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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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'^ NINETEENTH 



ANNUAL KEPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



AT WORCESTER 



DECEMBER, 1851. 



BOSTON: 

BUTTON AND WENTWORTH, STATE PRINTERS, 

No. 37, Congress Street. 

1852. 



Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witin funding from 

University of IVIassachusetts Amherst 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportoftr17stat 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



DECEMBER, 1851, 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council : 

The Trustees of the Massachusetts State Lunatic Hospital, in com- 
pliance with that injunction of official duty which requires an "Annual 
Report of the Condition of the Hospital and its Concerns," have the 
honor to submit the following communication : — 

This humane and eminently beneficent Institution has now been in 
operation for nearly the fifth part of a century. The same philan- 
thropic spirit which prompted the Government of the Commonwealth 
to its establishment, has been constantly since manifested in liberal 
appropriations for its improvement, and in the increase of well devised 
means for its usefulness. Private benevolence, also, has not unfre- 
quently been exercised in fostering its interests, and greatly extending 
the sphere of its influence. Eminently skilful and experienced pro- 
fessional men, from the first, have been engaged in its management, 
and whatever of relief, or comfort, or solace, could be made to result 
from sympathizing care or a tender sensibility, has, at all times, been 
freely administered to " the mind diseased," to soothe the violence of 
the frantic, and assuage the melancholy of the desponding of its un- 
happy patients. Over all, the blessing of a gracious Providence has 
been continually and most signally vouchsafed to its uninterrupted 
prosperity. A recurrence to the annual Reports of the preceding 
eighteen years, will serve to show with what degree of satisfaction 
we should now regard the counsels and labors of those devoted public 
servants, who, in times past, have had the more immediate conduct of 
this noble endowment of charity, and how great the obligation to 
gratitude and thanksgiving for that Divine Beneficence, which has 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

given to outward means so large a measure of success in alleviating 
the saddest affliction of humanity. 

In the review of the past year, it is not the least gratifying consid- 
eration that there has been no change, nor occasion to desire change, 
of any of the principal officers or agents of the establishment. The 
accomplished Superintendent, giving, as ever, his head and his heart, 
as his labor and his time, to the arduous and fearfully responsible 
duties of his place, — with his skilful and attentive Assistants, the Rev- 
erend Chaplain, the efficient and provident Steward, the judicious 
Matron, the watchful and compassionate Supervisors, the diligent 
Clerk, and the able and accurate Treasurer, have continued to ex- 
ercise their respective offices with accustomed fidelity, and with the 
higher qualifications and capacities for usefulness, which opportunities 
for enlarged observation and added experience could not fail to impart. 
Indeed, so true to duty, and so acceptable in its performance, have all 
connected with the Hospital proved, that scarce a change has been 
had, even among the Subordinates ; and, as a natural consequence, all 
has been harmony, mutual confidence, and earnest cooperation. For 
circiimstances so satisfactory in the past, and so auspicious for the 
future, the Institution is, in a great degree, indebted to the wise coun- 
sels, the patient temper, and the kind and affectionate demeanor of 
that truly great and good man, now no more, who first gave order and 
direction to the management of its concerns, and built up this fairer 
than marble monument to his own enduring name and memory ; and 
to his yet only Successor, who, in the light of his instruction and 
example, and by his own unceasing personal observation and enlarged 
experience, so worthily and successfully continues the superintendence 
of its great and complicated interests. 

Although this establishment is still over-crowded with patients, far 
beyond its desirable means of accommodation, yet the completion and 
occupation, the last season, of the additional number of strong rooms 
to the south Johonnot wing, and the measures more recently taken by 
the Government for the erection of another Hospital, have precluded 
the thought of a further enlargement of the present buildings. In the 
judgment of those professionally best qualified to decide on such sub- 
jects, this Institution is already extended to the utmost limit at which it 
should be left under one superintendence. Indeed, it may well be 
hoped, that, in the capacities of the new establishment, the pressure 
now so necessary upon the accommodations here, may be materially re- 
lieved ; and by a proper classification of the patients, and a more entire 
separation of the classes, affording better opportunity for their appropri- 
ate management, the higher purposes of the Hospital, in its remedial and 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 5 

curative influences, may be more fully accomplished. The Trustees 
would especially sanction, by their approval, the suggestion of the 
Superintendent in his Report, that Hospitals for the reception of male 
and female patients should be entirely separate, and the control and 
management of them more peculiarly adapted to the treatment of the 
sexes respectively. It sui'ely needs not the expi'ession of feeling or of 
sentiment, to enforce those obvious considerations, which give weight 
to the recommendation. 

For several years past, the enclosure of the principal grounds of 
the establishment has been unsatisfactory, from the original imper- 
fect construction of the fences, their rapid decay, and more espe- 
cially, the dilapidated condition of the wall on the line of the street, 
in front of the buildings. This wall had twice been partially repaired, 
at very considerable expense, and it had become again manifest that 
a further heavy outlay would be required to preserve it from entire 
prostration, and for the effectual protection of the grounds and the 
beautiful belting of trees, which it was mainly designed to defend. 
The Board of Trustees of the last and preceding years, had advised 
to its thorough reconstruction, but postponed engaging in the work 
until the additions and improvements then going on upon the buildings, 
should be completed. In the mean time, the danger of the falling of 
the wall and the consequent exposure of the high embankment resting 
against it, to slide from its position, urgently prompted to the com- 
mencement of the labor, while faithful estimates of the expense, and 
just regard to eventual economy, dictated the propriety of its erection 
in the most substantial and permanent manner. Accordingly, under 
the more immediate direction and supervision of the Trustees resident 
in the city of Worcester, aided by the advice and personal attention of 
the Superintendent, a new and massive wall, on a foundation broad and 
deeply laid in the earth, and rising to a suitable height, in dimension 
courses of unhammered stone, has been constructed along the whole 
line of the land of the Government, on Summer street ; and fences, 
of stone posts set firmly in the ground, with rails of durable wood 
secured to the posts by iron clasps and bolts and covered with strong 
paling, have been made, to enclose the land on every other side. The 
opportunity afforded, by the excavation for the foundation of the wall, 
for the procurement of earth, was improved to widen and make con- 
venient an Avenue from the public road to the yard and rear of the 
buildings, and thus permit the discontinuance of a former passage- 
way, through which the establishment had been subject to much 
mischievous intrusion from without, and the patients to annoyance 
and exciting communications in their exercises and employments, and 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

under the very windows of their apartments. The accumulated bal- 
ances, reserved partly for this especial purpose, have been found 
sufficient to meet all the expense thus incurred, without asking for 
any additional appropriation by the Government. And the Trustees 
may now express a confident assurance, that, without further cost, 
except in the inconsiderable charge of an occasional coat of paint to 
the wooden rails and paling, these spacious buildings, with their costly 
improvements and adjacent grounds of rich cultivation and ornament, 
covering an area of more than twelve acres of land, have received an 
outward protection, as enduring as the beautiful eminence which pre- 
sents to the view, from every side, the attractive and commanding 
site of this noble Institution. 

In the course of the season, gas lights, which had been partially 
introduced the last year, have been extended through other parts of 
the buildings. Experience has shown, that although this description 
of light is more expensive than the consumption of oil, yet its greater 
cleanliness and convenience in use, and its pleasant and cheering 
influence upon the patients, abundantly justifies its substitution. 

On one of the southern wings, over the halls of the male depart- 
ment, the recent application of a large ventilator has served to remove 
the offensive odor of the contiguous rooms, and, in a great degree, 
give circulation to fresh and pure air. Some considerable changes 
in the position and construction of the water closets and bathing rooms 
have also proved highly satisfactory. Occasions for alterations and 
improvements in such an establishment are continually occurring, and 
require unceasing attention and care. Notwithstanding all prudent 
precautions, insanity, at one moment quiet and apparently subdued, 
will suddenly manifest itself in paroxysms of violence, and while the 
wretched maniac is to be restrained, the mischief he has unconsciously 
committed remains to be repaired. The direction in all these matters 
has fallen within the personal care of the Superintendent, who, in his 
regard to the infinite diversity of the duties of his office, gives but 
renewed proofs of his untiring industry and fidelity. 

The farming concerns of the past year appear to the resident Trus- 
tees, under whose observation they have been more immediately con- 
ducted, to have been well and successfully managed. Much labor has 
been done upon the land in the cultivation of farm and garden, and 
the products, of which the steward's books exhibit a particular account, 
have been bountiful. The importance of furnishing healthy employ- 
ment in the open air to such of the patients as can be induced to work, 
cannot be overstated, and the Trustees, under the promptings of their 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 7 

experience, cannot forbear to reiterate the admonition of the Superin- 
tendent, that, in the arrangements for the new Hospital, ample fields 
be provided for the recreation, exercise and occupation of all its in- 
mates, amid rural scenes and in congenial employments. 

The Report of the Superintendent to the Trustees, which will be 
submitted herewith, alike for the information of your Excellency and 
of the Legislature, is so full and so minute in its details, in respect to 
the character and condition of the patients, and whatever relates to 
their treatment, the number of admissions and discharges, and of those 
who remain, as wholly to have anticipated the occasion, if not to pre- 
clude the propriety, of any further notice of these topics, by us. The 
" thorough visitations of the Hospital, monthly, by one or more of the 
Trustees," enjoined by law, have scrupulously been attended to by 
ioth of the Trustees residing in the city of Worcester, and the records 
contain " a written account of the state of the institution, drawn up" 
at the time of each visit. These visitations have been made at irregu- 
lar periods in the month, at different hours of the day, and at all times, 
without notice or previous expectation on the part of the officers, that 
no preparation might be made to receive them, and thus the usual 
treatment and condition of the patients might be the better seen and 
understood by the visitors. Whatever was found satisfactory was ap- 
proved, while if anything seemed to admit of improvement it was as 
freely suggested. In addition, other members of the Board, who from 
distance, or engagements elsewhere, were prevented opportunities for 
so frequent inspection, have occasionally given their presence at the 
Hospital, and placed on the records the results of their observation. 
And now, at the close of the year, these recorded testimonies have 
been brought to the consideration of a majority of the Board, in its 
annual meeting, and thus fulfilled the requirements of this portion of 
our assigned duty. 

The average number of patients, through the months of the year, 
is found to have been 462, being an excess of 22 over the average 
number of the year 1850. The number admitted during the year 
was 263, and the number discharged 238, of which latter, 39 were by 
death. Notwithstanding this apparently large amount of mortality, 
the general state of health in the Hospital has been singularly good. 
There has been no appearance of epidemic disease, and few instances 
of acute attack or distressing sickness, but the ordinary laws of nature, 
age and wasting debility, here, as everywhere, have done their ac- 
customed office. When it is considered, as is the fact, that many per- 
sons of abused lives and exhausted constitutions, of bodily as of men- 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

tal imbecility, and of mania brought on by vicious indulgence or by 
remorse for crime, are committed to this Hospital, but to be cared for 
during a brief season of languishment without hope of relief, and then 
to be buried at the public charge, the wonder is, that so few, rather 
than so many, yearly die. It is not a rare occurrence, that subjects, 
not for cure, but for care and nursing only, reach the Hospital in the 
last stages of existence, and a few short days, or weeks it may be, 
add their names to the lists of mortality. Whether such manifest 
perversion of the purposes of the establishment, so prejudicial to its 
character, and so injurious to its usefulness as a curative institution, 
should be restrained by legislation, is not for the Trustees to decide. 
As the law now is, the Superintendent must receive all, who are sent 
under the forms of authority, to his custody, without liberty to exclude 
any, however improper objects they may be of his charge. 

Another unhappy feature in the present aspect of the institution, is 
the great number of old confirmed chronic cases, which afford no 
chance for improvement. These continue from year to year, and are 
constantly augmenting, until, ere long, in their increase by more fre- 
quent commitments than removals, unless different provision is made 
for their safe keeping, all the accommodations of the place will come 
to be occupied by a hospital of incurables. It will be seen by the 
tables of the Superintendent, that of the 116 recent cases, of less than 
one year''s continuance, 91 were restored, and 12 improved ; while 13 
only were pronounced incurable. What force of motive does not the 
contemplation of these facts present for preserving the accommoda- 
tions and capacities of the institution undiminished, for the reception 
and treatment of such as may he restored to soundness and usefulness, 
through admission to its privileges ? 

The Report of the last year presented to the notice of the Govern- 
ment the very serious consideration of the disproportionate number of 
foreign paupers, who found support here, at the charge of the treasury 
of the Commonwealth. This burden is increasing in startling amount 
and rapidity. Its progression has been constant and uninterrupted for 
several years past. In 1846, the number of State paupers remaining 
in the Hospital, at the end of the year, was 52 ; in 1847, it was 121 ; 
in 1848, 150 ; in 1849, 167 ; in 1850, 181 ; and now, in December, 
1851, it has risen to 208, or more than tioo fifths of the whole number 
of patients in the institution! By a statement of the treasurer, we 
are informed, that the payments by the State for the support of these 
paupers were, in 1847, $11,828 90 ; in 1848, $13,259 46 ; in 1849, 
),729 42 ; in 1850, $17,580 69 ; while the estimate for the pres- 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 9 

ent year (1851) is set down at the enormous sum of twentp'one thou- 
sand dollars ! thus showing an increase of expense, from year to year, 
corresponding with the advanced number of this continually increasing 
class of patients. That the grossest impositions are practised upon 
the country, in the introduction from abroad of the abjectly poor and 
miserably helpless, with no other purpose than to obtain for them sup- 
port in our public charitable institutions, is sufficiently notorious ; and 
instances are not wanting, within the walls of this Hospital, of persons, 
insane or imbecile from birth or early life, who have been exported 
from other States to find food and protection here. Of the 263 admis- 
sions, the past year, 87 were foreigners, or persons having no legal 
settlement within the Commonwealth. Of these, 57 only have been 
discharged, leaving a balance of 30 to be added to the accumulated 
mass of former years. That many of these miserable beings have 
never been taught even the decencies of life, is certain. That some 
were vicious and depraved before their derangement, is most probable. 
And in the pre-occupation of our halls, to any greater extent, by sub- 
jects of this description, it may well be feared, that the friends of the 
insane, among the respectable of our own fellow-citizens, will not wil- 
lingly expose them to such association. Some correction must soon 
be applied to this great and growing evil. To arrest it seasonably, 
demands an exercise of the profoundest wisdom of the Legislature. 

The large progressive increase of patients since the Board of Trus- 
tees last reduced the charge for their support, in 1849, has given an 
excess of income over expenditure, and left an unanticipated balance 
in the hands of the Treasurer. The aggregate cost of supporting the 
Institution is not in an exact ratio with increasing numbers, for while 
the accommodations of all are necessarily abridged by a crowded 
hospital, the proportionate cost of maintaining each is somewhat les- 
sened. The difference made by few or many, is seen, rather in the 
measure of care and attention which can be bestowed upon them 
individually, and the comforts which they are allowed, than in the 
mere price of their living. But the more favorable terms upon which 
large supplies can be procured, and the practice which is habitual with 
the Steward, of paying for them as soon as furnished, with a more ex- 
tended knowledge abroad of the demands of the Hospital and the 
market it affords, have given opportunities for savings, of late years, 
which previously could not have been effected. The Trustees thus 
find it in their power to propose a reduction in the charge for the sup- 
port of patients, after the first of January next, by diminishing the 
price for State paupers, confined less than three months, from two dol- 
2 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

lars and fifty cents to two dollars and twenty-five cents per week, and 
fixing the charge for those of longer continuance, and all others, 
at the uniform rate of two dollai's, instead of two dollars and twenty- 
five cents, as heretofore. A largei* reduction, though it might be 
effected by applying the whole existing balance in the hands of the 
Treasurer to meet the expenses of the ensuing year, would be putting 
the price below the actual cost of support, and thus create a necessity, 
after this balance was exhausted, of again raising the charge, a meas- 
ure oft times difficult and always objectionable. Besides, the contin- 
gent expenses of such an Institution can never be accurately estimated, 
in advance. New and unlocked for occasions for outlay are continu-^ 
ally presented. And, at this time, the Avenue to the buildings, in the 
rear, remains to be completed ; the waste water from the drains and 
cess-pools must be more effectually disposed of, to remove what is 
becoming greatly offensive ; the damp passage-ways in the cellars and 
low basements should be laid with flagging-stone, or some hard sub- 
stance impervious to water, and conveniences and accommodations 
added to the buildings of earliest construction, which attention to the 
relief of more pressing wants has hitherto prevented. The farm 
grounds require improvement, by better fences, the removal of stones, 
draining, and higher cultivation. A new carriage is needed for the 
use of invalid female patients, and additional implements of labor are 
to be procured. Much of all these, in the appropriations of the bal- 
ance on hand, may be assigned to the acquisitions of the coming year. 
In conclusion, the Trustees again refer to the able Report of the 
Superintendent, to his carefully-prepared and minute statistical tables, 
the result of personal observation and experience, and his judicious 
and instructive remarks illustrative and explanatory of the facts which 
they exhibit, for all that is most interesting in the history of the past and 
present condition of the Hospital. This Institution has indeed proved 
a BLESSED CHARITY. The Sympathies of all good men are with its 
ministrations, and the prayers of all will be for the fullest accomplish- 
jtnent of its humane and greatly beneficent ends. 

LEVI LINCOLN, 
J. S. C. KNOWLTON, 
S. G. HOWE, 
FOSTER HOOPER, 
ENSIGN H. KELLOGG, 

Trustees. 
"State Lunatic Hospital, ) 
Worcester, Bee. 10, 185L > 



TREASUREE'S REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Executive Coun- 
cil of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts : 

The Treasurer of the State Lunatic Hospital respectfully submits 
his Annual Report as required by law : — 

The balance in the hands of the Treasurer, Novem- 
ber 30, 1850, as stated in his last report, was . . $15,694 81 

Within the year ending November 30, 1851, he has 
received from the State for the support of lunatic 
paupers, and from cities, towns and individuals, the 
sum of 50,700 72 

And for articles sold and accounted for by the Steward 

of the Hospital, ....... 177 15 







$66,572 68 








The ex] 


jenditures in the year have been, — 




For wages 


, labor and salaries, . ... 


$11,411 45 


Improvements and repairs, including construction of 


new wall and fences, ... 


10,429 37 


Furniture, 





2,289 22 


Clothing, 




1,628 63 


Wood, 482 cords, 


2,509 48 


Coal, 291 tons, 


1,914 31 


Charcoal, 


4,308 bushels, . 


447 11 


Gas light. 


. 


560 72. 


Provisions 


— Flour, 487 barrels, .... 


2,703 92 




Meal, . . . . 


808 45 




Biscuit, ...... 


189 58 




Beef and pork, 68,426 pounds. 


4,450 23 




Salt pork, 2,595 pounds, . . . 


256 57 




Fish, salt, 11,500 pounds. 


350 00^ 




Fish, fresh, 4,133 pounds, 


129 49 




Mackerel, . . 


64 00 




Poultry, 736 pounds, 


80 96 




Potatoes, 1,111 bushels, . . . . 


684 30 




Beans, 26 bushels, . . . . . 


44 55 




Rice, 3,087 pounds, . . . , . 


133 33 




Apples, ....... 


573 45 



12 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Summer fruits, 


. 


$132 05 


Butter, 31,063 pounds, 




4,947 18 


Cheese, 5,180 pounds, 




322 57 


Tea, 670 pounds. 




225 28 


Coffee, 3,230 pounds, 




380 62 


Sugar, 21,864 pounds, 




1,471 09 


Molasses, 990 gallons. 




254 71 


Honey, $29 87 ; farina. 


149 82, 


79 69 


. Squashes, $38 50 ; apple 


sauce, $25 


92 ; 64 42 


Vinegar and cider, . 




30 23 


Small groceries, 




162 50 


Plaster, lime, &c., $28 74 ; potashes. 


$57 48, 


86 22 


Salt, $33 90 ; lard, $125 39, . 




159 29 


Oil, $173 17; soap, $83 83, 


• \ 


257 00 


Straw, 98,366 pounds, 




336 99 


Medical supplies. 




380 28 


Postage, . . . 




26 44 


Recovery of elopers, . . , 




53 47 


Books and stationary, . 




96 26 


Magic lantern, music, &c., . 




98 55 


Sexton's bills, . ' . 




263 12 


Expenses charged to patients' accounts 


» 


156 53 


Freight and express bills, . 




306 58 


Seven cows and calf, $251 50 ; 4 heifers, $125, . 


376 50 


Two yokes of oxen, . 


, , 


180 00 


Feed for cattle, ... . 


. 


70 00 


Miscellaneous expenses. 


. 


85 79 
$52,662 48 


Balance in the treasury, November 30, 


• 


13,910 20 
$66,572 68 



On account of the appropriation /or the construction of 
additional strong rooms in the Hospital, the balance 
unexpended, November 30, 1850, was 

There has since been paid, ...... 

The balance is credited, by order of the Trustees, to 
the Commonwealth in account for support of State 
paupers in the Hospital, . . . . 



L,011 69 
930 35 



81 34 
$1,011 69 



Worcester, Dec. 12, 1851, 



SAM'L JENNISON, Treasurer, 



SUPERINTENDENT'S EEPORT. 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the Superintendent to the Trustees of the 
State Lunatic Hospital. 

Gentlemen, — -In reviewing the events of the past year, we have 
great and renewed cause to be grateful to Him who overrules all 
things, that its former prosperity and happiness have been continued 
to this large family. Although there has been no especial event to 
mark its progress, it has been a year of labor and responsibility to 
those entrusted with the direction and management of its affairs, of 
freedom from all malignant epidemics, and of I'ecovery of a fair pro- 
portion of those who have here sought relief from their mental troubles. 
In our duties we have not only been counselled and advised in our 
difficulties, but we have been cheered on in our trials, by the frequent 
attention and countenance of some members of your Board. All 
favors asked of you have been readily granted, and all our wants sup- 
plied. If, therefore, there has been any wrong done, or any lack of 
success in the management of the Hospital, it did not arise from any 
want of attention on your part. 

My assistants in the various departments have generally been ready 
and prompt to perform their several duties. We have a corps of 
sixty-seven, of the most respectable, worthy and active persons, en- 
* gaged in the various duties of the Hospital. There are none in the 
community more so. More than thirty of whom are employed wholly 
as nurses and constant companions of the insane. Their duties are 
peculiarly delicate and responsible, and on whom the good name and 
success of the Hospital very much depends. Too much praise can 
hardly be bestowed on those who carry out faithfully the law of love 
and kindness to the unfortunate patients under their care, and such are 
the only proper companions for the unfortunate insane. 

In view of the prospects of the Second Hospital's going into opera- 
tion ere long, it may not be improper for me here to renew some sug- 
gestions made in my report to your Board in 1848, in which a separa- 
tion of the sexes in distinct establishments was deemed by me desira- 
ble. There are some advantages in having the insane in an institution 
all of one sex, and few or no disadvantages. Three small hospitals, 



14 ^ STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

in different sections of the State, would have some advantages over a 
large one. The third Hospital will undoubtedly be called for within 
a few years, by the increase among the people of this Commonwealth, 
and by the importation from abroad of the insane. If it shall be 
deemed advisable to place the sexes in different hospitals, it will be 
proper that this subject should claim some attention soon. This Hos- 
pital is becoming so much surrounded and hemmed in by the rapid 
growth of this city, that its farming operations are already and will be 
more and more restricted. If this Hospital was a mile further off 
from the centre of the population of this city, our male patients would 
have more freedom in their work and exercise. The labor of the 
male patients on the land is not only healthful and curative but is profit- 
able. New institutions should secure all the land they may ever 
want as one of the pre-requisites of location in any place. 

On the subject of the proper classification of the insane in hospitals, 
Doct. Jacobi, Director of the Institution for the Insane, at Seigburg, 
Germany, in his work " On the Construction and Management of In- 
stitutions for the Insane," says, " That the insane of the two sexes 
should be separated in these institutions, and, indeed, that the separa- 
tion should be so entire that not only all communication between the 
patients, but also between the personal attendants, should be strictly 
prevented, is an object of so much consequence, while, at the same 
time, the difficulty of effecting such a separation in an institution open 
to both sexes is so great, and the difference of the arrangements requisite 
for the two sexes, especially with respect to occupation and mainte- 
nance, as well as with respect to many other matters in the nursing, is 
so considerable that it is very desirable that there should be entirely 
distinct institutions for the two sexes where it is possible. This sepa- 
ration into entirely distinct institutions can at least be effected in those 
districts which contain, within their limits, so great a number of the 
insane of both sexes as to make an institution common to both too 
extensive. In Paris, they have the Bicetre and Salpetriere standing 
near one another. Under other circumstances, economical considera- 
tions generally lead to the reception of the two sexes into a common 
institution under one direction and management, the separation being 
kept as entire as is practicable." 

The propriety of separating the sexes in hospitals entirely distinct 
will hardly be questioned, I suppose, by those most practically ac- 
quainted with their management in hospitals for the insane. If then 
this great and leading feature in the classification of the insane in her 
public hospitals is to be adopted, some modifications from the usual 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 15 

arrangements should not be lost sight of in the new hospital. For an 
institution for males wholly, a larger tract of land would be almost 
necessary, and the custodial arrangements should be more substantial 
than would be necessary or desirable for an institution to be occupied 
by females only. When the two or three additional hospitals, which 
the public want will in a few years demand, shall be erected in the 
different sections of this State, then they may be devoted to one sex 
and this Hospital to the other. Such an arrangement would at once 
double the means of classification in each of the institutions. 

As our Hospitals now are, each makes essentially two hospitals under 
one roof. On most occasions the sexes are kept as separate as is 
practicable. 



16 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 33 



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34 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



35 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



37 



TABLE 1. 
Showing the Admissions from each County the last and previous years. 





Males, 
Females, . 


3 

5 


1851. 


Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable, . 


8 


93 


101 


Berkshire, 


Males, 
Females, 


6 
4 


10 


111 


121 


Bristol, 


Males, 
Females, , 


8 
10 


18 


218 


236 


Dukes, 


Males, 
Females, . 









15 


15 


Essex, 


Males, 
Females, 


12 
13 


25 


457 


482 


Franklin, 


Males, 
Females, 


1 

2 


3 


93 


96 


Hampden, 


Males, 
Females, , 


8 
12 


20 


175 


195 


Hampshire, 


Males, 
Females, , 


4 
5 


9 


160 


169 


Middlesex, 


Males, 
Females, . 


17 

25 


42 


414 


456 


Nantucket, 


Males, 
Females, . 



1 


1 


26 


27 


Norfolk, 


Males, 
Females, 


15 
21 


36 


437 


473 


Pljrmouth, 


Males, 
Females, 


4 

6 


10 


170 


180 


Suffolk, 


Males, 
Females, ■ 


10 
4 


14 


349 


363 


Worcester, 


Males, 
Females, 


35 
32 


67 


870 


937 


Other States, . 


Males, 
Females, 









10 


10 




263 


3598 


3861 



38 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

The county of Worcester has furnished about one hundred per cent, 
more inmates to this Hospital than any other county according to the 
number of its population. This is to be accounted for from the more 
intimate knowledge the inhabitants in this immediate vicinity have of 
the institution, and from the greater facility of its access.* 

Statistics show that some parts of the State are more healthy than 
others. Rural districts are more healthy than cities. Artizans of cer- 
tain trades are more liable to diseases, and do not live as long as the 
tiller of the soil. A large majority of the male population of Worces- 
ter County ai'e engaged in husbandry, and the females are largely 
engaged in domestic duties and the cares of the household, which is 
one of the most healthful duties within their sphere. Children are not 
taken into the account, for they enjoy an immunity nearly perfect 
from this scourge of the mind. 

That section of the State where the '^* Second Hospital for the In- 
sane" has been located, has, however, always furnished her full quota 
of patients, after deducting Worcester County. When that Hospital 
is completed it will undoubtedly have a material influence in lessening 
the number of admissions here. That section of the State is the least 
well accommodated by this Hospital of any. The access to it from 
that quarter is the most difficult. The southeastern part of the State, 
including Norfolk County, has in this Hospital now about one hundred 
and fifty inmates. The removal of that number would give our 
crowded family a long wished for relief. Then we shall be able to 
discontinue the use of seventeen rooms designed for and occupied by 
the more violent class. These rooms are as good as they were when 
erected. But they have not all the requisites for the purposes to 
which they are put, that rooms for a similar use, more recently erected, 
have. The necessity occasioned by our crowded house has hitherto 
compelled us to occupy them. Then too there will be, it is hoped, a 
little breathing time from our now crowded state, to do some more 
of repairs in the galleries occupied by patients. 

* About ten per cent, of those committed from Worcester County were accidentally thei?© 
when sent to the Hospital. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



39 



TABLE 2. 

Showing the Admissions and State of the Hospital, from December 1st, 
1850, to November 30th, 1851. 



Patients in the Hospital, Decem- 




Committed by Overseers of the 




ber 1st, 1850, 


441 


Poor, . _ - - - 


23 


Males, - - 228 




Males, - - 11 




Females, - 213 




Females, - 12 




Patients admitted in the course of 




Private Boarders on bonds. 


56 


the year, - . . - 


263 


Males, - - 24 




Males, - - 125 




Females, - 32 




Females, - 138 








Whole number in the Hospital, in 


Foreigners, those who have no 




course of the year, - - . 


704 


legal residence in this State, 




Males, - - 353 




admitted during the year, 


87 


Females, - 351 




Males, - - 45 
Females, - 42 




Patients remaininsf in the Hospi- 








tal, November 30th, 1851, 


466 


Foreigners discharged during the 




Males, - - 242 




year, 


57 


Females, - 224 




Males, - - 25 
Females, - 32 

Foreigners remaining in the Hos- 








Of the Admissions, there were 




pital at the end of the year, - 


208 


cases of less duration than one 




Males, - - 103 




year, 


148 


Females, - 105 




Males, - - 70 








Females, - 78 
Of one year and more. 








84 


State Paupers remaining in the 




Males, - - 41 




Hospital at the end of each 




Females, - 43 




year, as near as they can be 
ascertained : — 




Cases the duration of whose in- 




NO. 




sanity before admission not as- 




1842, - - 34 




certained, - - - . 


31 


1843, - - 38 




Males, - - 14 




1844, - - 38 




Females, - 17 




» 1845, - - 57 
184^, - - 52 
3847, - - 121 
1848, - - 150 










Patients committed by Courts, - 


184 


1849, - - 167 




Males, - - 90 




1850, - - 181 




Females, - 94 




1851, - - 208 





The number of admissions has been about an average for the eight 
years past. But the number left at the end of the year has been 
almost uniformly larger. Two hundred and sixty-three were admitted 



40 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



and four hundred and sixty-six remain at the close of the year. There 
is a class in this institution growing larger every year. It is made up 
mostly of the destitute who have no friends to assist them, and, unless - 
they recover so as to take care of themselves, they remain in the 
Hospital. They are improper subjects for almshouses, but still, if 
they had relatives able to support them, many of them, after a suffi- 
cient trial for their recovery or during the lucid intervals, would be 
taken back into private families, to be got along with there as best 
they could. 



TABLE 3. 

Showing the number of Discharges and Deaths, and the condition of 
those who left the Hospital, from December 1st, 1850, to November 
30th, 1851. 





1^ 

0) 

o 

1 


■3 
1 


Recov- 
ered. 


ImproT- 
ed. 


Incurable 

and 
harmless 


Incurable 
and dan- 
gerous. 


Deaths. 






1 


3 


1 


3 


H 


Si 


3 



to 


3 



.a 
1 


3 


3 


Patients discharged, 

Males, - 
Females, 


127 


238 


56 
55 


111 


18 
20 


38 


21 
25 


46 


3 
1 


4 


13 

26 


39 


111 
127 


Recent cases — less than 
one year — discharged, 
Males, - 
Females, 


56 
60 


116 


45 

46 


91 


_ 

7 
5 


12 


2 

4 


6 









2 
5 


7 


56 
60 


Chronic cases — one year 
and more — discharged, 

Males, - - - 
Females, 


51 

64 


115 


8 
7 


15 


11 

15 


26 


19 

20 


39 


2 

1 


3 


11 
21 


32 


51 

64 


Patients discharged, the 
duration of whose in- 
sanity not ascertained, 

Males, - - - 
Females, 


4 
3 


7 


_ 
3 
2 


5 
»_ 


- 


- 



1 


1 


1 




1 









4 
3 




238 




111 




38 




46 




4 




39 




238 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



41 



TABLE 4. 

Showing the number of Admissions and Discharges, and the average 
number in the Hospital, each month in the year. 





Monthly Av- 
erage, 


Admissions. 


Discharges. 


December, 1850, _ _ . 


454 


18 


11 


January, 1851, _ - _ 


452 


25 


22 


February, " - . - 


453 


18 


14 


March, " - _ _ 


457 


27 


19 


April, "... 


467 


19 


16 


May, "... 


467 


23 


23 


June, " _ . , 


464 


29 


28 


July, « . - - 


471 


27 


17 


August, " - - . 


471 


22 


31 


September, " - - . 


466 


12 


19 


October, « - - _ 


461 


24 


20 


November, " - - - 


469 


19 


18 


Average for the year, 


462 







42 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



CO 



S 



^ 



53 



gilt 



t t t I 



ions — 

Winter, 

Spring, 

Summer 

Autumn 


Winter, 
Spring, 
Summer 
Autumn 


ries— 

Winter, 

Spring, 

Summer 

Autumn, 


Winter, 
Spring, 
Summer 
Autumn 


< 


o 

.a 


05 


ma--- 

01 

P 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



43 



TABLE 6. 

Showing the whole number of Residents during the year^ the average 
number each year, the number at the end of each year, and the expense 
of each of the nineteen years the Hospital has been in operation. 



The Year. 


Whole No. of 
Residents dur- 
ing the year. 


Average No. 
each year. 


1 Number at 
the end of each 
j year. 


Current Expenses 
of each year. 


Annual Expense 
per patient. 


1833 


153 


107 


114 


#12,272 91 


^114 67 


1834 


233 


117 


1 118 


15,840 27 


135 38 


1835 


241 


120 


1 119 


16,576 44 


137 30 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


168 44 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


159 64 


1838 


362 


211 


218 


28,739 40 


136 20 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


132 16 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


121 59 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


123 81 


1842 


430 


238 


i 238 


27,546 87 


111 12 


1843 


458 


244 


; 255 


27,914 12 


114 40 


1844 


491 


261 


i 263 


29,278 75 


112 17 


1845 


556 


316 


; 360 


43,888 65 


138 88 


1846 


637 


359 


1 367 


39,870 37 


111 06 


1847 


607 


377 


! 394 


39,444 47 


104 62 


1848 


655 


404 


: 409 


42,860 05 


106 09 


1849 


682 


420 


429 


40,870 86 


97 31 


18^0 


670 


440 


441 


46,776 13 


106 40 


1851 


704 


462 


466 


52,485 33 


113 61 



By this table, it is shown that the number of residents and the aver- 
age number of patients have been constantly increasing. The increase 
has been more than one hundred over the average number five years 
ago. The past year the average has been four hundred and sixty-two. 

When I took charge of the Hospital, July 1st, 1846, the rooms were 
all occupied, and we thought it crowded. Since then, thirty-six addi- 
tional rooms have been built and six of the former ones have not been 
used of late. 

The expenses this year have been considerably enhanced by our 
being able to accomplish several permanent improvements which had- 
become necessary. The Treasurer's accounts show a large item under 
the head of improvement and repairs. 

The condition of the bank wall in front of the Hospital, on Summer 
street, was such that a part of it would undoubtedly have been thrown 
out by the frosts of another winter. A most substantial bank wall, 
eight hundred ninety-seven and a half feet long, has been set in place 
of the old one. The new wall is, on the average, fourteen inches 



44 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



more on the Hospital land than the old one, and fronts on the county 
commissioners' line of the street as surveyed in 1888. The founda- 
tion is three and a half feet deep, and is, most of the length, made of 
large stones, five feet long, laid cross-w^ise, reaching from front tOf 
back of the w^all. Above the foundations the stones are all laid in 
New Jersey cement, and all crevices grouted so as to form one solid 
mass. Above ground it show^s a face of four courses of split North- 
bridge granite. The two lower courses are each eighteen inches thick 
and the two upper ones are sixteen inches. From the foundation 
stones to the surface, the wall is about four feet thick, then up two 
courses of the face it is nearly three and a half feet thick, and from 
the third course to the top it is two and a half feet thick. 

To correspond with this new vv^all a flight of eighteen new steps, ten 
feet long, and buttresses eighteen inches thick, of stone from the same 
quarry as the face of the wall, have been substituted for the old one. 
The steps rise each eight inches and have a tread of thirteen inches. 
The steps and buttresses are hammered. 

In the face of this wall and in the headers there are 8,724 cubic 
feet of stone. 

The cost of the wall and steps, — 



Stones, freight and hammering steps, 


$2,128 85 


Grading, , - , .. 


1,725 84 


Teaming, .... 


861 69 


Sand, .... 


137 08 


Cement, .... 


717 37 


Smithing, , . , . 


289 66 




$5,860 49 



A picket fence, 2,160 feet long, which, with the bank wall above 
mentioned, surrounds the thirteen acres on which the Hospital stands, 
and which was presented by the inhabitants of this city to the Com- 
monwealth, has also been built. The posts of this fence are of stone, 
and were quarried in Northbridge. They are split eight inches square 
at the top and eight by twelve inches at the bottom. They are set 
four feet out of ground and four feet in the ground, except seventy-five 
in the clayey soil on the northeast side of the lot, which are set five 
feet in the ground. They are placed eight feet apart. The bottom 
rails, which are two inches by seven, are laid in iron hooks on the front 
face of the posts, fastened in three inches with melted lead. The 
other rails, which are two inches by seven, are held on the beveled 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 45 

top of the posts by an iron bolt, which does not come up through the 
rail. The pickets are six feet long, one inch and seven eighths wide 
by one inch and a half thick, sharpened down nine inches. The lum- 
ber for the rails and pickets is all of the first quality white pine, and 
of Canada growth, costing $32 per thousand feet in Albany, N. Y. 
The posts cost, set and ironed, thirteen shillings each. The whole 
cost of the fence, including painting, is about f 1 per foot, besides the 
eastern gate, which is not made. 

The whole brick exterior of the Hospital has been oiled over with 
two coats of the best linseed oil. About 350 gallons were used. The 
cost of the oil and the labor of putting it on was $426. It gives a 
fresh, bright appearance to the building, and the oil fills up the pores 
of the brick, which keeps them from being saturated with water dur- 
ing storms. The north Johonnot wing has been painted outside and 
in. The outside of the chapel and Johonnot Hall have been painted. 
Two of the kitchens have been painted, and the three upper stories of 
the centre building and the floor and standing wood work in the north 
middle gallery. 

In the south L the sink rooms and water closets have been trans- 
ferred to the southeast corner room, in which there are two windows. 
New plumbers work has been substituted for the old. Three new iron 
bath tubs have been put in, and a bath kettle placed in the basement, 
so that the patients in that part of the Hospital can bathe in their 
own galleries now as they can in all the other galleries. 

A large ventilator, two feet and a half in diameter, of galvanized 
iron, has been placed on the top of this wing, and thus far it gives 
promise of being useful. 

To afford a more easy and agreeable access to the rear of the estab- 
lishment, the drive-way from the east has been widened out from 
about twenty-four to forty-two feet, by tipping in on each side many 
loads of earth taken mostly from the foundation of the new bank wall on 
Summer street. This will hereafter be the principal business entrance 
to the Hospital. A gravelled sidewalk, eight feet wide, has been 
graded in the streets by the new bank wall, and by the new picket 
fence. 

Bordering on the Hospital land, in Pine street, we placed, in the 
spring, sixty white cedar trees, and in Central and Mulberry streets we 
sat out sixty rock maple trees. 



46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



TABLE 7. 



Showing the Causes of Insanity as affecting persons pursuing different 

Occupations. 





6 


^ 


a 
.2 


< 






13 










a. 




■2 
3 


a a 
a o 


g 
•a 


p. 


n 


a. 


1 


i 




Hi 


- 


S 


fi"" 


« 


£ 


5^ 


fd 


1-s 


o 


Farmers, 


73 


23 


31 


30 


30 


31 


5 


11 


3 


237 


Laborers, 


93 


15 


18 


8 


11 


9 


5 


11 


2 


172 


Seamen, 


34 


7 


8 


3 


7 


7 


1 


1 


3 


71 


Merchants, 


15 


6 


32 


5 


4 


22 


1 


3 





88 


Carpenters, - 


19 


8 


10 


4 


11 


8 


3 


2 





65 


Shoemakers, - 


11 


11 


33 


8 


11 


7 


2 


1 





84 


Blacksmiths, - 


4 


] 


2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


1 





20 


Students, 





3 


24 


2 


2 








2 





33 


Clergymen, 


1 


2 


4 





1 


1 


1 








10 


Lawyers, 


2 





2 


1 





1 











6 


Physicians, 


2 














1 


1 








4 


Painters, 


2 


1 


1] 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





20 


Manufacturers, 


9 


3 


4 


2 


5 


5 


1 








29 



TABLE 8. 
Showing the Causes of Insanity, and the circumstances connected with 
the causes and predisposition to Insanity, the last and previous years. 



Ill Health, 

Intempprance, - - 

Domestic Affliction, 

Religion, - . - - 

Masturbation, _ . . 

Property, - - - _ 

Disappointed Affection, 

Disappointed Ambition, - 

Epilepsy, - 

Puerperal, - . - - 

Wounds on the Head, 

Hard Labor, - _ _ 

Jealousy, - - - - 

Fright, - - - - 

Palsy, _ - . _ 

Periodical cases, - 

Hereditary cases, - - . 

Homicidal cases, - ' - 

Have committed Homicide, 

Suicidal cases, - - _ 

Have committed Suicide, - 

Cases arising from Physical causes. 

Cases arising from Moral causes, - 



1851. 


Previously. 


25 


503 


12 


351 


20 


311 


7 


248 


7 


183 


4 


174 


5 


94 





39 


8 


97 


10 


108 


1 


48 


14 


38 


1 


16 


3 


24 





32 


38 


753 


46 


876 


29 


109 


1 


21 


48 


311 


1 


17 


84 


1380 


53 


946 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 47 

Th3 ordinary causes of insanity have not, the past year, failed to 
produce their ordinary results. To ill health, from whatever source 
brought on, has been assigned by their friends the largest number of 
cases. The brain, — the instrument by which the mind is manifested, — 
sympathises more or less immediately with the general prostration of 
the body, whether from over-exertion, loss of sleep, or mental disturb- 
ance, that prostration is induced. When weakened or rendered sus- 
ceptible by sickness the brain is very liable to respond in a disordered 
tone ; and if continued mental efforts are made while the brain is 
weakened by disease, the responses may become permanently disor- 
dered. It is but seldom that we see patients in whom some physical 
disease was not noticed in the early stage of their insanity. 

Intemperance sends a few of its victims to us every year. A singu- 
lar case in respect to the long continuance, — now nearly a whole 
year, — of the peculiar symptoms of delirium tremens, has been under 
our care. When his attention is not diverted by the presence of 
others, he almost constantly sees " the pistols of the villains who are 
trying to shoot" him " pointing right towards" him. He often holds 
the building from tipping over on to him, as he says, and he will exert 
himself for hours to prevent his wagon from turning over. His con- 
fiding wife said, and she probably believed, that " John never drank 
any spirits in his life." It is truly a lovely passion that blinds our 
eyes towards the failings of our wedded friends. 

Some seek in the artificial but temporary excitement of the intoxi- 
cating cup, relief to their mental distress occasioned by the reverse of 
fortune. This is always injudicious, for mental depression is very 
sure to fellow mental excitement artificially produced. Besides, func- 
tional or organic disease of the brain, in sympathy with the stomach, 
follows sooner or later the use of intoxicating liquors, accompanied by 
excitement or depressions of mind or feelings which constitutes in- 
sanity, if long continued. 

Two cases have come to us the past year, resulting from disease of 
the bowels contracted in California. The disease of the bowels in 
each case has been removed, but the sympathetic affection of the brain 
will remain. Within the last three years the wives of nine men have 
come to our care, in consequence, in almost every instance, of their 
husbands going to California. 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



i- 



TABLE 9. 

Previous Occupation of Patients^ where it was known. 



Farmers, - - - - - 

Laborers, - - - - - 

Merchants, _ . _ _ 

Shoemakers, . , ^ - 

Seamen, - . - - - 

Carpenters, _ _ _ - 

Manufacturers, _ - - - 

Teachers, - - - - - 

Students, - - - - - 

Blacksmiths, _ _ - - 

Machinists, _ _ - ^ 

Painters, - - - - - 

Tailors, - . - - - 

Clergymen, _ , - . 

Lawyers, - - - - - 

Physicians, _ _ - _ 
Females accustomed to active employment, 
Females accustomed to sedentary employment. 



Previously. 




752 

279 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



49 



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(N CO"* 1 






CO 
rH 


•TPCOCOQOCOCOCOO 
CiCOW-H 


CO CT CO ODi> 


CO 




■^ 
g 


C\(COr-l-HQOiOO-H 

rH CO CO CO 


Ci -HO'*'* 

rH 1> ■^ 1 


CT) 




i 


C>f'*COlO'*l>C0CT 
CO'* CO rHrH 


CO CTOOCT -H 
»0 Oi CO I-l rH 1 

rH 


CO 

ira 




a 
'p 
0: 
a 

a 
c 

< 


I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

i . 

• i ' 

000000 
CO -^ 10 CO J> 00 ,/- 

^. . . . . . 

t^O-""'-'* C 
_^ -t-* ro 

CvfOOOOOOO 

^wco-*»ocoj>ao 
^ ;: :: 3 s s s 

Q 


^1111. 

§ 
■§...'• 

C 

(U 1 • 1 > < 

.2 

(^_, p^ CO CD > 

° «r^ fe ^ 

aj ^ -rH fl 

1 







STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



51 



TABLE 11. 



Ages of Patients in the 


Hospital, 




Duration of Insanity with those remaining in the 


December 1st, 1851. 






Hospital, December 1st, 1851 




Under 10 years 


old,- 











Less than 1 year insane, - 


- 50 


From 10 to 15 years 


old, 


- 


_ 


1 


From 1 to 2 years insane, 


- 44 


« 15 to 20 


a 


u 


- 


- 


13 


" 9 to 5 


(( a 


- 118 


" 20 to 25 


(( 


u 


- 


- 


41 


" 5 to 10 


11 It 


- 91 


" 25 to 30 


(( 


(( 


- 


- 


50 


" 10 to 15 


il <( 


- 57 


" 30 to 35 


u 


M 


- 


. 


66 


" 15 to 20 


ti it 


- 22 


" 35 to 40 


(( 


ii 


- 


- 


70 


" 20 to 25 


a il 


- 17 


" 40 to 45 


<( 


il 


- 


. 


68 


" 25 to 30 


it il 


- 8 


" 45 to 50 


(( 


(( 


. 


. 


43 


Over 30, 


il (( 


- 8 


" 50 to 55 


(( 


(( 


- 


_ 


40 


Unknown, 


- 


- 51 


" 55 to 60 


u 


(( 


_ 


_ 


26 








" 60 to 65 


u 


(( 


- 


_ 


15 






466 


" 65 to 70 


(( 


(( 


_ 


. 


18 








" 70 to 75 


(( 


(( 


_ 


- 


6 








" 75 to 80 


(( 


(( 


_ 


_ 


8 








Over 80 


(i 


u 






1 

466 


• 







52 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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Si 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



53 



TABLE 13. 
Diseases that have proved Fatal. 









1851. 


Preriously. 


Marasmus, 


3 


61 


Apoplexy and Palsy, 


- 


- 


6 


43 


Consumption, - - ' 


- 


- 


5 


39 


Epilepsy, 


- 


- 


4 


38 


Disease of the Heart, - 


- 


- 





18 


Suicide, - - - 


. 


_ 


1 


17 


Disease of the Brain, 


_ 


_ 


1 


17 


Typhus Fever, - 


_ 


_ 


1 


10 


Lung Fever, 


_ 


- 


2 


12 


Hemorrhage, 


- 


- 





5 


Dysenteric Fever, 


_ 


- 


1 


8 


Cholera Morbus, 


. _■ . 


- 





4 


Inflammation of the Bowels, 


- 


_ 


3 


4 


Mortification of the Limbs, 


- 


- 





3 


Dropsy, - - . 


- 


_ 





6 


Chronic Dysentery, 


- 


- 





4 


Erysipelas, 


- 


. 


3 


12 


Diarrhoea, 


_ 


_ 





16 


Disease of the Brain from Intemperance, 


- 





2 


Bronchitis, 


_ 


_ 





3 


Old Age, 


_ 


- 


1 


5 


Gastric Fever, - 


- 


_ 


1 


4 


Land Scurvy, - 


-- 


- 





1 


Congestive Fever, 


- 


- 





2 


Concussion of the Brain, 


_ 


_ 





1 


Disease of the Bladder, 


- - 







1 


Fright, - 


- 


- 





1 


Rupture. 


_ 


- 





1 


Maniacal Exhaustion, - 


_ 


_ 


5 


19 


Convulsions, 


_ 


- 





2 


Cholera, 


_ 


_ 





4 


Asthma, 


. 


_ 





1 


Hydrothorax, 


- 


- 





1 


Cancer, - - . 


. 


- 





1 


Pleurisy, 


- 


- 


1 





Jaundice, 






1 







39 


366 



The remains of those w^hose life closes while under our care, are, 
in all instances, sent to their friends vv^ho desire it. The remains of 
those who have no friends to wish the removal, are decently buried in 
the part of one of the cemeteries in this city appropriated to the use 
of this Hospital soon after its commencement. 

The mortality in hospitals for the insane, where the patients are not 
removed after a short residence, must always be seemingly large. In- 



54 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

sanity with many is but one of the symptoms of a general breaking 
up of the physical constitution. The incurable, if not removed, must 
sooner or later be included in our bills of mortality. Of such is a 
large per cent, of our deaths this year. Insanity usually consumes 
the vital principle rapidly. But there are a few exceptions where the 
physical powers are but little affected by many long years of mental 
disturbance. The average age of the 36 who died the last year, the 
duration of whose insanity was known, was 49 years and 8 months. 
The average time insanity continued in the 28, in whom it lasted more 
than one year, was 9 years and 3 months ; and the average time it 
continued in the 8, in whom it did not continue one year, was 4 months 
and 7 days. 

Of the number who have closed their earthly accounts the past year, 
was one whose character was so distinctly marked by his singulari- 
ties as to be recognized by many who had but a slight acquaintance 
with him. 

His extreme timidity made good the old proverb of " a faint heart," 
and brought to bear upon himself the ridicule of his own sex. The 
jeers of his " shop-mates" prevented his tender passions from mani- 
festing themselves towards the object of his affections. This was said 
to have been the cause of his insanity. At the age of 25, he was so 
beside himself as to require seclusion, and he was placed in this Hos- 
pital. His prominent symptoms then were timidity, fear of being 
killed by violence or poison, fear of doing wrong, &c. He was penu- 
rious to a fault. Phrenologists at that day said these traits of charac- 
ter were indicated on his head by very prominent bumps. In carrying 
out these manifestations, he gave his attendants and the officers of the 
Hospital, a vast deal of trouble and anxiety. Many a time he eloped 
from the custody of his attendants, by his mechanical ingenuity and 
his skill in the use of tools acquired in his trade of comb-making. 
And more than twice he started to go ofT, leaving all his clothing be- 
hind him, for, as he afterwards said, he thought his clothes belonged 
to the Hospital. For only a small part of his eighteen years' residence 
in the Hospital could he be induced to take his food with others at the 
table, but would wait until the others had swept the board, and then 
he would make his meal of the broken bits left by them. The crumbs 
on the floor he would gather when he was allowed to do so. Wasting 
of the food was with him one of the most enormous sins. 

A characteristic anecdote is related of him by steward E., who, on 
their way to the meadovvs to work, induced N. to get into the wagon 
to ride ; but, on coming to rising ground, N. insisted on getting out, 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. B5 

and did so, and gave his reason in the following question : — " Don't 
you think, Mr. E., the horse would eat more hay for drawing me up 
the hill than he would if he didn't ?" That economy which consists 
in saving, was most rigidly observed by him. He was industrious too. 
For years he spent his evening and the best day of the week in mak- 
ing buttons of soup bones found in his walks. With a small instru- 
ment he had prepared from a saw-plate, he worked out many quarts of 
very tolerable button moulds. Of late years it was a favorite employ- 
ment with him, if not an amusement, to sift over the anthracite coal 
ashes and save the small pieces and partially consumed lumps. He 
demonstrated to us that more than one quarter of the coal was usually 
thrown away unconsumed in the ashes. This last spring several of 
the farmers called to get him, with a seed sower that he had fitted up, 
to go and sow their carrot ground for them, as he had done before. 
This shows that his life had been, in one respect, useful, and that his 
death had left a void in the world. He wished to be useful, and was 
so in many things about the Hospital the last few years of his life. 
But to induce him to take sufficient food, and to keep him even com- 
fortably clad, required the constant coercive influences of the Hos- 
pital. As his constitution had been undermined by his defiance of 
most of the laws of health, he fell a sacrifice to a change in the cli- 
mate, although he had protected himself with a leathern suit for the 
cold winds, and oil cloth for the wet weather. He died begging hard 
to live longer that he might be further useful to his fellow men ; and 
before the last dreaded change should take place, to be carried back to 
the farm where he was born, and to die in peace at the home of his 
fathers. 

Another man, remarkable in the history of this Hospital, has just 
closed his earthly career. Peter Sibley was indicted and tried for the 
alleged crime of homicide " at the September term of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, holden in the county of Worcester, A. D. 18 17, and was, 
by the jury, found not guilty on account of insanity ; and it appearing 
to the court that the going at large of said Sibley would be dangerous 
to the citizens and peace of the Commonwealth, it was ordered, by said 
court, that he be committed to the prison within said county, there to 
to be detained until he be restored to his right mind, or otherwise dis- 
charged by due course of law." In " a room thereof, occupied by 
himself alone, he was ever since confined," until he was, by the Gov- 
ernor's proclamation, transferred, on the 16th of March, 1833, to this 
Hospital. "During this whole time he has been," said the high 
sheriff of the county, "evidently deranged, and a considerable portion 



56 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

of it ' furiously mad.' His turns of madness have not been periodic 
cal but occasional, though frequent, and generally characterized by 
great noise and boisterousness. It was found impracticable to keep 
him decently clad. He has been repeatedly clothed in suits, the ma- 
terial and fashion of which seemed best adapted to prevent a removal 
by him, but all to no purpose. His health generally has been good, 
very good, and his appearance that of a well fed, athletic man." 

After coming to the Hospital, his general physical health continued 
good up to the last few months of his life. He manifested but little 
intellect, and that constantly grew more dim. He showed some pride 
in his dress and generally kept himself decently clad, although his 
destructive propensity would occasionally expend itself on his clothes. 
He never read anything, seldom made conversation, and usually an- 
swered questions, when he gave any answers, in the simple monosylla- 
ble. The last few years of his life, he did not probably know the 
names even of those constantly with him. He would walk out with 
his attendant, and a few times attended our religious meetings. He 
was at times prone to halloo and scream without any apparent cause, 
and manifested violent passion by uttering oaths and by beating his 
head. He was not a difficult patient to manage, and never used physi- 
cal violence upon any one here. He stood much of the time in his 
own room, see-sawing or walking forwards and back three steps, each 
way, without changing his position two feet. 

His days were closed, as many of that class of the insane are, by a 
series of epileptic fits, which had been increasing upon him for years. 

At the time of the outrage for which he was arrested, his insanity 
was known to a few of his neighbors only, and, at his trial, it was 
questioned by the whole vicinity ; but the result shows that he was 
ever afterwards deranged. He died at the age of 63 years, and for 
more than 34 years of it he was confined ; for nearly half of which 
confinement he remained in one room without much clothing or fire. 
But few of the insane survive so many years in mental darkness as he 
did. His physical powers were strong, upon which it is probable his 
imbecility of mind and his disregard for the opinions of others had 
but little effect. He had no keen susceptibility of the head to destroy 
his digestion. 

His wretched condition in the old prison, in the very centre of the 
business of the county, was a common subject for speculation to vari- 
ous classes in this community. To the thoughtless and cruel, his 
provoked ravings and cries gave a kind of pleasure. To the kind- 
hearted, his seemingly helpless and hopeless condition gave pain, but 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 57 

to the reflecting his very woful state was suggestive of plans for his 
amelioration. 

Although he had lifted his hand against his fellow man, and had 
been immurcd for years in a cold, damp cell, subject to the taunts and 
scoffs of the thoughtless and vicious, kind feelings, for those he knew 
could not have injured him, remained in his bosom. A ray of tender 
regard for the confiding fowls of the air, and his own lonely lot, may 
have induced him to build the house for her young in his window. 
This incident of poor Sibley was beautifully alluded to some years 
since, by one early devoted to the best interests of this institution, as 
follows : — ^^' Those who are curious in tracing the steps by which great 
effects proceed from apparently slight causes, may imagine, not wholly 
without reason, that the mud bird's nest, described in one of the early 
Reports of the Prison Discipline Society, built on one of the bars of the 
grated windows of his loathsome apartment in the old Worcester jail, 
by one of the present inmates of this Hospital, then in nakedness and 
filth, now clothed and comfortable, was the foundation of this noble 
structure, and the -effects of that scene may yet be felt on the other 
"fide of the globe."" 



58 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



< 

Eh 



Oi CT fH 
GOTO W 



oi w i-i <r< "^ -^ 



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Qooj o-*-<#n< 



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tw 


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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 59 

With the idle, time passes slowly ; so it is with such of our household 
as are not employed. It has been our constant endeavor to occupy as 
much as possible the hands and minds of our patients with labor or 
amusement. The former habit of most of our females in the use of 
the needle continues with them here a constant source of enjoyment 
as well as of usefulness. Many are also daily engaged in the various 
domestic duties of the establishment. The male patients also perform 
a large amount of the farming and other out-door work, but a part of 
the year their resources of manual labor are much restricted. The 
various games, and our library of several hundred volumes of miscel- 
laneous books, do much to while away the otherwise vacant hours of 
many, and make them, for a time at least, forget their troubles. 

The proprietors of the following newspapers continue to be very 
kind and liberal in sending our patients regular copies of their publi- 
cations. They are always cordially welcomed and perused with inter- 
est. They contain a variety of matter which interests and instructs 
without fatiguing their minds as many books do. In behalf of our 
patients we heartily thank those who I'emember them in the distribu- 
tion of such acceptable favors. The Daily Advertiser, Evening Ga- 
zette, Olive Branch, Puritan Recorder, Christian Witness and Church 
Advocate, Christian Watchman and Reflector, Youth's Companion, 
Monthly Religious Magazine, Zion's Herald, New England Farmer, 
and Christian Observer, from Boston ; Register and Essex County 
Gazette, from Salem ; Lynn News, from Lynn ; Old Colony Memo- 
rial, from Plymouth ; Gospel Messenger, from Utica, N. Y. ; ^gis, 
Daily 'and Weekly Spy, Palladium, Cataract, N. E. M. T. Journal, 
Daily Transcript, from Worcester. 

The printing offices of this city give us of their exchanges, and the 
Rev. T. F. Norris sends us a large bundle of his, often. From the 
Hon. John Davis we have received the Patent Office Report of 1849- 
50, the President's Annual Message and accompanying documents, 
1850-51, and Reconnoisances in New Mexico, &c., which is Foster 
and Whitney's Report. And Mr. Thomas Drew, Rev. Charles R. 
Fisher and Doct. Curwen, each sent us a valuable book. 

Our patients walk out daily, in parties, with their attendants, and we 
aim in the pleasant season to get out of doors daily all who are in a 
condition to walk or ride out. Our coach is devoted to the use of the 
females, and the feeble men are carried out mornings in our single 
carriage. 

One afternoon in two weeks about seventy female patients, with their 
attendants, have been accustomed to meet the Matron in the Johonnot 



60 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Hall, and enjoy about two hours in social intercourse with the pro- 
fessed object of making up linen for the use of the Hospital. 

On the 4th of February last, the " Swiss Bell Ringers" gave a very 
interesting entertainment to our chapel full of our household. The 
audience listened to their novel performance with astonishment and 
delight. 

On the 19th of July, Professor Arnold Guyot put up a set of Me- 
teorological Instruments at one of the north windows of our office. 
These instruments are one of the twelve sets furnished by Massachu- 
setts, and it was put up by Prof. Guyot, under the direction of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington. The instruments consist of a 
barometer, thermometer, psychrometer, rain gauge, two graduated 
glasses for measuring rain water, portfolio for blanks, table of reduc- 
tion and directions of the Smithsonian Institution for making meteoro- 
logical observations, according to the system established by order and 
at the expense of the Commonwealth. 

Hereafter, the meteorological observations will be noted in the 
weather table kept here according to the above system. 

Ever since January 3d, 1839, observations of the weather have 
been regularly noted three times every day or more, and printed in 
the annual reports. 

Our farming has been as successful as ever, and the results, as esti- 
mated by the Steward, are as follows : 



Potatoes, 259 bushels, at 50 cents. 



Peas, 48 

Beets, 129 
Turnips, 155 
Parsnips, 35 
Onions, 36 
Apples, 21 



«$1, 

" 25 cents, 
" 25 " 
" 50 " 
" 50 " 
" 50 " 



"Winter squash, 1,000 pounds, at 1 cent. 
Cabbages, 1,650, each at 4 cents. 
Quarts of milk, 39,000, at 3^ cents, . 
Beef, 8,767 pounds, at 6^ cents, 
Pork, 2,843 pounds. 



. 


$129 50 


A 


48 00 




32 25 




38 75 




17 50 




18 00 




10 50 




10 00 




66 00 




. 1,365 00 




569 85 




184 79 



J,490 14 



And there was raised for wintering the stock, which consists of 4 
horses, 4 oxen, 27 cows and 72 swine i 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 61 

Hay, 53 tons, $530 00 

Carrots, 2,170 bushels, ..... 542 50 

$1,072 50 

The religious worship of our family has been conducted with dis- 
tinguished ability and propriety, by the same Chaplain who has been 
with us for many years. The seats in both rooms of the chapel are 
usually crowded with a very quiet and attentive audience, and the 
reserved seats for strangers are often occupied too. 

In conclusion, I say, we have entered upon another year with a 
family of five hundred and thirty-six persons, enjoying great freedom 
from all acute disease, and otherwise blessed with favorable auspices. 

Most respectfully, 

GEORGE CHANDLER. 

State Lunatic Hospital, 
Worcester, Dec. 2, 185L 



62 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



IS 

< 

% 




Rain last night. 
Began to snow 4 P. M. 
2 inches snow. 

Began to snow 9^ A. M, 

2 inches snow. 

Rain last night. 

3 inches snow. 

Began to snow 1% P. M. 
8 inches snow. 

\ inch snow last night. Snow squalls 3 P.M. 

Began to snow 8 P. M. and wind rose at 1 1 . 
8 inches inches snow. 


Inches 

of 
Rain. 


"O W t£> CO M CO ^ l^ lO O 


H 

as 


c 
m 


— -a •? — "O c— ts-s-o-rj-a <a-a-^ — <a-a a— esjs c to — T3-0"a— ,'^ — 




■= o 'IS 3 '3 o'3-3 o o o 0-3 o o o 0-3 °-3 o o c- q " ■:: z3-zs o 
(S^ re to tdji [« rtJi-3-aT3 ts-ri-n-a-x ts a ts — -rj a «_-□ <e — -3 eo — 


c 


•S § o.^l § 5-5 g o-S g o-l-S g.t § 0.^ c.t 
tsJs— to ''!-=■ a to-o-a.i:-nT3 rs.ii-n to to c— to_ a to-n-oTJ-a =.to-Q 




3 
m 


^ o^^^Cd 0^ o^i^^t; 0^ otJ^^W -^ -^^ 0000 

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11^ 


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American Hellebore. Rain 2 P. M. 

Bachelors Button. Lupine. Ornithogalum. 

Syringa. Gives. Mountain Maple. 

Kose Acacia. High and Low Blackberry. 

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Rain 7 P. M. 

Spiderwort. 

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Sliiihl shower 9 P. M. 

Cisius Canadensis. Th. St. 7J P. M. 

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Sl'ght showers about 8 P. M. 

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Shower 10 P. M. 
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OFFICEES. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

LEVI LINCOLN, President, Worcester. 

E. H. KELLOGG, Pittsfield. 

J. S. C. KNOWLTON, Seceetart, Worcester. 

FOSTER HOOPER, Fall River. 

SAMUEL G. HOWE, Boston. 



TREASURER. 
SAMUEL JENNISON, Worcester. 

OFFICE AT THE SAVINGS BANK, FOSTER STREET. 



RE SI DENT OFFICE RS. 

GEORGE CHANDLER, Superintendent 

GEORGE ALLEN, 

JOHN R. LEE, 

MERRICK BEMIS, 

THOMAS HILL, 

Miss ELIZABETH A. REID, Matron. 

JOHN T. MIRICK, Sitpervisor. 

Mrs. PHEBE S. MIRICK, do. 

EDWARD A. SMITH, Clerk. 



Chaplain. 
Assistant Physician. 

do. do. 

Steward. 



LAWS 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 



BSLITING TO THX 



hit '^umik '§ssphl 



LAWS 



RELATING TO 



THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



Revised Statutes, Chapter 48. 

GOVERNMENT. 

Sect. 1. The government of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worces- 
ter shall be vested in a board of five trustees, to be annually appointed 
and commissioned by the governor, with the advice and consent of the 
council ; but the trustee, who is first named in the commission, shall 
not be appointed for the succeeding year ; and the trustees who are in 
office when this chapter takes effect as a law, shall continue to exer- 
cise their powers, according to the tenor of their commissions, until 
others are appointed. 

Sect. 2. The said trustees shall take charge of the general inter- 
ests of the institution, and see that its affairs are conducted according 
to the requirements of the legislature and the by-laws and regulations 
which the trustees shall establish, for the internal government and 
economy of the institution, and they shall be reimbursed all expenses 
incurred in the discharge of their official duties. 

Sect. 3. The trustees shall appoint a superintendent, who shall 
always be a physician, and shall constantly reside at the hospital, and 
a treasurer, who shall give bonds for the faithful discharge of his du- 
ties ; and they shall also appoint, or make provision in the by-laws for 
appointing, such other officers, as in their opinion may be necessary 
for conducting efficiently and economically the business of the institu- 
tion ; and all appointments made by them shall be made in such man- 
ner, and with such restrictions, and for such terms of time, as the 
by-laws shall prescribe ; and the salaries of all the officers of the 
institution shall be determined by the trustees, subject to the approval 
of the governor and council ; the trustees shall also establish by-laws 
and regulations, with suitable penalties, for the internal government 
and economy of the institution. 

Sect. 4. The trustees may take and hold, in trust for the Common- 
wealth, any grant or devise of lands, and any donation or bequest of 
money, or other personal property, to be applied to the maintenance of 
insane persons, and the general use of said institution. 

Sect. 5. There shall be a thorough visitation of the hospital, 
monthly, by one or more of the trustees, and semiannually by a ma- 



4 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

jority of them, and annually by the whole board ; and at each visita- 
tion, a written account of the state of the institution shall be drawn 
up, which shall be presented at the annual meeting, to be held in the 
month of December ; and at the said annual meeting, a full and de- 
tailed report shall be made, to be laid before the governor and council, 
during the first week of the then next session of the legislature, for the 
use of the government, exhibiting a particular statement of the con- 
dition of the hospital and of all its concerns ; and at the same time, 
the treasurer shall present to the governor and council his annual 
report on the finances of the institution, both of which reports shall be 
made up to the thirtieth day of November inclusive. 

ADMISSION OF PATIENTS TO THE HOSPITAL. 

Sect. 6. The judges of probate in the several counties, except 
Suffolk, and in that county the judge of the municipal court, may com- 
mit to the hospital any lunatic, who, in their opinion, is so furiously 
mad as to render it manifestly dangerous to the peace and safety of 
the community that he should be at large ; and all lunatics, ordered 
to be confined by any court, according to the provisions of the one 
hundred and thirty-sixth, and one hundred and thirty-seventh chapters, 
shall be committed to said hospital ; and no tribunal, other than the 
judicial officers mentioned in this chapter, shall have authority to com- 
mit any lunatic to said hospital ; and in all cases, the judges of probate 
and the judge of the municipal court, respectively, shall certify in 
what town the lunatic resided, at the time of his commitment, and the 
judges of the supreme judicial court and court of common pleas, re- 
spectively, shall certify in what town he resided, at the time of the 
arrest, in pursuance of which he was held to answer before those 
courts ; and such certificate shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be 
conclusive evidence of his residence. 

Sect. 7. Any person who shall apply for the commitment of any 
lunatic, under the provisions of the preceding section, shall first give 
notice, in writing, to one or more of the selectmen of the town, or 
mayor of the city, where such lunatic resides, of his intention to make 
such application ; and satisfactory evidence, that such notice has been 
given, shall be produced to the said judges, respectively, at the time 
of making such application. 

Sect. 8. Any lunatic who is supported as a town pauper, may, 
with consent of the trustees, be committed to the Hospital by the over- 
seers of the poor of his town, and shall be kept for a sum, which 
shall not in any case exceed the actual expense of his support ; and 
the trustees may also, in their discretion, receive into the hospital, for 
a less sum, any poor persons suffering under recent insanity, whether 
supported or not by any town or city. 

expenses. 

Sect. 9. The expenses of the hospital for the support of all luna- 
tics committed by any of the judicial officers mentioned in this chap- 
ter, or by virtue of a proclamation of the governor, or by a resolve of 
the legislature, or by two of the justices of the peace and of the quo- 
rum, shall be paid by the town, in which such lunatics had their settle- 
ment, at the time of their commitment, unless in cases when other 
sufficient security, to the satisfaction of the trustees, shall have been 
taken for such support ; and if any town or city shall neglect or refuse to 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 6 

pay whatever sum may be charged and due, according to the by-laws 
of the hospital, on account of the support of any such patient at the 
hospital, or for the removal of any patient, whom the trustees are 
authorized by law to remove, for the space of thirty days after the 
same shall have been demanded by the treasurer, in writing, of the 
selectmen of the town, or of the mayor and aldermen of the city 
liable therefor, the same may be recovered for the use of the hospital, 
in an action to be brought in the name of the treasurer against such 
delinquent town, in which action the declaration may be in a general 
indebitatus assumpsit, and judgment shall be rendered for such sum as 
shall be found due, with interest from the time of the demand thereof 
made as aforesaid. 

Sect. 10. Eve^-y town, which shall pay any expenses for the sup= 
port or removal of any lunatic, under the provisions of the preceding 
section, shall have the like rights and remedies, to recover such sums 
with interest and costs, as if such expenses had been incurred in the 
ordinary support of the lunatic. 

Sect. 1L Whenever any lunatic, not having a legal settlement in 
this State, shall be supported at the hospital, he shall be personally 
liable for all expenses incurred by him at said hospital, to be recov- 
ered by an action in the name of the treasurer thereof, as provided in 
the ninth section ; and the district attorneys, or other prosecuting offi- 
cers of the Commonwealth, shall institute any suits in their respective 
districts, whenever they shall be thereto requested by the trustees. 

Sect. 12. No keeper of any jail or house of correction shall make 
any contract for supporting, within the county buildings, any lunatic, 
who is supported as a town pauper, without first obtaining the appro= 
bation, in writing, of the commissioners ; and for every offence against 
this provision, such keeper shall forfeit a sum not less than one hun- 
dred dollars. 

DISCHARGES. 

Sect. 13. No pauper shall be discharged from the hospital without 
suitable clothing ; and the trustees may furnish the same at their dis- 
cretion, together with such a sum of money, not exceeding twenty 
dollars, as they may think necessary. 

Sect. 14. Any two of the trustees, or either of the justices of the 
supreme judicial court or of the court of common pleas, at any term 
held within and for the county of Worcester, may, on application in 
writing for that purpose, discharge from confinement, after the cause 
of such confinement shall have ceased, any lunatic committed to the 
hospital ; and the trustees inay also remove any idiot or other patient to 
the town, where the judge or court committing him shall certify that he 
resided, whenever, in the opinion of the trustees, he shall cease to be 
dangerous, within the intent of the law, and shall not be susceptible of 
mental improvement, by remedial treatment at the hospital : provided, 
that such town, after reasonable notice, in writing, from the trustees, 
shall not remove such idiot or other patient. 

Sect. 15. If, at any time, the lunatics in the hospital shall be so 
numerous that they cannot all be suitably accommodated therein, and, 
in the opinion of the trustees, it shall be proper that some of them 
should be removed therefrom, the trustees may remove to the jails or 
houses of correction in the respective counties, from which such luna- 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

tics were sent, so many of them as may be necessary, in order to 
afford suitable accommodation for the remainder of them ; and the 
keepers of the jails and houses of correction, in the said counties, 
shall receive the lunatics so removed ; and a certificate, under the 
hands of three or more of the trustees, shall be their sufficient warrant 
therefor ; and in making selections among the lunatics for such re- 
moval, the trustees shall, in all cases, when other circumstances are 
equal, select foreigners before citizens, and among citizens they shall 
select those who, in their opinion, are least susceptible of improve- 
ment at the hospital ; and the lunatics so removed shall be subject to 
the order and direction of the commissioners of said counties, respec- 
tively.* 

Sect. 16. For reimbursing any expenses incurred by the city of 
Boston, the town of Nantucket, or by any county, for the support of 
any lunatic, removed as is provided in the preceding section, the said 
city, town and county, respectively, if such lunatic had any legal set- 
tlement in this State, shall have the like remedy against the town or 
city, where his settlement is, as towns have against each other, to re- 
cover the expenses of supporting paupers, and subject to the like con- 
ditions and limitations ; and if the said lunatic has not a legal settle- 
ment in this State, the said city of Boston, town of Nantucket, and 
counties, respectively, may recover the said expenses, in an action for 
money laid out and expended, in the names of their respective treas- 
urers, against the said lunatic, his executors and administrators ; and 
if he shall have no estate to satisfy the execution in such suit, and 
shall not have a legal settlement in this State, the said city, town, and 
counties, respectively, shall be indemnified by the Commonwealth. 

Sect, 17. For the purposes of the provisions contained in this 
chapter, except when otherwise provided, the year shall be considered 
to commence on the first Wednesday in February. 



Revised Statutes, Chapter 136. 

PROCEEDINGS BEFORE TRIAL. 

Sect. 15. When any person, held in prison on a charge of having 
committed an indictable offence, shall not be indicted by the grand 
jury by reason pf insanity, the gi'and jury shall certify that fact to the 
court ; and, thereupon, if the discharge or going at large of such in- 
sane person shall be deemed manifestly dangerous to the peace and 
safety pf the community, the court may order him to be committed to 
the State Lunatic Hospital ; otherwise he shall be discharged. 



Revised Statutes, Chapter 137. 

TRIALS IN CRIMINAL CASES. 

Sect. 12. When any person indicted for an offence shall, on trial, 
be acquitted by the jury by reason of insanity, the jury, in giving 
their verdict of not guilty shall state that it was given for such cause ; 

* St. 1839. clinpfer 131, <> 6, 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 7 

and thereupon, if the discharge or going at large of such insane per- 
son shall be considered dangerous to the peace and safety of the com- 
munity, the court may order him to be committed to the State Lunatic 
Hospital ; otherwise he shall be discharged. 



Revised Statutes, Chapter 145. 

PROVISION FOK CONVICTS WHO BECOME INSANE WHILE IMPRISONED. 

Sect. 1. Whenever a convict, confined in prison in any county, 
shall become insane, the physician attending such prison shall make 
report thereof to the jailer, who shall transmit such report to the judge 
of probate for the county, except in the county of Suffolk, where the 
jailer shall deliver such report to the judge of the municipal court ; the 
judge, who may receive such report, shall make inquiry into the facts 
therein stated, and if satisfied that such convict has become insane, he 
may, at any time when he shall think necessary, cause such insane 
prisoner to be removed to the State Lunatic Hospital; otherwise he 
shall remain in prison until the further order of the said judge, or until 
he shall be otherwise discharged according to law. 

Sect. 2. If any person, so removed to the hospital, shall be re- 
stored to sanity, before the expiration of the time for which he was 
sentenced, he shall be forthwith returned to the prison from which he 
was removed, and be detained in execution of his sentence until the 
expiration of the time therein originally limited ; the time of his con- 
finement in the hospital, in such case, being computed as part of the 
term of his imprisonment. 



An Act passed in 1837, Chapter 228. 

Sect. 1. The judges who are authorized by tha forty-eighth chap- 
ter of the Revised Statutes to commit lunatics to the State Lunatic 
Hospital, may hear and determine complaints against persons charged 
as being lunatics, at such times and places as the said judges respec- 
tively shall appoint ; and whenever request for that purpose shall be 
made by the person complained against, they shall issue a warrant to 
the sheriff, or to any deputy of the sheriff, in their respective counties, 
directing such sheriff or deputy to summon a jury of six lawful men, 
to hear and determine the question whether the person complained 
against is so furiously mad, as to render it manifestly dangerous to the 
peace and safety of the community that such person should be at 
large. 

Sect. 2. The said jurors shall be selected in equal numbers from 
the town in which the trial shall be had, and one adjoining tov/n, or 
from two adjoining towns, as the judges aforesaid respectively shall 
direct, and the same proceedings shall be had in selecting and empan= 
nelling said jury, and they, together with officers and witnesses who 
shall be in attendance, shall be entitled to such compensation as is 
prescribed in the twenty-fourth chapter of the Revised Statutes : pro- 
vided, that in the counties of Suffolk and Nantucket all the jurors may 
be taken from the same town. 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

Sect. 3. The said judges respectively shall preside at such trial, 
and administer to the jury an oath faithfully and impartially to try said 
issue, and the verdict of the jury shall be final on said complaint. 

Sect. 4, If there shall not be a full jury of the persons summoned, 
by reason of challenges or otherwise, the said judges respectively shall 
cause the officer who summoned the jury, or in his absence the officer 
attending the jury, to return some suitable person or persons to supply 
the deficiency, and they shall have the same authority as the supreme 
judicial court and court of common pleas have by law to enforce the at- 
tendance of jurors and witnesses, and to inflict fines for non-attendance. 

Sect. 5. The expense of such trial, including the fees of all neces- 
sary witnesses, shall be certified and allowed by the said judges re- 
spectively, and paid out of the treasury of the county in which such 
trial shall be had. 

SALARIES OF OFFICEKS. 

Sect. 6. The salaries of the superintendent, the assistant physi- 
cian, steward, and matron of said hospital, shall be paid quarterly, out 
of the treasury of the Commonwealth, and warrants shall be drawn 
therefor, and no charge shall be made against any lunatic, or any per- 
son or corporation who shall be liable for his support at said hospital, 
on account of said salaries. 

Sect. 7. The word " settlement," in the ninth section of the said 
forty-eighth chapter of the Revised Statutes, shall be construed and 
taken to mean residence, in all adjudications which shall be had there- 
on : provided, that if it shall be made to appear that the lunatic for 
whom payment is demanded has no settlement within this Common- 
wealth, the town of his residence shall not be liable for the expense 
incurred on his account, as provided in said section. 



Act of 1838, Chapter 31. 

OFFICEES' FEES. 

The court of common pleas is hereby authorized to allow to any 
sheriff", constable or any other person, to whom a precept may be 
directed by name, who has heretofore committed or who hereafter 
may commit any person to the State Lunatic Hospital, the same fees 
as are now allowed to officers upon the commitment of any person to 
prison, and such further sums for expenses incurred in said commit- 
ment, as to the said court may seem reasonable ; and the fees and 
other sums so allowed shall be made up in the general bill of costs for 
the term of the court at which such allowance shall be made. 



Act of 1839, Chapter 149. 

Sect. 1. Either of the justices of the supreme judicial court or of 
the court of common pleas, at any term held within and for the county 
of Worcester, or the judge of probate of said county, may, on appli- 
cation, in writing, for the discharge from said hospital of any lunatic 
who shall have remained there a sufficient time to make it appear that 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 9 

he is incurable, cause such lunatic to be delivered to the agents of any 
town in which he may have his legal settlement, or to the friends of 
such lunatic, when, in the opinion of either of said justices, or said 
judge of probate, it would not be to the injury of the person so con-= 
fined ; and when it shall be made to appear that such person, would be 
comfortably and safely provided for, by any parent, kindred, friend, 
master or guardian, or by any town or city in which he may have a 
legal settlement, and whenever request for that purpose shall be 
made, in writing, by any person interested in such discharge, to the 
judge before whom the trial is to be held, he shall issue a warrant to 
the sheriff, or any deputy, to summon a jury of six lawful men to hear 
and determine the question whether such lunatic is incurable, and 
may be comfortably and safely provided for, according to the terms 
of this act, and the proceedings shall be the same in selecting the 
jurors, conducting the trial, and « allowing the costs, as are provided in 
the two hundred and twenty-eighth chapter of the laws of the year 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. 

RECOMMITMENT OF THE INCtTRABLE. 

Sect. 2. If at any time after the discharge of an incurable luna- 
tic, as above provided, it shall be made to appear, on complaint by 
any person, under oath, to the judge of probate for the county in which 
such lunatic has his legal settlement, or shall be placed, that he is not 
comfortably supported, or that the public safety is endangered by him, 
it shall be the duty of said judge to order his recommitment to said 
hospital ; and the same proceedings may be had in determining these 
questions by a jury, upon the request of any person interested therein, 
made in writing to said judge, as are provided in the first section of 
this act. 

Sect. 3. In case of the absence, sickness or death of the judge of 
probate of any county in the Commonwealth, except the county of 
Suffolk, any justice of the supreme judicial court or of the court of 
common pleas, may commit to the State Lunatic Hospital, any lunatic 
furiously mad in such county, in the same manner and upon the same 
proceedings as are now provided by law for the commitment of luna- 
tics to said hospital by judges of probate. 



Act of 1842, Chapter 96. 

CORPORATION. 

Sect. 1. That the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital, for the 
time being, shall be a corporation, by the name of the Trustees of the 
State Lunatic Hospital, for the purpose of taking and holding, to them 
and their successors, in trust for the Commonwealth, any grant or 
devise of lands, and any donation or bequest of money, or other per- 
sonal property which has been, or may hereafter be, made for the use 
of said institution, and for the purpose of preserving and investing the 
proceeds of any such grant, devise, donation or bequest, in notes or 
bonds secured by good and sufficient mortgages, or in other securities, 
with all powers necessary to carry into effect the purposes aforesaid. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 

Act of 1843, Chapter 65. 

AQUEDUCT. 

Sect. I. The trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital, to supply that 
institution with pure and wholesome water, may establish and maintain 
an aqueduct in the town of Worcester ; and for that purpose they are 
hereby authorized and empowered to enter upon, take possession of, 
and hold, so much of the lands situate on the westerly side of Mill 
Stone Hill, owned by Frederick W. Paine, his wife and children, and 
all such springs of water in said lands, and to dig and make such 
wells and reservoirs thereon, and to lay and maintain such pipes and 
conductors of water through and across all lands, streets and ways 
between said springs, wells and reservoirs and the State Lunatic Hos- 
pital, for the conveyance of water to said hospital, as may be neces- 
sary to carry into effect the objects of this act. And if any proprietor 
of, or person interested in, any lands, springs or water, which may be 
taken by said trustees for all or any of the purposes aforesaid, do not 
agree with said trustees on the price to be paid therefor, such proprie- 
tor or person interested may have his damages assessed in the manner 
provided in the one hundred and sixteenth chapter of the Revised 
Statutes ; and the said trustees, in all cases where they do not acquire 
title to the lands for the purposes aforesaid or to a privilege or ease- 
ment therefor by conveyance, shall cause a certificate, describing the 
land or the privilege or easement so taken and signed by them, to be 
recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Worcester. 

Sect. 2. Any person who shall wilfully or maliciously defile, cor- 
rupt or make impure any spring or other source of water or reservoir, 
used by said trustees as aforesaid, or destroy or injure any pipe, con- 
ductor of water or other property pertaining to such aqueduct, and 
any person who shall aid or abet in any such trespass, shall be pun- 
ished by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by imprison- 
ment for a term not exceeding one year. 



Act of 1844, Chapter 120. 

INSANE CONVICTS. 

Sect. 1. Whenever a convict confined in the state prison shall be- 
come deranged, it shall be the duty of the warden, or the inspectors 
of the prison, to communicate notice of the fact to the chairman of 
the commission for examining insane convicts in the state prison. 
The said chairman, upon receiving said notice, shall forthwith call 
together the members of said commission, at the prison aforesaid, who 
shall proceed to investigate, and, after due examination, report upon 
the supposed case of insanity, if any report be necessaiy. 

Sect. 2. If, in the opinion of said commission, or a majority of 
them, the convict has become insane, and in their opinion his removal 
would be expedient, they shall report the same, together with their 
reasons, to the judge of the municipal court of the city of Boston, 
who, on receiving said report, shall issue his warrant, under the seal 
of the court, directed to the wa\*den, and authorizing him to remove 
said convict fo the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, there to be 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL . U 

kept till, in the opinion of the superintendent and trustees thereof, he 
may be recommitted to the state prison consistent with health. And 
said superintendent, when so satisfied as aforesaid, shall certify the 
fact of such restoration upon the warrant aforesaid, and give notice 
thereof to the warden, who shall thereupon cause the convict to be re- 
conveyed to the state prison, there to suffer the residue of his sentence 
pursuant to his original commitment. 

Sect, 3. The physician of the state prison, who shall also be 
chairman, together with the superintendents, for the time being, of the 
State Lunatic Hospital, and of the McLean Asylum at Somerville, 
shall constitute the commission for the examination of convicts in the 
state prison, aforesaid, alleged to be insane ; and each of said com- 
missioners shall receive, for his services in such capacity, three dollars 
per day for each and every day he may be so employed, and be re- 
munerated for all his travelling expenses, the same to be an expense , 
chargeable to the prison. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 



Resolve of 1844, Chapter 78. 

PRICE OF BOARD. 

Resolved, That the price to be charged for the board of patients at 
the State Lunatic Hospital, who are not state paupers, shall in all 
cases be fixed by the trustees of said hospital, provided that the charge 
for town paupers shall not exceed the estimated average cost of sup- 
porting patients in said hospital. All provisions of law now existing, 
inconsistent with the provisions of these resolves, are hereby repealed. 



Resolve of 1844. 

ACCOUNTS OF LUNATIC STATE PAUPERS. 

Resolved, That accounts for the support of lunatic state paupers, 
supported at the State Lunatic Hospital, be kept by the treasurer of 
said Hospital, and that the same as they accrue, from December first, 
in one year, to November thirtieth, in the following year, inclusive, be 
annually presented as other accounts for state paupers are now pre- 
sented for allowance and payment.* 



Resolve of 1845. 

Resolved, That, in making up the account for the support of lunatic 
state paupers at the State Lunatic Hospital, as required by the re- 
solves concerning the State Lunatic Hospital, passed March thirteenth, 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-four, the treasurer 
of said hospital shall charge for each state pauper, so supported, the 
sum of two dollars and fifty cents per week for a term not exceeding 
thirteen weeks, and two dollars and twenty-five cents per week for a 

* Resolve of 1351, ch, 33, to be allowed, although not presented within time prescribed. 



12 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 

term of more than thirteen weeks and not exceeding twenty-six 
weeks, and two dollars per week for a term more than twenty-six 
weeks and less than one year, and for one year the sum of one hun- 
dred dollars, anything in said resolves to the contrary notwithstanding. 



Resolve of 1845. 

ALLOWANCE FOR SUPPORT OF STATE LUNATIC PAUPERS. 

Resolved., That the sum to be allowed to any county, city or town, 
in this Commonwealth, for the support of any state lunatic pauper, 
shall in no case exceed two dollars and fifty cents per week for a term 
less than thirteen weeks ; two dollars and twenty-five cents per week 
for any term exceeding thirteen weeks and less than twenty-six weeks ; 
two dollars per week for any term exceeding twenty-six weeks and 
less than one year ; or be more than at the rate of one hundred dollars 
per year for any term of one year or upwards ; and shall, in no case, 
exceed the amount actually paid out and expended by the county, city 
or town, claiming compensation for the support of each of said state 
lunatic paupers respectively. 



Resolve of 1845. 

Resolved, That the trustees aforesaid be and they are hereby au- 
thorized to expend, annually, from the funds aforesaid, a sum not ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars, for the purchase of land or other prop- 
erty, or for permanent repairs and improvements, which, in their 
jtidgment, will promote the interests of said hospital. 



Act of 1850. 

ALLOWING FEES TO JUDGE OF PROBATE. 

Sect. 1. There shall be allowed to each judge of probate, for 
receiving, hearing and determining every application or complaint 
made to him, for the commitment of a lunatic to the State Lunatic 
Hospital, a fee of two dollars, to be paid out of the treasury of the 
county of which he is judge ; and the judges of probate shall present 
their accounts, for all such fees, to the county commissioners, for their 
respective counties, as often as once in each year, and such commis- 
sioners shall audit and allow the same if found to be correct, where- 
upon the same shall be paid by the treasurer of the respective coun- 
ties. 

Sect. 2. There shall be allowed to the judges of probate for the 
county of Worcester, for receiving, hearing and determining an appli- 
cation for the discharge of any lunatic from the State Lunatic Hos- 
pital, under the provisions of the one hundred and forty-ninth chapter 
of the statutes of the year eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, a fee of 
two dollars, to be paid by the town or person making such application. 



|^Pr2 5'39W.P,A.