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Full text of "Annual report of the Trustees of the Charlestown Free Schools"

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THE 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



OF THE 



CHARLESTOWN FREE SCHOOLS, 

[Made in pursuance of the Act of 1838. J 



TOGITHKR WITH 



THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER OF THE BOARD. 



Press of the Bnnker-Hill Aurora. 
1841. 



SCHOOL REPORT. 



The Board of Trustees of the Chari.estown Free 
Schools, in compliance with the requisitions of a law of this 
Commonwealth, respectfully submit the following as their 

The labors devolving upon the Board are ever trying, ardu- 
ous and important: much depends on discharging them fear- 
lessly, conscientiously, rightly. They involve interests that 
touch the finest chords of our nature: interests that affect the 
happiness of the domestic circle and the welfare of society. 
In these labors the Board have aimed at the improvement of 
our schools. To this end have their measures been cautiously 
adopted; and though conscious that the best laid plans are 
often doomed to disappointment, they see reason to feel cheered 
by the past and to hope for much from the future. 

Ii is of the greatest importance that the town should own its 
School Houses. The liberal appropriations made by the town 
have enabled the Board to prepare five buildings for the accom- 
modation of the Primary Schools during the past year. — 
These are as follows: For number one, a building situated on 
the town's land in the rear of the Bunker Hill School House. 
This is part of the Hook and Ladder House, ihat stood near 
the Market House. For number two, a new buildino^, erected 
under the direction of the Trustees, and purchased by vote of 
the town of James K. Frothingham for nine hundred dollars. 
It is situated on Main Street, in the rear of Engine House No. 
1. For number FOUR, a building situated on Elm Street, for- 
merly Engine House No. 3. For number eleven, the other 
part of the Hook and Ladder Company's House, situated 



4 

near the Market House. For number eighteExX, a new build- 
ing built by the Trustees, and situated on the top of Winter 
Hill, on land given the town by Charles Adams and oihers. 
All these School Houses are well and neatly fitted up, suppli- 
ed with good ventillators, are commodious, stand in desirable lo- 
cations, have seats that allow the children to sit separately; 
and have connected with them suitable yards. The Board be- 
lieve that none will regret the outlay of money required to ef- 
fect these improvements. There is no good reason why little 
children any more than great children, should be compelled to 
live six hours a day, crowded by sixties and seventies into 
small rooms, without the proper ventillation, and conse- 
quently exposed to noxious influences. Now six school rooms 
only are used — in which Primary Schools are kept — not owned by 
the town: three of these well accommodate the schools — num- 
bers five, six and twelve: three do not, and it is highly 
desirable that these schools should be better provided for. 
These are number seven, eight and thirteen. 

Beside ordinary repairs, the other improvements have 
been principally the following: a high fence has been built 
around the Winthrop School House, in the Trainingfield: the 
outside wood work of three grammar School Houses has been 
painted; new seats with backs has been put in the Russell 
School Room; lightning rods have been fixed on the Warren 
School House, and blinds have been put on the Prospect Hill 
School House and Russell School House. 

On the 29th of June the following rules and regulations for 
the government of the Schools, were adopted: It is expected 
that the Teachers will strictly observe them. 

Section I. Children will be admitted to the Primary Schools 
at the age of four years, and to the Grammar School at the age 
of eight years, where they may continue until the age of sixteen. 

Section H. The hours for keeping school shall be from 8 
to 11 o'clock in the forenoon, and from 2 to 5 in the afternoon, 
from the first Monday of May to the first Monday of October; 



and from 2 to 5 o'clock in the afternoon, during the remainder 
of the year. 

Section III. The Bells must be rung and the Instructers 
be in the Schools ten minutes before the time of opening them; 
and in the winter months the fires must be made half an hour 
previous to this time. And no scholar, after the schools are 
opened, shall be admitted without a written excuse from the pa- 
rent or guardian. 

Section IV. No scholar shall be admitted to any school 
who has not been vaccinated; or who has been expelled from 
another school, while under sentence of expulsion, unless by a 
vote of the Board; or who shall not be furnished with the Books 
and utensils required by the rules of the school. 

Section V. No scholar shall leave school before the ap- 
pointed hours, unless required to by some pressing emergency, 
and then not without the instructor's consent. 

Section VI. Each school shall be divided into five classes. 
Sub-divisions of these classes and arrangements of the studies 
shall be left to the discretion of the instructers. 

Skction VII. The following books may be used m the schools; 
but in no case shall a new book be introduced into a school 
without a vote of the Board: — 

In Primary Schools, My First School Book; Worcester's 
Second and Third Books for Reading; The Young Reader; New 
Testament; New National Spelling Book; Introduction to the 
National Spelling Book; Emerson's First Part in Arithmetic; 
Alphabetical Cards; Mount Vernon Reader. 

In the Grammar Schools, American First Class Book; Young 
Ladies' Class Book; National Reader; V^orcester's Third 
Book; National Spelling Book; Murray's Grammar; Parker 
and Fox's Grammar; Frost's Grammar; Bailey's Algebra; Em- 
erson's 2d and 3d Parts in Arithmetic; fxobinson's Book Keep- 
ing; Blake's Philosophy ; Comstock's Chemistry; Wilkins's As- 
tronomy; Worcester's Geography; Mitchell's do ; Worcester's 
History; Boston School Atlas; Sullivan's Political Class Book; 
Gould's Latin Grammar; Latin Reader; Smellie's Natural 
Philosophy 



6 



Section VIII. The sub-committee of the several schools 
may furnish indigent pupils with books; but in all cases such 
books shall be considered as belonging to the school, and as 
being under the care of the instructor. 

Section IX. The instructors of all the schools shall be 
punctual in their attendance at school hours; shall pay strict 
regard to the time of the dismissal of the schools; shall faith- 
fully devote themselves to the public service when in school; 
and shall be responsible to the Boiard of Trustees for the con- 
dition of their schools. 

Section X. In every school a record shall be kept of the 
names, places of residence, dates of admission, ages, and ab- 
sences of the pupils; with such other particulars as may enable 
the Trustees to form an adequate idea of the state of each 
school; and each instructor shall present a semi-annual state- 
ment of the same to the Board at the time of the regular exam- 
ination. 

Section XI. The instructer shall practice mild but firm 
discipline; and shall avoid corporal punishment except in cases 
where its infliction is rendered absolutely necessary. And in 
every case, the instructer shall keep a record of its infliction. 

Section XII. In case a scholar continues obstinately to vio- 
late the rules of the school, manifestly injuring it by example, 
he or she shall be expelled; but no expulsion shall take place 
except by the approbation of the sub-committee of the school. 

Section XIII. The instructors shall give vigilant attention 
to the care and ventillation of the school rooms; shall not award 
medals or other prizes to the pupils; and shall not allow sub- 
scriptions * or contributions for any purpose whatsoever in their 
schools. 

Section XIV. The instructors shall neither alter the hours 

•This clause, in relation to subscriptions, applies only to collections among 
t heseholars: such, for instance, as a contribution for the purpose of paying 
for sweeping, or singing. It was not intended to prohibit the circulation of 
subscription papers among parents, for the purposes of increasing the Libra- 
ries, etc. 



7 

appointed for keeping the schools, nor dismiss the schools on 
any other days than those fixed as holidays, without the special 
permission ofthe Board. 

A copy of these rules and regulations has been furnished 
each Teacher, with the request that they be placed in a con- 
spicuous situation in the School Room. 

Agreeably to a requisition of a Law of the Commonwealth 
the Board, in May last, requested the Board of Assessors, then 
taking the Census, to ascertain the number of children be- 
tween the ages of four and sixteen: who reported the number 
to be twenty six hundred and nineteen. 

On the 16th of February, 1841 , the Board passed the following 
vote: "That it shall hereafter be a condition of the appoint- 
ment of Teachers to our public schools, that they reside in 
Town, and that a copy of this vote accompany their election. 

The following Table exhibits a general view ofthe Schools 
at the last examination. 

Grades. Number. Teachers. Salaries. Scholars. Average Attendance. 

Primaries 20 20 $4200 1258 1052 

District 2 2 450 59 42 

Grammar 5 17 8105 1056 889 



27 39 12,755 2373 1983 

By a comparison with the table in last annual Report, it will 
be seen that the number of scholars has increased one hundred 
and seventy-eight: and that the average attendance has increas- 
ed two hundred and ten. The average absences have conse- 
quently diminished: last year they were 412, this year 390. 



8 



PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

The changes made in the Teachers of the Primary Schools 
during the past year have been as follows : Miss Harriett A. 
Worcester, Nov. 14, resigned the charge of number six, and 
Miss Eliza B. Adams was appointed : Miss Ann W. Locke, 
Nov. 14, resigned the charge of number twelve, and Miss Ly- 
dia Keith was appointed : on the 13th of March Miss Leonora 
Skilton was appointed teacher of number eighteen, and Miss 
Martha P. Stockman, of number four. 

The following Table gives a view of these Schools at the 
time of the last examinations. 



No. 



Situation. 



Teachers. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 



B. Hill Sch. house 
Main street. 
Warren Sch. house, 
Elm street. 
Universal ist Vestry. 
Winthrop Church. 
Harvard street. 
Prescott street. 
Common street. 
Trainingfield. 
Town Hill street. 
Boylston Chapel. 
Bunker-Hill st 
Moulton's Point. 
Warren Sch. house. 
Elm street. 
Winter Hill Road. 
Winter Hill. 
Prospect Hill. 
Milk Row. 



Melvina B. Skilton 
Mary Walker 
Charl'te N. Sawyer 
Martha P. Stockman 
Elizabeth H. Dodge 
Eliza B. Adams 
Sarah E. Smith 
M. E. Chamberlain 
M. H. W. Dupee 
Joanna S. Putnam 
Elizab. B. Marshall 
Lydia Keith 
Sarah C. Reynolds 
Jane M. Burkess 
Esther M. Hay 
Lydia W. Locke 
Mary E. Brown 
Leonora Skilton 
Eliz. P. Whittredge 
Sarah M. Burnham 



No. 


lAver. 


IPres- 


pupils|atten.| ent. 


55 


50 


52 


60 


55 


55 


73 


65 


63 


79 


70 


66 


72 


63 


59 


60 


57 


55 


61 


46 


52 


69 


58 


60 


72 


65 


66 


85 


60 


68 


64 


60 


58 


57 


47 


54 


100 


69 


76 


63 


59 


57 


72 


60 


65 


42 


35 


36 


27 


23 


22 


37 


25 


28 


50 


42 


47 


60 


43 


46 



I Owners of 
ISchool Houses 



The Town. 



Universalist So. 
Winthrop So'y. 
Oliver Jaquith. 

The Town. 



Harvard So'y. 
Saml. Ferrin. 
The Town. 



The Board refer to the last annual Report for views on read- 
ing, orthography, arithmetic, and the other studies of these 
important and interesting schools. These views the Board 
again urge upon the attention of the Teachers. And this 
with the more earnestness, as the improvement in those schools, 
there intimated as being deficient in standing, has not been so 
decided as the Board could desire. The complaint still exists 
that too many children go into the Grammar Schools not pro- 
perly qualified: the good of the schools requires that this evil 
be remedied. 



The Board do not require of the Teachers of these schools 
impossibilities. They do not expect to see children of the first 
classes able to read with such correctness as not, occasionally, 
to pronounce wrong, or to pass pauses, or to omit words : or 
to see them always prompt in the questions in arithmetic. Th«y 
do not expect, or even wish, to seethe ever lively forms of the 
pupils sitting as if chained to their seats, or cowered down by a 
dread of the teacher's displeasure. But they do expect to see 
the schools free from grossly bad habits; to see error the ex- 
ception and not the rule: to see that the Teacher does not her- 
self set examples that should not be followed. They do ex- 
pect to see children corrected when they fall into such mistakes 
as are noted in the table of "Errors," to be found at the end of 
"Worcester's Third Book for Reading and Spelling." They 
do expect to see energy in the Teacher reflected in the ready 
attention, the eager looks and spirited answers of the pupils; 
and to see them exhibiting a spirit of obedience to her com- 
mands. In. fine, they do expect to see in every Teacher a 
willingness to cooperate in the plans which may be adopted to 
elevate the school, and to see that her mind and heart are in 
her labors. Here is the point. In vain will the Teacher ap- 
pear at school hours, go through the recitations, scold or whip 
her pupils into obedience, if all the while she appears impatient 
for the time to come when she may repair to other pursuits 
more congenial to her disposition. Her lifeless instruction 
will fall on listless ears. Her motions of indifference will be 
marked by the watchful eyes of those intuitive judges of feel- 
ings — her pupils. They will catch the infection. And then 
vain will be the hope of progress. 

But, it may be said, * it is too much to expect teachers to go 
through the same dull round of tasks without their becoming 
irksome or mechanical.' To this the reply is: that no teacher 
is obliged C'> continue an hour in her vocation; and when she 
feels her duties C:^ be irksome or mechanical, she ought to feel 
that duty and conscience require her to yeild her place to on© 
who can perform them with different feelings. She cannot ex- 



10 

cite in children a love for school when she does not love its du- 
ties herself; and her presence will be as a dead weight upon 
^fs prosperity. It is not scolding or whipping, but cheerful — 
devoted example, that must be the life of a school. 

Such an example cannot fail, with aptness to teach, to infuse 
a love of school into the minds of the children. This is seen in 
many of our primary schools — it should be seen in all. That 
which promotes it is beneficial. Singing, the manual exercises, 
reciting short dialogues and other pieces, are highly useful: 
the happy faces of the pupils show how much they are loved. 
The Board see in the judicious practice of these recitations 
nothing but good to the school. Where they are practised most, 
there is the most progress — the best reading. But in speaking 
these short pieces, the teachers should be careful that the same 
slowness of recitation, the same correct pronunciation, and 
carefulness of pauses, should be observed as in reading. Used 
in this manner, with the care that they be always short, the Board 
think highly of their introduction. They may be employed to 
fix the habit of distinct articulation indelibly upon the children. 
Again the Board remark, they do not require impossibilities. 
They wish to see the children, thus early, put in the way of 
good reading and good behavior: Osgood reading, by acquiring, 
not by learning rules, but by imitating the teacher, a correct 
pronunciation and a carefulness of manner; so that these may 
grow into habits, and that the Principals in our Grammar 
Schools, when these children reach the first classes, shall in- 
fluence them to more advantage than in being obliged to re- 
view these elementary studies: of good behavior, by accustom- 
ing them to the principle of obedience to the rules of the 
School Room, as being indispensible; and this by kindness of 
manner, cheering encouragement, mild discipline, united with 
firmness of deportment. Many of our Primar) Schools now 
present this degree of improvement. The Board would see it 
in all. Neither Teachers nor Trustees should rest satisfied 
with their labors until this is obtained. 



11 

Faithful, efficient Primary School Teachers render valuable 
services. Scholars who enjoy their instruction begin right and 
they learn faster when they enter the Grammar Schools. Such 
services demand the thanks alike of parents and Trustees. 
They are needed to raise the character of our common schools 
to a higher degree of proficiency. As one means of accom- 
plishing this, then, the Board look for an improvement in our 
Primary Schools — improvement that will require no more 
mental effort by the children, but only higher qualifications in 
the Teachers. 

DISTRICT SCHOOLS* 

The condition of these -jchools has been adverted to in former 
reports. The following table exhibits the state of them at the 
last examinations: 

Names, Teachers. Salaries. Scholars. Average. 

Russell District 1 $225 40 29 

GardnerRow District 1 225 17 13 

The Board, on 2 1st Nov. voted that the school at Gardner's 
Row be made an annual school and be placed under the charge 
of a Female Teaclier: when Miss Charlotte Reynolds was ap- 
pointed, with a salary of $225. At the same time, Mr. Levi 
Russell was appointed Teacher of the Russell School for the 
winter term. On the 13th of March Miss Elizabeth A. Caverno 
was appointed the Teacher. The Board are still of the opinion 
that the welfare of these schools would be promoted by continu- 
ing them annual schools and they recommend that they remain — 
as they now are — on this basis. 

GRA^MiVIAR SCHOOLS. 

The chanofes of Teachers, since the annual report, have 
been numerous and important. The resignations of Messrs. 
James G. Foster, Samuel L. Gould and Miss Caroline E. An- 
drews, and the death of Miss Sarah C. Fernald, of the War- 
ren School, made a total change in its Teachers. The follow- 



12 

ing appointmonts have been made: For the Grammar Depart- 
ment, Mr Daniel H. Forbes, Principal, Miss Susan L. Sawyer 
and Miss Lucy Blanchard, assistants: for the Writing Depart- 
ment, Mr Joseph T. Swan, Principal, Miss Sarah G. Hay and 
Mr Alfred O. Lindsey, assistants. The removal of scholars from 
the Bunker Hill School leaving an average attendance of 
only 1 10, the office of Female assistant teacher was abolished: 
On the 9th of December Mr Thomas S. King was appointed 
assistant teacher. Mr Charles^Kimball having resigned his of- 
fice as writing master of the Harvard School, on the 18th of 
March, 1841, Mr Robert Swan from the Bunker Hill School 
was appointed. Miss Mary B. Symmes resigned her office of 
assistant teacher of the Winthrop School, June 27, and Miss 
Harriet N. Felton was appointed. On the 13th of March, Miss 
Caroline M. Sylvester from Primary School No. 18, was ap- 
pointed assistant teacher in place of Miss Hay, transferred to 
the Warren School. 

The following table shows the condition of the Schools at 
the date of the last examination. 



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14 

The state of these schools is, in general, highly satisfactory. 
The plans proposed by the Board have met with hearty coop- 
eration from the Teachers. There has been more attention 
paid to composition — to the reading of the lower classes — ef^ 
forts have been made to render the instruction less verbal 
and more real — absences have been more closely attended 
to— in all these schools, save the Warren School, there has 
been decided improvement. The latter has suffered from chang- 
es in teachers, and being made up of scholars from all the 
schools, perhaps the same proficiency could not have been ex- 
pected. But the Board cannot refrain from saying, that the 
high character and previous success of the Teachers now in 
charge of it, (this school was placed on this footing March 18, 
1841) are an earnest that ere long the Warren School will be in 
order and proficiency, worthy the place in which it is kept and 
the name it bears. 

With respect to the judgment formed of the schools, the 
Board remark, that they rely more on the spirit of order and 
industry they see in the schools in their occasional visits, than 
they do on the regular examinations. They look, also,, more 
to thoroughness in recitations, than to the ground that may 
have been travelled over. They would see that what is learn- 
ed is well learned. They would see In the scholars evidence 
of that complete mastery of the subject matter of their lessons 
that will enable them to go through with them by themselves — 
without that half prompting in the form of questions by the 
Teacher, that recalls them to the right path if they wander 
astray. Such recitations give rise to the suspicion that the 
instruction is mechanical — that the mind of the scholar does not 
go beyond the words of the lesson to its idea. Surely that can- 
not be called a good recitation, however faithful to the language 
of the te.xt book, that has on the face of it evidence that the 
mind has not grasped it. One lesson, thoroughly mastered and 
recited in a manner that shows the pupil to know more of it 
than has been communicated, more than the book contains, in- 
stead of only half knowing what is repeated, is of more real 



15 

value than a hundred superficial recitations; the former consti- 
tutes real mental discipline, and makes the mind feel its power, 
and girds it for new efforts; the latter relaxes its vigor and 
fosters a disposition to remain contented with that bane to in- 
tellectual improvement — half knowledge. 

The principles dwelt upon in the last Annual Report of the 
Board in relation to faithfulness on the part of the Teachers, 
to the importance of keeping in view discipline of mind as the 
end of instruction — to the value of cherishing a love of study — 
all these riiay be held as axioms. But shall they remain desti- 
tute of vitality, never to be carried into full effect .'' As pleasant 
sounds to the ear ever to be broken to the hope.'' 

No reflecting mind can doubt that the great desideratum in 
our system of common school education is a practical 
efficiency. It is too much a recitation from class books, too lit- 
tle a developing of mental power. It trains youth too much 
to lean on authority, it educates them too little to rely on them- 
selves. Our scholars can repeat with clerkly precision page 
after page of the most forbidding geographical statistics, or dry 
historic detail, but still cannot put together and communicate a 
train of thought with precision and facility. Young men go 
*rom school with a skill in parsing or analyzin^^ sentences, that 
would make the eyes of grammarians glisten with delight, and 
yet with a diffidence that rather prefers the bastinado, than to 
compose a piece of reasoning and recite it before an audience. 
Is not this the experience of life.'' And yet the great object of 
learning Grammar is to write and speak the English language 
with propriety, and of education, to make the mind capable of 
forming independent opinions and prepare it for usefulness. 
Cannot something more be done for this than is now done .'' 

The Board believe that our Common Schools can take a high- 
er stand than they now occupy. Not that they would impose 
upon them Utopian Schemes, or indulge the thought of cramming 
boys of fifteen with a sort of universal knowledge of Geogrphy, 
and History, and Philosophy, and Mathematics, and the Lan- 



16 

guages — in fine of piling in their heads crude and superficial 
layers of things, the human mind can master only by years of 
application. The difficulty now lies in the latter direction: 
there are too many materials handled — too little efficient use 
made of them. Besides. Pupils — boys especially — leave our 
schools at the very time the elements of knowledge they have 
learned can be applied to the greatest advantage. Nine tenths 
of the boys leave school about the age of fourteen. Some, 
it may be, from necessity : but too many from choice. They 
have gone through the arithmetic and algebra; they can 
read better than many of our professional men; they can 
write with neatness — often with elegance; and they have their 
Geography, History, Philosophy and Grammar at their tongue's 
end. Hence they get the idea, and parents feel too happy not 
to encourage it, that they have learned out. And so they leave 
school and lose two years of most valuable time for mental dis- 
cipline — time that hardly the most desirable situation for busi- 
ness can redeem; for it is not too much to say that more effect- 
ual education can be imparted between the ages of fourteen and 
sixteen than in all the previous years of instruction. The Board 
believe that something can be done to prevent this early leaving 
of School, and to remedy this want oi" practical efficiency. They 
believe that a love of study for study sake can be cherished 
They believe that a desire for self-improvement can be stimu- 
lated. Not by forbidding lessons or by severe punishments. 
But by applying to boys of fifteen some of the common sense 
principles that govern men of forty. By exhibiting the attrac- 
tive and the useful — by encouraging pure tastes and high aims — 
by inculcating the principle that Education is not confined to 
Books but is the work of a life — that the results looked to are 
not long lessons but right thoughts producing right action. To 
this end Books must be used as means, not as ends. Such as 
will stimulate mental exertion can be — in these high classes — 
successfully used. But they must be attractive. Men of forty 
would never think of poring over a dull book of hard names 
and dry facts and countless figures, to cherish a taste for liter- 



17 

ature. They would justly think it an invasion of their rights to be 
compelled to do it. Yet this is the practice in our schools, and by 
this means are scholars expected to imbibe a taste for knowledge. 
Our teachers are believed to be inferior to none of their pro- 
fession in skill, and are amply able to effect a reform — a reform 
which would be alike pleasant to them and profitable to their 
pupils. Our schools can be so arranged that this skill may be 
applied where it will exert the most lasting influence. The first 
classes can be made more select, by requiring higher qualifications 
in those who compose them, and by having them consist of fewer 
in number; and sufficient assistants can be employed with the 
other classes, in such a manner that the time of the Principals 
can be devoted, chiefly, to these higher classes. This time 
should be employed to more importance than it now is. It 
should not be taken up in the labor of drilling scholars in pro- 
nunciation — for correct pronunciation should fall habitually from 
their lips: nor in training the memory — for this, too, should 
have been sufficiently exercised in the practice of 'committing' 
from the time of the recitation of nursery ballads. But the 
noble labor in learning mind to exercise its poweis; in teaching 
it something of the duty of self-reliance ; in accustoming it some- 
what, to investigation; in nurturing "thought exercise."* 

■* '^1 he annexed extract from a report on the State of the Prussian Schooli, 
by the Hon. Thomas Wyse, will give a better idea of the kind of exercise the 
Board has in contemplation, than a detailed description. It occurs in a section 
where the state of the schools of Bonn is treated of After giving an account 
of the recitation of the classes in Natural History and Geography, Mr. Wyse 
bus proceeds: "The examination in History was equally minute. The sever- 
al great epochs of the History of Prussia, from the time of Charlemagne to 
the present day; the gradual formation of the Margravate of Brandenburgn; 
the erection of that and other territories into a kingdom; the important vigor of 
Frederick the second; the conquest of Napoleon; the successful era of liber- 
ation; and the present position and organization of the monarchy; were all de- 
railed by a number of different boys in great variety of language and manner, 
some adopting the dramatic, others the narrative, but all with fidelity, and per- 
fect command of phraseology and subject " * ♦ "I wished to see the text book 



18 

This, then, is what the Board would aim at — to make the 
First Classes in our Grammar Schools assume more and more 
the character of High Schools: High Schools whore studies 
shall be pursued, of such kind and in such manner, as shall kin- 
dle a love of knowledge and develope mental power: High 
Schools that shall furnish pupils of fourteen more inducements 
than now exist, to continue longer in Sohool and shall take the 
objection from their mouths and from the mouths of their pa- 
rents, that they have gone the round of studies and ''learned 
out:" High Schools that shall shed abroad hourly, upon hun- 
dreds of pupils, a life-inspiring influence, and be entirely free 
from the charge of exciting envyings, ill-nature, favoritism, 
and consequent opposition: this by retaining the talented pupils 
in the common school as examples lo be followed. Such 
High Schools would be constant blessings. They are prac- 
ticable — judicious — eminently suitable to our common system 
of instruction. They would be comparatively unexpensive, and 
require only for their establishment that the time from four 
to fourteen years shall be used — not abused. They could be 
made, in a great degree, to supply that practical efficiency 

that is now so loudly called for, and would prevent the ear- 
ly leaving of school. 

from which their lessona had boen taught: the teacher informed me there was 
none. He gave his lessons vive voce: and this accounted for the diversity and 
perhaps spirit jus: noticed. In the girls' school, the first class we visited were 
busily occupied with their slates. They had nearly finished a composition: 
the subject was a short moral tale. In looking over two or three, the same 
diversity, both of thought and expression, and even in arrangement of subject, 
as what had just been observed in the boys' school, was perceptible. The 
mistress had given the subject vive voce- When finished, a short interval was 
allowed to elapse before the pupils were required to give an account of it on 
their slates. This was quite different from the old dictation system. It called 
out in every way tho powers of the mind and really deserved the German 
designation — thought exercisie." 



19 

But our common schools can be made to improve the hearts 
as well as develops the intellects of the pupils. Good feelings 
and pure tastes and elevated sentiments can be nurtured. Al- 
ready is this done. How has music made our schools 
radiant with happy faces I Who noiv doubts its benefits? 
They are seen and felt and cannot be denied. Words 
would be wasted to enumerate them. Yet a few years ago 
and the plan of introducing music was resisted as disorganiz- 
ing: quite as disorganizing as would have been the master's 
omission to send the mahogany ruler at the head of an offending 
pupil. Oth«r things akin to it can be encouraged. Drawing 
may well go hand in hand with music; so may the formation of 
Libraries and the cultivation of a taste for reading, &c. Ev- 
ery pure taste implanted in the youthful mind becomes a bar- 
rier to resist the allurements of sensuality. That which cre- 
ates a good spirit in our schools is good. Let pupils feel inter- 
ested in school studies and they will make progress: let them 
be dreaded and they become sluggish and stationary. 

For this reason the Board have encouraged the formation of 
Juvenile Associations for moral improvement. It is the testimo- 
ny of the Teachers that they have done good. They render gov- 
ernment of a school easier: they stimulate the scholars to action: 
they have reformed vagrant boys: they tend to cherish a frater- 
nal feeling among their members: their tendencies are all good: 
and all their direct influences are good. If for no other rea- 
son than to cherish a fraternal feeling they would be valuable 
auxiliaries to our schools. It is in boyhood that this great 
American principle can successfully be cultivated. It is 
not sermonizing boys, it is calling into action the good 
there is in their nature that is to make them something besides 
money making machines. It is well to accustom them to act 
like truQ, whole-souled men. Experience shows that those 
are not the best able to resist the temptations of life that have 
been reared in retirement. Virtue, to be lasting, must be hardy 
— self-sustaining, and not of hot-bed growth. The boys in these 



20 

associations are taught to regard tiieir vicious and unfor- 
tunate playmates as objects to be pitied and reformed, not as 
evil beings to be avoided. They are trained to see vice and 
shun it; to hear profanity and refrain from it; to form good 
resolutions and to keep them through evil report and good re- 
port. Such has been the action these associations are repre- 
sented to have incited. Out of one hundred and sixty four of 
the members who have composed the one attached to the Win- 
throp School since its formation, only three have been expel- 
led and six suspended for a violation of its rules; and yet these 
rules prohibit lying, profanity and immoral conduct. If such 
be their results, who can deny their usefulness.'' 

The Board have, also, encouraged the formation of Libra- 
ries in all the grammar Schools. There are many volumes 
daily issuing from the press peculiarly adapted to the minds of 
youth. Such are the works on American subjects. The cir- 
culation of these can, surely, be beneficial. The Board regret 
that the limited means of the pupils afford but a scanty increase 
of their stock of books. Can parents do a better service than 
in making such donations to their Libraries as shall afford a 
supply of new books.'* Scholars of both sexes use them con- 
stantly. 

But there is a class of boys growing up among us uninflu- 
enced by these mental and moral provisions — the truants, idlers* 
vagrant boys that are found injuring School Houses, stealing, 
shouting profanity at the corners of the streets and preparing 
themselves for the Prison or the Gallows. They do worse than 
forego the benefits of school and of moral association: they en- 
deavor to lead away their well disposed playmates. Worse 
still. There are parents, who, with an obstinacy unaccounta- 
ble, set themselves against the efforts made to recall them to 
integrity. When measures have been taken to secure their 
punctual school attendance, they have declaimed against the 
right of the Trustees to compel their children to attend school, 
and against the competency of the Teachers, and have protest- 



21 

ed at thus being dragooned out of their liberties — with more of 
such lamentable infatuation. E^ardly will it be credited that 
such has been the reception of members of the Board from those 
calling themselves parents. From parents, who should watch 
over the mental and moral well being of their children with 
sleepless vigilence — whose hearts should leap with joy at any 
atleinpt, however humble, to guide them to paths of useful- 
ness — who should recoil, as from pestilential breathings, ai 
aught that would mar their youthful hearts — who should rather 
see them fill early graves than to see them stained with ignor- 
ance and crime and degradation! 

It is then a fact that scores of vagrant boys infest our streets: 
it is, also, a fact, that there arc parents — few in number it is 
hoped for the honor of human nature — who resist a remedy. 
What shall be done? What is the right of any child to an edu- 
cation, if it can be rendered null by parental indifference or 
ruilt? Shall no efHcient effort be made to counteract this? 

to 

Cannot these vagrants be rescued from ruin? These questions 
may well be asked when so many are growing up in guilt. 
As the law now stands these boys can be taken on a justice's 
warrant and carried to the House of Correction. But there 
thou'^htless — perhaps transient guilt meets with seared de- 
depravity: the associations they there contract only tend to over- 
lay the good principles of their nature with an additional 
amount of guilt. They become hardened to crime. Why then 
send them there? Reformation is the object; and no plan that 
has not this in view, should be adopted. Is it not an object to 
establish a place of reformation for juvenile offenders, where 
they shall meet with kind treatment? Here they might be saved 
from the blighting mildew that seems settling down upon them. 
Yea, they might even be prepared to carry to intemperate — 
degraded homes, seeds of good that shall even penetrate the 
stony soil of parental callousness and spring up in double 
blessings to society. This is not a mere fancied allusion, it is 
founded on actual fact. Cases are on record where even chiU 



22 

dren have been messengers of reform. Vicious parents have 
been moved at witnessing the example of intellectual and mor- 
al progress of their offspring. They have yielded to the influ- 
ence and have become virtuous from seein*: such affectin<'" ex- 
amplcs of virtue, 'i'his subject of vagrant boys is an important 
one and is worthy the attention of the v.'ise and philanthropic. 

The Board again advert to the great cooperation Parents 
can render in promoting the efficiency of our schools. Let 
them be arrayed against the Teacher, and but little hope caa 
be entertained of progress: let them act with him and it is a 
great step toward it. Many are the ways in which this coop- 
eration can be rendered. Parents can prevent absences; they 
can enjoin confidence on the part of the scholars lovvards the 
Teacher; they can encotiragc pupils m their lessons; they can 
promote a love of school duties; they can insist for their chil- 
dren upon the principle of entire obedience to the rules of the 
School; they can visit tlie school rooms. And they can, at 
least, practise the negative duty of refraining from the injus- 
tice of judging the Teacher on the sole testimony of their chil- 
dren. The Board have encountered many cases of the latter de- 
scription. Violation of well knov/n rules of the school subjects. 
a Scholar to discipline — to corporal punishment,, or to checks, 
or to the loss of place in the class. The corrected and disappoint- 
ed child becomes a swift witness, and finds in the parent a will- 
ing ear. On this partial testimony the Parent forthwith con- 
demns the teacher, and this too in severe,^round about language — 
lauf^uase which the excited child takes care shall lose none of 
Us sevei'ity by repetition. It is retailed among playmates and goes 
through the school. This, it may be thought, would be 
bad enough. But this is by no means all. The Parent, in a tem- 
porary fit of excitement, sometimes rushes to the School Room^ 
and in the presence of the school, abuses th« Teacher rn words 
that would do no discredit to a Persian Satrap lashing his subor- 
dinates. What possible effect can both these methods of reforn:> 
produce than to weaken the moralaulhority of the Teachers, to 



23 

lay a foundation lor a renewal of the scholar's punishment, to 
injure permanent!/ (he school, in fine, to produce unmitigated 
evil? Besides: there is no necessity for this. The Board have 
made it a rule to investigate promptly, fully, every case of 
complaint. They have no modest reserve in their intercourse 
with the Teachers. In this matter frankness is kindness. If 
complaints are abroad, a Teacher should know them, in all their 
length and breadth; if unreasonable, the sooner they are con- 
tradicted the better — if well founded, reform should be applied 
at once. The Board, then, earnestly recommend to Parents 
the practice of suspending their judgement in relation to cases 
of discipline, to be chary of their words of displeasure, and to 
apply directly to one of its members whenthey feel aggrieved — 
confident, as they are, that such a course would be of great 
advantage to our schools. 

And all the Board ask for recompense for their labors, is, to 
see in the Teachers, capability and devotedness to duty-to see 
in the pupils — both of the Primary and Grammar schools — im- 
provement. Great is the pleasure to see a good school still 
advancing to higher degrees in proficiency ! So, on the other 
hand, it is painful to witness the decline of a school. Month 
after month, as it is visited, it is seen that the scholars have 
apparently come to a stand ; that government is less steady ; 
that energy seems departing, and a general sluggishness to be 
creeping over the school. The conviction will arise, that the 
Teacher, however devoted and able, still fails in that apt- 
ness to teach, that can be seen in results far better than de- 
scribed, but without which labor is useless and the best talent 
unavailing. And yet, though the school may be growing into 
a Pandora's Box of school-keeping evils, hope hngers still, — 
a desire to retain the teachers in employment, who perhaps may 
be neady-who may desire to retrieve lost reputation — who may 
feel strong in the conviction that exertion may bring up the 
school — all conspire to prevent a removal. Yet, well may it 
be asked, why should action be withheld.? Does not impera- 



■ 24 

tive necessity require it? Does not duty to the citizens, the 
good of the children — demand it? Has not experience repeat- 
edly shown the Herculean task of bringing up a school that has 
once declined? Ought parents to justify the omission to act? 
Ought a teacher to complain? 

But after all, good Teachers are indispensable to good 
schools. Money may be expended — systems devised — rules 
multiplied — parents interested — associations formed — and all 
will be of little avail if competent Teachers are wanting. It is 
mind that must stimulate mind. The principle that carried the 
soldiers of Napoleon over the bridge of Lodi is alike efficient 
with the children of a school room. Pupils, like soldiers, de- 
mand a sympathising heart to lead them on. Example, not ex- 
hortation, is what they must see. If Teachers spend time friv- 
olously at their desks, scholars will do the same at their seats; 
if Teachers are tardy in attendance, scholars will be so like- 
wise; if teachers are indifferent about improvement, scholars 
will cease to be ambitious; if teachers are dull and impatient 
and eye the time-piece closer than they watch the moral and 
intellectual wants of their pupils, what can be expected besides 
sluggish schools? Example is the great thing needful. Thi« 
the Board would press upon the Teachers. The labors of those 
now in our schools, are generally highly satisfactory. These 
labors, if performed in the right spirit, form a principle of duty 
— if promotive of the proper end, moral and intellectual cul- 
ture — are worthy of the highest praise. The community should 
so estimate them. This estimation should be manifested in gen- 
erous conjfidence, in high personal respect, in social intercourse, 
in words of commendation, in sustaining their authority, and in 
magnifying the importance of their duties. This is the way to 
promote their usefulness — to contribute to the improvement of 
the children of our schools. 

With these suggestions the Board surrender the responsible 
charge of its noble Free Schools to the hands of the Town. In 
Education lies the great conservative principle of our Institu- 



25 

tions--^Institutions that can be preserved only by being improv- 
ed. Its successsful prosecution involves, it is true, a heavy outlay 
of money, but many days do not elapse ere this is returned in 
hundred-fold blessings Besides. Money is valueless viewed 
as an end: the miser lives but to be despised. It becomes a 
blessing only when it is rightly used — used to supply man's 
moral and intellectual wants, as well as his physical necessi- 
ties. This is acknowledged of the individual. The State is 
but a collection of individuals, and its youth are its pillars of 
support. How better can.it expend its wealth than in strength- 
ening these pillars.'* How like the miser does it act when it 
withholds the means to promote that for which it exists, moral 
and intellectual, as well as physical well being! Though of 
large possessions, how miserably poor is a community when, 
individually, it pampers the body, and collectively, starves the 
soul! So far Charlestown has avoided the degrading imputa- 
tion. It has kept pace with the spirit of the age. May it not 
see a time when another policy shall control its system of Ed- 
ucation. 

But the Board not only rejoice that the Town has done so 
much for Education, but also that so much has been done for 
the Common Schools^ by the Commonwealth, They vi«w the 
labors of the Secretary of the Board of Education as highly im- 
portant. The Annual Reports, and the Abstracts of School 
Keturnfi, that have been published, are of great value. Such 
documents go just where they should go, to those who are en- 
trusted, for the time being, with the charge of the schools. 
They reach every School Committee and every Teacher in the 
Commonwealth. And it is difficult to perceive how any who 
feel interested for the welfare of the schools can object to 
their circulation. The money such publications cost sinks into 
insignificance when compared with the benefits they render. 

In conclusion the board again express the hope thatthe cause 
of Education may be kept "sacred from sectional division or 
party vortex." There is enough common battle ground with- 



26 

out invading our school*. These should ever form bonds of 
Union. Education, like Patriotism, should link society togeth- 
er with golden hopes and sacred joys and mutual interests. 
Education, like Patriotism, has claims that soar above sect or 
party. Every Home feels its influence and should send forth 
aspirations for its prosperity. 

By order of the Board of Trustees. 

RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, Jr., > 

President. ) 

FREDERICK ROBINSON, > 

Secretary. ) 

Charlestown, April, 1841. 



Ehbata. — In some copies of this Report, the omission of a line occurs on the 
2! St pa2;e, 8th line from bottom, the sentence should read as follows : — " language 
which the exciied child takes care shall lose none of its severity by repetition. 
It is retailed among playmates and goes through the school This, it may be," &.c. 

Page 23, 5th line from bottom, for " teachers," read teacher. 

Page 24, 24th line for " form a principle," read from a principle. 



sasc^^sj^^zsi!!^'© s^iB^aaSc 



STATEMENT 



Of the Receipts and Expenditures of the Trustees of the 



Gharlestown Free Schools, from May 1840 to May 1841. 



'qp-^* 



RECEIPTS. 

Appropriation by the Town, §14,000 00 

Balance of last year's account, 936 56 

Do of last year's appropriation, 200 00 

Special appropriation for school house on Win- 
ter Hill, 500 00 

Do for land for Engine Company, given in 
exchange for school house, 
Interest on Surplus Revenue, 

Do on Town Notes, 

Do Dea. Miller's legacy, 
Dividend on Union Bank Stock, 
Cash received for books furnished, 
Balance due the Treasurer, 





325 


00 




1,153 


76 




108 


00 




6 


00 




210 


00 




1 


00 




2 


97 


$ 


17,443 


29 



28 



SALARIES OF TEACHERS OF GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 



WiNTHROP School. 



Joshua Bates, Jr. 
Samuel Swan, 
Mary B. Symmes, 
Sarah G. Hay, 
Harriet N. Felton, 

Paul H. Svveetser, 
Charles Kimball, 
Robert Swan, 
Mary S. Whiting, 
M. S. Fernald, 

Benjamin F. Tweed, 
Robert Swan, 
Thomas S. King, 
Charlotte Cutter, 
Eliza Badger, 

Samuel L. Gould, 
James G. Foster, 
Caroline E. Andrews, 
Sarah C. Fernald, 
Lucy Blanchard 



Harvard School. 



Bunker Hill School. 



$900 00 

900 00 

100 00 

200 00 

91 66 — 2191 66 



900 00 
712 50 
145 00 
200 00 
200 00 



— 2157 50 



Warren School. 



900 00 

315 00 

77 00 

150 00 

12 00 



— 1454 00 



655 55 
491 66 

182 62 
63 89 
91 10 — 1484 82 



Prospect Hill School. 



Cornelius M. Vinson 



600 00 



Salaries of Teachers of Primary Schools. 

DiST. No. 1 Malvina B. Skilton $210 00 

2 Mary Walker, 

3 Charlotte A. Sawyer, 

4 Susan L. Sawyer 

5 Elizabeth H. Dodge, 

6 B. Putnam, 

H. A. Worcester, 
Eliza B. Adams, 

7 Sarah E. Smith, 

8 M. E. Chamberlain, 
9 M. W. H. Dupee, 

10 Joanna S. Putnam, 

11 E. B. Marshall, 

12 Ann W. Lock, 
Lydia A. Keith, 

13 Sarah C. Reynolds, 



28 28 
129 22 
52 50- 



157 50 

52 50- 



210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
210 00 



-210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
210 00 

-210 00 
210 00 



Amounts carried forward. 



2730 00 7,887 98 



29 



Amounts brought forward, 

14 Jane M. Burckes, 

15 Esther M. Hay 

16 Lydia W. Locke, 

17 Mary E. Brown 

18 Caroline M. Sylvester, 
flOEhzabeth P. Whittredge, 
20 Sarah M. Burnham, 



2,730 00 7,887 98 

210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
210 00 
218 75 
176 16 — - 4174 91 



Salaries of District Schools. 
Russell District. 

Clara D. Whittemore, 
Levi Russell, 

Gardner District, 

Hannah S. Austin, 96 00 

Charlotte M. Reynolds 49 88 ~ 145 88 



96 00 
125 44— 221 44 



Whole amount of teachers 


' salaries, 


$12,430 21 


CONTINGENT EXPENSES. 




Clarke & Varney, erecting 
Palmer & Whipple 
E. Robins for land 


sch. 
do. 


house and rep's 809 
924 
325 


87 
79 
00 


Wm. M. Edmands 




201 


40 


C. P. Emmons, 




159 


18 


John Harris, 




140 


26 


J. Bates, Jr. 




100 


00 


Sanborn & Goodridge, 




404 


60 


B. Thompson, 
Samuel Young, 




127 
12 


25 
00 


S. C. Hunt, Jr. 




2 


75 


Wm. Arnold, 




11 


70 


C. Hall, 




55 


50 


Nancy Fuller, 
A. Blanchard, 




89 
271 


37 

68 


A. Quimby, 
Snow & Worcester 




70 
43 


00 
74 


J. P. Caldwell 




79 


30 


Oliver Jaquith, 




90 00 


Winthrop Society, 




50 00 


Universalist Society, 
Harvard Church, 




50 
50 


00 
00 


Josiah Brackett, 




40 


00 


T. J. Eliot, 




34 


71 


J. K. Frothingham, 
Abby Tufts, 




39 
20 


17 
00 



Amouats carried forward, 



4,202 27 12,430 21 



30 



Amounts brought forward, 
S. L. Sawyer, 
Luther Ruj^gf, 
Wm. W. Wheildon, 
S. E. Richardson, 

A. Stowell & Son, 
Geo. S. Adams, 

S. L. Armstead, 
E. P. Whitlredgfe, 
M. E. Chamberlin, 

B. Putnam, 
John G, Butts 
FeHx Nichols, 
E. Littlefield, 

T. H. Farnsworth. 

Sarah C. Reynolds, 

Recording- deeds and postage, 

A. W. Locke, 

L. W. Locke, 

Ames Drake, 

N. Field, 

A. D. Pattee, 

H. W. Orcutt, 

M. W. Thorp, 

J. Wilson, 

S. M. Burnham, 

Geo. J. Billings, 

M. B. Skilton, 

J. S. Putnam, 

E. M. Hay, 

C. A. Sawyer, 
J. M. Burckes, 
E. H. Dodge, 
E. B. Marshall, 
Wm. L. Stearns, 
Saml. Ferrin, 
Shelton & Rand, 
Joshua Mixter, 

J. L. Jennerson, 

Saml. Ireland, 

S. Otis Daggett, 

G. Washington Warren, 

E. Thorndike, 

Saml. Fowler, 

M. W. H. Dupee, 

H. S. Austin, 

J. Haywood, 

M. E Johnson, 

Amounts carried forward, 



4,20Si 


27 


28 


50 


59 


75 


74 


41 


7 


50 


38 


76 


115 


25 


6 


00 


3 


!9 


1 


50 


2 


00 


1 


75 


8 


67 


9 


25 


18 


00 


4 


17 


2 


67 


2 


45 




37 


3 


25 


4 70 


2 


51 


2 




9 


36 


14 


27 




75 


3 


12 


1 


50 


2 




1 


62 


3 


88 


3 


37 




17 


1 


50 


IS 


00 


82 


00 


500 


] 


150 


638 


{ 


SOO 




75 


18 


00 


33 


66 


1 


50 


3 


62 




72 


8 


00 


3 


25 


4,'772 


64 



12,430,21 



12,430 21 



- 31 

Amounts brought forward, 
Danl. E. Parker, 
J. Johnson, 
T. S. Woodbury, 
A. Dickson, 
M. Griswold, 
Russell F. Sanborn, 

F. W. Pearson & Co,, 
M. H, Bacon, 

John Murray, 
Stephen Swan, 
Jos. P. Perkins, 
Wm. Gilson, 
Leonard Tufis, 
J. Thorp, 
Knowles & Skilton, 
J, Kidder & Co., 
John Bartlett, 
James Adams & Co., 
Saml. Daggett, 
Caleb Mills, 

G. J. Lindsey, 
J. G. Foster, 
Mass. State Prison, 
John F. Locke, 

J. Babcock, 
N. Stratton, 
M. E. Brown, 
M. Burckes, 
J. Caswell, 
M. W. Hawkes, 
E. L. Hadley, 
T. O. Nichols, 
Levi Russell, 



72 84 


12,430 21 


1 37 




6 63 




5 00 




50 




2 12 




17 47 




63 




15 01 




8 00 




18 00 




2 13 




1 00 




50 




2 87 




S 08 




11 25 




2 00 




23 85 




37 38 




2 25 




1 50 




9 75 




5 75 




3 75 




10 00 




1 00 




8 38 




3 68 




17 25 




72 




60 




1 50 




20 32 






5,013 08 






17,443 29 



G. WASHINGTON WARREN, Treasurer. 



Charlestown, JLpril 23, 1841. — The undersigned, appointed a Sub- 
Committee of the Board of Trustees, to examine the accounts of the 
Treasurer for the past year, have attended to this duty, and find 
them correctly entered and properly vouched: and that there is a 
balance due the Treasurer of two dollars and ninety seven cents. 

FREDERICK ROBINSON, 
CHARLES FORSTER. 



3r 
u 

f 

?j 
I 



32 

The Funds of the Trustees are as follows. 

35 Shares of Union Bank Stock, !|3500 

Town Notes on Interest, a 6 per cent., 1800 

Dea. Thomas Miller's Legacy, 100 

$5400 
Besides the above, the interest of the Town's portion of the "Sur- 
plus Revenue," amounting to $19,229 S3, has been appropriated by 
the town for the improvement of the Schools, in addition to the or- 
dinary appropriations. The income of which is $1153 76. 



The Frothingham District, 
and its Boundaries. 



Who the teachers are and the 
pupils they teach. 



A DESCKIPTION OF A MODEL. SCHOOL. 
HOUSE. 



It is our intention every week to present to 
our readers little historical sketclies of the 
school districts in Charlestowu, with a view 
of euli^hteuiug some perhaps who have not 
looked into the excellent facilities afforded 
our ciiildien to obtain a public school educa- 
tion and avail themselves of every possible 
comfort. We will commence with the Frorh- 
inj^ham district which contains the Froth- 
ingham school, probably as perfect a 
buildiiig for the uses to which it is put as was 
ever built. It is not generally known that 
the Japanese commission, which a few years 
ago visited Boston for a 4)lan of a model 
school building, selecUKl the Frothingham 
school as the best built and arranged. It 
covers 4000 less feet of land for a Ifi room 
building than any recently built. The Froth- 
ingham district is bounded by the Navy Yard 
and Chelsea street, Adams street, and a por- 
tioM of Monument Square, Lexington, Bun- 
ker Hill and Tufts streets down to Mystic 
river. The Frothingham building is located 
on the corner of Prospect and Edgdworth 
streets and was erecteil in 1875. The school 
was once known as the Winthrop, and had 
its use on the training field in Winthrop 
square very far back in years. It was then 
shifted to Bunker Hill street, where it stood 
for a number of years. The next change was 
made to the present site, and for a year or so 
after being occupied was known as the Win- 
throp school, but owing to the fact that there 
was another school in Boston bearlj)g the 
name of the distinguished Winthrop family, 
the name was changed June 30, 1876, to the 
E'rothingham, in honor of the historian of 
Charlestown, Hon. Richard Frothingham. 
It was dedicated the Winthrop school, April 
6, 187G. It was a very gratifying occasion. 
The children were present in the reception 
hall, and on the platform sat many dignitari- 
es and people iutere^ted in school matters. 
Mayor Cobb made an address, as 
did also Superintendent Philbrick of the 
schools. Supervisor Benjamin F. Tweed, 
Nahum Chapin, Caleb Murdock, the 



present principal and others took part in the 
interesting exercises. After the name had 
been changed there was no public recogni- 
tion of the fact until Feb. 22d, 1877, when 
Mr. Frothingham who had always taken 
great interest in education, was invited to 
addreas the scholars in the hall. This too was 
made a very interesting occasion, and added 
one more page to the history of the school. 
This model building has six school rooms, an 
entertainment hall» a commodious master's 
room, and a well-lighted ward-robe for each 
room, as well as teacher's closets in each. 
Everf room is lighted by four large windows, 
placed within eight inches of the ceiling, ar- 
ranged to throw light to the left of the pupils 
after the German system. The indirect 
steam method is used in heating, |with the 
boilers in the basement, in a tire proof room. 
The ventilation, a most necessary thing for 
children, is about perfection. It is by means 
of shafts, extending from the basement to 
above the highest point of the roof, into 
which openings are made from the rooms. 
Smoke and steam pipes are introduced into 
them, creating a constant upward current of 
vitiated air. The pure air is admitted into 
the hot air chambers or cells in the basement, 
where it is warmed and then sent to the 
rooms, producing a uniform temperature. 
The building is of the modern Gothic style of 
brick, trimmed with the brown sandstone, 
and relieved by occasional black bricks. It 
is three finished stories high above the base- 
ment, which is partly used for play rooms. 
This story is entered on a le^'^el with the yard 
or play grounds on the south side, and the 
north side there is an entrance on Edgeworth 
street, the principal entrance being on Pros- 
pect street. The interior is finished in pine 
grained in imitation of oak, hard pine being 
used for the floors and stair cases. City 
Architect George A. Clough made the plans 
of the elegant structure, which cost $84,195,- 
84, and an additional $44,258,12 for the land, 
which contains 22,079 feet, making the total 
cost, $128,452,90. C 

Caleb Murdoch is the principal of the 
school, where he has served 20 years 
He came to Charlestown from Quincy, when 
he had previously taught, and to quot* 
his own language, he has taught abou 
ever since he was born. William B 
Atwood is the sub-master, and Charlotte E, 
Camp the first and Harriet E. Frye the 
second assistants. Each room is supposed to 
accommodate about 56 scholars, with one 
teacher to a room. According to this reckon- 
ing in the grammer school there are an aver- 
age of 568 scholars and in the primary 512, 
or an average of 1100 now in attendance in 
the district. Bial VV. Willard has charge of 
the 3rd class, Arabella P. Moultou and Abby 
M. Claik the 4th class, Sarah H. Nowell and 
Ellen R. Stone, the 5th class, Jennie E. Tobey 



Ellen A. Chapiu aud Lucy A. Seaver the 6ih 
class, Julia M. Burbauk, the ungraded class. 
In the primray department of tbebuildi^^fo ihe 
teachers are Persis M. Whittemore, Martha 
Yeatou, Mary E. Corbett, Helen E. Ramsey. 
Contained in the Frothingham district is the 
Moulton street school. It has for teachers, 
Mary E. Corbett, Louisa W. Huntress, Mary 
E. Delanev, Fannie M. Samson, Nellie M. 

Cullis. There is aisu the Fremont place 
school, of which Abbie C. McAulilT^ has 
charoje. Mr. Murdock has the gei.era a.re 
and supervision of all the schools iu the dis- 
trict. There is a sewing teacher. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth W. Boyd, who devotes certain hours to 
teaching the girls the use of the needle ons 
plain work. The c'lildron may furwi.sh their 
own material, or if not, the city, aud the- 
maker of the garment can pay fur the cloth 
the city furnisIieSj and own the work of her 
hand. J. Munroe M-ison is the music 
teacher, who comes once in two weeks to iii- 
struct, in the rudiments of singing, the chil- 
dren going into the entertainment hall, which 
is capable of seating them all, and where a 
grand piano is kept. Charles S, Woofiindalo 
is the eriicieut truant officer for the district,, 
which also includes the Harvard and Pres- 
cott. Warren J. Small is the janitor that 
keens things brushed up at the school, and 
George L. Mayo is at the Moulton school, and 
Mrs. Mary Watson at the Fremont pl.tce- 
school. The Froihiiighara school has a com 
pleie philosophical apparatus to conduct ck- 
periments, and there are 200 volumes pur- 
chased from a Charlestown fund, which the 
children can take out and read a!: their humeSc 
The eity provides a library for reference.. 
Many of the rooms contain poLted plants^, 
and altogether the S(;hool is a delightful 
place to remain in. ^ 



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