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The Board of Trustees of Charlestown Free Schools, 
in compliance with the laws of this State, ask 
leave to present this their Annual Report of the 
Public Schools of Charlestown. 

The time has again arrived, when it becomes the duty of 
your Board to make known to the citizens, their doings in that 
department of the municipal affairs of the City, entrusted to 
their direction, and to report upon the condition of our Public 

At the Annual Town Meeting held in May last, a vote was 
passed authorizing your Board to purchase a lot of land on the 
corner of Sullivan and Bartlett Streets, and to erect thereon a 
two story wooden building for a Primary School House ; they 
were also instructed to re-build the Primary School House in 
the rear of the Town House, and to erect a new building for 
the accommodation of a new Primary School to be formed for 
that section of the Town including Wapping, Water and a 
part of Chelsea Streets, &&c. ; and at the same meeting, certain 
repairs were authorized to be made on several of the School 
Houses in Town. 

To enable the Board to effect the wishes expressed in the 
foregoing instructions, an appropriation of $3,875 00 was made, 
which has been expended as follows, viz : — 

For Land on corner of Sullivan 

and Bartlett Streets, $886 85 

For the Building erected thereon 

by Mr. Amos Brown, $1,512 73 

For Gravel for Yard, &,c. .... 6 60 

$2,406 18 
For Primary School house in 

rear of the Town House, built 

by J. P. Moulton, 485 25 

For Primary School House 

erected on South side of 

Training Field lot, by Aaron 

Clark, 2d, $440 

For Fences and out-buildings, 

by Abijah Blanchard, .... 110 

$550 00 
For repairs of sundry School Houses, 280 50 

3,721 93 
Balance of appropriation for above unexpended, 153 07 

$3,875 00 

There was also appropriated by the citizens at their meeting 
in May last, $16,300 for the support of the schools for the 
" current year," which amount has been expended as follows, 
viz : 

For Salaries of Teachers, 13,288 88 
" Contingent expenses, 2,368 99 

15,657 87 
Balance of above appropriation unexpended, 642 13 

$16,300 00 

Total amount of appropriations, $20,175 00 

" " " expenditures, 19,379 80 

Balance unexpended^ $795 20 


The following Table presents a view of our Public Schools at 
the close of the year, ending April 1st. 




No. of Tuaciicrs 
and Assistants. 




4,177 12 
9.111 7G 






The members of the Board of Trustees, have made 164 visits 
to the Grammar Schools, and 442 to the Primary Schools during 
the past year. 

Average visits to the 4 Grammar Schools, 41 

" " " 21 Primary " 21 


The new Primary School, occupying the building erected on 
the Training Field, was organized on the 22d of July last, and 
placed under the charge of Miss M. A. C. Bodge ; and that oc- 
cupying the new building on the corner of Sullivan and Bart- 
lett Streets, was organized on the 2d of November last, and 
Miss C. A. Goodridge was appointed as its Teacher. In June 
last. Miss Caroline Phipps was appointed to the charge of Pri- 
mary School, No. 1, Miss Mary A. Lewis having been trans- 
ferred to the Bunker Hill School, as Second Assistant Teacher. 
In the same month, Miss Elizabeth D. Moulton was appointed 
Second Assistant in the Grammar Department of the Winthrop 
School, and Miss Sarah A. Clark was appointed to her place in 
Primary School, No. 15. Miss E. M. Sweetser was appointed 
Teacher of Primary, No. 3, in place of Miss E. M. Whittemore, 
resigned. Miss M. E. Lincoln was appointed to Primary, No. 
13, in place of Miss E. A. Blanchard, and Miss Susan L. Saw- 
yer to Primary, No. 7, in place of Miss L. A. Keith. 

The following table presents the number, attendance, &.C., 
in our Primary Schools, at the last examination, closing April, 


Teachers' JNames. 






























for 1846-7. 








Caroline Fhipps, . 
M. B. Skilton, .. 
E. M. Svveetser, . 
M. A. Chandler, . 

E. D. Pratt, 

F. A. Sawyer, ... 
S. L. Sawyer, ... . 
Mary J. Chandler, 
S. F. Brown, .... 
Elizabeth Ernes, . 
Jane S. Putnam, . 
J. M. Burckes, .. 
M. E. Lincoln, ... 

S. E. Smith, 

S.E. Clark, 

M. Peabody, 

S. J. Bradbury, . . 

C. Brockett, 

M. M. Sanborn,.. 
M. A. C. Bodge, . 
C. A. Goodridge, . 

Near B. Hill School House, 

Mead Street, i . 

Hear 187 Main Street, .... 
Warren School House, .... 
Elm Street, 

Rear 1G2 Main Street, 

Cor. Cross and Bartlett Sts. 

Training Field, 
Bow Street, ... 

Harvard Street, 

Bunker Hill Street, at Point, 

Moulton Street, *.... 

Training Field, 

Cor. Sullivan & Bartlett Sts 


48 54 

49 55 
40 49 

47 60 
18 48 

54 52 

55 67 
55 65 
53 54 

48 49 

50 53 
1-1 {47 

Joseph F. Tufts. 
N. Lamson. 
J. F. Tufts. 
Henry Lyon. 
fSl. Lamson. 
Henry Lyon. 
J. G. Foster. 
James Adams. 
N. Y. Culbertsori. 
George Farrar. 
George Farrar. 
J. G. Fuller. 
J. G. Fuller. 
J. VV. Bemis. 
J. W'. Bemis. 
H. K. Frothingham. 
JN. Y. Culbertson. 
James Adams. 
Jona. Brown, Jr. 
H. K. Frothingham, 
H. K. Frothingham. 

The salary of each of the Primary School teachers, is $210 
per annum. 

The whole number of children in the Primary Schools on the 

1st of April, 1846, was 134P>. 

1st of April, 1847, was 1455 — increase the past year, 112. 

Our Primary Schools, generally, will compare well with their 
condition in former years. In most of them, there has evident- 
ly been an advance from the year immediately preceding the 
past year. 

In cultivating the mental powers of young children, there 
should not be so much anxiety to prove how rapidly, and how 
extremely they may be developed^ as to prove that each step in 
the development is thorough. 


It will not be found difficult for a child to be made to excel 
in almost any one acquirement, but it should be borne in mind 
at what hazard he is made to do so ; for the extraordinary de- 
velopment of any one organ or power of the mind — especially 
in very early life, cannot be effected without risk of injurious 
consequences to the full development of all the powers of the 
mind or the body ; consequences which it may not be possible 
to overcome or remove in after life. Teachers of youth will do 
well always to remember, that in exerting and exercising the 
mind, they are dealing with something which is dependent upon 
the body, and which requires physical aid, and therefore, an ac* 
quaintance on their part with physical anatomy and physiology ; 
the relation between mind and body ; is of great value to those 
who take upon themselves the important duty of cultivating and 
disciplining the human mind. 

A distinguished Phrenologist says, in allusion to this subject, 
that " many parents strive to cultivate the intellect of their 
children, and neglect to fortify their constitution. They be- 
lieve that children cannot too soon learn to read and write. — 
The mind ought never to be cultivated at the expense of the 
body ; and physical education ought to precede that of the in- 
tellect, and then proceed simultaneously with it, without culti- 
vating one faculty to the neglect of others — for health is the 
base, and instruction the ornament of education." 


This School is for both sexes, though each occupying separate 

In June last, Miss M. E. Sprague was appointed second assist- 
ant teacher in the Grammar department in place of ftliss M. A. 
C. Bodge ; but Miss Sprague, having received an appointment in 
one of the Medford schools, in October last, her place was filled 
by Miss Emeline Brown. Miss Sarah E. Woodbridge, the first 
assistant teacher in the same department, was appointed to the 
charge of one of the Medford schools in November Jast, and Miss 
Frances H. Clark was appointed to her place. 

Mr. Daniel II. Forbes, who has for several years filled the 
office of Principal in the Grammar department of this School, 
resigned his situation in February last, in consequence of ill 
health, — he was succeeded by Mr. Calvin S. Pennell, from the 
High School at Springfield. 

This department of the Warren School has suffered from the 
frequent changes which have occurred in it during the past year, 
but we have every reason to feel confident, that with its present 
faithful and efficient teachers, it will rank high in comparison 
with the former merit which has been awarded to it. In the 
writing department no changes have occurred among the teach- 
ers, and we find here continued evidence of the fidelity and suc- 
cess of those who have the charge of this department. 

The room formely occupied for a Primary School room in 
the basement of the Warren School House, had been fitted for, 
and is now used as a recitation room for both departments of the 
School, and answers very well for this purpose. 


Exclusively for Boys. 

In June last, Miss E. D, Moulton was appointed second assist- 
ant teacher in the Grammar department of this School, in place 
of Miss M. A. Stover. Miss C. W. Lincoln, second assistant in 
the Writing department, having received an appointment in one 
of the Boston Schools, in July last, her place was filled by Miss 
Evelina A. Flint. Miss Caroline M. Sylvester, who has for sev- 
eral years filled the office of first assistant teacher in the same 
department, having resigned her place in August last, Miss Julia 
E. Hinckley was appointed as her successor. 

The Writing department of this School continues in all re- 
spects steadily to improve, — the proficiency of the pupils will 
compare favorably with any former period: — and while the 
same may be said of the divisions under the assistants in the 
Grammar department, we should be highly gratified if we could 
feel warranted in bestowing equal praise upon the upper division 
of this department of the School 


This School is for Girls only. 

There has been no change of teachers in this School during 
the past year, and it sustain^ the high rank which it has hereto- 
fore enjoyed among our public Schools. 


This School embraces both Sexes. 

In June last, Miss Mary A. Lewis, was appointed second as- 
sistant teacher in place of Miss Caroline Phipps, who was ap- 
pointed teacher of Primary School, No. 1 ; and in February last 
Miss Hannah S. Austin resiffned her office as first assistant 
teacher, she having been appointed to one of the schools in Bos- 
ton; her place is now filled by Miss Lucretia Foster. 

Those who know of the former high character of this School, 
must be gratified to learn, that it exceeds the standing which it 
has heretofore enjoyed, and which it has justly merited. 

No change has been made the past year in the mode of con- 
ducting the semi-annual examinations of our Schools; — half a 
day is usually spent in examining each of the Primary Schools, 
on these occasions ; and from two to three days are devoted to 
each of the Grammar Schools. After the Spring examinations, 
there is a public exhibition in each Grammar School, and it is 
gratifying to the Teachers, Pupils and the Trustees, to meet so 
many of our citizens on occasions like these ; it would be no 
less gratifying, if Parents and citizens generally, would at other 
times than at the exhibitions, visit our Schools more frequently 
than they have heretofore been accustomed to do ; by doing so, 
they would become better acquainted with the teachers and their 
method of governing and conducting their Schools, and be less 
inclined to listen to the unfounded rumors which are sometimes 
put in circulation to the detriment of the best interests of our 


The number of children in our Grammar Schools at the last 
examination, was as follows, viz : 

In the Warren School, 355 
" '' Winthrop '' 360 
" " Harvard " 328 
'' '' Bunker Hill" 198 

Total, 1,241 

The average daily absences in our Grammar Schools, during 
the past year, have been as follows: 


Whole Number 
during the year. 

Whole Number at 
the close of the year. 


Per centago 
of absences. 

Bunker Hill, 






IQ 50 

The number of children in our Public Schools for the year 

ending April, 1827, was as follows, viz : 

In the District Schools outside of the neck, . . 225 

In the Grammar Schools, within the neck, . . . 632 

In the Primary Schools, within the neck, .... 476 


Total, 1333 

Expense of supporting the Schools the same year, $7,000. 

For the year ending April, 1837, as follows, viz : 
Jn the District Schools, outside of the neck, . 
In the Grammar School, on the Training Field, 249 

In the Grammar School for Girls, 223 

In the Grammar School, at neck, 122 


In the Primary Schools, 


. 893 


Total, ^ 1781 


Expense of supporting the Schools the same year, was as 

follows, viz : 

For Salaries, $7914 50 

For Contingent Expenses, .... 1317 30 

9231 80 

For New School House at Prospect Hill, 904 49 

Total, 10,136 29 

For the year ending April, 1847, as follows, viz : 

In the 4 Grammar Schools, 1241 

In the 21 Primary Schools, 1455 

Total, 2696 

Expense of supporting the Schools the same year was as 
follows : 

For Salaries, $13,288 88 

For Contingent Expenses, 2,368 99 

15,657 87 

For Land, New Buildings, &c., 3,721 93 

19,379 80 

Increase of children in our Schools from 1827 to 1837, . . 448 
Increase of children in our Schools from 1837 to 1847, not 
including the District outside the neck, — now Somer- 
ville, 915 

In the year ending April, 1827, the cost of schooling for 

each child, was $5 25 

In the year ending April, 1837, the cost of schooling for 

each child, was 5 18 

In the year ending April, 1847, the cost of schooling for 

each child, has been 5 81 

The expense of erecting new Buildings is not included in the 
above estimate of cost for each child. 























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Bunker Hill, 


It has been sometimes said, that from a want of virtue among 
the people, Republics have crumbled to the dust. But it will 
be found equally true, that if virtue could exist without the dif- 
fusion of Imoivlcdge among a whcJe people, it would not secure 
to them their liberties. 

Give them the means of beinor enlightened and educated, and 
if these are faithlully improved, you give them the power of per- 
petuating freedom and a means of securing happiness. Where 
the benefits of Free Schools are appreciated and improved, 
new sources of interest and pleasure are opened to the mind, 
and thus it is saved from the debasina influences which too often 
inflict the heaviest calamities upon society. These institutions 
devoted to the cause of virtue, knowledge and science, have 
claims upon the patriot, philanthropist and Christian, which 
should ever be recognized and watched with a jealous care. 

As early as 1635, public Schools were established in our 
midst, and supported by the inhabitants; and by the Legislature 
of the Colony of Massachusetts, in 1647, it was decided as a 
general law, that every township of fifty families, should pro- 
vide a School where reading and writing should be taught, 
and every township of one hundred families, should provide a 
Grammar School where the young '* should be fitted for the 
University." No person will attempt to call in question the wis- 
dom which dictated these measures at so early a period in the 
history of this nation, nor will they be at a loss to determine 
what has elevated the mass of the people in this land, so much 
above the masses in other countries where public education is 
not free, and is not authorized or sustained. 

One object of education should be to fortify the mind against 
all improper extraneous influences, and prepare it to correct im- 
mediately any injurious tendencies by which the mind may have 
been biased. 

If from a chance influence of evil, or a vicious suggestion, the 
mind can be materially turned aside from virtue, it must be be- 
cause previously it was more than half inclined to transgress. 
Such an one wants that power which it is the work of education 


to impart, — that power of right action which God has made man 
capable of exercising at will, and for the use of which he will 
hold him responsible. 

it is almost universally the case, that those whose pecuniary 
means are limited, and yet who know how to estimate the bless- 
ings which intelligence, civilization and freedom confer upon 
society, are found ready to contribute their utmost to the great 
work of education, — knowing this to be the only inheritance they 
can leave to their children, and that this is of more importance 
to them and their success in life, than silver or crold. 

Much of the success of a teacher may be said to depend upon 
his personal qualities, as well as upon his intellectual attain- 
ments; he must communicate genius and enthusiasm to his 
pupils, — he cannot teach these, they must be exemplified in him, 
and then, he has the power of communicating and influencing 
others; — nor should it ever be forgotten, that dullness or stu- 
pidity are contagious evils, always to be guarded against. 

The hope which the success of education promises, is bright- 
ened, as we behold so many mature and gifted minds of both 
sexes, deeply penetrated with a sense of the magnitude of this 
work, who are devoiinof their hearts and lives to the service of 
training the rising generation to knowledge, virtue, love, and 

The time has arrived when a want is not only felt, but openly 
expressed, for teaching in those branches of study usually pur- 
sued in the best High Schools in our State. 

As the number of children in our public Schools increase, 
the number of those qualified, or capable of pursuing these 
branches of study, increases also ; and although there may not 
yet be enough of this class of children to warrant the expense 
of supporting a regularly established High School in our midst — 
still, we think some public provision should be made for those 
who are capable, and wish to avail themselves of instruction 
in the languages, and the higher branches of science. We 
think an arrangement could be effected to secure these advan- 
tages, without incurring the expense of buildings, additional to 


those now belonging to the city. We will not attempt to dictate 
any plan, but make allusion to this subject, that the attention of 
the successors of the present Board may be drawn to it, and 
that some provision may be made to meet it. 

It will doubtless be found necessary during the coming year, 
to make some further provision for the increased number of 
children in our schools. Primary School No. 1, is in a very 
crowded condition — the daily average attendance for some por- 
tion of the time during the past month, having been about 
eighty ; — of this number, from 35 to 40 reside above the canal 
bridge ; and your Board feel, that in justice to the children and 
teacher in this school, and for the accommodation of those re- 
siding in this district, a Primary School should be located in 
some central place above the canal bridge. 

Primary School No. 21, on the corner of Sullivan and Bart- 
lett Streets, is now full, and the population is increasing so rap- 
idly in the section of the city in which this School House is 
located, that there is hardly a doubt of the upper room of this 
building being wanted before the close of the present year. — 
The expense of finishing it will not probably exceed $150. 

If that portion of the city embraced in the Bunker Hill 
School District, should increase as rapidly in population as it 
has the past year, it may become necessary to finish the second 
story of that building, and occupy it as a school room. The 
cost of doing this would not probably be much, if any, over 

Some improvements should be made in the ventilation of sev- 
eral of our Primary School buildings, and in the Winthrop and 
Harvard Grammar Schools. 

Our Primary Schools, except those which have been built 
within a few years, are quite too small for the number of chil- 
dren who daily attend them ; they might be made more tolerable 
by improving their ventilation. The same is the case with the 
Winthrop and Harvard School Houses ; no suitable provision is 
made for the ventilation of these buildings, especially the latter, 
which is badly constructed — inconvenient and too contracted 


for the number of children who occupy it. It may be asked, 
why it has not been discovered before now, that these buildings 
are deficient in size, and means of ventilation ? 

The answer is this. They have not, until recently, been so 
crowded with pupils ; it never was designed that so many chil- 
dren should be assembled daily in these Schools, nor in the Pri- 
mary Schools spoken of; but in order to keep down the expense 
of the latter class of Schools, many of them have been filled to 
the utmost extent of their limits. 

We believe the same will hold true also, with respect to the 
Grammar Schools alluded to above — especially so, to the latter 
of the two. 

The subject of ventilation, has occupied the attention of a 
Committee in the City of Boston for the past year, who have 
reported upon the subject, which report has been accepted, and 
its recommendations carried out. We should be glad to make 
extracts from a large portion of it, but will only insert here the 
following : 

" Children, confined in the atmosphere of such Schools, soon 
lose the ruddy and cheerful complexions of perfect health which 
belong to youth, and acquire the sallow and depressed counte- 
nances which might reasonably be expected in overworked fac- 
tory operatives, or the tenants of apartments unvisited by the 
sun and air. We noticed in many faces, also, particularly to- 
wards the close of school session, a feverish flush, so bright that 
it might easily deceive an inexperienced eye, and be mistaken 
for a healthy bloom. Alas ! it was only a transient and ineffec- 
tual effort of nature to produce, by overaction, those salutary 
changes, which she really wanted the power to accomplish. 

" The grave consequences of a long continued exposure to an 
atmosphere but a little below the standard of natural purity, al- 
though not immediately incompatible with life, can hardly be 
overstated. These effects are often so insidious in their ap- 
proach, as hardly to attract notice ; they are the more necessary 
to be provided against in advance. 


**It has already been shown, that healthy blood is essential to 
the proper action of every organ in the body, and that the 
healthy condition of the blood, and even life itself, depend en- 
tirely upon the act of respiration ; that, to breathe air deprived 
of its oxygen, or containing any thing which prevents the neces- 
sary changes in the blood, is to breathe disease and death. And 
yet, with all these facts staring us in the face, habit has recon- 
ciled us to practices which would otherwise be noxious and dis- 
gusting. We instinctively shun approach to the dirty, the 
squalid, the diseased, nor use a garment that may have been 
worn by another ; we open sewers for matters that oifend the 
sight and smell, and contaminate the air ; we carefully remove 
impurities from what we eat and drink, filter turbid water, and 
fastidiously avoid drinking from a cup that may have been 
pressed to the lips even of a friend. On the other hand, we re- 
sort to places of assembly, and draw into our mouths air loaded 
with effluvia from the lungs and skin and clothing of every in- 
dividual in a promiscuous crowd ; exhalations which are offen- 
sive to a certain extent from the most cleanly individuals ; but 
when rising from a living mass of skin and lung in all stages of 
evaporation, and prevented by the walls and ceiling from es- 
caping, they are, in the highest degree deleterious and loath- 

Your Committee cannot close this Report, without renewing 
the suggestions made in the Report of the Board of Trustees, 
in April, 1846, relative to the introduction of Music into our 
Grammar Schools, and urging upon the citizens, some attention 
to this subject. We think, that *' little need be said to convince 
all reflecting and rational minds of the power, the eloquence, 
and beneficial influences" of this beautiful science. Public 
opinion in other places in our vicinity, is decidedly in favor of 
its practice, and there, it is cheerfully supported by the citizens; 
the expense cannot, we think, make it objectionable in this city. 
Like reading or spelling, wherever practicable, singing should 
form one of the daily exercises of the school ; it helps to ani- 
mate the minds of both teachers and pupils — to restore har- 


tilony, and impart vigor to the whole routine of school exer- 
cises — it is an incentive to harmony and order, and combines the 
happiest and purest moral influences. We cordially approve 
of it, and cheerfully recommend its practice in our Schools. It 
serves to discipline the mind ; it is a valuable attainment ; a fine 
accomplishment ; and its influence upon social happiness — the 
moral and devotional feelings, are worthy the high consideration 
which the subject justly merits. 

On resigning the charge which has been conferred upon us 
for the past year, we trust we shall be allowed to express our 
hope, that those who may succeed us in the responsible duties 
from which we are now relieved, may be deeply impressed with 
the importance of preserving, unimpaired, the best interest of 
our Public Free. Schools, and of elevating them still higher in 
the estimation of the public, as a means of intellectual and 
moral advancement, until they shall attract and secure the ad- 
miration of every lover of wisdom, virtue and freedom. 


April 7, 1847. 

Voted, That the foregoing Report be accepted, printed, and 
distributed to the inhabitants of the city. 

JONATHAN BROWN, Jr., Secretary/, 


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