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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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EIGHTEENTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



AT WORCESTER 



DECEMBER, 1850, 



BOS TON: 

DUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS, 

No. 37, Congress Street. 

1851. 



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EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OE THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



DECEMBER, 1850. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council : 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital respectfully submit their 
Eighteenth Annual Report. 

From the accompanying report of the Superintendent, it appears 
that there were 429 patients in the Hospital at the commencement of 
the past year ; that 241 patients were admitted and 229 discharged ; 
that 670 persons thus became patients during the course of the year, 
and that 441 remained such at its close. The largest monthly aver- 
age is shown to be 454, (in August,) and the average for the year, 440. 

The number of admissions is not so large as during each of the two 
preceding years. The number of discharges is smaller. The number 
and also the proportion of deaths is larger than in any preceding year. 
The proportion of recoveries slightly exceeds the average of the entire 
term of seventeen years during which the Hospital has been in operation. 

Of the number of patients at the close of the year, 181 are state 
paupers and 1G9 are foreigners. The statement of this fact discloses 
a recent and rapid change in the character of the institution, which 
should be duly regarded by the Legislature. As the institution ad- 
vances in age, there is also, of necessity, a gradual accumulation of 
incurable cases, in which discharges cannot properly be granted. 
From the operation of these two causes, it is plain that, unless pro- 
vision be made elsewhere, this Hospital, in a very few years, must be 
appropriated to the accommodation of the incurable and of state pau- 
pers, to the exclusion of almost all other patients. 

As has been stated in former reports, the Hospital, with its succes- 
sive enlargements, is fitted to accommodate not more than 375 patients. 
It is seen that during the year the Superintendent has been obliged to 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

provide, as well as he could, for upwards of 450 patients, and there Is 
every reason to suppose that the number will continue to increase. 
The Trustees cannot recommend a further enlargement of the Hos- 
pital ; but they deem it their duty to represent to the Legislature that 
no such institution can be conducted as it should be, if required, for 
any length of time, to receive more patients than can be suitably 
accommodated. If another Hospital should be established, they would 
respectfully suggest, that the important object of a classification of 
patients may be more satisfactorily accomplished than it can be under 
existing circumstances. 

Except that it is overcrowded with patients, the Hospital is at this 
time in a particularly satisfactory condition. The Trustees are not 
aware of many important wants that remain to be supplied, as respects 
the state of the buildings and grounds, or of any change which should 
be made in the organization and administration of the government. 
The completion of the new strong rooms for males and females has 
accomplished all, which, as yet, seems to be practicable alike for the 
security and comfort of the violent insane. The construction of addi- 
tional clothes-rooms, and the extension and improved arrangement of 
the fixtures in the laundry, have greatly facilitated the daily operations 
in one of the most important of the interior departments. The intro- 
duction of gas, if, at its present cost, it should not promote a diminu- 
tion of expenditure, will undoubtedly prove, in other respects, the 
most advantageous mode of lighting such an establishment. 

The Trustees resident in Worcester have had the opportunity of 
observing that the farm has been in all respects well managed, and the 
results are fully exhibited in the Superintendent's report. It now con- 
tains what is deemed a sufficient quantity of land ; and if it be not and 
cannot be made a source of great profit, it is far from being a pecu- 
niary burden, while it affords many conveniences and advantages 
which experience constantly proves to be of great importance to a 
hospital for the insane. 

It has been an object of the Trustees, during the past year, to de- 
vote a portion of the surplus earnings which had accumulated in the 
treasury, to the comro.cncemcnt of some necessary repairs both within 
and without the buildings. A good deal of work has been done in a 
thorough manner under the supervision of the Superintendent, as is 
shown in his report ; and, with a continuance of this policy for the 
few next years, the buildings and grounds may be placed in a more 
permanent good condition than has heretofore been aimed at. 

The Treasurer's report will show that the receipts and expenditures 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 5 

for the year have been nearly equal, the balance in the treasury at 
the close of the year but slightly exceeding the balance at its com- 
mencement. This balance must be materially reduced in providing 
for the repairs which are contemplated ; but, in view of contingencies 
always liable to occur, it is deemed important that it should not be 
exhausted. 

The rate of board of patients, as charged during the last, and estab- 
lished for the next year, is $2.25 per week, — a rate as low as is con- 
sistent with a pi'oper regard to comfortable accommodation and the 
supply of good food, and which can only be maintained by the most judi- 
cious and economical management on the part of the Superintendent. 

The awful calamity which has recently occurred at the Insane Hos- 
pital in Maine, makes it proper that the Trustees should represent to 
the Legislature the means of guarding against and of escaping from 
the dangers of fire, which are provided at this Hospital. 

The Hospital establishment is so remote from other buildings that 
there is no risk of fire unless it should originate upon its own premises. 
It is scarcely possible that a fire should commence in any of the out- 
buildings in the day-time, and at night no fires are kept there, and the 
only lights used are lanterns of the safest construction, which are en- 
trusted exclusively to careful attendants. Within the main buildings 
no fires are kindled except in the furnaces placed in the basement, in 
the cooking ranges in the kitchen, and in a few stoves in the central 
building, in apartments occupied by ofiicers. The cooking ranges, 
while they are in use, are under the supervision of attendants, and 
they are so constructed and managed that they cannot be considered 
as at all dangerous. There are fifteen furnaces ; and, upon a recent 
reexamination, careful mechanics could not discover any cause of 
danger, arising from their construction, location, or present want of 
repair. There is no wood-work of any description which is connected 
with the furnaces, or the smoke and warm-air flues proceeding there- 
from. All the interior partitions in the halls, occupied by the patients, 
are of brick, and have been plastered without the use of any wooden 
furrings or laths. The furnace flues are built in connection with these 
partitions, and, like them, are composed entirely of bn'ck, plastered 
on both sides. The halls are now lighted with oil or gas, and, in a 
short time, will be lighted exclusively with the latter. No lights are 
carried about the house excepting lanterns, and these always in the 
hands of officers or attendants. All lights, except in the apartments 
occupied by officers, and in rooms of the sick under the care of 
.attendants, are regularly extinguished at an early hour in the evening ; 



6' STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

and, as soon as the lights are extinguished, the watchman commences 
his nightly patrol, and is required during the night to visit every fur- 
nace three or four times, and to perform such a course of examination, 
both inside and outside of the buildings, that it would seem that he 
must be seasonably apprized of any cause of danger. 

If, however, under circumstances not foreseen, a fire should break 
out in any part of the buildings, all ordinary, and some extraordinary, 
means have been provided, for promptly arresting it ; and it is be- 
lieved that, in any supposable case, it will not be difficult to put out a 
fire, in whatever part of the Hospital, with very little delay after it is 
discovered. 

In various modes an inexhaustible supply of water may be availed 
of, and it is scarcely possible that it should be cut off. Besides a rain- 
water cistern of more than 2,C00 gallons, near the central building, 
and a large well by the side of the south wing, an iron aqueduct, lead- 
ing from a reservoir supplied by springs and elevated more than a 
hundred feet above the site of the Hospital, has been conducted within 
the premises, and is made to keep constantly filled six cisterns, each 
of the capacity of 400 gallons, which are placed at intervals in the 
attic story, and can be easily reached in several directions,. If a fire 
should commence anywhere upon the inside in the vicinity of the 
roof, an abundance of water may be at once obtained from these cis- 
terns for the purpose of extinguishing it. Water from this aqueduct is 
also conveyed in pipes into every part of the Hospital, and is delivered 
by taps and faucets in every hall, so that each attendant can have 
immediate access to it. 

In addition to the Hospital aqueduct, a branch of the city aqueduct, 
proceeding from a reservoir of still greater elevation and capacity, has 
been brought near the eastern entrance, and a hydrant, connected with 
it, occupies a convenient position not far distant from the central build- 
ing. A hose is fitted to this hydrant, of sufficient length to be so 
placed that it will throw a large volume of water upon any part of the 
roof of even the most remote wing. The management of the hose, 
as connected with the hydrant, is entrusted to a portion of the subordi- 
nate officers and attendants, who are specially detailed for this duty, 
and are regularly trained, by formal practice at least once a month, to 
the efficient pcrfotmance of it. It is expected of the hose-men, as 
soon as an alarm of fir", is given, to get out the hose-cart immediately, 
and to connect the hose ^yith the hydrant ; and they are to ren-wiin in 
readiness to operate the hose in any direction, at the instant of receiv- 
ing an order from the Superintendent. If every other resource should 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 7 

fail, it would seem that the use of the hose alone might be sufficient to 
put out a fire anywhere, even after it should have made considerable 
progress. Its working power is much superior to that of any engine, 
and a much smaller amount of labor is sufficient to manage it. 

The Hospital is thus shown to possess within itself ample means of 
protection against fire. But' it is not required to rely upon itself alone. 
Although sufficiently removed from other buildings to be in no danger 
from a fire originating elsewhere, it is still situated near the centre of 
the city of Worcester, and can always command, at the shortest no- 
tice, the services of a numerous and efficient fire department, with its 
engines, ladders, and other apparatus, as well also as the active ser- 
vices of a large population, no where exceeded in skill, energy, and 
public spirit. Suction engines may be at once attached to the city 
hydrants in front of the Hospital, and a sufficient quantity of hose will 
always be in readiness to conduct water from that direction to any 
and all parts of the establishment. 

With such a variety of resources at command, the Trustees have 
come to the conclusion that no reasonable apprehension can be enter- 
tained of the security of this Hospital against fire. If a fire should 
occur and make extensive progress, it would in most cases be practi- 
cable, with judicious arrangements on the part of the officers, to re- 
move the patients and prevent the loss of life. The Superintendent 
has carefully considered supposable contingencies, and, as far as pos- 
sible, is prepared to overcome all difficulties which can be anticipated. 

The report of the Superintendent will enable the Legislature and 
the public to understand, — in respect even to the most minute de- 
tails, — in what manner and with what success the administration of 
the Hospital has been conducted by Dr. Chandler. The Trustees are 
unanimous in expressing their entire satisfaction with his discharge of 
the very arduous duties that have devolved upon him. That the health 
and comfort of the patients have been in all respects provided for ; 
that the medical treatment has been judicious and skilful ; that quiet 
and good order have been steadily maintained ; that the most exact 
regularity has been enforced in every department ; and that the ex- 
penditures have been in all respects sufficiently economical, the Trus- 
tees entertain not the slightest doubt. They have not received a com- 
plaint of neglect or mismanagement from any quarter ; and the rela- 
tions between the Superintendent and subordinate officers, and between 
both of them and the patients, are manifestly such as indicate the 
prevalence of mutual respect and good will, and of moi'e than usual 
readiness to sympathize and cooperate with each other. The Trustees 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

are satisfied that the subordinate officers generally deserve the com- 
mendation which is bestowed upon them by the Superintendent. 

It deserves also to be stated, in this connection, that the relations 
between the Hospital and the citizens of Worcester continue to be, 
as they have always been, entirely amicable and harmonious. The 
patients, as they pass through the streets, seldom suffer any annoy- 
ance, or are treated otherwise than with courtesy and kindness ; there 
are no attempts to commit trespasses or make disturbances within the 
Hospital enclosures ; and many proofs are afforded of the deep inter- 
est which is generally felt in the success of the institution, and the 
welfare of its inmates. 

This Hospital has been in successful operation for the period of 
eighteen years. Not less than 3,598 patients have been admitted ; 
366 have died ; 6 have eloped ; 1,691 have been " discharged recov- 
ered ;" 456 have been " discharged improved ;" and 648, " not im- 
proved,'''' and for the most part incurable, have been sent away to be 
taken care of by their friends, or in county asylums, or town alms- 
houses, either upon the application of those interested in their welfare 
or liable for their support, or because the Trustees found it necessary 
to direct their removal as the only means of making room for other 
patients entitled to admission, and who might prove to be " curable.'''' 
Of the whole number received into the Hospital, 2,445 have been 
committed by order of the courts, and 1,153 have been taken as pri- 
vate boarders. It will be seen upon referring to the tables, that the 
proportion of the sexes has been singularly equal, alike in respect to 
the number of admissions, the number of discharges, and the number 
of recoveries. The number of " single" patients is also shown to be 
^just about equal to the number of those who were at the time or had 
been married. In point of age, there have been during almost every 
year a few patients upwards of 70, and occasionally some upwards of 
80 years old ; a small number, averaging, of late, from 15 to 20 annu- 
ally, under 20 years of age ; while the large remainder is variously 
distributed amongst intervening periods, the principal part appcanng 
. to have been between 20 and 50 years of age. Of the whole number 
of deaths, 17 have been caused by suicide, and 349 by the several 
diseases which arc specified in Table 13, included in the Superintend- 
ent's Report. The causes of the insanity of patients for the term of 
18 years are carefully detailed in Tables 7 and 8, and the average 
annual number of cases attributable to the more prominent causes is 
shown in Table 15. It is gratifying to perceive that the proportion of 
cases produced by intemperance and vice has been strikingly dimin- 
ished during the last few years. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 9 

The total amount of "current expenses" for eighteen years, is 
.$544,967 52, averaging $118 75 annually for each patient. Under 
this head are included all expenses paid for the support of the Hos- 
pital, with the exception of what have been defrayed by special appro- 
priations made by the Legislature for the purchase of land and the 
erection of buildings, and the payment of the salaries of Superintend- 
ent, one Assistant Physician, Treasurer, Steward and Matron. To 
compare the last year with the first, the amount of expenditure has 
increased from $12,272 91 to $46,776 13, while the average number 
of patients has advanced from 107 to 440. 

The several visitations required by law, — monthly, semi-annual and 
annual, — have been performed by the Board, and the usual record has 
been made of them.* 

The Hospital has been fortunately, thus far, under the charge of 
but two superintendents. The death of Dr. Woodward, which oc- 
cured during the last year, is properly referred to in the report of Dr. 
Chandler. The fidelity of friendship is not more conspicuous than 
the love of truth and an accurate discrimination of character in 
the tribute which is therein recorded to the memory of one of the 
best of men. This Hospital may henceforth be regarded, and, by the 
grateful hearts of a long succession of trustees, officers and patients, 
it will be always recognized, as the Woodward Monument. The 
evidence of what he was and what he did for the institution is indeli- 
bly inscribed upon all its buildings and all its grounds. The influence 
of his presence is still felt in every ward, in every workshop, in the 
office, the chapel, the kitchen, the laundry, the garden, and the fields. 
The benediction of his smile is scarcely yet withdrawn from the 
gloomiest cell ; while the results of his judicious arrangements, and 
the manifold proofs of his practical wisdom, are and must long con- 
tinue to be everywhere discernible. In the connection in which the 
subject is now introduced, the Trustees are prompted to acknowledge 
that he performed one of his most important benefactions to the Hos- 
pital in training for its service a worthy successor.f 

* A large part of the time and labor necessary for this purpose is exacted of the resident 
members of the Board ; and it well becomes their associates, in reference to this and many 
other duties, to concur with the Superintendent in making a due acknowledgment of the 
cheerfulness with which they assumed their greatly disproportionate share of the burthens of 
the past year, and of the remarkable fidelity with which they discharged all the trusts de- 
volving upon them. S. C. P. 

W. A. 
E. H. K. 

t The follo>\ing extract from the Record of the Monthly Visitation, immediately succeed- 
ing the death of Dr. Woodward, Is a " memorial" such as might be expected from a former 

2 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The Superintendent has seen fit to refer in respectful terms to the 
successive Boards of Trustees with whom he has been officially con- 
nected, and especially to commemorate the merits and services of 
those members who have ceased to be among the living. As the entire 
catalogue of Trustees is exhibited in the annual report, it is shown to 

member of the Board of Trustees, than whom none knew Dr. Woodward more thoroughly, 
or had cooperated with him more efficiently in the service of the Hospital : — 

" January 7, 1850. 

" It is proper that this record should contain a memorial of a recent event of Providence, 
which deeply interests the feelino^s, not only of all concerned in the administration of this 
Hospital and of all who are or have been recipients of its benefits, but of the friends of Ihe 
insane within this Commonweallh, and throughout and beyond the extent of our country. 

" On the 3d inst. at 6 o'clock, P. M., Hon. Samuel Bayard Woodward, the first Superin- 
tendent of this Hospital, died at his residence at Northampton. For several weeks he had 
sufiered successive attacks of the severely painful disease which affected him while at the 
Hospital. By these attacks, it is understood that his constitution seemed to be so impaired, 
that a restoration to his former health was not confidently expected ; but the immediate 
cause of his death was found to be the rupture of an aneurism of the aorta, just above the 
diaphragm. 

" Dr. Woodward was born at Torringford, Conn., on the 10th of June, 1787. In early life 
ho established an extensive medical practice in Wcathersfield, Conn., and the adjacent towns, 
with great success and reputation. In the year 1830, the confidence of his fellow-citizens 
called him to the civil service of his native Slate in the office of a member of the State 
Senate. He directed his studies to the subject of insanity, and had considerable experience 
in the treatment of mental disease before he v.as connected with this Hospital. He was 
appointed Superintendent on the 2Cth of September, 1832, before the Hospital was opened 
for patients, and continued in office till June 30th, 1846, — a term of nearly fourteen years, — in 
which he applied to his laborious duties all the powers of his body and his mind with little 
indulgence for social pleasure or domestic comfort, or even for the demands of exhausted 
nature or painful disease. At the date of his resignation, he had had charge In the Hospital 
of 2642 patients, of whom nearly all received perceptible benefit, and more than half the 
number should pray for blessings on him, as one who had raised them from death to life. 
The system of this Hospital was in many respects peculiar and new, and it was chiefly 
instituted liy him. His example has always been recognized here as a perpetual presence 
by his worthy successor, who carries on the same good work with distinguished ability and 
success. His copious reports, which were appropriate to such an institution, and his occa- 
sional writings, gave him authority and wide-spread influence, and he had the happiness to 
sec the fruits of his benevolent labors in other institutions established or improved in ac- 
cordance with his wise suggestions, and in the progress of more correct opinions on the 
subject of insanity. 

" For the important office of a superintendent of a hospital for the insane, Dr. Woodward 
had extraordinary (luallfications in his person, his disposition and his mind. Ilis person was 
a rare model of strength and manly beauty. On his brow sat courtesy and command in 
entire harmony, and it is no exaggeration to say, that his form and carriage were majestic. 
His stature was 6 feet 2^ inches, and, without the deformity of obesity, his weight was 260 
pounds. His temper was benevolent, liberal, sanguine, decided, and persevering. He un- 
derstood readily the characters of men, had great power over their feelings, and easily 
gained their confidence and love. He was prompt and systematic in business, and unspar- 
ing in labor. His mind was of a practical character. His powers of observation were 
vigilant and discriminating } and expression and life rather than books were the chosen sub- 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 11 

have been the privilege of many distinguished citizens to share the 
labors and responsibilities, and therewith the peculiar satisfactions and 
even pleasures, inseparable from the office. Called upon, as they are, 
to act as the Christian representatives of the State government in rela- 
tion to a class of citizens who can hope for nothing except from a gov- 
ernment which recognizes Christian duties, appointed always in disre- 
gard of political and religious divisions, and subject, of course, to the 
influence of none other than the highest and purest motives, and the 
most interesting and agreeable associations, all who hold the office 
may congratulate themselves upon the true honor to which they have 
attained, as well as upon the opportunity of usefulness which is placed 
within their reach. The Superintendent has made a just acknowl- 
edgment of the extent to which this opportunity was improved by 
the deceased ex-members of the Board. Their memory is blessed by 
the labors which they performed in behalf of this institution, and their 
example remains for the guidance and encouragement of all succes- 
sors. As, under the salutary operation of the peculiar organization of 
the Board, each member in his turn is expected to retire from this 
important sphere of duty, it is gratifying to reflect that he may always 
carry away with him the assurance, that, whatever service has been 
faithfully undertaken here, cannot, through the kindness with which it 
is regarded, have been rendered in vain. 

In conclusion, the Trustees earnestly commend a favorite institution 
of the people to the continued support of the Legislature. May the 
blessing of Heaven rest upon the Hospital, and upon all who are, or 
shall become, connected with it, as trustees, officers, attendants or 
patients ; and may it prove to be the constant effect of the various 

jects of his studies. Hence his thoughts had a freshness and confidence of truth, which car- 
ried them to the hearts of men. Ail that he learnt he kept in readiness for use, and he en- 
forced his arguments with copious illustrations. His quick invention, under the control of 
sound judgment and common sense, gave him abundant resources for the many exigencies 
of his arduous office. His attention was not confined to the circle of his own pursuits. 
Being a watchful observer of the signs of the times, he was ready to give his sympathy and 
aid to such objects as he approved. He retired with a physical system wasted and disor- 
dered by the labors and anxieties, inseparable from his position here, to a beautiful estate at 
Northampton, where, for a time, he seemed to find the benefit which he sought. He had the 
care of several unfortunate victims of mental disease, and still continued his studies in the 
science in which he was so eminent, and was sought, for his wise counsels, in ordinary medi- 
cal practice, as he had been in all his industrious life. Highly blessed in his domestic rela- 
tions and in the large circle of his friendship, prosperous in the great objects of his life, 
and beloved and honored in the world, he was called away, when the cup of his earthly hap- 
piness was full. While we mourn the loss of our friend and guide, strangers will unite 
their voices with ours to lament that the presence and example of the strong reaper has been 
removed, though the rich harvest of his good work remains." 

(Signed) Stephen Salisburt. 



12 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

relations which are sustained here to promote the diffusion of benevo- 
lent sentiments, to facilitate the interchange of kind offices, to strengthen 
the ties of human brotherhood, and thus to contribute to the distinctive 
glory of Massachusetts as a Christian Commonwealth ! 

(Signed,) STEPHEN C. PHILLIPS, 
WILLIAM APPLETON, 
LEVI LINCOLN, 
ENSIGN H. KELLOGG, 
JOHN S. C. KNOWLTON. 

State Lunatic Hospital, \ 
Idth December, 1850. ] 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



13 



TREASURER'S REPORT 



To His Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Executive Council 
of Massachusetts : 

The Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital, as required by law, 
presents the following Report on the finances of the institution : — 



The balance in the hands of the Treasurer, as stated in 
his last report, was ....... 

Received within the year ending November 30, 1850, 
from the State, for the support of lunatic paupers, and 
from cities, towns and individuals, .... 

Received for articles sold, and accounted for by the 
steward, ......... 



$14,134 28 



48,050 33 



286 33 



$62,470 94 



The expenditures in the year ending November 30, 1850, have been 

as follows : — 
For salaries, wages and labor, ..... $11,655 74 
Improvements and repairs, ...... 3,303 56 

Furniture, clothing, &c., 3,268 04 

Fuel— Wood, 626 cords, . . . $3,028 54 

Coal, 222/^ tons,, . . . 1,532 40 

Charcoal, 2756 bushels, . . 323 25 



Gas light, including pipes and apparatus, 
Provisions — Flour, 573 barrels, . 

Meal, 1,044 bushels, . 

Rice, 3,105 pounds, . 

Biscuit, . . . . . ^ 

Potatoes, 1,796 bushels. 

Beans, 20 bushels, . 

Apples, $774 79 ; other fresh fruits. 

Butter, 24,737 pounds. 

Cheese, 10,463 pounds, 

Lard, 730 pounds, . 

Salt fish, 10,100 pounds, . 



$118 



90, 



4,884 19 
878 76 

3,586 32 
781 95 
136 74 
174 63 
822 43 
35 87 
893 69 

4,129 43 

598 69 

59 18 

299 62 



14 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Mackerel and halibut, .... $56 75 

Fresh fish, 2,937 pounds, .... 88 14 

Beef and pork, 67,035 pounds, . . . 4,357 28 

Salt pork and hams, 3,304 pounds, . . 262 50 

Poultry, 799 pounds, .... 87 89 

Molasses and syrup, 1,551 gallons, . . 428 43 

Honey, 159 gallons, .... 93 80 

Sugar, 22,512 pounds, .... 1,55483 

Tea, 1,615 pounds, 549 10 

Coffee, 1,122 pounds, .... 491 38 

Small groceries and fruits, . . . 220 72 

Vinegar and cider, . . . . . 137 26 

Salt, 44 22 

Medical supplies, drugs, &c , . . . . . 364 93 

Soap, $109 52 ; lime, $77 12 ; starch, $29 80, . . 216 44 

Stationary, books, &c., . . . . . . 63 02 

Freight of wood and other articles, . . . . 443 80 

Straw, 46,700 pounds, 167 79 

Trustees' expenses, ....... 32 00 

Music and clerk-hire, $15 04 ; expenses of chaplain, $29 92, 44 96 
Expenses of officers in travelling on business of the 
Hospital, $47 84 ; in recovering elopers, $15 95, . 
Postage, ......... 

Sexton's bills, ........ 

Removal of persons deceased, and charges placed to 
accounts of patients, ...... 

Six cows, $198 50 ; oxen, $90 ; bull, $25; ten pigs, $148 44, 
Damage for diverting water by aqueduct, paid Wm. Hovey, 



63 79 

32 04 

365 00 

139 28 
461 94 
500 00 



Balance, November 30th, 1850, 



$46,776 13 
15,694 81 

$62,470 94 



Of the appropriation for the construction of additional 
Strong Rooms in the Hospital, the balance on hand, 
November 30th, 1849, was $4,742 98 

The expenditures of the year have been, . . . 3,731 29 

The balance unexpended is . . . . $ 1 ,0 1 1 69 

Respectfully submitted, 

SAM'L J^NNISON, Treasureh. 
Worcester, Dec. 17, 1850. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 15 



SUPEHINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



Eighteenth Annual Report of the Superintendent to the Trustees of the 
State Lunatic Hospital. 

Gentlemen : — Another year of Hospital life has passed. Like 
those that preceded it, general prosperity and increasing numbers have 
marked its progress. Many of its details will be succinctly presented 
in this report. To sustain us in meeting and passing through the daily 
trials of our station, we have cherished an enduring faith that the All- 
wise Disposer of events would certainly crown well-directed efforts 
with success. Although many things have turned out differently from 
what we could have wished, the general result is all we dared to 
expect. 

My assistants in the various departments of the institution have been 
competent to their duties and willing to afford all necessary aid in its 
management. When faithfully performed, their duties are sufficiently 
arduous and peculiarly trying to their patience. We have been fortu- 
nate in our selection of them from the many who have applied with 
the offer of their services. Their pecuniary compensation is not large, 
but the pleasure of doing good to our neighbor is, with many, one of 
the strongest incentives to action. 

I am under great obligations of respect and gratitude to the present 
and former members of your Board, for their ready counsel and advice 
in the direction of the affairs of this Hospital. While the confidence 
you have seen fit to repose in my suggestions and opinions, in matters 
relating to this Hospital, has been encouraging to me, it has, at the 
same time, increased the weight of responsibility I feel in superintend- 
ing this arduous trust. Those residing near this institution I call upon 
almost daily, with business relating to its inmates, the buildings, or its 
grounds. I have often been surprised to see with what cheerfulness 
business men can lay aside their own private engagements to attend 
gratuitously to that of the public. Whole days have been spent here 
in the duties of your office. The records show that this Hospital has, 
for eighteen years, been visited, and the visit recorded for every cal- 
endar month, by some member or members of your Board. While 
additions to the establishment, or improvements on an extensive scale 
were being made, — and such has been the case almost every year, — 
your whole Board, or a majority of its members, have visited the Hos- 



16 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

pital several times during the year.. From two to three hours is the 
shortest time in which you have been able to accomplish your monthly 
visits through the wards. It is a duty upon which the success and good 
repute of the institution very much depends, and should therefore be 
done. For this to them not always a pleasant duty, this State has 
thus far been fortunate in obtaining the gratuitous services of some 
of her best citizens. 

Four of the former members of your Board have been taken from 
among the living. The Hon. Bezaleel Taft, Jr., of Uxbridge, the 
Hon. E. D. Bangs and William Lincoln, Esq., of Worcester, and the 
Hon. Daniel P. King, of Danvers. Mr. Taft was one of the commis- 
sioners for building, and did much towards erecting the original Hos- 
pital. He was faithful to his trust, for no addition to it, since, shows 
better material or more faithful workmanship. Now, after eighteen 
years of hard usage, his works here do praise him. 

He assisted in locating and erecting the building, and in putting it in 
successful operation, and then watched its progress for one year, when 
his commission expired by law. 

Mr. Bangs had just retired from the office of Secretary of this State 
when he entered upon the duties of Trustee. He was removed by 
death in 1838, a few months after his appointment, but not until his 
courtesy and attention to the duties of his office gave large promise of 
future usefulness. 

Mr. Lincoln was a very attentive Trustee to all the duties. He 
urged the keeping of the various statistics of insanity, and, through 
his agency, the Meteorological Table was commenced at this Hospital. 
He died a few years after his commission expired. 

Mr. King has just died. He was veiy much interested in this insti- 
tution, and, while an officer, was attentive to its duties. He was chair- 
man of your Board in 1843, and wrote the report of that year. Since 
that time, until his death, he took frequent opportunities of forwarding, 
for the use of our patients, valuable public documents which his posi- 
tion in Congress enabled him to obtain. 

Since my last report an afflictive dispensation of Providence has 
occurred, which my feelings prompt me to notice here. Doct. Sa^nuel 
Bayard Woodward, my predecessor in office, and, for more than nine 
years, my superior and instructor, died at his pleasant residence "in 
Northampton, Mass., to which place he retired in July, 1846. Dr. 
Woodward died on the third of January, 1850, suddenly, of the rup- 
ture of a blood vessel just above the diaphragm. But he had, for sev- 
eral weeks, suffisred severely from repeated attacks of the same dis- 
ease that had for years afflicted him, and in consequence of which he 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 17 

and his friends felt it to be his duty, to himself and his family, to retire 
from the service of this Hospital. The liver was found, on post- 
mortem examination, to be the principal seat of organic disease. The 
acute attacks of pain in the bowels he had been afflicted with for 
years, resembling bilious colic, were probably caused by gall-stones 
passing through the gall-duct. In one of so keen susceptibility of the 
nervous system as he was, these attacks are exquisitely painful. 

It was strongly hoped that relief from these dangerous attacks would 
follow the relinquishment of his arduous duties here. For six or eight 
years they had been increasing in frequency and severity. Partial 
amendment of his general health had followed in two or three instances 
of temporary absence from his duties, but a feeling of responsibility 
would attach itself to him, and his mind would be employed about the 
affairs of the Hospital although his body was absent. As it was an- 
ticipated by his friends and himself, his health was better after leaving 
this Hospital and engaging moderately in the general practice of his 
profession, to which he was ardently devoted. But even away from 
all care and responsibility of this institution, he found the slightest ex-^ 
posure would endanger a relapse of his malady. This led his profes- 
sional brethren to fear organic lesions of important internal organs, 
which the sad results proved too true. 

Dr. Woodward was born in Torrington, Conn., June 10th, 1787. He 
early adopted the profession of his father, who was a physician of that 
place, and a most respectable man. At the age of twenty-one years he 
was prepared and settled himself in the practice of medicine in Weathers- 
field, Conn., where he soon obtained the confidence of the community, 
and where, for nearly twenty years, he was the sole physician for about 
three thousand people. His ofiice was the greatest resort in that vicinity 
for young men who wished to enter the profession. He was one of the 
medical examiners of the Medical School at Yale College. In 1830 
he held a seat in the Senate of his native State. He was very efficient 
in establishing the Retreat at Hartford, Conn,, and he was one of the 
medical visiters of that institution while he remained in that vicinity. 
His attention was called to this special department of' his profession 
by the occurrence of several cases of insanity in his own practice and 
that of his professional brethren whose adviser he was. The difficulty 
of managing these cases in their private practice led Dr, Woodward 
and his particular friend. Dr. Eli Todd, to take the first step towards the 
establishment of the Retreat. Before coming to this Hospital he was 
known as one of the few physicians who had paid particular attention 
■ to the subject of insanity, for some negotiations had taken place for 
his taking charge of the Retreat, but which he overruled in favor of 
3 



18 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Dr. Todd, to whom he always referred as the wisest manager of the 
insane, and the one who first carried out most fully the modern reform ' 
in their treatment, — the law of love and kindness. Afterwards, some 
steps were taken for Dr. Woodward's going to the Asylum for the 
Insane at Bloomingdale, N, Y. 

Such was the state of affairs when the first Board of Trustees of 
this Hospital most fortunately, for the honor of this Commonwealth 
and for the poor insane, consulted Dr. Todd about taking charge of this 
Hospital. Dr. Todd, knowing the man and his extraordinary qualifi- 
cations for the place, at once recommended Dr. Woodward to their 
favorable consideration, and when appointed Superintendent urged him 
to accept the office. He was appointed Superintendent in September, 
1832, and came to Worcester in December following, and moved into 
the Hospital as soon as some of the rooms could be furnished for 
the reception of his family. On the 19th of January, 1833, the first 
patient was brought to the Hospital while the mechanics were still at 
work upon the interior. He retired on the 30th of June, 1846, after 
having spent more than thirteen years of the best portion of his life in 
the laborious and perplexing duties of this Hospital. He was a noble 
specimen of his race, and he had many qualifications which peculiarly 
fitted him for the office of Superintendent of a Hospital for the Insane. 
His personal appearance was large, and his carriage was truly majes- 
tic. He was erect and rather full in his figure, but his motions were 
quick and graceful. Although very civil and accessible to all, he 
seemed born to command. Dignity, and ever-enduring cheerfulness, sat 
upon his countenance, and betokened the serenity of mind and a happy 
state of feelings within. Several of his elderly personal friends have 
mentioned to the writer of this, that they had often been struck with 
the close resemblance of Dr. Woodward, in his physical man, to that 
of the Father of his country. 

Dr. Woodward was well fitted to commence this then almost new 
^department of philanthropic labor. His education ; his experience on 
the subject of insanity ; his ardent temperament ; his business habits ; 
his knowledge of men ; his benevolent spirit ; his habit of looking 
upon the bright side of human nature ; his perseverance and his noble 
ipersonal appearance all conspired to sustain and carry him success- 
fully through an undertaking beset with manifold difficulties. 

His powers of observation were great, and he readily understood 
the character of men with whom he came in contact, and perceived 
quickly the true relations of things. He was systematic in his busi- 
iness and energetic in the execution of his plans. He was industrious 
and untiring in his labors. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 19 

In his intercourse with others he was dignified, courteous, and pleas- 
ing. He was very social, and soon gained the confidence of those 
around him. The insane as well as the sane were always gratified by 
being in his presence. 

His mind was eminently practical and ready. Whatever he had 
learned from books or from observation of nature, was always at his 
command. He was apt and full in his illustrations drawn from his 
experience. His temperament was sanguine, ardent and cheerful, 
never desponding. He remarked to the writer of this, that he " always 
felt cheerful." He had a remarkable power of sympathizing with 
others in their feelings, and of communing with their minds and of 
controlling their actions. 

By his labors here, and in his Annual Reports to your Board, he did 
much to disseminate correct views on the subject of insanity in this 
whole community, and improve the management of the insane. He 
favored such of the benevolent movements of the day as tended to 
elevate his fellow-man and improve his condition. By a large circle 
of persons, now in the use and enjoyment of sound minds, he will be 
particularly and affectionately remembered as the honored instrument 
of their recovery of themselves. By all who were any way asso- 
ciated with him, he will be remembered as the wise counsellor and 
most agreeable companion. By those who shall come after us, he 
will be regarded as one of the noblest benefactors of his day. 

That his value was appreciated by his friends and the then Trustees, 
in their private capacity, was manifest in their obtaining, at a cost 
of about one hundred and fifty dollars, by one of the best masters, 
a portrait of him, to be always kept in the Hospital with which his 
fame is so closely associated. He was at the time fifty-two or three 
years old, with physical powers in full vigor, and mental well ma- 
tured. It is a faithful likeness of one who has done the State that 
adopted him imperishable honor. It is hoped that this portrait will 
never be removed from this institution, where its original, for more 
than thirteen years, labored so successfully to string anew the jarring 
sense of his fellow-man, but will remain as an honorable testimonial 
of his public labors. 

A marble bust of Dr. Woodward, costing about $700, obtained after 
his labors closed here, by many of the citizens of this place, to be 
always kept in the Hospital also, bears testimony to the value with 
which his labors were held and his memory cherished in this vicinity. 
The bust is an exact figure of the original as he was when he lived 
and swayed, with his noble mind, this vast household. 



20 



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38 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 





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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



39 



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40 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 1. 

Showing the Admissions from each County the last and previous years. 



Barnstable, - 
Berkshire, ~ 
Bristol, 
Dukes, 
Essex, 
Franklin, 
Hampden, - 
Hampshire, - 
Middlesex, - 
Nantucket, - 
Norfolk, 
Plymouth, - 
Suffolk, 
Worcester, - 
Other States, 



Males, 
Females, - 


2 

6 


Males, 
Females, - 


3 
3 


Males, 
Females, - 


2 

8 


Males, 
Females, - 


1 




Males, 
Females, - 


20 

9 


Males, 
Females, - 


3 
2 


Males, 
Females, - 


6 

7 


Males, 
Females, - 


3 
2 


Males, 
Females, - 


15 
25 


Males, 
Females, - 






Males, 
Females, - 


22 
14 


Males, 
Females, - 


9 

8 


Males, 
Females, - 


12 
5 


Males, 
Females, - 


30 

24 


Males, 
Females, - 







1850. 



10 



29 



13 



40 



36 



17 



17 



54 



241 



Previously. 



85 



105 



208 



14 



428 



88 



162 



155 



374 



26 



401 



332 



816 



10 
3357 



93 



111 



218 



15 



457 



93 



175 



160 



414 



26 



437 



153 170 



349 



870 



10 
3598 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



41 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the Admissions and State of the Hospital^ from December 
\st, 1849, to November 30th, 1850. 



Patients in the Hospital, Decem- 




Committed by Overseers of the 




ber 1st, 1849, 


429 


Poor, 


16 


Males, - - 220 




Males, - - 4 




Females, - 209 




Females, - 12 




Patients admitted in course of 




Private boarders on bonds. 


31 


the year, _ _ _ - 


241 


Males, - - 12 




Males, - - 129 




Females, - 19 




Females, - 112 








Whole nmnber in the Hospital in 






course of the year, 


670 


Foreigners — ^those who have no 




Males, - - 349 




legal residence in this State — 




Females, - 321 




admitted during the year. 
Males, - - 48 


95 


Patients remaining in the Hospi- 




Females, - 47 




tal, November 30th, 1850, - 


441 






Males, - - 228 




Foreigners discharged during the 




Females, - 213 




year, _ - - - . 

Males, - - 31 
Females, - 27 

Foreigners remaining in the Hos- 


58 


Of the admissions, there were 






cases of less duration than one 




pital at the end of the year, - 


169 


year, - - - - - 


155 


Males, - - 80 




Males, - - 83 




Females, - 89 




Females, - 72 


81 






Of one year and more, 






Males, - - 41 




State paupers remaining in the 




Females, - 40 




Hospital at the end of each 
year, as near as they can be 




Cases the duration of whose in- 




ascertained : — 




sanity before admission not as- 






N0= 


certained, - - - - 


5 


1842, - - - . 


34 


Males, - - 5 




1843, - - - - 


38 


Females, - 




1844, ... - 


38 






1845, - - - . 


57 






1846, - - _ - 


'sa 






1847,' - - - - 


121 


Patients committed by Courts, - 


194 


1848, - - - - 


150 


Males, - - 115 




1849, - . . - 


167 


Females, - 79 




1850, - - - - 


181 



42 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Discharges and Deaths, and the condition of 
those who left the Hospital, from December 1st, 1849, to November 
30th, 1850. 





i 

A 

2. 
% 

120 

109 


229 


Recov- 
ered. 


Improv- 
ed. 


Incurable 

and 
harmless. 


tncurable 
md dan- 
gerous. 


Deaths. 






1 
1 


"3 


A 
1 


o 


si 
1 


o 
H 




3 

o 
E-i 




3 


t 


Patients discharged, 

Males, - - - 
Females, 


60 
65 


125 


11 

4 


15 


17 
11 


28 


3 
1 


4 


29 

28 


57 


120 
109 


Recent cases — less than 
one year — discharged, 
Males, - - - 
Females, 


54 
60 


114 


45 
54 


99 


3 



3 


2 

1 


3 









4 
5 


9 


54 
60 


Chronic cases — one year 
and more — discharged. 
Males, - - - 
Females, 


62 
49 


111 


13 
11 


24 


8 
4 


12 


15 

10 


25 


3 
1 


4 


23 

23 


46 


62 
49 


Patients discharged, the 
duration of whose dis- 
ease not ascertained. 

Males, - - - 

Females, 


4 




4 


2 




2 























2 




2 


4 





229 




125 




15 




28 




4 


57 




229 



As the Hospital has been so much crowded for some years past, the 
discharges must correspond very nearly with the admissions. Two 
hundred and twenty-nine have been discharged, of whom one hundred 
and twenty-five have recovered and returned to their families and 
former pursuits. Fifteen have left with some amendment of their 
condition, but not fully restored. The courts' have discharged some 
whose condition had not essentially changed by their residence here. 
When patients have, in my opinion, become rational and able to con- 
trol their actions, I have recommended them to the favorable consider- 
ation of two or more members of your Board for permission to let 
them leave the Hospital. Sometimes the friends have urged their 
leaving the Hospital before we had become fully satisfied that it was 
for the best good of the patient to do so. In some instances of this 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



43 



kind where the cause of their commitment, the violence of their mal- 
ady, had ceased, I have complied with the wishes of friends and 
recommended the discharge of the patient. It is not uncommon for 
persons who, as we supposed, left the Hospital nearly or quite recov- 
ered, to feel and afterwards say, that they left too soon. On the trial 
they found they had not regained sufficient strength of mind and body 
to meet and endure the vicissitudes of a business life. But we are 
happy to know that most of those, who left the Hospital as recovered, 
continue in the enjoyment of their reason. 



TABLE 4. 

Shomng the number of Admissions and Discharges, and the average 
number in the Hospital, each month in the year. 



December, 1849, 
January, 1850, 
February, " 
March, " 

April, « 

May, « 

June, " 

July, 

August, " 

September, " 
October, " 

November, " 
Average for the year, 



Monthly Av- 
erage. 



432 
435 
440 
437 
435 
435 
430 
445 
454 
450 
444 
444 
440 



Admisi^ions. 


Discharges. 


19 


16 


21 


10 


7 


16 


22 


19 


22 


23 


18 


23 


24 


19 


26 


13 


27 


21 


17 


30 


21 


17 


17 


23 



44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



45 



TABLE 6. 

Showing the whole number of Residents during each year, the average 
numher each year, the number at the end of each year, and the Ex- 
penses of each of the seventeen years the Hospital has been in ope- 
ration. 





Whole No. of 




Number at 






The Tear. 


Eesidents dur- 


Average No. 


the end of each 


Current Expenses 


Annual Expense 




ing the year. 


each year. 


year. 


of each year. 


per Patient. 


1833 


153 


107 


114 


#12,272 91 


#114 67 


1834 


233 


117 


118 


15,840 27 


135 38 


1835 


241 


120 


119 


16,576 44 


137 30 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


168 44 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


159 64 


1838 


362 


231 


218 


28,739 40 


136 20 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


132 16 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


121 59 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


123 81 


1842 


430 


238 


238 


27,546 87 


111 12 


1843 


458 


244 


255 


27,914 12 


114 40 


1844 


491 


261 


263 


29,278 75 


112 17 


1845 


556 


316 


360 


43,888 65 


138 88 


1846 


637 


359 


367 


39,870 37 


111 06 


1847 . 


607 


377 


394 


39,444 47 


104 62 


1848 


655 


404 


409 


42,860 05 


106 09 


1849 


682 


420 


429 


40,870 86 


97 31 


1850 


670 


440 


441 


46,776 13 


106 40 



In consequence of our large number, the expense per patient has the 
last year been moderate. Most of the necessaries for the support of 
this establishment have borne a medium price. Wages and salaries 
have been the same as they have for a few years past, but the 
item for improvements and repairs is a large one. Many things, 
which circumstances seemed to require should be done this year, have 
been. As the building for strong rooms for males was to be heated 
with steam from a boiler placed in the laundry which is contiguous, 
the occasion was taken for making extensive improvements there. A 
dash wheel for washing was placed there, to be driven by an engine. 
It cost about $125. The attic of the laundry was fitted up for drying 
clothes in the winter and rainy days in the summer. This room is 
heated with steam pipes coming from the boiler below. The airing 
room, in which the clothes are hung to take out all dampness after 
being ironed, has been fitted up with sliding clothes-frames. The 
whole of the laundry, inside and out, has been painted. The facili- 



46 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

ties for doing this work, which is always hard, have, by these changes, 
been much increased. 

Nine large clothes-rooms or closets have been fitted up in the Jo- 
honnot wards. Something of this kind has been much needed for a 
long time. 

The floors in four of the wards have been repaired by supplying 
new boards in place of those most worn out or splintered up, and by 
smoothing with a plane the whole surface. These floors, and those in 
six other wards, have had the cracks between the boards and the nail 
holes puttied up, and two or three coats of stained oil put upon them. 

The rooms for the sinks and water-closets have been changed in the 
south Johonnot wing. An iron bathing-tub has been put in, and two 
iron sinks have been substituted in place of those worn out. Some 
alterations, and it is hoped improvements, have been made in the 
water-closets in that wing. One of Collin's ventilators has been con- 
nected with them. This alteration was deemed advisable that the 
strong rooms might be accommodated by them. 

The outsides of the south Johonnot and old wing both have been 
painted. The roof of the Johonnot Hall and three of the kitchens, 
and the fence in front, have been painted. 

A ventilator and vane have been put upon the barn. 

The cistern in the centre court has been covered with stone, at an 
expense of $140. 

The steps in front, at a cost of $200, have been reset, and seven 
new ones added, and cast-iron hand-rails placed on each side of them, 
all of which cost $260. 

There have been set out 360 fruit and ornamental trees on this hill 
this year. 

There has been paid one individual $500 to settle his suit for dam- 
ages, caused by taking water in our aqueduct from six wells in the 
valley of a stream that passes through his land, half a mile below. 

The barn-yard has been enlarged, and a new board fence, with stone 
posts, has been erected on the east side of it. This yard has been 
graded by adding, on the lower side, more than one hundred cart 
loads of clay. 

The twenty-one new rooms for violent male patients, erected the 
last year, have of late been fully occupied. They answer the purpose 
for which they were intended very well. They are accessible, light 
enough, airy, and as free from noisome exhalations as rooms occupied 
constantly by such a class of patients can well be made. 

The floors are warmed, and a current of heated air is thrown into 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



47 



each story. The foul air in the rooms is drawn off, through several 
openings in the internal brick partitions, by steam-pipes placed in one 
common trunk in the attic. Since these rooms have been finished we 
have not occupied the six rooms in the basement of the old south wing, 
where we had been obliged to place some violent male patients occa- 
sionally for some years past. 

Gas. — On the eighth of January last, gas was burned for the first 
time in this Hospital. By order of your Board gas-pipes and burners 
were fitted up in the north half of the institution. The pipe measured 
in length 1,393| feet at 32|^ cents per foot, fitted up. The pendants 
and forty-four burners cost $139 35. The whole charge for the gas 
fixtures was $592 31. 

The expense of lighting this building with gas we find, by some 
experiments we tried, to be somewhat greater than lighting it with oil ; 
but still I apprehend the same amount of light can be obtained from 
gas cheaper than from oil. When we use gas we almost necessarily 
have our rooms a great deal more brilliantly lighted than we do when 
we use oil. Gas light is as safe as oil. It is much more cleanly and 
requires less attention. In the large wards of hospitals for the insane 
it is particularly desirable, its light is so diffusive and genial. 



TABLE 7. 

Showing the Causes of Insanity, as affecting persons pursuing different 

Occupations. 





S 

£3 




§ 


€ 






•2 










2 


,g 


•-3 


<i 




, 


a a 


_ 










rs 


J 


.2 


a 


>» 


0.2 


fe> 


t^ 






p. 

a 


C3 


S 


la 
S-2 


2 
'.£P 


t4 

1 


II 


'3, 


i 

1 


1 




M 


^ 


^ 


ft-" 


rt 


& 


P^ 


f^ 


1-5 


H 


Farmera, 


70 


22 


30 


30 


28 


31 


4 


11 


3 


229 


Laborers, 


91 


15 


17 


8 


11 


9 


4 


9 


2 


166 


Seamen, 


34 


6 


8 


3 


7 


7 


1 


1 


3 


70 


Merchants, 


15 


5 


32 


5 


4 


22 


1 


3 





87 


Carpenters, 


18 


8 


10 


4 


11 


8 


3 


2 





64 


Shoemakers, 


10 


11 


30 


7 


11 


6 


2 


1 





78 


Blacksmiths, 


4 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


1 





18 


Students, 





3 


24 


2 


2 








2 





33 


Clergymen, 


1 


2 


4 





1 


1 


1 








10 


Lawyers, 


2 





2 


1 





1 











6 


Physicians, 


2 














1 


1 








4 


Painters, 


2 


1 


11 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





20 


Manufacturers, - 


9 


3 


4 


2 


5 


5 


1 








29 

























48 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 8. 

Showing the Causes of Insanity, and the circumstances connected with 
the causes and predisposition to Insanity, the last and previous years. 













1850. 


Previously. 


Ill Health, 


16 


487 


. Intemperance, 
Domestic Affliction, 


- 


h 


- 


- 


6 
11 


345 

306 


Religion, 
Masturbation, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 
5 


240 

178 


Property, 

Disappointed Affection, 

Disappointed Ambition, 

Epilepsy, 

Puerperal, 

Wounds on the Head, 


- 


• 


- 


- 


5 

6 

1 

13 

10 
6 


169 

88 
38 
84 
98 
42 


Hard Labor, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


32 


Jealousy, 
Fright, - 
Palsy, 
Periodical cases, - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 

4 

2 

45 


13 

20 
30 

708 


Hereditary, 
Homicidal, 


- 




- 


- 


44 
33 


832 
76 


Have committed Homicide, 


_ 


- 


_ 


1 


20 


Suicidal, - 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


43 


267 


Have committed Suicide, 




. 


_ 


_ 


1 


16 


Cases arising from Physical causes, 
Cases arising from Moral causes. 


- 


- 


58 
42 


1322 

904 



TABLE 9. 

Previous Occupation of Patients. 















1850. 


Previously. 


Farmers, 


_ 


16 


367 


Laborers, 


_ 


. 


_ 


_ 


12 


280 


Merchants, 


- 


- 


_ 


. 


2 


122 


Shoemakers, 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


10 


112 


Seamen, 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


6 


105 


Carpenters, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


88 


Manufacturers, 


_ 


. 


_ 


_ 


3 


60 


Teachers, 


- 


. 




_ 


- 


2 


47 


Students, 


. 


. 




_ 


_ 


1 


44 


Blacksmiths, 


- 


_ 




_ 


_ 


1 


31 


Painters, 


- 


- 




_ 


_ 


2 


25 


Tailors, 


- 


- ■ 




. 


- 





18 


Clergymen, 


- 


- 




- 


- 


2 


17 


Lawyers, 


- 


- 




- 


- 





7 


Physicians, 


- 


- 


. 


_ 





8 


Females accustome 


d to active employment. 


- 


41 


711 


Females accustome 


d to sedentary employment. 


- 


8 


271 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



49 



<: 



"IS 






s 

?5 



tic 



^ 



Ji O 00 IC O (?? o 
CO »0 r-( T— ( (;^< 



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00 •<* 1-H 00 o ■<* •«* 
CO CO 00 CO (?■{ rl (TJ 



CO '^ Oi -^ O O Ci 
J> CO CO CO 1-11-1 (^{ 



O l>. CO O 05 00 O 
l>. O 1> CC rl CO 



J-l C* OJ O rt O -* 
QOO Ti r-l 



g; CO 00 o 1-1 i-i c\j 



-H ^. t>. —< o CO (>f 

■^ <r! CV! CO (>J 1-^ 



O Oi GO t^ 00 CO O 00 
'*aOCOCOr-( r-! CO 



CJi— lOOi— li— (CiCO lift 

ot in CO ^ i-i 1^ 03 



r:iSi2!2^»<Na) I GO 

f-l CO CO CO CO 



I?* to -^ -^ LO (7J CO 



CO CO O 00 t^ Oi 00 
« OJ C^J Ot 



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3 s? 



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to "^ _ 3 

t^^i-iinooo ? 



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50 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



a 



<: 





"a 
1 




J>CO(?J-*C<J 
Oi (>• OJ Oi I— 1 

1—1 1—1 


00 

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rj< 1-1 —1 rl 
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i 






i 


p-l CO 00 r}< CO r-< 


CO 00 rl COCO 
t^ Of COr-i 
OJ I-l 11 


OJ 






00 


CO»rt005-Hit^C>JrH 
r-i O 00 lO CO I-l 


tH CO W t> CO 
CO r-iOi I-l 
Oi r-l I-l 


o< 






g 


(MCOWC*lOrtil>r-l 
i-H CO CO -^ CO 1-1 


!> OiOOOOkO 
•5t i-lOii-l 
Oi I-l 




Oi 






CD 
iH 


rfOsC^C^QOirSOOO 
Ol CO CO CO CO t-l 


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Oi 






O 
S 


OCTCOCTOjOOOOi-I 


Oi 1-1 1-1 


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Oi 
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^ 
g 


co'^ii:5cocoj>coc^ 
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CO '^ Oi t^CO 
CO 1—1 1—1 1 
O! I— 1 1— 1 






t-l 


inaooi05QOi-iLO(>! 

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Oi 00.. . 


i 






l-H 


^in^CO^O{(??i-l 
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00 00 COOiOi 
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00 

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1 








J>OW'-IOiOii-li— 1 
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i 


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CO i> J> rH 1 

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1— 1 T* Tfl CO (?{ I-l 


05 10 t^ t^ 
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7-1 


Oi 
rl 






1— 1 ^ 10 CO cr< 


t>. i-< »rs CO 

J> OCO 1 

1—1 I— 1 






r-l 


COCJD-^rHCOC^l^O 

I-l 10 CO CO I-l 1—1 


00 >* 1-1 rH Of 
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r-l 


00 

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rl 

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to 

i-l 


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'^COCOQOCOCOCOO 


CO OiCO00i> 

1—1 -^ 1 


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1 
r1 


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I— 1 CO CO CO 


05 i-( TJ1 -"^ 
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Oi 
r^ 
1—1 






SB 

i-l 


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CO '=!< CO 1-1 1-1 


CO Oi QOOirH 
kO Oi CO mr-l 1 
I— 1 


CO 

m 
I— 1 








Ages 01 patients when admittea — 

Under 20 years. 

From 20 to less than 30 years, 
" 30 " " 40 " 
« 40 " « 50 " 
« 50 " " 60 " 
" 60 " " 70 " 
» 70 « " 80 « 
" 80 and upwards. 


Civil state of patients when admitted — 
Single, . _ - - 
Married, - - 
Widows, - - - - 
Widowers, - - - - 
Unknown, - - - - 







STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



51 



TABLE 11. 



Ages of Patients 


n the 


Hospital, 




Duration of Insanity -with those remaining 


in the 


December Ist, 1850. 






Hospital, December 1st, 1850. 




Under 10 years 


old, 






. 


1 


Less than 1 year insane. 


38 


From 10 to 15 years 


old, 




- ■ 


3 


From 1 to 2 years " 


65 




' 15 to 20 




« 




- 


9 


" 2 to 5 " " 


109 




' 20 to 25 




(( 




- 


33 


" 5 to 10 " " 


97 




' 25 to 30 




(( 




- 


49 


" 10 to 15 " " 


49 




' 30 to 35 




u 




- 


80 


« 15 to 20 " " 


23 




' 35 to 40 




(( 




- 


61 


" 20 to 25 " « 


16 




' 40 to 45 




(( 




. 


51 


" 25 to 30 " " 


7 




' 45 to 50 




li 




_ 


38 


Over 30 " " 


10 




' 50 to 55 




(( 




- 


39 


Unknown, " 


27 




' 55 to 60 




(C 




- 


25 








' 60 to 65 




a 




- 


19 




441 




' 65 to 70 




ti 




_ 


17 








' 70 to 75 




(( 




. 


6 








' 75 to 80 




a 




_ 


9 


^ 




Over 80 




« 






1 
441 







52 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



o 

QD 



© 



5^ 



^ 



t^ 



V. 








00 t^ i-l CO OD <© CO 


oooo:ioooir^iccoaii^ 


3 


Oiin cntin-r^ 


1— lOOOOCOCiCO'^iC— it>. 


o 


ITS 1—1 CO Tji CO CO 


oot^mmi— 11— I'^'^oooo 


E-i 


COCO-H 


I— 1 1—1 I— 1 1—1 (N rH 


(3 


— Oi O lO OJ 1> o 


0-HOi<;\jOOi05QO-*t>.0>00 


lO 


"* (^> cvf T-H CO >o 


l^T}'(MrH(^^o(^J(^{05•*coco* 


CO 


(MOJr-l 


OTfi— ItHi— 11— 1 1— 1 ■* 


• 


CO CO 00 CO (M t>. O 


CTd'H-ci-^crvjosoocot^oaoo 


^ 


t^lOCOOJ U^CO 


OOC^COCOCO(MrHrHOCOt~»CO(M 


CO 


OK7J i-H 


CO ■* 1— 1 1—1 1-1 rH (?i •* 


• 


-^ CO CO OJ 00 o o 


inaioocooco»niiocoici>.Oi'* 


^ 


CO rr coco-* CO 


moo?coojc^rHi-icoa>cocoo 


CO 


C^C^ r-l 


i^O-^i— 11— ii— ii— 1 1—1 ■* 


^-I 


OCOCOCOl^OC* 


^^•'*lOlCCCt^00C^t^O^na0^OI^ 


5 


■rt< >— 1 O C\{ »0 CO 


OOiOCOi-iOirH-HCOO-^lCi-* 


CO 


C^Olrl 


COCOi— lr-1— 1 I— 11— 1 CO 


^ 


l> O -* -H J>. 00 o 


l^l^OOOiOOCTOOOCO^C^C^fOS 


r>. J> krt CO "f CO 


cocococotr^'^c^'— 'sfcoJ^oom 


CO 


OiCir^ 


CO CO rH f-1 rH rH rH rH CO 


4 


CO CO c* lo ir: "* o 


COO^OiOCOlftOil^CO'^OOCO 


02 Oi (TJ C{ (M 0{ 


lO CO CO C\J O Oi rH CO <M CO W — ' 


CO 


CVf 1— 1 1— 1 


»OC0rHrH-H ^r-t CO 


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cooo "* o Oi in o 


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Ci CO O CT O O IC J> IC CO CO 


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■* GV rH rH rH 1-H t-< C^ 


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OCOCOC<J COCTO 


OOlOrHOlOJCiOO'-fCTOOCOCO^ 


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C^J O -H CO COOJ 


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t^ CO 00 (?< CO ot 


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l>. ■* i>. CT ir{ rH 


CO -H oi 00 t>. in rH ojin-*co — 


CO 


r— 1 I— 1 


CO(N rH (N 


^ 


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coin'*'»ini^cocoaiait^o'co 


« 


co(r?coc>Jc^ 


OOOCit^CO-* c^cocococo 


00 


1—1 1— 1 


COrH rt ^ 


• 


in CO oo i^ CJ 00 1-1 


inOOCOOiCOrHCOOJl^QOCTCCt^ 


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'rf" CO CO in m rp rn coc>J« 


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1—1 1—1 


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^ 


COC< (>» CO ex GO r-1 


rnO) — Oft^CO-^TfOCOI^inO 


-^i-(kno{(>j 


^ — incoin-* oi c^ (M (?j O! 


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Ci »jO •<* (>J O 00 rH 


cooooorHToooincomTfcor-ij^ 


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1-H -H 


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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 13. 

Diseases that have proved Fatal. 











1850. 


Previously. 


Marasmus, 


2 


59 


Apoplexy and Palsy, 


- 


- 


- 


6 


37 


Consumption, 


- 


- 


- 


7 


32 


Epilepsy, 


- 


- 


- 


9 


29 


Disease of the Heart, 


- 


- 


- 


1 


17 


Suicide, 


- 


- 


- 


1 


16 


Disease of the Brain, 


- 


- 


- 


2 


15 


Typhus Fever, 


- 


- 


- 


3 


7 


Lung Fever, 


_ 


. 


- 


1 


11 


Hemorrhage, 


- 


- 


- 





5 


Dysenteric Fever, 


- 


- 


- 


1 


7 


Cholera Morbus, 


_ 


_ 


_ 





4 


Inflammation of the Bowels, 


. 


- 





4 


Mortification of the Limbs, 


- 


- 





3 


Dropsy, 


- 


- 


- 


2 


4 


Chronic Dysentery, 


- 


- 


- 





4 


Erysipelas, 


- 


- 


- 


5 


7 


Diarrhcea, 


_ 


_ 


. 


1 


15 


Disease of the Brain from Intemperance, 


- 





2 


Bronchitis, 


_ 


- 


_ 


1 


2 


Old age, 


- 


- 


. 


2 


3 


Gastric Fever, 


- 


- 


- 





4 


Land Scurvy, 


- 


- 


- 





1 


Congestive Fever, 


- 


- 


■- 





2 


Concussion of the Brain 




_ 


_ 





1 


Disease of the Bladder, 




- 


_ 





1 


Fright, 


- 


- 


- 





1 


Rupture, 


- 


- 


- 





1 


Exhaustion, 


. 


_ 


_ 


10 


9 


Convulsions, 


_ 


_ 


- 





2 


Cholera, 


- 


_ 


- 





4 


Asthma, 


- 


_ 


- 


1 





Hydro Thorax, 


- 


- 


- 


1 





Cancer, 








1 







57 


309 



Our mortality has, the past year, been greater than usual. But it 
has been confined almost wholly to feeble patients whose physical sys- 
tems were worn out and whose mental recovery was hopeless. In 
several of the fatal cases their insanity was only one of the symptoms 
of the lingering dissolution of their physical powers. Some few of 
the poor and friendless have been brought to us in their last sickness, 
when delirium had rendered them troublesome, to be taken care of 
where they were. 



d4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The usual summer complaints visited our household but very lightly. 
The month of August, which is usually the sickly month, brought less 
sickness of any kind this year than ever before. We have had noth- 
ing like an epidemic, unless about twenty-five cases of erysipelas, 
which occurred in the spring, may be so called. These cases made 
their appearance from the last of February to the first of June, in a 
majority of the wards, without being in any instance contagious. No 
cause can be assigned with certainty for their breaking out then more 
than any other time. The inflammation was, in a majority of the 
cases, confined to the head and face, and when the disease extended 
down into the body it was apt to be fatal. In some few, the inflamma- 
tion extended to the integuments under the skin, and then sloughing 
and purulent matter was formed. 

By the above table, it is shown that five patients died of this mal- 
ady. The lady, Mrs. Eliza F. Richardson, who assisted in my family, 
also died of it. 

It was noticed that those patients who occupied rooms nearest our 
hot-air furnace, and were consequently the warmest, were most liable 
to its attack. The air in our wards in the winter is rather hot and dry 
than otherwise. Some of the floors where this disease prevailed are 
but seldom wet. 

Consumption and its near associate, marasmus, has found, as here- 
tofore, some victims among us. Wasting away of their lungs and 
emaciation of the whole system, are the very common results of 
chronic insanity. 

Epilepsy is one of the most common causes as well as one of the 
most common sequels of insanity. It is very often one of the promi- 
nent symptoms of insanity brought on by habitual intemperance ; and, 
where it is so, fatal results follow in a short time. When epilepsy 
comes on in childhood the mind almost ceases to expand, and, al- 
though the person may grow up to manhood, the mind becomes fatui- 
tous. 

Of twenty-eight epileptic patients who have died in this Hospital, 
and whose history was in certain particulars known, the following 
table (No. 14) shows that, on the average, 



23 males, 
5 females, 



Insane before coming to 
the Hospital — 



36 months, 
60 months, 



Remained in the Hos- 
pital — 



ISh months, 
14 months, 



Died at the age of — 



42 years. 
38 years. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 55 

The number of males afflicted with epilepsy in this Hospital is 
greater than that of females. The males died at the most advanced 
age, but they may have been, and probably were, attacked with epi- 
lepsy later in life than the females in the cases considered. 

The accessions of the fits of epilepsy are veiy irregular as to time 
and severity in different persons. Some have one or two fits every 
day or two, or every month or two. Some have ten or twenty fits in 
quick succession and are much disturbed in mind for several days, to 
be followed by an interval of some weeks or months of freedom from 
fits and by serenity of mind. Some are seized only while asleep and 
some only while awake. In some, the fits amount only to slight dizzi- 
ness which hardly takes away consciousness. In others all the senses 
are locked up for the time, and the physical system is racked with 
convulsions horrid to behold. As a general thing, these persons are 
unconscious at the time of the fit, and, after apparently suffering the 
most frightful tortures, wake up and inquire of those around what has 
happened. A very few have a short warning of the coming on of a 
fit, but generally they know nothing of it except as they are told by 
others. Most epileptics enjoy the pleasing delusion of believing that 
their fits are constantly becoming lighter and more unfrequent. 

The management of them should be kind and conciliating. About 
the time of having fits they are irritable, jealous, and easily provoked 
to violent actions. They will not be driven, but must be flattered. 
They should have exercise, but should never get fatigued. Their 
diet should be sparing but nutritious. They should never overload 
the stomach or become surfeited. 

But little can be done effectually in the way of medical treatment. 
In slight cases, stramonium, nitrate of silver and sugar of lead have 
got some reputation. In a few cases, unconnected with insanity, a 
mitigation and a cure even has followed their protracted use. But the 
instances of recovery are rare. 

The prospect before these persons is to us always cloudy ; and ex- 
perience tells us that it will invariably grow darker. 



.STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 57 

The farm connected with this Hospital is comprised of about one 
hundred acres. It is well adapted to grazing and tillage. Its produc- 
tions are abundant to sustain our stock of four horses, two oxen and 
twenty-three cows. The milk of the cows has been wholly used by 
the inmates of this establishment. About seven acres were tilled for 
raising vegetables for the table and the stock. A list of them below 
shows their abundance and their value as estimated by Mr. Thomas 
Hill, the steward. The three great ends or purposes of our farming 
are the raising of vegetables for the table, producing milk and meat 
from our stock, and supporting the horses for the pleasure of the 
patients and use of the establishment. 

The profits of our farming cannot be ascertained with much accu- 
racy. The business is secondary to the care of the patients. It is 
necessary to have always about the Hospital some men, who have no 
particular duties assigned them, to take the places of those who may 
be necessarily absent. These, when not otherwise employed, work 
upon the land with such patients as will labor with beneficial results, or 
be themselves benefited by the labor. Labor tends to give health and 
strength to the physical system ; and, as it requires a certain amount 
of thought and atteiation, it is tlius effectual in diverting the thoughts 
of the insane, for the time, from their morbid channels. Whatever 
will do this most effectually is the great moral means in the recovery 
of their reason and self-control. We often have twenty or thirty male 
patients out about our premises at work, and as many females in our 
kitchens and laundry, besides those who knit and sew in the wards. 
Much valuable labor is accomplished by them. They are encouraged 
to labor, for its immediate benefit to their health, and for its ultimate 
effect in lessening, in some degree, the price of their support here. 
For the support of those patients who have no means of their own, 
and no legal settlement in this State, a certain fixed sum for each has 
been annually drawn from the treasury of the Commonwealth ; but for 
the support of all others in the Hospital the price is annually deter- 
mined by the current expenses. It has always been our wish, and 
towards which point our efforts have been directed, to bring the price 
of board here within the means of the unfortunate insane and their 
friends, who are too often ill prepared to sustain their pecuniary burdens. 

The products of the farm and garden consisted of 

Potatoes, 75 bushels, at 60 cents, $45 00 

Green peas, 30 " " $1, 30 00 

Beets, 220 " " 25 cents, 55 00 

Turnips, 180 " *' " " 45 00 

8 



58 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



i23 45 

87 10 

27 50 

70 00 

60 00 

1,365 00 

262 08 

719 16 

^2,789 29 



$585 00 


532 


50 


5 


20 


50 


00 



Parsnips, 35 bushels, at 67 cents, . 
Onions, 130 " " 67 " 

Apples, 55 " " 50 " 
Winter squash, 7,000 pounds, at 1 cent. 
Cabbages, 1,500, each 4 cents, . 
Quarts of milk, 39,000, 3J cents, . 
Beef, 4,032 pounds, 6J cents, . 
Pork, 11,986 " 6 " 



There was raised for wintering the stock, 
Hay, 58| tons, at $10, . 
Carrots, 2,130 bushels, at 25 cents, . 
Oats, 13 bushels, at 40 cents, . 
Oats, cut green, 5 tons, 



$1,172 70 

Besides the above, the garden produced a large supply for the estab- 
lishment, of cucumbers, lettuce, tomatoes, &c. 

Our patients have spent their time the past year in labor, amuse- 
ments, and socially, in their wakeful hours. The amusements most 
in vogue, are our in-door ball and pins, cards, chess and back-gam- 
mon. Mental diversion and bodily exercise are the objects we have 
in view. The more intelligent class read the daily prints and the 
books from a library of several hundred volumes devoted to their use. 
The local newspapers of this State find readers particularly interested 
in each of them. Many such, by the favor of their editors and by 
exchanges from the printing offices in this city, for which we are very 
o-rateful in behalf of our patients, are distributed weekly in all our 
wards. 

The following are sent oui» inmates gratuitously. For such valuable 
gifts our inmates are very thankful. The Daily Advertiser, Evening 
Gazette, Olive Branch, Puritan Recorder, Christian Witness and 
Church Advocate, Christian Watchman and Reflector, Youth's Com- 
panion, Monthly Religious Magazine, and Boston Saturday Rambler, 
from Boston ; Register and Mercury, from Salem ; Sandwich Ob- 
server ; Lynn News ; Old Colony Memorial ; Gospel Messenger, from 
Utica, N. Y. ; The Daily and Weekly Spy, Palladium,' Cataract, Chris- 
tian Citizen, and The N. E. M. T. Journal from this city. Besides 
these, there are as many more sheets taken by the various members 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 59 

of our family just from the press. These pass from one patient to 
another as they are read. 

Our patients walk out pleasant days with their attendants, over the 
neighboring hills, and they ride in two carriages devoted to their use. 
The matron's parties are still kept up ; and, occasionally, dancing 
parties for the patients of both sexes, with their attendants, are got up 
during the winter evenings. 

The " Macomber Troupe" most kindly volunteered their services, 
and entertained our assembled household, in the chapel, on the after- 
noon of the 13th of May, for an hour, with their agreeable music. 
Madam Lovai'ney, with her assistants, also gave us a delightful con- 
cert, August 13th, in our chapel, at which between two and three 
hundred of the insane were present ; and they seemed to be much 
gratified in having made our household happy for an hour. 

For the President's Message in 3 vols, and other valuable public 
documents, we are indebted to the Hon. Charles Allen. During the 
year, Charles Calhoun, Esq., forwarded, for the use of our inmates, 
two large packages of printed documents of the legislative proceed- 
ings. Other friends have occasionally remembered us in like manner. 
The Hon. Horace Mann sent us a large box of books and pamphlets, 
and Miss Dix a beautiful engraving. From the honorable senator in 
Congress from this city, we have just received two volumes of the 
President's Message, the Patent Office Reports of 1848 and 1849, and 
a copy of the Congressional funeral rites of President Taylor. 

The religious services have been ably performed and appropriately 
conducted by the chaplain, who has for many years dispensed the 
word to this peculiar congregation of about three hundred persons. 
The patients usually observe great decorum in the chapel, and many 
fully appreciate this privilege of assembling for social worship. 
Many of the insane, as well as the afflicted, receive, with grateful 
hearts and very susceptible emotions, the consolations of the gospel. 

Most respectfully, 

GEO. CHANDLER. 



State Lunatic Hospital, 
Worcestei-, Dec. 2, 1850. 



60 



STATE LUJ^ATTC HOSPITAL. 



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Shower at 1^ P. M. Dogsbane. 

Rain at 4 P. M. Lettuce. 

Clematis. Scullcap. Slight rain. 

Shower this morning. American Senna. 

Button Brush. Lobelia. Cardinalis. 

Thermometer 91° at 12 M. Lightning. , 

Shower at 5 P. i\l. 

Agrimonia. Hibiscus. 

Slight ram. Sagittaria. 

Water Horehouad. 

Pickerel weed. 

Digitalis. 

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Rain continued. 

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Isanthus. 

Dwarf tree Primrose. 
V\ ild Bean 

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Shower at 2^ P. M. 

Purple Gerardia. 
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' " o S § 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



A List of Trustees from the commencement of the Institution^ with the 
Building Commissioners, — the first three, — who uiere appointed Com- 
missioners in 1830 : — 







When 


When 




Names. 


Residence. 


appoint- 
ed. 


services 
ended. 


In what way services ended. 


Horace Mann, - 


Dedham, 


1832 


1834 


Commission expired. 


Bazaleel Taft, Jr., 


Uxbridge, 


1832 


1834 


(( (( 


Wm. B. Calhoun, 


Springfield, 


1832 


1835 


(( « 


Alfred D. Foster, 


Worcester, 


1832 


1836 


u u 


Francis C. Gray, 


Boston, 


1832 


1836 


li (( 


Thomas A. Green, 


New Bedford, 


1834 


1837 


il 11 


Thomas Kinnicutt, 


Worcester, 


1834 


1838 


a a 


Horace Mann, - 


Boston, 


1835 


1839 


(( it 


Emery Washburn, 


Worcester, 


lb36 


1837 


Resigned. 


Abraham R. Thompson, 


Charlestown, 


1836 


1841 


Commission expired. 


Myron Lawrence, 


Belchertown, 


1837 


1840 


(1 n 


Stephen Salisbury, 


Worcester, 


1837 


1840 


ii (( 


E. D. Bangs, - 


Worcester, 


1838 


1838 


Death. 


William Lincoln, 


Worcester, 


1838 


1840 


Commission expired. 


Daniel P. King, - 


Danvers, 


1839 


1844 


ii a 


Alfred D. Foster, 


Worcester, 


1840 


1842 


a « 


Maturin L. Fisher, 


Worcester, 


1840 


1843 


(( (( 


Henry Gardner, - 


Boston, 


1840 


1845 


(( (C 


Robert Campbell, 


Pittsfield, 


1841 


1843 


Resigned. 


Edwin Conant, - 


Worcester, 


1842 


1844 


" 


H. H. Childs, - 


Pittsfield, 


1843 


1846 


Commission expired. 


Joseph Sargent, - 


Worcester, 


1843 


1848 


a (( 


Stephen Salisbury, 


Worcester, 


1844 


1850 


U 11 


Stephen C. Phillips, - 


Salem, 


1844 


- 


- 


Jesse Murdoch, - 


Carver, 


1845 


1847 


Commission expired. 


Thomas F. Plunkett, - 


Pittsfield, 


1846 


1849 


(( '( 


Thomas French, 


Canton, 


1847 


1848 


Resigned. 


Isaac Davis, 


Worcester, 


1848 


1849 


(( 


William Appleton, 


Boston, 


1849 


- 


- 


Levi Lincoln, 


Worcester, 


1849 


_ 


- 


E.H. Kellogg, - 


Pittsfield, 


1849 


- 


. 


J. S. C. Knowlton, 


Worcester, 


1850 


- 


- 













STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



76 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES: 



Stephen C. Phillips, President, 

William Appleton, - 

Levi Lincoln, - - - - 

E. H. Kellogg, - - ' - 

J, S. C. Knowlton, Secretary, • 



Salem, 

Boston, 

Worcester, 

Pittsfield, 

Worcester, 



TREASURER: 
Samuel Jennison, ----- Worcester, 

Office at the Institution for Savings. 



CHAPLAIN; 



Rev. Geo. Allen, 



Worcester. 



RESIDENT OFFICERS 



Geo. Chandler, M. D., 
John R. Lee, M. D., - 
Merrick Bemis, M. D., 
Thomas Hill, - 
Miss Elizabeth A. Reid, 
John T. Mirick, 
Mrs. Phebe S. Mirick, 
Edward A. Smith, - 



Superintendent, 
Assistant Physician, 

Steward, 
Matron, 
Supervisor, 

Clerk. 



^pp2 5^9W.P,A.