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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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FOURTEENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



AT WORC ESTER. 



DECEMBER, 1846 



ffoston: 

DUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS, 

No. 37, Congress Street. 

1847. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



DECEMBER, 18*6. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council : 

In submitting another Annual Report, the Trustees find occasion, 
as much as at any previous period, to congratulate the government 
and people of the Commonwealth upon the success of the institution, 
in whose operations so many public and private interests, as well also 
as the character of the State, are necessarily involved. 

The report of the Treasurer, which will be transmitted by him to 
the Governor and Council, exhibits the financial condition of the Hos- 
pital. It will appear therefrom, that the receipts have proved suffi- 
cient to meet the expenditures of the year ; and that, by the applica- 
tion of an appropriation of the Legislature, (which had remained for 
some time unused,) and of a portion of the charges for the board of 
patients, which were due but not paid at the close of the preceding 
year, the large balance against the Hospital, exhibited in the last ac- 
count of the Treasurer, has been considerably diminished. At this 
time, also, there is a large amount due for unsettled demands, includ- 
ing the stipulated allowance for State paupers ; in view of which the 
Trustees anticipate, that, under ordinary circumstances, the existing 
balance will be extinguished during the coming year, and that, for the 
future, without any change of the present price for board, and without 
any aid from the Legislature, (beyond the payment of the salaries of 
some of the principal officers, as permanently provided for by law,) 
the income of the Hospital will be sufficient to defray the current 
expenses. 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

It will also appear, from the report of the Treasurer, that the balance 
of the " Johonnot fund" is retained in his hands, and has been placed 
at interest, no authority having been given by the Legislature to ap- 
propriate it to any other object than that for which it did not prove to 
be needed. It was stated, in the last report of the Trustees, that, in 
consequence of the enlargement of the Hospital, it had been deemed 
expedient to avail of an opportunity of securing, on favorable terms, 
a tract of land every way suitable to be added to the farm. For the 
purpose of securing it, it was purchased by one of the Trustees with 
an understanding that he would convey it to the Commonwealth upon 
the reimbursement of the cost with interest, and that the Hospital 
should have the use of the land in the mean while. The land has 
accordingly been cultivated, during the last season, with great advan- 
tage ; and it is obviously so important to retain it, and to secure the 
title to the Commonwealth, that, with a view to this object, the Trus- 
tees would respectfully suggest the expediency of authorizing the 
application of what remains of the Johonnot fund in the mode pro- 
posed by the committee appointed to visit the Hospital during the 
last session of the Legislature. 

While referring to the report of the Treasurer, exhibiting, as it does 
in so many particulars, the usual evidence of the characteristic fidelity, 
prudence, and accuracy of that excellent officer, the Trustees are ap- 
prized that it will contain an intimation, which has already been offi- 
cially communicated to them, of his wish to be relieved from his 
arduous duties, as soon as an arrangement can be concluded for the 
appointment of a successor. Mr. Foster has been the Treasurer of 
the Hospital during the entire period of its establishment, and was 
also a member of the first Board of Trustees. The institution has 
had no more faithful friend, no wiser counsellor, no more vigilant 
guardian. Many of the services which he has rendered are such as 
no salary can compensate, and for which the only reward is the con- 
sciousness of the motive which has actuated them — a pure and disin- 
terested desire of usefulness — a true Christian regard for the welfare 
of our fellow men. The duties of the office, which at first were not 
inconveniently arduous, have gradually increased to such an extent 
as to require an appropriation of time and labor which can no longer 
be expected of him. That he should have consented to perform such 
a task so long, while he has performed it so acceptably, must be uni- 
versally regarded as entitling him to the most unqualified expression 
of public gratitude. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 5 

In a peculiarly interesting connection with the contemplated resig- 
nation of the first Treasurer of the Hospital, the Trustees are obliged 
at this time to report the actual retirement from office of its first 
Superintendent, who had nearly completed a period of fourteen years, 
exclusively devoted to the regular and punctilious discharge of most 
laborious and self-sacrificing duties. It is unnecessary for the Trustees 
to refer, in any detail, to his services. All that the Hospital has been 
and is ; all that has made it a blessing and a glory to the Common- 
wealth, and a model institution for the whole country, is to be at- 
tributed, in an eminent degree, to the professional skill, the personal 
address and energy, the conscientious fidelity, and the pure and ardent 
philanthropy of Samuel B. Woodward ; and while the institution 
shall exist, his name cannot cease to be most honorably and gratefully 
associated with it. It was with the greatest reluctance, after repeated 
efforts to avert it, that the Trustees yielded to his decision to leave the 
Hospital; but, in doing so at last, they were compelled to admit the 
justness of his views in regard to the state of his health, which had 
evidently been impaired by his official labors, and also to defer to the 
private considerations to which, as they well knew, he had long 
delayed to give their due weight. The correspondence, in which his 
resignation was tendered and accepted, has been inscribed upon the 
records of the Hospital, and is also appended to this report. 

In proceeding to the appointment of another Superintendent, the 
Trustees deemed it fortunate that they had it in their power to procure 
the services of Dr. George Chandler, who had been for many years 
an assistant of Dr. Woodward, and who, upon leaving this Hospital, 
had been enabled to acquire the advantage of successful experience as 
a principal in a similar institution, in a neighboring State. They are 
happy to express their belief that, under his administration, the use- 
fulness and reputation of the Hospital will be maintained, and that 
those concerned in its welfare, may rely on his ability and his solici- 
tude to perform all the professional and other services which properly 
devolve upon him. 

The Annual Report of the Superintendent to the Trustees is here- 
with submitted for the consideration of the Governor and Council, and 
that it may be laid before the Legislature. The report is so full in 
statistical details, and these are so clearly arranged, that all who desire 
to become acquainted with the past and present condition of the Hos- 
pital, and to learn the many important and interesting conclusions 
which may be deduced from its records, need only to be referred to it, 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The facts which it discloses show conclusively the necessity and 
the benefits of such an institution. The several tabular statements 
exhibit, at a glance, the various causes of insanity, the prominent 
characteristics and the results of the cases of all patients received 
into the Hospital, the proportions in which the different counties of 
the State have furnished patients, and the increasing number of State 
paupers whom it has become necessary to provide for. These state- 
ments, the Trustees beg leave to observe, may be useful in correcting 
some erroneous impressions, which appear to have prevailed in the 
Legislature and elsewhere, and they will enable all who seek it to 
obtain accurate and complete information of the facts relating to 
every point involved in the management of the institution. 

It will be seen that, as was anticipated by the trustees, the enlarge- 
ment of the Hospital has not transcended the actual demand for an 
increase of accommodation. The average number of patients for the 
year has exceeded the number of separate rooms even now provided 
for them ; and the records show that, from week to week, there has 
been but very slight variation from the average number. It may be 
assumed, therefore, that the Hospital will henceforth continue full, 
and all the arrangements, which have been adopted in reference to its 
enlargement, should be regarded as permanently established. The in- 
creasing population of the State ; the larger infusion into it of that 
element which, at the Hospital, as in the almshouses, is seen to cause 
a rapid increase of the proportion of State paupers ; the multiplication 
of pursuits in which tendencies to insanity are most frequently devel- 
oped, and the extension of the humane policy, which prompts such as 
have the public or private oversight of insane persons to secure to 
them the benefits which a Hospital only can afford, — all these causes 
combine to make it certain that there cannot be a want of patients, or 
of constant employment for the numerous officers and attendants who 
have been appointed to take charge of them. 

The Trustees have performed the duty that devolves upon them, of 
making monthly visitations, in which they have been accompanied by 
the Superintendent, Assistant Physicians, and Steward, and have never 
failed, at such times, to extend their personal inspection to every 
apartment in the Hospital,* and to afford to every inmate the oppor- 

* A written report, prepared by one of the Trustees, upon the state of the Hospital at the 
time of each visitation, has been recorded for every month since the institution was com- 
menced in 1832. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 7 

tunity of personal communication with them. With an exception, 
which will be subsequently referred to, the accommodations for the 
patients may be deemed in all important respects suitable and com- 
plete ; and the Trustees have never failed to find all the apartments 
in the most cleanly condition, and exhibiting evidence that they are 
uniformly kept so. In their intercourse with the patients, while they 
meet more or less of them, who, misunderstanding their condition, and 
misled by their disordered imaginations, are apt to complain of con- 
finement, and express a desire to be relieved from it, they usually per- 
ceive the most satisfactory indications of voluntary subordination, 
quiet, and general contentment. They have not had occasion to in- 
vestigate any complaint of unkind or improper treatment on the part 
of the officers or attendants, and they have seen constant and abund- 
ant proof that the personal comfort, as well as the medical treatment 
of the patients, has been faithfully and judiciously provided for. From 
personal observation of the extent and effect of their services, the 
Trustees are enabled to concur in the commendation which has been 
bestowed by the Superintendent upon the Assistant Physicians, the 
Steward and the Matron, the Supervisors of both Departments, the 
Overseers of the Wing, and the subordinate officers and attendants gen- 
erally. They have also occasionally been present during the evening 
services in the chapel, and are happy to bear testimony to the ability 
and discretion with which religious exercises are conducted by the 
Chaplain, and to their manifest good effect upon the patients who 
attend them. 

The single defect in the arrangements of the Hospital, to which the 
Trustees deem it their duty again to ask the attention of the Legisla- 
ture, is that which was specially adverted to in their last report, and 
in reference to which an appropriation from the State Treasury was 
recommended by the " Committee on Public Charitable Institutions." 
While every other class of patients is furnished with suitable accom- 
modations, and all interested in their behalf must be content with the 
provision which is made for them, that most unfortunate and trouble- 
some class, who are occasionally subject to violent excitement ; who 
are liable to do serious injury to themselves and others, unless they 
are separately confined ; who are afflicted with loathsome disease, or 
cannot be restrained from keeping themselves in the most indecent 
and disgusting condition, is obliged to occupy apartments where the 
Trustees never visit them without feeling most sensibly that they have 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

not yet been properly cared for, and that their proximity to the other 
patients is an additional evil, which, in a hospital, ought to be espe- 
cially guarded against. The apartments referred to are all situated 
on the ground floor, and are so constructed that it is impossible to 
ventilate them properly, or to make them comfortable in any of those 
respects in which the condition of such patients is deemed worthy of 
particular attention in many other hospitals. These apartments, too, 
have all of them apertures opening outwardly upon a passage way, 
which is more or less frequented by visiters, and by such of the other 
patients as are permitted occasionally to go abroad. Whatever is 
uttered in the apartments becomes audible to the passers by, and the 
poor maniacs are subject to increased excitement from their conscious- 
ness of the fact that they may thus be in constant communication 
with fellow beings. The disturbance, which they are thus enabled 
and stimulated to produce, is an evil to themselves and others, which 
none can judge of but those who reside at the Hospital, or frequently 
visit it ; and it is an evil which has of course been very considerably 
increased by the enlargement of the institution. The Trustees are 
satisfied that there can be no suitable remedy for it except by the 
erection of a separate building, expressly designed for the worst class 
of patients ; sufficiently removed from the main Hospital to prevent 
any kind of communication with the other patients ; so retired that 
the public can have no access to it ; constructed in such a manner 
that it may be amply ventilated, and lighted, and warmed ; and, still 
further, so arranged that the patients, instead of being constantly 
immured in the closest confinement, may be enabled, as far as it can 
be permitted with safety, to go out occasionally into adjoining yards, 
to see and feel the unobstructed sunshine, to breathe the purest atmos- 
phere, and to participate in the benefits and pleasures which even such 
as they may derive from the care of the Divine Providence. 

The estimate of the cost of such a building was furnished in the 
last report, and it is for the Legislature to determine how soon it will 
be expedient to make an appropriation for it. The Trustees discharge 
their whole duty in thus officially representing that the experience of 
the past year has confirmed their previous conviction of the import- 
ance of the object. It has already been provided for in the manner 
proposed in most of the States in which hospitals for the insane have 
been established ; so that in this instance it is reserved for Massachu- 
setts to follow, instead of leading the way, (as she has hitherto done,) 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 9 

in devising and effecting the utmost practicable improvement of a 
favorite and most interesting public institution, 

(Signed) JESSE MURDOCK, 

JOSEPH SARGENT, 
STEPHEN C. PHILLIPS, 
STEPHEN SALISBURY, 
THOMAS F. PLUNKETT. 

State Lunatic Hospital, ) 
December 29, 1846. f 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Correspondence between Dr. Woodward and the Trustees of the 

State Lunatic Hospital. 



State Lunatic Hospital, ) 

Worcester, June 24, 1846. ) 

To the Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital:- — 

Gentlemen, — Agreeably to my notice of the 30th of December 
last, I now signify my desire to leave the Superintendency of the 
Hospital on the 30th of the present month. 

I am gratified to withdraw from the Institution when in so favorable 
a condition, and to know that it is to have the supervision of one so 
competent, as my successor. 

With many thanks for the kindness and courtesy of the present and 
all former Trustees, 

I am very truly and gratefully yours, 

(Signed) SAMUEL B. WOODWARD. 



State Lunatic Hospital, ? 

Worcester, June 24, 1846. $ 

To Dr. Samuel B. Woodward : — 

Dear Sir, — The Trustees, at their present meeting, have received 
your communication, in which you express the desire that your resig- 
nation of the office of Superintendent, of which notice was given sev- 
eral months since, may take effect on the 30th inst. 

The Trustees, after the failure of their repeated efforts to induce 
you to reconsider your determination, have become prepared at last, 
reluctantly to acquiesce in it, and have made the necessary arrange- 
ments to supply the vacancy which will be thus occasioned. They 
cannot, however, permit themselves to part from you officially, without 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 11 

tendering the assurance of the high respect and of the heartfelt confi- 
dence and gratitude, which, in common with all their predecessors, 
they entertain towards you. 

They have witnessed, during the whole period of their official con- 
nection, constantly accumulating evidence of the magnitude and value 
of your services, — of your fidelity to your various and complicated 
duties, and of the good judgment, equanimity, alacrity, patience and 
energy with which you have performed them, — of the considerate re- 
gard and kindness which you have manifested towards the patients, — 
of your dignified and respectful intercourse with your official associates 
and subordinates, — and of the urbanity which has always marked your 
reception of visiters, and which, through its visible connection with 
all desirable higher qualities, has done so much to secure to the Hos- 
pital the large share of public favor it has invariably enjoyed. 

We feel, of course, that we are bound to bear our unqualified testi- 
mony to the justice of your claim to be recognized and remembered as 
one of the most distinguished benefactors of the Commonwealth ; and 
we shall avail ourselves of the first opportunity of official communica- 
tion with the Governor and Council, to make publicly known our con- 
viction of your official and personal merits. 

We regret most deeply that the state of your health should have been 
one of the considerations, which have led you to resolve upon your 
resignation : and we cannot close this communication without express- 
ing our fervent wishes and prayers that, upon being relieved from the 
arduous duties to which, it may be, your health has been sacrificed, 
your strength may be rapidly and entirely recruited, and you may be 
enabled to pass many years in the professional studies and services so 
peculiarly becoming to you, — as well as in the domestic comfort and 
interchange of social sympathies of which you have been so long de- 
prived, and in the enjoyment of the public respect and esteem of which, 
as long as you live, you cannot fail to be one of the most conspicuous 
objects. 

We remain, dear sir, your sincere friends, 

(Signed) JOSEPH SARGENT, 

STEPHEN SALISBURY, 
JESSE MURDOCK, 
S. C. PHILLIPS, 
THOMAS F. PLUNKETT. 



12 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To His Excellency George N. Briggs, Governor, and to the Honor- 
able Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts : 

The Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital respectfully presents 
his Fourteenth Annual Report. 

The Treasurer charges himself from December 1, 1845, to Novem- 
ber 30, 1846, inclusive, as follows : 
For receipts from the State Treasury for 
State pauper lunatics, for appropriation of 
1842, and from cities, towns, and indi- 
viduals, $46,012 87 

For credits on bills for sundry articles 

sold, &c, 472 27 

For balance carried to next account, . . 1,772 80 



,257 94 



He credits himself as follows : 
For balance overpaid on last account, to 

December 1, 1845, .... $8,387 57 

For payments for salaries, wages and labor, 11,701 41 
" improvements and repairs, 1,092 17 
" clothing, linen, &c. . 1,952 77 

" furniture, . . . 1,491 17 

" fuel and lights, . . 3,216 10 
" provisions and groceries, . 17,590 00 
" " medical supplies, . . 730 07 

" hay, $219 90, Straw, $107 73, 327 63 
" miscellaneous, . . 1,769 05 



,257 94 



The tabular statement of persons employed, and their compensation, 
is omitted as unnecessary this year. 

The item, fuel and lights, includes 
Wood, 334 cords, 2 feet 3 inches, . . $1,516 11 
Charcoal, 2650 bushels, .... 252 04 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



13 



Anthracite, 106 tons, 1025 pounds, 

Oil, 737^ gallons, 

Wick, 



$860 01 
581 76 

6 18 



5,216 10 



Provisions and groceries include 
Fruits, &c., .... 
Salt, spices and small groceries, 
Soap, .... 
Eggs, 122 \ dozen, 
Butter, 19,512 T 3 6 pounds. 
Cheese, 7,699 pounds, . 
Beans, 39 bushels, 
Peas, 30 bushels, 3 barrels 
Tea, 1,406 pounds, 
Coffee, 3219^ pounds, . 
Shells, 36f pounds, 
Biscuit, 

Brown Sugar, 19,810^ pounds 
White Sugar, 1,363 pounds, 
Molasses, 942 gallons, 
Honey, 594 pounds, 
Vinegar, 560£ gallons ; cider, 2 gallons, 3 bottles, 
Rice, 1,954 pounds, 
Oats, 40 bushels, . 
Flour, 417 barrels, 
Corn, 1,295 bushels, 
Rye, 655 bushels, 
Cabbages, 

Potatoes, 1,139 \ bushels 
Poultry, 927 pounds, 
Ham, 3,155^ pounds, 
Smoked Beef, 1,124J pounds, 
Fresh Fish, 1,910 pounds, 122 Shad, 
Oysters, and Clams, and Lobsters, 
Salt Fish, 70 cwt, 
Salmon, 4 barrels, 
Tongues, 1 barrel, 
Mackerel, 2£ barrels, 
Mutton and Lamb, 625f pounds, 



$642 57 

209 68. 

448 35 

18 46 

3,236 32 

620 35 

63 85 

67 67 

412 18 

237 55 

4 90 

135 16 

1,531 11 

169 78 

261 87 

71 16 

56 12 

85 03 

20 00 

2,386 15 

1,145 31 

610 70 

1 00 

579 38 

93 64 

247 54 

84 35 

89 15 

26 31 

245 00 

52 00 

17 00 

23 09 

54 77 



14 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 




Beef, 45,859f pounds, ...... 


$2,696 24 


Tongue, 13 pounds, ... 


1 14 


Veal, 5,537^ pounds, ...... 


372 53 


Pork, 6,388 pounds, 


431 83 


Salt Pork, £ barrel, 


5 00 


Corned Beef, 157J pounds, ..... 


8 15 


Tripe, 56l£ pounds, ...... 


39 24 


Sausages, 874J pounds, ..... 


88 46 



$17 590 00 



Miscellaneous , includes 
Cash advanced to patients and charged in their accounts, or 

paid to them when leaving the Hospital, 
Expenses after elopers, or for their return, 
Funeral expenses, ........ 

Postage, ......... 

Expenses of Trustees' visits, 

Filling ice cellar, . . . . 

Seven visits of Steward to Boston, and one to Lowell, on 

Hospital business, . . . . . . . 

One pair of oxen, one horse, eight cows, four calves, two 



Pig s > 



Rent and care of room for Chaplain, 
Overpayments for patients, refunded, 
Stationery, periodicals and printing, 
Surgery and dentistry for patients, 

$10; drawing plans, $16 75, 
Sundries, ..... 



legal opinion. 



$135 95 

55 17 

236 77 

116 41 

102 50 

30 00 

32 45 

492 94 

43 00 
300 12 
132 70 

46 75 

44 29 

$1,769 05 



It will be observed, that there is still a balance against the Hospital, 
at the close of the year. It would have been larger, had the usual 
amount of wood been paid for, at that time. At the commencement 
of the year, the Treasurer did not anticipate any different result, not- 
withstanding he expected to use the money in the State Treasury, 
appropriated for current expenses, and to receive the amount of the 
account for State pauper lunatics in the Hospital. The price of board 
was raised, by the Trustees, from December 1, 1845, to $2 50 per 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 15 

week, which considerably augmented the receipts of the year. Should 
that price be continued another year, and the payment for State pau- 
per lunatics continue to be made from the State Treasury, it is believed 
the Hospital will be out of debt at the close of the current year, and 
that no appropriation, for the current expenses of the year, will be 
required. And, hereafter, as the Treasurer has heretofore said, it may 
be reasonably expected, that appropriations for current expenses will 
not be required, while payments continue to be made from the State 
Treasury, equal to the expense of supporting the State pauper lunatics 
in the Hospital. Fluctuations in the markets, and in the rates of 
wages, may justify occasional changes in the price of board, but, in 
the Treasurer's opinion, they should not be hastily made. There is 
less complaint, on the part of those who pay bills, when the price of 
board remains at what they consider a high rate, than when it is raised 
from a lower to a higher price. Such a ehange always occasions 
more or less vexation. The price should never be above the fair, 
actual, average cost, but it is right it should be maintained at that rate, 
and that the average should be made upon several successive years, 
rather than upon the expenses of a single year. 

The Treasurer, in his last report, stated the condition of the Johon- 
not funds, expended and on hand. The balance was stated to be 
$4,211 53. Subsequently, the commissioners for enlarging the Hos- 
pital directed the payment of five hundred dollars to Dr. Woodward, 
for his devoted and valuable services, in advising the agent, and over- 
seeing much of the work of erecting the Johonnot wings. This left 
$3,711 53 to be invested. It was expected that the Legislature would 
direct the application of the balance, to some permanent improvements 
of the Hospital, or enlargement of the grounds ; and no attempt was 
made to loan it, until after they adjourned. It is now invested in a 
safe mortgage. 

In closing this, his fourteenth, and last report, the Treasurer would 
do injustice to his own feelings, if he did not bear testimony to the 
ability, courtesy, and fidelity of the other officers of the Hospital, since 
it was first opened. 

The eminent man, whom the first Board of Trustees, happily and 
providentially, appointed superintendent, honored that office. He made 
himself known, wherever the English language is spoken, as one of 
the wisest of those who have ever managed the insane. And, it is 
believed, that the influence which he exerted to ameliorate their con- 
dition, may claim for him the reputation and the gratitude due to a 
benefactor of his race. He has been succeeded, in his arduous labors, 



16 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

by one who was long an observer of his practice and his success, and 
who brings to the office a quiet devotion to its duties, and a practical 
skill in its administration, which will secure the continued confidence 
of the public in the institution, and will gain honor to himself. 

The business of the Treasurer has necessarily brought him into 
frequent intercourse with the two gentlemen, who have been stewards 
of the institution. He began with the one whom he leaves in office. 
He will retain pleasant recollections of the courtesy and accuracy of 
both ; but he wishes publicly to thank Mr. Hitchcock for many per- 
sonal favors, by which the labor of his office has been diminished. 
Few men could bring to any office sounder judgment, or more prudent 
management, none more strict and unwavering integrity and fidelity, 
than Mr. Hitchcock does to the office of steward. 

One word may be permitted, in regard to the Treasurer's intercourse 
with those who have settled accounts for patients at the Hospital. It 
appears to him worth noticing, as indicative of the character of those 
who are chosen to manage the affairs of our municipal corporations, 
as well as of the character of our people generally, that, in the four- 
teen years he has held his office, among the hundreds with whom he 
has done business, by letter or personally, he has not met more than 
three instances of rudeness or of any manner of discourtesy. He can 
wish nothing better for his successors, in this office, than that they 
may see the State Lunatic Hospital maintain its present reputation ; 
and that they may find, in those with whom they are associated, the 
ability and integrity, and in those with whom they do business, the 
courtesy, which have made the duties of the office to him as much a 
pleasure as a labor. 

ALFRED DWIGHT FOSTER. 

Worcester, Dec, 12, 1846. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 17 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



SUPERINTENDENT TO THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Gentlemen : — When appointed to take the charge of this institu- 
tion, July 1st, 1846, it was my intention to conduct its affairs in the 
same manner in which they had, for more than thirteen years, been so 
signally managed. I was led to adopt this course from the high repu- 
tation the Hospital had attained, both at home and abroad, for accom- 
plishing the benevolent purposes of its founders ; and, from the implicit 
confidence placed in it, by the community, for its kindness and suc- 
cess in treating the unfortunate insane ; and, from its being the school 
where for more than the first nine years of its operation, I was taught, 
by its great master spirit, his wise principles and judicious method 
of treating this class of diseases ; — and, also, from my not being able to 
devise any better way of conducting, with the limited means afforded, 
the affairs of this great charity. 

How well I have fulfilled this intention, you are enabled, from your 
regular monthly visits, and inspection of the Hospital, to determine. 

When invited by you to my present place, I was well aware of my 
own deficiencies to fill it. But the kind and cordial manner in which 
the invitation was tendered, did not leave me at liberty to decline it. 
The reputation of the institution, under my predecessor, was so de- 
servedly high, that it will be extremely difficult to sustain it, and 
invidious comparisons may naturally be expected. The duties of the 
office are arduous and the responsibilities of it are great. To meet 
these, I can only promise my best exertions and strict fidelity to the 
trust you have placed in me. 
3 



18 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

I shall look, with confidence, to the members of your board for 
counsel and direction, in carrying out your wise and benevolent plans 
for ameliorating and improving the condition of the insane who shall, 
from time to time, be gathered within the walls of this institution. 

Most of the faithful corps of assistants, who were on duty here when 
I came, continue to fulfil their respective duties. The loss of them 
would have been a serious evil to me and to the institution. The ser- 
vices of energetic, kind, faithful, conscientious and experienced assist- 
ants, cannot be too highly appreciated by those who have the care of 
the insane, nor by the insane themselves. 

I feel myself under special obligations to all who have remained in 
the institution to assist in conducting its affairs, and to perform, cheer- 
fully, their several duties, since my return. The arduous duty of the 
office of supervisor has been performed with great efficiency and kind- 
ness by Mr. and Mrs. Mirick. And the invaluable services to the 
institution, of Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock, as steward and matron, and of 
Doctors Lee and Woodward, have been continued, and I should be 
sorry to part with any one of them. While the present efficient and 
obliging officers remain, I shall have great confidence to believe that 
entire harmony will prevail in the immediate government of the in- 
stitution. 

The Hospital has been crowded all the time for the last year. The 
whole number of rooms designed for, and occupied by patients in the 
institution, is three hundred and fifty-one. Of these, one hundred 
and eighty-six are for males, and one hundred and sixty-five are for 
females. Besides these, there is for each sex an infirmary for those 
laboring under acute or contagious diseases. The average number of 
patients has been three hundred and fifty-nine. This is eight more 
than we have had sufficient accommodations for. In several instances, 
we have placed two beds in one room to accommodate our overplus of 
boarders ; and, when there have been no two sufficiently calm to place 
in one room for the night, we have made up a temporary bed in the 
halls. This crowded state of the Hospital gives us some additional 
trouble. 

The accommodations here, it would seem from the size of the build- 
ing, were ample enough for all whom it might be necessary to send to 
it. That insanity is on the increase in this community, I would not 
say, but it is very evident that good accommodations for the insane are 
eagerly sought for, by the friends of this unfortunate class of persons. 

Our rooms designed for the noisy, violent and filthy, are not suita- 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 19 

ble, nor as numerous as we should like. But, until others are pro- 
vided, we will do the best we can with what we have ; and, if this bad 
class continue to press in upon us, I shall be obliged to ask you to 
send a portion of them back to the jails of the counties from whence 
they came. 

In accordance with the by-laws, I submit the following "Tabular 
View of the Hospital for the past year, deduced from the records 
thereof." 



20 



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38 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 





3 '& 

1 s 

& 

02 K 


Periodical, 
do 

do 
do 




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S3 


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c 
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do 
The Friends 

do 
The Court 
The Overseers 

do 
The Court 
The Friends 
The Court 




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CJCdtNOJOJCNOlcNOJeNCU 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



39 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the Admissions from each County the past and previous years. 





Males, 


7 


1846. 


Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable, 










Females, . 





7 


53 


60 


Berkshire, 


Males, 


5 










Females, . 


2 


7 


72 


79 


Bristol, . 


Males, 


7 










Females, . 


6 


13 


149 


162 


Dukes, 


Males, 


1 










Females, . 


1 


2 


6 


8 


Essex, 


Males, 


10 










Females, . 


3 


18 


310 


328 


Franklin, 


Males, 


4 










Females, . 


1 


5 


71 


76 


Hampden, 


Males, 
Females, . 


7 
10 


17 


96 


113 


Hampshire, 


Males, 
Females, . 


6 

4 


10 


125 


135 


Middlesex, 


Males, 


12 










Females, . 


20 


32 


259 


291 


Nantucket, 


Males, 


2 










Females, 


3 


5 


19 


24 


Norfolk, . 


Males, 


15 










Females, 


16 


31 


247 


278 


Plymouth, 


Males, 
Females, 


11 

12 


23 


97 


120 


Suffolk, . " . 


Males, 


15 










Females, 


17 


32 


232 


264 


Worcester, 


Males, 


36 










Females, 


38 


74 


561 


635 


Other States, . 


Males, 













Females, 


1 


1 


9 


10 


Total, 


277 


2306 


2583 



40 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The counties nearest to the institution have, uniformly, furnished it 
with the largest proportion of boarders. This arises mainly from two 
causes, viz : the greater facility of bringing the insane to the institu- 
tion, and the better knowledge the community contiguous have of its 
management. 

Those counties in the interior, where agriculture is the pursuit of 
the large mass of the people, have not, it is supposed, so large a pro- 
portion of insane in their midst, as the other counties have, on the 
seaboard, where the business of the larger part of the population is 
attended with greater physical hardship and mental anxiety. The life 
of the sailor is one of exposure and excitement ; and the merchant, 
whose property is hazarded in his daily transactions, has great and 
peculiar anxieties. The tendency of such exciting pursuits is to de- 
stroy the health of the body and to break down the mind. 

Good physical health is the best protection against the inroads of 
insanity ; and whatever promotes the health of the body thereby in- 
creases the healthy functions of the brain. 

If the climate of the interior is not more congenial to health, it is 
believed that the occupation of the inhabitants there is healthier than 
in the mercantile and commercial counties. Some of the towns on 
the seaboard have, most of the time the Hospital has been in opera- 
tion, had a very large number of boarders here. 

The large number of committals from Worcester county is owing, 
in part, to the fact that patients have, in several instances, been 
brought to the institution before legal steps had been taken for their 
admission, and then were sent in as from this county. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



41 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the Admissions and state of the Hospital, from December 1st, 
1845, to November 38th, 1846. 



Patients in the Hospital in the 
course of the year, . . . 637 
Males, . 330 
Females, . 307—637 

At the commencement of the year, 360 
Males, . 192 
Females, . 168—360 

Admitted in the course of the year, 277 
Males, . 138 
Females, . 139—277 

Remaining at the end of the year, 367 
Males, . 200 
Females, . 167—367 



Of the admissions, there were 
cases of less duration than one 



year, 



167 



Males, 
Females, 



70 
97—167 



Longer duration than one year, . 
Males, . 53 
Females, . 35 — 88 

The duration of which not ascer- 
tained, 

Males, . 15 
Females, . 7 — 22 



Patients committed by Courts, 
Males, . 80 
Females, . 63—143 

Committed by the Overseers, 
Males, . 12 
Females, . 14 — 26 



22 



143 



26 



Private boarders, , 
Males, 
Females, 



108 



46 
62—108 



Patients now in the Hospital, . 367 
Males, . 200 
Females, . 167—367 

Cases of less duration than one 

year, 73 

Males, . 33 
Females, . 40 73 

Cases of longer duration than 

one year, 285 

Males, . 164 
Females, . 121—285 



Cases the duration of which not 
ascertained, .... 
Males, . 6 
Females, . 6 12 



12 



Foreigners admitted the last year, 34 
Males, . 14 
Females, . 20 — 34 

Foreigners discharged the last 

year, 14 

Males, . 6 
Females, . 8 14 



Foreigners now in the Hospital, 
Males, . 24 
Females, . 28 52 



52 



Six hundred and thirty-seven insane persons have, during the last 
year, enjoyed the privileges of the Hospital. This is a very large 
number to come under the care of the institution in one year. All, 
6 



42 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

who have applied, have been received, unless they were thought to be 
unfit subjects for such an institution. In a few cases, where the 
friends consulted us previously, we have, from some peculiar circum- 
stances connected with them, advised that they be not placed in any 
hospital, duite a number from other states have, personally or by 
letter, applied for admission. No case from another State has, of late, 
been received. 

There have been several instances where foreigners have been found 
wandering about, either accidentally, or with the assistance of others, 
in the immediate vicinity of the institution, in a state of violent in- 
sanity and great destitution — some of whom have been placed legally 
in the Hospital, by the humane into whose hands they had fallen. 

Some of these were probably recent cases, for they recovered or 
will recover. But others of them have undoubtedly been insane many 
years, and will never get into a condition fit to mingle in society 
abroad. 

There are now in the Hospital more than fifty who were born in 
Europe, a large part of whom have no means of support while sick. 
The number of this class of patients is increasing. It is natural that 
it should, for many of them have no relatives at hand, able to take 
charge of them after having had a fair trial for their recovery in the 
Hospital, as most of the natives of this country have. And there are 
several others in the Hospital whose place of birth was in other states, 
and who have no means of support or legal settlement in this. But, 
to afford an asylum for the destitute insane, was among the original 
designs of the founders of this Hospital. 

There remain, at the close of the year, three hundred and sixty- 
seven patients. Of these, only seventy-three are recent cases, and 
two hundred and ninety-four are chronic cases, whose chances of get- 
ting well have grown less with the length of time their several diseases 
have existed. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



43 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Discharges and Deaths, and the condition of 
those who left the Hospital, from December 1st, 1845, to November 
30th, 1846. 





02 

a 
6 

CD 


o 
H 


Recov- 
ered. 


Improv- 
ed. 


Incurable 

and 
Harmless 


Incurable 
and Dan- 
gerous. 


Deaths 






y. 


o 
Eh 


■A 

CD 
W. 

O 

H 


o 

H 


CD 
W 

si 
H 


o 
H 


OS 

o 


o 


* 

CD 

m 

s 


7: 
O 


< 

H 
O 


Patients. 































Discharged, 

Males, .... 


128 


270 


72 


154 


13 


31 


20 


43 


3 


4 


20 


38 

• 


128 


Females, 


142 


• 


82 


• 


18 


• 


23 


• 


1 


• 


18 




142 


Recent Cases. 




























Discharged, 

Males, .... 


71 


150 


54 


119 


*7 


11 


2 


6 


i 


1 


7 


13 


71 


Females, 


79 


• 


65 


• 


4 


• 


4 


• 





• 


6 


• 


79 


Chronic Cases. 


























- 


Discharged, 




111 


. 


30 


. 


20 




34 


. 


3 




24 


m 


Males, .... 


53 


m 


16 


. 


6 


. 


17 




2 


# 


12 


• 


53 


Females, 


58 


• 


14 


• 


14 


• 


17 


• 


1 


• 


12 


• 


58 


Patients discharged, the du- 
ration of whose disease 




























was not ascertained, 




9 


, 


5 







. 


3 









1 


m 




5 


. 


2 


. 







1 


, 





. 


1 


, 


4 




4 


• 


3 


• 





• 


2 


• 





• 





• 


5 




270 




154 




31 




43 




4 




38 




270 



The whole number who have left the Hospital the past year, is two 
hundred and seventy. Of these, one hundred and fifty-four have been 
restored to health, to happiness, to the world, and to themselves. It 
is a large number to be healed of their diseases, and to be reclothed 
in their right minds. 

We have been too solicitous, perhaps, from the crowded state of the 
house, to send away our patients before they had entirely recovered. 
In a few instances, when they have gone thus early, they have found, 
on going to meet the duties of active life, that their minds were not 
sufficiently strong, and have been obliged to return to us to perfect, 
by a longer residence, their cure. There are some persons who are 



44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



enabled, while under the mildest restraints of the Hospital, to conduct 
with great propriety and decorum, but who, on assuming the care of 
business or their families, become confused and lose the proper con- 
trol of their reasoning powers. 

It is not necessary nor desirable, in every case, that the patients 
remain in the institution until their reason and bodily health are per- 
fectly restored ; for, with judicious treatment, many can perfect their 
restoration with their friends, at home, as well as at the Hospital. 

The great anxiety of friends to remove patients early, obliges us to 
record some as only improved, who would have added to our list of 
recoveries, had they remained longer with us. Some of such cases 
recovered after going to their homes, but the chance of their recovery 
was diminished by their premature removal. 

The experience of the past year confirms the often repeated asser- 
tion, that the curability of insanity decreases inversely with the length 
of time the disease has existed. 

TABLE 4. 

Showing the number of Admissions and Discharges, and the average 
number in the Hospital, each month in the year. 





Monthly Aver- 
age. 


Admissions. 


Discharges. 


December, 1845, 


359 


20 


18 


January, 1846, 








365£ 


18 


14 


February, " 








370 


24 


15 


March, " 








372 


26 


30 


April, " 








376^ 


23 


17 


May, » 








372 


21 


25 


June, " 






. •». 


368 


24 


38 


July, " 








361| 


31 


27 


August, " 








362£ 


19 


18 


September, " 








3641 


28 


23 


October, " 








364 


24 


25 


November, " 


372| 


19 


19 



There has been but little variation in the number admitted between 
the first and last part of the year. On this point, the undersigned 
had some well grounded fears. It shows that the confidence placed in 
the Hospital, heretofore, was not withdrawn when my predecessor left. 
This has been to me a gratifying token of confidence that we did not 
expect, but one which we fully appreciate, and one which we will 
endeavor, by our exertions, to merit. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



45 



TABLE 5. 

Showing the number of Residents, the average number at the end of 
each year, and the Expense of each year for the fourteen years the 
Hospital has been in operation. 



The Year. 


No. of Residents. 


Average No. 


No. at the end of each year. 


Annual Expenses, 


1833 


153 


107 


114 


$12,272 91 


1834 


233 


117 


118 


15,840 27 


1835 


241 


120 


119 


16,576 44 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


1838 


362 


211 


218 


28,739 40 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


1842 


430 


238 


238 


27,546 87 


1843 


458 


244 


255 


27,914 12 


1844 


491 


261 


263 


29,278 75 


1845 


556 


316 


360 


43,888 65 


1846 


637 


359 


367 


39,870 37 



Very soon after its opening, and almost all the time since, the Hos- 
pital has been occupied to its fullest capacity. It will accommodate 
as many insane now as any one person can take the proper care of. 

The cost of support will, of course, vary with the price of provi- 
sions. The weekly charge is two dollars and fifty cents per week. 
This will probably cover all the current expenses. This sum is about 
the ordinary price for board in this village. There are expenses here 
that common boarding houses are not subject to. The cost of the 
immediate nursing and attendance upon the insane is not far from 
fifty cents per week for each patient. The wages of others employed 
amounts to as much more, and the cost of fuel, lights, carriage hire, 
&c. as much more. This would leave only one dollar per week for 
the supply of provisions. 



46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 6. 

Statistics of the Hospital, from January, 1833, to Nov. 307/*, 1846. 





1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836.1837. 

1 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846. 


Whole No. admitted, 


153 


119 


113 


125168 


177 


179 


162 


163 


198 


220 


236 


293 


277 


Whole No. discharg'd, 


39 


115 


112 


106 


121 


144 


168 


155 


167 


191 


203 


228 


196 


270 


Discharged recovered, 


25 


64 


52 


58 


69 


76 


80 


82 


82 


88 


116 


124 


122 


154 


Discharged improved, 


7 


22 


23 


17 


23 


24 


29 


27 


36 


25 


32 


40 


25 


31 


Discharged not im- 
proved, . 


2 


20 


28 


22 


20 


28 


37 


29 


37 


.66 


33 


49 


25 


47 


Died, 


4 


8 


8 


8 


9 


16 


22 


15 


12 


12 


22 


15 


24 


38 


Eloped, . 


1 


1 


1 


1 





.0 


























Whole No. in Hospi- 
tal in course of the 
year, 


153 


233 


241 


245 


306 


362 


397 


391 


399 


430 


458 


491 


556 


637 


No. remaining at the 
end of each year, . 


114 


118 


119 


138 


185 


218 


229 


236 


232 


238 


255 


263 


360 


367 


Males admitted, 


96 


68 


51 


66 


94 


96 


80 


75 


73 


107 


111 


109 


164 


138 


Females admitted, . 


57 


51 


62 


59 


74 


81 


99 


87 


90 


91 


109 


127 


129 


139 


Males discharged, . 


19 


58 


57 


56 


65 


74 


66 


59 


71 


96 


92 


108 


100 


128 


Females discharged, 


15 


48 


46 


41 


47 


54 


30 


81 


84 


83 


89 


105 


96 


142 


Males died, 


3 


5 


4 


6 


6 


10 


14 


9 


7 


3 


8 


9 


15 


20 


Females died, . 


1 


3 


4 


2 


3 


6 


8 


6 


5 


9 


14 


6 


9 


18 


Sent by Courts, 


109 


55 


90 


117 


129 


123 


123 


106 


110 


157 


152 


158 


167 


143 


Private, . 


44 


64 


23 


8 


39 


54 


56 


56 


53 


41 


68 


78 


126 


134 


Males recovered, 


13 


33 


27 


32 


37 


45 


32 


28 


37 


44 


53 


56 


64 


72 


Females recovered, . 


12 


31 


25 


26 


32 


31 


48 


54 


45 


44 


63 


68 


58 


82 


Average No. in the 
Hospital, 


107 


117 


120 


127 


163 


211 


223 


229 


233 


238 


244 


261 


316 


359 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



47 



TABLE 7. 
Statistics of the different Seasons. 





1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


1837. 


1838. 


1S39. 


1840. 


1841. 


1S42. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846. 


Admissions — 






























In Winter, . 


27 


26 


24 


23 


26 


46 


39 


32 


31 


50 


51 


51 


61 


62 


In Spring, 


72 


35 


31 


36 


49 


46 


38 


42 


37 


48 


58 


60 


80 


70 


In Summer, . 


23 


30 


30 


42 


40 


47 


59 


44 


51 


40 


56 


71 


68 


74 


In Autumn, . 


31 


28 


28 


24 


53 


38 


43 


44 


44 


60 


55 


54 


84 


71 


Discharges — 






























In Winter, . 





23 


21 


20 


14 


18 


31 


29 


35 


37 


44 


48 


40 


47 


In Spring, 


1 


33 


30 


33 


36 


37 


38 


38 


33 


46 


49 


60 


34 


73 


In Summer, . 


11 


28 


31 


24 


29 


44 


48 


41 


37 


46 


46 


65 


46 


83 


In Autumn, . 


23 


24 


22 


21 


33 


29 


29 


32 


50 


50 


42 


55 


52 


67 


Recovered — 






























In Winter, . 





13 


13 


12 


10 


15 


13 


18 


20 


24 


24 


31 


25 


28 


In Spring, 





20 


11 


15 


17 


23 


24 


22 


10 


22 


34 


33 


29 


47 


In Summer, . 


9 


16 


16 


12 


15 


18 


23 


20 


22 


25 


29 


23 


28 


39 


In Autumn, . 


16 


15 


12 


19 


27 


20 


20 


22 


30 


19 


29 


37 


40 


40 


Deaths — 






























In Winter, . 





3 


1 





1 


3 


5 


6 


1 


4 


5 


2 


4 


10 


In Spring, 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


5 


6 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


12 


In Summer, . 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 


5 


3 


6 


6 


7 


8 


In Autumn, . 








3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 


4 


4 


8 


4 


11 


8 



TABLE 8. 



Ages of Patients in the Hospital, 


Duration of Insanity -with those remaining, 


December 1st 


1846. 


December 1st, 1846. 




Under 20 years 


old, 


17 


Less than one 


year, 


73 


From 20 to 25, 


. 




27 


From 1 to 2 


years, 




21 


" 25 to 30, 


# 




52 


" 2 to 5 


(i 




71 


" 30 to 35, 


. 




48 


" 5 to 10 


u 




66 


" 35 to 40, 






49 


" 10 to 15 


a 




42 


" 40 to 45, 


. 




31 


" 15 to 20 


u 




25 


" 45 to 50, 


. 




45 


" 20 to 25 


« 




8 


" 50 to 55, 


m 




41 


" 25 to 30 


u 




10 


" 55 to 60, 


m 




22 


Over 30 


a 




7 


" 60 to 65, 


.. 




15 


Unknown, 


• 




34 


" 65 to 70, 


m 




3 








" 70 to 75, 


.... 




14 


- 






" 75 to 80, 






1 








Over 80, . 


• 




2 












367 






367 



48 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Almost all the ages of man are represented here. Eighty-two years 
is the age of the oldest, and eight years that of the youngest patient 
in the Hospital. But insanity commenced in this last case at the age 
of two and a half years. We have had an application for the admis- 
sion of a lad only four years old. The most common cause of insanity 
in such young persons is convulsions. Their minds cease then to ex- 
pand. Their mental powers continue infantile, while their physical 
systems become more fully developed ; but it is not usual for them to 
become symmetrical and well proportioned in body. They are often 
very troublesome and difficult to manage, as they grow up. This 
arises partly from the too ready indulgence of their parents, and be- 
cause their animal propensities develop more fully than their mental 
and moral powers. 

But still, with skilful, persevering, and kind treatment, their habits 
may be kept good or improved, and they may be taught some kinds of 
manual labor, and their minds may be stored with some useful infor- 
mation, by which their sources of happiness would be greatly en- 
larged. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



49 



TABLE 9. 

Showing the causes of Insanity, and circumstances connected with 
causes, and predisposition to Insanity, the last year and previous 
years. 





1846. 


Previously. 


Intemperance, .... 


28 


278 


Ill Health, . 






30 


318 


Masturbation, 






10 


145 


Domestic Affliction, . 






25 


219 


Religion, 






27 


191 


Property, .... 






14 


131 


Disappointed Affection, . , 






3 


68 


Disappointed Ambition, 









33 


Epilepsy, 






3 


56 


Puerperal, 






5 


67 


Wounds of the Head, 






2 


26 


Abuse of Snuff and Tobacco, . 









9 


Hard Labor, . 






6 





Drying up of old Ulcers, 






2 





Jealousy, 






1 


11 


Fright, 






1 


14 


Palsy, 






6 


19 


Periodical Cases, 






67 


450 


Hereditary, or having insane ancestors o 


r kindre 


i, 


m 


565 


Homicidal, .... 






3 


23 


Have committed Homicide, 






2 


16 


Suicidal, .... 






38 


239 


Have committed Suicide, 






3 


11 


Arising from Physical Causes, 






93 


918 


Arising from Moral Causes, 






77 


667 



111 health is the most prominent cause of insanity, as classed in the 
above table, which is mostly made up from the representations of re- 
lations and others who bring patients to the Hospital. But this cause, 
arising from its many sources, is undoubtedly the most fruitful of men- 
tal derangement. Its tendency is to impair the material instrument 
of the mind, so that impressions made upon it are responded to in a 
deranged tone. Ill health is often accompanied by want of sleep, 
which is one of the most invariable symptoms of recent insanity ; and 
it so often precedes it as frequently to be regarded as a cause. 

There are usually several circumstances, all of which conspire to 
bring on that state of brain and nervous system that results in mental 
derangement. The one that seems most prominent to the friends is 
7 



50 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

the one here recorded. It is difficult, and often impossible, to ascer- 
tain the true and relative bearings of the various circumstances around 
us, upon our own minds, but it is much more difficult to ascertain the 
precise objects that suggest each successive link in the chain of thought 
that is passing through the mind of another. 

The bane of intemperance has continued to poison its victims ; the 
ruptured ties of domestic endearment have caused many a heart to 
bleed ; and the doubts and fears as to the soul's future condition have 
disturbed the minds of many. 

Many individuals are afflicted with insanity periodically. During 
the past year, sixty-seven have been brought to the Hospital, whose 
diseases had been periodical. Some cases obey regular periods, but 
in other cases the time varies from a few days to several years. Those 
who have long intervals between their excitements, continue with us 
only during the violence of their maladies ; but many of those whose 
lucid intervals are short, or whose disease runs directly from one ex- 
treme to the other, remain at the institution. 

In thirty-one patients, when they have been particularly noticed, 
their diseases, during the year, had one hundred and seventeen dis- 
tinct paroxysms or excitements, which have assumed all the character- 
istics of recent attacks of derangement. And they gave us at each 
excitement all the trouble, and produce in the Hospital all the disturb- 
ance of new admissions of violent mania. 

Epilepsy, too, is periodical in its occurrence. Fifteen patients have 
had, in the year, three hundred and six fits of Epilepsy. They are, 
about the time of their fits, among the most dangerous of our patients, 
and the most difficult to manage. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



51 



TABLE 10. 
Occupation. 





1846. 


Previously. 


Farmers admitted, 


30 


272 


Merchants " 








12 


98 


Laborers " 








31 


178 


Shoemakers " 








2 


89 


Seamen " 








13 


80 


Carpenters " 








8 


57 


Manufacturers " 








1 


35 


Teachers " 








3 


31 


Students " 








5 


31 


Blacksmiths " 








2 


22 


Printers " 








1 


20 


Tailors " 








1 


14 


Clergymen " 








2 


12 


Lawyers " 











6 


Physicians " 









6 


Females not accustomed to labor, • 









177 


Females accustomed to sedentary employment, 


4 


240 


Females accustomed to active employment, 


66 


432 



Many not classed, particularly females. 



52 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 11. 

Diseases which have proved fatal. 







1846. 


Previously. 


Marasmus, ..... 


5 


37 


Apoplexy and Palsy, 






2 


20 


Epilepsy, 






2 


17 


Consumption, 






4 


16 


Disease of the Heart, 








2 


13 


Suicide, 








3 


11 


Disease of the Brain, 






6 


7 


Typhus Fever, 









6 


Hemorrhage, 









5 


Lung Fever, 








3 


5 


Cholera Morbus, . 











4 


Inflammation of the Bo\ 


eels, 









4 


Dysenteric Fever, . 











4 


Mortification of Limbs, 











3 


Dropsy, 








1 


3 


Chronic Dysentery, 











3 


Erysipelas, 








2 


3 


Diarrhoea, 






4 


3 


Disease of Brain from Intemperanc 


5, 







2 


Bronchitis, 









2 


Old Age, 











Gastric Fever, 











Land Scurvy, 











Congestive Fever, 






1 




Concussion of the Brain, . 











Disease of the Bladder, 











Fright, . . , 











Rupture, . 






1 





Exhaustion, 






1 





Convulsions, 






1 













38 


175 



The deaths, the past year, have occurred mostly in those cases 
where the system had become enfeebled by long bodily and mental 
illness. In the warm season, diarrhoea was quite prevalent. This dis- 
ease was not of a very violent character ; but still, four cases were 
worn out by it, and several others were long afflicted with it before 
they recovered entirely. Six died from disease of the brain; they 
were mostly chronic cases, that had remained with their friends until 
the disease, approaching a fatal termination, broke out into a more 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 53 

violent state of mania or rather delirium. The friends, mistaking this 
delirium for an increase of proper insanity, and finding that they could 
not well take care of them, placed them in the Hospital. It is proba- 
ble that they would not have lived long had they not been subjected to 
the fatigue of a journey here. 

The management of the insane is at all times difficult ; but, when 
fever or other acute diseases supervene upon a case of raving mania, 
our skill and ingenuity are often put to the test to devise the best 
course to pursue. Like young children, they are often unable to 
communicate their feelings, so as to assist us in finding out the precise 
nature of their complaint. The insane frequently reject all proffered 
kindnesses, so that all our available appliances are required to give the 
sick insane the proper care and treatment. 

In some cases, the mental affection so absorbs the thoughts and feel- 
ings, that acute physical disease may get far advanced and exhaust the 
powers of life before it is discovered, — the pain of the body being lost 
in mental agony. 

When patients are attacked with acute physical diseases, and re- 
quire much attention, we remove them to our infirmaries. Some 
prefer to remain in their own rooms, in the galleries. In this their 
feelings are consulted. 

The melancholy case of the very unfortunate girl, who was for a 
long time deprived of almost all her external senses, and of which a 
full and interesting description was given in the last annual report, 
died in February last. Extensive organic disease of the brain and 
other organs, was the cause of the loss of her senses and her death. 

The following notes were taken by Dr. S. at the post mortem ex- 
amination of the Mead case : 

External appearance small, emaciated, pale. 

Dura mater not unusually adherent, nor were glandular pacchioni. 

Brain unusually firm ; red points in section not more than usual; 
no unusual congestion ; no unusual serum in arachnoid ; perhaps one 
ounce of serum in the ventricles, and more at the base of the brain. 
On being removed from the cranium and turned over, the origin of the 
olfactory and the whole of the optic nerves were partly concealed by 
a considerable amount of false membrane, not recent ; the nerves 
themselves were not softened, and no pus or lymph seen. Just at the 
forward part of the left middle lobe of the cerebrum, there was a 
greenish portion ; two or three lines, in superficial extent, under the 
pia mater, looking at first like a tuberculous mass. On cutting through 



54 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

this, there was seen a mass of disease, presenting two appearances, 
viz : first, a white portion bespotted with red, the red consisting of 
minute coagulae ; second, surrounding this first part, there was a gold- 
en or yellow part which was somewhat diffluent. The centre portion 
was an inch, more or less, in irregular diameter ; the other portion, 
one half an inch and regularly defined — the substance of the brain 
outside of this being firm ; this lay just in front of the optic thalamus, 
but did not reach it. There was another mass of disease precisely 
similar, just below the posterior cornu of the right lateral ventricle. 
This latter did not quite reach the base of the brain, and was con- 
siderably larger. 

The cerebellum was healthy ; no disease was seen in the first two 
or three inches of the medulla oblongata. 

There was universal adhesion of the pleura — abundant scattered 
tubercles in the lungs, but no considerable agglomeration. 

The liver was large, pale, and supposed to be fatty. 

The spleen was of the usual size and healthy, except a portion of 
an inch in diameter, which was distinct, palish, and friable, looking 
like a commencing metastatic abscess. 

The peritoneum exhibited, every where, a fine bright, red vascu- 
larity, but was not sticky, and presented no pus nor recent lymph. 

The omentum was very much thickened, being in some parts one 
or two inches thick, and quite red on the surface. It cut like scir- 
rhus, but had no tubercles in it. There was a portion of it reaching 
into the right iliac region, which was very large and thick. The 
whole peritoneal surface of the intestines was studded with little drops, 
looking at first like recent lymph, but they could not be scraped off 
with a knife. 

The uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, were one mass of tubercu- 
lar disease. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



55 



TABLE 12. 

'Showing the prospect of living for those who are attached with Insan- 
ity and do not recover, deduced from one hundred and ninety-three 
cases that terminated fatally at the Hospital. 





Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


The average age at which 105 males were taken de- 

The average age at which 88 females were taken de- 

The average age at which 193 of both sexes were 
taken deranged, ...... 

The average age the 105 males were when they died, 
The average age the 88 females were when they died, 

The average time the 105 males were insane before 
coming to the Hospital, ..... 
The average time the 105 males lived afterwards, 


44 

41 

42 

49 
44 

4 



1 



6 

1 
11 

1 

10 


00 

17 

23 

8 
22 

23 
15 


The average time the 88 females were insane before 
coming to the Hospital, ..... 
The average time the 88 females lived afterwards, 


5 

2 
1 




11 




8 

1 
4 


The average duration of life of the 193 of both sexes, 
after becoming insane, ..... 


3 

4 


11 

5 


5 
21 



The above table includes all the cases where it was known cer- 
tainly how long the person had been insane, and what was the precise 
age of the individual. Some of these had been insane before and had 
recovered. 

The chance of living when the malady does not terminate in the 
restoration of reason, is, by the above data, less than four years and a 
half. The chance of life for those not laboring under any disease of 
the body or mind, is computed, at the corresponding age, by insurance 
companies, to be about twenty-five years. From this, it seems that 
insanity shortens life, although the contrary opinion has often been 
asserted. 



56 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 13. 

Showing the duration of Insanity, the ages and civil state of the pa- 
tients, admitted the last and previous years. 





1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


1837.!lS38. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846. 


Duration of Insanity 










1 




















before admission. 






























Less than 1 year, . 


41 


56 


48 


54 


72 


82 


84 


75 


81 


106 


129 


127 


156 


167 


From 1 to 5 years, 


27 


29 


37 


37 


58 50 


63 


56 


52 


58 


62 


68 


89 


50 


" 5 to 10 " 


27 


14 


15 


13 


14 


16 


18 


15 


12 


13 


15 


12 


15 


18 


" 10 to 20 " 


31 


6 


5 


11 


14 


8 


10 


10 


10 


5 


7 


10 


19 


15 


" 20 to 30 " 


12 


4 





2 


4 


7 


1 


3 


4 


5 


1 


5 


5 


5 


" 30 to 40 " 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 





4 


1 


3 





2 


Unknown, 


12 


8 


7 


6 


5 13 

1 


2 


1 


4 


7 


5 


11 


19 


20 




153 


119 


113 


125 


168177 


179 


162 


163 


198 


220 


236 


293 


277 


Duration of Insanity 






























with those remain- 






























ing in the Hospital 






























at the end of the 






























year. 
Less than 1 year, . 


26 


22 


21 


11 


29 


28 


34 


28 


32 


40 


45 


51 


63 


70 


From 1 to 5 years, 


23 


25 


22 


39 


5ll 65 


69 


75 


74 


89 


74 


84 


128 


107 


" 5 to 10 " 


20 


24 


34 


35 


38 44 


44 


52 


53 


38 


55 


45 


63 


73 


" 10 to 20 " 


28 


24 


29 


35 


41 


41 


52 


52 


45 


37 


52 


49 


66 


60 


" 20 to 30 " 


7 


5 


3 


7 


11 


18 


14 


13 


15 


18 


19 


14 


18 


19 


" 30 to 40 " 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


4 


6 


4 


7 


7 


8 


" 40 upwards, . 


8 


16 


6 


9 


13 19 


12 


11 


9 


10 


6 


13 


15 


30 




114 


118 


119 


138 


185218 


229 


236 


232 


238 


255 


263 


360 


367 


Ages of patients 






























when admitted. 






























Under 20 years, 


2 


12 


4 


11 


13 


17 


10 


10 


7 


14 


15 


16 


20 


24 


From 20 to 30 years, 


34 


31 


23 


29 


58 


47 


47 


46 


50 


55 


48 


64 


92 


69 


" 30 to 40 " 


46 


31 


36 


32 


34 


51 


49 


40 


45 


44 


62 


65 


63 


62 


" 40 to 50 « 


35 


31 


28 


2f; 


31 


32 


30 


34 


31 


46 


39 


43 


42 


62 


" 50 to 60 " 


14 


8 


13 


14 


13 


20 


21 


21 


19 


24 


38 


26 


49 


38 


" 60 to 70 " 


17 


5 


6 


13 


12 


8 


14 


6 


9 


12 


11 


17 


18 


15 


" 70 to 80 " 


3 





3 





7 


2 


8 


5 


1 


2 


5 


3 


8 


8 


" 80 upwards, 


2 


1 




















1 


1 


2 


2 


1 







153119 


113 


125 


168 


177 


179 


162 


163 


198 


220 


236 


293 


277 


Civil state of patients 






























when admitted. 






























Sinsrie, 


92 


71 


52 


68 


94 


101 


80 


75 


82 


108 


92 


114 


165 


134 


Married, . 


38 


40 


46 


49 


61 


65 


75 


71 


63 


76 


103 


102 


105 


121 


Widows, 


12 


4 


8 


6 


11 


5 


17 


12 


13 


12 


17 


17 


16 


14 


Widowers, 


11 


4 


7 


2 


2 


6 


7 


4 


5 


2 


8 


3 


7 


7 






























1 




153 


119 


113 


125 


168 


177 


179 


162 


163 


198 


220 


236 


•293 


277 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



57 



TABLE 14. 

Showing the causes of Insanity, as affecting persons pursuing differ- 
ent occupations. 



OCCUPATIONS. 


U 

a 
a 

a 

s 
s 


13 

a 


a 

a 


< 

P 3 


P3 


| 


T3 

U 

II 

5^ 


c 

"3 

H 


a 
o 
"3 

a 

1-5 


<! 
H 

o 
H 


Farmers, 


64 


11 


27 


23 


27 


28 


3 


9 


3 


195 


Shoemakers, 






9 


6 


24 


4 


10 


6 


2 


1 





62 


Laborers, 






78 


4 


15 


4 


8 


6 


1 


3 


2 


m 


Seamen, 






33 


2 


7 


3 


7 


6 


1 





3 


52 


Merchants, . 






14 


4 


32 


4 


4 


18 





2 





78 


Carpenters, . 






15 


5 


8 


2 


9 


6 


3 


2 





50 


Blacksmiths, 






4 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


2 








15 


Students, 









2 


21 


2 


2 








1 





28 


Clergymen, . 






1 





4 





1 


1 


1 








8 


Lawyers, 






2 





2 


1 





1 











6 


Physicians, . 






2 














1 


1 








4 


Painters, 






1 





11 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 





17 


Manufacturers, 






9 


1 


3 





4 


3 


1 








21 



What the relative proportion of the persons of these several occu- 
pations in the Hospital, bears to those of the same occupations abroad 
in the community, cannot be very well ascertained ; and only a part of 
the insane in this community are brought within the observation of the 
Hospital. 

Some occupations are more deleterious to health than others, such, 
for instance, as are carried on in an impure atmosphere, and require too 
much physical exertion and unnatural postures of the body ; and some 
occupations expose the individuals who follow them to greater tempta- 
tions or exciting causes than others. 

Bodily disease predisposes the system to mental derangement. It 
is seldom that a person becomes insane when in good physical health, 
unless it is from blows on the head, &c. ; therefore those trades that 
induce ill health do, from that cause, tend to the production of in- 
sanity. 

It has been said that the various revolutions in France could be 
recognized and traced by the peculiar character of the insanity of the 
patients in their lunatic hospitals. And, in this country, one at least 
8 



58 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



of the recent religious excitements is plainly recognized in the pecu- 
liar delusions of those who were drawn into the vortex of that wide- 
spread excitement. 

TABLE 15. 
Per Cent. 



Per cent, of recovery 
of recent cases, . 


1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846. 




82 


82 


84 


89 


86 


90 


91 


91 


91 


88 


93 


89^ 


79 


Per cent, of recovery 






























of all discharged, 


. 


54 


46 


53 


57 


52 


47 


53 


49 


46 


59 


54 


m 


5V 


Per cent, of recovery 






























of old cases, . 


• 


20 


16 


19 


25 


15 


17 


22 


21 


16 


29 


24 


3U 


28 


Per cent, of the ad- 






























missions of the most 






























prominent causes in 






























each year : — 






























111 health, 


8 


18 


21 


22 


21 


28 


27 


25 


23 


18 


16 


15 


13 


11 


Religious, 


9 


6 


7 


7 


6 


9 


5 


4 


4 


9 


13 


9 


7 


10 


The affections, 


14 


12 


17 


16 


16 


15 


25 


17 


13 


15 


9 


10 


14 


1 


Property, 


7 


11 


9 


6 


6 


10 


6 


5 


4 


5 


7 


3 


9 


5 


Intemperance, 


25 


24 


23 


15 


10 


16 


8 


12 


12 


8 


6 


. 8 


10 


10 


Masturbation, 


5 


6 


7 


16 


21 


6 


8 


7 


6 


4 


3 


2 


6 


3 


Per cent, of deaths 






























of all in Hospital 






























each year, . 


%h 


U 


31 


o 4 


3h 


U 


5£ 


31 


3 


n 


41 


3 


4i 


6 



There have been discharged from the Hospital 2216, of whom 1192 recovered, 

which is ..... 53| per cent. 

And 213 died, which is . . . 9k per cent. 



Labor ranks high among the curative means used here, and it is 
made a source of profit also. The patient who labors moderately 
increases his physical health and mental happiness thereby, while the 
results of his labors are beneficial to the whole household. Although 
the supervision, which many of the laboring patients require while at 
work, costs more than their labor is worth, still it is resorted to as a 
remedial means. 

The various departments of business here give opportunities for a 
great many to take profitable exercise. Those who have sufficient 
control over their minds and feelings, and desire it, are daily called 
upon to assist in the various duties of the Hospital. The facilities for 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



59 



giving employment to the females are greater than they are to the 
males. But the farm, of about one hundred acres, affords in the warm 
season a wide field of labor, of the most invigorating kind. 

The abundance of many of the crops, bears strong testimony that 
the labor bestowed in raising them was judiciously applied. Our hay 
crop was never larger. Most of the mowing land was cut over twice ; 
and some of it about the buildings yielded more than three crops of 
grass, that became lodged before it was cut. On some peat meadow 
land, where formerly only coarse swale grass grew, two large crops 
were cut this year — between two and three tons to the acre ; and the 
quality of the crop was greatly improved likewise. Clover and Timo- 
thy had taken the place of the three-cornered swale and bog grasses. 
This change was effected by cutting off the scattering bogs even with 
the surface, then spreading sand and horse-stable manure on the top, 
and digging out ditches so as to drain off the standing water. This 
work can be done best early in the autumn. 

We have thought that some, who have tried to improve their swamp 
lands in this way, have erred by putting on too large a quantity of 
sand at a time, and by draining too much. These lands suffer very 
soon in dry seasons. 

The five acres planted with corn, yielded full three hundred bushels 
of shelled corn — and a heap of sounder corn is not often seen. Two 
acres of this corn land was a pasture that had lain fallow many years. 
Some of the vegetable matter taken from Bell pond, when that was 
cleaned out by the town for the purpose of bringing its water by aque- 
duct into the village, was spread on top and plowed in. No other 
manure was applied, except that a small quantity of ashes was put on 
each hill It is estimated that these two acres produced about one 
hundred bushels of shelled corn. 

Our crop of English turnips was exceedingly fair this season. 

The following estimates by Mr. C. P. Hitchcock, are some of the 
results of our farming and gardening : 



308 bushels of 


corn, at 95 cts. 


$293 60 


220 


oats, at 50 cts. 


110 00 


12 


beans, at $1 50, 


18 00 


304 


English turnips, at 25 cts. 


76 00 


70 


early potatoes, at 75 cts. 


52 50 


105 


potatoes, at 50 cts. . 


52 50 


200 


beets, at 50 cts. 


100 00 



60 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



65 bushels of parsnips, at 67 cts. 
135 " onions, at 67 cts. 

2,000 cabbages, at 4 cts. each, 
600 pounds winter squash, at 1£ cts 

8 tons oat straw, . 
250 pound's poultry, at 10 cts. 
10,825 pounds pork, at 6 cts. . 
4,540 pounds beef, at 5 cts. 
20 pigs sold, 
3 farrow cows sold, 
37,230 quarts of milk, at 3£ cts. 



131 55 
92 45 

80 00 
9 00 

48 00 
25 00 

649 50 
227 00 

49 25 
42 16 

1,303 25 



13,238 16 

Summer vegetables, a good supply for the establishment. 

There was raised for wintering the stock : 

62 tons of hay, at $14, . . . . " $868 00 

1,050 bushels of carrots, at 25 cts. . . . 262 50 

8 loads of corn fodder, . . . . 25 00 

Seventeen cows and 4 oxen were pastured on the farm. 

The live stock on the farm now consists of 4 horses, 4 oxen, 17 
cows, 1 bull, 47 swine, and 50 fowls. 

The shoe shop has been in operation the past year; from two to six 
patients have found constant employment there. The following state- 
ment of its condition is submitted by Mr. David Hitchcock, who has 
managed it very judiciously. This shop is a great convenience to us, 
and it rather more than pays its own expenses. 

The credits are : 
For custom work, 
" work for inmates of the Hospital, . 
" shoes on hand, November 30, 1846, 
" stock on hand, " 

The Debits are : 
For stock and tools, 
" compensation and board of overseers, 
" binding shoes, 
" fuel and lights, 
" shoes and stock on hand, Dec. 1, 1845, 



. 


$516 31 


, 


631 08 


a 


75 00 




25 00 




$1,247 39 


. 680 30 




. 340 73 




34 00 




16 00 




90 00 






1,161 03 






$86 36 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 61 

A school for teaching the insane was established by Dr. Wood- 
ward last winter, when it was difficult to find employment out of doors. 
It was kept up for a considerable time with interest and benefit to 
those who took part in the exercises. It was finally suspended by the 
recovery and removal of one of the female teachers who assisted a 
daughter of Dr. Woodward in the female department, and by the 
necessary absence of others. 

The classes assembled in the Johonnot Hall, and were exercised in 
those branches usually taught in our common schools, for about two 
hours at a time. Morning, afternoon, and evening, the classes were 
drilled. Some made progress in the acquisition of knowledge, and all 
kept their minds, by these means, from becoming dull and inactive. 
This school should be resumed. There are enough convalescent pa- 
tients and others, in the Hospital, ready to engage in such tasks. 

Amusements. — More extended means for occupying the inmates of 
hospitals, have been constantly sought for by those who have the care 
of them. When useful labor cannot be had recourse to, either from 
the former habits of the individual, or from want of interest in any 
thing, which is the case with many of the insane, then amusements 
are resorted to. And they are beneficial in arresting the attention 
and giving exercise to the body and mind of many who would other- 
wise pass the day in inactivity and listlessness. Chess, cards, back- 
gammon, rolling balls, jumping the rope, &c, are in-door games ; 
and base-ball, pitching quoits, walking and riding, are out-door amuse- 
ments. There are some patients of a melancholy cast of disease, who 
baffle all the adroitness of their attendants to induce them to join in 
any of these things. There are several cages of singing birds in the 
galleries ; these give employment and amusement to several. Parties 
for singing sacred music and parties for dancing, are held frequently. 
The matron has continued her series of sewing parties every two 
weeks, in the Johonnot Hall. At these, from forty to seventy female 
patients assemble with their respective attendants. All are invited 
whose conduct is such as will add to the general good. They con- 
tinue in session about two hours, and end with a treat of nuts and 
fruit. 

Some of the common sewing for the institution is done here ; but 
the great business of the day is to make up the "fancy work" that 
is exposed for sale, the proceeds of which are expended in the pur- 
chase of books for their own reading. 

Their library now consists of about five hundred volumes of mis- 



62 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

cellaneous books. Eighty-eight dollars and sixty-nine cents were re- 
ceived the past year from the sales, and the profits thereof have been 
expended in the purchase of books. 

This library is resorted to more frequently by the males than by 
the females themselves. Thus the industry and skill of the one sex 
contribute mainly to the amusement and information of the other. 
All who wish it, and many do, go, and select from it such books as 
they please. 

Many periodicals are taken by the patients and attendants, and are 
read in the halls. 

The editors of the following send us gratuitously their several 
papers, for which we all feel deeply indebted to them for their kind 
remembrance of us and for their very acceptable donations : Boston 
Recorder, Olive Branch, Youth's Companion, Christian Watchman, 
Christian Witness, Zion's Herald, Springfield Republican, Springfield 
Gazette, Hampshire Gazette, Fall River Monitor, Old Colony Memo- 
rial, Keene Sentinel, New Hampshire Patriot, Gospel Messenger, 
Harbinger, Christian Citizen, Worcester Cataract, Worcester Tran- 
script, Monthly Religious Magazine, Lynn News, Salem Register, 
Asylum Journal, and Congregational Visiter. 

Bundles of exchange papers from the Olive Branch office, and the 
printing offices in this town, are frequently sent to us. 

The religious services have been conducted by the Rev. George 
Allen, who has officiated for many years as chaplain of the institution. 
They consist of such public services, forenoon and afternoon, on the 
Sabbath, as are usually performed in all our churches, and a Bible 
class in the afternoon, after meeting ; and of evening prayers at half- 
past eight o'clock, with reading of a portion of Scripture and a hymn, 
with singing by our choir of patients and attendants ; and of occa- 
sional interviews during the week, with such as desire it, or with such 
as would seem to be benefited by such social conferences with the 
chaplain. 

These exercises have been conducted in a very judicious and accep- 
table manner. As our congregation is made up of those of all de- 
nominations, controversial and doctrinal points of theology have been 
wisely avoided, while the great truths and principles of religion have 
been held up, and obedience to them insisted upon as the only source 
of true happiness. 

The effect of these stated religious services has been salutary upon 
our whole household. Many of our patients refer with great pleasure 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 63 

to these seasons of worship. The extreme quiet and stillness of our 
meetings, manifest the interest and marked respect with which they 
are appreciated by our large congregation of about three hundred. 
A few strangers from abroad are present almost every Sabbath. 

These religious services have now become so incorporated with our 
daily duties, that they could hardly be omitted without seriously en- 
dangering the well-being and good government of the establishment. 
They tend to increase the respect of each individual for themselves 
and for each other. They afford a season for the excited and restless 
to exercise their powers of self-control, when they can call to their aid 
all their former associations connected with their religious training. 

The Scriptures are placed in the hands of all whose disease does 
not lead them to make an improper use of them. Sometimes patients 
read and search the Bible to find passages to substantiate their delu- 
sions. Except in a few instances of this kind, the perusal of the Scrip- 
tures tends wholly to good, for therein is written the law of love and 
kindness, of justice and truth ; and therein is taught nothing that 
vitiates the conscience, injures the health, or deranges the mind. 

The year closes with almost every member of our household enjoy- 
ing comfortable physical health. 

Besides seven of our patients, who are absent on visits to their 
friends, our family consists : 

Of patients, . . . . . . 360 

" persons employed, ..... 66 

" others, the children of those employed, . . 8 



434 

The foregoing is most respectfully submitted, 



GEO. CHANDLER. 



State Lunatic Hospital, ) 
Worcester, November 30th, 1846. } 



64 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 





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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



67 



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