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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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4l 

SEVENTEENTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



AT WORCESTER. 



DECEMBER, 1849. 



Boston: 

DUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS, 

No. 37, Congress Street. 

1850. 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

DECEMBER, 1849. 



To His Excellency George N. Briggs, Governor, and the Honorable 
Council of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts : 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester respect- 
fully present their Seventeenth Annual Report. 

In the past year, 682 persons have been patients in this Hospital. 
On the first day of August last, 440 patients occupied such accom- 
modations as could be contrived for them, in the halls and apartments, 
which would be well filled by 375. The average number for the year 
has been 420, — larger by 45 than a proper complement. And the 
care of these 45 supernumeraries has put in exercise all the ingenuity 
of the Superintendent, greatly increased his labors, and impeded his 
success. 

The law opens widely the doors of the Hospital to all persons who 
may be sent by the Courts, or by the Overseers of the Poor, as being 
" furiously mad and dangerous to be at large." Under this provision, 
unfortunate beings, fatally diseased, whose mental disorder was the 
least evil of their miserable lot, have been, in many instances, con- 
signed to this place, to enjoy that comfort which the same laborious 
nursing elsewhere might perhaps have increased ; and, as humanity 
forbad their removal, they have been retained here to injure the insti- 
tution by drawing off" attention from hopeful and more appropriate 
objects, until the release of the sufferer added to the record of mor- 
tality and diminished the apparent numerical success of the Hospital. 
There will be continual attempts to introduce these troublesome imbe- 
ciles into the Hospital, while the price of their board is less than the 
expense of keeping them in private families and in almshouses, 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The difficulty of classification, the discomfort and irritation of pa- 
tients, and other temporary inconveniences of a crowded hospital, 
may be overcome, in a great degree, by patience and skill. But we 
regard with more anxiety the imminent danger, that incurable cases 
may so predominate, as to injure the reputation and destroy the effi- 
ciency of the institution. The many valuable citizens who have, in 
the last and in former years, by treatment here, been restored to hap- 
piness and usefulness in society, would never have been placed in an 
asylum filled with incurables ; and no officers and attendants could 
continue, in such an asylum, the generous efforts for the benefit of 
their charge, which are made here under the excitement of hope and 
success. The delicate and difficult task of making selections for dis- 
charge, constantly occupies the attention of the Superintendent and 
the Trustees. The pressure of the new patients on the old residents 
cannot be easily resisted. Many of the new patients have the recom- 
mendation of hope, or at least of uncertainty, while the greater part 
of the old residents have no prospect of any improvement of their 
present condition ; yet, in many instances, the present condition of 
such patients will show one of the noblest triumphs of the skill which 
has raised them from misery and brutal degradation to some enjoy- 
ment of life and some exercise of intellect and virtue. The removal 
of these patients from the Hospital would probably renew all their 
former wretchedness. The law authorizes a discharge when " the 
cause of commitment has ceased to exist," and when the patients 
shall be " harmless and incurable;" and this last class is understood 
to include only those who would be harmless after their discharge, in 
the situations in which they would be placed. The Trustees are also 
authorized to make room in the Hospital, by removing to the jails and 
Houses of Correction such " lunatics" as are " least susceptible of 
improvement at the Hospital." This last power has been exercised 
seldom, and with great reluctance. No change in the law of commit- 
ments and discharges is proposed. But, in view of the foregoing con- 
siderations, it is greatly desired that there should be a change in the 
administration of the law of commitments. The Trustees would, 
therefore, respectfully recommend to those, who are entrusted with 
the power of commitment to the Hospital, that, in all cases, proof 
should be required, that the alleged insanity is an affection of the mind, 
which is a proper object of the peculiar treatment of an insane hospi- 
tal. The construction of the law should be liberal, but it need not be 
made so broad as to include, under the description of " furiously 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 5 

mad," the mental imbecility, which is the obvious effect of the last 
stages of bodily disease and infirmity. 

In the past year, the number of admissions has been 273, and the 
number of discharges has been 253. Of these discharges, 138 have 
been made on account of recoveries, which shows about 54 per cent, 
on all discharges, and 84 per cent, on the recent cases discharged. 
The discharges on account of recovery amount to 20^ per cent, on all 
the patients in the Hospital during the year. This is a very gratifying 
result, when we consider the accumulation of old cases remaining 
from year to year, from the opening of the institution. In estimating 
the good work of the Hospital, the benefit received by 26 patients, 
who were decidedly improved, though not recovered, at the time of 
their discharge, should be taken into the account. 

In a period when several fatal epidemics have prevailed in the 
country, this family of invalids has enjoyed much of the comfort of 
health, and cases of severe disease have not been numerous. 37 
deaths, — 5£ per cent, among 682 patients of such a character as have 
crowded the walls of the Hospital in the last year, — would be deemed 
a small proportion in a season most favorable to health. The cholera, 
that mysterious destroyer, which has traversed the earth defying the 
power of man to discover its operation or arrest its progress, has marked 
its victims within these retired walls. The cases were eleven in num- 
ber, and all of them had reached the fearful stage of collapse. Of 
these, four died and seven entirely recovered. The exemption and 
deliverance from disease, and every favorable circumstance in the 
experience of this establishment, in the past year, must first be re- 
ferred, with devout gratitude, to Him who appoints all changes for his 
creatures; yet a tribute of respect should be paid to the Superintend- 
ent, Dr. George Chandler, and to his Assistant Physicians, Dr. John 
R. Lee, and Pr. Merrick Bemis, who, in the exercise of their skill 
and fidelity, were the honored instruments of a merciful Providence in 
accomplishing these desirable results. 

The record of the monthly visitations of the Hospital, regularly 
made by the Trustees, is a reiterated statement of the neatness and 
good order of the establishment, and of the health and satisfactory 
condition of the inmates. 

The Trustees have great satisfaction in transmitting the able report 
of the Superintendent, as a full description of the condition of the 
Hospital, enriched with facts and principles of great value. This 
document is a faithful picture of an administration, distinguished not 
less by promptness, efficiency, and economy, than by gentle kindness 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

and quiet operation. In this connection, the Trustees would take 
notice of the continued course of acceptable service by Rev. George 
Allen, the Chaplain, and Mr. and Mrs. Myrick, the Supervisors. Mr. 
Thomas Hill, the Steward, and Miss Elizabeth A. Reid, the Matron, in 
this first year of their respective offices, have proved themselves com- 
petent to their important duties. The general faithfulness and good 
conduct of the many persons engaged in employments of responsi- 
bility, delicacy, and sometimes of great labor, in the care of the pa- 
tients, and of the different parts of this extended establishment, de- 
serve honorable mention in this Report. 

It is worthy of notice that no case of suicide has taken place in 
this Hospital for the last two years, and in the seventeen years of the 
existence of this institution the number of suicides has been but 16. 
The number of suicides officially reported in the city of Boston, in 
the ten years ending with the year 1848, is 92 ; and the number there 
reported in 1848, is 12. When it is understood that the danger of 
being at large, which is the alleged cause of commitment, has refer- 
ence, in a great proportion of the cases, to the patients themselves, 
and that every day calls for the efforts of the officers and attendants 
to divert, dissuade, or withhold these patients from greater or less 
injury to themselves, it will be deemed that the infrequency of these 
appalling incidents is a blessing of Providence which demands our 
gratitude. While these occurrences cannot always be prevented by 
the most wise and judicious care, it is certain that in such a Hospital 
they would be fearfully numerous, if the supervision were indiscreet 
or unfaithful. 

In the past year the barn has been enlarged by the erection of an 
addition forty feet in length, at the north end, making the building 
one hundred feet in length. This furnishes accommodations much 
needed in a very convenient arrangement. 

A Resolve of the Legislature, passed April 30, 1849, authorized 
the Trustees to purchase the Chandler Hill pasture by paying therefor, 
from funds in the treasury of the Hospital, not exceeding three thou- 
sand dollars. Under this authority the Trustees obtained a deed of 
this pasture by paying to Mr. Salisbury $2,200, the balance due to 
him of $3,000, which he paid for the land to secure it for the use of 
the Hospital. Eight hundred dollars, in part, had been paid to Mr. 
Salisbury by authority of a previous Resolve. This land adjoins the 
Hospital estate, and was very much needed. 

By the Resolve of the last session of the Legislature, $5,000 was 
appropriated " for building new apartments for the furiously insane," 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 7 

in addition to an unexpended balance of $5,065 75, appropriated for 
the same purpose by the Resolve of 1847, making an amount of 
$10,065 75, at the disposal of the Trustees. 

In conformity with the Resolve of 1847, the Trustees erected, in 
that year, 15 strong rooms for females, five in each of the three stories 
of the building, by an extension of the north female Johonnot wing 
toward the east. This new structure has halls extending across the 
building about 10 feet in width, to separate the wing from the strong 
rooms and prevent the communication of sounds. These halls have 
an open iron sash on the south end, and furnish an airy promenade for 
patients. There is an entrance from the galleries on each story 
through these halls to the strong rooms. These rooms are ranged 
across the east end, and are separated from the outer walls on the 
north and east sides by a passage three feet in width, and there is a 
passage seven feet in width before the doors of these rooms. The 
outer walls have six large windows, and the strong rooms have large 
openings on the passages, and doors of round iron bars on the lower 
story, and wire-netting doors on the two upper stories, which give 
abundance of light and air. The floors of the lower story are of 
stone, and those of the two upper stories are of wood. The walls of 
the strong rooms are of hard burnt bricks, laid in water cement. 
The size of these rooms is in length about 11|- feet, in width 5£ feet, 
and in height 8£ feet. The lower story is separated from the ground 
by a basement 8 feet in height, in which the furnace is placed for 
warming the building. 

On inquiry for a plan suited to these grounds, the Trustees were 
taught by the experience of other hospitals to have little confidence in 
the expectation of perfect success. They therefore decided to prove 
the female strong rooms, by an occupation of one year, before they 
constructed others on the same plan. As this experiment was satis- 
factory, and these rooms were found to be pleasant in themselves and 
not injurious to the adjoining halls, the Trustees commenced, in the 
early part of the last season, the erection of a similar structure for 
males, by an extension of the southern Johonnot wing to the east, with 
an L extending twelve feet to the south, so as to give a range of seven 
rooms in each story, and twenty-one rooms in all. All these rooms 
have the open iron doors. There is an attempt to improve the venti- 
lation by large flues and a forced current, from which some advantage 
is expected. The seats in the walls and the casings of the openings 
are of cast iron, and, in some other respects, the work is more sub- 
stantial, but the general arrangement and finish are the same as those 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

of the female strong rooms. The walls and roof have been com- 
pleted, and the interior work is in progress. The projection on the 
south, finished with a pediment, does not injure the appearance of the 
building. All the work has been executed in a faithful and satisfac- 
tory manner, and without disturbance to the patients, by Mr. David 
Woodward, who contracted for the stonework by measure, — by Mr. 
Joel Wilder, who performed the brick work by the day, and by Mr. 
Amos Wood, who undertakes the carpentry, with such assistance as 
it is necessary to hire. Mr. Wood deserves notice as an ingenious 
mechanic, who, for many years, has rendered valuable services to the 
Hospital in the difficult work of ordinary repairs. The supervision of 
this building has been the charge of the Superintendent and the Trus- 
tees residing in Worcester. Messrs. Walworth & Nason have con- 
tracted to furnish a steam apparatus to take the place of a worn out 
boiler in the Laundry. This apparatus will boil for the Laundry, and 
work a steam-engine to carry a small fulling-mill for coarse washing, 
and will also heat the air chamber in the basement for warming the 
male strong rooms, and will aid in warming the adjoining male wing. 
It is not doubted, that the expense of the building and apparatus will 
be less than the funds appropriated. 

The accompanying Report of the Treasurer exhibits the financial 
condition of the Hospital. It will be seen that the income of the 
year, after paying current expenses, leaves a large balance in the 
hands of the Treasurer. This balance results from the excess of the 
number of the patients above a proper complement for the accommo- 
dations. If the number were reduced, the price of board in the last 
year would afford but a moderate balance, and the comfort and effi- 
ciency of the Hospital would be greatly promoted. This surplus 
would have been considerably diminished if the crowded state of the 
Hospital had permitted those thorough repairs of the interior, which 
are obviously desirable, and if some large repairs on the grounds had 
not been postponed. The Trustees have voted to take gas from the 
Worcester Gas Company for lighting the Hospital. The fixtures for 
this arrangement will absorb nearly $ 2,000 of this balance. After all 
deductions, it is apparent that the price of board in the last year is 
larger than is necessary to defray the expenses. The Trustees have, 
therefore, fixed the price of board for the current year at two dollars 
and twenty-five cents per week. 

While the Trustees rejoice in the privilege of giving any relief in 
regard to expense to those who suffer, in their own persons or in those 
©f their friends, the severe infliction of insanity, they would urge 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 9 

all good citizens to guard, with jealous watchfulness, this blessed 
home of the unfortunate from the intrusion of unsuitable and injuri- 
ous associates. 

STEPHEN SALISBURY, 
S. C. PHILLIPS, 
WM. APPLETON, 
ENSIGN H. KELLOGG, 
LEVI LINCOLN, 

Trustees. 

State Lunatic Hospital, 
Worcester, Dec. 13*/*, 1849. 



10 



STAT^ LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TREASURER'S REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts : 

The Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital presents the following 
Report : — 

The balance in the treasury, on the first of December, 

1848, as stated in his last report, was . . . $7,764 74 

The receipts within the year ending December 1, 1849, 
from the State for the support of lunatic paupers, and 
from cities, towns, and individuals, have amounted to 
forty-eight thousand eight hundred and seven dollars 



and seventy cents, . 


. 


. 






48,807 70 


And for articles sold and accounted for by the steward 


632 70 




$57,205 14 


The expenditures for the year ending December 1, 1849, have been 


as follows : — 




For salaries, wages and labor, .... 


. $11,083 75 


Improvements and repairs, . 




. 


2,090 45 


Furniture and clothing, 






2,843 17 


Fuel — Wood, 453 cords, . 




$1,888 28 




Coal, 142^ tqns, . 




958 68 


i 


Charcoal, 4,229 bushels, 




467 75 


3 314 71 


Oil, 425 gallons, 






261 26 


Flour, 505 barrels, 










3,126 25 


Meal, 










689 98 


Beef, 63,874 pounds, . 










4,164 85 


Pork, 8,706 pounds, . 










583 54 


Poultry, 1,292 pounds, 










128 01 


Bacon, 1,435 pounds, . 










139 38 


Mutton, 










14 43 


Butter, 23,230 pounds, 










3,867 16 


Cheese, 6,360 pounds, 










482 82 


Lard, 861 pounds, 










71 90 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



11 



Tea, 1,310 pounds, 

Coffee, 2,048 pounds, 

Sugar, 22,557 pounds, 

Molasses, 1,141 gallons, 

Syrup, $44 22 ; honey, $17 83, 

Rice, 2,640 pounds, . 

Apples, $278 07 ; fresh fruit and apple sauce, $71 92 

Biscuit, 47,500, . 

Potatoes, 1,154 bushels, 

Fish, fresh, 3,608 pounds, . 

" salt, 9,500 pounds, 

" mackerel, 15 barrels, . 
Beans and peas, 

Salt, $34 74 ; vinegar, $24 76, 
Starch, $14 25; lime, $57 25; chloride, $13 50, 
Soap, $1,407 pounds, $89 98; salaeratus, $17 96, 
Hops and malt, . 
Small groceries, . 
Straw, 43,171 pounds, 
Medical supplies, 
Articles for shoeshop, . 
Freight of wood and other articles, 
Pursuing and recovering elopers, 

Removal of patients and expense of steward's journeys 
Advanced to patients and charged, 
Sexton's bills, ....... 

Books, stationery, and printing, . 
Expense of Trustees' visits, &c, 
Instruction in music, ..... 

Rent of room, &c, for chaplain, 

Postage, $25 52 ; fees of counsel, $16 50, . 

Four cows, two heifers and bull, . 

Land purchased of Stephen Salisbury, 

Paid on account of Chandler Hill lot, and for rent and 

taxes, ....... 

Allowance to former steward for extra services, 
Miscellaneous items, ..... 



Balance carried to new account, 



$428 72 

156 14 

1,410 28 

301 76 

62 05 

123 50 

349 99 

155 05 

657 09 

126 16 

262 12 

98 50 

21 63 

59 50 

85 00 

107 94 

13 55 

174 75 
134 95 
545 21 

87 89 

339 63 

21 25 

111 17 

27 80 

246 25 

141 53 

229 25 

56 40 

71 71 

42 02 

301 00 

2,200 00 

752 35 

175 00 
132 06 

$43,070 86 
14,134 28 



$57,205 14 



12 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The amount of the income of the last year is increased by the 
receipt of a previously accumulating debt from a city supporting a 
large number of persons at the Hospital. The excess arising from 
this source, beyond the ordinary receipts, is about eighteen hundred 
dollars. 

In the apportionment of charges to cities and towns, and to the 
State, a few cases unavoidably occur in every year, in which it cannot 
be satisfactorily determined, at the time of commitment to the Hos- 
pital, to which the person is properly chargeable ; and in which it 
cannot be so seasonably ascertained, that a charge, which should be 
made to the State, can be embraced in the annual account presented 
for the support of State paupers. The committee on accounts, for 
the two last years, excluded from allowance those charges which 
accrued more than a year from the first of December preceding. In 
1848, by a special resolve, the Legislature ordered their payment. In 
the account of the year ending December 1, 1848, the amount thus 
disallowed by the committee was $250 71, for the payment of which 
no special application has yet been made. Should similar charges, 
contained in the account presented this year, be disallowed, an addi- 
tional claim upon the State will exist, for future allowance. 

On account of additional Strong Rooms in the Hospital. 

The balance of the fund appropriated for their construc- 
tion, was, December 1, 1848, ..... $565 76 

Cash received of the State, June, 1849, . . . 4,500 00 

Do. do. in November, 4,000 00 



>,065 76 



The payments on this account, to December 1, 1849, 

have been, 4,322 78 



Balance on hand, $4,742 98 

All which is respectfully submitted by 

SAM'L JENNISON, Treasurer. 
Worcester, Dec. 14, 1849. 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

SUPERINTENDENT TO THE TRUSTEES 

OF THE 

STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Gentlemen : — In reviewing the operations of this large family of 
about five hundred persons, for a whole year, it is proper, in the first 
place, to acknowledge our dependence on Him, who, in guiding the 
affairs of men, has given security to us and success to our labors. 

With the exception of a short period, the general health of our 
household has been remarkably good. We have been saved from sui- 
cides and all accidents of any magnitude. Our patients have been 
allowed the use of tools in their labors, in the fields and in the domes- 
tic departments, and no injury has been sustained by them or us. 

The Hospital has been constantly crowded with those unfortunate 
persons for whose relief it was erected. In most instances we have 
been able to make our patients physically comfortable. A large num- 
ber have recovered their mental and physical health, and have gone to 
enjoy again the society of their former friends. 

A detail of facts in regard to the insane, gathered the past year, is 
spread out in the following tables. These facts will be of use to refer 
to, and their value will increase as they shall become numerous. 
These tables are not supposed to be entirely accurate. But they are 
as nearly so as any tables could be made, which depended upon state- 
ments of many persons on any subject which was not definite. 

A large amount of information can be condensed in numerical 
tables, and figures often present the idea in a form more easily to be 
remembered than letters do. The labor required in making out from 
the records some of the subjoined tables has been very great. But 
their intrinsic value will, it is hoped, repay the writer for his trouble 
in writing, and the reader for his trouble in perusing them. 

By a recent act of Parliament, the British government require all 
their hospitals for lunatics to transmit to the commissioners of lunacy 
a full tabular register of all important facts relating to the insane in 
their custody. A similar law was made relative to this Hospital before 
it was opened for patients. 



14 



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30 



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32 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 33 



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34 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the Admissions from each County the last and previous years. 





Males, 
Females, 


. 6 
2 


1849. 


Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable, 


8 


77 


85 


Berkshire, 


Males, 
Females, 


6 

5 


11 


94 


105 


Bristol, . 


Males, 
Females, 


8 
11 


19 


189 


208 


Dukes, . 


Males, 
Females, 


2 




2 


12 


14 


Essex, 


Males, 
Females, . 


13 

19 


32 


396 


428 


Franklin, 


Males, 
Females, . 





1 


87 


88 


Hampden, 


Males, 
Females, . 


6 

7 


13 


149 


162 


Hampshire, 


Males, 
Females, . 


4 

4 


8 


147 


155 


Middlesex, 


Males, 
Females, . 


12 

8 


20 


354 


374 


Nantucket, 


Males, 
Females, . 




1 


1 


25 


26 


Norfolk, . 


Males, 
Females, 


24 

23 


47 


354 


401 


Plymouth, 


Males, 
Females, 


6 

5 


11 


142 


153 


Suffolk, . 


Males, 
Females, . 


15 

14 


29 


303 


332 


Worcester, 


Males, 
Females, . 


32 

39 


71 


745 


816 


Other States, . 


Males, 
Females, . 










10 


10 


Total, 


273 


3084 1 


3357 



Counties send to this Hospital patients in very unequal proportions 
relative to their population. The number in the State is not so une- 
qual as this table would indicate. Other institutions diminish thenum- 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



35 



ber sent herefrom their vicinity. But the main cause of the'inequality 
is in the contiguity and accessibility of patients to it. If a Hospital, 
equally as good as this, was erected in each county, more patients in 
the aggregate would seek a retreat in them all than now come to this. 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the Admissions and State of the Hospital, from December 
1st, 1848, to November 30th, 1849. 



Patients in the Hospital, Decem- 




Committed by the Overseers of 




ber 1st, 1848, 


409 


the Poor, .... 


26 


Males, . . 217 




Males, . . 17 




Females, . 192 




Females, . 9 




Patients admitted in course of the 








year, ..... 
Males, . . 134 


273 


Private boarders, on bonds, 

Males, . . 20 


41 


Females, . . 139 




Females, . 21 




Whole number in the Hospital in 








the course of the year, . 


682 






Males, . . 351 




, 




Females, . 331 




Foreigners — those who have no 
legal residence in this State — 




Patients remaining in the Hospi- 




admitted during the year, 


79 


tal, November 30th, 1849, 


429 


Males, . . 38 




Males, . . 220 




Females, . 41 




Females, . 209 












Foreigners discharged during the 








year, ..... 


62 


Of the admissions, there were 




Males, . • 33 
Females, . 29 




cases of less duration than one 






year, . 


163 






Males, . . 77 




Foreigners remaining in the Hos- 




Females, . 86 




pital, at the end of the year, . 
Males, . . 77 


167 


Of one year and more, 


99 


Females, 90 




Males, . . 52 








Females, . 47 




State paupers remaining in the 




Cases the duration of whose in- 
sanity before admission not as- 




Hospital, at the end of each 
year, as near as they can be 
ascertained. 




certained, .... 


11 




No. 


Males, . . 5 




1842, .... 


34 


Females, . 6 




1843, 
1844, 






• 


38 
38 







1845, 
1846, 








57 
52 


Patients committed by Courts, . 


206 


1847, 






. 


121 


Males, . 97 




1848, 








150 


Females, . 109 




1849, 








167 



36 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The Hospital has been more crowded the past year than ever before. 
The extent of its accommodations does not exceed what three hundred 
and seventy-five require. At no time has there been less than four 
hundred and five patients. The greatest number was four hundred 
and forty. The average for the year has been about four hundred 
and twenty. 

Some twenty-five patients of this State, for whom application for 
admission was made, were not received. Their friends were requested 
to try them a little longer, and, if agreeable, seek some other institution 
of like character for them, because this Hospital was so much crowded. 
But the proper legal course to place patients in this Hospital was pointed 
out to the friends. Often patients are brought to the Hospital without 
their friends knowing, or without their asking, what legal steps are 
necessary for admission. In such cases, when it would be very incon- 
venient to obtain a legal commitment, and when the patient was a 
proper subject for the institution, they have been taken in on a bond 
for their support. This course was, early in the existence of this 
Hospital, sanctioned by your board, and has been customary ever 
since. 

There have been committed here, the past year, seventy-nine who 
had no legal settlement in this Commonwealth, and sixty-two have 
been discharged. There now remain in the Hospital, as near as I can 
ascertain, one hundred and sixty-nine who are supported here from the 
treasury of the State. Of these, ninety-five are natives of Ireland. 

The expenses here of the Irish are never, I believe, paid by them- 
selves. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



37 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Discharges and Deaths, and the Condition of 
those who left the Hospital, from December 1st, 1848, to November 
30th, 1849. 





w 

EC 
09 

6 
o 


1 

o 
Eh 


Recov- 
ered. 


Improv- 
ed. 


Incurable Incurable 
and and Dan- 
Harmless gerous. 


Deaths 






o 
CO 

o 

a 


c 


m 

si 

B 


■3 



W 



S 

B 


13 

H 


h 
m 

Xi 

a 


*c3 




CD 

11 


"3 

H 


■< 

O 
pi 


Patients. 






















— 


— 





Discharged, . 




253 


. 


138 




26 




31 


m 


21 




37 




Males, 


131 




70 




13 




20 




9 




19 


. 


131 


Females, . 


122 




68 




13 




11 


• 


12 


• 


18 




122 


Recent Cases. 




























Discharged, . 


. 


127 




107 




7 




3 




2 




8 




Males, 


66 




54 




3 




3 




2 




4 




66 


Females, . 


61 




53 




4 


• 





• 





• 


4 


• 


61 


Chronic Cases. 




























Discharged, . 




125 


m 


31 


. 


18 


m 


28 


m 


19 




29 




Males, 


64 




16 




9 




17 




7 




15 




64 


Females, . 


61 




15 




9 




11 




12 




14 




61 


Patients discharged, the 
duration of whose dis- 




























ease not ascertained, . 




1 









1 







m 












Males, 


1 









1 



















1 


Females, . 






























• 







253 




138 




26 




31 




21 




37 




253 



There have been one hundred and thirty-eight recoveries this year. 
The cause of their commitment ceased, and they returned to their 
homes and former occupations, with every chance of retaining their 
mental soundness until again overcome by new exciting causes. There 
are some individuals the character of whose minds assumes a decided 
periodicity, which is more or less regular. The scale of mental dis- 
turbance or feeling rises and falls variously in different individuals. 
In some, the change is slight, from the blues brought on by an east 
wind to cheerfulness and elasticity of spirits. In other persons the 
feelings range from melancholy, self-abasement and hopelessness, to 
unbounded extravagance and ungovernable excitement. These ex- 
tremes of feeling, during which the individual has lost his self-control 



38 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

under the influence of ordinary motives, are called insanity. But 
these periodical changes in a milder degree produce only gaiety of 
feeling on the one hand and the hypo or the blues on the other, and 
the poor sufferer gets very little sympathy of his fellow men. When 
a patient comes out of one of these extremes of excitement and the 
lucid interval is long, we record the case as one of recovery. But 
when the lucid interval is short, the case is called improved or relieved. 
Most of the recoveries are permanently so, the mind having apparently 
recovered its former integrity and strength. I have known a few 
individuals who were brought here insane and who recovered, to 
become better citizens than they were before. Their minds and feel- 
ings acquired strength and soundness by the disease and by undergo- 
ing the process of cure, as some musical instruments are said to be 
improved by being broken and repaired again. 

Some modifications of insanity are more readily cured than others. 
When not connected with other diseases, the functional disease of 
the brain is relieved as often as other diseases, when the person is 
placed under favorable influences. The chances of cure diminish with 
the length of time the disease has existed. When insanity is brought 
on by, or is accompanied with palsy, epilepsy, long-continued use of 
alcoholic stimulants or self-abuse, or has been long in developing itself, 
then the prospect of recovery is not considered favorable. But when 
it is brought on by sudden ill-health, or violent moral causes, the re- 
covery may be looked for early. 

The average time spent in hospitals, by those patients who recover, 
is about seven months. This was true of those who recovered of the 
admissions previous to December 1st, 1842. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



39 



TABLE 4. 

Showing the number of Admissions and Discharges, and the average 
number in the Hospital, each month in the year. 





Monthly Av- 


Admissions. 


Discharges. 




erage. 






December, 1848, .... 


410 


11 


11 


January, 1849, 








412 


23 


19 


February, " 








411 


17 


14 


March, " 








418 


28 


20 


April, " 








423 


23 


26 


May, " 








420 


16 


21 


June, " 








422 


31 


21 


July, 








431 


33 


21 


August, " 








430 


24 


42 


September, " 








420 


21 


22 


October " 








420 


20 


18 


November, " 








426 


26 


18 


Average for the year, 






420 







The admissions have been the most numerous in the hot months 
of summer, because more people are at that season attacked with vio- 
lent mania than at any other time. Many powerful causes are then at 
work upon the system ; such as are occasioned by the great press of 
business, which demands excessive exertions while the body is debili- 
tated by the heat of the weather. 



40 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 5. 



Showing the whole number of Residents during each year, the aver- 
age number each year, the number at the end of each year, and 
the Expenses of each of the seventeen years the Hospital has been in 
operation. 






The whole num- 


Average No. each 


No. at the end of 


Current Expenses 


Annual Ex- 


The Year. 


ber of Residents 
during the year. 


year. 


each year. 


each year. 


pense per 
Patient. 


1833 


153 


107 


114 


#12,272 91 


#114 67 


1834 


233 


117 


118 


15,840 27 


135 38 


1835 


241 


120 


119 


16,576 44 


137 30 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


168 44 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


159 64 


■1838 


362 


211 


218 


28,739 40 


136 20 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


132 16 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


121 59 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


123 81 


1842 


430 


238 


238 


27,546 87 


111 12 


1843 


458 


244 


255 


27,914 12 


114 40 


1844 


491 


261 


263 


29,278 75 


112 17 


1845 


556 


316 


360 


43,888 65 


138 88 


1846 


637 


359 


367 


39,870 37 


111 06 


1847 


607 


377 


394 


39,444 47 


104 62 


1848 


655 


404 


409 


42,860 05 


106 09 


1849 


682 


420 


429 


40,870 86 


97 31 



The almost constant and uniform increase in the number of resi- 
dents, and of the average number of the insane in this institution, 
from its commencement to the present time, is somewhat remarkable. 
With the enlargements that have from time to time been made, there 
has been a ready accession of patients equally large. The founders 
of it could not have expected that so large a number would congre- 
gate here as there now is, for they planned it for only one hundred 
and thirteen as its utmost limit. For building it so large as they did, 
they were censured by a portion of the public, who were not so well 
informed upon the subject as they had become by their investigations of 
the wants of this then neglected class of our fellow men. It was said 
only seventeen years ago that this Hospital would never be half filled. 

It may be seen by the fifth table that the annual expense of the 
Hospital, divided by the average number, is something less than that 
of previous years. It has been our constant endeavor to curtail any 
expenditure that did not promote the well-being of the patients or the 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 41 

value of the establishment. Whatever expenditure of money would 
contribute in any way to the accomplishment of the great end of the 
institution — the recovery and happiness of the patients — has not been 
withheld. It would seem to be true economy to hasten, by any and 
all means, the speedy recovery of a man's self-control. No class of 
people are less able to pay large bills than the insane. It is intended 
that all of our pecuniary transactions should be conducted with fair- 
ness on our part ; and I believe they have been so managed, and with 
prudence too. In the purchase of provisions and supplies for the use 
of the Hospital, we make the best bargains when we obtain articles 
of the best quality. 

Besides the ordinary repairs, we have the past season built an addi- 
tion of forty feet square to the barn, at an expense of about one thou- 
sand dollars. It has a cellar which gives room for a shed and a stable 
for cattle. The roof is slated, and the whole barn, now one hundred 
feet by forty, has been painted. All the inside standing wood work, 
in the two old wings of the male patients' halls and rooms, has been 
painted, and the floors of the patients' rooms, in the part first erected, 
have been painted the past year for the first time since the Hospital has 
been occupied. This inside painting is a job so inconvenient to do, 
with every part of the Hospital crowded with inmates, that we could 
submit to it only from the strongest necessity of the case. The out- 
side of the south part of the building has been painted also. The 
cellar of the new addition was dug by our labor. The ordinary im- 
provements and repairs will every year form a large item in the cur- 
rent expenses of the institution. 

Four years ago there was a balance against the Hospital of upwards 
of eight thousand dollars for current expenses. At this time the 
Treasurer's report shows a balance in his hands of $14,134 28, ex- 
clusive of more than three thousand dollars, which has been paid by 
him for land. Two years ago you reduced the price of board one 
shilling per week, and now a still further reduction might be made 
with safety. 

6 



42 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



43 



TABLE 7. 
Statistics of the different Seasons. 





1833. 


1834. 


183.i. 


IS3S. 


1837. 


1838. 


1S39. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1S43.J1844. 


1S4. 1 ). 


I84fi. 


1S47. 


1848. 


184!). 


Admissions : 




































In Winter, 


27 


26 


24 


23 


26 


46 


39 


32 


31 


50 


5l! 51 


61 


62 


45 


68 


51 


In Spring, 


72 


35 


31 


36 


49 


46 


38 


42 


37 


48 


58 60 


80 


70 


56 


52 


67 


In Summer, 


23 


30 


30 


42 


40 


47 


59 


44 


51 


40 


56 71 


68 


74 


61 


84 


88 


In Autumn, 


31 


28 


28 


24 


53 


38 


43 


44 


44 


60 


55 54 


84 


71 


78 


57 


67 


Discharges : 




































In Winter, 





23 


21 


20 


14 


18 


31 


29 


35 


37 


44 48 4 


47 


43 


62 


44 


In Spring, 


1 


33 


30 


33 


36 


37 


38 


38 


33 


46 


49, 60 


34 


73 


48 


65 


67 


In Summer, 


11 


28 


31 


24 


29 


44 


48 


41 


37 


46 


46 65 


46 


83 


54 


46 


84 


In Autumn, 


23 


24 


22 


21 


33 


29 


29 


32 


50 


50 


42 55 


52 


67 


68 


73 


58 


Recoveries : 




































In Winter, 





13 


13 


12 


10 


15 


13 


18 


20 


24 


24 31 


25 


28 


15 


35 


25 


In Spring, 





20 


11 


15 


17 


23 


24 


22 


10 


22 


34 1 33 


29 


47 


25 


39 


31 


In Summer, 


9 


16 


16 


12 


15 


18 


23 


20 


22 


25 


29 


23 


28 


39 


27 


19 


44 


In Autumn, 


16 


15 


15 


19 


27 


20 


20 


22 


30 


19 


29 


37 


40 


40 


36 


43 


38 


Deaths : 




































In Winter, 





3 


1 





1 


3 


5 


6 


1 


4 


5 


2 


4 


10 


6 


9 


7 


In Spring, 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


5 


5 


6 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


12 


5 


5 


9 


In Summer, 


3 


3 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 


5 


3 


6 


6 


7 


8 


8 


8 


13 


In Autumn, 








3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2 


4 


4 


8 


4 


11 


8 


11 


8 


8 



TABLE 8. 





Ages of Patients 


in the Hospital, 




Duration of In 


sanity 


with those 


•emaining 




December 1st, 1849. 




December 1st, 1849. 




Under 20 years 


old, 




8 


Less than 1 year insane, 


. 52 


From 20 to 25 years 


old, . 


36 


From 1 to 2 


years 


it 


. 48 


u 


25 to 30 


u 


(( 


50 


" 2 to 5 


a 


u 


. 105 


a 


30 to 35 


tl 


it 


71 


" 5 to 10 


ii 


u 


. 93 


it 


35 to 40 


u 


it 


61 


" 10 to 35 


n 


it 


. 40 


u 


40 to 45 


It 


u 


48 


" 15 to 20 


u 


u 


. 23 


a 


45 to 50 


a 


a 


43 


" 20 to 25 


it 


it 


. 15 


c< 


50 to 55 


a 


a 


31 


" 25 to 30 


ii 


it 


. 7 


it 


55 to 60 


u 


ii 


23 


Over 30, . 






. 14 


it 


60 to 65 


a 


it 


20 


Unknown, 


. 




. 32 


a 


65 to 70 


a 


a 


17 











M 


70 to 75 


u 


u 


12 








429 


li 


75 to 80 


li 


it 


8 










Over 80, . 


• 


• 


1 


















429 











44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 9. 

Diseases that have proved Fatal. 



Previ- 
ously. 



Previ- 
ously. 



Marasmus, 
Apoplexy and Palsy, 
Epilepsy, 
Consumption, 
Disease of the Heart, 
Suicide, 

Disease of the Brain, 
Typhus Fever, 
Hemorrhage, 
Lung Fever, . 
Cholera Morbus, 
Inflammation of the Bow- 
els, . 
Dysenteric Fever, . 
Mortification of the Limbs 
Dropsy, 

Chronic Dysentery, 
Erysipelas, 



52 

32 

26 

27 

17 

16 

13 

7 

5 

10 

4 

4 
6 
3 
4 
4 



Diarrhoea, 

Disease of the Brain from 

Intemperance, 
Bronchitis, . 
Old Age, . 
Gastric Fever, 
Land Scurvy, 
Congestive Fever, 
Concussion of the Brain, 
Disease of the Bladder, 
Fright, 
Rupture, 
Exhaustion, 
Convulsions, 
Cholera, 





2 
1 






3 

4 

37 



13 

2 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
2 


272 



Health. — But few of the insane present that robust appearance 
which is seen in the laboring man. Those few are those engaged in 
out-door employments. Insanity, whether of physical or mental ori- 
gin, is accompanied by some degree of functional or organic lesion of 
some part of the system. It is, in most cases, the result of physical 
disease ; and, where it is the result of moral or mental action only, 
physical disturbance of the system usually precedes or at least imme- 
diately follows the insanity. 

The highest tone of physical health should not, therefore, be ex- 
pected among the insane. After insanity has existed some time, the 
acute stage of the disease, in many cases, passes by, and the general 
health improves. In this stage of the disease the individual often has 
a good appetite. He often sleeps soundly, and is physically able to 
accomplish a considerable amount of manual labor, which, when per- 
formed, adds to his mental as well as physical health. The violent 
insane often expend in their excitements a vast amount of nervous 
and muscular energy. Their efforts are excessive and injurious. 
When the violent maniacal excitement, in recent cases, passes off 
suddenly, the patient is usually much exhausted and prostrated, and 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 45 

requires the kindest offices of his attendants to supply his wants ; and 
you, who have often seen the unfortunate periodical cases in their 
furious excitements and in their lucid intervals, have often remarked 
upon the wonderful change in their condition in a few days, — a change 
from comparative health and repose to a state of uncontrollable fury 
and wretchedness. 

The institution has had, during the year, but little sickness in it, 
comparatively. The insane are exempt, in a great degree, from many 
diseases while in hospitals, and perhaps it is so while out of them. 
Pleurisies, acute diseases of the lungs and fevers, are rare ; but the 
brain and nervous system, and the digestive organs, ar§ peculiarly sus- 
ceptible in the insane to disease. 

The diseases usually prevalent in the warm season prevailed to 
some extent among our patients and their attendants. Diarrhoea, dys- 
entery, fever, a few cases of the graver forms of cholera morbus, and 
cholera, with all of its characteristic features, occurred among our 
household in the month of August. The foregoing table shows the 
number of fatal cases and of the particular malady of which they 
died. By strict and immediate attention to the first indications of 
diarrhoea and the forming stage, only eleven cases, all of which were 
among the male patients and their attendants, took on the more severe 
and unmanageable symptoms of cholera. Four died very suddenly of 
this mysterious scourge. Three of them had become debilitated by 
long and incurable disease, and the fourth, although he was fleshy 
and labored much in the open air, was in the habit of drinking enor- 
mous quantities of cold water. All through the summer we took the 
precaution to place fires in all the furnaces whenever the weather was 
cool or damp. This prevented our wards from becoming damp and 
our patients from being chilled. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the inmates of this Hospital should 
be almost entirely free from all bowel complaints until about the first 
of August ; that these diseases should then commence and become 
more and more prevalent, and more fatal, up to the third of Septem- 
ber, and that they should then suddenly cease as an epidemic. Since 
this time we have been happily relieved of any great amount of sick- 
ness among our patients. But there has been several cases of typhoid 
fever among our attendants. 

On the nineteenth of March, one of our attendants became sick 
with the measles. Three successive crops of this contagious disease 
succeeded. Thirteen of our attendants and eight patients, and my 
two daughters, had it. The last of the fourth crop became sick on 
the thirtieth of April following. It was noticed that the attendants, — 



46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



those who were supposed to be in better health than the patients, and 
who were capable of taking more rational care of themselves, — had, 
almost uniformly, the disease in a more severe form, and apparently 
suffered more from it than the patients. One reason for it is, the 
patients, in the forming stage of the disease, lived in a more uniform 
temperature and were less exposed to the vicissitudes of the season 
than attendants. The patients were in our wards while the attend- 
ants were called by their duties in and out frequently. No case 
proved fatal. 

There has been no other contagious or epidemic disease among our 
household. Most of the year we have been remarkably exempt from 
all ailments of the body. Much of the time we could say there was 
no sickness in the Hospital ; but still, during the hot season, the tone 
of physical health was lower among all the inmates than is usual, but 
no more so in the Hospital than was experienced in the whole country 
the past season. That mysterious disease which scourged our coun- 
try, as well as the nations of Europe, was often visible in its effects 
upon the human system in a great many instances where its severe 
characteristic symptoms were not developed. The general fear of its 
approach, the bread of carefulness of which many thought prudent to 
partake, and the miasm, or some other unseen agent, floating in the 
atmosphere, all tended to render the human system susceptible to the 
slightest exciting cause of disease. 



TABLE 10. 

Previous Occupation of Patients. 





1849. 


Previ- 
ously. 




1849. 


Previ- 
ously. 


Farmers, 


32 


335 


Painters, 


1 


24 


Laborers, 




20 


260 


Tailors, 





18 


Merchants, . 




3 


119 


Clergymen, . 


1 


16 


Shoemakers, 




9 


103 


Lawyers, 


1 


6 


Seamen, 




3 


102 


Physicians, . 


1 


7 


Carpenters, . 




9 


79 


Females accustomed to 






Manufacturers, 




11 


49 


active employment, 


81 


630 


Teachers, . 




1 


46 


Females accustomed to 






Students, 




2 


42 


sedentary employments, 


7 


264 


Blacksmiths, 




3 


28 









STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



47 



TABLE 11. 

Showing the causes of Insanity, and the circumstances connected with 
the causes and predisposition to Insanity, the last and previous 
years. 





1849. 


Previously. 


Ill Health, ..... 


50 


437 


Intemperance, 








11 


334 


Domestic Affliction, 








18 


288 


Religion, .... 








5 


235 


Masturbation, 








12 


166 


Property, 








11 


158 


Disappointed Affection, 








9 


79 


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2 


36 


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10 


74 


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9 


89 


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6 


36 


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12 


20 


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13 


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20 


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1 


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79 


629 


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67 


765 


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19 


57 


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25 


342 


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16 


Cases arising from Physical Causes, 




114 


1208 


Cases arising from Moral Causes, . 




49 


855 



The prevention of insanity should be the aim of an enlightened 
community as well as its cure. This could be most effectually done 
by each individual's obeying the laws of health, which include those 
that regulate the passions and emotions of the mind as well as those 
that govern the physical system. 

For the full and healthy development of the offspring, the parents 
must be healthy and active in body and mind. The children of the 
wealthy and indolent are less numerous and less hardy than the chil- 
dren of those in more humble and more laborious stations in society. 
The families of the intemperate cease increasing after the parents 
have become confirmed victimsof this vice. Hereditary predisposi- 
tion to disease, which is either inherited from ancestors or acquired 
by the parents themselves by abuse of their own physical systems, is 
transmitted to the lineal descendants, whose systems are thereby ren- 



48 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

dered more susceptible. In such persons a smaller exciting cause 
would bring on similar diseased action than would be necessary in one 
having no hereditary susceptibility, whether the malady be of the 
brain or of any other organ. It has been said that the mother more 
readily transmits this predisposition than the father. It does not 
necessarily follow that the children or the grand-children will be 
insane because they are the descendants of insane ancestors. By 
carefully avoiding all the exciting causes and maintaining perfect 
health, they may not only escape themselves but they may so far free 
their systems of it as to transmit to their children no particular sus- 
ceptibility to this or to any disease. The intermarrying of blood 
relations is productive of degeneracy, and its effects have long been 
noticed on the crowned heads of Europe. 

The physical education of the young is of primary importance. 
Free and active sports and employments in the open air each day are 
necessary for their vigorous growth. Long confinement to the school- 
room or to the mill is unnatural and unhealthy. The children of the 
farmers and mechanics in New England are favorably situated for a 
healthy growth. To the enterprising of this class our cities are in- 
debted for much of their active and successful population. 

Many mechanical employments are prejudicial to health, and the 
younger the operative the more susceptible his system is to any malign 
influence that may be brought to bear upon him. All employments 
that require undue physical exertion, all where an impure atmosphere 
is inhaled, and all where one position is for a long time maintained, 
are unfavorable to full development of the body, induce various dis- 
eases, and shorten life. 

The proper education of the moral and intellectual faculties, is of 
immense importance to the individual's own happiness and to his use- 
fulness to society. The child learns very early many important facts 
in regard to the physical world. Indeed, it has been said that he 
learns more of it the first two years of his life than ever afterwards. 
The character and conduct of those around him is the book from 
which he gets his first lessons in morals and in self-government. As 
his faculty of imitation is very active, and by which he acquires much 
of his early knowledge, the moral obliquity of his nurse is as readily 
copied as her wisest example. The desire to gratify the appetite and 
to indulge the passions too often become governing principles with 
the young, and, unless this desire is restrained with a steady hand on 
the part of the parent or guardian, it becomes ungovernable, and 
makes the individual unhappy in after-life, and an undesirable mem- 
ber of society. Liberty is the right of all ; but, to enjoy this blessing, 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 49 

it is necessary that each member of the community should refrain 
from trespassing on the rights of others. Children should be taught 
and early led to practice this precept. Every one who should have 
and who should observe a just appreciation of liberty, and of what 
was due from himself to others, would become a law unto himself, and 
not be incommoded by any wholesome law of the community ; but he 
who has been taught to disregard the rights of others, can hardly fail 
to receive the condemnation of his fellow-men. 

The notion has been gaining ground, of late, that children, at home 
and in schools, have heretofore been kept under too strict subjection ; 
that they have not enjoyed their equal rights ; that their position in 
society has not been prominent enough ; and that treating them as 
knowing what was right and proper for themselves, would increase 
their present happiness and make them hereafter better members of 
the community. This change in their treatment has tended to foster 
hopes in them which cannot be realized in after-life. Their ambition 
has thus been raised to be disappointed ; for it is hardly to be expected 
that all their pampered appetites will be gratified, or that great success 
in life will be attained without corresponding efforts. The early edu- 
cation of many is such, and their unrestrained passions have acquired 
such a mastery over their powers of self-control, that only slight re- 
verses of fortune will turn them from the honest pursuit of the ordi- 
nary occupations, and make them dissatisfied with the common success 
in life. 

We have been led to believe that insanity was increasing in this 
community beyond the increase of the population, and beyond the 
number of that class who are brought in with foreign immigration. 
The inducements of wealth and of places of honor, in this country, 
are equally presented to all competitors who may enter the lists, and 
success usually crowns the well-directed efforts of all in every branch 
of trade, and in all arts and professions. The ardent and ambitious 
are by these considerations stimulated to overtask their physical and 
mental powers. The allurements of science stimulates its votaries to 
long-continued trains of thought upon one subject, until the instru- 
ment of thought becomes fatigued and is liable to respond in an un- 
healthy tone, until strange fancies and delusions upon that subject 
arise in the mind. These delusions become permanent and real unless 
the attention is diverted to other subjects, and the brain gets relief 
from its incipient disease ; but, with the great mass of the community, 
the all-absorbing desire of wealth and the advantages it brings to its 
possessor, are the principal motives to action. The merchant expands 
7 



50 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

his business beyond his personal supervision, and he trusts his prop- 
erty with his neighbors, with a hope of compound interest in return. He 
watches anxiously the rise and fall of the market. He is elated with 
prosperity, but the unseen reverses which come in the commercial world 
as well as in all others, bring ruin to his hopes and not unfrequently 
crush his reason. The speculator ventures deeper and deeper, while 
successful, but at last he is wrecked in his calculations, and his mind 
sinks in the storm, unless it is buoyed up by a well educated self-control. 

Many persons in humble circumstances work hard and make great 
exertions to keep up respectable appearances, and to obtain those arti- 
cles of luxury which the wealth of their neighbors enables them to 
make common use of. This overdoing to keep up appearances tends 
to break down some and bring on insanity, and yet every one should 
be commended for making all laudable efforts in his own behalf. 

"There is a delusion on the subject of property with many of the 
insane which seems at first peculiar to them ; but it probably holds 
true with the sane in different degrees of intensity. It is this : — 
"The rich man fears he shall come to want and have to go to the alms- 
house for support." I have never known a patient brought to a hos- 
pital, who had fears of coming to want, but was considered by his 
neighbors as a man of wealth. I apprehend that the fear of poverty 
but very seldom brings insanity on the poor, but actual want does fre- 
quently. The poor often fancy themselves rich and able to control 
vast resources. Sometimes those who have abundant means suppose 
themselves possessed of more than they really are. He who has prop- 
erty fears he may lose it, and, if his mind is not otherwise employed, 
is liable, by dwelling much upon the chances of losing it, to become 
morbidly sensitive upon the subject. The poor man has no property, 
and of course has no fears about it. His mind and body are so much 
engaged in procuring his daily bread that they are kept healthy by the 
exercise." 

To insure the health of the body and the correct operations of the 
mind through its instrument, the brain, daily exercise in the open air 
is almost indispensable. Some useful occupation is far more effectual 
than a listless walk. To be of much service to the student the bodily 
exercise should be accompanied with recreation. The thoughts 
should be diverted from books and lessons. The student who saws 
wood half an hour for exercise, or who walks alone the same length 
of time thinking over his studies, finds himself, when his exercise is 
done, wearied in mind and body, and wishes to throw himself on his 
couch ; whereas, if he joined in some athletic sports, he would have 
refreshed his mind and body too, and have returned to his books with 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 51 

renewed vigor. In after-life some profitable manual labor would 
probably be preferred to the games of youth, and afford like relief. 

Sleep. — One of the most constant symptoms in the early stages of 
insanity is the want of sleep. It is one more often than any other 
noticed by the patient and by the friends of the patient. It usually 
precedes for several nights the time when self-control gives way in 
sudden cases, and, in those cases where delusions are a long time 
forming and self-government growing weaker, the sleep is interrupted 
and frightful dreams disturb the patient. If possible, quiet sleep 
should be secured by all, and by those especially who are any way 
predisposed to mental derangement. Six or eight hours of quiet 
sleep is necessary for the continued health of all adults, and children 
require and usually take more than that. We should retire early 
enough to be ready to rise with the early light of the morning. To 
secure this amount of sleep, the mind and feelings should be calm on 
retiring. The evening should be passed in some quiet way. The 
excitement of gay parties, where the feelings get enlisted, should be 
avoided. Late suppers are also unfriendly to sound sleep. Every 
one who has had his feelings disturbed or any way excited just before 
going to bed, must remember the many restless hours that passed 
before his eyelids closed in sleep, and the many ideas that would come 
unbidden, and that he could not readily banish. 

Those who are particularly liable to attacks of insanity, — the ner- 
vous, those hereditarily predisposed, those who have once been de- 
ranged, and those who have not accustomed themselves to keep in due 
subjection their feelings by the force of their will, — should be cautious 
about losing their regular sleep. The nurse, who watches for several 
nights in succession, is in danger of having the mind disturbed ; and, 
if the feelings are strongly enlisted, like those of a mother, for the 
recovery of patients, then the danger is greatly increased of her be- 
coming nervous, of her losing her appetite, of the secretions of her 
system being vitiated, and of functional disease of her brain coming 
on. Domestic affliction, — the sickness and death of some member of 
the family, — is usually attended with watching and loss of sleep, and 
is one of the most frequent causes of insanity. If this want of sleep 
is not the primary cause of insanity, it is so obvious a departure from 
our normal state of health, that the attention of the sufferer should be 
called to it, and proper means be speedily taken to obviate it. 

The increase of the comforts of life in this community has brought 
with it a corresponding increase of facilities for dissipation. But 
happily for the community, intemperance in the use of alcoholic 
drinks is not so fashionable as formerly with all classes, and the num- 



52 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

ber made insane directly by this voluntary and insidious vice is smaller 
in the Hospital now than it was fifteen years ago. Late evening 
assemblies, where the mind and feelings get over-excited, are perni- 
cious to health. All great commotions in the community agitate the 
mind more or less extensively, and are registered in the public lunatic 
hospitals by those specially made insane by them, whether these move- 
ments are political campaigns, Miller excitements, or California fevers. 
It has been said that insanity increased with the liberty and civili- 
zation enjoyed by any community; but it is hoped that when the 
causes of this malady are extensively known, and that when the laws 
of health cannot be broken in any case with impunity, that each indi- 
vidual will be careful to avoid those causes which are the sure pre- 
cursors of this awful disease* 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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00 










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na 


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*, 


"n=s 


^ 








c 


j"" .05 


03 


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03 


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03 n3 


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T 

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ecovere 
ied, 

therwisi 
emains, 


J 


ecovere 
ied, 

therwis< 
emains, 


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ed 


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03 

u 
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ied, 

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emains 






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56 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



ts 










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go m m cotf 


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t*. ©*# 00 


a r* cmoooo 


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1 
t 


ecove 
ied, 
therw 
emair 


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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



57 



"^OJCSOO 
00 i— 1 lO 


CO co-^co »o 

CO OS «H J> i— 1 


.-. 
i— i 




rH i— 1 i— 1 ■ r-i • . . 




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I— 1 




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CO CO US »H 




>*r^ ic . . . , . 




































Of 163 admitted in 1841, there 
Recovered, 

Died, .... 
Otherwise, 
Remains, 


Of 198 admitted in 1842, there 
Recovered, 
Died, . 
Otherwise, 
Remains, . , 







58 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



By the preceding table we see at a glance what disposition, from sev- 
en to seventeen years, has been made of those patients who came into 
the Hospital the first ten years of its operations. Of fifteen hundred and 
fifty-seven only sixty-two remain ; seven hundred and thirty-four recov- 
ered ; one hundred and thirty-nine died. The others, — six hundred 
and twenty-two, — left either while convalescing, or without their con- 
dition having been improved. Some more would probably have recov- 
ered had they not been too early removed. The most obvious feature 
about this table is the very large proportion who leave the Hospital 
before the end of the third year, whether recovered or not. Those 
who recover, do so in a great majority of cases during the first year of 
their residence here ; but if they do not recover sooner, they are taken 
away before the end of their third year. A few are cured after years 
of trial, which encourages us to hope and persevere in our efforts for 
their restoration. 

TABLE 14. 

Showing the causes of Insanity as affecting persons pursuing different 

Occupations. 





a 

1 


a 


a 
.2 

03 








■a 

Is 








OCCUPATIONS. 


0) 
Q. 

2 


"3 


3 

a 


o 


s 
o 


CD 

t 


- 3 


a 
a> 

'S 


>• 

3 

c> 
7c 


O 




~ 


s 


s 


a 


W 


£ 


n 


Id 


>-5 


t- 


Farmers, 


67 


22 


30 


29 


27 


31 


4 


10 


3 


233 


Laborers, 






91 


15 


16 


8 


10 


9 


4 


7 


2 


162 


Seamen, 






34 


6 


7 


3 


7 


7 


1 





3 


68 


Merchants, . 






15 


5 


32 


5 


4 


21 


1 


3 





86 


Carpenters, 






18 


8 


10 


2 


10 


7 


3 


2 





60 


Shoemakers, 






9 


7 


29 


7 


10 


6 


2 


1 





71 


Blacksmiths, 






4 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


1 





18 


Students, 









3 


24 


2 


2 








2 





33 


Clergymen, 






1 


2 


4 





1 


1 


1 








10 


Lawyers, 






2 





2 


1 





1 











6 


Physicians, . 






2 














1 


1 








4 


Painters, 






1 


1 


11 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





19 


Manufacturers, 






9 


3 


4 


1 


4 


5 


1 








27 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



59 






00 


** -** ■>* to ct o ^ "* "* io Oi 

GO IOCM r-t rH 


00 
r-l 


Mi* <M 
CO IC C5 GO rH rH C* H5 OS "* Oi 
GO LOtH rH i— 1 j,; 


c* a t^- *» co c>? co i> c? *n Oi 

!>. tH rH i—i r- j^ 


CO 

oo 


GO 
Ci t» CO HOHWOM CO »0 
i> K5 O* rH rH rH ^ 


oo 

I-H 


-wHej-o i-fe» Oi 
OS CT y^ CO i> •** Ci © CO ** o 
GO CO CO r-i i-i r^ ^ 




co-*-* waonooo! co i> 

OS 1*5 CT rH rH ^ 


CO 
■<* 
00 


00OSO5 COCOOiJ>COCO x* OS 
GO O Oi r-tr-i 


oo 

rH 


rH CO CO GO OS tfS U5 GO ^* 6i in 
OS "St* rH i-^ i-t 


5< 
CO 
rH 


rHOirH CO "* CO "* OJ CO CO r^ 
Oi^Oi C$ T-f r* ^ 


O 

00 
r-l 


rH CO |HJ O "* i» lrt O? t-» CO W 
OilfllS OJ r-t r* ^ 


o5 

CO / 
oo 

rH 


-*) to 

0^i> -i>» lO W5 CO GO GO U5 GO 

CI rr rH <M OJ g^ 


00 
CO 
00 


co«m co oi o o co co ■** m 

GO lO rH <M rH rH rH j^ 


CO 
rl 


OS b» 4fl -rH CO CO CO O -rH CO »fl 
GO»OOJ OirHrHOl ^ 


CD 
CO 
00 
rH 


^COOi o?j>cocowco CO CO 

GO kO rH OJ rH r-ir-i ^ 


8 ' 

CO 


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(WCOQO rH^J>OiCOJ> CO CO 
GOTf rH Ci i-t Ct ,£$ 


33 

oo 

rH 


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8 .-tl rS 

SB 2 &. g 
of © oS 

05 b ~ rC X K 
o-a S , b © © 

u u to <h ™ .j-j be 

i^ ° «^ ' s « 

O , . rrt £3 fJ3 "H ^. 

2lSo J§ a &- 

I U.I. 1 3. I| 

*g O C ffi r5 Og<S« 'g g °g 
^ ^.SK^HrCrSg «>» "S^ 

53 a3 S grd g g 

O OO y O O U 

. s 3 . a cS m_ 

CD CU " © , © 

£h Ah Ah Ph 



60 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

There have been discharged 2,928, of whom 1,571 recovered, which 
is 53£ per cent. ; and 309 have died, which is 10 per cent. The 
deaths on the average residents for seventeen years is 7£ per cent. 
"At the Royal Hospital at Charenton, France, one third of recoveries 
was obtained, — a proportion which," Esquirol says, " may be honora- 
bly compared to that of any other hospital equally indiscriminate in 
admissions." 

No hospital can be more indiscriminate than this in the admission 
of patients, for here the bad have the preference by law, and yet our 
recoveries are much above what the celebrated director of one of the 
best French hospitals thought so creditable. 

Visiters. — There has been a change in regard to the promiscuous 
visitation of this Hospital this year. All visiters have not, as a matter 
of course, been taken through the wards. In the early existence of 
this Hospital, when not more than one third as many people resided in 
this immediate vicinity as this city now contains, and when railroad 
facilities of intercourse were hardly known, there were taken through, 
more or less extensively, the wards of this Hospital, and their names 
registered here, in one month, more than a thousand people. Every 
year since, this Hospital has been thronged in like manner in the 
warm season. Some publicity of an institution of this kind is well, 
especially when new, and when there was in the public mind some 
doubt of its utility and of its necessity ; but there should be some 
limit to the number and to the time of promiscuous visits. The 
effect of strangers passing through the wards is of very doubtful 
utility on the majority of recent and curable cases. The sensitive 
and timid retire on the approach of strangers to their rooms when 
they can. The violent, who are pleasurably excited and who are ever 
ready to talk with visiters, often regret, on their recovery, the occa- 
sion of the exposure of their delusions and diseased feelings. The 
chronic insane are often pleased with an opportunity of conversing 
with any one, and some of this class are not injured by judicious 
visiters. The labor of waiting upon visiters is by no means incon- 
siderable. The fact has been noted by one of your Board in your 
" Record of Monthly Visits," that the Trustees were required to 
walk, by a careful measurement and estimation made by the steward, 
more than three miles, when they made a thorough visitation of all 
the rooms and apartments of this institution. Some part of the year, — 
the travelling season, which is usually the season of sickness, too, — 
the officers here find their places any thing rather than sinecures ; but 
yet we have always been ready, when not otherwise engaged about the 
necessary duties of the Hospital, to show all visiters who were intro- 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 61 

duced, or who manifested a laudable interest in the welfare of the 
insane, to such parts of the institution as seemed most proper. This 
class of visiters, and those persons whose business called them here, 
numbered more than twenty-five a day, on an average, that were intro- 
duced to the various parts of the Hospital. Those persons who are 
any way concerned with the management of the insane, we are always 
glad to entertain and make familiar with our course of treatment of 
this unfortunate class of persons. 

Labor. — This is one of the best means of preserving the health of 
the insane ; and, under some circumstances, it is one of the most suc- 
cessful means of promoting the recovery of the mind from its delu- 
sions. Such of our patients as work, and that class especially who 
are taken almost daily into the open air for labor, are made healthier 
by their employments. They are more hearty and sleep sounder for 
it. They live longer ; and, where recovery of mental health is not 
perfected, existence is made more tolerable to them. While a man 
is engaged in manual labor his thoughts are necessarily more or less 
occupied with it, and, of course, withdrawn in the same degree from 
the channel of his delusions. Diversion of the mind from its delu- 
sions is the great moral means of its recovery. The diseased facul- 
ties are thus left in repose, and by repose they become less active. In 
the mean time the sound ones, if there are any not involved, are 
strengthened by being called into activity. If certain portions of the 
brain are the instruments of thought for particular faculties, then the 
exercise of those faculties increases the power of that part of the 
brain, and the disuse* of other faculties allows those other portions to 
become weaker, so that when the will is not of itself powerful enough 
to change the mind from unhealthy to healthy trains of thought, exer- 
cise of the body in manual labor assists the will in diverting the cur- 
rent of thoughts, or in relieving certain parts of the brain and in 
strengthening other parts. Thus it is that labor assists the insane in 
regaining their self-control. A man cannot be insane when he is able 
to control himself; he may have delusions of mind and feeling; his 
senses may be disordered ; but if he is able to discard the false im- 
pressions, to reason correctly, to know what is true and what is dis- 
ease, then he is a reasonable man and is governed by rational motives. 

In Mr. H., who was in this Hospital some fifteen years ago, the 
sense of feeling was diseased. In the night, and when he did not 
see them, his fingers would, seemingly to him, swell up as large as 
mill-logs, but, when he looked at his fingers, he knew that they were 
not swelled. On this point the delusion of feeling was corrected by 
the sense of sight. It is obvious to every one, that exercise strength- 



62 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



ens the muscular system. It is equally true that the brain of the 
thinking observant man is stronger or capable of producing greater 
results than that of the ignorant thoughtless man ; and it is also true 
that the exercise of one part of the brain increases the power of that 
part, and by repose of another part that part becomes less powerful. 

Some of the results of the labor of the males are hereafter specified 
as the products of the farm. The amount they have done cannot be 
very well estimated. As many patients as can be cared for are always 
ready to assist the farmer in plain kinds of work. A dozen or more 
are often in the field together. The field, the gardens, the shops, and 
the yards, supply labor for many of the inmates; but there are many 
others who would be better off if suitable manual labor was within 
their reach. 

The females assist in the domestic departments, and they are blessed 
in finding employment very generally in sewing and knitting. 

Besides the following, a large supply of other kinds of garden vege- 
tables was raised for the consumption of the establishment. 

Some of the products of the farm and their value, as estimated by 
the steward, comprise 

$59 50 
67 20 
22 50 
40 00 
84 50 
50 00 
26 80 
65 66 
14 07 

120 00 

58 00 

1,330 00 

449 41 

294 64 
11 70 



There has been raised for wintering the stock, 
51 tons of hay, at $10 per ton, 
1,985 bushels of carrots, at 25 cents per bushel, 
corn fodder, ...... 



70 bushels 


of corn, at 85 cents, 


168 


tt 


" potatoes, " 40 


tt 


18 


{< 


«.« dry beans, at $1 25 


tt 


40 


tt 


" green peas, " 1 00 


a 


338 


(( 


" beets, at 25 


tt 


200 


it 


" turnips, " 25 


tt 


40 


(( 


" parsnips, " 67 


tt 


98 


tt 


" onions, " 67 


tt 


21 


tt 


" apples, " 67 


a 


12,000 


pounds 


of winter squash, at $1 00 


tt 


1,450 


cabbages, at 4 cents a piece, 


. 


38,000 


quarts 


of milk, at 3£ cents, 


• 


6,914 


pounds 


of beef, •'' 6 J " 


. 


4,533 


tt 


" pork, " 6£ " 


• 


117 


a 


" poultry, " 10 «■« 


. 



$2,693 98 


. $510 00 

. 496 25 

10 00 


$1,016 25 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 63 

The farm consists of about one hundred acres of land. Ten acres 
of it the past year have been tilled. Three acres were planted with 
corn and potatoes, and the other seven were used for the common 
purposes of a garden. The remainder has been used for pasturing 
the cows in summer, and for raising hay for the consumption of the 
stock in winter. The free use of milk is every way desirable in this 
establishment. 

The stock of cattle, horses, and swine, is thrifty, and in good con- 
dition. It consists of twenty-one cows, two oxen, four horses, and 
fifty-nine swine. 

The amusements of walking, riding, reading, singing, rolling of 
the soft ball in our long halls, swinging, chess, cards, the matron's 
parties every other Thursday afternoon, and dancing parties occasion- 
ally, have the past year been kept up as formerly. They are all bene- 
ficial, as they give exercise to the body and diversion to the mind. 

Our religious services have been conducted by our chaplain, who 
has for more than eight years performed those services here in a pru- 
dent and acceptable manner. Our chapel is filled twice on the Sabbath 
with about two hundred patients and their attendants, the officers of 
the Hospital and a few strangers. It is very rare that the audience is 
not more quiet and orderly than most congregations. On the after- 
noon of each Sabbath there is a Bible class, and, at half-past eight in 
the evening each day, towards a hundred of our patients, and other 
persons in the Hospital, assemble for public religious services. Such 
of our patients as desire it, and are in a proper condition, are occa- 
sionally visited in their rooms by the chaplain. Religious teaching, 
when judiciously applied, cannot fail to be salutary to the insane as 
well as to others. No bad results have followed, but, on the contrary, 
many have expressed themselves gratified with their religious privi- 
leges here. 

To those gentlemen of the press who have so kindly sent our 
patients their several sheets, we here express the thanks of our inmates, 
and will make them the poor return of sending them, prepaid, this 
report. The printing offices of this city offer us liberally of their 
exchange papers, and the Rev. Mr. Norris often sends us a large 
bundle from the office of the Olive Branch. 

But very few of the insane are in a condition to read with profit 
long and elaborate treatises on any subject. The short articles found 
in the newspapers just meet their wants. The local news in papers 
from the various parts of this State find readers in this institution 
particularly interested in them. Each periodical sent here is wel- 



64 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

corned by a class of patients who daily and weekly peruse it for some- 
thing that reminds them of home. 

Our library for the patients' use has been often resorted to by them. 
About fifty dollars has been expended in replenishing it the past year. 

My associates in the management of this institution deserve special 
commendation for their self-denial and faithfulness in the discharge of 
the several duties assigned them. There are now seventy of us em- 
ployed in the various departments. In making selections to fill any 
vacancies that occur from time to time, we endeavor to obtain from 
our most worthy class of citizens those best fitted for the places. 
None but kind, faithful, and upright persons can discharge their 
duties here acceptably. The usefulness and the success of the Hos- 
pital depends, in a great degree, upon the manner in which the plans 
for its management are carried out. Those employed the past year 
have generally given entire satisfaction in the performance of their 
trying duties, and we hope to be aided by their valuable services 
through the coming year. 

Most respectfully, 

GEO. CHANDLER. 

Worcester, Mass., ) 
Dec. 1st, 1849. ) 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



65 



S IB 



£ - 



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o> o c g 








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02: fa si ft oSftM cfcot- ok fa as 



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"3 '5 '5 .2 -§ '5 -§ .2 - 5 '« - S .£ i 2. '5 .2 '5 



r- r* rr _5 rrt 



2;a g-a g^-s 



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■= o-s S o-§ o-o.b §.b o o g eg o o Sg-o-o.gb g.g" o b g O.S 

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Z m Z Z Z Z Z» Z Z Z^Z Z 



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5 inches snow fell. 

Snow squalls about 7 A. M. 

Commenced snowing at 6 A. M. 2 inches 
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Snow storm.' 4 inches snow fell. 

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Slight fall of snow at 3 P. M. 

Squalls. 

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Slight fall of snow at 4 P. M. 

Commenced snowing at 8 P.M. Wind N.E. 

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Snow falling during the day. Wind S. E. 
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Snow and rain. 


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High winds. 

Daphne mezereum in blossom. 

Sowed peas. 

Warm and pleasant. 

Storm began 11 A. M. Wind S. W. 

High winds. 

l.eatherwood and Elm in blossom. 

High winds. 

Blackbirds appeared. 
Red Maple and Willow in blossom. 
Windy. Fast Day. 
Trailing Arbutus in blossom. 
Squalls. High winds. Snow. 
High winds. Snow squalls. 
Cool high winds. 
Aurora borealis Moderate. 
Sky overcast. Rain. Wind N. E. 
Snow in the night ]£ inches. 
High winds. Crocus in blossom. 
Clear. Daffodil in blossom. 
Rain. Wind S. E. 
Grape and Hyaeinch in blossom. 
Rain in the night. Viola tricolor. 
Warm. 
Anemone. 

Dwarf red Tulip in blossom. 
Rain at 1 P. M. Wind S. E. [guinaria. 
Shepherdia. Dandelion. Sax'fraga. San- 
Frost. Liverwort. Cinquefoil. 


Inches 

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Rain. 


.15 

.20 

1.20 

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Periwinkle, Scotch Larch. Martins and 
Houstonia, Crown Imperial, Violet. [Bob- 
Pyrus Japonica. [olinks appeared. 
High winds. Showers. Swallows appeared. 
Rain. Hyacinth. Narcissus. 
Cherry Tree. Cowslip. [tree. 
Shad Bush. Wild Strawberry. Peach 
Wild Columbine. Blue Berry. Rain in 
Phlox Paniculata. [the night. 
Rain in the morning. 

Wild Indigo. Life Everlasting. Plum 
Common Currant. [tree. 
Rain at 11 A. M. Wind S. E. 
Showers in the afternoon. 
White Violet. Ginseng. Golden Rob- 
Creeping Elder. [ins appeared. 
Moss Pink. Buttercup. 
Tulip. Apple tree. 
Warm. Wild Cherry. 
High winds. 

Warm and smoky. Ladies Slipper. 
Pear Tree. Oak. [Daisy. 
Shower last night. Flowering Almond. 
Horse Chestnut. Lilac. Geranium mac- 
[ulatum. 
Warm. 
Peony. White Clover. 

Wild Columbine. 
Fleur de Lis. 




Inches 

of 
Rain. 


.06 
.05 

.25 

1.50 
.30 

.25 
.10 

.40 

.15 

.50 




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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



79 



MANAGERS OF THE HOSPITAL. 



Names. 


Service Began. 


Present Duties. 


Compensation. 


Stephen Salisbury, of Wor- 


October, 1837 


Trustee, President 


Expenses. 


cester, 




of the Board, . 




Stephen C. Phillips, of Sa- 


February, 1844 


Trustee, 


u 


lem, .... 








William Appleton, of Bos- 
ton, .... 
Levi Lincoln, of Worces- 


February, 1849 


Trustee, 


u 


February, 1849 


Trustee, Secretary 


a 


ter, .... 




of the Board, . 




Ensign H. Kellogg, of 


February, 1849 


Trustee. 


u 


Pittsfield, . 








Samuel Jennison, office at 


March, 1847 


Treasurer, . 


$450 per annum. 


the Institution for Sav- 








ings, Worcester, . 








George Allen, room at No. 


October, 1841 


Chaplain, 


$600 per annum, 


75 Summer Street, Wor- 






board, room rent, 


cester, 






fuel, lights, and 
washing. 


RESIDENTS AT THE HOS- 








PITAL. 








George Chandler, 


Mar. 28, 1833 


Superintendent, . 


#1800 per annum, 
board of self and 
family, services 
of a girl, keep- 
ing for 1 horse. 


John T. Mirick, , . 


Oct. 20, 1837 


Supervisor, . ) 


$400 per annum. 


Phebe S. Mirick, 




Dec. 26, 1838 


Supervisor, . ^ 


John R. Lee, 




April 28, 1842 


Ass't Physician, . 


#700 " 


Thomas Hill, . 




Sept. 24, 1846 


Steward, 


#500 " 


Elizabeth A. Reid, 




Feb. 1, 1848 


Matron, 


#200 " 


Edward A. Smith, 




Feb. 17,1848 


Clerk, 


$100 " 


Merrick Bemis, 




Nov. 15, 1848 


Ass't Physician, . 


#600 " 


Catherine Raynes, 




April 29, 1833 


Laundess, . 


#1 75 per week. 


Samuel Preston, 


. 


Nov. 1, 1837 


Coachman, . 


#16 " month. 


Lucy Ann Chapman, 


Oct. 30, 1841 


Cook, 


$2 " week. 


Mrs. Isabella P. Thomas, . 


Nov. 29, 1843 


Cook, . ) 


#300 " annum. 


Orison Thomas, 


April 1, 1844 


Cook, . £ 


Joseph H. Heywood, 


April 1, 1846 


Farmer, 


$16 " month. 


William Sherburn, . 


June 26, 1846 


Cook, 


$196 " annum. 


Abby Upham, 


Dec. 3, 1846 


Table Girl, 


$2 " week. 


Daniel Lummis, 


Feb. 25, 1847 


Overseer Laundry, 


$196 " annum. 


Emery Wilson, 


Mar. 23, 1847 


Cook, . } 


$300 " " 


Mrs. Melissa Wilson, 


Mar. 23, 1847 


Cook, . \ 


Royal Cutler, . 


Mar. 29, 1847 


Cook, . ? 


$300 " " 


Mrs. Hannah M. Cutler, . 


Mar. 29, 1847 


Cook, . $ 


Elisha G. Partridge, 


. 


April 1, 1847 


Attendant, . 


$16 " month. 



80 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Names. 


Service Began. 


Present Duties. 


Compensation. 


Lucy B. Carey, 


April 8, 1847 


Attendant, . 


$2 per week. 


William Hamilton, . 


May 10, 1847 


Cook, 


#196 


" annum. 


Mrs. Sarah J. Sherburn, . 


Sept. 13,1847 


Cook, 


#2 


" week. 


Sarah Carey, . 


Oct. 28, 1847 


Attendant, . 


#2 


a u 


Catherine Dody, 


Nov. 1, 1847 


Laundress, . 


$2 


u u 


Sophia Eastabrooks, 


Nov. 10, 1847 


Attendant, . 


$2 


a a 


Cynthia Beckey, 


Mar. 3, 1848 


Cook, 


#2 


a a 


Artemas Jones, 


Mar. 15, 1848 


Attendant, . 


#15 


" month. 


George T. King, 
Mrs. Sarah A. King, 


Mar. 30, 1848 
Mar. 30, 1848 


Baker, . ) 
Pastry Cook, $ 


$350 


" annum. 


William H. Day, . 


April 7, 1848 


Farmer, 


#15 


" month. 


Mrs. Harriet Hamilton, 


June 15, 1848 


Cook, 


$2 


" week. 


Catherine Kennedy, 


Sept. 4, 1848 


Laundress, . 


$2 


a u 


Lucy M. Lummis, . 


Sept. 22, 1848 


Assistant, . 


$2 


u << 


Ralph Ewins, 


Oct. 5, 1848 


Attendant, . 


#15 


" month. 


Lydia C. Cheney, 


Oct. 26, 1848 


Laundress, . 


#2 


" week. 


Horace W. Bigelow, 


Dec. 11, 1848 


Attendant, . 


#14 


" month. 


Mrs. Louisa Bigelow, 


Dec. 11, 1848 


Attendant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Lucretia Faulkner, . 


Mar. 5, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


U it 


Isaac P. Mellen, 


Mar. 8, 1849 


Farmer, 


#14 


" month. 


Russell C. Bradley, . 


Mar. 14, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


a a 


Amy Bradley, 


Mar. 14, 1849 


Assistant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Charles Fay, . 


Mar. 19, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


" month. 


Mrs. Emeline Fay, . 


Mar. 19, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Thomas Chamberlin, 


Mar. 31, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


" month. 


Mrs. Regina Chamberlin, . 


Mar. 31, 1849 


Chambermaid, 


#2 


" week. 


Nelson B. Gale, 


Mar. 31, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


" month. 


William B. Moore, . 


April 2, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


" " 


Levi L. Bacon, 


April 3, 1849 


Watchman, 


#14 


« «< 


Perry Cheever, 


April 10, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


a a 


Mrs. Maria E. Heywood, . 


April 25, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Mary E. Burgess, . 


May 3, 1849 


Laundress, . 


#2 


u u 


Lucy E. Stowe, 


May 15,1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


a u 


R. M. L. Wheelock, 


May 21, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


u « 


Abby W. Bacon, 


June 11, 1849 


Assistant. . 


#2 


U (1 


Catherine L. Folger, 


July 9, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


u u 


Eliza F. Richardson, 


July 18, 1849 


Nursery Maid, 


#2 


u a 


Abby Lewis, . 


July 23, 1849 


Sempstress, 


#2 


u u 


Simon Rogers, 


Aug. 30, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


" month. 


Benjamin Hill, 


Sept. 6, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#14 


U (( 


Mrs. Emma E. Hill, 


Sept. 6, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Joseph Miles, Jun., . 


Sept. 13, 1849 


Assistant, . 


#14 


" month. 


Mrs. Martha R. Miles, 


Sept. 13, 1849 


Assistant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Erastus P. Dart, 


Oct, 2, 1849 


Assistant, . 


#14 


" month. 


Sabrina Chamberlin, 


Oct. 8, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


" week. 


Emily Sawtell, 


Oct. 13, 1849 


Attendant, . 


#2 


« « 


Jane P. Smith, 


Oct. 30, 1849 


Dress Maker, 


#2 


U a 


Amos Wood, house 28, 


April 00, 1832 


Carpenter, . 


#475 " annum. 


Summer Street, . 










Benjamin C. Marsh, house 


April 2,1849 


Carpenter, . 


#150" day. 


28 Summer Street, 











APR 2 5'39W.P,A.