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Full text of "Annual report of the Trustees of the Charlestown Free Schools"









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.No* 63 45 . 55 

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1801- 








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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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THE 



<±> S iH © i!^ Si asi?®siis 



OF THE 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



OF THE 



GHARLESTOWN FREE SCHOOLS, 



MADE IN PURSUANCE OF THE ACT OF 1838. 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER OF THE BOARD. 



Printed at the Aurora Office, 
1840. 



SCHOOL REPORT. 



The Board of Trustees of the Charlestown Free 
Schools, in compliance with the requisitions of a law of this 
Commonwealth, respectfully submit the following as their 

The labors of the Board during the past year, have been of 
an important and difficult nature. The building of three School 
Houses ; the repairs made on several of the old ones ; the es- 
tablishment of five schools ; the alteration of the several school 
districts ; the addition of backs to all the seats in the grammar 
schools within the Peninsula ; together with the customary 
cares of superintendence ; have comprised duties, arduous and 
responsible. In their performance, the Board have endeavored 
to act with a single eye to the immediate wants of the Schools 
and the permanent interests of the Town. 

In May last, six hundred and fifty four scholars were enroll- 
ed in the Harvard and the Winthrop Schools, and over one 
hundred were qualified to enter from the Primaries ; making 
over two hundred more scholars than there were seats for their 
accommodation in the school rooms. Taking into considera- 
tion this condition of the schools, as well as the probability of a 
future increase of pupils, the Board felt constrained, in their 
last Annual Report, to recommend the immediate establishment 
of a new Grammar School within the PeninsU'la. They, also, 
then advised the erection of a School House, expressing the 
opinion, that it would "be the best economy for the town to 
construct a large and permanent building sufficiently commo- 
dious to contain all the conveniencies necessary for a modern 
school"; and they recommended the Elliot School House, re- 
cently erected in Bennet Street, Boston, as a model. 

Accordingly the town, at the May meeting, appropriated the 
sum of fifteen thousand dollars for the purchase of land and 
the erection of a School House, ''according to the accompany- 
ing report;" and the Board took immediate measures to carry 
this vote into effect. A lot of land containg 7630 feet and 
situated at the corner of Summer and North Pleasant Streets, 
was purchased of Mr. Jonathan Brown at 34 cents a foot : se- 
lected for its peculiar fitness for the purpose and for its loca 
tion in the centre of a dense and increasing population. In 



making the rough estimates for a building as proposed, it was 
found, that two commodious Primary School Rooms could be 
secured by havinjr a basement story, at an additional cost of 
about twelve hundred dollars ; and the Board did not hesitate 
to incur the extra expense. After visiting School Houses in 
Boston and the vicinity, and maturing a plan, G. J. F. Bryant, 
an Architect, was employed to furnish a drawing and specifica- 
tion. Proposals to do the work by contract were then solicited 
by advertisement in the Bunker-Hill Aurora ; and Jonathan 
Locke, mason, and Clarke &, Varney, carpenters, having offer- 
ed the lowest proposals, obtained the contract. The walls had 
been completed but a short time — hardly long enough to enable 
the mortar to harden — when the violent gale of the 15th of De- 
cember 1839 occurred. This blew down two of the chimnies and 
the concussion threw out both gable ends of the building. On 
the 16th, Messrs. John Gregory, Shadrack Varney and Isaac 
Blanchard, were appointed by the Board a committee to "re- 
port whether the injury occurred in consequence of fault or neg- 
lect on the part of the contractors." This committee on the 
18th of Dec. made a report, from which the following extract is 
here made : "the damage done to the building on the fifteenth 
of the present month was not owing to any deficiency in the 
work of the builders or of the materials ; but was caused by 
the violent gale that damaged so many buildings in this vicini- 
ty." Under these circumstances, the Board were unanimous 
in their opinion, that the loss should not be borne by the contrac- 
tors ; and have accordingly paid them for the extra expense 
which was incurred. The Board deem it no more than bare 
justice to the enterprising contractors here to say, that the whole 
work has been done in a faithful and workmanlike manner, re- 
flecting great credit on their skill and judgement. 

The building is constructed of Brick, 60 feet long by 40 feet 
wide ; having a porch 32 feet by 18 feet. It is two stories high 
and has a basement story. It contains four rooms ; two for 
primary schools and two for a Grammar School. The base- 
ment story is divided into two apartments by a brick wall ; in 
one apartment is the cellar in which are the furnaces ; the oth- 
er contains the two primary schoel rooms. Each of these rooms 
is 10 feet high 27 feet 6 inches long and 15 feet 6 inches wide, 
has seats after the plan of the model school in Boston, that 
each scholar may have a separate seat, and will well accommo- 
date a large school. The room in the first story is 14 feet 6 
inches high, 56 feet long and 36 feet wide. It has six ventil- 
ators with openings in the ceiling, two hundred seats made with 
iron standards and with backs in the form of chairs, a platform 



fronting the seats 5 feet wide and raised 6 inches above the 
floor, and a recitation room 10 feet 4 inches square. The room 
in the second story is similar to the one in the first story in 
dimensions, ventih tion, seats and platform, is 14 feet high, and 
has a recitation room of 18 feet 2 inches by 10 feet 4 inches. 
All the rooms are warmed by Bryant &. Herman's Furnaces 
placed in the cellar and having their smoke pipes passing 
through the primary school rooms into the chimney flues. All 
the windows are supplied wifh green blinds. There are two 
entrances and yards for the grammar school, and two for the 
primary schools. A drain has been laid by the Board which 
leads from the pump to the corner of Mr. Oliver Holden's 
House inMt. Pleasant Street. 

On the 7th of April Mr. Samuel L. Gould was elected the 
master and Miss Caroline E. Andrews, the assistant, of the 
Grammar Department; and Mr. James G. Foster the master, 
and Miss Sarah C. Fernald the assistant of the Writing Depart- 
ment : and on the J 3th it was determined that the dedication 
of the School House should take place on the 20th and the 
school commence on the 21st. It was also named the Warren 
School. 

The establishment of this school required an alteration of 
the school districts ; after mature deliberation, the Board have 
fixed the lines as follows : 

Bunker-Hill School. From Canal Bridge to Walker 
street, extending the line made by the North side of this street 
from Charles River to Medford River. 

Warren School. From a line made by the south side of 
Walker street, extending from Charles River to Medford River, 
to a line commenc ng at Charles River and running along the 
North side of Austin street and East side of Warren street to 
Cordis street, and the North side of Cordis street and Everett 
street to Medford River. 

Harvard School. All South of the line formed by Austin, 
Warren, Cordis and Everett streets, as above described. 

Winthrop School. The same as that of Harvard School. 

These districts will leave the Schools in number as follows : 



Bunker-Hill School 


175 


Present number 


183 


Warren " 


321 


In Primaries 


184 


Harvard *' 


270 


Present number 


335 


Winthrop 


260 


t ( 


324 



1026 1026 

The condition of the District Schools was alluded to in the 
last Annual Report. To elevate their character, as far as 



practicable, has been the earnest desire of the Board. But the 
evil consists in the constant change of teachers to which they 
are exposed. To remedy this evil, so far as it respected the 
Winter Hill, the Milk Row and the Prospect Hill schools, the 
Board then recommended that these should be changed to Pri- 
mary Schools, and a new Grammar School should be establish- 
ed at Prospect Hill, to take in the older scholars. Also that 
the necessary repairs be made in the School houses to enable 
the Board to carry this measure into effect. These recommen- 
dations having been accepted, the old school room at Prospect 
Hill has been fitted up in such a manner as to make it one of 
the most desirable in town, being arranged with seats with 
backs, and raised as they recede from the desk of the master ; 
and an addition has been made to the old building for the ac- 
commodation of the Primary School. The cumbrous desks 
have been removed from the Milk Row and Winter Hill School 
Houses and these fitted up for the better accommodation of the 
Primaries. 

The Prospect Hill Grammar School was. established Novem- 
ber 4th, and thus far has succeeded beyond the expectation of the 
Board. During the winter the attendance has been so regular 
and full that additional seats for the accommodation of the 
scholars were obliged to be provided. The discipline of the 
school has been good and the improvement made by the schol- 
ars highly satisfactory. The Winter Hill, Milk Row and Pros- 
pect Hill Schools are now classed as Primaries, and so success- 
ful has been the arrangement, that the Board recommend its 
continuance. 

The Town voted seven hundred dollars for the purpose of 
building a Primary School House, sufficiently near the Alms 
House to accommodate its children, and also such other children 
as might attend — the school to be placed on the same footings 
and to be under the same control, as the other schools are. 

Accordingly the Board carried this into immediate effect. 
About thirty children, apparently intelligent, happy, and in ge- 
neral, enjoying good health, were from necessity kept at the 
Poor House in a small room, exposed to a noxious atmosphere, 
and under a severe discipline. The instruction was a mere 
mockery: none* of the scholars could read intelligibly. For 
their accommodation, with others, a commodious School House 
has been constructed, on the Town's land, on Elm street, and 
a Primary School established. Thus far the school has suc- 
ceeded beyond the hopes of the Board. The change produced 
by a few months instruction is as gratifying as it is creditable 
to the teacher. And no difficulty is experienced with regard to 



its government. All meet on the terms of equalitj — all re- 
ceive the same attention. 

The humane provision thus made for the children of pover- 
ty,* the Board earnestly hope will be continued. Though it 
may be lightly viewed by some, yet they look upon this school 
with great interest. Many of these children early enter private 
fanailies; and here it is too often the case that the hard round 
of domestic duties prevents an attendance at school, and they 
grow up in utter neglect. Now they may acquire the foundations 
of an education, and desires for knowledge, and habits of self- 
respect, and resolutions to conquer difficulties, which neither 
lapse of time nor daily toil can eradicate. Reasons for its con- 
tinuance might easily be multiplied: but the Board only again 
recommend it to the fostering care of the Town. 

Primary School, No. 4, contained, at the time of the last an- 
nual Report, 97 pupils. Agreeably to a vote of the Town, a 
new school has been established in the vicinity of this, and pla- 
ced under the charge of Miss Esther M. Hay. It commenced 
June 20, in the Porch of the Methodist Meeting House. At 
this time the number of children in Primary School No. 4 had 
increased to 132, one half of whom were removed to the new 
school. This is now Primary School No. IS, and is kept in 
the Warren School House. 

A Primary School was petitioned for by the inhabitants resi- 
ding on Winter Hill. Being authorized by vote of the Town, 
the Board on the 7th of June, voted to open a school there for 
six months, and Caroline M. Sylvester was appointed teacher. 
The number of scholars having been sufficient to warrant its 
continuance, the Board on the 26th of October, voted that the 
school be permanently established. They now retommend that 
measures be taken to provide a Scljool House, to be placed on 
the land offered to the Town by Charles Adams. 

The seats in the Grammar Schools have been the subject of 
much complaint on the part of parents and scholars. For six 
hours daily, have the pupils been obliged to set on a round 
piece of plank, fastened to a standard, and without any back, 
which has been termed a 'seat.' This has been uncomfortable, 
injurious, and such as, in the opinion of the Board, should no 
longer disgrace our school rooms. Accordingly, backs have 
been put to all the seats in the grammar schools: it is believed 
that no parent, who has ever infficted on himself the task of 
sitting for one half-hour on these 'seats,' will regard the trifling 
sum it cost to make the alteration. 



*The older boys, attached to the Poor House, attend the Grammar School. 
There were twelve in the Winthrop School at the last examination 



This completes the detail of the alterations made in the school 
department, during the past year. The following table shows 
the state of the schools at the last examination. 

Grades. Number. No. Teachers. Salaries. Scholars. Average attendance. 
Primaries. 20 20 4200 1230 999 

District. 2 2 432 62 48 



Grammar. 4 



12 



6520 



62 
903 



736 



26 34 11,152 2195 1783 

In the Primary Schools, some changes have been made 
during the past year. On the 12th of August, Miss Lydia W. 
Locke was transferred from No. 14 to No. 16, and Miss Jane 
M. Burkess appointed teacher of the former : Miss Battles re- 
signed her charge of No. 13, and on the 13th of November, 
Miss Sarah C. Reynolds was appointed the teacher : Miss Ma- 
ry Dodge resigned her charge of school No. 20 on the 30th of 
November, and Miss Sarah M. Burnham was appointed the 
teacher : Miss Betsey Putnam resigned her charge of school 
No. 6, on the 2 1st of March, and Miss Harriett A. Worcester 
was appointed the teacher. 

The condition of these schools, the Board are happy to say, 
is, with few exceptions, highly satisfactory. The teachers 
have, many of them, exhibited a devotion to duty, and an ar- 
dent desire of improving their schools, which entitle them to 
receive the highest praise. 

The following Table exhibits the state of the Primary .Schools 
at the time of the last examinations : 



No. 



Situation. 



Teachers. 



1 So 
Ipupi 



Aver. 
Is'atten. 



Pres- 
lent 



Committee 
for 1839-40. 



I 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 



Near Canal Bridge 
Eden street. 
Warren Sch. house. 
School street 
Universalist Vestry 
Winthrop Church. 
Harvard street. 
Prescott street. 
Common street. 
Trainingfield 
Market house. 
Boylston Chapel. 
[Bunker-Hill st. 
Moulton's Point. 
Warren Sch. house 
Elm street. 
Winter Hill Road. 
On Winter Hill. 
Prospect Hill. 
Milk Row. 



Melvina B. Skilton | 55 
Mary Walker | 70 

Charl'te N. Sawyer 70 
Susan L. Sawyer | 64 
Elizabeth H.Dodge 68 
HarrietA Worcester 60 
Sarah E. Smith j 56 
M. E Chamberlain' 67 
M. W. H. Dupee j 72 
Joanna S. Putnam i 92 
Elizab. B. Marshall 57 
Ann W. Locke [ 65 
Sarah C Reynolds ! 90 
Jane M Burkess 75 
Esther M. Hay j 76 
Lydia W. Locke i 45 
Mary E. Brown i 26 
Caro. M. Sylvester | 26 
Eliz. P. Whittredge 40 
Sarah M. Burnham 56 



50 
55 
66 
58 
56 
52 
45 
55 
63 
70 
40 
52 
65 
60 
57 
38 
21 
23 
35 
38 



52 

8 
60 
56 
50 
50 
45 
58 
57 
72 
49 
50 
60 
62 
56 
38 
22 
25 
34 
39 



R i^ 1 othingham jr 
n 

I 
a 

Th. Browne Jr 

Chas Forster 
(( 

(« 

G. W Warren 
(( 

(< 
John Sanborn 



R FrothinghamJr 
Chas. Forster 
Alfred Allen 
I and 

James Under- 
i wood.*' 



On the 4th day of March, Mr. Underwood died, after a long and distress- 



9 

The Books prescribed by the Board for use in these schools 
are as follows : My First School Book ; Worcester's Second and 
Third Books for Reading ; The Young Header ; New Tes- 
tament ; New National Spelling Book ; Introduction to the 
National Spelling Book ; Emerson's First Part in Arithmetic ; 
Alphabetical Cards. 

Before children leave the Primary Schools for the Grammar 
Schools, they are expected to read with fluency, spell correct- 
ly, and be familiar with the multiplication table. These are 
deemed indispensable by the Board. If other studies are intro- 
duced in these schools, it is done to promote discipline, to keep 
the children employed, to increase their love for the school : 
for experience teaches, that so far from being regarded as a 
burthen by the pupil, such variety is eagerly desired. But to 
overload the youthful mind, by imposing upon it hard and mul- 
tiform tasks, and to compel it to correct recitation by severe 
discipline, is as unnatural as it is repugnant to good sense. — 
The main studies are here urged with the strong conviction 
that more can be done in these schools, than, by some of the 
teachers, has yet been accomplished. 

Children between four years of age and eight, can attain to 
a considerable proficiency in reading. They can acquire hab- 
its of carefulness, of correct pronunciation, of distinct articula- 
tion, as easily as they can those of a contrary character. On 
their part it requires no more mental effort to learn to call 
words right than it does to call them wrong ; on the part of the 
teacher it calls for no greater out-lay of time. The same may 
be remarked of other habits, first contracted in the Primaries, and 
to correct which in the Grammar Schools, occupies so many 
valuable hours. This is not mere assertion. In some of these 
schools, the excellent reading shows how much may be accom- 
plished by skilful teachers, who spare neither time nor labor to 
qualify themselves for their duties.* Children can only learn 

ing illness. Resolutions expressive of the sense the Board entertained of his 
faithful services as their associate, of his personal worth, and of their sympa- 
thy with his family, were unanimously adopted, and a copy was transmitted, 
by the President, to his widow. 

*To give an idea of the manner in which the studies in some of the best Pri- 
maries are pursued, the following schedule is annexed. 

Fifth Class. — Seldom, in a school of sixty, more than half a dozen, in this 
class ; learning the letters. 

Fourth Class — Reading, without spelling the words, in "My First School 
Bo»k" and Emerson's Introduction ; spell such words as "village," "seule- 
ment," and other words of two and three syllables. 

Third Class. — Read fluently in Worcester's Second Part ; spelling contin- 
ued ; name the days, weeks, months, and seasons ; name the figures. 

Second Class — Read fluently, manv without leaving out any of the wool*. 
2 ' ' 



10 

this art by imitation; hence the teacher's taste for reading will 
be sure to be reflected in the reading of the pupil. Want of 
skill or of knowledge then in the teacher is all that stands in 
the way of the scholars improvement ; this the Board cannot 
consider as a valid excuse, when so many means are at hand 
to aid in attaining, either by self-study or by attending to in- 
struction in elocution, a necessary degree of proficiency in 
this important accomplishment. 

The necessity of a careful study of orthography may seem too 
obvious for a formal notice by the Board. But many of the 
schools are far from being so satisfactory in this as could be 
desired. Yet here, it is believed, is the most appropriate place 
to acquire a knowledge of spelling ; and an increased atten- 
tion to it is urged. Without specifying minutely the par- 
ticular means to attain the result ol" good spelling, the Board 
would recommend, as a general rule, the distinct pionunriation 
of the word given out by the teacher, by the scholar, previous 
to spelling. They also strongly advise for all the primary 
schools, the adoption of the practice of spelling by syllables 
and letters : it quickens, without straining the youthful mind, 
engages the attention, may be made a means of promoting dis- 
cipline, and, in every respect, is a pleasant and profitable exer- 
cise. 

The Board further require the first classes in all Primary 
Schools to be able to answer questions promptly in the multi- 
plication table. It is useless for any teacher to say that this 
cannot be expected of their pupils : in some of our best con- 
ducted primary schools questions are answered, readily, un- 
derstandingly, in Emerson's Second Part in Arithmetic as far 
as fractions. This book is not prescribed by the Board, nor is 
it prohibited. Some teachers prefer to use it, as experience 
convinces them, that children are better pleased to be learning 
something new, than to be continually reciting, over and over, 
old lessons. The lessons become tedious, and the pupils grow 
listless and careless ; while the consciousness that they are 
learning things of interest, stimulates them forward. When, 
therefore, the Board perceive the first classes in the primary 
schools not generally familiar with the common multiplication 

in "'ihe Young Reader ;" spell the longest words correctly ; recite punctua- 
tion, abbreviat ons, and other lefcsons from "National Spelling Book;" an- 
swer promptly the multiplication table and questions in Emerson's First Part 
in Arithmetic. 

Fi7-st Class — Read correctly in Worcester's Third Book ; spell without 
hesitation, the hardest words in the reading books ; answer promptly in Im- 
erson's Second Part in arithmetic as far as fractions ; speak dialogues and oth- 
er easy pieces. 



11 

/ 

table, they hesitate not to ascribe the deficiency either to want 
of skill or to negligence on the part ofthe teacher. 

Other studies are pursued in the primary schools ; easy les- 
sons in punctuation, abbreviation, geography, and others as the 
taste ofthe teacher may dictate. In many, short pieces are re- 
cited ; in all, singing is practised ; both with the happiest ef- 
fects upon the condition ofthe schools. And with these studies 
are interwoven moral lessons, opportunities for impressing 
which, upon the tender heart, are ever presented to the notice 
ofthe watchful teacher. Indeed a teacher cannot discharge 
her duty in a faithful manner, without seeing to it, that every 
such opportunity is improved. 

If it be true that Education, or the preparation for the fu- 
ture, begins at the cradle ; or that the virtues which elevate 
and the vices which degrade, the character, can be often traced 
to influences acting on the earliest life, then may these primary 
schools be considered as ofthe highest importance and worthy 
ofthe most careful attention. So are they regarded by the 
Board. Here, under skilful teaching, may be excited fondness 
for study, powers of thought, habits of discipline, and a love 
for school, which years may not destroy ; or, under iess favor- 
able circumstances, here may be imbibed habits, and prejudi- 
ces and aversions, which may continue hereafter to grow deep- 
er and wider. It is important that teachers should realize 
this ; and should diligently strive to promote the one and to 
guard against the other : that they should feel, that it is in 
their power to do much, very much, to promote the weal or 
the wo of those placed under their charge. 

The Board are aware that the remark is often made, that it 
is folly to begin to task the youthful mind so soon ; that there 
is danger in cramping its energies by imposing upon it too ear- 
ly an application. But however theorists may speculate, ex- 
perience shows, that, in general, the danger lies in an oppo- 
site direction. Scholars do not leave our public schools with 

too much education, but with too little that is really useful. 

Much valuable time is employed between the ages of twelve 
and sixteen in elementary studies, which might, and should be 
devoted to training the mind to a use of its own powers. Ma- 
ny hours are now devoted to reading — to the mere acquisition 
of a correct pronunciation — which might be saved to the pupil 
were a proper mode of instruction pursued in the primary 
schools. The same may be said of arithmetic. This is an im- 
portant consideration, and should excite the teachers of these 
schools to faithfulness in the discharge of their duties. Though 
they may toil in an humble sphere, yet their labors are inter- 



esting and arduous ; and a diligent, conscientious, and well 
qualified primary school teacher, one who rises above the mere 
consideration of dollars and cents, and performs her daily 
round of labors with the sole end in view of promoting the well 
being and progress of those under her charge, should be look- 
ed upon as one of the most valuable members of society. — 
Such services cannot be too highly appreciated or too warmly 
requited. 

These schools are dismissed by the Board by referring the 
teachers to other portions of this Report equally applicable to 
their duties as to the duties of those engaged in the grammar 
schools; and with the expression of the hope that the evident 
improvement which a few years past has witnessed in their con- 
dition may go on, until all rank as high in character as those 
to which special reference has been made in these remarks. 

The District Schools, since the last annual report, have 
not changed their character. In the Russell District, Miss 
Whittemore was succeeded, for the winter term, by Phil. R. Rus- 
sell, Jr., whose labors for the past season have been highly sa- 
tisfactory to the Board. The Gardner's Row School, kept in 
summer oy Miss Austin, was placed under the charge of Mr. 
Stephen A. Swan. Owing to his death, which occurred Dec. 
25, John C. Hooper was elected its teacher. The condition of 
this school at the last examination was not satisfactory at all to 
the Board. 

There are now, strictly speaking, but two District Schools in 
Town: the state of these is as follows: 

JVames. Teachers. 
Russell District, 1 

Gardner's Row District I 

These schools are unfortunately situated to experience any 
great improvement, as they remain exposed to the almost in- 
surmountable evils alluded to in the last report. These evils 
can only be avoided by altering the plan on which they are 
based. Now, before a teacher can become much attached to 
his pupils, or well acquainted with their character and capacity, 
or establish firmly the discipline of the school, his time expires, 
and he is succeeded, often by an entire stranger. A new or- 
der of things is adopted. And this continual change interrupts 
the progress of the scholars. It is believed that this can be 
remedied at a little additional expense. The Board are aware 
that the number of scholars is small; yet why should a bad sys- 
tem be continued, when a mere trifle in the expense would 



Salaries. 


Scholars. 


Average 


216 


39 


30 


216 


23 


18 



13 

cure the evil ? It is believed that accomplished lemale teach- 
ers w^ould keep the schools in a steady state of progress. The 
Board, therefore, recommend that these be made Annual 
Schools, and be subject to the same rules, with respect to books 
and discipline, as the higher schools. At first it may subject 
the parents to a trifling additional expense in the furnishing of 
books, but this must be a minor consideration compared to the 
great benefits that would result from a change. On the 13th 
inst. Miss Clara D. Whittemore was appointed teacher of the 
Russell School, and Miss Hannah S. Austin, of the Gardner's 
Row School, for the summer term, to commence on the 1st of 
May — these teachers having heretofore given great satisfac- 
tion to the Board. 

The Grammar Schools remain, with a single exception, un- 
der the same teachers who had the charge of them at the date 
of the last Annual Report. Miss Caroline A. Johnson resigned 
her situation as assistant teacher in the F^arvard School, and 
Miss Mary J. Whiting was appointed, Nov. 13, to fill her 
place. The following table exhibits their condition as it stood 
at the late examinations. 



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15 

The condition of these schools, as exhibited during repeated 
visits to them by the Sub-committees who have them severally un- 
der their charge, aiid on days of public exhibition,* is generally 
satisfactory, and such as indicates faithfulness on the part of the 
masters and assista its. In some there is a greater proficiency 
in the various studies than there is in others; and there is room 
for improvement in all. In the Harvard and the Winthrop 
schools some of the pupils are believed to be thorough in the 
whole of Emerson's Third Part in Arithmetic; and are now in 
Bailey's Algebra; while the reading, writing, and discipline in 
all the schools, are. probably, not inferior to those of the best 
public schools in the vicinity. 

The Board, however, would express their great satisfaction 
at the attention paid to Rhetoric, or 'composition,' in the Gram- 
mar schools. This is an important, nay one of the most im- 
portant branches o: study. It is to but little purpose that the 
memory is loaded with facts, or that rules of grammar are 
promptly recited, i' the application of this knowledge is neg- 
lected. Perhaps no study is better adapted to train the mind to 
reflection and investigation, and to discipline it for many ofth^ 
active duties of liia; and therefore the Board would recom- 
mend increased att*^ntion to its requirements. 

Another thing tje Board would here name for considera- 
tion. Too little progress is now made by the scholars from the 
time they leave thr; Primary schools to the time they reach the 
higher classes in the Grammar schools. For a period, the 
pupils appear, save in writing, to come to a stand, if not to 
retrograde. There has been reason for this, in the past crowd- 
ed state of the schools. Yet this should not longer exist. 
There should be continued progress on the part of the scholars 
from the time they enter school until they leave it. Their pe- 
riod of life is too precious to allow it to be wasted; it can all be 
improved to advantage. And if there are too many scholars for 
the Assistants employed in our Grammar schools, true policy 
will dictate an addition to the number of the latter. Then 
each scholar will receive more attention and be enabled to 
make an uninterrupted progress. This is the most gratifying 



* Examinations of al! the schools have been held as usual in the Fall and 
Spring; in addition, an exhibition of the first classes of the Primary schools 
tjok place on the lOtli of April at the Town Hall, which was creditable to 
pupils and teachers, and afforded great pleasure: and on the 13fh of April 
there was an exhibition of the first classes of the Grammar schools within the Pe- 
niasula. It is not too much to say that all the exercises of the scholars on this 
occasion, gave the highest satisfaction to one of the most crowded audiences 
ever assembled at the Hall; but the Board cannot refrain from particularizing 
Uie declamation and reading as being of the highest order. 



16 

aspect under which the Board can view a school; it is to sec 
steady, constant improvement in it througho«t, from the lowest 
class to the highest — to see each scholar advancing in due or- 
der from the smallest to the largest. 

Passing from a more particular detail of the wants of the 
schools, the Board take this opportunity to urge a {ew remarks 
of a general nature. 

The teachers should strive to he faithful in their calling. — ^ 
Their duties are daily becoming more responsible — their office 
more honorable ; and the community are daily growing more 
watchful lest their high trusts be betrayed. And just in pro- 
portion to the magnitude of the trust will be the guilt of unfaith- 
fulness to its duties. It is right that it should be thus. The 
parent places under the charge of a teacher that which to him 
is dear as life : should it be carelessly treated ^ Should it be 
suffered to imbibe feelings, and prejudices, and opinions, and 
principles, injurious to its nature } The charge is indeed of 
no light moment, and the teacher who dares to trifle with it, is 
unworthy the place he fills and should forever renounce his 
calling. On the contrary, the high importance of his labori^ 
should rise before him in every act of his school duties. He is 
to exercise an influence for good or for evil on all those placed 
under his charge, and this influence may go forth from his 
words, his opinions, his manners, when he little thinks of their 
consequences. Hence he should always, during school hours, 
in speech and action, set before hi& pupils an example worthy 
to be imitated. 

And the teacher should ever bear in mind, that to he faithful 
something more is necessary than hearing lessons and enforc- 
ing forms of school discipline. When he stops here he stops 
far short of his duty. Too much attention has heretofore been 
paid to mechanical recitations — to the mere cultivation of the 
memory. Ideas, principles, opinions, thus passing through the 
mind, can afford it but little effective nourishment ; they must 
be worked over again by the pupil, put into new shape, and 
expressed in his own language, ere they can accomplish their 
valuable purpose. Hence a great object should be to encour- 
age the pupil in a confidence in his own powers; to make him 
feel that he has something within him which can think, and de- 
termine and accomplish ; to kindle a desire for progress in 
knowledge ; and to induce him to value highly the results he 
can attain by careful study and unremitting perseverance. — 
Rhetoric, or "composition" is one of the means whereby this 
may be promoted ; requiring the scholars ia the higher classes 
to give the answers, in their own language, in their recitations 
of Geography, of History and Philosophy, is another ; conver- 



17 

tion is another ; encouraging a taste for reading, another. — - 
Every laudable attempt of the scholar to think, to reason, to 
investigate for himself, should be favorably regarded. Here 
at times, a voice of encouragement or a smile of kindness will 
do more to help the youthful mind onward than a thousand 
harsh words or harsher blows. And never, on any occasion, 
should the withering blast of satire or ridicule be applied to its 
first efforts. Could facts be known, many would own that they 
imbibed an aversion to public speaking, a distaste of composi- 
tion, from a careless or hasty word bestowed on an early per- 
formance. 

More especially will these remarks apply to the treatment of 
those termed "the dull scholars." It may, perhaps, be too of- 
ten the case that pupils of bright natural parts are caressed 
and encouraged at an expense of time which should be direc- 
ted to the whole school. This is decidedly wrong. Not that 
the Board would say aught in disparagement of these orna- 
ments of a school ; they are justly its pride, and the pride of 
the teacher But natural talent will always succeed, while 
those not so much gifted, require the careful attention of the 
teacher. In the dullest intellect and the coldest heart, there 
are powers and feelings which need only to be reached by the 
skilful hand, to be awakened to beneficent action. To them, 
then, let every consistent encouragement be given, by kindness 
of manner and timely aid ; and on no account let them be ne- 
glected. Duty and humanity alike demand this. 

Much has been written and said by the Board on the subject 
of discipline. To maintain government in school is indispen- 
sable. There must be law and it must be strictly obeyed ; 
and when this obedience cannot be had without harsh means, 
then it must be used. Daily experience however confirms the 
opinion, that the less there is of corporeal punishment in our 
schools, the better is it for teacher and scholar ; and that in no 
way can a teacher more display thorough skill in the duties of 
his profession and intimate knowledge of the capacity and wants 
of the youthful mind, than in maintaining good discipline among 
hispupils and promoting their vSteady progress, without its in- 
fliction. 

In relation to this, the Board have, heretofore, taken the 
most decisive measures : the following votes are furnished 
each teacher on his appointment to an office in the schools ; they 
are copied from resolutions passed by the Board, November 
27, 1837. 

Voted, That the teachers of the several schools under the 
superintendence of this Board be requested to abolish corporeal 

3 



18 

punishment in their respective Schools, in all cases where its 
omission will not be manifestly prejudicial to good order and 
discipline. 

Voted, That those teachers who have succeeded in maintain- 
ing good order and discipline in their schools without the in- 
fliction of corporeal punishment, merit the approbation oi this 
Board ; and it is earnestly hoped that all the teachers will 
make every necessary effort to maintain good order in their 
schools, and keep up the interest of the scholars in their stud- 
ies, without resorting to tliis mode of discipline ; which course 
will meet with the decided approbation of the Trustees. 

The Board again sanction these views. The opinion is daily 
gaining ground, that its use, except in extreme cases, is whol- 
ly unnecessary. There has not been a blow struck in the 
Prospect Hill Grammar School since its establishment ; nor 
has there been a single whipping scene in Primary School No. 
4, since sometime previous to the last October examination. — 
Kindness, forcible appeal, and mild punishments have produced 
submission, when the lash would, probably, only have caused 
an additional degree of stubbornness Besides; this treatment 
is full as likely to develope the amiable dispositions of pupils, 
as its opposite is to muster in serried array their evil ones ; it 
is full as likely to promote a punctual attendance on school, 
and to inspire a love of its duties, as severity is to render chil- 
dren averse to all that belongs to it. This, if no other reasons 
were presented, would be a strong argument against harsh dis- 
cipline. School rooms can be made pleasant to children, not 
hateful — the teacher should ever endeavor to strew flowers 
and not to plant thorns along the pathway of knowledge. It is 
believed there exists a natural desire to learn, which, ifnot 
checked by untimely influences can be made productive of the 
happiest results. Let then the aim of the teacher be, to wel- 
come this desire and not to crush it by the hard lines of disci- 
pline. Let but the scholar acquire a love of school, and noth- 
ing lies in the way of constant progress. 

But there is a class of punishments far worse than the penalty 
of the rod. Pulling children by the ears, obliging them to re- 
main in unnatural positions, with others of a similar character, 
cannot be too severely reprehended. By such, the constitu- 
tion, the health of children is liable to suffer. Indeed the evils 
of such treatment are so obvious as to need no further notice. 
Their use is strongly reprobated by the Board in all cases. 

Good as our schools are, still there is nothing in the way of 
their further improvement. The Board are convinced that 
more — much more can be done in our common schools in the 



19 

work of preparing the mind to attain the high mark of *'a com 
plete and generous" education ; an education that shall fit it 
^'to perform justly, skilfully, and magnanimously all 
the offices, both private and public, of peace and 
WAR." The notion however must first be discarded that the 
portion of education acquired in our schools consists solely 
in the mere reception and delivery, on the part of the pupil, of 
set lessons — that his degree of proficiency, when he enters up- 
on active life, is to be measured by the amount of other 
men's sayings he is enabled to repeat. Say, rather, that this 
should be decided by his measure of ability to think closely 
and to act rightly ; to form independent opinions and to ex- 
press them clearly in speaking and writing. The personal 
qualities of the teacher and his untiring faithfulness can chiefly 
foster this ability. Books and systems and schemes may suc- 
ceed each other in the school room like the scenes of a drama, 
and leave only enfeebled efforts as their result. It must be 
the mind of the teacher acting on the mind of the pupil to pro- 
duce the wished for end ; and the teacher who possesses not 
the energy or the talent to set his seal upon the pupil ought 
never to have the honor of the place he fills. While, then, 
the Board would not speak disparagingly of books, or systems, 
or recitations, used as means of education, still they would 
have it kept constantly in mind, that they are to be used but as 
means, and that the great end is, not accumulation of masses 
of facts, but discipline of mind and developement of its pow- 
ers. 

The Board do not present these as new views, or because 
they have been greatly neglected in our schools ; but because 
they would strengthen the hands of the teachers — especially 
those engaged in the higher schools — in a fuller application of 
them. The present state of the schools affords evidence of 
their faithfulness to duty. Let them continue to pursue the 
same onward course that has characterized the past ; let them 
look to the GOOD of those placed under their care as their sole 
aim, and exercise strict impartiality to all as their ruling 
principle ; and let them manifest their sense of the high res- 
ponsibility of their vocation, not by that performance of labor 
which measures itself by pecuniary reward, but by that higher 
principle which finds approbation of conscience in faithfulness 
to duty, and they cannot fail to receive the support of the 
Board and the thanks of a grateful community. 

It surely will not be considered inappropriate here to advert 
to one or two topics in relation to the duties of parents 
towards the schools ; for their sympathy and cooperation can 



20 

do much to promote their prosperity, and are, in the highest 
degree, cheering and valuable to the teacher. 

The lar^e proportion of absences, as seen by a reference to 
the exhibit made of the condition of the schools, must strike 
every one with surprise and regret. Sometimes these occur 
unavoidably; often, however, it is believed they may be pre- 
vented; one quarter of a school, is certainly far too large a num- 
ber to be constantly absent. Too often, it is feared, absences 
occur in consequence of parental indifference and indulgence. 
Too often petty errands take up valuable hours which should 
be spent in school. If so disposed, parents can do much to 
remedy this great — this crying evil. Absences are bad for the 
school — bad for the pupil. TFiey derange classes, interrupt dis- 
cipline, perplex the teacher, and operate, in many other ways, 
to prevent his success, even with those scholars who are con- 
stant in their attendance. But it is far worse for the pupil. If 
a child has a natural right to an education, then withholding it 
from the place where its foundations are laid, is a high viola- 
tion of this right, for which the parent must answer to his own 
conscience. Certain it is, that no freeman, for a moment, 
would submit to a law that should take from his children any 
portion of so noble a boon ; the mere promulgation of such an 
edict would produce a stamp-act ferment. But are the conse- 
quences to his child any the less fatal because the parent vol- 
untarily subjects himself to the practical evils which such a 
law would create ? Will the cup he thus commends to his lips, 
in the future ignorance, and degradation, and misery of his 
own offspring, be any the less bitter ^ If any proposition is 
true, it is, that the surest way to secure to parental fondness, 
future peace and happiness, and to society, valuable citizens, 
is, to implant in youth that moral and intellectual influence 
that will sway it for good ; to see to it, that in early life the 
foundation for a complete education is laid strong and deep. — 
How can this better be done than by promoting an attendance 
at school .'' 

But it is not merely in causing punctuality in attendance at 
school, that parents can cooperate with teachers in the work of 
promoting the education of their children. No influence ope- 
rates so powerfully on their minds and hearts as Home Influ- 
ence. Let this be enlisted on the side of school duties and they 
will be performed with cheerful alacrity by the pupil ; when, 
otherwise, he might treat them with indifference or scorn. — 
But is not this powerful engine often, it may be unconsciously 
on the part of the parent, brought to bear directly against the 
interests of the school ^ Who can measure the influence of 



21 

words of disrespect to teachers, or of book learning, or of 
school government, or of general education, hastily dropped 
in the social circle in the presence of children ? If parents would, 
have their children engaged in the duties of school they must 
feel interested in all that pertains to it, and must ever magni- 
fy its importance. They can do much in this manner to pro- 
mote the usefulness of the teacher ; much by sustaining him in 
the difficult task of government, and in refraining from inter- 
fering with the general rules of the school ; much by social 
intercourse with him and by always manifesting their sense of 
the estimation in which they hold his vocation. 

These considerations, the Board would respectfully, yet 
earnestly press upon the attention of parents. If they would 
have grow in their offspring, a high-toned sentiment, a love of 
knowledge, a determination to qualify themselves for the ac- 
tive duties of society, and to cultivate, as the great end of life, 
their moral and intellectual nature; let these be fostered by, 
that Home Influence which nature has provided for their 
infant wants ; and let the full weight of this influence, in all 
its various ways, be exerted in promoting the attendance and 
in sustaining the energies of Public Schools. 

The Board take this opportunity to say a word respecting a 
most difficult branch of its own duties. Good teachers are in- 
dispensable to good schools; and their selection is a most ar- 
duous duty. To properly fill the place of instructor, peculiar 
qualifications are required; yet too often individuals are press- 
ed to the place by troops of friends apparently without a thought 
of the consequences that would result from their appo.in»ment; 
and among the various applicants the Board are to select such 
as are 'apt to teach' and who have the 'tact' to govern. Fit- 
ness for the duty alone determines the Board in their action; 
and the sooner the principle is fully adopted, that superior 
qualifications alone should be the condition on which to urge 
an appointment, the better. Adherence to it is the only way 
in which their standing can be maintained and their usefulness 
increased. 

The duties now devolving upon the Board of Trustees, are 
far too laborious for the number composing it; yet this num- 
ber cannot be increased by the Town without obtaining a spe- 
cial act of the Legislature, as the law making them a corpora- 
tion, is a special act.* The Board, accordingly, recommend 

*As this act is not generally known, the following abstract, embracing all its 
provisions, may be acceptable. The whole of it occw^ies several pages of the 
records. It was passed March 27, 1793, and is entitled 'An act to incorpo- 
rate certain persons by the name of the Trustees of Charlestgwm Free 
Schools.' 

The Preamble states that 'real and personal estate' had been bequeathed to 



22 



that the Town take the necessary measures to have their num- 
ber increased to eleven — confident as the Board are that such 
increase is urgently required for the future welfare of the 
schools. This number will give a Sub-committee of two to 
each of the Grammar schools within the Peninsula, and of 
three for the schools outside the neck. 

With these suggestions the Board would present our Free 
Schools to the Town, not as being perfect, nor as fit subjects 
for rash innovation; but, so far as standing is concerned, as 
ranking among the best of the kind, and as based on founda- 
tions on which to rear any well-tried system of improvement; 
and they are presented as bright testimonials of that liberality 
which has ever marked the Town in relation to the great cause 
of Education. 

Common Schools have been viewed as the glory of New- 
England. Charlestown was among the first to form them. 
Six years had not elapsed from its settlement ere a school had 
been established: established not in times of peace and plenty, 

the Town, the 'rents and profits thereof to be solely' and 'forever,' applied to 
its free schools, and that many inconveniences had arisen in executing this 
trust. Therefore 

1. 'Richard Devens, Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Aaron Putnam, 
Joseph Hard, Nathaniel Hawkins, and Seth Wyman,' are 'incorporated into a 
body politic by the name of the Trustees of Charlestown Free Schools.' 

2. All donations which had been given for the schools, pursuant to the re. 
quest of the Town made March 4, 1793, are confirmed unto the said persons and 
their successors in office, for tho 'so'c use and benefit' of said schools forever. 

3. The corporation to have a common seal, to sue and to be sued, and prose- 
cute and defend under their name. 

4 The Board to 'be the Visiters, Trustees and Governors, of the Charles- 
town Free Schools;' the Town 'at their annual Town meeting in the month of 
May' 'to elect by ballot seven persons to be Trustees, (five* of whom are to 
constitute a quorum,) and the major part, to decide all questions which may 
come before them; the Trustees 'to have power and authorily to elect a Pre- 
sident, Treasurer, and Secretary, and such other officers as they shall judge 
necessary, but to be allowed no pecuniary compensation without the consent of 
the Town;' and to make 'rules and orders' 'for the good government of said 
schools;' 'all which shall be observed by the officers and scholars' — provided 
such 'be no ways repugnant to the laws of this Commonwealth.' 

5. The Trustees authorized to receive any gifts of real or personal estate 
which may be granted for the benefit of the schools, 'provided the annual in- 
come thereof shall not exceed the sum of six hundred pounds;' and all instru- 
ments made in their name to 'be valid in law.' 

6. The Trustees authorized to determine on their meetings, and to prescribe 
the powers and duties of their officers. 

7. The Trustees to lay before the Town at the May meeting a detail of 
their proceedings and the state of their funds. 

8. Richard Devens authorized to call the first meeting. 



*Iiy an act passed March 4, 1800, this number was altered to three. 



23 



but amid seasons of Indian hostility and of pressing want. And 
the Towr has ever maintained its schools through all changes 
of government, through prosperity and adversity, until the time 
when its dwellings and temples fell an early sacrifice on the al- 
tar of liberty. As the Town gradually arose upon smouldering 
ruins, so came up our public schools. Now twenty-two hun- 
dred children are reaping their blessings, and we have school 
houses that will bear comparison with any in the State. Nor 
does the Town stint those honored with their superintendence, 
in the means for their faithful discharge of duty. It is a mat- 
ter of pride that our annual appropriations will bear compari- 
son with Towns* which have most largely favored the cause 
of Education — that now in the days of comparative riches and 
peace, we are not behind the age in rendering a just support 
to institulions founded amid penury and war. 

And so long as this local interest continues, will the cause of 
common r.chools rest on a sure foundation ; it will have to fos- 
ter and strengthen it the same healthy influences which gave it 
life. And as all are alike vitally interested in its safe preser- 
vation an 1 continued progress, so should all endeavor to keep 
it sacred from sectional division or party vortex ; for its de- 
mands d 3spise the lines of sect and party, and call for aid, 
wherever it is to be had. Here, at least, let there be common 

*The following Table, from the last valuable " Abstract of the Massachu- 
setts School Returns" for 1838, exhibits the comparative cost of instruction in 
several of t le largest towns in the state. 



Towns. 


Popula- 


Appropri 


a- 


No. of 


No.schl'rs 


Wiges pr 


Wages pr 


tion. 


tion. 
^4,477 


"66 


SchoolB 
22 


in Winter 
"27253*" 


mo. Males 
50.75 


mo. Ferns 


Charlestown, 


1751 


Boston, 


80,325 


93,000 


00 


100 


10,675 


105.08 


2083 


Lowell, 


18,010 


14,356 


63 


28 


2,564 


44.85 


16.07 


Salem, 


14,985 


10.116 


75 


19 


1,592 


65.55 


12.88 


New-Bedford, 


11,304 


11,580 


00 


20 


1,697 


52.77 


21.10 


Nantucket. 


9,048 


6,000 


00 


12 


1,162 


61.98 


10.42 


Roxbury, 


7,493 


5,000 


00 


16 


869 


50.33 


17.20 


Lynn, 


9,233 


4,500 


00 


15 


1,273 


36.74 


12.28 


Medford, 


2,075 


2,700 


00 


7 


414 


51.39 


14.10 


Chelsea, 


1,659 


2,700 


00 


7 


395 


37.50 


15 69 


Cambridge, 


7,631 


5,419 


67 


16 


1,136 


64 33 


19.48 


Dorchester, 


4,564 


4,650 


00 


14 


897 


35.42 


15.00 


Dedham, 


3,532 


3,000 


00 


11 


735 


31.09 


13 80 


Brookline, 


1,083 


1,060 


00 


5 


158 


33.50 


12.66 


Milton, 


1,772 


2,000 


00 


5 


402 


85 00 


21.22 



* The whole number of scholars who had attended school during the season 
is given : a i the number attached to the schools at the period of the presenta- 
tion of the last annual report, was about 2050: it is now 2195. 



24 

ground where all may strive for a common good — where all 
may join for a noble end. And never may the time arrive, 
when parents and guardians shall cease to feel an interest in 
that which so intimately concerns their safety and happiness. 
Never may the time come when the noble principle that every 
child has as much natural right to an education as he has to 
the air he breathes, or the proposition that a republican gov- 
ernment unless resting on popular intelligence is a baseless 
fabric, shall be virtually denied in this community, by frigid 
ndifference or niggard parsimony. When such becomes the 
general state of public opinion, clouds will darken the cause of 
education ; and when this noble pillar that supports the goodly 
frame-work of our country's institutions is overthrown, our na- 
tion will be but a name and our liberties, as a shadow. 
By order of the Board of Trustees. 
RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, Jr., President, 
THOMAS BROWNE, Jr., Secretary, 
Charlestown, April, 1840. 



TP]r©^©mir©ir^s McijpcDiPtt 



Of the Receipts and Expenditures o/'^^e Trus- 
tees of the Charlestown Free Schools, 
From May 1839 to May 1840. 

for the current annual expenses of the schools.* 

Appropriation by the Town, $13000 00 
State Treasurer, dividend of the '* School Fund," 

for the year 183S, 284 67 

Interest on Surplus Revenue, 1153 76 

" Town Notes (of $1800) 108 00 

** Dea. Miller's Legacy, 6 00 

Dividend on Union Bank Stock, 210 00 

State Treasurer, dividend of " School Fund" for 

1839, 305 37 



$15,067 80 



*The account of the current annual receipts and expenditures is here pre- 
sented separately from the account of the special appropriations and expendi- 
tures ; as the latter were authorized by tbe Bpecial votes of the town. 



26 



SALARIES OF TEACHERS OF GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

WiNTHROP School. 

Joshua Bates, Jr. ^900 00 
Samuel Swan, 900 00 

Mary B. Symmes, 200 00 

Sarah G. Hay, 200 00 — 2200 00 

Harvard School. 

P. H. Sweetser, 900 00 

Charles Kimball, 900 00 

Caroline A. Johnson, 150 00 
Mary S. Whiting, 50 00 

M. S. Fernald, 200 00 — 2200 00 

Bunker-Hill School. 

Benjamin F. Tweed, 900 00 

Robert Swan, 420 00 

Charlotte Cutter, 160 00 
Mrs. B. F. Tweed, 33 33 

E. W. Billings, 8 00 ^ 1521 33 

Prospect-Hill School. 

Cornelius M. Vinson (at ^^600 per ann.) 173 07 

Salaries of Teachers of Primary Schools. 

DisT. No. 1 Malvina B. Skilton, $210 00 

2 Mary Walker, 210 00 

3 Charlotte A. Sawyer, 210 00 

4 Susan L. Sawyer, 210 00 

5 Elizabeth H. Dodge, 210 00 

6 Betsey Putnam, 210 00 

7 Sarah E. Smith, 210 00 

8 Mary E. Chamberlain, 210 00 

9 Mary H. Dupee, 210 00 

10 A. W. Chamberlain, 52,50 
Joanna S. Putnam, 157,50—210,00 

11 E. B. Marshall, 210,00 

12 Ann W. Locke 210,00 

13 E. L. Battles, 165,50 
S. C. Reynolds, 52.50—218,00 

14 Lydia W. Locke, 103,00 

Amounts carried forward, 2,738 00 6,094 40 



27 

Amounts brought forward, 2,738 00 6,094 40 

Jane M. Burckes, 107,00—210,00 

15 Esther M. Hay, 167,66 

16 LydiaW. Locke, 107,00 

17 Mary E. Brown, 166,83 

18 Caroline M. Sylvester, 148,75 

19 E. P. Whittredge, 172,75 

20 Mary Dodge, 137,50 

Ellen A. Damon, 60,50—198,00 3,908,99 

Salaries of Teachers of District Schools. 

Russell District. 

Clara D. Whittemore, 96,00 

Philemon R. Russell, Jr. 120,00 216,00 

Gardner District. 

Hannah S. Austin, 96,00 

Estate of S. A. Swan dec'd, 24,00 
Joseph C. Hooper, 95,00 215,00 



Whole amount of salaries of all the teachers, $10,434,39 

CONTINGENT EXPENSES. 

E. P. Mackintire, late Tr. bal. of his ac't, 314 05 
J. K. Frothingham, rent of primary school 

room, 
Susan L. Sawyer, ' do. 

Thomas J. Elliott, rent 
Oliver Jaquith, do. 
Samuel Ferrin, do. 
Universalist Soc'y, do. 
Josiah Brackett, do. 
J. B. Redman, do. 
Harvard Church, do. 
Samuel Cutter, do. 
Winthrop Society, do. 
A. Tufts, do. 

Geo. Billings, 
M. Walker, 

A. W. Chamberlain, 

B. Putnam, 

Amounts carried forward, 807 88 10,434 39 



40 


00 


41 


00 


40 


50 


90 


00 


32 


00 


50 


00 


40 


00 


25 


00 


50 


00 


25 


00 


25 


00 


20 


00 


9 


75 


2 


00 


1 


25 


2 


33 



28 

Amounts brought forward, 807 88 10,434 39 

E. H. Dodge, 1 34 

E. L. Battles, 1 17 

Henry Sawyer, 7 75 

C. Hall, 49 25 

John Harris, 263 48 

Edward Nichols, 10 50 

A. D. Pattee, 1 80 

L. W. Locke, 2 25 

A. W. Locke, 2 72 

Stinson & Perry, 5 00 

Mrs. Dolin, 6 00 

James Underwood, 13 83 

J. Barrett, 8 50 

T. H. Farnsworth, 14 

Esther M. Hay, 9 87 

Fosdick &. Carter, 3 50 

N. Fuller, clean 'g school houses, 116 67 

R. G. Tenney, 8 17 

R. Swan, 5 00 

Parker & Ditson, 4 00 

J. Bates, Jr. 4 00 

G. S. Adams, white washing, 31 75 

Benj. Edmands, 36 63 

Ames Drake, 10 

Knowles & Skilton, 10 83 

John Babcock, 2 

J. D. Edmands, 10 41 

J. S. Putnam, 43 

M. E. Brown, 1 92 

Derbee St. Harris, ^ 4 

M. H. Dupee, 2 50 

J. Wilson, repairs 71 68 
J. Twolmbly, reps, and alter'g. 4 schools, 788 37 

J. Thorp, 2 00 

J. L. Jennerson, 6 25 

H. S. Austin, 50 

W. W. Wheildon, 23 50 

Charles Munroe, 4 00 

E. B. Marshall, 1 62 

Benj. Thompson, fuel 68 97 

A. Blanchard, repairs, 114 92 

Mary Dodge, 1 

Sanborn & Goodridge, fuel, 422 46 

Amounts carried forward, 2,96142 10,434 39 



«9 



Amounts brought forward. 


2,961 42 10,434 39 


M. Babcock, 


3 70 


Stephen Swan, 
Forster & Lawrence, 


20 05 
53 13 


W. M. Edmands, 


134 34 


Saml. Swan, 


5 18 


S. Abbott & Co. 


17 94 


H. V, V. Blanchard, 


5 37 


P. R. Russell, 


22 89 


Saml. Daggett, 
E. Crafts, Jr. 


44 
27 


Gage Sl Palmer, 
Geo. C. Powers, 


12 38 
2 56 


Chs. Smith, 


75 


J. W. MuUiken, 


3 25 


P. R. Russell, Jr, 


3 


John Bonner, 


70 


Postage, 
A. Stowell, 


58 

22 


S. Kidder& Co. 


10 55 


Geo. W. Little, 


22 79 


John Murray, 

Clarke & Varney, backs to seats, 


40 
310 00 — 3,696 85 


Whole amt. expend, for supt. of schools, 


14,131 24 


Balance to new account, 


935 56 




$15,067 80 



Special t^ppropriations and Expenditures^ 

RecM. from appropriation of $700 for a new primary 

school house, $500 00 

** ** 15 000 for a new grammar 

school house, 14 999 39 



$15 499 39 



'aid Abijah Blanchard for buiidinf primary «r,hool 
house, on the Town's land, and for fence and 
fixtures. 

Amount carried forward. 



500 00 



oOO 00 








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