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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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ARCHIVES 



FIFTEENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



AT WORCESTER. 



DECEMBER, 18 47 



Boston: 

BUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS, 
No. 37, Congress Street. 

1848. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Massachusetts Amherst 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportoftr13stat 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



DECEMBER, 1847 



To His Excellency the Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, and to the Honorable Council: 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital, at Worcester, have the 
honor of presenting this, their Fifteenth Annual Report. 

The Report of the Superintendent, and that of the Treasurer, here- 
to appended, give " a particular statement of the condition of the Hos- 
pital, and of all its concerns," as required by the statute, so far as 
relates to their departments. It will be seen that the Hospital, not- 
withstanding its enlargement, continues to be crowded ; that the num- 
ber of chronic cases is constantly increasing, the uncured residue of 
each year augmenting that of the last ; and that the number of for- 
eigners is, also, increasing. It is gratifying, however, to see that a 
much larger proportion of patients is brought to the Hospital while 
their insanity is yet recent, than formerly. This evinces the general 
confidence in the Institution, and the popular conviction of its greater 
advantage to the patient according as his residence here is early. The 
more favorable results of treatment, under these circumstances, explain 
why, although the number of chronic cases is constantly increasing by 
accumulation, their proportion to the whole number of residents has 
increased but very slowly. 

The accumulation of incurables may, in process of time, become 
such as to alter the character of the Institution, rendering its curative 
power inoperative from want of room for subjects. The Legislature 
has wisely provided for the discharge and care of such incurable pa- 
tients as get no peculiar advantage from residence here. Proper ac- 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

commodations for such patients have been prepared in three of our 
cities and some of our larger towns. The provision is timely. It re- 
lieves the Hospital, and developes its advantages. 

The increase of foreigners is an evil the more to be regretted, be- 
cause there is reason to fear that it may be, still further, an increase 
of incurables. The number of foreigners, mostly Irish, admitted the 
past year, is sixty, being one fourth of the whole number admitted ; 
while the number of foreigners discharged is thirty-five, being only one 
sixth of the whole number discharged. Their misery, their ignorance 
and their jealousy stand in the way of their improvement at the Hos- 
pital. But these should be only so many more claims to our charity ; 
and, while it is pleasant to know that they are well taken care of here, 
if the advantage is less to them, it is greater to society. 

By an act of the Legislature, at their last session, the Trustees were 
authorized " to provide new apartments for the furiously insane pa- 
tients," and, for this purpose, six thousand dollars were appropriated, 
in addition to the unexpended balance of the Johonnot Fund. In ac- 
cordance with this act, the Trustees, after much consultation with the 
Superintendent, and consideration of plans and sites, and in view of 
the sum appropriated, thought it best to depart from their original pur- 
pose of erecting a separate building, and make an addition to the Jo- 
honnot wing, so called, on the side of the Hospital appropriated to 
females, — thus providing, at first, accommodations for females only. 
This addition is now nearly completed, on a plan presented by the Su- 
perintendent. In external appearance, it is uniform with the rest of the 
building. Its apartments are removed, in each story, from those occu- 
pied by other patients in that wing, by an open corridor ten feet in 
width and thirty-six feet in length, in which, it is hoped, some of these 
" furiously insane " may, in their more quiet time, be allowed a little 
wholesome exercise, and a view of the outer world, from a sight of 
which some of them have been, for a long time, excluded. These 
apartments are removed further by a passage-way leading around the 
cells, and thereby almost isolating them. The passage-way is lighted 
from without, and the cells are lighted from the passage by open-work 
doors. Under this arrangement, it is thought that there will be as little 
disturbance of the other patients or of the public, by noise, as if these 
apartments were in a separate building, unless that building were quite 
remote ; and the advantages of being under the same roof, with facili- 
ties of supervision, and distribution of food, are obvious. The building 
is three stories in height, with five apartments eleven feet eight inches 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 5 

long, five feet to five feet eight inches broad, and seven feet eleven 
inches high, on each story. The apartments on the lower story are 
made with stone floors laid in cement, and the walls are of brick, laid 
in cement, also, and whitewashed. The floors of the apartments in 
the other stories are of southern pine, and the walls are of brick, plas- 
tered, those in the second story being also laid in cement. The build- 
ing is heated by furnaces placed in the cellar, and ventilated by large 
flues in the walls. Cleanliness is secured by an appropriate inclination 
of the floors. 

The sum expended on this addition is thirty-six hundred and sixty- 
two dollars and eight cents, being not quite the unexpended balance of 
the Johonnot Fund. 

The remainder of the appropriation will be applied to the erection 
of suitable apartments for males " furiously insane," so soon as a plan 
can be determined upon. Neither of the wings on the side of the 
Hospital appropriated to males admits so readily of extension. And 
while the Trustees have thought it best to await the trial of the apart- 
ments erected, they hope, also, to get some valuable information from the 
observation of one of our Assistant Physicians, Dr. Rufus Woodward, 
who goes to Europe the ensuing spring, and will visit Institutions for 
the Insane. 

The resignation of the Hon. Alfred D. Foster, upon whose services, 
as Treasurer of the Hospital, a merited eulogium was passed in the 
last annual report, took effect on the fourth of March. The Trustees 
considered themselves fortunate in being able to secure, as his suc- 
cessor, Samuel Jennison, Esq., so long and so favorably known as the 
Cashier of the Worcester Bank, and Treasurer of the Worcester 
County Institution for Savings. Mr. Jennison is not more distin- 
guished for his precision and good order in business, than for his pri- 
vate worth. 

The expenditures of the last year, including paid balance against 

Hospital, Dec. 1, 1846, $1,772 80 

And the proper expenses of the year - 37,670 65 

Have been .--.._._ $39,444 45 

While the receipts have been ^ - $45,662 92 

Leaving a balance, in favor of the Hospital, of - - - 6,218 47 

It is presumed that the receipts of the year ensuing will equal those 

of the year past ; and the Trustees feel themselves warranted in re- 



6 STATE 'LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

during the price of board from two dollars fifty cents to two dollars 
thirty-three and one third cents, per week. The probability of larger 
incidental expenses for the year to come would render it imprudent for 
them to make a larger deduction. 

While the Trustees take pleasure in being able to present the gen- 
eral and financial condition of the Hospital in so favorable a light, they 
feel themselves called upon to express their public commendation of 
the valuable services of the Superintendent, Dr. Chandler, to whom 
our continuance of prosperity is, in a large measure, owing. Under 
his services, so ably seconded by his Assistants, Dr. J. R. Lee and Dr. 
Rufus Woodward, and by the Steward, Mr. C. P. Hitchcock, whose 
fidelity is made more efficient by his experience, we are sure that this 
important charity will continue to be an honor to the State, as it is an 
ornament to humanity. 

JOSEPH SARGENT, 
THOMAS F. PLUNKETT, 
STEPHEN SALISBURY, 
STEPHEN C. PHILLIPS, 
THOMAS FRENCH. 



State Lunatic Hospital, 
Worcester, Mass., Dec. 16, 1847. 



I 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Executive Coun- 
cil, of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts : — 

The subscriber, Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital, respect- 
fully presents his Report for the year ending December 1, 1847, embra- 
cing the first quarter, during which the business was transacted by his 
predecessor, and the last three quarters from March, when the present 
Treasurer succeeded him in the office. 

The receipts during the year, from the State Treasury, 
for the support of lunatic paupers, and from cities, 
towns, and individuals, have amounted to . . . $44,363 74 

And from the Steward of the Hospital, for articles sold 

and accounted for by him, 1,299 18 



$45,662 92 



The Treasurer credits himself: 

For balance due from the Hospital, December ], 1846, $1,772 80 
And for the following payments : — 

On account of salaries, wages, and labor, . . 10,724 94 

Improvements and repairs, 

Furniture, bedding, &c, . 



Clothing, 
For fuel, — 738 cords wood, . 
4328 bushels charcoal, 



927 09 
1,539 44 
692 19 



5,448 52 
424 65 



175 tons, 1261 pounds anthracite, . 1,378 30 



5,251 47 



Oil, 271 gallons, 162 40 

Medical supplies, 261 77 

Sexton's bills, 130 00 

Cash advanced and charged to patients in their accounts, 111 58 

Postage, 54 22 



8 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Stationery, periodicals, &c, 
Expenses of Trustees' visits, 
Expenses of steward in journeys on business of the 
Hospital, ...... 

Rent and care of room for chaplain, &c, 
Rent of pasture, and taxes, .... 

Expense in pursuit of elopers, 

Expense for music and teaching, . 

Expense for freight, by rail-road and express, 

Leather and materials for shoe shop, 

Seven cows, three calves, and one yoke of oxen, 

Straw, 26,836 pounds, .... 

Grass seed, ....... 

Salt, 63 bushels, ...... 

Soap, $54 30 ; pot-ashes, $22 39, 
Starch, $13 30; lime, $6; hops, $12, 
Provisions and groceries, as per schedule annexed, 



By balance carried to new account, 



$90 12 


126 


00 


21 


74 


82 56 


218 


53 


32 30 


23 50 


118 


65 


546 


01 


485 


00 


117 


68 


7 


50 


45 


14 


76 


69 


31 


30 


15,793 83 



$39,444 45 
6,218 47 

$45,662 92 



Expenditures for Provisions and Groceries 
For beef, 52,074 pounds, 
Pork, 5,321 pounds, . 
Hams, 1,254 pounds, . 
Sausages, . 
Mutton, veal, and tripe, 
Smoked beef and tongues, 
Poultry, 677 pounds, . 
Salt fish, 5,800, . 
Fresh fish and oysters, 
Salmon, 
Mackerel, . 
Eggs, 628 dozen, 
Flour, 389 barrels, 
Corn meal, 721 bushels, 
Rye meal, 348 bushels, 
Sugar, 17,737 pounds, 



$3,218 91 

352 28 

138 09 

55 33 

49 43 

4 82 

73 85 

206 12 

100 04 

27 75 

39 50 

94 05 

2,744 52 

672 77 

321 43 

1,274 82 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Molasses, 862 gallons, 
Tea, 1,186 pounds, 
Coffee, 2,250 pounds, 
Biscuit, 

Rice, 1,881 pounds, . 
Apples and apple sauce, 
Other fruits, raisins, &c., 
Beans, 23 bushels, 
Peas, 18 bushels, 
Potatoes, 1,430 bushels, 
Butter, 16,787 pounds, 
Cheese, 12,694 pounds, 
Vinegar, cider, and ale, 
Spices and small groceries, 



$230 50 
308 74 
167 12 
144 69 

99 73 
369 38 
215 74 

34 50 

30 17 

805 92 

2,836 37 

963 17 

46 64 
167 45 

$15,783 83 



The Treasurer also reports, that the balance of the Jo- 
honnot fund, received by him from the former Trea- 
surer, was $3,711 53 

From which he has paid on account of expenses in con- 
structing new rooms for the insane, under the Resolve 
of the Legislature, approved April 14, 1847, . . 2,475 92 

Leaving a balance in his hands of . . . $1,235 61 

The interest received on account of said fund is $331 51, which is 
credited to the Commonwealth. 

SAMUEL JENNISON. 



Worcester, December 17, 1847. 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



SUPERINTENDENT TO THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Gentlemen : — The former prosperity of the Hospital crowns the 
results of the past year. We feel confident that Providence has smiled 
upon our labors, in bestowing upon our numerous family a great de- 
gree of health and happiness, and in restoring to their right minds a 
large number of those committed to our care. 

We have received nearly all for whom application has been made ; 
and a large number has come to us, so that our apartments have been 
constantly crowded. At no time in the year have we had a spare 
room. Twenty-six, on an average, more than our whole number of 
rooms, have resided with us throughout the year. Although this 
crowded state of the Hospital has been a source of trouble and per- 
plexity to us, we have felt unwilling to refuse the benefits of the insti- 
tution to any whose unfortunate condition gave them a claim upon it. 
By placing two of the quiet patients in one room ; by making up tem- 
porary beds in the halls, and by using our infirmai ; es for sleeping 
apartments when not otherwise occupied, we have been a Die to give 
our inmates comfortable and generally satisfactory accommodations. 

The health of the patients has generally been good. The amount 
of disease, of an acute character, has not been greater in this Hospital 
than there has been among an equal number of persons in this com- 
munity, out of it. The insane seem to be, at least partially, exempt 
from some of the diseases which afflict others. Or it may be that their 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 11 

disease of the brain takes the place of other diseases of the body, or 
wards them off. This is in conformity with the theory that two dis- 
eases are not apt to affect the system at the same time. The only 
prevailing disease was an affection of the bowels during a part of the 
warm season. 

The " Tabular View of the Hospital, for the past year, deduced 
from the records thereof," is hereunto annexed. 



12 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 





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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 29 



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30 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the Admissions from each County the last and previous years. 





Males, 
Females, 


2 


1847. 


Previous. 


Total. 


Barnstable, 


9 


60 


69 


Berkshire, 


Males, 
Females, 


1 

3 


4 


79 


83 


Bristol, . 


Males, 
Females, 


3 

8 


11 


162 


173 


Dukes, . 


Males, 
Females, 










8 


8 


Essex, , 


Males, 
Females, 


17 

23 


40 


328 


368 


Franklin, 


Males, 
Females, . 


3 

3 


6 


76 


82 


Hampden, 


Males, 
Females, 


7 

7 


14 


113 


127 


Hampshire, 


Males, 
Females, . 


4 

5 


9 


135 


144 


Middlesex, 


Males, 
Females, . 


8 
17 


25 


291 


316 


Nantucket, . 


Males, 
Females, . 










24 


24 


Norfolk, . 


Males, 
Females, . 


18 

16 


34 


278 


312 


Plymouth, 


Males, 
Females, . 


7 

5 


12 


120 


132 


Suffolk, . 


Males, 
Females, . 


7 
11 


18 


264 


282 


Worcester, 


Males, 
Females, . 


27 

31 


58 


635 


693 


Other States, . 


Males, 
Females, 










10 


10 


Total, 


240 


2583 


2823 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 31 

Some counties send proportionally more patients to the Hospital 
than others. This is because of the contiguity of some ; of the greater 
facility of some of communicating with the institution ; and because 
of the more unstable character of the population in some counties than 
in others. The rural population have generally homes and con- 
veniences of their own, for taking care of their sick, when any of their 
number become insane ; whereas the inhabitants of cities and manu- 
facturing villages more frequently live in crowded and inconvenient 
places for taking proper care of the sick. They therefore are more 
likely to avail themselves of privileges and accommodations offered by 
the Hospital. 

Almost every part of the State is represented in the wards of the 
institution. But some sections of it more fully than others. In the 
immediate vicinity of the Hospital, the poor and friendless insane are 
often found wandering about in great destitution ; some of whom are 
brought to us legally by the benevolent, upon whom they intrude them- 
selves. It is often the case, that we can learn but very little of their 
history until they recover and are able to tell it themselves. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the Admissions, and the State of the Hospital, from December 
1st, 1846, to November SQth, 1847. 



Patients in the Hospital in the 
course of the year, . . 607 
Males, . 306 
Females, . 301—607 

At the commencement of the year, 367 
Males, . 200 
Femnles, . 167—367 

Admitted in the course of the year, 240 
Males, . 105 
Females, . 135—240 

Remaining at the end of the year, 394 
Males, . 207 
Females, . 187—394 



Of the admissions, there were 
cases of less duration than one 
year, .... 159 
Males, . 69 
Females, . 90—159 

Of longer duration than one year, 72 
Males, . 33 
Females, . 39 72 

Cases, the duration of insanity 
before admission not ascertained, 9 
Males, . 3 
Females, . 6 9 

240 

Patients committed by Courts, 135 
Males, . 62 
Females, . 73—135 

Committed by Overseers, . 22 
Males, . 12 
Females, . 10 22 



Private Boarders, 
Males, 
Females, 



31 
52- 



-83 



Patients now in the Hospital, 
Males, . 207 
Females, . 187—394 



83 



240 



394 



Recent cases, where the insanity 
has existed less than one year, 159 
Males, . 68 
Females, . 91—159 

Chronic cases, where the insanity 
has existed more than one year, 65 
Males, . 31 
Females, . 34 65 



Cases where the duration of the 
insanity was not ascertained, 
Males, . 5 
Females, . 11 16 



16 



240 



Foreigners admitted during the 
year, .... 60 
Males, . 26 
Females, . 34 60 

Foreigners discharged during the 
year, .... 35 
Males, . 18 
Females, . 17 35 

Foreigners now in the Hospital, 121 
° Males, . 57 
Females, . 64—121 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 33 

There have been in the institution, during the year, six hundred 
and seven patients. At the commencement of the year, there were 
three hundred and sixty-seven ; and, during the year, two hundred 
and forty have been admitted. Three hundred and ninety-four remain 
at the close of the year. 

Of the admissions, the number whose disease has existed less than 
one year, is one hundred and fifty-nine ; and the number where the 
insanity had lasted longer than one year, is seventy-two ; and nine 
have been brought to us, about whom nothing definite could be ascer- 
tained, as to the length of time they had been insane. 

The Probate Courts have sent most of our patients to us. The 
higher courts have committed a few to the Hospital, where the. jurors 
have not found them, on their trial, guilty of crimes alleged against 
them, by reason of insanity. 

The overseers of the poor of towns have placed some of their in- 
sane poor here ; and they have, in some instances, given their obliga- 
tions for the maintenance of their townsmen here, when the bills have 
been paid by the patients themselves or their friends. 

The patients, who have been received, on the obligations of friends, 
have all been proper subjects for such an institution, and would, un- 
doubtedly, have been placed here legally, if application for that purpose 
had been made to the proper authorities. 

The number of foreigners in the Hospital has increased during the 
past year. This was to be expected from the greatly iucreased immi- 
gration to the Commonwealth. Several who had but recently arrived 
in this country, have come to us. Only one, as far as we know, of all 
those who, since their arrival, have had the ship-fever — that disease of 
filth and destitution — has been committed to our care. Most of the 
foreigners are Irish. The want of forethought in them to save their 
earnings for the day of sickness, the indulgence of their appetites for 
stimulating drinks, which are too easily obtained among us, and their 
strong love for their native land, which is characteristic with them, are 
the fruitful causes of insanity among them. As a class, we are not so. 
successful in our treatment of them as with the native population of 
New England. It is difficult to obtain their confidence, for they seem 
to be jealous of our motives ; and the embarrassment they are under, 
from not clearly comprehending our language, is another obstacle in 
the way of their recovery. 
5 



34 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Discharged and Deaths, and the Condition of 
those who left the Hospital, from December 1st, 1846, to November 
30th, 1847. 







w 




Recov- 
ered. 


Improv- 
ed. 


Incurable 
and 


Incurable 
ami Dan- 


Deaths 






o 

03 

o 
d 




Harmless 


gerous. 








« 




H 




H ! 


•A 




* 








13 








CO 




* ! 


W 




XI 




J 




"o 


"3 


^ 


"3 


.s 


"3 


■S "3 


r< 


"3 


~ 


~ 


< 




,£3 




u 




a 




o 1 is 


o 




u 








£ 


o 


Si 


o 


C3 


o 


O | c 


Si 


c 


s 


c 


o 




H 


a 


H 


H 


H 


W 1 B 


a 


H 


H 


ir 


H 


Patients. 




























Discharged, 




213 


. 


103 


. 


23 


. i 36 


, 


21 




30 




Males, 


116 


. 


48 


-■_'• 


8 


• 


13 ,2 

23 «, 7 


12 


(C 


ie 


. 


116 


Females, 


97 


. 


55 


. 


15 




9 




12 


. 


97 




























213 


Recent Cases. 




























Discharged, 




118 


. 


85 


. 


12 


. 


10 


. 


2 




9 




Males, 


50 


. 


38 


. 


3 


• ' 


4*3 


1 


. 


4 


. 


50 


Females, 


68 


• 


47 


/•/ 


9 




6 


■'• 


1 




5 


• 


68 


Chronic Cases. 




























Discharged, 


m 


88 


. 


15 


. 


11 


. 


20 


m 


17 




19 




Males, 


46 


. 


9 





5 


• 


9 A 


10 


. _1 


13 


. 


46 


Females, 


42 




6 


/ 


6 


* 


17 


• 


7 


*? 


6 


'": j 


42 


Patients discharged, the du- 










ration of whose disease 




























not ascertained, 


, 


7 


, 


3 


. 





. 





# 


2 









Males, 


3 


, 


1 


9 





m 


. 


1 


m 


i 




3 


Females, 


4 


• 


2 


• 





• 


J- 


1 


• 


l 


• 


4 




21 :i 




103 




23 




36 ! 


21 




30 




213 



The whole number who have left the Hospital, the past year, is two 
hundred and thirteen. Of these, one hundred and three had recov- 
ered, and were able, on their return to their homes, to resume their 
former duties of life and station in society. Twenty-three were con- 
valescent when they were taken away, some of whom, we believe, 
have since fully recovered. Pecuniary considerations have led towns 
and individuals to procure the removal of forty-three, most of whom 
would probably not have recovered, had they remained. Thirty have 
died. The mortality among our household has been less this year 
than the year before. It has been remarked, by those most conver- 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



35 



sant with the diseases of the insane, that they are often unexpectedly 
fatal. The complication of insanity with other physical diseases in- 
creases the danger of their symptoms, and renders them more difficult 
to manage. 



TABLE 4. 

Showing the number of Admissions and Discharges , and the average 
number in the Hospital, each month in the year. 





Monthly Av- 
erage. 


Admissions. 


Discharges. 


December, 1846, .... 


367 


11 


14 


January, 1847, 










364 


16 


17 


February, " 










368 


18 


12 


March, " 










370 


10 


10 


April, " 










365 


20 


21 


May, " 










376 


26 


17 


June, " 










373 


14 


20 


July, 










380 


30 


12 


Ausrust, " 










389 


22 


22 


September, " 










388 


27 


27 


October, " 










389 


29 


20 


November, " 










395 


20 


21 


Average for the year, 








3/7 







The largest number of patients at any time was three hundred and 
ninety-seven, and the smallest number, during the year, was three 
hundred and fifty-nine. The number of rooms designed for and occu- 
pied by the inmates, besides the infirmaries, is three hundred and fifty- 
one. Consequently, our yearly average has been twenty-six more 
patients than we have proper accommodations for. 

The admissions have been the fewest in the cold weather. This 
has heretofore been pretty uniformly the case, and the same holds 
true with regard to the discharges. 



36 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 5. 

Showing the whole number of Residents during the year, the average 
number at the end of each year, and the Expenses of each year, for 
the fifteen years the Hospital has been in operation. 



The Year. 


The whole number of The Average No. 


Number at the end 


Current Expenses of 


Residents during the 
year. 


each year. 


of each year. 


each year. 


1833 


153 


107 


114 


#12,272 91 


1834 


233 


117 


118 


15,840 27 


1835 


241 


lv>0 


119 


16,576 44 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


1838 


362 


211 


218 


28,739 40 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


1842 


430 


238 


238 


27,546 87 


1843 


458 


244 


255 


27,914 12 


1844 


491 


261 


263 


29,278 75 


1845 


556 


316 


360 


43,888 65 


1846 


637 


359 


367 


39,870 37 


1847 


607 


377 


394 


39,444 47 



The Hospital has been in a crowded condition every day for the 
past year. It has never been more so. The year closes with three 
hundred and ninety-six patients. From the commencement of its 
operations, its numbers have gradually been increasing ; and, as fast 
as its accommodations have been enlarged, they have been sought for 
and taken up by the unfortunate insane. 

Massachusetts has done more for its citizens, in this department of 
benevolence, than any other portion of this country. More than one 
in a thousand of her population are provided for, in public and private 
hospitals for the insane. It is safe to predict, that an accurate census 
of the insane and idiots, who are incapable of taking care of them- 
selves, would show that they were as many as four to every thousand 
of the inhabitants of the Commonwealth. And such, too, I believe to 
be the melancholy fact in regard to their proportion in the neighboring 
states. 

, The established rate of board is two dollars and fifty cents per 
week. In but very few instances has there been any charge for 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 37 

patients' support here, made beyond that. In cases of acute disease, 
where a special nurse has been devoted to the patient, an extra charge 
for the time has been made. These extra expenses have always been 
cheerfully met by the friends; and, indeed, the wish is often ex- 
pressed by the friends, when the patient is brought to us, to have all 
attention paid to the patients that may be desirable. 

Although it has been a year of plenty, provisions have borne high 
prices. The best and most wholesome articles of food have been 
selected for consumption here. It is our rule, to purchase no poor 
article of food, however low the price. The selection of provisions 
by the steward has been judiciously made. The diet of the patients 
has always been full and wholesome ; and, during the last year, its 
variety and abundance have in no respect been diminished. But very 
few complaints of the living have been made by the patients, for there 
have been no good grounds to do so. 

A generous diet contributes to the quiet and happiness of the in- 
mates. The debilitated, and most of our patients are so, require a 
nutritious regimen. The sick have a diet daily prescribed for them, 
such as the nature of their diseases may require. But the ordinary 
fare of the whole household — patients, attendants, and officers — is in- 
tended to be, throughout, the same for each. 



38 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



39 



TABLE 7. 
Statistics of the different Seasons. 





1S33. 


1834 


1835. 


LS35 


1837. 


1S3S. 


1839.' 1810. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846. 


1847. 


Admissions — 






































In Winter, 


27 


26 


24 


23 


26 


46 


39 


32 


31 


50 


51 


51 


61 


62 


45 


In Spring, 


72 


35 


31 


36 


4D 


46 


38 


42 


37 


48 


58 


60 


80 


70 


56 


In Summer, . 


23 


30 


30 


42 


40 


47 


59 


44 


51 


40 


56 


71 


m 


74 


61 


In Autumn, . 


31 


28 


28 


24 


53 


38 


43 


44 


44 


60 


55 


54 


84 


71 


78 


Discharges — 
































In Winter, 





23 


21 


20 


14 


18 


31 


29 


35 


37 


44 


48 


40 


47 


43 


In Spring, 


1 


33 


30 


33 


36 


37 


38 


38 


33 


46 


49 


60 


34 


73 


48 


In Summer, . 


11 


28 


31 


24 


29 


44 


48 


41 


37 


46 


46 


65 


46 


83 


54 


In Autumn, . 


23 


24 


22 


21 


33 


29 


29 


32 


50 


50 


42 


55 


52 


6? 


68 


Recoveries — 
































Tn Winter, 





13 


13 


12 


10 


15 


13 


18 


20 


24 


24 


31 


25 


28 


15 


In Spring, 





20 


11 


15 


17 


23 


24 


22 


10 


22 


31 


33 


29 


47 


25 


Tn Summer, . 


9 


16 


16 


12 


15 


18 


23 


20 


22 


25 


29 


23 


28 


39 


27 


In Autumn, . 


16 


15 


12 


19 


27 


20 


20 


22 


30 


19 


29 


37 


40 


40 


36 


Deaths — 
































In Winter, 





3 


1 





1 


3 


5 


6 


1 


4 


5 


2 


4 


10 


6 


In Spring, 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


fi 


6 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


12 


5 


In Summer, . 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 


5 


3 


6 


6 


7 


8 


8 


In Autumn, . 








3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 


4 


4 


8 


4 


11 


8 


11 



TABLE 8. 





Ages of the Patients in the Hospital, 


Duration of Insani 


ty with those remaining, 




December 1st, 1847. 




December 1st, 1847. 




Under 20 years 


old, . 


9 


Less than 1 year, 


76 


From 20 to 25 years old, 


30 


From 1 to 2 j 


ears, 




48 


cc 


25 to 30 


tc cc 


51 


" 2 to 5 


cc 




90 


CC 


30 to 35 


cc cc 


59 


" 5 to 10 


cc 




69 


cc 


35 to 40 


cc cc 


56 


" 10 to 15 


cc 




39 


cc 


40 to 45 


cc cc 


37 


" 15 to 20 


cc 




22 


cc 


45 to 50 


cc cc 


42 


" 20 to 25 


cc 




11 


u 


50 to 55 


cc cc 


35 


" 25 to 30 


cc 




4 


cc 


55 to 60 


cc cc 


21 


Over 30 years, 






10 


cc 


60 to 65 


cc cc 


28 


Unknown, 






29 


cc 


65 to 70 


cc cc 


8 






___ 


cc 


70 to 75 


cc cc 


14 






394 


cc 


75 to 80 


cc cc 


3 








Over 80, . 


• 


1 














394 









40 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Strangers visiting the wards of the Hospital, often express their 
surprise at seeing so large a proportion of the inmates in the middle 
and advanced periods of life. It is true, that a majority of them have 
lived more than half the years allotted to man. But their age now 
does not afford the true index to the ages at which they were attacked 
with their malady, for the incurable have advanced on in their journey 
of life, as fast as though the hand of disease had not been upon them. 

Almost all ages are represented here. We have one man over eighty 
years old, and we have a boy and a girl, aged about thirteen years 
each. They were sane and intelligent up to the ages of ten and 
twelve. Dementia followed measles in the case of the girl ; but in the 
case of the boy, no probable cause has ever been conjectured. Per- 
verseness of disposition and irritability of feeling had existed some 
months before insanity was suspected. The common forms of insanity 
do not usually commence until the mind becomes somewhat matured ; 
until the individual begins to think and act for himself. 

This table shows that the middle period of life is the most subject 
to derangement. A few of the aged become insane. They stand a 
good chance to recover if their derangement is not marked with de- 
lirium. When it is, old age is usually the cause of the insanity. 

Some idiots become deranged. What little intellect they have is 
insane. A few cases of this kind have been in this institution. The 
congenital idiot is as likely as any person to have his intellect dis- 
turbed by disease. The very fact of their brain not being fully devel- 
oped, may show its weakness and predisposition to disease. Slighter 
causes may disturb their minds. They frequently recover their former 
tone and strength of mind. They are less likely, perhaps, to recover, 
than other insane persons ; for the relative strength of their passions 
over their reflective powers is greater, and the controlling power of the 
intellect over the feelings is less strong ; and this continues, in a de- 
gree, true while deranged. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



41 



TABLE 9. 

Showing the Causes of Insanity, and the circumstances connected with 
causes and predisposition to Insanity, the last and previous years. 





1847. 


Pre- 
viously 




1847. 


Pre- 
viously. 


Intemperance, 


16 


30G 


Fright, 


2 


15 


111 health, . 


42 


346 


Palsy, 


1 


25 


Masturbation, 


6 


155 


Periodical cases, . 


62 


517 


Domestic affliction, 


22 


244 


Hereditary, . 


61 


631 


Religion, 


15 


218 


Homicidal, . 


9 


26 


Property, . . 


7 


145 


Have committed homi- 






Disappointed affection, . 


6 


71 


cide, 


1 


18 


Disappointed ambition, . 


1 


33 


Suicidal, 


42 


277 


Epilepsy, 


8 


59 


Have committed suicide, 


2 


14 


Puerpeial, 


8 


72 


Cases arising from Phys- 






Wounds on the head, 


3 


28 


ical Causes, 


92 


1011 


Hard labor, . 


7 


6 


Cases arising from Moral 






Jealousy, 


1 


12 


Causes, 


64 


741 



The causes of insanity are various and complicated. In some cases 
they are very manifest, and in others they do not appear. Some are 
sudden in their effects, others have been forming and growing during 
the whole life of the individual, the whole education of whom has 
tended to this sad result. The causes, and the combination of causes, 
are as numerous as the patients themselves, although most of them 
are arranged under a few specific heads ; as ill health, for instance, — 
one of the most fruitful causes of insanity, — is the general term for 
all diseases. Domestic affliction is another of the causes to which a 
large proportion of cases is ascribed ; but loss of friends, sickness of 
friends, mismanagement of friends, &c, all bring affliction to the 
domestic circle. Defective education, — or the want of proper moral, 
intellectual, and physical training, — seems to be the broad foundation 
from which arise most of the causes of insanity. 



6 



42 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 10. 
Occupation. 





1847. 


Pre- 
viously. 




1847. 


Pre- 
viously. 


Farmers, 


19 


302 


Painters, 


1 


21 


Laborers, 


24 


209 


Tailors, 


2 


15 


Merchants, . 


4 


no 


Clergymen, 


2 


14 


Shoemakers, 


7 


91 


Lawyers, 





6 


Seamen, 


2 


93 


Physicians, 





6 


Carpenters, . 


5 


65 


Females accustomed to 






Manufacturers, 


2 


36 


active employments, . 


46 


498 


Teachers, 


6 


34 


Females accustomed to 






Students, 


3 


36 


sedentary employments, 


16 


244 


Blacksmiths, 


2 


24 









At the head of this list stands the farmer, whose occupation has 
always been proverbial for its healthfulness. This proverb is undoubt- 
edly a true one. There cannot be thought of a healthier employment, 
than moderate out-door labor in cultivating the products of the earth ; 
but it is often the case, that the farmer labors too constantly and too 
severely. He then goes beyond the healthful point of exercise, and 
creates diseases that may be contingent to his occupation, but not the 
natural result of it. As his labors meet with but small remuneration, 
he is forced to over-exertion, to supply the artificial wants created by 
the present state of society. Until a correct census of the different 
occupations in the community, and of the insane in each of them, is 
taken, the relative proportion of the insane in them cannot be known 
with certainty. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



43 



TABLE 11. 
Diseases that have proved Fatal. 



.. 


1847. 


Pre- 
viously. 




1847. 


Pre- 
viously. 


Marasmus, . 


3 


42 


Erysipelas, . 





5 


Apoplexy and Palsy, 


5 


22 


Diarrhoea, . 


3 


7 


Epilepsy, . 


5 


19 


Disease of the Brain from 






Consumption, 


4 


20 


intemperance, . 





2 


Disease of the Heart, 


1 


15 


Bronchitis, . . . 





2 


Suicide, 


2 


14 


Old Age, . 







Disease of the Brain, 





13 


Gastric Fever, 


2 




Typhus Fever, 





6 


Land Scurvy, 







Hemorrhage, 





5 


Congestive Fever, 







Lung Fever, . . 


1 


8 


Concussion of the Brain, 







Cholera Morbus, . 





4 


Disease of the Bladder, 







Inflammation of the Bow- 






Fright, 







els, . 





4 


Rupture, 







Dysenteric Fever, . 


1 


4 


Exhaustion, . 


2 




Mortification of the Limbs, 





3 


Convulsions, 


1 




Dropsy, 





4 












Chronic Dysentery, 





3 




30 


213 



The fatal diseases of the insane are somewhat peculiar to them. A 
large proportion of the deaths are from affections of the nervous and 
restorative systems — marasmus and palsy. In the progress of these 
diseases, when the predisposition, either hereditary or acquired, is 
strong, insanity sets in, and death most generally closes the scene. 
Most of the fatal diseases have been a long time undermining the sys- 
tems before the final result took place. We have but few acute dis- 
eases, and deaths from them are comparatively rare. Most of those who 
have died were incurably insane, and would not ever have had rational 
enjoyment of life if they had survived. 



44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 12. 

Showing the prospect of living for those who are attacked with Insan- 
ity and do not recover, deduced from two hundred and nineteen cases 
that have terminated fatally at this Hospital. 



Months. 



Days. 



The average age at which 121 males were taken de- 
ranged, ....... 

The average age at which 98 females were taken de 
ranged, ....... 

The average age at which the 219 of both sexes were 
taken deranged, ..... 

The average age at which the 121 males died, . 
The average age at which the 98 females died, . 

The average time the 121 males were insane before 
coming to the Hospital, .... 

The average time the 121 males lived afterwards, 

The average time the 98 females were insane befor 

coming to the Hospital, .... 
The average time the 98 females lived afterwards, 

The average duration of life of the 219 of both sexes 
after becoming insane, .... 



42 

41 

42 

48 
45 

3 

1 



10 





6 
3 

10 




23 
15 

24 

4 
17 



2 



23 

19 



These results will probably be varied as more extensive data are 
added from year to year. The length of the insane life will undoubt- 
edly be somewhat increased when more of the chronic cases are added 
to the list. But still, the results here offered approximate the truth. 

A few of the incurable insane, whose maladies do not produce ex- 
tensive disorganization of important vital organs, continue along many 
years, leading a life of happiness mixed with woe But a large ma- 
jority of the insane who do not recover, fall victims to some of " the 
numerous ills that flesh is heir to," early in the progress of their insanity. 
It is a melancholy deduction of this table, that insanity, when not 
cured, terminates fatally in a little more than four years and a half; 
while it is a well-established fact that the sane, at the corresponding 
period of life, have the prospect of living more than four times as long. 

The above table embraces all the fatal cases in the Hospital where 
all the data were known. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



45 



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46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



"3 
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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



47 



This community is, I believe, well aware of the fact, that the sooner, 
after the attack of insanity, the patient is placed under curative treat- 
ment, the greater is the chance of recovery ; and most people, where 
they have the means, bring their insane friends to the Hospital in the 
early stage of the disease. All things considered, I would not gener- 
ally recommend patients to be brought to the Hospital earlier than the 
third or fourth week from its commencement, for there are many cases 
of acute disease combined or accompanied with insanity as one of its 
symptoms. In these cases, the insanity often subsides when the dis- 
ease terminatss. 

But, as soon as the disease puts on the symptoms of simple insanity, 
uncombined with fever or inflammation of the brain, or delirium, the 
sooner they are placed under the curative regimen of the Hospital, the 
more speedy will be their recovery. Six months is about the average 
time that it takes patients to recover from insanity. 

TABLE 14. 



Showing the causes of Insanity as affecting persons pursuing different 

occupations. 









R 


o. 






T3 










B 






< 






2 . 












js 




a 






c ? 








OCCUPATIONS. 


a 

s 


"3 
K 


a 


'5 s 

ES 


c 
o 


a 
o 


o.2 

II 

5« 


o, 
'S, 


>> 

s 
o 
*3 

1-5 


•< 
o 


Farmers, 


64 


15 


28 


25 


27 


29 


4 


9 


3 


205 


Shoemakers, 




9 


6 


26 


5 


10 


6 


2 


1 





65 


Laborers, 




84 


5 


15 


7 


10 


6 


1 


5 


2 


135 


Seamen, 




33 


3 


7 


3 


7 


6 


1 





3 


53 


Merchants, . 




14 


4 


32 


4 


4 


20 


1 


2 





81 


Carpenters, . 




15 


6 


8 


2 


10 


6 


3 


2 





52 


Blacksmiths, 




4 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


3 








16 


Students, 







2 


22 


2 


2 








1 





29 


Clergymen, . 




1 


2 


4 





1 


1 


1 








10 


Lawyers, 




2 





2 


1 





1 











6 


Physicians, . 




2 














1 


1 








4 


Painters, 




1 





11 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





18 


Manufacturers, 




1 9 


1 


4 





4 


4 


1 








23 



48 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



H 

Eh 





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in 


HRHBHS 






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pi CM 


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9 ^5 



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Eh 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 49 

Amusements. — The practice of former years has been continued, 
of bringing into requisition, for the relief of the tedious hours of con- 
finement, all the available amusements. 

In the warm season, it has been a common practice for a party of 
twenty or thirty male patients, with their attendants, to go into the 
open field to play base-ball for a couple of hours. This is healthy 
and exciting enough to be an interesting sport for quite a large num- 
ber. Throwing quoits, and kicking the foot-ball, have been practised. 
Select parties have been off to bathe in the neighboring ponds. Some 
have spent a part of a day at a time in angling. All have walked out 
with their attendants. Parties go every pleasant day to walk. Three 
attendants, with some fifteen patients, ramble the hills or walk off a 
mile or two to visit some object of interest. This is the way a large 
share of the patients walk out from the male halls. Those who are 
not able to go far, walk separately with their attendants. The feeble 
men are carried out by the supervisor, who is able to take two or three 
trips a day, in a carriage, with three patients besides himself. Many 
of the convalescent and trusty men go out as they please, and seek 
their own amusement. 

The females walk every pleasant day. All who wish it, and who will 
go with propriety, go out every day with their attendants. The double 
carriage is devoted to the service of the females. The common prac- 
tice is, for this carriage to go five trips a day, of some three or four 
miles. Five or six persons can be comfortably seated in it, besides the 
coachman. The convalescents avail themselves of this mode of taking 
exercise ; but all who desire it, ride when their turn comes. 

For in-door recreations, we have cards, chequers, rolling the ball 
through our long halls. This is a favorite and healthy exercise for the 
men. We have battledoors, singing parties, and dancing parties, 
graces, &c. Whatever tends to invigorate the body, and divert the 
mind from i'.s morbid channels of thought, is admissible; but no im- 
moral practices are encouraged. Sometimes amusements will arrest 
the attention, and draw out muscular activity from the insane, where 
profitable labor would be rejected ; in such cases, amusements are in- 
dispensable in hospitals for the insane. 

Reading is the occupation of many of the inmates of the Hospital. 
Some spend a large share of their time in this way. Some read during 
the intervals of labor, and some read for a short time only ; but still, it 
is a very important means of improvement and diversion with us. Books 
and periodicals are accessible to all. Many read understand ingly. 
7 



50 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

By means of the daily newspapers, many keep fully informed upon the 
current news of the day. But few undertake any laborious reading. 
Their previous habits and tastes about reading are very often con- 
tinued by the patients while here. Hence, the common practice of 
reading the Scriptures, and the periodicals as they issue from the press, 
are habits which are kept up by the New England population after 
becoming inmates of hospitals for the insane. 

We have a library for the use of the patients, consisting of four or 
five hundred books, and of many pamphlets in addition. Most of them 
were judiciously selected, and are interesting. 

This library has been rather increasing, for several years, by dona- 
tions and purchases. The books are worn out fast, as they do not 
always fall into careful hands. 

The profits of the matrons' sewing parties go to sustain this library. 
Once in every two weeks, all the female patients who are able, to the 
number of about seventy, assemble in the Martha Johonnot Hall, to 
sew and knit. They continue in session about two hours. Such of 
the attendants as can be spared from the halls come too. Besides doing 
the particular business for which they come together, these two hours 
are passed pleasantly in social conversation. These gatherings are 
orderly and quiet, as the price of admission to them is lady-like pro- 
priety and decorum on the part of all. They are looked forward to as 
an agreeable way of spending an afternoon ; and, on the part of some, 
considerable interest is manifested to get the work neatly done, and to 
accomplish as much as possible, for it is exposed for sale in the Show 
Box. At least a part of the work is upon articles sold from the box, 
and the other part of the work is upon the linen and furniture of the 
Hospital. The receipts from this box, during the last twelve months, 
have been one hundred nine dollars and fifty cents. 

We have numerous periodicals, and, for a part of them, we are 
under obligations to others. The newspaper presses, in this town, 
offer us bundles of their exchanges. The Rev. Mr. Norris often sends 
a bundle of his exchanges. The Rev. Mr. Hale, of this place, has sent 
us weekly three newspapers, for which, and for his trouble in so doing, 
we feel greatly obliged to him. 

The following papers are sent to us gratuitously, and for which we 
feel ourselves under great obligations : — The Daily Advertiser, from 
Boston, Boston Recorder, Olive Branch, Youth's Companion, Chris- 
tian Watchman, Christian Witness, Zion's Herald, Springfield Repub- 
lican, Springfield Gazette, Hampshire Gazette, Fall River Monitor, 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 51 

Old Colony Memorial, Gospel Messenger, Harbinger, Christian Citi- 
zen, Worcester Cataract, Worcester Transcript, Monthly Religious 
Magazine, Lynn News, Salem Register, Congregational Visiter, Pris- 
oner's Friend, Northampton Courier, Southern Journal of Medicine 
and Pharmacy, Neal's Saturday Evening Gazette. 

Besides this list of gratuitous papers, the different members of our 
family receive, in all, weekly, about twenty periodicals, which are dis- 
tributed about the galleries. Thus, almost every member of the house- 
hold can read the local newspaper of his own neighborhood. 

The moral and religious instruction of past years has been contin- 
ued. The stated services of the Sabbath, the evening prayers, and 
the Bible class, have been conducted, by the Rev. Mr. Allen, in a very 
able and acceptable manner. Our chapel is filled on the Sabbath with 
an attentive and quiet audience of about two hundred patients, and 
their attendants. They are gratified and benefited by assembling for 
social worship. These meetings are conducted like the religious ser- 
vices in the churches in the neighborhood. The same exposition of 
truth, best adapted to promiscuous congregations, would be proper and 
fit for our household ; but still I would not advise that strong appeals 
be made to the feelings of the insane from the sacred desk, nor would 
I recommend that the terrors of the divine law be prominently put 
forth ; but, as a general rule, the consolations and cheering promises 
of the Scriptures are required, to relieve the despondency and broken 
spirit of a majority of our congregation. 

The singing is very creditable to those who take part in it. The 
choir is composed of our attendants and patients. They contribute a 
very interesting part to the religious services in the evenings and on 
the Sabbaths. 

The effect of religious services upon our household is, in all re- 
spects, favorable. We could hardly get along without the regular fore- 
noon and afternoon services in our chapel on the Sabbath. Unlike 
other days, we cannot get out of doors for exercise on Sundays ; and, 
were it not for our chapel, we should be obliged to keep most of our 
inmates from morning till night in our wards. We do not expect, nor 
look for, any very particular and sudden manifestation of divine truth 
upon our congregation ; but the beneficial effect is general. It per- 
vades the whole assembly, by inspiring each with a more healthy, 
moral, and religious feeling. 

A school was in operation a part of last winter. About twenty-five 
of our patients attended. Enough was done to satisfy us that a school 



52 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



for the insane was practicable, and might be made useful to many. 
Some information could be obtained, and the minds of those who 
could be made interested in the business would be kept active and 
drawn off from their delusions for the time. 

Farming and horticulture, for the past year, have been pursued by 
us with our accustomary success. The crops have been abundant, as 
the subjoined enumeration will show. Our attention has been turned 
less to the raising of corn and potatoes than to other crops. The 
tilled soil here is not adapted to produce the potato of the best quality. 
It is too light and sandy, or it may be that a rotation of crops is needed 
to resuscitate the soil. 

Such crops as require the most care and labor, which we have in 
the ready assistance of our patients to bestow, give the largest returns 
for the number of acres cultivated. We require a large amount of 
garden vegetables. It would be difficult to purchase our supply of 
them ; but we are, by the situation of our gardens and by the assist- 
ance of patients, conveniently situated for raising them. The follow- 
ing are some of the articles, with their value : — 



122 bushels of 


' corn, at 90 cents, * . 


. $109 80 


300 


cc 


oats, " 50 


it 


. 150 00 


11 


(< 


dry beans, at $1 25 


tt 


13 75 


9 


it 


dry peas, " 1 00 


te 


9 00 


240 


n 


beets, at 34 


tc 


81 60 


186 


it 


English turnips," 25 


it 


46 50 


30 


(i 


Swedish " " 25 


it 


7 50 


258 


it 


potatoes, " 50 


tt 


. 129 00 


80 


it 


parsnips, " 67 


ft 


53 60 


30 


tt 


apples, " 50 


tt 


15 00 


135 


it 


onions, " 67 


tt 


90 45 


1800 


cabbages, 


at 4 cents a piece, . 


. 


72 00 


12 tons of winter squashes, at 1 cent per pound, . 


. 240 00 


44 bushels ol 


green peas, . 




44 00 


110 


it 


summer squashes, . 




55 00 


156 


it 


cucumbers, at 75 cents, . 


117 00 




Oat straw 


• 




40 00 


56500 


quarts of milk, at 3£ cents, . 




1277 50 


8461 


pounds of beef, " 6£ " . 




528 81 


9313 


it 


pork, " 7£ " . 




698 47 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 53 

120 pounds of poultry, at 10 cents, . . . . $12 00 
197 " veal, " 6 " 11 82 



$3802 20 



A full supply of summer vegetables, for the use of the establish- 
ment, was raised from our two gardens, comprising about six acres of 
ground. 

There was raised, for wintering the stock : — 

60 tons of hay, at $13, . . . . . . $780 80 

1176 bushels of carrots, at 25 cents, .... 294 00 

Corn fodder, 15 00 

7 loads of pumpkins, . . . . . . . 10 00 



$1099 80 



Twenty cows and two oxen were pastured on the farm. There are 
about one hundred acres now attached to the Hospital, and it is all of 
it absolutely needed for the uses of the Hospital. That part of it 
which has not been paid for, I recommend should be secured to the 
institution. 

The live stock now consists of four horses, four oxen, seventeen 
cows, twenty-six swine, and seventy fowls. 

In the shoe shop, from two to five patients have worked daily with 
Mr. David Hitchcock. They have not at any time been urged to 
work hard, but they go there as an amusement, and to keep their minds 
occupied by something besides their own delusions. Some have com- 
pleted their recovery, and probably hastened it too, by being employed 
here. 

The following is the report of the condition of this shop fin the past 
year :— 

Cr. for work done for customers, . . $622 53 

patients, . . 539 00 

Shoes on hand, November 30th, 1847, . 85 00 

Stock " " " . 50 00 

$1296 53 



Dr. to stock and tools, .... $633 92 
Board and wages of overseer, . . 349 63 

Binding shoes, . . ... 34 65 



54 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Fuel and lights, ..... 20 00 

Shoes and stock on hand, Dec. 1, 1846, 100 00 



1138 20 



Balance in favor of the shop, .... $158 33 

This shop is a convenience to the Hospital. It supplies the inmates 
with shoes cheaper and better than we can obtain elsewhere, and it 
gives beneficial employment to a few of our inmates. 

The close of the year finds our family to consist of 

Boarders, . . - 392 

Those employed, ......... 63 

Belonging to the families of those employed, .... 7 

462 

At this time, two of our male patients are away from the Hospital 
on visits with their friends. 

In conclusion, I would gladly acknowledge my obligations to the 
kmdness, skill, and efficiency of Drs. J. R. Lee and Rufus Wood- 
ward, in the management of the institution. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock, steward and matron, have continued with 
us and given their important services to the good of the institution. I 
have always relied with confidence upon their good judgment in what- 
ever relates to their departments. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mirick, supervisors, have, by their kindness to the 
poor insane, and by their attention to their duties, given great satisfac- 
tion. Our large company of attendants and assistants have performed 
their several duties very acceptably. Their department of labor is 
peculiar and arduous ; and, for all instances where the welfare of the 
patient and success of the institution have been manifested, an approv- 
ing conscience will reward them. They are a most respectable class 
of persons. There are none in the community more so. 

We have entered upon the commencement of another year of the 
institution under favorable auspices ; and I trust that its results to the 
cause of humanity will be as favorable as any former one. 

Most respectfully submitted, 

GEO. CHANDLER. 

State Lunatic Hospital, ) 
Worcester, Dec. 6th, 1847. J 



BY-LAWS 



ESTABLISHED BY THE TRUSTEES OF THE 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



IN WORCESTER. 



CHAPTER I. 

ORGANIZATION AND MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OP TRUSTEES. 

Sec. 1. The Board of Trustees shall be organized as soon as may 
be after the annual appointment of the members, at a meeting to be 
called by the Trustee who is first named in the commission of the 
Governor, at which meeting one of the Trustees shall be appointed 
Chairman, and another, Secretary of the Board. In case of the death, 
sickness, or absence of the Chairman, such other Trustee as may be 
first named in the commission of the Governor, shall perform the 
duties of Chairman, until the Board, at its next following meeting, 
shall make an appointment. 

Sec. 2. The Chairman shall call meetings of the Board as often as 
he may deem the same expedient, or whenever he shall be requested 
to do so by any two Trustees. He shall preside at all meetings, shall 
prepare the Annual Report required to be laid before the Governor 
and Council, and shall be the organ of the Board in receiving and 
preparing all official communications in relation to its concerns. 

Sec 3. The Secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings of 
the Board, and shall prepare, or cause to be prepared, all documents, 
statements, and notices, which may be directed by the Board or by the 
Chairman. Whenever directed by the Board or Chairman, he shall 
give notice, in writing, to each Trustee, of the time and place ap- 



56 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

pointed for a proposed meeting of the Board. He shall promptly 
communicate to the Treasurer all the proceedings of the Board in 
relation to the settlement of accounts with patients, and the financial 
concerns of the Institution. To assist him in the performance of his 
duties, he shall be authorized to employ the Clerk residing at the 
Hospital. 

Sec. 4. The monthly, semi-annual, and annual visitations of the 
Hospital shall be made, so far as may be, in connection with the 
meetings of the Board ; and, otherwise, in conformity to such arrange- 
ment as the Board may from time to time adopt. 

A meeting of the Board shall be always held in the month of De- 
cember, for the purpose of receiving the Annual Report of the Super- 
intendent of the Hospital, and of considering and adopting the Annual 
Report of the Board, as prepared by the Chairman, in order that the 
same may be seasonably laid before the Governor and Council. 



CHAPTER II. 

OFFICERS OF THE HOSPITAL, TENURE OF OFFICE, AND SALARIES. 

Sec. 1. For conducting efficiently and economically the business 
of the institution, the following officers shall be appointed by the Trus- 
tees, viz : a Superintendent, a Treasurer, two Assistant Physicians, a 
Steward, a Matron, and a Chaplain. 

Sec 2. The several officers appointed by the Board shall hold 
their offices during the pleasure of the Board, and shall not resign 
their offices without giving to the Board at least six months' notice of 
their intention so to do. 

Sec. 3. The salaries of the officers shall be established as follows, 
viz : — 

The Superintendent shall receive the sum of eighteen hundred dol- 
lars per annum, and shall be provided with furnished apartments, and 
also board and fuel for himself and family, together with the services 
of one female domestic, and horse-keeping for one horse. 

The Treasurer shall receive the sum of four hundred and fifty dol- 
lars per annum. 

Each Assistant Physician shall receive the sum of five hundred 






STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 57 

dollars for the first year, six hundred dollars for the second year, and 
seven hundred dollars for the third and every succeeding year, together 
with board and fuel, and the use of a furnished apartment. 

The Steward and Matron shall receive jointly the sum of seven 
hundred dollars per annum, together with board and fuel, and the use 
of furnished apartments. 

The Chaplain shall receive the sum of six hundred dollars per an- 
num, together with board and fuel, and the use of a furnished apart- 
ment. 



CHAPTER III. 



DUTY/ OF SUPERINTENDENT. 



Sec. 1. The Superintendent shall be a Physician, and shall con- 
stantly reside at the Hospital. 

Sec 2. He shall have the superintendence of the Hospital, and of 
all the buildings and grounds connected therewith, the oversight and 
charge of the patients, and the general direction of all the concerns 
of the Institution, subject to such regulations as may be from time to 
time established by the Trustees. 

Sec 3. He shall visit all the patients personally, or learn their 
condition daily, and as much oftener as may be necessary, and shall 
direct such medical, moral, and physical treatment as may be best 
adapted to their relief, giving the fairest trial to kind and moral man- 
agement. 

Sec 4. lie shall cause to be kept a record showing the name, age, 
and residence of each patient, time when received and removed, 
whether cured or relieved, whether eloped or dead, and if dead, from 
what cause. 

Sec 5. He shall receive and answer all communications relating 
to the concerns of the Institution, and shall cause a record of his cor- 
respondence to be regularly kept. 

Sec 6. Under the general direction of the Trustees, he shall from 
time to time appoint such persons as he may deem qualified to per- 
form the duties of Clerk and Apothecary, Supervisors of Departments, 
Overseers of the Wings, Overseers of the Laundry, Bakery and Work- 
shops, Watchman, Farmer, and also all necessary Attendants in the 
8 



58 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

galleries, laundry, bakery, kitchen, workshops, and on the farm, and 
shall contract with them to perform the services required of them by 
the by-laws, on such conditions and at such rate of weekly or monthly 
wages as he shall deem expedient. 

He shall see constantly that all persons thus appointed by him, and 
also all subordinate officers appointed by the Board, perform faithfully 
the duties required of them, and from time to time he shall give them 
such instructions as he may deem necessary to secure the exact and 
thorough performance of their respective duties. 

He shall be authorized to discharge from service any of the persons 
thus appointed by him, upon their request, or whenever he shall cease 
to be satisfied in respect to the performance of their duties. 

Sec. 7. At each monthly visit of the Trustees, he shall exhibit all 
the records, and in a verbal or written report shall make known the 
state of the Institution, specifying the cases of patients received or 
removed during the month, and accompanying the same with such sug- 
gestions and remarks as he may deem useful. 

Sec. 8. At the annual meeting of the Trustees, he shall submit a 
report in writing upon such topics as may have been suggested by the 
progress of the Institution and the experience of the year, including 
therein a tabular statement comprising all important particulars from 
the records. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DUTY OF TREASURER. 

Sec. 1. The Treasurer shall give bonds for the faithful perform- 
ance of his duties, in the sum of fifteen thousand dollars, with such 
sureties as shall be approved by the Trustees. 

Sec. 2. He shall receive, hold, and disburse all the moneys which 
may be granted by the Legislature or obtained from other sources for 
the use of the Hospital ; and once in each year, and oftener if re- 
quired by the Trustees, he shall exhibit an account of his receip'.s and 
expenditures, with all the vouchers therefor, for the examination of the 
Board. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 59 



CHAPTER V. 

DUTY OF ASSISTANT PHYSICIANS. 

Sec. 1. The Assistant Physicians shall always be physicians, and 
shall constantly reside at the Hospital. 

One of them shall have charge of the Male Department, and the 
other of the Female Department, and each shall exercise a general 
supervision of the department assigned to him, under the direction of 
the Superintendent. 

Sec. 2. The Assistant Physicians shall visit all the patients in 
their respective departments daily, and oftener if necessary ; carefully 
observe their condition, wants, and treatment ; and see that they have 
food, medicine, exercise, amusements, clothing, and bedding, suitable 
for them ; exert what moral influence they can with them, and en- 
deavor in every way to promote their comfort and recovery. 

Sec 3. They shall see that the subordinate officers and attendants 
are faithful and kind, attentive to the wants of the patients, and vigi- 
lant in the discharge of all their duties; and they shall enter, in a 
book kept for the purpose, all instances of neglect of duty observed 
by them or of which they may receive information, which shall be 
immediately reported to the Superintendent. 

Sec 4. For the due performance of the duties enjoined in the 
foregoing sections, they shall spend much time in their respective 
departments, shall be in constant communication with the Supervisors, 
Overseers, and Attendants, and shall carry out the plans and instruc- 
tions of the Superintendent in the best manner they are able. 

Sec 5. They shall report to the Superintendent daily the general 
condition of their respective departments, and the particular state of 
such patients as may be sick or greatly excited, requiring restraints or 
seclusion. 

Sec 6. They shall attend to the warmth, cleanliness, ventilation, 
and good order of their respective departments, and superintend the 
use of the baths. 

Sec 7. They shall keep records of the cases of all the patients in 
their respective departments, describing the symptoms, the changes 
that may occur from time to time, the mode of treatment, and all the 
peculiar circumstances connected therewith. 



60 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Sec. 8. They shall attend to visiters when necessary ; and shall 
always be ready to perform whatever services may be required of them 
by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER VI. 



DUTY OF STEWARD 



Sec. 1. The Steward, under the direction of the Superintendent, 
shall purchase furniture, fuel, stores, stock for the workshops, imple- 
ments, and cattle for the farm, and all other necessary articles, and 
shall be responsible for the economical use of the same. 

Sec 2. He shall keep clear and methodical and exact accounts of 
all receipts and expenditures, and of charges against patients, and 
shall submit the same, together with proper vouchers therefor, to the 
Treasurer, at least once in three months, and as much oftener as the 
Treasurer shall require. 

Sec 3. Under the direction of the Superintendent, he shall attend 
to engaging and discharging the subordinate officers and attendants, 
and to the settlement of their wages, for which latter purpose he shall 
keep regular accounts with them. 

Sec 4. He shall constantly observe the conduct of the subordinate 
officers and attendants, and see that in all respects they do their duty, 
and forthwith report to the Superintendent any instance of misconduct 
or negligence on their part, which he may observe or of which he 
may be informed. 

Sec 5. He shall attend particularly to the business of the laundry, 
bakery, workshops, and farm ; shall see to the cleansing of the sewers 
as often as may be necessary, and that the grounds, yards, and roads, 
the aqueduct, laundry, bakery, work-shops, barns, and other out-build- 
ings, and also the chapel and hall, are always kept in good order, in 
conformity to such directions as he may receive from the Superin- 
tendent. 

Sec 6. He shall perform all services that may be required of him 
in maintaining the police of the establishment ; shall see to the open- 
ing and closing of the house, and that the Attendants rise and com- 
mence business immediately after the ringing of the bell, and that 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. Gl 

they retire in proper season at night; that the bell is rung at proper 
times, and that the fires are regularly kindled and extinguished. He 
shall go in search of elopers ; shall observe the conduct of inmates at 
the religious and other meetings; and when in the wings, shall exert all 
the good influence he can to promote the comfort and recovery of the 
patients. 

Sec. 7. He shall receive visiters, give them all suitable informa- 
tion, and accompany them personally to such parts of the buildings 
and grounds as, by the permission of the Superintendent, are open for 
examination. 

Sec. 8. He shall be at all times ready to perform whatever extra- 
ordinary services shall be required of him by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER VII. 



DUTY OF MATRON 



Sec. 1. The Matron shall hav« the general direction of the domes- 
tic concerns of the Hospital. 

Sec 2. She shall attend to the cleanliness and good order of the 
apartments, have care of the cooking, sewing, clothing, and bedding, 
and, in connection with the Steward, shall take the general direction 
of the washing, ironing, and baking. 

Sec 3. She shall see that all the female attendants are faithful and 
diligent in the discharge of their duties, kind and pleasant to patients 
wherever they meet them, discreet and regular in their deportment, and 
that they observe all the regulations of the Hospital. 

Sec 4. She shall be in the way of seeing the patients frequently, 
and shall be careful always to exert a good moral influence on them 
and the attendants, and shall spare no effort to promote the comfort and 
good order of the household. 

Sec 5. She shall be at all times ready to perform whatever extra- 
ordinary services shall be required of her by the Superintendent. 



62 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

DUTY OF CHAPLAIN. 

Sec. 1. The Chaplain shall conduct religious worship in the chapel 
on the Sabbath, as well as on such other days as may be set apart for 
religious observance by the authorities of the Commonwealth. 

Sec. 2. He shall also attend daily devotional exercises in the chapel, 
and, whenever he may be requested, shall officiate at funerals. 

Sec 3. He shall perform all such other services relating to moral 
and religious instruction, as may be authorized and requested by the 
Superintendent. 



CHAPTER IX. 

DUTY OF CLERK AND APOTHECARY. 

Sec. 1. The Clerk and Apothecary shall keep the records of the 
Hospital under the direction of the Superintendent; he shall copy, 
seal and direct letters, make copies of all documents and other papers, 
post the books of the Steward, keep the weather-table, and perform all 
other clerical services which may be required by the Superintendent, 
or by the Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 

Sec. 2. He shall also prepare and put up the medicines prescribed 
by the Superintendent and Assistant Physicians. 

Sec. 3. He shall keep the office in order, wait upon visiters, and 
perform whatever other services shall be required of him by the Super- 
intendent. 



CHAPTER X. 

DUTY OF SUPERVISORS OF DEPARTMENTS. 

Sec 1. The Supervisors of Departments shall spend their time 
in the immediate oversight of the patients committed to their charge, 
shall constantly observe their condition in every particular, shall see 
that they are provided with food, medicine, exercise, and amusements, 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 63 

as directed by the Superintendent and Assistant Physician, shall be 
constantly careful to exert a good moral influence upon the patients, 
and in every way shall do all in their power to promote their welfare 
and recovery. 

Sec. 2. They shall receive the orders of the Superintendent and 
Assistant Physicians, and see that they are properly and thoroughly 
executed. 

Sec. 3. They shall see that the sick are provided with nurses and 
treated with the greatest care ; and they shall take charge of the neces- 
sary arrangements for the burial of the dead. 

Sec 4. They shall always take care that the regulations of the 
Hospital are strictly observed by the attendants and patients ; and if 
they shall see or learn that any attendant has failed to be faithful, kind 
and vigilant, or has been guilty of any abuse of trust or neglect of 
duty, they shall report the case immediately to the Superintendent, or 
Assistant Physician. 

Sec 5. They shall be ready at all times to perform any services 
which may be required of them by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER XL 

DUTY OF OVERSEERS OF THE WINGS. 

Sec 1. The Overseers of the Wings shall take care of all stores 
sent into the wings, and shall prepare food for the patients and Attend- 
ants, as may be directed by the Steward and Matron. 

Sec 2. They shall attend the fires kept in the wings, or see that 
they are properly attended, and shall constantly take care that the halls 
are properly warmed and ventilated. 

Sec 3. They shall take care of the clothing and bedding of all the 
patients under their charge, and shall see to the order and cleanliness 
of every apartment. 

Sec 4. They shall see in the morning that all the attendants rise 
and commence work at the ringing of the bell, that they attend to their 
proper duties throughout the day, and that at night the doors are closed, 
fires extinguished, lamps put out, and every thing properly arranged 
for quiet and security. They shall never fail to visit the galleries 
occasionally, especially in the evening, before or after locking up the 
rooms. 



64 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Sec. 5. They shall immediately report to the Superintendent or 
officers connected with the department, all instances of disorderly con- 
duct and neglect which they may observe, or of which they shall be 
informed. 

Sec. 6. They shall be ready at all times to perform any services 
which may be required of them by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER XII. 

DUTY OF OVERSEERS OP THE LAUNDRY. 

Sec. 1. The Overseers of the Laundry, under the direction of the 
Steward and Matron, shall collect all the clothes ready for washing 
from the family apartments and from the galleries, on such days as shall 
be designated, and see that they are properly washed and ironed, and 
returned to the places from which they were brought, without loss or 
injury, and in a suitable condition for immediate use. 

Sec. 2. They shall take care of the house and furniture, and keep 
them in good order, attend to the fires and lights, and secure all the 
apartments at night before retiring to rest. 

Sec. 3. They shall observe all the regulations of the Hospital, and 
see that they are observed by all persons employed in the laundry, and 
they shall immediately report every instance of remissness or neglect 
of duty to the Steward or Matron. 

Sec. 4. They shall be ready at all times to perform any services 
which may be required of them by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DUTY OF OVERSEER OF THE BAKERY. 

Sec. 1. The Overseer of the Bakery, under the direction of the 
Steward and Matron, shall prepare bread, pastry, and other articles 
pertaining to their department of cooking, and shall supply each 
kitchen and the laundry with such quantity as may be required. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 65 

Sec 2. He shall take care of all supplies furnished him for use, 
and shall be held responsible for the judicious and economical use 
of them ; and he shall keep an account of the supplies received, and 
the articles furnished to each department. 

Sec. 3. He shall take charge of the house and furniture, and 
always see personally to the fires and lights, and to the opening and 
shutting of the house. 

Sec 4. He shall observe all the regulations of the Hospital, and 
see that they are observed by all persons employed in the bakery, and 
shall immediately report every instance of remissness or neglect of 
duty to the Steward. 

Sec 5. He shall be ready at all times to perform any service which 
may be required of him by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

DUTY OF OVERSEERS OF "WORKSHOPS. 

Sec 1. The Overseers of Workshops, under the direction of the 
Steward, shall take care of all stock supplied to them, and see that it 
is economically used and properly manufactured by the patients under 
their charge ; and they shall keep regular accounts of all stock re- 
ceived and all articles manufactured, sold, or otherwise disposed of. 

Sec 2. They shall exercise a judicious and prudent oversight of 
all patients under their charge, and shall see them returned to the 
galleries, or placed in the care of their respective Attendants when 
their labor is done. 

Sec 3. They shall take care of their apartments, and of all stock, 
tools, and fire therein ; shall see to the fires and lights, and that they 
are properly closed at night. 

Sec 4. They shall be ready at all times to perform any service 
which may be required of them by the Superintendent. 

9 



66 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



CHAPTER XV. 

DUTY OF WATCHMAN. 

Sec. 1. The Watchman shall commence his services in the eve- 
ning, at half-past nine o'clock, and shall continue them until the hour 
of dinner on the following day. During this term of service, he shall 
be constantly awake, faithful, and vigilant in the discharge of his duty. 

Sec 2. Under the direction of the Superintendent, he shall per- 
form a regular patrol throughout and around the Hospital, for the 
purpose of observing all occurrences, discovering danger from fire, 
attending to the furnaces, overseeing the Infirmaries, and performing 
the services which may become necessary in any emergency. In his 
walks he must be as silent as possible, enter into no loud conversation 
with any one, and make as little noise as possible. Whether station- 
ary or moving, he must never have a light with him except in a lantern. 

Sec 3. He shall exert the utmost vigilance to guard the Hospital 
against fires ; and if fire is discovered, he shall forthwith notify the 
Superintendent and other Officers and Attendants, but not give a gen- 
eral alarm. 

Sec 4. In winter, when the weather is cold, he shall keep a fire in 
at least one furnace in each Wing, and in the centre building, through 
the night, and shall visit each of the furnaces at least once in every 
hour, and regulate the fires according to the temperature. Whenever 
in moderate weather he shall suffer the fires to go out, he shall always 
close the dampers; and whenever the fires have gone out, he shall 
kindle them in the morning, so that all the furnaces shall be in opera- 
tion by five o'clock. He shall also see that all the necessary fires in 
the kitchen are seasonably kindled, as may be directed by the Steward. 

Sec 5. In the course of his nightly patrol, he shall look frequently 
into the Male Infirmary, when there are sick patients in it, keep up a 
uniform fire when necessary, and render any services which circum- 
stances may require. 

Sec 6. He shall ring the bell in the morning, and at other times, 
as may be directed by the Steward. 

Sec 7. He shall perform all other services which may be required 
of him by the Superintendent. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 67 



CHAPTER XVI. 

DUTY OF FARMER. 

Sec. 1. The Farmer, under the direction of the Steward, shall 
take care of the stock, barn, stables, and piggeries, shall see to the 
careful use and safe-keeping of all implements of labor, and to the 
feeding and proper treatment of all the animals ; and he shall have 
charge of the teams and of all the work done upon the farm. 

Sec. 2. He shall be ready at all times to perform any service 
which may be required of him by the Superintendent. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

DUTY OF ATTENDANTS. 

Sec. 1. The Attendants shall devote their whole time to the Hos- 
pital, in the performance of such services as may be enjoined by the 
by-laws, or as shall be required of them by the officers. 

Sec. 2. The Attendants shall rise in the morning at the ringing of 
the bell, and at once commence the work assigned to them. 

Sec 3. The Attendants stationed in the galleries, on rising in the 
morning, shall see that the patients are properly washed; that they 
have their hair combed, and are decently dressed for the day in season 
for breakfast. 

Sec. 4. The Attendants during meals, at which one Attendant 
shall always be present in each hall, shall prepare the food and dis- 
tribute it to such patients as are not competent to do it for themselves, 
and shall see that each one has a proper supply. They shall be care- 
ful that no knife, fork, or other article, be carried from the table by any 
patient. 

Sec. 5. The Attendants in charge of patients shall never retire to 
their rooms while the patients are in the halls ; and one Attendant 
shall always remain in the gallery Avith the patients, and shall not 
leave under any circumstances, until relieved, except to take meals, 
and prepare the food for the patients. One Attendant in the South 
Wing shall look to the galleries on the same floor, when the other is 



68 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

absent at meals. The Attendants on the same floor in the North 
Wing shall exchange during meals, so that one may always be present 
while the other is absent at meals. 

Sec. 6. The Attendants shall keep the rooms of the patients and 
the halls perfectly neat and well ventilated, and they shall have the 
beds made in proper season in the morning, and the doors of the 
rooms all closed when the patients are in bed. 

Sec 7. They shall pay particular attention to the water-closets, 
rinsing the pans thoroughly after use, and carefully closing the lid, so 
that no patient can meddle with the same. 

Sec. 8. They shall look well to all doors connected with the gal- 
leries at bed-time ; they shall see that the doors of the rooms occu- 
pied by the patients are all safely locked, and that the doors communi- 
cating with the centre building are all fast bolted, and they shall take 
care of all lights, it being required that one light in a lantern shall be 
always kept burning through the night, in the room of the Attendant, 
or in the adjoining entry. 

Sec. 9. The Attendants shall never leave the Hospital without 
permission from the Superintendent, or from the Steward or Matron, 
under his direction, and shall always return by nine o'clock in the 
evening, unless leave be expressly given to stay out longer. 

Seg. 10. The Attendants shall never give up the keys of the gal- 
leries intrusted to them, nor admit any person into the halls without 
permission. 

Sec. 11. No Male Attendant shall enter a gallery occupied by 
Female patients, without permission from the Superintendent, Assist- 
ant Physician, or Steward. 

Sec. 12. The Attendants shall never visit from gallery to gallery, 
nor proceed to the kitchens, except on business. 

Sec 13. The Attendants shall never place in the hands of pa- 
tients any razor, knife, scissors, or other dangerous instrument, with- 
out permission of the Superintendent or Assistant Physician, and they 
shall constantly take care that the patients do not obtain possession of 
any weapon. 

Sec 14. The Attendants in the lodges shall never admit any per- 
sons to the buildings except the officers, and those whom they may 
accompany, and they shall never give their keys into the hands of any 
persons but the officers without special direction in such cases from 
the Superintendent or Assistant Physician. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 69 

Sec. 15. The Attendants shall always keep themselves well dressed, 
in neat and clean apparel. 

Sec. 16. The Attendants shall avoid the use of profane, obscene, 
or vulgar language, treat each other with uniform civility, never in- 
dulge in loud talking or laughing, nor play at any game together, 
without the permission of the Superintendent. In all respects they 
shall exhibit a good example to the patients, and shall be held strictly 
responsible for the bad influence of their conduct. 

Sec. 17. The Attendants shall accustom themselves to speak re- 
spectfully of the officers and the Institution, and shall inculcate these 
sentiments in their intercourse with the patients ; and they shall sus- 
tain and carry into operation all directions and prescriptions for the 
patients in the most ready and faithful manner. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

TREATMENT OF PATIENTS. 

Sec 1. The Officers and Attendants shall invariably treat the 
inmates with respect and attention, deal with them always in a kind 
and affectionate manner, speak to them in a mild and gentle tone of 
voice, and do all in their power to soothe and calm those who may 
be irritated, and to encourage and cheer such as are melancholy and 
depressed. Whenever provoked by insult or abusive language, they 
shall keep cool, forbear to recriminate, scold, or irritate, never dictate 
in language of authority, unless absolutely necessary, never lay violent 
hands on patients except in self-defence, and to prevent their injuring 
themselves or injuring others, and never inflict a blow. As far as 
possible, they shall maintain their authority by kindness of manner 
and dignity of deportment. 

Sec. 2. Restraints shall never be put on patients unless by order 
of the Superintendent. 

Sec. 3. Every patient shall be in the charge of some responsible 
individual at all times, unless permitted to be at large by the Superin- 
tendent. 

Sec 4. Whenever a patient is taken from the halls by any person 
duly authorized, that person shall be responsible for the safe-keeping 



70 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

of the patient until returned to the hall, or intrusted by the Officer to 
the care of another. 

Sec. 5. No patient shall be permitted to go out of the wings ex- 
cept in conformity to the directions of the Superintendent. 

Sec 6. No Officer or Attendant shall report abroad the conduct 
or conversation of any of the patients. 

J3ec. 7. No one in attendance upon the patients shall in any way 
ridicule them, nor mock or imitate them in such a manner as to 
wound their feelings, but shall always be regardful of their situation, 
and treat them with unvarying propriety. 

Sec. 8. Whenever a patient commences any improper conversa- 
tion, or seeks a controversy with any one, the Officer or Attendant in 
charge must use every effort to check the impropriety by gentle means ; 
but if these fail, more vigorous and effectual measures must be promptly 
adopted, so as to prevent the commitment of any impropriety, or the 
disturbance of the quiet of the gallery. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

ATTENDANCE UPON RELIGIOUS SERVICES. 

Sec 1. All persons employed in the Hospital, who are well and 
can be spared from their duties in the house or in the halls, shall 
attend evening prayers, and the religious services on the Sabbath, both 
morning and evening, unless leave of absence be specially granted. 

Sec 2. Officers and Attendants shall take especial care that their 
demeanor during the services shall be strictly becoming, and worthy 
of imitation ; and it shall be considered a noticeable breach of duty 
for any one to sleep habitually while present in the Chapel. 

Sec 3. The attendance of patients in the Chapel shall be under 
the direction of the Superintendent; and all the arrangements which 
he may direct concerning them, shall be faithfully carried into effect 
by the other officers and the attendants. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 71 



CHAPTER XX. 

MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS. 

Sec. 1. No Officer or Attendant, while connected with the Hos- 
pital, shall at any time make use of distilled spirits or intoxicating 
liquor of any kind, at home or abroad ; nor shall any one of them make 
use of tobacco, or smoke a cigar or pipe about the premises. 

Sec 2. No company shall be admitted into the galleries occupied 
by the patients, except by express permission of the Superintendent. 
All other parts of the Hospital may be exhibited by the Assistant Phys- 
icians and the Steward or Matron, at such times and under such 
restrictions as the Superintendent shall direct. 

Sec 3. All persons who have duty to perform in the Hospital, 
shall rise in the morning at the ringing of the bell. 

Sec 4. All persons who shall agree to perform service at the Hos- 
pital shall be considered as engaged for one year, unless a special 
contract shall be made for a longer or shorter term ; and no person 
employed at the Hospital shall discontinue service at or after the expi- 
ration of the year or term agreed for, without giving to the Steward at 
least thirty days' notice of an intention so to do. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



DIET TABLE 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



Sunday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread, butter, hash or fish, and potatoes. 

Dinner — Water, bread, butter, cheese, crackers, and pie. 

Supper — Tea or cocoa, bread, butter, cold meat, and warm potatoes. 

Monday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread, butter, cold meat, warm potatoes. 
Dinner — Water, boiled dish, vegetables, pudding. 
Supper — Tea or cocoa, warm biscuit, butter, cheese. 



Tuesday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread, butter, hash of meat and potatoes. 
Dinner — Water, roast meat, vegetables, bread and butter. 
Supper — Tea or cocoa, bread, butter, cheese, and plain cake. 



Wednesday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread, butter, warm or cold roast meat, warm 
potatoes. 

Dinner — Water, stewed or baked beans, or stewed peas, vegetables 
or fish and vegetables, pudding, bread and butter. 

Supper — Tea or cocoa, bread, butter, cheese, gingerbread. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 73 

Thursday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread and butter, steak, fish or warm beans or 
peas stewed. 

Dinner — Water, soup with meat and vegetables. 

Supper — Tea or cocoa, bread, butter, pie and cheese, and bunns or 
sugar gingerbread. 

Friday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread, butter, fresh meat, cold or warm potatoes. 
Dinner — Water, bread, butter, boiled dish, vegetables, and pudding. 
Supper — Tea or cocoa, warm biscuit, butter, and cheese. 



Saturday. 

Breakfast — Coffee, bread, butter, hash of meat and potatoes. 
Dinner — Water, fish, salt or fresh, vegetables, boiled rice, bread 
and butter. 

Supper — Tea or cocoa, bread and butter, apple sauce or honey. 



The condiments provided, are salt, pepper, mustard, and vinegar, 
for such as desire them. 

Toast, griddle-cakes, fried pudding or cakes, to be used once or 
twice a week, as each kitchen can supply all its boarders equally. 
Milk is used freely. Apples, in the season of them, are served every 
day at dinner ; other fruits occasionally. The sick have a prescribed 
diet. 

Bread and butter, or gingerbread, may be had for luncheon. 



10 



74 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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