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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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REPORT 



RELATING TO 



LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of IVIassachusetts Amherst 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportoftr08stat 



SENATE No. 19. 



TENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



AT WORCESTER. 



DECETMIBER, 1848. 



DUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRIlNTERg 

1843. 



TENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



DECEMBER, 1843, 



To His Excellency John Davis, Governor, and to the Honorable 
Executive Council of the Coimnonwealth of Massachusetts : 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital respectfully present their 
Tenth Annual 

REPORT: 

In the first place, the Trustees return their tribute of gratitude to the 
Supreme Being, under whose care this institution has been established, 
and continued to this moment in prosperous existence. 

It must be a source of pride to every benevolent individual in the 
State, that our own Commonwealth was among the earliest to embark 
in the philanthropic enterprize of transferring the insane from the abodes 
of wretchedness to those of comfort, and of restoring them to reason ; 
and of pleasure, that the spirit of humanity, not limited to Massachu- 
setts, is creating, in rapid succession, similar institutions in other states. 
It is now ten years since this hospital was erected, and it is believed 
that ten years more will not elapse before every state in the Union will 
have established a lunatic asylum for the support of the insane poor. 

During the ten years which have passed since the State Lunatic Hos- 
pital was opened, there have been admitted into it fifteen hundred and 
fifty-seven patients, of whom one thousand one hundred and fifty- 
seven were committed by the courts, and four hundred were private 
boarders, or committed by the overseers of the poor. There have 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan 

been discharged from the hospital, during the same period, thirteen hun- 
dred and nineteen persons. Six hundred and seventy-six of this number 
were restored to reason. In the course of the present year, there have 
been four hundred and twenty-nine different patients in the hospital. At 
the commencement of the year, there were two hundred and thirty-one ; 
there were admitted, in the course of the year, one hundred and ninety- 
eight ; and there are now remaining in the hospital, at the end of the 
year, two hundred and thirty-eight. Of these, forty are cases of a less 
duration than one year, and one hundred and ninety-eight of a longer 
duration than one year. There have been discharged, during the year, 
one hundred and ninety-one : of these, twelve died, eighty-eight recov- 
ered, fifty-two were sent away as incurable and harmless, two were dis- 
charged by the judge of probate of the county of Worcester as incura- 
ble and not harmless, twelve were sent to the jails or houses of correc- 
tion of the counties from which they came, by the Trustees, for want of 
room in the hospital, and twenty-five were discharged as improved. — 
Of the eighty-eight recovered, seventy were recent cases, or cases of 
less duration than one year, and eighteen old cases of a longer duration 
than one year. Twenty-three of the twenty-five cases discharged im- 
proved were old cases and two recent cases. For a more full and de- 
tailed statistical account of the hospital, the Trustees refer to the inte- 
resting report of the superintendent, which is annexed, and made a part 
of this. 

The Trustees have made the monthly visits required by law, during 
the past year, without a single failure ; and the record, which it is their 
duty to make of these visits, bears testimony to the neatness and uni- 
form good order which have prevailed in every part of the institution, 
and to the fidelity and skill with which all the officers and attendants 
of the hospital have discharged their respective duties, and to the com- 
fort and general contentment which the patients have, on all these 
occasions, manifested. 

As the Trustees anticipated, when they made their last Annual Re- 
port, Dr. Chandler, who had been, from the commencement of this 
institution, the faithful and skilful assistant of Dr. Woodward, has been 
called to a higher sphere of duty and usefulness, to take the charge of 
the State Lunatic Hospital lately erected in New Hampshire. To sup- 
ply this vacancy, the Trustees have appointed Dr. John R. Lee, who 
has had much experience in the treatment of insanity ; and it gives 
them pleasure to be able to state, that he has discharged the responsi- 
ble duties of the office, in a manner entirely satisfactory to the superin- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 5 

tendent, and to them. Mr. Ellis has also retired from the post of stew- 
ard ; and the Trustees have been extremely fortunate in being able to 
secure again the services of Mr. Charles P. Hitchcock, who commenced 
the administration of the affairs of the hospital with Dr. Woodward, 
and performed the duties of the office for several years to the entire 
satisfaction of each successive board of Trustees. 

The Trustees have nothing to communicate in this Report, which 
gives them greater satisfaction than that the Commonwealth has escaped 
the misfortune of losing the invaluable services of Dr. Woodward. 
His appointment to take charge of the great institution of the State of 
New York at Utica, occasioned them much anxiety, but it now gives 
them the greatest pleasure to have it in their power to say, that there is 
a prospect that he may serve the State, for many years, in a capacity, 
in which he has, already, acquired an imperishable fame. 

At its session in January last, the Legislature made an appropria- 
tion of two thousand dollars for building a new barn, and changing the 
old one into shops for mechanical purposes. A new barn, sixty feet 
long, and forty feet wide, has been finished in a most substantial man- 
ner, painted, and the roof covered with slate, and is now occupied. The 
old barn has been changed into a building two stories high, with a room 
for an engine, and a shop for carpenter and cabinet work on the lower 
floor, and with a shoemaker's shop, and a shop for the manufacture of 
mattresses on the second floor. 

The appropriation of two thousand dollars has been expended as 
follows : 

For stone in the foundation, 
" building barn above the foundation, . 
" altering old barn into shops, 
" Lightning rods for barn and shops, . 

i2,000 00 

The report of the treasurer contains a detailed account of 
the finances of the Hospital for the past year, from which 
it appears that the amount of cash on hand, December 
1, 1841, and of the receipts from all sources from De- 
cember 1, 1841, to December 1, 1842, is - - $31,320 67 

The amount of expenditure during the same period, is - 27,546 87 



$216 59 


1,525 


00 


230 00 


28 


41 



Leaving a balance in the treasury December 1, 1842, of - 3773 80 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

The revenue of the hospital, for the year, has been derived from 
charges made to patients for board, clothing, &c. The appropriation 
of two thousand dollars made by the Legislature for the support of the 
hospital, has not been used. The price charged for board, has not 
varied from two dollars and fifty cents a week, since the opening of the 
hospital. The actual expense has been, some years greater, and some 
years less, than this sum. The Trustees are happy to be able to re- 
duce the price of board for the ensuing year, from two dollars and 
fifty, to two dollars and thirty cents per week, and they hope it may 
never be necessary to raise it above the last sum. 

There have always been between thirty and forty State paupers in 
the hospital, for whose support nothing has been paid, except, when the 
sum received from the other patients has been insufiicient to defray the 
current expenses of the hospital, the Legislature has made an appro- 
priation for the " general support of the hospital," to supply this defi- 
ciency. The sum of these appropriations would, probably, be nearly 
equal to the charges for the support of State paupers. The Trustees 
recommend that, hereafter, all charges in the treasurer's books against 
State paupers for board, clothing, &c., be audited and paid from the 
State treasury in the same manner that other State pauper accounts are 
settled. If this be done, no appropriation by the Legislature will be 
necessary for the general support of the hospital. 

The hospital is furnished with water from wells dug, at a distance 
of a mile and a quarter from it, on land of F. W. Paine, Esq. The 
water is conveyed to the liospital over the land of the intermediate pro- 
prietors, by a leaden aqueduct, which was laid down in the summer of 
the year 1833, at an expense of between fifteen and sixteen hundred 
dollars. It was put down with the knowledge and permission of all the 
owners of the land over which it passed. The commissioners for 
building the hospital, believing that, as the aqueduct could do no injury 
to the land, no one would ever disturb it, obtained no written convey- 
ance of the right to have it pass. It remained for nine years without 
molestation or complaint from any one ; except that two of the proprie- 
tors required the Trustees to give them a memorandum in writing, to 
prevent their acquiring a title by occupancy. The last board of Trus- 
tees, not satisfied with a title so precarious as that of sufferance, made 
an unsuccessful attempt to procure conveyances from the various own- 
ers, of the privilege of having the aqueduct remain forever undisturbed. 
They, therefore, in their last annual report, brought the subject to the 
consideration of the Legislature, with the hope, that some law might 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 7 

be passed, whereby they might obtain this right, by paying for it an 
adequate compensation to the respective owners. The report was not 
printed till so near the close of the session, that the subject was not 
acted upon before the adjournment. Since, an individual who owns an 
estate more than a mile below the wells before-mentioned, on a. small 
stream which passes by them, has presented to the Trustees a claim of 
five hundred dollars, for damages for a diversion of the water, on the 
ground that the water which is conveyed to the hospital would, other- 
wise, find its way into this stream. The Trustees, considering this claim 
exorbitant, if not groundless, declined paying it. Subsequently, he 
hired a strip of land, over which the aqueduct passes, and cut off the 
pipe. Believing his claim for damages extravagant, and considering 
that neither the original owner of the land, who consented that the 
aqueduct might pass over it, nor his assignee, could have any right to 
destroy the aqueduct, without first giving reasonable notice to remove 
it, the Trustees caused the pipe to be mended, and obtained from the 
Supreme Court an injunction against his farther interrupting the passage 
of the water. The case has not yet been determined by the Supreme 
Court, but the injunction still remains in force. Under these circum- 
stances, the Trustees felt that there was an urgent necessity for again 
troubling the Legislature on the subject. They accordingly presented 
a petition to the Legislature, at its extra session in September last, 
praying that some legislation might be had, without delay, whereby 
the use of this water might be permanently secured to the hospital. 
This petition was referred to a joint special committee of both branches, 
who reported in favor of referring it to the next General Court, and it 
was accordingly so referred. It is the decided opinion of the Trustees, 
that unless some legislation be had on this subject, the aqueduct must 
be abandoned, and all the money expended in constructing it, lost. 
Fearing this result, the Trustees have made inquiries for a supply of 
water from some other source. There are two fountains from which a 
sufficient supply may be obtained, but they are both liable to the almost 
insurmountable objection, that they are not sufficiently elevated to carry 
the water to the top of the building. The expense of obtaining water 
from either of these sources and conveying it to the hospital, will not 
be less than fifteen hundred dollars ; and the same difficulties will have 
to be encountered, in obtaining a title to the land over which the water 
must be conveyed, that have been experienced, with regard to the pre- 
sent aqueduct. If the Legislature shall be of the opinion, that a law 
necessary to secure to the hospital the existing supply of water, would 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

be inexpedient, the Trustees respectfully request that an appropriation 
may be made to enable them to procure a supply of water from some 
other quarter. 

The Trustees now come to a subject in which they feel a deep inter- 
est, and to which they solicit the attention of the Legislature — the 
enlargement of the hospital. The officers of the institution during the 
past year, have experienced greater inconvenience from its crowded 
state, than in any former year. There are only two hundred and 
twenty-nine rooms for the accommodation of patients — and there has 
been no time during the year when they have not all been occupied, 
and most of the time there have been more patients than rooms. Lu- 
natics committed by the courts must be admitted — the Trustees have no 
discretion to refuse them ; consequently, when there is no room for 
their reception, they must supply it by removing others. Accordingly, 
when towns have applied for the discharge of patients, for the reason 
that they might be more cheaply supported in poor-houses, though not 
as comfortably as in the hospital, they have granted the discharge with- 
out opposition. They have been obliged to send lunatics to the poor- 
houses, when the towns, animated by a spirit of humanity, would gladly 
have maintained them, even at a greater expense, in the hospital. They 
have even been compelled to send many persons to the jails, to make 
room for those committed by the courts. The design of the Legisla- 
ture, in establishing this institution, was to afford an asylum to incurable 
lunatics, and to furnish the means of recovery to those who are suscep- 
tible of cure by remedial treatment. But the first of these ends is par- 
tially, and the second, almost entirely defeated. Seventy-six incurable 
patients have been removed for want of room. For the same reason, 
the Trustees have been obliged to refuse admittance to all recent cases, 
except such persons as were represented to be " so furiously mad as to 
render it manifestly dangerous to the peace and safety of the commu- 
nity that they should be at large." One of the strongest motives for 
building the hospital, was to afford relief to the wretched maniacs con- 
fined in dungeons. Yet, at this moment, there are more lunatics confined 
in the prisons of the State, than there were before the hospital was 
built. These facts are not the evidence of an increase of insanity ; 
they are the proofs of an enlightened and humane public sentiment. 
The reports of the Trustees and of the superintendent of the State 
Lunatic Hospital, and the benevolent individuals who have from time 
to time visited it, have spread the news in every part of the State, that 
insanity, the most melancholy and the most afflicting of the misfor- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 9 

tunes of life, can here be cured with as much certainty as any other 
disease ; and that here also, the hopelessly incurable can find a safe 
and comfortable retreat. Hence it is, that all who have friends or rela- 
tives bereft of reason, are anxious to have them sent to this institution, 
that they may have the benefit of remedial treatment. Hence the 
numerous commitments by the courts. Hence the multitude of appli- 
cations to the Trustees for admission which they are obliged to reject. 
There have been, during the past year, one hundred and fifty-seven 
applications in behalf of persons who were not admitted at the time 
when the applications were made, and one hundred and thirteen of 
them have not been admitted at all. This last number, added to the 
seventy-six removed, makes one hundred and eighty-nine who have 
been deprived, during the last year, of the benefit of the hospital for 
want of room. 

From these considerations, it is evident to the Trustees that some 
increase of the accommodations for the insane is necessary, and is 
demanded by the public voice. 

By the last census of the United States, it appears that there are 
twelve hundred and seventy-one insane persons in Massachusetts: many 
of these are, no doubt, idiots and such as might be suitably provided for 
at home. It would be a moderate estimate, however, to suppose that 
there are at least six hundred and fifty persons who ought to be, and 
would be if there were sufficient accommodations, supported in some 
hmatic asylum. The State Lunatic Hospital, the McLean Asylum, and 
the South Boston Institution, cannot accommodate more than four hun- 
dred and eighty, leaving one hundred and seventy unprovided for. It is 
believed that, if one hundred and fifty rooms were added to this hospi- 
tal, they would be almost immediately filled. The Trustees therefore 
are of the opinion, that accommodations for at least one hundred and 
fifty more patients should be provided, and that the most economical 
and convenient form in which it can be done will be by an addition to 
the present establishment. The most advisable plan seems to be, to 
add two wings — one to the north and one to the south — so joined to the 
existing building that the present kitchens may serve also for the addi- 
tions. In this way, a greater number of patients can be supported, 
without increasing, in the same proportion, the expense, and the Trus- 
tees will be enabled still further to reduce the price of board. 

The Trustees feel confident, — from the past history of the Common- 
wealth, from their acquaintance with its people and its government, — 

2 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

that its Legislature will never hesitate to make any necessary appropri- 
ation of money for an object so benevolent. 

The Trustees have in their hands a fund amply sufficient to defray all 
the expenses of the proposed enlargement of the hospital. The Jo- 
honnot legacy was bequeathed to them, for the purpose of making pro- 
vision for the maintenance of insane persons and for the benefit of the 
institution ; and they know no way in which the philanthropic inten- 
tion of the donor can be better accomplished than by devoting it to this 
purpose. But it is incumbered with several life annuities, which will 
for awhile absorb the income of nearly the whole of it. The payment 
of these annuities is guaranteed by the Commonwealth and made out of 
the State treasury. The Trustees are however required to put the 
funds at interest and deposit the proceeds in the State treasury, to meet 
the payment of the annuities. In a few years these annuities will 
cease, and the whole fund will be at the disposal of the Trustees. But 
the necessity for the enlargement is present and urgent, and cannot be 
delayed. The Trustees therefore venture to ask that the Common- 
wealth will assume the payment of these annuities till they shall cease 
to exist, and authorize them to appropriate the Johonnot legacy to the 
enlargement of the hospital, under such restrictions as may be thought 
advisable. 

MATURIN L. FISHER 

DANIEL P. KING. 

HENRY GARDNER. 

ROBERT CAMPBELL. 

EDWIN CONANT. 

State Lunatic Hospital, Dec. 1, 1842. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



11 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To His Excellency John Davis, Governor, and to the Honorable Exec- 
utive Council of the Commomoealth of Massachusetts : 

The Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital, respectfully presents 
his Tenth Annual Report. 

The Treasurer charges himself from December 1, 1841, to Novem- 
ber 30, 1842, inclusive, as follows : 

For cash on hand, balance of last account, 

Dec. 1, 1841, 82446 11 

For receipts from cities, towns and individu- 
als, 28,299 96 

For credits on bills, for shoes, oxen, cows, 

pigs, ashes, &c. - - - - . 574 60 



He credits himself as follows : 

For payments for improvements and repairs, - 
" " " salaries, wages and labor, - 

" " " furniture and bedding, 

" " " clothing, linen, &c. 

" " " fuel and lights, - 

" " " provisions and groceries, 

" " " medical supplies, 

" " " hay, $33 72, straw, $156 91, 

" " " miscellaneous, - - - 

Cash on hand, balance to new account, - 

Deducting the balance on hand. 



-131,320 67 



$1278 97 

7363 97 

1316 61 

1761 99 

3076 QQ 

11,018 25 

521 79 

190 63 

1018 00 

3773 80 
31,320 67 

3773 80 



The cost of supporting the Institution for the year appeal's 

to be $27,546 87 



12 



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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



15 



Provisions and Groceries include 

Fruit, apples, pears, peaches, berries, raisins, lemons, &c. 
Spices and small groceries, - - - - 

Soap, ...... 

13 1-4 bbls. 
804 quarts, 
9869 1-2 lbs. 
7262 lbs. 
489 8-12 dozen, 
53 1-2 lbs. 
37 1-2 bushels, - 
9 1-4 bushels, - 
712 lbs. 
1487 lbs. 
10,757 lbs. 



Vinegar and cider, 

Milk, 

Butter, 

Cheese, 

Eggs, 

Lard, 

Beans, 

Peas, 

Tea, 

Coffee, 

Brown Sugar, 

Loaf and White Sugar, 993 3-4 lbs. 

Molasses, - - 719 gallons, 



Honey, 

Shells, 

Corn, 

Rye, 

Oats, 

Barley, 

Rice, 

Biscuit, 

Flour, 

Turnips, 

Potatoes, 

Poultry, 



91 1-4 lbs. 
139 10-16 lbs. 

743 bushels, - 
295 bushels, 
149 bushels, - 
31 bushels, 
1560 lbs. 

248 1-2 bbls. 

50 bushels, 
1789 1-2 bushels, - 
911 1-2 lbs. 2 dozen live. 



Fresh Fish, 2132 1-2 lbs. shad by number, oysters and clams. 



Salt Fish, - 

Mackerel, - 

Salmon, 

Tongues and Sounds, 

Tongue, 

Ham, 

Herring, 

Mutton and Lamb, - 



6416 lbs. 
2 barrels, 
1 bbl. 

1 bbl. 
15 lbs. 

2037 lbs. 

2 boxes, 
1777 1-4 lbs. 



1520 03 

133 85 

350 22 

46 25 

39 45 

1729 46 

599 34 

72 93 

4 55 

70 60 

10 03 

343 72 

150 48 

699 19 

122 89 

186 37 

9 88 

16 59 

676 30 

260 36 

79 30 

23 70 

63 13 

130 31 

1583 81 

12 50 

513 90 

84 18 

112 31 

141 76 

21 25 

16 00 

6 75 

1 88 

170 42 

1 00 

110 48 



16 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



Pork, 


- 1338 1-2 lbs. 


- $108 70 


Beef, 


- 24,989 1-2 lbs. 


- 1402 82 


Salt Pork, - 


912 lbs. 


- 81 08 


Veal, 


- 3583 1-2 lbs. 


- 223 72 


Tripe, 


335 1-2 lbs. 


- 26 88 


Sausages, - 


604 lbs. 
Fuel and Lights include 


- 59 88 




$11,018 25 


Wood, 


487 cords, 4 feet, 4 inches. 


- 2289 25 


Charcoal, - 


1966 bushels. 


- 191 92 


Anthracite, - 


22 tons, 343 lbs. 


- 177 09 


Oil, 


405 gallons. 


- 380 23 


Candles, 


106 1-4 lbs. 


- 33 21 


Wicking, 


- 


4 96 



$3076 66 



Miscellaneous includes 
Cash advanced to patients and charged in their accounts, or 

paid them when leaving the Hospital, 
Expenses after elopers and for their return, - 
Expenses of sending home, or to the houses of correction, 

patients discharged, .... 

Funeral expenses, - - - . . 

Postage, _--.-. 
Trustees' expenses, - - - - - 

Books, stationery, periodicals and advertising, 
Four cows, one heifer, two pairs oxen. 
Sundries, .-..-- 



The Treasurer has received so much more money, from other sources, 
than he anticipated, that it has not been necessary to draw from the 
State Treasury the sum last appropriated for current expenses. 

No appropriation will be required the ensuing year. 

ALFRED DWIGHT FOSTER, 

Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital. 



- 126 


35 


- 51 


83 


on, 

- 135 44 


- 81 


00 


- 78 


35 


5 


00 


- 126 


28 


- 317 


63 


■ 96 


12 


$1018 00 



Worcester, December 26, 1842. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



17 



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18 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 19 



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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 25 






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26 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 27 



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r-c~r~r~r-c-t— t~c-c^cococococoo3cocococoCTi050icridaicr)sJ>o>crj sooooooooo 



28 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



ffiH 



•S ^ ^2 



o o o o o 



oocogeoooocooo 
c iS c iS = S = 



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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 29 



a: '2: 



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30 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



Patients admitted from each of the Counties. 





Males, 


1842. 


Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable, 


2 


17 






Females, - 


1 


12 


32 


Berkshire, - 


Males, 


6 


18 






Females, - 


5 


18 


47 


Bristol, 


Males, 


6 


47 






Females, - 


4 


33 


90 


Dukes, 


Males, 


1 


3 






Females, - 





2 


6 


Essex, 


Males, 


26 


83 






Females, - 


17 


85 


211 


Franklin, - 


Males, 


1 


36 






Females, - 


4 


22 


63 


Hampden, - 


Males, 
Females, - 


2 
6 


25 

35 


68 


Hampshire, 


Males, 
Females, - 


3 

6 


44 
33 


86 


Middlesex, - 


Males, 


12 


75 






Females, - 


8 


69 


164 


Nantucket, 


Males, 
Females, - 






5 
5 


10 


Norfolk, - 


Males, 


14 


75 






Females, - 


9 


50 


148 


Plymouth, - 


Males, 
Females, - 


6 
2 


28 
31 


67 


Suffolk, - 


Males, 


9 


81 






Females, - 


6 


67 


163 


Worcester, 


Males, 


20 


169 






Females, - 


22 


186 


397 


Boarders out of the State, 


Males, 





2 






Females, - 





3 


5 




198 


1359 


1557 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



31 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the number of Admissions, and the state of the Hospital, from 
December 1st, 1841, to November SOth, 1842. 



Patients in the Hospital in the course of the year, 

Males, 223 

Females, 207- 



430 



At the commencement of 
Males, 
Females, 



Admitted in the course of the year. 
Males, 
Females, 



Remain at the end of the 
Males, 
Females, 



Patients admitted. 
Males, . 
Females, 



-430 



the year, 239 



year, 



107 
91- 



Cases of duration less than 
one year. 

Males, . . 53 
Females, . 56- 



. 198 
-198 

, 109 
-109 



Cases of longer duration 

than one year, ... 89 
Males, . . 53 
Females, . 36 89 

Cases committed by the 
Courts, . . 157 
By the Overseers, . 8 
Pi ivate boarders, . 33 198 



116 
116- 

107 
91- 

124 
114- 



-232 



-198 



-238 



198 



238 



Patients now in the Hospital, 238 
Males, . . 124 
Females, . 114 238 



Cases of less duration than 
one year. 

Males, . , 20 



40 



Cases of longer 


duration 


than one year. 




Males, . 


. 104 


Females, 


, 94 ] 


Foreigners discharged the 


last year. 




Males, . 


. 15 


Females, 


9 



40 



198 



24 



24 



Foreigners now in the 

Hospital, . . . .34 

Males, , . 19 

Females, . 15 34 | Not received for want of room, 113 



Applications not received 
at the time. 



157 



32 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

There has been a greater number of patients in the Hospital during 
the past year, than in any former year. The house was full at the 
commencement of the year, so that about as many must have been 
removed as were admitted. 

There have been 430 individuals in the Hospital during the year, 
and 157 were rejected at the time of application for want of room. 

Last year, the number of females admitted exceeded the number of 
males, in the proportion of 90 to 73 ; this year, the males exceed the 
number of females, in the proportion of 107 to 91. 

Last year, the number remaining at the end of the year, was 116 of 
each sex ; this year, there remain 124 males and 114 females. 

There have been in the Hospital during the past year, 58 patients 
who have no residence in this State, and who are supported at the 
public charge ; of these, 24 have been discharged, and 34 remain at 
the close of the year. 

If provision should be made to pay for State paupers at the lowest 
rate of charge for private boarders, or town paupers whose disease was 
of equal duration, there would never be a necessity for calling on the 
legislature for aid to pay the current expenses of the Hospital. If the 
number remaining at the end of the year was about the average num- 
ber for the whole year, the bill to be paid by the government out of the 
State treasury would be about $3,400. If the government does not 
annually pay this sum of the current expenses, it is clear that those 
towns and individuals who are so unfortunate as to have insane friends 
in the Hospital, have to pay an unequal share of the expense of its 
support. 

The burthen of supporting the State paupers should clearly be 
t>orne by the whole State, and if the rate of charge to individuals and 
towns could thus be reduced, it is right and just that it should be. 

If the State paupers should be charged at $100 annually, and the 
bills, on being presented, be paid out of the State treasury, the amount 
this year would have been $3,000 — a sum larger than has been ex- 
pended, over the amount collected from private boarders and towns, for 
many years. 

If there was a certainty that these bills would be annually paid by 
the State, the price of board might safely be reduced, and thus the bur- 
thens be lightened where they are frequently quite severe. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



33 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the numher of Discharges and Deaths, and the condition of 
those loho have left the Hospital, frotii December 1st, 1841, ^o Novem- 
her 30th, 1842. 





a 

V . 

o ^ 
6 


o 
5 
> 
c 

o 


Improved. 




a a 
q X 


(5 


Total. 


Patients discharged, - 191 
















Males, - - - - 


99 


44 


13 


28 


11 


3 


99 


Females, . . _ 


92 


44 


12 


24 


3 


9 


92 




191 


88 


25 


52 


14 


12 


191 


Patients discharged whose insan- 
ity was of less duration than 1 
















year, - - - - 77 
Males, - - - - 


41 


36 


2 


1 





2 


41 


Females, . . . 


36 


34 











2 


36 




77 


70 


2 


1 





4 


77 


Patients discharged whose insan- 
ity was of longer duration than 
















1 year, - - - 114 
Males, - - - - 


58 


8 


11 


27 


11 


1 


58 


Females, - - . - 


56 


10 


12 


24 


3 


7 


56 




114 


18 


23 


51 


14 


8 


114 



Facts relating to Discharges. 

Thei'e have been discharged by the Trustees, mostly as harmless and 
incurable, for want of room, in ten years, .... 247 

Some of these were improved. 

Sent to jails as incurable and dangerous, by the Trustees, . 38 

To the South Boston Institution, . . . . . .16 

Discharged by the Probate Court, as incurable and dangerous, 23 
Discharged by the Court of Common Pleas, .... 4* 

By the Supreme Judicial Court, . . . . . . 5t 



* 1 Recovered. 
f o Recovered, 



3 of them Homicides. 



34 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

It will be seen by the statements of the table, that a large number 
have been discharged for want of room ; the crowded state of the house 
rendering constant changes necessary. The Trustees have frequently 
met for the purpose of sending away foreigners and the harmless, that 
the more urgent and pressing cases might be accommodated ; this makes 
the general per cent, of recoveries less, and the recoveries of old cases 
proportionably small. 

If we could retain all whose residence in the Hospital is desirable, 
there would be few discharges, except those who recover or those who 
die ; the per cent, of recoveries would be large, and the per cent, of 
deaths also large. 

The health of the Hospital is proverbial. The death of but twelve 
individuals, and most of those feeble and diseased before they came 
under our care, must certainly be considered a small number from four 
hundred and thirty inmates, many of whom are invalids, and a consid- 
erable proportion are so excited as to take no care of health, and who, 
in various ways, expose themselves to the causes of disease. 

It is with great reluctance that the Trustees ever send patients to the 
jails ; but the crowded state of the Hospital, the last year, has compelled 
them to do so in an unusual number of instances. The Trustees do 
not discharge the dangerous and incurable in any other way ; but the 
Judge of Probate, on application of the friends, does occasionally dis- 
charge some of this class. The dangerously insane who have friends, 
go home by order of the Judge of Probate, and the same class 
who have no friends, if discharged at all, are sent to the jails by the 
Trustees. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. I!). 



35 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Admissions and Discharges^ and the average 
number of patients, each month in the year. 



Monthly Average. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


December, 




233^- 


11 


10 


January, 
February, . 
March, 






231 
244 

238i 


24 
15 
15 


14 
17 
23 . 


April, 
May, 
June, 






234i 
237^ 
242i 


16 
17 
13 


15 

9 

13 


July, 
August, 






239^ 
234i 


17 

10 


21 
15 


September, 
October, 






2401 
246 


22 
24 


9 

29 


November, 






240^ 
238 


14 


16 


Average, 






198 


191 



The number of patients in the Hospital has been greater than in any 
former year, the admissions have been more numerous, and there have 
been more discharges. The changes have been 389, and the number 
of residents 430. In the months of January and October, 24 patients 
were admitted each month, and in October, 29 were discharged, making 
a change of 53 in one month. 

Each monthly average has been greater than the number of rooms 
in the Hospital. The greatest monthly average was in October, 246; 
in November, it was 240 ; in February, 244. The number of rooms 
in the Hospital is 229. 

We have always kept the Hospital more than full, from a reluctance 
to discharge patients contrary to the wishes of their friends. Formerly, 
there was much difficulty in keeping patients as long as was desirable ; 
now there is a strong desire on the part of friends to continue the resi- 
dence of patients in the Hospital, and it is not uncommon for patients 
themselves to desire to remain, and to wish to return on the recurrence 
of the slightest indisposition. 

Towns sometimes unreasonably urge the discharge of paupers, to 
save a small sum, and place them in Poor Houses, where the difference 
of expense can hardly be fifty dollars a year in any case. 



36 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jun. 



TABLE 4. 



A"es of Patients in (he Ijospital, December \ 


Duration of Insanity with tlio^e remaining, 


1st, 1S42. 


December 1st, 1842. 




Under 20, .... 9 


Less duration than 1 year. 


40 


From 20 to 25, 






18 


From 1 to 2 years, 


36 


" 25 to 30, 






36 


" 2 to 5 " 




54 


" 30 to 35, 






34 


" 5 to 10 " 




39 


" 35 to 40, 






28 


" 10 to 15 " 




26 


" 40 to 45, 






33 


" 15 to 20 " 




9 


" 45 to 50, 






28 


" 20 to 25 " 




9 


" 50 to 55, 






18 


" 25 to 30 " 




8 


" 55 to 60, 






14 


i • Over 30 years, 




5 


" 60 to 65, 






9 


Unknown, 




12 


" 65 to 70, 






7 


\ 




" 70 to 75, 






4 


! 


238 


238 


; ' 





The number of patients now in the Hospital, between the ages of 25 
and 45, is 131 — more than half of all in the establishment ; all the 
others whose ages are from 15 to 75 — more than twice the period — are 
but 107. Many who are now more than 25, became insane before they 
reached that age, so also many who are now past the age of 45, were 
attacked in the more active period of life. It may therefore safely be 
assumed that the vigor of manhood, from 25 to 50, which in the table 
will show 159 cases out of 238, is emphatically the age of insanity. 

It is when the mind is most vigorous, and the cares and burthens of 
life most heavy, that the brain becomes diseased, and the mind most 
frequently loses its balance, and becomes insane. Many nervous dis- 
eases affect the young more frequently, particularly chorea and epilepsy, 
while palsy and apoplexy are the diseases of advanced life, and of those 
broken down by irregularities and disease. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



37 



TABLE 5. 

Statistics of the Hospital from January, 1833, to November 2Qth, 1842. 





1833 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


18381839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


Whole number of Patients 
admitted, 


153 


119 


113 


125 


168 


177 


179 


162 


163 


198 


Discharged — inclu'g- dths. 
and elopements, 


39 


115 


112 


106 


121 


144 


168 


155 


167 


191 


Discharged recovered, . 


25 


64 


52 


58 


69 


76 


80 


82 


82 


88 


Discharged improved, . 


7 


22 


23 


17 


23 


24 


29 


29 


36 


25 


Discharged not improved. 


2 


20 


28 


22 


20 


28 


37 


29 


37 


66 


Died, 


4 


8 


8 


8 


9 


16 


22 


15 


12 


12 


Eloped, 


1 


1 


1 


1 




















Patients in the Hospital in 
the course of the year. 


153 


233 


241 


245 


306 


362 


397 


391 


399 


430 


Patients remaining at the 
end of each year. 


114 


118 


119 


138 


185 


218 


229 


236 


232 


238 


Males admitted. 
Females admitted, 


96 
57 


68 
51 


51 

62 


66 
59 


94 
74 


96 

81 


80 
99 


75 

87 


73 

90 


107 
91 


Males discharged, 
Females discharged, 


19 
15 


58 
48 


57 

46 


56 
41 


65 
47 


74 
54 


66 
80 


59 

81 


71 

84 


96 

83 


Males died. 
Females died. 


3 
1 


5 
3 


4 
4 


6 

2 


6 
3 


10 
6 


14 

8 


9 
6 


7 
5 


3 

9 


Patients sent by Courts, 
Private, 


109 
44 


55 

64 


90 
23 


117 

8 


129 

39 


123 
54 


123 
56 


106 
56 


110 
53 


157 
41 


Recoveries : — 

Males, 

Females, 


13 
12 


33 
31 


27 
25 


32 

26 


37 
32 


45 
31 


32 

48 


28 
54 


37 

45 


44 

44 


Average in the Hospital, 


107 


117 


120 


127 


163 


211 


223 


229 


233 


238 



The first four years the Hospital accommodated but 120 patients, the 
admissions varied from 113 to 133 each year. In 1837, another wing 
was added, and the admissions were 168 ; since that time a fourth wing 



38 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



has been built, making the accommodations nearly double what they 
were at first, and the admissions have varied from 162 to 198. The 
average number of residents has regularly increased from 107 in 1833, 
to 238 in 1842. 

The information in the table is believed to be as accurate as the 
nature of the case will admit. 

The number of deaths has been small the last two years, and par- 
ticularly so the last year. In institutions like this, deaths must be ex- 
pected to be more frequent than in private institutions, from the fact, 
that no patient, however feeble, even if at the point of death, can be 
excluded. 

The collection of statistics in the table becomes more interesting as 
numbers accumulate, and years are added to our history. 

In ten years now nearly completed, 1557 patients have been admit- 
ted to the Hospital ; 1319 have been discharged, of which number 676 
have recovered; 114 have died, &c. 

The table shows in what condition all have been discharged who 
have left the hospital ; the results of each year, and of the whole ten 
years. 

TABLE 6. 

Statistics of the Different Seasons. 





1833 


1834 1835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


Admissions in Winter, 


27 


26 


24 


23 


26 


46 


39 


32 


31 


50 


Admissions in Spring, 


72 


35 


31 


36 


49 


46 


38 


42 


37 


48 


Admissions in Summer, 


23 


30 


30 


42 


40 


47 


59 


44 


51 


40 


Admissions in Autumn, 


31 


28 


28 


24 


53 


38 


43 


44 


44 


60 


Discharges in Winter, 





22 


21 


20 


14 


18 


31 


29 


35 


37 


Discharges in Spring, 


1 


33 


30 


33 


36 


37 


38 


38 


33 


46 


Discharges in Summer, 


11 


28 


31 


24 


29 


44 


48 


41 


37 


46 


Discharges in Autumn, 


23 


24 


22 


21 


33 


29 


29 


32 


50 


50 


Recoveries in Winter, 





13 


13 


12 


10 


15 


13 


18 


20 


24 


Recoveries in Spring, 





20 


11 


15 


17 


23 


24 


22 


10 


22 


Recoveries in Summer, 


9 


16 


16 


12 


15 


18 


23 


20 


22 


23 


Recoveries in Autumn, 


16 


15 


12 


19 


27 


20 


20 


22 


30 


19 


Deaths in Winter, 





3 


1 





1 


3 


5 


6 


1 


4 


Deaths in Spring, 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


5 


6 


2 


1 


Deaths in Summer, 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 


5 


3 


Deaths in Autumn, 








3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 


4 


4 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



39 



The records of the table confirm the views expressed in former re- 
ports, though a greater number were admitted in winter the present 
year than has been usual in former seasons. The whole year has been 
healthy, the number of deaths less in proportion than any other year ; 
one death only occurred during the spring months. 

TABLE 7. 
Classification of Insanity. 





Whole No. 


No. of each Sex. 


Curable. 


Total of Curable. 


Mania, .... 


774 








Males, .... 


, 


411 


264 




Females, 




363 


256 


520 


Melancholia, 


507 








Males, .... 


, 


238 


128 




Females, 


• 


269 


177 


305 


Dementia, .... 


196 








Males, .... 


, 


121 


4 




Females, 


• 


75 


4 


8 


Idiots, .... 


11 








Males, .... 


, 


10 








Females, 


• 


1 









Some cases of moral estrangement and monomania are not classed, as they do 
not strictly belong to either class. 



There is very little practical use in classifying insanity. The cases 
arranged under the same head are extremely unlike, and the cases are 
constantly varying. Many cases appear demented at first, that are re- 
cent in their origin, and favorable in their termination. If such cases 
were denominated " dementia," the numbers of that class would be 
considerably increased, and the cures would bo many. 

In the treatment of cases no benefit arises from nosological arrange- 
ment. 



40 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



[Jan. 



TABLE 8. 

Causes of Insanity, and circumstances connected with causes and pre- 
disposition to Insanity. 



Intemperance, . 


225 


Hereditary, or having insane 




Ill Health, 


244 


ancestors or kindred. 


465 


Masturbation, . 


126 


Periodical, 


308 


Domestic Affliction, . 


168 


Homicidal, 


20 


Religious, 


120 


Have committed homicides, . 


15 


Property, 


83 


Suicidal, .... 


167 


Disappointed Affection, 


60 


Have committed suicide, 


7 


Disappointed Ambition, 


28 






Epilepsy, 


40 


Have dark hair, eyes and 




Puerperal, 


41 


complexion, . 


481 


Wounds on the Head, 


18 


Have light hair, eyes and 




Abuse of Snuff and Tobac 


CO, 8 


complexion, . 


500 



Arising from physical causes, . 
Arising from moral causes, 

Many not classed. 



703 
459 



Of the 1557 cases of insanity that have been committed to the hos- 
pital, 225 were the effect of intemperance. 

Of the first 778 cases, half the number that have been received, 135 
were from intemperance ; 81 of the first 389, and 54 of the second 
389. 

Of the second 778 cases, 90 were caused by intemperance, 52 of 
the first 389, and 38 of the second 389. 

These figures speak well for the favorable influence of temperance 
on the community ; the first quarter of the patients received having 
more than double the number arising from this cause that the last 
quarter has, — being 81 to 38. 

Ill health combines so many causes, as hardly to be considered one 
cause. With this exception, intemperance has produced more insan- 
ity in this community than any other cause. 

Most of the causes enumerated have produced about the same pro- 
portion of cases as formerly. 

Some new views of religious truth have recently disturbed many 
persons who have deep solicitude for their future well-being, and have 
brought a number of patients under our care. Some of these views 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 41 

are greatly calculated to alarm those who entertain them, and I greatly 
fear that, for some months to come, this agitation of the public mind 
may, in this and other communities, add many to the list of the insane. 

Religion, in any view of it, is a solemn subject for contemplation. 
No individual can feel indifferent to it who has a rational mind, and 
feels his responsibility to God for the actions of his life. But it is par- 
ticularly desirable that all consideration of it should be calm and dis- 
passionate, that we should live il. in our several spheres of duty, rather 
than seek new dogmas which distract the mind, and unfit it for the high 
responsibilities of this life, or for suitable preparation for the elevated 
pleasures of a future existence. 

The Bible itself would rarely make a man insane ; its promises 
counterbalance its denunciations, and its plain and simple instruction 
shows most clearly the way to pardon and to peace. It is human dog- 
mas and new-fangled doctrines, promulgated by the ignorant and mis- 
guided, which are at present distracting the public mind, loosening the 
cords which bind society together, and, without chart or compass, set 
mankind forth in search of a heavenly inheritance. When the settled 
principles of religious faith and hope are discarded, when fanaticism 
predominates, and the established forms of religious worship are aban- 
doned, then it is that the minds of the weak and excitable are distract- 
ed and made insane ; then it is that the effort to reach something inde- 
finable and untangible, overpowers the intellect, and often breaks it 
down and destroys it. This is not religion, but its counterfeit — a base 
moral currency, unsafe, and worse than useless in its influence, cor- 
rupting instead of reforming its victims, and levelling, rather than ele- 
vating the moral and religious standard of the community in which ij 
circulates. 

In many reports of institutions for the insane, a large proportion of 
the cases are attributed to hereditary predisposition as the cause. In 
some former reports I have briefly alluded to this subject. In my opin- 
ion hereditary predisposition alone is never the cause of insanity in any 
case. If it were thus, hereditary predisposition, existing from the first 
breath of life, must be perpetually operating, and such a case should 
be from necessity perpetually insane, unless the remedies for insanity 
can remove the hereditary taint. 

It is with insanity as with other predispositions to disease — a slighter 
cause produces effects, to which the individual is liable in consequence ^ 
of this predisposition. t^ 

If this rule has exceptions, they are to be found in the juvenile in- 

G 



42 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

sane, in those cases in which aberration commences with the first de- 
velopment of intellect. Such cases are not uncommon, and I may 
say that congenital insanity is hardly less frequent than congenital 
idiocy. Many such cases have come under my observation, where 
there has never been a rational mind, though there has been an active 
one ; in this respect differing from idiocy. 

There has been no suicide in the hospital the last eighteen months, 
though many having the propensity strongly have been under our care. 
Many melancholy patients contemplate suicide, others fear that they 
may be brought into circumstances where it will be inevitable, while 
others talk much about it, and threaten it without ever intending to ex- 
ecute the threat. 

In some families there is a strong natural propensity to suicide, no 
love of life, and no firmness to bear the calamities incident to it. One 
patient under our care had twenty male relatives, more or less nearly 
connected with him, who had committed suicide. Suicide is also con- 
tagious or epidemic. In institutions for the insane there are periods 
when we have great solicitude on this account, and other periods when 
we have comparatively little. In the community such cases rarely 
occur alone. Suicide is often impulsive, the means at hand often ex- 
cite an irresistible desire or equally impulsive dread ; in the one case 
the means are applied, in the other cautiously put away or avoided. 1 
have often had patients give me knives, scissors, cords, &c., fearing 
they might be tempted to use them, yet sometimes these same individ- 
uals will secrete them about their persons or rooms. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



43 



TABLE 9. 

Occupation. 



Farmers, . 


181 


Coachmen, 


3 


Laborers, . 


132 


Butchers, . 


3 


Shoemakers, 


62 


Jewellers, . 


4 


Seamen, . 


55 


Innkeepers, 


3 


Merchants, 


59 


Stevedores, 


2 


Carpenters, 


41 


Stonecutters, 


2 


Manufacturers, 


32 


Broom-makers, 


2 


Teachers, . 


26 


Coppersmiths, 


2 


Students, . 


22 


Watchmen, 


2 


Blacksmiths, 


16 


Drovers, . 


2 


Printers, . 


16 


Curriers, . 


2 


Tailors, 


11 


Card-makers, 


2 


Machinists, 


10 


Furrier, 




Clothiers, . 


7 


News Collector, 




Coopers, . 


7 


Broker, 




Bricklayers, 


7 


Engineer, . 




Millers, . 


5 


Hatter, 




Cabinet-makers, 


9 


Gardener, . 




Clergymen, 


6 


Mat-rnaker, 




Lawyers, . 


5 


Stocking-weaver, . 




Bakers, 


4 


Bellows-maker, 




Musicians, 


4 


Pump and Block-maker, 




Pedlers, . 


4 


Chair-maker, 




Painters, . 


4 


Tobacconist, 




Rope-makers, 


4 


Auctioneer, 




Paper-makers, 


4 


Miniature Painter, 




Calico Printers, 


3 


Females not accustomed t( 


3 


Sail-makers, 


3 


labor. 


142 


Tanners, . 


3 


Females accustomed to se 


- 


Comb -makers, 


3 


dentary employments. 


153 


Turners, . 


3 


Females accustomed to ac 


- 


Harness-makers, 


3 


tive employments, 


236 


Physicians, 


3 


Many not classed. 





The male patients in the hospital have pursued 59 different trades 
or occupations. We can generally ascertain with accuracy what em- 
ployment our patients have pursued in life. They are mostly from 
the active, laboring classes of society, and, with few exceptions, pur- 
sue one employment. It must be conceded that the subject of employ- 
ment is an important consideration in connexion with insanity, as 
doubtless some employments are more injurious to health, and espe- 
cially to the brain and nervous system, than others. 

The classification of females cannot be very accurate. A large 



44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



proportion of them are housekeepers, some pursue trades, and a few 
are teachers. 

TABLE 10. 

Diseases zohich have proved fatal. 



Marasmus, , 


25 


Disease of Brain from Intemp'e. 2 


Epilepsy, . 


14 


Dysenteric Fever, 


. 2 


Consumption, 


70 


Chronic Dysentery, 


. 3 


Apoplexy and Palsy, 


10 


Lung Fever, . 


. 2 


Suicide, 


7 


Bronchitis, 


. 2 


Disease of the Heart, 


7 


Old Age, 


. 1 


Cholera Morbus, 


4 


Gastric Fever, 


1 


Hemorrhag-e, 


4 


Land Scurvy, . 


. 1 


Inflammation of the Brain, 


4 


Congestive Fever, 


. 1 


Inflammation of the Bowels, 


3 


Erysipelas, 


. 2 


Mortification of the Limbs, 


.3 


Disease of the Bladder 


• 1 


Dropsy, 


3 






Diarrhoea, . 


2 


Total, 


. 114 



Most of the mortality in the hospital has been from chronic diseases, 
or from sudden attacks, the result of a broken-down state of the sys- 
tem. Marasmus, epilepsy, consumption, apoplexy and palsy, have 
been the most fatal diseases in this institution, and more than half the 
deaths have been from these diseases. 

During the past season, erysipelas, with tendency to suppuration and 
gangrene, has been somewhat prevalent in this vicinity, and a few cases 
have occurred among our patients, none of which have proved fatal. 
Three or four of these cases had extensive suppuration, and were quite 
severe, but the free application of nitrate of silver arrested the prog- 
ress of the inflammation. In three cases, in the incipient stage of the 
disease, the free use of the caustic so as to destroy the scarf skin en- 
tirely arrested the progress of the inflammation, and the case was 
ended at once. 

Two cases of chronic bronchitis have proved fatal in the hospital, 
both of which followed wounds of the wind-pipe previously made in 
attempts at suicide. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



45 



TABLE 11. 

Showing the comparative Expense of supporting old and recent Cases 
of Insanity^ from ivhich ice learn the economy of placing patients in 
Institutions in the early periods of Disease. 











Total Expense 


















at $100 a year 








Cost of 


No. of 


Present 


Time 


before entering 


No. of the 


Present 


'I'imo 


support lit 


the Old 


age. 


Ins 


dne. 


the Hospital, 


recent cases 


age. 


Insane. 


$2 50 per 


Cases. 








and $132 
since. 


uischarged. 






week. 


2 


68 


27 


jrears. 


#•3092 00 


1413 


22 


26 weeks. 


$65 00 


7 


47 


16 




1884 00 


1416 


30 


32 " 


80 00 


8 


59 


20 




2384 00 


1424 


21 


21 " 


52 50 


12 


46 


24 




2774 00 


]425 


23 


22 " 


55 00 


18 


70 


33 




3674 00 


1429 


27 


31 « 


77 50 


19 


58 


17 




2084 00 


1431 


49 


32 " 


80 00 


21 


38 


15 




1873 00 


1434 


20 


21 " 


52 50 


27 


46 


15 




1874 00 


1435 


40 


16 " 


40 00 


44 


55 


25 




2862 00 


1437 


18 


32 " 


80 00 


45 


59 


24 




2715 00 


144L 


27 


17 " 


42 50 


102 


52 


24 




2713 00 


1448 


40 


9 " 


22 50 


133 


43 


12 




1311 00 


1449 


73 


14 " 


35 00 


176 


54 


19 




2366 00 


1451 


25 


11 " 


27 50 


190 


49 


12 




1317 00 


1452 


22 


12 " 


30 00 


209 


44 


15 




1844 00 


1453 


49 


20 " 


50 00 


223 


49 


19 




2244 00 


1456 


42 


12 " 


30 00 


260 


46 


17 




1992 00 


1469 


35 


19 " 


47 50 


274 


39 


14 




1689 00 


1471 


40 


18 " 


45 00 


278 


48 


9 




1304 00 


1475 


40 


8 " 


20 00 


319 


52 


9 




1127 00 


1476 


18 


5 " 


12 50 


347 


57 


13 




1524 00 


1486 


18 


18 " 


45 00 


351 


52 


9 




1124 00 


1494 


44 


14 « 


35 00 


367 


39 


11 




1324 00 


1497 


50 


16 " 


40 00 


400 


42 


13 




1524 00 


1514 


50 


17 « 


42 50 


425 


47 


12 




1992 00 


1539 


31 


9 " 


22 50 




424 


years. 


#50,611 00 


452 weeks. 


#1130 00 



Average expense of old cases, . . #2020 00 

Whole expense of 25 old cases, . , . 50,611 00 

Average expense of recent cases, . . . 45 20 

Whole expense of 25 recent cases till recovered, . 1130 00 



46 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. - [Jan. 

I continue this table to exhibit in bold relief the immense advantage 
of early committal to the hospital, and the actual cost of supporting old 
cases when they become so troublesome as to render confinement in a 
hospital for the insane necessary. 

Last year the twenty-five cases were taken from the first 330 patients ; 
this year it extends to the 425 ; in other words, of the 425 patients 
first committed to the hospital, only 25 remain, unless there be a few 
the duration of whose insanity is unknown. 

The last twenty-fiive recent cases which have recovered, and have 
been discharged, have cost, before and after admission, an average of 
^45 20, while the twenty-five first on the list, who now remain in the 
hospital, cost on an average $2020 00 ! 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



47 



TABLE 12. 

Shoicing the duration of Insanity, the ages and civil stale of the Pa- 
tients in the Hospital, admitted last year and previous years. 





1833 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


i 
18381839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


Duration before admitted: 












Less than 1 year, 


41 


56 


48 


54 


72 


82 


84 


75 


81 


106 


From I to 5 years, . 


27 


29 


37 


37 


58 


50 


63 


56 


52 


58 


" 5 to 10 " 


27 


14 


15 


13 


14 


16 


18 


15 


12 


13 


" 10 to 20 " 


31 


6 


5 


11 


14 


8 


10 


10 


10 


5 


" 20 to 30 " 


12 


4 





9 


4 


7 


1 


3 


4 


5 


" 30 to 40 " 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 





4 


Unknown, 


12 


8 


7 


6 


5 


13 


2 


1 


4 


7 




1.53 


119 


113 


125 


168 


177 


179 


162 


lft3 


198 


Duration with those re- 






















maining at the end of 






















each year : 
Less than 1 year, 


26 


22 


21 


11 


29 


28 


34 


28 


32 


40 


From 1 to 5 years, . 


23 


25 


22 


39 


51 


65 


69 


75 


74 


89 


" 5 to 10 " 


20 


24 


34 


35 


38 


44 


44 


52 


53 


38 


" 10 to 20 " 


28 


24 


29 


35 


41 


41 


52 


52 


45 


37 


" 20 to 30 " 


7 


5 


3 


7 


11 


18 


14 


13 


15 


18 


" 30 to 40 " 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


4 


6 


Unknown, 


8 


16 


6 


9 


13 


19 


12 


11 


9 


10 




114 


118 


119 


138 


185 


218 


229 


236 


232 


238 


Ages of patients when 
admitted : 






















Under 20 years, 


2 


12 


4 


11 


13 


17 


10 


10 


7 


14 


From 20 to 30 years, . 


34 


31 


23 


29 


58 


47 


47 


46 


50 


35 


" 30 to 40 " . 


46 


31 


36 


32 


34 


51 


49 


40 


45 


44 


" 40 to 50 " . 


35 


31 


28 


26 


31 


32 


30 


34 


31 


46 


" 50 to 60 " . 


14 


8 


13 


14 


13 


20 


21 


21 


19 


24 


" 60 to 70 " . 


17 


5 


6 


13 


12 


8 


14 


6 


9 


12 


" 70 to 80 " . 


3 





3 





7 


2 


8 


5 


1 


2 


Over 80, . 


2 


1 












177 



179 



162 


1 
163 


1 




153 


119 


113 


125 


168 


198 


Civil state of patients ad- 
mitted : 






















Single, 


92 


71 


52 


68 


94 


101 


80 


75 


82 


108 


Married, 


38 


40 


46 


49 


61 


65 


75 


71 


63 


76 


Widows, . 


12 


4 


8 


6 


11 


5 


17 


12 


13 


12 


Widowers, . 


11 


4 


7 


2 


2 


6 


7 


4 


5 


2 




153 


119 


113 


125 


168 


177 


179 


162 


163 


198 



48 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

The results of this table are not varied by the experience of the past 
year. An unusual number of recent cases have been admitted, and a 
less number of very old ones. It is to be hoped that this may be our 
future experience. 

The recommittals of such as have been discharged for want of room 
increase the number of old cases very considerably. The number of 
cases favorable for recovery has never been greater at the end of the 
year. 

The few patients that enter the hospital who are under 20 years of 
age, afford no criterion by which to decide when insanity commences, 
or that few are attacked at this early age. Many old cases were at- 
tacked before 20 years of age. 

The records of the civil state of patients shows the usual predom- 
inance of the single over the married. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



49 



TABLE 13. 

Showing the comparative Curability of Insanity treated at different 
periods of Disease. 







Total of each 


Cured or Cu- 


^ . 




Total of Cases. 


Bex. 


rable. 


[ncurable. 


Of less duration than 1 year, 


699 








Males, 


, 


335 


296 


39 


Females, . 






. 


364 


326 


38 


From 1 to 2 years, 






253 








Males, 






. 


122 


66 


56 


Females, . 






. 


131 


82 


49 


From 2 to 5 years, 






247 








Males, 






. 


146 


50 


96 


Females, . 








101 


39 


62 


From 5 to 10 years, 






159 








Males, 








87 


11 


76 


Females, . 








72 


10 


62 


From 10 to 15 years. 






93 








Males, 






. 


50 


4 


46 


Females, . 








43 


2 


41 


From 15 to 20 years. 






34 








Males, 






. 


22 


1 


21 


Females, . 






, 


12 





12 


From 20 to 25 years. 






24 








Males, 








14 





14 


Females, . 








10 





10 


From 25 to 30 years, . 






'8 








Males, 








6 





6 


Females, , 






, 


2 





2 


Over 30 years, . 






io 








Males, 






, 


5 





5 


Females, . 








5 





5 


Some unknown. 







The facts in this table cannot be too frequently presented to the pub- 
lic. Of 699 cases committed during the first year of insanity, 622 have 
recovered or are considered curable ; 40 only remain in the hospital, 
most of which will probably recover. 

Of the 500 which have been insane from one to five years, only 237 
have recovered, or are considered curable, and of the 250 which have 
been insane from five to fifteen years, only 27 have recovered, or are 
supposed to be curable. 
7 



50 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan 



TABLE 14. 

Shoiving the comparative Curability of Insanity attaching at different 

Ases. 







Total of each 








Total of Cases. 


sex. 


Curable. 


Incurable. 


Under 20, 


188 








Males, 








. 


96 


38 


58 


Females, 












92 


61 


31 


From 20 to 25, 








i 


125 








Males, 












124 


62 


62 


Females, 












101 


65 


36 


From 25 to 30, 








e 


>17 








Males, 












118 


61 


57 


Females, 












99 


66 


33 


From 30 to 35, 








i 


il2 








Males, 












120 


58 


62 


Females, 












92 


58 


34 


From 35 to 40, 










180 








Males, 












81 


42 


39 


Females, 












99 


61 


38 


From 40 to 45, 










t35 








Males, 












71 


47 


24 


Females, 












64 


42 


22 


From 45 to 50, 










L14 








Males, 












51 


37 


14 


Females, 












63 


50 


13 


From 50 to 55, 










91 








Males, 












43 


28 


15 


Females, 












48 


35 


13 


From 55 to 60, 










50 








Males, 












22 


15 


7 


Females, 












28 


17 


11 


From 60 to 65, 










43 








Males, 












21 


17 


4 


Females, 












22 


15 


7 


From 65 to 70, 










25 








Males, 












17 


11 


6 


Females, 












8 


6 


2 


From 70 to 75, 










14 








Males, 












9 


5 


4 


Females, 












5 


5 





Over 75, . 










11 








Males, 












6 


3 


3 


Females, 












5 





5 



Some not classed — unknown. 



1843,] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



51 



It has been before remarked that the few patients in the hospital who 
are under 20 years of age, is no criterion by which to judge of the 
period of life when insanity commences. In the table, 188 are record- 
ed as having become insane before 20 years of age, which is a much 
larger number than the residents in the hospital of that age. 

Our records continue to show the most favorable results in cases 
which are attacked in the active season of life ; in this respect they dif- 
fer from those of some other institutions. 

TABLE 15. 

Showing the relation of Cause to Recovery. 



Intemperance, 

Males, 
Females, 

Afflictions, trouble, love, fear 
of death, future punish- 
ment, poverty, &c. 

Males, 

Females, . 

Ill health, puerperal, followed 
fever, measles, wounds, &c. 
Males, 
Females, . 

Religious, including Mormon- 
ism, Millerism, &c. 
Males, 
Females, . 

Masturbation and its results, 
debility, weakness, &c. 
Males, 
Females, 

Epilepsy, 
Males, 
Females, 

Palsy, 

Males, 
Females, 



U^hole No. 



225 



365 



313 



120 



126 



40 



23 



No. of each 
sex. 



200 
25 



141 
224 



70 
243 



62 

58 



112 
14 



36 

4 



16 

7 



Curalile. 



103 
13 



84 
135 



36 
168 



42 
37 



31 
1 



97 
12 



57 
89 



34 
75 



20 
21 



81 
13 



32 

4 



13 

6 



Cause unknown in many cases. 



52 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

The records of the last year are of the same character as those of 
previous years. 

The recoveries from insanity arising from moral causes, are about 
in the same proportion as in cases arising from disease and bodily in- 
juries. 

Epileptic and paralytic subjects rarely recover. In such cases the 
insanity does not always arise from these diseases ; wounds, intemper- 
ance and the solitary vice, are very fruitful sources of these diseases, 
and they often continue many years before insanity supervenes, and 
then it may more frequently arise from the organic lesion of the brain, 
produced by the original cause, than from these diseases. 

Insanity combined with either epilepsy or palsy becomes almost neces- 
sarily incurable, because it generally arises with such complication 
from organic disease of the brain, which can never be removed. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



53 



TABLE 16. 

Showing the causes of Insanity as affecting persons pursuing different 

occupations. 







ed 


.2 




i 
< 


5-0 




< 




OCCUPATION 




E 




3 

'5) 


1.2 
o — 
Q 


^ = s 


X 


s 


OTH'R CAUSES. 


Farmers, 
Shoemakers, 


125 
46 


46 

8 


19 
22 


18 
4 


15 
3 


12 
3 


7 
4 


2 
1 


^ Palsy, . 1 

> Epilepsy, 4 

5 Jealousy, 1 

Epilepsy, ] 


Printers, 


11 





9 














1 


Epilepsy, 1 


Laborers, 


75 


49 


13 


5 


2 


5 


1 







Seamen, 


41 


25 


3 


4 


2 


5 


1 





Jealousy, 1 


Merchants, . 


51 


9 


25 


2 


2 


11 


] 





Epilepsy, 1 


Carpenters, . 


33 


14 


6 


2 


1 


4 


4 


1 


Epilepsy, 1 


Blacksmiths, . 


8 


3 


1 








2 





2 




Students, 


22 





17 


1 


1 





2 





Abstinence 1 


Professional men. 


15 


4 


6 


1 


1 








2 


Unknown, 1 


Clergymen, . 


7 





4 


1 











1 


Unknown, 1 


Lawyers, 


5 


2 


2 





1 













Physicians, . 


3 


2 

















1 





In the preceding table may be seen the relation of cause to recovery ; 
in this, the relation of occupation to causes. 

Intemperance is the bane of the active, and the " secret vice," of 
the sedentary occupations. These are both voluntary causes of dis- 
ease, the less excusable, but the most severe. It is to be hoped that 
the light that is now diffused on both subjects, and the philanthropic 
efforts that are made to lessen both evils, may have much influence to 
lessen the number of the insane. 



54 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 17. 

Showing the state of the Moon at the commencement of a paroxysm of 
excitement in 92 cases of Periodical Insanity, amounting in all to 
676 paroxysms. Also the relation of the Moon to the 114 Deaths 
that have occurred in the Hospital. 



Number o 


' Paiox) 


sms each daj 




Number of Death 


s on each day 




Day of the Moon. 


Whole 


Male. 


Fe- 


Day of 


Day of the Moon. 


Whole 


Male. 


Fe- 


Day of 




No. 




male. 


the ar. 




No. 




male 


the Qr. 


1 


17 


9 


8 


1 


1 


1 


1 





1 


2 


38 


22 


16 


2 


2 


7 


5 


2 


2 


3 


24 


12 


12 


3 


3 


8 


3 


5 


3 


4 


27 


11 


16 


4 


4 


3 


2 


1 


4 


5 


23 


10 


13 


5 


5 


6 


3 


3 


5 


6 


28 


12 


16 


6 


6 


6 


4 


2 


6 


7 


36 


18 


18 


7 


7 


4 





4 


7 


End of 1st qr. 










End of 1st qr. 










8 


34 


17 


17 


1 


8 


1 


1 





1 


9 


23 


13 


10 


2 


9 


5 


1 


4 


2 


10 


16 


7 


9 


3 


10 


2 


2 





3 


11 


25 


10 


15 


4 


11 


3 


1 


2 


4 


12 


21 


11 


10 


5 


12 


2 


1 


1 


5 


13 


25 


13 


12 


6 


13 


8 


6 


2 


6 


14 


31 


12 


19 


7 


14 


4 


2 


2 


7 


End of 2d qr. 










End of 2d qr. 










15 


28 


14 


14 


1 


15 


3 


3 





1 


16 


17 


8 


9 


2 


16 


8 


5 


3 


2 


17 


28 


15 


13 


3 


17 


4 


3 


1 


3 


18 


14 


7 


7 


4 


18 











4 


19 


18 


13 


5 


5 


19 


2 


1 


1 


5 


20 


21 


15 


6 


6 


20 


7 


5 


2 


6 


21 


28 


15 


13 


7 


21 


6 


4 


2 


7 


End of 3d qr. 










End of 3d qr. 










22 


27 


12 


15 


1 


1 22 


2 


1 


1 


1 


23 


31 


11 


20 


2 


1 23 


1 





1 


2 


24 


31 


14 


17 


3 


1 24 


6 


2 


4 


3 


25 


21 


8 


13 


4 


1 25 


7 


4 


3 


4 


26 


21 


10 


11 


5 


1 26 


4 


2 


2 


5 


27 


9 


3 


6 


6 


'\ 27 











6 


28 


14 


7 


7 


7 


28 
Deaths, 


4 
114 


2 


2 


7 


Paxoxysras, 


676 





Last year many pages of the report were devoted to the subject of 
the moon, and the examination of modern theories and popular notions 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



55 



in relation to it. Our observations have been continued without any 
variation in the results. 

There are some remarkable coincidences in the table, which have 
continued from year to year ; but they neither confirm modern theo- 
ries, nor establish popular notions. The opportunities for continued 
observations are favorable, and facts may be accumulated that will 
show the truth or error of preconceived opinions. 

TABLE 18. 

Of Per Cent. 





Ave. 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841; 1842 


Recovery of cases of du- 




















ration less than 1 year, 


87.-i 


82 


82* 


844 


894 


864 


90 


914 


91 


91 


Per cent, of recoveries of 






















all discharged, - - - 


51 


531 


46* 


53i 


57 


524 


47 


53 


49;} 


46 


Per cent, recovered of old 






















cases, ------ 


19 


20i 


151 


18§ 


254 


154 


164 


224 


20^1 16 



Per Cent, of cases from the most prominent causes each year. 



Intemperate drinking, 
111 health, - - - - 
The affections, - - 
Concerning property, 
Religious, - - - - 
Masturbation, - - - 



1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 



241 
84 

131 
64 



24 
174 
114 
101 
64 
55- 



221 
214 
174 

81 
74 

n 



144 

224 

16 
54 
64 

164 



104 

214 

16 
64 
64 

214 



161 
28 
141 
104 

9 

54 



74| 124 
261! 25 



25 

54 
44 

81 



161 
41 
41 
61 



12i 

214 

121 

34 

34 

6 



74 
171 
141 
34 
94 
34 



There have been admitted to the Hospital, since it was opened in 1833, 699 
cases, of duration less than one year. 

In the same time there have been discharged, recovered, of recent cases 
535 ; 535 of 699 ; which is a fraction less than 77 per cent. Deduct from this 
number 32 deaths and 40 recent cases now in the Hospital, 72 from 699, and 
there remains 627, of which 535 is 85 per cent. 

■ There have been in the Hospital 1557 cases, of which 676 have recovered, 
which is 433- per cent. 



Per cent, of Deaths of all in 
the Hospital, each year, - 



1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 



34 34 



31 



44 54 31 



21 



Per cent, of deaths of the whole number, 114 of 1557, is ----- 6§ 
Per cent, of deaths of the average number of the last year, 12 of 238, is 44 



56 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

The great number of cases discharged in various ways, for want of 
room, keeps the per cent, of recoveries on the discharged low, and 
especially on old cases. In the coui'se of the last year sixty-six pa- 
tients who had not recovered, were discharged by the Trustees and the 
courts, most of whom would have remained, had there been room in the 
hospital. 

The per cent, of deaths has been less than any former year, the 
health of the institution having been very favorable. 

The facts in the table speak for themselves. They are brought to- 
gether to show, at one view, the situation of the hospital, and the re- 
sult of the last year, compared with former years, and in connexion 
with them. 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



57 



TABLE 19. 

Recommittals. — Number of Weeks in the Hospital each time. 



No. 


18J 


33 18: 


34 1835 


18361837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


Total 


of 


weeks. 


1 


i 


B 2i 


B . 




B 


7 






26 




77 weeks 


of 520 


2 


i 


B l; 


3 














, 


91 


a 


520 


3 


2( 


3 


. 13 














. 


39 


(( 


520 


4 


2( 


3 


. 




\ 32 












58 


u 


520 


5 


1.' 


3 i 


B 8 


{ 


B . 




8 


8 




10 


72 


li 


520 


6 


5' 


I 
















44 


96 


u 


520 


7 


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58 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

There have been three hundred and eight persons in the Hospital 
who have had more than one attack of insanity ; many of these had 
been periodical for years before they were committed to our care. 

One hundred and eighty-nine that have been discharged from the 
hospital have been recommitted, and a few of them more than once. 
Of the recommitted, sixty-eight had recovered, and one hundred and 
twenty-one had not recovered. 

Of the sixty-eight cases recovered, forty-nine are given in the tabie, 
with the length of time they were confined at each period ; the length 
of time that they were well and with their friends ; the time each was 
in confinement during the whole period after they were committed, and 
the proportion of the time they were insane after they were known lo 
us. The remaining nineteen cases have not been kept in remembrance, 
and their history is not fully knovvn. 

The cases recorded have been in this hospital whenever they have 
been insane, and have been well, before being discharged, for a longer 
period, on an average, than the duration of their insanity before they 
were committed. 

This table includes cases strictly periodical, most of which are here- 
ditary, and, after repeated attacks, become insane from slight causes, 
and, after many periods, perhaps from the power of habit alone. It 
also includes the cases that become insane again by exposure to the 
known causes of disease, whether they be the same or different from 
those which immediately preceded the previous attack. 

Few, even of the periodical cases, have renewed attacks without 
some obvious cause. And, if the cause is not obvious, it may still ex- 
ist, and bring about the slight change necessary, where the predispo- 
sition has been rendered so strong. 

The operation of causes in the production of disease is an inexpli- 
cable mystery. 

There must exist predisposition to certain forms of disease that 
should make causes at one time, and in one person, produce lung fever, 
in another rheumatism, in another dysentery, and in another insanity. 
The peculiar state of the atmosphere, the season of the year, but most 
of all the condition in which the system is found has much to do in 
favoring the accession of one disease instead of another. 

The condition of the system that first gives this predisposition may 
be wholly accidental at the time, and depend on circumstances of tem- 
porary duration ; it may be produced by known influences that might 
have been avoided, or it may arise from a constitutional tendency inde- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 59 

pendent of the knowledge or the conduct of the individual affected 
by it. 

Insanity, in this and many other respects, is like other diseases. It 
depends upon a disturbance and derangement of an important part of 
the bodily frame, the functions of which being disturbed, diseased 
actions take the place of healthy ones. 

In lung fever, and rheumatism, when the disease subsides, and the 
natural and healthy actions of the parts aifected are restored, it is called 
a recovery even if there is a recurrence of disease annually, or at 
longer periods, and it is quite common for such recurrences to take 
place, at longer or shorter periods, once or many times in the course 
of a person's life. If, however, all the symptoms which characterize 
these diseases return before the disease had left, and before the patient 
was well, it would, strictly speaking, be a relapse. 

While laboring under diseased action, the lungs in one case, and the 
joints in the other, are in a certain condition in which their healthy 
functions cannot be performed, and pain and suffering are the conse- 
quences of an attempt. 

A certain condition of the brain, unnatural and diseased, the effect 
of physical, mental or moral causes, produces insanity; the natural 
and healthy actions of this organ are disturbed or suspended, and dis- 
eased actions take the place of them. 

Thoughts, feelings, sensations, desires, aversions, passions and pro- 
pensities are produced through the medium of the brain, and are 
healthy and natural, or unhealthy and diseased, according to the condi- 
tion of this organ of the mind. 

When healthy actions and functions are restored to the brain, insan- 
ity disappears, and the raind is rational. Should there be a recur- 
rence of these symptoms a year or more after, it would be considered 
a new attack of disease, and not a relapse. If, however, the symptoms 
returned before the healthy condition of the brain was restored, it 
would be considered a relapse and not a recovery. 

The rule which we have adopted has been to consider all recur- 
rences within a year, relapses^ and recurrences after longer periods, 
neio attacks. We may make a few exceptions to both of these rules. 

The 50th and 51st cases in the table had been afflicted with perio- 
dical insanity for many years before they were committed to the hos- 
pital, but have had no recurrence since. One of them, a female, had 
been chained till she had entirely lost the use of her limbs, being una- 
ble to walk at all ; but for eight years, she has been quite well, both in 



60 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

body and mind, with entire restoration of her limbs, and has been able 
to support herself by manual labor. For many years before her reco- 
very, she had been a burthen to her friends, and a miserable object of 
suffering and distress. 

The other individual is a respectable farmer in a neighboring town, 
quite well in mind ; a healthy and prosperous citizen. 

Many others have had no recurrence of disease for many years, as 
may be seen by the table, and have now as fair a prospect of escaping 
insanity as other members of the community where they reside. 

By far the greatest number of recommittals is from a class of patients 
discharged by the Trustees as harmless and incurable, for want of 
room ; from those who are sent away by the officers in consequence of 
the crowded state of the hospital, they being private boarders ; or from 
such as are removed at the request of friends or overseers of the poor 
of towns in order to lessen the expense of support: a class of cases 
not discharged by the Trustees. 

These patients, in considerable numbers, leturn to the hospital from 
year to year as they become excited and unmanageable with their 
friends or in the almshouses, and do mischief, or endanger the secu- 
rity of those about them. 

The duty of discharge becomes imperative on the Trustees in con- 
sequence of the crowded state of the institution, and they select the 
most harndess and inoffensive patients. But those who are harmless 
and inoffensive here, are not always so with their friends, and the 
safety of their families and the community requires their recommittal. 

The time has arrived, when it is impossible to make room for all 
who desire a residence in the hospital. Great numbers of new patients 
are committed every month, recommittals take place frequently, and 
if one class are sent away, it only makes room for another ; so that 
before the Trustees again assemble, the institution is in the same 
crowded state, ready for them again to look about for others to send 
to the wretched receptacles prepared for them, whether in private fami- 
lies, almshouses, or prisons, places mostly unfit for their residence, 
and with those who know not how to take care of them, and who often 
feel little interest or regard for their welfare and happiness. 

The result of this state of things must be, that additional accommo- 
dations be provided, or that there must be a revision of the law of com- 
mittal. 

Those who have hereditary predisposition to insanity, and especially 
those who have periodical attacks in one or more recurrences of dis- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 61 

ease, should carefully avoid all the voluntary causes of insanity, — such 
as intemperance, the secret vice, all excitements of a political or re- 
ligious character, speculations, inventions, and every other unnatural 
excitement of the mind and feelings, which may incur the tendency to 
disease. 

One half the cases of mental alienation might be avoided if the sub- 
jects of them would shun the influences which bring these serious 
afflictions upon them. But if, after recovering from insanity, and going 
again to the cares and business of life, a person is regardless of the 
danger that surrounds him, and recklessly pursues the very path that 
before disturbed his mind, he can hardly expect to escape a recur- 
rence of disease. 

But there is a class of persons more unfortunate than these, — those 
who, by unavoidable calamity, have been rendered insane, and who, 
vi^hen they leave an institution, must again struggle with poverty, feel 
the influences of pecuniary embarrassment, suffer from ill health, the 
loss of friends, domestic trials, or whatever has before overwhelmed 
the mind, and plunged it into disease ; these are more to be pitied, 
because the causes are generally involuntary. But even these indivi- 
duals can do much to fortify themselves for these inevitable trials. 
Let the poor, and those who are disappointed of success in the pursuit 
of wealth look for higher motives of action, and nobler objects of pur- 
suit, than the riches which are not abiding, the pleasures of which are 
fleeting and transitory. Benevolent motives of duty, doing good in 
various ways, cultivating the nobler faculties of the mind, and higher 
moral sentiments, will tend greatly to secure those who are exposed to 
this severe calamity. If severe domestic afflictions have disturbed the 
mind, the consolations of religion afford the best solace. God is good, 
and the contemplation of his character, word and works is peculiarly 
fitted to afford comfort and hope, when the mind has been subjected to 
severe trials, and borne down with grief and anguish. 

The ills of life are many, and all must share in them ; as they can- 
not be avoided, we must learn how to bear them with resignation and 
hope, to aim at higher enjoyments and more lasting good than this 
world can afford, cultivate the finer feelings, elevate the character, 
look more to duty, and less to feeling, as a source of enjoyment, and 
wait with patience for the reward promised for a life of virtue. 

A great proportion of our trials and sufferings are the result of our 
violations of the natural lawsof life, which are established for our guid- 
ance, and to promote the happiness of our being. Here lie the causes 



62 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

of moral and physical evil, of disease, crime and suffering. Here may 
also be found the causes of insanity. 

We live in an age of excitement; we love freedom of thought and 
inquiry, and, regardless of settled principles, wander into the false 
fields of speculation in search of something more to gratify, or some- 
thing pleasant to enjoy. 

Excitement is the aliment of our people; it prompts them to new 
enterprises in business, to seek for new theories in politics, and novel 
schemes of religious faith, which at this time seem to be disturbing 
the quiet repose long felt in creeds which our fathers professed, and 
which have caused the stability of other times. 

Political strife, religious vagaries, over-trading, debt, bankruptcy, 
sudden reverses, disappointed hopes, and the fearful looking for of 
judgments which are to dissolve the natural elements of lime, all 
seem to have clustered together in these times, and are generally influ- 
ential in producing insanity. The hospitals are filling up most fear- 
fully with the victims of these evils, and the predisposed and periodi- 
cal are, in great numbers, plunged by them into the vortex of disease. 

The institutions for the insane are blameless for the numerous re- 
committals, while those who have recovered from insanity will throw 
themselves into these channels of excitement, and seek rather than 
avoid these known causes ot disease. This should not be so. If those 
who are predisposed to insanity would avoid these and many other 
known causes, they might pass safely on, and, in most cases, continue 
well. But repeated attacks produce a habit of recurrence, which, 
when once established, is extremely difficult to cure. 

By exposure to these causes, many who are not particularly inclined 
to insanity establish a predisposition, and, in themselves, commence 
the disease which is transmitted to their offspring, thus " visiting the 
iniquities of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth gene- 
ration." 

The motives to avoid and resist all the influences that have brought 
this fearful calamity would seem to be sufficient to induce any one to 
take the greatest care for his own safety ; but, in addition to this, he 
should consider what an evil he is entailing upon his children by this 
hereditary predisposition, and thereby incurring for himself a fearful 
responsibility. 

In a document like this, it is only proper to offer hints, not to dis- 
cuss principles. 

There is undoubtedly an intimate connexion between education and 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 63 

insanity, especially between early training and that condition of the 
brain which is manifested in precocious mental development. 

One of the great defects, both of nursery and school education, is 
the neglect of proper training of the bodily powers during childhood 
and youth. 

Nature provides an excess of the principle of life, that all young 
animals may not only grow, but be active and frolicsome, so that the 
locomotive system may be healthy, strong and well developed. Noise 
is also as useful as it is natural to children, because the lungs, and 
other organs of respiration, cannot be rendered strong and vigorous 
without exercise any more than the muscles. An opposite system of 
management, now too prevalent, leaves the child effeminate and slen- 
der. But this is not the worst of the evil. If the child is deprived of 
exercise, and kept at his studies too early or too long, the excess of 
the vital principle, which is produced for the purpose of giving acti- 
vity and energy to the digestive and locomotive system, is expended 
upon the brain and nervous system, and they become too susceptible, 
or diseased. This course, if pursued, leads directly to precocity of 
intellect, or to a train of nervous diseases, such as epilepsy, chorea, 
spinal distortion, &g.. which often mar the brightest intellect, or brino- 
on insanity. 

Next to neglect of the proper training of the locomotive system in 
producing physical imbecility and disease, is a pernicious system of 
dietetics, pampering the appetite with improper food, condiments 
and confectionary, inducing dyspepsy, the more inveterate because 
produced before the natural tone and vigor had been given to the sto- 
mach, when its susceptibility is greatest, and its power of endurance 
least. Then come the restraints of dress, which prevent the healthy 
and natural developement of vital organs, before growth is completed, 
and impede the natural functions of organs well focmed, whose office 
is essential to life. All bandages upon the body are pernicious, even 
tight shoes will often produce headach, and tight cravats bring on apo- 
plexy. Bandages on the chest are particularly injurious, as they im- 
pede respiration, one of the most important vital processes in the 
human system. 

The chemical principle of which respiration frees the blood at every 
round of its circulation is a poison to the brain, the same that destroys 
life in drowning, strangulation, the inhalation of irrespirable gases of 
wells and caves, and from the fumes of burning charcoal in close 
rooms. Any impediment to the regular and constant inhalation of vital 



64 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

air impedes the expulsion of this principle, and it eventually goes to 
the brain, diminishing its energies, disturbing its fimctions, and tending 
directly to produce disease. 

Such are briefly the foundations of innumerable evils laid in early 
life by ignorance or neglect of the natural laws of man. An inherit- 
ance accompanied with wealth and every thing to pamper and satiate, 
often fails to afford the happiness and substantial enjoyment which pov- 
erty secures with its daily toil, and the homely subsistence which stern 
necessity compels. 

The evil, well understood, leads to the remedies which education 
must apply to counteract it. Firm and healthy bodies, brains, lungs, 
stomachs, and moving powers, must be first secured. Care must be 
taken that none of them be overtaxed. The precocious and feeble 
must be taken from their books and put to active exercises ; the robust 
and vigorous must be taken from cruel exercises and sports, and put to 
study and more placid employments, lest with vigor they become un- 
feeling and pugnacious. 

Some of the mental faculties may need restraint, and others encoui-- 
agement ; active passions and propensities must be repressed, and all 
be kept under the guidance of the intellectual and moral powers. 
Firmness and cheerfulness under trial and suffering should be duly cul- 
tivated, that the evils which cross our paths may be borne when they 
cannot be avoided. In this way the ills of life may be endured with- 
out repining, the source of many diseases dried up at the fountain, and 
the causes of insanity be diminished both in number and severity. 

NATURE OF INSANITY. 

Insanity arises from disease of the brain, disturbing the healthy per- 
formance of its functions, and is exhibited in illusions, hallucinations, 
undue or morbid excitement of the feelings and propensities, perver- 
sion of the senses, or estrangement of the moral feelings. The causes 
may be moral, mental or physical. The disease may be primary, from 
some cause acting upon the brain itself, or it may be secondaiy, acting 
through the influence of other important organs which are diseased. 

In insanity it is rare that the functions of the brain are equally dis- 
turbed. Sometimes the intellectual faculties are principally affected, 
sometimes the moral feelings, and frequently the passions and propen- 
sities are made more active, while moral and intellectual restraints are 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 65 

lessened, and animal feelings become predominant and morbid, without 
apparent delusion or perversion of the senses. 

In some cases the moral feelings are too active, and the individual 
affected is apprehensive of evil from every circumstance, however 
trivial, and becomes timid and irresolute in the extreme. 

The faculties of the mind that have been most active in health, are 
often most affected by disease. 

The faculties affected by disease are in opposite states in the two 
forms of insanity most prominent, mania and melancholy. In the first 
there is a preponderance of excitement, in the latter a preponderance 
of depression. The animal and intellectual powers are quickened in 
mania.; the moral feelings are generally more acute in melancholy. 
In mania, where the excitement of the brain is usually great, and many 
of the faculties are in a very active state, conscientiousness is frequent- 
ly lessened, and little caution remains. In such a state of disease the 
patient, although a moral and religious person, will steal, swear and lie, 
apparently without any compunctions or conscientious feelings of re- 
gret. 

In melancholy, on the contrary, the mental energies are much de- 
pressed, the moral feelings are exceedingly acute and morbidly active, 
converting every action, of whatever nature, into a moral one. Such 
persons refuse food because it is wrong for them to eat, neglect dress 
because it fosters pride, and give to every movement they make, and 
every thought which passes through the mind, a moral character. 

Pride, vanity, firmness, the love of money, the destructive propen- 
sity, hope, the power of language, and sexual feeling, are often affected 
by insanity. It cannot be easily known how far the natural activity of 
these faculties tends to produce a diseased condition of them. The 
character of the insane varies as much as that of rational persons. 
Self-respect and love of approbation, exhibited in all the natural lan- 
guage characteristic of these feelings, are often conspicuous with the 
insane, while others are so deficient in these qualities, as to appear 
wholly regardless of personal pride, or the good opinion of others. 

Some have firmness amounting to obstinacy, while with others, the 
faculty is so weakened, as to remove all decision of character. Such 
patients spend nearly their whole time in making up their minds whe- 
ther they will do a thing or not, and frequently fail at last. In this 
state of vacillation and indecision, they regret if they do any act, and 
equally regret, if they decided not to do it, that they did not accom- 
plish it. They, are never satisfied with themselves, and often feel that 



66 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

they are despised by others. Three cases have recently come under 
my observation, which illustrate the character of insanity, accompa- 
nied by the loss of decision, with the want of control over the feelings 
so often felt in this form of mental alienation. 

A woman, aged 40, married an indulgent husband, and had been 
gratified with every thing that she could desire. Her health was feeble, 
and, for a season previous to her insanity, had not been as good as us- 
ual. She was of a nervous temperament, extremely susceptible, but 
not considered actually insane. She needed a carpet for one of her 
parlors, and went with her husband in pursuit of one. She found two 
that she liked, and with difficulty made a choice between them. She 
finally selected one, and it was brought home, and fitted to the room. 
Her husband engaged the other, lest she should not feel satisfied with 
the first. After the carpet was made and upon the floor, as her hus- 
band anticipated, she disliked it more and more every day, and was 
made nearly sick in considering the mistake she had made in the selec- 
tion, as she now much preferred the other. The other one was 
brought and fitted to the room ; it pleased for a time, and the first one 
was sent a hundred miles to New York, to be sold at auction. After a 
few days she began to think the first carpet was the best, and most be- 
coming to the room ; she lamented that she had made the change, and 
became nervous and sleepless about it. Her husband sent immediately 
to New York, and, finding the carpet unsold, ordered it to be returned 
and placed upon the floor. She was no better satisfied after a short 
time with this one than with the other, and between them both became 
so wretched, sleepless, and unhappy, as to make it necessary to place 
her in a hospital for the insane. There was the same want of decision 
in every thing that was proposed to be done. She lamented that she 
had done whatever she happened- to do, and regretted that she had not 
done what she had neglected ; thus she spent her time and rendered 
herself miserable. She improved considerably, but wished to return 
home before she was well, and an indulgent husband removed her. 
She still remains a miserable victim of indecision and alarm. 

Some time last autumn a lady consulted me who had this same want 
of decision, and fear, combined. She was feeble in health, and of a 
nervous temperament. In the spring she wanted a dress, and went 
with a friend to purchase one. She found two patterns that pleased 
her, and with difficulty decided which to take. She took one, however, 
and carried it home ; her friends were pleased with it, and she was ap- 
parently satisfied. The next day she looked upon it and disliked it ; 



.1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 67 

every day it was more disagreeable to her, and she entirely declined 
to have it made up. She thought the other much better, and wished 
that she had taken it. One of her friends, who liked the dress, pur- 
chased it from her, and the other pattern was procured. The dress 
was made up immediately, but before the time came to wear it, she 
disliked it even more than the other, and absolutely refused to wear 
it ; it was laid aside and never worn. The necessity of a dress be- 
came more and more urgent, and she procured a third, and finally a 
fourth with the same success, and when she returned the last one to the 
merchanP, she came to consult me, and see if something could not be 
done to remove this most distressing state of mind. 

A young lady of delicate constitution and nervous temperament, 
who had been the victim of ill health and great nervous susceptibility 
for many years, was placed under my care at the hospital. Fear and 
indecision were the predominant traits of her disease. She could not 
make up her mind to eat, and, if she neglected or refused to do so, 
she regretted it, but the next time was equally undecided. She would 
start many times in a day to visit me in my room, then turn back and 
not come, and then regret that she had not done it. For a long pe- 
riod her time was spent in this manner, and she was rendered very 
unhappy by regretting what she had done, or what she had neglected 
to do. After a time she became very desirous to go home and visit 
her friends ; but when they came for her she had great difficulty in 
deciding to go with them; she however went a considerable journey. 
No sooner had she reached home, than she regretted that she had left 
the hospital, and entreated her friends to bring her back the next day ; 
this was not done, but she became so anxious to return, that they 
brought her back the day after. She became more contented, grad- 
ually gained her health and mind, till she was completely restored, 
and has continued to be well ever since. 

Hope is one of the mental faculties often affected in insanity. It is 
strong in many cases, and brings anticipated pleasures, honors, wealth, 
and other enjoyments. In melancholy cases it is often depressed, and 
every thing is dubious and uncertain. The world, the objects of for- 
mer regard, friends and kindred, the works of nature, and whatever 
formerly pleased and gratified, lose all their charms, and fail to excite 
pleasure, or afford enjoyment. 

Lost or diminished hope is one of the most distressing forms of re- 
ligious melancholy. This often takes place when diseased conscien- 
tiousness forms a feature in the case. All the past life is looked upon 



68 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

as a barren waste, every foible is magnified to a heinous sin, all past 
hope and enjoyment of religious feeling has been delusive, — the work 
of Satan to blind the mind and then ensnare it. Unpardonable sin is 
the frequent delusion of this class of suiTerers, and hopeless, intermi- 
nable woe their certain doom. If attachment to life be not strong in 
such cases, suicide is contemplated, and often consummated, with end- 
less, unavoidable misery in full prospect ! As none but those who 
have a competency become insane from fear of poverty, so none but 
the religious and strictly conscientious commit the unpardonable sin. 
Indeed, diseased conscientiousness attends great numbers of melan- 
choly cases. 

With the suicidal, there is a condition of the mind connected with 
diseased conscientiousness, which leads to desperation and the most 
earnest desire for self-destruction: it is when the patient feels utter 
worthlessness, a conviction that he can never be better or happier, that 
he is a burthen and disgrace to his friends, and that it would be better 
for all interested if he was out of the way. 

Many cases come to the hospital in which the disease is of short 
continuance, but which are apparently quite demented. They neither 
speak, move, eat, rise or sit voluntarily, or without aid. One woman 
lived by means of the stomach-pump for ten successive weeks, not 
having swallowed food in a single instance during the time, and then 
took her food and recovered favorably. She would doubtless have 
starved to death without this method of administering food. Two pa- 
tients have been in this condition of mind for some weeks during the 
past season, both of whom have recovered, and long since returned to 
their friends. 

Perverted senses and false perceptions are common with the insane. 
We have at this time two patients who are affected by magnetism. 
One is magnetized by those who surround him, that they may play 
tricks upon him. He carried loaded pistols, to revenge upon those 
who thus imposed upon him. In attempting to defend himself with 
these dangerous weapons, in revenge for an imaginary insult, he was 
arrested while in the act of presenting his pistol, and was thus saved 
from destroying an innocent victim of his suspicion. 

The other, a female, is tormented by the constant suggestions of a 
magnetizer, sent by some evil-minded persons to harass and disturb 
her; yet she thinks she must do whatever he tells her to do, and 
believe all that he communicates, which makes her constantly jealous, 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 69 

unstable, and unhappy. Both these patients, in most other respects, 
seem to be well. 

Some time ago, we had a patient who had false perception of 
feeling. During the night, his fingers would enlarge to the size of 
logs of wood, and his lips roll out like bundles of cloth or leather, 
and other features of his face were, in like proportion, enlarged and 
deformed. Feeling did not correct the false impression ; the hand, 
placed upon th^ lips and face, confirmed, rather than removed, the 
illusion. When daylight came, and he could see his fingers, the 
illusion was dispelled; but he was obliged to see his face in a mirror, 
before he could be satisfied that the features were not distorted. 
Removing the impression for a time did not effect a cure ; the 
diseased sensation returned, and he resorted to the mirror many times 
a day to correct it. 

Many insane persons have a diseased sensation on the surface, like 
the crawling of worms and vermin ; some have real, and many imagi- 
nary, eruptions. 

Neuralgia is also a common attendant on some forms of insanity. 
Those whose excitement comes in paroxysms often have neuralgia in 
the lucid interval. 

False taste leads the suspicious to imagine their food and drinks 
to be medicated or poisoned. A man now under our care, says, 
almost daily, that the medicine which comes in his food operates 
favorably ; sometimes he thinks there is too much of it, and sometimes 
he would like more. 

An old man now under our care, suffered greatly from thirst for a 
long time, because his drinks were poisonous. In the purest water, 
he could detect the taste of drugs ; and his meat, at the same time, 
was horse-flesh. These delusions are now removed, though the in- 
sanity, of thirty years' duration, is not cured. 

There is a young man now in the Hospital, who hears a voice in 
his toe which he dares not disobey. It is a sort of household god, 
which dictates to him, and he follows the directions implicitly. 

Many asthmatics are insane, and there is often a marked coin- 
cidence between their paroxysms of hard breathing and increase of 
delusion and general irritation. It is an interesting inquiry, whether 
the interruption of regular respiration, in this disease, and the conse- 
quent circulation of carbon to the brain, disturbs its functions and 
increases insanity. It is a question covering a broad field, and would 
reach those mechanical restraints of the chest, which, in a similar 



70 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

way, disturb this important function of the body. Nearly half the 
persons who have committed homicide, that have been in the Hospital, 
were asthmatics. 

Epilepsy and palsy impair the memory, and gradually lead to 
fatuity. 

In a few cases of slight paralysis, the pupils of the eye are unequal; 
one will be contracted, and the other enlarged. In other incurable 
cases, the pupils of both eyes are contracted to a point. I have not 
known cases of either description recover. 

In one case now under our care, the unequal contraction of the 
pupils is accompanied with false vision. The patient sees murderers 
about him, rising up from the ground and the floors, disturbing him 
exceedingly. He is afraid to go to bed, and has slept standing, 
braced in the corner of his room, for many years. He often ad. 
dresses his assailants, and those whom he thinks are in conspiracy 
with them, with great vehemence of language and gesture. 

In some cases, the eye is not pained by strong light, and the patient 
can look steadily at the meridian sun, for minutes together, without 
winking. There is at this time a woman in the Hospital, who fre- 
quently does this at mid-day, with apparent pleasure. 

Some insane persons have an aversion to certain colors. An old 
lady, who resided many years in the Hospital, disliked blue; she not 
only detested the color, but despised and avoided every person that 
wore it. 

IMPULSIVE AND HOMICIDAL INSANITY. 

Many cases of insanity exhibit no delusion, nor even permanent 
excitement. Monomaniacs converse well at times, and on many sub- 
jects. They are often irritable, excitable, and passionate, but when 
not disturbed are calm and intelligent. The moral sense is as active 
and correct, with them, as with other persons : they know right from 
wrong, are sensible of their errors, lament the consequences of their 
excitement, and strive to control themselves, that they may do right 
and appear well. Many such cases are exceedingly conscientious, 
fear to do wrong, and are anxious to make reparation or acknowledg- 
ment. 

Many insane persons know their condition, know their own weak- 
ness, and yet are not always able to counteract the influences that 
excite them to mischief. They are governed by impulse, which is 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 71 

excited so suddenly that the counteracting or antagonizing influences 
do not move seasonably to prevent mischief. This is their disease. 
The active propensities are quickened, and the counteracting moral 
sentiments are more tardy. As is commonly said, the individual acts 
before he thinks, and in a moment often regrets what he has done. 

The impulsive insane are often irritable, restless, and jealous. 
Sometimes they have delusions, and sometimes not. Their delusions 
frequently seem to have no connexion with their outbreaks of violence. 
They are often the best, and at the same time the most dangerous class 
of patients in the asylums. They have little of the charity of the 
world, are most likely to be punished for their offences, and yet have 
the least control over their conduct. 

One man in the Hospital, the past year, went out to do a small job 
of labor. In the absence of his attendant, the thought came into his 
mind that he would go and see his brother, a distance of forty miles. 
He dropped his tools and went off". He walked with great rapidity 
some hours; and then came the reflection, "Should I have left the 
Hospital in this way ? " The reason why he should not have left did 
not occur to him till he had got far away, and then he was anxious to 
return. He inquired the way, wandered a great distance, and finally, 
coming to a rail-road, took passage and returned. He was overjoyed 
to get back, and seemed as well as usual, but much fatigued. This 
man killed his wife under the influence of one of these impulses. He 
is a good laborer, conscientious, judicious, and honest. These im- 
pulses occur but rarely. He has always been trusted to labor alone, 
or with companions. Twice, in ten years, he has gone off" under such 
an impulse, and returned voluntarily after it left him. 

Another man, who is more constantly insane, left the Hospital under 
a similar impulse. He travelled two days, and then felt that he must 
return. He tried to hire the landlord with whom he stayed to bring 
him back, which he declined doing. He then endeavored to find his 
way back, but got into the wrong range of towns, and passed by. He 
was finally returned by a landlord whose house he visited, and a mod- 
erate sum was paid to the messenger for his trouble. The patient 
almost daily expresses his regret that so much money should have been 
paid for his return, when he could as well have come back alone, if he 
could have found the way. He declares he will never run away again. 
This man killed a neighbor, twenty-eight years ago, under the influence 
of one of these impulses. 

Some time during the last summer, a patient was at work in the 



72 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

field, hoeing corn. His attendant directed him to vary his labor in 
some way. In a moment he raised his hoe, and struck him over the 
head. The wound. bled freely, and looked more severe than it really 
was. The patient and the wounded man both returned to the house. 
Language cannot describe the suffering of this unfortunate man. He 
inquired of me most earnestly if the wound was fatal, — if the man 
could recover. He was pale, agitated, trembling, expressed his sorrow 
and regret that he had done the deed, and begged that he might see 
the wounded man and obtain his forgiveness. After the wound was 
dressed, the man went into the apartment to see the patient, who fell 
upon his knees and asked his forgiveness in most imploring language, 
expressing his sorrow for what he had done. This man also com- 
mitted homicide some years ago, and now expresses his sorrow, pro- 
tests his innocence of the crime, and daily prays to God for his 
forgiveness. 

Many of the petty outbreaks in the institutions for the insane, such 
as breaking glass and crockery, tearing clothes and bedding, sudden 
excitement of passion, &c., are the result of these impulses, no less 
than the more serious matters of suicide and homicide. 

Suicide is not always impulsive, though it is very frequently so. 
I have known many instances, in which the fitness of the place and 
the means at hand seemed the causes that impelled to the act at the 
time. 

Many persons contemplate suicide, fear that they shall in an un- 
guarded moment perpetrate it, prepare and keep the means at hand 
for days and weeks together, and yet never attempt it ; such a person 
may do it afterwards under a momentary but strong excitement of the 
feelings. 

A patient now in the Hospital, who is very impulsive, has informed 
me that he has plunged into the water many times, with the intention 
of suicide, but that the effect of the water had always been such as 
to remove the desire of self-destruction, and he had immediately 
struggled to save himself. 

One patient, who was very suicidal, informed me, after recovery, 
that, when he was insane, he contemplated suicide; had the greatest 
dread of it, and fear that he might commit it ; urged his friends to 
keep every thing out of his way, lest he might be induced to take his 
own life; and yet, at the same time, he would carry a razor in his 
pocket for days together, and secrete it under his pillow at night. 

A patient now in the Hospital will often give up knife, scissors, and 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 73 

every weapon that may be used for self-destruction, and yet these same 
instruments will, at another time, be found secreted under the bed, 
though they have never been used. This shows that the subject is 
frequently in mind. 

The result of my inquiries in regard to suicide is, that, while it is 
a subject often considered by the insane melancholic, yet, w^hen the 
deed is done, it is more frequently under the excitement of one of 
those impulses, which hurries its victim to the deed of daring before 
the antagonizing influences are excited. 

There have been fifteen persons in the Hospital, who have actually 
committed homicide under the influence of insanity ; and five others 
have made desperate attacks with deadly weapons, or inflicted wounds 
that did not prove fatal. In most of these cases, the fatal deed was 
done under the influence of insane impulse, which we have been 
considering. 

In general, homicidal insanity is impulsive ; in a few cases only 
so far as I have known, has there been any considerable premeditation 
of the act, even in cases of supposed command from powers which 
the insane individual felt bound to obey. The command and the 
execution of it are both impulsive, and generally follow one another 
in such quick succession that the opposing influences are not aroused 
to interfere and prevent the deed. 

The interest at present felt in this subject, and the necessity of hav- 
ing all the facts that can be collected in a tangible form, have induced 
me to present in this report a brief history of the fifteen homicidal 
cases that have been under my care. 

Seven of the fifteen cases of homicide that have been in the hospital, 
were not considered insane before they committed the act. They 
were at work at their several employments, were not observed by 
those associated with them to have any evidence of alienation of 
mind, knew as well as others right from wrong, how to manage their 
aff"airs and conduct business well. The first overt act of insanity was 
the homicidal act, and that was impulsive. Yet in all these cases the 
symptoms of insanity have been clear and decisive since the patients 
came to the hospital. 

In this connexion it may not be improper to say, that of all the 
cases that have come to my knowledge, and I have examined the sub- 
ject with interest for many years, I have known but a single instance 
in which an individual arraigned for murder, and found not guilty by 
reason of insanity, has not afterwards shown unequivocal symptoms of 
10 



74 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

insanity in the jails or hospitals where he has been confined ; and I 
regret to say that quite a number who have been executed, have shown 
as clear evidence of insanity as any of these. In a large proportion of 
the cases, the insane man is desirous to keep the evidence of his men- 
tal alienation out of sight rather than to present it, while he who feigns 
insanity generally presents it in caricature. 

I am aware that the plea of insanity is often made in criminal trials, 
and may be made so often as to excite public prejudice ; but till the 
subject is better understood, it cannot be too frequently or too tho- 
roughly investigated. The old boundaries have been or loill be broken 
down, and new principles will govern courts and jurors in deciding 
upon the lives of their fellow-men. 

The abstract principles of right and wrong are as well understood 
by a large proportion of the inmates of insane hospitals as in the com- 
munity at large. 

Even in sane communities, the question of right and wrong is every 
day considered by courts and jurors, and how often are they unable to 
agree as to what is right or decide what is wrong ! 

In many cases of controversy the parties are often both honest in 
their opinion of right, though diametrically opposite to each other. 
Shall more be required of insane tTian of sane men, in such circum- 
stances 1 

So far as I have been able, I have obtained some account of the 
trials of the cases of homicide that have been in the hospital ; when I 
could not do this I have taken the history of the patients given by the 
officers who brought them to us, or by their friends, whom we have 
subsequently seen. We have also many circumstances of the cases 
from the patients themselves, who are the only persons that know the 
principal facts connected with them, and are able to state minutely 
every transaction. Some are indisposed to talk about it, others are 
greatly disturbed if the subject is mentioned, and two or three are too 
much demented to give any account of it. 

CASES OF HOMICIDE. 

No. 1. J H , of S , in this State, killed J- R , 



on^the 1 3th of Sept. 1815. He was immediately arrested, and the 
next April was indicted by the grand jury for murder. In September 
following, a year from the time he committed the offence, he had his 
trial before the Supreme Judicial Court. When called to plead guilty 
or not guilty, he said with emphasis, " I killed him ; I gave him three 



1843.J SENATE— No. 19. 75 

blows; one in the name of the Father, one in the name of the Son, 
and one in the name of the Holy Ghost." 

The question was, whether he was of sound memory or not when 
he committed the offence. The jury returned a verdict that the 
prisoner was not of " sane memory," and ordered that he should be 
returned to the prison, and there kept till duly discharged. 

In January, 1833, he was committed to this hospital, where he has 
since remained. 

The history of the case is briefly this : H- had been insane for 

some years, was part of the time in his place of residence in this State, 
and part of the time in the State of New York. A day or two pre- 
vious to the homicide, he had been very insane, and the authorities of 
the town had placed him in the care of two or three men of whom 

R was one. According to his story, they broke into his house 

and took him. They went into the woods together, chopping, and 

took H with them ; while they were busy at their work, he left 

them and went off. R pursued and overtook him, brought him 

back again, and went about his work. H seized an axe and gave 

R a fatal blow, two others followed, which mangled his head in a 

shocking manner. 

It seems H had a presentiment that he must kill R . He 

says that months before when he was walking in the road, in the State of 

New York, he looked down beside him and saw R 's head, severed 

from his body, lying on the ground. 

He always speaks of R as Gath Goliah. He was seventeen 

years in confinement in jail, and has been in the hospital about ten 
years. He speaks of his confinement in jail as a merited punishment, 
but not for the homicide. He is very excitable, but generally quiet. 
He sees visions and dreams dreams, has many pleasant anticipations, 
and thinks that the prophets and apostles will, after a while, send him 
new clothes, and a chariot with fine horses for his deliverance. 

He has two deities, the " federal God Almighty," and the " negro 
God Almighty." The former is the good Being whom he worships, 
from whom he receives all his good gifts, and expects all that is desira- 
ble. The other promises and disappoints him, is treacherous and de- 
ceitful. He learns by the result of his expectations whether the good 
or bad Being has made him promises. 

He is kind in his feelings, neat in his p'erson, thankful for all favors, 
but excitable, impulsive, and violent in the extreme when excited. He 



76 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jarx. 

has the insane countenance, especially the insane eye, which flashes 
wonderfully in his excitement. 

He is now sixty-eight years of age, healthy except being troubled 
with asthma. As a prophet he has predicted the time of his own death 
to be in about two years, and no argument will convince him that he 
shall survive that period. 

No. 2. P M , was a native of Ireland. He was committed 

to jail for an assault in which he inflicted very severe wounds upon 
a countryman, which, report says, were afterwards fatal. His trial be- 
fore the supreme judicial court was in November, 180:3. His sentence 
was to " sit upon the gallows one hour, to suffer six months' imprison- 
ment, and to pay the costs of prosecution." 

While in jail suffering this punishment, he made another assault on 
a fellow-prisoner with a knife. For this offence he was again taken 
into court for trial, but was remanded to prison by the court on the 
ground of insanity. While in this jail he was in the most pitiable, filthy 
condition, his beard was so long that it would reach to his knees when 
he sat down. During the whole period of his confinement, he could 
never be prevailed upon to wash or shave himself, or change his 
clothes. It was the practice to shave him every three or four weeks, 
and " to wash him and change his whole clothing and bed every 

SPRING and FALL ! " 

During one of these semi-annual ablutions, in 1S26, he made an 
attack upon his keeper with a deadly weapon, and inflicted a severe 
wound. 

From 1808 to 1815, a period of about seven yeais, he was not 
known to speak a word to any person. After the expiration of that 
time he, in some way, procured intoxicating drink, wandered away 
into a neighboring grave-yard and began to sing. After this he did 
not refuse to talk. 

During his residence of thirty years in the prison, he had frequent 
turns of fasting; and two or three times took no food for fourteen 
days in succession. 

He was brought to the hospital in February, 1833. He was very 
civil and quiet, and in remarkably good condition, but suffered severely 
in his long and cold ride of thirty miles. He took his food well, 
washed himself, and kept hi« room and bed in good order. He lived 
but a few weeks after entering the hospital, having contracted a fatal 
disease on his way from the jail. 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 77 

No. 3. In September, 18! 7, P S was indicted for tiie 

murder of M S , who lived in the house with him. After a 

patient hearing of the case, the jury returned a verdict of " not guilty by 
reason of insanity," and he was remanded to prison. 

Before his trial and at the time, a large proportion of his neighbors 
and acquaintance believed him to be sane in mind, but jealous, pas- 
sionate and vindictive. After his confinement the most incredulous 
became satisfied that he was insane, and that his acquittal was right 
and proper. 

While in prison his excitements were almost wholly impulsive — he 
often screamed at the top of his voice, to the great annoyance of the 
neighbors and of the inmates of the prison. 

From 1817 to 1833, this unfortunate mon was confined in the 
prison, in a room without a floor, with very inadequate means of 
warming, and much of the time without clothing. I once saw him in 
his cell ; then he was naked, black as a collier with the dust of char- 
coal, and his long hair and beard gave him a most terrific appearance. 

The sheriff says of him, " during this whole time, sixteen years, he 
has been evidently deranged, and a considerable proportion of it furi- 
ously mad ; " his turns of madness have not been periodical but occa- 
sional, though frequent, and generally characterized by great noise 
and boisterousness. It has been found impracticable to keep him de- 
cently clad ; he has been repeatedly clothed in suits, the material and 
fashion of which seemed best adapted to prevent a removal by him, but 
all to no purpose." 

He came into the hospital in March, 1833. He was clad in a new 
suit, washed and shaved, and appeared very well. I commended him 
on his good appearance, he seemed pleased with the flattery and 
thought much of his new suit. From that time to this, nearly ten 
years, he has been constantly well clad, and, while his garments are 
whole, never tears or injures them. During his residence in the hos- 
pital, he has been impulsive and very excitable, but is quiet and harm- 
less, and now nearly demented. 

No. 4. At the September term of the supreme judicial court, A. 

D. 1829, holden in the county of , there was presented to the 

court by the grand jurors, the following document. 

" The jurors of the Commonwealth aforesaid, upon their oaths 
represent and certify, to the said court, that they have inquired into 

and examined the case of E H , of D , in said county, 

yeoman, who was charged before them with the murder of A—— 



78 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

H -, the wife of him the said E , at D , aforesaid, on the 

26th day of September, now current ; that, upon the examination and 
inquiry aforesaid, it was proved to the entire satisfaction and belief of 
the jurors aforesaid, that at the time the crime aforesaid was commit- 
ted, and for ten years previous to that time, said E H was 

and had been in a state of mental derangement, and, in their opinion, 
not a subject of punishment for the commission of said offence." 

On the ground of the dangerous character of his insanity, H 

was committed to the prison from whence he was removed to this hos- 
pital in March,- 1833. 

H belonged to an insane family. His grandfather, father, 

one uncle, one aunt, and two sisters, have been insane. One of his 
sisters is now confined in this hospital. 

He was born in the year 1784. When he was nine years old, he 
had a short attack of insanity, which recurred soon after a season of 
religious excitement, in the town where he lived. Almost every sub- 
sequent attack, and he has had many, has occurred after devoting close 
and anxious attention to the subject of religion. 

From the year 1810 to the year 1818 he had several attacks, all, or 
nearly all, sudden, in which he was governed by impulses, lodged 
many nights in the woods, and wandered from place to place, highly 
excited. He was often so dangerous as to be bound with cords and 
other means of restraint. During these eight years, his intervals were 
longer and more entirely lucid. During the next ten years, at the 
close of which he committed the homicide, his paroxysms continued 
longer and the lucid intervals were less perfect. He had repeated 
impulsive movements, by which he was induced to drop his implements 
of labor in the field and start off, and perhaps be gone from his family 
many days in succession, when he would return to his home exhausted 
with fatigue, and nearly famished for want of sustenance. 

During one of these excitements, in which he had had a season of 
great perplexity and confusion of mind, he seemed disposed to take 
some sleep in his chair. It was on the fatal day of the lamented 
homicide. The children left the room, and his wife " made him 
something to drink," and, tasting it, said with a cheerful voice, 
" come, let us drink, and forget our sorrow and remember our poverty 
no more." He took the cup and drank, and said, "I wish it might kill 
me," or " that I might die." She again took her seat beside him 
while he sat musing. Soon after he arose and passed into another 
room, seized an andiron, and stepping back silently, he gave her the 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 79 

fatal blow on the head, inflicting a wound which immediately destroyed 
her senses ; she survived about an hour. 

The dreadful act brought him to his senses sufficiently to realize 
the enormity of the offence and the dreadful reality that was presented 
before him. He was immediately arrested and confined in prison. 
The trial above detailed soon followed. 

This patient is much of the time calm and intelligent. He has 
often said to me that, when he arose from his seat and passed into the 
other room, he had not thought of killing his wife ; the impulse was 
sudden and the deed was done before he reflected. In one moment 
his sorrow was overwhelming. 

Since he has been in the hospital, he has much of the time been 
quiet and very pleasant, he works abroad and often alone, is judicious 
in his labor, but is impulsive and excitable in such a degree as to ren- 
der him at times a very dangerous man. 

Twice, since he has been in the hospital, and while abroad at his 
labor, he has, under the influence of these impulses, started off sud- 
denly and become so bewildered as not to be able to return imme- 
diately. Once he was gone twenty-four hours, and the other time was 
absent more than a week. The last of these elopements was in the 
month of September last, nearly at the same time of the year and 
month that he committed the homicide. 

He is now fifty-eight years old, subject to the asthma, but in other 
respects well. 

No. 5. S B committed homicide on the person of his 

wife Oct. 9, 1S04, on which day he was committed for trial. He was, 
it is understood, indicted for murder, and at the regular term of the 
Supreme Judicial Court, was tried and excused from punishment on 
the ground of insanity. He was remanded to prison, and had been 
kept in confinement twenty-nine years, when he was committed to the 
hospital in 1833. 

Some time previous to this homicide, B , who had been a sea- 
man, undertook the management of his farm. He had some difficul- 
ties with his neighbors about the " landmarks," which perplexed his 
mind. In the midst of these troubles he was drawn as a juryman, a 
new business, which increased his embarrassment already too great for 
his disturbed mind. He was not considered insane by his friends, but 
only troubled. 

When the time arrived for him to act as juryman, he started very 
early to walk to the place of the court, a distance of seventeen miles. 



80 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

While on his way his head became painful and confused, and every 
human face he met seemed strange to hira, and he thought the people 
were " devils." 

He went on to the court-house, where he found many persons assem- 
bled, but the court was not in session. In a kw minutes he again 
became confused and suddenly blind ; every thing appeared strange to 
him, and he walked about on the village-green. If he attempted to go 
into the crowd, and especially if he entered the court-house, the faces 
of men changed, and they seemed to him " devils." 

While in this perplexing situation, hardly knowing what to do, he 
started at a rapid pace for home. On the way he had frequent turns of 
the strange sensation in his head, and blindness came over him which 
bewildered him exceedingly. Being extremely fatigued, he lay down 
upon the ground in a grave-yard on the way, and slept some time. 
When he awoke, he found a companion by him who accompanied him 
on the road for some distance, when he suddenly vanished and he saw 
no more of him. This is his own account of the matter. When half 
way home, he was overtaken by the stage and rode the remainder of 
the distance. 

When he reached home he found his family together at tea, and the 
father and mother of his wife with them. He ate his supper, but felt 
badly at the time. After supper, he took his pail and went to the 
barn to milk his cow. The family had learned or discovered that 
something unusual disturbed his mind, and provided watchers for the 
night. He retired early but slept little, was anxious, restless, and 
wakeful. He rose early, milked the cow, and breakfasted as usual. 
The watchers left, and he busied himself with some light work about 
the yard. While at work about the house, his wife prepared some- 
thing to drink that had cherry-rum in it, and invited him to come in 
and partake of the beverage with her. He obeyed the summons, and 
they sat down together with as much love as usual. They sipped 
together, talking kindly and affectionately, when suddenly he became 
terribly confused, said his wife appeared and acted very strangely, and 
every thing with him was " hurly burly." He rose quickly from his seat, 
seized a billet of wood which lay by him and walked out of the room 
in great confusion. He came back immediately and struck his wife a 
fatal blow, he then stepped into the pantry adjoining, took a razor and 
cut his own throat. His wife groaned bitterly ; he then ran into 
the street, the wound bleeding freely, and went towards the house of 
his wife's father. He fainted from the loss of blood. The whole 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 81 

neighborhood soon collected, and he was immediately carried to the 
jail and confined ; his wife survived but a few hours. 

His delusion was that he considered himselt' to be the " true God." 

He led a most uncomfortable and wretched life in jail, suffering from 
cold, filth, vermin, and the provocations and insults of bad men and 
boys, who delighted to torment him through the grating of his lonely 
cell. 

He was brought to the hospital in February, 1833, and continued 
till August, 1839, when he sank under the disease of the chest and 
general dropsy, without any change in his character, or removal of his 
long-cherished delusion. 

His excitements were altogether impulsive, and he continued, while 
under our care, to be excessively irritable and passionate, but usually 
calm and " sensible" as he used to express himself Slight things dis- 
turbed him, and when he was excited, there were no bounds to his rage 
and fury. 

There is no evidence in this case that the homicide had any con- 
nexion with the delusion, or that the delusion existed at the time. The 
symptoms of insanity were not developed till the day previous. It is 
not known when he assumed the title of "true God," but it was many 
years before he came to the hospital. 

All his excitements were impulsive, sudden and violent beyond ex- 
ample, yet he did no injury while under our care, and was civil and 
respectful to officers and visitors generally. 

As evidence of his attachment to his wife, and that he cherished 
her memory, it is interesting to know that he kept sacred a handker- 
chief, ring, and some other relics, which he said " belonged to his 
girl," — nothing would induce him to part with them. 

No. 6. H T was committed to the jail in B., on the 

charge of the murder of a convict in the State Prison in Charlestown. 
He was tried before the Supreme Judicial Court the same month, and 
found not guilty, by reason of insanity. It is understood that there 
had been an affray in prison, and a black boy was stating some facts 

to the officers, which implicated T , in his presence. He had 

secreted a knife, which he drew, and reaching behind the officer, stab- 
bed the boy, and inflicted a fatal wound upon him. I cannot vouch 
for the truth of this statement. 

After his trial he was remanded to prison as a dangerous lunatic. 
He v/as confined alone for a time, and then requested that some per- 
il 



82 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

son might be permitted to read the Bible to him. Two of the prison- 
ers volunteering to do this, the jailor suffered them to stay with him. 
About midnight, the cry of " murder" was heard in his room. The 
officers immediately assembled, but he had inflicted fatal wounds upon 
the two men while asleep, of which they died some days after. On 

seeing the officers, T exclaimed in the highest excitement, 

'' victory ! victory !" &c. ; but soon settled down into the deepest mel- 
ancholy, or, as the jailor termed it, sulkiness. 

He escaped from the jail, and contrived ways and means to unlock 
the doors of the prisoners, so that for many months he was able to go 
about, enter the apartments of the other prisoners, and spend whole 
nights with them. This he continued to do, till finally he contracted 
the venereal disease, which was so bad, that his sufferings became in- 
supportable, and his life in danger ; he then consulted the physician 
of the prison, and disclosed the secret of his nocturnal visits and il- 
licit intercourse with the female. convicts. 

Having learned his desperate character, I Vv'rote to the governor of 

the State, requesting that T might be detained in prison, as we 

had no place sufficiently strong to hold him, if he chose to get out. 

He remained with us a few weeks only, and escaped by sawing off 
his door with an instrument made by himself, or in some way furnish- 
ed him. 

During his residence in the hospital, he conducted himself well, was 

punctual to his engagements, and faithful to his pledge. He was often 

exceedingly irritable and discontented, but at times calm and pleasant. 

He claimed to have visits from Jesus Christ and the devil, and to 

have the gift of prophecy. 

He was always grateful for all indulgences, and expressed much 
thankfulness that he was removed from prison to such a comfortable 
abode, and that he could take his food at the table with knife, fork 
and plate, a privilege that had been denied him nearly or quite half his 
life. 

He brought with him to the hospital many of the keys which he 
had used to visit the different apartments of the prison. 

Since his escape, it has been reported that T has married 

and settled upon the " disputed territory," within or near the Canadian 
border, where he is cultivating his farm unmolested, a quiet, peaceable 
citizen. 

No. 7. J S was tried for the murder of his wife before 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 83 

the Supreme Judicial Court, in May, 1827. Tiie circumstances of 
the case, as near as we have been able to obtain them were these : 

S was for some time connected with a nail factory as a sort of 

porter or waiter. He was inclined to intemperance, and was ignorant, 
credulous, and if not insane, very eccentric. Some of the workmen 
in wicked sport attempted to excite in his mind a jealousy of his wife, 
and, to convince him that she was inconstant, declared that they had 
personal knowledge of her infidelity. This game was played for some 
time, and the mind of S was poisoned by their wicked and un- 
founded representations. The night previous to the homicide, after 
he had been treated with strong drink nearly to intoxication, unusual 
pains were taken to convince him that their representations were true ; 
circumstances were related and evidence presented, which would have 
influenced a stronger and less jealous mind. He went home late at 
night, and in the morning his wife was found dead ; she had been 
killed by a bludgeon. He acknowledged the dreadful act, and gave 
his justification. 

Having been found insane by the Court, he was confined in jail 
from May 1827 till January 1833, when he was removed to this hos- 
pital, where he has since been confined. 

The only delusion which affects his mind is that he is a sheriff, and, 
in virtue of his oflSce, has powers above all others that are around 
him. He is usually harmless, his mind is less active than formerly ; 
he inclines to be absent-minded, and to talk to himself 

He does not often allude to the subject of the homicide, and is in- 
disposed to speak of it. He is far less irritable and impulsive than 
any other homicide I have known among the insane. 

No. 8. A E was tried for the murder of an infant child one 

year of age, and excused from punishment on the ground of insanity. 
-The circumstances, so far as I have been informed, were these. 

E was left in the house while the mother went out to milk her 

cow ; a sudden impulse seized him that he must slay three persons. 
He took a razor and cut the throat of the child, inflicting a wound 
that was immediately fatal. He (hen took an axe and pursued an old 
man with the intention of making him a second victim, but he was 
rescued in time to save his life, and the maniac was arrested and con- 
fined. 

E had been somewhat insane for some time previous, but was 

not considered dano-erous till he committed this dreadful deed. Since 



84 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [3an. 

that time he has been in confinement in jail, in the McLean Asylum, 
in a Caere in the house of his family, and was removed to the hospital 
in the spring of 1834. 

E had formerly periods of great excitement, in which he would 

lament in the most bitter terms the trouble into which this unfortunate 
act had brought him. He is generally a good laborer, is most of the 
time quiet, but very excitable, spends much time in prayer and lamen- 
tation, protesting his innocence, and imploring the forgiveness of his 
Heavenly Father. 

For the last few years E has been less excitable and passionate, 

but is continually sinning and repenting. At times he is very irritable, 
and subject to sudden impulses of excitement, in which he is exceed- 
insly liable to do injury if not strictly guarded.' 

No. 9. B R had been violently insane six or seven years, 

and was most of the time confined in a cage, but becoming more calm 
he was let out of his cage by his friends on trial, when he immediate- 
ly seized a bludgeon, flew at an imbecile brother, and slew him on the 
spot. He was immediately confined more closely than before, and con- 
tinued to be so till he lost the use of his limbs, and his health became 
considerably impaired. He came to the hospital in this condition, his 
mind nearly idiotic, and his lower limbs contracted and useless. Not- 
withstanding his extreme prostration he was violent at times, and very 
impulsive. 

By unwearied attention the use of his limbs was restored, and for a 
time his health improved. He gave us little trouble, continued in the 
hospital five years, and died of marasmus. 

There was no trial in this case, as the unfortunate man was known 
to have been a maniac for many years. 

The brother who was the victim of his delusion and rage was also 
insane. 

No. 10. A L was tried for the murder of his wife in 

October 1833. He was acquitted on the ground of insanity, and or- 
dered to be committed to the State Lunatic Hospital, into which he 
was admitted in February, 1834. 

L had for years been subject to depression of spirits, and 

turns of great despondency, in which every evil that could befal him 
was apprehended. He sometimes kept his bed at such times, refused 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 85 

to take his food, was irritable and ill-natured, could not bear contra- 
diction or opposition of any kind. 

When well, he was an industrious man, a miller by trade, a good 
husband, and kind father. 

A day or two previous to the homicide he had one of these turns 
of gloom and depression. In these paroxysms he sometimes contem- 
plated suicide, and at this time particularly. His pistol was loaded, 
ready for the dreadful act at any moment when he should feel suffi- 
ciently desperate. 

He came into the house where his wife and one or more children 
were sitting together ; she had put away the powder, and emptied 
the pan, fearing he might injure himself Very soon after he came in 
he took down the pistol, examined it, and finding no priming, asked 
his wife in a peremptory tone for the powder-horn. Instead of inform- 
ing him where it was, she said entreatingly, " if you have no regard 
for your own life, do think of your poor children." In a moment he 
presented the pistol to her breast and snapped it. It went oif and 
killed her immediately. He then seized a razor, ran to the barn and 
cut his own throat. The wound was not mortal, and he was immedi- 
ately arrested. At his trial the jury rendered a verdict of not guilty 
by reason of insanity. 

My impression has always been that L did not intend to kill 

his wife one moment before the dreadful deed was irrevocably done. 
He thought of using the pistol for himself, but finding that his wife 
had taken away the powder to prevent the act he contemplated, he be- 
came irritated, and her reply to his inquiry excited an impulse that re- 
sulted in the fatal homicide. 

L was a good patient while in the hospital, but, especially in 

the early part of his residence here, had occasional periods of gloom, 
which would induce him to be dull, ill-natured, and sulky. He would 
then lie in bed and take no food for some days. At these times he 
was jealous, irritable and passionate, and sometimes thought his food 
was poisoned. When he got over these turns he would be very com- 
fortable. He improved favorably, and after three or four years, was 
discharged, recovered. 

We have from time to time heard that he has continued well since 
he left the hospital. 

His temperament is irritable, and hcAvas always impulsive. 

No. 11. W R- had been insane many years, was gener- 



86 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

ally calm and imbecile, made no trouble to any one except in his par- 
oxysms of excitement, which were not frequent. He was in this hos- 
pital eight months in the year 1838, and ten months in 1840. He 
was generally harmless, regardless of habits of order and decency, 
stubborn in his will if opposed, but quiet when unmolested. He had 
during his residence with us violent excitements of passion, his face 
would be perfectly crimson, and he would wholly lose his self-control ; 
these impulses were momentary, and occurred rarely. 

After he left the hospital he was confined in the almshouse in his 
native town. In one of these impulses of excitement he seized a 
bludgeon and struck a deadly blow on the head of an inoffensive fe- 
male of the establishment, which proved fatal. In a moment he was 
as cool as ever, and quite unconcerned, as if he had done no injury to 
any one. If I recollect right he gave no reason for this act of atro- 
city. 

He was again confined in the hospital, and in most respects appear- 
ed as formerly, but was more imbecile and stupid. His insanity is of 
the same impulsive character as those before related. When excited 
he is violent in the extreme, and liable to attack any one who might 
come in his way. He is safe only in confinement, and will there spend 
the remainder of his days. 

It is believed that R never had a trial of any sort for this of- 
fence ; he was known to be insane, and consequently, though in my 
opinion improperly, there was no notice taken of the crime. 

No. 12. J S T was tried for the murder of J 

H R , which occurred April 7th, 1837. 

T and R were coopers, and labored in the same shop at 

the time of the murder. About half an hour before the fatal event 
they were heard disputing with some warmth while at work. At ten 

minutes after twelve T went to his boarding-house, looking quite 

unwell. The landlady spoke of his being pale. He shaved himself 
and returned to the shop. Soon after came the call to dinner, when 

T came without R . The landlady remarked that he looked 

better, and inquired after R . He said he left him in the shop 

shavmg hoops, and that he would be along soon. He appeared agi- 
tated and ate fast. The shop in which they worked was soon discov- 
ered to be on fire, and T , with others, repaired to the spot. He 

advised them not to attempt to save the building, but to secure the 
lumber outside, and commenced the work actively, in which others 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 87 

joined. Some one soon inquired for R— — , to which another replied, 

" he may be in the shop." One said " T has kidnapped him, and 

fired the shop." When asked where R was, he replied he " hop- 
ed he had gone to hell with the shop," but said " he was not in the 
shop," he would " forfeit his life if he was." The fire was so far ex- 
tinguished, that those present were able to tear away the outside wall, 

and there they discovered the mutilated body of R about ten or 

eleven feet from the bench where he used to work, and were able to 
rescue it, though it was considerably burned. It was horribly man- 
gled, one side of the head beat in, and both arms and legs broken. 
T ■ was immediately arrested and confined in jail, where he ap- 
peared alternately sour and ill-natured, or trifling and witty. 

The trial was on the following October. The evidence that T 

had been insane was clear. His whole character had changed from 
what it formerly was. Instead of being a sober, quiet, steady, relig- 
ious young man, as he had once been, he was passionate, jealous, and 
profane ; he ridiculed the religion he had professed, and was extrava- 
gant in his expressions of contempt for every thing serious. 

The verdict of the jury was, not guilty, by reason of insanity. 

He was soon after brought to the hospital, where he has since re- 
mained. 

For a long time after T came under our care, he was constant- 
ly and most obviously insane. The senses of hearing, smell and taste, 
were false guides to his distempered fancy. He iiad imaginary con- 
versations, and tasted poison in his food, which excited jealousies in 
his mind, made him sour and angry witli his attendants and associates, 
with whom he was greatly disposed to conflict. His diseased sense of 
smell induced him to put stopples in his nose, to snuff" about the house 
and yards, and to complain of odors. All these annoyances kept him 
in perpetual irritation and passion, and he was a disagreeable and dan- 
gerous patient. He had confidence in no one, and no one had confi- 
dence in him. He looked at every man suspiciously, and, in self-de- 
fence, every one had to treat him in the same manner. It was this 

jealousy and suspicion of evil from R that induced him to take 

his life ; an impulse probably as sudden as the deed was horrid and 
appalling. The scheme devised to secrete it showed that the mind 
acted clearly, and if the shop had burned, the secret might have been 
buried with tlie remains of his victim, and remained in impenetrable 
darkness. 

It was a year or two, before this unfortunate man changed essen- 



88 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

tially. By degrees he became more gentle, and was treated with more 
confidence. He began to labor abroad, and to make himself useful. 
The disease of his senses seemed gradually to wear away, and he 
became sensible that those who had the care of him wished him no ill. 
He is now a good laborer, a quiet, peaceable man, giving us no 
trouble. He works every day, and, if he has illusions of the senses 
or imagination, he has judgment and prudence enough to keep them 
out of sight. 

No. 13. J L D was tried in September, 183S, by 

the Grand Jury, who did not find a bill of indictment against him, 
on the ground of insanity. The complaint against him was the 
murder of P E with an axe, while in a state of high excite- 
ment. 

D was inclined to intemperance, and had at this time some- 
thing like delirium tremens. He sallied forth from his own house 
in wild fury, and, when out, said that General Washington, riding in 
his chariot in the air, called to him and charged him to take the life 

of E without delay. He hastened with all speed in pursuit of 

his victim, and, finding him, struck him a deadly blow, which was 
almost immediately fatal. 

The evidence of insanity in this case was unequivocal, and D 

was committed to the Hospital. 

While in the jail, awaiting his trial, the high excitement went off, 
and he appeared comparatively calm. 

He remained in the Hospital two years, and was discharged by the 
Court of Common Pleas, as having recovered from his insanity. 

After he was admitted to the Hospital, his health suffered severely 
from his previous habits. He had erysipelas repeatedly, and disease 
of the digestive organs, from which he gradually recovered. He 
appeared well for many months before his discharge, but needed 
sensibility and feeling for the friends of the man whom he killed; this 
was perhaps more owing to the obduracy of his nature, than to any 
influence of insanity. 

Since he left the Hospital, he has purchased a farm in a neighboring 
state, adheres to his temperance pledge, and is reported to have done 
well. 

No. 14. A S- was tried before the Supreme Court in the 

State of Connecticut, October, 183G, for the murder of a fellow- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 89 

convict in the State Prison. The facts proved before the Court were 

briefly these : S ■ and the victim of his violence, both turbulent, 

disorderly men, were confined in one cell in the basement of the 
prison ; both were chained, one to each of the opposite walls ; and 
both slept in one bed at night, which nearly covered the floor of the 
room. They often quarrelled with each other about the bed, but 
before this time had not been known to inflict any blows. 

The fatal blow was given by the chain, as S says, when his 

bed-fellow was asleep. The reason he always gave for this act was, 
that, if he had not done it, his fellow-prisoner would have killed 
him. 

On the trial, the evidence of S 's insanity was so clear, that the 

prosecuting attorney stayed proceedings, and left the case to the jury, 
whose verdict was, " Not guilty, by reason of insanity." He was 
pardoned by the Legislature of Connecticut, on application of his 
friends, and in May, 1839, he was committed to the Hospital. 

S had some jealousy of his wife in early life, which was proba- 
bly a feature of his insanity. He once set fire to a barn in his own 
neighborhood, for the purpose, as he afterwards declared, of drawing 
away the persons who resided in his dwelling, to afford him an oppor- 
tunity to kill his wife secretly. 

For this offence, he was confined in the House of Correction. 
While he was there, his wife went to Connecticut and joined the 
Shakers. 

After his release from prison, S led a vagrant life, spent his 

property, wandered from place to place, and finally went to the Shakers 
to reclaim his wife. .Not succeeding in obtaining her, he was deter- 
mined to be revenged on that inoffensive people, and for this purpose 
procured arsenic, and put it in their well. He was convicted of this 
offence, and sentenced to State Prison for life, no suspicion being then 
entertained of his insanity. 

S was one of those cases in which insanity transforms the 

whole character, without being exhibited in any particular illusion or 
hallucination. In his early life, he was industrious, frugal, neat in his 
person, and pleasant in his feelings. The change began before the 
burning of the barn. He was jealous, morose, and irritable, neglected 
his business, was slovenly in his appearance, and malevolent in his 
temper and disposition. 

After his wife left him, if his own story is to be believed, and while 
at the hospital we had much reason to trust his statements, he prac- 
12 



90 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

tised the " secret vice " to an extent entirely astonishing, which 
brought upon him decrepitude and premature age, which were obvious 
in the decay and disturbance of the powers both of body and mind. 

During his residence with us, he was the most fihhy being imaginable, 
and yet he retained some intelligence, and was, at times, able to labor. 

He was sent to the jail in this county, in February, 1842, from 
which place he soon escaped, and has not been retaken. 

No, 15. J H K was a cabinet-maker by trade, and 

worked regularly with other journeymen. On the 10th of May, 
1840, towards night, he went home to supper ; he did not find it 
ready, and was overheard scolding his wife for the delay. She left 
the room in the midst of the preparation for the meal, and went into 
her sleeping room ; he followed her and shut the door. After a time 
he came out. The children, two in number, by a former wife, wished 
to see their mother ; he told them she was sick, gave them the supper 
she had prepared for the family, and put them to bed. After changing 

his common clothing for better, he fled that night to M— , where he 

engaged himself at work. His wife was found next morning on the 
bed, dead, with marks about the neck showing evidently that she had 
been strangled. Nothing was heard of him for some weeks after he 
absconded ; he then wrote to some friends inquiring after his children. 
He was then arrested, and subsequently tried, but found not guilty by 
reason of insanity. His prosecuting attorney writes to me thus : 
" His appearance, conversation and conduct, after his arrest, down to, 
and at the time of his trial, was that of a perfectly sane man." On his 
trial it appeared that, some years before, he had exhibited strong symp- 
toms of insanity after deep excitement on religious subjects, and that 
he had been in the asylum for the insane at Hudson, N. Y. Dr. 
White, the highly respectable superintendent of that institution, testi- 
fied strongly to his insanity. He left that asylum much improved, if 
not quite restored. 

After his acquittal, he was discharged and resided with a brother-in- 
law in this State. Some time in the summer of 1841, he became jeal- 
ous of his friends, threatened them and alarmed them and the whole 
neighborhood. Application was immediately made for his admission 
to this hospital, and he entered June 30th, 1841. 

K was very restless and jealous for a time after his committal 

to the hospital, but when he found employment, became reconciled 
and contented. He performed considerable labor in a neighboring 
shop. He appeared well on most occasions, was civil and gentlemanly 



1843.] SENATE— No, 19. 91 

in his manners, but was of an irritable temper and very excitable. It 
has been said that the marriage with his last wife was not a happy one. 
On application of his friends, he was discharged by the supreme judicial 
court, May 6th, 1842, he having appeared well for some months previous. 

The fifteen cases briefly detailed are the actual homicides that have 
been in the hospital during the ten years it has been opened. It is 
believed that they furnish the fairest specimen of cases of homicidal 
insanity that have been gathered in one institution in this country. 

There have been five others who made assaults with intent to kill, 
in which cases the wounds inflicted did not prove fatal. 

No. 16. In 1825, S D made an attack upon E 

L , with intent to kill. He was arrested and bound over for trial 

to the next succeeding term of the Supreme Court, when he was found 

not guilty of assault with intent to kill, by reason of insanity. D 

was confined some time in the jail of the county in which the offence 
was committed ; afterwards, by permission, in the McLean Asylum, 
from whence he was transferred to this hospital, in January 1833, 
where he has since remained. 

D was unmarried, and led a hermit life on a small farm, doing 

his own cooking, washing, tS&c. He frequently talked to himself or to 
imaginary persons around him, but pursued his labor and procured a 
comfortable subsistence. 

The day of the assault was training-day, and D commanded the 

company. After the exercises of the day were over, D went to a 

neighboring town, entered the office of Mr. L , and attacked him 

furiously with a bludgeon, threw him on the floor and attempted to 
choke him. The victim of his rage was rescued from his grasp, and 
the maniac was secured. 

The pretence was, that L had interposed and prevented D 

from marrying his wife's daughter, though it was known that D 

had never spoken to her about marrying him. 

In the hospital, D has shown himself very insane. He is fear- 
ful, suspicious, and impulsive, often a good laborer, but sometimes so 
much disturbed by the illusions of his senses as to be unable to labor. 
He has now grown old, and his mind is inactive, but his disease con- 
tinues unabated. 

No. 17. L F made an assault upon a clergyman in his 

native town, under such circumstances, that it seemed entirely provi- 
dential that the life of his intended victim was not immediately de- 
stroyed. He fired two pistols at him, and both balls were said to have 



92 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

grazed his garments, but did not injure him. He afterwards fired one 
into his own head which fractured the skull, and the ball now remains 
in the brain or upon it. He was immediately arrested and confined in 
prison. Here he was for many years speechless, and when brought 
before the court refused to plead and was remanded to prison. He 
finally pled not guilty by reason of insanity, and the court committed 
him to the hospital. 

After he came to the hospital he talked freely, generally in a com- 
plaining strain, and never seemed satisfied with what was done for him. 

His case was one in which the moral feelings were much more dis- 
turbed than the understanding. He was jealous, passionate, obstinate 
and vindictive, and thought the government and laws were wrong, 
because they deprived him of his liberty. 

He worked well the last year or two he was with us, at his trade as 
a shoemaker. When the hospital became full he was transferred to 
the jail in his native town, where he could be near his friends, and 
where he indulged the hope he should at some time regain his liberty. 

No. 18. O N had for a long time been insane. His 

particular delusion is that persons have the power of magnetizing him. 
He is jealous, shy, and revengeful. -He has had prejudices against 
certain individuals, because he thinks they impose upon him with mag- 
netic power. To guard himself from these assailants, he armed him- 
self with loaded pistols and carried them to a singing meeting, where 
he was determined to be revenged upon some boys whom he supposed 
had imposed upon him by this magnetism. 

In this condition of things, some persons present made an effort to 
wrest the pistols from him. He resisted desperately, and would have 
taken the lives of those who interfered if it had been in his power. 
The pistols were taken by force, he was secured and immediately 
committed to the hospital, where he has since been confined. 

No. 19. I S was the first patient committed to the hos- 
pital. He was by trade a stone-cutter, but for many years wandered 
about Cape Cod, pretending to have a secret mission to its inhabitants. 
He was confined many times in the jail of that county, and when in 
jail had many curious notions and much strange conduct. He deter- 
mined to assassinate the jailor, and any others who opposed him in 
his secret mission. 

After he came to the hospital, he prepared two nails, eight or nine 
inches long, which he sharpened by rubbing them on the granite win- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 93 

dow-stool and covering the head with a ball of cloth, making them 
very dangerous weapons. With these instruments under his pillow he 
feigned sickness and asked for gruel, that his attendant might be off 
his guard and come near to him, thus affording him a better chance 
to effect his desperate purpose. The instruments were discovered and 
taken from him without injury to any one. He afterwards declared it 
was his intention to stab his attendant when he brought him the gruel. 
He afterwards made a most desperate assault on another attendant, 
from which a severe conflict ensued, in which both himself and at- 
tendant were severely injured. 

This man had no delusion except that of the secret mission, but was 
passionate, violent and vindictive. When calm and undisturbed he 
spent his time in secret prayer, would pass months in silence, but 
when he did converse would appear sensible and intelligent. 

No. 20. The husband of Mrs. H B was intemperate and 

neglected his family. Mrs. B was an excellent woman and an 

exemplary Christian. She became depressed, but not so much so as 
to be considered dangerous. She contemplated suicide for some time, 
but suddenly was impelled to take the lives of her children, to save them 
from the cruelty and neglect of a drunken father. With a razor she 
inflicted dreadful wounds on a little boy ten years old, cut the muscles 
and tendons of the neck so effectually as to destroy all power of rais- 
ing or holding up his head ; the boy escaped from her grasp and hid 
among the vegetables in the garden, and thus saved his life. On the 
neck of the little girl, two years old, she inflicted twenty gashes, and 
would certainly have killed her if she had not been rescued from her 
hands. A neighboring woman who heard the cries of the children, 
went to their relief; she was seized by the distracted woman and cut 
badly upon the cheek before she could escape from her grasp. Two 
young men then came to their assistance, and she was arrested, se- 
cured, and soon brought to our care. 

For a long time she appeared uneasy, was easily agitated, and yet 
said little or nothing. Iler countenance was wild and phrenzied, 
every thing startled her, yet she was m.ute and apparently unconscious 
where she was or what she had done. Some weeks after she came to 
the hospital, having had intelligence from her family, I informed her 
that I had heard from her friends and that they were all comfortable. 
She seemed greatly agitated and came to me a few minutes afterwards, 
her eyes swimming with tears, and said most imploringly, " will you 



94 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

protect me?" I promised her my protection, told her she was entirely 
safe and need fear no injury while she was in my care ; she was pacified 
and sat down calmly and quietly. Her recovery was slow, but she im- 
proved favorably, not however without many turns of agitation and 
alarm, which led me to suppose that the dreadful reality of her wounded 
and suffering children continually haunted her mind. She now con- 
versed some, worked daily, but said nothing of her children, nor did 
she make any inquiries concerning ihem. Fortunately the children 
got well, and their recovery perhaps saved her from perpetual insanity. 

One day, while she was in her room quietly engaged in her work, a 
wild and mischievous insane girl, in a moment of excitement, called 
her a " murderer." The effect was electrical — she was agitated and 
distressed beyond measure ; she screamed and wrung her hands in 
agony, exclaiming, " Am I a murderer ? " It was a long time before 
she could be appeased ; she was assured that she had killed no one, that 
her family were well, and that there was no reason for the offensive 
language used to her. 

When told what had really happened, she said that she had a 
dreamy recollection of something of the kind, that she feared some- 
thino- had been done by her, but hoped that, among other imaginations, 
this was also one. The recovery of the children was favorable, and 
our patient improved regularly till she was entirely well. She has 
since been with her family, in all respects as well as before this attack 
of insanity. 

LABOH. 

In every department of industry the labor has been more productive 
than in any former year. The prod^xts of the farm have greatly in- 
creased, and mechanical employments have engaged a greater number 
of workmen, with greater comfort than heretofore. 

All the laborers in the establishment are healthy; and convalescent 
patients, who labor, improve more rapidly, and are more contented, 
than the idle, or those who pursue amusements only. 

The shops which were so much needed last year have been supplied 
and fitted up in convenient style. They are now filled with workmen, 
pursuing the different mechanical trades. 

Shoe-making has never been pursued with so much satisfaction as 
at the present time. More than $1000 worth of shoes have been 
made, and the demand abroad has increased so much, that the busi- 



1843.] . ■ SENATE— No. 19. 95 

ness may be considerably enlarged, if there should be workmen 
enough. 

One of the benefits of large establishments of this kind is, that it 
brings together a sufficient number of workmen to fill a shop, and 
warrant the employment of an overseer. With an excellent overseer 
and a shop full of workmen, they are at present pursuing business with 
pleasure and profit. 

In the carpenters' and cabinet shop, a number of men have been 
employed with advantage to themselves and some profit to the estab- 
lishment. All repairing of furniture is done here, and many useful 
articles are made. 

One patient, with commendable industry and judgment, has prepared 
the hair, and made and repaired all the mattrasses necessary for the 
season. 

The new barn has given a new impulse to the agricultural operations. 
It has been filled with hay and fodder ; a large proportion of the labor 
in gathering these crops was performed by the patients. 

There is no employment in which they so cheerfully engage as in 
hay-making. From twenty to thirty workmen were often in the field 
at one time, all busily employed. At one of my daily visits to the 
hay-field I found four homicides mowing together, performing their 
work in the best manner, and all cheerful and happy. Of the fifty 
tons of hay gathered this season, seventy-five per cent, of it was 
probably mowed, made and gathered in by patients, and the arrange- 
ment and beauty of their hay-mows challenge competition any where. 

The season has been favorable, the lands now made rich are pro- 
ductive, and, under the judicious management of the steward, and in 
the skilful care of a good farmer, have been made to yield abundantly. 
The crops have been greater than ever before, and the stock has been 
increased and made more valuable and productive. 

The improvements made upon the premises this year have been 
equal to any former year. The labor done to prepare for the barn and 
shops that have been erected, occupied a large number of patients in 
the early part of the season. The excavations and embankments made 
by them would have cost a handsome sum if paid for at the common 
prices. Reclaiming waste land, and walling old fields, occupied the 
leisure time of the summer and autumnal months. The improvement 
of the land and the various expedients to make compost for future use, 
that the farm may be further enriched and rendered still more produc- 



96 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

tive, occupy much of the time of our laborers, when not employed in 
the cultivation and ingathering of the crops. 

The quantity and quality of the products raised in the garden and on 
the farm, are given in the following table, with estimated value by the 
steward. 

Produce of the Farm. 

50 tons of hay, valued at - - - - $580 00 

Of this 35 tons were of the first crop, and 15 tons of the 
second crop — 40 tons at $12 00, and 10 tons at $10 00. 
100 bushels of onions at 50 cents, 
50 " of tomatoes at 50 cents, 
60 " of green peas, at $1 00, 
243 " of potatoes at 25 cents, 
302 " ofcorn, at 75 cents, - 
100 cabbages at 5 cents, ... 

28 bushels of soft corn at 37^ cents, 
275 " of beets, at 25 cents, 
180 " of ruta baga, at 25 cents, 
100 " of turnips, at 25 cents, 
680 " of carrots, at 25 cents, 
405 lbs. of broom-corn brush at 5 cents, 
6 loads of pumpkins, at $1 50, 
5 cwt. winter squashes, at 1^ cents per lb., 
Garden vegetables, . . - - - 

Corn fodder, ...--■ 

Pasturing 10 cows, at 50 cents per week. 
Poultry raised, - - - - ' - 

Milk from the cows, 29,200 quarts, at 4 cents, 
7114 lbs. of pork, fattened, at 5 cents, 
4816 lbs. of beef, " at 5 cents, 
Small pigs sold, .----. 

$3,507 75 

Stock on hand, 2 oxen, 12 cows, 2 heifers, 4 horses, and 28 shoats. 

In the week ending Sept. 24th, 1842, 144 patients worked 5,402 

hours at some profitable employment. In the week ending Oct. 1st 



50 


00 


25 


00 


60 


00 


60 


75 


226 


50 


5 


00 


10 


50 


68 


75 


45 


00 


25 


00 


170 


00 


20 


25 


9 


00 


7 


50 


100 


00 


35 00 


140 


00 


15 


00 


1186 


00 


355 


70 


240 


80 


52 


00 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 97 

1842, 179 patients did more or less profitable labor ; seven patients 
worked 31^ days in the shoe-shop. 

This is a fair specimen of the number of patients employed, and of 
the work done. 

The following statement of the labor and expenses of the shoe-shop, 
is given by the overseer ; it shows the benefit of this department. In 
the course of the year the labor in this shop was wholly interrupted for 
a month, by building the barn, and fitting up the new shops. 



Amount of work done for officers and assistants, 


- 


- 


$353 98 


" '' " patients, 


- 




• 433 16 


Work made and sold abroad, 


- 




188 34 


" now on hand, 


- 




87 00 


Stock on hand, . . . . 






68 00 




$1130 48 


Expended in stock and tools during the year. 


8650 


96 




Wages of overseer for 11 months. 


220 


00 




Board of overseer for 47 weeks 


94 


00 




For binding, ...... 


20 


00 




Fuel and lights, 


20 


00- 


-$1004 96 


Balance, 


$125 52 


AMUSEMENTS. 









The amusements formerly afforded to the patients have been con- 
tinued, and some others have been added. Many females have in- 
dulged in riding on horseback with pleasure and benefit. The good old 
horse from Mrs. Johonnot's legacy, has, in this way, proved quite ser- 
viceable to many invalids during convalescence. The ladies have also 
had many short sleigh-rides with him, driving him with care, and re- 
turning him " safe and sound." 

The matron's parties, every other week, have been well attended, 
and the public spirit manifested on these occasions, in work for the in- 
stitution, or for the benefit of the library, is truly commendable. From 
thirty to forty ladies usually assemble. 

The dancing pai'ties, which have been attended every second week 
during the cold season, have been a source of pleasure to many, and 
have afforded healthful exercise to a large number of our family. 
13 



98 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

The games of backgammon, chess, cards, dice, draughts, solitaire, 
graces, battle-door, &c , have been still pursued, and we have exten- 
sively introduced the game of une pin, at which a stout, common ball, 
is rolled at one pin, at each end of the hall ; the pin is of leather. The 
game is an excellent one for exercise, and affords an opportunity to 
acquire and exhibit much skill in knocking over a pin at the distance 
of eighty or ninety feet. 

Hiding and walking form the principal exercise of that part of the 
patients who do not unite in active labor. During the week ending 
Oct. 1st, 1842, 129 patients walked 997 miles, and 162 patients rode 
135 miles. 

DIET. 

The diet of the hospital is simple and substantial ; the best articles 
are always selected, both because they are more wholesome, and it is 
believed more economical. Animal food is used once a day, and by 
some twice. Vegetables in abundance and of good quality, are fur- 
nished daily. 

Weak coffee and tea, milk and pure water, constitute the drinks of 
the whole family ; many use neither tea nor coffee. The native fruits 
are provided in plenty in the season of them, and dry fruits to some 
extent. Our patients and family have twice received a very liberal 
present of fruits from John Goodnow, Esq., merchant, of Boston, con- 
sisting of many boxes and casks of raisins, grapes, figs, &c., which 
are worthy of this public expression of our thanks. 

I give our diet table, at the request of some gentlemen connected 
with other institutions. 

Sunday. Breakfast : coffee, bread, butter, fish and potatoes, hashed. 
Dinner : water, bread, butter, cheese, crackers. Supper : tea, bread, 
butter, cheese, cake. 

Monday. Breakfast: coffee, bread, batter, cold meat, warm pota- 
toes. Dinner : water, boiled meat and vegetables, bread, butter, pud- 
ding and molasses. Supper : tea, toast or biscuit, bread, butter, 
cheese. 

Tuesday. Breakfast : coffee, bread, butter, hashed meat and pota- 



1843.] SENATE— No. 19. 99 

toes. Dinner : water, roast meat, vegetables, bread and butter. Sup- 
per . tea, bread, butter, cheese, plain cake. 

Wednesday. Breakfast : coffee, bread, butter, cold meat, warm 
potatoes. Dinner : water, stewed beans or peas, pork, potatoes, bread, 
butter, sometimes fresh fish. Supper : tea or cocoa, bread, butler, 
cheese, plum-cake. 

Thursday. Breakfast : coffee, bread, butter, potatoes, warmed 
beans or peas. Dinner : water, soup, fresh meat, vegetables, bread 
and butter. Supper : tea, bread, butter, cheese, pie or cake. 

Friday. Breakfast : coffee, bread, butter, potatoes and fresh meat 
hashed. Dinner : water, boiled meat, vegetables, bread, butter, pud- 
ding and molasses. Supper : tea, bread, butter, cheese, cake, baked 
potatoes. 

Saturday. Breakfast ; coffee, bread, butter, hashed meat and po- 
tatoes. Dinner : water, bread, butter, fish, potatoes, vegetables, rice 
and molasses. Supper : tea, bread, butter, cheese, sauce or honey. 

There are some variations from this diet ; meat is not always served 
in the morning, and many patients do not take tea, coffee or meat, at 
any time. Milk is taken in considerable quantities ; fifteen or twenty 
gallons are used daily, many take milk as a substitute for other meals. 
Fruits are regularly served to all who desire them, when they can be 
obtained at reasonable prices ; apples are given freely during the fall 
and winter months. The diet is satisfactory to a large proportion of 
our family. All have a sufficient quantity of plain and substantial 
food, and if extra food is reasonably desired by any patient, it is always 
given. The sick have a prescribed diet. 

The officers and patients are all strictly temperate; no intoxicating 
liquor is used as a drink, 

LIBRARY AND PERIODICALS. 

In the spring of 1841, some members of my own family and a num- 
ber of the patients devised a plan of furnishing the hospital with a 
library. We had lately received donations amounting to twenty-five 
dollars, from three or four liberal gentlemen ; this they decided to ex- 



100 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

pend for materials to be made into useful articles, and offered for sale. 
The work was commenced with spirit, which has continued unabated 
till this time. 

In this way a very handsome library has been provided, containing 
a great amount and variety of useful and entertaining reading. Many 
new and popular works have been purchased the past year, and the 
best periodicals of the day subscribed for. The sum raised in this 
way, in about twenty months, amounted to $176 16, and the quantity 
of neat and valuable articles on hand has never been greater. 

Besides the books thus purchased, we have been favored, by the 
kindness of the editors and conductors of newspapers, with a daily or 
weekly supply of papers, which are exceedingly interesting to our 
family. These papers are, the Boston Recorder ; the Christian Regis- 
ter ; the Gospel Messenger, Utica, N. Y. ; the Olive Branch; the 
Youth's Companion ; Zion's Herald ; Sabbath School Visiter , Moth- 
er's Assistant ; Springfield Republican ; Springfield Gazette ; Boston 
Daily American ; Hampshire Gazette ; Greenfield Mercury ; Old 
Colony Memorial ; Barnstable Patriot ; Keene Sentinel; New Hamp- 
shire Patriot ; Haverhill Republican ; Library of Health ; Lynn 
Record ; Taunton Whig ; New York Evening Post ; Salem Gazette ; 
Oneida Whig; Utica Democrat; Boston Times; Essex Register; 
a large bundle of the Boston Temperance Journal, &c. &c. 

Besides these, we have received books, periodicals, and money from 
Mrs. Polly Adams, of Conway; Mrs. Mary Hubbard, of Salem; Mr. 
Horatio N. Welch, of Worcester ; Samuel Damon, Esq., of Holden ; 
and Mr. Thomas M. Pratt, of Northampton. 

Dr. Batchelder, of Utica, N. Y., has continued his kindness to us, 
by sending us papers and public documents, which lay us under the 
deepest obligations to him. The Rev. Thomas F. Norris, of Boston, 
has also kept us in constant remembrance, by his liberality in sending 
numerous contributions of the same kind. We render these gentle- 
men our thanks for their generosity. 

Reading is a useful and agreeable employment for our patients, and 
these contributions are of the very kind most needed to keep up the 
variety, and afford an opportunity for each one to learn what is trans- 
piring at or near home. 

Persons confined in a hospital are, in some respects, like those in a 
distant land ; the slightest intelligence from home is valuable ; it is 
sought with avidity, and read with interest. 

As usual, I shall send to each of these contributors a copy of our 



1843.] senate—No. 19. 101 

annual report, as a token of our thankfulness for their continued 
kindness. 

CHAPEL AND RELIGIOUS SERVICES. 

The Rev. George Allen has officiated as chaplain of the Hospital 
for more than two years. The services, under his ministration, have 
been judicious, instructive, and interesting. His views of religious 
truth are given in a manner calculated to produce a favorable influence 
on every class of hearers. At no time, since the commencement of 
the chapel exercises, have they been attended more willingly, and with 
more general approbation. 

The chapel is always full, and much of the time crowded ; the 
audience is attentive and respectful. 

The music has uniformly been good ; the choir is composed from 
our family. From two to four instruments have been played each 
Sabbath, to aid in this pleasant and useful part of social worship. 
The spirit manifested by those who compose the chapel choir, to keep 
up good music, to meet for improvement, and sing for the gratification 
of others, is worthy of high commendation. 

We present a most interesting spectacle from Sabbath to Sabbath — 
a congregation assembled from the walls of an insane hospital, chang- 
ing from week to week, embracing the nervous, the melancholy, the 
excited, all calm and pleasant, and a large proportion attentive and 
gratified. 

Ten years ago, when the inmates of this Hospital were first being 
gathered together, such an assemblage for religious worship would 
have been considered too improbable for belief, if it had been foretold. 
The change of public sentiment is great in this and many other 
things relating to the insane. 

There have been four hundred and thirty patients in the Hospital 
the past year, of which number nearly four hundred have attended the 
chapel exercises more or less. 

CONCLUSION. 

As was anticipated at the time of writing our last report. Dr. 
Chandler, the estimable assistant-physician of the Hospital, and the 
respected steward and matron, Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, resigned their 
offices early in the spring. 

The resignation of the former was followed by the appointment 



102 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

of Dr. John R. Lee as assistant-physician, a gentleman of respecta- 
bility in his profession, of considerable experience, and who had had 
rare opportunities to become acquainted with the insane. 

The office of steward was filled by the appointment of Charles P. 
Hitchcock, Esq., who, for more than three years, on the first opening 
of the Hospital, filled the place with good reputation, and who is 
extensively known as a man of sound judgment and sterling integrity. 

Mrs, Sarah Hayward, an experienced attendant, has done the duty 
of supervisor of the female wing, 

I have found in these officers all that I could wish in aiding me in 
the responsible duties of the place. They have the right spirit, have 
done all in their power to promote the comfort of the inmates, and 
the success and prosperity of the institution. 

I can here with great propriety bear testimony to the faithfulness 
and devotion of the attendants and assistants employed in the various 
departments of supervision and labor. This is no common duty, and 
to perform it well requires no common tact ; decision and firmness, 
tempered with moderation and forbearance, faithfulness and devotion 
to duty, are required, to fill these stations well. Every individual 
employed has much to do with patients, and it is gratifying to be able 
to say that, of the many who perform these duties, few have been 
unfaithful or proved incompetent. A large proportion of the help 
have been long employed, a majority of them from five to ten years. 

With such aids to perform the duties of the Hospital in detail, and 
a wise and indulgent board of trustees to superintend and advise in 
all cases of difficulty, we have been able to pass through the duties of 
another year with more than usual success. 

Commending the Hospital to the watchful care of the government, 
and the protection of Divine Providence, I respectfully submit this 
report. 

SAMUEL B. WOODWARD. 
State Lunatic Hospital, 



Worcester, Nov. 30, 1842 



.} 



1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



105 



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14 



106 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 





03 

Pi 
< 


Snow in the night. 
Rain during the morning. 
Fog in the low grounds. 
Rain in the morning. 
Aurora Borealis. 

Aurora Borealis. Rain at 9 P. M. 
Brilliant aurora. ' 
Aurora Borealis. 

Rain with snow and hail. 
Rain in the morning. 

White frost. 

Rain commenced at 6| A. M, 
Thunder storm in the night. 
High wind ; showery. 

High wind. 




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Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

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o5 


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1843.] 



SENATE— No. 19. 



107 





32 

< 

as 


Thunder storm. 

White frost. 

Rain in the night. 

Thunder storm at 11^ P. M. 

Rain and snow in the morning. 
Heavy frost. 

Fog in the low lands. 
Rain in the night. 

Heavy fog in the morning. 


S ^ Pi 


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Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday- 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 




i-l©<CO'*'t5^f>03C3^0'-'S<lGO-^lOtiDt-CO(TsO— '©JGOTjuOtOt^COOlO'— 1 
r— 1— )i-^r-4r--.-.if— <r— i^Hr-.e^G^IS^Ci-^e^G^S^e^S'^G^COCO 



108 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 





m 
<l 


Circle around the sun. 
Fog in the low lands. 

Aurora Borealis. 
Circle around the sun. 
Aurora Borealis. 

Frost. Light in the north. 

Rain in the night. 

Sultry. 

Rain in the night. 

Rain in the afternoon. 
Fog in the low lands. 






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do 

do 

do 

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Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
Sunday 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
Sunday 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 
Friday- 
Saturday 
Sunday 
Monday 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 
Friday 
Saturday 
Sunday 
Monday 
Tuesday 
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OS 

II 


i-HS<IM'*lf5tDt>COCTjOi-iS<l(«-*lOlO{>C0050-H(MM-.T'iOtOt~COmO 
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1843.' 



SENATE— No. 19. 



109 



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110 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 





< 

H 

Pi 


Bright clouds extending from N. E. to S. W. 

Showers all daj'. 

Fine showers. 

Fine showers. 

Showers. 

Showers ; thunder and lightning. 

Heavy shower j thunder and lightning. 

Showers. 

Showers. 

Showers. 

Showers. 

Showers. 

Showers. 

Showers. 
Showers. 

More rain fell in 24 hours than has fallen in the 
same time for two years. 






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Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

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Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

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Tuesday 

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o6 

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r.,rt„^„^_^rt„e-1s^(J^e.5G^s^l3^<3<lG■^G^G^w 






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s5 



1843.] 



senate—No. i9. 



Ill 



REMARKS. 


Thunder and lightning. 
Thunder and lightning. 

Heavy rain in the night. 

High wind. Thermometer 38«> at 5 A. M. 

Frost in low lands. 
White frost. 
Frost. 
Frost. 


Hi 


.54 
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1.48 

.01 

.14 

.37 
.16 

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.04 

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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 







10 inches of snow fell. 

Snow and rain in the night. 3 inches snow. 

[Thermom. 21° ; Barom. 29.60. 
Snow-storm commenced at 12 M ; wind N. by E. ; 
Storm continues ; wind N. W. by N. 5 4 in. snow. 

High wind. 

Snow squalls. At 6 A. M. Thermo. 4° above zero. 

High wind in the night. 

Rain commenced at 9^ A. M. 

[Barom. 30.00. 
At 6 A. M. Thermom. 2° above zero. At 10 P. M. 
Snow squalls. ' 

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9 inches of snow. 






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