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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"










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REPORT 



RELATING TO 



LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



SENATE - No 9. 



SEVENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



AT WORCESTER. 



DKC^MBBR, 1839. 



Boston: 

BUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS. 

1840. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of IVIassachusetts Amherst 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportoftr05stat 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



DECEMBEK, 1839. 



To His Excdlcncy Edward Everett, Governor, and the Honorahle 
Council of the Commomoealth of 3Iassachur,etts : 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital, respectfully present their 
Seventh Annual 

REPORT: 

At the end of another year, the Trustees are happy to be able to 
report the continued success of the great work of public beneficence, 
in which they have been permitted to minister. By reference to the 
statistical tables prepared by the Superintendent, it will be seen, that in 
this institution, ihe Commonwealth has extended the hand of christian 
charity to one thousand and thirty-four of its children, who, in the last 
century, would have been at least cut off from the brotherhood of man, 
if they were not also believed to be, as in more remote ages, forsaken by 
their Maker, and abandoned to malignant demons. In the seven years 
of the existence of this Hospital, four hundred and twenty-four patients 
have been restored to the dignity of their nature and the duties and en- 
joyments of life. One hundred and forty-five have been discharged as 
improved and some of this number ultimately recovered. Seventy-five 
have died, and two hundred and twenty-nine remain in the Hospital ; 
of whom there are thirty-four whose cure is confidently expected, and 
we do not give up hope for the residue, who have been changed from 
furious rage or moping melancholy, to such tranquillity and peace of 
thought, as enables them to enjoy much happiness, and to exercise 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

many virtues and kind offices, while their mental peculiarity unfits 
them for the exposures of active life. 

In their duty of making annual report of the condition of the Hospi- 
tal, the Trustees have considered, that it was intended that they should 
render account of their stewardship to the whole people, through the 
hands of those enlightened men, who are honored with the exercise of 
the political power of the State. With this view, the Trustees con- 
tinue to commend this charity to those, who love their fellow men, and 
seek the best interests of their country, by proving, that it is necessary 
to provide for this unfortunate class of our citizens, by an institution 
conducted on the principles, on which this Hospital is founded, and 
by showing how far the efforts to carry into practice these principles, 
have been crowned with success. The annual recurrence of this duty, 
renders it difficult to avoid repetition, but the Trustees are willing to 
incur the hazard of being trite and tedious, in the hope, that the seeds 
of truth, often thrown broadcast by successive hands, may find con- 
genial soil in honest and good hearts, which could not otherwise be 
reached. And if we cannot aspire to teach the learned, we may in- 
duce them also to consider more justly, in all their relations, the 
things which they already know. 

The prevailing errors of mankind take deep root, and scatter their 
baleful fruits through successive ages, and like the tares of the field, 
we cannot hope, that they will be wholly rooted up, until they are 
gathered in the harvest at the end of the world. It is profitable, then, 
to look back to the history of the past, not only that we may value 
more justly, the privileges of the times in which we live, but also that 
we may discover, why the blessings, which are offered to us, are not 
more fully enjoyed. 

The ancient doctrine was, that as reason is the best gift of God, so 
its perversion or withdrawal must be caused by his abandonment of 
his creatures to malignant demons, or by a direct act of his power. 
After all that has been done for the removal of insanity, we have fre- 
quent evidence, that such opinions are held by some in the p~esent 
day, and they are attended by such sacred associations, that it is dif- 
ficult to remove them. So recently as 1815, Mr. Bakewell mentions 
the instance of a parent, who insisted that no means of recovery should 
be used for her son, who was in a state of frenzy, " for it was an evil 
spirit that troubled him, and until the Lord was pleased to take it off, 
she was quite sure, that nothing that any man could do, -would be use- 
ful to him." The young man was very likely to recover, but he was 
allowed to remain in the same state. The same writer adds, that " the 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 6 

opinion, that lunatics are demoniacs, prevails very much." The exis- 
tence of such cases as this proves the importance of the diffusion of 
correct information on this subject, and the necessity of a public in- 
stitution, by which a state shall exercise guardianship over the most 
helpless and unfortunate class of its citizens, and protect them from 
the misconduct and ignorance of those into whose hands they may 
fall 

In early times, the cure of lunacy was sought only by direct appeal 
to the supernatural power, by which it was supposed to be caused or 
permitted, and the practice of conjuration has prevailed among heathen 
nations, as well as in the christian church. We have a pleasant in- 
stance of the combination of superstition with true wisdom, in the mode 
of curing the insane in the temples of Saturn, in ancient Egypt. A 
formula of vv'orship was proposed as a charm, and not as a moral medi- 
cine, and under this guise, the crowds which frequented these shrines, 
were engaged in a succession of healthful and amusing exercises; ihey 
were required to march in the beautiful gardens, and to row on the 
majestic Nile; and deliglitful excursions were planned for them under 
the plea of [)ilgrimages. In short, a series of powerful and pleasing 
impressions was communicated at a time, when the feelings were in- 
spired with the most extravagant hope, and with perfect reliance upon 
the power, whose pity every act was intended to propitiate. The 
priests triumphed, and the disease was subdued. 

The history of the superstition of christians is not without such in- 
stances, even in modern times. The village of Gheel, near Antwerp, 
has long been celebrated, as a retreat for lunatics, who are boarded 
with the peasants, and employed in their gardens and fields, aud they 
are permitted, when unengaged, to roam about at perfect liberty. In 
this freedom, no accident has occurred, and esc<'ip6 is never attempted. 
The benefits of pure air, occupation, and an agreeable mode of life are 
considered as of little avail, in removing the malady, unless the pa- 
tients, regularly, once a day, pass under the tomb of St. Dymph, whose 
sanctity, relics and good offices are considered the efficient cause of the 
restoration. 

I'he more common character of conjurations and exorcisms, with 
an imposing array of cruelty and terror, was a sad contrast to those, 
which have been described. Exorcisms as such are rarely used in our 
day, but they have given plac? to a delusion not greatly diflferent, the 
reliance on specific or universal remedies for insanity ; as if it was an 
affection more simple in its character than any disease of the body 
alone, instead of being immeasurably more subtle and complicated. 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

This notion is not confined to those, who have not the best oppor- 
tunities of being acquainted with the subject; it is entertained by phy- 
sicians and men of science, and it is not unusual to discover the lurk- 
ing of this error in those, who have possessed themselves of much, that 
is philosophical and true. Hence it is, that the leading writers on in- 
sanity have, at different periods, recommended hellebore, foxglove, and 
other internal and external applications, as general remedies for in- 
sanity. 

The same opinion was manifested by this question, which an intelli- 
gent friend of a patient, with an air of shrewdness, piit to one of the 
Trustees, " what does Dr. Woodward give to cure them V And the 
influence of such a notion only can account for the importunity, with 
which friends solicit the discharge of patients from insane hospitals, 
after they have remained no longer than to give sufficient time for the 
experiment of a single medicine. 

The belief, that the lunacy of modern times is caused by demoniacal 
possession, is not so common in the present day, as is the opinion, 
that the lamp of reason can only be withdrawn or extinguished, by the 
extraordinary act of divine power. It is forgotten, that it is given to 
man to keep this lamp trimmed and burning, and he is condemned, 
who provides no oil for his lamp. When the insane were considered 
to be objects of divine displeasure, they could not hope to receive the 
sympathy or kind offices of men ; and it is not strange, that it has been 
thought that whosoever added to their torments did service to God. 
But such a disposition is too malevolent to be generally entertained in 
any age. Another notion, less barbarous in temper, but scarcely more 
merciful in its influence, has prevailed and is still common ; it is the 
persuasion that insanity is a mysterious Providence, which abandons 
the sufferer to every hateful passion, fills him with pleasures and pains, 
which cannot be increased or diminished by anv treatment of man, and 
renders him dead to all sense of right and all motives of virtue. Those 
who have these views will be satisfied, if they shut up these unhappy 
beings where they will not endanger others, and keep them in the man- 
ner which is least troublesome. As they are supposed to be insensible 
to pain of body or mind, there will be no provision for comfort or 
kindness and no care to restrain tb.e cruelty, which impatience or wan- 
ton tyranny may prompt. 

When we remember the many cases of insanity, which are produced 
by, or attended with excessive sensibility, we may have some idea of 
the torture and anguish to which the stricken and the helpless are ex- 
posed, in the care of those w'hose motives are kind, and even of friends, 



1840.] . SENATE— No. 9. 7 

whose love is undoubted, while their ignorance is more cruel than the 
scourge. Such was the best fate which awaited the insane, until the 
year 1792, when Pinel vindicated for them a brother's claim to kind- 
ness and sympathy, by proving that humane and indulgent treatment 
is at once most salutary to the broken and excited spirit, and most safe 
and least troublesome to his guardians. But this truth made slow 
progress until the year 1815, when a thorough examination of the 
treatment and the condition of the public and private Insane Hospitals 
of Great Britain was made and publislied by order of the House of 
Commons. Then it appeared, that the humane doctrine of Pinel was 
generally held by the guardians of the insane, as a mere theory, a rule 
which was overborne, and superseded by exceptions in practice. In 
institutions which had been approved and resorted to, as the best of 
the time, the constant use of stripes, chains, tormenting confinement, 
starvation, and exposure to every mental and bodily suffering, was 
brought to light with proof not to be resisted. When the varieties of 
insanity are considered, through all the grades, from a perverse appre- 
hension of a single subject not more glaring than an excess in diet may 
occasion in ourselves, to the full frenzy of the maniac, the most selfish 
will shudder at these disclosures, from a conviction of the possibility 
that he too might have been a victim. The same investigation held up 
to the admiration and imitation of the world bright examples of the 
happy success of a better system. It may here be repeated, that in the 
State Lunatic Hospital, chains have never been thought of, and the 
straight waistcoat has never been used. The only restraints on the 
limbs, are leather bracelets attached to a belt round the waist, to guard 
against sudden striking, and leather mittens covering the hand, attached 
to the waist in the same manner, to prevent tearing the clothes, and 
confinement on a chair for patients who would, without this protection, 
injure themselves by exposure of their persons or by throwing them- 
selves about. These restraints are used but for short periods, and 
soon removed on a promise of self-control and good conduct, which 
is generally kept with faith and honor, which would win an extraordi- 
nary reputation in the world without. 

The fruits of this parliamentary investigation were these ; first, the 
mild and humane treatment of the insane was every where demanded; 
secondly, the necessity of frequent and searching examinations of In- 
sane Asylums was demonstrated ; and, thirdly, the benevolent, who la- 
bored for the welfare of this unfortunate portion of our fellow men, 
were aided in their work, by this discovery of the horrors of the evils, 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

which they should avoid, and by a display of the blessed results of the 
efforts to carry out the dictates of justice and humanity. 

It was much to give comfort and comparative contentment to those, 
over whom terror and tyranny had held their sway, and the number of 
recoveries from mental malady was great, where the restoring power 
of the human constitution, under the blessing of a kind Providence, 
had no hindrance from the ignorance and vices of those, to whom the 
unfortunate sufferers were committed. It was the natural suggestion 
of a kind spirit, to offer interesting occupation to the insane, and the 
good effect of this immediately appeared. Some of the most care- 
fully conducted asylums in Europe, at this day, depend wholly on com- 
fort, indulgence and occupation, and moral motives for the removal of 
insanity, and only use medical treatment for the cur.; of the accidental 
diseases, which may affect their patients. Several popular authors ad- 
vance the same doctrine, while they admit that insanity is caused, in 
many cases, by diseases, which are within the power of medicine. 
Agreeable occupation has its effect, first by diverting mental energy 
from those faculties, which are diseased, to those which are strong and 
healthy, and thus rest is given to the weak and weary. Secondly, by 
giving improved health of body, and the influence of that improved 
health to the mind. Moral motives are also powerful in mental mala- 
dies, as in bodily disease. 

It is contended that insanity is a providence of peculiar mystery, be- 
cause some persons from their birth have a tendency towards it, and 
others are affected by it suddenly, and without any perceptible cause. 
But the same is true also of many diseases of the body alone. Some 
persons are from their birth predisposed to the gout, scrofula, and 
other diseases, yet we all know, that active habits, proper diet, and 
medical treatment, have great power to control these predispositions, 
especially in youth. The experience of Insane Hospitals shows that 
similar remedies have equal effect in mental diseases, if they are ap- 
plied before the derangement has become a fixed and permanent state 
of the mind. The woman, who had been " bowed down with a spirit 
of infirmity, for eighteen years," required a miracle for her restoration, 
and it is not a less wonderlul work to raise the mind, which, from 
youth to the age of manhood, has been prostrate in the dust, and is 
" in no wise able to lift up itself." No one will doubt, that physical 
and moral causes may be discovered for many cases of insanity, and 
there are many cases, in which no cause can be assigned. But the 
proportion of cases, in which the causes are perceived is greater now 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. ^ 9 

than it was fifty years ago, and it will continually increase, while at- 
tention is given to the subject, by the wise and benevolent minds, 
which are now devoted to it. Men often impute their pains and in- 
firmities to a mysterious dispensation of Providence, when their friends 
can show them, that their sufferings are occasimieu by their own im- 
prudence in some excess or exposure. The truth is, God disposes of 
our bodies and our minds, as of all events, by second causes, and com- 
monly makes us the agents of our own weal and wo. Mr. Ricketts, 
a much respected and successful superintendent of Droitwich Lunatic 
Asylum, states, that nine cases out of ten of mental derangement of 
females under fifty, proceed from sexual causes. This proportion is 
probably too large. But if we admit its truth in any degree, can we 
believe that the minds of men are not likewise subject to the condition 
of their bodies ? Or shall we confess, that in regard to these, as to 
other objects of the science of mind, we now know but in part? 

It will not be disputed that the brain is the instrument by which, 
through the nerves, the mind is connected with material substances 
within and around us, and it is also clear that many insane affections 
proceed from disease of the brain, because their origin can be plainly 
traced, and the brain, after death, shows the work of disease. Yet it 
is denied that other diseases of the mind can have such an origin, be- 
cause examination of the lifeless frame exhibits no evidence of any 
physical cause. If this inference were just, we must also deny the 
existence of certain fevers and other inflammatory afl^ections, which 
leave no strong marks after death, though they give woful proof of 
their power to embitter and extinguish life. 

Some modern writers acknowledge, that most cases of insanity are 
produced by bodily disease, yet they urge thac medical treatment is 
of little use in the cure of the insane, because, in general, it is diffi- 
cult to trace these physical causes. But this diflJiculty pro\es noth- 
ing more, than the importance of committing such patients, at an tarly 
period, to the care of those, whose skill and experience enable them to 
discover the hidden causes, and apply efficient remedies. 

He who attempts the cure of insanity, is obliged to contend with pe- 
culiar difficulties The friends of the insane are commonly unable to 
give any account of the origin or the early symptoms of a malady, 
which, it may be, they have concealed with false shame, imtil the best 
opportunity for restoration is lost. The patient is at first jealous of a 
new and careful observer, and puts forth all the variety of cunning, for 
which the diseased mind is remarkable, and the physician is compelled 
•2 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan, 

to operate with extreme caution, in the dim light of conjecture. 
And it will often happen, that before the physician has had time, 
through the acquired friendship of the patient, and his own shrewd 
observations, to discover the cause of the disease, the friends will be 
importunate to deliver the patient from a treatment, which does not re- 
store him. In the face of this and other difficulties, and " in spite of 
the errors and defects of treatment which still exist, taking all cases 
as they are presented, of long or short duration, simple or complicated, 
with malformation of the head, or organic disease, the average mimher 
cured is about one half." Consider then the numbers cured of other 
diseases, add the recoveries from consumption, typhus fever, and the 
fearful train of death's most active messengers, and observe, how few 
victims survive, and of these, scarce one escapes without some injury 
to the constitution, which embitters, if it does not shorten life, and 
" the vast beneht conferred on society by the treatment of the insane, 
will be perceived in restoring to the affections of their friends, and the 
duties of active life, and the glorious prerogative of serving God, one 
half of those who would otherwise be lost to themselves and to the 
world." 

From this hasty and imperfect notice of some of the errors of the 
past, contrasted witii the better light, which guided the people of our 
Commonwealth in the establishment of this Institution, let us turn to 
consider the present state of the Hospital, and the results of the last 
year. For ih\s purpose, we present the statistical tables prepared with 
accuracy by Dr. Woodward, and enriched by his explanations, and an 
interesting view of the system of treatment here adopted, and the phi- 
losophy on which it rests. No one can so well set forth this great 
work in all its relations, as the gifted man, who has furnished the rich 
treasure of untiring benevolence, scientific skill, acute discernment, 
inexhaustible resource and moral power, which have been engaged in 
its success. In this connexion, the Trustees would mention with 
honor, the ability, the miW firmness and the devoted service, with 
which Dr. Chandler has performed the responsible duties of the Assis- 
tant Physician, and also his zealous cooperation with the Superintend- 
ent, in all that can further the prosperity of the Institution. 

Some of the facts exhibited in these tables, will be selected, as the 
subject of remark. It appears, that in the year ending the first of this 
present month of December, 179 patients have been received into the 
Hospital, and 163 have been discharged, and the average number of 
patients through the year, has been 223. Of the discharged, SO were 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 1 1 

restored from insanity, 29 were improved, 37 were unimproved, and 
22 have died. Of those, which were discharged, as restored from in- 
sanity, 64 were recent cases, givingr 90 1-7 per cent, on the discharges 
and deaths of recent cases, and 16 were old cases, giving 16^ per cent, 
on the discharges and deaths of old cases. And the whole number of 
recoveries, is 47 per cent, on the whole number of discharges and 
deaths. 

To form a just estimate of the success indicated by this pro- 
portion of recoveries, it is necessary to consider what patients are 
received into this Hospital, and by wliat rules they are discharged. 
The patients may be divided into three classes with regard to admis- 
sion. First, there are those who are sent by the higher courts, after 
acquittal of the criminality of violations of the hw, on account of in- 
sanity The second class includes those who ave committed by the 
Judge of the Municipal Court of the county of Suffolk, and by the 
Judges of Probate of other counties, as hemg " so furiously mad as to 
render it manifestly dangerous to the peace and safety of the commu- 
nity, that they should be at large." The third class consists of private 
patients, admitted by the trustees, when there is room for them. Thus 
the benefits of treatment have been extended to recent and curable 
cases, which have not arrived at the stage of dangerous madness, and 
the patient, his friends, and the community, are saved from the suffer- 
ings and perils of the continuance of the derangement. During the 
past year, the two first classes of dangerous lunatics have crowded the 
wards of the Hospital, which cannot well accommodate more than 220 
patients, and with that number, the classification will sometimes be 
difficult. Yet it will be observed, that the average number of patients 
in the past year has been 223, so that there has been little room for 
private patients, and the difficulty of classification and treatment has 
been greatly increased. 

If danger be proved by legal evidence, the law authorizes the courts 
to send an unlimited number of patients, without regard to the other 
circumstances of their malady, and thus the Hospital stands open to 
receive, not only those who can be restored or improved, but also the 
idiot, the epileptic, thfe paralytic and the wreck of humanity in the de- 
lirium of extreme age, and all the hopeless victims of long continued 
misery. Such has been the experience of the past year. The number 
of deaths in this year is enlarged by the decease of patients, who were 
■committed to the Hospital in the last stages of mortal disease, which 
terminated life after a short residence. These cases are particularly de- 
scribed by the Superintendent, and his report states the causes of the 



12 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

other deaths, which show a remarkable exemption from fatal diseases 
in such a collection of subjects. 

All private asylums, and many public hospitals may, and commonly 
do reject, as unfii subjects, all patients, whose derangement is manifestly 
beyond the reach of remedies, and all, whose presence would injure 
others, more than could be compensated by any benefit to themselves 
and especially all those, whose bodily infirmities indicate the certain 
approach of dissolution. But the ofiiceis of this Hospital have no such 
privilege. When the law admits within our walls the miserable ob- 
jects which have been mentioned, humanity not only forbids, that they 
should be thrust forth to perish, but it requires that the labors of the 
Hospital should he withdrawn from the treatment of insanity, to the 
engrossing routine of the sick-bed, with no better hope, than to give a 
ray of comfort in the dj'mg hour. And these deaths are numbered in 
our reports, to increase the ratio of mortality, and diminish the propor- 
tion of recoveries. We have thought proper to say so much, to do jus- 
tice to the ofiicers of the Hospital, and to show the necessity of greater 
caution in the legal commitments. 

There are four modes of discharge from the Hospital. First, the 
law authorizes two of the Trustees, or either of the Justices of the Su- 
preme Court, or of the Court of Common Pleas at any term at Wor- 
cester, to discharge any patient, the cause of whose commitment has 
ceased to exist. It will be thought that, with the safe advice of a judi- 
cious superintendent, this is the easiest and most agreeable task of the 
Trustees ; but it is often painful and embarrassing. As soon as the 
curative process has changed a patient from frenzy or despair to calm- 
ness and some degree of self-possession, he naturally overrates his own 
strength, and is impatient to return to the cares of ordinary life. The 
same error is entertained by his friends, who are always allowed to 
visit him, when their visits will not be injurious. They deem the mira- 
cle complete, and see no reason why he should be detained, and they 
unwisely tell him so. The Trustees are then urged, by the friends 
and the patient, to give a discharge, before the healthy action of the 
mind is confirmed and sufficient strength is gained to resist the influ- 
ence of those circumstances in common life, which were the immediate 
cause of the first attack of insanity, and may produce a relapse, which 
will be less susceptible of remedy. Some authorities recommend, that 
a patient, who seems to have recovered, should remain in probation for 
a year. The registers in Paris show that in both sexes, the relapses 
are to the cures as twelve to one hundred. But on examining the pro- 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 13 

portion of the sexes separately, it is found to be twenty per cent, in 
males and ten per cent, in females. " It appears also that the medium 
residence of each man, discharged cured, is four months and fifteen 
days, and that of each woman discharored cured, is nine months and 
twenty-five days. Now this proves incontestibly, either that the remo- 
val of the disease is more difficult in women than in men, which is 
preposterous, or it proves that the longer the influence of good treat- 
ment is continued, the greater will be the security of the individual." 

With a knowledge of all this, the Trustees are sometimes obliged to 
take the hazard of a premature discharge, lest the excited impatience 
of the patient should make the involuntary detention worse, than the 
exposures of a return to his home. And the prudent counsels of the 
Trustees have been again and again justified by the unhappy relapse 
of the patient, from undoubted convalescence lo a state of mania, from 
which no human power can restore him. 

Secondly, the law provides, that the Trustees may remove any pa- 
tient to the town where he resided, whenever he shall cense to be dan- 
gerous ivitliin the intent of the law, and shall not be susceptible of 
mental improvement by remedial treatment at the Hospital. When 
friends or legal guardians are convinced that patients, in whom they 
are interested, are harm.less, and have received as much benefit, as the 
Hospital can afford, they are often importunate in soliciting their dis- 
charge ; sometimes from a kind feeling, which prompts them to desire 
to have a beloved object under their immediate care, and sometimes 
from no better motive than the deceptive expectation of saving expense. 
In these instances, as in applications for a premature discharge of those 
who are cured, the Trustees are obliged to protect the patients from 
their friends, and to endure the odious imputation of assuming arbi- 
trary and vexatious authority. There are many patients who are 
harmless, self-possessed and intelligent companions, and even respecta- 
ble and useful men, under the treatment of the Hospital, and casual 
visiters will wonder, why they are detained, but the Trustees, from 
their frequent visitations, and the ample information of the Superin- 
tendent, know well, that these patients owe all their self-control, intel- 
ligence and happiness to the good influences, under which they live, 
and that these same beings would be hurried into furious madness or 
brutal degradation, amidst the temptations and exposures, which they 
will encounter in a poor-house, or even in a family. 

The third mode of legal discharge respects dangerous and incurable 
lunatics, whom the Trustees have power to remove to the Jails and 



14 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

Houses of Correction, when it becomes necessary to make room in the 
Hospital. The Trustees have been compelled most reluctantly, to ex- 
ercise this power, in removing to the public prisons, several patients 
who were safe, well behaved, and happy in the Hospital. 

The fourth mode of removal is provided by a statute passed last 
winter, which empowers the judges of the higher courts, and the judge 
of Probate at Worcester, to commit to the care of friends and legal 
guardians, any patient who is not susceptible of improvement, by a 
longer residence in the Hospital, when the judge shall be satisfied that 
the petitioners can keep him comfortably and safely. 

The past year gives renewed proof of the advantage of the Real Es- 
tate, as an economical resource for the supply of the Hospital, and an 
interesting field for the industry of the patients. The produce of the 
farm this year, is estimated at ^1914, without including the cattle and 
swine now in the yard. The market price of the work of the shoe- 
shop, in the last eighteen months, is about 81S22. But this shop has 
also given a product, which cannot be estimated in money, by its man- 
ifest agency in promoting the rapid recovery of several cases of very 
active insuiiity. Other valuable mechanical labor has been performed 
from time to time, by the patients. Many female patients have receiv- 
ed much benefit from their diligence in employments, appropriate to 
their sex. In the Hospital, as in the world, the industrious are the 
healthiest, the hnppiest, and the most sincerely respected. The dispo- 
sition, and the power to labor usefully, form a treasure more valuable 
than wealth alone ; for they give to the possessor, what wealth may 
not, a claim to the respect of others, and a feeling of contentment with 
himself We are told, thit in Spain, the nobility indolently suffer the 
continuance of insanity, in the same Hospitals, in which their poorer 
and more industrious companions are cured. So this Hospital has 
had instances of patients, who brooded over their sorrows in idle dis- 
content, without a ray of hope, until they were roused to effort and in- 
dustry, by the winning persuasions of the Superintendent, and then the 
shadows began to disperse, and the mind awoke to clear apprehensions 
and happy thoughts, and convalescence had its steady course, until the 
patients returned in joy to their homes and their friends. 

In addition to the ordinary work of the farm, the patients have en- 
gaged with industry and good will, in permanent improvements of the 
Estate. By their labor, a large rain-water cistern has been dug in the 
inner court-yard ; the side of the beautiful grove, has been ornamented 
with a wide road and a neat bank wall ; the fences and the divisions of 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 15 

the fields, have been improved; and a cold swamp has been changed to 
a productive field. Mr. Baxter Ellis, the Steward, has taken the lead 
in these improvements, with the good judgment and zeal which he car- 
ries into all parts of his manifold duties. The merits of Mrs. Ellis, 
the matron, cannot be forgotten by the Trustees, after they have had 
so frequent evidence of her active industry, and her cordial and en- 
livening manners in her ministrations to the patients. In a word, the 
internal peace of the Institution, and the prevalence of neatness, order, 
and harmonious action, do honor to those who are employed in its va- 
rious duties and labors. 

The chapel continues to fulfil the highest hopes of the officers of the 
Hospital in its happy influence on the patients. At present the Rev. 
Mr. Reed officiates as chaplain in a very acceptable manner. 

As the site of the Hospital, by its elevation and exposure to the 
horizon on all sides, is fiivorable for meteorological observations, and 
Dr. Woodward was willing and very competent to undertake the task, 
the trustees requested, that he would do so, and they now present tables 
of observations made with regularity and accuracy, through the year, 
as an interesting contribution to science, \n a department in which a 
deficiency of facts is often regretted. 

The treasurer's report, exhibits the finances of the Hospital, with 
that accuracy and lucid arrangement which are the result of the pains, 
which that able officer devotes to the numerous and com])licnted trans- 
actions of his department. The Trustees concur in his opinion, that 
the cash now on hand, with, the balance of last year's appropriation not 
drawn from the State treasury, and the payments by patients, which may 
be expected, will be sufficient for ordinary expenses at the Hospital, in 
the ensuing year. The usual appropriation for this purpose, is therefore 
not now required; but it will appear, that the Institution will need this 
aid in future yearS; if we look at the uses, to which (his fund is applied. 
For the honor of our Commonwealth, be it ever remembered, that in 
addition to the large expenditures for Hospital buildings and land, for 
which no rent is demanded, it is generously provided by law that no 
charge shall be made against any patient for the services of the super- 
intendent, assistant physician, steward and matron. This liberality is 
at once benevolent and wise. It is benevolent, as it relieves the ex- 
penses of individuals and families, who suffer one of the most woful 
calamities of life; and it is greatly wise, as it gives encouragement to 
the early and most effectual treatment of the unfortunate sufferers. In 
the same spirit, the trustees have, in former years, fixed the price of 



16 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

board at two dollars and fifty cents per weeh, when the cost more or 
less exceeded that sum. This excess of cost was made up, by the 
State appropriation. The same fund must always go to the permanent 
improvements and other outlays, which cannot be charged to patients 
as part of the annual consumption; and the residue of the fund defrays 
the maintenance of the poor strangers, whom the State supports at 
large, as well as in the Hospital. 

The average cost of maintenance chargeable to each patient in the 
past year, is about two dollars and fifty cents per week, and the Trus- 
tees have fixed that price for the coming year, except in cases, in which 
for special reasons, it is enlarged or abated. If the salaries paid by the 
State are added to the ordinary expenses, it is believed that in mere 
sraallness of expense, this Institution may be advantageously compared 
with any other lunatic asylum, that deserves the name. In 1815, it 
was discovered, that in some English lunatic hospitals, tormenting con- 
finement, cruelty, and a brutal and degrading mode of keeping, were 
used, to save the expense of attendants ; and for the sake of cheapness, 
attendants of the most base character were employed. Such cheapness 
would not be tolerated in Massachusetts, and has not been attempted 
here. The Trustees are free to say, that the payments for personal 
service, are the cheapest expenditures in this Institution. A minute 
inspection of the bills of the steward, enables us to say, that he has 
purchased the stores of the Hospital, with good judgment, and at as 
low prices, as the market would permit. No man, who remembers 
the addition, which a single case of disease makes to the expenses of 
his own household, will expect, that a small expenditure would suffice 
for a family of 223 sick persons. It is true, that all the patients 
do not need medicine at ail times, but a part of them will always re- 
quire the most elaborate treatment, and for all, constant medical su- 
pervision and frequent attention, is necessary, to secure that measure 
of comfort, which the helpless may claim. The exemption from acute 
and fatal diseases in this family of invalids, is evidence, that their diet 
has been judicious. There have been no cases of those violent disor- 
ders, which excessive indulgence of appetite will occasion ; and the 
fever of the brain hns not suffered the excitement, wliich is the invaria- 
ble effect of insufficient nourishment. It has been the aim of the of- 
ficers of the Hospital to provide every thing, and do every thing, that 
will most perfectly accomplish this great charity, with such economy 
of expense, as shall place the benefit within the reach of the largest 
number of its unfortunate subjects, and thus to engage the good will 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. . 17 

of our whole people, to continue that confidence and approbation, 
which is, as the breath of life, to our public charitable institutions. 

STEPHEN SALISBURY, 
ABM. R. THOMPSON, 
MYRON LAWRENCE, 
WILLIAM LINCOLN, 
DANIEL P. KJNG. 

State Lunatic Hospital, 

Worcester, Dec. 1, 1839. 



18 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To His Excellency, Edward Everett, Governor, mid to the Honora- 
ble Executive Council, of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

The Treasurer of ihe State Lunatic Hospital, respectfully presents 
his seventh Annual Report. 

The Treasurer charges himself with Receipts, from December 1, 
183S, to November 30, 1839, inclusive, as follows : 

From the State Treasury, ------ $8,000 00 

" Cities, towns, and individuals, - - 25,443 54 
" Credits on sundry bills for flour bar- 
rels, grease, ashes, old iron, and va- 
rious other things, ------ 358 06 

. $33,801 60 

He credits himself as follows : 

For payments for balance of last account, - 530 01 
" " " Improvements and Repairs, 2,436 01 

" " " Salaries, Wages and Labor, 6,961 01 

" " " Furniture and Bedding, 1,118 81 

" " " Clothing, Linen, &c. - - 1,707 20 

" " " Fuel and Lights, - - - 2,883 80 

" " " Provisions and Groceries, 12,211 18 

" " " Medical Supplies, - - - 713 13 

" " " Hay and Straw, - - - - 243 44 

«' " " Miscellaneous, . - - - 1,199 83 

Balance to new account, 3,797 18 

$33,801 60 

Deducting the balance of the last account, 530 01 

And the balance on hand, 3,797 18 

$4,327 19 

The cost of supporting the Institution for the 

year, appears to be • . • . $29,474 41 

The item of improvements and repairs is made very considerably 
larger than usual, by the cost of a cistern, an ice-house, a new furnace, 
shutters for enclosing the north piazza and painting, all which are not 
properly annual expenses. 

The item of clothing, linen, &c., includes all the stock for the shoe- 
shop which has been purchased within the year. 



1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



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SENATE— No. 9. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



Provisions and Groceries include 

Apples, pears, peaches, berries, grapes, raisins, lemons, 

oranges, apple sauce, &c. - - - 

Spices and small groceries, and salt, 
Soap, - - - - - - 



Honey, 

Vinegar and cider, 

Milk, 

Beans, 

Peas, 

Eggs, 

Butter, 

Cheese, 

Tea, 

Coffee, 

Brown sugar, - 

Loaf sugar. 

Molasses, 

Rye, 

Corn, 

Oats, 

Biscuit, 

Potatoes, 

Rice, 

Lard, 

Turnips, 

Flour, 

Poultry, 

Mackerel, 

Fresh fish. 

Salt fish. 

Herring, 

Ham, 

Tripe, 

Beef, 

Sausages, 

Pork, 



220 lbs. 

7 bbls. 1 gall. - 
3148 quarts, 

38 1-2 bushels, - 
9 10-32 bushels, 

317 8-12 dozen, - 
9027 11-16 lbs. - 
6500 lbs. 

579 lbs. ' 
1731 S-16 1bs. 
9139 lbs. 

583 13-16 lbs. - 

579 gallons, 

154 bushels, 

862 bushels, 

161 1-2 bushels, - 

1075 1-2 bushels, - 
2339 lbs. 

47 lbs. 

228 barrels, 
627 5-16 lbs. 
2 barrels, 
1716 12-16 lbs. - 
5664 lbs. 

2 boxes, 
1503 lbs. 
26 lbs. 
17,926 lbs. 

39 4-16 lbs. 
819 lbs. 



$350 33 
134 81 

321 85 
22 

22 45 

168 38 

72 38 

17 79 

56 51 

1,995 60 

703 63 

196 37 

201 54 

831 04 

84 25 

232 95 

188 02 

971 29 

90 53 

144 23 

397 53 

123 61 

6 35 

25 

1,877 64 

77 27 

30 25 

61 44 

212 21 

2 30 

201 72 

2 60 

1,435 80 

5 46 

93 57 



1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



23 



Salt pork, 

Mutton and Iamb, 

Veal, 

Liver, 

Barley, 



8 barrels, 

2508 12-16 lbs. - 

4007 4-16 lbs. 

48 1-2 bushels, - 



Fuel and Lights include 



241 


81 


367 


87 


1 


17 


48 


38 



,211 18 



406 cords, 10 inches. 


- ^1,842 78 


1118 bushels. 


113 74 


39 tons, 10 cwt. 2 qrs. 


9 lbs. 527 12 


332 1-2 gallons. 


358 31 


100 3-4 lbs. 


40 10 


- 


1 75 



Wood, 

Charcoal, 

Anthracite, 

Oil, - 

Candles, 

Wicking, 



Miscellaneous includes 

Money paid to patients, when discharged, or advanced to 

them, and charged in their accounts, 
Expenses of pursuing and returning elopers, 
Expenses of Trustees' visits, . . . . 

Money, refunded on settlement of accounts, when paid 

in advance, ------ 

Jury fees — on the question of the line of the Hospital 

ground, on the county road, - - - - 

Funeral expenses, _ . - _ . 

Postage, ------ 

Two cows, two horses, and three pigs, - - - 

Books, periodicals, stationary, printing blanks, &c. 
Sundries, - - - 



i,883 80 



$146 68 
53 04 

76 25 

18 53 



80 


28 


170 


50 


30 


80 


362 


40 


136 


13 


125 


22 



1,199 83 



; The expenditures of the Hospital have not, and the receipts have 

\ exceeded the estimates of the Treasurer last year. This leaves the 

! balance on hand, at the close of the year, much larger than was anti- 

! cipated. Of the appropriation for current expenses, made by the Le- 



24 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan, 

gislature last year, $4000 still remain in the State Treasury. The 
receipts from cities, towns and individuals, are greater this than last 
year by the sum of $3893 53. Of this sum perhaps $1500 should 
have been, but was not paid before the close of the last account. Sup- 
posing the average number of patients to be as great the ensuing, as 
the past year — there being now no such large account whose payment 
has been delayed beyond the usual time — we may reasonably calculate 
to receive, from tho^e sources, as much as was received this year, after 
deducting the amount which should have been received the year be- 
fore. We may estimate the amount to be so received at $24,000, 
which, with the balance on hand, and the balance of last year's appro- 
priation, still in the State Treasury, will be sufficient for the current 
expenses of the year. Of course, in the judgment of the Treasurer, no 
further appropriation will be required at this time. But, it should be 
observed, that, so long as patients are supported at the Institution, for 
whom no person or town is responsible, and the price of board is fixed 
upon the average cost of support of the whole number of patients, and 
not upon the number of those only whose expenses are paid by their 
friends or the towns, so long it will continue to be more or less a 
charge upon the State Treasury. This has, probably, been always 
contemplated by the Legislature, because it has, always, been well un- 
derstood that there were, in the Commonwealth, large numbers, proper 
subjects for such an institution, dangerous to be at large, having no 
property, no friends liable for their support, and no settlement in any 
town in the State. It is not improbable that this class of patients will 
hereafter, at this institution, be larger than heretofore. It is obvious, 
also, to those acquainted with such establishments, that there will be 
necessary expenditures, occurring from time to time, for repairs and 
permanent improvements, which could hardly be considered as fairly 
chargeable upon the patients. These circumstances render it proper 
to say, that it appears to the Treasurer to be as certain that an appro- 
priation will be required next year, as it is that one is not required this 
year. 

One other remark may be made. The annual report of the Trea- 
surer, although it shews accurately the amount expended, and for what 
it has been paid, does not show the exact annual cost of supporting 
the institution. 

The Steward endeavors to make the purchases in such quantities, 
at such times, and prices, as will be most economical, and, at the 
close of each year, there may be on hand a greater or less amount of 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 25 

any of the articles purchased, than at the close of other years. In 
order to ascertain, with exactness, therefore, what the annual cost of 
the Hospital is, it would be necessary to take an account of every thing 
on hand, at the close of each year. This would be embarrassing to 
the business of those employed, and not worth the trouble, as, for all 
practical purposes, the average annual cost may be ascertained, with 
sufficient accuracy, by the average expenditures of successive years, 
taken together with the average number of patients. 

It is important that those who receive and expend money for others, 
should be held to a strict accountability ; and it may not be considered 
irrelevant to mention the manner in which the funds of the Hospital 
are expended and accounted for. The specific appropriations, made 
by the Legislature, for erecting and for enlarging the Hospital, were 
to be expended by Commissioners and accounted for to the Governor 
and Council. With those appropriations neither the Trustees, nor the 
officers of the Hospital, had any concern, except that the Trustees 

were made the Commissioners for erecting the Infirmaries, 

and made accountable as the former Commissioners were. The ap- 
propriations for the current expenses, with the payments for support ot 
patients, and for articles sold, all go into the hands of the Treasurer. 
The purchases are made, and the help hired, by the Steward, under 
the direction of the Superintendent. The payments are made, princi- 
pally, through the hands of the Steward. Each bill is endorsed by the 
Superintendent to show that the expenditure has been made with his 
approbation. The bills are then all examined, and analyzed by the 
Treasurer, who holds them as his vouchers. At the close of each 
year, the account of the Treasurer, with the vouchers, undergoes the 
scrutiny of the Trustees, who, also, compare the accounts, on his 
Leger, with the charges which he makes against himself for moneys 
received. In order, therefore, to fraud, or improper expenditure, or 
uncorrected blunder there must be collusion on the part of the Super- 
intendent, Steward, Treasurer and Trustees. The Treasurer has no 
fears in saying that all those officers are perfectly willing thpt ine pe- 
cuniary transactions of the Hospital, so far as they :;re concerned, 
should be subjected to the severest scrutiny. 

ALFRED D WIGHT FOSTER, 

Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital. 

Worcester, December, 1839. 



m 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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SENATE— No. 9. 27 



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34 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



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1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 35 



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36 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 





1 






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1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 37 



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38 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the number of admissions and the state of the Hospital, from 
Dec. 1st, 1838 to Nov. 30th, 1839. 



Patients in the Hospital in the course of the year, 

Males, ..... 
Females, .... 

At the commencement of the year, 

Males, ..... 
Females, .... 

Admitted in the course of the year, 

Males, ..... 
Females, .... 

Remain at the close of the year. 

Males, ..... 
Females, .... 



Patients admitted, 

Males, 
Females, . 



80 
99- 



179 
-179 



Cases of less duration 
than one year, 
Males, . 34 

Females, . 50 —84 

Cases of longer dura- 
tion than one year. 
Males, . 46 

Females, . 49 —95- 



-179 



Admitted by Courts, 123 
" " Overseers, 13 
« « Friends, 43 179 

Foreigners in the Hos- 
pital in the course 
of the year. 
Males, . 17 

Females, . 12—29 



Natives of other States, 
Males, . 6 

Females, . 7 — 13 



-42 



195 
202- 



397 



-307 



115 

103- 



-218 



80 
99- 



113 
116- 



179 397 



-229 



Patients novp in the Hospital, 229 



Males, 
Females, 



113 
116- 



-229 



Cases of less duration 
than one year. 
Males, . 14 
Females, . 20 —34 

Cases of longer dura- 
tion than one year, 
Males, . 99 
Females, . 96—195- 

Applications to the 
Hospital not receiv- 
ed, .... 

From this State, 

Males, . 29 
Females, . 31 —60 

From other States, 
Males, . 17 
Females, . 19 —36 

Residence and sex not 
recollected, . . 19— 



-229 



115 



-115 



1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



39 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the number of Discharges and Deaths, and the condition of 
those who have left the Hospital, from December \st, 1838, to No- 
vember SOth, 1839. 





No. of 
each sex. 


Recov'd, 


Improv'd. 


Not 
Improv'd. 


Harm- 
less. 


Died. 


Total; 


Patients discharged, 168 
Males, 
Females, 


80 

88 


31 

49 


16 
13 


5 
2 


14 
16 


14 

8 




Patients discharged 
of duration less 
than one year, 71 
Males, 
Females, 


168 

29 
42 


80 

25 

39 


29 

2 




7 





30 





22 

2 

3 


168 


Patients discharged 
of duration more 
than one year, 97 

Males, 

Females, 


71 

51 

46 


64 

6 
10 


2 

14 
13 




5 
2 




14 
16 


5 

12 
5 


71 




97 


16 


27 


7 


30 


17 


97 



TABLE 3. 



Showing the number of admissions and discharges 
each month of the year. 


Average of Patients in the Hospital each month In 

the year. 




Admitted. 


Discharged, 




December, 


21 


7 


December, . . 228| 


January, 

February, 

March, 


12 

6 
10 


17 
12 
13 


January, . 

February, 

March, 




226i 
217i 
220i 


April, 

May, 

June, 


12 
16 
21 


9 
21 
12 


April, 

May, 

June, 




227i 
220i| 
218 


July, 
August, 
September, 
October, 


17 
21 
13 
17 


19 
24 
11 
10 


July, 
August, 
September, 
October, . 




2191 
2191 
223ii 

227i 


November 


13 


13 


November, 




229i 




179 


168 


Average, , 322^ 



40 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 4. 

Statistics of the State Lunatic Hospital, from January, 1833, to No- 
vember 30, 1839. 







1S33. 


1834. 


1335. 


1836. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


Total. 


Whole number of Patients admit- 
ted, .... 


153 


119 


113 


125 


168 


177 


179 


1034 


Discharged, including Deaths and 
Elopements, 


39 


115 


112 


106 


121 


144 


168 


805 


Discharged, recovered. 


. 


25 


64 


52 


58 


69 


76 


80 


424 


Discharged, improved, 


• 


7 


22 


23 


17 


23 


24 


29 


145 


Died, 
Eloped, 


• 


4 

1 


8 

1 


8 
1 


8 

1 


9 



16 




22 




75 

4 


Patients in the Hospital in 
course of each year. 


the 


153 


233 


241 


245 


306 


362 


397 


1034 


Patients remaining at the end of 
each year, 


114 


118 


119 


138 


185 


218 


229 




Males admitted. 
Females admitted, 




96 
57 


79 
39 


51 

62 


66 
59 


94 
75 


96 

81 


80 
99 


562 
472 


Males discharged. 
Females discharged. 




19 
15 


58 
48 


57 

46 


56 
41 


65 
47 


74 
54 


66 
80 


395 
331 


Males died, 
Females died, 




3 

1 


5 
3 


4 
4 


6 
2 


6 
3 


10 
6 


14 

8 


48 
27 


Patients sent by Courts, . 
Private, 




109 
44 


55 

64 


89 
21 


117 

8 


129 
39 


123 
54 


123 

56 




Recoveries : 
Males, . 
Females, 




13 
12 


33 
31 


27 
25 


32 

26 


37 
32 


45 
31 


32 

48 


219 
205 




25 


64 


52 


58 


69 


76 


80 424 


Average in the Hospital each year, 


107 


117 


120 


127 


163 


211 


223 



SENATE— No, 9. 



41 



TABLE 5. 



Duration of Insanity with those 


remaining in the| 


Ages of Patients in the Hospital, December 1st, 


Hospitai, 


December 1st 


1839. 






1839. 




Less duration than one year, 


34 


Under 20, 


7 


From 1 to 2 


years, . 




24 


From 20 to 25, 


. 24 


« 2 to 5 


a 




45 


(( 


25 to 30, 


. 23 


« 5 to 10 


li 




44 




30 to 35, 


. 32 


« 10 to 15 


u 




42 




35 to 40, 


. 39 


" 15 to 20 


u 




10 




40 to 45, 


, 30 


« 20 to 25 


u 




13 




45 to 50, 


. 21 


« 25 to 30 


u 




1 




50 to 55, 


. 17 


Over 34, 


. 




4 




55 to 60, 


. 10 


Unknown, 


• e 




12 


u 


60 to 65, 


. 10 










11 


65 to 70, 


6 








229 


« 


70 to 75, 


4 










Over 75, 


2 










Unknown, 


4 














229 



TABLE 6. 

Classification of Insanity. 



Mania, 
Males, 
Females, 

Melancholia, 
Males, 
Females, 

Dementia, 
Males, 
Females, 

Idiots, 

Males, 



Whole Number 



533 



304 



146 



280 
253 



153 
151 



90 
56 



Curable. 



Total of Curable. 



161 
156 



84 
80 



317 



164 



A few cases not classified. 



42 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 7. 
Statistics of the different Seaso7is. 





1S33. 


1834. 


1835. . 


1836. 


1837. 


ISSS, 


1839 


TotaL 


Admissions in Winter, 


'27 


26 


24 


23 


26 


46 


39 


211 


Admissions in Spring, 


7i 


35 


31 


36 


49 


46 


38 


3i)6 


Admissions in Summer, . 


21 


30 


30 


42 


40 


47 


59 


269 


AdraissioES in Autumn, . 


21 


28 


28 


24 


53 


38 


43 


235 


Discharges in Winter, 





22 


21 


20 


15 


18 


36 


132 


Disciiarges; in Spring, 


7 


33 


30 


33 


38 


37 


43 


221 


Discharges in Sumnicr, 


10 


28 


31 


24 


30 


43 


55 


221 


Discharge.^ in Autumn, 


24 


24 


22 


21 


38 


32 


34 


195 


Recoveries in Winter, 





12 


14 


11 


10 


15 


13 


75 


Recoveriei in Spring, 





20 


13 


14 


17 


23 


24 


111 


Recoveries in Summer, . 


9 


m 


16 


12 


15 


18 


24 


110 


Recoveries in Autumn, 


16 


15 


12 


20 


27 


20 


20 


130 


Deaths in Winter, 





3 


1 





1 


3 


5 


13 


Deaths in Spring, . 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


5 


19 


Deaths in Summer, 


2 


3 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


24 


Deaths in Autumn, 








3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


19 



TABLE 8. 
Causes of Insanity. 



Intemperance — Males, 151 




Hereditary, or having insane 




Females, 20- 


-171 


ancestors or near kindred. 


311 


111 Health, 


154 


Periodical, 


188 


Masturbation, 


97 


Homicidal, 


18 


Domestic afflictions, 


107 


Actual homicides. 


13 


Religious, 


78 


Suicidal, or having a strong 




Loss of Property, Fear of Pov 


- 


propensity to self-destruc- 




erty, &c. 


68 


tion. 


125 


Disappoiiited affection, . 


47 


Actual suicides, . 


5 


Disappointed ambition, . 


27 


Of 544 cases that have been 




Epilepsy, 


34 


examined — have dark com- 




Puerperal, 


24 


plexions, hair and eyes, 


275 


Injuries of the head, 


12 


Light complexions, hair and 




Abuse of snuff and tobacco, 


G 


eyes, 
Of 165 periodical cases, 103 


269 


Arising from Physical causes, 


498 


are caused by intemperance, 


103 


Arising from Moral causes. 


324 


1 





1840,] 



senate—No. 9. 



43 



TABLE a 

Occupation. 



Farmers, 


124 


Physicians, . 


2 


Laborers, 


97 


Broom-makei*s, 




2 


Shoemakers, 


42 


Coppersmiths, 




2 


Seamen, 


40 


Coachmen, . 




3 


Merchants, . 


33 


Butchers, 




2 


Carpenters, . 


27 


Currier, 




1 


Manufacturers, 


26 


Bricklayers, 




3 


Teachers, 


23 


Lawyer, 




1 


Blacksmiths, 


13 


Jewellers, 




2 


Printers, 


13 


Watchmen, . 




2 


Students, 


11 


Drovers, 




2 


Tailors, 


9 


News Collector, 




1 


Machinists, . 


8 


Rope-maker, 




1 


Clothiers, 


6 


Engineer, 




1 


Painters, 


4 


flatter, 




] 


Millers, 


4 


Gardiner, 




1 


Coopers, 


4 


Idiots, 




9 


Paper-makers, 


3 


Vagrants, 




28 


Calicj Printers, 


3 






Cabinet-makers, 


3 


Females who have no regular 




ClerEymen, . 


4 


employment, tiiose wl o are 




Sail -makers. 


3 


unaccustomed to labo ■, &c. 


92 


Tanners, 


3 


Femiles accustomed tc sed- 




Bakers, 


3 


entary employments that 




Innkeepers, . 


2 


are laborious, and to facto- 




Stevedores, . 


2 


ry labor. 


72 


Stonecutters, 


2 


Females accustomed to rxtive 




Comb makers, 


3 


employments, the wivt sand 




Musicians, 


3 


daughters of farmers, me- 




Turners, 


3 


chanics, &c. 


128 


Harness-makers, 


3 






Pedlers, 


4 


Many not classified. 





TABLE 10. 

Diseases which have proved Fatah 



Marasmus, . 


16 


Brain fever from intemperance, 1 


Epilepsy, 


13 


Disease of the bladder, . 1 


Consumption, 


8 ! 


Lung fever, . . . 1 


Apoplexy, 


6 


Dropsy, ... 2 


Suicide, 


5 


Old age, . . .1 


Diseases of the heart, 


4 


Chronic bronchitis, . , 1 


Cholera Morbus, 


4 


Gastric fever, . .1 


Mortification of the limbs. 


3 


Land scurvy, . . .1 


Hemorrhage, 


2 


Dysenteric fever, . . 1 


Inflammation of the bowels 


2 





Disease of the brain, 


2 


Total 75 



44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE IL 

Showing the duration of Insanity, the ages and civil state of the Pa- 
tients admitted from December \st, 1838, to November 2Xith, 1839. 





1833. 


1834. . 


1835. 


1836. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


Total. 


Duration before admitted 


















less than 1 year, 


41 


56 


49 


54 


73 


82 


84 


439 


From 1 to 5 years, 


27 


29 


37 


37 


58 


50 


63 


301 


« 5 to 10 » 


27 


14 


17 


13 


15 


16 


18 


120 


« 10 to 20 " 


31 


8 


6 


11 


15 


8 


10 


89 


« 20 to 30 « 


12 


4 


1 


2 


4 


7 


1 


31 


« 30 to 40 " 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


la 


Unknown, 


12 


6 


7 


6 


5 


13 


2 


51 


Duration with those remaining at 


















the end of each year : 


















Less than 1 year, - 


29 


22 


21 


11 


29 


28 


34 


174 


From 1 to 5 years. 


20 


25 


22 


39 


51 


65 


69 


291 


« 5 to 10 " 


20 


24 


34 


35 


38 


44 


44 


239 


« 10 to 20 « 


30 


24 


29 


35 


41 


41 


52 


252 


« 20 to 30 « 


9 


5 


3 


7 


11 


18 


14 


67 


Over 30 « 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 


4 


20 


Unknown, ... 


8 


16 


6 


9 


13 


19 


12 


83 


Ages of Patients when admitted: 


















Under 20 years, . - - 


2 


6 


3 


11 


13 


17 


10 


62 


From 20 to 30 years, 


34 


23 


22 


29 


58 


47 


47 


260 


« 30 to 40 « 


48 


44 


42 


30 


34 


51 


49 


298 


" 40 to 50 " 


34 


28 


30 


25 


31 


32 


30 


210 


« 50 to 60 " 


14 


9 


11 


16 


13 


20 


21 


104 


« 60 to 70 « 


17 


6 


6 


10 


12 


8 


14 


73 


« 70 to 80 " 


5 


2 


5 





7 


2 


8 


29 


Civil state of Patients admitted : 


















Single, . - - - 


92 


71 


52 


68 


94 


101 


80 


558 


Married, - - - - 


38 


40 


46 


49 


61 


65 


75 


374 


Widows, . - - - 


12 


4 


8 


6 


11 


5 


17 


63 


Widowers, ... 


11 


4 


7 


2 


2 


6 


7 


39 



1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



45 



TABLE 12. 



Shoioing the comparative Curability of Insanity treated at different 
periods of disease. 





Total of Ca- 


Of each 


Ciirable or 


Incur'ble and 




ses. 


Sex. 


Cured. 


not cured. 


Of less duration than 1 year, 


418 








Males, - - - - 




217 


191 


26 


Females, » - - 




201 


179 


22 


From 1 to 2 years, - - - 


161 








Males, - - - - 




76 


41 


35 


Females, - - - 




85 


56 


29 


From 2 to 5 years, - - - 


164 








Males, - - - - 




93 


26 


Q7 


Females, . - _ 




71 


27 


44 


From 5 to 10 years, 


118 








Males, - - - - 




64 


8 


56 


Females, - . . 




54 


5 


49 


From 10 to 15 years, 


72 








Males, - - . . 




42 


4 


38 


Females, . . - 




30 


1 


29 


From 1.") to 20 years, 


28 








Males, - - - - 




19 


1 


18 


Females, _ . . 




9 





9 


From 20 to 25 years, 


19 








Males, - - - - 




10 





10 


Females, - . . 




9 





9 


From 25 to 30 years, 


6 








Males, - - - - 




5 





5 


Females, - . - 




1 





1 


Over 30 years, . - _ 


4 








Males, - - . - 




2 





2 


Females, - . _ 




2 





2 



TABLE 13. 

Showing the number of persons employed in different departments of 

labor. 



MALES. 




FEMALES. 




Agriculture and Horticulture, 


40 


Knitters, - 


- 


60 


Shoe-shop, - - - 


8 


Sempstresses, 


- 


32 


Kitchen, _ _ _ 


5 


Washers, - 


. 


4 


Washer, - - - 


1 


Kitchen, - 


■ 


4 


Wood-sawyers, 


16 


Laundry, - 


- 


6 


Mason tenders, 


3 
73 






106 
73 

179 



Indulged abroad without an attendant, to walk, work, &c. 93 

35 not laborers, 58 included in the other lists. 

Attended chapel in the course of the year, - 318 

Males, - 158 
Females, - 160 318 



46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 14. 

Showing the comparative Curability of Insanity attacking at different 

ages. 





Total of Ca- 


Total of each 








ses. 


Sex. 


Curable. 


Incurable. 


Undergo, - - 


129 






Males, - - - - 




70 


23 


47 


Females, _ - _ 




59 


37 


22 


From '10 to 25, - 


161 








Males, - - - - 




87 


42 


45 


Females, - - . 




74 


43 


31 


From 25 to 30, - 


137 








Males, - - - - 




74 


36 


38 


Females, - - - 




63 


35 


28 


From 30 to 35, . - . 


136 








Males, - - - - 




84 


37 


47 


Females, . - - 




52 


30 


22 


From 35 to 40, - 


J 24 








Males, - w - - 




57 


29 


28 


• Females, _ - _ 




67 


36 


31 


From 40 to 45, 


80 








Males, - - - - 




42 


27 ' 


15 


Females, . - . 




38 


30 


8 


From 45 to 50, - 


66 








Males, - - - - 




32 


24 


8 


Females, . . . 




34 


31 


3 


From 50 to 55, - _ - 


62 








Males, - - - - 




27 


17 


10 


Females, _ - _ 




35 


24 


11 


From 55 to 60, - 


32 








Males, - - - - 




15 


11 


4 


Females, - _ - 




17 


10 


7 


From 60 to 65, - 


26 








Males, - - - - 




13 


11 


2 


Females, 




13 


10 


3 


From 65 to 70, - 


19 








Males, - - - - 




13 


7 


6 


Females, _ _ _ 




6 


4 


2 


From 70 to 75, 


8 








Males, - - - - 




6 


4 


2 


Females, _ - _ 




2 


2 





Over 75, . - - . 


5 








Males, - - - - 




3 


2 


1 


Females, . . - 




2 





2 



1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



47 



TABLE 15. 

Showing the relation of Cause to Recovery. 







Whole No. 


No. each sex. 


Curable. 


Incurable. 


Intemperance, 


171 








i\Iales, - 


- 




151 


75 


76 


Females, 


- 




20 


9 


11 


Domestic afflictions of various 


kinds, 










Family Trouble, Love, Fear of 










Death, Poverty, &c., 


- 


255 








Males, - 


. 




103 


59 


44 


Females, 


- 




152 


86 


66 


HI Health, Wounds, Puerperal, 


&c. 


210 








Males, - - . 


. 




47 


23 


24 


Females, 


. 




163 


110 


53 


Religious of all kinds, 


- 


78 








Males, - - - 


- 




40 


24 


16 


Females, 


- 




38 


21 


17 


Mastnrbat"on, 


- 


97 








Males, - 


- 




85 


22 


63 


Females, 


- 




12 


1 


11 


Epilepsy, - 


- 


32 








Males, - - - 


- 




29 


4 


25 


Females, 


- 




3 





3 


Palsy, 


- 


17 








Males, - - - 


. 




14 


2 


12 


Females, 


- 




3 





3 



TABLE 16. 

Showing the per cent, of cases from the most prominent causes each year. 





1833. 


1834 


1S35 


1836 


1837. 

lOj 


183S 

161 


1839. 


Intemperate drinking, - - - 


243 


24 


225 


14-1 


7^ 


III Health, - . . . 


H 


i7i 


2!^ 


22^ 


21d 


y8 


26^ 


The Affections, - . . 


131 


Hd 


17^ 


16 


16 


141 


25 


Concerning Property, - - - 


6.i 


10-3 


m 


5a 


6d 


\^h 


5* 


Religious, . - . . 


»i 


6i 


n 


64 


6i 


9 


4i 


Masturbation, - - - - 


5 


5| 


1% 


16i| 


2U 


5d 


81 



m 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 17. 

Showing the state of the Moon on the occurrence of a paroxysm of ex- 
citement in about 60 cases of Periodical Insanity, amounting in all 
to 485 paroxysms. Also the relation of the Moon to the 75 deaths 
that have occurred in the Hospital, 



Number of Paroxysms each day. 


1 ^■'nmber of Deaths on each day of the Moon. 


Day of the Moon. 


Whole 
Num- 
ber. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Day of the 
quarter. 
1st qr. 


Day of the Moon. 


Whole 
um- 
ber. 


Male, 


Fe- 
male, 


Day of the 
quarter, 
istqr. 


1 


10 


4 


6 


1 


1 


1 


1 





1 


2 


27 


15 


12 


2 


2 


6 


4 


2 


2 


3 


20 


11 


9 


3 


3 


5 


2 


3 


3 


4 


22 


9 


13 


4 


4 


3 


2 


1 


4 


5 


15 


8 


7 


5 


5 


2 


1 


1 


5 


6 


19 


9 


10 


6 


6 


3 


2 


1 


6 


7 


23 


10 


13 


7 


7 


3 





3 


7 


End of 1st quarter. 








2dqr. 


End of 1st quarter. 








2dqr. 


8 


28 


14 


14 


1 


8 


1 


1 





1 


9 


18 


10 


8 


2 


9 


3 


1 


2 


2 


10 


13 


5 


8 


3 


10 


2 


2 





3 


11 


17 


9 


8 


4 


11 


1 





1 


4 


12 


19 


10 


9 


5 


12 


1 


1 





5 


13 


15 


10 


5 


6 


13 


6 


4 


2 


6 


14 


19 


9 


10 


7 


14 


1 


1 





7 


End of 2d quarter. 








3d qr. 


End of 2d quarter. 








3dqr. 


15 


18 


9 


9 


1 


15 


2 


2 





1 


16 


13 


7 


6 


2 


16 


3 


3 





2 


17 


22 


12 


10 


3 


17 


2 


1 


1 


3 


18 


12 


6 


6 


4 


18 











4 


19 


11 


7 


4 


5 


19 


2 


1 


1 


5 


20 


17 


12 


5 


6 


20 


6 


5 


1 


6 


21 


16 


9 


7 


7 


21 


6 


4 


2 


7 


End of 3d quarter. 








4th qr. 


End of 3d quarter. 








4th qr. 


22 


18 


10 


8 


1 


22 


2 


1 


1 


1 


23 


18 


6 


12 


2 


23 











2 


24 


23 


13 


10 


3 


24 


3 


2 


1 


3 


25 


19 


6 


13 


4 


25 


6 


3 


3 


4 


26 


17 


8 


9 


5 


26 


2 


1 


1 


5 


27 


7 


2 


5 


6 


27 











6 


28 


9 


5 


4 


7 


28 


3 


2 


1 


7 


Paroxysms, 


485 








Deaths, 


75 









iS40.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



49 



TABLE 18, 
Of Per Cent. 



RECOVF.RIES. 

Per cent, of cases dis- 


Average 


1S34 


1333. 


1S3S, 


1S37. 


1S33. 


1339. 
















charged recovered, of 
















ddrution less tlian one 
















>ea'*, 


85 5-6 


82 


82 1-2 


84 1-2 89 1-2 


as 1-2 


90 1-7 


P«;r cent, of recoveries of 








j 






all ilisclmrgeii, . . . 


51 3-4 53 3-4 


46 1-2 


53 1-4 57 


52 1-2 


47 


Per cent, oi' recoveries of 












old cases discharged, 


38 "2-3 SO 1-2 15 3-4 18 2-3 25 1-2' 15 1-2 


16 1-2 



There have been admitted since tiie llosi)ital was opened, 418 cases, of 
duration less than one year. 

There iiave been dischar;fed, recovered, of recent cases, in tlie sanse lime, 
4310, (310 of 418,) wiiich is 81 1-5 per cent. 

Dednct from the.-'e 17 deaths of recent cases, vvliich are not ' nsiially in- 
<;luded in (3.<tiin;ites of recovery, as siicii cases have httle trial of cin-ative 
means, and there rem uns 340 of 401, which is 81 3-4 per cent. Thiriy-tbur 
jof these now remaining in the Hosj)ital are mostly convalescing, which, 
beinij deducted, leaves 340 of .'!i)7, which is Oi 2-3 per cent. 

There have been in the Hospital I0J4 patients; — there have been dis- 
charged, recovered, 421, which is 41 percent. 



DEATHS. 

Per cent of deaths of all in the 
Hospital each year, . 

Per cent of the vviiole number, (75 of 1031,) 



1SS4 1835. 1835. 1337 


1833. 


18SS. 


3 1-2 3 1-2 3 1-4 3 


4 1-2 


5 1-2 



7 1-4 



There are at present in the Hospital \\)'y cases of longer duration than 
«3ne year, (li>5 of 2"2!»,) vvliich is H5 1-7 [»er cent. 

There are 154 cases of less din-ation than one year, which is 14 6-7 per cent 



Per cent, of Recoveries of Insanity arising from certain causes : 

From Intemperance, ... 49 3-4 f)er cent 

Domestic afflictions, ... 56 3-4 per cent. 

Ill Health, . . , , 63 2-3 per cent 

Keligious causes, ... 58 per cent. 

MastuiHjation, .... 23 3-4 per cent 



Hereditary, (31 1 of 1034,) 
Periodical, (188 of 1034,) 



30 per cent 
18 per cent 



Of the 1034 patients who have been in the llos|)ital, there were 

Single, including Widowers and Widows — 1)60 — n3 1-5 per ct 
Married, .... 374 — '<iQ 1-5 per ct 



50 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 









Four inches snow. 
Alternoon pleasant. 

Variable. 

'I'haw. Variable. 

.A flernoon ver}' pleasant. 

Very pleasant. 

Afternoon very pleasant. 

Evening clou'iy. 

Briljianl Anrora Borealis. 

Evening, cloud in the south. 

Very pleasant. 

Eve. dark cloud in the east and south 

Very pleasant. 

F\ening, weather changed. 

Sunset in a cloud. 

Squally. 

Evening, 2 inches snow. 

do 9 o'clock, 7" below 0. 

do very pleasant. 
Eve. barometer 28.26. High wind. 

do high wind^ — severe snow squal 
do very pleasant, 
do fl^'ing clouds. 
Brilliant halo around the moon. 




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'I'uesday 

Wednesday 

'Tluirsday 

I'riflay 

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Monday 

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SENATE— No. 9. 



m 





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H 


Snow storm commenced at 4 F. M. 
[2 inches of snow fell. 
Wind high ; damp and chilly. 
High wind j squally. 

do very cold 3 severe squalls. 

Storm of rain in the night 
Snow fell IjJ inches 5 evening clear 
[and pleasant. 
Evening, light snow, 
do very pleasant. 

do misty, with some snow, 
do rainy. 

do snow storm, 1^ inches fell. 

Thaw ; quite muddy. 
Evening, 3 inches of snow felh 

do rain. 
Muddy. 

Evening, clear and pleasant, 
do rainy. 

do light snow. 




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1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



53 



03 

< 

u 


V^ery warm and 
■ pleasant days, 
'liie iheimonieler has averaged 49° 

6-G the first six days of the month; 

once rose to 70°. 
P. M. slight shower. Frogs peep. 
Aurora Borealis. Crocus in blossom. 
Liverwort in bios'^om. 
High wind ; very dry and dusty. 
I{ain al midnight. 
Si'vere storm. 
Siorm continues. 
.Storm continues. 
Adorniion showery. 
Dirca Palustris or Leather-wood in 

blossom. 
Hloodroot in blossom. 
Wood Anemone in blossom. 

.Shower in the night; high wind. 
Showers ; splendid rainbow. 

Cherry trees in blossom. 


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1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



55 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 







Aurora Borealis. 

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whole heavens, — exhibiting one of 
those splendid celestial phenomena 
which have attracted so much at- 
tention in modern times. Few 
have been more magnificent. 

Fine season for ripening the crops. 

High wind; flying clouds. 
Very pleasant. Aurora Borealis. 
Frost in wet ground. 

Dense fog; rain in the night. 

Aurora Borealis. 

Fog ; high wind. 

Shower in the evening. 
Shower in the night. 

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Rainy afternoon. 




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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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03 

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Flying clouds. 

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Aurora Borealis 

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Aurora Borealis. High wind. 

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Warm rain; stormy night. 
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Splendid sunset. 

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Summer. J do. 


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1840.] 



SENATE— No 9. 



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64 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 



It is now nearly seveti years since this Hospital was opened for the 
reception of the insane. During this period one thousand and thirti/- 
your patients have been admitted, and eight hundred and Jive have been 
discharged. Of this last number, four hundred and twenty-four have 
recovered, seventy-five have died, and three hundred and six have been 
discharged not recovered ; some as harmless and incurable, some for 
want of room, others by order of the courts, or at the request of 
friends. 

A retrospective view of our duties and cares in the management of 
the institution, and of the success which has attended our efforts, im- 
presses our minds with devout gratitude to that Almighty Being who 
has protected us from danger, and made us, to a great extent, a peace- 
ful and happy family. 

Although we have not been exempt from mortality, no epidemic has 
ever visited our dwelling, and the deaths that have occurred have been 
principally among the imbecile and incurable, whose insanity was of 
long continuance and whose cases were hopeless. 

It has been no small gratification to learn from time to time the con- 
tinued health and welfare of great numbers of individuals who, at dif- 
ferent periods, have been in the Hospital, the victims of the severe 
calamity which it was designed to alleviate and remove. From them, 
individually, we often leceive grateful tribute of affection for the bene- 
fits which they received in this institution, during the period of their 
greatest misfortune. 

Almost from the commencement, the Hospital has been full, and 
the continued press upon it, at all times, beyond its means of accom- 
modation, is evidence of the manner in which it has been appreciated 
by an intelligent public. 

While we would speak with becoming diffidence of our success, we 
may safely claim to have devoted to the numerous inmates under our 
care, our best efforts for their comfort and recovery. 

This duty, with all its lesponsibilities, is most pleasant when we 
can witness minds naturally bright and intelligent, emerging from the 
chaos of illusion and the terrific excitement of disease, to calmness 
and composure, and finally to the full exercise of rational powers; 
when we can see the fearful apprehensions and gloomy musings of the 
hapless melancholic, dispelled by the well-adjusted application of phys- 
ical and moral remedies, and light and comfort again revive and ani- 
mate him, and when we find estranged passions, morbid propensities, 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. '65 

and perverted habits giving place to sobriety, decorum, and all the 
realities of rational life. 

Insanity, of all diseases the most fearful, is found to be among the 
most curable. To effect this, however, aid must be seasonably sought 
which can arrest its progress and remove its influence, before it be- 
comes established by habit and before those organic changes take 
place, which necessarily render it irremediable and hopeless. 

Long and faithful trial, can alone render hopeful those cases of in- 
sanity in which the workings of protracted disease, have established 
morbid habits and sympathies, estranged the passions and perverted 
the senses, yet all such cases are not irrecoverable although to friends 
and acquaintances they may appear so. Unlike all other human suf- 
ferers, the insane, who most need the care and sympathy of friends, 
spurn them from their presence, shun their society, and reject with 
passion and scorn, every effort from their hands, which is designed for 
their benefit and the amelioration of their condition. 

In every condition of life, whether in the possession of wealth or 
suffering the privations and wretchedness of poverty ; whether the ten- 
ants of a palace or a cabin, the insane are equally miserable and de- 
graded. To afford a chance of cure in old and long established cases, 
they must be taken from their homes, and from old associations, and 
placed in the care of strangers, in institKtions designed for their ben- 
efit, before one ray of light can penetrate the dark recesses of the 
long benighted intellect, or one spark of comfort warm and animate 
their cold and deadened feelings. If the brain has by organic lesion 
become unfitted for the operation of the mind, the case is hopeless; 
but if it be only torpid and inactive, or if morbid influences have only 
kept it in continual estrangement, an effort rightly directed, may re- 
vive the expiring embers of reason, or lemove the morbid condition on 
which hallucinations and diseased senses may depend ; the cold and 
torpid sensibilities may be reanimated to life and activity, and the lost 
may again have health and understanding. 

We must not for a moment overlook the fact, that insanity is a phys- 
ical disease, that the mind, in the most deplorable case, is not obliter- 
ated ; its integrity is only disturbed : it remsins the same ; its faculties 
ready, as soon as the deranged physical structure shall have regained 
health and soundness, to resume operations and exhibit the manifesta- 
tions which legitimately belong to them. If the senses are deluded, 
false impressions are conveyed to the mind, but the senses are physi- 
cal organs, and the mind is no more at fault if they lead it astray, than 
9 



66 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

it is in believing the false representations of another individual ; so of 
any other function of the brain ; false perceptions, morbid activity or 
depression of the animal propensities, or of the higher sentiments, de- 
pend upon physical influences wholly beyond the jjower of the indi- 
vidual to control : as soon, however, as the physical imperfection is re- 
moved, and a healthy condition of the brain restored, reason again re- 
sumes its empire, and the integrity of the mind becomes apparent. It 
is only when the organic structure of the brain and its appendages 
have undergone such physical changes as to be permanent and endur- 
ing that insanity is utterly hopeless. Death only can then cure insanity. 
The mind is still unharmed, and as soon as its connexion with this 
diseased incumbrance shall be dissolved, who can doubt that the Au- 
thor of its being, will furnish it an immortal medium of action in 
another state of existence, fitted for the sphere of its future enjoyments? 
The diseased brain in insanity, the worn out brain of the aged, and 
the imperfect brain of the idiot, are the only reason why the mind is 
not as active and intelligent in these individuals as in the rest of man- 
kind ; in another state of existence all will be changed, " this corrupti- 
ble will put on incorruption, and this mortal immortality." 

This Hospital, with its admirable arrangements and accommoda- 
tions, is a most desirable residence for the insane. Elevated above the 
scenes of business, and removed from the disturbances of active popu- 
lation, in the midst of a country affording most delightful views and 
prospects, surrounded by the healthiest atmosphere ; the breezes of 
summer reach us pure and uncontaminated, and the unsurpassed pro- 
visions for warmth and ventilation, furnish in winter a temperature as 
mild as perennial summer; no frosts enter our dwelling, no heat has 
ever endangered us. We are safe from the inclemencies of winter, 
the pestilential atmosphere of spring, or the malaria of summer, and 
in autumn no disease peculiar to the season, has ever molested our 
family. 

Thanks to the noble hearts of its projectors, to the government 
whose munificence has made it a splendid monument of public charity, 
and to the enlightened public sentiment which has sustained it, and 
made it a sanctuary for the ministration of benevolence and philan- 
thropy to afflicted man. 

Table 1. A reference to this table will show that there have been 
in the Hospital in the course of the year, three hundred and ninety- 
seven patients, one hundred and ninety-Jive of whom were males, and 
two hundred and tioo were females. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 67 

There remained at the close of the last year, two hundred and eigh- 
teen patients, one hundred and fifteen of whom were males, and one 
hundred and three were females. 

There have been admitted in the course of the year, one hundred and 
seventy-nine patients, of whom eighty were males, and ninety-nine were 
females. Eighty-four of this number had been insane less than one 
year, thirty-four males and fifty females; and ninety-five had been in- 
sane more than one year, forty-six males and forty-nine females. Of 
this number, one hundred and tiventy-thrce were admitted by the courts 
thirteen by the overseers of the poor of the towns, and forty-three by 
the friends. 

In the course of the year, there have been fort y-t a; o foreign paupers 
in the Hospital. Of these, twenty-nine were natives of Europe and 
Africans, seventeen males and twelve females; and thirteen ^^KX'^exs from 
other states, six males and seven females. 

There are now in the Hospital, at the close of the year, two hundred 
and twenty-nine patients. Of these, thirty-four have been insane less 
than one yevLV, fourteen males and txoenty females; and onehundred and 
ninety five more than one year, ninety-nine males and ninety-six females. 

The Hospital has been full at all times, and we have been obliged to 
reject, for want of suitable accommodations, one hundred, and fifteen 
applications made at the Hospital, sixty of which were citizens of this 
State, thirty-six from other states, and nineteen whose residence was 
not recorded. 

The number of patients admitted in the course of the year, was 
greater than any former year, and the number of residents greater by 
thirty-five, than any former year. 

Table 2. There have been discharged in the course of the last 
year, including deaths, one hundred and sixty-eight patients, eighty 
males and eighty-eight females. Of these, eighty recovered, thirty-one 
males and forty-nine females ; ttventy-nine were improved, sixteen males 
and thirteen females; srven were not improved, five males and ttvo fe- 
males ; thirty have been discharged as harmless and incurable, princi- 
pally by the trustees, for want of^ room, fourteen were males and sixteen 
females: t/renty-two have died, four tee7i males and eight females. 

Of the patients discharged, seventy-one were insane less than one 
year, twenty-nine males nnd forty-two females. Of this number, sixty- 
four recovered, ttcenty five males and thirty-nine females; tic;) were 
improved, both of whom were males ; and five died, two males and 
three females. 



68 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, ^ [Jan. 

Of the patients discharged, ninety-seven had been insane more than 
one ye.iix, fifty -one males and forty-six females. Of these, sixteen re- 
covered, six males and ten females; tivcnty-seven were improved, four- 
teen males and thirteen females ; seven were not improved, five males- 
and two females; thirty were discharged harmless and incurable, /bwr- 
tcen males and sixteen females; and seventeen have died, ticelve males 
an(\five females. 

The number of deaths lias been unusually large for us, during the 
past year. The Hospital has been peculiarly unfortunate in having 
brought into it an unusual number of imbecile and broken down pa- 
tients, who were affected with disease, liable at any time to be fatal, 
or which would necessarily be fatal in ihe event. Of this number, were 
■five patients so neaily palsied, as to be only able to totter about the 
halls, all of them the victims of intemperance, and so entirely imbecile 
as hardly to be able to feed themselves, and were unconscious of the 
place of their residence, or who were the individuals who had them in 
charge. One of these died on the third day after his admission, the 
others lingered a longer time, and when they at last died, went off sud- 
denly, with apoplexy or epilepsy. There are at present a number of 
similar cases in the Hospital, who will be liable to the same sudden 
death, none of whom can be considered at all dangerous, and who have 
obtained admission by misrepresentations to the courts, that the irk- 
some and disagreeable duty of taking care of them might be avoided 
by their friends, or the keepers of almshouses. 

One old lady was committed as dangerous, who was not able to 
stand, who was laboring under palsy and such other debility of the sys- 
tem, that after six weeks confinement to her bed, daily losing ground, 
she died ; this woman was over seventy years of age. 

A man affected with delirium senilis, or the delirium of old age, at 
the age of seventy-nine, was committed by the court as a dangerous 
lunatic; he hardly slept for tico weeks, and died from exhaustion. 

In too many cases, as the patients run down, their habits become 
filthy, they are unwilling to take food, and the care of them at home 
costs more than is charged at the Hospital, and as the trouble is great 
and the duty disagreeable, they are sent to our care; the journey is 
often too much for their feeble condition, and they arrive at the Hospi- 
tal only to close the scene ; this has been often the case during our 
residence here. 

In the course of the summer, a woman was brought to the Hospital 
from a distance, sick of a fever; she was delirious, her symptoms were 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 69 

severe and dangerous from the first; she lived fAree weeks only. About 
the same time, another was brought to us with a severe disease of the 
stomach and bowels, which was accompanied with constant loss of 
blood, from the mouth, the stomach and intestines; she soon became 
entirely rational, but was unable to be removed. She remained about 
six weeks, lost nearly all her blood, and fell a victim to the disease 
which she brought with her, in no way connected with insanity. 

These statements are not made by way of complaint ; we cheerfully 
give the cases under our care all the attention which they require. It 
is to explain the cause of the mortality which for the last two years has 
afflicted us, and which has been independent of any diseases which 
have prevailed at the Hospital. 

In institutions of this character, it must be expected that many deaths 
will occur ; in the British and French Hospitals, it is much greater 
than in ours, amounting to from 22 to 25 per cent., while ours is less 
than 7^ per cent., (75 of 1034.) 

Table 3. It will be seen by this table, that the number of patients 
received and discharged during the year, was three hundred and forty- 
seven, amounting to more than one on every business day of the year. 
The greatest number of admissions in any month was twenty-one, 
which was the number admitted in June and August. The greatest 
nun)ber discharged was twer^ty-four, which was also in August. 

The average of patients in the Hospital for the year, was two hun- 
dred and twenty-three and one fourth. The Hospital is considered full 
when there are in its wards tioo hundred and twenty patients, one hun- 
dred and twelve males, and one hundred and eight females. The great- 
est number at any time has been tioo hundred and thirty-five, and 
the least number two hundred and fifteen. 

Table 4. This table has been made for the purpose of bringing 
together the most important statistics of the Hospital, since it com- 
menced operation. It shows the number of admissions, discharges, 
deaths, and recoveries each year, the number that have remained at 
the end of each year, and the average number of inmates during the 
year. From it, we leain that the whole number of males admitted, 
has been five hundred and sixty-two, the number of females four hun- 
dred and seventy-two ; that the number of males discharged, has been 
three hundred and ninety-five, and the number of females, three hun- 
dred and thirty-one. The recoveries of males have been tioo hundred 
and nineteen, the recoveries of females two hundred and five. The 
deaths of males and females have been in the proportion o^ forty-eight 
of the former to twenty-seven of the latter. 



70 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

From this table it will appear, that the per cent, of recoveries of 
males discharged, exclusive of deaths, is more i\vaxi ffty -four -^ex cent. ; 
that the per cent, of females discharged recovered, exclusive of deaths, 
is more than sixty-two per cent. 

Table 5, By this table it will be seen, that the number of recent 
cases of duration less than one year, remaining at the close of the year, 
is tldrty-four , and the cases of longer duration than one year, are one 
hundred and ninety-five. The number of old and incurable cases re- 
mains nearly the same at all times. Many such cases will be perma- 
nent residents in the Hospital as long as they shall live. 

With the recent and curable cases, it will be different; such cases 
change from two to three times annually. 

The tendency of all institutions of this character is to accumulate 
old cases, and especially foreign paupers, which the towns are glad to 
get rid of whenever they can, to relieve themselves of the burthen of 
supporting them at the almshouses. 

Were it not that the law of discharge, for want of room, gives pref- 
erence to the citizens of the state to remain, and directs, the cases 
being equal, that foreign paupers shall be first discharged, the Hospi- 
tal would now be very much occupied with this class of the insane. 

It certainly would be a wide departure from the benevolent designs 
of the founders of this Institution, and of the government by whose 
munificence it was erected, if this parsimonious spirit should result in 
filling the wards of the Hospital with foreign paupers only, who are 
far less anxious to leave it than the citizens of our own country, while, 
by the same spirit, these citizens are remanded back to the cold and 
cheerless tenements usually provided for the insane. These impres- 
sions are more vivid from the fact, that, while this sheet is being writ- 
ten, a pauper has been brought to the Hospital who has not felt the 
influence of a fire for /?i'o years. He had been kept in a cage in a 
cold room during this period. It cannot be denied that friends and 
overseers of the poor cannot keep these individuals comfortable in any 
accommodations which they can provide ; but it is equally true, that 
such individuals are not permitted to share the bounty of the Common- 
wealth to the extent which they ought by enjoying the comforts of a 
Hospital provided expressly for that class of lunatics who are not safe 
to be at large. 

Respecting the ages of patients now in the Hospital, it will be seen 
from the table, that of any ten years, the greatest number are between 
the ages of thirty and fo7-ty, which is seventy-one ; between the ages 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 71 

o^ forty and ffty there are Jifty-one; between twenty and thirty, 
forty-seven, and under twenty, seven only. 

There is one fact in this connexion which should not be overlooked : 
by tlie same table we learn that there are eighty-six patients in the 
Hospital at this time, who have been insane from^^e io fifteen years, 
zqA forty-five who have been insane from ttvo iofive years; many of 
these patients are now between the ages of thirty and fifty, who were 
younger when attacked by disease. This table, therefore, is no crite- 
rion by which we can decide at what age mankind are most liable 
to attacks of insanity. From the numerous records of the Hospital, 
such a table as will show the age at which insanity is most likely to 
occur, can, at some future time, easily be made, which would add to 
the value of the statistics here presented. 

This institution commenced this year with tioo hundred and eighteen 
patients, and closed with two hundred and ttventy-nine — a difference of 
eleven patients. The average of last year was two hundred and eleven. 
This year it is tivo hundred and tioenty-three — a difference of twelve. 

The Hospital is considered full when there are t^co hundred and 
twenty patients, and as there has been this year an average o'i tioo hun- 
dred and ticenty-three, there can, of course, be no increase in future. 

Table 6. As it is customary to divide insanity into the four classes 
of the table, I have not deviated from the long established precedent 
though it seems an arbitrary division. Some Reports adopt the term 
monomania for melancholy, which does not seem to remove the diffi- 
culty, as there are many melancholies which are not strictly monoma- 
niacs, and many monomaniacs who are far removed from melancholy. 
Strictly speaking, all cases of insanity, except the most chaotic and 
the demented, belong to monomania. The faculties of the mind are 
rarely affected equally, even in the most furious mania. In one, de- 
luded sense misguides the understanding; in another, the perceptions 
are diseased ; the reasoning is correct but the premises are false, in 
another, the reasoning is false. The feelings, passions and propensi- 
ties, often control the intellect ; sometimes one faculty is torpid and 
inactive, which gives to others an ascendancy in the character which 
they do not naturally possess, and sometimes one or more is very 
active while the others are natural ; this changes the whole character 
of the mind, not the less, because the balance is lost. 

In this report, all cases of insanity that are active, in which the indi- 
vidual is prone to open violence and outrage, in which the animal feel- 
ings impel to excitement, turbulence and noise, are denominated 
mania, and yet many such reason correctly upon most subjects, and 



72 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

are often insane upon one only. All cases of depression, lowness of 
spirits, gloomy apprehensions, agitation and alarm, which are attended 
by uniform dejection, are classed in the table as melancholy. In many 
such cases, the faculties of the mind are as generally and universally 
affected as in the most furious mania, yet the exhibition of excitement 
is entirely different ; the passions and propensities are often estranged 
and excited in melancholy as well as in mania. In truth, insanity is a 
unit, undefinable, but easily recognized by those who have watched its 
ever varying appearance. In strongly marked cases, it is easily distin- 
guished, but in those not always easily classified. The symptoms often 
amalgamate and as often change, so that what is mania to-day may 
appear to be melancholy another day. Sometimes these symptoms 
alternate in the course of a month or two, and the most marked ex- 
tremes of excitement and depression are exhibited in the same indi- 
vidual. 

Dementia is more easily defined. In this form of insanity, the whole 
brain is torpid and the mind dull, imbecile and extremely inactive; the 
physical energies are as much blunted as the mental powers; the whole 
system is prostrated, and the mind seems to be nearly obliterated. 

In the table I have arranged, a large proportion of the cases that 
have been in the Hospital, making Jive hundred and thirty-three 
cases of mania, three hundred and four cases of melancholy, one hun- 
dred and forty-six cases of dementia, and eight idiots, by which term, 
in the table, is to be understood those only who are so from birth. 
Those cases that have become idiotic from disease, are classed with 
the demented. 

Table 7. From this table can be learned the statistics of the dif- 
ferent seasons. No very important conclusions can be derived from 
the facts presented. There have been more admissions in spring than 
in any other season, and the least in the winter. In spring and sum- 
mer there have been mere discharges, in winter there have been less. 
The recoveries have been greatest in the autumn, and least in the win- 
ter. The deaths also have been most numerous in summer, and least 
in winter. 

Having commenced operations in winter with few patients, the dis- 
charges, recoveries, and deaths, would, almost necessarily, be less at 
tliat time, which will in some degree affect the general average. 

Table 8. From this table may be learned many important facts 
relating to the causes of insanity, hereditary predisposition, periodicity 
homicidal and suicidal propensities. These are subjects of great im- 
portance and interest. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 73 

In many institutions, the term Hereditary is put down as a cause 
of insanity independent of any exciting cause. My view of this mat- 
ter is different. In all diseases that are hereditary, a slighter cause 
will induce the disease than in constitutions not so predisposed, but 
still there must be a cause to arouse to action the latent principles 
upon which the disease depends, independent of this constitutional 
predisposition. 

Those whose ancestors have been insane, must be careful to avoid 
the exciting causes of disease, as those who have been accustomed to 
gout, or whose ancestors were affected by it, must avoid the use of 
fermented liquors and rich diet upon which the disease originally de- 
pends, and by which it may easily be excited if the hereditary predis- 
position lies dormant in the system. 

In the table, the cases marked hereditary are not all from insane 
ancestors. Where many individuals connected collaterally have been 
insane, the case is recorded as hereditary, by which is only meant that 
they are constitutionally predisposed to insanity. Such persons must 
observe the same precautions to escape the disease as those whose 
parents were insane. 

There are many causes of insanity that are obscure and uncertain, 
there are others which the friends prefer should not be known ; thus 
there are difficulties attending the investigation of the causes of dis- 
ease which will probably never be fully overcome. 

With the greatest susceptibility of which the constitution will admit, 
there must be some violation of the established laws of the system be- 
fore disease will take place. This holds true of insanity as well as other 
diseases — for insanity is as much a physical disease, depending upon a 
peculiar state of physical health, as any other. If a predisposition 
existed in the brain and nerves sufficiently active to produce insanity 
without the intervention of exciting causes, then insanity would be 
constantly present and perpetually active. This state of the brain 
probably produces congenital idiocy. The difference between an idiot 
and a maniac may, in some cases, be only that one has no ideas, no 
knowledge of external things, having never had the exercise of the 
senses which the confirmed maniac had, before the brain became 
affected by organic disease. So also partial idiocy may bear the same 
relation to monomania. If we suppose a case of chaotic mania, in 
which all knowledge was at once obliterated from the mind, I cannot 
conceive of any other condition to which such a mind would be re- 
duced, but one quite similar to the most deplorable congenital idiocy. 
10 



74 STATE LUNATIC HOSriTAL. [Jan. 

This is not the fact respecting insanity ; remedies remove insanity 
in such cases as well as in others, though perhaps not with equal cer- 
tainty. 

I think it perfectly safe to say that insanity never occurs in any case 
without a cause exciting to a diseased state, the brain and its appen- 
dages. There is safety in all cases of predisposition, if the causes 
which bring the parts of the system affected by disease into action are 
avoided. Those who are predisposed to insanity must avoid the 
causes, and those who have no peculiarity of constitution indicating a 
tendency to the disease if exposed to exciting causes, may become 
affected by it themselves and establish a hereditary taint which shall 
be transmitted to their posterity. There is certainly satisfaction to be 
derived from this view of the subject. Those who have ancestors who 
have been affected by insanity have little consolation in the dread 
which must always exist, that a principle is in operation within them 
which, at any time, may spontaneously break forth in this most appal- 
ling of all human maladies. But if it indeed be true that such a case 
is safe from insanity till causes produce an impression upon the brain 
and nervous system, exciting into action the latent principle of disease^ 
such an individual can feel security while anxiously avoiding causes 
which, to a greater or less extent, influence all. 

In a document like the present, it cannot be expected that principles 
can be fully discussed, but I cannot avoid the occasion to express my 
dissent from the very general impression that at present prevails, un- 
favorable to marriage with those who have hereditary predisposition to 
insanity. While there may be instances in which insanity may in this 
way be transmitted, an equal number of cases must exist in which 
intermarriage of one so contaminated with another of different consti- 
tution, shall render the offspring safe from its influence. The good 
which thus results in the community must be quite equal to the evil ; 
and, though benefit would doubtless result if inquiry was made more 
frequently than it is, of the constitutional tendencies to disease in 
cases of marriage, yet in avoiding one difficulty we might fall into 
another hardly less to be dreaded. If, in our anxiety to avoid insanity, 
we should overlook other predispositions hardly less fearful, as scrofula, 
consumption, epilepsy, &c., we might find equal danger. The fastidi- 
ous, in this dilemma, would conclude that it was safest to let all his 
original sins die with his actual transgressions in his own person. If 
we would avoid the causes of disease, such causes as it is in our power 
to avoid, it is my settled conviction that little danger would arise from 
hereditary taint. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 75 

I would by no means overlook predisposition, in examining the 
causes of insanity, but believe that temperament, misdirected education, 
active passions, and propensities not subject to the control of the mind, 
the neglect of intellectual culture, and more especially, the neglect of 
establishing the control of the high moral sentiments, results in insanity 
far more frequently than a hereditary taint ; these may also increase a 
predisposition which before had little tendency to become active. 

A defective and faulty education, through the period of infancy and 
childhood, may, perhaps, be found to be the most prolific cause of in- 
sanity ; by this, in many, a predisposition is produced, in others it is 
excited, and renders incontrollable the animal propensities of our na- 
ture. Appetites indulged and perverted, passion unrestrained, and 
propensities rendered vigorous by indulgence, and subjected to no salu- 
tary restraint, bring us into a condition in which both moral and phy- 
sical causes easily operate to produce insanity, if they do not produce it 
themselves. 

We must look to a well directed system of education, having for its 
object physical improvement, no less than mental and moral culture, to 
relieve us from many of the evils which " flesh is heir to," and nothing 
can so effectually secure us from this most formidable disease, as well 
as others not less appalling, as that system of instruction which teaches 
us how to preserve the body and the mind ; to fortify the one from 
the catalogue of physical causes which every where assail us, and which 
elevates the other above the influence of the trials and disappointments 
of life, so that the hosts of moral causes which affect the brain, through 
the medium of the mind, shall be inoperative and harmless. 

We bring most of the evils of life upon ourselves. We cannot al- 
ways escape the causes of disease, nor avoid the disappointments and 
afflictions of life, but imprudence and rashness plunge us into most of 
our calamities, and kv/ of us have been educated to bear them as we 
ought. 

Of the existing causes of insanity, intemperance still stands at the 
head of our list, it having produced 07ie hundred and seventy-one cases, 
the cause of which is known, and probably a large share of those, the 
cause of which is not known, as many such are vagrants, who are ex- 
ceedingly prone to intemperance. 

The form of insanity which, in the Hospital, has been produced by 
intemperance, is not delirium tremens, but a permanent mania, after 
that disease has repeatedly occurred, which is more difficult to cure. 
In the incurable form of insanity from this cause, we have remarked 



76 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

that a larger proportion have aural illusion, or false hearing, than from 
any other cause. 

Notwithstanding that the list of cases arising from intemperance is so 
large as to take precedence of all others in the table, yet the story of 
intemperance as a cause of insanity, is hardly half told ; it is not only 
the cause of disease, but it is emphatically the cause of causes. It is 
quite impossible to enumerate the amount of influence which it has in 
producing ill health, domestic affliction, loss of property, and a large 
number of other causes, which stand so prominent in the table. 

In the last report of the Hospital, may be found the record of a most 
distressing homicide, the effects of a temporary insanity, excited by in- 
toxicating drink, in which the victim of the delusion supposed that he 
was commanded by high authority, to take a deadly weapon and de- 
stroy an innocent neighbor. 

During the past year, we have had another case of homicidal insan- 
ity committed to the institution, in which a mother, driven to despera- 
tion by the cruelty and neglect of an intemperate husband, resolved to 
destroy her children and herself, to escape the wretchedness entailed 
upon them by the conduct of him, who should have been their protec- 
tor. The wounds inflicted upon the children and a friend who inter- 
fered to save them, were most appalling, but fortunately not fatal. 

Of the thirteen homicides which we have to record, it is unquestion- 
ably true that the influence of intoxicating drink impelled to the deed 
in at least half the cases ; three, at least, had tasted the inebriating 
draught immediately preceding the fatal act. 

Next in the table, in the point of numbers, stands ill health. This 
embraces quite a variety of cases, and can hardly he strictly considered 
as a single cause. Physical disease often terminates in insanity, espe- 
cially dyspeptic diseases, amenorrhoea, and repelled eruptions. To be 
particular, it would be desirable to designate each case in connexion 
with its supposed cause, but, in this institution, where so large a pro- 
portion of the cases come in the care of officers of the government, en- 
tire strangers to the patient, we frequently can learn but little of the 
cause of disease, and no one can be found sufficiently interested in 
them to give us information. 

According to the table, there have been four Jmndred and ninety- 
eight cases arising from physical causes, and three hundred and twenty- 
four from moral causes. 

Table 9. In the table it will be seen that farmers are still admitted 
in greater numbers than individuals of any other occupation. It is be- 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 77 

lieved that the proportion to those who pursue other employments is 
not as great as the proportion found to exist in society. 

From examining the table, little information can be obtained which 
will show a preference of one employment over another in this partic- 
ular. 

The proportion of seamen must be considered large, but it embraces 
many foreigners, and cannot be relied upon as giving any satisfactory 
evidence of the liability of this class of the community to insanity. It 
is not uncommon for the friends of seamen to attribute insanity to be- 
ing "sun-struck," but, like " over-doing," and " over-heating," inland 
labor, it is always, as far as our experience can show, attended by in- 
temperance, which, if not the cause of insanity, renders the subject of 
it extremely liable to the evil in question. 

It is proper to remark, that, under the heads of teachers and tailors, 
some females have been classified. 

I have added to the former classification three divisions of females ; 
the idle and inactive, the sedentary and industrious, with those who 
are engaged in factory labor, and those who pursue active employ- 
ments in domestic life. The facts, as would be expected, show the 
advantages of active industry in promoting the health of females, and 
securing against attacks of insanity. 

In the course of the last year, the number of females that have been 
admitted to the Hospital, considerably exceeds the number of the other 
sex ; heretofore it has been the reverse of this. The general impres- 
sion is, that females are most liable to insanity, it is doubtful whether 
this is true ; the records of this institution, previously to this year, 
would not confirm this opinion. 

From ill health more females become insane, but there are causes 
which afflict the other sex much more, particularly intemperance, 
which affects the different sexes, according to the tables here present- 
ed, in the proportion of one hundred and fifty-one males to twenty fe- 
males. 

Table 10. There have been in the Hospital since it was first 
opened, seventy-five deaths. 

The diseases which have proved fatal, as recorded in the table, 
show that chronic diseases and sudden death have been by far most 
common. Acute diseases have not been frequent, and such as have 
appeared have been manageable, and, in most cases, have recovered. 
Fever and inflammation have proved fatal in but six cases. A large 
proportion of the chronic diseases which have terminated in death, 



78 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

commenced before admission to the Hospital, or have been the re- 
sult of causes which had been of long standing. 

The Hospital has been a healthy residence, remarkably exempt from 
the diseases prevalent in the neighborhood. If our household has, in 
any measure, participated in the diseases prevalent in the vicinity, it 
is our attendants and assistants who have suffered, and not the patients. 

To the excellent mode adopted to warm and ventilate the building, 
may be ascribed the general exemption from acute diseases, and the 
little fatality from them. 

Insanity, being a physical . disease, depending upon a morbid state 
of the brain and nerves, must frequently, of itself, be fatal to healthy 
organization. When under the influence of this disease, the brain it- 
self, suffering the principal lesion, a fatal termination comes by apo- 
plexy or epilepsy. If by sympathy, the stomach, lungs, or heart, feel 
the principal weight of disease, then marasmus, consumption, disease 
of the heart, diarrhoea, &lc., are the fatal diseases. In all these cases, 
it would be perfectly proper to say that the insanity was fatal. 

It is no uncommon occurrence to see individuals who have become 
feeble, tottering in their walk, with cold surface, demented in the ex- 
treme, the tongue so much affected, as to fail to give utterance to their 
thoughts or answers to inquiries, brought to the Hospital to terminate 
existence. These cases show most clearly an organic disease of the 
brain which is necessarily fatal. 

Table II. There have been admitted during the present year, 
eighty-four cases of duration less than one year, which is the greatest 
number of this class ever admitted in a single year. The number 
during the first three years, when our accommodations were less, varied 
from forty-one to fifty-six, the last three years from seventy-three to 
eighty-four. 

At the close of the year, there remained thirty-four cases of less 
duration than one year, in former years from ticenty-one to twenty-nine 
have remained, except in 1836, when eleven only remained. 

The number of single persons, never married, that have been in the 
Hospital, has been five hundred and fifty -eight, i\ie number of married 
persons, three hundred and seventy-four ; widows, sixty-three ; and 
widowers thirty-nine. 

The records of some institutions in this country and in Europe, 
show a different result, the majority being married persons; general 
experience, however, corresponds with ours. 

Table 12. From this table it will be perceived that four hundred 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 79 

and eighteen cases are recorded as having been admitted before insani- 
ty had continued one year, of this number three hundred and seventy 
have recovered, forty-eight have failed to recover, thirty-four now re- 
main in the Hospital and seventeen have died. Seventeen out of forty- 
eight would leave thirty-one only, that have failed to recover, or are 
supposed irremediable. 

There have been in the Hospital, one hundred and sixty-one cases of 
duration from one to two years, of these ninety-six have recovered or 
are curable, and sixty-four have failed to recover or have died. 

There have been four hundred and eleven cases of insanity in the 
Hospital, in which the disease has existed more than fjro years, of which 
only seventy-two have recovered. Of these, tico hundred and forty- 
seven, had been insane over five years, only nineteen of whom recovered. 

Table 13. Relates wholly to employment. There have been in 
the Hospital in the course of the last year, one hundred and seventy- 
nine persons who have done more or less labor in the different depart- 
ments of industry. Of this number forty have labored on the land, 
and in the garden, eight have worked in the shoe-shop, five have la- 
bored in the kitchen, principally in procuring and preparing vegetables, 
roasting and grinding coffee, sweeping and scrubbing floors, bringing 
wood, &c., one has worked steadily in the wash-house, sixteen have 
worked well at wood-sawing, three have tended masons in the works of 
improvement which have been going on upon the premises, and one 
has worked from seventy-five to one hundred days abroad with the dif- 
ferent masons who have employed him. 

This list of male laborers, seventy-three in number, includes only 
those who could be generally relied upon to labor more or less every 
day, when their services were needed. That class of individuals, who 
could only occasionally be induced to go out for an hour or two, and 
that not always when their services were called for, are not included 
in this table. 

The farmers and gardeners are principally chronic cases, that have 
been in the Hospital for some time; many of them do the work for 
which they are employed as well as other men of the same experience. 
Much of the horticultural labor is applied to the raising of roots and 
minor vegetables, which require care and close attention. In this 
department it is quite astonishing to see how faithfully they apply them- 
selves, and how carefully discriminate between the tender plants which 
they rear and the weed which they destroy. The farmers and gardeners 
who do not assist in taking care of stock in winter, work upon wood, 
and do other labor about the establishment. 



80 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

The wood-sawyers are men who do not understand farming and 
gardening, or convalescents who labor for a time after disease begins 
to subside. The amount and value of labor will be considered in an- 
other place. 

It is difficult to employ female labor as advantageously in the insti- 
tution, though more women than men engage in some kind of employ- 
ment. 

Many of the knitters labor for the Hospital ; others purchase yarn 
of the steward aud knit for themselves till they can earn enough to 
purchase a dress for themselves or children, or carry home a full supply 
of socks and stockings for their families. 

The semstresses spend much time in making garments for them- 
selves, and considerable in preparing clothes for other patients. They 
also do much of the mending, make the bedding, and some do nice 
needle-work, and dispose of the avails of their labor with profit to 
themselves. 

Three women who are strong and healthy — all of them state pau- 
pers — wash half of each day of the week. They are very usefully 
employed, do much good in this department, and save considerable 
expense to the establishment. 

In the course of the year, there have been ninety-three persons in 
the Hospital who have been indulged to a greater or less extent in 
walking abroad without an attendant. Some have gone only upon 
the grounds ; some about the village, and some ramble over the town 
every day alone, returning to the Hospital at the time stipulated in 
their pledge. One man regularly visits the post office twice or three 
times a day to carry and bring letters, papers, &,c. This duty is often 
divided between two men. One individual only has escaped who has 
had this indulgence, and he was soon recovered. 

In the course of the year, three hundred and eighteen patients have 
attended the religious exercises of the chapel, for a longer or shorter 
peiiod. 

Table 14. The facts presented in this table are interesting, as they 
are so different from what would be expected, and what is generally 
said to be the result in many foreign institutions. 

There have been admitted to the Hospital six hundred and eighty- 
seven patients who were unA&r forty years of age, of whom three hun- 
dred and forty-eight were considered curable, which \s forty-seven and 
three fourths per cent. 

There have been admitted two hunared and ninety-three cases, from 
forty to seventy five years of age, of whom tioo hundred and twelve 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 81 

were considered curable, which is seventy-two per cent. Thus show- 
ing that cases over foi'ti/ years of age have, in this institution, recov- 
ered in greater proportion than those ander fo7-ti/ years. 

In the list of cases considered curable, many have failed to recover, 
and many remain in the institution who may yet recover. The pro- 
portion, however, it is conceived, will hold good. 

Table 15. The records of the table show about the usual success 
in treating insanity, arising from the different causes. The cases aris- 
ing from ill-health, especially in females, seem to be treated with the 
best success, one hundred and two out of one hundred and sixty-three 
having recovered, or are supposed curable. 

The per cent, of cases from masturbation is rather improving. In 
all cases in which the moral sense can be reached and the practice is 
abandoned, the cases, if recent, recover ; if not, remedial means are 
of little avail. The health is destroyed. The mind is broken down 
and becomes imbecile and idiotic. 

It is difficult to distinguish between those cases of which this base 
practice was the origin, and those which it renders hopeless and incur- 
able, and which have arisen from other causes. 

The cases recovered being affected with epilepsy, can hardly be 
supposed to have arisen from the state of the brain producing that 
formidable disease. It rarely happens that insanity complicated with 
epilepsy recovers. In one at least and perhaps two, of the cases 
recorded in the table as cured, the disease arose from intemperance, 
but was complicated v/ith epilepsy. The others were young persons 
in whom the epilepsy and insanity subsided together. 

Table 16. From this table it will be seen, that the number of cases 
arising from intemperance, admitted during the last year, has been less 
than formerly, amounting only to seven and one fourth per cent. 

The number of cases from ill-health has been large the last two 
years, and the past year has furnished an unusual number of cases 
from domestic afflictions and other moral causes. 

The number supposed to arise from religious causes has been less 
than formerly, amounting to oxiXy four and a half per cent. 

Table 17. From the earliest history of insanity to the present 
time, the impression has been general, that the moon has an influence 
upon the maniac. In many old cases that have been brought to the 
Hospital, the friends have informed us that the patient was worse at 
particular times of the moon, and that this periodicity has been obvi- 
ous for a long time. 
11 



82 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

Our own experience, in a great number of such cases, has not con- 
firmed the impression of friends. The periodicity of insanity is one 
of the inexplicable phenomena of disease, and, like epilepsy, the law 
in each case seems to be applicable to itself and no other. One case 
has paroxysms every other day, another every other week ; one has one 
insane week in a month ; another has a paroxysm of excitement one 
month, and a period of gloom and depression on the alternate month; 
another case will have semi-annual occurrences, and many have an 
attack of excitement every year, every two years, and sometimes regu- 
lar attacks at longer intervals. In such instances, it is often the case 
that some exciting cause has a manifest agency in producing the dis- 
ease. It is far from being the fact that such cases have any thing like 
regular intervals, especially those in whom the lucid interval is pro- 
longed to months and years. Some exciting cause, as a family afflic- 
tion, reverse of fortune, the loss of a friend, the anxiety and care ex- 
cited by sickness or trouble, and perplexity of any sort renews the 
insanity. 

It is true of insanity, as of many other diseases, that one attack in- 
creases the susceptibility to another, and a slighter cause will induce the 
disease at each successive attack, till it is scarcely possible to ascertain 
the agency of any cause in producing the paroxysm. 

The number of periodical cases now in the Hospital, in which the 
paroxysms occur at short intervals, is very large. One man has^wc or 
six periods of excitement every year, and this has been the case with 
him for ten or more years. The most efficient remedies have been 
faithfully tried with him, with very little effect, and no essential benefit. 
After the paroxysm is over he is happy, active, pleasant and rational, 
for some weeks, then he becomes depressed and spiritless, says noth- 
ing, has no ambition to move, nor interest in any thing that can be 
presented to his mind. This is his state of horror ; he will, when ex- 
cited, recount with stirring eloquence his sufferings during this short 
period of depression, for his excitements are to him a paradise, in the 
comparison. From this gloom he suddenly breaks forth into the most 
outrageous mania, breaking every thing about him, tearing his clothes, 
destroying his bedding and disturbing every one within the reach of his 
voice, for days and weeks together. The transition from depression 
to excitement is sometimes so sudden, that he goes to his bed calm and 
wakes before midnight a perfect madman ; generally, however, there 
are indications of an approaching paroxysm a day or two previous to 
its occurrence. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 83 

A case similar to the above died last summer, after having been in 
the Hospital about six years. He had had annually from Jive to seven 
paroxysms of insanity, of the greatest violence imaginable, for a period 
o^ sixteen years. An examination of his head was made after death. 
The longitudinal sinus was diseased, presenting two tumors upon the 
top of the brain ; these tumors had made such an impression upon the 
skull as to reduce it at this spot to great thinness, compared to the sur- 
rounding bone, and was quite translucent. 

By the table it will be discovered that in sixty cases of periodical in- 
sanity, in which there are from ttvo to twelve paroxysms annually, 
amounting in the whole to four hundred and eighty-jive paroxysms, the 
greatest number occurred on the eighth day of the moon, being the 
first day of the second quarter, viz. twenty-eight. 

The next greatest number that occurred on any one day, was on the 
second day of the moon, and the second day of the first quarter, viz. 
twenty-seven. 

On the seventh day of the moon, which is the last day of the first 
quarter, and on the twenty-fourth day of the moon, which is the third 
day of the last quarter, ticenty-three paroxysms occurred on each day, 
which make the third and fourth in point of numbers. 

On the fourth day of the moon, which is the fourth day of the ^rs^ 
quarter, and on the seventeenth day of the moon, twenty-two paroxysms 
occurred, which are the fifth and sixth greatest numbers. 

It is a fact worth noting, that the same days, to the number of six, 
which had the precedence of numbers last year, have it also this year 
though the greatest number this year occurred on the eighth day of the 
moon, and the greatest number last year on the second. 

Last year the second, the eighth, the tiocnty-fourth, the seventh and 
the seventeenth, had the greatest number of paroxysms, in the order 
named, except that the last two had an equal number. This year the 
eighth, the second, the seventh and twenty-fourth, the seventeenth and 
tkie fourth have the greatest numbers, except that the seventh and twen- 
ty-fourth had equal numbers and the seventeenth and fourth had also 
equal numbers. 

In the present table it will be seen, that on the twenty-seventh day of 
the moon, which is the sixth day of the last quarter, only seven parox- 
ysms occurred, which is the least number that occurred on any day. 

On the twenty-eighth day of the moon, which is the last day of the 
last quarter, nine paroxysms occurred, and on the^?'s/ day of the moon, 
ten paroxysms occurred, which were the three least numbers that oc- 
curred on any three days. 



84 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

Last year also, these three days had the least number of paroxysms, 
except that on the tenth day of the moon, an equal number of parox- 
ysms occurred as on the first. 

With respect to the seventy five deaths that have occurred in the 
Hospital, the greatest numbers took place on the second day of the 
moon, on the thirteenth day, which was the /ixth day of the second quar- 
ter, on the twentieth and twenty first days, which were the last two 
days of the third quarter, and on the ticenty fifth day, which was the 
fourth day of the last quarter, viz. six. On the third day of the moon, 
there have occurred five deaths. 

Three of the days which had the greatest number last year, corres- 
pond to three of the days which had the greatest number of deaths this 
year, these are the second day of the moon, the thirteenth and the 
twenty first. 

The six days which had the greatest number of deaths last year, had 
also the greatest number this year. 

On the eighteenth day of the moon, on the twenty-third and on the 
twenty-seventh days of the moon, no death has occurred. The same 
was true last year, the eleventh day had, last year, no death, this year it 
had one. 

These coincidences, though somewhat striking and remarkable, lead 
to no satisfactory results ; they are far from establishing the common 
opinion, that excitements come at the " full moon." 

In i\\e first quarter, or what is called the " new moon," a total of 
one hundred and thirty-six paroxysms occurred. In the second quarter 
one hundred and twenty-nine paroxysms occurred. In the /A/rc? quarter, 
or what is called " full moon," one hundred and nine paroxysms oc- 
curred In the last quarter, one hundred and eleven paroxysms occurred. 

\n x\\e. new moon, twenty -three AediXhs occurred; in the full moon, 
twenty-one; in the second quarter on\y fifteen, and on the third quarter 
sixteen. 

These are the facts and coincidences that have been obtained from 
the table. They will accumulate in the event of long continued pros- 
perity to the Hospital, so as to help to settle the question, which for a 
long time was considered one of sound philosophy, and which at pres- 
ent is tradition handed down from one generation to another, whether 
the moon influences the insane more than the rational man. 

Table 18. From the table we learn that, in recent cases of dura- 
tion less than one year, the per cent, of recoveries this year is greater 
than any former year, being ninety and one seventh, and that the gen- 
eral average has increased to eighty-four and five sixths per cent. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 85 

In consequence of the large number of discharges for want of room, 
as harmless and by order of the court, the whole amounting to thirty- 
seven, the per cent, of all the discharged is somewhat less the present 
than the average of former years, being forty-seven per cent., and 
reducing the average on the six years \.o fifty -one and three fourths 
per cent. 

The discharges for want of room, above enumerated, has the same 
effect to reduce the per cent, of old cases discharged, which this year 
is sixteen and a half per cent., reducing the average for the six years 
to eighteen and two thirds per cent. 

The extremes of recent cases discharged recovered, for the six 
years, noticed in the table, are eighty-two per cent, and ninety-one and 
one seventh per cent. 

The extremes of the whole number discharged, have been forty-six 
and a half, and fifty-seven per cent. The extremes of the old cases 
are fifteen and three fourths and twenty-five and a half per cent. 

The above estimates are made upon the discharged; the follov/ing 
are made upon the admitted : 

There have been admitted into the Hospital /bwr hundred and eigh- 
teen cases of duration less than one year. Of these there have been 
discharged recovered three hundred and forty cases, which is eighty- 
one and one third per cent. The deaths of recent cases being de- 
ducted, the per cent, will be eighty-four and three fourths. If the 
recent cases now in the Hospital, which are convalescing or have been 
recently admitted, all of which have had insufficient trial, are deducted 
the per cent, will be ninety-two and two thirds. 

Of all the patients that have been in the Hospital, the recoveries 
have been for! y-one per cent. 

The deaths the present year amount to five and one half iper cent, of 
the patients in the Hospital during the year, and the aggregate of 
deaths in the establishment since it was occupied, amounts to seven 
and one fourth per cent, on the whole number of admissions. The 
proportion of old and recent cases in the Hospital at the present time, 
is one hundred and ninety-five of the former to thirty-four of the lat- 
ter, which is about the usual proportion. 

It will be seen, that the proportion of cases denominated hereditary, 
in the table, is very large, being three hundred and eleven, which is 
thirty per cent, of all that have been in the Hospital. 

It has been elsewhere remarked, that those are recorded as heredi- 
tary whose families seem to be peculiarly liable to insanity, whether 



86 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

their ancestors were insane or not. If two or more members of a 
family are liable to attacks of insanity, and collateral branches of the 
family are affected in the same way, it is right to suppose that there is 
a predisposition to insanity in the family, and this predisposition may 
be inherited though the parents and ancestors have never been insane. 

It is often remarked by friends of whom the inquiry is made, that 
the parents were not strictly insane, but were very nervous people, or 
the whole family are nervous. 

There is one patient now in the Hospital whose grandfather, father, 
one uncle, one aunt and two sisters, were insane. He is now an aged 
man, has a large family, none of whom have yet been insane. Another 
patient is now under our care, who has a father and two uncles, all 
aged men, now insane. 

A man recently came to the Hospital quite insane, whose grandfather, 
father, mother and one sister, have been insane, likewise many uncles 
and aunts. 

A patient was brought to the Hospital in the course of the year 
affected by melancholy ; a respectable physician attended him, who 
informed me that his relations for many generations, on both his 
father's and mother's side, had been insane. He stated the fact, that 
tlioutTh the patient did not appear to be particularly suicidal, he had 
been able to trace ticenty suicides in direct connexion among the an- 
cestors of his father, and that one maternal uncle committed suicide. 

It will be seen by the table, that the cases unmarried, including 
widows and widowers, bear a large proportion to the number of cases 
that have been in the Hospital, amounting to sixty-three and four fifths 
per cent., and the married to thirti/sixth and one fifth per cent. 

/ 

The daily routine of business at the Hospital, occupying the atten- 
tion of a number of individuals in the various departments of industry 
and supervision, commences in summer at half past four o'clock in 
the morning, in winter at a quarter before six, and in the intervening 
seasons of spring and autumn, at a time duly proportionate, so that 
during at least one half o^ the year, the breakfast is prepared by candle 
light, and the family and a majority of the inmates take this meal be- 
fore it is fully light. 

The watchman rings the chapel bell to notify all that the hour of 
rising has arrived, and in a few minutes all the attendants and assist- 
ants are at their appropriate places preparing for the business of the 
day. Before breakfast, every patient that is well enough is up and 
dressed, ready for the meal and for the call for labor which soon fol- 



1S40.] SENATE— No. 9. 87 

lows. The first duty of the attendants is to unlock the door of each 
room in the galleries under their charge ; every patient is kindly spoken 
to and bid good morning. Many are found up and dressed ; those 
that are not soon rise and adjust their bed and prepare for breakfast. 
As far as practicable, all the patients attend to their rooms, make their 
own beds, sweep and not unfrequently assist in washing them when 
necessary. After meals, a suitable number of trusty patients unite 
with their attendants in clearing off the table, washing the dishes, and 
putting in good order the dining-room and its appendages. 

The inmates of the Hospital take their meals in ttvclve dining-rooms, 
each sufficiently large to accommodate all the inmates that occupy 
one gallery, these dining-rooms are contiguous to the halls, and easy of 
access by every individual in the Hospital, 

After the morning meal is over, the attendants, with such patients as 
volunteer their assistance, commence cleaning the galleries; the floors 
of the halls and rooms are swept or washed, the rooms are cleaned, the 
beds made, and every thing is put in readiness for the visit of the su- 
perintendent and assistant physician, which commences at precisely 
eight o'clock at all seasons. 

In the mean time, the regular laborers are called for, the farmer 
knows who to call to his assistance ; the overseer of the shoe-shop 
comes for his workman ; the washers are conducted to the wash-room 
by their attendant ; the laundress goes for those who labor in her de- 
partment ; the semstresses assemble in the sewing room, and the 
woodman, with saws and axes ready, summons as many patients as he 
has tools provided for, to saw and split the wood. 

In each department, before the laborers are called for, the overseer 
has every thing in readiness to commence immediate operations. Be- 
fore this time, the cows are milked and fed, the piggery is well pro- 
vided, the horses are fed and harnessed by the fiirmer and those indi- 
viduals who aie designated for this duty. A number of male patients 
are engaged in out-door duties before breakfast. The washer-man 
assists in making preparations for the labor of the day, one man col- 
lects the clothes for the laundress, another feeds the poultry, a third 
roasts and grinds the coffee ; in summer one man drives the cows to 
and from the pasture, another goes to the post office, and another 
cleans and harnesses the horses, &c. 

Those patients who remain in the halls, are scarcely less busy, In 
the female department, sweeping, knitting, sewing, reading, writing, 
swinging, walking, and games, occupy the attention of nearly all the 
patients. 



88 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

In the male depfirtment, those who do not labor abroad, engage in 
walking, games of various sorts, such as draughts or chequers, chess, 
back-gammon, the different games with cards, reading, writing, con- 
versation, political and theological controversy, music, &c. 

When the weather is pleasant and the labor of the gallery is com- 
pleted, the physicians having passed through the male wing, large par- 
ties go abroad to walk, accompanied by one or more attendants, and 
such patients as are considered trust-worthy, are suffered to go abroad 
unattended, on their pledge to return at a given time. 

The medical visit commences at eight o'clock, and occupies three 
or four hours. In this visit, every patient is seen, and all are con- 
versed with more or less if in a condition to be interested. Every 
apartment is looked into, and every request or complaint is heard. 
With the curable cases and the intelligent residents, it is the practice 
of the physicians to spend more or less time in conversation, to join 
them in games, inspect their letters, and enter into such amusements 
with them as will interest them and remove all undesirable restraint 
that they may communicate freely upon the subject of their infirmities- 
or any other subject as they choose. 

At twelve o'clock, the prescriptions are in readiness, and the atten- 
dants call at the medicine room for the doses prescribed. These calls 
are made before each meal, morning, noon, and evening. 

After the medical visit to the female galleries, occupied by the bet- 
ter classes of patients, which is between ten and eleven o'clock, the fe- 
males commence riding; when the weather will permit from twenty- 
Jive to thirty females ride daily. This exercise is given principally to 
convalescent patients, and those whose health requires this kind of ex- 
ercise. Many females take walks about the premises and into the vil- 
lage, unattended, sometimes in companies, and sometimes alone on 
pledge of safe and punctual return. 

At twelve o'clock, the chapel bell rings, which is the signal that all 
must quit labor. The male patients present themselves in the yard in 
the rear of the Hospital to which they are attended by their respective 
overseers, and from which they are conducted to their several galleries, 
by their attendants. The overseers remain till they are all safe within 
the building. Wlien at labor, every patient is in the care of some 
overseer or attendant who is held responsible for his or her safety, till 
delivered to the care of the regular attendant of the gallery. 

The patients take their dinner in the same manner in which they 
took their breakfast, and when called for are again ready for labor. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 89 

There is an officer in ihe establishment, called the " flying attend- 
ant," whose duty it is to be where he is most needed. When not 
otherwise engaged, he takes out convalescent patients, also the weak 
and imbecile, to work an hour or two each day, as directed by the su- 
perintendent, in the garden or wood yard, changing them frequently, 
that they may not get too much fatigued. In this way he gives exer- 
cise to a considerable number who are not classed as regular laborers. 

At a suitable hour for supper, the chape' bell again rings, and all 
laborers assemble as before in the yard, and go with their attendants 
to their respective apartments. After supper none go abroad except 
those who are permitted to go about the premises unattended. 

In the evening all the halls are lighted by lanterns suspended from 
the ceiling, and in those occupied by the better classes of patients a 
large table is placed in the centre of the hall, with lights upon it, that 
they may assemble around it and pursue their employments, read, write, 
engage in amusements or conversation, as they choose. 

The physicians, the steward and matron, spend much time with the 
patients in the evening, uniting in such conversation and amusements 
as will int( rest and gratify them. 

Many of the feeble and imbecile retire early to rest, and all go to 
their rooms by nine o'clock. The attendant bids them good night, the 
doors are locked, and the lights extinguished, except one, which is 
kept burning in a lantern, for the accommodation of the attendants, if 
it should be necessary to get up to look to any patient in the night. 

The clothing of the more excited patients is removed from the room 
when they retire, and is handed to them in the morning when the doors 
are unlocked. 

The better classes have their trunks in their own rooms, and take 
charge of their own clothing, books, and work. 

There is at present an excellent library of modern works in the Hos- 
pital, which is constantly visited by the patients ; many read the Bible, 
with which all who desire it are provided, and the newspapers and pe- 
riodicals of the day. 

At half-past nine in the evening, when the family generally retire 
to rest, the watchman commences his duty. He spends his time in 
walking about the building, looking to the fires which he keeps burn- 
ing in very cold weather, and kindles early when he does not, so that 
at the hour of rising the halls are all comfortable, and in the kitchen, 
wash-room, and laundry, fires are in readiness for commencing the 
labors of the day. If there are sick in the male department he visits 
12 



90 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

them as often as necessary, and if noise or cry of distress is heard in 
any part of the establishment he informs the person whose business it 
is to see to the cause of it. His vigilance is also a great security from 
escapes, and from intrusions, and trespasses upon the Hospital proper- 
ty. At a suitable hour in the morning he rings the chapel bell, and 
then his duty as watchman ceases for the day. 

No persons are employed about the Hospital, but such as bring tes- 
timonials of good moral character, of strict temperance, of faithfulness, 
and who are experienced in business. 

There are no servants or domestics in the establishment, we are one 
family ; all are responsible in a particular department, and feel an in- 
terest in performing their duty to their own satisfaction and to the ac- 
ceptance of those who are ultimately responsible. The business of the 
Hospital is conducted quietly and easily ; every individual knows what 
to do, and how to do all that is required. They make a community of 
intelligent and agreeable associates, and feel little inclination to go 
abroad for society. No boisterous, unbecoming language is ever 
heard from them, no loud calling, laughter, or unsocial treatment ever 
disturbs the quiet of our family. 

In thus bearing testimony to the capacity and intelligence of all who 
have a duty to perform in the Hospital, I feel that I am not overstep- 
ping the boundaries of propriety, and I am sure I am saying nothing 
that is not right and just. 

In addition to the common amusements which are daily met with in 
the Hospital, are the matron's parties, which assemble every week or 
every other week in her apartments, and the dancing parties which are 
occasionally held in winter in the best female galleries. 

The matron's parties have now been regularly kept up for three 
successive years, with scarcely an interruption. At these parties, from 
thirty io forty female patients assemble to spend the afternoon socially, 
and to do the work for the benefit of the Hospital, which the matron 
provides. They are generally conducted with great decorum ; every 
patient is dressed in their best attire, and feels happy at being allowed 
to join the party ; conversation becomes general and pleasant, every 
one feels disposed to appear to the best advantage, and make all 
around them happy. Some of the attendants are present to assist the 
matron about the labor ; the family of the Superintendent, and stran- 
gers, if any are present or come in the course of the afternoon, are re- 
quested to tarry and join in the pleasure of the visit. Before they 
separate, some fruits or refreshments are served around, of which a 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. ^ 91 

parcel is bespoken by almost every one, for some friend who has not 
left the gallery. 

These parties have been of unquestionable benefit ; they inspire 
confidence in the timid, and self-respect in the boisterous and negli- 
gent. An effort is often made beforehand to be quiet and civil, that 
they may not fail of an invitation which is always gratifying and secures 
the friendship of the patient for the matron, and good will to the In- 
stitution. 

The dancing parties are not frequent, sometimes three or four in a 
year. Some of the patients take great interest in them, and they are a 
subject of conversation sometime before and after. When the contem- 
plated evening arrives, and nothing occurs to render the amusement 
improper, one of the long halls is put in order, and lighted for the oc- 
casion. Musicians are always at hand, and everything is made ready. 
The patients assemble from the different galleries, dressed in their 
best attire, some to join in the dance, and some to witness it. Every 
thing is conducted with the greatest propriety, and every one present 
seems happy. At these parties, from sixty to one hundred often assem- 
ble. On some occasions the halls have been dressed with evergreens, 
and have made a very beautiful appearance. At or before nine o'clock, 
the assembly disperses, and the patients retire to their apartments, 
pleased with their amusement, and grateful that they have been permit- 
ted to partake of it. _^ 

It is certainly a most interesting fact, that the insane, with all the 
delusions and excitement which characterize their disease, will go into 
the field, the garden, the workshop, or the places of domestic labor, 
will attend parties, and go to the chapel, and appear composed, atten- 
tive, and in all respects, rational. 

It would be difficult for a stranger to discover any thing peculiar in 
the appearance or conduct of a dozen men at labor in the garden, ev- 
ery one attends to his own business, is silent if undisturbed, and per- 
forms his work like other men ; yet, perhaps, in this group, may be 
found the prophet who received a direct commission from Heaven to 
destroy his friend and neighbor which he dared not resist, and who ex- 
pects to be conveyed away from his present bondage to freedom and 
liberty, by the direction of the apostles. Here may be found the dili- 
gent and quiet laborer, who has thousands of people upon his head, 
reaching into the air and over the country to the distance oi forty 
miles or more, all pressing him so that he can scarcely sustain the load, 
and when his work is done, must go quite around the Hospital building, 



92 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

to untwist his head and disengage himself from the cumbrous load. 
Here may be the high sheriff of the county, who keeps every 
thing quiet in his precincts, giving directions to himself in an under 
tone, and then pursuing them. The rich and great man may be by his 
side, who owns houses,*lands, horses, and a jail besides, who once 
weighed " thirteen liundred pounds, and is now able to live without 
work." The man of heavenly visions may be there, calm, industrious 
and rational in all he does, but who, at night, often sees golden visions 
upon the surrounding hills, brilliant spectres in the heavens, and splen- 
did balls of fire rolling upon the earth, who holds continual intercourse 
with Heaven, and studies into the mysteries of the Almighty mind. 

Amid the group, is perhaps the man of snakes, who, when he is qui- 
etly and peaceably at work, suddenly commences to stamp with vio- 
lence and great rapidity, to destroy the serpents which rise up, hydra- 
like, and would instantly overwhelm him and all his associates, filling 
the Hospital and the adjacent fields, if they were not instantly destroy- 
ed. He is the grand-son of the Almighty, and has power to create and 
to destroy at pleasure. 

In the female wards, the variety of hallucinations is not less. Here 
may be found the mother of Christ, the wife of Napoleon, the Empress 
of Russia, the Queen of England, the woman with her hundred thous- 
and hogsheads of bank bills, the military heroine, the turtle who makes 
her best effort to draw her head into the shell, the wicked woman 
whose touch is pollution, the woman of Babylon, and others equally 
absurd and surprising. 

These are only specimens of the innumerable variety of illusions 
which actuate men and women who are able to labor, to do their work 
in the best manner, to attend parties, balls, and especially the religious 
"<^orship of the chapel on the Sabbath. 

It is from these individuals, and others with similar impressions, that 
we derive the labor which is done in and around the Hospital. No 
individual remains in the institution who is not insane, all have their 
peculiarities, their delusions or excitements. 

Of the benefit of labor, both for the curable and incurable insane, we 
have been long impressed ; it promotes health, induces sleep, favors 
self-control, satisfies the individual of the confidence reposed in him by 
the officers of the institution, and produces quiet and contentment. 

As far as practicable, we give employment to all who are able to per- 
form labor. Preferring agricultural and horticultural operations, we 
devote a large share of industry to these departments of labor. The 
pecuniary results, as given by the Steward, are herewith presented. 



1840.] 



SENATE— No. 9. 



93 



The land occupied by the Hospital, independent of what the build- 
ings occupy, and what is thrown out for roads and pleasure grounds, is 
^oxxijifty acres, a small portion of which is covered with wood. 

On this land the following amount of produce was raised and gath- 
ered by our farmer, and the laborers from among the insane. What- 
ever other hired help assisted in the labor, was principally employed in 
taking to the field and garden individuals who labored a short period 
for the benefit of health, and were generally engaged but an hour or 
two each day. Some part of the time, two individuals employed most 
of their time in labor on the land. 



Produce raised on the Hospital land the present year, the amount 
kept by the farmer, and the value estimated by the Steward, in current 
prices : 



Hay, 20 tons at $14, 
50 bushels of Corn 
40 " Oats 

27 loads of Pumpkins 



at $1 00, 

" 50 cents 

at $1 50, 



Winter Squashes 



at 



680 bushels of Potatoes 

Onions " 

Beets 

Carrots " 

Ruta Baga " 

English Turnips, " 

Parsnips " 



25 ce 
75 
40 
40 
25 
25 
50 
5 



its 



150 '' 
300 " 
400 " 
200 " 
125 " 
110 " 
800 Cabbages 

Corn fodder and straw estimated at 

5 bushels of Beans at $2 00 

Green Corn, Peas, Beans, Cucumbers, Pickles, Mangoes, 
Summer Squashes, Garden Seeds, &c. estimated at 

Pasturing 9 cows and 2 oxen 26 weeks, at 50 cents. 

Pork fatted and killed, 4,000 lbs. at 8 cents. 

Beef, 680 '' 7 " 

Poultry, 160 "11 ♦' 

Small pigs sold, 



$280 00 


50 


00 


20 


00 


40 


50 


40 


00 


170 


00 


112 


00 


120 


00 


160 


00 


50 


00 


31 


25 


55 


00 


40 


00 


20 


00 


10 


00 


150 


00 


143 


00 


320 


00 


47 


60 


17 


60 


38 


00 


$1914 95 



Besides this amount of labor done on the land, much has been done 
by way of improvements in reclaiming and draining a field of low mea- 



94 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

dow, removing stone from the fields, building stone wall, preparing 
compost, &-C. 

In the course of the season, a large reservoir twenty-Jive feet in diam- 
eter and ten feet in depth, has been sunk in the earth, and an ice-house 
twenty-one feet by sixteen, and ten feet deep, has been built in the side 
of an embankment; a large proportion of the labor of excavation, drawl- 
ing stone, &LC. for this vpork, was performed by the patients. 

In addition to this, the care of the roads and pleasure grounds, trans- 
planting trees, and making various improvements, repairs and opera- 
tions, both in doors and out, sawing, spliting and piling wood, pre- 
paring hair for mattresses, procuring vegetables from the garden and 
preparing them for cooking, and many other operations are daily per- 
formed by the patients. One or two male patients are generally era- 
ployed about the kitchen, laundry and cellars, one always in the wash- 
room, and more or less about the barn, shops, &c. 

In the female department there is no less industry, almost all are pro- 
fitably employed. One tailoress, while under the influence of medical 
treatment, has earned, by her needle, money enough to defray all her 
expenses for six months, and actually pays her own bills! 

"^I'he Hospital is one community. The labor of all goes for the 
general benefit, and so far as the labor thus bestowed saves the employ- 
ment of additional help, it diminishes the charge of support. The 
institution can fairly claim the avails of the labor, for it is by its system 
of discipline that the labor of this class of individuals can be made 
available for any valuable purpose. 

In the winter of 1837, the business of manufacturing shoes was first 
commenced at the Hospital, since which time more or less labor has 
been done by the patients in this department of industry. 

One overseer prepares the work for the patients and labors con- 
stantly himself In all, we estimate that the shop has been in opera- 
tion about eighteen months. The following statement of labor, &lc., 
was prepared by the steward : 

Amount of work done, with the value of 

tools and stock on hand, .... $1922.66 

Expenses for stock and tools. 
Board and wages of overseer, 
Fuel, 

Making a profit of 



$936.49 
569.62 
22.50 1528.61 



$394.05 



In the course of the time that this shop has been in operation, 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 95 

twelve patients that were workmen have been employed in it, who were 
able to do considerable labor, besides cobblers who have gone in for a 
few days to mend. 

The number of workmen is generally from ttoo to four, they are not 
required to do much labor, only to keep steadily and moderately em- 
ployed. Many of the shoes have been made for the family, and the 
bills have been regularly paid. Shoes are charged to the patients at 
the lowest prices, the object being convenience not profit, and to afford 
the benefit of labor to workmen who have been under our care. In 
no department of labor, according to the number of persons employed, 
have we seen more decided benefit in promoting convalescence and 
effecting a complete cure, than in this shop. 

The diet of our patients is simple and substantial ; they all have 
animal food once a day, and many of them at breakfast and dinner if 
they desire it. The bread we use is of the best quality, and when 
eaten is never new, and rarely more than two or three days old. It is 
all made by the cooks in the Hospital. The patients have all the 
varieties of vegetables common to the season, of which we raise an 
abundance. Coffee is given them in the morning and tea at night ; 
they are generally allowed to eat as much as they desire. 

The tables are all set neatly, furnished with knives, forks and crock- 
ery. The conduct of the patients is generally civil and orderly while 
at their meals. We have at no time half a dozen patients who cannot 
go to the table and eat with knives and forks. 

Of the one thousand and thirty-four patients who have been in the 
Hospital since it was first occupied, there have not been twenty who 
have not taken their food at the table with others more or less of the 
time; of these tioenty more than three fourths were so ill and feeble 
when they arrived at the Hospital as to be unable to do so, and died 
without amendment in a few days. While this sheet is being written, we 
have not a solitary individual who has not for a very considerable time 
taken food with others, with knives and forks. No injury has ever been 
done by allowing patients all the means of comfortably taking their 
meals. 

The difference between eating food in solitude from a tin or wooden 
dish with the fingers or a spoon, and going to a neatly furnished table, 
and taking meals from crockery with a knife and fork, is the difference 
between a savage and a civilized man, of a brute and a human being. 

No one thing contributes more to awaken self-respect and restrain 
the furiously insane, than this indulgence at table, and the confidence 



96 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

which he feels is placed in him by those who have him in keeping. 
The same is true in respect to dress and the treatment he receives 
from those whom he looks upon as superiors and whom he feels bound 
to obey. If he is neatly and comfortably clad, like those whom he 
meets, he feels that he is as good as others, respects himself as they 
appear to respect him, and is careful to do nothing by which he shall 
" lose caste." If his garments are tattered or dirty, he will tear thera 
off or soil them more, if neat and tidy, he will preserve them with care 
and even feel proud of them. 

Within a few days, a patient was brought to the Hospital, who had 
been confined three years in a cage ; he had not used knife or fork to 
take his meals during this period, and had not felt the influence of a 
fire for two winters. The gentleman who brought him to our care 
manifested praiseworthy benevolence in his efforts to ameliorate his 
condition and get him into more comfortable winter quarters, and 
hoped that in a few months we should be able to improve his state, and 
that he would observe the decencies of life and take his food in a pro- 
per manner ; while he remained conversing respecting him, the patient 
below was quietly seated at the table taking his supper with knife and 
fork in his hand ! On the second Sabbath from his admission, he 
attended chapel quietly, and gave it as his unqualified opinion that he 
was " loell off." 

Another man came into the Hospital quite recently, furious as a 
wild beast, noisy, violent, and outrageous ; he was placed in a solitary 
room with wristbands upon his arms to save his clothes and keep them 
on. For many days in succession he tore his clothes and stripped him- 
self constantly. A few days ago, I found him in a state of perfect 
nudity. I proposed to him to be dressed and go into the gallery ; he 
promised that he would be quiet and tear no more clothing ; upon his 
pledge he went in — he has been quiet, has kept his clothes upon hira, 
takes his food at the table with others, and is quite civil, indeed in a 
state of entire contrast to what he had been before. 

If, in our daily intercourse with the insane, we should treat them as 
inferiors or pass them by without notice or attention, refuse to hear 
them, and evince towards them a feeling of superiority, we should find 
them in a constant state of irritation and excitement. If we treat 
them kindly and politely, inquire after their welfare, and hear patiently 
their story, we awaken in them a spirit of mildness and affection, we 
can control them without severity, and gain their confidence and 
esteem. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 97 

If there is any secret in the management of the insane, it is this; 
respect them and they will respect themselves ; treat them as reasona- 
ble beings, and they will take every possible pains to show you that 
they are such ; give them your confidence, and they will rightly appre- 
ciate it, and rarely abuse it. 

During the past year, the library of the Hospital has been greatly in- 
creased, and the spirit of reading has been very general throughout the 
Institution. In addition to the respectable collection of books made 
<iuring the last and the previous years, we have purchased many modern 
works which has made a very good library, now consisting of about 
one hundred and fifty volumes. We have received contributions from 
quite a number of individuals, which have constantly afforded us a sum 
for expenditure for such boolis as it might be desirable to purchase. 

From Miss C. M. Sedgwick, we received ten dollars^ from Com- 
mandant Joel Abbott, of the U. S. Navy, we also received ten dollars; 
and from Charles Sedgwick, Esq., five dollars ; which has all been 
expended in the best manner for valuable books. From John Tappan, 
Esq., of Boston, Miss Abigail Whitney, of Stockbridge, and from Dr. 
Chandler Smith, Mr. Clarendon Harris, and Mr. M. D. Phillips, of this 
town, we have received valuable contributions of books, for which our 
thanks are cordially rendered. 

The editor of the Springfield Republican has every week sent us 
his interesting paper, which has been peculiarly gratifying to our pa- 
tients from that vicinity, as it afforded them an opportunity of learning 
the local news of the neighborhood. From the editors of the Keene 
Sentinel, the New Hampshire Patriot, the Haverhill Republican, the 
New Haven Record, the Hartford Cougregationalist, the New York 
Temperance Journal, and from the editor of the Phrenological Journal 
in Philadelphia, -we have received many favors in the same way, which 
we are glad to have an opportunity thus publicly to acknowledge. 

The newspapers are always in great demand ; whenever they arrive 
they are called for by our patients, who reside in the vicinity of their 
publication, and all the papers are read till nearly worn out, passing 
from gallery to gallery about the Institution. 

Next to labor, reading is the most valuable and extensive means of 
improvement adopted in the Hospital. By it, the mind is quieted and 
rendered tranquil, old associations are renewed, matter for rational 
conversation and reflection is obtained ; this influence daily impressed 
is most important for the insane. 

Writing is another amusement and means of improvement which is 
13 



98 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jam 

extensively admitted. There is no better test of the improvement of 
the mind in insanity, than the manner of expressing ideas on paper in 
correspondence with friends. The maniac and the demented cannot 
write. Monomaniacs may express their ideas well, and, on subjects 
disconnected with their hallucinations, acquit themselves well in their 
correspondence. As the mind of the maniac improves, he will, from 
time to time, show the progress he is making by the improvement ob- 
servable in the manner of expressing thoughts on paper. 

It is our desire at all times, to give to the individuals in the Hospital 
every indulgence that is compatible with their situation. 

Confinement is rendered exceedingly irksome if it is not attended 
by the means of diverting the mind, and spending time agreeably. It 
is on this principle that we inculcate reading, walks, games, and spend 
our time with them in conversation and recreations, endeavoring to 
interest and amuse them. We desire our attendants to do the same, 
to be always mild, pleasant, and kind, and to interest the patients in 
every way in their power. In our printed rules for the government 
of their conduct in their intercourse with the patients, we say to them, 
"In all the departments of business and of care, we have much to do 
with the inmates of the Hospital ; some of us devote our whole time to 
this duty. It becomes us all seriously to consider how this duty shall 
be performed ; what discipline of feelings, and what control of temper 
there must be with us, that we may ever administer the law of kind- 
ne.ss to its full extent and in its proper spirit." 

No individual is worthy of a place in such an institution, who labors 
for wages only. Duty, a desire to improve the condition of all within 
the sphere of our influence, to increase happiness and lessen the suf- 
ferings of every patient under our care, should be the governing mo- 
tives of our daily conduct. 

We must never forget that we are dealing with fellow beings who 
are not held responsible for their conduct. The regulating power of 
moral action is withheld from them, hence they are capricious, pas- 
sionate, and often violent, '1 hey also often misjudge, are often led 
astray by delusions and perverted senses. It is because they are not 
able to control themselves, and because they will not easily acquiesce 
in the discretion of their friends, that they are placed under our care. 
From us they are to have every comfort and indulgence which will, 
collectively, promote their best good. They look to us for sympathy 
and counsel, for relief in their various troubles and perplexities. We 
should enter deeply into their feelings, and be willing to spend our 
time and strength to promote their happiness. 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. ^9 

If we withhold what they may reasonably require, if we treat them 
with neglect or with unkind and hasty language, we may do them ir- 
reparable injury. 

Persuasion, with a proper spirit, will generally be followed by quiet 
acquiescence in all reasonable requirements. Much depends upon the 
manner of our intercourse, we should never appear cold and insensi- 
ble, never be hasty, never recriminate, never turn a deaf ear to their 
wants or representations, never treat them as if we felt superior, but 
mingle with them in kindness, address them with respect and affection. 

During the past year, we have never failed to have a regular religious 
service in our chapel on the Sabbath, and a large proportion of our 
patients always attend. 

Since Oct. 1838, we have had a regular chaplain constantly em- 
ployed, and we have found great benefit from this arrangement. At 
the time above mentioned. Rev, Luzerne Ray commenced this duty, 
and continued to preach for us till September of the present year. He 
was a sensible, discreet man, a forcible preacher, and much admired 
and respected by all our household. On all occasions he commanded 
the attention of his audience, and during the period of his services 
the congregation was, without exception, quiet and respectful. He 
left us in September last, and Rev. Julius A. Reed took his place, and 
at present officiates as chaplain. The services of Mr. Reed have not 
been less acceptable than those of his predecessor, and he gives pro- 
mise of being equally well beloved and equally useful. Both have 
usually written their sermons for the occasion, and both have been en- 
tirely judicious in adapting their discourses to the condition and 
wants of our people. Our religious services are most interesting oc- 
casions, they are conducted in all respects after the custom of the 
New England churches, differing only in being more brief They do 
not exceed an hour, and are generally limited to fifty minutes. We 
have never failed to have good singing, in which a greater or less 
number of the patients participate. The decorum in the chapel, the 
regular order and propriety with which the patients take their place, 
leave the house, and return to their several apartments has excited the 
admiration of all visiters and strangers. .^ 

X Four-fifths of the patients who have been in the Hospital during the^ 
last year, have attended the exercises of the chapel on the Sabbath, 
and most of them very regularly. The congregation varies from one 
hundred and seventy five to two hundred and upwards. The experience 



fOO STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

of each day strongly impresses us with the benefit of these religious 
services. They have a direct and constant influence upon the con- 
duct and feelings of many individuals, and perhaps upon nearly all. 

The Author of Christianity, while upon earth, relieved the malady 
of the insane by a miracle ; the religion which he taught has the same 
spirit as its author. It is only where Christianity prevails, that institu- 
tions for the relief of insanity are found. It is the spirit of Christiani- 
ty that founds and fosters them. Unless the same spirit influences 
those who minister in them, they cease to be humane and benevolent 
asylums, and become truly bedlams and mad-houses. 

No class of mankind more truly need the influence of religion than 
the insane. With a sufficiently powerful motive they can, to a great 
extent, govern and control their conduct; they can be made to feel 
responsibility, to know that they should not do wrong, and that they 
are amenable for their bad conduct just so far as they know how, and 
are able to do better. 

Insanity does not make mankind better ; if the rational give way 
to passion and temper and suffer themselves to be influenced by bad 
motives, the maniac does this no less because he is insane. He may 
have been a had man independent of his disease, and he may also have 
been a good man independent of it. As I have elsewhere remarked, 
his whole mind is not always insane; there are chords in his intellect 
and moral feelings which can be made to vibrate by proper touches, 
and the response may change his whole character, and influence his 
whole conduct. His moral feelings may be sound and healthy if his 
intellect is disturbed by illusions, or his understanding may, to a great 
extent, be rational when his feelings are perverted and his whole moral 
nature estranged. It is by appeals to the understanding and the sensi- 
bilities through these healthy avenues that the mind is reached by the 
moral influence which we exert, and this is also the avenue for reli- 
gious influence. 

Regular religious teaching is as necessary and beneficial to the 
insane as to the rational mind ; in a large proportion of the cases it 
will have equal influence. They as well know their imperfections if 
they will not admit their delusions, and they feel the importance of 
good conduct to secure the confidence and esteem of those whose good 
opinion they value. We hardly know the extent and value of religious 
influence upon the general character of the community at large, who 
do not profess to be themselves religious. If they attend to the duties 



1840.] SENATE— No. 9. 101 

of the Sabbath, not forgetting the " assembling themselves together" 
in religious worship, how much better men they are; how much more 
honest, respectable and respected ; how much better informed, and 
how much more intelligent. 

No man can hear, weekly, two well written sermons, without trea- 
suring up a mass of valuable knowledge, and at the same time that he 
does this his moral feelings are touched and enlivened, his conscience 
is made more susceptible and tender, and his whole character is made 
better. 

So is it with the insane ; they have respect for the Sabbath and for 
the institutions of religion ; they feel its holy influence; they avoid 
labor, lay aside amusements, and go cheerfully and joyfully to the 
place of worship. Their minds are rendered solemn by the calm 
atmosphere of the place; the melody of music touches their hearts; 
prayer elevates their feelings, makes them sensible of their imper- 
fections and their wants, and inspires their hopes. The reading of 
the Scriptures, and the instructions and admonitions of the sermon, 
lead to sober reflections and salutary resolutions. In all these exer- 
cises they are rational beings ; their delusions have departed ; their 
reveries are laid aside; their prejudices are forgotten; the mind runs 
into new and healthy channels; the perturbed feelings are soothed 
and put to rest ; the excited are more composed ; the depressed are 
more cheerful; the timid are rendered confident; all are made to 
feel better and happier, and realize that it is good for them to devote 
the day to such pleasant and useful duties. 

We cannot estimate the favorable influence of such a day upon the 
insane. We cannot appreciate the importance of the weekly repeti- 
tions of such seasons of calm repose and solemn devotion, upon the 
character and quiet of our little community, and the happiness of many 
individuals of our family. y^ 

During the period which the Hospital has been in operation, I have 
derived every aid from the Board of Trustees and the officers of the 
household, in the management of its concerns, which it has been in 
their power to render. I should do injustice to my feelings, did I fail 
to attribute a full share of its prosperity to their valuable counsel and 
their prompt and ready action, on every requisite occasion, and espe- 
cially to the ready co-operation of the assistant physician, Dr. Chandler, 
and to Mr.' and Mrs. Ellis, the steward and matron, whose devotion to 
the interests of the institution, and the comfort and happiness of its in- 
mates, is worthy of the highest commendation. 



102 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 1840. 

Commending the Hospital to the scrutiny and guardianship of the 
government, and relying on the continued smiles of a Beneficent Provi- 
dence, we pledge to it, vv'hile we remain in the trust, our best efforts 
for its prosperity and usefulness, 

SAMUEL B. WOODWARD. 

State Lunatic Hospital, Nov. 30<A, 1839. 






;ffi(