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Full text of "Annual report of the trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester"

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SENATE No. 1. 

TWENTY-FOURTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL 



AT WORCESTER. 



DECEMBER, 1856 



B OSTON: 

WILLIAM WHITE, PRINTER TO THE STATE. 

1857. 



OFFICERS OF THE HOSPITAL. 



TRUSTEES. 

WILLIAM T. MERRIFIELD, President, 
LINUS CHILD, Secretary, 
CHARLES H. STEDMAN, 
THOMAS COLT, .... 
JOSEPH N. BATES, 



Worcester. 

Lowell. 

Boston. 

Pittsfield. 

Worcester. 



TREASURER. 



SAMUEL JENNISON, Esq., .... Worcester, 
Office — Savings Bank, Foster Street, Worcester. 



RESIDENT OFFICERS, 



MERRICK BEMIS, M. D., . 
PRANK H. RICE, M. D., . 
THOMAS H. GAGE, M. D., 
ELIZABETH REID, . 
REV. ISAAC HOSFORD, . 



Superintendent. 

Assistant-Physician. 

Assistant-Physician. 

Matron. 

Chaplain. 



TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



TRUSTEES OF THE STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, 



AT WORCESTER, 
185 6. 



To His Excellency Henry J. Gardner, Governor, and the 
Honorable Council. 

The Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, in 
compliance with the provisions of law, hereby submit their 
Twenty-fourth Annual Report. 

In reviewing the history of this institution for the past year, 
the Trustees find abundant occasion to reiterate an acknowledge- 
ment of the superintending care of a merciful Providence, and 
to express their convictions that the institution, as heretofore, 
has been the means of unspeakable benefit to those unfortunate 
beings committed to its care. 

For a particular account of the operations of the hospital for 
the past year, the number and condition of its patients, and the 
success which has attended the efforts of its immediate officers 
and managers, the Trustees refer to the full and minute report 
of the Superintendent, which is herewith presented. 

The financial condition of the hospital will be ascertained 
from the report of the Treasurer, which contains a statement 
of the receipts and expenditures for the past year. 

The last annual report of the Trustees announced the fact 



6 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

that Doctor Chandler, who for more than ten years had most 
acceptably discharged the duties of Superintendent of the hos- 
pital, had resigned his situation, and that Doctor Merrick Bemis 
had been appointed as his successor. After the appointment of 
Doctor Bemis, the Trustees cheerfully assented to his request 
for leave of absence, for the purpose of visiting Europe. He 
was absent about six months, having visited the various institu- 
tions for the relief of the insane in England and Scotland, and 
upon the continent, and having thus acquired much valuable 
information which we doubt not will be made available for the 
benefit of the institution committed to his care. 

Doctor Bemis entered upon the duties of his office at the 
hospital, July 16, 1856, Doctor Chandler having kindly con- 
sented to retain the charge of the institution up to that time. 

During the short period which Doctor Bemis has discharged 
the responsible duties of his situation, the Trustees have dis- 
covered ample evidence to satisfy them of the wisdom of his 
appointment. 

During the last year Doctor Frank H. Rice has been appointed 
Assistant-Physician at the hospital, and has also performed the 
duties of Clerk of the institution. The duties devolving upon 
Doctor Rice have been performed to the entire satisfaction of 
the Trustees, and we regard him as a most valuable officer. 

During the same period, Doctor Thomas H. Gage has been 
employed as Assistant-Physician, and has rendered very efficient 
aid to the Superintendent. So long as the institution can re- 
tain his services, the Trustees will deem themselves fortunate 
in securing his valuable aid in the various and difficult duties 
devolving upon the Superintendent and Assistant-Physicians. 

During the past year the Rev. George Allen, who, for many 
years, has discharged the duties of Chaplain, resigned his situ- 
ation, and the Trustees have appointed Rev. Isaac Horsford in 
his place, and who has entered upon the duties of his appoint- 
ment. 

The Trustees cannot withhold the expression of their satisfac- 
tion at the change of the treatment of the more violent and 
furious patients, which has been adopted at the hospital within 
the last two years, and which Doctor Bemis, since entering upon 
the duties of his office, has carried out more fully than ever 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 7 

before. We allude to the dispensing with the use of the strong 
rooms for the confinement of the more violent patients. 

Doctor Bemis, since he entered upon his duties, has not, in a 
single instance, made any use of the strong rooms for the con- 
finement of patients, nor has he as yet found it necessary to 
employ any extra attendants in the various wards. 

We are not fully prepared to draw any specific conclusions 
upon this subject from the experience of the last four months. 
We are prepared, however, to state the fact, that during that 
period we have found the patients, as a whole, at our monthly 
visits, more quiet than during any other four months since our 
connection with this institution. Occasions have not been rare 
when, out of some 370 patients, not a single one was subjected to 
any kind of restraint, other than the care of the attendant within 
the ward. It is true that it is frequently necessary to separate 
the violent and furious patients from the others. This is done 
by confining them for short periods in their sleeping-rooms, and 
by this mode of treatment it is found that these violent paroxysms 
pass off more readily than by confinement in the strong rooms. 

In the last annual report it was stated that of the thirty-six 
strong rooms, twenty-four had been removed by order of the 
Trustees, and that four large and airy parlors or sitting-rooms 
had been substituted in their place. 

Of the twelve strong rooms remaining, the six in the female 
department have not been used for more than twelve months, 
and the six in the male department have not been used for the 
last four months, and the Trustees have no doubt that these re- 
maining twelve strong rooms may be removed, and the space 
occupied by them be appropriated to a much more useful 
purpose. 

Another change is being introduced by Doctor Bemis, which, 
in our judgment, promises highly beneficial results ; we mean 
the giving of employment to the patients upon a more sys- 
tematic plan than heretofore adopted. As far as the experi- 
ment has been tried, it promises the best results, both as a cura- 
tive process, and as calculated to arrest that tendency to entire 
dementation, which is liable to follow long confinement in the 
wards without any employment. 

In the annual report of 1854, attention was called to the con- 
dition of the hospital, and many defects in its accommodation 



8 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

pointed out, which, in tho judgment of the Trustees, called 
imperatively for a remedy. 

The most important of these defects were, 1st, the very im- 
perfect ventilation ; 2d, the mode of warming by hot-air furnaces, 
placed in the cellars, and so constructed as to create great ex- 
posure to fire, and 3d, the condition of the wards as gloomy and 
forbidding, having a very insufficient amount of light. 

The report of last year stated that the last defect had been 
substantially remedied, and that the Trustees were then engaged 
in carrying out other changes which promised to remedy sub- 
stantially the other two. 

The Trustees of 1854 instituted inquiries whether the defec- 
tive ventilation, and the dangerous mode of warming the build- 
ings, could be obviated within any reasonable expense. 

The result of those inquiries were that it would require an 
outlay of from sixty to seventy thousand dollars to remove these 
defects. This fact induced the Trustees of that year to abandon 
the idea of making any extensive improvements in the present 
building; and they suggested to the legislature the expediency 
of a sale of the present land and buildings, and the purchase 
of a new site, and the erection of new buildings upon a more 
improved plan. 

This subject, thus brought to the attention of the legislature, 
resulted in the appointment of a commission, consisting of Hon. 
Levi Lincoln, Doctor Edward Jar vis, and Hon. Increase Sumner, 
whose report embodied a vast amount of valuable information, 
not only upon the number and condition of the insane within 
the Commonwealth, but also upon the kind and construction of 
building for the reception of this class of persons. 

As the report of that commission recommended the continu- 
ance of the present hospital building at Worcester, and the 
erection of a third hospital for the insane, to be located in the 
western part of the Commonwealth, and as the legislature sub- 
stantially adopted those recommendations, the Trustees of 1855 
again directed their attention to the condition of the hospital at 
Worcester, with a view to applying a remedy to defects which 
were conceded by all to exist. 

The defect in regard to the wards, resulting from a great de- 
ficiency of light, was remedied as reported in the annual report 
of last year. 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 9 

The great difficulties which seemed almost impossible to re- 
move within any reasonable expense, related to the mode of 
heating and ventilating the buildings. 

The various wards were so low studded, being only about 
eight feet in the clear ; the construction of the hot-air furnaces 
were such, and the hot-air flues so contracted, and the ducts or 
passage ways for conveying away the foul air, were so small, 
that to secure an economical and safe mode of meeting with an 
efficient ventilation, would, in the opinion of competent judges, 
as well as in the opinion of the Trustees, have required an 
almost entire change in the internal arrangement of the build- 
ing, unless some different mode of warming and ventilation 
could be resorted to than that which had been generally in 
use in such buildings. 

While the Trustees of 1855 were encountering these difficul- 
ties, their attention was called to a mode of warming and ven- 
tilation, which had been recently adopted at the asylum for the 
insane at Utica, in the State of New York. 

The Trustees also acknowledge their indebtedness to John 
"Wright, Esq., of Lowell, for many valuable suggestions, and 
under whose direction and that of one of their own number, 
(Mr. W. T. Merrifield,) the work has now been carried to a 
successful termination. 

After mature consideration of the plan adopted at Utica, and 
of the suggestions of Messrs. Wright and Merrifield, the Trus- 
tees of 1855 determined to adopt it, and immediately com- 
menced the work. This has now been completed, and, in the 
opinion of the Trustees, with entire success. 

The plan consists in the use of steam for the purpose of heat- 
ing. A general description of it may here appropriately be 
given, referring, however, to the report of the Superintendent 
for a more detailed and minute description of it in its various 
parts. 

Four large steam boilers are placed outside the main build- 
ings, at a distance of about 120 feet. Between the boilers and 
the main building is constructed a large air chamber under 
ground, which is filled with steam-pipes. From this chamber 
proceeds a spacious passage way to the cellar, and through the 
cellar under the main building and all its wings. This passage 
way is so constructed in the cellar as to embrace within it all 

2 



10 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

the old flues which conveyed the hot-air from the old furnaces 
to the various apartments of the building. 

Near the boilers is placed two small steam-engines, only one of 
which is to be used at the same time. The steam used for driv- 
ing the engine, after it has passed through the same, is conducted 
into the steam-pipe in the hot-air chamber, which, with steam 
taken directly from the boilers, is used for keeping it at any 
desired temperature. 

The steam-engine drives a large fan which is fourteen feet in 
diameter, by which fresh air is constantly forced into the hot- 
air chamber, when it is heated to the necessary temperature, 
thence by means of the force furnished by the fan, is forced 
through the large passage way under the building and wings, 
and through the flues connected therewith into all the apart- 
ments of the building. The same force from the fan still 
operates upon the air in the various apartments, forcing it out 
at the old ventilating ducts, with any rapidity which may be 
desired. Thus is secured a constant change of air in all the 
apartments of the building. This change may be increased or 
retarded at pleasure, by simply increasing or slackening the 
speed of the fan. 

One of the chief recommendations of this plan, which is 
called mechanical ventilation, is that by means of the pressure 
upon the air in the various departments secured by the fan, the 
foul air can be forced out with great rapidity through much 
smaller ducts, than by the ordinary process of ventilation. We 
were therefore enabled to use all the old hot-air flues and ducts, 
while with the ordinary process of ventilation, they must all 
have been taken down and enlarged at very great expense. 

With this method of ventilation low studded apartments can 
be kept pure with as great facility as those which are more 
capacious. 

This plan of ventilation will also bo found admirably adapted 
for preserving a pure and healthful air in the various apartments 
in the warm season of the year. It is expected that the fan 
will continue to run in warm as well as in cold weather, and 
by it it is estimated that the whole air throughout the whole 
building can be changed as often as once in from ten to fifteen 
minutes. 

As before stated, it is now in successful operation at the Wor- 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 11 

cester Hospital. We are satisfied that by this plan a much 
more perfect and economical mode of warming and ventilation 
is secured than by any other process. It has been completed 
at about half the expense which the plan considered by the 
Trustees of 1854 was estimated to cost. 

The Trustees desire to bring to the notice of your excellency, 
and through you to the attention of the legislature, another 
subject, which, in their judgment, is one of considerable impor- 
tance. We allude to the laws and regulations now in force in 
regard to the amount paid for the support of such patients as 
are chargeable to the Commonwealth. 

Prior to 1844, the hospital was allowed by the Commonwealth 
for the support of its patients, the whole expense of their support. 

By certain Resolves passed by the legislature of 1844 and 
1845, the compensation for such patients was fixed at the rate 
of $2.50 per week, for a term not exceeding thirteen weeks ; 
$2.25 per week for a term not exceeding twenty-six weeks, and 
$2 per week for a term exceeding twenty-six weeks, and less 
than one year, and for one year $100 per year. Other laws in 
force require the Trustees, for the foregoing compensation, to 
furnish such patients all necessary clothing, and, when they 
leave the hospital, to send them away well and comfortably clad. 
The hospital is also required to pay the funeral charges of such 
as die at the institution. All other patients in addition to the 
sum fixed per week for their support, are charged extra for 
clothing, funeral charges, and also for damages done by the 
patient to the buildings and property of the institution. 

The laws further require the Trustees, from year to year, to 
fix the price of the support of all other patients, except those 
chargeable to the Commonwealth, (which by the foregoing Re- 
solves remain at a fixed sum,) at such prices as will cover the 
expenses of the institution, except the salaries of such of its 
officers as are paid out of the treasury of the Commonwealth. 

From 1845 to 1854 the compensation allowed for the Com- 
monwealth's patients, at the Worcester Hospital, did not fall so 
much below the sum paid by other patients, as has been the 
case since that time. Since the present compensation for the 
support of State paupers at the lunatic hospitals was fixed by 
the Resolves of 1844 and 1845, the cost of sustaining them has 
greatly increased. This difference is most perceptible since the 



12 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



close of the year 1853. In 1854 the State Lunatic Hospital at 
Taunton was opened for the reception of patients, and the num- 
ber at Worcester was consequently greatly reduced. For a few 
years prior to 1854, the hospital at Worcester was greatly crowded 
with patients. In the summer of 1853, the number reached 567, 
and although during that year, and a few years preceding, the 
number of patients was far too great to be properly cared for, 
yet as one result of the great number, the cost of support per 
patient was less than since, or during the earlier history of the 
institution. 

One fact should here be stated, that the Commonwealth's 
patients are usually of a class which remain for a period of at 
least one year, so that substantially the Commonwealth pays for 
its patients at the rate of $100 a year for support and clothing 
and other expenses. 

A few statements of the number of State paupers, and of 
other patients, and the cost of the support of patients at the 
hospital, will place the whole subject in a clear light. 



In 1853 the number of State paupers in the 1 
" all other patients, 

1854, State paupers, 
" all others, . 

1855, State paupers, 
" all others, 

1856, State paupers, 
" all others, 



lospital was 


, 216 


. 


304 


. . 


151 


. . 


230 


. . 


115 


. . . 


221 


. . 


141 




235 



In 1853 the expense of supporting each patient, was . $103 00 

1854 " " " " 123 77 

1855 " " " " 157 29 

1856 " " " " 128 64 



It will thus be seen that under the present law the amount 
allowed by the Commonwealth for the support of its patients at 
the hospital is from thirty to fifty per cent, less than the actual 
cost of their support. 

During the last year the price charged upon all the patients 
per week, except State paupers, was, for the first six months, 
$3, and after that $2.75 per week, while the State, for its pa- 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 13 

tients, allowed loss than $2 per week. "With the present cost 
of provisions and supplies, the price for the future must of ne- 
cessity be as high as during the last year. 

The effect of this state of things is practically to impose, as 
it were, a tax upon those unfortunate individuals who are com- 
mitted to the lunatic hospitals of the State for the benefit of the 
State's own lunatic paupers. 

The injustice of this state of things will be more strikingly 
apparent, when we reflect that this tax is imposed, not upon the 
rich and the prosperous, but in most cases upon the poor and 
afflicted. 

Many instances might be referred to in the Worcester Hospi- 
tal, in which a member of a family of limited means becomes 
insane. The friends of the patient cannot endure the idea of 
making their relative a town charge, and hence they submit to 
every privation and self-denial, in order to save enough to sup- 
port their afflicted brother or sister at an institution which 
promises relief from so great a calamity. 

We know of instances in which two sisters have, by the daily 
labor of their own hands, supported a third sister at the Wor- 
cester Hospital. In another case, a daughter who had no means 
but what she earned, supported an aged mother at the same 
institution. We cannot but feel that the operation of existing 
laws in this respect need only to be stated to the legislature to 
secure an immediate remedy. 

Indeed, if we rightly interpret a law passed at the last ses- 
sion, the legislature has already changed the operation of the 
Resolves of 1845, to a limited extent. We allude to the Act 
of 1856, chapter 113. 

This Act provides that lunatics who have no known residence 
in the Commonwealth, may be committed to either of the State 
lunatic hospitals, by any two justices of the peace, one of whom 
shall be a justice of the quorum, or by any police court. 

The fourth section of this Act provides that persons thus 
committed " shall be supported at said hospitals at the expense 
of the Commonwealth" Our interpretation of this Act is, that 
the expression, " shall be supported at the State lunatic hospi- 
tals at the expense of the Commonwealth," means that the 
Commonwealth is to pay the whole cost of their support, and 
not a part of it. 



14 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

But this Act has no application to the large number of State 
paupers now in the State lunatic hospitals, most of whom have 
been committed by the judges of probate. 

The judges of probate have now the same authority as here- 
tofore, to commit to the State hospitals lunatics who have no 
known settlement in the Commonwealth, and will probably 
continue to exercise that jurisdiction. 

If we are right in our interpretation of the Act in question, 
an insane State pauper may be committed to a State lunatic 
hospital by a judge of probate, and on the same day another 
may be committed by a police judge to the same institution. 
For the support of one the Commonwealth would be chargeable 
at the rate of $100 a year for board and clothing, and for the 
other at the rate of $145 a year for board, with extra charges 
for clothing. This inequality surely ought not to exist. We 
also refer to the report of the Superintendent for further state- 
ments upon this subject. 

The Trustees therefore most respectfully ask the attention of 
your excellency, and, through 3^011, the attention of the legislature 
to this subject, as one imperatively requiring some modification 
of the existing laws. 

WILLIAM T. MERRIFIELD, 
LINUS CHILD, 
CHARLES H. STEDMAN, 
THOMAS COLT, 
JOSEPH N. BATES, 

Trustees. 
Worcester, December 27, 1856. 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 15 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital: — 

The Treasurer reports : — 

That from the 30th day of November, 1855, to the 1st day of 
December, 1856, he has received : — 

From the Commonwealth, for support of Paupers 

committed to said Hospital, .... 
and on account of Ellen Hart, heretofore paid by 

the State, 

Prom cities, towns and individuals, for support of 

patients, 
Prom the Massachusetts Cotton Mills for balance 

of their note, . . . . ■•",■• 

For interest on said note. ..... 

For. interest on Z. Storr's legacy, 
For articles sold by the steward, 
From the Worcester Bank, overdrawn, 
Balance of cash account due the Treasurer, 



And that during the year ending November 20, he has paid, 
on the Steward's orders : — 



$15,681 38 


72 


11 


29,091 


74 


10,000 


00 


382 


50 


30 


00 


372 


00 


9,882 


86 


304 


21 


$65,796 


80 



For salaries, wages of attendants, &c, 
Improvements and repairs, . 
Furniture, ..... 
Clothing, ..... 
Flour, 407 barrels, 



£9,551 11 
4,033 41 
1,809 65 
1,683 18 
3,832 00 



16 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



For Meal, . 


. 


. 


$158 74 


Provender, . 


. 


. 


1,669 21 


Rice, 2,454 pounds, and biscuit, 


. 


421 91 


Coffee, 2,148 pounds, . 


. 


. 


406 45 


Tea, 898 pounds, 


. 


. 


321 39 


Sugar, 24,946 pounds, 


. 


. 


2,352 88 


Butter, 27,107 pounds, 


. 


. 


5,824 58 


Cheese, 2,003 pounds, 


. 


. 


217 83 


Fresh meat,- 7,605 pounds 


fresh Beef; 5,795 




Steak ; 3,507 pounds 


soup 


meat ; 684 




pounds Poultry, 


. 


. 


1,745 14 


Salt Beef, 18,419 pounds ; 


Earns, 


600 pounds, 


1,608 64 


Fish, 5,000 pounds, 


. 


. 


232 90 


Molasses, 477 gallons, . 


. 


. 


209 16 


Small groceries, . 


. 


. 


427 95 


Fresh fruits, 


. 


. 


920 85 


Potatoes, 1,518 bushels, 


. 


. 


891 43 


Other vegetables, 


. 


. 


224 92 


Vinegar, 306 gallons, . 


. 


. 


33 66 


Fuel, 389 cords of Wooc 


1, and 


32 cords of 




Charcoal, 




. . 


2,658 40 


Gas light, 251,000 feet, an 


d Oil, 


196 gallons, 


860 37 


Soap, Starch, and Potash, 


. 


. 


105 62 


Medical supplies, 


. 


. 


347 55 


Books, Stationery, and Printing, 


. 


204 39 


Trustees expenses, 


. 


. 


115 00 


Sexton's charges, 


. 


. 


203 25 


Live stock purchased, . 


. 


. 


1,184 50 


Miscellaneous expenses, 


■ • 


. 


775 30 



$45,031 37 
And on account of improvements in warming and 

ventilation, 17,686 48 



Treasurer's salary and expenses, 
Balance due as per last report, paid to the Wor- 
cester Bank and the Treasurer, 



$62,717 


85 


619 


72 


2,459 


23 



,796 80 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 17 

STATE OF THE HOSPITAL FUND. 

Amount due for support of patients, December 1, 

1856, estimated at ...".. $39,181 03 

Bond of Worcester and Nashua Railroad Com- 



pany, 

Cash in the hands of John Wright, 
Cash in the hands of the Steward, 


Esq, . . 

$9,882 86 

304 21 

30,134 57 


500 00 
500 00 
140 61 


Cash due the Worcester Bank, 
Cash due the Treasurer, 
Balance, . 


$40,321 64 

<kACt 391 (Kd. 



Respectfully submitted, by 

SAMUEL JENNISON, Treasurer. 
December, 1856. 



Examined and approved by the Auditing Committee. 

J. N. BATES. 

WM. T. MERRLFIELD. 

December 29, 1856. 
3 



1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



19 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Superintendent, to the 
Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital. 

Gentlemen : — At the commencement of the year just closed 
there were in the hospital 336 patients, of whom 168 were males, 
and 168 females. 

There were admitted during the year, 241 patients, of whom 
112 were males, and 129 females. 

The whole number under treatment was 577, of whom 296 
were males, and 281 females. / 



Of the patients under treatment, there were discharged 

Recovered, 97 

Much improved, ...... 20 

Improved, ....... 26 

Not improved, 23 

Died, 35 

Total, 201 

Remaining under treatment December 1, 1855, 376 



Of the patients discharged recovered, 51 were under treat- 
ment for a less period than three months ; 17 for a period longer 
than three months, and not exceeding six months ; 12 for a pe- 
riod longer than six months, and not exceeding one year ; and 
17 for more than one year. 

Of those discharged much improved, 4 were under treatment 
less than six months ; 4 for a longer time than three months, 
and not exceeding six months ; 3 for a period longer than six 



20 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

months, and not exceeding one year ; and 8 were residents of 
the hospital more than one year. 

Of those discharged improved, 6 were under our care less 
than three months ; 5 more than three months, and less than 
six months ; 3 more than six months, and less than one year ; 
and 11 were inmates of the institution more than one year. 

Of those discharged not improved, 7 were with us less than 
three months ; 1 more than three, and less than six months ; 
5 for a longer time than six months, and less than one year ; 
and 9 were residents in the hospital for more than one year. 

Thirty-five deaths have taken place during the year, 18 of 
which have occurred to males, and 17 to females. 

Of these deaths, 7 occurred within one month after commit- 
ment ; 5 within three months ; 7 within six months ; and 8 
within one year. 

Eight had been inmates more than one year, 3 of whom had 
been with us more than ten years. 

Of those admitted, there were 104 whose insanity was of less 
duration than three months. 

Thirty who had been insane more than three, and less than 
six months ; 23 who had suffered more than six months, and 
less than one year ; and 84 who had been insane more than one 
year. 

There were committed by the Courts, 95 males and 98 females. 
Total, 193. 

Committed by Overseers of the Poor, 18 males and 30 females. 
Total, 48. 

Of those admitted, there were foreigners and those having no 
settlement in the State, 41 males and 47 females. Total, 88. 

Of those discharged there were foreigners and .those having 
no settlement in the State, 37 males and 39 females. Total, 76. 

Foreigners and those having no settlement in the State re- 
maining December 1, 1856 ; males, 67 ; females, 74. Total, 141. 



185T. SENATE— No. 1. 21 



TABLE 1, 

Shoiving' the supposed Causes of Insanity of those admitted 
during the year. 



Ill health, of various kinds, 48 

Intemperance, 24 

Domestic affliction, 21 

Irregular habits of life, . . . . . . . .15 

Faulty education, 11 

Masturbation, ........... 10 

Jealousy, ........... 10 

Hard labor, .......... 9 

Religious excitement, .9 

Palsy,. 7 

Puerperal, .......... 5 

Turn of life, . . . . . . . . . .5 

Epilepsy, . . . . . . ... . . .5 

Spiritualism, . . j ....... 5 

Loss of property, 4 

Old age, 4 

Change of business, 3 

Nymphomania, .......... 3 

Disappointment, ......... 3 

Confinement in prison, ........ 3 

Gestation, . . . . . . . . . . .2 

Injury of head, 2 

Injury of spine, 1 

Unascertained, .......... 32 

Total, 241 



Of the above, there were hereditary cases, 36 ; hereditary and 
periodical, 25 ; have committed homicide, 2 ; have attempted 
suicide, 7. 

It has always been difficult to ascertain the causes of insanity 
of the patients sent to us. In many cases the friends fail to 
give any rational account of the origin and progress of the disease. 

Foreigners are generally brought to us by officers who have 
never seen the patient previous to having the commitment placed 
in his hands. 

Ill health, especially with females, is a prominent cause, and 
perhaps brings to us more patients than our table shows. 

Under the head of domestic affliction, are classed all cases of 
insanity arising from loss of property, or loss of friends. Also 



22 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

all from neglect, abuse or desertion ; or whatever disturbs the 
peace and harmony of the family circle. 

It will be sufficiently obvious what cases are placed under 
the heads, " Irregular habits of life," " and faulty education." 

The popular excitements of the day have not brought to us 
so many patients as is generally believed by the community at 
large. 

No doubt they are a prolific cause of insanity yet in almost 
all the cases received here, other causes have been sufficiently 
prominent. 



TABLE 2, 
Diseases which have proved Fatal during the year. 



Epilepsy, 5 

Exhaustion from maniacal excitement, 5 

Consumption, . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Palsy, 4 

Marasmus, 3 

Inanition, 3 

Dysentery, .......... 3 

Apoplexy, 2 

Pneumonia, .......... 2 

Chronic Dysentery, 1 

Diarrhoea, . . . . . . . . . .1 

Old age, 1 

Carbuncle, 1 

Total, 35 



Although the number of deaths have been somewhat larger 
than the previous year, yet the general health of the house has 
been good. We have suffered but little from acute disease. 
Late in the summer there were several cases of dysentery, three 
of which proved fatal. And in the autumn there were a few 
slight cases of fever. There have been also several protracted 
cases of diarrhea. A majority of the deaths occurred to feeble, 
worn-out patients. 



1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



23 



TABLE 3, 

Showing; the number of Admissions and Discharges, the Whole 
Number under Treatment, and the Average for each month 
in the year. 









ADMISSIONS. 


DISCHARGES. 




Whole 
Number. 


Average 


























Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


December, 1855, 


350 


335* 


8 


6 


7 


9 


January, 1856, 








349 


337 


9 


6 


6 


3 


February, ' 










356 


343 


8 


8 


5 


6 


March., ' 










360 


347 


6 


9 


7 


4 


April, ' 










374 


353 


10 


15 


7 


10 


May, < 










381 


359 


10 


15 


9 


10 


June, ' 










389 


366 


14 


12 


9 


12 


July, < 










392 


372 


9 


14 


7 


11 


August, ' 










388 


366 


4 


10 


15 


15 


September, ' 










385 


364 


11 


16 


8 


8 


October, ' 










392 


373 


11 


12 


6 


10 


November, ' 










394 


377 


12 


6 


11 


6 


Average 


br th 


i yea 


r> 






357 


113 


129 


97 


114 



TABLE 4, 

Showing the Ages of Patients admitted during the year. 



Less than 15 years of age, ....... 3 

Between 15 and 20, 12 

" 20 and 30, 70 

" 30 and 40, 63 

" 40 and 50, 59 

" 50 and 60, 14 

" 60 and 70, 13 

" 70 and 80, 5 

80 years and over, 2 

Total, 241 



24 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



TABLE 5, 

Ages of Patients remaining November 80, 1856. 



Less than 15 years of age, 3 

Between 15 and 20, 13 

" 20 and 30, 64 

« 30 and 40, . . . . - . . . . 110 

« 40 and 50, 105 

« 50 and 60, 50 

» 60 and 70, : 22 

« 70 and 80, . ■ 5 

80 years of age and over, 4 

Total, 376 



TABLE 6, 

Showing the Duration of Insanity before admission of those 
admitted during the year. 



Insane less than 1 year, • • • 157 

More than 1 and less than 2 years, .... 



17 
16 

5 



2 » "5 

" « 5 " " 10 

« " 10 " " 15 

<< a !5 « u 20 

a a 20 " " 25 

« " 25 " " 30 
" " 30 years, 

Unascertained, "« 



Total, 



241 



1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



25 



TABLE 7, 

Showing the Duration of Insanity of those remaining Novem- 
ber 30, 1856. 





Insane less than 1 year, 




34 




More than 


1 and less than 


2 


years, 










34 




" 


« 


2 


5 


years, 










58 




u 
It 


u 


5 
10 " " 


10 

15 


« 










115 
54 




Li ' 


u 


15 " " 


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a 










32 




a 


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7 




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« 


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a 










6 




a 


a 


30 years, 














8 




Unascertained, . 














28 






Total, . 




376 





TABLE 8, 
Showing Civil Condition of Patients admitted during the year 



Unmarried, . . . ... . . . . .85 

Married, 131 

Widows, 10 

Widowers, 7 

Unascertained, . . ... . . .* .8 

Total, 241 

Civil condition of those remaining November 30, 1856 : — 

Unmarried, 216 

Married, 120 

Widows, . 17 

Widowers, 17 

Unascertained, .......... 6 

Total, .... * 376 



26 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 
TABLE 9, 



[Jan. 



Showing the admissions from each County during the last and 
previous years. 





1856. 


—~ 1- 

Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable, ., 


. Males, 
. Females, 


1 
1— 


2 


121 


123 


Berkshire, . 


. Males, 
. Females, 


3 
4— 


7 


160 . 


167 


Bristol, 


. Males, 
. Females, 



0— 





281 


281 


Dukes, 

a 


. Males, 
. Females, 



0— 





19 


19 


Essex, 


. Males, 
. Females, 


19 
14— 


33 


598 


331 


Franklin, . 
a 


■ . Males, 
. Females, 


3 
3— 


6 


110 


116 


Hampden, . 


. Males, 
. Females, 


15 
13— 


28 


272 


300 


Hampshire, 

u 


. Males, 
. Females, 


5 
3— 


8 


195 


203 


Middlesex, 

u 


. Males, 
. Females, 


25 
33— 


58 


596 


654 


Nantucket, 


. Males, 
. Females, 



0— 





31 


31 


Norfolk, 


. Males, 
. Females, 


1 

2 


3 


559 


562 


Plymouth, . 

u 


. Males, 
. Females, 


1 

0— 


1 


226 


227 


Suffolk, . 

(1 


. Males, 
. Females, 


7 
9— 


16 


539 


555 


Worcester, 


. Males. 
. Females, 


36 
43— 


79 


1,239 


1,318 


Other States, 


. Males, 
. Females, 

Totals, 



0— 





10 


10 




241 


4,956 


5,197 



1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



27 



TABLE 10, 

* 
Showing- the ivhole number of Residents during- the year, the 
average number each year, the number at the end of each 
year, and the expenses of each of the twenty-four years the 
Hospital has been in operation. 





Whoie No. of 


Average No. 


No. at the end 


Current expenses 


Annual expenses 


Year. 


residents dur- 
ing tUe year. 


each year. 


of each year. 


each year. 


per patient. 


1333 


153 


107 


114 


$12,272 91 


$114 67 


1834 


233 


117 


118 


15,840 97 


135 38 


1835 


241 


120 


119 


16,576 44 


137 30 


1836 


245 


127 


138 


21,395 28 


168 44 


1837 


306 


163 


185 


26,027 07 


159 64 


1838 


362 


211 


218 


28,739 40 


136 20 


1839 


397 


223 


229 


29,474 41 


132 16 


1840 


391 


229 


236 


27,844 98 


121 59 


1841 


399 


233 


232 


28,847 62 


123 81 


1842 


430 


238 


238 


29,546 87 


111 12 


1843 


458 


244 


255 


27,914 12 


114 40 


1844 


491 


261 


263 


29,278 75 


112 17 


1845 


656 


316 


360 


43,888 65 


138 88 


1846 


637 


359 


367 


39,870 37 


111 06 


1847 


607 


377 


394 


39,444 47 


104 62 


1848 


655 


404 


409 


42,860 05 


106 09 


1849 


682 


420 


429 


40,870 86 


97 31 


1850 


670 


440 


441 


46,776 13 


106 40 


1851 


704 


462 


466 


52,485 33 


112 61 


1852 


775 


515 


532 


43,878 35 


85 20 


1853 


820 


537 


520 


53,636 66 


103 14 


1854 


819 


430 


381 


53,221 52 


123 77 


1855 


580 


349 


336 


54,895 88 


157 29 


1856 


577 


357 


376 


45,631 37 


128 64 



28 



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1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



29 






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46 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



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1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 47 

During the year the largest liberty has been allowed patients, 
consistent with public safety. 

The old and feeble, and those whose previous habits and con- 
dition prevent their laboring in the fields or shops, are at all 
times seen in groups about the grounds of the institution. 
Some are in the streets who would hardly be taken for the 
inmates of an insane asylum. 

The women take frequent rides about town, and a few of the 
old men ride occasionally, while all take frequent and long 
walks. 

These people are close observers of all that transpires in the 
street, and are amused and relieved of many troubles by the 
ever-changing scene before them. They hear the hum of the 
busy shops ; witness with interest the tide of business ; watch 
with pleasure the blossoming of the trees, the growth and ripen- 
ing of the fruit, and gather much of it with their own hands, 
for their own gratification. 

Few of our patients are, or have been, in restraint during 
the year. Since July last, no " strong room " has been oc- 
cupied. 

Patients often require some seclusion, as one sick of acute 
disease requires his bed. But those whose malady has made it 
necessary to resort to such means, have been kept in their own 
room, the common dormitory of the house. And only in few 
cases has the furniture been removed, and fewer still have we 
suffered from much destruction of clothing or furniture. We 
think that patients who have formerly been exceedingly noisy, 
filthy and disgusting during their periods of excitement in the 
" strong rooms," have been, to say the least, more easily con- 
trolled, and less troublesome during similar excitements, when 
not removed from their ordinary rooms. 

This does not interfere with a proper classification of patients. 
And we have not found that other patients have been much 
annoyed by the confusion or excitement thus far. 

We do not expect always to succeed. The wisest mistake. 
The most patient do not always control themselves. There is 
a limit to the forbearance of the most kind and persevering 
assistants we can procure. 

But we are more and more assured that, with patient and 
persevering assistants, fully imbued with the spirit of the enter- 



48 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

prise in which they have embarked, it will seldom be necessary 
to resort to mechanical restraint. 

It is often a sore grief, sufficient to embitter the remainder of 
life, for a patient to remember that he has been cast into a room 
little better than a criminal's cell, when perhaps a little more 
effort would have been successful in assisting the patient to re- 
cover himself, and secure again his self-control. 

Sometimes, however, the patient desires nothing so much as 
to be placed where he can throw off' all the decencies of life, 
and descend to every vulgar and debasing habit. The result of 
" strong room " treatment in such cases is sufficiently apparent. 

Amusements have always entered largely into the plan of 
treatment in this institution. 

Rides, parties, balls, and games of all kinds are in almost 
constant operation. While this is as it should be, much care is 
necessary lest those who will not and cannot engage in recrea- 
tion without assistance, are forgotten in the more pleasant duty 
of associating with those whose minds are but little disturbed. 

It seems to be the duty of those engaged in this enterprise — 
while not forgetting the more delicate and accomplished patient, 
— to direct their energies to that more hopeless and sometimes 
neglected class, whose bodies are slowly wasting away, whose 
minds are becoming daily more and more vacant, and who are 
by certain steps approaching a state of fatuity from which there 
is no return. This class may be reformed and re-educated, and 
made to assume the decencies and proprieties of life to some 
extent. 

In order to procure more intellectual amusement, and make 
it the means of instruction, a plan is in operation to establish a 
system of daily intellectual entertainments. 

Historical readings, with familiar explanations, courses of 
lectures and school exercises. Thus beginning what we hope 
may prove a source of pleasure and profit at least, a part of the 
year. 

Our patients are well supplied with newspapers ; so that al- 
most any patient can have the paper he has been accustomed to 
read at his own fireside. For this we are indebted to the many 
publishers who send their papers to us free of charge. 

Some of our best galleries are supplied with libraries, and all 
patients have free access to the books. 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 49 

So far as we have been able, we beautify the walls of the gal- 
leries with pictures which give the appearance of life and gaiety, 
and relieve the wards of that cheerless, sober look, so often ob- 
served in similar institutions. We expect to be able to extend 
this pleasure to all parts of our house. 

We have been trying of late to introduce a system of labor 
among our patients. So far as we have been able to succeed, 
the result has been gratifying. There seems to be no .reason 
why strong healthy men or women should not perform some 
labor at an institution of this kind. It should not be compul- 
sory. If it can be made pleasant and attractive, so that a con- 
siderable number will engage in it, I have no doubt that it will 
be found greatly useful as a remedial measure. 

Patients who come to us slightly excited, so uneasy and res- 
tive that they cannot be controlled at home, need only that their 
activity be directed in proper channels, to become soon able to 
manage their own affairs with safety and propriety. 

Others, again, more excited ; impatient of all control and 
direction, constantly busy in destroying, defacing and defiling 
every thing in their reach, can, by a constant effort, be so di- 
rected as to spend their strength and activity in performing 
some labor, and thus work off their excess of vitality, and 
become quiet and correct. 

Those too, who are passing into imbecility, may, by easy and 
pleasant tasks of labor, be amused, aroused and strengthened, 
to some extent. If so, they will become more decent and cor- 
rect in their deportment, and though they never recover, they 
will experience some of the pleasures of life, and relieve their 
friends of much anxiety for them. 

/ There are in the hospital 141 patients having no settlement 
in" the State, nearly all of whom are Irish. For the support of 
these patients we receive from the State Treasury " two dollars 
and fifty cents per week each for a term less than thirteen 
weeks ; two dollars and twenty-five cents per week for any term 
exceeding thirteen weeks, and not less than twenty-six weeks ; 
two dollars per week for any term exceeding twenty-six weeks, 
and less than one year, and for one year the sum of one Jmndred 
dollars." 

This 141 patients have been supported during the past year, 

7 



50 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

at an expense of one hundred and twenty-eight dollars and 
sixty-four cents. 

November 30, 1855, there were 115 State paupers remaining, 
supported, during the year ending at that date, at an expense 
of one hundred and fifty-seven dollars and twenty-nine cents. 

November 30, 1854, there were 151 of this class remaining, 
supported, during the year ending at that time, at an expense 
of one # hundred and twenty-three dollars and seventy-seven 
cents. It will be easy to see that there has been a loss in the 
last three years of more than $14,000. But this is not lost to 
the hospital. 

The Trustees, at their annual meeting, are obliged to estab- 
lish the price of board for the ensuing year. And if in 1855 
there was a loss of $6,588.35, the Trustees were obliged, in 
order to meet the wants of the house, to raise the price of board 
on all patients sent by their friends, or by the towns. The cost 
of support being raised, the towns remove their more comfortable 
insane. Farmers and mechanics, desirous to pay their own 
bills, and hardly able at the lowest rates, can but poorly bear 
a heavier burden. And they are obliged often to remove their 
afflicted ones to their homes, or to the poor-house. 

Another reason why a larger sum should be paid for the sup- 
port of State paupers, is found in the fact that all comfortable 
State paupers have been and are being removed, when able to 
labor, to the State almshouses, leaving only the violent, destruc- 
tive and dangerous, the cost of whose support is much greater 
than the quiet, demented, and easily controlled. 

The buildings and apparatus for heating and ventilating by 
steam, commenced more than a year ago, are now quite com- 
plete, and so far as we are able to judge, will answer our warmest 
anticipations. 

These buildings and fixtures are as follows : — 

First. Directly under the road is a coal cellar, 45 feet square, 
and 12 feet deep ; the roof being supported by groined arches 
and pillars of solid brick masonry, laid in cement. In these 
arches are coal drops from the road above through the roof to 
the cellar below. 

Next north, and adjoining, is the boiler room, 25 feet by 45, 
and arched overhead. In this room ere placed four flue boilers, 
each 30 feet long, and 42 inches in diameter. From this leads 



1857.] SENATE— No. 1. 51- 

an arched passage 80 feet long, for containing and conducting 
an iron smoke flue to the chimney, which is 12 feet square at the 
bottom, 100 feet high above ground, and 12 below the surface. 
In this chimney are carried up, besides the smoke flue, warm 
air ducts and ventilating ducts, for future use. 

Next adjoining these subterranean rooms is a building 48 
feet by 24 feet, two stories high. The lower story being divided 
into two equal parts, one of which is occupied by two steam- 
engines, of each 15 horse power. The other half is the fan 
room, in which is a fan of 14 feet diameter by 8 feet in width ; 
it has 12 floats or wings, and revolves in a brick box 40 times 
per minute, and is capable of conveying into the air chamber, 
and thence to the wards, 75,Q00 cubic feet of fresh air each 
minute. 

The large story above the fan and engine rooms, is to be 
occupied as a shop in which any little mechanical apparatus, 
requiring power, may be placed for the occupation and amuse- 
ment of patients. 

Adjoining the fan room, and between it and the main build- 
ing, is an air-chamber, 120 feet long by 22 feet in width, and 
15 feet in depth, reaching to and under the main building of 
the hospital. In this chamber are placed 45,000 feet of wrought 
iron 3-1 inch steam pipe, and 500 feet cast iron pipe, varying 
in calibre from 2 to 6 inches. This steam pipe is arranged in 
double rows, on standards reaching from floor to ceiling, 8 feet 
apart the whole extent of this room. 

The fan forces the air into this chamber, over the heated 
pipes, and into the large air duct under the house, formed by 
cutting out the partition walls supporting the floors of the 
rooms on one side of each wing, thus making a continuous pas- 
sage under the whole house, the partition walls and floors being 
now supported by arches. This was lathed and plastered above, 
and double brick walls built in front and rear, the interspace of 
four inches being filled with non-conducting substance. From 
this air duct the warm air passes to the rooms by the flues used 
in the old arrangement. In the construction of all these air 
chambers, double arches and double walls are everywhere made 
with an interspace of four inches. And in their construction 
more than 800,000 bricks have been used, and 500 perches of 
stone. 



52 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



From each patient's room there is carried up in the inner 
wall ventilating flues, and these are gathered in the attic into 
large ducts, and carried out at the chimneys. 

The expenses have been about as follows : — 



Excavating, 

Brick and stone work, . 

Four boilers, smoke pipe, &c, 

Steam engines and force pumps, 

Steam pipe and fittings, 

Shafting and pulleys and belting, 

Fan, 

Total, 



$2,500 00 

12,500 00 

4,500 00 

1,850 00 

6,500 00 

500 00 

500 00 

$28,850 00 



Much inconvenience has been felt for want of a proper drain- 
age. Arrangements have been made to drain all the cess pools 
of the establishment by means of a force pump on the hill in 
the rear of the buildings, and thus make it useful as a means of 
enriching the soil of the farm. These arrangements are a large 
brick tank, 36 feet by 24 feet, divided in two equal parts, each 
covered in by groined arches. Into one of these all sewerage 
passes by proper channels, which, becoming full, the solids settle, 
the fluid passes over into the other, from which it is pumped by a 
force pump, through an iron pipe of four inch calibre, to any 
distance required, and distributed by means of a flexible hose. 

This, we hope, will be beneficial to us, and lessen the annoy- 
ance we have made our neighbors. 

On the farm of one hundred acres, there has usually been 
kept four horses, one yoke of oxen, about twenty cows, and 
from fifty to one hundred swine. 

Of late, but one horse has been kept on the place, and during 
the last year but sixteen cows. Some new stock has been pur- 
chased, and perhaps it may be necessary to purchase more as 
the old become fit for the butcher. 

Some of the products of the farm has been as follows : — 



Apples, . 40 barrels, at $2 50, . 
Cherries, . 15 bushels, at 2 00, . 



$100 00 
30 00 



1857.] 




SENATE— K 


Grapes, 


2 bushels at $4 00, 


Tomatoes, 


. 100 


" at 40, 


Cucumbers 


, 75 


" at 50, 


Beans, 


. 30 


at 2 00, 


Peas, . 


. 20 


" at 1 00, 


Cabbages, 


2,000 


heads, at 05, 


Beats, 


. 75 bushels, at 25, 


Onions, 


. 100 


" at 50, 


Turnips, 


20 


" at 25, 


Parsnips, 


100 


" at 50, 


Potatoes, . 


50 


" at 75, 


Hay, . 


75 


tons, at 10 00, 


ixowen, 
Corn fodde] 


j 




Carrots, 


1,000 bushels, at 25, 


Beef, 


7,666 


pounds, at 08-^- 


Pork, 


8,224 


" at lO,' 



Total. 



53 

$8 00 

40 00 

37 50 

60 00 

20 00 

100 00 

18 75 

50 00 

5 00 

50 00 

37 50 

750 00 

50 00 

50 00 

250 00 

650 61 

822 40 

,279 76 



Much of the labor necessary in producing the above results, 
has been performed by patients. 

A few .men who go out and in without restriction, except 
proper hours, have taken nearly the whole care of the vegetable 
gardens, and have thus procured a quiet, happy state of mind, 
and good health. 

• Doctor Frank H. Rice has performed the duties of assistant 
physician, and also of clerk. He has been active and devoted 
to his duties, and has rendered me very valuable service. 

Since July, Dr. Thomas H. Gage has also performed the 
duties of assistant, to whom I am under obligations for the 
performance of many duties. 

Rev. Isaac Hosford conducts with much labor and good will 
the chapel exercises, in which our patients are all interested. 

In looking over the events of the past year, we cannot but 
feel grateful to the Giver of all good, for the results which have 
crowned our labors. No calamity has befallen us. We have 
suffered but little from acute disease. 

Our bill of mortality is not large. Comfort and quiet has 



54 STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. 

been the rule Of our house. The changes it has been necessary 
to make have all been productive of good. Humbly hoping 
that this state of things may continue, and that our institution 
may be more and more useful each successive year, 

I am, gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

MERRICK BEMIS. 



State Lunatic Hospital, Worcester, 
December 1, 1856. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 



MADE AT THE 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, WORCESTER, MASS. 
Lat. 42° 16' 17", Long. 17° 48' 13".— Elevation, 53Qfeet. 



56 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 





S 

1 


Slight. 

Snow squalls. 

Snow ^ inch. 
Rain. 

Lunar halo. 
Lunar halo. 

Rain. 

Rain, hail, snow, £ inch. 

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Snow, 10 inches. 


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1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



57 





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Snow. 
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Snow. 

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Snow, 1^ inch. 

Snow. 

Snow, 10^ inches 

Snow, slight. 

Lunar halo. 
Snow, ^ inch. 

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Lunar halo. 

Snow, slight. 

Snow, 3£ inchs. 
Snow, slight. 


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58 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 



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1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



59 



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60 



STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. 



[Jan. 









Rain. Fog. p. M. 
Rain, interrupted. Spar- 
[rows appeared. 
Crocus in blossom. 
Hazy, 2 p. M. 

Puss willow in blossom. 
Shower. Wild geese 
[flight north. 
Rain. 

[blossom. 

Violet and chickweed in 

Daphne Mez. in blossom. 

Rain. Hyacinth in blos- 

[som. 

Rain. 

Frogs peeped. 
Trailing Arbutus. 

Hazy, 7 A. m. 
Shower, slight. 




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1857.] 



SENATE— No. 1. 



61 





5- 

S 

s 

ffi 

pa 




[Maple in blossom. 
Rain. Dandelion andRed 
Fever Bush in blossom. 
Rain, slight. 
Hail. 

Rain. Cherry in blossom. 
Rain continued. 
Rain continued. 

Pyrus Japonica. [Cherry. 
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69 



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STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL. [Jan. '57. 





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18 

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May 25 

18 

24 

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May 19 

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22 

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25 

25 

27 

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Apr. 21 

May 28 

29 

10 

Apr. 20 

May 11 

12 

9 

25 
June 5 






April 9 
15 
13 
12 

24 

25 

May 4 

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28 
25 
27 

May 4 

6 

8 

13 

Apr. 27 
10 

May 15 

Apr. 19 
3 

23 

22 

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29 

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May 18 

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Crocus, 
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Leatherwood, 
Bloodroot, . 
Wind Flower, 
Cherry Tree, 
Peach Tree, 
Apple Tree, 
TrailingArbutus, 
Fever Bush, 
MissouriCurrant, 
Wild Cherry, . 
Flower. Almond, 
Lilac, 

Tt. Honeysuckle, 
Shad Bush, 
Red Maple, 
Calicanthus, 
Mountain Ash, . 
Dandelion, 
Daph.Mezereon, 
Pyrus Japonica, 
Hyacinth, . 
Blue Violet, 
Persian Lilac, 
Gr. Maculatum, . 
Rose, Russian, . 
Rose, Scotch, 
Horse-Chestnut, 
Narcissus, . 



APR £5^W.FX