down to date, and I hope that my recapitulation has sue- 



230 AKEBICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

ceeded in its purpose namely, to give you an idea of the history and 
objects of the Bay State Historical League. 

It must be noted, before leaving the subject, that the secretary of 
the conference received letters or telegrams criticizing the Pennsyl- 
vania Federation, the Illinois State Historical Society plan of affilia- 
tion, and the Bay State League, but no one was present to offer 
criticisms verbally. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Kidder's address the conference took up 
the business of its closer organization, as provided for in the ap- 
pointment of a committee by the 1915 conference, consisting of the 
secretary; Dr. T. M. Owen, of Alabama; Dr. B. F. Shambaugh, of 
Iowa; and Dr. S. P. Heilman, of Pennsylvania. As this report had 
been incorporated in the report of the committee of two appointed 
by the council at the request of the conference of 1913, and as the 
latter report had been acted upon by the Council of the American 
Historical Association and was ready to be presented by Prof. A. 0. 
McLaughlin of the council, Prof. McLaughlin was recognized and 
presented the report as follows: 

REPOBT TO THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL BT THE COMMITTEE ON A SUEYEY OF THE 
OSGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF HlSTOEICAL AGENCIES IN THE UNITED STATES 
AND CANADA. 

To the Executive Council of the American Historical Association: 

At the Tenth Annual Conference of Historical Societies, held in Charleston 
on December 29, 1913, the following resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved by the Conference of Historical Societies of the American Historical 
Association, That we respectfully request the council of the American Historical 
Association to take the necessary steps for the preparation of a comprehensive 
survey of the organization and activities of historical agencies in the United 
States and Canada, 

Resolved, further, That in our opinion this survey should contain a digest of 
the legislation in the different States relating to archives and historical activi- 
ties, a brief account of the organization of all historical societies, State his- 
torical commissions, departments of archives and history, State historians, 
archival offices, historical libraries, an State libraries, so far as they have 
functions pertaining to history ; and a bibliography of the publications issued 
by these agencies since the preparation of the Bibliography of American His- 
torical Societies, contained in Volume II of the Annual Beport of the American 
Historical Association for 1905. 

These resolutions were presented to the executive council at its meeting in 
Chicago on December 29, 1914, and were by vote referred to a committee of two 
to be appointed by the president. The undersigned were appointed such a com- 
mittee and at once began by correspondence a thorough consideration of the 
matter thus referred to them. 

It seemed best to your committee not to present a report last year since it 
desired to take advantage of discussion in the Conference of Historical Societies 
held in connection with the Washington meetings. Tour committee believes that 
it is now able to present definite recommendations upon the various aspects of 
f he matter referred to it 



OOOTEBEKCE OP HISTOBICAL SOCIETIES. 231 

L 

CONTINUATION OF GBHTIN'S BEBUOaBAPHY OF HISTOBICAL SOCIETIES. 

The resolutions call for the consideration of " a bibliography of the publica- 
tions issued by these agencies since the preparation of the Bibliography of 
American Historical Societies, contained in Volume II of the Annual Report of 
the American Historical Association for 1905." 

It will be remembered that in its annual report for 1895 the association pub- 
lished a bibliography of American and Canadian historical societies to 1895, 
prepared by Mr. A. P. 0. Griffin, now of the Library of Congress. In its an- 
nual report for 1905 the association reprinted this bibliography, considerably 
expanded and brought down to the year 1905, inclusive. This bibliography 
lists the publications, from their respective beginnings, of 492 societies, asso- 
ciations, clubs, universities, State departments, and other organizations and 
institutions. It fills, with the index, 1,377 pages. Not only is each published 
volume listed with a table of its contents run in solid paragraphs, but such 
reprints as were accessible to the compiler are also included. 

In considering the desirability of a continuation of Griffin's bibliography, 
your committee has not overlooked the fact that much of the material that 
would be included in such a continuation is also to be found in the annual 
bibliography subsidized by the association and known as Writings on American 
History. We do not, however, believe that this latter work makes the con- 
tinuation of Griffin's bibliography superfluous. In the first place, Writings 
on American History contains only a selection of the items that would be 
entered in the proposed continuation. Furthermore, its form is not such that 
the publications of any given society can readily be segregated. We believe that 
there is need for a bibliography devoted exclusively to the publications of 
historical societies and other agencies, which shall enable the user readily 
to distinguish and check up the output of any given society. We believe this 
fact to be amply demonstrated by the proved value of Griffin's bibliography 
and of such works as Lasteyrie's bibliography of French historical societies. 

We recommend, therefore, that the council authorize the continuation of 
Griffin's bibliography through the year 1915 or later, on a plan similar to that 
followed by Mr. Griffin, but excluding all reprints of articles otherwise noted. 
We recommend the publication of this continuation as Volume II of the 
annual report being published at the time of its completion. We estimate that 
it will make a volume of from 300 to 400 pages. We further recommend that 
the generous offer of the Newberry Library of Chicago to cooperate with the 
association, to the extent of allowing Dr. A. H. Shearer of its staff to com- 
pile the proposed continuation, be gratefully accepted. This cooperation makes 
it possible for the association to publish the bibliography at little or no ex- 
pense except to its printing appropration at the Government Printing Office. 

II. 

PBEPARATION OF A HANDBOOK OF HISTOBICAL AGENCIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. 

In the annual report of the association for 1905 there is published a " Report 
on methods of organization and work on the part of State and local historical 
societies," prepared by a special committee composed of Messrs. Reuben G. 
Thwaites, Benjamin F. Shambaugh, and Franklin L. Riley. This report con- 
tains statistical information, arranged in tabular form relating to 206 societies, 
State departments, etc., but does not include universities. The information 
given is grouped under the following heads: Date of organization, number of 
members, books and pamphlets in library, State appropriations and other 
income, remarks. There is also an appendix giving rather more detailed in- 



232 AMEKICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, 

forrnation respecting about 215 societies, most of which are already included In 
tlie tabular lists. 

The report itself is in part made up of generalizations respecting the different 
Hnds of societies, their organization, scope, and purpose, methods of work, etc., 
and is designed to be not only descriptive, but constructive and suggestive. 

In 190S the Carnegie Institution of Washington published a nandbook of 
learned societies and institutions in North and South America. In this volume 
reference is made to about 400 historical societies in the United States and 
Canada. In the case of the more important societies the information is 
grouped under the heads: Address, history, object, meetings, membership, 
publications, distribution. In the case of the smaller, especially the local 
societies, a very summary statement of a few lines is made to suffice. 

The editors of Minerva have announced that one of the volumes of their 
Handbuch der Gelehrten Welt will be devoted to learned societies, but this 
publication will be in German, will be part of a series, will include only the 
most important of American historical societies, and the information respecting 
each society will of necessity be very brief and condensed. 

The learned societies of Great Britain and Ireland publish an official year- 
book, in which one section of 28 pages is devoted to literary and historical 
societies. Only the larger organizations are included and the information 
given, which is very succinct, is arranged under the headings: Officers, object, 
meetings, membership, publications. 

We believe that a handbook of the historical societies and other agencies of 
the United States and Canada is a desideratum. Such a handbook should in- 
clude, arranged in geographic order, universities and colleges, libraries (in 
so far as they carry on historical activities of a distinctive nature). State de- 
partments of history and archives, official historical agencies of smaller political 
divisions, and historical societies. By the term historical societies we mean 
those organizations whose work and object are primarily historical, or are 
accomplished mainly by historical methods. Thus we would include archaeo- 
logical societies, but not geographical societies. 

The information respecting these various agencies should be grouped under 
such heads as follows : Legislation, history, form of government, officers, mem- 
bership, objects and activities, meetings, collections (printed and manuscript, 
and museum objects), publications, income, invested funds, and property, etc. 
Not more than a page should be devoted to any one society or agency, and in 
the majority of cases half a page would suffice. We estimate that the proposed 
handbook would make a volume of about 400 pages. 

Such a handbook would sliow the status of historical work in America at 
the time of its publication. It should be revised at regular intervals, say, of 
10 years, and during the interim the current information necessary to keep the 
handbook up to date could be published in the manner which we recommend in 
the third section of this report. Even, however, if no provision can be made 
for continuing or revising the handbook, we believe such a comprehensive sur- 
vey as we have described to be amply worth while. 

It has been suggested that by cooperation among the national learned socie- 
ties a general handbook or yearbook of American learned societies, might be 
produced. Such an undertaking, however, is so large, as demonstrated by the 
experience of the Carnegie Institution, and is accompanied by such an expense, 
that we do not think it advisable (nor does it lie within the prescribed scope 
of our consideration) to recommend it to the council. 

We believe that the undertaking which we propose can be carried out without 
expense to the association beyond a small sum for incidental expenses. 



CONFERENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 233 

We recommend, therefore, that a committee be appointed whose duty it shall 
be to plan the details of such a handbook as we have described, to estimate its 
cost, to prepare a prospectus of it, to secure advance subscriptions for it from 
libraries, societies, individuals, etc,, and, when the amount of its cost shall have 
been covered by advance subscriptions, to compile and publish it. 

We believe that if possible it should be published separately, either through 
some publishing firm or by the association. If that prove to be impracticable 
we suggest that it be published as Volume II of one of the annual reports, with 
a reprint edition for the filling of advance subscriptions and post-publication 
orders ; or, another possibility, that it be offered to the Bureau of Education. 

We recommend the appropriation of $75 for the incidental expenses of such 
a committee during 1917. 

We realize that the compilation must be largely a labor of love if it is to 
be accomplished without incurring a considerable expense. We assume, there- 
fore, that the committee, while maintaining a strict supervision over the general 
plan of the compilation, will secure as much voluntary assistance as it finds 
desirable. We would suggest, therefore, that the committee, if it be appointed, 
oe a small one, consisting of not more than three members, and that it be 
empowered to add to itself such associate members as it may desire. 

III. 

ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF THE CONFEEENCE OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. 

While the matter of the organization and activities of the Conference of 
Historical Societies is not, by mention, included among the questions sub- 
mitted to us, it is, in our opinion, so closely connected wth them that we can 
not fail to give it careful consideration. 

It will be remembered that the council at its meeting of November 27, 1903, 
voted, in accordance with a recommendation from the general committee, that a 
special session at the annual meeting of 1904 be set apart for the discussion 
of questions of interest to workers in State and local historical societies. 

The program* committee accordingly provided such a session at the Chicago 
meeting of 1904. At this session those present asked the council to provide 
for a similar session at the next annual meeting, which was done, the council 
also appointing the chairman and the secretary of the conference. This action 
was reported to the association and was approved by formal vote. 

At the council meeting of December 28, 1905, it was voted to continue the 
f conference for 1906 and a chairman and a secretary were again appointed. 

Since then, without any further action by- the council or by the association, 
the conference has been one of the fixed features of the program, and its 
chairman and secretary have been appointed in the same manner as the reg- 
ular committees. 

The present practice is to continue the secretary in office for a period of 
years in order to assure a desirable degree of continuity in the activities' of 
the conference. The conference, through its secretary and chairman or through 
a special committee of its own appointment, provides its own program, although 
in the earlier years the program was arranged by the general program com- 
mittee. 

The conference has at various times appointed committees for special pur- 
poses. The most notable of these was the committee on cooperative activities 
appointed by the conference of 1907, which carried out an extensive search of 
Paris archives for material relating to the history if the Mississippi Valley, 
collecting for that purpose contributions amounting to nearly $4,000. 

Each year the secretary of the conference and the secretary of the association 
united in inviting all American and Canadian historical societies, about 400 in 



234 AMEKICAlSr HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

number, to send delegates to the conference. At the same time a questionnaire 
Is sent to the societies calling for information respecting officers, income, collec- 
tions, publications, and new activities. 

Ordinarily some 40 or 50 societies appoint delegates, to which are accorded 
at the annual meetings all the privileges of members of the association. Of 
the appointed delegates, however, relatively few attend the conference. About 
$0 or 100 of the societies supply the information asked for m the questionnaire, 
which information, in condensed form, is printed as an appendix to the proceed- 
ings of the conference, which are included in the annual report of the associa- 
tion. 

The attendance at the conference has increased of late and now averages 75 
to 100 persons. 

Such, then, is the conference of historical societies at present. Prom a 
specialized session of the annual meetings it has developed into a partially self- 
governing meeting, though still wholly dependent upon the association. 

Those who have attended the conference with a certain regularity and who 
.are interested in its work feel that the time has come to infuse it with new 
life and to make of it an active agent for cooperation, for the dissemination 
of information, and for the exchange of ideas among historical societies. 

Your committee believes that it is possible to accomplish this result. We be- 
lieve that the conference should be made a semi-independent organization, self- 
governing in most matters, under the protectorate or auspices of the associa- 
tion. Furthermore, we believe that it should be, and can be made, self -support- 
ing. Heretofore it has depended upon small appropriations from the associa- 
tion for the incidental expenses incurred by the secretary. This last year, 1916, 
the appropriation was only 25, which is insufficient for even the sending of 
suitable invitations and questionnaires to the societies, leaving nothing for the 
correspondence during the year which should be an important function of the 
secretary. 

Furthermore, it is essential that the proceedings of the conference, together 
with the information gathered from the societies, be published within a short 
time after the meeting, and not as now, a year or two later, when the interest 
In the proceedings has waned and when the information and statistics, long out 
of date, have lost all their practical value to the societies. 

At the last conference, held In Washington in December, 1915, the future 
of the conference as an organization and as a meeting was discussed, and 
the consensus of opinion was in the direction that we have indicated. Further- 
more, a committee was then appointed to continue and crystallize the discus- 
sion, and its conclusions, as communicated to us, are substantially the same as 
our own. 

We recommend, therefore 

1. That the conference of historical societies be recognized as a* semi-inde- 
pendent organization under the auspices of the American Historical Associa- 
tion. 

2. That its secretary be appointed by the council of the association, and have 
the rank and functions of a committee chairman, reporting annually to the 
association* 

3. That the conference appoint such other officers and committees as it may 
find expedient. 

4. That the conference be supported by an annual assessment upon each 
society that becomes a member of it; such assessments to be upon the basis 
of 1 cent for each member of such societies, but no society to be assessed 
more than $10 nor less than 25 cents. Commissions, State departments, sur- 
veys, etc., not organized as societies, to pay an annual fee of $5. 



COKFEEE5TCE OF HISTOBICAL SOCIETIES. 235 

5 That the conference have control of its own funds, but shall furnish an 
annual report of its expenditures and receipts to the association. 

6. That the chairman of its program committee, or such officer as may be 
charged with the preparation of its program, shall he ex-omeio a memher of 
the program committee of the association. 

7. That the conference publish, as soon as possible after the annual meeting 
of each year, a report of its proceedings together with such bibliographical 
and statistical information as shall in effect constitute an annual revision 
of the handbook and an annual continuation of the bibliography which we have 
described in the first two sections of this report. 

8. That all publications of the conference be passed upon by the association's 
committee on publications, and be issued tinder the auspices of the association. 

9. That finally an appropriation of $50 for 1917 be made for the incidental 
expenses connected with the reorganization of the conference. 

Such a plan as we have outlined would, we believe, vitalize the conference 
and would be instrumental in vitalizing many of the less active societies 

When we consider that there are nearly 500 historical societies in the United 
States and Canada; that their total membership is upward of 50,000; that 
their aggregate property and resources have a value of several millions of 
dollars; and that their collections of books, manuscripts, and other historical 
material constitute an enormous and invaluable asset of the historical profes- 
sion, it must be conceded that the association has in this vast field an unparal- 
leled opportunity to stimulate activities, to encourage the undertaking of more 
worthy enterprises, to promote cooperation, and in general to advance the 
cause of history. 

Respectfully submitted. 

WAIDO G. LELATTD, 
AUGUSTUS H. SHEABER. 

Upon the presentation of this report, the secretary offered Part IH 
as the report of the committee provided for by the conference of 
1915. Upon motion of Mr. Montgomery it was voted on as a whole 
and adopted unanimously. 1 

Upon motion the conference adjourned. 

The following were present: 

William Beer, Howard Memorial Library and Louisiana His- 
torical Society, New Orleans, La. 

Dr. S. J. Buck, Minnesota Historical Society. 

Rev. William Busch, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minn. 

D. E. Clark, State Historical Society of Iowa. 

G. N. Fuller, Michigan Historical Commission. 

George S. Godard, Connecticut State Library. 

H. G. Green, West Virginia Department of Archives and History. 

H. C. Hockett, Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. 

H. A. Kellar, McCorroick Historical Association, Chicago. 

Nathaniel T. Kidder, Milton Historical Society, Bay State His- 
torical League, Colonial Society of Massachusetts. 

l At the business meeting of the American Historical Association in the afternoon the 
plan as provided in Part III was adopted, so It is in effect; but as the conference took 
no further action, the details will be completed at the 1917 meeting. 



236 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Mrs. Lafferty. chairman historical research committee of the 
Kentucky Federation of Clubs, Lexington, Ky. 

Rev. John Lamotte, Mount St. Mary's Seminary, Cincinnati. 

Grant Leet. Washington, D. C. 

Harlow Lindley, Indiana Historical Commission, Indiana Depart- 
ment of Archives. 

W. MacDonald, Brown University. 

A. C. McLaughlin, University of Chicago. 
Mr. McMurray, Vanderbilt University. 

Thomas P. Martin, Harvard Commission on Western History. 
T. L. Montgomery, State Library, Pennsylvania. 
V. H. Paltsits, New York Public Library. 

B. S. Patterson, Ohio Valley Historical Association, Historical 
Society of Western Pennsylvania. 

M. M. Quaife, State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 

C. H. Eammelkamp, Illinois State Historical Society. 
James R. Robertson, Berea College, Kentucky. 

F. H. Severance, Buffalo Historical Society. 

Benjamin F. Shambaugh, State Historical Society of Iowa. 

Augustus H. Shearer, secretary, 

W. Stevens, University of Minnesota. 

W. W. Sweet, De Pauw University. 

R. C. Ballard Thruston, Filson Club. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Illinois State Historical Society. 

J. EL Wilby, Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. 



REPORTS OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES, 1916. 



Questionnaires were sent out to about 375 societies ; 89 replied, of which 8 
reported for the first time. The first questionnaire was sent out in 1909. Since 
that time 248 societies have reported, 3 of which have answered every ques- 
tionnan e. The years in which they sent answers may be found in the American 
Historical Association Annual Report for 1915 In the aggregate these reports 
form a storehouse of information about historical societies which, in the absence 
of a handbook, is quite valuable 

In the accounts of societies the following order is observed : Name of society, 
date of organization, secretary or other person receiving mail, address, number 
of members. Notes as to funds, new enterprises, additions to museum and 
library, and publications are added when given. 

GENERAL. 

American Society of Church History. 1888; reorganized, 1906; incorporated, 
1916. Prof William Walker Rockwell, 3041 Broadway, New York City. 
143. Publications: Papers of the American Society of Church History, 
2d. ser v. 5 (in press) ; also in press the Life and Letters of Wessel Gans- 
fort, by Edward Waite Miller (copies will be sent to all members). In- 
corporated March 30, 1916. 

Naval History Society. 1909 Robert W. Neeser, 1618 Aeolian Hall, 35 West 
Forty-second Street, New York City. 530. Small endowment fund. Over 
200 volumes and a number of important manuscript collections added. 
Publication : The Graves Papers, edited by Admiral F. E. Chadwick. 

Sived'ish Historical Society of America. 1905. E. N. Andren, 2133-175 W. Jack- 
son Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 300. Publication: Yearbook. 

ARIZONA. 

Arizona Pioneers Historical Society. 1884. John E. Ma gee, 200 West Congress 
Street, Tucson. 239. State appropriation, $1,250 ; donation, $100. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Historical Society of Southern California 1882. J. M, Guinn, 5539 Monte 
Vista Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 95, Publications: Annual Publication for 
1915 and 1916, Volume X, parts 1 and 2. 

CONNECTICUT. 

The Mattutuck Historical Society 1877. Henry L. Rowland, 119 Main Street 
Waterbury, Conn. ; assistant secretary, Lucy Peck Bush. 895. Funds : 
$80,000 New enterprises: Annual exhibition of paintings by American 
artists; talks on the pictures; prize for the three best compositions by 
children ; Saturday afternoon talks on Indians, as represented by the relics. 
Various additions to the museum and to the book collections. About to be 
printed: Second volume of society's publications, Tombstone Inscriptions, 
rate books, tax lists, etc. 

237 



238 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. 1864. Thomas M. Prentice, 504: 
Orange Street, New Haven, Conn. 350. Funds: $50,000. ($6,000 the past 
year.) Collections of china, 200 pieces added. Publication: Annual report 

FLORIDA, 

St* Augustine Institute of Science and Historical Society. 1884. IT. B. 
Matthews. 8L Publication.: Yearbook. 

ILLINOIS. 

Chicago Historical Society. 1857. Seymour Morris; assistant secretary, Caro- 
line M. Mcllvaine. 813; increase, 582. Funds: E. M. Watkin's bequest, 
$1,000; total donations, $1,158.44; new members' dues, $6,851; total^ 
$8,009.44 (life membership dues constitute endowment fund of $5,100). 
Additions: 163 museum objects plus unknown numbers in John F. Steward 
collections of stone artifacts ; 600 books plus maps and manuscripts in J. F. 
Steward's collections. Publications: Yearbook, 1915; The Convention that 
Nominated Lincoln, by P. O. Ray-, Proposed publications: History of 
Illinois and Michigan Canal, by J. W. Putnam; A Forgotten Incident of 
the Civil War, by Hon. Charles S. Cutting; Indians of Illinois, by Rolfe 
Linton, 

German American Historical Society of Illinois. 1900 Max Baum, 1608 
Mailers Building, Chicago, 111. 240. Since 1912 a yearbook is published 
instead of a quarterly. Additions: About one dozen books of German- 
American interest Publication: Geschichtsblatter. 386 pages. 

McCormick Historical Association. 1S85. Herbert A. Kellar, 675 Rush Street, 
Chicago. Members of the Cyrus H. McCormick family and others by in- 
vitation. A building for housing the library and museum will be com- 
pleted in 1917. Collection is being prepared for cataloging. Models of 
agricultural machinery, especially reapers, are to be gathered from various 
depositories and placed in museum, 

INDIANA. 

Cass County Historical Society. 1907. Mrs. Ella Ballard, 100 Market Street, 
Logansport, Ind. 75. Lot donated for building ; value, $3,000. Additions : 
A few relics, some valuable books and papers. Publications: Newspaper 
articles. 

Indiana Historical Commission. 1915. Harlow Lindley, State Library, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. Nine appointed members. Supported by State appropriation^ 
Publications: Constitution-making in Indiana, by Kittleborough, 2 volumes; 
Indiana as Seen by Early Travelers, by Lindley; Play party in Indiana,, 
by Nolf ord ; and eight Bulletins. 

IOWA. 

Jeffers&n County Historical Society. 1903. Hiram Heaton, Glendale, Iowa. 27. 
Funds : Dues, $27. Proposed to pay an indebtedness of $500 on a free park. 
Collection growing. Publications: In county papers. 

State Historical Society of Iowa. 1857. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, Iowa City, 
Iowa. 650. Permanent annual support of $20,000. Additions to book col- 
lections, 1,881. Publications: Iowa Journal of History and Politics (quar- 
terly) ; History of Education in Iowa, Volume IV; History of Third Party 
Movements Since the Civil War, with, special reference to Iowa; Statute- 
Law-making in Iowa (Iowa Applied History Series, Yol. III). 



BEPO&TS OF HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES, 1L6. 239 1 

MAINE. 

Bangor Historical Society. 1864. Edward M. Blanding, 46 Madison Street^ 
Bangor, Me. 225. Additions to Museum Collections, 225, bringing total 
up to 683; 729 volumes and pamphlets added; total, 3,213. Publication: 
Proceedings 1914-15. 

Maine Genealogical Society. 1884. LeRoy P. Tobie, 457 Cumberland Avenue,. 
Portland, Me. 250-300. On January 1, 1917, total number of bound 
volumes, 3,943; pamphlets, 3,246. 

MAEYLAND. 

Maryland Historical Society. 1844. Richard Henry Spencer, Baltimore, M& 
769; increase of 86. Funds: $30,600; other income, $3,344.55. Additions: 
Carroll papers; 7 volumes of photographs of Cecil Monthly Meeting of 
Friends, 1 volume First Methodist Church. Publications: Maryland His- 
torical Magazine, volume 11; Maryland Archives, volume 36, for the 
State. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

American Antiquarian Society. 1812. Clarence L. Brigham, librarian, Wor- 
cester, Mass. 175. Productive funds: 313,000. Additions, October, 1915, 
to October, 1916: 2,060 volumes, 3,513 pamphlets, 551 miscellaneous. Pub- 
lication: Proceedings. 

The Bostonian Society. 1881. Charles F. Read, clerk, Old State House, Bos- 
ton. 1,125. Permanent fund of $60,000; increase in 1916, $3,000. Many 
additions to collections; also, about 50 books and 100 pamphlets. Publica- 
tions: Annual Proceedings 1916, 91 pages; Publications, Volume XII, 
about 150 pages. 

Cambridge Historical Society. 1905. Samuel F. Batchelder, 721 Tremont 
Building, Boston, Mass. Limited to 200. Annual subscription of $3. Addi- 
tions: Portraits of Henry Vassall and wife, of Copley (circular 1750). 
Publication: Annual volume of proceedings. Proposed publication: Let- 
ters of John Holmes (brother of Oliver Wendell Holmes). 

Clinton Historical Society. 1903. Wellington E. Parkhurst, 98 Cedar Street, 
Clinton, Mass. 108. F. T. Holder endowment, $23,540. Various additions 
to collections and library. 

The Concord Antiquarian Society. 1886. Henry F. Smith, jr., Concord, Mass. 
121. 

The Essex Institute. 1848. George Francis Dow, Salem, Mass. 570. Re- 
sources: $336,626.62 ($125,000 of which is building), Received: Hammond 
collection of clocks and watches (184 items) ; F. H. Lee collection of furni- 
ture, costumes, etc. ; the Waters- Withington collection of genealogical manu- 
scripts and English gleanings; 45,000 wills, parish registers, abstracts, etc. 
Publications : Essex County Court Records, volume 5 (1672-74) ; Probate 
Records of Essex County, volume 1 (1635-64) ; Vital Records of Salem, 
volume 1; Inscriptions in Central Burying Ground, Boston; Historical 
Collections, volume 52; Visitor's Guide to Salem, new edition; Annual 
Report, etc. 

FitcJiburg Historical Society. 1892. Ebenezer Bailey, 298 Main Street, Fitch- 
burg, Mass. 200. Endowments: $2,775; $500 added during year. Ad- 
ditions : 126 relics, 1,150 bound volumes, 

HaverJiill Historical Society. 1892. Mrs. Mabel D. Mason, 3 Belvidere Road, 
Haverhill, Mass. 325. Many additions to museum collections and library. 



240 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The Maiden Historical Societ y 1SS7. George "Walter Chamberlain, 29 Hillside 
Avenue, Maiden, Mass. 160. Invested funds : $650. Propose arrangement 
of library. Publication: Register of the Maiden Historical Society No. 4, 
114 pages. 

Marblehcad Historical Society. 1898. Miss Hannah Tutt, 15 Washington 
Street, Marblehead, Mass. 400. 100 additions to museum collections. 

Bedford Historical Society. 1896. George S. T. Fuller, 7 Alfred Street, Med- 
ford, Mass. 135, New enterprises: Erection of new building for perma- 
nent home Publication : Historical Register. 

Military Historical Society of Massachusetts. 1870. William Hopes Trask, 
40 State Street, Boston, Mass. 200. 

Milton Historical Society. 1905. Miss Eleanor P Martin, 64 Maple Street, 
Milton, Mass. 365. Life membership fees in a permanent fund, now about 
$500. Recently began preparation of a bibliography of Milton. Museum 
collections about 110 ; book collections about 220. Publication : President's 
address, on occasion of tenth anniversary of the society. 

Oakham Historical Society. 1898, Prof. Henry B. Wright, Yale College, New 
Haven, Conn. 60. Funds. $70. 

Roxbury Historical Society. 1901. Walter R. Meins, Roxbury, Mass. 304. 
New enterprises: Annual award of a gold medal to the student of the 
Roxbury Latin School submitting best essay on Roxbury history. First 
medal, 1916. Subject of essay, The Influence of Joseph Warren on Ameri- 
can Liberty. Prize-winning essay will be published annually in society's 
yearbook. Publication: Yearbook. 

Rumford Historical^ Association. 1877. Andrew R. Lmscott, 2 Poole Street, 
North Woburn, Mass. ,201. $2,389 in savings bank. The main object of 
this association was to preserve and keep in repair the birthplace of Count 
Rumford The house has been bought, repaired, and kept open to visitors. 

Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 1910. Mr. William 
Plummer Appleton, 9 Ashburton Place, Boston. 1506. Permanent funds 
March 1, 1916, $10,981.34; December 13, 1916, $18,630.56. Have acquired 
Harrison Gray Otis house, Boston, and made progress toward getting 
u Scotch " Boardman house, Saugus. Many miscellaneous objects added for 
museum collection; also many thousands of photographic and other New 
England views, and many books and pamphlets. Publications : Volume VII 
of the Bulletin, a May and a December number. 

TVestborough Historical Society. 1889. Miss Annie R. Newcomb, 61 South 
Street, Westboro, Mass. 100. Funds : $150 ; this includes the general fund 
and publishing fund. We are hoping to procure a hall. 

MICHIGAN. 

Michigan Pioneer om& Historical Society. 1874 George N. Fuller, Capitol, 
Lansing, Mich. 600. Financed mainly by the Michigan Historical Com- 
mission. New enterprises: Organization of county historical societies 
as collecting agencies. Auxiliary of the Historical Commission. 

Michigan Historical Commission. 1913. George N. Fuller, Capitol, Lansing, 
Mich. 6. $6,000 per year ; increase of $1,000 over 1913 New enterprises : 
Manuscript collecting, calendaring, cataloging, publishing of State historical 
material. Publications: Volume 39 of Collections, old series; Volume 1, 
University series, George N. Duller, Social and Economic Beginnings of 
Michigan, 



EEPOETS OF HISTOBICAL SOCIETIES, 1916. 241 

MINISESOTA. 

Minnesota Historical Society. 1849. Solon J. Buck, superintendent, St. Paul, 
Minn. 409 active. Receives $20,000 annually from State, New enter- 
prises : Field agent appointed to survey county and other local archives and 
search for historical material. Publications : Minnesota Historical Bulletin, 
volume 1, Nos 5-8, completing volume. 

MISSOUBI. 

Missouri Historical Society. 1S66. Charles P. Pettus, Jefferson Memorial 
Building, St. Louis. 600. Bequest of $500 annually for 20 years. New 
enterprises : Restoration of tombstone of Francois Duquette, at St. Charles, 
Mo. Additions : Portraits of prominent Missourians ; a Revolutionary War 
flag; flags carried by Federal troops in Missouri regiments during Civil 
War; large collection of coins; two large collections of books, one by gift 
and the other by bequest; also, 200 volumes of the St. Louis Republic, 
1808-1911; 154 volumes of the St. Louis Post Dispatch, Globe Democrat 
and Times, 1900-1910. Publication: A reporter's Lincoln, by Walter B. 
Stevens. 

Missouri Baptist Historical Society. 1885. Dr. E. C. Griffith, Liberty, Mo. 
43 life ; 9 annual. Cooperating with Missouri General Baptist Association, 
Committee on Baptist History; planning to assist in Missouri centennial. 
Publications . Missouri Baptist Biography, volume 1, 1914 ; volume 2, 1916. 

Pike County Historical Society. 1904. Clayton Keith, Louisiana, Mo. 150. 
New enterprises: Marking the historic site of old Buffalo Fort and two 
graves of Revolutionary soldiers. Additions : Some Abraham Lincoln relics 
and Hanks family relics ; a few books, including Sir Gilbert Parker's gift 
of Publications of the European War. We shall articulate with the State 
Historical Society at Columbia. This has been the most active year of our 
existence. Publication: The Jackson Family Sketch, 1765-1916, by C. 
Keith. 

The State Historical Society of Missouri. 1898. Floyd C. Shoemaker, Colum- 
bia, Mo. 1285. Funds: 1915-16, $13,600. New enterprise: Missouri Cen- 
tennial Celebration in 1920 and 1921; organization of Centennial Com- 
mittee of 1,000 of the society. Additions 1915-16 : Books, 6,135 ; pamphlets, 
12,632. Publication: The Missouri Historical Review. 

MONTANA. 

State Historical and Miscellaneous Library. 1865. W. Y. Pemberton, Libra- 
rian, Helena, Mont No members. State appropriation. New enterprise: 
Collection of pioneer stories. 

NEVADA. 

Nevada Historical Society. 1904. Prof. Jeanne Elizabeth Wier, 844 North 
Center Street, Reno, Nev. 200. $5,000 for biennium from State; small 
amount from dues. New enterprise : Organization of Pioneer Society, 1914. 
Several thousand additions to museum collections; numerous books added. 
Volume of historical papers now in press. 

NEW HAMPSHIBE. ' 

Manchester Historical Association. 1896. Fred W, Lamb, 452 Merrimack 
Street, Manchester, N. H. 230. Yearly dues of $1; life membership of 
$25. Small addition to collections. 
23318 19 IS 



242 AMERICAN HISTOBIGAL ASSOCIATION. 

NEW JERSEY. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 1845. Corresponding secretary, A. V. D. 
Honeyman, Plainfield, N. J.; recording secretary, Rev. J. T. Folsoin, 912 
South Sixteenth Street, Newark, N. J. 900. Bequests : $10,000 from Miss 
Alice W. Haynes; 2,000 from Miss L. Cotheal Smith, The society has 
taken part in the celebration of Newark's two hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary. 205 additions to museum collections; also 827 volumes, 825 
pamphlets, 1.513 manuscripts. Publications: N. J. Archives, first series, 
volume 28; Proceedings, new series, volume 1, Nos. 1 and 2; Collections, 
volume 9. The State has appropriated $3,000 for publishing volumes of 
New Jersey Archives. 

Hunterdon County Historical Society. -1885. Hiram E. Deats, Flemington, 
N J. 51. Income from dues. One loan exhibition of Indian relics. 

The Salem County Historical Society. 1884. George W. Price, Salem, N, J. 
80, Funds by annual dues. Additions of china, Japanese prints, oil paint- 
ings. 

NEW YORK. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 1862. Frank H. Severance, Historical Building, 
Buffalo. 600. $2,000 improvement of museum. Additions: Fine collec- 
tion of Indian baskets; also Oriental (Japanese and Chinese) objects ; from 
Gen. Francis V. Greene, 800 volumes relating to American wars. Publica- 
tions, volume 19. 

The New York Historical Society. 1804. James Benedict, 170 Central Park 
West. 1,000. Endowments: $1,073,628.49; increase of $1,000 during the 
year 1916. Six portraits added to art gallery ; to December 22, 1916, 946 
volumes and 1,349 pamphlets added. Publications: Revolutionary Muster 
Rolls and Minutes of a Board of British Officers in New York, 1781 ; three 
volumes of Collections of the New York Historical Society, 1914, 1915, 1916. 

New York State Historical Association. 1889. Frederick B. Richards, Glen 
Falls, N. Y. Over 1,000. Life membership fund $700 at 6 per cent, $515 79 
at 3 per cent. Now working to secure legislation to purchase the Saratoga 
battle field Publications: Volume XIV of Proceedings; Volume XV in 
printer's hands. In 1913 made by statute, custodian of Bennington battle 
field at Hoosick Falls, N. Y., but property not bought by State till 1915, 
when association took charge of it. 

The Pennsylvania Society. 1899. Barr Ferree, 249 West Thirteenth Street, 
New York. 1,600. Publications: Yearbook, 1916; United States and the 
War. Both edited by Barr Ferree. 

Society of Pennsylvania Women in New 'York. 1913. Mrs. William Harrison 
Brown, 249 West Thirteenth Street, New York. 250. Publication : Manual, 
1916. 

OHIO. 

Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. 1831. Charles T. Greve, Van 
Wormer Library Building, Burnet Woods, Cincinnati, Ohio. 91. Funds: 
$74,728.39. Book collections: Total number, 26,997. Publication: Quar- 
terly. 

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. 1886. E. O. Randall, Colum- 
bus. 350. Property valued at $7,500,000. 2,000 books added. Current ex- 
penses and funds for publications from State appropriations. Publication : 
one volume, Publications, 

Sandusky County Pioneer and Historical Association. 1874. Basil Meek, Fre- 
mont. 100. County allows $100 a year. Publication : Yearbook. 



EEPOKTS OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES, 1916. 243 

OEEGON. 

Oregon Historical Society. 1898. Prof. F. G. Yonng, Eugene, Oreg. ; assistant 
secretary, 207 Second Street, Portland, Oreg. 668. Additions to collections : 
160 objects ; 390 volumes ; 1,847 pamphlets ; 8,500 newspapers ; 1,907 docu- 
ments (chiefly in manuscript form). Publication: Quarterly. All prop- 
erty held by the society in trust for the State. Report covers only nine 
months. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Buc7:s County Historical Society. 1880. Clarence D. HotchMss, Doylestown, 
Pa. 800. Mercer Colonial Museum added 1916 ; additions to museum dur- 
ing 1916, 15,000 specimens total, 19,000; additions to the library, books 
500 several thousand manuscripts ; totals, bound volumes 5,000, pamphlets 
1,000; manuscripts not catalogued. Endowment: Museum, $125,000; 
library, 2,000 ; Publication fund approximately $1,500. 

Church Historical Society. 1900. William Ives Rutter, Jr., 525 South Forty- 
first Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 173. Publication: Proceedings. 

Delaware County Historical Society. 1895. Charles Palmer, 12 East Fifth 
Street, Chester, Pa. 116. Parts from old houses preserved. About 40 ad- 
ditions to book collections. 

The Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania. 1892. James Emlen, 1300 Locust 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 298. Funds: $6,690.87; $705 increase. Publica- 
tion : Volume YI, No. 2, Publications. 

Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pa. 1881. Mrs. A. Conrad Jones, 
Conshohocken, Pa. 400. Dues, $1; $200 from commissioners annually. 
145 donations of museum objects Additions to book collections : From one 
estate, 200 and over, mostly scrapbooks, notebooks covering 35 years, and 
pamphlets, European war, England total for library, 415. Publications, 
volume 4 still in press. May be issued in 1917. 

Lebanon County Historical Society. 1898. S. P. Heilman, Hathaway Park, 
Lebanon, Pa. 175. Funds : Dues, $1 ; entrance fees ; $200 from the county 
commissioners; about $356 in 1916. Secured in 1916 permanent home m 
the Lebanon Y. M. C. A. Building. Publications : Yolume YI, Nos. 14, 15, 
16, and 17. 

The Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. 1S57. John W. 
Townsend, 1300 Locust Street, Philadelphia. 48. Additions: 93 coins 
and medals, 181 books. Publication: Proceedings, volume 27. 

Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies. 1905. S. P., Heilman, Hatha- 
way Park, Lebanon, Pa. 42 societies. $2 annual dues from each component 
society, plus a $2,000 State appropriation made in 1907, but now almost, 
if not entirely, expended. Publication: Acts and proceedings, eleventh 
annual meeting, January 20, 1916. 

The Snyder County Historical Society. 1897. W. M. Schnure, Selinsgrove, Pa. 
75. Reorganized, 1913. New enterprises: The Susquehanna Trail, a 
modern highway between Elmira, N. T., and Harrisburg, Pa., a good-road 
movement This highway will traverse the scenic and historic Indian 
trail and post-road routes of long ago. About 200 books and pamphlets 
added. Publications : Bulletin No. 7 of volume 1 ; Proceedings of the One 
hundred and sixtieth Anniversary of Perms Creek Massacre, held at Selins- 
grove, Pa., on October 14, 15, 16, 1916, 



244 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Washington County Historical Society. 1901. -Miss Jane S. Hall. 200 Funds : 
Membership dues and $200 appropriated by county commissioners. Addi- 
tions : 40 biographies of local families ; old schoolbooks ; autograph copies 
of books by local authors. Hon. Boyd Crumrme, president of the society 
for 14 years, died September 21, 1916. 

EHODE ISLAND. 

Newport Historical Society. 1854. John P. Sanborn, Newport, R. I. 450 Ex- 
tensive building additions. Deposits and gifts of many collections; over 
500 pamphlets and books added. Publication : Quarterly Bulletin. 

JRhode Island Citizens' Historical Association. 1SS3, Mrs. Caroline A. P. Wee- 
den, 578 Smith Street, Providence, R. I. 247. Funds (increase) : $220. 
Usual local historical outmgs, two or three each month; auto outings to 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. For 1917, plans for usual historical trips ; 
also to unite in town celebrations, monument raising, or pageants. 

Rhode Island Historical Society 1822. Howard W. Preston, 68 Waterman 
Street, Providence, R.I. 400. Funds : $55,000. 100,000 manuscripts, known 
as the Albert C. Greene and Richard Ward Greene collection, was received 
this year. Publications: Museum illustrating the history of the State; 
Kecrology; Treasurer's reports. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

South Carolina Historical Society. 1857. Mabel L. Webber, Charleston, S. G, 
230. Additions to book collections : 225 volumes, 300 pamphlets. Publica- 
tion : South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

State Historical Society of South Dakota. 1901. Doane Robinson, Pierre, S. Dak. 
100. Supported by State appropriation ; for biennium ending July 1, 1917, 
$17,780. We have begun critical explorations of ancient sites of Indian 
villages. Most important addition is the Verendrye Plate buried at Fort 
Pierre March 30, 1743, in evidence of the French claim to the Northwest. 
Publications: Volume VIII, Collection of materials of history; Sixteenth 
annual review of progress in South Dakota ; History of Initiative and Refer- 
endum in South Dakota; Tenth report upon South Dakota vital statistics. 

TENNESSEE. 

Tennessee Historical Society. -1849. St. George L. Sioussat, Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, Nashville, Tenn. 227. Endowment fund, $10,000, established in 
1917. Publication : Tennessee Historical Magazine, Volume II. 

WASHINGTON. 

Washington State Historical Society. 1891. W. P. Bonney, 401 North Cliff 
Avenue, Tacoma, Wash. 200. Biennial appropriation State fund mainte- 
nance, $17,000. Pictures, relics, etc., received from State G. A, R., also 
repository for D. A. R. and Dixie Daughters; State library of the Loyal 
Legion received. Anticipate an appropriation from State fund for addi- 
tion to building. 

WISCONSIN. 

Manitowoc County Historical Society. 1905. Ralph G. Plumb, Manitowoc, 

Wis. 20. 
Sauk County Historical Society. 1905. H. IL Page, Baraboo, Wis, 70. Many 

pioneer and archeological relics added. 



BEPOBTS OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES, 1916. 245 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 1849. M. M. Quaife, Madison, Wis. 
750. Total of private funds, $107,699.89 ; largest support is from State 
appropriations. Publications : October, 1915-October, 1916. Wisconsin His- 
torical Collections, vols. 22, 23 ; Proceedings, 1915 ; Bulletins of Information, 
Nos 83-85. 

Walworth County Historical Society, 1898. Grant D. Harrington, Elkhorn, 
Wis. 30. Beckwith collection added to library. 

Waukesha County Historical Society. 1906. Julia A. Lapham, Oconomowoc, 
Wis. 162. Funds: Membership dues. At the request of this society the 
United States Geographical Board changed the name of Government Hill, 
in Waukesha County, to Lapham Peak in honor of Dr. I. A. Lapham; a 
boulder with a bronze tablet furnished by the society will be dedicated in 
the spring. Additions : A large number of pictures of pioneers ; papers and 
documents relating to the early history of Waukesha County ; museum now 
numbers some 3,500 objects; earliest directory of Waukesha, 1857. Pub- 
lications: The Norwegian settlement in the town of Muskego, by A. O. 
Barton ; Reminiscences of a pioneer, by W. R. Calkins. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society. 1903. Charles Edward Brown, Madison, 
Wis. 400. Placed metal marker on Indian effigy mound in Devils Lake 
State Park and boulder monument on site of White Crow's village at Lake 
Koshkonong. Publication: Wisconsin Archeologist, 4 numbers. 

WYOMING. 

Wyoming Historical Society. 1895. Miss Frances A. Davis, State Library, 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 9. Contingent fund of $250 per year. Endeavoring to 
collect written books, manuscripts, etc , and particularly Wyoming material, 

CANADA. 

Essex Historical Society 1904. Andrew Braid, Windsor, Ontario. 70. Con- 
tinuing work of erecting memorial tablets at historical spots along this part 
of the Canadian border. Valuable collection of British coins from the time 
of Henry II to present, purchased from a collection. We expect to publish 
a third volume of papers read at meetings during 1917. 

Huron Institute. 1907 David D. Williams, Collingwood, Ontario, Canada. 60. 
Many local pictures of buildings, boats, harbors, etc., added to collections. 

Niagara Historical Society 1S95. Mrs. E. Ascher, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Onta- 
rio. 250. 29 additions to museum, 45 to book collections. Publications: 
Reprint of No. 13 ; No. 28, Family History. 

Nova Scotia Historical Society. 1878. Harry Piers, Halifax, N. S. 425. 65 
books, 50 pamphlets added. 

Ontario Historical Society. 1888. A F. Hunter, Normal School Building. 
Toronto, Canada. 448. Additions: Several museum objects; 218 volumes, 
317 pamphlets added in 1915-16. Publications : Annual Report for 1915 ; 
Papers and Records, Vol. XIV. * 

ISocie'te' historique de Montreal (Canada). 1858. Napolon Brisebois, Biblio- 
theque Saint-Sulpice, 340 Rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Canada. 60. New 
enterprises : La publication d'un Dictionnaire historique du Canada ; Apercu 
des travaus de la Soci6t6 Historique de Montreal de 1758-1917. 

Women's Canadian Historical Society o/ Ottawa. 1898. Mrs. B. Billings, Kil- 
larney Apartments, Ottawa. 160. An old historic building has been loaned 
to us by the city (unused registry office), and we will now have a place for 
our library, and our intention is also to have a museum in connection with 
our work. Publications: Report 1915-1916; reprint, vol. 1, Transactions, 



V. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE OF HEREDITARY 
PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



CINCINNATI, DECEMBER 27, 1916. 



247 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE OF HEREDITARY 
PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 



The Conference of the Hereditary Patriotic Societies was held at 
the Hotel Sinton on the afternoon of December 27, 1916. It was pre- 
ceded by a luncheon of the representatives present, some 50 in 
number. Mr. Harry Brent Mackoy, ex-president of the Society of 
Colonial Wars in the State of Ohio, and ex-president of the Ohio 
Sons of the Eevolution, presided, and in his introductory remarks 
stated the purpose of the conference viz, to consider practical and 
desirable plans of closer cooperation between the historical associa- 
tions and the hereditary patriotic societies. He said : 

Members of the American Historical Association <m& of the Hereditary 

Patriotic Societies: 

At the Eighth Annual Conference of Historical Societies, held In connection 
with the meeting of the American Historical Association in Buffalo, December 
29, 1911, a discussion was had of the hereditary patriotic societies, with special 
reference to their productive work. 

As preliminary to that conference, a questionnaire had been addressed to the 
various societies of the Colonial period, of the Revolution, and of the War of 
1812 in the following form: 

1. What contributions, if any, have been made by the patriotic and hereditary 
organizations in which you are interested (so far as they relate to the times 
mentioned in accompanying letter), in the way of prizes, scholarships, etc., 
for historical essays or the study of history, or both? 

2. If you answer the foregoing question affirmatively, state what restrictions 
or conditions, if any, are imposed upon applicants or contestants, explaining 
briefly the plan of choosing questions, submitting papers, etc. 

3. Have the organizations referred to above in which you are interested ever 
undertaken or accomplished any historical research or publication work of a 
serious character? If so, state what and when. (Copies of such publications, 
where available, will be most gladly welcomed.) 

4. What, if anything, has been accomplished by such organizations in the 
way of locating or marking historical sites, preserving historical buildings, etc. ? 

5. What, if anything, has been accomplished by such organizations in the 
way of collecting and preserving historical records or manuscripts, relics, etc ? 

6. What other productive historical work not included in the above questions 
has been accomplished by such organizations? 

The results of the information obtained through replies to the foregoing 
questionnaire were submitted to the conference in the form of a paper by your 
chairman, which may be found in the Annual Report of the American Histori- 
cal Association for 1911, pages 263-278. 

No generalizations were attempted in that paper, but in the discussion whicli 
ensued Prof. William Libbey, of Princeton, suggested that there was need of 
some plan of operation, or cooperation, between the two classes of societies, 
historical and patriotic. At the close of the discussion the conference voted 
that the council of the American Historical Association be requested to appoint 
a committee to consider the historical activities of hereditary and patriotic 
societies. 

249 



250 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION*. 

Your chairman is not definitely advised as to the progress which has been 
made by that committee, but the present conference is one of the means whereby 
It is hoped that the desired cooperation between such societies and the histori- 
cal associations, the American and others, may be brought nearer to accom- 
plishment. It is the object of this session to hear and consider desirable and 
practicable plans for bringing these various organizations into a closer and 
more harmonious relationship. 

While there are many individuals belonging to the hereditary patriotic 
societies who have been engaged in productive historical work, and while there 
are also some societies of the kind which have been carrying on regular and 
systematic work of the same sort, the large majority of members of the heredi- 
tary and patriotic organizations are not sharing in or benefited by this branch 
of their activities. Moreover, the historical associations are not receiving the 
encouragement and assistance which they could and no doubt would obtain 
from a nearer connection with the hereditary patriotic societies 

It is readily apparent to anyone who has watched the development of the 
more serious-minded societies of the latter kind, especially among the women 
(for I am compelled to admit their superiority in these undertakings), that 
their fields of labor are very similar to those of the historical associations. In 
a statement issued by one of the latter a few years ago, the following were 
enumerated as the lines of work which it proposed to do, viz : 

1. Identifying and preparing a list of former historic characters of this 
vicinity; collecting and preserving any manuscript collections left by such. 
(This work has already been undertaken by the historical manuscripts com- 
mittee.) 

2. The teaching of civics and history ; the use of local history material in the 
public schools. (This work has already been undertaken by the committee on 
local history in the public schools.) 

3. Archaeology and prehistoric remains. 

4. The collection of historic relics; identifying and marking historic build- 
ings and sites ; tracing and marking historic trails and roads 

5. The coordination and expansion of the work of hereditary patriotic socie- 
ties and similar organizations, especially in the celebration of historic days, 
making lists of soldiers of the various national conflicts, identifying and mark- 
ing their graves, organizing juvenile patriotic clubs, etc, 

6. The collection of private libraries of special historical value ; the utiliza- 
tion of the historical resources of public libraries. 

7. The work of local historical societies and the publication activities of the 
same. 

The first, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh of the above-mentioned activities 
may be very properly undertaken by hereditary patriotic societies, and, in 
numerous instances, they are being successfully carried on by them. 

Some organizations are making a specialty of one certain branch of his- 
torical work ; others are attempting to do two or three kinds ; many, we regret 
to say, are not accomplishing anything. The problem is how to bring it about 
that all such societies may do this work systematically, intelligently, care- 
fully, and with the greatest benefit to all. There is now a great loss of energy, 
much duplication of effort, and false and inaccurate knowledge, arising in part 
from the failure of the hereditary patriotic societies to cooperate with the 
students of history. On the other hand, there are many historians who are 
eagerly waiting for the opportunity which these societies may give them to 
cooperate along lines of mutual interest and advantage. 

As an instance of the lack of historical knowledge existing among the 
hereditary patriotic societies it is recalled that two or three years ago a gen- 
tleman in a neighboring city was asked to pass on merits of certain prize essays 
submitted under the auspices of one such organization on the subject of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition. During the course of reading the essays it 



CONFERENCE OF HEEEDITAEY PATBIOTIC SOCIETIES. 251 

.-developed ttiat some of tliem were concerning themselves with George Rogers 
Clark; and it came out that several members of the organization had an- 
nounced the title as being about George Rogers Clark, thinking him the same 
person who had gone on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 

Quite the opposite is the case of a local historian who has performed most 
valuable services for one society in obtaining the names of revolutionary sol- 
diers buried in his county. As part of his task he has ransacked the Federal, 
State, and county records, as well as private collections of papers and letters, 
and has personally located and visited nearly 300 burial grounds, public and 
private, in the county, a number of which had long since been forgotten. He 
is still engaged on his labor of love, and each year adds more names to the long 
list of heroes on the bronze tablet erected by the society to their memory. 

The nature of the historical work to be performed in a community varies with 
its location. In the East there are more sites to be marked than in the West, 
dating from the colonial and Revolutionary periods, but personal relics and 
manuscript collections often travel long distances. The unearthing of these latter 
is frequently of greater value than the determination of old buildings, graves, or 
historic trails and roads ; and it is along such lines that the members of heredi- 
tary patriotic societies can frequently be of most assistance. Many of them 
have in their possession, or under their control, letters, journals, account books, 
and even public records, which have been the property of or entrusted to some 
deceased ancestor, that would be of inestimable value to the historian. 

A few years ago a committee of the Ohio Valley Historical Association began 
the task of locating and helping to preserve the manuscript collections of this 
valley. It prepared and sent out a large number of letters containing the fol- 
lowing statement, viz: 

Plans are being perfected by this association for systematically preserving 
manuscripts relating to the Ohio Valley now in the possession of private indi- 
viduals. It is the purpose of the association first to locate these manuscripts 
and ascertain the value of their contents. They will then be indexed in a way 
which will make them easily accessible to all students of history, where access 
to same will be allowed. It is our object to secure the original manuscripts, 
however, and we shall merely recommend that they be safely placed in some 
institution where they will receive proper care and be easy of access to those 
interested. t 

As the first step toward the above work, we must secure full and accurate lists 
of the important historic characters who lived in or who have been identified 
with each section of the Ohio Valley, and also of the present owners of valuable 
manuscript collections. With this in view we request you to fill out and return 
the attached form for information as soon as you can conveniently do so. 

In response to its communications the committee received many interesting 
replies. One lady in West Virginia furnished a long list of persons in that 
State who had valuable papers and relics in their possession. Unfortunately, 
for some reason the committee was never able to complete its undertaking, but 
your chairman has no doubt that the results would have been most profitable 
could this plan have been carried out as originally contemplated. 

The purpose of this meeting, as your chairman understands it, is to receive, 
consider, and posssibly to act upon suggestions which may be offered for a 
scheme of mutual cooperation in some such ways as have been here mentioned. 
By learning what has been accomplished elsewhere we may each improve and 
enlarge our own spheres of activity, and perhaps the points of contact may be 
more numerous even than we imagine. The representatives of a half dozen 
organizations have been invited to tell us, therefore, what they have done, to 
explain how they have been working along historical lines, and we may then 
discover what are the modes in which they and the rest of us can cooperate 
with one another and how we can not only work together for the advantage 



252 AMEBICAK HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION 

of ourselves but for the advancement of the cause of history in which all of us 
should be and are vitally interested. 

The first paper was a report of the National Society of the Colonial 
Dames of America, by Cornelia Bartow Williams, historian general. 

The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America is composed of 40 
corporate societies. Its 8,000 members, lineal decendants of the early settlers 
who founded this Nation, are associated together to do honor to the virtues and 
valor of their forefathers and to impress upon the young the sacred obligation 
of upholding the principles which are the cornerstone of this Republic. In 
order to inform the different State societies of the achievements of each one, 
circular letters are exchanged annually, and at the biennial councils at Wash- 
ington the national committees present reports of the accomplishments in 
their departments. By order of the council of 1912 a pamphlet was printed the 
following year, containing 120 pages descriptive of the aims, ideals, and 
accomplishments of the society since its beginning in 1891. This work pre- 
pared by Mrs. Joseph R Lamar, our present president, is of immense value not 
alone to our own membership, but to all interested in the lines of work 
accomplished by this historic-patriotic society. The following report is com- 
piled from above sources, special emphasis being given, as requested, to 
educational and constructive work during the last five years. 

First in regard to educational work: 

In order to diffuse knowledge concerning the past most of the societies make 
a study of American history, writing papers and essays on the colonial period, 
and many are collecting books, some for reference at home and others for 
distribution among the smaller towns of the State. They not only have 
traveling libraries, but also lantern slides and photographs that are sent from 
school to school in remote places. Connecticut, for example, appropriates $250 
annually for patriotic purposes through the medium of the public library 
committee appointed by the State board of education. In 1916 their 100 
libraries were circulated 168 times and 53 portfolios of photographs of men and 
places of note 54 times. In 1915 nine new portfolios containing 30 pictures 
each were added to this collection. Four steriopticon lectures were loaned to 
libraries, schools, institutions, churches, missions, etc. 

Historical lectures are given by most societies in public schools and libraries. 
In Ohio these lectures have resulted in the preparation of pamphlets on the 
history of the 13 colonies, thus introducing a supplementary course of Ameri- 
can history of the colonial period into the public schools of the State Three 
pamphlets are already completed Colonial Virginia, New York, and Massa- 
chusetts, and a fourth is in preparation. 

In order to create a popular interest in our colonial history, all the societies 
give prizes and scholarships in schools and colleges for excellence in American 
history or in the writing of historical essays. In Connecticut, in 1914, besides 
the 3 prizes given, 34 certificates of merit were awarded, showing the high- 
class work produced by this competition; and, in 1915, 815 circulars were sent 
out announcing the competition. In return, 260 essays were received, 47 more 
than the previous year, evidencing the growing popularity of this department. 

This educational work is not confined to the native-born American, but is 
extended to the hosts of foreigners, who have come in such large numbers to 
our hospitable shores, Illinois was the pioneer in this work among immigrants, 
having classes in civics and United States history in settlements, and giving 
lectures to the various nationalities represented in Chicago. In 1912 the society 
published a Primer of Civics and the Salient Points of American History, 



CONFEBEltfCE OF HEREDITARY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 253 

written by a native Bohemian, and the first beneficiary of the Illinois scholar- 
ship. This book is printed in Bohemian and English on parallel pages, the 
author holding the opinion that this information should be given to the immi- 
grant at his first coming in his native tongue, so that he may be properly 
informed at the outset and before other and undesirable forces reach him. This 
book has been translated into Polish and Lithuanian. 

Many of the other societies in Colorado, Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, 
Indiana, Massachusetts, and Maryland have taken up this mission to the for- 
eigner, endeavoring to point the good and excellent way to patriotic citizenship. 

While this work is carried on in the North and West, the South has an 
equally interesting problem in the enlightenment of the mountaineers, those 
descendants of the Scotch-Irish, the Covenanters' cousins, who transplanted 
themselves from Ulster, in Ireland, to America to secure religious liberty. 

Second in regard to constructive work : 

A very important work is the marking of historic sites and buildings, and 
many of the societies have contributed notable work in this regard. Especially 
have the ancestral societies had a large part in suitably marking the earliest 
settlements and first landings, the forts and battlefields, and other places and 
events connected with the heroic men of the colonial period Monuments have 
been erected and tablets placed throughout the States on the Atlantic seaboard, 
and the Western States are following this commendable example and are find- 
ing and permanently marking trails and roads and historic forts and settle- 
ments of bygone days. 

Prom the long list of achievements I note the following: 

Connecticut appropriates $400 yearly to its committee on historical land- 
narks; marked the site of Fort Saybrook on the Connecticut River in 1913, 
and placed tablets on the wall of Center Church, Hartford, in memory of Ret. 
Thomas Hooker and Gov. John Haynes, in 1916. 

Kansas is studying the trails of long ago, and has identified and marked the 
Coronado trail, the first path to the western part of the continent made by the 
Spanish in the sixteenth century. 

Louisiana has recently restored three rooms in its beautiful old Cabildo, the 
executive mansion of Spanish occupancy, and has purchased a portion of 
Chalmette plantation, outside New Orleans, undertaking the patriotic task of 
preserving the house and the beautiful avenue of live oaks. 

Massachusetts in 1914 placed a tablet at Southampton, England, commemorat- 
ing the sailing of the Mayflower, and one at Jamestown to the memory of Maj. 
Daniel Gooking, 1612-1687. 

North Carolina contributed toward a tablet erected in the capitol at Raleigh, 
by the Mecklenburg committee, to commemorate the earliest Declaration of In- 
dependence (May 20, 1775), a year before that in Philadelphia. 

Pennsylvania in 1912 marked old stones on historic highways; repaired, re- 
cut, and reset 24 original milestones on the turnpike between Philadelphia and 
Trenton; placed a tablet at the site of Fort Pitt, gateway to Bradford Park; 
and marked the site of the giant oak which stood near the end of Forbes Road, 
built by Gen. Forbes on his military expedition against the French and Indians 
at Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) . In 1916, $20,000 was raised in four months 
for a memorial window to Martha Washington in the chapel at Valley Forge. 

Virginia has placed tablets on the walls of Washington and Lee University (in 
1913), in the market place at Alexandria (in 1914), in the State capitol at Rich- 
mond to Nathaniel Bacon (in 1916) ; in 1914 two stained glass windows in St. 
George's Church, Gravesend, England, to the memory of Pocahontas; and in 
3916 marked the Braddock Road at Alexandria and at Winchester, and the site 
of Braddocfc's landing at Hampton. The birthplaces of five Virginians, Presi- 



254 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

dents of the United States, were marked with sundials James Madison, James 
Monroe, Benjamin Harrison, John Tyler, and Woodrow Wilson, In 1912 a 
portrait of Dolly Madison was presented to the White House in Washington. 

The preservation of manuscripts and records forms a very important branch 
of endeavor, and some are being put in permanent printed form so that they 
may reach the eye of many students of Colonial days. 

The national society published, in 1911, the Letters of Richard Henry Lee 
(1762 to 1778) ; in 1912 the Correspondence of William Shirley, Governor of 
Massachusetts and Military Commandant in America, 1731 to 1760; and in 
1916, Travels in the American Colonies, 1690 to 1783. 

California's contribution is the book compiled by Monnette on California 
chronology (1510-1860). 

Connecticut has copied 100 church records. It subscribes $300 yearly to the 
old house committee, which is making a laborious search for records, histories, 
and romances of old houses. In 1915 it added 54 completed histories of houses 
tc the library* as against 36 the year previous. The societies in Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, Nebraska, and Indiana have followed the example of Delaware, 
which published in 1911 several stories of pioneer life under the title of Once 
upon a Time in Delaware, used as textbooks m the public school and approved 
by the board of education. 

Delaware, in connection with the public archives commission, assisted in 
making up a set of record books for the State, one set containing the marriage 
bonds of the "three counties," another set, original papers pertaining to the 
colonial and Revolutionary wars and the War of 1812. 

Louisiana has cooperated with the American Historical Association at New 
Orleans in preserving books and manuscripts of Spanish and French rule, and 
has thereby rescued records of great value. 

Maine has published two volumes, Old Hallowell on the Kennebec, and Old 
Houses in Maine. The society has a record of 129 interesting old houses, show- 
ing the development of the homes of Maine from the typical one-story cottage 
to the most stately mansion of the early nineteenth century. 

To Massachusetts credit is due for the book on Ecclesiastical Silver in 1912, 
and a booklet on Wax Portraits and Silhouettes, in 1914. 

Maryland is gathering traditions from old families and has become a bureau 
of identification of old portraits ; and in 1914, after much search, discovered the 
delicate pencil-drawings (made by Van Huffel, a celebrated artist of his day) 
of the five American commissioners who signed the Treaty of Ghent in 1812 
John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell, and 
Albert Qallatin. 

Mississippi is making historic research its main work and is associated with 
the State* Department of Archives and History and has aided in rescuing much 
Spanish and French lore. 

New Hampshire has recently discovered documents of great interest and 
value and has published an Index of the Bibliography of the State from its 
Settlement to 1895. 

New Jersey is securing for its archives accurate copies and abstracts of 
records of historic value. The State bureau of vital statistics was established 
only in 1848, so for all previous data the genealogist and historian must depend 
upon family, church, Bible, and graveyard records. 

New York's committee on history and tradition has done valuable work In 
collecting documents, papers, and records which will be of great service to 
investigators. 

Ohio has been busy with its traditions and folklore, and its study of the 
customs of Indians, Spanish, French, Dutch, Swedish, and English. 



CONFERENCE OF HEREDITARY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 255 

Pennsylvania has published a book on Furnaces and Forges in Provincial 
Pennsylvania and made reprints of diaries and journals ; also copies of epitaphs 
from colonial gravestones. This society has done notable work in collecting 
and cataloguing 967 records, from Bibles, wills, deeds, marriage certificates, 
and graveyards. 

As to relics in the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, the national so- 
ciety has a continuous loan exhibition of interesting and valuable treasures. As 
articles are withdrawn by their owners, others are sent to fill vacancies, and 
here are continually on view all kinds of precious relics of the men and women 
of the colonial period. 

Some of the corporate societies have also participated in local expositions. 
In 1912, in connection with the publishing of the Book on American Church 
Silver by Massachusetts, collections were gathered in Boston, New York, and 
Washington, from the various societies in Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, and Kentucky. 
Massachusetts subscribed $1,500 in 1912 for the purchase of old ecclesiastical 
silver to be presented to the Boston Museum, and had an interesting exhibit 
of pewter; and in 1915 had placed in the Massachusetts building at the San 
Francisco exposition a collection of historical portraits, including 21 paintings 
and 23 engravings, among them one of Dorothy Quincy Hancock, to be hung 
later in the Quincy homestead, the society's headquarters at Quincy, Mass. 

In 1912 Connecticut had at Hartford a marvelous exhibit of silver, which 
came from the family of John Cotton Smith. 

Delaware had an exhibit m 1912 of old laces, fans, samplers, and miniatures. 

Maryland had a notable exhibit of old laces, miniatures, furniture, and eccle- 
siastical silver at the Baltimore exposition in 1911, and the society also 
shared in the centenary of the Washington Monument in Baltimore, and in the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition in 1915. 

New York furnished 13 of the 53 portraits in the Metropolitan Collection 
of Colonial Relics in 1911. 

Virginia in 1911 employed Mr. Charles Incas Williams to restore the por- 
traits of the Virginia Historical Society, which are the most valuable in this 
country. 

Many of the ancestral societies of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and South Carolina have been 
for years custodians of interesting old colonial houses, which have been re- 
stored and furnished with valuable furniture, silver, portraits, and other relics 
of the past. Each year sees an added interest in these museums of colonial 
treasures. 

In 1914 Delaware bought an old mansion in Wilmington for a permanent 
home, and has restored it along colonial lines and furnished it in keeping with 
the period. 

New Hampshire has recently acquired by gift the Ladd House at Ports- 
mouth, the most perfect and elegant of the early New England homes, the 
first three-story house in the State, built in 1759. 

New Jersey's permanent home is in the Old Barracks at Trenton, restored 
through the influence of the society and filled with valuable relics of the period. 
Its reproduction was the New Jersey building at the San Francisco exposition 
In 1915. 

One of the national committees, that on " reciprocity " (with Ohio its chair- 
man) , has been instructed to report to the biennial council of 1918, specializing 
on a collection of photographs of restored buildings (their exterior and inte- 
rior), of monuments and tablets and exhibitions of relics; these photographs 



256 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

to be placed If possible in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington until such 
time as the Colonial Dames shall have fireproof quarters of their own. 

The different corporate societies have all given more or less generously 
to the various objects undertaken by the National Society, such as the George 
Washington Memorial Building at Washington, which will contain a Colonial 
Dame room ; the Titanic Memorial ; the Book on Ecclesiastical Silver ; the Kath- 
erine Cabell Cox Scholarship fund, a testimonial of affection and appreciation 
to our honorary president ; the Restoration Fund for Sulgrave Manor, the home 
of Washington's English ancestors ; the portrait of Washington now at Mount 
Vernon, which shall later hang on the walls of Sulgrave Manor in England; 
and they are now setting aside yearly certain sums for the Plymouth memorial 
celebration In 1920. 

While our first thoughts as a society go back to the days and events that are 
gone, we are alive and responsive to the demands of the present, and are ready 
to support with loyalty and enthusiasm all measures that make for our coun- 
try's welfare and for a useful and enlightened and patriotic citizenship. 

Mrs. Thomas Kite, ex-vice president general, then reported on the 
Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, was organized 
26 years ago. It now has a membership of more than 100,000 a number prob- 
ably not dreamed of by its founders. Its objects have been marking of graves 
of Revolutionary soldiers, historic sites, and buildings, also old trails and roads. 
AH this has been and is being done to an amazing degree. Many a valuable 
historic spot or trail would have been lost forever to posterity had it not been 
for the zeal and persistence of some of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Our wonderful Memorial Continental Hall in Washington is a permanent 
witness to our ability to deal successfully with matters financial. The building 
and contents represent over $750,000. It is rapidly becoming a depository for 
priceless relics, increasing in value every year. We are working along so many 
lines, any woman has but to make a choice for the outlet of her patriotic ener- 
gies. The Children of the Republic clubs, founded by a member of Cincinnati 
Chapter, the late Mrs. John A. Murphy, is making good citizens of the children 
of foreign parents. The Girl Homemakers, founded by a member of Western 
Reserve Chapter, Cleveland, Mrs. William B. Neff, has educated poor girls how to 
cook, sew, and make comfortable homes. Patriotic education, another great work, 
demands our interests and has so many branches it would be impossible here 
to enumerate them. Of them all the establishing of southern mountain schools 
is most important, as it should be, for from them we are to reap the richest 
and quickest results of our labors. The United States Government demands 
from us each year an exhaustive report of our work to be sent to the Smith- 
sonian Institution It is an astonishing revelation to rhe many who know 
little or nothing about what we are doing. We established a wonderful record 
during the Spanish-American War, sending nurses and medical supplies under 
the instruction of the Surgeon General, where most needed. Many thousands 
of dollars were expended in that way. 

As a society, we have publicly put ourselves upon record as being in favor 
or preparedness in all that the word implies. During the present war in 
Europe we have worked unceasingly for Belgian sufferers and in sending sup- 
plies in vast quantities to the Red Cross Society. We have done whatever was 
required for our own men on the Mexican border and offered our services to 
the extreme limit to the United States Government in case of war with any for- 
eign power. Having proven the fact that we have accomplished great things in 
the past, should our own country be threatened with war we would prove anew 



CONFERENCE OF HEREDITARY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES, 257 

the power of 100,000 earnest, zealous, patriotic women The wonderful statistics 
of our society, what we have done and are still doing, can be found in the re- 
ports of the Smithsonian Institution, and they make most interesting reading 
In our research work, necessitated by the demand of proofs regarding the loca- 
tion of historic spots, old trails, etc., we have become great students of Ameri- 
can history, reaping thereby delightful results of our work. We are becoming 
better informed each year along that line, and great deference is accorded us 
and our opinions from others not quite so well informed Cincinnati Chapter 
has established a Fellowship of American History in the University of Cin- 
cinnati, the fellow receiving a stipend of $100 a year from the investment. The 
only return to the chapter required is a thesis from the young man or woman 
holding the fellowship to be read before the chapter at its March meeting. 
Delightful papers have been given and much valuable information received. 
Prof. Isaac Cox, of the same university was our first fellow, and we feel hon- 
ored to see him in his present position ; we have a sense of proprietorship in 
him. The membership of 100,000 or more is divided among 1,500 chapters in 
the States, with one in Cuba, one in Honolulu, and one, the " Orient," in China. 
How far reaching our American zeal and influence. 

Following Mrs. Kite's report the conference was told of the work 
of the Sons of the Eevolution, by Jackson Walcott Sparrow, ex- 
president of the Ohio Society. 

The hereditary patriotic societies in the United States were instituted to 
perpetuate the memory of the events of American colonial and Revolutionary 
history, and of the men who, in military and naval service, and in civil posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility, by their acts and council assisted in the estab- 
lishment, defense, and preservation of American colonies and of the achievement 
of American independence ; for social enjoyment and intercourse ; and also for 
the purpose of forming and fostering a love of country and a spirit of 
patriotism. 

With these purposes in view, they seek to collect and preserve manuscripts 
and records; provide suitable commemoration of events in early American 
history ; and locate and mark historical localities and objects. 

These various societies have been very active in not only locating historical 
locations and objects, but also in erecting monuments and tablets; in locating 
and marking graves of soldiers and sailors of the various periods of early 
American history. They have held numerous prize essay contests, the sub- 
jects of which were of historical importance; they have done much toward 
preserving a love and respect for the flag and in aiding legislation along that 
line; and they have taken many steps toward instilling a love of country 
among those of foreign birth. 

Especially active along all these lines have been the general society and the 
various State societies of the Sons of the Revolution, which have erected 
many monuments, especially throughout the eastern portion of the United 
States. As an example, I might state that the Ohio Society, Sons of the 
Revolution, in the last several years, has erected in the Hamilton County 
(Ohio) memorial building a tablet to the memory of the soldiers and sailors 
of the Revolution who are buried in that county, having on the same the 
name of each soldier or sailor. We have held prize-essay contests ; conducted 
numerous patriotic religious services ; helped to educate a number of boys of 
revolutionary ancestry at Berea College, Berea, Ky.; and helped to sustain 
and conduct a club of young men of foreign birth or parentage, at the meet- 
ings of which are discussed civics and historical matters. 
2331819 17 



258 AMEBICA2S" HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The patriotic societies are In a great measure simply historical societies, 
though in a limited sense. Their memhership can not be general, but is com- 
posed of lineal descendants of men who took part in the early history of this 
country. They are different from the ordinary historical societies in that they 
rather popularize the results of historical investigation, give life and color to 
the men and events of our formative epoch. All their activities are confined 
to commemoration of events which have taken place in American history solely. 

The historical societies throughout the United States should endeavor in 
every way possible to affiliate with and aid the hereditary patriotic societies. 
The result of such aid will be of vast value, for the members of patriotic 
societies will bring to the study of history a certain personal feeling on account 
of the part the ancestors of such members had in forming the early history 
of this country. 

I feel that the best way for the historical societies and patriotic societies 
to work together would be for each one of the large historical societies to 
have a department whose labor should be directly concerned with the patriotic 
societies; at least there should be a standing committee of each one of these 
historical societies in direct charge of that branch of history which concerns 
the hereditary patriotic societies. 

The patriotic societies should keep in touch with the historical societies by 
having a membership in each of the largest and most important, and thev 
should designate a member of the society as its representative at the meetings 
of the historical societies. Thus would the two societies, the historical society 
and the patriotic society, be able to keep in close touch with each other. 

The next address was on the work of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, by R. C. Ballard Thruston, past president general. 

Our organization is one of some 8 or 10 that has received its inspiration from 
the Revolutionary period, and so far as I know and believe, all of our patriotic 
organizations, regardless of the source of their inspiration, have practically 
the same patriotic, historic, and educational purposes, and therefore our work 
has not been confined to the Revolutionary period. 

Our National Society of Sons of the Ajoaerican [Revolution was organized at 
Fraunces Tavern, New York City, on April 30, 1889, by the consolidation of a 
number of State organizations of a similar character which deemed that it was 
wisest to have a national organization as the head of the movement rather than, 
as was then developing, a number of independent organizations scattered 
through the different States. At the present time we have societies in 46 States 
besides those In the District of Columbia, Hawaii, France, and the Far East, 
making 50 in all, many of which are subdivided into chapters. 

The local work is generally carried on by the chapters or State organizations. 
They do the marking of historic spots and events, but the work of our national 
organization, as distinct from our State organizations, consists in dealing with 
matters in a larger field and on a larger scope matters which the smaller 
organizations could not effect; and I propose to deal with the work of the 
national society rather than with that of the State and other subsidiary organi- 
zations. 

EEVOLTJTIONABY EECOEDS. 

Our first annual meeting was held in the city of Louisville, Ky., in 1890. 
The attention of our Congress was then called to the fact that our Govern- 
ment's Revolutionary records were in boxes and barrels, and stuck away in gar- 
rets, basements, and other corners in the Government buildings in Washington 
or were in such shape that they were in no condition to benefit anybody and 



CONFERENCE OF HEKEDITABY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 259 

liable to be destroyed. Efforts were made to see if we could not get the 
National Government to take hold of these archives and properly file and index 
them so that they could be utilized by future historians. Such resolutions were 
passed. A number of our members were in Congress, one of them being the 
Hon. Redfield Proctor, then president of our Vermont society, a Member of 
the United States Senate, and later Secretary of War He introduced the 
desired bill in Congress The justice of our plea appealed not only to our 
members but to others, and, though it took two or three years to get it through 
Congress, it was finally passed. As a result it took 20 years to properly file and 
index those papers. It required over 1,000,000 cards in the work that was 
finished some two or three years ago, and we now know that there were whole 
regiments who served in the American Revolution, of which not a single name 
of either officer or men had been preserved; that there were many, many 
companies where the names of only a few officers and none of the men had 
been preserved. The question of publishing this card index has been con- 
sidered, but that is opposed because the work is still incomplete, and efforts 
have been made by the War Department and by our patriotic organizations to 
hasten the completion of these records as far as practicable. 

The work on naval records was the outgrowth of a conference of some of 
our members at our congress held in Denver in 1907. There we found a 
similar state of affairs. 

NATIONAL ARCHIVES BUILDING. 

Subsequent acts of Congress have ordered the delivery to the War and 
Navy Departments of all muster rolls and other papers relating to those de- 
partments during our revolutionary period; but, unfortunately, the jealousies 
existing between the departments is such that they hold tenaciously to the 
records which they have Some years ago in doing historical investigation 
I went to Washington in person and, in my efforts to delve into the national 
archives, I found they were in a most deplorable condition. Wondering why 
nothing had been done about this, I found the American Historical Associa- 
tion had, as far back as 1898, taken up this question. The thing has been 
fought diligently through Congress; bills have been passed, sometimes by one 
House and sometimes by the other House, and still we have not our national 
archives building. I took up the question with our District of Columbia so- 
ciety, whose members consist largely of retired Army and Navy officers, mem- 
bers connected with the different departments, etc. I asked them to suggest 
persons whom I might appoint on a national archives committee in the hope 
of doing something toward influencing Congress in this matter. I am glad to 
say that through the joint work of our committee and the American Historical 
Association we succeeded in getting through Congress an act appropriating 
$5,000 for the purpose of studying the needs of our Government in this regard. 
This bill was passed shortly before the outbreak of the European war, and 
in it was a clause requiring the study of archive buildings In European coun- 
tries. Such study, as you can readily understand, now is impracticable; and, 
unless we can get Congress to rescind that clause in the act, the appropriation 
will not be immediately available for the work. This amount is, of course, 
inadequate, but it is a start in the right direction, and I hope will lead to 
the much-needed archives building at some time in the future. 

Through the establishment of such a building or department, the probabili- 
ties are that the jealousies of the various departments will be eliminated, and 
we may thus draw together into this building archives no longer current, so 
that they may be consulted by the Mstonaa and be of great benefit to us in 
other ways. 



260 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION". 

EDUCATION OF ALIENS. 

A number of years ago Gen. Thomas M. Anderson, U. S. A., of Portland, Oreg., 
who commanded one of the divisions of our Army at the battle of Manila, 
in attendance on one of our congresses, stated we should do something toward 
making citizens out of the foreign-born who have come to our shores. Certain 
of our members who were deeply interested in the subject, prepared pamphlets. 
One of these was entitled " How to become an American citizen," another 
"The duties of the American citizen," and a third was the "Constitution of 
the United States." One of these has been translated into some 13 languages. 
They are used as textbooks in the night schools throughout the United States 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Lakes to the Gulf. They are 
in great demand and we distribute annually over 50,000 of them in this way. 
In fact, we are the only organization in the United States which to-day gives 
to any foreign born, free of charge, a copy of the Constitution of the United 
States in English. I was president general of our organization for two terms 
of one year each. During the first one of these we distributed some 50,000 of 
these pamphlets; during the second year, after distributing a like number, 
Commander John H Moore, retired naval officer, who was chairman of this 
committee, came to me with the statement that the appropriation we had made 
for this purpose was exhausted, and that there was still a great demand for 
these pamphlets. He asked me what he should do. I told him to go ahead, 
and if the executive committee would not take up the question I would take up 
a collection and see that the bill was paid, for I did not believe our funds 
could be utilized to a much better purpose. So the second 50,000 was printed. 

NATUBAIJZATTON WORK. 

At our national meeting at Syracuse, K T., several of us were discussing 
the question of administering the oath of allegiance to the foreign born. Those 
people come to our shores from European countries where they have been 
accustomed to impressive forms and ceremonies, and when they are taken 
into our courthouses, where the atmosphere is often foul, the floor filthy and 
dirty, where there are no decorations, no forms or ceremonies, and they are 
huddled together like cattle when the oath is administered to them, it being 
administered in such a way that no human being can understand to what he 
is swearing (about all that you can catch of the oath being the end of it when 
he says "so help me God") they are not, naturally, impressed with the sig- 
nificance of the oath. 

We thought that a good work for us to take up would be to see if we could 
not get this state of affairs remedied. As a result, Judge Henry Stockbridge, 
of the supreme court of Maryland, Commander John H. Moore, of Washington, 
and Mr. A. Howard Clark, our secretary general and for 20 years secretary of 
the American Historical Association, prepared a letter which they thought 
should be sent out over my signature as president general to every judge in the 
United States having jurisdiction over the question of administering the oath 
of allegiance. There were over 3,000 of these letters sent out, and it was very 
interesting to see the answers to them. In one an eastern judge stated that he 
appreciated the recommendations, but his court was very busy and he admin- 
istered the oath of allegiance to 200 aliens a day, on an average, 100 in the 
forenoon and 100 in the afternoon, and he could not spare the time for the 
formalities which we recommended. On the other hand, a judge in Oklahoma 
wrote me that he was very much interested in the letter. He believed the 
recommendations should be followed, but he had been on the bench four years 
and it had never been his good fortune to administer the oath to a single alien. 



CONFERENCE OF HEREDITARY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 261 

Should the occasion arise, he added, it would give him pleasure to consider 
favorably the suggestions which we had made. In the case of one of the 
judges in New York City the entire method of administering the oath of alle- 
giance in his court was revolutionized as a result of these letters. 

NATIONAL FLAG A^D FLAG DAT. 

I have personally taken a great deal of interest m the subject of the origin 
and evolution of our national flag, which subject has carried roe into many 
different lines of study. In doing this I have come upon some very interesting 
information, as, for instance, the origin of Flag Day, information regarding 
which was brought out at one of our annual meetings and published in our 
Yearbook (1914, pp 92-95). It seems that at the beginning of our great civil 
conflict Charles Dudley Warner was the editor of one of the papers in Hart- 
ford, Conn. One of his warm personal friends, Mr. Jonathan F. Morris, sug- 
gested to him the possibility of celebrating June 14, the anniversary of the 
origin of our flag, as a national holiday. Accordingly an editorial appeared in 
one of the papers on June 1, 1861, which was, so far as we have been able to 
learn, the first suggestion of the observance of this day. A bill for this pur- 
pose was introduced into Congress by the Representative of that district, but it 
did not pass. 

At our annual meeting at San Francisco a year ago last July I made an 
address before the organization on the subject of the " Origin and evolution 
of our Flag." This was printed in our Yearbook for 1915 (pp. 257, etc.) 
and brought out information but little known. In order to give you the bene- 
fit of some of that I would state that as a result of these investigations we 
now know that during the American Revolution our Army fought throughout 
that entire war without being furnished any flags whatever by the National 
Government. Furthermore, we know that the Army of the United States 
fought throughout the entire War of 1812 without carrying the Stars and 
Stripes as national colors; and, indeed, the Stars and Stripes were not carried 
by any branch of our Army until 1834, when, for the first time, the Artillery 
was given that privilege The Infantry then carried as national colors a blue 
flag with the United States arms on it. In 1S41 the Infantry was given the 
privilege of carrying the Stars and Stripes as national colors, and what had 
been the national colors then became the regimental The Cavalry was not 
given this privilege until 1887, or 22 years after the close of the Civil War. 
The published orders of our War Department prior to 1834 often mention 
national and regimental colors, but they do not define them, and it was in 
their regulations of that date, 1834, that they first defined these colors. If it 
were not for certain investigators who have gone deeply into this subject and 
for the original flags which are still in existence (being preserved at the quar- 
termaster's depot at Philadelphia, in the chapel on Governor's Island, N. Y., 
and at the United States Military Academy at West Point), and those which 
were captured by the British and are in Chelsea Hospital in London, we would 
not to-day know what our Army did carry as national colors during that period. 
At the surrender of Hull at Detroit (Aug. 16, 1812) the British captured both 
national and regimental colors of the Fourth Infantry. These are confirma- 
tory of the statements that I have just made. 

The flags which were captured by the British are in a very bad state of 
preservation. Three reports have been made on them, one to the British Gov- 
ernment, another at a subsequent date, and a third made for me. I had the 
flags photographed, but their condition is such that the photographs show but 
little, and the descriptions of the flags in the three reports do not agree. Only 



262 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

two of these flags are Stars and Stripes. They were both captured from ships. 
The other flags are either national or regimental colors of the Regulai Army, 
State, or local flags. 

Since this address was published additional information has been obtained 
filling in one of the gaps in the history of our flag, and that was embodied 
in my address made before our congress in Newark, N. J., last year. This 
additional data was published in our Yearbook for 1916 (pp 219-20). 

We have, of course, like all other patriotic organizations, taken an interest 
hi the subject of a national-flag law, and we are domg whatever is necessary 
to insure the payment of proper respect to our flag as the emblem of our 
country. Louisiana is one of the few slave States that has passed a flag law, 
and they are now, chiefly through efforts of the members of our organization, 
preparing to pass a bill requiring the national flag to be flown over public 
schools, with suitable ceremonies accompanying reveille and retreat. 

WASHINGTON JOUBNEY PILGRIMAGE, 

A few years ago a suggestion was made that the members of our organi- 
zation make a pilgrimage from Philadelphia to Cambridge; the trip as made 
by President Washington when, after being elected as general and commander 
in chief of the United States Army, he took command of our infant army then 
besieging the British in Boston The committee having charge of this con- 
sisted of 15; 3 from each of the five States Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New 
York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts through which Gen. Washington went 
on that trip. Each of those State societies appointed other committees, and 
the trip was a wonderful success. The members of these committees hunted 
up every bit of information that could be obtained bearing on that trip as 
Gen. Washington made it, as a result of which we published a book giving 
the history of that trip, which, so far as I know and believe, is the only full 
and complete history of that journey as made by Gen, Washington ever 
published* 

MEMORIAL COMMITTEE. 

A few years ago we appointed a committee to take up the history of the 
Declaration of Independence and that of the lives of the signers. Our original 
intention was to ask our societies of each of the original thirteen Colonies 
to gather together that information with reference to each of their own signers, 
and then for the national society to publish these brochures as a whole. Some 
of our State organizations did that, but our national society appointed a commit- 
tee to take up and carry on the work. While I was president general I received 
a letter from Gen. Charles L. Davis, of Schenectady, N. Y., the president 
general of a national organization, the Descendants of the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, stating that he noticed from a recent publi- 
cation that we had a committee appointed to do the very work for which 
their organization was founded, and suggesting that, to avoid duplicating the 
work and to hasten the accomplishment of their purpose, we have our two 
organizations work m accord. This has been done, and we now have a joint 
committee engaged in this work. It is developing information regarding the 
Declaration of Independence that few people have any conception of, and it 
has given to us who are studying the question a grander and broader idea 
of that instrument and its signers than we had ever before. 

Few people realize that our Declaration of Independence was thrust upon 
us by the French Government, Our forefathers were not then anxious to 
take such a drastic step, but France could not enter into any treaties with 
us unless she had some excuse to recognize us as an independent nation. 



CONFERENCE OF HEREDITARY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 263 

Therefore such a move was necessary. Virginia instructed her delegates to 
introduce such a resolution into Congress, which was done by Richard Henry 
Lee on June 7, 1776, as follows : 

Resolved, That these United Colonies are. and of right ought to be, free 
and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the 
British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State 
of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. 

That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for 
forming foreign alliances. 

That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective 
colonies for their approbation. 

A few days later a committee was appointed to draft a declaration to 
serve as a preamble to the independence resolution. It is not generally 
known that this independence resolution was really passed on July 2, 1776, 
and on July 4 there was passed what we now recognize as the Declaration 
of Independence, which included the independence resolution, and that was 
not passed unanimously. The fact is the delegates from New York did not 
vote, as they had not been instructed by the New York Provincial Congress. 
Delaware had three representatives, one of whom was absent. Of the other 
two, one was for and the other opposed to the Declaration of Independence. 
The one who was for it sent a messenger for Caesar Rodney, the absentee, 
who rode all night and landed in Philadelphia in time to vote, and thus the 
vote of Delaware was cast for the declaration. 

In Pennsylvania there were nine delegates, two of whom were so bitterly 
opposed to it that they vacated their seats, leaving seven Of those seven, two 
were so much incensed at the prospective acts of Congress that they absented 
themselves from the meeting on July 4, which left five. Of those five, three 
voted for and two against it. Thus, the vote of Pennsylvania was cast for the 
declaration. 

Few people realize that on July 4, the declaration was signed by only two, 
Mr. John Hancock, the president, and Charles Thomson, the secretary. On 
July 19, Congress ordered the declaration passed on the 4th to be engrossed on 
parchment and signed by every member of Congress. This resolution was to 
insure its continued support by all the members, and was the outgrowth of the 
statement of Franklin, " We must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly 
we shall all hang separately." Accordingly, it was signed on August 2 by those 
who were then present. Of the 56 signers it is said that some 14 of them signed 
by prosy ; certain it is that seven of those present on July 4, who voted for it 
never signed it, and seven of those who did sign it were not members of Con- 
gress at the time of its passage. At any rate all of this and much more we 
hope to bring out at the time of the completion of the work of this joint 
committee. 

LIBEBTY BEIX. 

Now, just one other little matter which, strictly speaking, does not belong to 
the work of our national organization, but was so universal that it comes 
very nearly being so. When the Liberty Bell went to the Pacific coast last 
year and returned eastward, it was hailed throughout its whole journey by 
patriotic citizens who were anxious to see it. Members of our local organiza- 
tions were in every instance prominent in seeing to the patriotic reception of 
the bell, and in a number of instances they issued some little pamphlets or 
folders giving some history of the bell itself. The little folder which I have 
here is one which I wrote after a great deal of investigation, and which was dis- 
tributed by our Kentucky society at the time the bell was in Louisville. 



264 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Few of us realize that this bell was in existence long before the Declaration 
of Independence, and, notwithstanding the pretty story to the contrary, that 
it was not rung on July 4 at the time of the passage of the Declaration of In- 
dependence Our love and veneration for this old bell is due more to its con- 
nection with the events of the period rather than to that of any individual 
occasion. 

The following report of the National Society of United States 
Daughters of 1812 was presented by Mrs. Robert Hall Wiles, 
president national : 

Tliis society is oigamzed to commemorate the great achievements of the 
American Government in its civil, military, and naval departments during the 
SO years following the American Revolution. This historical period begins 
with the first treaty of peace with Great Britain, which acknowledged our 
independence, and extends to the Treaty of Ghent, which forever established 
us as an independent Nation in the estimation of the world. 

Unlike the men's hereditary patnotic societies, which commemorate the 
services of our ancestors in war alone, the women's societies have always recog- 
nized services in peace as well The men have organized the Sons of the 
Colonial Wars, the women the Colonial Dames, the latter society, like the 
former, recognizing service in the colonial wars, and also distinguished civil 
services, such as the governorship of the Colonies and the founding of Harvard 
and Yale colleges, to mention but two among many forms of devotion to the 
higher interests of the people. The men have the Sons <of the American Revo- 
lution, eligibility to membership depending upon descent from those who 
rendered military or naval service, while the Daughters of the American 
Revolution admit to membership, in addition, those descended from men who 
gave material aid to the cause of freedom, or who unequivocally sustained 
this cause, as. for instance, the committees of correspondence, or the committees 
of safety, or the colonial legislatures. 

Again, the Sons of the "War of 1812 grant membership only to descendants 
of soldiers and sailors of that war, while the United States Daughters of 1812 
omit the word ** war " from their title, and, in addition to recognizing the 
smallest service during the war of 1812, they give equal honor to the great 
civil achievements during the period preceding that war. 

We all hope that our national rights and our national honor may be fully 
and steadfastly maintained without another war; yet, with Washington, who 
was " first in peace," and Jackson, who was u first in war," during our 30-year 
period, we believe that we must be adequately prepared at all times to resist 
aggression. Such necessary and wise preparation includes not only an army 
and a navy instantly ready for any emergency, but a civil goverment, strong, 
united, efficient, and just, commanding respect both at home and abroad, and 
able to carry on all the multifarious governmental activities of a democracy 

The society which I have the honor to represent to-day, therefore, com- 
memorates the careers of the men who laid down their arms after the Revolu- 
tion, many of whom, having risked their lives in battle for their country, con- 
tinued to devote their all to her service; and to their splendid valor m war, 
they added equally splendid wisdom in constructive government. They crys- 
tallized the diverse elements of the colonial system into a permanent republic 
united and controlled by the Constitution. 

To such an audience as this I need not enlarge upon the great merits of the 
United States Constitution. Suffice it, to recall the words of Gladstone, " It is 
the most wonderful instrument ever struck off by the hand of man.** 



CONFERENCE OF SE&EDlTABY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 265 

We also in tins period have the ordinance of 1T87, which forever consecrated 
the great Noithwest Territory to Iieedom from slavery and to free schools. 

"VTe have the beginning and the firm establishment of the judicial system of 
the United States a system which has ever had the respect of intelligent citi- 
zens, and which is to-day the model for an international tribunal of justice 
which shall settle disputes between nations without recouise to the sword, as 
our Supreme Court has for more than a century, with one exception, settled 
disputes between the States. 

We have the early beginnings of our diplomatic history with such great 
names as those of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin 
signed to our first treaty after the Revolution that with Prussia in 1785. 

The four Presidents of the United States during our period had rendered 
immense services to the Revolutionary cause Washington, first President, had 
been commander in chief of the Army ; John Adams, second President, was a 
recognized leader of the party of independence in the Continental Congress, for 
a time was at the head of the War Department, and, later, was minister to 
France ; Thomas Jefferson, third President, was the author of the Declaration 
of Independence; James Madison, fourth President, was, with Hamilton, 
largely instrumental in securing the ratification of the Constitution, and had 
been a member of the Continental Congress in 1780 when under 30 years of 
age. Surely the achievements of these great men and of their fellow workers 
in peace are no less woithy of commemoration than their bravery and self- 
sacrifice during the Revolution. 

When the second war of independence came they and their sons showed the 
same steadfast devotion to the ideals of freedom, and the same willingness to 
give their all for their country. Andrew Jackson, the greatest general of the 
War of 1812, had been taken prisoner as a young boy during the Revolution 
because he refused to brush a British officer's boots William Henry Harrison, 
the hero of Tippecanoe and of the battle of the Thames, was a son of a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence. Both these generals later gained the 
presidency because of the distinction and glory they had attained in military 
victories. Zachary Taylor, also a President of the United States, was a major 
in the War of 1812 and the hero of Buena Vista in the Mexican War. 

These distinguished examples, and many more from our earlier and later 
history, illustrate the truth that the same qualities of mind and character, the 
same patriotism which make a man heroic in war times, make him illustrious 
in national service in time of peace 

Therefore the United States Daughters of 1812 study the whole history of 
government during our 30-year period, and strive to keep alive memories of 
the victories, both of peace and wai. 

We give books of history and of historical fiction to the grammar and high 
schools We give medals and cash prizes to school children for the best essays 
upon subjects relating to our period of history We give framed historical 
pictures to schools, orphan asylums, and houses of refuge. We give the United 
States flag to militia companies and to battle ships, to 'schools, playgrounds, 
and social settlements* Our Commodore Perry Chapter, of Cleveland, has set 
an example which might well be followed all over the country, in giving a 
United States nag to the Federal court room in which foreigners are natural- 
ized as American citizens. We place flagpoles upon historic spots, above which 
we keep the flag ever floating. Thus, the California branch has recently placed 
a flag 22 by 11 feet on a pole 80 feet high on the site of old Fort Moore. 

If the whole printed history of the deeds of the War of 1812 were wiped out 
it could be largely rewritten from the tablets, monuments, and other memorials 
placed by this society. We have honored Capt. Isaac Hull, of Old Ironsides, 



266 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

by a granite monument in his birthplace, Derby, Conn. ; Capt. Lawrence of the 
Chesapeake, whose dying words, "Don't give up the ship," have often since 
furnished an inspiring battle cry; Capt Perry, whose famous victory at Lake 
Brie is only more famous than his dispatch, " We have met the enemy and they 
are ours;" Capt. McDonough, whom Col. Roosevelt calls the greatest naval 
commander in our history down to the time of the War between the States. 
We have memorialized Capt. Decatur in the navy yard at Philadelphia; Capt. 
Bainbndge, at his birthplace, Princeton, N. J. ; and many other commanders of 
sea and land forces. 

The Louisiana branch of our society obtained from Congress the money for 
the completion of the monument on the field of Chalmette, commemorating the 
Battle of New Orleans, and Congress and the State made this branch of our 
society perpetual custodians of the monument and of the field in which it 
stands. 

The Michigan branch erected in the city of Detroit a superb monument to 
Gen. Macomb 

The Illinois branch placed in the statehouse at Springfield, a bronze bas 
relief, 6 by 4 feet in size, in honor of the Illinois Rangers in the War of 1812. 
This is a life-sized figure of a soldier holding an old flintlock musket and clad 
in the frontier costume of the day loose hunting shirt, buckskin leggings, 
moccasins, and coonskm cap. In the background is a block fort, such as were 
common in the Indian warfare of the time. The original plaster model of the 
bas relief we placed in the memorial hall of the public library, Chicago. 

The Illinois branch obtained, by act of the legislature, the return by the 
State of Illinois to the city of New Orleans, of a banner captured by Illinois 
cavalry from Louisiana cavalry in 1SG3, which banner is believed to have been 
embroidered by the ladies of New Orleans and presented by them to Gen. Jack- 
son in 1814. The banner was returned in commemoration of 50 years of peace 
between North and South. 

The New York branch placed a tablet in the post chapel at West Point in 
honor of the soldiers of 1812. 

Upon many battle grounds we have placed tablets recounting their history ; 
the Alabama branch, a tablet at Horseshoe Bend; the Buffalo chapter, one at 
Lundy's Lane ; while the Little Rock chapter, in far-away Arkansas, erected a 
granite boulder to the memory of Gen. James Miller, hero of Lundy's Lane, 
who was also the first territorial governor of that State. 

The Jefferson County Chapter, of New York, placed a boulder and a tablet at 
Sackett's Harbor. 

The Dolly Madison Chapter, of Pittsburgh, a beautiful sundial in memory of 
the Pittsburgh Blues. 

The Connecticut branch, a tablet at Stonington recalling the repulse of the 
British at that point 

The Maine branch presented a boulder and tablet to the city of Portland " in 
memory of the brave soldiers and sailors who served their country in the War 
of 1812 and maintained our independence." 

The Maryland branch has placed three English cannon, captured at North 
Point in 1814, in a prominent position in Baltimore 

The Buffalo (New York) Chapter placed a tablet on the "Old Castle" at 
Fort Niagara, built by the French in 1726, later occupied by the English, and 
finally by the United States. 

It would be a long story to tell you of all these memorials, and, however 
interesting each individual item, the repetition would simply be a catalogue of 
valuable historical and patriotic work actually accomplished. 



CO3STFEEENGE OF HEBEDITABY PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 267 

I will therefoie close this partial recital of our memorials to events and 
heroes of the War of 1812 by mentioning that the District of Columbia branch 
has placed a tablet in the Octagon House in Washington, where the treaty of 
Ghent was signed, and the Delaware branch one at Dover in memory of James 
Ashton Bayard, one of the five United States commissioners who signed the 
treaty of Ghent. 

Among the many memorials not relating to the War of 1812 I can mention 
only a few for iear of wearying you : The Missouri branch has placed a beau- 
tiful has relief in the Jefferson Memorial Building at St. Louis, which memo- 
rializes the pioneer settlers of that State. The Virginia branch unveiled a 
marble tablet at Mason's Hall, Richmond, marking the home for 130 years of 
Richmond-Randolph Lodge No. 19. This house was used as a military hospital 
during the War of 1812. 

The Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry Chapter, of Ilion, N. Y., has erected 
a boulder and tablet on the spot where 100 years ago Eliphalet Remington 
made his first rifle in the little smithy which was the beginning of the great 
Remington factories now sending guns and typewriters all over the world. 

The memorials of historical events have often taken forms not only of pre- 
serving history, but at the same time of giving benefits to the living. Thus the 
Dolly Madison Chapter, of Pittsburgh, erected a drinking fountain on the site 
of the old arsenal. This fountain was unveiled by President Taft an honor 
highly appreciated by the society. Another drinking fountain was erected m 
New York City at One hundred and eighty-first Street by the Andrew Jackson 
Chapter, and the New York State branch placed one at the Seaman's Church 
Institute. 

Sedalia, Mo , gave a four-dial tower clock to the county courthouse in honor 
of Gen. David Thomson, who led the Kentucky troops to victory at the battle of 
the Thames. 

The Society has placed hundreds of its official bronze markers upon the graves 
of soldiers and sailors of 1812, after verifying the service of the men from 
the United States Government records. Tablets have often been erected con- 
taining the names of all the soldiers and sailors of 1812 known to be buried in 
one vicinity. 

The national society placed a six-panel stained-glass window in St. Michael's 
Church, Dartmoor, England, in memory of the United States prisoners of war 
buried there and of those who helped build the church while imprisoned. 

The national society also gave to the city hall in Baltimore an original piece 
of sculpture representing the American eagle holding the American flag. This 
was in honor of the centenary of the writing of the Star Spangled Banner 
during the bombardment of Fort McHenry. 

It would again be much in the nature of a catalogue if I should attempt to 
tell you the good causes to which we have given money and personal service: 
Spanish War relief ; the Red Cross, in peace and in war ; Belgian relief ; Mon- 
tenegrin relief; French Army hospitals; Civil War nurses; Clara Barton 
memorial; needy real daughters of the heroes of 1812; scholarships in the 
mountain schools of Tennessee, Kentucky, and the Ozarks; books sent to 
Alaska, the Philippines, Cuba, and with many other comforts to our war ships, 
and navy yards and Army posts; tablets marking the Jackson Highway in 
Alabama and the Harrison Trail in Ohio ; teaching American history and the 
duties of citizenship in social settlements. 

Our memorials to the leaders of our own society who have been taken from 
us have been beautiful in their helpfulness to the living notably an exquisite 
hand-carved reading desk given to a mission chapel in memory of Wisconsin's 



268 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

beloved president, Mrs. Catlm, and a granite bench given to a public park in 
Omaha in honor of the founder of the Nebraska branch, Mrs. Gates 

JSome of the States have published the lineage of their members, running 
back to the man through whom they have eligibility to this society and giving 
the record of his service to his country in full. 

Many valuable historical records have been saved from destruction. Others 
which were fading have been copied and placed in public depositories. 

This society has taken a notable and a worthy part, often as leader and 
instigator, in the centennial celebrations of the events of the War of 1812, 

We observe all our national holidays, and, by patriotic and historical 
addresses on such occasions, and also at our regular meetings, we strive to 
preserve vividly the memory and the spirit of the early days of this Republic 
and to imbue the present generation with the ideals of justice and freedom 
dear to our ancestors, making the men and women of to-day worthy descend- 
ants, fitted intellectually and morally to transmit to the future, undimmished 
and undefiled, the priceless blessings of free and orderly government. 

The last address was by Mr. Elmer L. Foote, of the Society of 
Colonial Wars, of Ohio, on "Historic Landmarks." Mr. Foote's 
talk was beautifully illustrated by stereopticon views. 

Upon the conclusion of the foregoing a discussion followed, during 
which the chairman read the report of the manuscripts commission 
to the Council of the American Historical Associati6n, in which 
attention was called to the assistance which might be given by 
hereditary patriotic societies in the collecting, preserving, and ren- 
dering accessible many private manuscripts of historical value. This 
seemed to be the most feasible and direct method of coordinating 
the activities of these organizations with those of the historical 
associations. 

At the close of the discussion a resolution was adopted by the con- 
ference that the Council of the American Historical Association be 
requested to appoint a committee, to be composed of representatives 
from that association and the hereditary patriotic societies, the 
duties of which committee should be to prepare and submit to such 
organizations and to the historical associations of the country 
definite suggestions for a method of cooperation between them in 
various lines of historical work. 



VI. REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON THE ORGANIZATION 

OF A UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR HIGHER 

STUDIES IN WASHINGTON. 



CINCINNATI, DECEMBER 27, 1916. 



269 



REPORT OF A CONFERENCE HELD IN CINCINNATI, DECEMBER 27, 
1916, ON THE ORGANIZATION OF A UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR 
HIGHER STUDIES IN WASHINGTON. 



At a conference held at Columbia University in May, 1916, a com- 
mittee of five was appointed to consider the possibility of establish- 
ing a residential center in Washington for graduate students in 
history, economics, and political science. This committee, after 
holding meetings in Washington and New York, issued the follow- 
ing call for a conference to be held in Cincinnati on December 27 : 

WASHINGTON, D. C., December IS, 1916. 
To departments of history, political science, and economics: 

A conference will be held in Cincinnati on Wednesday, December 27, at 5 
p. m. for the purpose of discussing the establishment of a residential center 
at Washington where graduate students may utilize the opportunities for re- 
search and special study afforded by the libraries, archives, and other collec- 
tions of the National Government. 

This matter was first considered at a conference held at Columbia University 
last May, when the undersigned were appointed a committee to prepare a plan 
for the establishment of such a center and to call a second conference for the 
purpose of taking action on the report of the committee. The report of the 
committee is now being printed and will, if possible, be distributed by mail in 
two or three days. In any event, it will be on distribution at Cincinnati. 

The committee asks that your department designate some member to attend 
the conference and to participate in its proceedings. Please notify the secre- 
tary of the committee at the above address of such appointments as may be 
made. 

The place of meeting will be announced at the bureaus of registration of the 
historical and political science associations in Cincinnati. 

This invitation is sent to the departments of history, political science, and 
economics which have graduate students; also to the Pan American Union, 
the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian Institution, the Bureau of Education, 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Institute for Goverment Research 
in Washington, to the American historical, political science, and economic asso- 
ciations, and to the American Society of International Law. 

Temporary committee: Dana G. Munro, Princeton University, chairman; 
Charles A. Beard, Columbia University; Albert Bushnell Hart, Harvard Uni- 
versity; Gaillard Hunt, Library of Congress; Waldo G. Leland, Carnegie In- 
stitution of Washington, secretary. 

The conference was attended by about 40 representatives of depart- 
ments of history, economics, and political science in the various 
universities. It was presided over by Prof. Charles H. Hull, of 
Cornell University. The following report of the committee of five 

271 



272 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

and a draft of a proposed constitution of the university center were 
presented for discussion: 

BEPOET OF THE COMMITTEE OF FIVE OX THE ORGANIZATION OF A UNIVEKSITY CENTEB 
FOE HIGHEE STUDIES IN WASHINGTON. 

To members of the departments of history, political science, and economics in 

American universities: 

On May 13, 1916, there was held at Columbia University, upon call by Prof. 
R. M. McElroy, of Princeton, a conference composed of representatives of the 
departments of history and political science or government in Harvard, Yale, 
Columbia, Princeton, and Johns Hopkins Universities, and in the Universities 
of Pennsylvania and Michigan, and of representatives of the Library of Con- 
gre^s and of the Carnegie Institution of Washington The purpose of this con- 
ference was to discuss a plan proposed by Prof McElroy for the establishment 
in Washington of a residential center where graduate students might, under 
supervision and for varying periods of residence, utilize the opportunities for 
research and special study afforded by the libraries, archives, and other col- 
lections of the National Government. 

After a full discussion of the various possibilities of this plan and of the 
numerous suggestions gathered by Prof, McElroy through correspondence, or 
offered in the conference, it was unanimously decided that it was desirable for 
American universities to cooperate in the establishment of such a center. 

The undersigned were appointed a committee to prepare a plan for the organi- 
zation of the center and to present the same to a second conference of university 
representatives. This committee has held meetings in Washington and New 
York and has carried on a considerable correspondence with the larger univer- 
sities and now presents the results of its deliberations in the form of the accom- 
panying draft of a constitution. 

Realizing, however, that the proposed constitution is of necessity a summary 
document, dealing only with fundamental principles, the committee begs leave to 
supplement it with an account of what it conceives to be the characteristic 
features and the immediate possibilities of the project. 

It is unnecessary to dwell at length upon the very great resources afforded by 
the various collections in Washington to students of history, politics, economics, 
and allied subjects. The Library of Congress is especially rich in the published 
public documents not only of the United States and of the several States but of 
foreign governments as well. Its collections of American newspapers and of 
printed works relating to America (including Americana) are hardly surpassed, 
except in certain special directions, by those of any other library. In the field 
of cartography and maps it leads all other American libraries, while in the field 
of cultural history its collections of music and of prints give it a leading position. 
Especially notable are its manuscript collections, which far exceed those of any 
other American library. Not only does it possess such groups as the records of 
the Virginia Company, the Peter Force papers, the archives of the Continental 
Congress, and the personal and official papers of Washington, Jefferson, Madi- 
son, Monroe, Van Buren, Jackson, Breckinridge, and many other national figures, 
but it has also the commercial papers of large business houses, the original 
Spanish archives of New Mexico, and the equivalent of nearly 1,000 volumes of 
transcripts of documents relating to colonial and to early nineteenth century 
America from the archives of England, Spain, France, and Mexico, these tran- 
scripts being but a part of the collection of this class of material which is in 
process of formation 

The collections of the Library of Congress are supplemented in special fields 
by those of the libraries of the various executive departments, notably the 
Departments of State, War, and Navy, and the Bureau of Education, to which 
should be added the Pan American Union. 

As to the archives of the G-overnment, it is sufficient to remark that they 
constitute the fundamental source of nearly all phases of national history since 
1789, and that the archives of the Land Office, of the Office of Indian Affairs, 
of the Census Bureau, and of other bureaus in the Departments of Commerce 
and Labor and of the Interior, as well as the archives of the Post Office De- 
partment, are as indispensable to the student of certain phases of regional and 
local history as they are to the student of politics and economics. 

Finally, should be mentioned the National Museum, with its large and rapidly 
increasing collections of illustrative material. 



CONFERENCE ON ORGANIZATION OF A UNIVERSITY CENTER. 273 

Such, then, are some of the resources of the Capital, resources which are still 
too little known and ued but the appreciation of which is rapidly increasing 
among scholars. The intention of the Government, as evidenced by the act of 
Congress of March 3, 1901, and by the consistent policy of executive officials, is 
to make these resources available to students. One of the principal objects of 
the proposed center is to effect an informal cooperation between the Government 
and the universities, for the fulfillment of these intentions. 

Such a center as is proposed will be in effect a Washington adjunct to the 
departments of history, political science, and economics of those universities 
which cooperate to establish and maintain it. It is assumed that only such 
students will be sent to Washington by their respective departments as are fully 
qualified to derive advantages from the facilities which the center will afford. 
Presumably such students will be those of the most advanced standing in 
graduate studies whose work has reached such a point that they may be given 
leave of absence, and whose work is furthermore of such a nature as to make 
research in the collections of Washington highly desirable if not absolutely 
necessary. The question as to which students shall be sent to Washington is a 
matter for determination by the respective departments and the arrangements 
for their terms of residence will be made between those departments and the 
authorities of the center. In order that the center may as fully as -possible 
correspond to the needs of the cooperating universities, the latter will, through 
the council, control its government and administration. It should be remarked 
that the purpose of the present plan is not to create an independent school or 
institute, but to provide a means of supplementing and rendering more effective 
facilities for research on the part of graduate students. 

The proposed center will be international in character in so far as the coopera- 
tion of other American universities than those of the United States may be 
secured, either directly or through the Pan American Union. Furthermore, 
foreseeing that the time may well come when the scope of the center may be 
extended, the committee has thought it wise to provide for the admission of 
students from other than American universities and of others than students. 
It is assumed, however, that this provision will not be allowed to interfere in 
any way with the fulfillment of the principal purpose of the center. 

An essential feature of the plan is that the students in the center shall conduct 
their work under proper supervision. The committee contemplates the appoint- 
ment of a permanent director, but if this is found to be impracticable the expe- 
dient may be resorted to of engaging as temporary director some university 
official on leave of absence. In this event it would be desirable to engage some 
qualified person residing in Washington to serve as a permanent secretary. In- 
deed even with a permanent director the committee believes that it will be found 
advantageous to secure the services from time to time of visiting professors. 
By thus exercising an adequate supervision the work of students, especially if 
they be inexperienced in the use of original materials, will be much facilitated 
and rendered more effective. Furthermore it is planned, if that be found prac- 
ticable, to provide short courses on appropriate subjects, to be given by visiting 
professors, and to arrange for conferences by officials of the Government and 
by other scholars residing permanently or temporarily in Washington. 

Another important feature, and perhaps not the least valuable of the pro- 
posed center is that of community life. Students from different universities 
will come together and derive mutual stimulus from discussion of their special 
problems. 

With regard to the material aspects of the center, it should be explained that 
what the committee hasin mind is the rental and possibly later the purchase of 
one or more suitable houses in the immediate vicinity of the Library of Congress. 
Here will be provided separate arrangements for men and women, with private 
rooms and common living rooms. Ultimately it may be possible to arrange for 
meals to "be taken in common in the residence. At first, however, it will doubt- 
less be necessary to make other arrangements. Breakfast and dinner will 
probably be taken at a common table, either in a near-by boarding house or 
restaurant or in the cafe" of the Library of Congress. The usual janitor and 
maid service will, of course, be provided. 

It will doubtless be necessary, certainly at first, to charge a moderate room 
rental, not to exceed $3 a week to residents. The charge for breakfast and 
dinners should not exceed $4 a week and may be less. Residents will, of course, 
be obliged to pay for their own transportation to and from Washington unless 
that should be otherwise provided for by their respective universities. It is 

23318 19 18 



274 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

possible that with a generous endowment the center may in time be able to 
give pecuniary assistance to students who are sent to Washington, but at the 
outset such a course can not be contemplated. 

The committee estimates that the expenses of establishing the center and of 
maintaining it during the first year will amount to about $7,000, and that the 
annual expense thereafter will be in the neighborhood of $4,000. It assumes 
that the chief burden of the expense will be met by annual payments from the 
contributing universities, but it trusts that the plan may make so strong an 
appeal to the friends of the various institutions that they will contribute gen- 
erously to its establishment. 

The committee recommends that the conference before which this report is 
laid resolve, itself into a committee of the whole house for the full discussion 
of the plan ; that having adopted the proposed constitution, either in its present 
or in a modified form, it organize itself as a provisional council and proceed to 
elect a provisional governing board to be charged with securing the necessary 
funds and with the organization of the center ; and finally that it provide for the 
organization of the permanent council and fix the time and place of its first 
meeting. 
Eespectfully submitted. 

DANA G. MUNRO, Princeton University, 

Chairman. 

CHAELES A. BEAED, Columbia University. 

ALBEET BUSHNELL HART, Harvard University. 

GATLLABD HUNT, Library of Congress. 

WAUDO 0. LELAND, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

Secretary. 

CONSTITUTION. 



Name. There Is established in the District of Columbia a residence which 
shall be known as the University Center for Higher Studies in Washington. 

II. 

Object. The object of the center is to provide for students m institutions of 
learning located in North and South America, a residence, where, under super- 
vision and for varying periods, they may utilize the opportunities for research 
and special study afforded by the libraries, archives, collections, museums, and 
departments of the Government of the United States, as provided for in the act 
of Congress of March 3, 1901, especially in the fields of history, government, 
and economics, and allied subjects. 

The center shall likewise be open, at the discretion of the governing board, 
and upon conditions to be fixed in individual cases, to other students and 
scholars of whatever country. 

III. 

Financial support. The financial support of the University Center shall be 

derived from annual payments of not less than dollars by institutions of 

learning located In North and South America Such institutions as make the 
said annual payment shall be known as contributing institutions, and each con- 
tributing institution shall be entitled to representation and to one vote in the 
council. 

The governing board may, at its discretion, solicit and receive contributions 
from others than the contributing institutions. 

IV. 

Government. A Council : There shall be a council composed of representa- 
tives of the contributing institutions, each such institution to have one vote. 

B. Governing board : There shall be a governing board consisting of five mem- 
bers elected annually by the council. 

C. Advisory committee- There shall be an advisory committee, the members 
of which shall, from time to time, be named by the council, and on which shall 
be invited to serve the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Interior, the 
Librarian of Congress, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the 



CONFERENCE ON OKGANIZATION OF A UNIVEKSITY CEKTEB. 275 

director of the Pan American Union, or sucli representatives as they may re- 
spectively designate. 

D. Organization and duties of the governing board : The governing board at 
its annual meeting shall choose a chairman and shall elect one of their own 
number to serve as secretary and treasurer, who shall receive such compensa- 
tion, not to exceed ,$300 per annum, and who shall perform such duties as the 
governing board may determine, rendering an annual account of all receipts 
and disbursements to the council 

The duties of the governing board shall be as follows : 

1. To arrange for terms of residence for students from contributing institu- 
tions, and to determine the conditions upon which others may be admitted to 
the center. 

2. To appoint a director who shall serve during the pleasure of the governing 
board and who shall have oversight of the residence center, and of the manage- 
ment of accounts, and who shall perform such other duties as the governing 
board may assign to him. The governing board shall fix his compensation and 
may arrange for clerical and other assistance. 

3. To provide such systematic courses by officers of the contributing institu- 
tions and by others as may be found advisable; and to arrange, through the 
director, for additional lectures and conferences by officials of the Government 
and by others 

4. To act as trustees ; to lease or acquire premises and make such other con- 
tracts and business arrangements and perform such other acts as may be neces- 
sary for the conduct and maintenance of the center. 

5. To report annually to the council, and to furnish such special reports as 
may be called for by the council or by members thereof. 

V. 

Meetings. A. The council shall convene at least once in each year at such 
time and place as it may fix upon. 

B. The governing board shall meet at least twice m each year, and one of the 
meetings shall be in the city of Washington. 

C. The actual and necessary expenses of travel and subsistence shall be 
allowed to members of the governing board when attending its meetings, 

VI. 

Amendments. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of all 
contributing institutions at any meeting of the council, notice of such amend- 
ments having been given to all members of the council not less than one month 
previous to such meeting. 

After discussion it was unanimously voted that those present approve the 
constitution in principle, and it was further unanimously voted that the chair- 
man appoint a committee of five authorized and charged to bring the action of 
the conference to the attention of the American Historical Association, of the 
American Political Science Association, of the American Economic Association, 
and of any other association or institution likely, in the opinion of the committee, 
to be of assistance in establishing the universty center, and to take such steps 
as in the judgment of the committee should be most likely to conduce to that 
end. 

* In accordance with this vote the chairman appointed Messrs. Munro, Beard, 
Hart, Hunt, and Leland, with authority to add to their number, If they wished, 
not more than two other persons. 

The chairman of the conference informed the members of the committee 
of the action which had been taken, and, in accordance with the votes of the 
conference, the committee proceeded to ask the councils of the American His- 
torical Association and of the American Political Science Association for a 
vote approving the plan as set forth hi the committee's report. The councils 
of both of these associations voted to approve the plan. 

Later the committee presented the matter of the proposed university center 
to the governmental officials named in the draft of a constitution as composing 



276 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

an advisory committee. The Secretary of tlie Interior expressed his hearty ap- 
proval m a personal conference with Messrs. Hunt and Leland. From the 
Secretary of State, the Librarian of Congress, the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and the Director of the Pan American Union the following letters 
of approval were secured : 

TEE SECRETARY OF STATE, 
Washington, February 12, 1917. 
Prof. DANA C MTJNRO, 

Chairman of the Committee of Ftre on the 

Umrejsity Center in Washington, D C. 

MY DEAR SIB : I have read the report of the committee of five on the proposed 
University Center for Higher Studies in Washington, and I have had its pur- 
pose explained to roe by Mr. Leland and Mr Hunt. I am in full sympathy with 
the idea and I am sure it will be the pleasure of this department to cooperate 
with the universities in carrying it out under normal conditions. Many of this 
department's facilities for scholarly research are available, and it is hoped 
that arrangements can be made to render other resources which can properly 
be opened to scholars equally accessible. With relation to these it should be 
noted, however, that a little patience must be exercised, because our building 
is so crowded and our staff of officers and clerks is so pressed with current 
duties. This should be a passing inconvenience, which I hope to see remedied 
in the near future. In the meantime I wish every success to a project which 
seems likely to bring the Government and the higher scholarship of the country 
into closer relationship, with benefit to both. 
Tours, very truly, 

(Signed) ROBERT LANSING. 

LIBRABY OF CONGRESS, 

OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN, 

Washington, January 5, 1917. 

GENTLEMEN : I have read the report of the committee of five on the proposed 
Uim ersity Center for Higher Studies in Washington, and I may remark, as some- 
thing that almost goes without saying, that a plan which, if it is carried out, 
will increase the usefulness of the national library to American scholars can 
receive only appreciation and sympathy from me. It is always our effort to 
make the resources of the library available to those who will use them to good 
purpose, and we will cordially cooperate in a system by which scholars from the 
universities will be brought into closer contact with those resources. 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed) HERBERT PTTTNAM, Librarian. 

To the COMMITTEE OF FIVE ON THE OBGANIZATION OF A UNIVEBSITY CENTEB FOB 
HIGHEB STUDIES IN WASHINGTON. 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

Washington, March 29, 1917. 

DEAR SIB: I have your letter of March 19 and have examined the plan fo* 
the establishment of a university center in Washington in connection with the 
study of history, economics, and politics. The Smithsonian Institution has 
always been glad to offer all possible facilities to students of natural science 
and, as in the past, will of course also do what may be practicable to advance 
the interests of historical research. 

I can see large possibilities for good in a university center or centers to in- 
clude science, art, literature, and the present plan applied to history and related 
subjects seems to me a wise beginning in that direction. 

I regret that the multiplicity of official and private duties claiming my atten- 
tion in the present condition of affairs prevents my giving the project the per- 
sonal consideration that it deserves, but I assure you of my hearty indorsement 
of the proposed center and hope it may develop into broad fields of usefulness. 
Very truly, yours, 

(Signed) CHARLES WALCOTT, Secretary. 

Mr WALDO G. LELAND, 

Department of Historical Research, 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

Washington, D. O 



CONFEEENCE OK OEGANIZATIOET OF A UNIVERSITY CEKTEE. 277 

PAN AMERICAN UNION, 
Washington, D. 0., March 21, 1917. 

DEAR ME. LELAND: I beg to acknowledge receipt of your esteemed note of 
March 19, relating to the establishment in Washington of a university center and 
the cooperation of the Pan American Union. 

After reading carefully what you write and also the report of the committee 
of five I am glad to express my approval of the plan and to assure you as far as 
possible of the full cooperation of the Pan American Union and myself as its 
executive officer. 

I desire to discuss the matter with the assistant director, Dr. Francisco Yanes, 
and with the proper committee of our governing board. Following this conference 
I will again communicate with you. In the meantime it will give me much pleas- 
ure to discuss with you the general project. It would also be advantageous if 
you could see fit to confer with Mr. Yanes, who gives special attention to the 
educational features of the Pan American Union 
Yours, very truly, 

(Signed) JOHN BASEETT. 

Mr. WALDO G, LELAND, 

Department of Historical Research, 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, 

1HO Woodward Building 3 Washington, D* C. 



VII. MINUTES OF A CONFERENCE ON THE FOUNDATION 
OF A JOURNAL OF LATIN-AMERICAN HISTORY. 



CINCINNATI, DECEMBER 29, 1916. 



279 



MINUTES OF A CONFERENCE ON THE FOUNDATION OF A JOURNAL 
OF LATIN-AMERICAN HISTORY HELD AT CINCINNATI, DECEM- 
BER 29, 1916. 

The plan for the foundation of a Journal of Latin- American His- 
tory having been under consideration for some time among members 
of the American Historical Association who are interested in Latin 
America, a conference was arranged for the discussion of ways and 
means appertaining thereto at the annual meeting of the association 
in 1916, in Cincinnati. At the conference, with an attendance of about 
30, the matter was given full consideration. Dr. Charles E. Chap- 
man, of the University of California, who introduced the project, re- 
quested Dr. Justin H. Smith, of Boston, to preside over the confer- 
ence, and Dr. James A. Robertson, of Washington, was appointed 
f secretary. Without other preliminaries, Dr. Chapman was called 
upon to outline his project for the foundation of a Journal of Latin- 
American History. His remarks were as follows : 

PROJECT FOE A JOUKNAL OF LATIN- AMERICAN HISTORY. 
I. THE NEED FOK SUCH A BEVIEW. 

A great many American students in the Latin-American field have for 
a long time wished that there might be some organ devoted to their interests. 
According to them, not only was there no single periodical adequate to their 
needs among the many which admit occasional Latin- American material, but 
also a combination of all readily accessible periodicals of this nature would 
hardly suffice for their needs. In other words, the field of Latin-American 
history was, and still is, almost wholly without organization. It would clearly 
be a great advantage to our students to nave aia organ devoted principally to 
Latin- American history, both as a medium for articles which do not find a 
necessary inclusion in periodicals already in existence and especially for 
bibliographical and other technical information which is now difficult or im- 
possible of access. Furthermore, many of our students have felt that the gen- 
eral subject of Latin America and the relations of the United States with, and 
with regard to, Latin America is important enough to merit a review, and they 
are confident that it is a field which is going to advance out of its present 
relatively modest status into a leading position in our historical activities. 

H. HOW THE IDEA ABOSE. 

The definite project for such a review, to be open also for material with re- 
gard to Spain and Portugal, and those parts of the United States once owned 
by Spain (but only so far as affected by Spanish contact), first took shape in 
my mind at the suggestion of the great Spanish historian, Rafael Altanaira, dur- 
ing the special meeting of the American Historical Association at San Fran- 
cisco, in the summer of 1915. A year later, in July, 1916, Dr. William Spence 
Robertson and I were delegates to the American Congress of Bibliography and 
History at Buenos Aires, and we found that such a review would fit in with 
the projects discussed at that congress, and would receive the hearty coopera- 
tion of Latin-American scholars. We thereupon sent a communication to the 
October number of the American Historical Review, proposing that a review 
be founded and suggesting the following editorial policy : 



282 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

[Dr. Chapman here read the communication, with several additions, as 
follows:] 

"1. That the said review should be devoted to the history (political, eco- 
nomic, social, and diplomatic, as well as narrative) and institutions of Spain, 
Portugal, and the Latin-American States. [Addition: Latin America should 
form the principal field. The field should also extend to those parts of the 
United States once owned by Spain.] 

"2. That it follow the general style and arrangement of the American His- 
torical Review, but with more space allotted to bibliography. 

V 3. That articles in Spanish and Portuguese be printed, as well as those in 
English. [Addition: Articles m French also ] 

"4. That the articles published be mainly those of such character that they 
can not find ready acceptance in the regional periodicals which already exist 
[Addition : This review would not compete with any existing reviews, but would 
really be a help to them,] " 

Upon iny return to this country a month ago this dinner was arranged for the 
discussion of the project 

in. THE FINANCIAL SITUATION. 

On the advice of Dr. Jameson and Dr. Turner I made no attempt before this 
meeting to see whether financial support could be obtained, but I am able to 
present some data to you bearing upon that subject. 

[Dr. Chapman here read the pertinent parts of a letter from the Waverly 
Press of Baltimore, as follows :] 

** Under separate cover we are sending sample copy of the American Political 
Science Review, which embodies the general specifications we would recommend 
for your proposed publication. ' 

" Regarding cost of such publication, based upon data given in your letter : 

44 Five hundred copies, 128 pages and cover, if set in 11-pomt type (foreign 
matter not to exceed 10 per cent) , would cost, per issue, approximately $225 ; 
500 additional copies would each cost 11 cents. For pages set in smaller type 
there would of course be some additional charge. 

"The cost of mailing an issue of 500 at second-class rates would be about 
$3 25 to $3 50. Printed wrappers, $2. Wrapping and addressing, $3 25. These 
are approximate figures, but very close to actual. 

"The paper which we use and which is shown in the sample volume is one 
>vhich we have made specially according to a formula which we have long been 
using, and which has been approved by the Bureau of Standards and Arthur 
D, Little Co., of Boston. It would be possible to reduce the cost slightly by 
the use of cheaper paper, but not materially, and we feel that this would 
be unwise as your journal will contain material which you would desire 
preserved, and the chemists have advised us that the paper which we are 
using insures permanency of record " 

In addition comes the matter of editorial expense and cost of articles, which 
I do not feel competent to estimate, although I believe a fairly generous allow- 
ance should be made for both. Over against this there would be an income 
from subscriptions to the Review and from advertising. At the outset this sum 
would not be very great. At $3 a year there might not be enough subscribers 
among men in the field and libraries to produce more than $500 a year, al- 
though you will perhaps be willing to agree with me that this is a conservative 
estimate. This would leave a deficit of from $500 to $1,000 a year. If the 
Review should prove a success, however, the annual deficit would in time 
become much less through an increase in the number of subscribers, possibly 
more advertising, and a sale of the earlier numbers; but a subsidy will prob- 
ably be necessary for many years in order to make expenses meet. 

The chances for a subsidy are perhaps better for a magazine in this field 
than for almost any other that might be desired at present ; at any rate, that is 
the opinion of several men with whom I have talked. Mr. George P. Brett, 
president of the Macmillan Co., is among those who believe that the problem 
of financing this particular periodical is not a difiicult one at all. If the idea 
is taken up at this meeting lie offers to furnish our organizing committee 
with a list of all the men who might be interested in the project. He also 
makes a further offer, which I think you will recognize is one of very definite 
advantage the use of the Macmillan Co. imprint for the periodical. Nothing 
could more clearly indicate his approval of the idea. 



CONFERENCE FOE A JOURNAL OF LATIN-AMERICAN HISTORY. 283 

IV. SYMPOSIUM OF THE LETTEBS. 

I think the most interesting thing I have to tell you is to let yon know how 
men in the Amei ican historical profession view this plan. I sent out 72 letters, 
nearly all of which \\ent to members of the American Historical Association 
believed to be inteiested in Latin-American history. If I missed anybody, the 
slight was unintentional. All but 12 answered a praiseworthy record, I 
think. Of the 60 who did answer, 8 v%ere noncommittal, 6 were opposed, and 
46 announced themselves in favor of the project. The question most prominent 
with supporters of the plan was the financial one, and this was also alluded to 
by several of the opponents. I think it may be taken as the opinion of the 
writers that an adequate financial backing should be found before the magazine 
is launched. 

Another point discussed was that of the name of the Review Many objec- 
tions were made to the term " Ibero- American." Other names suggested were 
" Hispanic- American Historical Review," " Latin -American Historical Review," 
"Spanish-American Historical Journal," "Jouinal of Spanish- American His- 
tory," and " Journal of Latin- American History " 

Three of the men who oppose the founding of the Review the only ones to 
state the ground of their objection believe that there are not enough men and 
sufficient equipment in this country to provide first-class articles for such a 
Review. On the other hand, letter upon letter expressed the opinion on that 
score that there could be no doubt of the success of the Review. It might also 
be argued that the very existence of the Review would result in an advance in 
our capacity to do good work ; without the Review it is difficult to measure up 
to even our more or less present capabilities. 

One prominent reason for supporting it was because of the relationships that 
it would engender with Latin America. Some viewed this matter from the 
btandpoint of national affairs, and others from that of professional relations 
with Latin-American historians. Several writers urged that articles from 
Latin Americans in their own language be printed frequently. 

A great many alluded to the purely professional advantages to our own men 
engaged in the Latin-American historical field. 

[Continuing, Dr. Chapman read letters from the following gentlemen, to wit, 
Messrs. Lichtenstein (Northwestern), Klein (Harvard), Rowe (Pennsylvania), 
Bingham (Yale), Martin (Leland Stanford Junior), Bolton (California), 
Priestley (California), Shepherd (Columbia); from Willard Straight, Archer 
Huntmgton, John Barrett, Secretary McAdoo, and the President. Of the latter 
Dr. Chapman said:] 

Finally, I wish to read you a letter of which we can not fail to take notice, 
coming from the source it does. If the Review is founded I should like to see 
this letter printed on the first page. 

President Wilson's letter expresses his " very sincere approval of the project," 
and adds, " It is a most interesting one and ought to lead to very important 
results both for scholarship and for the increase of cordial feeling throughout 
the Americas." 

V. MACHINERY FOB ACTION. 

In conclusion, I wish to propose a resolution and two motions, all of which 
I think best to discuss together, although they may be voted separately. The 
resolution follows: 

Resolved, by members and guests of the American Historical Association 
gathered at the group dinner to discuss the project to found a Latin-Amencan 
Revi&iv, That the general project for such a Review seems to them a desirable 
one, provided adequate financial backing can be procured. 

If you "will pass this resolution, I shall feel that my efforts for the founding 
of the Review have not been wasted, whatever you may decide upon with regard 
to my motions. 

I move 

1. That a committee of seven be chosen at this meeting to be called the com- 
mittee on organization, with power to take all steps which may in their judg- 
ment seem best to found a Review coming within the general objects proposed 
in the project for an Ibero-American Historical Review, their power to include 

(a) A right and a duty to seek an endowment to guarantee its permanence. 

(&) A right to select a name for tiie periodical. 

(o) A right to define the initial editorial policy of the Review. 



284 AMERICAN HISTOEICAL ASSOCIATION. 

(d) A right and a duty to provide for its initial organization and manage- 
ment 

(6) A right to set the date when publication shall begin, provided that date 
be not later than January, 1918. 

(/) A right to dissolve without founding the He view. 

(g) A right and a duty to do anything else which may seem desirable or 
necessary. 

2. That a committee of three be chosen, to be called the nominating commit- 
tee, with a single function, to be exercised once only viz, a power, upon notifi- 
cation from the committee on organization, to make nominations for the first 
board of editors who shall be elected in such manner as may be prescribed by 
the committee on organization. 

According to my views, members of this second committee should be men of 
high standing in the profession who are not, however, Latin Americanists. 
I regard such a committee as necessary, so as to allow members of the commit- 
tee on organization to work with an entirely free hand, free from suspicion that 
they are working in their own interests, and yet free when the time comes to 
accept an election to the board of editors. 

Thereupon, the resolution proposed by Dr. Chapman was unanimously ap- 
proved. Following, Dr. Chapman moved his first motion, proposing as the com- 
mittee on organization the following: 

James A. Robertson, WasMngton, chairman ; William R. Shepherd, Columbia 
University; Edward L. Stevenson, Hispanic Society; Hiram Bingham, Yale; 
Julius Klein, Harvard; Isaac J. Cox, Cincinnati, or Roland G-. Usher, Wash- 
ington University, St Louis; and Herbert E Bolton, California, the first five 
representing the East, and the Middle West and West each being represented 
by one member. 

Dr. Cox immediately withdrew his name, leaving the name of Roland G-. 
Usher 

On being duly seconded, the motion (including names) was amended to 
read "that a committee of nine," and that the names of Charles E. Chapman, 
California, and C. L. Chandler, of Chattanooga, Tenn., South American repre- 
sentative for freight traffic of the Southern Railway Co,, and other railways, 
be added to the committee. The amendments, and then the original motion 
as amended, were passed. 

Dr. Chapman attempted without success to withdraw, as he and Dr. William 
Spence Robertson had agreed t>nly to set the ball rolling, and suggested that he 
would be embarrassed in reporting the result of the meeting to his colleague 
in the proposal. 

Dr. Chapman formally moved his second suggestion, naming as a nominating 
committee Drs. J. F. Jameson, F. J. Turner, and Justin H. Smith. The motion 
was passed unanimously. 

Re, the first motion, on motion by Roland G. Usher, with the requisite second, 
It was resolved that a quorum in the committee on organization should consist 
of three members. 

Idem, by motion of Dr. Chapman, duly seconded, that upon the resignation 
or death of any member, the other members be empowered to elect his successor. 

On motion by C. L. Chandler, duly seconded, it was unanimously resolved 
that Dr. Chapman be instructed to write to Dr. William Spence Robertson ex- 
pressing the appreciation of those present of his scholarship and work. 

On motion of Dr. Bonham, of Louisiana, duly seconded, it was unanimously 
resolved that a vote of thanks be extended to Drs. Chapman and Smith. 

On motion, the meeting was adjourned sine die. 

JAMES A. ROBEBTSON, Secretary. 

List of persons present at the conference : E. C. Barker, Austin, Tex. ; E. J. 
Bentou, Western Reserve; M. L. Bonham, Louisiana; E. W. Brandon, Oxford, 



COOTEBEISTCE FOB A JOUB^AL OF LAOSST-AMERICA^ HISTOBY. 285 

Ohio; G. L. Burr, Cornell University; G. L. Chandler, Harvard; G. E Chap- 
man, California; A. H. Clark, Cleveland; I. J. Cox, Cincinnati; G. S. Godard, 
Hartford; F. H. Hodder, Kansas; J. A James, Northwestern; J. F. Jameson, 
Carnegie Institution; J. L. Kingsbury, Kirksville, Mo.; J. G. McDonald, Bloom- 
mgton ; T. M Marshall, Idaho ; T. P. Martin, Cambridge ; Miss Irene T. Myers, 
Lexington, Ky. ; V. H. Paltsits, New York Public Library ; C. O. Paullin, Carnegie 
Institution; W. W Pierson, jr., North Carolina; James A. Robertson, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; W. L Schurz, Michigan ; Mrs. M. H. Stone, Saginaw, Mich ; F. J. 
Turner, Harvard; Koland G. Usher, Washington University, St. Louis. 



VIII. TRIBUTE ASSESSMENTS IN THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE. 



By HERBERT WING, 

DicJnnson College 



287 



TRIBUTE ASSESSMENTS IN THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE. 



By HERBERT WING. 



The decree of the Athenian assembly reconstituting the govern- 
ment of Chalkis after the revolt of Eiiboea in 447/6 to 446/5 contains 
this provision to which the people of Chalkis swear: "And I will 
pay the tribute to the Athenians which I may persuade the Athe- 
nians." * Like the Naxians, 2 the Thasians, 3 and nearly all the other 
" allies " of Athens, 4 the Chalkidians were reduced to the condition of 
subjects, although in official documents they were still called "al- 
lies." 5 These cities ordinarily gave up the right to regulate their 
foreign policy 6 and ceased to mint their own coins; 7 their navies 
were reduced to insignificance ; 8 they were required to send impor- 
tant cases of a judicial character to Athens for trial, 9 besides many 
cases involving contracts; 10 finally they paid an annual tax or tribute 
to Athens, 11 

The amount of this tax was originally fixed by Aristides in 478/7 12 
at four hundred and sixty talents, 18 or something over one-half 
million dollars. The cities were not heavily burdened to pay this 
" phoros," as the tribute was officially called, since the largest assess- 
ment known to us is thirty talents. 14 Possibly, the earlier assessments 
were heavier; but as new cities like Karystos 15 joined the Confed- 
eracy or League of Delos, out of which the Athenian Empire grew, 
and as money contributions were received instead of military or 

1 Inscriptiones Graecae, I, Supplement 27a, p 10. 
Thucydides, I, 98 ff. 
Ibid., I, 100 ff. 

* Ibid., I, 98. 

* For instance, in the Chalkidic document here tinder consideration, cf. In. Gr. I, 10, 11* 

* Athens involved her allies in war without consulting them. 
T Very few cities coined money in this period except Kyzikos 
*Thuc. I, 101 (Thasians) ; 117 (Samians). 

In. Gr. I, Suppl. 27a (Chalkis) ; I, 9 (Brythral) ; Pseudo-Xenophon : Constitution of 
Athens, I, 16 ; Antiphon, V, de Caede Her. 47. 
In Gr. II, 11. 
a Time. I, 99, 101. 

Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, ch. 23. 
* Ibid. ; Time I, 96 ; Plutarch, Aristides, ch. 24. 
a Aigina and Thasos. 
3* Thuc. I, 98 

23318 19 19 289 



290 AMEBICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

naval service, 16 the tribute from the individual cities tended to de- 
cline. 17 Occasionally, as in the case of Thasos, 18 the economic in- 
terests of the ally suffered because they conflicted with those of the 
superior power ; but ordinarily there seems to have been little ground 
for complaint on this score. The requirement that certain kinds of 
suits should be tried in Athens was clumsily carried out because of 
the slowness of Athenian court procedure; but the advantage arising 
from the uniformity of practice overbalanced these objections. 19 
From the side of economic interest it must have been really a good 
thing for the allies to be members of the Empire, since they were 
given protection from foreign and Hellenic foes, a regulated free- 
dom to trade, and good markets to trade in. 20 Piracy was sup- 
pressed. 21 

Why, then, do we find the cities apparently ready to revolt at every 
opportunity ? It has been suggested to the writer that this restless- 
ness was due to the clashes of parties in the various cities. 22 Un- 
doubtedly this played a large part. The account Thucydides gives 
of the Samian revolt and again of the Lesbian shows how the 
oligarchs conspired to overthrow the Athenian power. 28 But this 
merely indicates how revolts were effected, not why they were so 
frequent. The chief cause which Thucydides gives remissness in 
performing treaty obligations is obviously only secondary. 2 * The 
state of mind of the cities seems to be the determining factor. The 
allies were for the most part Hellenes. 25 That means that thev were 
almost incurably devoted to the idea that each city should be inde- 
pendent of all others. Because of this the relatively easy rule of 
Athens was called a tyranny. When the Peloponnesians went to war 
with Athens they used as a slogan the freeing of Greek cities now 
under a despotic rule. And the credulous cities grasped at the 
chance, with as little understanding of the real trend of affairs as 
had the fatuous, enthusiastic applauders of the Isthmian games in 
196 B. C., not to mention those noble patriots whom Nero freed. 26 
The only final result of these revolts was to put the cities again under 
the rule of foreigners, whether Athens herself or Sparta or the King 
of Persia. 27 The significant fact for this discussion is that the cause 
for these revolts was not real economic distress. 

M Thuc I, 99 ; Pint., Clmon, ch. 11 ; Plut, Pericles, 12 ff. 
17 An observable tendency in the quota lists 
i* Thuc. I, 100. 

See Ps Xenophon, Constitution of Athens, generally, for this. 

Plutarch, Pericles, 12 ff. gives an account of the development of trade at Athens 
cf, Ps. Xeru, Const Ath., passim. 

a Thuc. I, 98 ; Plut, Cimon, ch. 8 ; Thuc. VII, 57. 
22 This is implied also in Ps. Xen., Const, of Ath I 14 
**Thuc. I, 115-117; III, 48. 
Thuc. I, 99. 

25 The Karians and Lykians were also members, although non-Greeks 

26 For these allusions, see Plutarch : Flamininus* 



TEIBUTE ASSESSMENTS IK THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE. 291 

The league had originally a synod which met at Delos and trans- 
acted affairs of general interest. 28 The treasury, too, was at Delos. 29 
To that island the Hellenotamiai or Board of Hellenic Treasurers 
brought the tribute. 30 The god, or perhaps we should say his 
priests, was indemnified for the keeping of the money safely by the 
payment of one-sixtieth of the amount as " first-fruits." S1 As time 
went on, however, and the number of independent allies was reduced 
to three, the Chians, the Lesbians, and the Samians, 32 the meetings 
of the synod ceased. 88 The money of the League, including whatever 
was in the treasury, was brought to Athens and housed on the 
Acropolis. 34 In place of Apollo, it is Athena who now received 
the " first- fruits," a mina from the talent. 35 

The transfer of the treasury from Delos to Athens was marked by 
a change in bookkeeping. The money which was usually paid at 
the time of the great Dionysia in March 36 was handed over in the 
presence of the Boule and checked up by the Board of Thirty Au- 
ditors or Logistai. 87 In order to give the necessary publicity to this 
proceeding, the secretary of the Hellenotamiai 3S was required to pub- 
lish on stone the names of the cities that paid the tribute and the 
amount of "first-fruits" paid by each. These "stelai" or marble 
slabs were then set up on the Acropolis for any comer to examine. 39 
This practice was later followed when in 425 a reassessment of tribute 
was made. 40 Most of our information regarding the internal finan- 
cial history of the Athenian Empire comes from the fragments of 
these inscriptions which have been recovered during the past hun- 
dred years from debris on and near the Acropolis. 41 

The accounts for the first 15 years of this new arrangement were 
inscribed on a single block of Pentelic marble. 42 On the front of 

Thuc. I, 96, 97. 
Ibid I, 96 

80 Ibid. 

81 Though inscriptional evidence is wanting, the fact that meetings of the synod were 
held in the temple makes It probable that in the practice of giving " first-fruits '* to the 
goddess Athens was merely following the early custom of thus honoring Apollo. Time, 
I, 96; cf In. Gr. I, 226. 

32 These cities alone had their own navies. Thuc. I, 117 ; III, 10 The Samians were 
made subjects in 440 B. C. 

38 There is no mention of these in extant literature or inscriptions after 454 B C. 

**Plut f Pericles, 12; Aristides, 25; Thuc. II, 13; Demosthenes, III, 01.111, 24; so 
others, but with varying estimates 

In. Gr. I, 226. 

88 Scholia to Aristophanes, Acharnians, 378, 504. 

Thuc I, 96 ; Ps. Xen., Const Ath. Ill, 2 ; In. Gr I, 38, 226. 

88 See below for discussion of this secretary. 

* This was the common practice. 

*> In Gr. I, 37, 38. 

^Published by Pittakls, Eangab6, and Boeckh; then by U. Koehler, Urkunden mad 
Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des delisch-attischen Bundes, in Abhandlungen der K. 
Berliner Akademie der Wlwenschaften, 1869; and A. Kirchhoff, Corpus Inscriptionum 
Atticarum, I t 226-272. 

" In. Gr. I, 226-24Q, 



292 AMEEICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

* 

the stone were cut those for years 1 through 6 ; on the left side, years 
7 and 8 ; on the back, years 9 through 13 ; and on the right side, years 
14 and 15. 

Not all the accounts of these 15 years have heen found, but enough 
has been recovered to make possible the restoration of the stele. 
This restoration consists in putting up the fragments in their proper 
positions on the stele and filling the lacunae with plaster. This re- 
construction was made possible chiefly by the researches of Koehler * 3 
and Kirchhoff , 44 and has been carried out recently by the authorities 
of the Epigraphical Museum in Athens with the advice of A. Wil- 
helm. A few other fragments of the first stele have been found, but 
not put into their proper positions on the restored stele. The most 
important of these is a fragment of the thirteenth list, containing 
the names of several cities of the Nesiot or Island district. 45 

The second stele is similar to the first, except that it contains only 
eight lists, years 16 through 23. 46 

With the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War came apparently a 
decision to publish the accounts of the several years on separate 
stones.* 7 Of these we have years 28,* 8 29, 49 and 34. 50 In addition 
we have the tribute assessment for 425/4. 51 

The problems of interest on which these stones give some informa- 
tion are the number of cities, the assessment and collection of tribute, 
the amount of tribute, the history of the empire. 

Aristophanes suggests in his "Wasps" 52 that there were 1,000 
cities in the Athenian Empire. The quota lists give the names of 
about 325 cities, of which, however, fewer than 300 can be positively 
identified. Not all the names of these 300-odd cities could have been 
entered on the quota lists in any one year, since the longest quota 
list has room for only 225 names. The other hundred or more 
must have paid their tributes in groups with the recorded cities or 
else have failed to pay in a given year. In any case, the estimate of 
Aristophanes is greatly exaggerated. Two explanations have been 
given of his statement. One suggests 53 that the group system of 
payment was common throughout the Empire and that each city paid 
for two or three others. The objections to this view are cogent : First, 
we find usually explicit mention of these " syntelies " or groups in 
the quota lists or else the names of individual cities. 54 There is no 

In. TTrkunden mid Untersuchungen, cited above, note 41, 

* See note 41, 

Published by Woodward, In Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1908. 

* In Gr I, 241-249, 252, 258, 255, 256. 

47 No large stelal have survived except those already mentioned. 

*In. Gr. I, 259, 266; Hermes, 31, p. 142. 

<In. Gr I, 257. 

M In. Gr. I, 260. 

In Gr I, 37. 

I/L 702-711. 

88 For Instance, Boeckh, Staatshaushaltung der Athener, 11, 418-420. 

* In. Gr. I, 234, 235. 



TBIBUTE ASSESSMENTS IN THE ATHENIAN EMPIBE, 293 

reason to assume that other syntelies existed than those formally 
mentioned. Secondly, the names of the 00 cities contain many indi- 
vidual members of the " syntelies." The idea would then amount to 
"syntelies of syntelies" if these paid for several other cities. 
Thirdly, nearly half of these cities paid one-half talent or less. The 
amount of this tribute would exclude these cities from being groups. 

The other explanation 55 is that Aristophanes was " talking big " 
and wished to have his hearers understand that he meant not only 
cities but villages and suburbs. Aside from the objections given 
above to the first explanation, we find that many cities are listed as 
paying tribute independently, though they are near neighbors to 
other cities. After all, why should we expect more exactness of state- 
ment in a comic poet of ancient Hellas than we do of that English 
bard who gave us Falstaff? Fancy trying to estimate the relative 
ability of townsmen and outlaws from a comparison of Falstaff's 
reports. 

With regard to the assessment of tribute, there has been a marked 
tendency to follow without question the suggestion of Koehler, made 
47 years ago, that " the allies were usually assessed every four years, 
this period running, at least after 454 B. C. 5 from one Great Pan- 
athenaia to another. This festival was celebrated in the third year 
of every Olympiad. Shortly before the outbreak of the Pelopon- 
nesian War, probably in 437 B. C., the beginning of this tribute 
period was changed from the third to the fourth year of the Olym- 
piad"; 56 and again, "the quota lists show that assessments were 
made in 450 and 446 B. C., and this is evidence that the assessment 
was quadrennial even before the Peloponnesian War. Even after the 
beginning of the tribute period was changed, the assessment was 
made at the time of the Panathenaia (the lesser feast, of course, after 
the change) ," 57 

This view implies too great a regularity in these assessments. On 
a priori grounds one might object to a form of taxation which would 
make it impossible for a city to alter its assessment before the four- 
year period was completed, and one might ask why the lists were 
published annually if the assessments were in force for four years. 
We need not be content with a priori reasoning, since the quota lists 
give us direct light on the subject. We find some 44 changes in 
assessments which occurred in the period from 451-440, and which 
can be assigned to definite years or groups of years. Chalcedon, for 
example, paid 7-J talents in 452; 9 talents in 451; and 12 talents 
in 450. Changes occurred, therefore, both in 451 and 450. 58 Of 

Several persons have suggested this. 

w Koehler's view, as given by Gilbert, Constitutional Antiquities of Athens and 
Sparta (Eng. TransL, 1895), II, 474-475. 

67 Ibid., with references also to Ps. Nen., Const. Ath. Ill, 5; and In. Gr. I, 40. Cf. 
Koehler, op. eit., 127, 134. 

** In. Gr. I, 228 ff. 



294 AMEBICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

these 44 datable changes in assessments, 16 occurred in Panathenaic 
years that is, years 450, 446, or 442, when the Great Panathenaia was 
celebrated and 28 in the other nine years. In one year, 445 B. C., 
is there no change datable with certainty. This seems to bear out the 
view that changes were usually made at the time of Great Pana- 
thenaia, but it shows also that changes were made at yarious other 
times. The fact that a city like Chalcedon was allowed to change its 
tribute twice in three years shows that there was no definite period 
during which the assessment was in force. The reason why changes 
in assessment were most frequently made in Panathenaic years may 
be that since the allies were required to send offerings to the festival, 59 
they found it most convenient then to present their claims for changes 
in tribute. 

The idea of a change in the beginning of the tribute period in 437 
B. C, arises from the fact that Koehler and Kirchhoff had dated the 
list which is now known as In. Gr. I, 243 as of that year. This 
list contains six changes from In. Gr. I, 242 and occurs in the fourth 
year of the Olympiad. Fimmen G0 has shown that In. Gr. I, 242 must 
be assigned to 435 and In. Gr. I, 243 to 434. The latter year saw 
the observance of the Great Panathenaia. 

The other bit of evidence for the dating of the assessments is the 
assessment inscription for 425 B. C. 61 This is the fourth year of 
an Olympiad. Its abundance of changes can be accounted for by 
the fact that in that year the tribute was nearly doubled by order of 
the assembly 62 and a general reassessment was necessary. 68 

The actual payment of the tributes occurred in the spring of the 
year at the time of the Great Dionysia. This dates the publishing 
of each year's accounts as in the spring. 

The cities seem at first to have been listed without any regard to 
geographical relation. 64 The secretary of the fifth board of Hellen- 
otamiai, 65 that for 450 B. C., arranged the cities in approximately 
the same groups in which we find them formally given in the twelfth 
year 6e and following. The secretaries for years 6, 67 7, 68 and 8, 69 were 
apparently oblivious to the usefulness of this arrangement and went 
back to the haphazard disorder of the first four lists. 70 The idea 

In. Gr. I, 9 (Erythrai) ; 31 (Brea). 

< MIttheilungen des K. deutschen archaeologischen Institute zu Athen, vol. XXXVIII. 

* In. Gr. I, 37. 

* Plutarch, Arfstides, 24. 

w The fact of this assessment Is borne out by the increases in In. Gr. I, 37. 
*U. Pedroli, I Trlbuti degli Alleati d'Atene, in J. Beloch, Studi di Storia antica, 
Fasc. 1 (Rome, 1891), pp 101-207, esp. p. 101* 
In. Gr. I, 230. 

* Ibid , I, 237. 
87 Ibid , I, 231. 

68 Ibid , I, 232. 

69 Ibid., I, 233. 

TO Ibid , I, 226-229. 



TRIBUTE ASSESSMENTS IN THE ATHENIAN EMPIBE. 295 

was taken up again by the secretaries for years 9 5 T1 10, 72 and 11, 7S and 
with the help of Satyros, an assistant secretary, was made formal 
in the year 12. 7 * The fact of this anticipation of the later plan by 
the secretary of the fifth board has not been recognized before, but it 
can be proved by examination of the proportion of the cities arranged 
in groups of four or more from the same district. More than 60 
per cent of the names of this list and of lists 9, 10, and 11, and of 
these only, occur in groups of four or more, whereas the other nine 
lists do not approach this proportion. In the fifth list there are one 
group of 4 Hellespontine cities; one each of 4 and of 5 Ionian cities; 
one of 6 Nesiot cities ; one each of 4, 6, and 11 Karian cities ; and one 
of 15 Thrakian cities. In the year 12 and following 75 there are 
special rubrics for the five districts namely, Ionian, Hellespontine, 
Thrakian, Karian, Nesiot. 

The original amount of tribute fixed by Aristides is supposed to 
be 460 talents. 76 Pericles is quoted as saying that Athens was re- 
ceiving 600 talents a year from her allies at the outbreak of the 
Peloponnesian War. 77 Plutarch says that during the war the tribute 
was raised to 1,300 talents. 78 Various modern scholars notably 
Koehler, 79 Kirchhoff, 80 Busolt, 81 Pedroli, 82 Cavaignac, 83 and Dins- 
moor 8 * have also estimated the tribute, basing their estimates oa 
the quota lists, but they have arrived at widely differing conclusions. 
The reason for these discrepancies is that they assumed the existence 
of tribute periods and estimated the payment of tribute from 
figures occurring in the period. Now, it frequently happened that 
the tribute of a city changed in the supposed period. They then 
had to take one or the other figure as the normal assessment and thus 
reached different conclusions. 

The proper method of proeedure is, I believe, to take the indi- 
vidual year as the unit; carefully to estimate the number of places on 
the stone, which can be restored; examine the accounts of the various 
cities, and decide which are most probable restorations, because they 
paid both before and after the event; proceed in the same way with 

Ibid , I, 234. 

Ibid , I, 235. 

Ibid., I, 236. 

** Ibid., I, 237. 

Ibid , I, 237 ff. 

w Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, cb 23. 

77 Time II, 13 ; Pint, Arlstides, en 24 

78 Pint., Arist, 24. 
^ Op. cit. 

80 Op. cit. 

siDer Phorols der athenischen Buender yon 446/5 bis 426/5, In Pbllologns, vol. 41 
(1882), pp. 652-718. 

sa Op. cit 

** Etudes sur 1'nistoire finaneifere d'Athfcnes au Vlfcme siecle (Paris, 1908). Le tre*sor 
d' Athena. 

^ Attic Building Accounts: The Parthenon, in American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 
VII (1913), p. 65, 



296 AMEBICAST HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

the quotas. Thus, one would avoid the danger of assuming the pay- 
ment of tribute by more cities than could find a place on the stone. 
In attempting to apply these principles to the twelfth, thirteenth, 
fourteenth-^ and fifteenth lists, I found that the number of cities, 
which could thus be restored with a high degree of probability, was 
nearly equal to the number of possible places on the stone, and that 
the cities I decided not to restore had little likelihood of paying in 
the year under consideration. An accidental means of verifying my 
method came in the Epigraphical Museum, in Athens, while I was 
working over the thirteenth list. I restored the names of something 
like a dozen STesiot cites on the basis of the general similarity to the 
twelfth list. Then, I chanced on the actual fragment of stone 
which belonged in that space. 85 I found, to my pleasurable surprise, 
that all of my restorations were actually on the stone, but the order 
of two cities was reversed. This study should be extended, so far 
as practicable, to all the lists. Only after this is done does it appear 
possible to make an even approximately accurate estimate of the 
total amount of tribute paid. 

The most interesting new light upon the history of the Empire has 
been thrown by the reconstruction of the second stele by D. Fim- 
men. 86 What he did may be briefly summarized thus: He discov- 
ered that the back of the stele had been engraved. 87 This made nec- 
essary a rearrangement of the known fragments. He assigned lists 
16 through 19 to years 19 through 22. This threw In. Gr. I, 243, 
which had formerly been known as the eighteenth list into the twenty- 
first year. The list contains the name of a secretary of the Hellen- 
otamiai ending in -kos from Keramos. Dinsmoor, 88 in working 
over the building inscription for the Propylaea, discovered that the 
only possible reading for the secretary of the Hellenotamiai given in 
the fourth year of the building (434 B. C.) was Protonikos from 
Keramos. An equating of these two facts gives us the full name 
for the In. Gr. I, 243, list and confirms the justness of assigning the 
list to 434 B. C. That the secretary mentioned in the quota lists was 
the secretary of the Hellenotamiai and not of the logistai is now gen- 
erally accepted. The confusion arising from the reading in the third 
list s9 is now dispelled by the understanding of a verb omitted. 

Fimmen's reconstruction of this stele brings our knowledge of the 
affairs in the Thrakian district close to the time of the Peleponnesian 
War, Poteidaia, for example, was paying 6 talents in 435/4 and 

85 Actually published, but till then unknown to me, by Woodward, in Journal of 
Hellenic Studies, 1908. 

88 Athenlsche Mittheilungen, vol. 38 

87 1 personally examined the stone in Athens and believe that he is right in his main 
conclusions 

88 Attic Building Accounts * The Propylaea, in American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 
VII (1913), pp. 371-398, esp. 396-397. 

* In. Gr. I, 228. 



TRIBUTE ASSESSMENTS IN THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE. 29 

fifteen talents in 433/2. This means that the supposed punishmer 
of that city with others of the Thrakian district for participating i 
the general restless movement of the time of the Samian Wa 
(440 B. C.) must be referred to a later time. 00 Poteidaia pai 
tribute as late as the spring of 432. 

The interpretation of the special rubrics which occur on this stel 
needs to be examined in the light of these new discoveries of the tim 
relations of the several lists; in particular, Busolt's interesting an 
stimulating article mentioned above offers food for thought. 

To sum up the main conclusions of this paper, we find: (1) Th 
number of cities in the Empire did not approach the thousand mer 
tioned by Aristophanes, and probably did not exceed four hundrec 

(2) The plan of engraving the names on a stele in a list arrange 
with regard to geographical location was first adopted by the secrc 
tary for 450 ; then imitated by the secretaries for 44C and following 

(3) The assessments of the tribute were made for an indefimt 
period ; and reassessments were made only on special occasions and a 
irregular intervals. These reassessments were most frequently mad 
in Panathenaic years as a matter of convenience to the allies; bu 
they also actually occurred in other years. (4) Estimates of tribut 
must be made on the basis of the study of individual years instead o 
periods of years. (5) The supposed change in the beginning of th 
tribute-period in 437 has no basis in fact. (6) The reconstruction c 
the second stele by Fimmen is confirmed by Dinsmoor's studies, an 
involves a readjustment of our interpretation of the history of th 
Empire between the Samian Revolt and the Peloponnesian Wai 
especially with regard to the Thrakian district. 

^Busolt in Phllologus, vol. 41 (1882), pp. 652-718. Ct also West, the Chalcid 
League, ch. 1 (published as a bulletin by the University of Wisconsin^. 



IX. WHEN DID THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND 
CIVILIZATION COME INTO BEING? 



By PAUL VAN DEN VEN, 
Princeton University. 



299 



WHEN DID THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND CIVILIZATION 
COME INTO BEING? 



By P. VAN DEN 



No one has ever contested the fact that the Byzantine Empire dis- 
appeared at the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, which dis- 
aster effected the complete destruction of the previous state of things 
in the Greek medieval world. There are in the history of mankind 
very few events which have brought with them so many radical 
changes in every branch of human life in so short a period. But 
disagreements are numerous when it is a question of establishing an 
initial date as regards the Byzantine Empire as well as the Byzantine 
civilization. 

The division of history into periods is, as everyone knows, from 
its very nature, conventional and arbitrary, for history really never 
stops, and all the historical events are so connected with one another 
as to form an uninterrupted succession. But it would be impossible 
to master the enormous mass of facts in history without marking 
certain halting places which correspond, within reasonable limits, 
to reality, that is, to the beginning and the end of a definite evolution 
in society, in so far as this beginning and end may be perceived. 
This classification has also some importance as regards specialization 
of historical research. Byzantine studies to-day form a special field 
with its own means for particular investigation, and it is of practi- 
cal utility to determine the extent of this branch of learning and 
not to trespass on the domain of other studies. There is a risk of 
failing to recognize in many cases the real character of events, es- 
pecially their distant causes, if the investigator has poorly classified 
them in their ensemble and has left to specialists in neighboring 
fields the care of investigating facts directly connected with those 
of his own concern. 

The difficulty of establishing a date beyond dispute, to mark the 
beginning of the Byzantine Empire and civilization, comes from the 
fact that it is hard to find an event which sets off in every aspect of 
life the starting point of the new eyolution of the eastern world. 
Politically speaking, there is no fixed line of demarcation between 
the Eoinan and Byzantine Empires. Those who have given special 
attention to the Roman structure of the eastern State, that structure 

301 



302 AMEBICAE" HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

which remained the real basis until the end, do not perceive any be- 
ginning of a new evolution and therefore do not admit the existence 
of an empire distinct from the Roman. They have considered, of 
course, above all, the political institutions. Some who have in 
addition investigated the social institutions, the church, art, litera- 
ture, and private life, have been led to a different view. They dis- 
cover a new type of state and civilization in the beginning of the 
fourth century. Let us briefly examine the arguments for each posi- 
tion and see if it is possible definitely to determine the beginning of 
the Byzantine era. 

The supporters of the uninterrupted evolution of the Roman Em- 
pire down to the fifteenth century point with good reason to the fact 
that the so-called Byzantine Empire is heir and successor to the old 
Roman Empire. While in the west of the empire the civilization of 
ancient Rome was completely destroyed by the Germanic invasions, 
which thus prevented any continuity between the empire of Theo- 
dosius and that of Charlemagne, in the east there were for cen- 
turies no invasions, no sack of the capital by the barbarians, and 
therefore no interruption of the Roman life and the Roman State. 
There is no break in the continuity of the long series of Roman em- 
perors from Augustus to Constantine "VTI, who was killed in 1453. 
The foundation of the Western Empire by Charlemagne has no 
importance in this connection, as it was an artificial creation which 
the legitimate emperors ruling at Constantinople never recognized, 
* and which in turn never prevented these emperors from maintaining, 
theoretically at least, what they believed to be their rights over the 
western provinces of the old Roman State. The empire of Charle- 
magne did not replace the Western Roman Empire, for the latter 
never existed any more than an Eastern Roman Empire existed. 
There were sometimes several emperors, but always, theoretically 
and legally, only one empire. The separation made by Theodosius 
in 395 between the east and the west had only an administrative 
character, which did not at all alter the legal unity of the State. 
The abdication of Romulus Augustulus in 476 does not mark the end 
of the so-called Western Roman Empire. Its only effect was to re- 
place the imperial authority in the hands of a single emperor this 
emperor was recognized by the barbarians who dispossessed Romu- 
lus and furthermore to reestablish the situation which existed 
under a sole ruler. 1 

Because of these facts, therefore, certain historians reject the terms 
" Byzantine " or " Greek " which others apply to the Roman Empire 
in the east after Constantine the Great pr Theodosius. They con- 

1 See J. B. Bury, A History of the later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene, I 
(1889), pp v. ff. ; J. Bryce, The Holy Boman Empire (1909), pp. 23 ff , 322 ff. ; L, Halm, 
Das Kaizertum (Das Brt>e <Jer Aiten, Heft VI) Leipzig, 1913, pp. 82 ff. 



WHEN DID THE BTZAKTIKE EMPIRE COME INTO BEING? 303 

sider it identical with the old Roman Empire, " which endured, one 
and undivided, however changed and dismembered, from the first 
century B. C. to the fifteenth century A. D." 2 They only consent 
to call it late Roman, and, after the creation of a distinct western 
empire at Rome in 800, they call it Eastern Roman. Prof. J. B, 
Bury, the foremost of the historians of this opinion, maintains that 
all lines of demarcation which have been drawn between the Roman 
and Byzantine Empires are arbitrary, that "no Byzantine Empire 
ever began to exist, the Romaji Empire did not come to an end till 
1453." 3 Great as were the changes undergone by this State since 
antiquity, it never ceased to be the Roman Empire; and if it changed 
from century to century, it was along a continuous line of develop- 
ment, so that we can not give it a new name, just as we can not give 
a new name to a man when he enters into a new period of his life, 
when he passes from youth to maturity and to old age. We desig- 
nate a man as young and old, and so we may speak of the earlier 
and later ages of a kingdom or an empire. 4 Since the publication 
of his excellent History of the Later Roman Empire, in 1889, Bury 
has not given up his point of view, as one can observe in the reading 
of his recent work. The Constitution of the Late Roman Empire 
(Cambridge, 1910), where he failed to mark any distinct period in 
the evolution of the form of government from the time of Augustus. 

Another historian, L. Hahn 5 who is well known for his studies on 
the influence of Romanism in the "Greek world, has called attention 
only to the Roman factor in the eastern part of the empire. 5 He 
gives preeminence to this down to the time of Justinian, and he fails 
to show in the slightest degree the workings of any other element. 
He rejects almost completely the influence of the Orient, 6 which in 
the mind of Fr. Cumont was particularly strong from the third 
century of the Roman Empire, 7 and he does not appear to recognize 
any particular event as the starting point of a new evolution. 

N. Jorga, 8 impressed by the strength and the relative increase of 
the Roman element before Justinian, does not recognize Jusrtinian as 
a Byzantine ruler. During the three centuries which followed the 
foundation of Constantinople, the Roman institutions were trans- 
lated and adapted to the Greek surroundings, and that work was still 
in progress under Justinian. "The name Byzantine is given to 
the type of civilization slightly Roman, conspicuously Greek, and 
'most Christian 5 (in the Greek sense also), which was thus pro- 

2 Bury, op. cit., p. viiL 
Ibid., p v. 

*n>id, p vi. 

5 Ludwig, Hahn, op. cit, passim. 

IT>IcL, pp. 56 ff. 

*Fr. Cnmont, Mithra, p. si. 

* The Byzantine Empire (London, 1907) , pp. 3 ff. 



304 AMEBICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

duced. The name is appropriated to the result." Therefore, accord- 
ing to Jorga, Byzantinism begins only after Justinian, when it takes 
the place of Komanism. Finlay, Gregorovius, Zachariae von Lin- 
genthal had been of the same opinion and had believed in the continu- 
ation of the Roman antiquity till the seventh century. 9 Because of 
the lack of any racial feeling, adds Jorga, " the empire remained what 
it had always been, an agglomeration of nationalities, governed ac- 
cording to the Roman laws and holding a political ideal which had 
been formed at Rome. 10 That political ideal slowly found a substi- 
tute in Christianity." The Roman empire became more and more the 
Christian world,, the true Christian world, " orthodox " if not cath- 
olic. Rejecting the West as Arian under the Goths, as idolatrous 
during the dispute as to images, as perverters of dogma under the 
Pope, and anathematizing the Mussulmans without trying to convert 
them, it acquired the consciousness of holding the one and only 
Christian truth, and of thus being the new "chosen people" of the 
Lord. 

It is not to be denied that for centuries after Constantine Roman- 
ism was very strong, and the best advocate of the beginning of 
Byzantinism in the fourth century, K. Krumbacher, acknowledges it 
distinctly : 

Das gesamtc Staatswesen, die Technik und die Grundsatze der ausseren und 
Inneren Politik, Gesetzgebung und Verwaltung, Heer und Flottenwesen lag 
als ungehenres Ergebnis tbeoretiseher Studien, praktischen Sinnes und 
reicher Erfahrung fertig da, als der ostliche Reichsteil sellbstandig wurde ; und 
so sehr die Griechen sich hier bald als Herren ina eigenen Hause Mhlten, 
dieses tmscMtzbare Erbstiick aus dem lateinlschen Westen haben sie, trotz 
einzelner Anderungen in der Verwaltung (Themenverfassung) und anderen 
Teilen des Staates, prinzipiell niemals angetastet u 

But, what separates Krumbacher's opinion from the others related 
above, is that it is not onesided ; as we shall see, it takes into account 
the whole question, and weighs carefully the different factors which 
came in force in the East in the fourth century. 

Bury places the beginning of the period of the history of the 
empire, which he calls " late Roman " and which others call Byzan- 
tine, in 395. It is interesting to note the reason for his adopting 
this date. " In the year 395 A. D. the empire was intact, but with 
the fifth century its dismemberment began, and 395 A. D. is conse- 
quently a convenient date to adopt as a starting point." 12 Quite 
logically, Prof. Bury does not take his point of departure in the 
Jiistory of the Eastern provinces of the empire by attributing to 
them a role quite distinct from that of ancient Rome; he takes his 

See K. Krttmbaclier, GescMchte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 2 ed. (1897), pp. 13 ff 
w Op. cit., p. 36 ; see pp. 33 ff. 

11 Die grlechlsclie und latelnische Litteratur und Sprache (Die Kultur der Gegen- 
wart (Tell I, AbteUung VIII), 1905, p. 242). 
13 Op. cit., p. ix. 



WHEN DID THE BYZANTINE EMPIBE COME IKTO BEING! 305 

starting point in an event which is especially important in the annals 
of the empire as considered in its ancient state with Italy as its 
center. In his mind it is not the East which separates itself from 
the West and begins an independent existence; it is the empire as a 
whole which becomes dismembered by the invasion of the Western 
provinces. Bury grants theoretically, in the beginning of the evolu- 
tion of the " Later Eoman Empire," as much importance to the 
western provinces as to the eastern, and his point of departure is 
more concerned with the destinies of the West than with those of 
the East. But here we find one of the weak points of Bury's argu- 
ment. Practically he treats the history of the western provinces 
as briefly as possible, to the extent that he feels obliged to anticipate 
criticism of a lack of proportion. "I am concerned with the his- 
tory of the Roman Empire, and not with the history of Italy or of 
the West, and the events on the Persian frontier were of vital con- 
sequence for the very existence of the Roman Empire, while the 
events in Italy were, for it, of only secondary importance. Of 
course, Italy was a part of the empire ; but it was outlying its loss 
or recovery affected the Roman Republic (strange to say) in a far 
less degree than other losses or gains. And just as the historian of 
modern England may leave the details of Indian affairs to the 
special historian of India, so a general historian of the Roman em- 
pire may, after the fifth century, leave the details of Italian affairs 
to the special historian of Italy." 13 This is an admission of the 
fact tha-t after the fifth century the West had only a very secondary 
importance in the destinies of the empire ; that the center of gravity 
of the empire thereafter was in the East. In spite of the belief in 
the continuation of the Roman Empire a belief which remained 
the saine, handed down as it was by traditions, formulae, and sur- 
vivals, and strongly maintained by the Roman structure of the 
state the fact that Italy and Rome were no more the center about 
which the empire, its institutions and its civilization revolved, marks 
a change so radical and so far-reaching that it is difficult to under- 
stand why Bury, who has excellently written the history of this 
change, refuses to harmonize his general viewpoint with the facts 
which he brings out. It is hard to perceive why he declines to accept 
the appellation " Byzantine " so thoroughly deserved by a state 
which he recognizes as being so very different from the old Roman 
Empire. 

This is another weak point in Bury's argument. When the em- 
perors in dividing the government of the East and the West were 
independent of each other, or hostile, as were Arcadius and Honoring, 
and as a matter of fact East and West went each more and more in 



a., p. 
23318 19 - 20 



S06 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

its own way, Bury defends the conception of the theoretical unity 
of the Empire, while taking care not to affirm its unity in reality. 
Have not facts in history greater importance than formulae, which 
are the heritage of a past which has ceased to be in harmony with 
the present? 

From all this it is evident that the matter in question is not 
merely the judicious choice of a name, but rather a considera- 
tion of the very essence of things under that name. Is the Roman 
Empire really the Eoman Empire down to the fifteenth century, in 
spite of its numerous transformations? Could it have remained for 
so long a period the same living creature, the nature of which does 
not change at the different periods of its life ? Did not the transfor- 
mations which it underwent, in the fourth century and later, per- 
meate so deeply that it is proper from that time on to give it another 
name corresponding to its new nature? Let us examine now the 
arguments of those who fix the beginning of the new evolution in 
the fourth century and recognize its extent by giving the period the 
name of Byzantine. 

The late leader in Byzantine studies, K. Krumbacher, is the first, 
I believe, to have determined the various elements which have 
formed the Byzantine civilization, the mixed character of which 
differs strikingly from the unity of the old Greek culture. He recog- 
nizes four elements, the gradual intermingling of which has pro- 
duced the new civilization i. e., Hellenism, Romanism, Christianity, 
and oriental influences. 1 * A great event started the whole new com- 
bination the establishment of the capital at Byzantium (326). 
The importance of this event in the destiny of the Empire can not be 
overestimated. What, indeed, separates the Byzantine era from the 
Roman era is, above all, the removal of the center of the Empire 
from the West to the East and, consequently, the gradual substitu- 
tion of the Greek language for the Latin. The first official and 
definite step in this course is the foundation of the new capital, 
Constantinople, and the second one, connected with the first, is the 
definitive division of the Empire into two parts Greek East, Latin 
West (395) never to be united again. 

The rapid growth of the capital further strengthened the Greek 
character of the East and gave it a center which gradually became 
more and more important. The natural centralizing power of Con- 
stantinople appears in many ways. For instance, in ecclesiastical 
matters, at the Council of Chalcedon (451) the new Rome prevailed 
over the older See of Alexandria. On the other hand, following the 
decline of the western part of the Empire, the power of the old 
Roman State concentrated more and more in the Greek East. At Gon- 

" Die griech. uml lat. Lit. trad Spr., pp. 237 ff. ; Gescb. der byz. Lltt, 2 ed., pp. 1 ff. 



WHEST DID THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE COME INTO BEING? 307 

stantinople and in the central provinces the Greek element had been 
predominant from ancient times, especially among the people and 
in the church, and the number of people who spoke Latin had always 
been slight. Greek culture had always stood higher and the Greek 
language had always been universal. Now, by the much more power- 
ful means at its disposal, the Greek element was in a way to gain the 
upper hand against the Eoman element, which, growing for some 
time, had been weakening after the dismemberment of the West 
by the Germans. This Greek element was therefore called upon to 
take the place of the Eoman element in the government of the state. 
This happened slowly but surely, so that in the centuries after 
Justinian the state was undergoing an Hellenization of its limbs as 
well as of its head v The change of the basis of the Empire from 
Roman to Greek, the transformation from Roman to Romaic or 
Byzantine was accomplished in the different branches of the organi- 
zation of the state with varying rapidity. At the last the old system 
was destined to be more and more thoroughly broken down by the 
power of natural circumstances. 

But the great place of the Greek element in the Byzantine Empire 
does not destroy the force of the statement that there was neither 
linguistic nor national unity in the eastern world and that the Greek 
in the East never had in that respect the position of the Latin in the 
West. The existence of the old oriental civilizations in many prov- 
inces of the eastern empire and the official maintenance of the Latin 
as language of the state explains this to a great extent. 

Das ungeheure Gefiige, durch dessen Pestigkeit das byzantinisehe Reich den 
furchtbaren Stiirmen der Perser, Araber, Seldsehuken, Slawen, Normannen, 
Franken, Tiirken und anderer Yolker so lange widerstehen konnte, 1st rbmisehe 
Arbeit. . . . Der Staatsgedanke war unendlich viel starker als das nationale 
und sprachliche Sonderbewusstsein, So iibernahmen die Griechen denn nattir- 
lich auch den Namen Romer. ... So wunderbar fest und fein war die 
Struktur des romischen Staatsgebaudes, dass ein so eminent unpolitisches Volk, 
wie die Griechen im Altertum gewesen sind und heute smd und sicher auch 
im Mittelalter waren, es im Laufe vieler Jahrhunderte niclit ernstlich zu 
beschiidigen vermochte. . . . Die Fortwirkung der alten romischen, nun in 
gnechisches Gewand gekleideten Tradition im gesamten offentlichen und pri- 
vaten Leben der Byzantiner und die Art, wie die herrschenden griechischen 
und orientalischen Menschen sich mit der ihnen innerlich fremdartigen Staats- 
und Rechtsordnung abfanden wie sie sich ihr anschmiegten und wie sie mit 
ihr operierten, gehort zu den interessantesten, freilich auch zu den am 
wenigsten aufgeklarten Seiten der inneren Geschiehte von Byzanz." 

Although by the foundation of New Rome and the division of the 
Empire in 395, neither Constantine nor Theodosius intended to 
change at all the Eoman basis of the Empire and to give it the Greek 
character which it assumed only later, the developments occasioned 

18 Die griech. und lat. Lit. and Spracbe, p. 242. 



308 AMEBK3AH HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

by these two events created the new evolution; and it may be said, 
with Krumbacher, that the foundation of Constantinople as a capital 
really marks the beginning of that evolution, while at the same time 
the initial changes may have remained invisible. We have seen that 
the failure of perceiving those symptoms or of giving to them the 
importance they deserve explains the opinion of those who postpone 
the beginning of Byzantinism till the seventh century and see in the 
preceding centuries only the old age and the fall of antiquity. 

Simultaneously with this we notice other great changes which 
contributed to the making of a new era. In religion, especially, 
thanks to the same emperor, Constantine, Christianity officially 
takes the place of paganism, and consequently represents one of the 
most striking differences between Byzantinism and antiquity. A 
good deal of the Byzantine civilization is to be explained by the 
influence of the Christian religion and the Christian church. 

As for the oriental element, it had always been strong in the Greek 
East; and the various old oriental cultures had never ceased in their 
influence. The provinces of the empire where the intellectual life 
was most developed were in direct contact with the native civiliza- 
tion, and it is certain that the latter gave to Hellenism an oriental 
character, which from Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor 
spread to Constantinople and the European provinces. From the 
Orient came many of the habits of thought and customs of the 
Byzantines, many characteristics in literature and art, many elements 
of the court and the state organization, "wie die Auffassung des 
Kaisertums als einer mysteriosen Macht, der Gegensatz brutaler 
Volksleidenschaf t und grausamster Despotie, die hieratische Gran*- 
dezza, das Eunuchentum, die blutigen Palastrevolutionen und das 
unheimliche Intrigenspiel, der starre Formalismus im Leben wie in 
der Litteratur, die Beliebtheit orientalischer Erzahlungsstoffe." 16 

There is no doubt that the political changes introduced by Con- 
stantine and Theodosius brought into action the Greek and oriental 
elements. Furthermore Constantine made Christianity the state 
religion. Another great feature, the substitution of the bureaucracy 
for the military organization of the old empire, is the work of Con- 
stantine and his predecessor Diocletian. 11 Therefore it seems certain 
that the beginning of the Byzantine Empire and civilization must 
be placed in the fourth century, and if a date is necessary, in the year 
326, when Constantinople was founded by Constantine. This, how- 
ever, does not mean the sudden disappearance of the old state of 
things and instant rise of the new condition of affairs. All that we 
have said points to an exceedingly gradual change and beginning, 

lft Die grlech. und lat, Lit und Spracne, p. 250. 
"See Krumbacher, Gesch. der byz. Litt, 2 d., p. T. 



WHEN DID THE BYZANTISTE EMFIBE GOME INTO BEINQf 809 

in no way comparable to the sudden termination of the period 115 
1453. 

This argument, which was strongly developed by Krumbacher, has 
received careful consideration and acceptance with certain recent 
writers of universal histories, who have given an especial place to 
the Byzantine period 18 and also in some general works of great 
value. 19 Helmolt's universal history develops the same theory, but, 
while emphasizing the oriental and Hellenistic elements, it neglects 
entirely the Eoman factor, and so presents just as inaccurate a view 
by completely overlooking the ever recognized influence of Rome as 
did the earlier historians who perceived no other element. 20 It is also 
worthy of mention that Wilamovitz-Moellendorf , in 1897, attempting 
to determine the end of Antiquity, places this terminus in the begin- 
ning of the fourth century : " Die Tatsachen sind da : nur wer sie aus 
Tragheit oder Vorurteil ignorirt kann bestreiten, dass die Welt- 
geschichte urn 300 an einem der Wendepunkte des grossen Welten- 
jahres gestanden hat, dass sich ein Eing an der Kette der Ewigkeit 
schloss, und wo ausserlich Continuitat zu sein scheint, in Wahrheit 
nur ein neuer Eing sich mit dem vorigen geruhrt." 21 

18 Lindner, Weltgescnicnte, Bd. I (1901), pp 121 ff 

19 E g., H. Gelzer, Abriss der byzantinischen Kaisergeschichte, in Krumbacher, Geseh. 
der byz. Iltt, 2 ed, p. 912; Hesseling, Essai stir la civilisation byzantine, Parts, 1907, 
pp. 13, 37; J. Bryce, The Holy Boman Empire (1909), pp 321 ff., 341. 

>H. E. Helmolt, The World's History, V (1907), pp 27 ff 

a Weltperioden, Rede . . . gehalten. von U. v. W. M. (1897), p. 8. 



I. THE LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 



By K. ASAEAWA, 

Assistant Professor of History in Yale University. 



311 



THE LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN.* 



By K. ASAKAWA. 



The shd hardly lends itself to a simple definition, for, in its pro- 
longed career of 800 years between the eighth and the sixteenth 
centuries it epitomized, as it were, progressive changes in the general 
institutional life of Japan during this unusually eventful period. 
Taking the sho, however, at its full growth in the twelfth century, 
one may perhaps define it as a piece of land which was held privately 
under a lord by persons in varied and changeable tenures, and which 
nevertheless formed an administrative entity enjoying a degree of 
fiscal and judicial autonomy. This condensed description may per- 
haps be clarified by means of a comparison. The sho has been trans- 
lated by an English historian of Japan as manor. 1 Like the manor in 
medieval Europe and England, the sho was a unit at once economic 
and political, in which its public functions had become private pos- 
sessions of its proprietors, and in which the rights and obligations 
of persons were determined by their tenures of land. There was a 
marked difference, however, between the two institutions. The 
manor possessed features resembling those of a village community, 
but the sho reminds one of a "scattered farm" system; instead of 
comprising, like the typical manor, rectangular strips of arable land 
laid out and administered by a joint intervention of lord and tenants, 
the sho consisted, in its cultivated portions, of plots which were 
irregular in shape, size, and position and were for the most part 
managed independently by their holders. 2 Again, these tenants, un- 
like those in the manor, whose tenures were comparatively simple 
and stationary, were bound together by a network of legal relations 
between one another and between them and the lord which were not 
only intricate but also capable, so long as the fiscal rights of the 
lord were not affected, of continual change. If, therefore, a chief 
problem of the origin of the manor concerns its element of common 
management, the first question regarding the sho must relate to the 
cause of its growth as a congeries of changeable interests and relations 
loosely bundled together under a seignior. 

This question will be partly answered in the brief account 8 of the 
origin of the sho that follows. The agriculture of Japan in her 

* The footnotes to this article will be found, arranged continuously, at the end of the 



314 AMEBICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION. 

early historic ages seems to have been of a " scattered farm " system, 
which was accompanied, at least as regards rice land, by a system 
of private ownership, vested either in the family or in the indi- 
vidual. These conditions were presumably due to the absence of 
pasture 4 and, above all, the cultivation of rice 5 as the chief industry 
of the peasants ; the rice culture required irrigable lowlands. 6 a fact 
which in that hilly country made a scattered farm system natural ; 
the rice culture also involved constant care and highly individualized 
labor, 5 which were facilitated under a system of exclusive private 
ownership in small fields. 7 In defiance of these conditions, the 
government of the seventh century made a radical attempt to 
arrange the free taxable population in artificial communities of 50 
families, and to impose upon it a system of equal allotment of rice 
land subject to a periodical redistribution. Within a short time the 
new system broke down on all sides. The greatest breach was made 
first through a natural combination of the immune classes of persons 
with the immune classes of land that had been devised in the system ; 
the nobility, the clergy, and the unfree, who were exempt from 
tributes and forced labor, established connections with "imperial 
lands," lands granted by the emperor, and " temple lands, 53 that were 
free from the land tax. Far more serious troubles arose when im- 
mune persons appropriated tracts of wild or newly tilled land 
and sought to convert them into immune lands. The result was 
the sho. Sho made their appearance from the eighth century, at 
first few and small and not always immune, but gradually absorb- 
ing other lands, including taxable lands, and making them partly 
or wholly imrAune. This process was at length officially sanctioned 
from the tenth century, 8 especially after the eleventh, when the 
authorities were constrained to grant charters of immunity to some 
of the sho, in order to distinguish them from others which were 
still considered illegitimate. The creation and extension of sh5 
now went on apace at the expense of the State. 

This would appear to be a reversion from an artificial village 
community to a scattered-farm system, and to private ownership; 
but these reappeared in a totally new form. The typical sho was 
born of a newly-cultivated tract, and, with this as its core, it ma- 
tured by a double process of absorbing neighboring tracts and di- 
viding its growing self. But the annexation and subdivision were 
not always made of the actual land. The native genius of the race 
for adaptability found its expression here in a free division of the 
various interests aiid rights relative to land, in their investment in 
different hands, and in their almost indefinite redivision and con- 
veyance. Thus were greatly facilitated transactions in proprietary 
and usufructuary rights, the same piece of land cultivated by one per- 
son soon giving titles and yielding profits to many. 9 A singular and 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHS IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN, 315 

important aspect of these real rights and interests was that they 
usually retained upon them marks of the conditions in which they 
had originated; the two main classes of relations being those that 
arose from the voluntary commendation of land by a free owner to 
a lord, and those that sprang from a grant by the lord to a tenant 
the former the freer, and the latter the more precarious in character. 
And relations of these two classes again shaded into many grades of 
quality as they changed hands and were further parcelled, sub- 
limated, or burdened with conditions. The shd of the 12th cen- 
tury that I defined at the outset was, therefore, characterized by an 
intricate plexus of real rights and obligations that had been and con- 
tinued to be interwoven upon the lands comprised within the area. 10 
These lands and legal relations were loosely held together under a 
seignior, the nature of whose authority varied greatly according as 
to whether he was a civil noble, a military leader, or a religious cor- 
poration. 

The sh5, at once like and unlike the manor as it was, became a 
primary cause of the feudal regime in Japan; for, when the warrior 
entered the sho and established himself as its " resident," manager, 
or lord, it gradually in the course of a few centuries acquired char- 
acteristics of tfoe regular fief. Of this important transformation of 
the sho into the fief, the exact process is still obscure. 11 I shall try 
to see if any light may be thrown on it by the history of a non- feudal 
sho. I now propose to take up a typical sho, not under a military 
chieftain, but belonging to a Buddhist monastery, and observe how it 
was born, how it grew and changed, and how it died as a sho as such, 
and, above all, analyze tentatively, for the present effects of the 
influences that the stress of the times during the feudal ages exerted 
upon the multiple tenures and institutions of the sho. 

I. 

The historic monastery on Ko-ya San, or Mount Koya* in central 
Japan, some 50 miles almost due south of Kyoto, the old imperial 
capital, was founded in 816 by the priest Kobo. Kobo, 12 of all the 
early apostles of Japan, has been the object of the most universal 
veneration by Buddhists of all classes, places, and denominations. 
As for the monastery that he founded, it is not too much to say that 
almost every great event in national history has found reverberation 
in the romantic career of this religious establishment. We are 
concerned in this study, however, only with the position of the 
institution as a seignior, for such it tad become before the feudal rule 
was established in Japan in 1186, and such it continued to be through- 
out the feudal ages. The cartulary of the Koya monastery contains 
more than three thousand documents u relating to the many sho 



316 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

it has controlled that form an invaluable material for the study of 
the institutional and economic life of feudal Japan. 

The early possessions of Koya, despite its later pretensions, do not 
seem to have been extensive. Sixty years after its foundation the 
rice lands, recognized as its immune " temple-lands," appear to have 
aggregated but a little more than 100 acres. 14 To these were added 
other tracts through purchases, grants by imperial personages, dona- 
tions by nobles, and commendations by private owners. These lands 
were, at the end of the twelfth century, all exempt from the miscel- 
laneous impositions; some were free also from the chief land tax. 
Apart from their immunity, these sho and other domains of Koya 
differed widely among themselves, in their composition of lands and 
tenures, in their private fiscal methods, and in the degree of control 
the monastery as seignior exercised upon them. From the standpoint 
of the later developments, a general distinction might conveniently 
be drawn between the sho that originated in grants or gifts from 
high personages 15 and those that arose from commendations made by 
private owners with reservations of their rights. 16 In the former 
sho the monastery could have a freer sway over their affairs than 
in the latter, for in these it had to observe its agreements with the 
original commenders. And it seemed to be the continued effort of 
Kdya to reduce to the level of the one class the more independent 
sho of the other. 17 To this second and more interesting class be- 
longed the double sho of Kono-Makuni later triple 1S with the addi- 
tion of Sarukawa which will furnish the theme for this paper. 

The Kono-Makuni sho was situated several miles southwest of 
Mount Koya on both sides of a road leading to the city of Wakayama. 
The sho originated, like most sho, with one or two pieces of waste 
land reclaimed, perhaps late in the ninth century, by a local resident 
of some note. 19 In 911, a part of the modest income from the estate 
was informally pledged to the monastery, 20 but the title over the land 
was so insecure that provincial authorities classed it as public and 
levied taxes upon it. 21 In order to receive the benefit of immunity, 
in 1143, 2 * the owner of the tract, a descendant of the original reclaimer, 
commended it to a court noble of the Fujiwara family at Kyoto, as 
the custom was, with the title of Possessor (ryd~ke) with the under- 
standing that the latter would himself commend the same land to 
the ex-emperor, Go-Toba, as Lord (hon-sfio) ?* and that the first com- 
mender and his descendants in succession should serve as Managers 
(adzukari-dokoro) under the direction of the Possessor. 32 The Koya 
monastery was to be remembered with an annual payment in rice 22 as 
a recompense for the religious service it should perform in behalf 
of the ex-emperor. 2 * The place was now for the first time formally 
staked out as a sho, and a charter was issued from the ex-emperor's 
chamber summarizing the conditions and granting freedom from 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IK MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 317 

the public land-tax and from the visitation of both local officials and 
monastic agents. 22 This is the birth of the double sho ef Kono- 
Makuni. It will be noted that, in spite of the creation of the titular 
Possessor, the real possessor and exploiter of the land was still the 
commender, who had reserved his place as hereditary Manager; in 
all probability he simply rendered a tribute to the noble Possessor, 
who may or may not in turn have given up a part of it to the nominal 
imperial Lord. As for the monastery, it was merely entitled to a 
fraction of the income of the sho, to which it was forbidden even 
to send a collector. 

It could hardly be expected that Koya would rest content with 
this meager lot. The monastery sought with some success to estab- 
lish a direct contact with the inhabitants of the sho, 25 probably using 
as a lever its right to an annual tax, and also by appealing to its 
defunct title of 911 as a commendee. 26 Early in 1177, it seems to 
have succeeded in gaining by a characteristically roundabout way 
a promise from the Possessor of an additional annual due. 27 Nor 
was Koya less alert to improve every opportunity to increase its claim 
upon the control of the affairs of the sho ; and, as it happened, both 
the Possessor and the Manager, by ill-considered acts, played into 
the hands of the astute monastery. Especially the Manager, believ- 
ing that he rightfully controlled the use of the land, commended 
the sho in some manner to another monastery, 28 and about 1190 with 
equal lack of thought, commended the sho in a vague title to Koya. 29 
This the latter pretended to believe to be the very managership of 
the sho; it acted according to that conviction, reducing the former 
Manager into the position of an agent. 30 

IL 

When a partial feudal rule was introduced into the governing ma- 
chinery of Japan in 1186, Kdya promptly enlisted the good-will of 
the suzerain, Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, and secured from him an im- 
munity of all its sho from a military surtax and from the interference 
of the new military constables and stewards. 81 These privileges were 
conceded by Yoritomo with the greater willingness, as it formed a 
part of his conservative policy, so far as was compatible with the 
real political power which he had won, to respect the class interests 
and proprietary rights that he found in entrenchment everywhere. 
And Koya was one of the greatest landlords and one of the most 
formidable religious institutions in all Japan. 

Perhaps the greatest gain for the monastery was the recognition 
it succeeded in winning from the new ruler of its alleged ancient 
territorial rights. 82 Koya had for some time pretended for the 
claim can b proven to be a pretension and now pretended success- 



318 AMEBICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

fully, that at the founding of the monastery in 816 by Kobo, the 
local deity yielded to him, and the imperial government also 
granted to him, 10,000 cho (nearly 30,000 acres) of land around the 
mountain. 33 This wide area, to which Koya henceforth referred as 
its "ancient domain" (kyu-ryo}?* would include the double sh5 of 
Kono-Makuni 85 as well as many other districts; 36 and the claim 
furnished grounds for the extension, not only of the land of the 
various sho, but also of the power of the monastery as the dispenser 
of benefits. Within the rather indefinite borders of this territory 
Koya seems to have been enabled to create or claim 37 lands and 
landed interests under its direct control, 38 in juxtaposition with freer 
tenures, and to try to assimilate the latter to the former. 39 

As regards the Kono-Makuni sho, of which the monastery had 
already professed the managership, a fortunate event occurred in 
1221 to enable it to make its control of its land and people mare 
complete. The Fujiwara noble who still claimed the title of Pos- 
sessor, 40 as well as the imperial Lord of the sho, were in that year 
involved in a plot to overthrow the feudal government and were 
defeated and exiled, and the titles seem to have lapsed. As the 
actual Lord 41 and as Possessor and Manager as well in name 42 as in 
reality, the monastery now had virtually no one over it and no other 
magnate eclipsing its power as the seignior of the sho ; it had already 
begun to deal directly with the landholders of the sho, and now re- 
doubled its effort, as will be seen later, to reduce its freer tenures to 
a greater dependence .upon its will. There was henceforth little 
substantial difference in the character of the seigniorial control over 
them between granted sho and this sho, which had originated in 
commendations. 43 

It was also in this period that the neighboring district of Sarukawa 
was attached as a joint member to the double sho, 44 which appears in 
documents from the middle of the thirteenth century as the triple 45 
Kono-Makuni-Sarukawa sho. The previous history of Sarukawa had 
been similar to that of most commended sho, having passed through 
the familiar stages of original cultivation by a local magnate, 46 
hereditary possession by his children, 47 and commendation with reser- 
vation. 44 

We have so far discussed the progress of the control of the monastic 
seignior over the triple sho as a whole. This had come about simul- 
taneously with the internal changes that occurred both in the tenures 
of the individual landholders in the sho and in the character of its 
administrative machinery. To these changes we shall now turn. 

It will be remembered that the triple sho had originated, not in 
grants or gifts from high quarters, but in commendations with res- 
ervations, first by one owner of his land and then by others of theirs. 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IF MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 319 

Many of these men and others of their class were of families whose 
members had for generations lived in the place, 45 owned lands,* 8 car- 
ried arms and kept retainers, 50 even had served in Kyoto as minor 
officials and made influential connections at the capital, 51 and had 
generally established their prestige as local chiefs. When they com- 
mended their lands to a seignior, and perhaps even when they sold 
or mortgaged them among themselves, what was actually conveyed 
was often mere interests and profits; in these cases the lands them- 
selves and their management or " the use of the original and inde- 
structible powers of the soil," to quote the Ricardian phrase re- 
mained in reality in the hands of the former owners ; 52 and these 
lands, as well as others that they still held in more complete titles, 
were transmitted by heredity or alienated with all the obligations 
that encumbered them. 58 These men were chief among the ju-nin 
("residents") or hyaku-sho (bearers of family names), and ji-shu 
C" landholders"), 64 who formed the backbone of the sho, supporting 
its life and bearing its burdens. 55 The titular masters of the sho had 
perforce to rely on the good faith and cooperation of these men, 
whether in the administration of its affairs 56 or in its defense 57 
against aggressions from without, which were frequent. 58 Such was 
the condition in the middle of the twelfth century. 

This state of things began to change gradually toward the close 
of the pre-feudal period, and then more rapidly after the beginning 
of the thirteenth century. First, we turn to the officials of the sho. 
The cartulary happens to contain nineteen oaths of fealty 59 sworn 
between 1271 and 1315 by the various officials of the triple sho that 
reveal conditions quite different from those that must have prevailed 
there even in 1221. It is true that the posts of these officials as the 
financial and police agents of the sho, held as they were by members 
of its representative families, were all hereditary 60 and regarded 
rather as profits than as functions, even women 61 being permitted to 
succeed to them. There now had appeared among the officials, how- 
ever, a perceptible distinction between two classes, namely : the lower 
ones representing more closely the actual holders of lands, 62 and the 
higher ones who were in more direct contact with Koya, and who 
perhaps were generally looked upon rather as servants of the mon- 
astery than as the landlords that their forefathers were and that 
some of them must still have been themselves. 68 The oaths given by 
the latter class of agents indicate that their position was distinctly 
more precarious than that of the former. 64 As a matter of fact the 
services of the higher agents were rewarded with grants of land or 
rice ; e5 the more recalcitrant among them could be punished with 
summary dismissal and their hereditary rights as agents revoked. 66 
And Koya had already begun to employ agents appointed for the 
sho from among the inmates within its monastic walls. 67 



320 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

At the same time, the tenures of the plain holders of land (ji-sfiu) 
had also been modified. 68 (1) Though still hereditary and alien- 
able, 69 they could now be confiscated and their holders banished for 
serious crimes, 70 and the landed interests wrested from them were 
granted by Koya as seignior to others in less free tenures. 71 (2) It 
is significant that the so-called " name-lands " (myo-den) , many of 
which had presumably been small allodial areas reclaimed by their 
owners, 72 are now seen in some instances to be grants from the 
seignior. 73 ( 3 ) From the last half of the thirteenth century, a remark- 
ably widespread tendency is noticeable in all the Koya sho, including 
the triple sho, of many of their constituent pieces of rice land that 
had still been held by residents to be acquired through purchase 
or mortgage by monks of the monastery, and then commended by 
them to Koya 7 * " for the peace of the present," as they said, " and 
the happiness of the next life," or " for the extinction of the past, 
present, and future sins." 75 Apart from these pious formulas it i& 
not clear what economic consideration had induced the monks so 
commonly to have recourse to these transactions, unless we assume 
that the commendation meant the surrender, in law, of the title over 
the land, but in fact only of a fraction of its profit; and that the 
commending monk lost through his act less in income than in the 
freedom of his tenure; in other words, he presumably enjoyed a 
major profit from the land which was thenceforth nominally a grant 
from the seignior. 16 At any rate, it is plain that, at the beginning 
of the fourteenth century, the tenures of land in the triple sho, like 
the rights of its agents, though still normally transferable by heredity 
and conveyance, had become partly dependent on the will of the 
seignior. 

I infer that this change had resulted not only from the progress in 
the control of the sho by the monastery as lord that we saw taking 
place in the early feudal period, but also from general conditions of 
the age for which Koya should not be held responsible. Among these 
may be mentioned the continued facility with which rights and inter- 
ests relative to land could still be subdivided and transferred, causing 
the position of some descendants of the original holders and com- 
menders of land to be generally weakened, and affording opportuni- 
ties to the seignior to alter tenures. 77 Also the prevailing turbulence 
of the time, from which even the consecrated mountain was not free, 
compelled Koya to require from chief members of its sho a more fre- 
quent and extensive service at arms 78 at the monastery than before ; 
these added burdens, together with the increased financial obligations 
of the period, may have reacted unfavorably upon the condition of 
the landholder. If he had not yet been obliged to forsake land alto- 
gether and turn a mercenary warrior, he had been sorely tempted to 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 321 

exchange some of his landed interests either for lower tenures or for 
ready cash. 79 

Side by side with the gradual alteration of the status of the " land- 
holder" (ji-sfiu), we begin to observe that the position of the "cul- 
tivator " (saJtu-nm) of the soil also was slowly changing, though the 
full meaning of both facts does not become obvious until we reach the 
end of the nest period. 

The history of the status of the Japanese agricultural laborer dur- 
ing the feudal ages would seem to afford a difficult but fruitful field 
of study. Unfortunately, his position during the first feudal period 
is extremely obscure. 80 But was the so-called " cultivator " a laborer? 
The question would seem to involve two points, Ms work and his 
status. First, as regards his work : Were the " cultivators " actually 
tillers of the soil? Whatever their original condition, 81 some of 
them were, even in the early twelfth century, hardly real toilers 
of the glebe ; 82 in the first feudal ages, at least those " cultivators " 
whom we find bearing family names, holding cultivatorships of 
several pieces of land, and even appearing at the same time with the 
title of " landholders " of these and other pieces, 88 would seem them- 
selves to have been employers of men. 84 We may safely infer that, 
while some "cultivators" were tillers, others were holders of the 
so-called "right of cultivation" (sakw-sMki} another class of real 
rights that were sources of profits, and were hereditary, divisible, 
and transferable. 85 Next, as regards the status of the " cultivator " : 
In the early feudal period, he held his right under some form of con- 
trol of the " landholder," so that when the land changed hands, the 
" cultivator's " right was liable to lapse. 86 Soon, however, we find his 
position tending to become securer and less dependent. 87 At least in 
the triple sho, the " cultivators " appear even to have been placed par- 
tially under direct control of monastic agents, apparently paying 
dues to them 88 as well as to the " landholders " 89 of whom they held 
their tenures. From the early 14th century, the name of the " culti- 
vator " is usually attached when a piece of land is mentioned, but that 
of the holder no longer appears as a rule; or sometimes the latter's 
place is taken by a religious service or some other impersonal matter 
for which proceeds from the land were devoted. 90 It even occurs that 
personal names are given with pieces of land without specification 
either as " landlords " or as " cultivators," 81 leaving one to imagine 
that they may possibly have represented "cultivators" that were 
virtually "landholders." However that may be, it is not too much 
to conclude that, at the end of the first feudal period, at least some 
of the " cultivators " were not employed tillers, still less serfs, but 
men who derived the fruit of the soil, and, in the last analysis, bore 
the whole burden of the dues from it; they had advanced halfway 
2331$ 19 21 



322 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION 

toward the position that the "landholders" had occupied. Nor is 
this strange when we admit that the original distinction between the 
"cultivator" and the "landholder" must have meant primarily a 
differentiation of rights and profits (skiM) of land, rather than of 
personal status or even of person, and also remember that these 
rights and profits were in a state of flux. 

To recapitulate at this point: At the close of the first period of 
feudal history, the "landholders" and the "cultivators" were drift- 
ing toward each other in cross currents of social adjustment, many of 
the former class slowly losing the freedom of tenure and many of 
the latter as slowly gaining the real possession of the soil. It is need- 
less to repeat here that in this evolution at least the lowering of the 
status of the " landholder," if not the rise of the " cultivator," had 
been fostered by the seignior for his own interest; he likewise had 
been engaged in an effort to reduce officials of the sho to greater sub- 
serviency. The next feudal period of Japan opened in the triple sho 
in the midst of this general movement, and, as we shall see, gave it a 
stronger impetus and carried it to its consequences. 

III. 

From the second quarter of the fourteenth century Japan entered 
upon dark ages of a prolonged civil strife and practical anarchy last- 
ing till the end of the sixteenth century. If we leave Koya for a 
moment and take a survey of the feudal Japan as a whole, we shall 
find that, amid the utmost decentralization that ensued, the period 
witnessed certain momentous changes taking place as if by concert in 
the institutional life of the whole country. Among these the most 
important for our present study are two double processes, one of them 
begun earlier and now completed, and the other noticeable from the 
latter half of this period and matured only after 1600. 

The first of these double movements may be characterized as the 
consummation of the f eudalization both of the administrative agency 
and of the land tenure of Japan. The evolution was necessarily long 
and multifarious, and is still largely obscure, but the results stand 
out in bold outlines. We may well say that the governmental appa- 
ratus was at last completely feudalized when, as we find in 1600, all 
the sho under civil control 92 and all the public offices of civil origin 
in the provinces y$ had been annexed by groups of warriors held to- 
gether by ties of vassalage. Similarly, it is just to say that land 
tenure was finally feudalized when the conquering war lord assumed 
a free disposition of the territory he had won at the point of his 
sword, and reduced the multiple tenures he had found therein into 
a nearly uniform tenure a tenure which, though normally capable 
of heredity and subinfeudation, was, under his dictatorial control. 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPA1S. 323 

subject to a reinvestiture at succession and liable to confiscation, and 
entailed upon its tenants a definite personal service in arms toward 
him. 94 The peculiarly complex sho, such as we found in the twelfth 
century, was no more, 95 at least under military control ; the sho had 
been converted into a fief. 

The year 1600 saw this double transformation practically finished ; 
it witnessed another twofold movement already begun but still in- 
complete. This was, in one aspect, a growing differentiation between 
the military and the argicultural classes, and in another an increas- 
ing tendency among the latter to reverse the earlier custom of sub- 
dividing landed rights and interests (shiki) and to unify them once 
more with land itself. The growth of a class of professional war- 
riors, many of whom now lived near the castles of the lords and re- 
ceived rice or money instead of land for the service they offered, 
and the consequent partial separation of arms from land 96 these 
phenomena had resulted from the continued and increasingly better 
organized warfare 9T that had characterized the intervening period. 
The peasants in the field on their part were becoming at once more 
unprotected, because unarmed, and freer in status and in feeling, 
because more independent of immediate military control, than in the 
earlier period ; 96 these conditions tended to make the ambitious lord 
regard the peasantry as an object of paternal solicitude, to be at 
once protected and feared. 90 And the improving position of the peas- 
ant was coincident with the progressive unification of real rights 
and land, a tendency which he embraced and nursed. Scarcely did 
the seignior imagine himself to have succeeded in reducing the 
" landholder " into a dependent tenant, 98 when the latter found him- 
self on the road to become the practical owner of the land which, 
under the name of a grant by favor, he in fact exploited and passed 
on to his heir. 99 

It may be presumed that these great social changes, whatever 
their causes and their exact processes, must have reacted upon an- 
other. The increasing reunion of land and landed interests must 
have tended to strengthen the position of the peasant ; and that posi- 
tion in turn must have been influenced by his growing freedom from 
the proximity of warriors ; while the partial liberation of the warrior 
himself from the cares of economic production must have facilitated 
the feudalization of the governing machinery of the domains under 
armed control. Nor might we suppose that the simplification of the 
sho and its transformation into the fief were completed without an 
impetus received both from the ascendency of the military nobility 
over the civil, on the one hand, and, on the other, from the consoli- 
dation of various interests of land in the hands of its holder. We 
shall find in the next period that these changes not only had together 
brought the feudal development to its culmination, but also had 



324 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

created forces tending to undermine the feudal structure of society. 
We must first observe how the movements to which we have alluded 
were reflected in the triple sho during the second period of Japanese 
feudal history. 

It was inevitable that the landed interests of the Koya monastery 
during the period of general commotion should, as they did, suffer 
many alterations and encroachments; 100 but, thanks to their religious 
and immune character, the monastic sho, unlike the civil sho, held 
their own, on the whole, recovering many of their losses and weather- 
ing the storm as best they could. If the truth must be told, both the 
sho and the monastery on the mountain were armed not altogether 
inadequately and not always for purely defensive ends. 101 What 
must we think when we are told that about 1580 Koya held posses- 
sions much more extensive than it ever had or has held, 102 and that 
its warriors defied and for a time defeated an army of the suzerain 
of half feudalJapan? 103 

As regards our triple sho, the documents relative to its changes in 
this period are regrettably few, but, along with the examples of other 
monastic domains, give us a sufficient ground to infer that much of 
the social evolution enacted abroad repeated itself here. 

The historic effort of the monastery to increase its seigniorial con- 
trol over the various tenures and tenants of the sho seems now to 
have been well nigh consummated. At last all the officials of the sh5 
were treated by Koya as employed agents at once hereditary and 
precarious, 104 rather than as representatives of the peasants. 105 Even 
when warriors had encroached upon the sho and wrung from the 
monastery a grudging recognition for a time as petty seigniors, 106 
Koya recovered its control of the affected districts at the first oppor- 
tunity, and thereafter treated the intruders who remained as de- 
pendent agents. 107 The "name-lands" (myo-den) had changed 
hands, and many of them had been annexed by Koya, and granted to 
its agents. The title "name- [land] holder" (myo-shu) had been 
given to minor officials of the sh5 who were not always actual holders 
of this species of land. In many, perhaps in all, instances the very 
peasants were regarded as holders of granted titles; that is, as pre- 
carious thought hereditary. 108 

These marks of the added authority which Koya as seignior 
thought to have gained were, however, offset by more substantial 
changes that had been silently taking place from below, The uni- 
fication of land and landed interests, to which I have alluded in re- 
gard to the feudal domains, manifested itself in Koya sho, as perhaps 
in other parts of Japan, in a signal progress of the equalization of 
status between "landholders" and "cultivators" that had begun 
earlier. This social evolution is epitomized in certain historic terms 
that designated the changing social classes. The old term Jiyaku- 



LIFE OF A MOHASTIC SHO IK MEDIEVAL JAPA2T. 325 

9 (bearers of family names), which represented, in ancient 
times, free taxable citizens, 110 but, in the twelfth to early fourteenth 
century, the class of landholders, including the local chiefs upon 
whom devolved the duty of defending the sho and the monastery, and 
assisting in the administration of the former, 111 was now seen again 
to be changing its meaning. In the period of civil war the 
term was beginning to be applied, as it invariably was after 
1600, to peasants pure and simple, dissociated from armed serv- 
ice and depending upon the seignior and his agents for sheer 
protection and no longer bearing even family names. 112 At the 
same time both the terms "landholder 55 and "cultivator" had 
also changed their signification. The landholder (now the same 
characters ji-shu being pronounced ji-nu$ki) was a Tiyaku-sho 
possessing a free title over plats of land, which were no longer 
burdened with subtle division of rights and relations, and paying 
regular dues upon them; he had become, all but in name, a plain 
landowner. The term "cultivator" (saJcu-nin) denoted more and 
more commonly a relatively small 113 class of free tenants who rented 
lands owned by others and paid to them the economic rent ; 114 they 
appear neither as the institutional descendants of the old " culti- 
vators" nor as serfs, but rather as regular tenant farmers such as 
would come into being without special antecedents. I do not forget 
that neither the old hyaku-sho nor the old " cultivators " had been 
a simple class, but each had comprised several grades of status ; 115 
what seems likely is that the grades in each class had now drifted 
apart, and some of the former two classes coalesced in a new social 
alignment. In other words, it is probable that if some of the " cul- 
tivators " had remained as or become free tenants others had risen 
to the status of the better Jiyaku-sho; the " landholders " were like- 
wise differentiated between those who had been joined by the risen 
"cultivators," no longer so designated, and those that had turned 
professional warriors or their retainers, they either remaining in the 
sho, boasting their family names and living the lives of petty lords, 112 
or perhaps more frequently toward the end of the period having left 
the soil and attached themselves to barons. The old terminology 
persisted but represented changed realities. The new composite 
hyaJcu-sfid, including peasant proprietors and tenants, would seem to 
have formed the bulk of the new rural class, with the absent seignior 
above and the hired farm hands 116 below them. The distinction be- 
tween the old "cultivator" and the old "landholder," 117 like the 
earlier difference between the relatively free commender and the 
relatively precarious grantee, and like the sho itself whose inhabitants 
they all had been, had passed into history. 

As we complete our survey of the second feudal period, let us ask 
ourselves, How much did the changes in the sh5 reflect those of the 



326 AMEEICAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

feudal Japan to which we referred? "What was common to both 
and what was the difference between them? These questions are 
elusive. We may say that the increased seigniorial control, on the 
one hand, and the new social alignment, on the other, were due to the 
natural effort made by the monastery and by the peasants to advance 
their respective interest in the midst of the general tendencies in 
which the whole of Japan had been involved ; namely, the separation 
of arms from land and the coining together of the landed interests 
that had ramified. Behind these tendencies we can not for the pres- 
ent try to penetrate. While we grant to this extent the community 
of institutional life between our sho and the outside world, we must 
also admit that there was an important difference between them : the 
Koya sho, religious and not civil in character as it was, escaped 
a military conquest and so escaped a feudalization of its adminis- 
trative organs; again, the sho, having never been wholly 118 annexed 
by a great baron or brought into a feudal relation with him, was 
never converted into a fief in the technical sense. Only the general 
simplification of its tenures that the monastery seemed to have 
effected may be said to connote a sufficient will on the part of the 
seignior that, had he been a military lord thrown in the vortex of a 
struggle for ascendency, would have turned the sho into a fief ; it was 
only the religious character of the seignior that prevented that 
outcome. It might, therefore, be said that the very failure of the 
sho to be feudalized indicates the chief cause of the success of that 
development in the military domains ; that is, the dictatorial power 
of the war lord who took land with one hand and gave it with the 
other. Finally, we suggest that the common nature of the influences 
to which the triple sho and the military fiefs were exposed in this 
period is further demonstrated by the common destiny which, as we 
shall see, overtook them all in the next period. 

IV. 

The third and last period of Japan's feudal history 1600-1868 
may be dismissed with a few words. It will be remembered that 
during the preceding centuries the feudalization of the local Gov- 
ernment and the land tenure of Japan as a whole was completed, and 
the separation of land and arms and the reunion of land" and landed 
interests began. A little reflection will show that, if these move- 
ments operating together carried to its consummation the feudal 
organization of Japanese society, they would, as they did, also create 
conditions subversive of it ; for no regime could remain purely feudal, 
if its geasants were too free, and if too many of its warriors were 
detached from land. And yet these conditions were not only fully 
recognized, but also greatly extended, in the remarkable government 



tJDFE Off A MONASTIC SHO 1ST MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 

that the Tokugawa suzerains erected in the early seventeeth century ; 
they, in their own domains, deliberately increased the number of 
landless, stipendiary warriors, and gave a generous measure of self- 
government to the peasant communities, making them the foundation 
of the economic and financial life of the new regime. And the ex- 
ample was largely copied by the barons in their respective domains. 
Moreover, the suzerain, having at last unified all Japan torn for 
centuries "By civil war, extended to his rule of the whole the principles 
of feudal government and feudal land tenure that had been estab- 
lished separately in its parts; he regarded the entire realm as a vast 
domain, as it were, with its control centralized as far as was prac- 
ticable in his council at Edo ; carved the area into feudatories, many 
of them arbitrarily, and assigned them, under the name hanf to 
his barons as fiefs held of him. The result was a regime in which 
were combined and balanced with great care both feudal and non- 
feudal elements of society, and centralizing and decentralizing ten- 
dencies and forces of government. This is the regime that, despite 
the comparative inferiority of its later rulers, held sway over Japan 
till 1867. 

We finally return to the Kdya sho to observe its institutional 
position in this last of the feudal periods. We shall not linger to 
tell how the tyrant Hideyoshi had crushed for all time, as it proved, 
the armed power of the monastery and curtailed its landed pos- 
sessions. 120 Entering the new era in this attenuated state, the Koya 
monastery was regarded by the Tokugawa suzerain virtually as on 
a par with the barons, and its domains were collectively treated 
as a fief 121 held of him. As a species of baron, Koya gave its 
fealty to the successive suzerains at Edo and rendered them annual 
tributes. As a fief, the Koya domains were formally reinvested to 
the monastery by each suzerain at his accession to power. 122 In a 
word, Koya was autonomous in the administration of its own af- 
fairs, but dependent upon Tokugawa as overlord. Interesting as 
this period is, therefore, it is less significant for our study than the 
preceding ages. The triple sho of Kono-Makuni-Sarukawa was no 
longer triple, but was separated into four mutually unrelated sho 
with shifted boundaries; nor was each of the four sho, though still 
retaining that name, anything more than a collective name of units 
called mura, which were self-governing communities of Jiydku- 
sho* 23 comprising no " name-lands," no fortresses, and no warriors 
rendering military service. The life of the district as a real sho 
had long ceased to be ; what had survived was its name retained for 
an altogether altered institution. 

* F. Brinkley, "A History of the Japanese People," New York and London, 1915, pp. 
251-252, 270. See also James Murdock, "A History of Japan," Tokyo, 1910, I, 213. 
228, ff. 



328 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

a This contrast is drawn between the full-grown manor and sho, "both, say, of the 
twelfth century It need not be noted that in the ninth and tenth centuries there were 
in southern France domains in which holdings were irregular and, with their tenants* 
houses, isolated and scattered over the estate. See Seignobos's chapter, " Le regime 
feodaV in Lavisse and Rambaud's " Histoire generate," II, 5. 

'For a fuller discussion, the reader is referred to my article, "The Origin of the 
Feudal Land Tenure in Japan," in the American Historical Review for October, 1914 
(XX, no. 1), pp 1-23. 

* When there are both pasture and rice land, a communal form of management which 
is expedient for the pasture may tend to retard the development of individual ownership 
even in the rice fields, as seems to be the case in some parts of Java Iji Japan, on 
the contrary, pasture has not existed within historic times ; the race has not depended 
on sheep and cattle for material for clothing and food, cotton and grass cloths being 
used for raiment, and the numerous streams and the north ocean currents supplying an 
abundance of fish ; bulls and cows used in husbandry have been few, and, though peasants 
hare commonly kept horses, they as a rule were not left in the field to graze, but kept 
in stables while unemployed ; there they were made to tread grass into manure ; sufficient 
fodder was found by the wayside or in non-arable lands This last condition precluded 
the need of reserving extensive meadows 

The practical absence of meadows and pastures has formed one of the great peculiari- 
ties of Japanese economic life and has produced far-reaching results. Not only was the 
development of individual ownership of rice land, and then of other kinds of lands, 
thereby stimulated, but also the people were enabled to utilize a relatively greater part 
of the arable land for cultivation, and to maintain a larger population than would be 
possible in a half-farming and half-grazing country. Minor yet important effects might 
be traced in a variety of ways. 

1 The predominant place occupied by the rice culture in Japan's agriculture constitutes 
its second chief characteristic. Its effects on the institutional life of the nation can 
hardly be exaggerated; it at least fashioned the life of the sho from its very birth and 
in all its ramifications. These and other effects would merit a careful analysis. Among 
the minor effects I may refer to the fact that, because of the use of rice, both as the 
staple food and as the material for brewing sake, there has been no necessity of reserving 
vineyards ; also, rice being used in grain, the mill has not played in Japanese social 
history the part it has in Europe. 

About the Irrigation and the intensive nature of the rice culture, see the article 
** Influence of geographical conditions upon Japanese agriculture," by Miss E. C. Semple, 
in the Geographical Journal for December, 1912. 

7 If we bear in mind the intensive nature of the cultivation of rice in irrigable lowlands 
and the comparatively high value of the product, and also remember the absence of 
pastures and meadows, we shall be able to see why the relatively small area of the arable 
land in Japan admitted a relatively dense population ; we may also understand why rice 
fields were, and needed to be, small 

It is not unlikely that during the feudal ages the general tendency with rice fields was 
to become smaller, both for more effective culture and for readier division of rights. 
However that may be, the very first fields must have been diminutive enough The 
following instances are taken from among the shS belonging to the monastery of Mount 
KSya. In 1136, 78 plots showed an average of 1| acres; in 1273, 18 plots averaged 
0.27 acre ; and in 1424, 1020 plots averaged 0.23 acre. In the last instances, plots larger 
than 0.6 acre and those smaller than 0.05 acre were few, the large majority, 896 plots, 
being between the two K6-ya san mon-zho, III, 358-386, V, 356-389, 486-8. It will 
probably be possible some day to show that the diminutive size of rice fields in Japan 
was responsible for many of the characteristics of the history of the sho 

Some charters date as early as 950. Most early charters seem to have been issued 
by the provincial, not the imperial, government See Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 270-299. 

*The division of land itself (shita-ji, as it would be called in old Japanese), rather 
tna.n of interests and rights relative to land (shiM), practised in the peasant holdings in 
medieval France, is considered by Seignobos as one of the causes of their consisting in 
narrow strips. Lavisse and Rambaud, op. cit, II, 8 

"That a resident of one sho could have a right over a piece of land in another sh5 
and cultivate it; the nonresident holder or cultivator was obliged to pay his usual dues 
to the sho in which he exercised his rights. K5-ya san mon-zho, I, 508. 

11 A Japanese critic of the article mentioned in note 3 above was oblivious of the 
fundamental difference between the sh5 and the fief and other institutional problems of 
prime importance. See SM-gaku zasshi, XXVI, 378-379; my reply, ibid., 776-780. 

M K6b5 (posthumous name of Kukal), 774-835, on Ms return from China in 807, 
established the mystic ritualism of Shingon Buddhism. Tae imposing, mysterious per- 
formances of the sect, reinforced, as they were, by the prieat'a extraordinary versatility 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IK MEDIEVAL JAPAN". 329 

and winsome character, fascinated and captivated the Court. He also entered deeply 
into the hearts of the common people of all subsequent ages through his many travels, 
his artistic activity, and his founding of the Koya monastery, which has been a Mecca 
of Buddhist pilgrimage 

13 Published between 1904 ana 1907 under the title, Ko ya san mon zho (hereinafter 
abbreviated as Koya), 8 vols., in the great series Dai Xi-hon ko-mon zho, edited by the 
Historiography Institute of the Imperial University of Tokyo. I suspect that the mon- 
astery must possess unpublished documents not repiorluced in this series, The Ki-i no 
kuni zoku fu-do ki (hereinafter abbreviated as Ki), compiled c 1808-1839 by Niida Yoshi- 
furu and others in 192 chapters (printed in five large volumes in 1910-1911) contains 
some hundreds of documents of the Koya shO not included in the published cartulary. The 
documents relating strictly to the triple sho alone in these two works number about 130. 

"San-dai zhitsu-roku, chap 29 (Koku-shi tai-kei, IV, 432). 

15 Such as the Mandokoro, Arakawa, and Minabe sho 

10 Such as parts of the Adegawa sho and of our triple sho 

17 1 think that this theory should explain many an act of the monastery towards 
its freer sho Its poweis as seignior were specially ample in the granted Mandokoro 
bh.o, already in 1125 (see Koya, VII, 266-268), which must have served as a model 
in the treatment of the other sho. See notes 26, 39, and 43 below 

18 The exact size of the triple sho, which mus>t have continued to increase even 
after the annexation of Sarukawa in the thirteenth, century, is stated nowhere in the 
documents. When we remember that the life of a sho as a terrain was built upon 
its cultivated area, it is not strange that its value should usually be expressed, as 
it was, in terms of its productivity measured in rice, not of its lineal extent. About 
1830, when the extent of what had before been the triple sho may be presumed to 
have reached its utmost, the total productivity of all kinds of tilled land comprised 
in this area was rated as 5,027 koku (about 25,000 bushels) of hulled rice, produced 
by 5,413 members of 1,245 families Taking the average yield of a sho as 8 koku (or 
about 15 bushels per acie), 5,027 koku would represent a total of 628 sho (about 1,550 
acres), which should be regarded as a very rough estimate for a very late date. 

Some idea of the range of the sizes of early sho may be gained from the following 
data from the domains of the temple at Iwashimidzu In 1072, of the 34 sho that were 
enumerated, the smallest included about 20 acies of tilled area, and the largest 
about 100 acres. Larger sho seem to have contained waste or wooded land, and 
therefore can not be used for comparison. Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 270-299, In an 
undated list of 104 sh5 in Kyushu, the smallest measured 15 acres, and there was 
another less than 30 acres; the largest had more than 2,400 acres, which was ex- 
ceptional, the second covering but 390 acres ; and there were two more faho that com- 
prised 300 acres each. (Ibid , II, 141-147.) 

To return to th'e triple sho, each of its three component sho seems always to have 
had Its administrative offices at the " sho-house " (corresponding to the French in- 
tendant's house or the German Frohnhof), but at no time was there any central 
bureau for the triple district as a whole. 

The triple sho happened to possess a central market place in Kono, at least since 
the end of the thirteenth century (Koya, IV, 636), where later regular fairs occurred 
six times annually. K5no was otherwise most populous, producing cotton and paper 
besides rice ; Hakuni was probably the most sterile. Economically, the triple sh5 
was hardly self-sufficient, and the market served as a distributing center not only 
for this hut also for neighboring sho. 

Each part of the triple sho consisted of rural districts which were called mura, 
at least in the third feudal period, some 40 in all, about 1830 Each mura, sup- 
ported Shinto and Buddhist shrines and temples, their total number for the entire 
region, about 1830, being 70 ordinary and 140 smaller ones for a population of 
5,400. Each sho had its chief shrine and temple The burden of these religious 
institutions was less formidable than their number would lead us to suppose, for most 
of them were tiny shrines by the wayside or on hilltops, unattended by priests, and 
costing hardly anything for maintenance. The annual festivals at these houses, not 
only in the triple sho, but in all districts in rural Japan, were days of gathering and 
diversion that played an important part in the social life of the people 

There were, in accordance with the custom of the time, public bathhouses. They 
are seen as early as 1271. Koya, I, 506, VII, 194. 

See Ki, I, 784-786, 823-827, 846-865. 

18 Of the Osa (or Naga?) family, who claimed relation to the great Taira clan 
See Ki, V, 243 Members of this family are seen among chief residents and officers 
of the sho, at least till the early fourteenth century. Koya, VII, 197 t 229, 233, 237- 
240, etc. 

Ki, V, 243. Also Koya, VII, 229. 



330 AMEBICA2ST HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 



VII, 230. 

All these conditions are explicitly stated in the ex-Emperor's charter establishing the 
&h5 IB 1143 , Koya, YII, 229-232. This is one of the most complete specimens of char- 
ters of this class. 

28 The titles ryS-ke and adzukari-dakoro are explicit In the charter, but that of hon-sho 
is inferential. 

*Koya, VIII, 384. 

IB 1164, 1177, 1179, etc., Koya, VII, 179, 232, 235-236, etc. 

* Probably also by applying to this commended sho 1 the example of the granted Mando- 
koro sho, over whose men Koya had been exercising a direct control. See Koya, II, 
546-558, VII, 266-268. 

27 Koya, VII, 178. 

88 In 1175, to the monastery on Mount Yoshino, Koya, VII, 234, a good example of a 
letter of commendation. Yoshino did not succeed in tightening its hold upon the sho, 
and its influence was in the course of a few years completely overshadowed by that 
of Koya. 

This is Inferred from documents about 1176 and of 1199. Koya, I, 581, VII, 236- 
237. The letter of commendation has not been preserved. 

80 See Note 19, above. 

81 Ki, V, 124, 128, 135 (cited in a document of 1333) ; Adzuma-kagami, bk, 7, edition 
Kikkawa, I, 161 ; Koya, I, 369, VII, 181-182, VIII, 23-24. 

asin 1184, Adzuma-kagami, bk. 3, edition Kikkawa, I, 90-91; Koya, I, 449. 

83 The sole evidence for these claims that Koya could advance was an account of the 
founding of the monastery and instructions to the disciples said to be autographic com- 
pilations made in 834 by the founder, Kobo (Ki, V, 113-115 ; K6-bo dai-shi zen-smi, I, 
769-780), but their authenticity, though not the veracity of Kobo, was questioned even 
by the pious imperial court, in 1219 and 1334 (see Ki, V, 46, 136). The very improbabil- 
ity of some of the place names and of the stories of the deity and the Emperor Ojin is 
apparent. The documents of 740 and 816, that are often adduced to support the claims, 
exist only in alleged citations in the account of 834, referred to above. If the official 
grant of 816 were genuine, the possessions of Koya in 876 could not be so small as they 
were (see Note 14, above) ; nor could the monastery so completely forget, as it did, its 
claims till the latter part of the twelfth century. See next note. 

84 1 have not yet discovered any authentic document earlier than 1177 (Koya, VII, 
178) in which Koya appealed to its "ancient domain." The one dated early in 104S 
(Ki, V, 269) I regard as spurious. Prom the end of the twelfth century, however, appeals 
are common (e. g., in 1199: Koya, VII, 236; in 1218 . Ki, V, 119; etc). Between 1331 
and 1354 Koya's title over it was repeatedly confirmed by the civil and feudal govern- 
ments (ibid., 136-140) ; in 1584, by the suzerain Hideyoshi (ibid., 146), 

85 Documents of 1199, Koya, VII, 236-240 , of 1221, ibid., I, 292 ; Ki, V, 128 ; and of 
1280, Koya, VII, 259. 

w A list in 1285 of the districts included in the " ancient domain " gives 34, of which 
the triple sfco is counted as three Ki, V, 130-131. 

Koya, VIII, 393-396 ; Ki, V, 119. 

88 Direct control over a piece of land was designated as ichl-yen chi-gyo (i. e., complete 
control). This has been erroneously identified by some Japanese scholars with the 
possession of shita-ji (1. e., the soil). The latter was the actual use and enjoyment of 
soil, while the former apparently meant a complete right over the dues from the land, 
which was used by the tenants paying the dues ; this point is inferred from the fact that 
a grant in 1270 of a half of an ichi-yen chi-gy5 in the triple sho was in reality a cession 
of one-half of the taxes of the district Koya, VII, 198, 259 ; cf. 246, 253, VIII, 
128,130. 

88 To cite instances only within the triple shd". An entire mura in Makuni, which had 
not been commended, was given in fief by K6ya to a body of religious servants, Koya, I, 
601. Ogawa and Saime mura were considered as " land of ichi-yen chi-gy5 " by Kdya 
(Ki, V, 48) ; it commanded their inhabitants to swear fealty to itself (Koya, VII, 185), 
and allowed monastic servants to settle here, who were naturally under its direct con- 
trol. Ibid., VH, 247. 

40 Despite the transfer of the title sometime before 1183 to the abbot of the Takawo 
monastery, and despite the lapse of the title in 1199 occasioned by his f^n. Ki V 124 * 
Koya, VII, 236. 

tt Residents of the sho so styled K5ya in 1199. Koya, VII, 236. In 1221, the fallen 
ex-emperor's family exercised a shadowy control over the use of the income of the sho 
(ibid., I, 294; VIII, 3S7), but even that soon passed away. In fact, in the same year, 
the monastic lordship of the sho" was recognized by the imperial government Ibid., I, 
291. 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 331 

*An imperial order of 1221 and a feudal order of 1227. Koya, I, 291-292, 295; 

VII, 253. 

43 The immunity from the visitation of feudal stewards ( ji-to) was claimed and granted 
in 1228 for the triple sho, as for other sho of Koya. Koya, VII, 181-182, 253. In 1271 
officers of the same sho were made to swear, among other things, that they would, as 
in other monastic sho, resist the intrusion of the military constable's (shu-go) agents. 
Ibid , I, 507. When the shu-go demanded the delivery of incendiaries resident in 
Makunl, the order was not complied with. Ibid., VII, 224. 

u The date of the commendation of Sarukawa can not be determined. See the next 
note. 

45 Although the term " triple shd " (san ga sh5) is not met with in the documents 
before 1276 (Koya, VII, 187-192), the reality of the grouping of the three sho as a 
composite one may be traced back at least to 1254 Ibid., I, 217-220; VI, 308-309. 
Later use of the term is common (e. g., 1425; ibid., IV, 445). 

As a matter of fact, the word sho is often used carelessly even for parts of regular 
sho, a fact that betrays the private origin of this institution ; e g , Ishibashiri mura, 
which appears in 1294 as a sho (ibid , IV, 636), and again a mura in 1303 (VII, 254), 
and Ogawa and Saime mura, called a sho in 1333 (VII, 246, 253) ; the latter becomes 
a real sh5 only later in the 14th century (I, 410). 

< In 947 by a KunimagL El, I, 863 

47 There is a letter of conveyance from father to son, dated 1025 Ki, I, 863. The 
Kunimagi appear in the triple sho among its chief holders till the end of twelfth cen- 
tury Koya, VII, 233, 238-239. The Sarukawa family, whose names occur as corn- 
mendors as late as the fourteenth century, may be of the same blood. Koya, II, 226 ; 

VIII, 483. 

45 The personal names of those landholders in the middle of the twelfth century who had 
not assumed Buddhist names (Koya, III, 366-386) betray the gentility of their owners. 
When their family names, too, are given, the aristocratic origin of many of them 
is unmistakable. Ibid., I, 217-220 ; VI, 308-309 ; VII, 233, 237-240 ; Ki, V, 43. A list 
of 1185 for Mandokoro sh5 gives 288 names, of which 94 bore Buddhist names and 194 
belonged to 53 families, including the most illustrious in history. Koya, II, 547-559. 
The presence in the triple sho of some of these families may be traced for centuries ; 
some in the thirteenth century had so far identified their interest with the districts in 
which they lived as to have taken the names of the latter as names of their own branches 
of the larger families. E g , ibid., I, 220 ; II, 226 ; III, 538-539, etc. 

It is quite likely that the practice which became notable in later ages among local 
warriors of assuming noble descent on slight or no grounds may already have begun 
in this period. It would, however, be strange if many of the claims for high birth were 
not styi well founded, for older official records abound with instances of persons of im- 
perial or noble ancestry who had settled in the provinces. As a matter of fact, these 
persons of real or pretended nobility were to be found among chief residents in all parts 
of Japan, and constituted a main source of the feudal warriors. 

48 Acts of bequeathing " private estates in hereditary succession " (sen-zo so-den no 
shi-ryo) by these men are frequently met with. Ki, I, 863; Koya, III, 556; etc. 
Though usually the holdings, specially of rice land, were small (e. g, in 1218 rice land 
held by 108 men in Ota sh5 averaging less than 5 acres, Koya, VIII, 592-597), everv 
list contains larger holders ; in 1164 the largest among the 46 men that are mentioned 
being 45 acres of mulberry fields in 46 plots, and in 1218 a tenant of 41 acres of rice 
fields being first among 108 holders. Ibid , and III, 366-386. About 1090 a resident 
of Mandokoro controlled some 250 acres (VII, 267), probably inclusive of uncultivated 
land. It would be impossible, as said a proprietor in 1064, properly to manage a large 
holding, when it was in actual possession, without dependent laborers ; he would rather 
commend it to a seignior (Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 299). Cf. Note 116 below. 

50 Most of the men, including even the secular shavelings (nyti-do) that are re- 
ferred to in note 48 above, seem at least to have been capable of bearing arms, and 
the dependent folk suggested in note 49 were in times of need followers in arms (e. g. f 
Koya, I, 501-502; III, 660; IV, 636). The general social unrest of the period had 
made this condition natural. These men were as much to be feared as occasional 
disturbers of peace, in frequent collusion with lawless elements in neighboring sh6 
(I, 291, IV, 657, V, 464; VII, 184-186; etc), as they were to be relied upon by 
the monastic seignior as the bulwark of the sh5 against uprising or invasion (II, 546). 
See also note 57 below. 

151 About 1269 two MiyayoshI brothers, presumably of the triple sho, whose titles 
indicate that they had been guardsmen at Kyoto, led an invasion into a K5ya estate 
in the interest of another religious seignior, and went to the capital in order to appeal 
for aid to their powerful acquaintances there. Koya, IV, 657 ; VII, 185. About the 
same time a Fujiwara, residing in Makuni, at the request of officers of the shS, car- 



332 AMERICAN HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Tied OTit with success a difficult litigation at Kyoto with tlie imperial and feudal 
authorities VII, 250-251, 254-255 These instances may be multiplied 

82 It has been shown in the text how our very sho originated in a commendation 
in 1143, made by an owner who thenceforth reserved for his family the hereditary 
right of possession and management, and with what little scruple his descendants 
commended similar rights of the same land to others A commendation of 1325 by a 
priest in the remote Awa is typical A piece of land situated in Makuni itself, that 
is, part of the triple sho of which Kdya had long been seignior, had been bought by 
this stranger, and what he now gave up to the monastery was in reality a half of 
his income from the land Koya, I, 192-193 The possessor of another estate in the 
same Makuni commended it to a Shinto" temple which was, it is true, allied with the 
monastery ; here too, merely an interest was yielded, while the soil itself was passed 
from father to son in the commendor's famHy and even sold to others. Ill, 556 ; 
VII, 183. Such were usual processes with commended lands 

Sales, especially sales "for all time" (yei-dai or yei-nen), usually involved actual 
conveyances of the use of the soil, but it is doubtful whether this wafe true in all 
cases ; at least it is a plain fact that sometimes certain rights or interests were ex- 
plicitly reserved by the seller III, 543, 60S, 610 

63 It may be readily inferred that there could exist no piece of land in any sho that 
was not thus encumbered ; and the encumbrances were often many, and usually much 
varied in the same district. Of this variety, one immediate cause was the custom 
which was increasingly prevalent of assigning definite pieces for the maintenance of 
individual officials, K6ya priests, and religious houses and services For the twelfth 
century, Koya, V, 651, 655 ; VIII, 409-414 , for the thirteenth, ibid., IV, 352-356. 

That conveyances necessarily carried these encumbrances needs no explanation. In- 
stances are too many to be cited, e. g., ibid., VII, 235, 183; VI, 324, and III, 447, 
500 ; VI, 283, etc. These accompanying conditions naturally affected the price of 
land. E. g., the last references in note 52 show how the price of the same piece 
changed as its conditions altered. 

"That ju-nin and hyaku-sho were once practically identical may be gathered by 
comparing documents of 1164 and 1199 (Koya, VII, 233, 237-240), both giving the 
names of chief residents of Kono. (Cf. the list of hyaku-sho in Mandokoro sho in 
1185 ; ibid., II, 547-559.) The word yo-nin (chief men) appears in a Mandokoro 
document of 1125 (ibid., VII, 267) ; still earlier, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
the word yoriuto (settlers) is used interchangeably with ju-nin (Iwashimidzu mon- 
zho, I, 270-299, etc.). Ju-nin (residents) is a word continually used in the feudal 
ages for warriors established in rural districts. As for the word hyaku-sho, its import- 
ant history will be discussed later in this paper. 

The word ji-shu (landholder), which later is pronounced ju-nushi, is often met 
with (e. g, Ki, I, 863). The history of this term will also receive notice later. 

56 These men could not, of course, have been the only family heads of the sh5, but 
assuredly were its foremost inhabitants, as may be judged from the interchange- 
ability that we observe, among other things, of the phrases *' the place [office] of the 
hyaku-sho " and ** the house of the sho," or " the officials of the sho " and " sho 
officials and hyaku-shS " and " administrators of the sho house," or " the group- 
heads and hyaku-sho " and " all men of the sho " (e. g., Koya, VII, 183, 184, 186 
187, 246). They were also called sho-min (people of the sho). Ibid., VII, 267. 

It was these men upon whom the seignior depended for the rendering of the dues 
and services of the sho, and whom he persuaded to make oaths of general or fiscal 
fealty. In the triple sho: in 1164, Koya, VII, 232; in 1199, VII, 236-240; in 1269, 
IV, 657; VH, 184^-186. 

K Descendants of the original owner and commendor of the tract which later grew 
to be the triple sho served as its officers at least till 1291 (Koya, VII, 197), and very 
likely till much later. Examples of hereditary sho officials among chief residents are 
frequent in the thirteenth and early fourteenth century (e. g , ibid , I, 217,, 219 ; III, 
659 ; VI, 308-309 ; VII, 250-251, 254-255, etc ) ; it is probable that nearly all the respon- 
sible officials of the sh<5 were these residents, and that most of them were hereditary. 

87 The monks of KSya abstained from following the pernicious examples of those of the 
Hi-ei and Nara monasteries of making armed demonstrations against one another and 
against the imperial court, and of taking an active part in the more decisive battles of 
the day. However, even the seclusion of the mountain did not afford it sufficient protec- 
tion against the general unrest of the age, and the monastery was, despite its pacific 
professions, often compelled to arm Itself for sheer defense The guards consisted of 
warriors supplied by the various sh6 and of the more warlike of the monks themselves. 
Ki, V, 45, 135-136 ; about weapons of sh5 officials in 1233, see Koya, VIII, 610 

Once provided, the armed force was prone to abuse ; for example, from 1140 till about 
1175, and again In the nert century, there were bloody conflicts between the two factions 



LEFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN*. 333 

that bad resulted from a schism following the secession of the monk Kaku-ban Ki, V, 
40-44. The attempt made in 1228 by the feudal government to disarm the monks (Koya 

I, 657) probably was but a temporary success. As regards the warriors sent from the 
different sh6 for the defense of the monastery, it is not possible to learn details of this 
form of service. 

There Is an example of military service under another religious seignior. In 1276, a 
family in Kyushu whose members held about 80 acres of rice land was able to supply 
four warriors, two of them mounted, besides three attendants, all equipped. This must 
have been an unusually strong family, and its service the utmost it could render; the 
occasion was during the time of the Mongol invasion. Iwashimidzu mon-zho, II, 190-191. 

The various monastic sho, which were much more exposed than the sacred mountain, 
had perforce to be guarded by their chief " residents " against internal discord and 
external aggression The men swore that they would " take and hold " turbulent monks 
and that " the younger men would beat them back " (at Mandokoro sh<5 in 1185 ; Koya, 

II, 546-558) ; that " if agents of the shu-go [military constable of the province] intruded 
on the sho, its officials would protect it against them " (at the triple sho in 1271 ; ibid., 
I, 507) ; that "if men of another sho invaded the monastic domain," " not only the offi- 
cials of the sh5, but all men, high and low, would, as soon as they heard of the trouble, 
vigorously put a stop to it" (same in 1276; ibid., VII, 189 j. Here again conditions of 
the military or police service of the residents are as yet obscure 

Neither the monastery nor its sho, however, owed any service in arms to the feudal 
authorities, either central or provincial , and Koya appealed to this exemption whenever 
its aid was solicited by rivaling political parties. Ki, V, 135. There is reason to sup- 
pose, however, that in the early feudal period the monastery at times rendered volun- 
tarily a service which was obligatory upon all feudal lords, namely, of furnishing men as 
periodic guards of the imperial palace at Ky6to See the shogun's order In 1197. Koya, 
VIII, 23. Nor is it certain whether Koya was not called upon, as was Iwashimidzni 
(Iwashimidzu mon-aho, II, 148-191), to take part in the defense of Japan during the 
period of the Mongol invasion in the third quarter of the thirteenth century. 

68 Frequent warlike aggressions came either from men who claimed and would enforce 
titles to land in the sh5 (1199 ; Koya, VII, 236) , from agents of neighboring seigniors 
(about 1186 ; Koya, VII, 146 ; 1218 ; Ki, V, 46 ; about 1215-1258 ; Koya, V, 288-291, 501 ; 

VII, 250, 255; 1269; IV, 657; VII, 185), from ambitious warriors on their own account 
(1298 and 1300 ; Ki, V, 49), from feudal provincial authorities (1221; Koya, I, 369-370), 
or from lawless, unattached elements in the surrounding districts that were now culti- 
vators of soil and then freebooters and mercenaries (1207 ; Adzuma-kagami, bk. 17 ; ed 
Kikkawa, II, 29) But for the presence of the last-named factor in various parts of 
Japan, she could neither have been so readily disturbed nor so simply protected, as the 
case might be, as she was in this period. 

Koya, I, 503-518 ; V, 464-465 ; VII, 187-197, 199-214, 216-223, 225-226, 241-246 ; 

VIII, 121-124, 126-128 

80 The case of the descendants of the original commendor of Kono-Makuni has been 
referred to. The post of Ku-mon in Kono was plainly held by men of one family at 
least between 1256 and 1315 (Koya, I, 509, 518, VII, 197, 223), and probably for a 
much longer interval. In 1254, the offices of so to-ne in both K5no and Sarukawa were 
declared to be hereditary possessions of the Taira, their incumbents, lately dismissed, 
were now reinstated, for, as said an interesting order from Koya, " in the custom of all 
sho, officers invested for successive generations, if they were temporarily removed, owing 
to an appeal by the residents or an accusation by the Possessor (ryo-ke), were usually 
restored when they offered a satisfactory explanation/' Koya, VI, 308-309. Both these 
families had presumably descended from the first commendor. At any rate, the princi- 
ples of hereditary office holding dated from much earlier than 1254. Cf. Note 66 below. 

61 The ku-mon of Makuni in 1303-1315 was a woman (Koya, I, 518 ; VII, 254, 256) ; 
though she was sometimes represented by a masculine deputy, it is not clear whether 
that was due to her sex, for male sh5-oflftcials also used deputies. In this period, even 
stewards (ji-t5) in districts representing the central feudal government were sometimes 
women. 

There was little difference in the understanding of the time between succession to a 
right of land and that to an office ; both were regarded as sources of profit, and a woman 
could inherit an office as naturally as she could a title on land. Ibid., VI, 288; VII, 
184 ; in the former document an eldest daughter, whose name is quite mannish, signs a 
deed of sale together with her father ; in the latter, KSya gives an interest In land to 
a nun. 

82 To-ne, ban-gashira, and other responsible residents bearing no titles. Koya, I, 
509-513; VII, 199-200, 211-214, 225-226; Till, 121, 123-124, 126-127. 

*The s5 tsui-ho shi and ku-mon of each part of the triple sho. Koya, I, 503-508; 
VII, 187-192. It would be vain to try to translate the titles. These higher officials, as 



334 AMERICAN HISTOEIGAL ASSOCIATION 

" men invested In the sh6," had the duties to defend It, to respond to the summons from 
the seignior (" if lie [the official] himself Is afflicted with a grave illness, he should offer 
a solemn oath and present his son [m his stead] ; if he has no son, then some one like 
himself"). One man was a resident In a district, served as sS tsui-ho shi in another, 
and held an office land in a third (I, 509 ; IV, 633 ; VII, 192) ; the meaning of this is 
patent he is an example of an invested servant. 

M The oaths of the one class contain the statement which those of the other class do 
not, that If the official violated some one (in oaths of 12T6 and 1315), or any one article 
(in oaths of 1271, 1291, and 1303) of his agreement, " his office would be revoked*" 
When, in 1254, the dismissed so to-ne of Kuno and Sarukawa were on J heir prayer 
reinstated, the monastery improved the opportunity to make each of them swear that 
"in all things I [he] would obey the command of the monastery," that "U my [his] 
management of all affairs, great and small, the interest of the monastery would he my 
[his] chief consideration,'* and that "if any of my [his] descendants violated this 
pledge, he would he totally disabled to hold this office." Koya, I, 217, 219. 

In this connection I might give a version of the unabridged oath with which the 
officials, Irrespective of the degree of their freedom, concluded their solemn pronounce- 
ments * " If I fabricate a lie and violate this pledge, divine punishments of Brahma and 
Indra, the Four Great Heavenly Kaja, all the great and small kami of Japan, [the deities 
of] the four shrines of Amano and their relatives and attendants, Dai-shi and Vajrapam, 
and all the deities of the two mandala, will enter through the 84,000 pores of my body, 
and I shall be in this life afflicted with the grave ills of white leprosy and black leprosy, 
and in the next life fall into the limitless hell, with no opportunity to issue therefrom 
Thus I swear." 

^In Adegawa, 1138 and 1193 (Koya, V, 651, 654-656) ; Ota, 1198 (VIII, 590-592) ; 
Arakawa, 1254 (VII, 117) ; Hamanaka, 1298 (IV, 354) ; Nade, 1271 (III, 438) ; etc. 
For the triple sho : The kn-mon of Ishibashiri, in 1263 (VII, 186-187) ; so tsui-ho shi 
of Sarukawa, who lived in Shibame (Saime), and was granted land in Kono (cited in 
note 63 above) ; to the holders of the same office in 1291 were assigned peasant families 
(men-ka) whose members they could employ and who probably paid them dues (VII, 
193-197) ; these officers seem to have held land (article 18) which probably accompanied 
their post. 

It may at the same time be taken for granted that there still were some sho officers 
who received no special compensation in land or rice, but in their direct contact with 
the taxpayers had sufficient opportunities to reward their service. The intendants in 
French manors are said to have been farmers and received no remuneration from the 
lord, but had comfortable personal incomes. 

Having been freed of the Possessor (ryo-ke) of the double sh6 in 1221 and of its 
feudal steward (ji-to) in 1227, Koya, at length a seignior of full power, soon found the 
first opportunity to assert its authority over the sho officials In 122S, for certain al- 
leged offenses, Koya without scruple dismissed and banished the powerful ku-mon of 
Kono, whose family, as descendants of the original commendor of the sho, had held the 
post for generations. If the culprit made an effort to return with the aid of great 
families at Kyoto, his descendants would be " debarred even unto the seventh genera- 
tion." Koya, I, 296; VII, 182. It is likely that this man soon repaired his wrongs and 
was restored to his office. His successor also was in 1254 dismissed and restored. See 
Note 60 above. In each case were both the principles of hereditary office holding and 
of seigniorial authority allowed to prevail through a compromise. 

The banishment and confiscation of a ku-mon of Arakawa in 1293 was the penalty 
for a specially heinous crime, and there was no compromise (III, 659). Other seigniors 
may have been more arbitrary. Cf Iwashimidzu mon-zho, II, 254-256. 

w ln the document of 1228 referred to in the last note are mentioned agents of the 
monastery who held land in the sho. Koya, VII, 181. In 1269 the administrator 
(zassho) of Shishikui sho was a monastic agent and his tenure revocable. Ki, IV, 905. 

* Among the titles of documents listed in 1246 appear "A table of wet and upland 
fields of the triple district of Kono, etc.," and "A map of the sh5." Koya, II, 389-390. 
These documents might have thrown light on the tenures of that date, but unfortunately 
they have not been preserved. 

Instances of hereditary transmission and of mortgage and sale of lands are too 
common and numerous m the cartulary to need references. In each case, all documents 
that had in the past successively established the titles to the given piece of land were 
handed over by the old holder to the new, so that their number increased as convey- 
ance was repeated. Cf. Note 79 below. In each case a duplicate of the deed seems 
to have been presented to the office of the sho, and thence to the monastery, this consti- 
tuting apparently the only formality that the seignior required. There is no evidence of, 
nor was there yet any reason for, the exaction of a seigniorial relief or foott de muta- 
tion. Usually the conveyor was the only signer of the deed, but in certain instances a 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO TN MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 335 

child, usually the eldest, whether son or daughter, signed with the father and some- 
times the buyer as well. Rarely did officials of the sho affix countersignatures to such 
documents. Koya, III, 510. 

70 The expulsion of offending landholders and the confiscation of their tenures were 
not only established in law (as in the oaths of 1271, 1276, and 1291; see Note 59 
above), but actually enforced (e. g., in 1291 Koya, VIII, 122). The offenses stated in 
the oaths as meriting this penalty were the robbing of the fruit of harvest In another's 
land, arbitrary exaction of rice or money from people, and willful confusion of juris- 
dictions with other seigniories. 

The instances cited above are from the triple sho, and all date from the latter half of 
the twelfth century. In Mandokoro sho, where, as has been said (Note 17 above), the 
monastery wielded large powers from relatively early times, confiscations had occurred 
already in 1190. Ibid , VII, 267-268 

71 The confiscated lands at Mandokoro, just referred to in the preceding note, were 
granted in perpetuity to residents on payment of certain sums Instances of such pay- 
ments are rare. A case of a simple grant of dispossessed land occurs in the double sho" 
in 1260 (Koya, VII, 184) ; another in Nade sho in 1271 (III, 438). As the seignior was 
ever on the alert to multiply the more precarious tenures in his domains at the expense 
of the freer ones, he as naturally availed himself of confiscations as he also did of 
abandoned holdings (e. g, in Makuni about 1218, ibid. VII, 180) and of disputed cases 
that he adjudicated (e. g, in Kono in 1271, ibid., Ill, 583), to create dependent tenants. 

72 Despite the orthodox theories regarding the history of the myo-den (cf., e. g., 
T. Yoshida, Sh5-yen sei-do no tai-yS, p 147), the study of the whole subject needs to 
be rebuilt upon documents In the present state of critical knowledge, I hardly dare 
go beyond the suggestions I offer in notes 73 and 108 below, and must refrain from 
presuming to answer such questions as follow : What is the institutional difference* 
as well as relation, between the my5 (na) and the azana, both proper names of 
lands, and what is the origin of each? Why did similar myo suggesting the per- 
sonal names of noblemen occur in many parts of Japan? Was the myo-den, usually 
only a few acres in extent, often as large as a sho, and could it as such become a 
pho? Can the current theory be verified that the myo in the words dai-myS (great 
lords) and sh5-my3 (petty lords) was derived from the my3 of myo-den ? How often 
was a myo-den an antecedent of mura (rural division) of the Edo period, like Agegai 
in Kono? K5no contained, in 1425, at least 11 my5. Koya, IV, 445-446. 

78 The granting of common myo-den in our sh5 occurs as early as before 1183 (Koya, 
VI, 300; for the date, compare Ki, V, 124), and continues ever after (e g., Koya, I, 
218; IV, 632-634). Similar grants to officeholders in the sh5 and to monks are as 
often met with from the latter half of the thirteenth century (I, 509 ; III, 652-660 ; 
IV, 633 ; VII, 186, 192 ; these names to be studied together ; Iwashimidzu mon-zho, 
I, 322-323, 393, 418), as myo-holders (myo-shu) serving in official capacities. Koya, 
IV, 632-634. There had even appeared myo-den bearing official titles, in lieu of per- 
sonal names, as their designations ( Ji-t5 myo : ibid., VIII, 612-613 ; So tsui-ho shi 
my5: IV, 632-634; Ku-mon myo: VII, 186-187; etc.). 

Like all holdings (ryo, possession; chi-gyo, holding) or at least all those that had 
originated In private ownership the myo-den was transmissible by heredity, divisible, 
and alienable (Koya, III, 540, 543, etc.; IV, 632-634; VII, 187, 250-252), so that the 
same piece continued to change hands and the memory of the origin of its proper 
names was often lost. Whether such free conveyance was either allowed or practiced 
with my5-den attached to officials can not be asserted. 

7 *It is true that "residents" of sho who had assumed Buddhist names (men called 
nyu-d6) also commended landed interests to Koya (e. g,, Koya, II, 226), but more re- 
markable are commendations made by monks of the monastery (many of whom them- 
selves had doubtless been " residents *') ; some of the interests thus transferred had been 
held by monks in heredity or master-to-pupil succession (III, 420), some had circulated 
among monks (V, 487-488), and some had been bought by them with a view to giving 
them to the monastery (II, 145 ; III, 447, where the commendation was carried out the 
day after the purchase). A catalogue of the commended pieces in all the K5ya sho 
which seems to have been first compiled about 1333 (VIII, 466-532), though imperfectly 
preserved, contained more than 400 entries, including a few repetitions ; and a great 
majority were recent commendations The history of many of these pieces of land may 
be partially traced in other documents scattered through the entire cartulary. In one 
instance, an estate that had been held by a family for five generations was from 1272 
divided into separate plots, each following an independent course in the next 60 years, 
and all apparently having been commended to KSya by 1333 (II, 193, 241 ; III, 402, 446, 
500, 539, 583; VIII, 472, 475-476, 500, 528). 

These significant phenomena, it will be readily inferred, reflect the earnest desire of 
the monastic seignior to see the monks acquire secular holdings and hold them securely 



S36 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

In their hands pending commendation. When, in 1263, the disputed title to a my5-den in 
Kono was granted by K6ya to a monk, he was made to swear that he, ** as one of the 
monks of the monastery, would manage the affairs [in the place] exactly as in the other 
monkish holdings," and that, if he " ceased to live on the mountain, he would convey the 
title to one who lived there, and would not let it fall into the possession of anyone 
below the mountain or living elsewhere " (I, 21S) 

75 Koya, II, 193, 226 *' In order to requite the munificence of the High Founder 
[KObd'] and to pray for the bodhi [Buddhist wisdom] of my benefactors." Ill, 421. " I 
pray that, for this slight offering, I might in the future reach the court of the reincar- 
nated Maitreya and serve at the presence of the enlightened Dai-shi [Kob5] " II, 
193 " For the deliverance of the late master and parent and for the enlightenment of 
the pupil and child." II, 241 

w As the monastery had a greater insurance of its income from a piece of land when it 
was in the hands of one of its own monks than when it was held by a sho-resident, one Is 
not surprised to find that Koya encouraged monkish acquisitions by granting them certain 
exemptions. Koya, V, 487-488. "When the land was commended to Koya, even though 
the commendation may in most case 1 * only have secured the seigniorial right of KOya of 
formally investing the successive holders or " cultivators," the monastery gained in the 
increased dependency of the tenures and their added uniformity that resulted These two 
points seem clear ; what is not as clear is the advantage derived by the monk by his act 
of commendation that must have been so great as to make it, as was the case, a universal 
practice in all the sh5 of K5ya. The supposed reason stated in the text finds confirma- 
tion in the fact that, in 1286, a commendor reserved in his family the hereditary right 
of " cultivatorship." Koya, III, 410. 

77 It may well be imagined how strongly the monastery was aided by the ready di- 
vision and conveyance of landed rights and interests practiced by the ji-shu, in its 
eager effort to convert my6-den and other holdings into more dependent tenures (note 
73) and to induce commendations through monks (notes 74 and 76). 

78 Already for decades the monastery had been harassed by its own unruly inmates 
and by intruding marauders, when from the end of the thirteenth century the power 
of the central feudal government waned and the general commotion grew more in- 
tense throughout Japan. K5ya was obliged to guard its sacred grounds with heavier 
garrisons raised in the sho than ever. One or two references to contemporary docu- 
ments will reveal the condition without further comment 

In 1242 the monastery asserted * " When it is rumored or discovered that a lawless 
act has been committed by wicked men within these precincts, it has been customary 
in this monastery from olden times to establish guards and man the various squares 
and avennes." Ki, V, 43 Representative monks themselves said in a solemn docu- 
ment dated 1271 : "... It has of late been reported at the various houses [of this 
monastery] that night attacks, robberies, incendiarisms, and murders have increased 
yearly and been repeated daily, and that gambling has been continual . . ". Koya, 
I, 482. In 1228 and about 1310 ineffectual efforts were made by the feudal and im- 
perial governments to interdict warlike beharior of monks. Koya, I, 557 ; Ki y V, 136. 
There is an order from Koya dated 1307 commanding that officers of a sho should 
present on appointed dates its full quota of warriors for attendance on the moun- 
tain, on pain of forfeiting their trust Koya, VIII, 77-78 , cf. 184 See note 57 above. 

TO Cf. note 69 above It is here necessary to cite only notable cases from the 
triple sh6. During the 15 years after 1254 f a piece of land that had been held by 
members of the strong Magami family was transferred so often that its conveyance 
in 1269 was accompaniel by 11 deeds. Koya, VI, 288; VII, 183-184. Within 30 
years after 1303 a rice land with an extent of barely a quarter of an acre changed 
hands at short intervals and was finally commended to Koya with seven documents 
III, 540, 543, 60S, 610 ; V, 599 ; VIII, 515. 

80 This is another knotty problem which may be solved, if at all, only by the study 
of actual documents of the time. And a part of this important problem is the his- 
torical relation of the agricultural laborers of this period with the numerous do- 
mestic slaves (shi nu-hi, shi sen) of the earlier ages. As for the hired agricultural 
laborers after the close of the second feudal period, see note 116 below. 

81 It is altogether likely that in the early life of a sh6 the landholder and the 
cultivator were often one and the same person. Compare, for example, the word 
"settlers" (yoriuto), meaning the first inhabitants of a new sho (see note 54 above), 
that appears in a document of 1072, with the phrase " to settle and cultivate " (yori- 
tsukuru) used in reference to the same place 60 years later (Iwashimidzn mon-zho, I, 
S27). As a matter of fact, when a sh5 was created around a cultivated area, it was 
necessary to procure men to settle on the still uncultivated places to develop them. 
We find from the end of the eighth century that it was the custom of the managers 
of sh5 to welcome outlaws to settle (yorl-sumu) there, apparently for this very pur- 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO IN MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 337 

pose (Rui-zhu san-dai kyaku, bk. 8, in Koku-shi tai-kei, XII, 708) ; there may have 
been law-abiding settlers as well. At any rate, we here seem to see the origin of 
the yoriuto, who in the course of time differentiated into " landholders " and " cul- 
tivators." 

It is obvious that the differentiation between the " landholdershlp " and " cultivator- 
ship " as rights (shiki) developed still later, though the manner of this differentia- 
tion has not yet been investigated. 

82 1123. Imashimidzu mon-zho, I, 343. 

88 Instances of "cultivators" bearing good family names: Koya, II, 172; VIII, 
483 i84. Those mentioned with the honorific title dono (esquire) V, 487 ; VI, 288. 
The sanxe " cultivator " holding the right In several plots : Koya, V, 486ff. ; VIII, 122, 
409-414, 483184 The " cultivators " who were also " landholders " : Inferentially, 
Koya, I, 218 ; III, 410 ; VIII, 122, 409-414. Clear cases from the next period : Ibid , 
V, 504-518. 

As will be readily seen, it had resulted from the prevailing fluidity of real rights 
that the same person held both the " landholdership " (ji-shu shiki) and the " culti- 
vate rship " (saku-nin shiki) of a plot of land, or the one right of a plot and the 
other right of another plot Logically, also, a tenant of many " cultivatorships " 
might also be a " landholder " and otherwise be an influential " resident." 

84 The rio-called ge (or shita) saku-nin did it mean " undercultivator " or " cul- 
tivator of the shita- ji," that is, the soil? did the actual work of tilling (cf. 1263: 
Koya, I, 218), but it is not clear whether they worked under the ordinary "culti- 
vators," and whether the prefix ge (under) had been added because a differentiation had 
developed between these actual tillers and the holders of " cultivatorships." 

88 The sole " cultivator " of a district in Yamashiro had, in 1123, " granted it to his 
friends" (Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 343) ; whatever the terms of the "grants," the same 
man probably retained his title of " cultivator " and its attendant profit and obligations. 
I construe in the same light the case of those "cultivators" in a Koya sho, in 1273, 
who had *' sold " the rights to others, but officially were still titular " cultivators " ; the 
" sales " were private and the buyers were not recognized. Koya, V, 486-487. 

As a result of division and transfer, " cultivators " from the latter half of the thir- 
teenth century not infrequently held saku-shiki in other districts or even sho. Ibid., I, 
508 ; II, 193 ; V, 513 ; VIII, 470, 526. 

88 A man begged Koya that he be allowed to succeed to the " name land " that his 
father had held and lost, and that " people of the sho be made its cultivators " under 
him. 1263 : Koya, I, 218. " Cultivators " are mentioned under monkish " landholders." 
1273: V, 486-488. Oaths of 1271 (art. 15) and 1291 (art. 33) contain provisions 
against offensive behavior of the " cultivator " toward his master " landholder." I, 508 ; 
VII, 196 It is also remarkable that the "landholder" sometimes retained his rights 
over the cultivatorship of a piece of land whose interest he alienated, he remained as 
master over the "cultivator" (II, 186; III, 403, 608-609), deriving a profit from the 
continued control. 

In 1164 a " cultivator's " right had to be renewed at the change of his master " land- 
holder." Koya, II, 172. Even when the heredity of the right had later become a matter 
of course, a semblance of its originally precarious character was sometimes retained in 
formal documents ; in 1237 a former " landholder " swears to the buyer of his right : 
"As regards the cultivatorship [that has been held by Gempachi, a third party], it 
should without doubt be at your disposal, but I understand that it will, because of my 
intercession, remain in the same hands for the time being, and that if its holder fails 
in his duties, you will dispose of it" Ibid., VII, 240. 

87 The retention of the same " cultivators " by " landholders " who followed one 
another by heredity or alienation Is common after the middle of the thirteenth century 
(inferred from cases that occur in Koya, V, 486ff. ; in II, 145; and VIII, 494). Some 
were called j6 saku-nin, " fixed cultivators " ; e, g., G-empachi between 1304 and about 
1333, in ibid., Ill, 540, 543, 608, 610; VIII, 515, etc.; the catalogue of 1333 (?) contains 
many other "fixed" instances (VIII, 466-532). 

That " cultivators " were sometimes defiant of their " landholders " is reflected in the 
oaths of officials of the triple shS of 1271 (art. 15) and 1291 (art. 33). Ibid., I, 508; 
VII, 196. 

** That " cultivators " in this sh5 were in direct relation of some kind with its officials 
and seignior over the heads of " landholders " is Inferred from the following passages. 
In a document, probably of the late 13th century, occurs this obscure statement: "Any 
case of an error of ["2 committed by] ' cultivators ' shall be reported [to the monastery] 
with joint signatures of the my5 holders and district chiefs; if they neglect to do so, 
they shall pay a sa-da ryS [ 5 " administration fee"] for the 'cultivators'" (Koya, IV, 
634) ; the oath of 1291 by a sh5 official says, among other things : " When a * cultivator ' 
is guilty of an offense, I will not put up a placard in a monkish estate and cause it 



338 AMERICAN mSTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

trouble " (Til, 193) , and " I will not, In behalf of a ' cultivator/ act unreasonably to- 
ward a * landholder * or my5 holder" (VII, 196). In the next period, a direct payment 
of dues by "cultivators" to monastic agents is evident (VIII, 227). 

When increasing numbers of plots were bought by monks and commended to Koya 
(see Note 74 above) , the " cultivators " of the plots passed naturally into a more direct 
relation with monastic agents The catalogue about 1333, mentioned in the same Note, 
gives the name of the ** cultivator " for almost every entry it contains. 

89 There is a reference to '* the cultivator's dues " as early as 1072 in another seign- 
iory. (Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 298 ) In Koya sho the conveyances of landholderships, 
in 1272 and 1307, by men who reserved to themselves a control of cultivatorships, betray 
the existence of profits derivable from this control (Koya, III, 403, 608-609), while 
documents of 1308 and 1317 specifically give the rates of the " cultivator's " dues to 
the " landholder " II, 186 ; VII, 240 

M Koya, V, 651-652; VII, 280-301 (I presume these names to be those of "culti- 
vators") ; VIII, 409-414; etc. 

From the late 13th century, in defining the boundaries of a plot, the old custom of 
mentioning geographical features in the four bounding directions (e. g., east, to the river ; 
west, to the road; south, the district so-and-so; north, hill so-and-so), gave place in 
f n increasing number of cases to a new way, that is, of giving the names of the " culti- 
vators " of the adjoining plots (e g., south, Tomoyoshi's saku, or " cultivation " ; north, 
Tokugoro's saku). Koya, III, 500, 539 ; VI, 288. Rarely do the holders' names of these 
plots appear for this purpose. 

81 The list of 1218 may be of ' landholders " Koya, VIII, 592-597. Those of 1337 
(VII, 280-302) and 1368 (VIII, 452-455) are doubtful. 

23 Near KySto, civil nobles continued to exercise control over their sho at least until 
the middle of the 14th century (Yen-tal reki, diary of Fujiwara-no-Kimikata ; 1345, 
the memorial by the governor of Settsu; Yale ms, V, 132-133). Even here, however, to 
say nothing of the remoter parts of Japan, it was not long before the military ji-to 
(stewards) in the sho succeeded in defying and completely ignoring the feeble, impover- 
ished civG hon-ke (lord) and ry5-ke (possessor) at Kyoto ; the old shS documents were 
held in scant respect, for might alone made right. On the other hand, the ji-to owed 
dues and services to his feudal lord The private warrior who had first entered the sho 
under a civil lord in the humble capacity of a manager, had ended in becoming its lord 
under a military overlord. 

98 The military shu-go (constable) of the province had obliterated its old civil gover- 
norship and become its supreme lord ; all the ji-t5 and other chiefs in the territory he 
regarded as his vassals. The province had become a domain that comprised fiefs arranged 
in the descending series of a hierarchical organization Public functions had become pri- 
vate possessions, while private rights had been so extended as to coalesce with public offices. 

It is needless to say that all domains were not coextensive with provinces (kuni). A 
few comprised several kuni each, while the majority were fractions of kuni. The tend- 
ency with the military domains was in the direction of an amalgamation into fewer and 
larger domains 

M In the first period, the policy of the suzerain seems to have been to keep the domains 
of his immediate vassals intact by restricting their freedom of sale and mortgage ; there 
still remained distinctions of tenures among them and among the rear-vassals During 
the period of civil war, however, the general tendency was to reduce all military tenures of 
land to precarious grants in fee. It may be said that the most powerful lords, like the 
H6jo and the Shimadzu, were those who had best succeeded in enforcing this policy, as it 
contributed powerfully to the necessary discipline and coherence. This was another 
result of the same need and the same power that had established the vassal's duty of 
primogeniture and the lord's interference In his marriage and succession. 
.^Cl T. Toshia, Sho-yen sei-do no tai-y5, ch. 17. 

* For a fuller discussion of these points, see my " Notes on the village government in 
Japan after 1600 " in the Journal of the American oriental society, Vol. XXX pt 3 and 
Vol. XXXI, pt. 2, 1910-1911. * ' 

87 In the first feudal period the chief weapons in warfare were the bow and arrow, and 
combat was individual ; only in close quarters were swordsmanship and wrestling resorted 
to At the end of the fourteenth century the sword had largely replaced the bow and 
arrow as the first arm, and from the sixteenth the spear found favor beside the sword. 
Each of these successive innovations was accompanied by more organized methods of 
war, without entirely doing away with displays of individual skill and valor. Gun- 
powder and a firearm were accidentally brought in by shipwrecked Portuguese about 1543, 
and their use and manufacture Quickly spread over Japan, though they never succeeded in 
replacing the older weapons, even the bow and arrow. The adoption of the new arms 
greatly accelerated the progress of organized tactics, under the impact of which petty 
seigniories were absorbed or crushed out of existence between domains that grew larger 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO 1ST MEDIEVAL JAPAN. 339 

and fewer ; and the civil strife became more -universal and intense. This was attended 
by those far-reaching social effects to which I refer in the text. 

88 The theory that the land-holding peasant was not an owner but merely a tenant 
entitled to the hereditary use of the soil on the condition that he rendered his dues and 
services to the lord was expressed at the end of the period in such current terms as the 
peasants' chi-gyo and ade-okonai, common expressions for grants in tenure. Iwashi- ( 
midzu mon-zho, III, 654, etc. The same idea, as a theory, persisted throughout the 
third feudal period in some domains See note 30 in the article referred to in note 96 
above 

99 When Hideyoshi made a general cadastral survey of Japan in 1594-1599, he frankly 
recognized the actual state of things. Note the following instructions issued by his 
commissioners to their subordinates : " The right of cultivation over a wet or upland piece 
of land belongs to him under whose name it was registered during the recent survey. It 
is forbidden to allow the land to be taken by another person, or to take another person's 
land under the pretext that one has once had the right of its cultivation." " It is 
strictly forbidden to give to the lord any of the cultivated lands recorded in the register " 
(Both quoted in T Yoshida, Dai Ni-hon chi-mei zhi-sho, introduction, p 94.) In these 
words are plainly implied the facts that the peasant had gathered in his hands the inter- 
ests in his holding that had been split, and that he had established a practical ownership 
of the holding. During the next period, therefore, the sale or other act of alienating 
land meant a downright conveyance of the complete use of the land, and rarely again a 
fraction of interest 

i Encroachments upon Koya sh5 were continual throughout the period (Ki, V, 136- 
140), and some districts were temporarily absorbed into military fiefs (Koya, I, 554) 
The monastery was compelled repeatedly to seek imperial and feudal edicts recognizing 
its inviolable rights in its domains (Ki, V, 142-143). These continual turmoils retarded 
the economic and financial life of some sho. Note large decreases in tilled areas and 
proceeds from them in later years in Koya, VI, 568-591 ; VII, 5-14, 24, 27-34, 46-53, 
55-57, 62-66, 69-95, 101-111. 

101 It seems that till 15S4 the monastery strongly guarded the seven passes of the 
mountain. Ki, V, 148. For general service the various sh5 owed to the monastery the 
duty of sending up armed contingents Koya, VIII, 183-184 There is an imperial 
mandate to Koya dated 1463, ordering that a body of monastic troops should serve under 
the command of a feudal lord in an expedition against a rebel (III, 34) ; such cases of 
external military service for men of Koya domains are extremely rare, and only serve 
to indicate the armed strength that the monastery could command And it is not sur- 
prising to find that, in this age of anarchy, lawless warriors in some sho attempted 
aggressions upon surrounding countries. Ki, V, 145-146 

102 About 1580 Koya is said to have controlled 2,063 mura, or peasant communities, 
aggiegating an annual yield equivalent to 173,000 koku, or 865,000 bushels of hulled 
rice (Ki, V, 146), and to have comprised within the precincts on the mountain more 
than 7,700 buildings. However that may be, the fact that the proprietary power of K<5ya 
was the greatest when it was the most exposed to aggression bespoke its ability to take 
care of its own interest 

103 In 1581 K5ya defied Nobunaga after he had razed to the ground the powerful 
monastery on Mount Hi-ei, killed his envoys, gave battle to his expeditionary army, 
and, though it lost more than 1,300 monkish warriors, succeeded in repelling the invaders 
Ki, V, 145146, etc Documents of that time reveal that Koya's influence was felt even 
beyond its domains, and it commanded the service not only of local chiefs and their 
followers, but also of four large bodies of religious men in the province of Kii who were 
readily convertible into troops. Ibid , III, supplement, 187-188. 

IM Officials in the Kdya she, including those in direct contact with the peasants, were 
obviously treated by the monastery as its employees, whose service was rewarded with 
rice or land. Koya, IV, 154-157; VII, 247; VIII, 461. They were consequently all 
dependent on the seignior for their positions. In 1422 Koya summoned all officials, 
squires, and chief peasants, on pain of punishment, to attend in person on the monastery 
for an important conference (VIII, 237) ; previously, in 1367, the monastic council had 
decreed that " officials of all sho " who did not respond to a summons would be dismissed 
and never reinstated (VIII, 330). 

Such probably was a universal tendency m Japan, perhaps more advanced in military 
fiefs than in religious domains , in some of the latter the higher agents in shS had even 
ceased to be heieditary, but had merely farmed out certain fiscal rights for terms of 
years. Cf. Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 455-459, 469-470; III, 403-404, etc. The process 
whereby the seignior had gradually succeeded in replacing representative residents with 
paid or farmed-out appointees as sho officials is well reflected in a feudal order of a late 
date, which stated that "in those places whore the people owed various services [to 
the officials], their control should be assumed by the monastery as soon as vacancies 



340 AMERICAN" HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

occurred" (ibid, III, 182) ; these posts then could be given or farmed out to others on 
more precarious tenures than "before 

105 Towards 1600 there reappeared In many parts of Japan rural officials who were 
in various ways selected from among the peasants and represented their interest (e. g., 
Koya, III, 135; about 1599) ; this is one of the most significant phenomena of the 
last part of the second feudal period. The one thing that characterized these peasant 
agents, wherever they appeared, was the greater responsibility imposed upon them 
for the obedience and the good conduct of the peasants than the merely employed 
agents had assumed or could have been expected to assume I think the meaning of 
this is patent : The peasantry was unarmed and therefore physically weaker than in 
the earlier times, but was higher in pioprietary status and politically freer ; no lord 
or seignior could be a successful ruler in that age of competition who failed to enlist 
the good-will of the people who were at the foundation of the economic life of society ; 
the consideration of the interest of the peasantry thus became an essential art of 
feudal statesmanship. And it was a most delicate human art; it had been studied, 
discussed, and practised in China during the centuries of her long history as an agri- 
cultural state. The chief principles underlying the art, as it was evolved in China, 
and in Japan after the sixteenth century, would seem to have been . Paternal care by the 
lord for the peasant nature and peasant interest, and a large degree of responsibility 
for order and good behavior imposed upon the peasants themselves Official pater- 
nalism and peasant responsibility were the very texture that made the elaborate fabric of 
village government under the Tokugawa m the third feudal period The importance of 
the peasant agent as the medium between ruler and ruled is obvious. Ct Note 96 above. 

Peasant agents were usually known as sho-ya or na-nushi. The origin of the 
latter term will be referred to in Note 108 below. Sho-ya, like sho-ka (both meaning 
" sho-house " ; see Note 18 above), was first used as early as 1293 (when the pro- 
nunciation was perhaps shd-oku for the later sho-ya), to designate the house in which 
were the offices of the sho-agents (Koya, III, 660) ; both terms also applied to the 
officials themselves in general. Now, sho-ya stood for representatives of peasants, and 
long survived the institution of sho 

loe Late in the fourteenth century two vassals of the lord of the province of 
Kii took Sarukawa, and K5ya thought it expedient to treat them as its officials till 
the lord was changed. Koya, I, 554. The monks made a general statement in 1403 
of similar conditions that occurred in other places, in these terms * " The domains 
of this monastery . . . were formerly managed by sho-ofiicials and people under the 
direct control of the monastery, and the civil and military governors of the province 
did not interfere. When changes occurred in monastic domains, however, the military 
governor's vassals encroached upon them, pretending that some were grants [from 
the monastery] and others vacancies . . . ". Ibid., IV, 38. 

107 The Tajiri, from Chikugo, and the K5no, from lyo, s who in the sixteenth century 
migrated into the triple sho, appropriated land, and made themselves lords, are seen 
toward the end of the second period merely as district officials capable of armed 
service, recompensed with money and exemptions from forced labor, not with fiefs. 
Ki, I, 848 ; III, supp, 187, 189. 

108 As has already been said (in Notes 72 and 73 above), sales and transfers of " name- 
lands " are common in the Koya cartulary. What resulted from the frequent convey- 
ance of lands of this variety, however, seems somewhat more easily traceable in do- 
mains of Iwashimidzu than in those of K5ya, though I presume the process must have 
been similar in both. 

1. In many instances the obvious trend during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was 
the gradual replacing of the few large holders of " name-lands " by many small holders ; 
a myo, for example, which once formed a part of one man's holding was in less than 
a century split among several myo-shu (e. g , Iwashimidzu mon-zho, I, 478-482 ; II, 
259, 269). The result was that myo-holders were no more than chief peasants of the 
community. Cf. ibid , III, 389, 420 

2 In the course of transferring titles of " name-lands," they not infrequently were 
placed in the hands of the seignior or his agent (ibid , I, 507) ; in the Koya domains, 
as it will be remembered (see Note 74 above), this process had been actively carried on 
through monks It was then natural that " name-lands " should lose all memory of 
their origins, and be freely disposed of by the seignior ; and that some of them should 
be regarded as appanages to certain offices in shd the tenure of which was accompanied 
with grants of these lands. Cf. ibid , 441-442. 

3 The next development was that the title na-nushi (the new reading of the two 
characters once pronounced nayS-shu), having been Identified with principal peasants 
and minor officials, was now used regularly, in an identical sense with the term sho-ya 
explained in Note 105 above, for designating the representative chief of the peasant 
community, quite irrespectively of the nature of his landholding. In fact, most na- 
nushi held no " namp-lsiTiric " 



LIFE OF A MONASTIC SHO Iff MEDIEVAL JAPAlSr. 341 

The course of this evolution of the " name " outlined above is indicative of the im- 
portant general developments that were taking place among the peasantry. 

109 The literal meaning of hyaku-sho (Chinese, po-sing) is "one hundred family 
names." It originated in China, where it generally meant the subjects of the State 
who bore the burden of taxation. This central meaning has been the same in Japan 
as in China, but there are two conditions which should be noted if one would clearly 
understand the word as used in Japanese history In China, the number of family or 
clan names has seldom exceeded a few hundreds ; in Japan, on the contrary, family 
names had indefinitely multiplied as old families branched out and scattered, until, to 
make the confusion worse confounded, the very people who were called hyaku-sho in the 
last feudal period were not permitted to bear family names (she) at all. Again, in 
China, the po-sing have in the past ages shown a remarkable stability as social classes, 
while in Japan the conditions of the taxable classes had undergone important changes 
before the close of the feudal periods, both in their social character and in their rela- 
tion to other classes Many a scholar has misled himself by tacitly assuming that the 
term has always meant the tax-paying peasants in rural communities; this was, in 
fact, its meaning only in the last feudal period, when peasants bore no family names. 
Reflection should show that the term could be applied to them in such condition only 
because it had come down from an earlier age when it was first adopted from China 
and really designated taxable people bearing the comparatively few family names then 
in existence. The borrowed term was germane to the real condition in the seventh cen- 
tury, but an incongruous survival a thousand years later. 

310 That this was the meaning of the teim after the reforms of the seventh century 
is cleai in the annals and laws of the period The term was nearly identical with ry5- 
min, free people, as distinguished from the sen-min, unfree The latter seems to have 
been a fairly large class, and the former smaller in propoition than the hyaku-sho in 1600. 

m See Notes 47-56 above. 

112 This was a univeisal phenomenon. A single illustration from a K5ya domain will 
suffice In Shibuta sh5, about 1422, besides hayku-sh5, administrative officials (sa-da 
nin), and servants (shimobe), there were some men collectively called tono-bara (squires) 
who bore family names and boasted that they had never been subjected to menial service. 
Koya, VIII, 224, 233, 235. Note the distinct differentiation between the tono-bara and 
the Htyaku-shS The monastery was determined to subject both to forced labor and gen- 
erally to bend them all to its will. Ibid , 224 ff . 

This is a transitional state of things A nioie advanced picture is revealed in a domain 
under Iwashimldzu ; its hyaku-sho", in the middle of the seventeenth century, still con- 
tained men bearing family names, but these were hereditary servitors of a Shinto institu- 
tion and therefore more or less genteel ; some 20 years later the hyaku-sho are seen to be 
a body of meek, unresisting peasants ; and thenceforth men with family names were seldom 
mentioned among them. Iwashimidzu mon-zho, III, 550-565, 581-508, 623-626, 637-639. 

The term ji ge nin (men working the soil), which was common at least from the 
latter part of the fourteenth century (ibid., I, 469, 455, etc ), perhaps at first implied a 
lower status than the term hyaku-sh5, but about 1600 the two had become identical 
(e g, ibid., Ill, 654, 663-664; Koya, III, 82). The 31 ge nin probably had not changed, 
but the hyaku-shS had gradually come round to his position. 

As the hyaku-sh<5 had become incapable of defending themselves, the old policy of the 
seignior to insure the security of their lives and property (e g, Koya, I, 217220, VI, 
308-309, and the oaths referred to in note 59 above), received added emphasis and was 
made an article in the political creed of the administrator, not only in the Koya shS but 
in the feudal Japan at large. 

^The tenant farmers in the late second and during the whole of the third feudal 
period in Japan could not have formed a large class, for the strong reason, among others, 
that the small margin of profit which was left to the landlord between the economic rent 
he could receive and the heavy land tax he had to pay effectively precluded the growth 
of extensive tenant farming. 

^ For the conditon of the tenant farmers in Japan after 1600, I refer to my " Notes " 
(15 and 37) In the Journal of the American oriental society, Vol. XXX, pt. 2. 

316 It was natural that from the beginning of the feudal period there were among the 
hyaku-sho" small peasants who were too poor to provide themselves with arms, and were 
compelled to flee before an invading warrior or an arbitrary tax collector (e. g , Koya, 
VII, 180, 236) ; but large armed " landholders " were also among hyaku-sh6. The early 
condition of *' cultivators " was also varied and the variety increased for a time. I take 
it that the rural classes in France had also been complex before they were settled as 
serfs and villains. 

hired agricultural laborers (sakti-otoko, cultivating men) were attach A/I +A 
TA+ +A T*"* - ---'< *- - 



342 AMEBICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

unusual after 1600 to see a thrifty saku-otoko buy or rent land with Ms savings and start 
his career as a tenant or an independent peasant. These laborers could not properly be 
called serfs, for they had no assigned holdings, owed no dues or fixed forced labor, but on 
the contrary worked for wages or other forms of remuneration, and were unrestricted in 
marriage and succession, and in the acquisition and disposal of poperty ; nor was it cus- 
tomary to transfer them with the land on which they had worked for their employers. 
They were domestic hired men, no more nor less 

They formed a necessary Institution in Japanese agriculture, for the teason that there 
was a narrow limit to the working capacity of a peasant in his intensive rice-culture. 
Since peasant holdings were small and distributed without extreme inequalities, the 
average number of men hired in a peasant family was probably one or two, making their 
presence unobtrusive though universal See also notes 7 and 49, above 

117 It is needless to say that this process had been gradual in the second period ; in 
some parts of Japan the evolution may not have been completed for some time after 
1GOO, whereas in others it was in evidence so early as the middle of the fourteenth 
century (e g., see the memorial of the governor of Settsu in 1345, in Yen-tai reki, 
diary of Fujiwara-no-Kimikata ; Yale ms , V, 133, 135), if not still earlier. See notes 
90 and 91 above and text. Generally speaking, from the fifteenth century it becomes 
more and more difficult to distinguish between " landholders " and " cultivators " in 
lists of men in Koya sho (Koya, V, 356-389 ; VIII, 452-455 ; Iwashimidzu mon-zho, II, 
2G4) ; toward the end of the sixteenth, the distinction had largely vanished (Iwashi- 
midzu, III, 426-515) ; then the term saku-shiki (right of cultivation), which had 
formerly meant the right of " cultivatorship " (saku-nin shlki), had come to mean 
the right of exploiting the soil, and no longer indicated a " cultivator " as its sub- 
ject ; one who had the new saku-shiki was the very holder of the land, ji-nushi (ibid , 
III, 629-630). See also a document of 1391, in Ko mon-zho rui-san, 3d ed 225. 
Compare the instructions of Hideyoshi's agents quoted in note 99 above. 

118 That Koya domains had partially and temporarily been taken by warriors was 
shown in notes 106 and 107 above. During the sixteenth century parts of religious 
domains were treated by the feudal lords in whose jurisdictions they happened to be 
situated as if they were fiefs granted by them to K5ya (Koya, V, 636) or Iwashimidzu 
(Iwashimldzu mon-zho, III, 33, 386, 658) ; but neither institution had been com- 
pelled to submit itself to the position of receiving all its domains in fief from a lord 
or suzerain till the time of Hideyoshi late in the century. 

135 The word han (Chinese, fan), meaning "fence," "boundary," "frontier," and, 
hence, " march," as well as " protective barrier," also designated in China large sections 
of the empire charged to the administration of great princes. The Tokugawa suzerain 
adopted the term for the domains that he assigned in fief to his barons. The han was, 
therefore, primarily territorial in its signification, and the principles that ruled its 
social organization were essentially feudal. No real tie of blood relationship bound to- 
gether the entire population of a han It is unfortunate that both native and foreign 
writers in English on feudal Japan continue to translate the term as " clan," The error 
is, historically and sociologically, too gross to be tolerated 

150 Hideyoshi tamed the proud monastery with the irresistible art of a great despot 
In 1584-1586 he first peremptorily ordered Koya to surrender all arms and all the land 
it had taken beyond the limits of its " ancient domain " ; when the monastery seem- 
ingly complied with his will, he gave back the bulk of the land just revoked, and guar- 
anteed an armed protection of the mountain. Koya, II, 602-606, III, 64-65, 679-680. 
When later he decreed a general survey of land to be made in all Japan, and Koya 
pleaded the -inviolability of its domains against official intrusion, Hideyoshi summarily 
confiscated them all, made a complete survey of them when he was astonished to find 
that Kdya had been holding large undeclared possessions besides its " ancient domain " 
and then gave back in fief definite portions of the " ancient domain " that represented 
an annual productive power of 21,000 koku of hulled rice in all, and otherwise showered 
favors upon the subdued monastery. Ibid., II 607-609, 622-623 ; V, 645-646. This 
was substantially the same domain the grant of which was renewed to Koya in 1600 
by Tokugawa lyeyasu ; it was but a fraction of the vast possessions K6ya could boast 
at the height of its power about 1580. 

^The monastic domains, not being military, were not called han, but were referred 
to as zhi-ry6 or san-ry5 (domains of the monastery, of the mountain) 

152 The investiture of the entire domains as fief was begun by Hideyoshi In 1590 and 
1592 Koya, V, 644-646. All fiefs, feudal and religious, received a renewed investiture 
from the hands of each new Tokugawa suzerain; samples of the letters of investiture 
of the domains el Iwashimidzu by the suzerains between 1600 and 1860 are given In 
Iwashimidzu mon-zho, III, 660-672. 

128 For a description of these mura about 1830, see KI, I, 784-786, 823-827, 841-859 
861-865. 



XL HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 



By CHALFANT ROBINSON, 
Assistant Professor of History in Princeton University. 



343 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY: THE CASE OF KING LOUIS 

XI OF FRANCE; A CONSIDERATION OF BRACKET'S 

METHOD. 



By OHAXFANT ROBINSON. 



The idea that disease has played an influential part in shaping 
the general course of history contains no novelty. Epidemics of all 
times have been the subject of scientific investigation, and their 
political, social, and economic influence has been definitely weighed. 
The black death in England, malaria and the decline of Greek civili- 
zation, smallpox, cholera, and yellow fever occur at once to the 
mind as examples of diseases which have been undeniable factors in 
history. Many of these have been studied with painstaking thor- 
oughness. Yet, however true this may be of epidemics affecting- 
masses of people, it is not true of individual cases. There is scant 
reason why it should be. The diseases of individuals, of rulers, 
let us say, certainly have little historical significance excepting in so 
far as they bear upon the mental integrity of the sufferer. As a 
matter of fact, only recently has very much attention been given to 
the historical value of mental pathology, and to the abnormal con- 
duct of historical persons which has been so frequently the result of 
their bodily afflictions. 1 This factor is, nevertheless, of definite his- 
torical importance. 

It is the purpose of this paper, therefore, to raise the question, 
first, whether the historian should not devote his serious attention 
to the study of historical pathology; and, second, to attempt to show 
from examples, especially the example of Louis XI, the desirability 
of its employment in the study of medieval biography. 

At the outset, Bernheim's indorsement inspires confidence in the 
soundness of this method of investigation. He says : 

A theoretical knowledge of mental troubles Is quite indispensable to an "under- 
standing of the numerous phenomena of character and of numerous actions ; I 
do not speak of the Czesarean madness, now become a commonplace, but of the 
phenomena which recur so frequently in the biographies of historical persons, 
such as religious exaltation, which passes over into hallucination and fixed 
ideas. * * * Here the realms of psychology and psychiatry touch, and the 
historian can not but pxofit by a study of the fundamental aspects of the latter 
In what a different light, for example, would the actions and motives of the 
unfortunate Louis II of Bavaria be understood if they could be explained 
.rather from the psychopathic conditions of his mental affliction than from the 

1 Tiber den Binflusa acuter Krankbciten auf die EntRtehung von Geisteskrankhelten, 
von Dr. Emil Kraepelin, Arcbiv ftir Psychiatric, vol. xi-xil. 

345 



346 AMEBICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, 

analogy of normal mentality. How readily the layman mistakes for genial 
caprice, or for fantastic extravagance, what the alienist recognizes as precur- 
sors, or symptoms, of mental disease. 3 

Viewed from this angle, the writer of biography will seek in per- 
sonal eccentricities a new source of evidence, and in the manifesta- 
tions of mental disease an additional field for historical investigation ; 
since in many cases he will have to determine whether certain actions 
call for a pathological or a political explanation. 

That the whole interpretation of a reign may turn upon just such 
a choice is clearly shown in the case of King Edward the Second of 
England. While he was upon the throne the barons took away his 
power ; his wife left him ; and England was in a condition of con- 
fusion hard to erplain. When, however, it was made clear from 
the chroniclers that King Edward was a hereditary degenerate, 3 
the unexplained incidents of his reign found a ready and satisfactory 
solution. 

Without any doubt the subject is difficult for the historian to ap- 
proach, but too much attention can not be directed to heredity ; for 
the biographer must have scientific information as to the physical 
inheritance of his subject if his conclusions are to have any value 
whatever. 

This statement does not overlook the obvious fact that of the two 
recognized dominant factors in determining character, heredity and 
environment, historical biography has been, in the main, concerned 
with the latter. Historical setting, or the political and social en- 
vironment of the monarch, has generally occupied the field to the 
exclusion of the equally important factor of heredity. Yet in most 
cases of medieval royal biography, where the personality of the ruler 
counts for so much, the factor of heredity is of such importance that 
properly it may not be disregarded. 

The close intermarriages in royal families will have special weight, 
moreover, if we bear in mind the fact that they give such force to 
the law of heredity as to make the ruler far more often mentally 

" Eine tfceoretisdie Kenntnis der Seelenstorungen [ist] fur das VerstSindnis aahlroicher 
Cliaraktererscheinungen und Handlungen geradezu unentbehrlich : Ich will hier nicht von 
dem zum. Schlagwort gewordenen Cdsarenwabnsmn reden, sondern von den so haufig 
in Biograpiiieen Mstonscher Personlichkeiten wiederkehrenden Erscheinungen, wie die 
rellgidse Exaltation, die sich bis zu Hallucinationen und fixen Ideen steigert, * * *. 
Hler berttlirt sich die Psychologic mit der Psychtatrie, und es kann dem Historiker nur 
zum Vorteil gereichen, wenn er sicn mit den Grundzugen der letzteren vertraut macht. 
Wie anders versteht man z b, manche Bandltmgen und Motive des unglticklicfcen Konigs 
Ludwig II. von Bayern, wenn man sie 1m Zusammenhange mit seiner psychischen 
Erkrankung aus psychopatnlschen Bedingungen herzuleiten vermag, als wenn man sie 
aus den Analogieen eines normalen Seelenlebens erkldren wollte T Wie leicht halt der 
Unkundige flir geniale Laune oder phantastische Uberscbweftglichkeit, was der Kenner 
der psychiatrie als Vorboten oder Symptome von GeistesstSrung interpretiert ! " Bern- 
fceim, Lehrbuch der htetonachen Methode und der GescUcntspMosopTiie. (Leipzig, 
1903) p. 604. 

8 Was King Edward the Second a Degenerate? A consideration of his reign from tliat 
point of view. Chalfant Eobinson, American Journal of Insanity, Vol. LXVI, No. 3. 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 347 

aberrant than the subject. The insanity of King Charles the Sixth 
of France, for example, may be traced to the fact that he was the 
descendant of two sons of Louis VIII, married to two sisters, and 
that not a single marriage for 235 years took place outside this 
family save one, and that the tainted inheritance converged upon 
Charles the Sixth. 4 

The medieval monarch was under little necessity for restraint in 
his personal conduct and was encouraged by his surroundings to give 
rein to his impulses. Due to this very lack of inhibition, indeed, his 
mental symptoms were often revealed to his contemporaries with per- 
fect frankness, because their significance was not understood, and to 
posterity, frequently with scientific definiteness, by the chroniclers. 5 

Though imagining that he was answerable for his actions to no 
law but his own will, and responsible to God alone, the medieval 
prince really was governed by the rigid biological law of his being, 
determined for him by his ancestors. 

Another science will thus claim the right to share in the results 
of the investigations of the historian. For, while the historian in- 
sists that it is his province to collect, analyze, and verify the recorded 
facts according to strict historical methods, the biologist observes 
that certain of these facts collected by the historian have for mental 
science a very special scientific significance. This he sets forth, and 
the historian can not escape the duty of reinterpreting his history 
in the light of biology. Plainly, many of the problems in history 
lie between these two fields, or in both of them. For their proper 
solution the historian must avail himself of the biological sciences, 
such as the study of mental pathology, and the biologist, such as the 
alienist, must acquaint himself with the historical facts. 

It is this double interpretation of history in the light of the his- 
torical records and of the laws of mental pathology which asks 
recognition for itself as a new science under the name of historical 
pathology. 

Brachet, the eminent pupil of LittrS, editor of the works of Hip- 
pocrates and founder of the science, gives the following definition: 
"Historical pathology is, properly speaking, the explanation by 
means of biological science of the d&ta which historical texts furnish, 
data organized and checked according to the rule of scientific criti- 

* Brachet, CXXXVII 

* Higden's Polychronicon, VIII, p. 298. This writer shows a surprising degree of 
scientific accuracy in cataloguing several of the essential traits of the degeneracy of 
King Edward the Second. Ho says in his description of the King * " Not caring to 
associate with the nobles, he clave to buffoons, singers, actors, and grooms, laborers, 
rowers, sailors, and other mechanics; indulging in drink, readily betraying secrets, 
striking bystanders on light occasions, following rather the advice of someone else than 
his own ; lavish in giving, magnificent in entertaining, voluble in speech, varied In 
employments, unfortunate against his enemies, harsh toward his own men * * * " 



348 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

cism, with the double aim of serving both the medical and historical 
sciences." e 

In view of this definition and what has gone before, the difficulty 
of handling the material is further apparent. The historian who at- 
tempts it may be compared to a lawyer who, in an intricate case, calls 
in his scientific experts to aid him in constructing a reasonable hypo- 
thesis for his client's past actions which shall take everything into 
account, and which shall contradict none of the known facts. The 
difficulties multiply as we proceed, but they are not insuperable, al- 
though it will be plain that historical pathology must demand that 
the investigator shall have not only a thorough knowledge of the his- 
torical facts and of the principles of historical criticism, but a knowl- 
edge, as well, of the theory and practice of medieval medicine, and 
that he shall be in a position to make a clinical examination of his 
facts before he can interpret them. 

So much for its general application. What kind of problems give 
to it specific illustration? A few may be stated as historical exam- 
ples, thus ; What account have his biographers taken of the fact that 
when the body of Philip the Fair, of France, was examined after his 
death his heart was found to be " not larger," according to a contem- 
porary, "than that of a newborn child, or a bird," 7 raising the 
question whether a man with a physiological defect of this kind 
could have developed the energy to accomplish the tremendous tasks 
with which he is credited, and perhaps confirming the estimate of 
his contemporary, the Bishop of Palmiers, " the King is of no account 
whatever ; he is not a man nor a beast, but an image, and all that he 
can do is to stare at people." 8 

If Pope Boniface VIII suffered from senile dementia, as it seems 
probable he did, were not his extravagant claims for the Papacy in 
1300 rather psychopathic than canonical ? 

If the separation of Ingeborge of Denmark from Philip Augustus, 
so long an unsolved mystery, resolves itself into a question of nervous 
disequilibrium on the king's part, consequent upon a severe illness 
in Palestine, should not his aversion for Ingeborge be treated as 

*La pathologic historique est proprement Implication, par la science biologique, des 
donnSes que nous fournissent les textes historique, donnSes r&mies et contr016es suivant 
les regies de la critique scientifique, dans le double but de servir, tantot la science 
medicale, tantOt a la science historique. Auguste Bracket, Pathologic Mentale des Rois 
de France (Paris, 1903), introduction, XII 

7 Cor autem dicti regis, ut dicitur, adeo erat parvum sicut est cor alicujus pueri qui 
hodie prodiit ex utero matris sue; ymo intellexi quod illi qui viderunt comparant illud 
cordi alicujus avis. La mort et les funerailles de Philippe le Bel d'aprSs un compte 
rendu a la cour marjorque. P. P Ch. Baudon le mony (Bibl. de l'e"cole des Chartes, 
LVIII, 1897, p. 12). Brachet, Pathologie Mentale, p. 454 

1 Item quod dictus Episcopus dixit quod dominus noster Rex nihil omnino valebat quod 
non erat homo, nee bestia, sed imago quod nihil omnino sciobat nisi respicere homines 
Pupuy, Hist du diffrend d'entre le pape Boniface VIII et Philipe le Bel (Paris, 16G5), 
p. 653. Brachet, p. 444. 



HISTORY AITD PATHOLOGY. 349 

purely pathological, and the incident be interpreted in the light of 
that assumption ? 9 

Has the fact any historical significance that Don Carlos of Spain, 
always neurotic, died quite insane as a result of an accession of 
malarial fever and not at all of poison? 10 This last question must 
be answered in the affirmative, for the case of Don Carlos became 
historic in modern medical research, since it illustrates the now 
generally accepted hypothesis that in neurotic cases there almost 
invariably follows in the train of malarial or other severe fevers, 
frequent abnormal nervous or mental manifestations, and that these 
are governed not by the laws of the disease but by the neurotic 
inheritance of the patient; by the terrain, in other words, upon 
which the fever operates. Or, stated in medical terms, " The law of 
neurosis, in the case of post-infections of those predisposed by hered- 
ity to psychopathic conditions, is thft the form of post-infection 
is a function, not of the nature of the infection, but of the heredity 
of the subject." 11 This law is far-reaching for historical pathology, 
since it means that a neurotic subject, of determined psychopathic 
ancestry, under normal conditions irritable, eccentric, lacking in 
self-control, impulsive, and precipitate in his actions, if attacked 
by u severe illness, like typhoid, malarial fever, grippe or pneumonia, 
would be quite likely to develop some of the characteristic stigmata 
of degeneracy: Fixed ideas, obsessions, maniacal delusions, or some 
one of the various phobias. These might produce changes in his 
character apparently quite new, and otherwise quite inexplicable. 12 

It is desirable to keep this law or hypothesis clearly in mind in 
considering the personality of King Louis XI of France, the next 
example. 

In interpreting his actions, biographers of Louis XI have taken 
little account of these statements, cited by Brachet, made by the 
King's contemporaries concerning his health. " He was often sick." 
(N. Gilles, Fol. CXX, V.) "His maladies were indeed great and 
grievous to him." (Commines, Sd. Dupont, II, 270.) " He was tor- 
mented almost to death by several different and pitiable maladies." 
(Oliver de la Marche, Memoires, ld. Beaune et d'Arbaumont, 1883-88, 
I, p. 180.) " Before his death he was troubled with several maladies, 
for the purpose of healing which the physicians who had charge of 
the King's health had recourse to terrible and marvellous medicines.' 1 
(Jean de Koye, Chron. Scand. fid. B. de Mandrot, II, p. 138.) So 

9 Brachet, Pathologie Mcntale, pp 307-335 

10 Ibid , introd. XIII. 

11 Bracket calls it one of the most precious conquests of the modern clinic in the realm 
of prognostic. Path, ment, pp. 291-292, where he cites the conclusive demonstration of 
this law by Tcssier, in his Lemons cliniques sur la grippe. 

wftber den EJnfluss acuter Krankhelten auf die Entstehung von Qeisteskrankheiten, 
von Dr. Elmil Kraepelin, Archiv ftir Psychiatric, XI, XII. 



350 AMEKIOAlsr HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION. 

far from being negligible, however, the state of the king's health 
must form the basis of scientific inquiry. Indeed, incidents in the 
life of Louis XI, irritable, 13 impulsive, and in many ways eccen- 
trk, 1 * furnish concrete illustrations of a class of questions which the 
political historian is at a loss to answer, but which are more or less 
readily and satisfactorily solved in the light of historical pathology. 
For example: (1) Does it have any historical significance that 
Louis, always concerned about his health, should send gifts, as he 
did, to a certain shrine in order that prayers might be offered there 
that it might please God to send him the quartain fever? 15 (2) How 
account for the fact that the same Louis, whose reign was replete 
with cruelty, 16 who kept Cardinal Balue in a small wooden cage for 
11 years, thus removing him, as he remarked, from the temptations 
of the world, could be so tender hearted as to have a sick dog or a 
rabbit carefully transported for miles in a royal two-horse chariot? 
(3) Or, what changed the avaricious close-fisted ruler, who always 
wore old clothes by preference and looked like a scarecrow, 17 into a 
lavish spendthrift, who dressed in velvets and furs, 18 paid many 
times the value of the things he bought, and gave away money and 

is * * * When lie came home at night he was often weary and generally in a 
violent passion with some of his courtiers or huntsmen " Commines, ed Scobel, II, p 81. 

14 " He did many odd things, which made some believe his senses were impaired.** 
Commines, II, p. 43. " In short, he behaved after so strange a manner that he was 
more formidable than he had ever been before." II, p. 58 

"Baynal, Hist du Berry, III, 132 Brachet, Introd. LXXX. 

" The king had ordered several cruel prisons to be made , some were cages of Iron 
and some of wood, but all were covered with iron plates, both within and without, 
with terrible locks, about 8 feet wide and 7 feet high. * * * He also ordered heavy 
and terrible fetters to be made in Germany, and particularly, a certain ring for the feet 
which was extremely hard to be opened, and fitted like an iron collar, with a thick 
weighty chain and a great globe of iron at the end, most unreasonably heavy " Com- 
mines, ed. Scobel, II, p. 75. Thomas Basin says that the days are not long enough to 
cite individual instances of where, without show of justice, many persons were drowned 
and otherwise made away with, or wasted away in the filth of the king's dungeons 
" Dies me deficiet, si easus smgulos referre velim eorum quos vel in aquarum gurgitibus, 
vel aliis poenarum generibus, quamvis insontes, variis modis perire fecit, vel squalore 
carcerum macerari et constringi nullo juris et jnstitiae ordme observato." Basin, 
Historiarum a Ludovico XI, Lib. VII, p 173. Elsewhere he compares the king's cruelty 
to that of the Emperor Domitian. Hist. Lud , vii., 168. 

1T He dressed so abominably that once he was cursed as an impostor, and was hooted 
and followed by a mob through the streets of a village where he was not known and had 
claimed to be the King. "* * * Accidit ut, eo transeunte per suburbanum oppidi. 
quidam eum interrogaret quando rex venire deberet ; nulla enim, neque facie, neque 
apparatu, neque vestium ornatu vel splendore, plus quam famulus aliquis et vilis condi- 
tionis dignitatis indicia ostentabat Cui cum rex ipse responderet quod ipsemet rex 
dsset, statim idem qui interrogabat, movens cachinnum, in eum maledictum jecit, 
respondens sermone vulgarl : * Vous estes vo& fidvres quartainesi } et cum sociis suis, qui 
una ad videndum regem confluxerant, eum ostenderet, dicens eis : ' Videte istum garci- 
onem, qui regem se esse dixit/ quotquot illud audientes erant, similis probri maledictum 
in eum cumulabant, sibi, tanquam ridlculo ahcui ganeoni, per totius suburban! spatium 
illudentes et post cum acclamantes" Basin, Hist Ludovici XI, Lib VII, pp. 167-168 
(soc de I'histoire de France). 

is * * * EQ S clothes were richer now and more magnificent than they had ever 
been before; his gowns were all of crimson satin, lined with rich marten's furs, of 
which he gave away several without being requested, for no person durst ask a favor of 
him, or scarce speak to him of anything." Commines, ed. Scobel, II, p. 56. 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 351 

fine clothes without even being asked? (4) Or, what led the king, 
who struck down his enemies with a ruthless hand and who ter- 
rorized friend and foe alike by his masterful dealings, 19 to become 
so apprehensive that he dismissed even the servants of his household 
for fear some of them might diminish or take from him his royal 
power. 20 (5) Or, how account for the fact that the affable, ap- 
proachable Louis, who went everywhere and saw everyone, changed 
into a recluse, defended in his castle from the approach of anyone 
from the outside by engines of war, archers, and caltrops scattered 
along the roads. 21 and who would not be seen even through a win- 
dow? (6) Louis, personally brave, who went into the very lair of 
his enemy at Peronne to beard him, what changed him into a cring- 
ing coward who fawned at the feet of an illiterate hermit and begged 
him to save his life, 22 and who was so obsessed by the fear of dying 
that he forbade his courtiers to mention even the name of death? 23 

Incidents like these are to be found in the life history of more than 
one of the medieval monarchs. Not generally regarded as possessing 
any definite historical value, they have been set down, as a rule, as 
interesting peculiarities only. Viewed from the standpoint of his- 
torical pathology, however, every evidence of eccentricity, it must be 
repeated, as well as every malady of the king has a definite scientific 
value. 

The reign of Louis XI serves so well to illustrate further these 
general principles that an interpretation of his pathological history 
will be profitable. In the discussion which follows, the writer keeps 
very close to the argument and citations found in Brachet's Pathologie 
Mentale des Rois de France. 24 

w " His subjects trembled before him ; whatever he commanded was instantly executed 
without the slightest difficulty or hesitation " Comrnines, Ed Scobel, II, p 66 

20 " He was afraid of nothing so much as the loss of his regal authority." Commines, 
ed Scobel, II, p. 38 " * * * For he was grown marvellously jealous of all his 
courtiers, and afraid they would either depose him or deprive him of some part of his 
authority." Ibid., II, p. 42. He was "'Afraid of his own children and relatives, and 
changed every day those very servants whom he had brought up and advanced, * * * 
yet he durst not trust any of them " Ibid , II, p 78. 

21 Commines, ed. Scobel, II, p. 76 

aa Commines, II, p. 56 

* Ibid,, II, p 72. 

M Dr. Brachet began in 18SO the labor of collecting material for his monumental work 
on the mental pathology of the Kings of France By 1896 he had so much material, 
principally from manuscript sources, that he decided to publish privately what he had 
collected, with some brief explanations. This he did in four volumes, one being notes and 
comments, the other three made up of extracts from the sources. Unfortunately these 
were never made available to the public, and are not yet His regrettable death prevented 
the completion in ordered form of his life work , but that the labor of so many years 
might not be lost to the world of scholarship, bis widow, Mme. Anna Brachet, ne'e 
Korff, arranged the notes and manuscripts as she found them, and in 1903 published the 
remarkable treasure-house of data for the study of historical pathology, which is known 
under the title of Pathologie Mentale des Rois de France a scientific examination of the 
mental Pathology of all the ascendants of Louis XI as far back as Hugh Capet 



352 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The king's health throughout is the theme. Let us take for exami- 
nation first the statements of two contemporary writers, Robert 
Gaguin and Jean Le Eoye, about a seemingly trifling incident : 

(i) Returned to Tours, lie thought to lighten the burden of sickness by 
music. Wherefore he commanded that players of musical instruments of all 
kinds should be summoned, of whom 120 were got together. Among these were 
certain shepherds, who for many days, not far from the bedchamber of the 
king, played softly for the sake of comforting him, and in order that he might 
not fall asleep, which would make him worse. He commanded to come to 
Tours, besides this class of people, another quite different kind anchorites 
and hermits, holy men and women, to whom he commanded that they pray God 
continually that, health restored to the king, he might continue to live. So 
eager was Louis to live longer. 25 

(ii) At this time the king summoned a great number of players upon low 
and sweet instruments, whom he lodged at Saint Cosime near Tours, where 
they assembled to the number of 120 ; among them were several shepherds from 
Poitou, who often played before the king, but they did not see him, in order 
that he might enjoy there these instruments and while away the time and to 
prevent him from falling asleep. And, on the other hand, he assembled a great 
number of devout men and women and holy persons such as hermits and saints 
to pray God without ceasing that He would grant that the king should not die 
and that He would permit him still to live. 28 

These two accounts, except for the statements that the Instru- 
ments were low and sweet, and that the king kept out of sight, are 
alike. They are all that we have from the chroniclers about the 
incident. Commines, the king's official biographer, for reasons of 
his own, does not speak of the shepherds, and mentions only one 
hermit. 

If they are examined as material for historical pathology, the 
details are very suggestive. In the first place, does the intercession 
of the holy men and women have any particular significance? Ap- 
parently not. It was the common practice of the time, and their 
part may be dismissed without comment. It is quite another matter 
with the shepherds and their melodies, however, for here there arise, 

25 " Turonum reverses, escogitavit a musica vahtudinis levamen quaerere Quamobrem 
accerslri mandat omnis generi musiei instrument! lusores quos centum et viginti con- 
venisse constat. Inter quos assuerunt ovium pastores . qui multos dies non procul a 
regis cubiculo continenter modulabantur, ejus consolandi causa, ot ne somno, quo 
gravabatur, succumberet Jussit, praeter hoc hominum genus, alterum longe diversum 
ad se convenire. Solltarii et qui eremum incolebant homines foeminse quoque spec- 
tatee religionis Turonum convenerunt, quibis negociuin mandatum est Dcum indesinentci 
orare: ut regi salute restituta maneret ipse diu superstes. lam appetens diutlssime 
Vivendi fuit Ludovicus." Robert Gaguin, Ann. 1482, f 281, ed 1560 Brachet, p. xvili. 

38 " Dudit temps, le roy fist venir grant nombre et grant quantite" de joueurs de bas 
et doulx instruments qu'il fist loger & Saint Cosine pres Tours, oil illec ilz se assem- 
blerent jusques au nombre de six vingtz ; entre lesquelz y vint pluseurs bergiers du pays 
de Poictou, qui souvent jouerent devant le logis du roy, mais ilz ne le veoyent pas, affin 
que ausdiz instrumens le roy y prensist plaisir et passe temps et pour le garder de dorrair 
Et d'ung autre costs, y fist aussy venir grant nombre de bigotz, bigottes et gens de 
devocion comme hermites et sainctes creatures pour sans cesser prier & DIeu qull 
permlst qu'l ne mourust point et qu'il le lalssant encores vivre." Journal de Jean de 
Roye, ou Chron. Scandaleuse, fid, de B, de Mandrot, ii, 122, Ann. 1482. Brachet, XVIII. 



HISTORY AISTD PATHOLOGY. 353 

as to the therapeutic value of music and as to the class of afflictions 
for which it was employed, the following questions: (a) In the 
treatment of what disease would recourse be had to music as a tonic 
stimulant? (b) In what class of maladies would sleep in the day- 
time be prohibited as harmful? (c) In what would the tonic action 
of the stimulant have to be moderate and sedative? The textbooks 
of medieval medicine recommend musico-therapy as a familiar treat- 
ment for cases of extreme nervous disorder. Healing by means of 
music, indeed, is much older than the Middle Ages, as old as the 
Old Testament at least, for David played before Saul to soothe the 
monarch when the " evil spirit of the Lord was upon him," and he 
sought to smite David to the wall with his javelin. 

Together, under one head, in the system of medieval medicine, in- 
sanity, melancholia, and epilepsy are grouped together. Joined 
under one family of psychoneurosis, they differ in species but are 
alike in genera. 

The shepherds might certainly have been, employed for a thera- 
peutic purpose. This inference, however, to be of any value will 
have to be confirmed by examples from the medical practice of the 
time. For this purpose the following citations are interesting and 
more or less specific : 

Bernard de Gordon, in his Lilium Medicinse, part ii, cap. xix, 
De Mania et Melancholia, says: "The first thing to be sought in 
curing it is light-heartedness and rejoicing jesting ought to be in- 
dulged in, and musical instruments; in short, everything that will 
cheer the mind." 2T 

Barthelemy L'Anglois, in his Grant Proprietaire des Choses, says : 
"This is a kind of madness which physicians call amentia, others call 
it mania, * * * The treatment is to have singing and the sound 
of instruments of music, * * * but in moderation." 2S 

Avicenne, in his Canon, calls attention to the fact that while some 
persons are benefited by music, others are made worse, 29 and the 
Lilium Medicinse says that loud sounds often bring on attacks of 

27 "Primum quod compctit in curatione est gaudium et Isetitia . . . et multa 
jocalia prcesenlare debent et ibi esse instrumenta musica et breviter omnia quse laetificant 
aniniam." Bernard de Gordon, Liliuin Medlcinsc, part ii, cap xix, De Mania et 
Melancholia (1363) Brachet, xxviii Textbooks of this bind are very hard to get bold 
of by the student. The writer takes this occasion to express his grateful thanks to the 
Surgeon General's library at Washington for the use of a copy of the Lilium Medlcinae. 

28 " II est tine espece de follie que les physiciens appellent amence ; et les autres 
Tappellent manie. * * * La medocine est faire chanter et sonner clcs instrumens 
de musique * * * et si les doibt on faire travailler moyennement " Barthelemy 
L'Anglois, Le grant proprietaire des Choses, Trad P. Coibichon, Lib vi, Cap. v., Brachet, 
xxviii. 

29 " Et quidam homines sunt, quos sanat Isetitia et auditus cantilenas, et quidam sunt 
quos illud augmentat" Avicenne, Canon, Lib. iii, Tr, 4, Cap xxlx, de cura Melan- 
cholia. Brachet, xxix. 

23318 19 23 



354 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

epilepsy. 30 Both imply the moderation which modern medicine in- 
sists upon. " The tonic effect of the music should never be so great 
as to provoke convulsions." 31 Hence the low and sweet instruments 
in Louis' case, as a clue as to why the shepherds played before the 
king's chamber. 

In this class of afflictions medieval medicine recommended that the 
sense of smell be stimulated (odorotheraphy) also and for the same 
purpose. It is quite significant to find from manuscript sources ia 
the Archives Rationales and from the Egerton Mss. in the British 
Museum records showing that from 1480 to 1482 the king's servants 
were scouring the country for roses and rosebuds, coquemint, sweet 
marjoram, and violets to keep continually fresh in the king's room. 82 

The following extracts lead to the conclusion that these flowers 
were for something else than for ornamenting the king's room sim- 
ply : Avincenne, Canon, De cura melancholia, says : " Let him sit in 
places where the temperature is good and let the air of the room be 
moist and fragrant. It is universally desirable that in breathing 
odors he should smell pleasant odors and fragrant flowers." 33 
That actual flowers in nervous troubles were not indispensable the 
following prescription shows : " Let the epileptic smell day and night 
this confection [of calamint and rosewater]. It can be made into 
an apple, and when he wakes in the morning he can hold it in his 
hand." 8 * But the next shows that they seem to have been frequently 

* [Epilepsia.] " Provenit etiam ex aspectu terribili, sicut est aspectus fulgarls, ant 
sono maximo, sicnt est tonitrum, ant tympani magni et similium " Lilium Med , p. 273. 

81 Ch. Fr, La Pathologie des Emotions, p. 95. 

83 " 28 Juillet 1480 A Nicholas Mesnagier, varlet de Fourriere, 27 L 12 S 8 D T., 

pour avoir envoys deux hommes a cheval de La Mothe d'Esgry a, Paris et Prouvins 
querir des rozes et boutens Oa il y ont vaeque", tant & aller que retourner dix jours 
entiers (Arch Nat. kk-64, fol 62), Brachet, xxxii A Guillaurne du Jardm, tapissier 
dndit siegnenr, pour avoir fonrny durant ledit mois de juillet et aout, dudit an, de cor- 
mente et autres herses, pour mectre es chambres et retraict dudit sieur, 2 s 60 T Par. 
Jour, Valient 7 1. 15 s. t (27 September, 1480). (Id., Ibid, fol 65) Brach , xxxiL 

A Jehan le Nonnant, varlet de fourriere dudit seigneur, 23 L. 2 s. 4 d. Pour avoir 

fourny par chasoun jour depuis le douzieme jour de juing jusque an 15 jour d'aoust 
ensuivant de roses fresches pour mettre es chambres et retraict dudit seigneur, pour en 
avoir envoye" chercher a Montbazon, Montoire, Montdoubleau et autres lieux. (11 mars 
1481.) (British Museum, Mss. Egerton, 883, fol 43 ) Brach., xxxii. A Robert Gautier,' 
tapissier dudit seigneur, pour avoir fourny de coqmente et autres herbes pour mettre es* 
chambres dudit seigneur par tous les lieux ou il a este* durant le moys de septembre dudit 
an. (16 dec 1481.) (Id , Ibid, fol 34.) Brach > xxxiii. A Jean Gebert 64 P. Pour 
avoir fourny du rouy marin et marjolame pour mettre es chambres dudit seigneur depuis 
le jour de noel jusques au vingt sixiesnae jour de Janvier ensuivant" (6 mars. 1482. 
Id, Ibid, for. 26.) Brach., xxxiii. A Patrix Gebert 8 1. 17 s S d.Pour ses paynes et 
sallaires d'avoir fourny et port<5 en la chambre dudit seigneur des violectes, fleurs 
d f espines, adglentiers, groseliers et autres nouveaulxtez .depuis le 20 jour de mars jusques 
au derrenier jour d'avril, 1482." (Ibid, fol. 72 ) Brachet, xxxiii. 

88 "Et sedeat in locis temperatis et humectetur aer hospitii ejus et odorificetur 
sternendo odonfera in ipso, et universaliter oportet, ut semper olfaciat odores bonos, et 
flores boni odoris." Avincenne, Canon, Lib. Ill, Tr. 4, xx, Brachet, xxx. 

*"De cura epilepsise. "TJtatur epileptfcus ista confectione in qua inveni magnum 
juvamentum* ambrse gris calaminta ana 1 conficiantur cum aqua ros. optima. Odoret 
epileptfcus die ac nocte totam confectionem, vel flat pomum de ista confectione, quod 
teneat in manu. Cum mane surrexerit et teneat pomum dictum in manu " Lilium 
Medicinae, II, p. 25. Brachet, xrx. 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 355 

preferred : " * * * The room of the epileptic should be suf- 
fused with hyssop, rhue, stryax, and calamint," 35 and "the house 
should be well lighted, without pictures, and there should be a great 
deal of fragrance." 36 

This stimulation of the olfactory nerve bears the same testimony 
as musico-therapy that the king was being treated for some form of 
nervous disorder. There is as yet no specific indication as to the 
disease, but the suspicion as to what it may be is confirmed by an ex- 
amination of the things especially to be avoided in epilepsy: (a) 
Sleep in the daytime ; the Lilium Medicinse says : " Sleep in the day- 
time should be especially avoided." 8T " He should not sleep in the 
daytime, for a long heavy slumber is very harmful." 38 " Sleep in 
the afternoon is very bad, and in general much sleep does harm." 39 
It will be recalled that the shepherds played to keep the King from 
falling asleep. (6) Allowing the head to be cold. This induces 
sleep, 40 and since, according to Hippocrates (Coaques, section 342, 
Ed. Liitre, v. 657) excessive sleep is provocative of epilepsy, the 
epileptic should have his head well covered, (c) Insulation, The 
Lilium Medicinse says of things to be avoided in epilepsy: "Too 
great cold, and everything that suddenly makes the head warm, such 
as long exposure to the sun." 41 The Canon of Avicenne says : " All 
excessive heat of the sun, and cold, is conducive to epilepsy," 42 
"and it is especially desirable that the head be protected against 
excessive heat and cold." 43 The traditional likeness of Louis XI, 
wearing the old felt hat, from which he was inseparable, at once oc- 
curs to the mind, and this hat becomes very significant when the 
reason he wore it so constantly is made plain. Apparently he had 
adopted a very definite means for protecting his head from heat and 
cold, for the Mss. sources, cited in Brachet, from 1468 on, show that 
for this purpose the king was regularly being supplied with caps or 
bonnets, which he never went without, day or night. 

81 * De cura epilepsise. " Camera epileptic! suffumigetur cum hyssopo ruta et strace et 
calaminta," (Id., ibid., II, p. 25 ) 

86 " Domns debet esse clara luminosa, sine picturis et debent ibi esse multa odonfera." 
(Id, ibid, 11, Cap. xiz ) 

87 " Potissime vitet somnum diurnura " Lilium Medicinse, Particula II ; De passionibus 
capitis, cap xxv. Quse vltanda in epilepsia Brachet, xxxvili 

w " Non dormiat de die, somnus enim profondus multum nocet et longus." (Id , ibid., 
xxvi ) 

w Avicenne Canon, Lib. Ill, Tr. 5, cap xi r de cura epilepsise " Et multum dormire 
post meridiem nocet > et uniyersaliter somnus multus nocet." Brachet, xrxvlii. 

* Galen, Be locis affectis, L III, cap. v., edit. Venise, 1576, folio T, iv, p. 16, v. t 

41 Lilium Medicine, II, 25, " Quse vltanda in epilepsia. JMgiditas nimla et omne illud 
quod subito calefacit caput sicut est longa mora in sole" Brachet, xl 

u Avicenne, Canon, Lib, III, tr. 5, cap. z. " De cansis moventibus epilepsiam. Et 
ijpttepslam quidem commovet omnis calor superfluus Solaris, et omne frigus." 
Brachet, si 

48 " De cura epilepsise Immo oportet, ut caput muniatur ab omni c*lore superfluo 
aut a frigore superflo." Id., ibid., cap. acL Brachet, rl. 



356 AMEBICAST HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

They were uniformly double; a scarlet one when he rode horse 
back and a double white or black nightcap over which he drew at 
night a scarlet bonnet tied with six strings. Sometimes, apparently 
for greater insulation, they were lined with felt or with beaver. 44 
(d) The head should be kept elevated. This is enjoined in Avicenne's 
Canon, De Cura Epilepsiae ; " He should take care to keep his head 
elevated, and as far as possible not to bend over." 45 And the same 
thing is repeated in the Lilium Medicines : [The epileptic] " should 
particularly avoid lying upon his back, and with his head hanging 
down. He should not sleep in the daytime, as has been said, and he 
should sleep with his head raised." 4S Louis apparently thought these 
precautions were worth following, for the manuscripts discovered by 
Brachet in the Archives Rationales and in the British Museum show 
that in 1481-1482 he carried about with him, everywhere he went, a 
special headboard, apparently for the purpose. 47 

Nothing would seem to be more evident from these remedies than 
that the king was following the advice of his physicians in being 
treated for some very severe nervous affliction which looks like epi- 

** " Pour deux tocques d'escarlate doubles pour servir au Roy a porter de jour quant 
IT chevauche par pays." (Arch. Nat. Comptes de L'Argenterie, KK, 61, fol 29, Nov., 
1468.) " Pour deux bonnetz noirs doubles pour servir audit seigneur a porter de jour." 
(Id , ibid , fol. 20, Nov., 146S ) " Pour deux tocques blanches doubles pour servir au 
Roy & mettre de nuyt, 60 s. Pour ung bonnet d'escarlate fait a six fils pour servir audit 
seigneur & metre par dessus lesdites tocques, 35 s." (Id., ibid , fol. 39, Avril. 1469.) 
" Pour deux toccfues blanches doubles a mettre de nuyt pour ledit seigneur, 60 s Et pour 
ung fin bonnet d'escarlate fait a &ix fils pour servir audit seigneur a mettrc de nuyt 
pardessus les dictes tocques, 35 s " (Id , ibid , fol 47, Septembre, 1469 ) "Audit Glaude 
Lambert, la eomme de 60 L 5 s. tant pour un voyage d'estre alls et venu de la ville 
de Montpellier a Romme echapter et payier treize cbappeauix de bievre, et iceulx avoir 
apportez en ladite ville de Montpellier pour la personne du Eoy comme pour I'achaot 
" 



"Audit Thomas Cardonne dit 1'Enfant de Rouhan, chappelier, la somme de 212 L. 4 e. 
9 d. tant pour le fagon de neuf autres chappealux pour la personne dudit seigneur en 
ladite ville de Montpellier que pour 1'eeaapt de layne et autres fraiz ne"cessaires gull luy 
a convenu faire." (Comptes originaux de rfcgne de Louis XI, Oct., 1478-Oct , 1479 
Bibl. Nat f. fr 23265, fol 6 ) Brachet, XLI-XLII. 

" De cura epilepsise, et studeat ut caput suum sit elevatum et caveat ne ipsum pen- 
dere faciat in quantum possible est * * *." Avicenne, Canon, 1. Ill, tr. 50, cap XI 
Brachet, XL. * 

Que vitanda in epilepsia, " Vitentur omnes causse qua? ditcas sunt ; potissime vitet 
jacere supra dorsum et capita inclinato > Non dormiat de die ut dictum est, et jaceat 
capite elevato." Lilium medicinae, particula II. de passionibus capitis, cap. xxv, 
Brachet, xl. 

"A Guillaume Genou 40 1. 2 s. 1 d pour un cheval de poll bay pour servir a porter 
apres lui le dossier de la chambre dudit seigneur." 30 jum 1481 (Arch nat. KK, 64 
fol. 140.) " A Guillaume Genou dit Rondelet 25 1. 2 s 6 d , pour avoir mene" et conduit 
sur ung cheval le dossier pour servir au lit dudit seigneur depuis le vingt cinquiesme 
Jour de juing jusques au derrenier jour d'aoust ensuivant * f 9 sept 1481 (Arch, nat 
KK. 64, fol 167.) " Claude Poulon 27 1., pour avoir mene" sur ung cheval sommier dedans 
ung bahu de cuir un gros loudier pour servir es logiez dudit seigneur a mettre derriere 
le chevet de son lit par tous les lieux ou il est<5 depuis le 18 jour de novembre jusque au 
premier jour de fevrier ensuivant " 5 fevrier 1482. (British Museum Mss Bgorton 883, 
fol. 29 ) A Gilles Genest 471., pour avoir men^ sur ung cheval sommier ung dossier de 
boys pour servir es logiez dudit seigneur a mettre derriere son lit oft il a vacqu<* depuis 
le premier jour de septembre jusqu-es au premier jour de janivier ensuivant" (Id ibid 
fol. 29, 10 mai 1482.) Brachet, XL-XLL 



HISTORY ANI> PATHOLOGY. 357 

lepsy, a disease which might prepare the way for later mental dis- 
turbances but which would not necessarily impair the king's political 
acumen. This hypothesis offers a reasonable explanation, at least 
from the standpoint of pathology, of the mysterious passage about 
the shepherds in Gaguin and in the Scandalous Chronicle. 

On the other hand, the political historians in the past, lacking this 
biological basis, have been forced to draw many times upon their 
imaginations for a plausible explanation of the very serious incidents 
related by the chroniclers. In pointing out the obvious fact that 
these accounts are unreliable as history, it need not be remarked 
that they illustrate, nevertheless, a very important principle. The 
extracts which follow, most of them found in Brachet, are taken 
from standard histories of France and deal with the passage about 
the shepherds. Chateaubriand says : " The honesty and rustic sim- 
plicity of the country lads and lassies who came to figure in the 
donjons of Plessis served to smooth the brow of the tyrant." 48 If 
the reader will recall just what Gaguin and Jean Le Eoye say 
about the shepherds the following historical embroideries will 
be interesting. Zevort, a modern writer, makes this contribu- 
tion: "The greatest distraction of Louis was on Sunday to 
watch the joyous gambols of the young men and women who danced 
before the chateau. 49 Even so reliable a historian as Henri Martin 
follows the errors of the others. He says : " He [Louis] abandoned 
himself to a thousand fantasies to secure a moment from the ennui 
which consumed him. He summoned from all sides players on c low 
and sweet instruments' and had shepherds come who played airs 
before him and danced the dances of their native country. But 
nothing succeeded in distracting him; the object of his caprice once 
attained caused him only impatience and disgust." 50 An older his- 
tory adds considerably to what the chroniclers recount. " Shep- 
herds and shepherdesses," it says, " gathered together from Poitou ; 
they were divided into several bands. Some played on their rustic 
instruments; others sang and danced in the meadows. Louis some- 
times at the window and sometimes walking in the gallery, saw and 
tried to participate in these harmless and innocent pleasures, but 
if he saw that he was observed, or that anyone was watching him, 

* 8 " Des danses de jeunes paysans et al Jeunes paysannes qui venalent figurer dans lea 
donjons du Plessis le bonheur et 1'innocense champ&tre servaient a dander le front dn 
tyran." Chateaubriand, Analyse raisonnSe de 1'histolre de France, I, 185 

" La plus grande distraction de Louis XI e"tait le dim&nche, de rcgarder les joyeuz 
e"bats des Jeunes gens et des Jeunes fillers qui dansaient sui la place du chateau " Edgar 
Zevort, Hist nationale, 1S90, 31* edit, p 31, 

60 " II s'abandonnait a mille fantalsies pour secourer un moment r ennui qui le 
rongeait ... II mandait de tout parts des joueurs de ' bas et doux instruments ' ; U 
faisalt venir des bergers qui jouaient dovant lui les airs et danstent les danses de leur 
pava. Mais rien ne r<5us$issait a le distraire, 1'objet de son caprice, & peine attaint, ne 
lui causait plus qu'impatience et de*gout" Henri Martin, Hist, de France, VII, 146. 



358 AMERICAN" HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

he withdrew and did not dare to appear again." 51 The two accounts 
next following state either frankly or covertly what their authors 
suspect that the chroniclers have been led to conceal. " There is a 
pleasure in reading in the histories all that the fear of actual death 
and the loss of authority made King Louis do in the closing years 
of his reign ; the dance of young girls before his lodgings and the 
bands of flute players collected from all sides to divert him," 52 and, 
' fc without believing at all the strange and ferocious tales of the last 
acts of this Tiberius, sick and voluntary prisoner, and without pre- 
tending that he bathed in the blood of children, that young girls 
came to dance lascivious dances in his chamber, it is certain that his 
cruelty and defiance redoubled at the approach of death." 53 Even 
so recent a biographer as Christopher Hare (1907) offers the tra- 
ditional explanation that the shepherds played for the king to beguile 
the long hours. 54 

All these accounts are wrong as history. This does not mean, 
however, that they have not been carefully written. Most of them 
have been. It does mean that no explanation of incidents in royal 
biography is safe until the possibility of a pathological interpretation 
has been eliminated. 

To continue with the remedies: The Scandalous Chronicle says: 
" To heal these maladies there were made for him terrible and mar- 
velous remedies by the physicians and doctors who had care of the 
King's person." 55 Gaguin says in 1482 : " Every day Louis was more 
and more sick, and his physicians offered remedies to him of a marvel- 
ous kind, for he vehemently hoped to acquire health by means of human 
blood drawn from certain youths, which he drank and bathed in." 56 

11 " On rassembla les Mergers et les bergeres du Poitou ; on les partagea en plusieurs 
bandes, les uns jouoient de leurs instruments ehampe'tres ; les autres cUantoient et 
dansoient dans la prairie; Louis, tantOt aux fenStres de son appartemeut et tantOt 
promenant dans une galerie voyolt et tachoit de partager ces plaisirs vrais et innocents ; 
mals s'il venoit a, s'appercevoir que quelqu'un le regardat, il se retiroit promptement, et 
LI n'osoit plus paraltre " Velly, Villaret, Gamier, Hist, de Prance, 1768, XIX, 117. 

M ** II y a plaisir de lire dans les histoires tout ce que la crainte de la mort rgele" et 
celle de perdre son autorite", falsoient faire au Roi Louis durant les dernieres annexes de son 
regne. Les danses de jeunes filles a 1'entour de son logis, et les bandes de joueuis de 
flutes qu'on amassait de touteg parts pour le diyertir, etc " Mezeray, AbregS Chronolotr 
dp France, II, 618. 

68 " Sans croire tout ce qu'on a racontS d'Strange et de f eroce sur les derniers actes 
de ce Tibere malade et voluntairement prisonnier, sans prdtendie qu'il prenait des bains 
de sang d'enfants, que de jeunes filles yenaient danser dans sa chainbre des danses 
lascives, II est certain que sa cruaute* et defiance redoublerent aux approches de la mort ' 
Charles Lacretelle, Louis XI, p. 68 The extracts quoted above are from Biaclict LI-LII 

'* While he was watching death approach step by step we do not wonder that he 
sent foi musicians, 'fruers de doux et bas instruments,' to beguile the long hours of 
suffering and isolation." The Life of Louis XI, Christopher Hare, New York, 1007 p 258 

" . . . Pour le guerir desanelles maladies furent faictes pour lui, par las mSdicins 
qui avoient la cure de sa personne, de terrible et merveilleuses medicines." Chron Scan- 
daleuse, 6d. Mandrot, II, 138 Brachet, XLVL 

*" Tous les jours de plus en plus estoit Loys mallade et ne lui prouffitoient les medi- 
cines quises en merveilleuses manieres. . . Car v^hementement espeioit acquerir 
sant^ par le sang humain qu'il but et huma de quelques enfans." Eobert Gaguin 1482 
d. 1508, t ceil, V*. Bracket, XLV. ' ' 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 859 

The shock that comes with this reference to the use of human blood is 
natural, and the historians, in their ignorance of medieval medical 
practice, are justified in their incredulity or horror of it. 57 But the 
use of human blood takes on quite a different aspect when it becomes 
plain that it was a remedy pure and simple for a specific disease. 
Galen prescribes human blood for epileptics a sovereign remedy 
for this disease from the time of antiquity 58 until the eighteenth 
century at least 50 and modern medicine, of course, recognizes in the 
transfusion of blood a valuable restorative. Louis probably did take 
human blood for his malady, although we have only a hint as to 
how he got it. 60 He also probably submitted to the heroic treatment 
of having his head cauterized with a hot iron, 61 a recognized thera- 
peutic agent in epilepsy in the middle ages. 62 

Medieval medicine further suggests a solution of gold to be drunk 
as medicine in psychoneurotic cases. Avicenne, Canon, says: * ; The 
limatura of gold is good for tremor of the heart [Louis complained 
of this] and for depression of the mind and for him who talks 
alone." 68 Indeed, the salts of gold is a recognized modern remedy 
in cases of spasms and convulsions. The records show that in 1483 
a certain man received the sum of 192 livres of gold for a beverage 
called " potable gold " ordered for the king by his physicians 
(Legeay, Louis XI, II, pp. 506), and Louis probably took this, too. 

w " On avait si inau-vaise opinion de lui, que les rumeuis les plus bizarres et les plus 
atroces s'accr<3diteient aii sujet des lemedes qu'il employait pour retarder a fin. On 
prStendit que Louis, par 1'ordonnance de Coictier, ' buvoit et humoit ' le sang des enfans 
afln de re"chauffer son sang appauvri " Henri Martin, Hist de France, p. 153. 

lt Une chronique dit qu'on lui faisait boire du sang d'enfans nouvellement <5gorge*s, 
remede plus convenable au caractere d'un tyian qu'a la sante" d'un malade. Crime hor- 
rible, pe"che" mortel." Liskenne, Hist de Louis XI, p. 301 

" Puis il buvait du sang de petits enfants po^r se redonner de la jeunesse , remede 
qui semblait tout a fait approprie" au temperament du malade." Chateaubriand, Analyse 
Raisonne*e de 1'Histoire de France, I. 185. 

" La profonde delusion dans laquelle il vivait faisait croire qu'il se passait des choses 
bien extraordinaires dans ce chateau impenetrable. On alia jusqu'a re*pandre le bruit 
que Ton y rassemblte.it des enfants que Ton saignait, et dont on lui faisait boire le sang 
pour corriger 1'acrete" du sien." Anquetil, Hist, de France, II, 207. Brachet, XLVI-VII. 

M " Epileptics (coinitiales morbi) drank the blood of gladiators, also, as from living 
cups " Sanguinem quoque gladiatorum bibunt, ut viventibus poculis. Pliny, XXVIII, 2. 
Bracket, XLIV. 

co Human blood Virtues : Human blood, fresh and drunk -warm, is said to benefit 
epilepsy." Sanguis humanus. Vires : Sanguis humanus (recens adhuc et calde potus) 
conferre dicitur ad epilepsiam. (Magnet, Rerum ad Pharmaciam Galenico Chymicam 
Spectantlum Thesaurus, 1703, 1. 1, p. 987. Brachet, XL1V ) 

" All the writers recommend human blood for healing epilepsy " Tous les auteurw 
recommandent le sang humain pour la gu6rison de rSpilepsie." (Pharmacope'e Royale 
Gale"nique et Chimique. Moses Charas, edit, de 1773, t II, p. 418. Brachet, XLV,) 

w In the royal accounts for this date there is a receipt which reads as follows 4i To 
John Pellart, the sum of 9 12s. 6d. ordered paid to him by the said lord ( Louis j the 
aforesaid day for having been bled by the order and command of the said lord on two 
occasions for demonstration (espreuve). A Jehan Pellart la somme de 9 12s. 6(1. 
a luy ordonSe par ledit seigneur ledit jour pour avoir este seignS par Tordonnanee et 
cornmandement dudit seigneur par deux f-ois pour espieuve." 29 juin, 1482. (British 
Museum. Mas. Egerton, 883, fol. 62. Brachet, XLVI.) 

Brachet, XXXI-XXXII, 13. 

M Avicenne, Canon, 1. Ill, tr. 4, cap. x, de cura melancholias, " Et quandoque oportet 
ut caput ejus secundum crucem cauterization, si nihil aliud confert " 

w Avicenne, Canon, bk. II, tract 2, cap. LXXVIII. Brachet, XXXV, 



360 AMEBIOAK HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Furthermore, it is interesting to notice another means of obtaining 
relief from sickness in the Middle Ages, which furnishes an indirect 
means of diagnosing a disease. This is hagiotherapy, or the invo- 
cation of the saints which protect against certain afflictions. Taken 
alone, this agency should not serve as a basis for any conclusion as 
to the disease itself, but it is a very useful check upon other data 
as indicating from his prayers and gifts to certain saints what the 
patient himself thought was the matter with him. The documents 
in the various archives show conclusively that Louis XI had fre- 
quent recourse to the intercession of the saints who were to be 
specifically invoked in epilepsy, spasms, and convulsions St. John 
the Evangelist, St. Giles, St. Claude, and St. Paul, for example. 64 
Moreover, the gifts of Louis to the saints invoked for epilepsy be- 
came finally so great that Parlement again and again opposed the 
alienation of parts of the royal domain for this purpose. 65 

Now, it seems fair, from the symptoms and from the remedies 
employed by Louis, to conclude that the king was very sick with 
some nervous malady, and that the particular malady could not be 
anything else than epilepsy. 

But if Louis had epilepsy, why did not the physician announce 
the fact? The reason in the Middle Ages, even more than to-day, 
was that epilepsy was a reflection on the patient and upon his 
parents, and its existence was always concealed when it was possible. 
Hence, for example, the silence of Commines upon the remedies taken 
by the king. 

This fact explains why Louis had recourse to a strange procedure : 
He made gifts and asked the intercession of the saint protecting 
against the quartain fever, n<j that he might be spared, but that it 
might please God to send him that disease. " Because," he explains, 
" the doctors say that I have a sickness of which I may never be 
cured unless I have the quartain fever." 68 % 

History as such can not explain this strange request, but medieval 
medicine does so without trouble and in this way. Hippocrates 2,000 
years ago laid down the principle of the substitution of one disease 
for another. "Persons taken with the quartain fever," he says, 
"are never taken with the great sickness [epilepsy], and, if taken 
first with that affection they get the quartain fever, the first is 
healed by the second." 67 

Louis had epilepsy, and any lingering doubt as to the fact is 
dispelled by the direct statement of Gaguin that he had it: "At that 

**Du Broc de Segagne, Les Saints Patrons (cited in Brachet, XL VIII). 

Bracket, L. British Museum, Egerton Mss. No 1068, fol. 299 

"Arch, du Cher. Ponds du Chapitre, d Raynal, Hist, du Berry, III, 132. Brachet, 
LXXX. 

OT "Les individus pris de flevre quarte ne sont Jamais attaints de la grande maladie 
(I'Spilepsie) ; et, si, pris d'abord de cette affection, la fievre quarte leur survient, celle-cl 
les guerit de celle-la " Hippocrates, Epidemics, VI, 6, 5 (tr. Littrg. V 325) Braehet 
LXXXII. ' 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 86 1 

time [1480] Louis began to be very sick. For the comitial sickness 
[epilepsy], which for a long time had oppressed him, demanded 
the most diligent efforts of his physicians." 68 

It is perfectly clear, therefore, that Louis was not a Tiberius, ex- 
hausting every means to please his jaded senses, but a miserable 
nervous wreck, trying to recover his health by the most advanced 
scientific treatment of his age, and if he is not an object of compas- 
sion, his actions, at least, demand sympathetic interpretation. 

The fact that Louis suffered many years from attacks of epilepsy 
is in itself sufficient indication of a very serious nervous condition, 
whatever produced it. He had a bad inheritance of gout, insanity 
mania, and obsessions of one kind or another from his various an- 
cestors. Space does not permit of a discussion of this statement, but 
Brachet's researches 69 furnish ample warrant for the assertion that 
the terrain in the king's case was very bad indeed. 

Before going further, it is desirable to recall the medical hypothe- 
sis mentioned earlier, that in cases of hereditary neurosthenics, after 
a severe or exhausting illness, some form of mental disturbance is 
a more or less certain sequence. 

The pathological history of Louis XI forms no exception to the 
general formula, and, following his bitter experience at Peronne, in 
1468, and his very serious illness in 1479, there are recorded the fol- 
lowing acts which can be interpreted only as psychopathic outbursts, 
latent or repressed before, but common in one form or other to all 
hereditary degenerates: (a) Louis develops a mania for lavish ex- 
penditures (a form of megalomania) so foreign to his general char- 
acter; (5) a morbid fear of death, an obsession with Louis (thanato- 
phobia) ; (c) a mania for collecting things, simply for the sake of 
collection (collectomania) ; (d) an irresponsible mania for seizing 
things which he wanted ( kleptomania ) ; and finally, (e) a morbid 
love for animals (zoophilia). 

His illness in 1479 was so severe as to lead to the report that the 
king was not only helpless, but was actually dead. 70 The pivotal 
point of his reign is here, and by reason of that very sickness. For 

w " . . . Sed per Id tempus aegrotare maxime Ludovicus coeplt. Nam comitiali 
morbo cum inter dum premeretur, . . , Quamobrem medicorum diligent! opera usus 
eet," Robert Gaguin, f. 279, Brachet, LXXIX. 

w His Pathologic Mentale devotes something like 700 pages to the subject 
T " . Wherefore the report was widely spread throughout all the lands of the 
Duke that the King himself had declined into such weakness of body that he could neither 
ride horaeback nor be conveyed in a chariot, nor could he get any belter either by the 
aid or diligence of his physicians This popular rumor filled not only the land^ of the 
Duke, but very many of the provinces of the realm as well, so that many reviled him 
and secretly cursed him as not sick but dead." "... Ex eo re rumor incrobult per 
omnes terras duels quod ipse rex in talem corporis sui Invaletudinem incurrerat, quod 
nunquam nee equo, nee carru vectari posset, nee inde ulla medicorum ope aut industria 
convalefecere. Qui rumor nedum terras duels, sed plurimas etiam regni provincias vulgo 
adlmplevit ; ita ut etiam euxa, nedum jegrotum, sed mortuum ess>e plxires susurrarent et 
clanculo jactitarent." Basin, Hist. Ludow, XI, vol. 3, Lib. VI, Cap. XIII, pp. 40-50. 



362 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

it is from this illness that a series of acts may be dated which should 
be classed as explosions of megalomania. 

He purchased 22 caps at once, during the winter of 1478-79, 
for example, paying 700 francs apiece for them a very significant 
change from the avaricious Louis. After this year he changed 
his habits completely, dressed extravagantly, and gave away lav- 
ishly. Communes, of the earlier part of his reign, says : " The King 
dresses very shabbily, so badly that it could not be worse. The 
material is bad enough at any time, and he wears an old hat, differ- 
ent from the rest, with a lead image in it." 71 But after 1479 Corn- 
mines is obliged to record the fact, already cited, that he " dressed 
richly, a thing which he had never been accustomed to do before, 
and wore only satin robes lined with good marten fur, and he gave 
some of these to persons without their asking." Further evidence 
of this lavish giving is found in the sums which he gave his physi- 
cian, 72 and in his excessive gifts to the saints. 73 

He had a morbid fear of death. For a long time during his reign 
the fact that the king was terribly afraid of death was known and 
played upon. He released Cardinal Balue and Bishop Berdun from 
their cages because of the fear that God would send judgment upon 
him for keeping a cardinal and a bishop in chains. Furthermore, 
his fear that he would die was so great that he became an absolute 
slave to his physician, 7 * Coictier, to whom, according to Commines, 75 
he paid 10,000 crowns a month in the hope that he would lengthen 
the king's life, and all that Coictier had to do to get anything that 
he wanted was to threaten to leave. 76 Everyone apparently knew 
about this fear, for Sixtus IV, to win his favor, let Louis know 
that he had granted indulgence to all such as should visit churches 
to pray for his recovery. Even Charles the Bold seems to have 
known the abject terror to which the king gave way; and Corn- 
mines was, of course, thoroughly familiar with it. His account 
leaves no doubt at all about the fact, for he says: " Never was a man 
more fearful of death nor used more means to prevent it. He had, 
all his life long, commanded and requested his servants * * * 
that whenever we saw him in any danger of death we should not 
tell him of it, but merely admonish him to confess himself, without 

71 " Nostre roy se habilloit fort court, et si mal que pis ne pouvoit, et essez mauvais 
drap aucunes fois, et portoit ung mauvais chappeau, different des autres, et ung imaige 
de plom dessus " (Commynes, ed Dupont, I, 166 Brachet, CI.) 

72 In less than eight months he gave to Coictier, his physician, 98,000 arowns 

TS " . . . A great part of the domains were in this way disposed of, and had he lived 
a few yeais longer the revenues of the kingdom would have passed into the hands of 
the churchmen." Duclos. Louis XI. II. 319. 

it ti * * * This doctor used him very roughly indeed ; one would not have given 
such outrageous language to one's servants as he gave to the King, who stood in such 
awe of him that he durst not forbid him his presence." Commines, Scobel, edit. II 74. 

75 Ibid, II, 71 

w lbid, 74-75. 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 363 

ever mentioning that cruel and shocking word c death,' " 7T and Corn- 
mines, otherwise so careful of the reputation of the king, neverthe- 
less confesses that when St. Francis de Paul came to him from 
Eome, Louis fell upon his knees before the hermit and besought 
him to prolong his life. 78 

His voluntary isolation, which historians have found so hard to 
explain, may have been a sign of his morbid mental condition after 
1479, but it seems plausible to assume that Louis was again following 
the advice of his physicians. The records show that in the winter of 
1478-79 Louis was very sick, and that it was difficult to see him. 
It was in 1479 that, to avoid being seen and to render access to his 
person even more difficult, the king had the contrivance of sharp 
stakes, called " caltrops," placed along the roads approaching his 
castle, and he continued to shun meeting anyone. 

It is profitable to compare the statement of the medical authori- 
ties upon this question of seclusion with that of the historians. 
From a medical standpoint above all things else prescribed for 
epileptics was isolation. The Grant Proprietaire des Choses says: 
"Above all things should the epileptic avoid harmful foods and as- 
sociation with people, because his malady takes him thus more often 
than when he is alone." 79 Barante, as an example of the historians, 
accounts for the facts thus : " His mistrust," he says, " became horri- 
ble, and almost insane; every year he had his castle of Plessis 
surrounded with more walls, ditches, and rails. On the towers were 
iron shields and shelter from arrows, and even artillery. More than 
1,800 of those planks bristling with nails, called 'caltrops,' were dis- 
tributed on yonder side of the ditch." 80 There is no question as to 
his suspicion and distrust of everyone who approached him at this 
time; and the advice of his physicians probably simply intensified 
his desire to keep by himself. 

Let us now examine the manifestations of combined megalo- 
mania and collectiomania, of which Commines furnishes the evi- 
dence, unconsciously, to be sure, but unmistakably : 

* * * He caused fine horses or mules to be bought at any price what- 
soever, but this was not done in France. He had a great passion for dogs, 
and sent into foreign countries for them; * * * and bought them at a 
dearer price than the people asked. He sent into Sicily to buy a imile of 
an officer of that country, and paid him double the value. * * * He 
bought strange creatures wherever they could be found. * * * He sent 
into Sweden and Denmark for two sorts of beasts which those countries af- 
forded; * * * for six of each of these beasts he gave the merchant 
4,500 Dutch florins. Yet when all these rarities were brought to him he 

TT Commines, d Scobel, II, 72. 

' Ibid, II, 50 

T * * * Devant toutes choses ilz se doivent garder cle viands nuislbles * * * 
et cle trop h&blter en la compagnie dcs gens, car leur mal lea prent plus tost que quand 
Ilz sont tons seulz." Liv., VII, Chap, IX ; Brachet, XCV. 

Guizot, III, 256. 



364 AMERICAN HISTOKICAL ASSOCIATION". 

valued them not at all, and many times would not so much as speak to the 
persons who brought them to him. In short, he behaved after so strange a 
manner that he was more formidable both to his neighbors and subjects than 
he had ever been before. 81 

The significant circumstance in this case is that Louis, paid the 
extravagant sum of 125,000 francs, in modern money, apiece, for 
certain animals, which he would not look at when they were brought 
to him. This indifference taken together with the fact that he gave 
more for what he bought than anyone asked for the animal, is 
plainly pathological. Commines makes it appear that all this took 
place in the last years of the king's life, but the records show that 
similar purchases were made as early as 1479. 

Suspicion points to Louis as an hereditary degenerate. His 
actions seem to furnish a most clear-cut manifestation of the conven- 
tional stigmata of degenerate zoophilia that is to say, a morbid love 
for animals and a hypersensitiveness as to their comfort. These 
stigmata are (1) extravagance of purchase; (2) indifference of the 
purchaser; and (3) hypersensitiveness to the suffering of sick ani- 
mals. The first two traits are common to morbid collectiomania, the 
third, always associated with indifference to the suffering of human 
creatures, and often with extreme cruelty, is decisive for zoophilia. 82 

The illustrations of zoophilia, which follow, are interesting, be- 
cause they are so precise ; the king's great cruelty has already been 
mentioned. Commines further says : " The king inflicted very severe 
punishments to inspire dread, and for fear of losing his authority, 
as he himself told me, ... so that he passed his time in making 
and ruining men." As to his morbid interest in animal suffering 
the illustrations could not be more explicit. " March 30, 1479 [paid] , 
to John de Eeffou . . . 53s. for having brought in a litter and by 
water from Fourges to Tours, a hunting dog which was sick." 83 
u Oct., 1480, to Jacques de Saint Benoist, for the purchase and carting 
of a boat which he took by order of the king and for using it to 
bring a stag to the pool of Grastine, that it might die there." 84 
" July 4, 1481, to Vincent FAumosnier, 50s. for having brought, in a 
three-horse chariot, from Garrannes to Dreux, , . , one of the king's 

81 Commines, ed. Scobel, II, 57-58. 

82 Ballet, Intermittent Morbid States of the Emotions, in his chapter on " Zoophilia and 
zoopnobia," says: "That which demonstrates the morbid character of tbis state, aside 
from abulia and emotionalism, is the Indifference, often complete, of the Zoophiles for 
tbeir own relations and friends, and for human suffering generally, to which indifference 
there Is sometimes added a veritable cruelty." See also The zoophil-psychosis, by Charles 
L. Dana, M D , Medical Record, Mar 6, 1909, and Zoophile et zoophobie, Extrait de la 
Belgique Medicale, 1897, par Ch Fe>6 

83 " 30 mars. 1479 A Jehan 'du Reffou, maistre d'ostel dudit seigneur, 53s. 4d t ... 
pour avoir fait mener en une lictiere et par eaue, depuis les Forges Jusques a Tours, ung 
chien courant qui estoit malade." (Arch nat. KK. 64, fol 17 Brachet, CXV.) 

* " Octobre, 1480. A Jacques de Saint-Benoist, . . . pour 1'achapt et charroy d'un 
bastea qu'il a prins par Tordonnance dudit seigneur, et le fait mener a 1'estang de 
Gastine, pour y faire mourir un cerf." (Arch. nat. KK. 64, lol. 158v t Area, p 393 
Brachet, CXVI.) 



HISTORY AND PATHOLOGY. 365 

greyhounds which was sick." 85 " To Louis Lucas, 6 19s. from the 
king ... for having brought, in a two-horse chariot, a rabbit of the 
king's from Forges ... to Bonne Aventure." 86 

Now, having stated the hypothesis of zoophilia, still following 
Brachet, the deductive method may be used thus : In the case of the 
degenerate zoophile there are usually to be found pronounced symp- 
toms of kleptomania. We are sure that Louis was a kleptomaniac. 
For, by an inconsistency which is the mark of this morbid condition, 
the sick man steals that which he covets, not because he can not buy 
it, but because stealing is more agreeable to him as a kind of conquest. 

Thus the records furnish what may be fanciful evidence that Louis 
did not scruple to rob his subjects' henroosts on occasions : " January, 
1483, ... In this month the king commanded that his servants 
should travel all night along all the roads and on the River Loire 
ahead of certain birds of Turkey, which were being taken to Brittany, 
to take them and bring them to him." " Item, two days afterwards 
the birds were found at 8 o'clock at night and were brought at that 
time to Montilz." 8T 

Possibly the next illustration is simply a piece of high-handed 
tyranny on the king's part, but it took place at a time when he was 
spending enormous sums for other animals and he could easily have 
paid his subjects for theirs. Viewed in connection with his other 
actions at this time this seizure has a suspiciously pathological com- 
plexion, if it is not definitely a case of kleptomania : 

By the king's grace he commanded a most base thing to be done. . . . 
For he sent commissioners to the town of Rouen and many other places 
of the realm, who ordered, on the king's authority, under penalty of confiscation 
of goods and body, that all dogs, large and small, shoxild be brought together to 
one place Being thus collected, they carried away the best of these, tied In 
carts and wagons, to the king. 88 

There remains to consider an incident which took place in 1468, 
after Louis had ventured to intrust himself to the power of his arch 
enemy, Charles the Bold, at Peronne. Relying upon his subtlety 

8 " " 4 julllet, 1481. A Vincent I/Aumosnier, 50s. . . . pour avoir fait mener en une 
charette & trois chevaulx ung des 14vriers dudlt seigneur qui estoit malade, de Garannes ft 
Dreux . . " (Aich. nat. KK, 64, fol. 150. Brachet, CXVI ) 

w " A Loys Lucas, ... 61 10s . . pour avoir faict mener et conduire a une charecte 
ft deux chevaulx ung des lievies dudit seigneur des forges , . . fl, Bonne Aventure." 
(Arch. nat. KK. 64, fol. 116 Brachet, CXVII.) 

87 " Janvier 1483. Item, audit moys le roy manda que on allast toute nuyt par tous 
les chemins et sur la riviere de loire audavant de plusieurs oyseaulz de lurkie, qu'on 
portoit en Bretaigne, pour les prendre et les lui aporter. Item, Deux jours apies les 
oyscaulx dessusditz fuerent trouvez a kuyt heures de nuyt et les convlnt porter a ladite 
heure aux Montilz" (Comptes de Tours, t xllv, fol 82 v. Brachet, cxvti). 

M " Cujus etmm rei gratia, rem stultissimam . . . fieri jussit Misit enim commissaries 
ad urbem Rothomagensem et alia plurima regni loca, qui ex ipsius auctorltate juberent 
sub poana conftscationis corporis et bonorum ut omes canes, parvl et magni, ad unam 
plateam ducerentur Quibis sic in unum collectis, quos ducerent eligendos, ad regem 
in carrucis et vehlculls ligatos yeherent. ..." (Thos. Basin, Hist. Lud. Ill, 168, 
Brachet, CXVII.) 



366 AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

and cunning words to secure his ends, Louis had boldly gone in 
person to Charles at his castle in Peronne. The discussion had gone 
on smoothly enough for several days when Charles learned that Louis 
was arousing the people of Liege Charles's subjects against him. 
In a terrible passion, Charles imprisoned Louis, threatened to depose 
him, and even to take his life. Louis in his terror agreed to the 
most humiliating conditions of peace with Charles. Among others, 
he was compelled to march in person along with Charles against the 
people of Liege, and actually hurled back the cry " Vive la Bour- 
gogne ! " against the people of that city when they shouted " Vive la 
France ! " The incident took place upon his return to Paris after 
this chagrin of Peronne. It is as follows : 

And on the same day [Saturday, November 19, 1468] there were taken for 
the king, in the city of Paris, all the magpies, jays, and owls, either in cages 
or not, belonging to private individuals, and brought before him. And the 
places from which these birds were taken were written down and registered, 
as well as all that could speak words such as " Thief," " Wanton," " Hey, get 
out," " Prette, give me a drink," and several other fine phrases which those 
birds had been taught and knew how to say. Then, again, by another com- 
mission of the king there were sought out and taken all the stags, hinds, and 
deer that could be found in Paris and were brought to Amboise. 89 

The account which Gagnin gives of this affair is substantially the 
same. He says : " I doubt whether I should write down at all what 
actually took place, a deed in its novelty unworthy of a king. Mag- 
pies and grackles which had been taught to whistle or to imitate the 
human voice, which were kept in cages by the Parisians for amuse- 
ment in the house, and soon afterwards stags and deer, all were com- 
manded by Louis to be seized and brought to Amboise. 90 

These two texts report two important facts: First, on November 
19, 1468, after seizing all the talking birds (magpies and jays), as 
well as those that were mute, the king had them all transported to 
Ins park at Amboise, and a little later all the stags, hinds, and deer 
which the Parisians were keeping in their gardens were c