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Full text of "Annual report of the Water Commissioner, for the year ending .."

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http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofwa141909bos 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPOET 



OF THE 



WATER COMMISSIONER 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JANUARY 31, 1909 



IPrfnteD tor tbe 2)epartment 




CITY OF BOSTON 
PRINTING DEPARTMENT 

1909 



io'fi/vfJ'V 




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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Abatements 
Air-cocks 

Blacksmith shop 
Blow-offs 

Concrete boxes . 
Carpenter shop . 
City Engineer, Report of 
Contracts . 
Construction, Cost of 
Consumption of water 



21 

45 

60 
45 

67-70 
60, 66 
85-88 
12-19 
5-7 
87,88 



Distribution Division, Report of Assistant Commissioner in charge, 31-75 



Expenditures . . . . . 
Electrolysis ..... 

Fountains . . . . • 

Gates 

General statistics . . . 

Hydrants . . . . . • 
Hydrants, blow-off and reservoir pipes 

Income Division, Report of General Superintendent 
Ice for drinking fountains 

Length of main lines and connections 

Main pipe w^ork. Cost of 
Mains laid and relaid 
Machine shop 
Maintenance 
Meters 

Organization of department 

Property and plans . 

Receipts .... 
Recommendations of Acting Superintendent 

Service pipes 

Waste detection 
Water at annual rates 

" debt 

'' loans outstanding 

" posts 

" rates 

" sinkingfund 

Tables : 

Abatements 

Fixtures in use December, 1908 . 

Meters 

Pipes, elevator, motor and service 
Waste inspection .... 
Water rates 

" turning off and on 

" comparative table of receipts and expenditures 



2, 3, 4 
59, 60 

. 56-58, 82 

45-48 

. 83, 84-89 

49-52, 78, 79 

77 

20-30 
5 

76 

36-45 

32-36 

61, 62, 66 

2,3 

24-30 

31-32, 90-93 

70-74 

1, 2-4 
74, 75 

53-55, 80, 81 

22, 58, 59 

20 

5, 11 

5,7,8 

55, 56 

^20 

5, 9, 10 



21 

21 

24-30 

21, 23 

22 

20 

22 

4 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

WATER DEPARTMENT 

FOR THE YEAR 1908-1909. 



Office of the Water Commissioner, 
City Hall, Boston, February 1, 1909. 

Hon. George A. Hibbard, 

Mayor of the City of Boston: 

Sir, — I submit herewith the fourteenth annual report of 
the doings of the Water Department covering the year end- 
ing January 31, 1909. This report has been prepared, as far 
as possible, in accordance with the suggestions of the Boston 
Finance Commission. 

The receipts and disbursements of the department for the 
year were as follows: 

Total receipts from all sources 

Total expenditures for all purposes 



Total Receipts of the Year by Sources. 

Sales of water 

Service, elevator, fire and motor pipes and repairs, labor, 

materials, etc 

Sale of old materials 

Fees for summonses 

Sale of merchandise (mostly to other departments) 
Shutting off and letting on water on account of repairs 
Shutting off and letting on vater on account of nonpayment 

of bills 

Use of West Roxbury pumping plant 

Carried forward 



$2,695,761 


00 


$2,695,761 


00 


$2,626,564 

4 


59 


34,985 


84 


5,652 


54 


2,924 


40 


2,649 


01 


1,884 


19 


1,794 


00 


786 


36 


$2,677,240 93 



2 



City Document No. 43. 



Brought forward .... 
Board of City Engineer's horse 
Difference on cost of laying main pipe 
Car tickets redeemed . . . . 
Interest on deposits .... 
Miscellaneous 



Transfer by City Auditor to meet deficiency 



2,677,240 93 

624 00 

475 50 

359 45 

228 14 

145 88 

2,679,073 90 
16,687 10 

5,695,761 00 



Expenditures. 



Current expenses and extensions 
Metropolitan water assessment . 
Interest on funded debt 
Refunded water rates 



$729,677 14 

1,789,315 84 

175,010 17 

1,757 85 

;2,695,761 00 



For detailed account of expenditures, condition of water 
debt, etc., see statements annexed. 

Reports of work performed in the Income and Distribution 
Divisions and the Engineering Department will be found in 
the appendices annexed hereto. 

Respectfully, 

William E. Hannan, 

Water Commissioner. 



Details of expenditures under the appropriation for current 
expenses for the fiscal year ending January 31, 1909. (From 
revenue and transfer.) 

Salaries and wages: 

"William J. Avelch, commissioner to April 

27, 1908, inclusive 

William E. Hannan, commissioner from 

April 28, 1908, inclusive .... 



Assistant Commissioners : 

I^aac Rosnosky 

Joseph .1. Norton, to April 1, 1908 . 

James P. Lennon, to April 1, 1908 . 
John J. Feneno, secretary, to January 15, 

1908 (balance due) ...... 

Walter E. Swan, chief clerk . 

Employees 



$1,625 00 

3,375 00 

$5,000 00 

3,000 00 
750 00 
750 00 



104 
3,000 



17 
00 



467,819 42 



,423 59 



Carried forward $480,423 59 



Water Department. 



Brought forward 

Water pipes and other castings 

Blasting and excavating pipe trenches and laying water 

pipes 

Stable : 

Board, feed, etc 



Vehicles and repairs 
Horseshoeing 
Horses, purchase of . 
Harnesses and repairs, etc. 
Veterinary services, etc. . 



,437 67 
2,888 46 
2,505 81 
2,090 00 
1,229 05 

705 62 



Repairs and alterations of buildings, repairs of streets and 
structures 

Lead and lead pipe 

Meters : 

New meters $9,964 00 

Repairs and extra parts ..... 1,889 12 

Tools and machinery and repairs of same, iron, steel, hard- 
ware and small supplies . 

Lumber 

Printing 

Fuel 

Traveling expenses and transportation of employees 

Salt 

Gravel and crushed stone . 
Teaming, freights and expressag 
Telephones .... 
Stationery, postage, etc. 

Automobile SI, 650 00 

•Automobile repairs 264 52 



Cement, lime and sand 

Rents 

Oils 

Furniture 

Gas 

Taxes 

Bricks 

Professional and expert services 

Waterproof clothing 

Salt hay . . . . . 

Advertising .... 

Drain pipe .... 

Premiums on surety bonds 

Removing trees 

Recording papers . 

Decorations, "Old Home Week" 

Displacement of tide water, assessment 

Inspection of boilers .... 

Copy of records 

Ice for freezing water pipes . 



Damages 



,423 59 
99,218 94 

40,854 50 



19,856 61 

13,437 24 
12,654 05 



11,853 12 



10,593 99 
8,843 20 
3,560 
3,420 
3,382 
3,017 
2,509 
2,238 
2,235 
1,983 



21 
5 
1 



62 
46 
20 

85 
46 
58 
53 
39 



1,914 52 

1,219 95 

641 00 

552 13 

500 98 

357 64 

327 75 

313 00 

244 00 

230 57 

175 44 

158 89 

77 68 

50 00 

40 00 

30 50 

20 00 



38 
00 
00 
50 



$726,965 26 
2,711 88 

$729,677 14 



City Document No. 43. 



Comparative Table of Receipts and Expenditures. 

Receipts. 





1904-05. 


1905-06. 


1906-07. 


1907-08. 


1908-09. 


Sales of water 

Other receipts 


S2,3SS,42S 81 
56,794 04 


S2,400,764 31 
58,315 50 


$2,471,726 19 
80,118 91 


$2,558,614 34 
67,975 43 


$2,626,564 59 
52,509 31 






Loan extension of main?' .... 


§2,445,222 85 


$2,459,079 81 
330,000 00 
200,000 00 


$2,551,845 10 
300,000 00 
120,000 00 


$2,626,589 77 


$2,679,073 90 


Credited from taxes 


160,699 98 






Trari^fer* bv Citv Auditor 


35,878 85 


16,687 10 














S2, 605, 922 83 


S2,989,079 81 


$2,971,845 10 


$2,662,468 62 


$2,695,761 00 


Balance, beginning of year 


*S284,512 15 
*$23,727 34 


*S23,727 34 

r *$17,540 97 
t9,460 67 


r *$17,540 97 
J t9,460 67 


*$16,365 90 
t54,739 39 




Balance, end of veur 


i $27,001 64 

*.?16,365 90 
154,739 39 


$71,105 29 






S27,001 64 


$71,105 29 





Expenditures. 



1904-05. 



1905-06. 



1906-07. 



1907-08. 



1908-09. 



Current expenses 

Metropolitan water assessment. 

Interest 

Refunded water rates 

Extension of mains: 

From loans 



From appropriation from 
revenue 



$543,747 20 

1,700,274 07 

360,815 00 

1,086 56 

260,784 81 



$2,866,707 64 



$541,375 59 

1,758,635 00 

348,188 36 

1,420 19 

336,186 37 



$2,985,805 51 



$544,769 54 

1,822,556 33 

257,764 85 

1,475 66 

301,175 07 



},927,741 45 



),191 07 

1,726,588 68 

178,217 66 

1,210 60 

16,365 90 

165,000 no 



$2,733,573 91 



$$729,677 14 

1,789,315 84 

175,010 17 

1,757 85 



J,695,761 00 



* Loan. t Taxes. 

X This amount was expended for current expenses and extensions, there being one appropriation only. 



Water Department. 5 

There was also expended by the Water Department, under 

an appropriation of 15,000, from the Reserve Fund, for ice 

for drinking fountains (order of City Council, approved May 

21, 1908): 

Ice . . '. . $3,503 77 

Advertisins; 31 50 



5,535 27 



COST OF CONSTRUCTION AND CONDITION OF THE 

WATER DEBT. 

The outstanding water loans February 1, 1908, were 
The outstanding water loans February 1, 1909, were 



Decrease during the year 



The Water Sinking Fund February 1, 1908, was 
The Water Sinking Fund February 1, 1909, was 

Decrease during the year 



Net water debt February 1, 1908 

Net water debt February 1, 1909 

Decrease during the year . . 

Stock on hand February 1, 1908 

Stock on hand February 1, 1909 

Decrease during the year ..... 

The following statement relating to the cost of the water- 
works has been prepared by the chief clerk, Mr. W. E. Swan, 
and is probably as correct an account as it is possible to obtain 
at the present time. 

While the cost of the plant now owned by the city repre- 
sents an amount of 115,390,574.32, it is a question whether 
this amount does not considerably exceed the actual value of 
the works. 



$4,531,500 00 
4,249,500 00 


$282,000 00 


$3,794,779 
3,637,956 


37 
71 


$156,822 66 


$736,720 63 
611,543 29 


$125,177 


34 


$165,453 
129,578 


29 
98 


$35,874 


31 



COST OF WORKS. 



Cochituate supply 
Sudbury supply 
Mystic supply 
Distribution system 



$1,715,950 73 

9,267,367 04 

1,806,316 72 

15,196,885 49 



Total cost, January 1, 1898, exclusive of state takings, $27,986,519 98 
Cost of portion taken by the state .... 14,717,009 30 

Cost of portion remaining $13,269.510 68 



6 



City Document No. 43. 



Cost of portion taken by the state 
Total payments by state 

Excess of cost over amount paid 



$14,717,009 30 
13,685,766 84 

$1,031,242 46 



Cost in detail of portion of original works, exclusive of state 



taking: 

Brookline Reservoir 
Beacon Hill Reservoir . 
South Boston Reservoir 
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct 
East Boston Reservoir , 
Parker Hill Reservoir . 
Fisher Hill Reservoir . 
Roxbuiy high ser\ace . 
Brighton high ser\ice . 
East Boston high ser\ice 
West Roxbury high service 
Pipe yards and buildings 
Engineering expenses . 
Distribution . 

Cochituate works . 
Mystic works (distribution) 

Cost, January 31, 1898 

Additions to cost on account of extension of 

mains, etc. (eleven years to January 31, 1909), 

viz. : 

Year ending January 31, 1899 . . . $411,910 26 

31, 1900 . . . 446,120 35 

31, 1901 . . . 364,604 06 

31, 1902 . . . 259,228 99 

31, 1903 . . . 125,705 99 

31, 1904 . . . 117,501 25 

31, 1905 . . . 221,595 49 

31, 1906 . . . 313,465 41 

31, 1907 . . . 293,734 68 

31, 1908 . . . 220,239 57 

31, 1909 . . . 182,602 70 



$200,077 21 

363,533 21 

90,908 10 

88,417 20 

66,103 09 

205,793 81 

191,135 35 

103,829 53 

7,745 00 

30,208 12 

22,346 56 

94,832 16 

57,873 58 

10,871,844 18 

$12,394,647 10 
874,863 58 

$13,269,510 68 



2,956,708 75 



,226,219 43 



Cost represented on waterworks ledger, January 31, 1909, 
Cost represented by above statement on same date . 



$17,257,461 89 
16,226,219 43 



Excess of cost represented over amount paid by state, $1,031,242 46 

The following is a statement of the cost of the existing 
works on January 31, 1909 : 

East Boston Reservoir $66,103 



Parker Hill Reservoir . 
Fisher Hill Reservoir . 
East Boston high service 
West Roxbury high service 
Pipe yards and buildings 
Engineering expenses . 
Distribution . 

Total 



09 
81 
35 
26 



205,793 
191,1.35 
24,173 
22,346 56 
94,832 16 
57,873 58 
14,728,316 51 

$15,-390,574 .32 



3 Water Department. 7 

In making up this statement, the difference between the cost 
to the city of the portion taken by the state and the total 
amount paid by the state for said portion ($1,031,242.46) has 
been eHminated, and the itiems Brookhne, Beacon Hill and 
South Boston reservoirs and the Brighton high service works 
have also been eliminated as they no longer exist in the water- 
works plant. The two former reservoirs were taken from the 
waterworks assets without compensation to the department. 
A portion of the South Boston Reservoir property was taken 
for schoolhouse purposes, the department being compensated 
for land taken, and the remainder of the property being turned 
over to the Public Grounds Department. The standpipe in 
Roxbury, which formed a part of the Roxbury high service, 
was also transferred to the Public Grounds Department with- 
out reimbm-sement, and the Roxbury pumping works have 
long since been abandoned; consequently only the value of the 
pipes formerly connected with the high service works which 
are in existence at the present time has been considered, and 
the amount of $23,829.53 of the original item of $103,829.53 
has been lumped with distribution. Of the original cost of 
the East Boston high service ($30,208.12) the sum of $6,034.86, 
representing the cost of the old pumps, boilers and founda- 
tions, has been deducted, leaving the cost of the remaining 
portion of these works at $24,173.26. The Jamaica Pond 
Aqueduct works, which cost the city $88,417.20, have also 
long since been out of existence. The value of the mains 
now remaining in service is placed at $4,900, which amount 
has also been carried into the distribution item. The con- 
struction account on the books of the department has been 
modified to conform to the above revised account and hence- 
forth such additions or extensions as are made from time to 
time will be added to the cost of the plant. 



The outstanding water loans on February 1, 1909, were 
as follows: 



Date of 
Loans. Maturity. 

4 per cent loan, due July, 1909 



4i 


11 


a 


u 


ii 


October, 


1909 


4 


ii 


u 


a 


a 


April, 


1910 


4 


a 


u 


u 


a 


April, 


1912 


4 


11 


a 


a 


ii 


October, 


1913 


4 


u 


i( 


a 


a 


January, 


1914 


4 


a 


a 


a 


a 


April, 


1914 


4 


u 


a 


u 


a 


October, 


1914 


4 


a 


a 


a 


a 


April, 


1915 


4 


u 


a 


a 


a 


October, 


1915 


4 


u 


a 


ii 


a 


January, 


1916 ' 


4 


u 


u 


li 


a 


April, 


1916 




Carried forward 




. . 


. 



Amount. 

$64,000 00 

120,000 00 

253,000 00_ 

324,000 00 

50,000 00 

459,000 00 

9,500 00 

10,000 00 

32,700 00 

17,000 00 

8,000 00 

18,500 00 

$1,365,700 00 



8 



City Document No. 43. 













Date of 








Loans 






Maturity 


r. 




Br 


ought forwm 


'd 






4 


per 


cent 


loan, 


due 


October, 


1916 


4 


•• 


" 


•' 


it 


January, 


1917 


3* 


"' 


" 


ii 


li 


April, 


1917 


4 


a 


u 


ii 


11 


April, 


1917 


4 


<( 


u 


i( 


ii 


October, 


1917 


4 


u 


ii 


a 


li 


January, 


1918 


4 


a 


a 


a 


11 


April, 


1918 


3i 


a 


u 


a 


11 


July, 


1918 


4 


u 


u 


u 


ii 


October, 


1918 


4 


(( 


u 


a 


li 


April, 


1919 


3i 


u 


u 


ii 


11 


October, 


1919 


4 


n 


li 


a 


li 


October, 


1919 


Si 


a 


u 


a 


11 


November 


1919 


H 


a 


11 


a 


li 


January, 


1920 


4 


a 


. « 


a 


11 


October, 


1920 


4 


u 


ii 


a 


11 


April, 


1921 


4 


li 


11 


^ a 


a 


October, 


1921 


4 


a 


a 


a 


a 


January, 


1922 


4 


u 


a 


a 


ii 


April, 


1922 


4 


u 


u 


li 


11 


October, 


1922 


4 


u 


u 


11 


ii 


October, 


1923 


4 


iC 


li 


a 


ii 


October, 


1924 


3i 


i( 


i( 


11 


li 


October, 


1927 


3* 


i( 


u 


11 


11 


July, 


1929 



Amount 

.,365,700 

11,300 

8,000 

275,000 

6,000 

157,700 

13,000 

300 

100,000 

95,000 

200,000 

2,000 

189,000 

106,000 

70,000 
172,500 
100,000 
140,500 

80,000 

75,000 
193,000 

18,275 
436,225 

25,000 
410,000 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
QO 

00 ^i '. 

00 

00 , D ,^ 

00 ^ ^ 

00 ' ^ 

00 

00 

00 '^^ 

00 

00 



Total 



t,249,500 00 



3^ per cent loans 

a" II a II 

^ II II 

Total ^ . 



Summary. 



. $988,000 00 

. 3,141,500 00 

. 120,000 00 

$4,249,500 00 



Water Department. 



9 





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3 


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c 


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3 C 


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c 


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lO c 


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10 



City Document No. 43. 





ro 


CO ■* ^ 


c 


00 -^ 


c 


CSI 


N 


CS) 


or 


!-< 


CO 


o- 


10 


>o 


c~ 


cr 


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■* 


CO lO c 


Tt 


cc 


a 


cc 


o 


OC 


o 




CM 


o- 




cc 


I> 


cc 


OC 


i-H 


CO 




c 


oc 


t^ o: 


CC 


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1- 


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cr 


c 


rt 


cc 


cc 


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l> 


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CO 


00 




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o 


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ir 


O 


O 


CO 


C 


10 


a 


a 


10 


or 


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cc 


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1- 


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10 


r^ 


or 


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CO 


CO 


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CO 


cc 


iC c 


■* 


CS 


CO 


CS 


cc 


10 


10 


cc 


lO 


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CS 


CS 


1> 


c-i 


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lO lO »c 


cc 


cc 


cc 


cc 


CO 


cc 


CO 


CC 


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CO 




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c 




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CSI 




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cc 




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r^ 


c^ 


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c 


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t> 


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cr 


















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cc 


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CSI 


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posits 


CO 


CO 


c 


or 


CO 


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t^ 


cr 


CS| 


or 


CT 


h- 


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h- 


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or 


Tf 


c 


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cc 


cc 


Td 


cc 


CS 


C 


CS 


CO 


f- 


CO 


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cr 




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CO 


CC 


cc 


l> 


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(^ 


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T- 


1— 1 


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cc 


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CO 


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cc 


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o- 


lO 


Tf 


r- 


T-l 




CO 


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CO 


CN 


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CO 


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cc 


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cc 


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cc 


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r- 


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10 


cr 


cc 


or 


LO 


CSI 


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CO 


c 


c 


c 


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CC 




Tt 


CSI 


Tl 


CO 


or 


CO 


c 


10 


CO 


h- 




CS 


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CO 


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IC 


or 


to 


Cv 


CC 


or 


or 


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CO 


fT 


c 


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CS 


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cc 


CO 


OC 


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o 


c- 


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c 


cr 


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or 


CO 


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r^ 


CO 


r- 


10 


CO 


rr 


c 


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cc 


lO 


ll 


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c« 


r^ 


cc 


a-. 




r^ 


<r 


CSI 




cc 


fl- 


CS 


1- 


Tf 


cc 


rf 


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CS 


CS 


t^ 


c^ 


c^ 


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c^ 


CO 


CO 


Tf 


Tt< 


^ 


n 


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CO 


co 




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CS 


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CO 


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1^ 


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Water Department. 



11 



Cochituate Water Debt, Gross and Net. 

At the Close of Each Fiscal Year. 



Fiscal Year. 



Gross Debt. 



Sinking Funds. 



Net Debt. 



1847-48... 

1848-49... 

1849-50... 

1850-51... 

1851-52... 

1852-53... 

1853-54... 

1854-55... 

1855-56... 

1856-57... 

1857-58... 

1858-59... 

1859-60... 

1860-61... 

1861-62... 

1862-63... 

1863-64... 

1864-65... 

1865-66... 

1866-67... 

1867-68... 

1868-69... 

1869-70... 

1870-71... 

1871-72... 

1872-73... 

1873-74... 

1874-75... 

1875-76... 

1876-77.. 

1877-78... 

1878-79... 

1879-80... 

1880-81... 

1881-82... 

1882-83... 

1883-84... 

1884-85... 

1885-86... 

1886-87. . . 

1887-88... 

1888-89... 

1889-90... 

1890-91.. 

1891-92... 

1892-93.. 

1893-94.. 

1894-95.. 

1895-96.. 

1896-97. . . 

1897-98.. 

1898-99.. 

1899-1900 

1900-1901 

1901-1902 

1902-1903 

1903-1904 

1904-1905 

1905-1906 

1906-1907 

1907-1908 

1908-1909 



$2,129, 

3,787, 

4,463 

4,955 

5,209 

5,972 

5,432 

5,403 

5,230 

5,031 

4,724 

4,754 

3,846 

3,455 

3,012 

2,992 

2,992 

2,942 

3,152 

3,370 

3,867 

5,107 

5,731 

6,482 

6,812 

6,912 

7,863 

8,123 

9,735 

11,548 

11,545 

11,753 

11,697 

11,631 

11,631 

11,955 

12,882 

13,045 

13,491 

14,142 

14,741 

14,941 

15,696 

16,267 

16,423 

16,758 

17,055 

17,761 

18,261 

18,261 

17,911 

17,121 

17,306 

11,960 

11,351 

9,501 

8,227 

8,224 

6,671 

4,562 

4,531 

4,249 



056 32 
328 98 
205 56 
613 51 
223 26 
976 
261 
961 
961 
961 
961 
461 
211 
211 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
711 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
473 98 
473 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
773 98 
773 98 
773 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
273 98 
917 28 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
250 00 
500 00 
500 00 
500 00 



$1,100, 
1,185, 
1,268, 
1,372, 
1,533, 
1,560, 
1,709, 
2,043, 
2,143, 
1,771, 
1,989, 
2,281, 
2,607, 
2,746, 
3,106. 
3,385, 
3,947, 
4,373, 
4,864, 
5,440, 
5,979, 
6,471. 
7,019. 
7,649, 
8,444, 
9,099, 
9,704, 
9,852, 
9,487, 
9,870, 
10,144, 
10,422, 
8,893, 
7,337, 
7,600, 
5,943, 
3,697, 
3,794, 
3,637, 



000 00 
049 67 
234 97 
952 62 
890 28 
917 83 
492 60 
764 73 
847 85 
692 92 
300 88 
857 89 
768 46 
505 58 
323 82 
201 26 
616 92 
304 09 
092 54 
819 47 
297 80 
545 34 
058 38 
504 87* 
773 55 
966 39 
387 99 
760 01 
119 88 
223 90 
647 08 
449 77 
615 94 
902 79 
689 44 
222 39 
913 53 
779 37 
956 71 



$2,129, 

3,787, 

4,463, 

4,955, 

5,209, 

5,972 

5,432 

5,403 

5,230 

5,031 

4,724 

4,754 

3,846 

3,455 

3,012 

2,992 

2,992 

2,942 

3,152 

3,370 

3,867 

5,107 

5,731 

5,382 

• 5,627 

5,644 

6,490 

6,589 

8,174 

9,839 

9,501 

9,609 

9,925 

9,641 

9,349 

9,347 

10,135 

9,939 

10,106 

10,194 

10,367 

10,077 

10,255 

10,288 

9,952 

9,739 

9,405 

9,316 

9,161 

8,556 

8,058 

7,634 

7,436 

1,815 

929 

607 

889 

623 

728 

864 

736 

611 



056 32 
328 98 
205 56 
613 51 
223 26 
976 
261 
961 
961 
.961 
,961 
,461 
211 
,211 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,711 
,661 44 
,476 14 
757 49 
820 83 
,793 28 
,218 51 
,509 25 
,426 13 
,581 06 
,973 10 
,416 09 
,505 52 
,768 40 
150 16 
;272 72 
,6.57 06 
,969 89 
,181 44 
,454 51 
,476 18 
,288 64 
,715 60 
,769 11 
,500 43 
,307 59 
,885 99 
,513 97 
154 10 
,050 08 
,626 90 
467 51 
384 06 
,097 21 
310 56 
,027 61 
,586 47 
,720 63 
,543 29 



1 No accoiint taken of amounts borrowed temporarily from 1846 to 1852 and after- 
wards funded by the issue of water bonds that figure in this statement. 



12 



City Document No. 43. 



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20 



City Document No. 43. 



REPORT OF INCOME DIVISION. 



Office of General Superintendent, 
City Hall, Boston, February 1, 1909. 

William E. Hannan, Esq., 

Water Commissioner: 

Dear Sir, — I submit herewith the annual report of the 
Income DiAision, Water Department. The report of the 
Meter Ser^dce Division, also the statement of water rates, 
covers the financial year ending January 31, 1909; the 
remainder of the report is rendered for the calendar year 
ending December 31, 1908, — it being impracticable, owing 
to the nature of our accounts, to render it for the financial 
year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. H. Caldwell, 

General Superintendent Income Division. 



TABLE I. 

Statement of Water Rates, January 31, 1909. 



Account of 
Year. 



1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
11909 



Amount 
Assessed. 



Amount 
Abated. 



Amount 
Collected. 



Balance 
Outstanding;. 



S2,266, 
2,568, 
2,630, 
2,342, 
2,414, 
2,197, 
2.264 
2,.327 
2,386 
2,391 
2.446 
2,. 524 
2,618 
2,644 
1,364 



,519 


08 


,246 


04 


,413 


37 


,804 


58 


,731 


72 


,026 


64 


,845 


26 


,996 


91 


,428 


02 


,751 


16 


,978 


39 


,105 


25 


,400 


60 


,677 


24 


,908 


85 



.555, 

*95, 

53, 

1235, 

t258, 

46 

46 

43 

58 

38 

36 

37 

34 

20 

1 



,510 


53 


.162 


39 


,864 


09 


.414 


43 


,449 


66 


,873 


45 


,713 


28 


,706 


89 


,0.50 


51 


,290 


92 


,093 


08 


,534 


28 


,959 


33 


,657 


30 


,660 


52 



f2,211, 
2,473, 
2,576, 
2,107, 
2,1.56, 
2,150, 
2,218, 
2,284, 
2,328 
2,352 
2,410, 
2,486 
2,. 583 
2,. 59 4 
121 



008 
083 
549 
390 
282 
153 
131 
290 
347 
679 
871 
505 
427 
208 
788 



55 
65 
28 
15 
06 
19 
98 
02 
51 
94 
31 
97 
27 
33 
18 



$30 00 

780 30 

14 00 

65 00 

14 00 

29,811 

1,241,460 



61 
15 



The above amounts for the years 1895, 1896 and 1897 include both Cochituate and 
Mystic supply accounts. The contracts to supply (Chelsea, Somorville and Everett 
with Mystic water were abrogated by the Metropolitan Water Act of .January 1, 1898. 

* This amount includes certain city department accounts, abated by order of the 
Mavor. ' , , , 

t These amounts include abatements of city department accounts, under order of 
the City Council, approved by the Mayor on March 5, 1900, said order also abolishing 
all charges for water used by city departments. 

t The statement of water rates for the year 1909 represents annual accounts only; 
the quarterly meter accounts can only be estimated at this time. 



Water Department. 



21 



TABLE II. 

Kind and Number of Fixtures in use December, 1908. 



Number. 



Bathtubs 

Bowls 

Foot tubs 

Sinks 

Taps 

Urinals, automatic 
" otherwise. 

Washtubs 

Water-closets 

Total fixtures 



94,964 

130,825 

570 

192,685 

35,697 

5,318 

490 

151,308 

194,303 



806,160 



TABLE III. 

Number and Amount of Abatements Allowed during the Year 1908. 



On Account of Assessments for Year. 


Number. 


Amount. 


1906 


96 
1,764 
2,667 


$1,561 11 


1907 


16,440 15 


1908 


19,397 86 






Totals 


4,527 


$37,399 12 







TABLE IV. 

Nevj Elevator, Motor and Service Pipes 

Elevator pipes 

Motor pipes 

Fire pipes 

Service pipes 

Total 



11 
2 

37 
1,205 



1,255 



22 



City Document No. 43. 



TABLE V. 

Txirning Water Off and On 

For complaints 

For repairs of service 

For nonpayment of water bills 

For waste 

Turned on first time 

Vacancies 

Total 



709 
3,834 
2,354 
31 
1,131 
2,792 



10,841 



TABLE VL 

Off and On Receipts. 



Received for turning water off and on for repairs, and deposited with City 
Collector 



$1,860 19 



TABLE VIL 

WASTE DETECTION. 

Water Inspection. 

Waste reports 

First re-examinations 

Second re-examinations 

Third re-examinations 

Fine notices issued 



11,577 

8,277 

2,652 

632 

271 



TABLE VIIL 

Defective Fixtures and Waste. 

Tank fixtures leaking 

Faucets leaking 

Bursts inside 

Bursts outside 

Hopper-cocks leaking 

Water-closets leaking 

Willful waste 



12,583 

7,242 

494 

17 

155 

468 

19 



Water Department. 



23 



TABLE IX. 

Elevator and Motor Service for the Year Ending December 31, 1908. 

Elevators. 

Under supervision December 31, 1907 . . 586 

Discontinued during year ... 8 

Changed to electric 3 

New elevators accepted during the year 

Under supervision December 31, 1908 



575 
9 

584 



Changed to tank and metered water and now under supervision 

Inspections made 

Accuracy tests made 

Registering inaccurately and repaired by owners 
Clock cord broken and repaired by owners 
Clock hands broken and repaired by owners . 



71 
382 
357 

41 

77 
6 



Motors. 



Under supervision December 31, 1907 
Discontinued 



116 
2 



New motors added to service during the year 
Under supervision December 31, 1908 



Motors on meter 



114 
4 

118 
17 



TABLE X, 

Fire Pipe Service for the Year Ending December 31, 1908. 

Premises under supervision December 31, 1907 

Supervision discontinued 



Premises equipped during the year . 
Under supervision December 31, 1908 



541 
10 

531 
21 

552 



Premises inspected 

Total number of inspections of outlet valves . 
Total number of hydrant inspections 
Total number of valves sealed and resealed 
Total number of hydrant valves sealed and resealed 



3,890 

47,601 

1,037 

4,724 

196 



Meter by-passes under supervision December 31, 1907 
Discontinued 



By-passes, additional .... 
Under supervision December 31, 1908 



37 
2 

35 
2 

37 



Inspections made 



287 



Resealed 



18 



24 



City Document No. 43. 



TABLE XI. 

General Statement of Work Performed during Year Ending January 31, 1909. 



Meters. 



Boxes. 



Applied 

Discontinued 

Changed 

Changed location. . . 

Tested 

Repaired at shop. . . 
Repaired at factory. 
Repaired in service . 

Examined 

Lost 

Hayed 

Condemned 

Purchased 

In service 

In service (private). 
At department shop 




TABLE XIL 

Statement of Meters for Year Ending January 31, 1909. 

Meters belonging to department January 31, 1908 

Purchased 

Condemned during year 

Lost (in service) 

Belonging to department January 31, 1909 



5,441 
507 


5,948 
207 


206 

1 


. 


5,741 



Distribution of Meters January 31, 1909. 



In service 
In shop 



5,3S0 
361 



5,741 



Water Department. 



25 



TABLE XIII. 

Meters Applied. 





Diameter in Inches. 


- 




Totals 




6 


4 


3 


2 


14 


1 


3 

4 


i 




Crown 




1 


6 
3 


17 
6 
1 
3 


14 

3 

13 

1 


16 
17 
12 

1 


34 

16 

12 

5 

1 

6 

47 


76 
5 

48 

14 


164 


Hersev 


1 


51 




86 








1 


11 


B W W 






1 
















6 


Nash 










1 

1 


12 
1 
2 


74 












2 










1 


5 

1 

13 


5 
2 

1 


13 










3 












1 


1 


16 


Gem 


2 








2 












1 


1 


3 


5 
















Totals 


3 


1 


10 


28 


34 


63 


141 


154 


434 



TABLE XIV. 

Meters Discontinued. 







Diameter 


in Inches. 






Tn+nk 




6 


4 


3 


2 


U 


1 


f 


t 




Crown 




3 
3 


3 


8 
5 


7 
6 
4 
5 


10 

13 

6 

6 


20 
11 
10 
4 
1 
10 
10 

1 
1 


58 

1 

15 


106 


-Hersey . 


1 


43 


Hersey disc . 


35 


Worthington 




1 


2 


5 


23 


B W W 




1 














2 

1 


12 














11 














1 
















1 


Gem 


1 












1 








1 








3 


4 


















Totals 


2 


7 


5 


19 


22 


38 


68 


77 


238 







26 



City Document No. 43. 



TABLE XV. 

Meters Changed. 



Cause. 



Number. 



Cause. 



Number. 



Test 

Rust 

Not registering 

Gravel 

Solder 

No force 

Stoppage 

Heat 

Gasket 

Enlarged 

Relocated 

Frost 

Gear loose 

Intermediate broken 
Gear bound 

Carried forward. 



39S 

6 

142 

9 

4 

74 

55 

2 

1 

39 

11 

13 

3 

50 

4 



811 



Brought forward . . 

Leak at body 

Clock broken 

Did not mesh 

Piston broken 

Valve broken 

Ratchet broken 

Leak at coupling. . . . 

Piston bound 

Leak at spindle 

Clock train stuck. . . . 
Spindle shaft broken 

Disc broken. , 

Defaced 

Total number. . . , 



811 

11 

19 

38 

9 

1 

10 

14 

15 

11 

9 

5 

6 

6 



965 



TABLE XVL 

Meters Condemned. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


4 


f 


















2 
36 
55 

1 

7 
1 


13 
1 
2 

1 


15 


Worthington 


1 


1 


2 


12 

1 


13 
3 


41 
11 

1 


107 


Metropolitan 


72 


Hersey . . . 








2 


B W \V. . 












7 
















2 


Ball & Fitts 






1 








1 




















Totals 


1 


1 


3 


13 


16 


53 


102 


17 


206 



Water Department. 



27 



TABLE XVII. 

Meters Purchased. 





Diameter 


IN Inches. 






Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


1* 


1 


1 


t 




Crown 


1 




5 


16 


10 
6 








32 


Nash 


84 


117 


24 


231 


Oem 


2 
1 








2 


Hersey 




2 












3 


Hersey disc 




24 
2 


12 
6 
2 

24 


30 

27 
24 


40 

24 

3 


76 


Worthington disc 








18 
1 


78 


Keystone 






2 


37 


Lambert 






48 
















Totals 


4 




9 


35 


42 


128 


198 


91 


507 







TABLE XVIII. 

Meters Repaired in Service. 



Cause of Repairs. 



Number. 



Glass broken. . . . 
Ratchet broken . 
Clock broken ... 
Cov^er broken. . . 
Spindle broken. . 
Gear broken. . . . 
Spindle leaking. . 
Coupling leaking 

Pawl stuck 

Gear loose 

Clock loose 

Defaced 



53 

4 

67 

44 

2 

2 

70 

67 

1 

1 

1 

2 

314 



28 



City Document No. 43. 



TABLE XIX. 

Meters Repaired in Factory. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




6 


4 


3 2 


U 


1 


3 

4 


f 


Crown 




1 
1 


1 
1 


4 
2 


6 
2 


10 

7 


9 

13 

1 

1 


42 
2 


73 


Hersev 




26 


Hersey disc 




3 


Empire 










1 




2 


Gem 


1 








1 


Trident 










1 






1 


Nash 














1 

3 
2 


1 


Thomson 














1 


4 


Lambert 














2 




















Totals 


1 


2 


2 


6 


9 


18 


25 


50 


113 







TABLE XX. 

Meters in Service January 31, 1909. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


3_ 

* 


f 


Crown 

Worthington 


10 


48 
11 
15 


73 
25 
42 


129 
106 
136 


196 
89 

169 

8 

74 


412 

319 

274 

29 

76 


552 
172 
371 
225 
108 
21 

8 
116 

2 


1,167 

1 

19 

130 

3 

22 

6 


2,587 
723 


Hersey 

Metropolitan 


11 


1,037 
262 


Hersey disc 


1 




6 


7 


402 


B. W. W 


21 


Lambert 








2 


3 
4 


1 
62 


17 


Nash 






3 


207 


Thomson 






8 


Gem 


6 


5 




1 






12 


Empire 


7 


5 
2 


2 




14 


Trident 










2 


Torrent . , 


1 














1 


Worthington disc . ... 






2 


2 


6 

2 


30 

27 


13 
3 


51 


Keystone 






2 


36 










Totals 


29 


79 


151 


383 


552 


1,188 


1,634 


1,364 


5,380 



Water Department. 



29 



TABLE XXI. 

Private Meters in Service January 31, 1909. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




6 


4 


3 2 


n 


1 


f 


i 




Wortliington 






2 
2 
2 


5 
5 

1 


3 
19 

2 


8 
9 
3 


3 

4 


11 

32 

1 


32 


Crown 


6 


3 
3 


80 


Hersey 


12 




2 


2 


B W W 












1 


1 






























1 

1 


























Rnll S^ Fitts 








1 














1 
































Totals 


8 


7 


6 


12 


26 


20 


8 


45 


132 







TABLE XXH. 

Meters at Department Shop January 31, 1909. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


1-2- 


1 


f 


1 


Crown 


2 


3 

7 


6 
3 


9 

8 
1 
4 


5 
5 
1 
5 
1 


6 

30 
4 
4 
1 


9 

24 

26 

10 

3 

1 

21 

1 

3 

1 


48 
2 

1 
5 

3 

4 


88 


Worthington 


79 


Metropolitan . ^ 




32 


Hersey 


1 


3 


2 
1 


30 


Hersey disc 


11 


B W W 






1 














24 


48 














1 


Nash 










2 


25 


34 


Ball & Fitts 








1 

1 

1 

16 


2 


Gem 


1 


1 


4 






7 












1 


Worthington disc 














11 


27 




















Totals 


4 

1 


14 


16 


41 


19 94 


99 


74 


361 






1 





30 



City Document No. 43. 



TABLE XXIII. 

Meters Belonging to Departynent January 31, 1909. 





Diameter in Inches. 


Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


14 


1 


1 


5 
S 


Crown 


12 


51 
IS 
IS 


79 
28 
44 


138 

114 

140 

1 

7 


201 
94 

174 

9 

75 


418 
349 

278 
33 

77 


561 

196 

381 

251 

111 

22 

29 

119 

2 


1,215 

3 

20 

135 

6 

26 

6 


2,675 


Worthington 


802 


Hersej- 

Metropolitan 


12 


1,067 
294 


Hersev disc 


1 




7 


413 


B W. W 


22 










2 


3 
6 


25 

87 


65 


\a^h 






3 


241 


Thomson 






8 


Gem .... 


7 


6 


4 


2 






19 


Empire 


7 


5 
2 

2 


2 




14 


Trident 










2 


Kevstone 






2 


1 


2 


27 


3 


37 




1 




1 


Ball & Fitts . . .'. . 






1 






1 

1 

30 


24 


2 














1 


W ortiiiiigton disc 








18 




6 


78 












Totals 


33 


93 


167 


424 


571 


1,282 


1,733 


1,438 


5,741 



Water Department. 31 



REPORT OF DISTRIBUTION DIVISION. 



Office of the Superintendent, 
710 Albany Street, February 1, 1909. 

William E. Hannan, Esq., 

Water Commissioner: 

Sir, — Following is the annual report of the Distribution 
Division for the year ending January 31, 1909: 

Organization. 

From February 1, 1908, to March 26, 1908, the division was 
in charge of Assistant Water Commissioner James P. Lennon. 
Upon the latter date, the undersigned, Chief Clerk George H. 
Finneran, was placed in charge with the title '^ Official in. 
Charge. " The present organization is as follows : 

Superintendent. — Chief Clerk George H. Finneran, acting in that capacity. 
Assistant Superintendent (Northern Division). — Adam McClure. 
Assistant Superintendent (Southern Division).- — John W. Leahon. 
Chief Clerk. — George H. Finneran. 
11 clerks. 
2 messengers. 

2 janitors. 

6 inspectors of work. 
Machine Shop. — Foreman, Edward J. Bachelder. 
23 machinists, helpers, etc. 

5 blacksmiths and helpers. 
1 engineman. 

1 fireman. 

1 patternmaker. 

1 patternmaker's helper. 
Carpenter Shop. — Foreman, Richard F. Neagle. 

9 carpenters. 
Plumbing Shop. — Foreman, B. F. Rogers. 

14 plumbers, electricians and helpers. 

3 laborers (trough cleaners). 
Storeroom. — Storekeeper, John W. Sullivan. 

3 assistants. 
Main Yard (Albany Street). — Foreman, John J. Maguire. 
34 yardmen. 

23 teamsters and drivers. 
11 stablemen. 

6 painters. 

7 concrete boxmakers and helpers. 
5 men in yard storehouse. 

Gate and Hydrant Inspection. — Foreman, Samuel J. Hallett. 

21 men. « 

Main Pipe Gangs. 

Foreman Doherty and 18 men. 

Foreman Durand and 15 men. 

Fo-reman McCarthy and 23 men. 



32 City Document No. 43. 

Central District. — Repairers and service pipe men. Foreman, William 
T, Lenehan. 

2 sub-foremen. 
40 repairers. 
10 service pipe men. 

10 watchmen and niglit emergency men, 
Brighton District. — Foreman, Thomas Neville. 
13 men in Brighton yard. 
4 men at Brookline reservoirs. 
CharJestoicn District. — Foreman, Patrick Kelly. 

21 men. 

Dorchester District. — Foreman, Timothy Casey. 

15 men. 
East Boston District. — Foreman, William F, O'Donnell. 

19 men. 
West Ro.rhury District. — Foreman, Thomas C. McDonald. 

22 men, 

Parker Hill Reservoir. — 2 men. 

This makes a total of 421 men in the division. One year ago 
the total number of men was 486. The average number of men 
at work daily during the year was 401 . The average number of 
men absent daily during the year was 39. The average age of 
the men now in service is 52.2 years^ and the average number 
of years of ser\dce per man is 15.3 years. 

Main Pipe. 

During the year 57,527 linear feet of mains were laid, relaid 
and relocated; and 25,496 linear feet were abandoned, and 
either taken from the ground or left therein, as conditions 
warranted. Gate valves, air valves and blow-offs w^ere estab- 
lished and abandoned as stated in Table No. 1 appended to the 
text. The total mileage of mains now owned and operated 
by the department is 753.17, consisting almost entirely of 
cast-iron pipe, there being 4,985 feet of 30-inch, and 6,180 feet 
of 20-inch wrought-iron, cement hned pipe in the system. 

Of the amount laid, 554 feet of 6-inch, 10,767 feet of 
8-inch, 2,739 feet of 10-inch and 5,513 feet of 12-inch were 
laid to supply new buildings in streets where water mains had 
not been laid, and high service to buildings in the business 
section. 

Replacing old and inadequate mains, there were laid : 86 feet 
of 20-inch; 3,891 feet of 16-inch; 7,170 feet of 12-inch; 2,843 
feet of 10-inch; 2,020 feet of 8-inch; 1,610 feet of 6-inch; and 
54 feet of 4-inch. 

On account of the abolishment of grade crossings in East 
Boston, and the operations of the Sewer, Bridge and State 
Highway'^Departments, the Boston Elevated Railway Com- 
pany and the Boston Transit Commission, it was necessary 
to relocate the follo^^ing lengths of main pipe: 125 feet of 



Water Department. 33 

36-inch; 283 feet of 30-inch; 220 feet of 20-inch; 141 feet 
of 16-inch; 4,985 feet of 12-inch; 184 feet of 10-inch; 287 
feet of 8-inch; and 68 feet of 6-inch. 

From a distribution standpoint the most important work 
was that of laying the 48-inch hne in Longwood avenue, 
between Brookhne avenue and parkway; the 20-inch Hne in 
Gates and Dorchester streets, South Boston; and the 12-inch 
and 4-inch submerged hues in Boston Harbor between Moon 
and Long Islands, and Long and Rainsford Islands, respec- 
tively; the replacement of the 6-inch, 8-inch and 12-inch mains 
in First and Dorchester streets with 16-inch; the 12-inch 
main in Chelsea street. East Boston, with 16-inch; the 12-inch 
main in Dover street with 16-inch; the 6-inch mains in Mag- 
noha, Wayland, Parkman, Gibson, Clarendon, Corning and 
Battery march streets and Massachusetts avenue with 12-inch 
and 10-inch; the 8-inch main in Kilby and Congress streets 
with 12-inch; and about 1,650 feet of 2-inch, 3-inch, and 
4-inch mains, in several of the streets and courts in the 
Chariest own district, with 6-inch. 

The construction of that part of the 48-inch Hne in Long- 
wood avenue, between Brookline avenue and parkway, com- 
pleted the Hne planned to extend from Tremont street at 
Prentiss street to Beacon street at Coolidge's corner. The sec- 
tion between Tremont street and Muddy river in the parkway 
was laid by the Boston Water Department, and the section 
between Muddy river and Beacon street was laid by the 
Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. Connections are 
now made with the 30-inch and 36-inch low service mains in 
Tremont street at Prentiss street; the 16-inch low service main 
in Huntington avenue at Longwood avenue; the 40-inch and 
12-inch low service mains at Brookline and Longwood avenues; 
and the 48-inch low service main in Beacon street at CooHdge's 
corner. It is planned by the Metropolitan Water and Sewer- 
age Board to extend this Hne next year from Coolidge's corner 
to Chestnut Hill Reservoir by way of Beacon street, thus giving 
the city another direct supply line, and relieving it to a great 
extent from a possibly embarrassing position in the event of 
the shutting off of one or both 48-inch lines now leading from 
Chestnut Hill to the city. It is only good fortune that has 
spared the city thus far from a situation that is not at all 
beyond HkeHhood, resulting from the breaking of the Beacon 
street 48-inch, the CHnton road 48-inch, and the very pre- 
carious 30-inch Hne crossing the Charles river at Warren 
Bridge. This combination of accidents together with a large 
fire would produce an effect that would be serious, to say the 
least. The completion and operation of the Tremont street 



34 City Document No. 43. 

Coolidge's corner 48-inch line has ah^eady produced beneficial 
results, a gain in head of about 10 feet being realized in the 
Back Bay and western section of the city, and pressures 
generally in the low ser^dce of the city proper are more 
equalized and better balanced. 

On Telegraph Hill, South Boston, upon which was formerly 
located the South Boston Reservoir, the 20-inch low service 
supply by way of Dover and Fourth streets, and the 20-inch 
low service supply by way of Dudley street, Columbia road 
and Dorchester street, meet and merge. At times in the past, 
however, because of a reduction in the head due to unusual 
draught, the flow in these two mains has been unable to 
surmount the summit of the hill in quantity to be of practical 
value. Hence, they did not reinforce each other, and the 
supply in South Boston suffered accordingly. This has now 
been remedied by a connection of the two mains at a grade 
sufficiently low to insure under all ordinary fluctuations in the 
pressure a union under good head of the two supplies. The 
connection consists of a 20-inch main extending from Tele- 
graph street, at Gates street, through Gates and Dorchester 
streets to Fourth street, where it joins the 20-inch line at that 
point. South Boston will not, however, be assured of any- 
thing approaching an adequate and unfailing supply until a 
feed is brought into the district by way of Congress street. 
This mil be realized, it is hoped, the coming year, when the 
uncompleted section of a new 30-inch line is laid in Congress 
street between Atlantic avenue and Congress Street Bridge, 
and the proposed loop of 30-inch pipe is laid in Sleeper street, 
Northern avenue and C street. 

Ever since 1888, when the system was extended to the 
islands in the harbor, the department has been dependent 
upon one line of submerged pipe between Moon and Long 
Islands. This was a 6-inch line, and in 1895 it froze and 
became hopelessly defective. . Service was maintained by a 
temporary 2-inch lead pipe until another 6-inch hue was laid 
in the same year. The frozen 6-inch and the 2-inch temporary 
pipes were then abandoned, and the new 6-inch line has since 
been the only means of supply for Long, Rainsford, George's 
and Gallop's Islands, until the latter part of the present year, 
when a new 12-inch flexible jointed pipe was laid between 
Moon and Long Islands and the water turned into the same. 
The 6-inch line is also in service and by connections on Long 
Island and the manipulation of gate valves in same, it is made 
to serv^e Rainsford Island only, while the new 12-inch serves 
Long, George's and Gallop's Islands. This di\dsion of duty 
insures a sufficient velocity in both pipes to keep the water 



Water Department. 35 

from freezing. At the same time that the 12-inch Hne was 
laid between Moon and Long Islands, a 4-inch flexible jointed 
line was laid between Long and Rainsford Islands, thus giving 
us a much needed connection between these two points. The 
old line had suffered much by the action of the tide, dragging 
anchors, and other submarine disturbances, and, as a con- 
sequence, was frequently out of service. A 2-inch lead pipe 
had been serving as an auxiliary supply, but, of course, was 
insufficient. We are now quite secure against adverse con- 
tingencies with two 4-inch and one 2-inch lines. 

In First street. South Boston, between D and Dorchester 
streets, the 6-inch and 8-inch mains were replaced by a 16- 
inch main, thus giving that section, which is rated as a dan- 
gerous fire district, an ample supply. The new main connects 
indirectly with the 30-inch feed main in D street, and in Dor- 
chester street it continues from First to Third streets, where 
connection is made with the 20-inch that extends through 
Third street to Q street, there reducing to a 16-inch, and con- 
tinuing through Q street, the Strandway, Columbia road and 
Vale street to Dorchester street, where it unites with the 
20-inch main in that street, thus forming a loop line around 
the edge of the peninsula and reinforcing the supply at those 
extreme points where a loss of head is ordinarily to be expected . 

The 12-inch main in Chelsea street. East Boston, was partly 
relaid with 16-inch between Maverick square and Putnam 
street, thus making a start in a broad scheme of strengthening 
the fire service in the island and renewing the mains which 
are in many cases over fifty years old and in bad condition. 

By laying a short stretch of 16-inch high service pipe in 
Dover street across Washington street, and making connec- 
tions at that point at Harrison avenue, and opposite the bath 
house, a piece of 16-inch high service main, 365 feet long, 
that had been lying dead in the ground for three years, was 
made available, and completes a section, 450 feet long, of the 
proposed 16-inch high service main, which is intended to 
replace the 12-inch high service main in Dover street, between 
Columbus avenue and Fort Point channel, thereby increas- 
ing the South Boston high service supply. 

In Magnolia and Wayland streets, Dorchester, the 6-inch 
mains were replaced by 12-inch mains, and the beginning of 
a general enlargement of the pipes in that section made. 

In Parkman and Gibson streets, Dorchester, the 6-inch 
mains were replaced by 12-inch and 10-inch mains, respec- 
tively. These mains connect the Dorchester avenue and 
Adams street mains and aid materially in furnishing a better 
fire service in a section where it is much needed. 



36 



City Document No. 43 



The enlargement of the 6-inch mains in Clarendon street, 
between Warren avenue and Columbus avenue, Corning 
street, between Shawmut avenue and Washington street, and 
Massachusetts avenue, between Washington and Tremont 
streets, to mains of 12 inches in diameter, furnishes in the 
South End district additional cross connecting hnes of good 
capacit}^, wliich equalize the flow and conduct the supply in 
ample quantity to points of large consumption. 

Kilby street, between Milk and State streets, was to be 
resurfaced and we took advantage of the same to relay the 
old S-inch T^ith 12-inch, thus bringing the size of pipe in that 
street up to a proper standard for the business district. 

As the 6-inch main in Batterymarch street was in a very 
bad condition from corrosion and tuberculation, it was relaid 
with a 10-inch main, thereby increasing its capacity and 
raising it to the required standard for a down-town main. 



14 
16, 



Cost of. Main Pipe Work. 

The follo\\dng is a statement of the direct costs of the main 
pipe work performed during the year, with explanatory notes 
and a statement preceding it of prices upon which said costs 
are based : 

Prices. 

Main pipe, 3 inches to 42 inches, inclusive, at 

" 48 inches, at 

" specials, small, at 

" " large, at 

Gate valves, 3 inches, at . 

" 4 inches, at . 

" 6 inches, at . 

" 8 inches, at . 

" 10 inches, at . 

" 12 inches, at . 

" 16 inches, at . 

" 20 inches, at . 

" 24 inches, at . 

" 30 inches (with 6-inch by-pass), at 

" 36 inches (with 6-inch by-pass), at 

Gate-valve boxes, small, wood, at 

" " " concrete, at 

" " large, wood, at 

" box frames and covers, at 

Lead, at . 
Gasket, at 
Blocking, at . 
Clay, at . 
Firewood, at 
Cartage, short haul, at 
" long haul, at 
Single team (department), at 
Double team (department), at 
" (hired;, at 

=* B. M. 



L0116 1b. 

.01115 1b. 

.0285 1b. 

.025 1b. 

. 73 each. 

,71 each. 

24.86 each. 

31.69 each. 

46 . 59 each. 

53.83 each. 

112.10 each. 

287.19 each. 

329 . 23 each. 

, 59 each. 

.59 each. 

. 79 each. 

. 24 each! 

, 72 each. 

.0225 lb. 

.0445 1b. 

.06 1b. 

.019 feet.^ 

.0034 1b. 

.79 ft. 

.82 ton. 
1.42 ton. 
3 . 00 day. 

5 . 00 day. 

6 . 00 day. 



568, 

808, 

3, 

7 

4, 



Water Department. 37 

New Mains. 
Forty-eight Inches in Diameter. 

912 feet laid at a total cost of S17.36 a linear foot. 
9 feet laid at a total cost of $27.83 a linear foot. 

The 912 feet laid at a total cost of $17.36 a linear foot was first 
let out by contract. The contractor assumed to excavate, back- 
fill, haul the pipes and specials from the yard at 710 Albany 
street, lay them in the trench, run and calk the joints, and fur- 
nish all necessary appurtenances and materials, except the pipes, 
specials and lead, all for $1,95 per linear foot. The contractor laid 
624 feet, when by reason of his exceeding the time limit and his 
apparent inability to finish the work, the job was taken from him 
and finished by the department. From the point where the depart- 
ment took up the work many difficulties were encountered. A section 
of 12-inch water main, 179 feet long, had to be removed from 
the line of the 48-inch, and relaid upon a bench in the southerly 
bank of the trench. At Autumn, Plymouth and Bellevue streets, 
the mains of these streets were raised or lowered as the case might 
be to allow for the passage of the 48-inch. The Longwood avenue 
12-inch main at these points had to be relocated accordingly, 
so that in all there were 225 feet of 12-inch, 6 feet of 10-inch, 
and 12 feet of 8-inch mains relaid on account of the 48-inch 
main. At two different points catch-basin connections crossed the 
trench and, as they could not be raised, the 48-inch had to be 
lowered, so that for a distance of about 200 feet it was necessary 
to excavate a trench about 13 feet in depth. The material was a 
spongy clay that froze during the cold w^eather, and when the early 
thaws came caused no end of trouble. On account of the unstable 
consistency of the filling the trench had to be "horsed off" from 
traffic until the clay dried somewhat, and even then it was necessary 
to remove about a foot depth of the same and replace it with crushed 
stone and binding gravel and roll it with a road roller. Leaks devel- 
oped w^hen the water w^as turned into the new main and several 
excavations had to be made at points where it was thought they 
existed, but beyond a few joints that were somewhat '4oose" no 
serious defect was found. Incidental to the search for these leaks 
we discovered a section of about 50 feet of vitrified pipe sewer 
broken and stopped by gravel. As this sewer ran along in the 
northerly bank of our trench, it was without doubt broken by 
settlement and a lateral movement due to insufficient sheathing 
on the part of the contractor. The department performed the 
excavation and backfilling and the Sewer Division relaid the sewer. 
All these conditions, together with the fact that the department's 
share of the work was done during the winter, contributed to the 
apparent high cost of the job. Two very valuable, though somewhat 
old, lessons are borne home to the department with positive 
emphasis as a result of our experience with this work; one, that 
the lowest bid does not always prove to be the cheapest, and the 
other, that it is almost folly to carry on a job of this kind during 
the winter by day work. 

The 9-foot job was laid by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage 
Board and the Boston Water Department combined, and was part 
of a connection between the Boston Water Department's 48-inch 
main in Beacon street, at Coolidge's corner, and the new 48-inch line 
laid by the Metropolitan Water Board in Longwood avenue and 
Harvard street, Brookline. Although the latter main is intended 
to continue through Beacon street to the reservoir, it was considered 
advisable to utilize the portion laid by a temporary connection, as 
stated. The work, which consisted of setting a 48-inch 3-way branch. 



38 City Document No. 43. 

had to be done upon a Sunday with consequent extra pay for the 
men. The Metropolitan men did the digging and backfilling and 
the pipe work, and the Boston men assisted by closing the gates 
and emptying the line, and, after the work was completed, by 
reversing the operation. Connections are always more or less 
expensive and this job was no exception to the rule. 

Thirty-six Inches in Diameter. 
20 feet laid at a total cost of $27.83 a linear foot. 

This was a part of the connection referred to in the foregoing 
paragraph (48-inch) and the same conditions applied here as 
there. 

Twenty Inches in Diameter. 
940 feet laid at a total cost of $6.70 a linear foot. 

This was the line laid in Gates and Dorchester streets, South 
Boston. The Hub Construction Company performed the exca- 
A-ating and backfilling for $1.10 per cubic yard. The Water 
Department laid and jointed the pipes. There was a cut of about 
1.3 feet at the junction of Gates and Telegraph streets. Two 
brick gate-valve chambers of unusual depth had to be built 
at that point, and an expensive bitulithic and granite block, pitch 
and pebble pavement had to be relaid in Dorchester street at a 
cost of $853.30. Three 20-inch gate valves were set in the line and 
numerous house drains were encountered and relaid. These con- 
ditions caused a rather expensive job. 



(a. 
(&. 

(c. 
(d. 

(e 

(/• 

(?• 
Qi. 

(i. 



Twelve Inches in Diameter. 

590 feet laid at a total cost of $1.43 a linear foot. 

667 feet laid at a total cost of $1.46 a linear foot. 
3,244 feet laid at a total cost of $2.08 a linear foot. 

885 feet laid at a total cost of $2.58 a linear foot. 

641 feet laid at a total cost of $4.53 a linear foot. 

165 feet laid at a total cost of $4.71 a linear foot. 

218 feet laid at a total cost of $5.21 a linear foot. 
3;231 feet laid at a total cost of S6.41 a linear foot. 
92 feet laid at a total cost of $12.58 a linear foot. 

(a.) Laid through the grounds of the Consumptives' Hospital 
in Mattapan. The digging, backfilling and lowering of pipe 
into trench was done by a contractor in the employ of the 
hospital. The Water Department furnished the pipe and 
specials, lead, gasket, wood and blocking, and jointed the 
pipes. 

(b.) Laid by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board 
on account of the construction of the Metropolitan sewer 
through Washington street, Brighton. The Boston Water 
Department furnished the pipe and specials, the labor of 
inspection, and reconnected the service pipes. The Metro- 
politan people did the digging, backfilling, laying and jointing 
of the pipe, and furnished the lead, gasket, wood and blocking. 

(c.) This work consisted of four jobs done by contract under the 
specifications usually employed, viz.: the contractor digs, 
backfills, lowers the pipe, and makes the joints, and the Water 



Water Department. 39 

Department furnishes the pipe, specials, lead, gasket and 
blocking. None of these jobs was in what could be termed 
''congested territory," although one of 923 feet was upon a 
wharf where dock mud, water, old timbers and a railroad 
crossing were encountered. 

(d.) This represents the cost of work done entirely by the 
department in five different places, all of which were out of 
town in free and unobstructed trenches. 

(e.) This is one job done entirely by the department in down- 
town streets, where conditions were about as bad as could be. 
The pipe was laid close to the edgestone of the sidewalk and it 
was necessary to carry it around several catch-basins. It 
crossed Eliot street at Tremont street, where all kinds of 
underground pipes and conduits were in the way, and at Seaver 
place it crossed Tremont street, passing under and over, as 
conditions warranted, two 30-inch water mains, one 12-inch 
water main, two gas mains, a telephone conduit, an electric 
light conduit, the street railway conduit, and the arch of 
the subway, which had to be cut away. In Hollis street the 
asphalt had to be replaced at a cost of $157.13. Bridging 
had to be done almost continuously to facilitate travel, and 
many specials with an increased number of joints were required. 

(/.) Laid by department in rock during the winter. Our work 
was cut up and obstructed by reason of the presence of rock. 

(g.) Partly laid over bridge where additional expense was 
involved by the construction and painting of a box around 
the pipe, and fenders upon the bridge to protect the box. 
Another job is included in this average, where the pipe was 
laid through a stone culvert and considerable masonry was 
necessary. 

(h.) Laid by contract under water in Boston Harbor. Not only 
were the conditions unusual but the flexible joint pipe used 
was much more expensive than the ordinary pipe used on 
land, it costing 138.40 a ton. More lead is used in the joints 
of this kind of pipe and conditions are in every way more 
expensive. 

(i.) Composed of connections where the amount of work done 
and the expensive stock used, such as branches, gates, etc., are 
greatly out of proportion to the length in feet. There is con- 
siderable waste of time in these jobs, caused by notifying 
before shutting off, shutting off and letting on, interruption by 
car and other traffic, and the impracticability of working' all 
the time the full force of men required upon the job. 

Ten Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 2,535 feet laid at a total cost of $2.08 a linear foot. 
(6.) 2,935 feet laid at a total cost of $2.04 a linear foot. 

(a.) Department work under good conditions. No paving. 

No congestion. 
(6.) Contract work in outlying sections. Conditions good. No 

obstructions. Very little rock. 

Eight Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 1,518 feet laid at a total cost of $1.44 a linear foot. 

(5.) 6,329 feet laid at a total cost of $1.88 a linear foot. 

(c.) 3,251 feet laid at a total cost of $2.47 a linear foot. 
(d.) 73 feet laid at a total cost of $5.83 a linear foot. 



40 City Document No. 43. 

(a.) Contract work. Two jobs. Both in suburbs. Conditions 

excellent. 
(6.) Department work in imcongested streets. Conditions good, 
(c.) Department work where rock in varying quantity was 

encoimtered. 
(d.) Department work. Connections. Winter work. Car tracks. 

Six Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 1,068 feet laid at a total cost of $1.51 a linear foot. 
(b.) 572 feet laid at a total cost of SI. 60 a linear foot. 

(a.) Contract work. Nine hundred thirty feet laid on islands 
in harbor. Difficulty in transportation, etc. One hundred 
thirty-eight feet laid in city street includes service pipe con- 
nections. 

(6.) Department work. Composed of seven small jobs where 
cost is disproportionately large. 

Four Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 140 feet laid at a total cost of S4.22 a linear foot. 
(5.) 3;534 feet laid at a total cost of S4.64 a linear foot. 

(a.) Contract work. Laid in shores of Long and Rainsford 
Islands. Tide interference and difficult transportation. 

(6.) Contract work. Submerged pipe in Boston Harbor, 
between Long and Rainsford Islands. Pipe cost $41.50 a ton. 

Replacement of Old Mains. 
Twenty Inches in Diameter. 
86 feet laid at a total cost of S7 a linear foot. 

This was laid upon supports between bridge girders on Boston 
& Albany Railroad Bridge, Massachusetts avenue, near Boylston 
street. It replaced a 24-inch riveted steel pipe badly corroded. 
Supporting timbers had to be covered with tin as a protection 
from hot cinders from locomotives. Abutments had to be 
removed and rebuilt and asphalt on both sides relaid. Par- 
ticularly difficult job, with interruptions from passing trains. 

Sixteen Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 1,370 feet laid at a total cost of 12.48 a linear foot. 
lb.) 2,419 feet laid at a total cost of S5.49 a linear foot, 
(c.) 102 feet laid at a total cost of S8.23 a linear foot. 

(a.) Two contract jobs in Chelsea street. East Boston, done in 
early winter. Both stopped by bad Aveather; one nearly 
finished, the other about one-third finished. Department will 
have to finish the latter. Cost as stated includes only finished 
work, except that very likely some repaving will be necessary 
in the spring. There were many service connections to be 
transferred from old to new mains, and several hydrants set. 

(6.) Department work in First and Dorchester streets. South 
Boston. Done in winter. Frost in ground. Had to use 
thaA^-ing machine. Many services and branches were recon- 



Water Department. 41 

nected. Repaying cost $1,098.97. Many delays occasioned 
by accommodating manufacturers in shutting off, preparatory 
to breaking out. Generally hard job done under unfavorable 
conditions, 
(c.) Department work. Two jobs. Both in car tracks. The 
larger one (89 feet), at junction of Dover and Washington 
streets, where interruption was incessant and underground 
conditions very bad. Small holes had to be dug and back- 
filled one at a time. The smaller one, a connection with special 
castings. 

Tiuelve Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 5,373 feet laid at a total cost of 12.11 a linear foot. 

(5.) 227 feet laid at a total cost of 12.59 a linear foot 

(c.) 393 feet laid at a total cost of 13.67 a linear foot. 

(d.) 347 feet laid at a total cost of M.OO a linear foot, 

(e.) 736 feet laid at a total cost of $5.10 a linear foot. 

(/.) 94 feet laid at a total cost of $8.16 a linear foot. 

(a.) Contract work. Department furnished pipe and specials, 
lead, gasket and blocking, and made the service and main-pipe 
connections; contractor did the excavating, backfilling, laying 
and jointing. This work was done in streets like Clarendon, 
Corning, Parkman (Dorchester), Wayland and Magnolia and 
Massachusetts avenue. Branch connections were frequent, 
services were many and ''shut downs" were necessarily short 
while breaking out and laying new sections. It was typical 
"relaying" work with conditions sufficiently varied to make it 
a good basis for comparison. There was only one repaving 
item, that in Corning street, which was $77.62 for a concrete 
base under an asphalt top. The asphalt top was not charged 
to the department. 

(b.) Department work. One job only in Erie street, Dorchester. 
Ordinary conditions. 

(c.) Department work. Old pipe was laid shallow. Trench 
had to be "bottomed. " Rock taken out by day work. Tem- 
porary main upon bank of trench was laid to supply consumers 
while blasting and "bottoming" was in progress. The job 
was stopped several times by unavoidable causes. 

(d.) Department and contract work mixed. Department laid 
pipe, jointed same and reconnected services. Contractor exca- 
vated, backfilled and repaved. He was paid on a 15 per 
cent basis. Job was in Congress street, between State and 
Water streets. Congestion and general conditions very bad. 
Four branch connections w4th side streets. Bridging necessary 
at several points. Extra attention necessary in confining 
excavated material to small space. Car traffic a factor in 
delay. 

(e.) Department work. Brimmer, Kilby and Water streets. 
Usual dowTL-town conditions, especially in Kilby street. 
Shutting off water while connections were being made objected 
to by consumers. Deference to their protests caused delay. 
Asphalt pavement cost $350.88, which does not include cost of 
concrete base in Kilby and Water streets laid by department at 
a cost of about 28 cents a linear foot of trench. Trench had to 
be thoroughly rammed on account of immediate surfacing 
with asphalt. Extra amount of teaming. 

(/.) Department work. Connections in down-to^^^l congested 
streets. Large proportion of specials used, with consequent 
extra expense. Night work with extra rate of pay. 



42 City Docuaient No. 43. 



Ten Inches in Diameter. 

ici.) 1,239 feet laid at a total cost of $1.75 a linear foot. 

(6.) 535 feet laid at a total cost of 13.10 a linear foot, 

(c.) 860 feet laid at a total cost of S3.34 a linear foot. 

(<:/.) 25 feet laid at a total cost of 15.14 a linear foot. 

{e.) 175 feet laid at a total cost of $5.75 a linear foot. 

(/.) 9 feet laid at a total cost of $8.14 a linear foot. 

(a.) Contract work. Macadam streets. Good conditions. No 
expensive conditions. Usual specifications. 

(6.) Department work. Suburban streets. Done in winter. 
Car tracks in one job. Bad weather. Hard digging. Irreg- 
ular attendance of men with consequent inconvenience in carry- 
ing along the work. 

(c.) Contract work. Batterymarch and Wendell streets. Con- 
nections had to be made by department after hours for con- 
venience of consumers. Additional gates had to be set to 
facilitate connections and street had to be repaved at a cost of 
S355.84. 

{d.) Department work. Connection including gate. Obstruc- 
tions and interference. Asphalt and concrete base. 

(e.) Department work. Connections and short sections of 
relaying. Disproportionate amoimt of specials and some 
rock. 

(/.) Department and contract work mixed. Contract work on a 
15 per cent basis. Job in Congress square at Congress street. 
Highly congested. Repaving and all the obstacles that go with 
down-town work. 

Eight Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 953 feet laid at a total cost of $1.48 a linear foot. 

(h.) 517 feet laid at a total cost of $1.87 a linear foot, 

(c.) 296 feet laid at a total cost of $2.31 a linear foot. 

(d.) 57 feet laid at a total cost of $4.04 a linear foot. 

(e.) 197 feet laid at a total cost of $4.07 a linear foot. 

(a.) Contract work under generally good conditions. No 

paving or extra expense. Several branch connections and a 

little delay due to gas pipe lying in our trench. 
(6.) Department work under generally good conditions. No 

paving or extra expense. In outlying districts, 
(c.) Department work in macadam street, free of obstacles. 

Work done in winter. Includes expense of maintaining trench 

as it settled in "soft'' weather. 
(d.) Department work in congested streets (Doane street and 

Exchange place). Gate valves and branches used, and asphalt 

and concrete base, 
(e.) Department work. Chiefly connections. Done in winter. 

Composed of seven small jobs. Stock cost disproportionately 

large. 

Six Inches in Diameter. 
1,610 feet laid at a total cost of $1.70 a linear foot. 

Nine jobs, all done by department in Charlestown district, 
replacing pipes of 2-inch, .3-inch and 4-inch diameter. Jobs 



Water Department. 43 

located in narrow streets and courts, or places where it was 
difficult to handle the pipe and care for the excavated material. 
Considerable "wheelbarrow" work and much relocation and 
regulation of services. 

Four Inches in Diameter, 
54 feet laid at a total cost of II a linear foot. 

Similar in every respect to the 6-inch work described in 
preceding paragraph. 

Relocation of Mains. 

Thirty-six Inches in Diameter, 
125 feet laid at a total cost of 12.03 a linear foot. 

Trench work by Sewer Division.* Same pipe used. Raised 
from to 6 inches by springing line upward with lifting screws 
and redriving joints. Considerable delay by reason of Sewer Divi- 
sion not having trench excavated properly. Blow-off connection 
with sewer had to be severed and afterward reconnected in a 
different way. Line had to be emptied between Roxbury Cross- 
ing and Massachusetts avenue. Work done on Sunday with 
extra rate of pay. 

Thirty Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 125 feet laid at a total cost of $2.03 a linear foot. 
(5.) 158 feet laid at a total cost of 19.19 a linear foot. 

(a.) Similar in every respect to the 36-inch job described in 
preceding paragraph. Both lines were parallel to each other in 
the same trench. 

(6.) Trench work by Boston Elevated Railway Company. 
New line of pipe laid with a 16-inch and a 12-inch; all three 
laid side by side. Connections made on Sundays, and after 
hours, with extra cost thereby. 

Tiventy Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 110 feet laid at a total cost of 16.03 a linear foot. 
(6.) 110 feet laid at a total cost of 16.70 a linear foot. 

(a.) New line of pipe on bridge over Boston & Albany Railroad. 
Pipe suspended from I-beams. Considerable abutment work. 
Delayed and interrupted by other corporations at work at same 
time and place. Connections made underground at both ends 
of bridge. 

(6.) Excavating and backfilling done by contract at $1.10 a 
cubic yard. Remainder of work done by Water Department. 
Pipe lowered by means of curves to grade of new 20-inch line in 
Gates street with which it connects. A cut of about 13 feet 
was necessary and practically all new stock. A 20-inch gate 
valve with brick chamber is included in the cost and all the 
curves were set-screwed. 



44 City Document No. 43. 

Sixteen Inches in Diameter. 
141 feet laid at a total cost of S4.01 a linear foot. 

Conditions same as (b.) under "Thirty Inches." 

Twelve Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 175 feet laid at a total cost of $1.43 a linear foot. 

(h.) 557 feet laid at a total cost of 12.00 a linear foot, 

(c.) 3,050 feet laid at a total cost of $2.60 a linear foot. 

Id.) 183 feet laid at a total cost of $3.58 a linear foot, 

(e.) 795 feet laid at a total cost of $4.27 a linear foot. 

(a.) Metropolitan Water Board furnished lead, gasket, wood 
and blocking and laid all the pipe. 

(6.) Department work composed of eight jobs of varying extent, 
where mains were raised, lowered, offsetted, or temporarily 
removed to allow of 'operations of Sewer Division. Old 
stock used in some cases, but -in all cases special castings were 
necessary. 

(c.) Contract work under usual specifications. Some extras on 
account of unforeseen conditions. Solid rock encountered in 
one portion of work and broken rock of inconvenient size in 
another. The work practically same as laying new mains and 
tj^ical of extension in the outlying sections, where soil condi- 
tions are composite. 

(d.) Conditions same as (6.) under "Thirty Inches." 

(e.) Department work where pipe was relocated to allow of 
construction and changes in bridge structures over which our 
mains run. Although there was not much digging aside from 
that at the abutments, nevertheless the difficult conditions 
and complications involved made the cost high. In three jobs 
aggregating 569 feet boxes had to be built covering the pipes. 
Including the fenders and painting these are expensive. 
Stonework was also necessary in the abutments. 

Ten Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 55 feet laid at a total cost of $3.40 a linear foot. 
(h.) 103 feet laid at a total cost of $3.58 a linear foot. 
(c.) 20 feet laid at a total cost of $7.64 a linear foot. 

(a.) Department work done on account of sewer construction. 
Pipe had to be raised, removed and put back. Large propor- 
tion of special castings used. 

(6.) Contract work. Connections. Rock. 

(c.) Department work. Connections. High ratio of special 
castings used with consequently greater expense per foot. 

Eight Inches in Diameter. 

(a.) 185 feet laid at a total cost of $2.24 a linear foot. 
(h.) 90 feet laid at a total cost of $3.77 a linear foot. 

(a.) Relocated on account of change in grade due to abolishment 
of grade crossing. Steam railroad track ran close to edge of 



Water Department. 



45 



trench. Only small sections of trench could be opened at a 
time and would then have to be backfilled before another section 
could be opened. Much bracing was necessary. 
(6.) Several small jobs of raising and offsetting on account of 
sewer construction. 



Six Inches in Diameter. 
68 feet laid at a total cost of S3. 02 a linear foot. 

Several small jobs of offsetting, raising, etc. 

Independent of main pipe work, the following gate valves^ 
air valves and blow-offs were established on old mains at the 
costs stated. 



Gate Valves. 



3 16-inch, total cost 
13 12 " 

1 10 " 
5 8" 

4 6" 
14" 



1 2-inch, total cost 

2 1* " " 



1 6-inch, total cost 
3 4" 



1 12-inch, total cost 



Air Valves. 



Blow-Offs. 



$547 


32 


1,232 


41 


79 


00 


355 


39 


391 


33 


56 


24 


$26 


17 


62 


14 


$101 


31 


210 


01 



Blow-Offs Extended. 



$193 11 



The following gate valves, air valves and blow-offs were 
abandoned in one location and established in another at the 
costs stated. 



Gate Valves. 



2 16-inch, total cost 

2 12 " 

16" 



2 2-inch, total cost 



1 6-inch, total cost 



Air Valves. 



Blow-Off^s. 



$323 02 
79 96 
79 45 



$35 40 



$75 97 



The total cost of repairs and maintenance of main pipes 
for the year was $22,161.75. This includes not only the 
cost of repairing leaks in the mains, but also the cost of 
inspecting and preventing leaks, and such work as ''blowing 



46 City Document No. 43. 

off'' dead ends, thereby clearing the pipes of rust, sediment and 
other accumulations; marldng the locations of gate valves; 
salting the covers of boxes inclosing gate valves, air valves 
and blow-offs when snow and ice covered the ground; test- 
ing, oiling, and otherwise inspecting gate valves, air valves 
and blow-offs; repairing, renewing and regulating the boxes, 
frames and covers for the same; inspecting openings and 
operations of other corporations and departments with the 
object of protecting our mains from injury or other detri- 
ment; repaving and repairing the streets where repairs had 
pre\dously been made; in general, all work that was related 
to the efficiency and good condition of the main pipes. The 
above amount might be divided, however, as follows: Sll,- 
445.37 representing the cost of repairing defects in the 
pipes and valves; 17,233.09 representing the cost of repairs, 
renewals and regulations of the valve boxes and street repairs; 
and 83,483.29 representing the cost of inspection, testing, 
marking, etc. 

Exclusive of ''Bad Water," which necessitated blowing off 
dead ends 351 times, "Defective Gates" was the most preva- 
lent cause of trouble in the mains, there being 154 cases, 
mostly due to loose packing. ''Leaking Joints" came nexi 
v^ith 143 cases. " Settlement" next with 35 cases. "Broken" 
and "Burst" pipes next with 21 cases; these usually were 
due to imperfect castings or deterioration of the pipes, com- 
bined with fluctuating pressure and water ram, and as a rule 
proved to be the most serious in consequences. Sixty=seven 
cases were of miscellaneous causes. Altogether there were 769 
defects repaired in the mains and valves; 1,382 box repairs, 
renewals, regulations and street repairs; and 11,762 marking, 
testing, oiling, salting and inspecting jobs. 

Repairs in the main pipe system are yearly becoming more 
expensive for the same reason that the work in general of 
the distribution system is becoming more expensive, viz., the 
increasing congestion below and above the surface of the 
streets, and the increasing number of streets having asphalt, 
bitulithic, wooden block and granite block pavements laid 
upon a concrete base. 

Water damage from leaks and breaks is also becoming a 
most important factor, due no doubt to the increasing tend- 
ency of the public towards Htigation upon the slightest pre- 
text. In former years it was only upon the occasion of 
extraordinary damage that a claim was made, but now it 
seems as if a great many people were awaiting an opportunity 
upon which to base a claim, and in estimating the amount 
of damages the tendency is decidedly towards overestimat- 



Water Department. 47 

ing rather than underestimating, with the excess ranging 
from 50 per cent upwards. It is therefore necessary in the 
event of a leak or break in the main or other fixture that the 
emplo3^ees of the department be upon the scene at the earhest 
possible moment and shut off the water, thus minimizing the 
possible damage. Although the department is at present 
equipped in its central district with an emergency wagon and 
crew, on duty at all hours of the day and night, nevertheless, 
a bad break in any of the outlying districts, where only a 
watchman is at hand, would find it at a disadvantage. As a 
means of improvement in this important matter I would 
recommend the substitution of an automobile for the present 
horse-drawn wagon at the central yard in Albany street. 
With such a rapid means of conveyance the emergency crew 
at Albany street could arrive upon the ground in a very 
short time, and after working hours, or, for that matter, dur- 
ing any part of the day, when necessary, could cover the 
whole city without much trouble. This branch of the 
department to be of value must be conducted with regard to 
promptness, discipline and efficiency, and upon practically 
the same basis as the Fire Department. 

Referring to the causes of leaks. I find that many of the 
cases of "Leaking Joints" were due to vibration caused by 
the passage through the streets of the new type of semi- 
convertible trolley car, weighing about thirty tons. These 
extra heavy cars produce a jar that loosens the joint. Along 
the line of our cement pipe the effect is particularly injurious, 
the cement appearing to crack and disintegrate from the 
vibration. As this type of large and heavy car will probably 
increase in number throughout the city and eventually become 
general, a rather serious situation is before us. Some study 
should be given the question to determine the best manner 
of meeting it. 

In the railroad yards at South Boston and Charlestown, 
where our pipes pass under the tracks, we are troubled with 
a considerable number of leaks, due also to vibration caused 
by the cars upon the tracks above. Either our pipes should 
be removed or else laid within a sheath or envelope consist- 
ing of a larger pipe. We have recently tried laying a flexible 
jointed pipe under a railroad track in Charlestown. It is the 
same pattern of pipe laid under water and we are observing 
the result with interest. 

One of the most expensive jobs in connection with the 
maintenance of main pipes was the repairing and rebuilding 
of the boxes covering the 30-inch, 20-inch and 16-inch lines 
crossing the Charles river at Warren Bridge. These large 



48 City Document No. 43. 

boxes were practically rebuilt with two-inch matched spruce 
and given two coats of paint to protect them from the weather. 
The pipes T^dthin were scraped and painted and all joints 
examined, and recalked where necessary. These three 
important lines of pipe, crossing the Charles river in the way 
they do, are one of the weakest parts of our system and are 
liable at any time to break. In such an event great incon- 
venience and danger from fire would result in that section 
of Chariest own situated on Chariest own Heights. Consider- 
able difficulty would be involved in the repairs, and a great 
loss of water might result. A pipe tunnel will have to be 
built ere long from the Boston side to the Charlestown side 
of the river and the three lines of pipe placed therein. This 
is the only safe way to carry them across. 

In the latter half of the year a system of gate inspection 
was started which, I think, will be productive of much good. 
A gang equipped for removing mud from the boxes precedes 
the inspection gang and makes the gates accessible. The 
inspection gang follows and tries the gate, oils it, packs it, 
when necessary, marks its distance from some convenient 
point, determines its function (whether main, service, fire, 
motor, elevator, or blow-off), records its exact location, and 
compares the data acquired with the plans of the system. A 
history card is then made out for each gate, containing infor- 
mation as to the size, location, function, etc., and provision 
is made for records of future inspections, repairs and changes. 
This will eventually give the department a complete card 
system of its gates, which will prove to be of great value. 
Furthermore, in a large department there is an almost con- 
tinual manipulation of gates and it is not uncommon for the 
men sometimes to omit raising the gate they lowered. This, 
of course, is detrimental to the circulation. Again, division 
gates between the high and low ser\dce have been found open 
when they should have been shut, likewise, blow-off gates. 
These omissions are very serious and to prevent them the 
operations of the men should be followed up very closely 
and methods de\ised to make such negfigence impossible. 
These matters will be attended to by the chief gate inspector, 
and I hope for good results therefrom. 

The usual work of repairing and removing gate boxes, 
frames and covers has been carried on, and while it is well 
nigh impossible to escape repairing the frames and covers 
and altering the grade of the boxes, yet we hope through the 
substitution of concrete for wood to avoid the necessity of 
renewing decayed boxes, the expense of which is quite a 
factor in our maintenance account. 




1- 

LLf 
Of 

cr 



Water Department. 



49 



Eighty petitions for main pipe to be laid in streets not 
previously supplied were investigated and measured^ and 
in fifty-seven cases were granted and laid. 

The cut facing this page shows a break in the 24-inch 
high service pipe in South street at Jamaica street, West Rox- 
bury, June 24, 1908. Considerable damage resulted and, as 
may be seen, the trouble was due to the manner in which a 
manhole was built under and around our pipe. This was an 
especially wrong thing to do, but as in many other cases it 
was done and the inevitable happened. It may be said 
that good inspection, backed up by forceful protest, would 
prevent such work, but it is sometimes almost impossible 
with a limited number of inspectors to thoroughly cover every 
job progressing in close proximity to our pipes. Unfor- 
tunately, corporations- and some city departments are very 
often concerned only about the completion of their work, 
regardless of the manner in which it affects the pipes and 
fixtures of this department. 



Hydrants. 

During the year 274 public and 6 private hydrants were 
established, and 192 public and 2 private hydrants were 
abandoned, making a total number of 7,919 public and 308 
private and suburban hydrants connected with the system 
January 31, 1909. This work comprised not only the estab- 
lishment of additional new hydrants, but also the changing 
of the style and location of old hydrants. 

Following is a statement of the cost of hydrant work during 
the year: 

Establishing 86 additional hydrants of different styles . . $10,434 48 
Changing style and location of 194 old hydrants 



Hydrants repaired on account of various defects 
Hydrant barrels changed for various reasons 
Hydrant wastes renewed . . . . 

Hydrant boxes renewed .... 

Hydrant boxes repaired 

Hydrant frames and covers renewed . 

Hydrant inspections in cold weather . 

Hydrants oiled and tested 

Hydrants thawed out .... 

Hydrant boxes pumped and cleaned of mud and 

water 

Hydrant boxes hayed in cold weather 

Hydrants painted . . . 

Hydrants equipped with 4i-inch nozzles 



516; 
122 
20 ! 

418; 
220 
95] 

80,2371 

1,289 1 

140 



16,868 59 
5,802 80 

6,239 88 



}■ 9,406 74 



1,727 I 

124 J 

5,316 
27 



1,694 11 

87 61 




50 City Document No. 43. 

Hydrant caps changed from old style to new . 

Hydrant caps fitted with washers, 2^-inch . . 1,548 ^ $502 30 

Hydrant caps fitted with washers, 4^-inch . . 1,796 ) 

From the foregoing it may readily be seen that the hydrants 
are quite an expense to the department. In la3dng main 
pipe it is always necessary to provide for the maximum 
hydrant requirement. If that were unnecessary, mains of 
much smaller diameter would suffice. Hence, at least one- 
half of the expense of la}dng main pipe may properly be 
charged to hydrant service. Formerly the Fire Department 
paid the Water Department a certain sum yearly for each 
hydrant. It was supposed to cover the expense of the 
hydrant and its maintenance, and pay for the water used 
at fires. No payments have been made for the last ten years, 
however, and as a result, the Water Department, supported 
by a special tax, has been contributing in a large measure 
towards the maintenance of a department whose entire sup- 
port should come from the general tax levy. This is clearly 
wrong. 

There are five different styles of hydrants in use in the 
department, \dz. : the Lowry, Boston Lowry, ordinary post, 
Boston post and Boston. 

The Lowry is a hydrant the barrel of which is entirely 
underground and set directly upon the main. Connection 
is made with it by means of a chuck. The diameter of the 
barrel is 9 inches and the diameter of the valve is 6^ inches. 
It is a very efficient hydrant so far as delivering water is con- 
cerned, especially when it sets upon a four-way branch of 
large waterway. The objectionable feature about it is the 
delay occasioned by applying the chuck and the care neces- 
sary in the winter season to keep the cover free from snow 
and ice. During the past year the department purchased 
and delivered to the engine houses throughout the city 2,527 
sacks of coarse salt, which was used by the firemen for that 
puipose. This style of hydrant is not being established in 
the outl}dng sections of the city, or in any place where the 
sidewalk is wide enough to accommodate a post hydrant. It 
is therefore confined largely to the business section of the city. 
At the present time 2,097 public and 31 private and subur- 
ban Lowry s are connected with the system. 

The Boston Lowry is similar to the Lowry inasmuch as 
it sets entirely underground and requires a chuck as the 
medium of connection ^\ith a fire engine. The barrel, how- 
ever, is only oj inches in cUameter and the valve is 4 inches. 
It is usually set on the ends of mains and in sidewalks too 



Water Department. 51 

narrow for a post hjdrant. At the present time 802 public 
and 6 private and suburban Boston Lowrys are connected 
with the system. 

The ordinary post hydi'ant is the first type of post hydrant 
used by the department. It is set in the sidewalk and does 
not require a chuck for connection, it having one 4i-inch 
steamer connection, and two 2J-inch hose connections. It 
has but one valve, however, and this necessitates shutting off 
the supply when a second engine is to be connected. The 
barrel is 6 inches in diameter and the valve 5 inches. It is 
being replaced as rapidly as practicable by the improved type 
of post hydrant called the Boston post. At present there are 
3,024 public and 138 private and suburban ordinary posts 
connected with the system. 

The Boston post is the latest and most efficient type of post 
hydrant now in use by the department. It is a development 
and improvement of the Bachelder post. It has two 4i-inch 
steamer connections and one 2i-inch hose connection, all 
controlled by valves independent of the main valve which 
allows the water to enter the barrel from the main. The 
barrel is 7i inches in diameter, and the main valve 6 inches. 
The valves controlling the nozzles are of the "gate" or 
"shde" type and occupy a minimum amount of space, thus 
giving a correspondingly free waterway and facilitating the 
delivery of a large volume of water,— estimated to be about 
2,500 gallons a minute under favorable conditions. The 
department feels that it has in this type of hydrant one that 
is as good if not better than any used in the large cities of 
the country. There are at the present time 1,745 pubHc and 
16 private and suburban Boston post hydrants connected 
with the system. 

The Boston hydrant is an obsolete type, used years ago to 
a great extent, but now being abandoned wherever the oppor- 
tunity presents itself. It is set entirely underground, usually 
in the sidewalk and allows of the connection of a 2i-inch hose. 
At the present time it is not to be thought of as a fire-fighting 
fixture. Many of them are used as private means of supply 
to steamers along the wharves. There are now 251 public 
and 117 private and suburban Boston hydrants connected 
with the system. 

All the hydrants are set in wells surrounded by wooden or 
concrete boxes, and are equipped with automatic wastes. 

As reference to the section headed " Shop Work" will show, 
the department manufactures. all the hydrants now used. 

While upon the subject of hydrants I wish to call your 
attention to a very serious matter which before long will have 



52 City Document No. 43. 

to be dealt with in a firm and decisive manner, viz., the abuse 
of hychants b}^ careless and ignorant operators. As you no 
doubt know, hydi-ants are primarily a fixture for the use of 
the Fire Department, and their value as such depends upon 
their readiness for use, which, in tm-n, is dependent upon their 
working order. Now it is an almost hopeless task to keep 
hydrants in a good mechanical condition while they are being 
operated by ''anybody and everybody." Our hydrants, in 
common with the rest of our fixtures, open to the right or 
exactly opposite to the direction in which most mechanical 
devices unscrew. The ignorant operator in his vain endeavor 
to open to the left applies all kinds of force with the frequent 
result that before he realizes that he is turning the screw the 
wrong way it is strained, bent or broken, and the valve pack- 
ing below is crushed into a useless mass. Again, when he can- 
not secm-e the wrench that is made for the hydrant, he uses 
a Stillson wrench or some crudely made device that will do 
the work after a fashion. The result of this is to wear off the 
corners of the pentagon shaped valve nut, and when the regular 
socket \\Tench used by the Fire Department is applied there 
is nothing to hold it and it revolves around the nut without 
having any effect upon the valve. It can easily be imagined 
what a serious state of affairs this might cause at the start 
of a fire. Helpless to stay its progress because of lack of 
water, the firemen would have to view the development of a 
conflagTation, perhaps. Again, very few of these ignorant 
and careless men, who act without authority in many cases 
and without knowledge in every case, understand that there 
is a waste in the hydrant that will not operate unless a 
means is provided for the entrance of the air by leaving the 
nozzles open while the water is draining out of the barrel. 
Upon shutting off the main valve they immediately close the 
independent or nozzle valve and thus trap the water in the 
barrel; or, worse still, some do not close the main valve at all, 
but leave the pressure in the hydrant up to the nozzle valves. 
It is not difficult to realize how in cold weather a frozen 
hydrant will result from these conditions, and a frozen hydrant 
is not a trifiing matter in the event of a fire. 

I am of the opinion that hydrants should be operated exclu- 
sively by the Fire and Water Departments, and other depart- 
ments and contractors should secure their water through 
other means. The police should be called into the matter to 
assist in the enforcement of the regulations. 

Tables III. and IV. appended show the number of each 
style of hydrant established and abandoned during the year, 
the districts in which they are located, and the total numbers 
in the system January 31, 1909. 



Water Department. 



53 



Service Pipes. 

Twelve hundred and twenty-seven service pipes, of diame- 
ters varying from f-inch to 10-inch, were laid during the year, 
and 229 were abandoned. The net increase for the year was 
998. The total number of services in the system is 95,045. 
The term ''service pipe" includes not only those pipes 
supplying water to premises for strictly domestic pm'poses 
but also fire, motor and elevator pipes. Tables V. and VI. 
appended give details as to number, size, leng-th in feet, etc. 
All |-inch service pipes are made of lead. Those ranging 
from |-inch to 2-inch, inclusive, are made of lead, and lead- 
lined iron. Pipes of 3 inches and upwards in diameter are 
cast iron. 

The total cost of laying the different sized pipes was as 
follows : 



1 10-inch with a total length of 24 feet 

4 8-inch with a total length of 99 feet 

4 6-inch with a total length of 50 feet 

23 4-inch with a total length of 346 feet 

29 3-inch with a total length of 639 feet 

19 2-inch with a total length of 377 feet 

36 1^-inch with a total length of 642 feet 

19 l|-inch with a total length of 513 feet 

62 1-inch with a total length of 1,406 feet 

36 |-inch with a total length of 1,484 feet 

994 f-inch with a total length of 21,558 feet 

1,227 27,138 



$154 77 

325 71 

360 63 

2,219 34 

2,658 68 

1,093 30 

1,398 60 

700 26 

1,693. 12 

1,097 97 

17,330 17 



,032 55 



The foregoing costs include not only the laying of pipes 
to new buildings but also the replacement of pipes of smaller 
sizes to old buildings. In the latter class there is the addi- 
tional cost of plugging the abandoned pipes. Blasting and 
repaving were factors in many of the jobs and swelled the 
costs accordingly. In regard to repaving, this is annually 
becoming a more expensive item on account of the increasing 
use of expensive pavements like wooden block, asphalt, 
bitulithic and granite blocks with pitch and pebble joints. 
When, in conformance to the new meter law, meters will be 
attached to all new services, as well as to the old ones, the 
cost of laying a service pipe will be further increased. We 
have recently found it necessary in expensively paved streets 
to set over the corporation cocks, iron frames and covers 
that show in the surface of the street and allow of the opera- 
tion of the cock without the necessity of distm'bing the pave- 
ment. These covers are especially desirable on service pipes 
too small for gate valves and too large for sidewalk cocks. 

The demand for larger service pipes is yearly increasing, 
due no doubt to the requirements of modern plumbing, the 



54 City Document No. 43. 

erection of larger buildings, and the installation of the auto- 
matic sprinkler system of fire protection. The extension of 
the high service is a resultant of these new phases and, whereas 
a few years ago the high service system was somewhat 
limited in its scope, it will not be long before it is extended 
tln-oughout the greater part of the city. Provision for a 
larger" supply to meet this situation will soon have to be 
made. Fisher Hill Reservoir, the only distributing basin for 
the high service of the city (East Boston excepted), has a 
capacity of only 15,500,000 gallons, which would supply the 
city but a very short time in the event of a breakdown in the 
pumping machinery at Chestnut Hill, or serious defects 
occmring in the force mains between the pumps and Fisher 
Hill. A site for a storage reservoir of large capacity should 
be selected at once, preferably in the West Roxbury district 
upon a sufficiently high elevation. 

In the consideration of applications for larger service pipes 
I would suggest that the size granted be as small as practicable 
and an effort made to compel builders and building owners 
to install plumbing of a sufficiently large size. There is a 
growing tendency on the part of the public to require the 
Water Department to compensate for the loss of head due to 
small sized pipes inside of buildings by the laying of large 
sized pipes outside. Although the large sized service pipes 
are paid for, yet they add to the expense of the department 
thi'ough increased cost of maintenance, the necessity of a 
larger meter, and the liability of greater water damage in the 
event of a leak. 

The maintenance of service pipes is an item of considerable 
importance and expense. During the year 17,369 repair and 
maintenance jobs were performed at a total cost of 115,178.28; 
754 investigations were made, w^here it was found that the 
department w^as not required to do any work, at a total cost 
of §1,907.27; and 1,127 inspections of street openings, and 
the repaving of them by outside parties, were made at a 
total cost of S866.51. Considerable portion of the ''repair 
and maintenance" work referred to was of a trivial nature, 
such as, for instance, driving down a sidewalk upright to 
grade, which is usually accomplished by a few blows of a 
rammer. To afford you an idea of the chief causes of trouble 
in the service pipe system, I shall mention the following : 

Total Number 
During the Year. 

Sidewalk uprights above or below grade 13,379 

Pavements repaved or repaired where they were opened on 

account of service pipe 1,169 

Ser^'ice pipes shut off and let on to allow of repairs by owTiers . 748 



Water Department. 



55 



Stoppage due to rust and dirt 

Leaks due to settlement of earth 

Leaks due to defective pipes 

Sidewalk uprights repaired . 

Sidewalk uprights renewed . 

Sidewalk cocks renewed 

Defective couplings 

Operations of city departments, corporations and contractors 

Struck by pick 

Natural frost . 

Main uprights renewed 

Defective joints 

Electrolytic action ... 

(and numerous others.) 



Total Number 
During the Year. 

543 

281 

275 

222 

157 

83 

54 

52 

50 

46 

35 

30 

25 



Leaky service pipes are a most important factor in the 
excessive waste of water throughout the system. Many of 
them are pipes that formerly suppHed buildings which do not 
now exist. They might have been shut off at the sidewalk 
cock, or, as in many cases, they might simply have been 
"hammered up." At any rate, some time afterward they 
started leaking and it is only by accident that the leak was 
discovered. We hope, however, with the aid of the Deacon 
Meter System to discover and stop all such cases. Another 
cause for waste, and also possible damage, is the leaking of 
services that were laid a few years ago under statute require- 
ments to vacant lots. In one street during the past year 
eleven of such pipes were found leaking, several of which were 
running full head. The law requiring the laying of service 
pipes to vacant lots is not now in force but, unfortunately, 
there are hundreds of such pipes in the system. I shall 
endeavor during the coming year to shut off at the main all 
such pipes. It will be a somewhat extensive job, as in each 
case it will be necessary to dig down to the main upright, 
but I think it will pay in the end. 

Water Posts. 

During the year four water posts for street sprinkling carts 
were established and five abandoned, leaving a total number 
of 519 connected with the system January 31, 1909. The 
total cost of the work was $144.93, which was charged to 
the Street Watering Department. At the request of said 
department the following work was done : 



Water posts shut off and let on during cold weather . 161 ^ Total Cost. 
Water post repairs of miscellaneous kind, chiefly > $1,692 63 

defective valves and cocks 374 ) 



56 City Document No. 43. 

Formerly the Water Department assumed full charge of 
these postS; but in 1906 the Street Watering Department 
took the care of them, and since then we do nothing towards 
then' maintenance, except upon orders from that department. 
Aside from the painting of the posts and their equipment 
with hose, the principal care is that of keeping them from 
freezing dming the changeable w^eather of the early spring 
and late fall. At such times it is necessary to shut them off 
at night and turn them on the following morning. Early 
last spring the Street Watering Department was deceived by 
some balmy weather and allowed the posts to remain turned 
on one night, when a sudden drop in the temperature occurred 
and the result was that about every post in the city was 
more or less damaged by frost. This accounts in a great 
measm*e for the high total cost of repairs for the year. 

• 

Fountains. 

During the year three new chinking fountains were estab- 
lished: one for beasts in King square, Dorchester; one for 
beasts at junction of Saratoga and Bennington streets. East 
Boston; and one for humans at the Orient Heights railroad 
station. East Boston. Two fountains were relocated and four 
fountains were abandoned. The total number now controlled 
by the department is 106. For the different styles and loca- 
tions by districts, see Table VII. appended. 
! . The total cost of the work of establishing the three new 
fountains was S696.43; and that of relocating two fountains 
was S247.12. The work of abandoning four fountains shows 
a credit balance inasmuch as the fixtures were recovered and 
are now in stock fit to be re-established should it be deemed 
expedient. Their value exceeds the cost of taking them out 
of service. 

The playing fountain in service in the Frog pond, Boston 
Common, ever since 1848, when Cochituate water was first 
turned into the distribution pipes of Boston, and which was 
changed into an electrical fountain during the summer of 
1907, was restored to its original form at a cost of $277.44. 
During its service as an electrical fountain it was connected 
with the 16-inch high service main, but as it was not considered 
desirable to have it off this valuable and somewhat limited 
service, the connection was removed and the fountain supplied 
from the low service. The nozzles that produced jets of 
varied form were repaired, and a concrete tunnel wherein the 
electrical fountain was operated was demolished. Stepping 
stones of concrete were set in the pond to allow of a foot pas- 



Water Department. 57 

sage from the shore to the fountain, and the fountain itself 
was moved out nearer to the center of the pond. A hj^drant 
that served to supply the Frog pond, and indirectly the pond 
■in the Public Garden, and which was established to replace 
the original fountain in its function as a supply while the 
electrical fountain was in existence, was abandoned and its 
connections removed. 

In the work of maintaining the fountains 110 repair jobs 
were performed, and the di'inking troughs for horses were 
inspected and cleaned 2,318 times at a total cost of 13,090.56. 
During the summer season 1,168 tons of ice, costing $3,504, 
were purchased of and delivered by the Boston and Hygeia 
Ice Companies to the cold water fountains, and an inspection 
of the same made by the department. 

From the manner in which the cold water fountains are 
treated by certain members of the community, their main- 
tenance appears to be a thankless task. The self-closing cocks 
are stolen and most maliciously damaged. The dippers and 
chains are also stolen and in some cases the basin part of the 
fountains is made the receptacle for all kinds of unmention- 
able filth. The ice is stolen from the boxes and it seems to 
be a hopeless toil to keep the fountains in a condition to be of 
service to worthy people'. Children gather around these foun- 
tains and play with the water in such a manner as to make it 
a matter of risking one's clothes and dignity to approach suf- 
ficiently near to di'ink. 

In a similar manner the old style of drinking troughs for 
horses are abused. The water in them is so polluted by the 
introduction of foreign matter that it is really inhuman to 
allow an animal to drink of it. Not only are sticks, stones, 
tin cans, etc., thrown in, but overalls and other articles of 
clothing are washed therein, and it is not uncommon to see 
them used as footbaths. In a few cases young childi'en have 
been entirely immersed in the water. 

All this is most discom^aging, and I recommend that as far 
as the horse troughs are concerned the old style of low stone 
trough be done away with wherever practicable and replaced 
by the high circular bowl that sets to advantage in the center 
of squares and intersecting streets. Children are not so much 
inclined to play about this kind of fountain; there is a con- 
stant flow that insures pure water; and they are of such a 
height that a horse can drink without being unchecked. This 
last feature is most important, as a great many drivers refuse 
to water their horses rather than get down off their seats to 
uncheck them. 

Another matter that requires attention is the rearrange- 



58 City Document No. 43. 

ment and relocation of the fountains in the city. In the past 
many of them were erected at the request of members of the 
City Council in locations that ignored the lines of traffic and 
the general distribution of the fountains with a view of serv- 
ing the requirements of the city as a whole and in the most 
economical and efficient manner. The local phase only of the 
matter was considered^ and it was extremely local at that. In 
establishing drinking fountains points of vantage should be 
selected that would intercept the flow of travel. In such 
manner a few fountains would do the work of many located 
indifferently. 

Waste Detection. 

The daily average per capita consumption having reached 
the very high figure of 158 gallons, an earnest effort was 
made to operate the Deacon System of Waste Detection, with 
the object of lessening that figure if possible. The daily 
average consumption in that part of the West Roxbury dis- 
trict supplied by the ^'extra high/' or Mt. Bellevue tank, 
service having increased from 459,700 gallons in January, 
1908, to 698,000 gallons in September of the same year, and 
the night rate, or waste, having increased within the same 
period of time from 213,000 gallons to 435,000 gallons daily, 
om' attention was directed to that district. Tests were made 
that showed the waste to be almost entirely on the inside of 
premises, the only outside leak found and repaired by the 
department being in a |-inch service pipe at No. 87 Bellevue 
street, where the pipe was found badly split and wasting 
at the rate of 1,500 gallons hourly. Those streets in which 
it was found that waste was going on within the premises 
were inspected by the waste department of the Income 
Division, and after considerable work the daily average 
consumption was brought down in November to 446,000 
gallons, and the night rate, or waste, reduced to 222,000 
gallons. Cold weather having set in efforts to further reduce 
the waste had to be deferred until spring, when we hope to 
eliminate the remainder. 

In the East Boston district the Deacon System was 
operated in November but, beyond an excessive rate of 
waste throughout the district, nothing more than a start 
was made to locate the exact points of leakage. In the short 
time in which we were engaged, we located a J-inch service 
pipe, in Belmont court, which had been shut off at the side- 
w^alk cock years ago, instead of being plugged at the main. 
It was found broken at a point about two feet from the main 
and had been wasting continuously at the rate of about 



Water Department. 



59 



700 gallons per hour. We also found and repaired a bad 
leak in a service pipe at No. Ill Everett street, amounting 
to 600 gallons per hour; and upon Staples wharf, near the 
North Ferry, an old pipe which ran the entire length of the 
wharf was found badly split and was wasting into the harbor 
at the rate of about 10,000 gallons hourly. This pipe was 
disconnected and abandoned by the owners of the wharf. 

During the coming spring and summer the Deacon Sys- 
tem will be operated in a manner which, I hope, will produce 
telling results and reduce the rate of waste to a more reason- 
able figure. This will be impossible, however, unless the 
indications of the meter are followed by a thorough and 
adequate inspection by the Income Division. This inspec- 
tion to be of value must not only discover leaks within prem- 
ises but also enforce the repairing of the same. 

The number of Deacon meters in the different sections of 
Boston that are set and can be operated at will are 



City Proper . 
East Boston . 
South Boston 
Charlestown , 
Roxbury 
Dorchester 
West Roxbury 
Brighton 

Total 



26 
7 

13 
4 

14 
7 
4 
2 

77 



In addition there are: 
Meter at yard to be set in Harvard street, City Proper . . . . 1 
Meters . set at Long and Deer Islands to be cut out and reset in 

West Roxbury . . . ' 2 

New meters in yard 3 

Meter pot destroyed at the time of New York, New Haven & Hartford 

Railroad work in Castle street, making the internal machine useless . 1 
Meter set at Pearl and Medford streets, Charlestown, but useless at 

this point owing to high service extensions 1 



Total 



Electrolysis. 

This is a factor of growing importance in the distribution 
systems of all large cities. No practical means has yet 
been devised that will thoroughly insulate water pipes from 
the electric current that flows underground. Investigation, 
experimentation and data collected from various som'ces 
have given us considerable knowledge about the tendencies 
and effects of current flowing on and off water pipes, but, like 
many other questions regarding electricity, w^e are still quite 
in the dark. One thing is certain, — a considerable amount 



60 City Document No. 43. 

of electricity is flowing on and off our pipes,^ and in all cases 
■where the latter condition obtains injurious effect of varying 
extent results. 

The subject is receiving the attention of the water depart- 
ments of large cities and wath the assistance of expert knowl- 
edge some definite means of overcoming the trouble w^ill no 
doubt be acquired. In the meantime this department has 
one investigator constantly employed, and another irregu- 
larly, making tests and gathering valuable data. Testing 
stations are established at points where by reason of previous 
tests it is known that current is flowing in quantity and 
potential of dangerous proportions, and readings are taken 
regularly. We are thus informed as to changes in conditions 
and are enabled to govern ourselves accordingly. 

We are now^ experimenting with a sheath device attached 
to service pipes, consisting of a section of iron pipe about 4 
feet long and of larger diameter than the service pipe which 
it envelops. It is connected with the service pipe at both 
ends by means of copper wire and it is placed around that part 
of the service passing closely under or over an electrical or 
other conduit which might have a tendency to attract any 
cmTent that the service pipe is carrying. Where the sheath 
is thus attached the presumption is that the current will 
leave the lead pipe by means of the copper connecting wires 
and flow into the iron pipe and thence to the conduit, thus 
making the point of departure occur in the iron pipe instead 
of the lead pipe. As electrolysis occurs at that point the 
service pipe is thereby saved and the non pipe sustains the 
damage. The locations of service pipes thus equipped are 
recorded, and in due time examinations will be made and 
any changes in the condition of either the pipe or sheath will 
be noted. 

Shop Work. 

The Distribution Division has seven shops, viz., machine, 
blacksmith, carpenter, paint, plumbing, pattern and concrete 
box shops. These shops are so involved with each other., 
in a considerable amount of work performed, that they will 
have to be treated accordingly. Other work, peculiar to 
certain of the shops, will be accounted for separately. 

The power necessary to operate the machinery in the 
machine, blacksmith, carpenter and pattern shops, and also 
the two elevators and the yard saw, is furnished by two hori- 
zontal tubular boilers and one Brown single cylinder engine. 
The maximum possible horse power of the plant is approxi- 
mately eighty, but the actual horse power developed is 



Water Department. 61 

twenty-seven, which is all that is necessary. One engineman 
and a fireman are in attendance six days in the week except 
in cold weather, when an additional fireman is employed to 
attend the boilers dm'ing the night when steam is maintained 
for heating purposes. 

A considerable saving in the amount of coal used has been 
effected during the past year over that of the year previous. 
This is due to a combination of conditions, viz., a lesser num- 
ber of firemen employed, better firing, good quality of coal, 
and the burning of refuse material, sawdust, etc. During the 
year 1907-08 671,200 pounds of coal were burned, w^ith a 
percentage of 13.5 ash and clinker. During 1908-09 497,000 
pounds of coal were burned, with a percentage of 10 ash and 
clinker. 

Some improvements have been made in the construction 
of gate valves manufactured by the machine shop. Those 
ranging from 3 inches to 16 inches, inclusive, in size, are now 
made with solid bodies, and a saving in labor, lead, bolts and 
cast iron results. The bolt holes in the flanges of gates up 
to 16 inches and also those in post hydrants are now cast, thus 
saving the labor of di^illing them. The rings or valve seats 
are screwed into the small gates and expanded in those of 
10 inches and larger. The nozzles of the post hydi'ants 
instead of being "leaded" into the outlets are now screwed 
into the solid metal, the inside face of which forms a seat for 
the independent valves. 

In the following statement of manufactures and repairs in 
the machine shop the cost per article includes not only the 
direct labor cost plus the cost of material but also an addi- 
tional 70 per cent on the direct labor cost, which is considered 
a proper addition for contingent expenses, such as administra- 
tion costs, supervision, power, tools, tool repairs, holidays, 
maintenance of shop, supplies, etc. It corresponds to what 
a business house would add before deciding upon a selling 
price for its manufactured articles. The direct labor cost 
includes only the labor of the machinist w^ho does the actual 
work of converting the rough casting into a finished part and 
assembling the parts into a complete article. 



62 



City Document No. 43. 



STATEMENT OF STOCK MANUFACTURED FROM THE ROUGH DURING 
THE YEAR IN THE MACHINE SHOP. 



Article. 



Number. 



Cost 
Each. 



Total 
Cost. 



3-iiicli gate valves 

3-iiich gate valves for blow-off . . . . 

4-inch gate valves 

6-inch gate valves 

S-inch gate valves 

10-ineh gate valves 

12-inch gate valves 

16-inch gate valves 

24-inch gate valves 

Boston post hydrants 

Bachelder post hydrants, I valve. 
Bachelder post hydrants, C valve. 
Lowry hydrants, 3 feet 3 inches. . . 
Lowry hydrants, 3 feet 6 inches . . 
Lowry hydrants, 3 feet 9 inches . . 

Lowry hydrants, 4 feet 

Lowry hydrants, 4 feet 3 inches . . 
Lown,- hydrants, 4 feet 6 inches. . 
Lowry hydrants, 4 feet 9 inches . . 
Lowry hydrants, 5 feet 3 inches . . 
Lowry hydrants, 5 feet 9 inches . . 

1 i-inch air cock 

2-inch air cock 

f-inch sidewalk cocks 

f-inch sidewalk cocks, special 

1-inch sidewalk cocks 

i-inch corporation cocks 

f-inch corporation cocks 

i-inch corporation cocks, special . . 
i-inch corporation angle cocks. . . 

|-inch coriX)ration cocks 

1-inch corporation cocks 

l^-inch corporation cocks 

1^-inch corporation cocks, special . 
l^-inch water post cocks 



Carried forward . 



9 
7 
6 

47 
102 

17 

73 

8 

3 

169 

37 

11 
9 

11 
9 

11 
7 
5 
9 
2 

3 

8 

12 

1,296 

10 

42 

27 

1,391 

10 

157 

99 

226 

76 

1 

17 



$12 34 
13 29 
15 39 
21 98 
29 64 
49 09 
56 71 
102 24 
313 97 
48 42 
51 17 
53 15 
27 22 

27 72 

28 07 
28.57 
28.83 

29 36 

29 89 

30 39 

31 78 
5 03 
7 11 

72 
77 

1 51 
70 
76 
79 
76 

1 28 

1 55 

2 99 

3 82 
2 66 



$111 06 

93 03 

92 34 

1,033 06 

3,023 28 

834 53 

4,139 83 

817 92 

941 91 

8,182 98 

1,893 29 

584 65 

244 98 

304 92 

252 63 

314 27 

201 81 

146 80 

269 01 

60 78 

95 34 

40 24 

85 32 

933 12 

7 70 

63 42 

18 90 

1,057 16 

7 90 

119 32 

126 72 

350 30 

227 24 

3 82 

45 22 



$26,724 80 



Water Department. 



6a 



STATEMENT OF STOCK MANUFACTURED FROM THE ROUGH DURING 
THE YEAR IN THE MACHINE SHOP —Continued. 



Article. 



Number. 



Cost 
Each. 



Total 
Cost. 



Brought forward 

2-inch hose couplings 

|-inch combination couplings 

1-inch combination couplings 

li^-inch combination couplings 

2-inch combination couplings 

1-inch combination bent couplings. 
2-inch combination bent couplings. 

3-inch female hose couplings 

|-inch coupling nuts 

f-inch coupling nuts 

1-inch coupling nuts 

1^-inch coupling nuts 

2-inch coupling nuts 

|-inch coupling tubes 

|-inch coupling tubes 

1-inch coupling tubes 

l^-inch coupling tubes 

1-inch bent tubes 

J-inch male coupling 

f-inch male coupling 

f-inch male coupling . 

1-inch male coupling 

f-inch meter nipples 

f-inch meter nipples 

li-inch meter nipples 

li-inch meter nipples, special 

2-inch meter nipples 

f-inch solder nipples 

2-inch solder nipples 

Nipples for Doherty cocks 

Nuts for Doherty cocks 

1-inch by f-inch meter bushings. . . . 

1-inch meter bushings 

f-inch by f-inch meter reducers . . . , 
2i-inch by 2-inch reducers 



50 
141 
136 

50 

100 

6 

27 

9 

554 

700 

664 

50 
125 

62 
186 
100 

50 
6 

90 
483 
184 
155 
297 
100 

99 

12 

40 
115 
150 

41 

33 

12 
100 

60 
6 



?0 55 
33 
48 
96 

1 16 
79 

1 44 

1 09 
057 
095 
17 
30 
42 
055 
105 
14 
275 
42 
125 
11 
205 
235 
16 
24 
34 
46 
55 
12 
50 
15 
135 
18 
27 
16 

1 31 



5,724 80 
27 50 

46 53 

65 28 
48 00 

116 00 

4 74 
38 88 

9 81 
31 58 

66 50 
112 88 

15 00 

52 50 

3 41 
19 53. 
14 00 
13 75 

2 52 
11 25 

53 13 
37 72 
36 43 

47 52 
24 00 
33 66 

5 52 
22 00 
13 80 
75 00 

6 15 

4 46 
2 16 

27 00 
9 60 

7 88 



Carried forward . 



J27,S30 47 



64 



City Document No. 43. 



STATEMENT OF STOCK MANUFACTURED FROM THE ROUGH DURING 
THE YEAR IN THE MACHINE SHOP.— Concluded. 



Article. 



Number. 



Cost 
Each. 



Total 
Cost. 



Brought foncaTd 

f-inch iron plugs 

|-inch sat screws 

1-inch set screws 

Post hydrant bolts 

Lowry hydrant bolts 

Boston Lowry hydrant bolts . . 
Post hydrant extension bolts . . 
Lowry hydrant extension bolts , 

Air cock bolts 

Puddling head bolts 

t-inch eye bolts 

Fountain bolts 

Fountain rings 

Sidewalk uprights 

Gate pins 

Acorn nuts , 

xVinch screws 

Hydrant wastes 

Hydrant pump couplings 

4-inch jointers 

6-inch jointers 

8-inch jointers 

10-inch jointers , 

12-inch jointers 

16-inch jointers 

20-inch jointers 



Total . 



401 

4,420 

187 

937 

197 

127 

53 

31 

44 

26 

12 

40 

540 

1,168 

2,496 

18 

164 

348 

13 

5 



$0 13 
13 
49 
29 
29 
45 
59 
54 
57 
75 
53 
32 
02 
54 
015 
08 
034 
52 
42 
91 
1 06 
1 17 
1 34 

1 67 

2 02 
2 37 



F,830 47 
52 13 

574 60 
91 63 

271 73 
58 13 
57 15 
31 27 
16 74 
25 08 
19 50 
6 36 
12 SO 
10 80 

630 72 
37 44 

1 44 
5 58 

180 96 
5 46 
4 55 

8 48 

9 36 

2 68 

3 34 
2 02 
2 37 



$29,952 79 



Water Department. 



65 



STATEMENT OF STOCK REPAIRED AND RENOVATED DURING THE YEAR 

IN THE MACHINE SHOP. 



Article. 



Number. 



Cost 
Each, 



Total 
Cost. 



3-inch gates 

4-inch gates 

6-inch gates 

8-inch gates 

10-inch gates 

12-inch gates 

Boston post hydrants 

Bachelder post hydrants . . . . 

Post hydrants 

Lowry hydrants 

Boston Lowry hydrants 

f-inch sidewalk cocks 

i-inch sidewalk cocks 

i^-inch corporation cocks . . . . 
f-inch corporation cocks . . . . 
|-inch corporation cocks. . . . 
1-inch corporation cocks . . . . 
li-inch corporation cocks . . . 
IJ-inch corporation cocks . . . 

|-inch angle cocks 

8-inch hose couplings 

IJ-inch puddling head cocks 

f-inch coupling nuts 

f-inch coupling nuts 

1-inch coupling nuts 

1^-inch coupling nuts 

2-inch coupling nuts 

i-inch coupling tubes 

f-inch coupling tubes 

4-inch coupling tubes 

1-inch coupling tubes 

l^-inch coupling tubes ...... 

2-inch coupling tubes 

f-inch male couplings 

f-inch male couplings 



2 

3 

18 

2 

2 

5 

1 

19 

45 

45 

42 

64 

2 

11 

246 

10 

13 

3 

4 

24 

19 

14 

,262 

26 

77 

26 

9 

18 

998 

19 

32 

20 

15 

34 

3 



U 81 
2 66 
2 66 
4 26 
9 74 

4 92 
7 37 
6 52 

5 60 
2 78 
2 14 

17 

17 

12 

10 

12 

10 

12 

15 

14 

14 

19 

007 

007 

0085 

0085 

0085 

007 

007 

0085 

0085 

017 

017 

0085 

0085 



S3 62 

7 98 
47 88 

8 52 
19 48 
24 60 

7 37 
123 88 
252 00 
125 10 

89 88 

10 88 

34 

1 32 
24 60 

1 20 

1 30 
36 
60 

3 36 

2 66 
2 66 

8 83 
18 
65 
22 
08 
13 

6 99 
16 
27 
34 
26 
29 
03 



Carried forward . 



S778 02 



66 



City Document No. 43. 



STATEMENT OF STOCK REPAIRED AND RENOVATED DURING THE YEAR 
IN THE MACHINE SHOP.— Concluded. 



Article. 



Number. 



Cost 
Each. 



Total 

Cost. 



Brought forward 

1-inch male couplings 

l^inch male couplings 

2-inch male couplings 

1^-inch solder nipples 

2-inch solder nipples 

Post hydrant bolts 

Lowry hydrant bolts 

Boston Lowry hydrant bolts . . 
Post hydrant extension bolts . . 
Lo'^ry hydrant extension bolts 

Hydrant wastes 

1-inch set screws 

10-inch jointers 

12-inch jointers 



Total. 



12 
18 
9 
2 
4 
130 
5 
1 
2 



017 

017 

017 

07 

07 

05 

03 

03 

12 

12 

07 

085 

48 

48 



$778 02 
10 
05 
02 
56 
56 
60 
54 
27 
24 
48 
9 10 
43 
48 
96 



$792 41 



Statement of Stock Manufactured during the Year in the 

Carpenter Shop. 



386 small wooden boxes for gate valves, at $3.80 

48 large wooden boxes for gate valves, at $4.72 . 

3.38 wooden boxes for post hydrants, at $4.91 

36 wooden boxes for Lowry hydrants, at $4.46 . 

60 wooden boxes for Boston Lowry hydrants, at $6.07 

24 wooden boxes for Boston hydrants, at $4.18 

12 wooden boxes for Deacon meters, at $4.72 . 

162 tops for small wooden gate- valve boxes, at 50 cents, 

12 tops for large wooden gate-valve boxes, at 56 cents 

74 tops for post hydrant boxes, at 61 cents 

48 tops for Lowry hydrant boxes, at 61 cents . 

18 tops for Boston hydrant boxes, at 56 cents . 

2,584 inches in pieces for raising gate- valve boxes, at 9 cents 

2,671 inches in pieces for raising hydrant boxes, at 10 cents 

81 wooden horses, at 62 cents 

39 6-inch diameter wooden plugs 

200 2-inch diameter wooden plugs 

640 wooden wedges for concrete boxes 

4 post hydrant frames .... 

20 wooden stoppers for oil cans . 

2.110 wooden wedges for main pipe work 

100 wooden chocks for main pipe work 

1,211 wooden paving blocks . 



Total 



Total Cost^ 

$1,466 80 

226 56 

1,659 58 

160 56 

364 20 

100 32 

56 64 

81 00 

6 72 

45 14 

29 28 

10 08 

232 56 

267 10 

50 22 

20 64 

13 25 

3 61 

5 60 

1 62 
35 67 

2 83 
27 38 

$4,867 36 



^QXE. — In the above costs 20 per cent is added to labor cost to cover contingent 
expense. 



Water Department. 



67 



Statement of Stock Manufactured during the Year in Concrete 

Box Plant. 

319 small concrete gate- valve boxes (1| inches), at $6.85 . 
424 concrete post hydrant boxes (If inches), at $7.06 
72 concrete meter boxes (1^ inches), at $6.64 . 
9 concrete blocks for stepping stones in Frog pond, at $1.37 

Total . . . . . . 



Total Cost. 

$2,183 80 

183 52 

478 02 

12 33 

$2,857 67 



Statement of General Work Performed by all the Shops during 

THE Year. 



Repairs in and around the stables 

Tool repairs of all kinds 

Repairs and renovation of Albany street yard, including erec 

tion of concrete box shed 

New tools made, 689 

Repairs in and around the shops 

Sharpened 13,068 picks, 2,184 bars and 4,284 chisels 

Repairs and renovation of Dorchester yard 

Patterns made, 71 

Repairs and miscellaneous work at reservoirs . 

Repairs and renovation of Charlestown yard 

Wagons and carriages repaired and painted 

Odd jobs for Engineering Department 

Work done for Water Commissioner's office 

Patterns repaired and renovated . 

Accommodation work for outsiders 

Repairs at East Boston yard .... 

Work done at Mt. Bellevue tank, W^est Roxbury 

Pipes, caps, curves and branches drilled in yard . 

Made 13 sealing covers for division gate valves . 

Work done at Orient Heights tank. East Boston 

Repairs at West Roxbury yard . 

Made 3 pairs 10-inch iron straps . 

Made 72 iron dowels for meter department 

Made 11 iron brackets for gate chambers 

Made 348 iron nipples for concrete boxes, 1 inch by 1^ inches 

Made 2 clamps and 10 dog nails 

Made 16 wharf bolts .... 

Repairs at Brighton yard 

Made 100 S hooks for hydrant chains . 

Made 4 corner irons for meter department 

Made 12 iron wedges for engine room . 

Total 



Total Cost. 


$2,106 


21 


2,006 


66 


1,644 


12 


1,539 


02 


1,393 


25 


1,139 


20 


970 


03 


903 


90 


732 


23 


656 


66 


601 


91 


575 


86 


341 


56 


222 


08 


96 


99 


85 


72 


72 


06 


56 


75 


38 


76 


36 


14 


24 


18 


11 


35 


9 


53 


9 


50 


5 


78 


3 


56 


3 


35 


2 


93 


2 


03 


1 


98 




80 



,294 10 



Concrete Boxes. 



Previous to the past year the manufacture of concrete boxes 
by this department was somewhat of an experiment, but we 
now have passed that stage and are making boxes out of 
concrete which are satisfactory in every respect and which will 
last almost indefinitely. The life of a wooden box varied 
with the soil in which it was set, and with conditions fairly 
good seven years was a rather long period. It may readily 



68 City Document No. 43. 

be seen that a concrete box with an ahiiost never ending Hfe 
is a much more economical fixtm^e than a wooden box even 
though the cost of the former may be sHghtly more than that 
of the latter. Dming the past year boxes for post hydi'ants, 
Lowry hydi-ants, small gate valves and meters were made out 
of concrete. They are composed of four reinforced concrete 
slabs with vertical edges beveled or mitered, so that when set 
up and in union with each other they form a box that is self- 
supporting. To keep the four sides of the box together while 
backfilling is in progress, the slabs are tied one to the other, at 
the corners, with short pieces of wire that are fastened to the 
reinforcement within. 

The post hychant and meter boxes being set in the sidewalk 
are only li inches thick, while the gate valve and Lowry 
hydi'ants boxes are If inches thick, because of the greater load 
imposed upon them in the roadway. 

The proportion of the concrete is approximately 1-2-4. 
This is modified, however, in the construction of the IJ-inch 
or thin slabs where the cement factor is increased somewhat. 
The reinforcement consists of J-inch twisted steel rods which 
are purchased cut in the desired lengths. They weigh about 
two-tenths of a pound to the linear foot. The sand is "Plum 
Island , ' ' bought by the cargo and delivered upon our wharf. It 
is clean and sharp and very satisfactory. The stone is finely 
broken "Roxbmy pudding stone,'' small enough to pass 
thi"ough a screen of J-inch mesh and too large to pass through 
one of J-inch mesh. To thoroughly cleanse it from soil and 
other foreign matter, it is washed by a 2J-inch hose stream 
over a screen of sufficiently large mesh to allow the water to 
carry off the undesirable material and retain the clean stone. 
We hnd that the washed stone increases the strength of the 
concrete. After being mixed in a ''cube" mixer the fresh 
concrete is placed in wooden forms, the inside surfaces of 
which have been oiled, the reinforcing rods placed in their 
proper position, and the mass ''worked" and compacted by 
the boxmaker by means of mason's and plasteier's trowels 
until it is well solidified and without voids. The forms are 
then placed in a rack to set and in about four days' time the 
slabs are taken out of the forms, marked, and placed in the 
storage shed to age and eventually to serve their purpose in 
the ground. 

The drawings represented in the cut on the opposite page 
give an idea as to the dimensions and arrangement of the 
reinforcement. Although a plan of a post hydrant box, it is 
typical of the other boxes with certain modifications as to 
number of reinforcing rods and dimensions of slabs. 



Water Department. 69 

Some data as to the boxes and their construction follow : 

Post Hydrant. 

Thickness of slabs, 1^ inches. 
Total area of slabs, 48.9 square feet. 
Material used: 

Portland cement, 127 pounds. 

Plum Island sand, 200 pounds. 

^-inch crushed stone (washed), 400 pounds. 

|-inch twisted steel rods (.2 pound per foot), 77.6 linear feet. 

No. 13 galvanized wire, .7 pound. 

Lowry Hydrant. 

Thickness of slabs. If inches. 
Total area of slabs, 46.1 square feet. 
Material used: 

Portland cement, 155 pounds. 

Plum Island sand, 250 pounds. 

^-inch crushed stone (-washed), 500 pounds. 

^-inch twisted steel rods (.2 pound per foot), 80.5 linear feet. 

No. 13 galvanized wire, .7 pound. 

Small Gate Valve. 

Thickness of slabs, 1| inches. 
Total area of slabs, 35.7 square feet. 
Material used: 

Portland cement, 125 pounds. 

Plum Island sand, 250 pounds. 

^-inch crushed stone (washed), 500 pounds. 

^-inch twisted steel rods (.2 pound per foot), 67.8 linear feet. 

No. 13 galvanized wire, .7 pound. 

Meter. 

Thickness of slabs, 1^ inches. 
Total area of slabs, 43.8 square feet. 
Material used: 

Portland cement, 125 pounds. 

Plum Island sand, 200 pounds. 

^-inch crushed stone (washed), 400 pounds. 

^-inch twisted steel rods (.2 pound per foot), 74.5 linear feet. 

No. 13 galvanized wire, .7 pound. 

Tests to determine the transverse strength of the IJ-inch 
post hydrant slab and the l|-inch Lowry hydrant slab were 
made as follows: 

Post Hydrant Slab. 1^ Inches Thick. 

The slab was supported with a span of 191 inches at the top 
and 28 inches at the bottom and was loaded with pig lead on 
the center line of span. The concrete was sixty days old. 
The cement used was Atlas. Destruction occurred at 2,600 
pounds. The load per linear inch required to destroy the 
slab was 46.43 pounds. 



70 City Document No. 43. 

Loiury Hydrant Slab. If Inches Thick. 

The slab was supported with a span of 18J inches at the top 
and 28} inches at the bottom, and was loaded with pig lead 
on the center line of span. The concrete was sixty days old. 
The cement used was Atlas. Partial destruction occurred at 
4,007 pounds. It was impracticable to add sufficient weight 
to cause total destruction. The load per linear inch sus- 
tained was 85.26 pounds. , 

As actual conditions will not test the boxes so severely the 
results as recorded above assured us of an ample margin of 
safety. 

Cut facing page 70 shows the boxes set up just as they are 
in the ground, with iron frames and covers placed upon their 
tops. Each box is numbered and the date of making and the 
initial or private mark of the workman who made the slab is 
marked upon the same. The opening in the bottom of the 
meter box (the small box) is made to allow of the enti'ance 
and exit of the service pipe. 

Cut facing page 71 shows a section of the interior of the 
shop and the concrete slabs in different stages of construction. 
Immediately under the cube mixer is a pile of freshly mixed 
concrete. To the left a workman is seen with trowels in hands 
about to spread the concrete evenly in the form. Upon the 
floor in front of the mixer are two slabs in the forms, both 
partly made, showing the reinforcing rods and the binding 
wires. In the rear are some of the racks in which the forms 
are kept while the concrete is setting. 

Property and Plant. 

Albany, Street Yard. — Although cramped for space, as has 
been the case ever since the Sewer Division and the City 
Hospital took from us large slices of our property, yet by rear- 
rangement, more compactness of our stock and the addition 
of conveniences for handling and storing the same we have 
been able to get along fairly well. A thorough and complete 
renovation of the old buildings took place during the year. 
The lead, wagon and derrick shed was reroofed and painted; 
the old wooden stable had new sills and concrete piers put 
under it, hot water and electric lights installed and clothes 
closets built for the men. The old windows and frames were 
replaced by new ones, and the outside of the building clap- 
boarded and painted. A large shed for aging and storing 
concrete boxes was built. The concrete shop was enlarged. 



Water Department. 71 

A thorough repairing of the paint shop was begun and is now 
in progress, a portion of the main floor being partitioned off 
for a varnish room, something that we lacked heretofore. A 
two-inch plank flooring was placed in several parts of the 
yard upon which to pile castings. Electric lights in clusters 
of three 32 candle-power lamps were installed at different 
points in the yard. This was a much needed improvement 
over the old and very unsatisfactory hand lantern, with which 
the men had to locate and load stock after dark. They also 
serve to expose to the watchmen people who have no business 
in the yard. The lower offices and hallways were equipped 
with electric lights and a few portable lights were installed 
in the machine shop, displacing the antiquated candle and 
enabling the machinist to see clearly his work in places that 
were hitherto obscure. The brickwork in the stables was 
repointed and a dangerous stone coping reset. The roof of 
the machine shop was repaired. The driveway was repaved 
with bitulithic pavement, thus stopping the noise that for 
years past had jarred upon the nerves of the administrative 
force and interfered with the transaction of business. The 
superintendent's office has been painted and the telephone 
system rearranged. The office furniture was varnished and the 
fixtures in general freshened. Seven old and disabled horses 
were humanely killed and replaced by new ones. Two old 
wagons and two old buggies were sold by auction and one 
wagon broken up and burned. These were replaced by the 
purchase of one new buggy, one second-hand buggy and one 
new wagon. All wagons and carriages requiring attention 
were repaired and painted, and a beginning was made in 
equipping the wagons with an extra half spring bearing upon 
the rear axle, which shares in the support of the load when 
it exceeds an amount sufficient to compress the regular springs 
beyond the safe point. This will lessen the repairs upon the 
springs in particular and the wagon in general. The harnesses, 
all of which were in a very poor condition, were examined and 
some were repaired, and others which were dangerously worn 
and beyond repair were replaced by new sets. The hay and 
grain are now purchased through competition and certificates 
guaranteeing the quality furnished with each lot. No. 1 hay 
and No. 2 oats are bought, it being considered ultimate 
economy to buy a high grade of hay, as the lower grades con- 
tain dust and vegetable matter of no nutritious value, but 
which figure in the weight of the hay. A clean, sweet, succu- 
lent hay will go farther and is cheaper in the end than an 
inferior grade. No. 2 oats are relatively much better than 



72 City Document No. 43. 

Xo. 2 hay. The tool houses have all been repahed; painted 
and lettered. Bolts have been substituted for screws in the 
hingeS; hasps and staples and they have been otherwise 
strengthened against thievery. 

In general the propert}^ has been much improved and is 
now in a more valuable condition than for some years past. 

Dorchester Yard. — The buildings in this yard were repaired 
and painted, the roof of the stable was shingled, a new water- 
closet with modern plumbing installed, a new hot water heater 
and a large railway stove were bought and set up in the stable 
and office. The fence surrounding the yard was rebuilt and 
painted. Electric lights wxre installed, replacing lanterns. 
The yard is now in first-class condition and presents a very 
creditable appearance. 

Charlestons Xard. — New gutters and conductors were 
placed upon the buildings. New sills were put under the 
large wooden building occupied by the Income Division in 
part with this division. The outside walls of this building 
were reclapboarded. The stalls in the stable were repaired. 
A new steam heating system was installed in the office aud 
repair shop. Modern plumbing replaced old-fashioned and 
defective fixtures, and the yard and buildings in general were 
much improved and are now in first-class condition with the 
exception of painting, which will be done in the coming- 
spring. 

East Boston Yard and Reservoir. — Aside from the repairing 
of the iron fence around the reservoir grounds nothing of 
importance was done here during the year. It is intended to 
move in the early spring from the present quarters to the old 
pumping station in Condor street, opposite Brooks street, 
which will allow more yard room and prove in every way a 
more desirable place. 

West Roxhury Yard. — This yard is not owned by the 
department. Therefore only repau's that were absolutely 
necessary to facilitate the work of the district were made. 
The location is not as central as it might be, especially now 
that the district is gi'owing in the southern part. There are 
no sheds in the yard to cover and protect stock and appur- 
tenances. The stall room is limited and altogether conditions 
are such as to require a change in the near future. 

Brighton. — This can hardly be dignified by the word 
"yard." Conditions here are such as to demand a change to 
more commodious and suitable quarters as soon as possible. 
I would suggest that an effort be made towards securing a 
portion of the Street Department's yard on Chestnut Hill 
avenue. 



Water Department. 73 

Fisher Hill Reservoir. — Aside from the fact that this basin 
is rather small for the demands now made upon it, the property 
in general is in good condition and is well kept by those in 
charge of it. 

Brookline Reservoir. — Although this reservoh has been 
sold to the town of Brookline, by the terms of the agreement 
we yet have charge of the property. It is not in use as a part 
of om* system and we simply hold it until such time as we feel 
absolutely sure that we will not be required to use it. This 
we hope will be upon the completion of the new line of 48-inch 
pipe to be constructed by the Metropolitan Water Board in 
Beacon street, between Chestnut Hill reservoir and Coolidge's 
corner. 

Parker Hill Reservoir. — This reservoir and grounds should 
be transferred to the Park Department and thus relieve the 
Water Department of further care and maintenance. It is 
of no value as a reservoir at the present time. 

Mt. Bellevue Standpipe, West Roxhury. — Some repau's to 
the cover of the tank, the stairway and floor of the observatory 
were made during the past year. Otherwise the property is 
in good condition. 

West Roxhury Pumping Station. — Although this station is 
owned by the Boston Water Department it is occupied and 
maintained by the Metropolitan Water Board. 

Orient Heights Standpipe, East Boston. — -Aside from the 
maintenance of the apparatus connected with the recording 
gauge between the standpipe and the yard office in Brooks 
street, there was nothing of importance done here. The long 
stretch of telegraph wu'e between the above-mentioned points 
has to be inspected every few weeks and quite frequently 
repairs are necessary, especially in the winter. The freezing 
of the water in the tank interferes with the operation of the 
float connected with the gauge, and constant attention is 
required to prevent such an occurrence. 

Recording Pressure Gauges. — The following recording pres- 
sure gauges are the property of the department. They w^ere 
installed and are maintained by this division and the readings 
recorded by the Engineering Department. They are all in 
working order. 



74 



City Document No. 43. 



Location. 



Service. 



Grade of 

Gauge Above 

City Base. 



Chestnut Hill pumping station 

Boston Common 

Salem street, near Prince street, Engine S 

East street, at East street, Engine 7 

Congress street. South Boston, Engine 38 

Fourth street, at O street. South Boston, Engine 2.. . 

710 Albany street, Boston Water Department 

Gibson street, Dorchester, Boston Water Department 

Western avenue, Brighton, Engine 34 

Bunker Hill street, Charlestown, Engine 32 

Marion street, East Boston, Engine 5 

City Hall, Boston 

Quincy street, Roxbury, Engine 24 

Walnut street, Neponset, Engine 20 

Norfolk street, Mattapan, Engine 19 

Chestnut Hill avenue, Brighton, Engine 29 

Centre street, Jamaica Plain, Engine 28 



Low 
Low 
Low 
Low 
Low 
Low 
Low 

liOW 

Low 
Spot Pond 
Spot Pond 

High 

High 

High 

High 

High 

High 



127 . 5 
43.2 
27.2 
22.7 
21.1 
51.8 
24.0 
29.3 
27.5 
36.0 
64.3 

105.1 
98.3 
20.8 
79.1 

111.5 
82.9 



General Recommendations. 

1. That the missing sections of mains between Atlantic 
avenue and the pipe tunnel at Congress Street Bridge be laid, 
thus introducing much needed additional high and low ser- 
vice supplies to South Boston. 

2. That a pipe tunnel be constructed to carry the high 
and low service mains under Charles river at Warren Bridge. 

3. That steps be taken to provide East Boston with 
another source of supply independent of the two present 
lines crossing Chelsea creek. 

4. That provisions be made for a high service storage 
basin of larger capacity than the present one on Fisher Hill, 
Brookline. 

5. That pipes crossing under railroad tracks be either 
removed or so protected with sheaths or envelopes as to pro- 
tect them from vibration. 

6. That the heavy car problem be studied and some efforts 
made to solve it. 

7. That more stringent regulations concerning the use of 
hydrants be made and enforced. 



Water Department. 75 

8. That the Deacon meter system of waste detection be 
operated upon a larger and more efficient scale than dm'ing 
the past year. 

9. That new quarters be secured for the department force 
in Brighton and West Roxbury. 

10. That an automobile emergency car be purchased and 
put into service. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George H. Finneran, 

Official in Charge. 



76 



City Document No. 43. 







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78 



City Document No. 43. 



TABLE III. 

Hydrants Established and Abandoned during the Year. 



City Proper (public) . . . . 
" (private) . . . 

Roxbury (public) 

West Roxbury (public). 

Brighton (public) 

Dorchester (public) 

Dorchester (private).. . . 
South Boston (public) . . 
East Boston (public) . . . 
Charlestown (public) . . . 
Deer Island (private) . . . 



Established. 



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13 



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1 
37 
52 

4 
62 

4 
17 
17 

4 



28 

1 

42 

64 

10 

77 

4 

23 

19 

11 

1 



Abandoned. 



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17 

3 
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1 

31 

38 
3 

53 



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16 

2 

1 



Total niunber of public . . 
Total number of private, 



43 



214 
5 



274 
6 



66 



52 



43 
1 



10 



21 
1 



192 
2 



Note. — The columns headed "Boston Post" include what was known as the 
"Bachelder Post" (see text under "Hydrants"). 



Water Department. 



79 



TABLE IV. 

Total Number of Hydrants in System January 31, 1909. 





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City Proper (public) 

" (private) 

Roxbury (public) 

" (private) 

West Roxbury (public) 

" (private) 

Brighton (public) 

" (private) 

Dorchester (public) 

" (private) 

South Boston (public) 

" (private) 

East Boston (public) 

" (private) 

Charlestown (public) 

" (private) 

Deer Island (private) 

Long Island (private) 

Thompson's Island (private) . 
Gallop's Island (private) . . . . 
Rainsford Island (private). . . 

Quincy 

Brookline 



603 
4 

469 
2 

101 



74 



388 



183 

3 

110 

8 

169 

14 



Total number of public hydrants. . 

Total number of private and subur- 
ban hydrants 



2,097 
31 



49 



91 

1 

226 



92 



251 

9 

429 



232 

1 

34 



33 



45 
1 



802 



651 

16 

391 

7 

954 

3 

142 

15 

173 

7 

33 

37 

21 

6 

2 

1 

3 

11 



466 
5 

302 
3 

177 



35 



349 



212 



110 



94 



3,024 



138 



1,745 



16 



106 
39 
37 
10 
26 

1 
18 

2 
27 

4 
29 
28 

6 
25 

2 

6 



251 



117 



1,475 

57 

1,328 

16 

1,181 

17 

610 

9 

1,950 

16 

600 

46 

432 

40 

343 

58 

21 

6 

2 

2 

4 

12 

2 



7,919 
308 



Note 1. — The column headed "Boston Post " includes what was known as the 
" Bachelder Post" (see text under "Hydrants"). 

Note 2. — Difference in figures from last year's report are due to corrections. 



80 



City Document No. 43. 






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81 



TABLE VI. 

Total Number and Aggregate Length of Service Pipes of Various Sizes Connected with 

System January 31, 1909. 



Sizes. 


Total Number. 


Aggregate Length. 


16-inch 

12-inch 

10-inch 

8-inch 


1 

14 

2 

26 

146 

1,102 

721 

1,839 

1,279 

330 

2,319 

2,510 

77,770 

6,986 


9 
3,542 
1,349 
2,751 


6-inch 

4-inch 

3-inch 


21,650 
45,181 
21,838 


2-inch 


59,244 


li-inch 

li-inch 

1-inch 

f-inch 

|-inch 

^-inch 


39,207 

10,569 

129,802 

92,936 

2,201,201 

160,100 


Totals 


95,045 


2,789,379 



82 



City Document No. 43. 



Style. 



TABLE VII. 

Fountains. 

Established during the Year. 



B. Cambridge street, opposite Rutherford avenue, Charlestown. 

B. Junction of Saratoga and Bennington streets, East Boston. 

B. Forest Hills square, West Roxbury. 

B. King square, Dorchester. 

C. Bennington street, at Orient Heights station, East Boston. 



Abandoned during the Year. 

A. Saratoga street, at S^Yift street. East Boston. 

A. A street, at First street, South Boston. 

B. o4S Main street, Charlestown. 

B. Forest Hills square. West Roxbury. 

C. North Bennet street, at playground, City Proper. 
F. Hancock street, at Dorchester avenue, Dorchester. 



Number of Fountains in Service January 31, 1909. 



Districts. 


Style 
A. 


Style 
B. 


Style 
C. 


Style 
D. 


Style 
E. 


Style 


Style 
G. 


Totals. 


City Proper 


9 

5 
- 5 


5 
2 

1 

3 
1 
4 
3 


7 
1 

1 

■2 
4 
3 


1 


12 
5 
2 






33 






16 


West Roxbury 






9 






6 


Dorctiester 


1 


.. .^ ... 

4 
4 


6 


1 


13 




1 


10 








11 




1 






S 














Totals 


29 


19 


18 


2 


31 


6 


1 


106 



Style. Note. 

A. Indicates fountain for man and beast, with automatic fixtures for man and beast 

in warm weather and a continuous flow of water for beasts in cold weather. 

B. Indicates fountain for beasts only. Continuous flow of water all the year. 

C. Indicates fountain for man only. Automatic fixtures. In service during warm 

weather only. 

D. Indicates fountain for man and beast. Automatic fixtures for both. In service 

during warm weather only. 

E. Indicates cold water fountain for' man only. Automatic fixtures. In service 

during warm weather only. 

F. Indicates fountain for man and beast, with automatic fixtures for man in warm 

weather and a continuous flow of water for beasts all the year. 

G. Indicates fountain for man and beast. Hygienic "bubble" fixtures for man. Con- 

tinuous flow of water for man and beast all the year. 



Water Department. 83 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDING 
JANUARY 1, 1909. (Financial, January 31, 1909.) 

[Inform recommended by the New England Water Works Association.] 

Boston AVaterworks. 

Boston. Suffolk. Massachusetts. 

(Citj.) (County.) (State.) 

General Statistics. 

Population by census of 1905, 595,380. 
Date of construction, 1848. 

By whom owned, supplied by state; distribution system owned by city. 
Source of supply, Nashua and Sudbury rivers; Lake Cochituate. 
Mode of supply (whether gravity or pumping), pumping and gravity (all 
pumps operated by state). 

9 

Financial Statistics. 



RECEIPTS. 



From ordinary (maintenance) receipts . $2,695,761 00 

Total . . . . . 



From Water 

Fixture rates 

Meter rates 

Total from consumers 
From other sources .... 



,695,761 00 



Rates. 

$1,369,681 06 
1,256,883 53 



!,626,564 59 
69,196 41 



Total $2,695,761 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Waterworks Maintenance and Extension. 

Operation (management, repairs and ex- 
tension) ■ . . $729,677 14 

Total maintenance and extension $729,677 14 

Interest on bonds •. . . 175,010 17 

Metropolitan water assessment 1,789,315 84 

Refunded water rates 1,757 85 



Total $2,695,761 00 

Disposition of balance: ' 

Net cost of works to date $17,257,461 89 

Bonded debt at date . . 4,249,500 00 

Value of sinking fund at date 3,637,956 71 

Average rate of interest, 3x^0 per cent. 

Statistics of Consumption of Water. 

Estimated total population at date, 618,000. 
Estimated population on lines of pipe, 618,000.* 
Passed through meters, 8,254,080,000 gallons. 
Percentage of consiunption metered, 22.9. 
Average daily consumption, 98,379,300 gallons. 
Gallons per day to each inhabitant, 158.* 

* No allowance for daily floating population. 



84 City Document No. 43. 

Statistics Relating to Distribution System. 

MAINS, 

Kind of pipe, cast iron. 

Sizes, from 4-inch to 48-inch. 

Extended, 57,527 feet during year. 

Discontinued, 25,496 feet during year. 

Total now in use, 753.17 miles. 

Cost of repairs per mile, $29.42. 

Number of leaks per mile, 3. 

Length of pipes less than 4 inches diameter, 2.14 miles. 

Nimiber of hydrants added during year (public and private), 86. 

Number of hydrants (public and private) now in use, 8,227. 

Number of stop gates added during year, 118. 

Nimiber of stop gates now in use, 10,001. 

Number of stop gates smaller than 4-inch, 17. 

Number of blow-offs, 380. 

Range of pressure on mains, 20 poimds to 90 pounds. 

services. 

Kind of pipe, lead, lead-lined iron and cast iron. 

Sizes, ^inch to 16-inch. 

Extended, 27,138 feet. 

Discontinued, 4,812 feet. 

Total now in use, 528.29 miles. 

Nmnber of service taps added during year, 1,255. 

Number now in use, 95,045. 

Average length of service, 29.34 feet. 

Average cost of service for the year, $23.66. 

Number of meters added, 434. 

Discontinued, 238. 

Number now in use, 5,380. 

Percentage of services metered, 5j%%. 

Percentage of receipts from metered water (meter rates divided by total 

from consumers), 47y*/o. 
Number of motors and elevators added, 13. 
Number now in use, 702. 




DECEMBER 8. 1908. 




JANUARY 17, 1909. 



Water Department. 85 



REPORT OF THE ENGINEER. 



Boston, February 1, 1909. 

William E. Hannan, Esq., 

Water Commissioner: 

Dear Sir, — The amount of work done by contract in the 
Water Department has largely increased during the past two 
years; this has added materially to the work of the Engineering 
Department, involving as it does not only the necessary 
studies, preparation of plans, specifications, etc., but the 
supervision of the work done and the making of estimates for 
payment. 

During the past year the number of these contracts num- 
bered thirty-seven. 

The 48-inch low service main laid last year from Tremont 
street through Prentiss street and Longwood avenue to 
Brookline avenue was extended in Longwood avenue to con- 
nect at Muddy river with the 48-inch line laid by the Met- 
ropolitan Water and Sewerage Board from Coolidge's Corner, 
Brookline; this new feed greatly strengthens the supply to 
the city and will still further strengthen it when the Met- 
ropolitan Board extends the 48-inch pipe from Coolidge's 
Corner to Chestnut Hill Reservoir, as it proposes to do early 
in the coming season. 

Two lines of flexible pipe were laid to improve the harbor 
service. One, between Long Island and Rainsford Island, 
a 4-inch pipe, 3,534 feet in length, to replace a pipe of the same 
size laid in 1895; and the other, between Moon Island and 
Long Island, a 12-inch pipe, 3,231 feet long, to supplement 
a 6-inch line laid in 1895, which for several years past has 
been too small to furnish a satisfactory supply for Long. 
Rainsford, Gallop's and Lo veil's islands and for Fort 
Warren; the effect of putting this 12-inch line into service is 
shown on opposite page by gauge dials from Long Island 
taken before and after the line was turned on. 

The flexible pipes were laid in a trench 5 feet deep, by 
means of a long chute extending from the deck of -a lighter to 
the bottom of the trench, the lighter being pulled ahead as 
each pipe was jointed. The pipes were tested for leakage 
before the trench was refilled and again after refilling, and the 



86 City Document No. 43. 

actual leakage found, under 85 pounds pressure, in the two 
lines after the completion of the work was as follows: 

3,534 linear feet, 4-inch, Long to Rainsford, 0.086 cubic feet per minute. 
3,231 linear feet, 12-inch, Moon to Long, 0.036 cubic feet per minute. 

The 20-inch and 30-inch low service and 16-inch high 
service mains on Warren Bridge are in a very unsafe location, 
the 30-inch and 16-inch pipes being particularly a source gf 
anxiety, as they have already failed several times by pulling 
apart. They are laid under the flooring of the bridge with 
six 90° bends, the unbalanced pressures from which can only be 
transferred b}^ rods and struts to the wooden bridge structure, 
which was built in 1883-84. On account of the age of the 
bridge there is nothing sufficiently substantial to fasten to and 
the result is frequent and dangerous movements of the pipes. 
The low service pipes have not been in use under usual con- 
ditions since 1898; when the state began to supply water to 
the city and the pressure in Charlestown was raised about 
15 pounds above that in the City Proper. It has, however, 
been necessary to put them in service a number of times when 
one or more of the regTilar supply mains have been out of 
commission. In the event of a very serious fire in the down- 
town district an effective head might only be maintained 
through their use, and the ability to obtain a supply from the 
northern low service of the Metropolitan waterworks by 
means of these pipes would be invaluable in time of con- 
flagration or serious accident by making available the large 
storage of Spot pond at a time when such help was 
vital. 

The 16-inch pipe on the Warren Bridge is the only feed for 
the high service district of Charlestown and its failure would 
destroy high service in that section. I recommend that a 
tunnel large enough to carry a 36-inch and a 16-inch pipe be 
built under the Charles river in the neighborhood of Warren 
Bridge, — the approximate cost of this work is 1100,000. 

East Boston is supplied by the Metropolitan Water and 
Sewerage Board through two lines of 24-inch pipe crossing 
Chelsea creek from Chelsea to East Boston. These pipes, laid 
in 1871 and 1900, are laid on the bottom of the creek and are 
entirely exposed above low water mark on each shore; their 
location is particularly dangerous on the Chelsea shore, where 
the pipes lie in a dock about 200 feet long and 100 feet wide, 
closely built up on each side; at one point a brick building, 
62 feet high, is located within 43 feet of the nearest pipe and 
on the opposite side of the dock a wooden building, 28 feet 
high, is 43 feet distant from the pipps. These buiklings are 



Water Department. 87 

very inflammable and in the event of their destruction by fire 
at a time when the tide was low, the waterpipes would be in 
great danger from falling walls and from heat. The safety 
of this supply is further imperiled by the weakened condition 
of the mains owing to electrolysis ; the actual conditions found 
in the pipes are described as follows on page 136 of the Sixth 
Annual Report of the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage 
Board: "Examination of the pipes showed that they were 
badly disintegrated; at one point a hole was cut clear through 
the pipe while making the examination, causing a leak which 
had to be plugged." 

A new and independent supply main for East Boston 
should be laid without delay. 

The '^double high" service of West Roxbury comprises 
substantially that part of the territory above grade 170. The 
supply for this service is pumped by the Metropolitan Water 
and Sewerage Board at a pumping station, formerly operated 
by the City of Boston, on Washington street, near Metropol- 
itan avenue. The water is delivered by the pumps directly 
into the mains and thence into a standpipe on Mt. Belle vue 
in the southerly end of the district ; from this standpipe the 
system extends about IJ miles in a westerly and more than 4 
miles in a northerly direction and for about 2| miles of the 
distance thi^ough a single line of pipe. The water supply 
under these conditions is very unreliable. I recommend for the 
purpose of guarding the supply that a second standpipe be 
built in the northerly part of the system, and that more 
storage be provided on Mt. Bellevue. 

The storage for the high service supply of the city is 
limited to Fisher Hill Reservoir, built by the city in 1887 and 
containing when full 15,000,000 gallons, and to a reservoir in 
Newton, on Waban Hill, containing 13,500,000 gallons, a 
total quantity of water sufficient for about a day's supply, 
while there is a high service storage reservoir containing 
41,400,000 gallons for the municipalities north of the city 
to safeguard a daily consumption of but 9,000,000 gallons 
daily. This condition of the City of Boston high service 
supply is not in accord with conservative practice; an acci- 
dent might occur to the pumping machinery at Chestnut 
Hill of such a nature that repairs could not be made in a 
day's time. I recommend that a storage reservoir or reser- 
voirs be built on the high service system, large enough to 
hold at least six days' supply for the entire high service of 
the city. This reservoir is of such importance to the city 
that if the Metropolitan Board for any reason cannot con- 
struct it the city should do so, especially as in the event of 



88 City Document No. 43. 

its construction by the state the city would have to pay for 
80 per cent of the cost of construction. 

The daily average consumption of water in the city during 
the past year was 98,379,300 gallons, or 158 gallons per cap- 
ita; of this amount at least one-third is preventable waste, 
due to leaks which it is possible to locate and to improper 
use of water. For several 3^ears past no serious attempt 
has been made to restrict waste, and the water takers have 
lost sight of the fact that water is a commodity of value and 
that its use should be restricted. Under the provisions of 
chapter 524 of the Acts of 1907 the city is required to meter 
annually 5 per cent of the unmetered services as well as all 
new ones. Assuming that eventually meters on every ser- 
vice will bring about a normal consumption, still other 
methods are necessary if the desned result is to be had in a 
reasonable length of time; in fact, other methods must be 
employed in any event if the large waste in the main pipes 
and services is to be checked. 

The Deacon waste water meter is an instrument that 
records the rate of flow into any particular section of the pipe 
system and, when operated in connection with an efficient 
inspection service, it forms a most efficient means of detecting 
waste. The city now is equipped with eighty-five of these 
meters, or enough to cover the entire city; they should be 
operated in connection with a thoroughly efficient force of 
inspectors, and a rigid system of fines should be imposed in 
case of failm'e to repair leaks after reasonable notice. In 
addition, the water used in public buildings, schoolhouses, etc., 
should be at once metered and a charge made at least for all 
water wasted. Further, all city and state departments should 
be requked to make daily or weekly returns to the Water 
Commissioner, giving data by which the water used from 
hydrants and standpipes may be (approximately) estimated. 
There seems to be no reason why the consumption should 
not be reduced at least to 100 gallons per capita. 

Yours respectfully, 

William Jackson, 

City Engineer. 













































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90 



City Document No. 43. 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 



Boston Water Department. 

Daily average amount used during year 1908 (gallons) 
Daily average amount used through meters during year 

1908 (gallons) 

Number of ser\dces February 1, 1909 .... 
Number of meters in ser-\dce February 1, 1909 . 
Number of m^t^rs under super\dsion February 1, 1909 
Number of elevators under supervision February 1, 1909 
Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles, Feb 

rnsiry 1. 1909 

Number of pubhc hydrants in use February 1, 1909 
Yearly revenue from annual rate^ (assessed) 
Yearly revenue from metered water (assessed) . 
Percentage of total revenue from metered water 
Yearly expense of maintenance .... 



98,379,300 

22,557,600 

95,045 

5,380 

118 

584 

753.17 
7,919 

1,382,789.78 

1,260,363.18 

47.7 

$551,773.02 



Water Department. 91 



CIVIL ORGANIZATION OF THE WATERWORKS, FROM 
THEIR COMMENCEMENT TO FEBRUARY 1, 1909. 

Water Commissioners. 

Nathan Hale,* James F. Baldwin,* Thomas B. Curtis.* From 
May 4, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

Engineers for Construction. 

John B. Jervis, of New York, Consulting Engineer. From May, 
1846, to November, 1848.* 

E. S. Chesbrough, Cliief Engineer of the V/estern Division. From 
May, 1846, to January 4, 1850.* 

William vS. Whitwell, Cliief Engineer of the Eastern Division. From 
May, 1846, to January 4, 1850.* 

Engineers Having Charge of the Works. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Engineer. From November 18, 1850, to October 1, 
1855.* 

George H. Bailey, Assistant Engineer. From January 27, 1851, 
to July 19, 1852.* 

H. S. McKean, Assistant Engineer. From July 19, 1852, to October 1, 
1855.* 

James Slade, Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863.* 

N. Henry Crafts, Assistant Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to 
April 1, 1863. 

N. Henry Crafts, City Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to November 25, 
1872. 

Thomas W. Davis, Assistant Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to Decem- 
ber 8, 1866.* 

Henry M. Wightman, Resident Engineer at Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 
From February 14, 1866, to November, 1870.* 

A. Fteley, Resident Engineer on construction of Sudbury river 
works. From May 10, 1873, to April 7, 1880.* 

Joseph P. Davis, City Engineer. From November 25, 1872, to March 
20, 1880. 

Henry M. Wightman, City Engineer. From April 5, 1880, to April 3, 
1885.* 

William Jackson, City Engineer. From April 21, 1885, to present 
time. 

Desmond FitzGerald, Resident Engineer on Additional Supph'. 
From February 20, 1889, to January 1, 1896. 

After January 4, 1850, Messrs. E. S. Chesbrough, W. S. Whitwell 
and J. Avery Richards were elected a water board, subject to the 
direction of a joint standing committee of the City Council, by an ordi- 
nance passed December 31, 1849, wliich was limited to keep in force one 
year; and in 1851 the Cochituate Water Board was estabhshed. 

* Deceased. 



92 City Document No. 43. 



CocHiTUATE Water Board. 
Presidents of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, elected in 1851, and resigned April 7, 1856. J 
John H. "Wilkins, elected in 1856, and resigned June 5, 1860.$ 
Ebenezer Johnson, elected in 1860, term expired April 3, 1865.$ 
Otis Norcross, elected in 1865, and resigned January 15, 1867. t 
John H. Thorndike, elected in 1867, term expired April 6, 1868.$ 
Xath.\niel J. Bradlee, elected April 6, 1868, and resigned January 4 

1871.$ 
Ch-^jiles H. Allen, elected January 4, 1871, to May 4, 1873.$ 
John A. Haven, elected May 4, 1873, to December 17, 1874.$ 
Thomas Gogin, elected December 17, 1874, and resigned May 31, 1875.$ 
L. Miles Standish, elected August 5, 1875, to July 31, 1876.$ 

Members of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, 1851, 52, 53, 54 and 55.$ 

John H. Wilkins, 1851, 52, 53, *56, 57, 58 and 59.$ 

Henry B. Rogers, 1851, 52, 53, *54 and 55.$ 

Jonathan Preston, 1851, 52, 53 and 56.$ 

James W. Seaver, 1851.$ 

Samuel A. Eliot, 1851.$. 

John T. Heard, 1851.$ 

Ad-^i W. Thaxter, Jr., 1852, 53, 54 and bS.X 

Sampson Reed, 1852 and 1853.$ 

Ezra Lincoln, 1852.$ 

Thomas Sprague, 1853, 54 and bb.X 

S-^iUEL Hatch, 1854, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 61.$ 

Ch-\rles Stoddard, 1854, 55, 56 and 57.$ 

William Washburn, 1854 and bb.% 

TiSDALE Drake, 1856, 57, 58 and 59.$ 

Thomas P. Rich, 1856, 57 and 58.$ 

John T. Dingle y, 1856 and 59.$ 

Joseph Smith, 1856.$ 

Ebenezer Johnson, 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 and 64.$ 

Samuel Hall, 1857, 58, 59, 60 and 61.$ 

George P. French, 1859, 60, 61, 62 and 63.$ 

Ebenezer Atkins, 1859.$ 

George Dennie, 1860, 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65.$ 

Clement Willis, 1860.$ 

G. E. Pierce, 1860.$ 

Jabez Frederick, 1861, 62 and 63.$ 

George Hinman, 1862 and 63. 

John F. Pray, 1862.$ 

J. C. J. Brown, 1862. 

Jonas Fitch, 1864, 65 and 66.$ 

Otis Norcross, *1865 and 66.$ 

John H. Thorndike, 1864, 65, 66 and 67.$ 

Benjamin F. Stevens, 1866, 67 and 68. 

William S. Hills, 1867. 

Charles R. Train, 1868.$ 

Joseph M. Wightman, 1868 and 69.$ 

* Mr. .John H. Wilkins resigned November 15, 1855, and Charles Stoddard was 
elected to fill the vacancy. Mr. Henry B. Rogers resigned October 22, 1865. Mr. 
Wilkins was re-elected February, 1856, and chosen president of the Board, which 
office he held until his resignation, .June 5, 1860, when Mr. Ebenezer Johnson was 
elected president; and .July 2, Mr. I.. .Miles Standish was -elected to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the resignation of Mr. "Wilkins. Otis Norcross resigned January 15, 
1867, ha\-ing been elected Mayor of the city. Benjamin James served one year, in 
18.58, and was re-elected in 1868. Alexander Wadsworth served six years, 1864-69, 
and was re elected in 1872. Thomas Gogin resigned May .31, 1875. Charles E. Powers 
was elected July 15, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Gogin. 

+ Deceased. 



Water Department. 93 

Benjamin James,*1858, 68 and 69. t 

Francis A. Osborn, 1869. 

Walter E. Hawes, 1870. J 

John O. Poor, 1870. 

HoLLis R. Gray, 1870. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70 and 71. J 

George Lewis, 1868, 69, 70 and 71. J 

Sidney Squires, 1871. J 

Charles H. Hersey, 1872. 

Charles H. Allen, 1869, 70, 71 and 72.$ 

Alexander Wadsworth, *1864, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69 and 72.$ 

Charles R. McLean, 1867, 73 and 74.$ 

Edward P. Wilbur, 1873 and 74.$ 

John A. Haven, 1870, 71, 72, 73 and 74.$ 

Thomas Gogin, 1873, 74 and 75.*$ 

Amos L. Noyes, 1871, 72 and 75. 

William G. Thacher, 1873, 74 and 75.$ 

Charles J. Prescott, 1875.$ 

Edward A. White, 1872, 73, 74, 75 and 76.$ 

Leonard R. Cutter, 1871, 72, 73, 74, 75 and 76.t$ 

L. Miles Standish, 1860, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 74, 75 and 76.t$ 

Charles E. Powers, *1875 and 1876.t$ 

Solomon B. Stebbins, 1876. f 

Nahum M. Morrison, 1876.t$ 

Augustus Parker, 1876. t$ 

* See note on preceeding page. 

t Served until the organization of the Boston Water Board. 

X Deceased. 



1 BOSTON WATER BOARD. 
ORGANIZED JULY 31, 1876. 



* Timothy T. Sawyer, from July 31, 1876, to May 5, 1879; and from 

May 1, 1882, to May 4, 1883. 

* Leonard R. Cutter, from July 31. 1876, to May 4, 1883. 

* Albert Stanwood, from July 31, 1876, to May 7, 1883. 

* Francis Thompson, from May 5, 1879, to May 1, 1882. 
William A. Simmons, from May 7, 1883, to August 18, 1885. 
George M. Hobbs, from May 4, 1883, to May 4, 1885. 
John G. Blake, from May 4, 1883, to August 18, 1885. 
William B. Smart, from May 4, 1885, to March 18, 1889. 

* Horace T. Rockwell, from August 25, 1885, to April 25, 1888.^ 
Thomas F. Doherty, from August 26, 1885, to May 5, 1890; and from 

May 4, 1891, to July 1, 1895. 
Robert Grant, from April 25, 1888, to July 17, 1893. ^ 
Philip J. Doherty, from March 18, 1889, to May 4, 1891. 

* John W. Leighton, from May 5, 1890, to July 1, 1895. 
William S. McNary, from August 15, 1893, to November 5, 1894.3 
Charles W. Smith, from January 23, 1895, to July 1, 1895. 

1 Under chapter 449 of the Acts of 1895 the Boston Water Board was abolished, and 
the Water Supply and Water Income Departments consolidated and placed under the 
charge of one Water Commissioner. 

* Deceased. 2 Dig,^ in office. 'Resigned. 



94 City Document Xo. 43. 



1 WATER COMMISSIONERS. 

Charles W. Smith, from July 1, 1895, to January 20, 1896.3 
Jeremiah J. McCarthy (Acting), from January 20 to February 1, 1896. 
JoHX R. Murphy, from February 1, 1896, to October 17, 1899. ^ 
Benja^iin W. Wells (Acting), from October 17, 1899, to December 28,, 
1899. 

* Augustus P. Martin, from December 28, 1899, to March 13, 1902.2 
J.a:hes Donovax (Acting), from March 14 to March 17, 1902. 
Eugene S. Sulliv.\n, from March 17, 1902, to January 11, 1906. ^ 
William Jackson (Acting), from January 11, 1906, to March 1, 1906. 
AViLLLA-M J. Welch, from March 1, 1906, to April 27, 1908.3 
William E. Hannan, from April 27, 1908, to present time. 

Assistant Watei^ Commissioners. 

Jeremiah J. McCarthy, from July 1, 1895, to January 20, 1896. 
Edward C. Ellis, from February 17, 1896, to November 1, 1900. 

* Melvin p. Freeman, from February 7, 1900, to March 9, 1902.3 
William H. O.akes, from November 1, 1900, to March 9, 1902.3 
'Eugene S. Sullivan, from Marck 10 to March 17, 1902. 

John J. Le-\hy, from March 21, 1902, to March 1, 1906. 
Isaac Rosnosky. from March 10, 1902, to present time. 
Joseph J. Norton, from March 1, 1906, to March 26, 1908. 
James P. Lennon, from March 1, 1906, to March 26, 1908. 

Chief Clerk oj the Department. 
Walter E. Swan. 

General Superintendent Income Division. 
Joseph H. Caldwell. 

In Charge of Distribution Division. 

Assistant Commissioner, James P. Lennon, to March 26, 1908. 

Chief Clerk, George H. Finneran, from March 26, 1908, to present time. 

City Engineer and Engineer of the Department. 
William Jackson. 



1 See note on preceding page. 
Deceased. 2 Died in office. 3 Resigned