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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"



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SIXTEENTH 

ANNUAL EEPOET 



THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



AT WORCESTER 



DECEMBER, 1848. 



33 s 1 n : 

DUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS, 

No. 37, Congress Street, 

1849. 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OP THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



DECEMBER, 1848. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council : — 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital would respectfully 
present their Sixteenth Annual Report. 

During the past year, this institution has, under the blessing of 
Providence, continued to exert its benign influence on the most unfor- 
tunate portion of the human family, greatly ameliorating the condition 
of those who, by an inscrutable deprivation, will never again enjoy 
the light of reason this side eternity, and restoring to their friends, 
society, and usefulness, many whose insanity, without the advantages 
afforded by the Hospital, would become chronic ; thus diminishing 
the amount of human misery unspeakably, and reflecting the highest 
honor on the people of Massachusetts, by whose liberality it was 
founded, and in whose midst it stands a monument to bespeak their 
generosity, and the tenderness with which those, appointed to guard 
the public weal, watch over the unfortunate. 

The financial condition of the Hospital is quite satisfactory. The 
receipts have exceeded the expenditures by fifteen hundred and forty- 
six dollars twenty-seven cents, notwithstanding the price of board was 
reduced, at the beginning of the year, from two dollars and fifty cents 
to two dollars and thirty-three and one third cents per week. 

The whole receipts for the year ending December 1st, 1848, were 
forty-four thousand four hundred six dollars and thirty-two cents, and 
the expenditures were forty-two thousand eight hundred and sixty 
dollars and five cents. The balance on hand, December 1st, 1847, 
was six thousand two hundred eighteen dollars and forty-seven cents, 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

leaving a balance on hand, December 1st, seven thousand seven hun- 
dred sixty-four dollars and seventy-four cents. 

About three years ago, an opportunity presented of purchasing a 
valuable tract of land known as " Chandler Hill," containing twenty- 
seven acres, for three thousand dollars. The land was needed for the 
use of the Hospital, but the Trustees were not authorized by law to 
pay a sum exceeding five hundred dollars annually for the purchase of 
real estate. Hon. Stephen Salisbury proposed to purchase and hold 
the land for the use of the Hospital, receiving interest annually for its 
use, and to deed when paid for. The Trustees thought best to accept 
the liberal offer of Mr. Salisbury. The Trustees would suggest the 
propriety of having legislative authority granted for paying for said 
land out of the funds now lying idle in the hands of the Treasurer, 
which may be done without prejudice to any other wants of the Hos- 
pital, and would relieve it from the payment of interest and taxes on 
the land. The lot is now considered worth four times the amount 
paid for it by Mr. Salisbury. 

The Report which the Treasurer will submit to you, affords an 
ample and complete exhibition of the financial condition of the Hos- 
pital. 

The able Report of Doct. Chandler, which is herewith submitted, 
contains much valuable information, and, with the statistics, forms a 
safe basis for many interesting and important deductions in regard to 
insanity, and the condition of the Hospital in its details. 

Dr. Chandler brings to the arduous duties of Superintendent, abili- 
ties rarely equalled, and an untiring zeal in the faithful execution of 
them. We cheerfully accord to him our unqualified approbation and 
thanks. 

We regret to state that Charles P. Hitchcock, Esq., in consequence 
of ill health, resigned his place last April. In the retirement of Mr. 
and Mrs. Hitchcock, the Hospital has lost a kind and affable Matron, 
and a Steward than whom none could be found more " faithful." 
His judicious and efficient services need no encomium, for he has 
devoted many of the best years of his life to the interests of the Insti- 
tution, winning, by his kindness and gentlemanly deportment, the 
esteem of all, and, by his scrupulous fidelity, the respect and confi- 
dence of those officially connected with him. We trust the conscious- 
ness of having contributed, in no small measure, to the comfort and 
happiness of those who seek an asylum here, will lend additional zest 
to the pleasures of the retirement he has chosen, and to which he 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 5 

carries our hearty thanks and our kindest wishes. Since his resigna- 
tion, the duties of Steward have been discharged under the imme- 
diate direction of the Superintendent, until the first December, when 
Mr. Thomas Hill was appointed Steward. Miss Elizabeth A. Reed 
has been appointed Matron. 

Dr. Rufus Woodward, one of the assistant physicians, has vacated 
his place to visit the hospitals of Europe, that he may become inti- 
mately acquainted with their arrangement, and the mode of treatment 
adopted in them, and the more completely to perfect himself in his 
profession. The vacancy was supplied by the appointment of Dr. 
Thomas E. Hatch, who has performed the labors allotted to him with 
success and ability, but who has been compelled to give them up on 
account of ill health. To him, and to Dr. John R. Lee, the senior 
assistant, an acknowledgment is due for their valuable services. Dr. 
Merrick Bemis has been appointed in his place. 

During the past year, fifteen strong rooms for the more violent fe- 
male patients have been completed and brought into use. They fully 
answer the expectations of those having charge of the Hospital, and 
the result proves them to have been a desideratum, for they are of the 
greatest utility in promoting the comfort of the more quietly disposed 
patients, by removing from their wards those more excited. 

The amount paid for the building containing the strong rooms, as 
shown by the Treasurer's account, is forty-six hundred seventy-three 
dollars and seventy-seven cents. By a resolve of the Legislature, in 
1847, the Trustees were authorized to use the balance of the Johon- 
not Fund, thirty-seven hundred eleven dollars and fifty-three cents, 
together with an appropriation of six thousand dollars from the State 
Treasury, for the purpose of erecting strong rooms for the more furi- 
ously insane. Only fifteen hundred dollars of that appropriation have 
been drawn from the State Treasury ; there is now in the hands of the 
Treasurer of that fund, five hundred sixty-five dollars and seventy-six 
cents. 

The average number of patients, the past year, has been four hun- 
dred and four, one hundred and fifty of whom are foreigners, and 
mostly State paupers. The maximum capacity of the Hospital for the 
comfortable accommodation of patients, and the most effectual appli- 
cation of remedial treatment, has, some time since, been reached, so 
that now the Institution labors under a disadvantage, notwithstanding 
the addition of the fifteen strong rooms. 

The number of incurables is every year increasing, consequently, 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

unless more room is provided, many, whose insanity is recent, and 
who, if sent here, might reasonably be expected to recover, must be 
denied the benefits of this charity, while the wards will be filled by 
those whose condition is hopeless, unless the alternative is adopted of 
turning out the incurables upon their friends, or sending them to 
pauper-houses or prisons. This expedient is revolting to those who 
know how much more comfortable and happy they are made by a 
place here, where every thing is adapted to their peculiar circum- 
stances. 

The insane not only deserve the sympathy of those to whom the 
use of their faculties is still vouchsafed, but they have a positive claim 
to our substantial aid, which we cannot repudiate with impunity. To 
discharge the obligation which rests upon the people of this Common- 
wealth, more ample accommodations must be supplied for these " poor 
who are always with us," and the time has come for the question to be 
asked, Shall we provide a place for all who need the benefits of an 
Insane Hospital, or shall we allow a portion of our fellow-beings, who 
cannot be admitted here, to forego that amelioration of their pitiable 
condition, and, in many cases, that effectual cure, which cannot other- 
wise be obtained than in an Institution for the Insane ? The Trustees 
will not here express an opinion as to whether it is more expedient to 
enlarge the present establishment.or to erect a new Hospital in some 
other part of the State ; but they are unanimous in the belief, that no 
time should be lost in making more provision for the proper accom- 
modation of this most unfortunate portion of the human family. 

THOS. F. PLUNKETT, 
STEPHEN SALISBURY, 
S. C. PHILLIPS, 
THOS. FRENCH, 
ISAAC DAVIS. 

State Lunatic Hospital, ) 
Worcester, Dec. 14, 1848. ] 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TREASUREE'S REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council of the 
Commonwealth : 

The Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital respectfully presents 
the following Report : — 

The balance of cash in the Treasury, as stated in his re- 
port of December, 1847, was 16,218 47 

The receipts, within the year ending December 1, 
1848, from the State, for the support of lunatic pau- 
pers, and from cities, towns, and individuals, have 
amounted to forty-three thousand fifty-two dollars, 
twenty-six cents, . 43,052 26 

Amount received for articles sold and accounted for by 

the Steward and Superintendent, .... 1,354 06 

150,624 79 



The Treasurer is credited as follows r — 

For payments on account of salaries, wages, and labor. 

Improvements and repairs, . 

Furniture, ..... 

Clothing, ..... 

Fuel— Wood, 891 cords, . . . $3,226 95 

" Charcoal, 1,827 bushels, . . 196 80 

" Hard coal, 136 tons, . . 992 85 



Oil, 577 gallons, .... 
Medical supplies and instruments, 
Sexton's bills, .... 
Leather, &c., for shoe shop. 
Blank books, printing, and postage, 



110,888 61 

1,690 27 

1,609 81 

783 91 



4,416 60 
304 89 
421 30 
228 00 
472 97 
148 36 



8 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Pedestal, for bust of Dr. Woodward, . 

Freight, and payments to Norwich and Worcester Rail 

road Company, for transportation of wood, 
Advanced to patients, and expenses charged to their 

accounts, ..... 

One pair horses, four oxen, and three cows. 
Rent of pasture and taxes, . 
Hymn books for the chapel, instruction in music, and 

books, ........ 

Rent of room, &c., for chaplain. 

Steward's expenses for travel, and for pursuing elopers, 

Expenses of trustees, ...... 

Expense of aqueduct, hydrant, and appendages, . 
To Stephen Salisbury, on account of land purchased, 
Salt, $26 34 ; starch, $28 89, 
Soap and potashes, $52 48 ; lime 
Straw, 21 tons, . 

And for provisions, groceries, &c, 
Pork, 6,865 pounds, 
Beef, 61,045 " 
Butter, 22,292 " 
Cheese, 5,591 " 
Flour, 443 barrels, 
Meal, 186 bushels, rye, .... $179 08 

" 768 " corn, . . . . 621 65 

" Graham and wheat, . . . . 57 15 



Biscuit, .... 
Apples, $446 75; dried do., 

$51 05, . 
Sugar, 22,318 pounds. 
Molasses, 1,363 gallons, 
Tea, 1,077 pounds, . 
Coffee, 3,525 " . . 

Rice, .... 

Potatoes, 1,098 bushels. 
Squashes, 2,000 pounds. 
Beans and peas, . 
Fruits, fresh and dried, 
Vinegar, 528 gallons, . 



96 ; apple sauce, 



$ 55 00 

981 20 

160 02 
667 00 

248 24 

129 00 

76 00 

46 27 

114 80 

706 08 

500 00 

55 23 

95 48 

142 34 

452 42 
3,976 06 
3,781 35 

415 00 
3,024 08 



857 88 
155 64 

548 76 
1,330 37 
373 17 
302 77 
236 51 
104 19 
732 43 

50 00 
87 36 

115 11 

51 90 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Fish, salt, $360 31 , fresh, $243 17, . 
Hams, 2,344 pounds, . . 
Poultry, 972 " $107 79; pigeons, $6 46, 
Small groceries, ...... 

Miscellaneous items, ..... 



Balance carried to new account. 



$603 48 
222 89 
114 25 
275 31 

107 74 

$42,860 05 
7,764 24 

$50,624 79 



The Treasurer also reports, that the balance of the Jo- 
honnot Fund, received from the former Treasurer, 
was ...... $3,711 53 

In addition to which, he has received a 
dividend on settlement with Ipswich 
Bank 28 00 

And from the State, in part of an addi- 
tional appropriation for the erection 
of the new strong rooms of the Hos- 
pital, the sum of ... . 1,500 00 

The amount of expenditure, on this account, to the 
first of December, was, ...... 

Balance, . . ...... 



^5,239 53 

4,673 77 

$565 76 



Worcester, ) 
December 14, 1848. / 



SAMUEL JENNISON, 
Treasurer State Lunatic Hospital. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 11 



SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



SUPERINTENDENT TO THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Gentlemen : — Another year of Hospital duties and trials has past. 
Its results, and the condition of the Institution, are herewith imperfectly 
presented. The results are favorable to the cause of humanity ; and 
the condition of the Hospital, during the year and at its close, is pros- 
perous. For this state of things, so agreeable to our own feelings, 
we acknowledge the guiding hand of Providence, and the hearty co- 
operation of all our associates, in the management of this great 
charity. 

The Hospital has, at all times, been full to overflowing. There 
have been more inmates than ever, and the apartments more crowded, 
although there have been added, during the year, fifteen rooms. There 
has been no severe accident to either patients or those who have the 
care of them, to interrupt the order and harmony of our daily duties. 

The following tables are presented to meet the requirements of the 
statutes, and to continue a former custom, which embodies the most 
material facts in figures. 



12 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



31 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the Admissions from each County, the last and previous years. 



i 


Males, 
Females, . 


5 

3 


1848. 


Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable, 


8 


69 


77 


Berkshire, 


Males, 
Females, . 


8 

3 


11 


83 


94 


Bristol, . 


Males, 
Females, . 


7 

9 


16 


173 


189 


Dukes, 


Males, 
Females, . 


3 
1 


4 


8 


12 


Essex, 


Males, 
Females, . 


11 

17 


28 


368 


396 


Franklin, . 


Males, 
Females, . 


4 
1 


5 


82 


87 


Hampden, 


Males, 
Females, . 


10 

12 


22 


127 


149 


Hampshire, 


Males, 
Females, . 


2 

1 


3 


144 


147 


Middlesex, 


Males, 
Females, . 


19 
19 


38 


316 


354 


Nantucket, 


Males, 
Females, . 




1 


1 


24 


25 


Norfolk, 


Males, 
Females, . 


23 

19 


42 


312 


354 


Plymouth, 


Males, 
Females, . 


5 

5 


10 


132 


142 


Suifolk, . 


Males, 
Females, . 


9 
12 


21 


282 


303 


Worcester, 


Males, 
Females, . 


24 

28 


52 


693 


745 


Other States, . 


Males, 
Females, . 










10 


10 


Total, 


261 


2823 


3084 



32 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the Admissions, and the state of the Hospital, from December 
\st, 1847 to November 20th, 1848. 



Patients in the Hospital at the 
commencement of the year, .394 
Males, . 207 
Females, . 187-394 

Patients admitted in the course 
of the year, .... 261 
Males, . 128 
Females, . 133—261 

Whole number of Patients in the 
Hospital in the course of the 

year, 655 

Males, . 335 
Females, . 320—655 

Patients remaining in the Hos- 
pital at the end of the year, . 409 
Males, . 217 
Females, . 192—409 



Of the admissions, there were 
cases of less duration than one 



year, 

Males, 
Females, 



. 149 



69 
80—149 



Of longer duration than one 

year, 105 

Males, . 55 
Females, . 50—105 



Cases, the duration of whose in- 
sanity before admission, not 
ascertained, .... 7 

Males, . 4 

Females, . 3 — 7 

261 



Patients committed by Courts, 
Males, . 91 
Females, . 75—166 

Committed by Overseers, . 
Males, . 10 
Females, . 12—22 

Private Boarders, 

Males, . 37 
Females, . 46 — 73 



166 



22 



73 



261 



Foreigners admitted during the 

year, 

Males, . 38 
Females, . 27—65 

Foreigners discharged during 
the year, .... 
Males, . 17 
Females, . 19—36 



65 



36 



Foreigners remaining in the 
Hospital at the end of the 
year, . . . . . 150 
Males, . 76 
Females, . 74—150 



i^ This year commenced vs'ith three hundred and ninety-four patients 
in the Hospital. The smallest number, at any tiine, was three hun- 
dred and eighty-eight, and the largest number was four hundred and 
twenty-eight. The average number for the year has been four hun- 
dred and four. Last year, we thought the institution was crowded to 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



33 



its fullest capacity; but, some part of this year, we have been more 
pressed with patients, for accommodations, than ever. 

There have been two hundred and sixty-one admissions, which 
make, with those here at the beginning of the year, six hundred and 
fifty-five who participated in the benefits afforded by the Hospital. 

The number of foreigners sent in this year is greater than ever 
before. But a very small per cent, of these cases are supported other- 
wise than by the munificence of the Commonwealth. They are 
mostly sent in by the legal tribunals ; and, unless they recover and are 
able, on leaving the Hospital, to provide for themselves, they remain 
in our wards. Before becoming insane, they are comparatively desti- 
tute and homeless ; and afterwards, when what little reason and fore- 
thought they may have had, is deranged, they are peculiarly the objfects 
of sympathy and commiseration for the benevolent. In this Hospital, 
no distinction to their prejudice is made between them and those who 
were more favored in their place of nativity. 

This year ends with about one hundred and fifty, supported out of 
the Treasury of the State. It will be seen, by the following table, 
made up from previous reports, that this class of patients have, of late, 
been rapidly accumulating : — 

Whole number of foreigners in the Hospital during 



1837, 


23 


1838, 


45 


1839, 


29 


1840, ^ . 


30 


1841, 


47 


le number remaining at the end of 




1842, 


34 


1843, 


38 


1844, 


38 


1845, 


57 


1846, . 


52 


1847, 


121 


1848, 


150 



Those who left the Hospital had generally recovered. 
5 



34 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Discharged and Deaths, and the Condition of 
those who left the Hospital, from December 1st, 1847 to November 
30^A, 1848. 





a. 

ca 
d 

"o 
si 


"3 
o 


Recov- 
ered. 


Improv- 
ed. 


Incurable 

and 
Harmless 


Incurable 
and Dan- 
gerous. 


Deaths 




Patients. 

Discharged, 
Males, . . . • 


m 

ji 
a 
W 




1 


o 


H 

a 


"3 
o 


>< 
a 


o 

Eh 


w 

s: 
a 


o 


.J 

O 


120 


246 


67 


136 


12 


32 


25 


46 


1 


2 


15 


30 


120 


Females, 


126 


• 


69 


• 


20 


• 


21 


• 


1 


• 


15 


• 


126 


Recent Cases. 


























246 


Discharged, 
Males, . . . . 


66 


133 


57 


114 


3 


7 


2 


4 


'o 





4 


8 


66 


Females, 


67 


• 


57 


• 


4 


• 


2 


• 





• 


4 


• 


67 


Chronic Cases. 




























Discharged, 




111 


. 


21 


, 


25 


. 


42 


. 


2 


. 


21 




Males, . . . . 


54 


, 


10 


. 


9 


. 


23 


, 


1 


, 


11 




54 


Females, 


57 


• 


11 


• 


16 


• 


19 


• 


1 


• 


10 


• 


57 


Patients discharged, the du- 
ration of whose disease 




























not ascertained, 


. 


2 


, 


1 


, 





. 





, 







1 




Males, . . . . 















. 





. 





. 


b 


, 





Females, 


2 


• 


1 


• 





• 





• 





• 


1 


• 


2 


Total, . 


246 




136 




32 




46 




2 




30 


246 



The number of discharges the past year must of necessity have cor- 
responded very nearly vrith the admissions, as the Hospital vras full at 
the commencement. One hundred and thirty-six have recovered, and 
have returned to their accustomed avocations and stations in society ; 
only one year has shown a larger number of cures. The cures are 
as perfect as they are from any disease. Some few relapse from re- 
turning too soon to the former scenes and associations of their excite- 
ment. 

It is often difficult to ascertain how long the disease has been under- 
mining the system and interrupting the healthy functions of the brain. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



35 



Several have been committed to our care whose name even we could 
not learn. They appeared in the Commonwealth suddenly, as though 
they had grown up in a night ; and, when they had fallen into the 
hands of some benevolent Samaritan, they were sent to us. Some of 
these individuals have recovered and told us their history, and some 
still remain with us. How many of these pitiable objects were thrown 
upon this State by other communities, for their support, is not known. 
Thirty-two have been discharged, partially restored. Some of them 
were taken away by their friends after the violence of their malady 
had passed off, because of their pecuniary inability to support them 
here, and others we have requested to have taken away because of our 
great numbers. Most cases of insanity are better off, and their suffer- 
ings ameliorated by a residence in the Hospital. The incurable are 
made as physically comfortable as their mental condition will allow, 
while with us ; and it is painful to see them removed from our com- 
fortable wards to almshouses, especially where there is much intelli- 
gence or self-respect left. Not that all of our household are made 
happy here. If it were so, some of those in the community called 
sane, would here seek relief from their troubles, real or imaginary. A 
good share of our family are comparatively happy. This fact the 
numerous visiters, who have daily passed through our wards, have 
witnessed. But there are others whose sorrows weigh heavily upon 
them. Some give utterance to their grief, and others let their own 
hearts alone know their bitterness. 



TABLE 4. 

Showing the number of Admissions and Discharges, and the average 
number in the Hospital, each month in the year. 





Monthly Aver- 


Admissions. 


Discharges. 




age. 






December, 1847, .... 


398 


28 


25 


January, 1848, 










401 


22 


14 


February, " 










402 


18 


23 


March, " 










400 


16 


14 


April, « 










395 


22 


27 


May, " 










392 


14 


22 


June, " 










395 


26 


21 


July, « 










402 


25 


12 


August, " 










415 


33 


13 


September, " 










422 


24 


33 


October, " 










413 


16 


22 


November, " 










410 


17 


19 


Average for the year, 








404 


• 


• 



36 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



The number of rooms designed for dormitories for patients, is three 
hundred and sixty, but our average number of patients has been forty- 
four more than that. Perhaps some of the inmates should have been 
sent away, that the accommodations for those w^ho remained, might 
have been more ample. But it is difficult to discriminate, where all 
have nearly equal claims to remain. It is contemplated by the statutes 
that foreigners should be sent off first to make room for those who 
remain, whenever the Hospital becomes too much crowded. But they 
are generally the most destitute class of all our patients, and their 
relatives are unable to afford them assistance, so that, if this class 
were sent away, it would be to consign them to the jails of the several 
counties. 

In this crowded state of the Hospital, it is no small part of our 
difficulties in its management, to know how to dispose of the surplus. 
When every dormitory is occupied, and as many of them have two 
beds in them, as we can find safe and suitable room-mates for the 
night, and beds in every hall on the floor, for the night, for quiet 
patients, then it is we dread to see new and violent cases brought to 
us. To say who of our most quiet boarders shall give up a compara- 
tively comfortable room and bed for one less so, on the floor, is not at 
all pleasant to our feelings. 

TABLE 5. 

Showing the whole number of Residents during the year, the average 
number at the end of each year, and the Expenses of each year, for 
the sixteen years the Hospital has been in operation. 





The whole num- 


The average No. 


No. at the end of 


Current Expenses 


Annual Ex- 


The Year. 


ber of Residents 
during the year. 


each year. 


each year. 


each year. 


pense per 
Patient. 


1833 


153 


107 


114 


#12,272 91 


$114 67 


1834 


233 


117 


1J8 


15,840 27 


135 38 


1835 


241 


120 


119 


16,576 44 


137 30 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


168 44 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


159 64 


1838 


362 


211 


218 


28,739 40 


136 20 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


132 16 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


121 59 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


123 81 


1842 


430 


238 


238 


27,546 87 


111 12 


1843 


458 


244 


255 


27,914 12 


114 40 


1844 


491 


261 


263 


29,278 75 


112 17 


1845 


556 


316 


360 


43,888 65 


138 88 


1846 


637 


359 


367 


39,870 37 


111 06 


1847 


607 


377 


394 


39,444 47 


104 62 


1848 


655 


404 


409 


42,860 05 


106 09 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 37 

It is seen, by this table, that the patients in the Hospital have been 
increasing every year. But it would now seem that its utmost capacity 
had been reached. Still, the great majority of the insane, in this 
State, are not in this nor any other proper Institution. Convenient 
and well-ordered accommodations for the insane are yet needed in this 
Commonwealth, and would be occupied immediately by proper sub- 
jects, if the expenses could be placed within the means of those who 
support them. Poverty follows very closely in the train of insanity. 
It is with only a few favored individuals that they can be long sepa- 
rated. Not more than five per cent, of those, in this Institution, have 
been well able to meet the expense of their maintenance here. The 
families of some others, making a larger per cent., struggle on against 
their hard fortune, and, by denying themselves many of the comforts 
of life, pay their bills here as they become due. This is the class of 
patients that most needs to have their burdens made lighter by the 
generous hand of the Commonwealth. 

It is true economy with us to expend all that may be necessary for 
the most speedy cure of all the curable patients; and it is just and 
humane to spare no expense of time or money to relieve, as far as 
possible, the mental condition of those who cannot be entirely re- 
stored, and to render the condition of the incurable as happy and as 
comfortable as the nature of their several maladies will allow. 

Such of the insane as become so by causes beyond their control, 
have a just claim upon the community for a comfortable and respecta- 
ble support. And it is indeed true, that all are liable to become 
insane. Every year, some of our best minds become deranged, and a 
retreat from the cares and troubles of life is sought for them in the 
Hospitals of the country, which shield them from many sources of 
affliction, and afford them increased chances of recovery. The teas- 
ing and over-anxious interference of relatives is avoided in Hospitals. 
There, too, he is not the object of particular observation to the curi- 
ous. Freedom of action and motion is much less restricted than is 
often thought necessary in one's ovin home. Full liberty to move 
about is given in our wards, unless others are disturbed thereby. 
When restriction of one's liberty becomes necessary, our wards an- 
swer that purpose much better than personal restraint. About one 
half of the insane in the community would be, from the character of 
their maladies, made more comfortable and happy in Hospitals than 
out of them, and the community relieved of the fear and anxiety that 
is naturally produced by their presence. 



38 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The harmless insane need not be restrained of his liberty, but the 
dangerous surely ought. The Hospitals of this country possess many 
advantages over the common physician, for the treatment and manage- 
ment of most cases of insanity. The patient is more constantly within 
the observation of the physician. The nurses are more competent to 
their peculiar duties. The causes which brought on the disease can 
be more readily removed, and new associations brought to bear upon 
the patient's mind. 

The rooms built the past year for the noisy and violent females 
have of late been fully occupied, and they have answered our anticipa- 
tions in regard to them. They are a part of the main building, an 
extension east of the north Johonnot wing. Their peculiar internal 
arrangements do not mar the architectural harmony of the outside of 
the Hospital. The five rooms in each of the three stories are placed 
within the outside walls, leaving an area in front of seven feet, and, in 
the rear, of three feet. These rooms are eleven feet by six in the 
clear. The pannels of the doors are a net-work of wire, and there is 
a large window in the rear of each room, with gratings. This arrange- 
ment allows the free circulation of air between the spaces in front and 
rear, and the rooms themselves. When it is necessary to have artifi- 
cial heat, a current of warm air is brought up in the walls from a 
coal furnace in the basement, to each story, to give the proper tem- 
perature to the air in the rooms and spaces round them. From each 
story, there are fifteen ventilating openings, carried up to the attic in 
the brick walls. Five of these start from the top, and ten from the 
bottom of the rooms, or near the floor. One of the last starts from 
just over the soil-pans in each room. The escape of foul air from the 
attic is by a large fan-light at the eastern extremity, and by a sky-light 
on the south side of the roof, and by a large opening, a foot square, in 
the brick chimney, carried out to the top of the chimney, separate from, 
but heated by, the smoke of the furnace. Thus a forced current of 
foul air will, in some degree, take place through this ventilator. 

The only real objection to the location of these rooms is, that the 
view of the end windows of the galleries adjoining is obstructed. 
These windows now open into a veranda, ten by thirty -six feet, which 
admits some light to that end of the galleries, but a view of the sur- 
roundmg country from these windows is cut oflT. These Johonnot 
wings, however, are in the form of a cross, and the windows of two of 
the ends are unobstructed, while the other two open into covered 
verandas. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 39 

The objection to the location, that the noise of patients in these 
apartments would disturb the galleries adjoining, is not at all serious, 
because the noise is not often heard through the two brick walls and a 
veranda. 

The advantages of this attachment of these rooms to the main 
building greatly overbalance the evils. The access is easier for the 
patient and nurses. The patient can be, and often is, taken into gal- 
leries, where a better class of patients are, and placed back into these 
rooms several times in a day, as the state of their excitement may 
require. 

The location of these rooms is very similar to that of rooms, for the 
same purpose, at the new Butler Hospital, at Providence, R. I., and at 
the new Hospital at Trenton, N. J., and at Columbus, Ohio, of which 
the learned and judicious Superintendent of the Lunatic Asylum at 
Utica, N. Y., says, in his correspondence to the Journal of Insanity : — 
" The arrangements for noisy and violent patients, and verandas, we 
were particularly pleased with, being better than we have ever seen." 
The easy access and supervision of these rooms give them decided 
advantages over isolated solitaries. 

The strong rooms for males have not been erected, as was contem- 
plated by the Resolve of 1847. It was thought best to build for 
females, and prove them, before those for males were commenced. 
These rooms are now finished, and answer our expectations. They 
cost ^4,673 77, which is $311 56 for each room. If more rooms 
were to be erected for females, I would propose a similar plan. The 
subject has been delayed, because the Resolve of the Legislature of 
last winter contemplated increasing greatly the accommodations for 
the insane in the State, provided such were needed. The number of 
the insane and their wants, had been suspected by us to be what the 
commission found true in regard to them, during their investigations 
the past season. If a new Hospital is to be erected, as it is presumed 
the commission will recommend, then I would advise that the erection 
of the strong rooms here for males be still further delayed. But still, we 
have felt the want of such rooms very much for some years, and should 
have them unless relief is afforded by v/ithdrawing from this Hospital 
some of the violent male patients. 

When the commissioners, under the Resolve of 1848, for inquiring 
if any further accommodations for the insane were necessary, in this 
Commonwealth, visited this Hospital, I stated to them that I thought 
such accommodations were necessary ; that it would not be convenient, 



40 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

nor would it be judicious, to enlarge this Hospital much, if any, fur- 
ther. I also stated that, in my opinion, it would be desirable to sepa- 
rate the sexes, if there were to be two public institutions in the State. 
Some of the Hospitals in Europe are for one sex only. There are 
some advantages which suggest themselves, in having the insane in an 
institution, all of one sex, and few or no disadvantages. I suggested 
that three small Hospitals, in different sections of the State, would 
have some advantages over a large one. People near an institution 
avail themselves more of its advantages than those at a distance. 
Small institutions can be more thoroughly managed and controlled, by 
its responsible officer, if not more economically conducted. But, if 
only one Hospital was to be erected, I advised that it should be for 
males, and be where it would be accessible by railroad travelling, and 
where land enough could be obtained. If it was for males, a mile 
square would not be too much land for farming purposes ; and then, if 
the buildings were placed near the centre, the institution would not 
be encroached upon. 

Such a Hospital could be more economically managed in the west- 
ern section of the State, but it would be more accessible to a majority 
of patients nearer the capitol. 

Males can be supported in a Hospital somewhat cheaper than 
females can. Their labor is more profitable, and they are satisfied 
with less attention of nurses. In this Hospital, about fourteen dollars 
per annum is expended for attendants' care of each male patient, and 
about twenty-one dollars for each female. Females, too, require a 
larger carriage establishment. Probably the expense of provision and 
clothing is somewhat larger for males than females. These consid- 
erations would operate to the disadvantage of this Hospital, if it 
was devoted to females exclusively. But it would be an expense that 
would fall upon those where it more justly belongs than it now does. 

This Hospital, if one sex were taken away, would probably fill up 
again in a few years with the other sex. If the males should leave it, 
the apartments they now occupy should undergo a thorough repair. 
The floors, plastering, and much of the furnishing, should be renewed. 
It is almost impossible to do much towards repairing our wards when 
they are occupied every day and crowded as they now are. But still 
we have, within two years, repaired and painted the floors and stand- 
ing work of four of the female galleries. Public buildings should, at 
all times, be kept in good condition. Some parts of this Hospital 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 41 

have been in constant hard use for sixteen years, and the effects of 
such usage is plainly visible. 

The expenses of the year do not much exceed that of previous years. 
It has been our intention to be prudent in the financial management 
of the institution ; but in no thing to diminish the comfort of a single 
patient. 

Within the last year, an aqueduct, for the extinguishment of fire, 
has been laid. It is an extension of the city aqueduct. The pipe is 
of iron four inches in diameter. It is six hundred and fifty-nine feet 
long. The hydrant is in the rear of the chapel, and is one hundred 
and fifty feet below the fountain-head. It cost $644.58, and two 
hundred feet of hemp hose, with pipe, cost $75.50, making $720 08. 
On our first experiment, it threw a column of water on to the roof 
and over the Hospital. It will be very effective in case it should ever 
be needed. 



42 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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ber discha 
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not improi 






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mitted, 

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number ii 










S S -a Ts 13 
3 3 aj cu a> 






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Whole n 
Discharg 
Discharg 
Discharg 
Died, . 
Eloped, 


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of the 
Number] 
Males ad 
Females 
Males dii 
Females 
Males dii 
Females 
Sent in b 
Private b 
Males rei 
Females 
Average 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



43 



TABLE 7. 
Statistics of the different Seasons. 





1S33 


1834 


IR35 


1S3fi, 


1S37. 


1S3S. 


1R39. 


IR40, 


1S41. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1845. 


1847. 


1848. 


Admissions : 






































In Winter, 


27 


26 


24 


23 


26 


46 


39 


32 


31 


50 


51 


51 


61 


62 


45 


68 


In Spring-, 


72 


35 


31 


36 


49 


46 


38 


42 


37 


48 


58 


60 


80 


70 


56 


52 


In Summer, 


23 


30 


30 


42 


40 


47 


59 


44 


51 


40 


56 


71 


68 


74 


61 


84 


In Autumn, 


31 


28 


28 


24 


53 


38 


43 


44 


44 


60 


55 


54 


84 


71 


78 


57 


Discharges : 


































In Winter, 





23 


21 


20 


14 


18 


31 


29 


35 


37 


44 


48 


40 


47 


43 


62 


In Spring, 


1 


33 


30 


33 


36 


37 


38 


38 


33 


46 


49 


60 


34 


73 


48 


65 


In Summer, 


11 


28 


31 


24 


29 


44 


48 


41 


37 


46 


46 


65 


46 


83 


54 


46 


In Autumn, 


23 


24 


22 


21 


33 


29 


29 


32 


50 


50 


42 


55 


52 


67 


68 


73 


Recoveries : 


































In Winter, 





13 


13 


12 


10 


15 


13 


18 


20 


24 


24 


31 


25 


28 


15 


35 


In Spring, 





20 


11 


15 


17 


23 


24 


22 


10 


22 


34 


33 


29 


47 


25 


39 


In Summer, 


9 


16 


16 


12 


15 


18 


23 


20 


22 


25 


29 


23 


28 


39 


27 


19 


n Autumn, 


16 


15 


15 


19 


27 


20 


20 


22 


30 


19 


29 


37 


40 


40 


36 


43 


Deaths : 
In Winter, 





3 


1 





1 


3 


5 


6 


1 


4 


5 


2 


4 


10 


6 


9 


In Spring, 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


5 


6 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


12 


5 


5 


In Summer, 


s 


3 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 


5 


3 


6 


f) 


/ 


8 


8 


8 


In Autumn, 








3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 


4 


4 


8 


4 


11 


8 


11 


8 



TABLE 8. 





Ages of Patients ir 


the Hospital, 


Duration of Insanity with those reinainin?, 




December 1st, 1848. 




December 1st, 1848. 




Under 20 years 


old, 




7 


Less than 1 year, . 


38 


Froff 


1 20 to 25 


years 


old, 


. 34 


From 1 to 2 years, 


49 




25 to 30 




<( 


46 


" 2to 5 " 


115 




30 to 35 




u 


67 


« 5 to 10 « 


81 




35 to 40 




u 


48 


« 10 to 15 « 


43 




40 to 45 




(( 


49 


« 15 to 20 " 


25 




45 to 50 




(( 


50 


" 20 to 25 " 


17 




50 to 55 




u 


31 


« 25 to 30 " 


3 




55 to 60 




(( 


21 


Over 30 « 


14 




60 to 65 




<( 


29 


Unknown, 


24 




65 to 70 




(C 


8 








70 to 75 




(( 


12 




409 




75 to 80 




(( 


6 






Over 80, 


• 


• 


1 














409 







44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



But a small per cent, of those remaining are recent cases, only 
about one in ten. Few of the chronic cases recover. The curability 
of insanity diminishes with its duration. Recent cases, after exclud- 
ing those arising from palsy and epilepsy, which almost never recover, 
are as likely to get well as fever or rheumatism. When removed from 
the exciting causes, diseases of the brain and nervous system yield 
readily to curative treatment under judicious management. The indi- 
cations are, to restore the organs of the body to their healthy standard, 
and divert the mind from its morbid trains of thought. 

To fulfil these indications, we have the assistance of medicine,' 
baths, cold and hot, equable temperature of our wards, a prescribed 
diet, and the means of classification of our inmates into such society 
as corresponds with their malady and present state. Labor and 
amusements, reading, riding and walking about the fields and the city, 
tend to interest the attention and change the current of the thoughts, 
and keep the mind from dwelling upon its own insane fancies. 

Our means are ample, and our success depends upon our judicious 
application of them. 

TABLE 9. 
Showing the causes of Insanity, and the circumstances connected with 

causes and predisposition to Insanity, the last and previous years. 





1848. 


Previously. 


Ill Health, 


47 


390 


Intemperance, 












J2 


322 


Domestic Affliction, 












22 


266 


Religion, . 












2 


233 


Masturbation, 












5 


161 


Property, . 












6 


152 


Disappointed Affection, 










2 


77 


Disappointed Ambition, 










2 


34 


Epilepsy, . 










7 


67 


Puerperal, . 












9 


80 


Wounds on the Head, 












5 


31 


Hard Labor, 












7 


13 


Jealousy, . 















13 


Fright, 












3 


17 


Palsy, 












3 


26 


Periodical Cases, 












50 


579 


Hereditary, 












74 


691 


Homicidal, 












22 


35 


Have committed Homicide, 










1 


19 


Suicidal, 










32 


310 


Have committed Suicide, 













16 


Cases arising from Physical Causes, 






105 


1103 


Cases arising from Moral Causes, . 






47 


808 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



45 



The causes of insanity are usually divided into moral and physical. 
But they are usually complicated. Both a physical and a moral cause 
are combined to produce the result. In most cases, the general health 
had been suffering, and the system had become susceptible to slight 
impressions, and then some moral cause, as some severe domestic 
calamity, would easily disturb and derange the reasoning powers. 
Such, or similar, are the accounts given us by their friends in almost 
every case. Intemperance has directly produced a large per cent, of 
the cases of insanity. The continued use of alcoholic drinks pro- 
duces functional and soon organic disease of the brain itself, which is 
almost certainly incurable. The symptoms of this form of insanity 
are somewhat peculiar, — a confused mind, a horrid apprehension of 
pending evil, timidity and rashness, and often a homicidal propensity. 
The term horrors, is peculiarly descriptive of these poor sufferers' 
state of feeling. The indirect causes of insanity, produced by intem- 
perance, are numerous. Much of the domestic affliction that over- 
whelms so many families is attributable to this cause. While the head 
of a family is sinking himself by the indulgence of his besotted appe- 
tite to a level with the lowest of his race, hard work, poverty, dis- 
grace, and disappointed ambition become the companions of the wife 
and children. It would be strange if their reason should not occasion- 
ally be crushed under such a great calamity. 

Diseases of the nervous system, such as palsy and epilepsy, are 
apparently becoming more frequent causes of insanity. 



TABLE 10. 

Occupation. 





1S48. 


Pre- 
viously. 




1848. 


Pre- 
viously. 


Farmers, 


14 


3-21 


Painters, 


2 


22 


Laborers, 


27 


233 


Tailors, 


1 


17 


Merchants, . 


5 


114 


Clergymen, 





16 


Shoemakers, 


5 


98 


Lawyers, 





6 


Seamen, 


7 


95 


Physicians, 


1 


6 


Carpenters, . 


9 


70 


Females accustomed to 






Manufacturers, 


11 


38 


active employments, . 


86 


544 


Teachers, 


6 


40 


Females accustomed to 






Students, 


3 


39 


sedentary employments, 


4 


260 


Blacksmiths, 


2 


26 









Many of our patients are not classed in the above table, 
particularly females, have not any regular employment. 



They, 



46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE IL 

Diseases that have proved Fatal. 





1848. 


Pre- 
viously. 




1848. 


Pre- 
viously. 


Marasmus, . 


7 


45 


Erysipelas, . 


1 


5 


Apoplexy and Palsy, 


5 


27 


Diarrhoea, . 


3 


10 


Epilepsy, 


2 


24 


Disease of the Brain from 






Consumption, 


3 


24 


intemperance, . 





2 


Disease of the Heart, 


1 


16 


Bronchitis, . 





2 


Suicide, 





16 


Old Age, . 





1 


Disease of the Brain, 


1 


13 


Gastric Fever, 





3 


Typhus Fever, 


1 


6 


Land Scurvy, 





1 


Hemorrhage, 





5 


Congestive Fever, 





2 


Lung Fever, 


1 


9 


('oncussion of the Brain, 





1 


Cholera Morbus, . 





4 


Disease of the Bladder, 





1 


Inflammation of the Bow- 






Fright, 





1 


els, . , . . 





4 


Rupture, 





1 


Dysenteric Fever, . 


1 


5 


Exhaustion, 


3 


3 


Mortification of the Limbs, 





3 


Convulsions, 





2 


Dropsy, 





4 




— 





Chronic Dysentery, 


1 


3 




30 


243 



The Hospital has been remarkably exempt from all acute diseases 
the past year, except for about six weeks, during the heat of summer, 
when bowel complaints were rife and troublesome. Three cases 
proved fatal, where the patients had become exhausted by the excite- 
ment of insanity and other diseases. One kind and faithful nurse, 
who had endeared herself to the unfortunate insane by eleven years, 
devoted to their welfare, in this Hospital, was cut down, in the midst 
of her duties and her usefulness, the past season. She was the second 
one of this large family of assistants that has died since the Institution 
has been in operation. While disease and death have been so often 
among those committed to our charge, we feel as though we had 
hitherto been providentially spared. 

Death has generally taken its victims from the ranks of those who 
had become much diseased in body, and who were dragging out a 
miserable existence. Cases of palsy are almost sure to terminate 
fatally within three years. There are several cases of palsy now in 
the Hospital. It is a disease almost peculiar to the male sex. It is 
very seldom that general paralysis is met with among females. The 
active man of business, who has contracted habits of intemperance, is 
very liable to become paralytic. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 47 

Closely allied to palsy is a disease of the nervous system, resulting 
in convulsions of an epileptic character. The insane, who have epi- 
leptic fits or convulsions, seldom or never recover. They continue 
along many years, perhaps, but almost always becoming gradually 
more diseased and more demented. 

From these two classes of patients, much of our fatality proceeds. 

Consumption and disease of the functions of nutrition, or maras- 
mus, are very common in the last stages of fatal cases of insanity. 



48 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



S^i 






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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



49 







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50 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

It is shown by this table how long patients have been insane before 
being brought to the Hospital. In a large part of the cases, the 
disease has been running on more than a year. A few are brought to 
us after having lived more than thirty years in a state of mental de- 
rangement. It is not to be supposed that there is much hope of 
recovery in cases of so long standing. They may have become more 
unmanageable, and come to us for care and safe keeping. 

One boy, less than eight years old, was brought to us the past year.^ 
He was taken insane soon after having a fever before he was three 
years old. His mind has not expanded much. His case is a hopeless 
one. We thought his habits were improved by a few months' residence 
under our care. But he will be a troublesome person to manage, for 
those who may have the care of him. The middle period of life 
sends us the most patients. A few come to us after they have passed 
the age allotted to man. 

This table also leads us to suppose that the unmarried state is unfa- 
vorable to a healthy condition of the mental faculties. This is un- 
doubtedly a true view of the matter. The unsettled purpose of life 
with the unmarried, and their solitary, wandering habits, tend to dis- 
tract the mind and injure the physical health. Whereas the necessity 
the married person has, of concentrating his efforts to supply the 
wants of a family, and his attachment to home and place, all tend to 
induce habits of sobriety, and a healthy activity of body and mind. 

Man needs the sympathies of his fellow man, and he needs motives 
to call forth activity of mind and body sufficient for their own healthy 
growth and condition. Such sympathies and motives to action are 
best presented by the domestic relations. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



51. 



TABLE 13. 

Showing the causes of Insanity as affecting persons pursuing different 

occupations. 





6 




3 


O4 






■a 








OCCUPATIONS. 


a 

a. 

s 






C 


c 



c 


So 

S5 


0. 





< 




•*-» 


_ 


a 


OC 


V 


£ 




a 


s 







HH 


« 


s 


27 


27 


29 


4 


9 


3 


H 


Farmers, 


65 


18 


29 


211 


Laborers, 




88 


10 


15 


8 


10 


9 


1 


6 


2 


149 


Seamen, 




84 


.5 


7 


3 


7 


6 


1 





3 


66 


Merchants, . 




14 


5 


32 


5 


4 


20 


1 


3 





84 


Carpenters, . 




17 


7 


9 


2 


10 


6 


3 


2 





56 


Shoemakers, 




9 


7 


27 


5 


10 


6 


2 


1 





67 


Blacksmiths, 




4 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


3 








16 


Students, 







3 


22 


2 


2 








1 





30 


Clergymen, . 




1 


2 


4 





1 


1 


1 








10 


Lawyers, 




2 





2 


1 





1 











6 


Physicians, . 




2 














1 


1 








4 


Painters, 




1 





11 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





18 


Manufacturers, 




9 


3 


4 


1 


4 


4 


1 








26 



52 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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nt. of the admissions 
t cases in each year- 
Ill health. 
Religious, 
The affections. 
Property, 
Intemperance, 
Masturbation, 


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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 53 

Amusements of various kinds have been introduced into all the 
galleries, to keep active the minds and invigorate the physical sys- 
tems of -the patients. Some, who feel as though they cannot labor, 
may be induced to take exercise in this way. The in-door plays are 
chess, cards, backgammon, rolling of a soft ball over our long hall 
floors, which is much like nine-pins, graces, jumping the rope, &c. ; 
and out-door amusements consist in the game of quoits, base ball, 
walking in parties, with their attendants, and alone, when the indi- 
vidual has gained our confidence. The double carriage has been 
devoted entirely to the use of the females. And the male Supervisor 
has, every pleasant day, carried out some of the feeble male patients 
in the covered one-horse carriage. It is our intention to have every 
patient go out into the open air frequently, unless there is some spe- 
cial reason to forbid it. 

The Matron's sewing parties have been continued every two weeks. 
These gatherings are made pleasant by the social meeting together of 
about sixty patients, with their attendants. After sewing for about 
two hours, a treat is served around. Sometimes the pianoforte helps 
to enliven the assembly. The greatest degree of decorum is here 
observed, as any breach, in this respect, would render it ver^ doubtful 
whether the offending party would receive another invitation. These 
parties are anticipated with pleasure by most of the ladies who attend 
them. Some of the efforts of these parties go to supply articles for 
the show-box. We have quite a number of patients who work many 
curious, fancy, and useful articles, v.'hich are sold from this box. 
Strangers, visiting the Hospital, are often glad to procure some inge- 
nious article, made by some of our inmates, as a memorial of their 
visit. There has been realized, the past year, from the profits of sales 
made from this box, one hundred and two dollars and fifty cents. 

Some books have been purchased to replenish the library connected 
with it, and for the use of all the patients. And, as a token of their 
respect for their Supervisor, who has, for about ten years, been devoted 
to the best interests of the Institution, the patients and attendants of 
this society have, at an expense of sixty dollars, procured a portrait of 
her, by Mr. Osgood of Salem. It was designed that this likeness 
should be hung up in some suitable place in the Hospital. It is a 
good painting, and will be a useful ornament to the Hospital, if those 
who come after her shall be stimulated, by her example, to a more 
disinterested performance of their duties. 

The library contains several hundred volumes of miscellaneous 



54 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

books. It is frequently replenished with interesting works, which its 
constant and severe usage seems to require. Many of our inmates 
read with pleasure and profit. Periodicals are furnished by some of 
our friends. And we are glad to acknowledge the constant reception, 
from their proprietors, of the following : — The Daily Advertiser, Re- 
corder, Olive Branch, Youth's Companion, Christian Witness, Chris- 
tian Watchman, Zion's Herald, Prisoner's Friend and Harbinger, 
from Boston. The Springfield Republican, Fall River Monitor, Old 
Colony Memorial, Gospel Messenger, Worcester Cataract, Daily Spy, 
Monthly Religious Magazine, Christian Citizen, Lynn News, Salem 
Register, Congregational Visiter, Southern Journal of Medicine and 
Pharmacy, Neal's Saturday Evening Gazette, Sandwich Observer. A 
copy of the Report of the Commissioner of Patents from Hon. E. 
Burke himself, and public documents from Hon. Charles Hudson and 
Hon. D. P. King. 

From the printing offices in this city, we have received bundles of 
their exchange papers. Mr. Thompson, of the periodical depot, has 
sent our inmates valuable reading matter. And Mr. Gray has sent 
our people the Daily Traveller and the Daily Mercantile Journal. 
The Rei^. Mr. Norris still remembers us, and sends us frequently a 
large bundle of exchange papers. 

Besides the above, our assistants receive several newspapers, which 
go into the general use of the Institution, 

An evening school has, the past month, been in successful opera- 
tion. Some fifteen or twenty male patients have attended. It prom- 
ises to be of some use to those who take part in it. 

The religious exercises continue to be one of the most interesting 
and important means used in the management of this Hospital. The 
public teaching from the desk on the Sabbath, and the evening ser- 
vices, at half-past eight, have been conducted by the same chaplain, 
who has so acceptably performed the same service for more than eight 
years. The Bible class, in the afternoon of each Sabbath, for such 
as choose to attend, the reading of the Scriptures by all in their own 
rooms, and social singing parties for the cultivation of sacred music, 
have been kept up. 

Our congregation, on the Sabbath, consists of some two hundred 
patients, with their attendants, and some strangers from the city- 
The chapel and Johonnot Hall, thrown into one room, by opening the 
large folding doors between them, are usually filled with as quiet and 
attentive an audience as can be found in the Commonwealth, It is 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 55 

now quite rare that our meetings are disturbed by any one. The 
appearance of the meeting is, in all respects, like that of any orderly 
congregation in New England, in their own house of worship. 

The insane appreciate their religious advantages here. They can 
discriminate between what is wrong and what is right, unless it is 
upon the subject of their delusions. They as heartily repent of their 
transgressions, when made sensible of them, as any rational person. 
Many have a deep religious feeling, and a strict sense of justice. It is 
only when their delusions and ungovernable propensities intervene, 
that their thoughts and actions vary from that of others. Hence rea- 
son, example, and persuasion, exert over them their appropriate influ- 
ence, and enable them to walk with more propriety in the paths of 
rectitude and religion. The judicious application of the precepts of 
the Gospel consoles the melancholic in his despair, gives hope to the 
timid, and restrains the rash in his headlong career. There are but 
few that would not be benefited by listening to such preaching as the 
" Sermon on the Mount." 

Our inmates have performed as much labor the past year, on the 
farm, as usual. The garden has looked as well and has yielded as 
abundantly. The effects of labor on those who work are salutary, 
unless they over-work, which is not apt to be the case, except in cer- 
tain recent cases. Physical health is promoted, and mental quietude 
is increased, by out-door exercise, and some profitable labor is the 
most agreeable way of taking it. We try to furnish our inmates with 
as much exercise on the farm, and in the garden, as they can be 
induced to take. It has been, in a few cases, the great means of their 
recovery. This establishment has been liberally supplied, during the 
summer, with vegetables from the garden, and, besides these, that have 
been consumed at the time, the following list, with their prices, is 
presented, with the products of the farm : — 



110 bushels 


of corn at 90 cents, . 


$99 00 


75 


potatoes, ' 


50 " 


37 50 


25 


dry beans. 


" $1 25 " 


31 25 


11 


" peas. 


^' 1 00 " . . 


11 00 


107 


green peas. 


'' 1 00 " 


107 00 


95 


beets. 


34 " 


32 30 


345 


turnips, 


25 " . . 


86 25 


40 


parsnips, 


67 '« . 


26 80 


105 


onions. 


67 " 


70 35 



56 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



25 bushels of apples, at 50 cents, 
1500 cabbages, 4 cents a piece, 
36500 quarts of milk, at 3^ cents a quart, 
4736 pounds of beef, 
4273 " " pork. 



6i 
6i 



90 



poultry," 10 



There was raised for wintering the stock, 
50 tons of hay at $10, per ton, . 
1206 bushels of carrots, at 25 cents, 

corn fodder, 





. ^12 50 




60 00 




1186 25 




298 50 




267 06 




9 00 




$2,334 76 


$500 00 


301 50 


• 


15 00 



$816 50 



Twenty cows and two oxen were pastured on the farm, which con- 
sists of one hundred acres. As there was more hay than we sup- 
posed we should need for the winter's use, we sold in the field what 
amounted to fifty-five dollars and fifty cents. There are now, on the 
farm, four horses, nineteen cows, four oxen, thirty-nine swine, and 
fifty-seven fowls. 

The shoe shop, which has been under the care of its former over- 
seer, has supplied the Hospital with most of its shoes, and has done 
some work for customers from abroad. A few patients work there 
with the overseer who reports the condition of the shop for the year, 
as follows : — 



Cr. for work sold to customers, 
" for work for patients, 
" shoes on hand, November 30th, 1848, 
" stock. " " " 



^580 13 
555 27 
116 00 

82 00 



Dr. to stock and tools. 


. $606 15 


$1333 40 


" board and wages of overseer, 


. 350 42 




" binding shoes, .... 


28 80 




" fuel and lights, .... 


20 00 




" shoes and stock on hand, . 


135 00 


1,140 37 







Balance in favor of the shop, 



$193 03 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 57 

Which arises from work done for customers in the city. It is our 
intention to supply our patients with shoes, at such a price as will 
barely cover their cost. 
Our family consists of 

Patients, ........ 409 

Those employed, ' . 69 

Others, ........ 4 



482 



Dr. Thomas E. Hatch, who was appointed one of the assistant phy- 
sicians last February, will, I fear, be obliged to retire on account of 
his protracted ill health. We shall be sorry to lose the services of so 
skilful a physician, so acceptable an officer, and so gentlemanly a 
companion. 

In April last, this Hospital was deprived of the valuable services of 
Charles P. Hitchcock, Esq., and wife, and their duties of Steward and 
Matron have since been performed by others. They were valuable 
officers in this Institution. He was from the first, and has been much 
of the time since, identified with the arrangement and carrying out of 
the successful plans for its management. 

While entering upon the duties of another year, we cheerfully ex- 
press our thanks to all those who have faithfully aided in bringing 
about the happy results of that which is past ; and, commending the 
Hospital to the guardian care of those who watch over the interests of 
the Commonwealth, invoke the blessing of Heaven upon our future 
labors. 

Most respectfully submitted. 



GEO. CHANDLER. 



State Lunatic Hospital, 

Worcester, Dec. 1st, 1848. 



58 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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nches 








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0EFICEE8 OF THE HOSPITAL. 



TRUSTEES. 

Hon. THOMAS F. PLUNKETT, President, of Pittsfield. 
Hon. STEPHEN SALISBURY, of Worcester. 
Hon. S. C. PHILLIPS, of Salem. 
Hon. THOMAS PRENCH, of Canton. 
Hon. ISAAC DAVIS, Clerk, of Worcester. 

TREASURER. 

SAMUEL JENNISON, Esq., (Office at the Institution for 
Savings, Worcester.) 

CHAPLAIN. 

Rev. GEORGE ALLEN, (Room, No. 75 Summer Street.) 

RESIDENT OFFICERS. 

GEORGE CHANDLER, M. D., Superintendent. 

JOHN R. LEE, M. D., Assistant Physician. 

MERRICK BEMIS, M. D., Assistant Physician. 

THOMAS HILL, Steward. 

Miss ELIZABETH A. REID, Matron. 

JOHN T. MIRICK, Supervisor. 

Mrs. PHEBE S. MIRICK, Supervisor. 

EDWARD A. SMITH, Clerh. 



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