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^OB'tt'i^ ^OA^-T^aAJ^ 



TENTH ANNUAL KEPORT 



OH TBI 



•* CONDITION AND IMPROVEMENT 



» 



OF THB 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



AKD 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 



OF THB 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, 

Fof tlie Teat 1868. y<^^\\ \A\)l{ 



BY LYMAN C. DRAPER, 

•TATB BUPBBIXTIXDIIIT Of PUBLIO INSTBUOTIOH. 



ATWOOD 4 BUBLEBy PBINTIB8. 

1868. . 




^^e-ffi^ ^aAy?^&^t£6p 



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^ 



TENTH ANNUAL BEPOET 



ON TBS 



CONDITION AND IMPROVEMENT 



OF THB 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



AND 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 



or TRB 



STATE OF WISCONSIN, 



For tlie Tear 1858. 



BY LYMAN C. DRAPER, 

STATB BUPISIXTIXDIXT Of PUBLIC IX8T&U0TI0H. 



\ 
I 



ATWOOD * RUBLER, PSIRIIBfl. 

1868. , 



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OtnoB Of SmtBimmhwm of Publio InstbuotioNi 

Madison, December lOth, 1858. 



To His Exgbllbnot A. W. Randall, 

Chv^mor of the State of WUooi^in^ 



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Snt :— I h^ewhh tnsMiiiit> tliroi^' ' yM, to ihe LejpikttbriL 
the Aimoal Beport of tins Depiurtaiieiit. '!!'' 

Iltare'ihefhbno^'tobeyiriib'miioiii^eet, ' ; , 

« . Yoar obedi|f)otiiierva&|b| 

LTMAN C. DRAPHBut 



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TENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



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To THB Legislature :— r 



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It is made the duty'df the SuperiAtekdent of PuDiIc Instruc- 
tion to report annually to the Legislature : 
olf^•4L'Bi«Q<tIWt<af ,aU jth^ Govtftioni fioh«tol fifiortsti receiyeA by 
jimi from the several clei^ ,j9f,.tbi^<p<^i^7: B9;^4ifof :8ji^}er;^^ 

"A Btatemeift,.Qf:..1ihff.,/p9P^^tipn.of,7tb^,C9iW in 

this State; \ ., . ,, 

'< Estimates^ tiid^iUM>TiW(8"i!f^he expenditure^ of the school 

^' Flans for the improvement and management of the Common 
School Fund, and for the better arrangement of the Common 
Schools ; and 

'^ All such matters relating to his office, and the Common 
Schools of the State, as he shall deem it expedient to communi- 
«te." 

And furthermore, it is made the duty of the State Superin- 
tendent ^^ to open such correspondence abroad as may enable 
him to obtain, so far as practicable, information relative to the 

System of Common Scnools, and its improvements in other 
tates and Countries, which he shall embody in his Annual Re- 
Eirt to the Legislature ;" and he shall also ^^ annually submit to 
6 Legislature, with his report, a statement of his travels in 
Biakin^ official visits during the past year, and of his expendi- 
tures for that purpose." i 
In seeordance with these provisions of law, I have the honor 
iopreeent the Tenth Aknual Rsport from tioia I>e^^tfi«iiV. 



-■>' 



I 



ABSTRACrf OF^ flOHOOL REI*ORTS. = ' 

I . ' ' 
/ ■ ■ 

Appended to this Report will, be found a fiill aJb»tract of all 
the reports received from the Clerks of the County Boards, of 
Supervisors. But three cpuAties remain to be heard from-^. 
Burnett, Dunn, and La Pointe.* Burnett has never been orgaor, 
ized, and no report from it need be expectedi( Dunn cooniy 
had the misfortune, earlv in November last, to have its.Cooi^ 
House and county records destroyed by fire, ajid thus, doubtlefk^^ 
its report delayed. La Pointe county has never yet made a re-^ 
port since the organization of the State ; it ought to e]\joy it0^ 
share in the benefits of tho School Fund apportionmevit. I 
have repeatedly written to the clerks of the Boards of Supendr; 
sors of both Dunn and La Pointe counties, urging them, not- 
withstanding their delay, still to send in their reports. 

As the value of such statistics depends much upon the con-» 
trasts we make of them^ I shall proceed to point out briefly spn^^ 
of the lessons they are calculated to teach us. 

Number of Children, — The whole number of children rcnprt- 
ed between the ages of four and twenty years, adding for Duim 
county 421, the same as last year, is ^64,078 — showing an ixk-r 
crease over last year of 22,58i3. Last year's increase over th^. 
year preceding was 27,659 ; so this year exhibits a less in-, 
crease by 5,126 than its predecessor. It may astonish noi; % 
few to learn, that according to the most recent statistics at com,-:, 
mand, only the States of Sew York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illi* 
nois and Lidiana — and in this relative order — surpass Wisconsin 
in their number of reported children of school age. Were the 
264,078 children of this State to form in single file, allowing 
each a space of four feet, they would make a continuous army 
two hundred vnle$ in length ! What an array of children, — the 
future hope of the State T Their educational welfare is a matter, 
of immense importance ; and it behooves the Legislature to pei;^ 
form their solemn and weighty responsibilities to these children 
that their right education ma(f add millions to the wealth of tibu^ 
State. 

School Attendance. — Last year the total number of childrea 
of school age was 241,545, of which 153,613 attended schooL 
This year, out of 264,078, there has been a reported attendance; 
of 16(7,110— tins showing that lastyear there were 87,932 childr€i% 
in the State who did not attend school, and 96,968 of the sioqi^, 
class this year. Some of these reported as non*attendaj[its at the 
pqblic schools, have attended private schools, academiei^^Tid qqV. 

* La Peiute Cowafy jins since reported. 



leges, while ill-health and other causes have prevented the at- 
tendance of others. Still, after making all reasonable deductions 
for these causes, it will be found that about one third of all our 
youth of school age are not availingthemselvcs of the benefits 
dt the education prorided for all. ^This is to be lamented. Yet 
even this is a decided improvement since the organization of the 
school system of the State ; for the First Annual Report of this 
]>0partment exhibited, in round numbers, only 82,000 out of 
70,000 children As attending school — considerably less than half. 
n^ last Report of the School Commissioner of Ohio, shows 
obnsiderably less than one half of the school children of the 
State attending the public schools ; in Maine I4ss than half ; in 
Indiana the same ; in Illinois, by the report of 1849, less than 
one , quarter ; in New York and Massachusetts about three 
fborths. Wc are, then; doing in this particular as well as the 
average; but we should not be satisfied, so long as there is a 
possibility of doing better. Nearly a hundred thousand chiU 
dren in Wisconsin growing up in ignorance, fit sulyectsfor crime 
9SbA misery, and fit candidates for the penitentiary ! It ought 
not so to be. 

What is the remedy? I confess it is not altogether clear.— 
The idea 6f compulsory measures to secure more general at- 
tclndance, is not exactly suited to the genius of our free govern- 
ihent. A late writer upon this subject remarks: ''In many 
of the European States, parents are compelled -to send their 
dhildren to school. In Prussia, absentees are liable to full 
S^ool fees, and a fine or a day's labor ini compensation. In 
Saxony, nothing is an excuse for absence ft*om school but sick- 
ness, and attendance is compelled by fine and imprisonment. — 
In Hanover, the ecclesiastical authorities are charged with the 
ihspection of schools, where every child fihom the age of six is 
li^uired to attend, unless sufficiently instructed elsewhere. In 
Bavaria, no child is allowed to leave school until he has arrived 
alt' the age of twelve years, and then not without an examinatioti 
ttid -a certificate, which is necessary to apprenticeshi;^ and mar- 
iSifge. In Austria, all the children from the age' of six years 
ihinst go to school till they are twelve years of age.' A Com- 
missioner from the French Government, who has been examining 
the school systems of Germany, urges the necessity of compul- 
B6ry instruction-^of some system which shall compel the 
Altbiidfince upon instruction of some kind of all the children of 
the State. If it is wise in the State to tAke authority out of the 
parents' hands, it is in such « case as this. Edtication makes 
Ale citizen, and the evils of ignorance, or a misdirected educa- 
/»!u^ do no^ faXi simply upon individuals, but are entailed upon 
society. " Id MaaaackuaettB^ which Bfa0W«tioWgj(^«si^^teiiduv.ce^ 



eyery p^araon wliodo^fi not send hifl' duld^ between ike m^ of 
ei^tand feurteen jeare, to school, at least twelve weeks, of 
which six Weeks shall be oonsecntiy e, daring each year, is buVt 
ject to a fine of twenty dollars, unless rendering a sufficient ejh 



While our State is probably not yet prepared to adopt covnr 
pulsory measures, I would respectflulysugeest whether persuasiye 
iBflaenoes ms,^ not be resorted to witii p^t? Some States a|f| 
agitating the idea, whether apportionining their School FundSp 
not to the whole number of cnildren, but to the attendancej mighi 
not prove an incentive to the districts to secure as full an atten-; 
dance as possible? Hon. Hbni^t Barnard suggests, wheUier. 
this proposition misht not be combined with the present practice. 
— say one half of the amount apportioned to go to the wholis 
number of children, and the other half to attenaance ; and, fur^ 
thermore, whether the longer and more punctually parents send 
their children to school, the less in proportion should be thei? 
local school tax ? We should be thus holding out powerful mo- 
tives for attendance. If it should be thought, that this mixcji 
system of apportioning the School money would not be in accor- 
duince with the provisions of the Constitution, an amendment to 
that instrument, in a matter of so vital importance, might be 
deemed not only necessary, but indispensable to the best inter- 
ests of the people. 

Length of Jschools, — The first School Report of this State, 
nine years ago, gave a trifle less than four months as the average 
length of time the schools in the State were taught. This aver- 
age has steadily increased, until this year's statistics show five 
and three-fifths months. Out of fifty-two Counties reported, 
thirty-five of them exhibit an average of from five to eight, 
months and three quarters ; fourteen others range from four to 
five months, and three Counties less than four months. It is un**. 
questionably a struggle for not a few of the frontier districts to 
provide the necessary means to maintain even a three month'i 
school ; yet does not the general cause of education demand that 
the State should take a step in advance, and reauire a four month'i 
school to be kept, in order to share in the School Fund appor- 
tionment 7 Such an amendment would not, I should think, con- 
flict with the Constitution, which requires ''at least a three 
month's'' school — this is simply the minimum, and by the same 
article it is provided, that " provisions* Bhall be made by law for 
the distribution of the income of the School Fund ;" suid among 
such provisions it would, I should conceive, be eminently properi 
and strictly within the province of the Legislature, to elevate 
this standard if thev tbongbt the best interests of Qduealioii t^- 
qaired it. I Bhoaldmmh ratter suggest a six mouih' a ac^oo\) 



A-t"-: 



s 

lied frontiers, strng^ng m the^ are with poveriy ; and should 
^eatly fear that suon an extension at present, like an exoessive 
taoriff, would prore prohibitory in its operation, and thus deprive 
them of schools altogether. But an extension to four months, 
I believe, would not oe oppressive, but would prove a powerftil 
ix&]petus to the great cause of education in our otate. ' 
" jVumber of l)istrict8. — The number of separate districts in 
the State is 8,181. and 1,566 parts of districts, which form joint 
districts — and estimatizM^ two and a half parts as equal to a 
district, we shall have 6z6 to add to the 3,181, giving a grand 
total of 3,807 districts. Last year there were reported 8,018 
districts, 1,360 parts or 544 jomt* districts, making altogether 
8,562 districts. There is an increase of 245 districts over last 
year ; and the total number has very nearly doubled since the 
organization of the State. This increase has resulted from an 
Extension of our settlements, and also from the very ii\jurious 
practice of dividing and thus ensmalling their number. 

Number and value of School Houses. — Nine years ago, when 
Ae first School Report was made, 674 school houses were report- 
ed, nearly one half of which were of log construction ; last year 
the total number was 2,945 ; this year 3,482, of which something 
over one third are logs — increase of school houses over last year 
687. 

The total valuation of the school house property of Wiscon- 
sin nine years ago was $75,810 75 ; last year, $863,478 49 ; 
this year,$l,127,191 69 — increase in valuation since last year, 
|2';3,713 20. The 3,482 school houses in the State range in 
value as duly reported to this Department, from one cent to 
$123,000 — averaging $321 53. Milwaukee reports the most costly 
school house, $28,000 ; "^^anesvillc one at $25,000 ; Racine 
one at $12,000 ; Dodge, Kenosha and La Crosse, one each at 
$10,000 ; Sheboygan and Waukesha, one each at $8,000 ; Dane 
otie at $6,000 ; Grant, Jefferson and Outagamie, one each at 
$S,000 ; Brown, Portage and Winnebago, one each at $4,000 ; 
• Fond d.u Lac, Green, Ozaukee, Richland and Sauk, one each at 
$3,000 ; and Manitowoc, Eau Claire, Juneau and Waushara, one 
each at $2,000. It is highly creditable to the liberality and en- 
lightened zeal of these several localities, that they have done so 
nobly in this direction ; and especially so to the new frontier 
counties of La Crosse, Outagamie, Tortage, Richland, Sauk, 
Eau Claire, Juneau and Waushara. Other trontier counties have 
also done exceedingly well — Green Lake, one school house, 
$2,500 ; Pierce and St. Croix one each, at $1,500 ; Bad Ax, one 
»t $1^300; and Chippewa, one at $1,225. 
, JT/najresrs ago there were 611 school house sites containing 
^fejv ^Am an acre; iast jear, 2,869 ; ttite yeaT,%,ftft^i— vMst^jwi^ 
^'^Wr laeiy^ar nearly 'TOO. Thert w<mld «ppete V) \wi wTs««Bisi% 



or 



oyer TOO faohool house tdfei oonta&Bingkti acre'.or more: There 
were, nine years sinoe, 682 scbdol bonse aities > iminclosed ;. Uisf 

^ear, 2,470 ; ibis year, 3,099 — shoiriiig only about 700 8cho>{d 
onse sites encloised, orione in abbut eVery nve asd a half. Thia 
exhibits a sad nieglect ; for where there are no enclosures, we cs4^ 
hardly expect that any attention hak bedn! ^aid to shade treea^ 
and other out dooir culture and nieatnefUy so'w^ calculated to aM 
charms and attractions to' the school house and its surrouiidingit^ 
But few of ue fully realize the influence of these' a{>parentlj 
minor matters, in either attractiiig the youthful miiid to, or r^ 
polling it from, the achool and all its attendant blessings. 

There were, nine years ago, 881 school houses without bladcr 
boards ; last year, 940 ; and this year, 1,072 — thus showing nearly 
ly one quarter of the school houses diestitute of thia y«ry impoiS; 
taut appendage. Nine yeai's since, 474 school houses were with* 
out out-line maps ; last year, 2,482 ; and this yeajr, 2,346 — thqa 
showing nearlytwo-fifths of the school houses destitute. : ■' 

Teachers^ Wages. — Nine Jrears ago, the ayernge of wagea 
paid to male teachers per month was $15 22, and to female 
teachers $6 92; last year to inale teachers $24 60, and to femalo 
teachers $15 16; and this year to liialia teachers $27 02, and id 
female teachers $14 92— an increase oh male teacher^ of $2 4&y 
and a decrease on female teachers of 24 cents. In Douglas couikr- 
ty, the highest wages were this year paid to a male teacher, $50 
er month ; in Buffitlo county thei lowest, $20 41 ; while in Doug: 
as county also the highest wages were paid to a female teacher^ 
$29 00, and in Adams the lowest, $9 68. It will be seen, that 
in the course of nine years teachers' wages haye yery nearly 
doubled — the wages of female teachers more than doubled; anft 
this may be regarded as a fair index -^ the adyanced charaot^ 
of the schools themselyes, and the yalue of the instructioii inf* 
parted. The following table exhibits the gratifying progress 
made from 1849 to the present tinie: ' '} 



18 



1 


I 


1 f 


t 


Tears. 


Average am't 
paid Male 
Teaoh^rs. 


Average amfjk 
paiA Fenaia 
Teachera. . , 


1849 




$15 22 
17 14 

17 15 
15 83 

18 17 
18 75 
23 10 
25 38 


«S.1»' 


1850. .-..;..... 


1851 ^ 


8 64 


1852 - 


1863 

1864 


••••••••• ••••• • m^ m • 


9 9!4 
11 00 


1855 


12 08O 


1856 ....... 




1857, .., . 

M». 


: l.V. * " J • 


84.90 \ \6VS^ 



2a 



-^i<c.^ ' 



IB 

'School 2^ran0f*<^Thei;teU. munW of Bohool * Distriot 
LiVrartes reported bitt tokt,' 1^108; this year 1^76— increaBe 
fiT2; total numbeff of vofaiiiieB last year 28^28; this year 88,766 
•Apparent iiietease' 10^137 voluinesk Jad^ins firom the fiict that 
ttore connties this year report an increase m their Ebraries, than 
rwort money expleiided for* the pnrpose, it is reasonable to pre- 
Ume that either all the expenditoj^e for books is not reported, or 
that books were returned this ^ear which were ne^eoted last 
year. 9o that it is not (possible to get at the amount really ex* 
pendisd for library purposes. Last year 19,604 yolumes* were 
loaned for reading; this year 84,104— showing the very marked 
inierease oveir last year of 14^600 volumes loaned to readers. 
I^nm 1849 to'l^e present time, theore has been an average of lesil 
than a volume a year added' to the Schobl District Libraries of 
tiJe^ State — a fact that should not onlv cause profound regret, but 
Sffouse us to the absolute necessity of some improved S^ool Li- 
brary system. - Impressed with the tincommon miporkunce of this 
matter, special pains have been taken, by personal visits and 
CMrrespondcnoe, to learn the practical workings of the library 
S^^tems of other States; and this whole subject will be presentea, 
ill a* subsequent part of this Report, in all its bearings, together 
with such practical deductions as the facts and experiences group-^ 
ed together Would seem to warrant. 

^'(fhese educational facts, as a whole, show that we are making 
progress in Wisconsin. Schools and school-houses, pupils ana 
attendance,' are steadily increasing; and the increased demand 
fbr' better qualified teachers, and the increased wa^es they receive 
1^ their services^ are gratifying and unmistakened evidences that 
fte gobd' work is gradually aidvancing and improving. ' The estab- 
lishmeHt'of NormU SchoHs, the growing interest manifested ih 
the Teachers' State Convention, together with the measure of 
Ssocessand useAilness attendant upon the Wisetmfin Journal of 
Sdticattony are so many additional evideoices of process, whicn 
should not be lightly esteemed or overlooked in making up the 
general estimapte of the onward march of education in W isconsin. 
Ziiat ^^ause wihich last year expended for teachers' wages alone 
OVOT iwo'Tiundred ana seventy thousand dollars^ and this year 
over three hundred and thirty-four thousand dollars — over $64,- 
OGQi this year more than the last, and over six hundred thousand 
dollars during the two years together, is one which very properly 
claims the wahn sympathies and zealous efforts of every true 
sou oir Wisconsin^ both in and out of the Le^slature. 

XnuoATioif — ^how vast the significance of that single word! 
It^ConVeys to tis the idea of the mental training of millions of 
olf^drpn who /fLre [aoon to fill the places we now occupy. ^^ Each[ 
— (w these miUiouBy " sm^gests Mo&AOBi l&AiiSiIsi, ^^ i«vt\i t;%N^Ma% 



edacfttion, id capable of wddikig; Mfiuething^ to the Mtt of "hiMMli- 
liappiness, and subtracting 0<Hnet}iiiig fh>m the ^dm of huniatf ' 
miaerj; and many great souls amottgSt thekh there, are, who tfttf)^. 
become instruments of turning tbecouifse of nations, as the riveM 
of waters are turned." ' 

Important as all concede it to b^^/yetiibw- little ^rneStait^; 
tion is given by the itMBS of our people, by parents ahd by legis^' 
laiors, to the subject of education, ft vitally concerns us all,' 
and yet few seem to realise the evcv-living fact. ' ^^ Improvements' 
in useful, and often in useless arts, command solid prices,^-*-tweil-^' 
^, fifty, or even a hundred thoufcand dollars,— wil^ impt^ve^ 
* ments in eduoartion^ in the means' of oWining tiew guilhitttleir' 
for the permanence of all we hold dear, and for making' oiir cbil^^ 
dren and our childrens' children wiser and lia{jpier|-^heSe' 'iit'6^ 
scarcely topics of conversation or inquiry/^ • ; ' '= 'J - .' •" 

The total expenditures of our State for the ni tie 'years since 
its organisation up to the first o^ January last^ was, in romiiT 
numbers, one million and nine hundred thousand dollars ; white; 
the total amount 6t the School Fund income ap^rtioned to flie' 
several towns, including the apportionment in April last,^ amounts' 
to $836,320 87, which was distributed on the express conditioil' 
of at least half the amount being levied and collected by thb: 
several districts enjoy u^g this educational bounty, which wOulA'^ 
at least add one hafr to making it $1,262,980 56. It would- 
be a very moderate estimate to say, that during these ninei: ' 
years past at least fifty per cent, more has been raised by UA-^i 
ation tor school jpurposes in Wisconsin than has been actuiJIf 
required in order to share the State bounty, which would brings 
up the grand total expended for common schools since the organ^' 
ixation of the State to over & million and« half of doUi^rs, together - 
with oyer a million of dollars more for schdoUhons^ property-^ 
thus exceeding, by more than one-quarter, all Othisr State -expett;^ 
ditures for the same period put together. Is not,'theh, the Mtu-^ 
cational inteiirat of our State, in its pecuciiary aspect albnel^on^of 
immense importance? It may well be asked, with the learnt 
Bishop Bbrkblet, 'Sirhether a wise St4tehath any interest neardt^ 
heart than the education of youth ?'^ ' The eGlu<iatiott Of^ the^peo^ 
pie should receive far fljreater attention froikl' bur' legitiatorsthotl- 
is ordinarily bestowed tipon it J for, 1 will venture to say, tH*t' 
in each successive session of two ^r throe months of tiie Legis^^ 
lature, scaroely ss many day s are ' devoiied to the -paramouttt- 
claiims and mighty interests connectiEld wiibh tiie edu<»ttion'of all'^ 
the children of the State. • = ' ^ 'i^^ 

' "Kow, sir," exclaims the elo(jiientr'EDW;AltD' EvBRBtT^* <* 1 am 
odmmg to the point wbieb I wi8bi6 ilhistrale ; 'ttnd \t va \ibiBit^ 
Whi^aim&buii^mdmMafmvld kh6^dA^ 'd<y to 'Mil \k>d'y V ^^ 



«^'r 



no jlpiowp conununity of me% mseji abpvethe /^bject^at level <ur 
QNT^gQ life, and pUbcd on a soil and in a oliiaate.that yield ai 
ooippetent Buppljr of wholesome fpod^.hiaa ever done -to the pehr. 
ishing corporeal fnune ; whi^t nq parent, in whose bosom. the last 
drop of the milk of human kindness and nsitural love was not 
d|ied up, would 'do to hi$ ehild,*-rthat is done, and permitted to 
be done, without sprpple and without rebuke, to the immortal 
ifltellect ; and this in en] i^htci;^ lands and in Ghristiaja comma- 
nicies, composed of men who know that they have not only miuda 
to enUehten, but isoijils to save. I saj the monstrous lad un« 
natural. cmelty^ never practised to himself or another, as fat as. 
the body is oonoemed, unless by an idiot or a .savag(i, is dailvy 
oom^tantly, reinprselcssly, practised upon that which exqels the' 
body, by all the difference between itilnd imd matter, spirit and 
clay, heaven and earth. ... ,,l 

V Thci.bodv is, not starved, except in cases of cruel necessity. 
Npt starved: It is nourished ana pampered by whatever can 
provoke or satisfy the appetite ; the healthy child is nursed and 
noarished.up into the healthy m^n ; the tiny fingers, which noW. 
weary with the weight of the rattle, will be trained up to a grasp 
of stidel ; . the little limbs will learn to stretch, unfatigacd, over, 
plain and mountain ; while the inward intellectual being will bo 
allowed to remain ionnourishedy negl(dcted, and stinted. A rea- 
son, oapable of being nurturod into the vigorous apprehension of 
aU.!4rutn, will remain uninformed and torpid, at the mercy of low 
prejudice and error« A capacity, whicli might have explored 
lUlitttre, mastered its secrets, and weighed the orbs of heaven in 
the golden scales of science, shall pass through life, clouded with 

ilaperstition, ignorant of the most familiar truth, unconscious of 
its own heavenly nature:.: There; is the body of a man, sound, 
athletic, well-proportioned ; but the. mind within is punv, 

. dwarfed, and starved. Could we perceive it with our bodily 
si^f, we should pity it. Could the natural eye measure the 
contrast between a fully-developed and harmoniously-proportioned 
Uitellect, on the one hand, and a blighted, stinted, distorted, 
siokly,: understanding. On the other, even as it compares a dis*: 
etmea and shrivelled form with the manly expansion and vigorous 
development of health, we should be moved with, compassion ; 
bixti 80 completely do we allow ourselves to be the slaves of ma-. 
i^RiaL penUe, that many a parent, who would feel himself incapa- 
b^ of. .depriving a child of a single meal, will let him gi'ow up^ 
without ever approachit^g the banquet of usefhl, quickening 
knowledge. 
,..'^I know^ sir, these are figures of speech. The mind does 

noigrow i?V &>pd, 4U>r IfAguish for wajit 0f. it ; but these simili-. 



tiialiiab]ra.'''i'kBi(iWnot;'lo%h4lti «lKpl 4« '.Mil"1}fl(it«T'')^dti'tiib 
Btron? appetence of the mind for improvemeDt, than to ahiAgdt 
and tSirst after knowledge and t^iitn,!, por how we can better 
describe the province 6i eduiationj than to aay, it does that for 
the intelleetf-whijohfriB dbm' (or ■Ufa b»iy yiwnit it raaepiethhe 
we and'pofrubnieitt mbieJi are afoe^eary. fiw! its tatdwAy ibteWt 
and fiVt<)gtb..t iFi^nl tili^ comparison, I tibiilk'^.'4Brive h«r 
Tiewsipf^e intportttaoe. of ' «dueiltradL ' JtiHinbwarattUmn^atrf, 
«teQdet,ie«<rejd, tntBt.li Wbdt ^Hir,.fte'd ■.ol:fiM'*ibod7^t"*uKl'm 
his eoul'hungcril patdperbis limbA, ajui btoirs bis ifacuUidB't»- 
"■f la&t^e c«r1Jt,,coF)CF a Utousand ^ills with ypnr.dj'oiiCB-iof (Bat- 
tle, pufsuiB tht'ifiebto thoii hiding'BJaow hithe>se»^iHMd;in)rfliid 
out youf wheab fi^olda a«tOB« tJie plain, in otder to' ssjipi^'idiie 
wants of. that. body\iwbich' will scfon be as oold and dt-apnaaiiH^ 
as their poorest clod, and! J9t<the [tiiee flpirHaitl sskdcv witUn 
;ou» with«JI,ite ,gk)rioias:>ba})ftoitieB. 'fof ifi^rwbihent'y-'ianktiiBh 
aad pine ! -VThat^l build CAQtoHoe,. turn^mTi^ers^apoiithsiratcS- 
wteels,, anchajo tbe'isiBrSwhisd'^iiTitaof i etoti^,,<U-^i&ivt' a gnt- 
Qiettt'for tbeLbody^ ana let JKhc aoitlr«iiminiinadorBed«bdnal[eA! 
WhM ! aend out ^oHi- vbenelsi'ta the Aithe^ioiiibao^ .axd Imabe 
battle wit)i,tlt6 HtOQaWs of 'tbe dfe^;ikl.oi;diMoohtahutbepieflH 
of lighting Up yonp.dffcUingb bmilWt'tikisbOpH, 'add jn-dlom^g tile 
botirA of'Jabor for ttte iDeiit'ldtAt'peT!dath^<Bn4 peemit>t^bTiiAl 
^)ark; iFhidb God. ba«,kindlsd((wblth Ule ^.ia ineriltftbd t6 olmoant, 
to be failned iatoAibri'Atiaild Itealv-bilj^flaBie^'-T-rjHteiitiitjl'^y, 
'to laitgtiisb<aa4.fl|0 out^ ■ ■..:<■■•■ '■■^^ li:.:-.-- -i' ; liji tc ■ i.'Hii...] 
"Butl^ari^, tismarki Mn. ETBbBrr. ekrfwfa^ey. 'tafl.oi- 
tempt to .ma^iufji-.itbe' work of] ddacation^ rb^^ v61iitiiig: onti 'tl|e 
aatooiabing f6sudtg.^ti}'lwbkli.Lut guidct the W«ll-t^neo imia^^ 
■ muoii abortec metbioid might bd'putsudd ]fttiU onewbo Bseded^'to 
be iiuprtased with its importance. . i woald.ta^ flk<£ an dnb'to 
B. place nf inetruction, to a echool, to a child's achool, {for there 
IS iK> step in the pioceaw ■ Bioro iioiportant"tban'tihe firat,) and I 



woulil Bay, in tlioat^ faijit sparks of ^ intelligence juat brightMiing 
hyet tlir, nidimcuts of learmrig, H'^Vx^^^ the'eciTalof eo 'many 
■'tStibnal .in'l inuiiortnl pjiifitk.' In'K'f^i^ jiaf^i Vou and t ' a^ 
"AlTnow on the' stage, shall ■iVp''t>rtBbQd 4Ajf/;''aiicl]tlie)-^(ihih^^e 
'IKtle'BcatB, prTme.rin hiinrI,"Hre",-irr!lnge(l our suecesp'ors.' ^^ki 
'-wh'p'i the volume' of liathral stietiec', iitid Nntiiif'witii it, sliiil 
'We yaWah^dj— wTi'cii the iun^'i'St jjrrir-lrt ^-f Imniiin lii^to'ry shajl 
iftlve rnb together to a point,^li'n-e iiifunt ciiildren will tiaVe 
'^p^eil .iiito iirnnortflTbcings, kicking bfw'k frooj tlic i^iarisioliB of 
"■fifeifftf/wlliH'Jfii^ors^HdS-, ohHhe'feec(iong^en>6:■thei^^ 



^ 



rv -.' 



•liking tfiat caa be urged, by way either of ilfauthitum or argn* 

I ! 1* 18 one of th^ duties imposed by law on the Superintendent 
rtaf PublicLutnictiony to propose ^^ plans fbr the improvement 
and management of the Common School Fund." fn compli- 
.noe with a resolution of the Assembly, at its last session, I had 
)oitoaflion to enter quite fully into this matter, and shall now pro- 
ceed to. its re^oxamination, making such additions and modinca- 
-ikms as the change of circumstanoes seems to reouire. Some 'of 
itke statistics come down no later than in April last — ^relating 
dnefly to land sales ; but as few lands have since been sold or 
pre-empted, the anregates will remain about the same, and can 
m no case materid^ ^ect the general result. 
.: i The School Fund proper, after deducting the amount set apart 
fer Normal School purposes, amounted^ on the 1st of October 
last, to $2,845,846 S4— considerably less than the year prece- 
iin^ owing to the diversion from the Fund of $261,598 54 to 
the Drainage Fund. The interest on the present School Fund, 
a* 7 per cent., is $199,212 .04. There is now in the treasury 
the sum of $40,790 07 of School Fund income ; adding this to 
the interest due prior to 5th of March i^ext, and we should have 
a total of $240,<X)2 11 for the n6xt apportionment. This, ae 
experience shows, cannot all beeoUeetea. Last year the figures 
pointed out fifty thousand dollars more than was actually paid 
-m, 1ft time for the apportionment. If we have $190,000 to ap« 
propriate in March next, it will probably be as much as can rea^ 
raonably be expected ; and this sum would give about seventv- 
two cents to each child, of school age, in the State. It would 
not be safe to estimate more. ■ ■ 

J eOUBOBS or AU.QMB]fTIK« THB SCHOOL FUND. 

The sources of increasing the School Fund^ as already provi- 
ded, are — ^25 per cent, of the net'proceeds of the sale of the 
'8wamp Lands ^ five per pent, net proceeds of the sale of Croy- 
'dmment lands m 'Vfisconsin ; and tli^ sa)e of the remaining un- 
:#6id Scho,ol Lands-T-the item of fines, penalties and forfeitures 
'.t^ein^ k^o. unimportant to take into the accol^It in ia gmeral esti- 
b^ftle of this kind. Lotus look carefully at these several sour- 
,ce0y and see what may reasonably be estimated , as the ultimate 
'amount of the School Fund, when all these addk'ions shall have 
'^peenmade: 




-/jr//.' 



16 

OommiBsmier of tiie Genend Liai Office of lB5Ty>tker0 m ptag 
tb be 2,350^000 aeipes of tile Wisconsin sarye^Tetftnieaj sail 
entered on the plats of ^t offiee^ ae swainp Idnds^ and sat apart 
u snoh under the Aet of 1860; Onlr 1,674^688 icres have as 
jet been patented to tb^ State. But m the report of the iCom^ 
*nuMioner of the General 'Land Ofice Jnet made^ id appears tibitt 
there are 2,827,199 aeres of SwUnip luid Overflowed lands, nndeir 
the act of 1850, upon whidi pat^&tH, and lists hwring the offset 
of patents, have been already issned to otir State. Goy. BiSH^ 
fORD, in his last ammial Biessagey estymaW the whole apionni to 
which the State would be ultimately entitled uhder this Granli^ 
at not less than two and a half ipillipns of acr^s ; but ft hai 
already proved to be ''much more than that, and there, is 
as yet a large region t>f country unsurvQred by Govemmenti 
and also a lat^ge- qikantity of lands not lyei re-ported as 
Swamp Lands, which must eventually -be placed iin that oots^ 
gory, and inure to the State. ^ From the^ best ipfonnation! I 
can gain from Ae officers having in Charge the Swamp Land I>e*> 
jMurknent, and from surveyors and others, intimately ac(][uainte4 
with tiie northern region of < our State,! think we may safriNr 
place the total amount of the Swamp Land Grant, at not Ism 
than three millions of aicree. The more sanguine place it as 
high as four millions ; but I think it would be most prudeitty im 
muing- estfanates, not to place it hij^er thaa three miUionnt. • As 
the remaining portion of this Grant must necessarily be locatec 
principally in the remote wilderness region between our northern 
settlements and Lake Superior, it cannot reasonably, be e:q>ected 
to realise so much per acre as that already sold, and the expenses 
of sale fire to be deducted ; hence^ prooably a doUar and tM 
cents per acre, sifter deducting expensesy is as hieh as it sboulfl 
be estimated. Deducting thm the estimated 8,0(^,000 of acre% 
the 916,516 acres already sold, and we have left 2,088,484 aores, 
which nettii^ $1 10 per acre, i^ould realise the sum of $2^291,- 
882.40--adding one^arter of wbich to the School Fvnd, would 
be #672,958 10. 

School Ifondi I7n^^.-^Theretkppear to be unsold ^bout 881 
of ihe sixteenth or school sections, rpng' mostly north of townr 
ship line 80, and thus mostly in Ireg^ons yet emy partially snr^ 
veyed-^^whieb would be 248,840. acres^ and wliich^ at tiie minim* 
uitt prioe df #1 '^ per aere^ Would tealiare $804,800 00. NoneL 
I ' bweye. of' the 500,000 aere echbel traat,-iemains unsold, . ' Of 
the SdeetedLssids/ selected hi Ueuiof the 500,000 acre school 
gratft^ ^y about'8yOOO'iMr0s i^mkitt unMd^ >rhich at tiie mini* 
sum vtBdue would: tealiie ^0,000 00. li 

• > JVm Mr 9mii$y\f^Mf0i0£sj^WiMmtiiL lit iti' QtM/HnAKm sAbIl 




r 



i, in entitlM to five per. ceDtum of the net proceeds of 
be sales of pid^io lands in thti State. But $22,587 66 is all 
ifast liM been p&ld of this fimd—rdie last pn^munt having bsoD 
nade August 28tb; IRSO^h Its uDJust tUteotioa Bince tJint timo, 
and tbe'ruaeans aflsiEAcd for it, are well known, and need not, in 
detail, be repeated ^ore.' Suffice ^it to say, tliat hy the Roc^- 
Biver Canal land 'o-Bitt ot 1^0,000 aores, iu 1838, the thon Tcr- 
litory, sind future Statej of Wisoonsib, were made a trt;fitee, and 
held rcspimsible for the prbper application of the trust for tbe 
eole purpose <tf oonfitruoting and maiutainiu^ a canal from Bock 
Jfbiver to JSilvaukeo. ' From variout causes, not necessary here 
to notice, the Canal Corapbny, after four rears' efforts, pmcticallj 
abandoned the cntetpFJae,' after having dispoaed of some 43,0(10 
acres of the land, at $3 50 per acre, aa the grant required, and 
used somD of the proceeds in sorveys, labor and ninterial. The 
oanai was oot mado, and the remainder of th«; lands vaa sold bj 
the Territory, and the proceeds, together with tite duos collec- 
ted on latads sold on credit by the Canal Companv, were appro- 
priated to 'ierritorial expenses, wluch tlie Gonerol GoTemment 
vas justly bound to liquidate. Notwithstanding this position of 
tlie affair, when Wisconsin became a State, Confess admitted 
ber into the Union, with a pledge that ehc should be made the 
trestee, the same oa other new btates, of the five per cent, net 
proceeds of tlie sales of all public lands within her borders, for 
the special purpose of educating all her ohildren. But, as we 
ItavD seen, this has utijustly been withheld for a period of over 
Jught year«, as well also as 140,000 aores of the 500,000 acre 
tract of uehool lands to which the State was entitled— as an off- 
let for the 140,000 acres granted for the construction of the Kock 
fiiver Ciuiul, for which aa arbitrary charge of two dollars and 
£fW cents por ai:re:ws« made acaiust the State. 

Various efforts have bean made in past years, withont success, 
to -obtain these .moneys and lands, so long and so wrongfully 
ifithbcld by the ti-enerbrl Government. During the past season, 
Col, D. W. Jokes, the Secretary of State, mado application to 
the propo^epurtraeDtH at Wasliinf^on, and prosecuted the mat- 
ter with his accustomed vigor and energy. Jle had made himself 
AsniUar with the whole subjeot, and pressed our claims with sueh 
an array of tacts, and show of justice, that tltey could not well 
be lohgcr denied, '. It was sbowu, Uiat Hw Territorial Legislature 
had, in good bith, asmgned tho canal grant to the company which 
kad petitioned Congress for, it~a oompany coujposed of men 
believed to be respODsible and ^terpri«ing;' and tnat the aots af 
the Territorial Legislature,! as is reatired of all Territorial leg? 
Ahtica^ wgro'lvab^^i Ki<mff6all lof' ibetc- approval «r diaap- 



17 

ber, and as no word of opposition was uttered^ it hence follows 
that this disposition of the canal grant was tacitly endorsed and 
approved by the General Goyemment^ and it was not till twelve 
years afterwards that any complaint was intimated. In conse- 
quence of the poverty x>f the Territory and people twenty years 
ago, the company failed to raise the necessary means, and conse- 
onently fSuled in their purpose of constructing the canal. Yet 
tne same men in part, under a new organization, constructed a 
first class railroaa not only over very nearly the same region from 
Milwaukee to Rock River, but have Extended it to the Missis- 
sippi; and that in this high northern latitude, where a canal 
would be frozen up nearly one half of each year, the railroad 
was much the more suitable and serviceable, and far more sat- 
isfactory to the people, for whose benefit the canal was designed; 
and that for the transportation of United States troops, muni- 
tions of war, or supplies for the upper Mississippi garrisons^ 
a railroad furnishes a far more speeay mode of conveyanc ethan 
any canal, besides providing an uninterrupted winter as well as 
summer communication. That this railroad, which has been ex- 
tended to the Mississippi via Madison, and nearly so via Mon- 
roe, Green county, has given a powerful impetus to the trade and 
travel of the State, and must have been the means of hundreds 
of thousands of acres of public lands finding an early market, 
which they would not otherwise have done for many years; and 
that the total amount derived by Government from sales of pub- 
lic lands in Wisconsin has reached, in round numbers, the large 
sum of twelve millions of dollars. That in making the canal 
grant, the Government reserved alternate sections along the route 
of the canal, and sold them, or many of them, at two dollars and 
fifty cents per acre; so that, in a pecuniary point of view. Gov- 
ernment lost nothing by the operation, as she got from the citi- 
8 ens of Wisconsin as much, or nearly as much, for the alternate 
sections alone, as she would at the usual Government rates, 
have obtained for those sections and the grant together; and the 
people of Wisconsin secured a railroad, which has been far bet- 
ter to them, and far better to the Government, than a dozen such 
canals as the one contemplated. 

That the Territory, under the circumstances, did the very best 
it could — acted in good faith throughout, and saved much of the 
grant from the company, and devoted the proceeds to the ex- 
praises of the Territorial government, which were justly charge- 
able to the General Government. That even if the Territory 
had culpably failed on its part, as trustee, to fulfil, or cause to 
be fulfilled, the tetms of the grant,— or even if adjusted, and the 
State was admitted to be indebted to the General Qovenmienid 
Atr ihe /a/J Mntoani oJmmed^^^tiJl the QenenX Qovenuaent WL 






:18 

no shadow of a right to withhold a trust sacredly pledged by 
pennanent enactment, and by a solemn sanction of our Constitu- 
' tion, for the education of the children of Wisconsin for all time 
to come; that, therefore, this fiye per cent, fund should have 
been paid over to the State, not as a gift, or debt, due Wisconsin, 
but as a trust, so made by special contract, for a special educa- 
tional purpose; and that, if the State was justly indebted to the 
General Goyemment, which is not admitted, then the State 
should pay it, not out of the School Fund, which it could not do, 
but out of its general fund raised by taxation from the people. 

By arguments such as these. Col. Jonbs at length got the 
claim for the full amount of the five per cent, net proceeds of sales 
of public lands in Wisconsin, up to Ist of January, 1868, passed 
through the General Land Office, and Auditor's Departments, 
and only wanting the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
. which that officer withheld simply on the ground, that as the 
amount was large (some $270,000) he wished to consult the 
President before acting in the matter, who was then absent from 
the Federal city. Serious illness in Col. Jonbs' family at the 
time, compellea him to leave for home before the President's 
' return. And thus the matter has rested. 

I may add, in this connection, that I have been advised by 
Hon. UHAKLEs H. Labrabse, one of our members elect to 
Congress, that he will shortly visit Washington, and push this 
claim, if possible, to an early allowance; and from his persistcut 
manner, and attention to public business, there is great hope of 
early success, both with regard to the five per cent, frind, and 
the 140,000 acres withheld of the 500,000 acre school tract. If 
the former is allowed, as, it seems to me, it must be, sooner or 
later, then there can be no valid reason for longer withholding 
the latter. When these claims are allowed, together with the 
addition to the five per cent, fiind which has accrued since the 
1st of January last, and should the 140,000 acres be judiciously 
selected, I should presume that we might calculate on five hund- 
red thousand dollars being eventually added to the School Fund 
. from these sources. 

The further addition to the School Fund from the five per cent, 
net proceeds of the future sales of public lands in Wisconsin, 
can only be approiimately estimated. Taking it for granted, 
that there are roily as many, if not more, unsold Government 
lands south of township line 30, as have been sold north of that 
line, then there must be, at the least calculation, fourteen 
millions of acres of unsold Government lands in the State, after 
deducting the school section for each township. Deduct from 
His^ sajr lour imlhonB of acres to satisfy the Railroad Grants, 
mm/ ^o miUioDM more fat swamp ludiy wid w« in)l 1^^% «i^ht 



19 

millions of acres remaining — gappoie of this that only six mil" 
lions shcoild prove saleable, and tnat should net only a dollar 
per acre, we should eventually . be entitled to three hundred 
thousand dollars more from the General Government as the five 
per centum of the net proceeds of the sale of these lands. 

To sum up, therefore, these several isources of revenue to the 
School Funa, present and prospective, will exhibit an approxi- 
mation of its probable ultimate amount: 

School Fund prop«r, as already stated, « $2,845,846 84 

Bchool Sections unsold, 381, or^ S4S,840 acres, 304,800 00 

Selected Lands unsold, 8,000 aores, 10,000 00 

Five per cent, due Arem Qe^eral Qcrr'm't up to Jan. 1, 1869, say 300,000 00 

Five per c^t. due from General Gkrremment in prospective, say, 800,000 00 

Balance of Swamp Land sales, eitiinaied, . . « « « 672,958 10 

Withheld by General OoTomment, 140,000 acres, say 200,000 00 



'tim 



94,788,004 44 

This^aggre^te may be diminished by the General Government 
oontinaing unjustly to withhold the five per cent. Aind, together 
with the 140,000 acres of the original 500,000 acre school tract; 
and it may be increased by the Swamp Lands eventually num- 
bering more acres, and realising more per acre for them, than I 
have estimated. It would not surprise me if these lands should 

{rield a million more dollars than Ivere estimated — ^thus adding at 
east a quarter of a million more to the School Fund. K, there- 
fore, all these hopes should be reasonably realieed, our School 
Fund may yet reach, in round numbers, the sum of fiv^ millions 
of dollars. 

We will assume, then, that five millions of dollars is the high- 
est probable amount, with vifdlant management, that we can hone 
to attain for the School Fund. We are apt very complacently 
to re^rd this fund as a most munificent one — so large, indeeo, 
that it would make no perceptible difference if we should now 
and then make some sacrilegious fonrf upon it. When, in con- 
nection with this Fund, wb bear in mind the large number among 
whom, not the principal, but the interest only, is to be annually 
ikpportioned, and still further reflect with what wonderful rapidi- 
ty that number is increasing, we shall cease to regard it as a 
mac^ifioent or ineihanBtible Fund, but rather view it as alto- 
ether too small for the hofy md wi^ty mission it is designed to 




Aceolrdinf to EuiiER, in countries where the greater number 
of the people are employcKl in tbe peaceful pursuits of agriculture^ 
with few iale and unproductive consumers, the population in* 
creasea in a wonderfiil manner»-doubIing in every twelve or thir* 
ieeik years. Malthub^ ig^ hi^ well known work on ?opn\aV>\OTk 
hM9 <expr0S0ed He fpfnio9 tb^i popqlstion onslit. feom nntaxn 



20 



i 



increase, to double itself in twelve years. But Wisconsin has 
fur oat-stripped the calculations of these .celebrated political 
economists, as the following table of the suoeessire annual increase 
of children entitled to share in the School Fund apportionment, 
£rom the organisation of the State to the present time, will show: 

Tear. Children. Apportioxunent. Per Scholar. 

3860 70,467 $688 00 8,S-10 ots. 

1851 99,161 46,90887 60 " 

1862 111,888 68,70aj94 48 " 

1868 128,909 66,128^1 45 ^ 

1864 188,541 97,949 62 72 '' 

1865 166,406 125,906 02 801-2'' 

1856 188,804 181,812 80 ■ 70 '' 

1867 213,886 141,164 76 66 <« 

1868 241,645 181.168 75 » 75 << 

2860 264,077 

It will thus be seen, that the children of school age have in- 
creased with rapid and regular strides from 70,000 to 264,000, in 
the abort space of nine years, or doubled in about every five 
years. If we are to be guided by the teachings of the past in- 
crease, we must learn that it will ffreatly outstrip in ratio the 
Augmentation of the School Fund, however fortunate we may be 
in saving it from being diverted to other purposes. We have 
. no V only the natural increase^ which in an agricultural State like 
^urS| and one so hi|^jr favorable to health, is unusually large, 
l>ut a very large addition bv immigration, which must for many 
j^ears to come continue to be a powerful element of increase. 

Mr. Root, our first State Superintendent, in his First Annual 
IKeport, gave some estimates or the probable increase of chil- 
^dren entitled to share in the school money, placing the number, 
in 1850, at 91,066 ; in 1860, at 281,898 ; and in 1875, at 674,- 
:S17. Though doubtless regarded as chimerical at the time, these 
•estimates were fSur too moderate ; for the report of children up 
'to September 1, 1857, shows ten thousand more than he had es- 
J;imfM^ for 1860. Mr.Root also intimated, that about 1860, 
;the ratio of increase of children over the Sdiool Fund would be- 
come .aj>parent, and that the income of that Fund would pay but 
Tittle «ver one half the expense of educating the children of the 
Stat^ aid in 1875, not one-fifth the expense. 

It has already been stated, that thus fiir the school children of 
Hie State have doubled in about every five years. Let us, how- 
ever, take OB a guide, the average increase of thepast three years, 
which is 259232. These figures will, I have no doubt, bo proven 
V the e:y>erience of many years to come, to be rather below 
than abeire the real increase. Even this ratio of increase, for a 
period of twenty-five or fifty years, is wonderfbl, as the figures 



• 



2X 

TetTC. GKikbren of School ago. 

1859 ^64,000 

1860 389,289, 

1861 ^ 8l4,464 = 

ISaa 889,696' 

186S 864,938 

1864 890,160, 

1865 • 415,893 

1868- •• 440,634 

1867 465,856 

1868 .,...., 491,088 . 

1889 , : 516,830 

1870 541,653 

1871 566,784. 

1873 593,016 

1878 617,348. 

1874 : 643,480 

1875 .,.., 667,713 

1876 692,944 

1877 , 718,176 

1878 .... 748,408 

1879 768,640 

1880 798,873 

1881 819,004 

1883 844,386 

1888 869,468 

1884 , , 894,700 

1885 919,933 , 

1886 945,164 

1987 870,896 

1888 995,636. 

1889 1,020,860 

1909, *(fift7 years hence,) '. 1,535,500 

These figures maj appear large to some, but our past experir 
ence fully; warrants the steady increase they indicate. Our own 
past increase from 70^000 to 264,000 children of school age, in 
nine years^ is wonderful. The increase in Indiana from 1850 . 
to 1856, a period of six years, was 158,000 ; in Illinois, from ; 
47,895 in 1831, to 646,346 in 1856, a neriod of twenty-fire 
years — an increase of about 600,000 ; in Ohioj from 146,^40 in 
1837, to 838,037 in 1857 — an increase in twenty years of almost ^ 
700,000 ; in New York, from 449,113 in 1829, to 1,224,127, in 
1854 — an increase, inapei^iod of tiyenty-five years, of 775,000. 
But, it may be said, that those are all large States. So they 
are, but ours is larger than three out of the four ; for while In- 
diana has an area of 84,000 square miles, Ohio 40,000, New : 
York 46,000, and Illinois 55.000, Wisconsin has an area of 54,* 
000 — with soil, health, timber, and minerals unsurpassed by 
either of her sister States. We have, then, all the facilities fi;^ . 
growth and expansion that are possessed by any of the sister- 
hoo4 of States, and may, as confidently aa they, count on a large i 
increase of population^ . 

It Beems to me quite certain, that the time is not fat diBlw^^ 



:^^^^ 



22 

in consequence of the rapid increase of children in our State, 
when the annual* apportionment of school money per scholar 
must begin to decrease, and continue to do so as long as our 
population increases in a greater ratio than the School Fund. — 
Inaeed, it will be seen by referring to the table, that in 1855, 
the apportionment attained its highest per centage to the scholar, 
being oO 1-2 cents ; since which it has gradually decreased, the 
next year bein^ only 70 cents, the year after 66 cents — ^while 
this year it rallied a little, and reached 75 cents, in consequence 
of the immense School and Swamp Land sales last year. The 
next apportionment, as already indicated, will probably not ex- 
ceed 72 cents. Supposing by the most judicious management, 
atiid by the most fortunate success in augmenting the School 
Fund, we should have in 1889, thirty years, hence, five millions 
of dollars, and a million of children among whom to apportion 
the ac<^ing interest, we should then have, not eighty ana a half 
cents per scholar as we had in 1855, nor seventy-five cents as 
this year, but only thirty-five cents to a scholar to apportion ; 
and fifty years hence but twenty-three cents. The less the 
ataiount apportioned per scholar, of course in the same propor- 
tion will the local school tax be lessened, as a great many of the 
towns barely raise a suflScient tax (one half of the amount of 
the previous apportionment) to entitle them to share in the 
School Fund distribution. It is not pleasant thus to dwell on a 
prospect so gloomy. 

TnesQ facts — and to me thev seem like stubborn facts, that 
cannot be successfully gainsayed, should admonish every faithful 
public servant of Wisconsin, who shares in the solemn responsi- 
oility of legislating for, and managing the School Fund, to act 
with uncommon caution, and ponder well before taking any step 
calculated to diminish the School Fund — it fund consecrated to 
the holiest of purposes. 

With these tacts before me, I cannot but lament the unwise 
policy of the last Le^slature — against which I respectfully but 
earnestly protested — ^in diverting from the School Fund twenty- 
five per cent, of the net proceeds of the sale of the Swamp 
Lands, and adding it to the Drainage Fund. This latter Funa 
as originallv constituted, embraced twentv-five per cent, of the 
net proceeds of the Swamp Lands, and is already becoming a 
large fund — ^large for the purpose which it is designed to accom- 
plish — an object, let it be borne in mind, wl^ch cannot be as per- 
petual as the unceasing and increasing wants of education. — 
One-fourth of the Swamp Land Fund, cannot, as I have already 
estimated^ be less than $881,970 09, and it may exceed a mil- 
lion ; and it would yield from sixty to eighty thousand dollars 
AnDa&lljr for distribution among the fayored counties entitled to 



28: 

share in ite bdunty. This, if judieiously expelled, would, in. 
the course of fifteen or twenty years, amount R a million of! 
dollars, and in thirty or forty yeai^ to two millions, for drainage . 
purposes alone, without enoroaching one particle on the prinoi* 
pal. Ought not the counties more especially interested in drains , 
age, to be satisfied with a fund which promises to yield so large 
a reyenue, and generously restore the other twenty-five per cent, 
to the School Fund, from which it was taken, and where it rights, 
fully belongs, to aid in educating their children for all coming! 
time? 

The fact should not ^e oyerlooked, that in the greater part of. 
our State the pioneer settlersi^made their roads andbridged^. 
cleared up and drained their swamps, with no Drainage Fund to. 
aid them ; and they did it too, during an early period, amid un^*) 
told poverty, self-denial and hardships, in paving the way forr 
later and more fortunate adyenturersr-~ofbentimes going from 
fifty to bne hundred miles to mill with a single grist ; at ofthet; 
times taking their wheat to Milwaukee to marKot, spending a^, 
week or more in the effort, and not realij^ing as much for awh^lot 
load as would pay the expenses of the trip. This class of early^ 
settlers, who, under God, have made Wisconsin what it is to-day, f 
claim, as they have a jiist right to claim, the early restoration . 
of the twenty-five, per cqnt, net proceeds derived from tho 
Swamp Lands, to the School Fund, and thete be left forever 
untouched, so that their children and children's children may 
enjoy its common benefita to the latest generation.: Is this unrea**: 
sonable — is it asking too much, while a sufficient fund, properly 
husbanded, is still left for all needful drainage purposes for the. 
newer portions of the State ? , 

Whoever attempts to divert, any portion of our sacred SchooL 
Fund from its consecrated purposes of education, should feel; 
that he is treading on holy ground. That noble Fund is the 
hope of our people — 'the only Iwpe of two hundred and sixtyw 
four thousand children now Uving in our midst, and of milliona 
yet unborn. They crave the boon of education, which is their 
chief, aa well as best, inheritance ; and for that education they 
must ever mainly rely upon the People's Colleges, the Common. 
Schools of our State. Those children need a fit preparation, ^ 
for they must soon wield the destinies of Wisconsin. Every-, 
dollar abstracted from the School Fund, under whatever plea, 
will yet have to be replaced with more than compound interest, 
or ignorance, vice and crime will be the penalty of our chil^ri^, 
and our children's children will have to suffer as the natural con-- 
sequence of our misguided folly. 

I would respectfully urge the restoration of twenty-ftv^ "^et* 
cent, of the net proceede of the B&lea of Swamp Lands, feotcilW 



24 

Drainage to the^chool Fund ; or that it be set apart for a School 
Library Fand ; or, if this be not judged best, that so soon as 
the income of the Drainage Fund, as at present constituted, 
reaches the sum of sixty thousand dollars annually, all the sur- 

Slus ever after be added to the School Fund income, or to a 
ichool Library Fund, as the Legislature may direct. The 
twenty-fire per cent, of the Swamp Land proceeds transferred 
by act of the last Legislature from the School to the Drainage 
Fund, already amounts to $261,598 64 ; and it will one day 
reach from eight hundred thousand to a million of dollars. If 
it could now be restored to the holy and perpetual purposes of 
education, no harm or iiyury would occur to the counties intend- 
ed to be benefitted by drainage, for no plans are yet formed, or 
contracts entered into ; and the original Drainage Fund will 
prove abundantly ample for the object in view. 

If I have urged this matter with seeming^ pertinacity, I may 
plead in justification the sentiment of La Fatette in the As- 
sembly of French Notables in 1787 : — "We are summoned," he 
exclaimed, " to make the truth known — I must discharge my 
dutjf.'* Haying, in the language of the Constitution, " the su- 
penrision of public instruction, and being required by law to 
submit to the Legislature "plans for the improvement and man- 
agement of the Common School Fund," I should feel that I had 
unworthily shrunk from the performance of a solemn trust, had 
I neglected to bring this matter fully and fairly before you. — 
Having discharged this duty, I must leave the responsibility of 
the result where it justly belongs — ^with the representatives of 
the people. While other States are anxiously seeking how they 
may augment their School Funds, which experience is proving 
to be quite too inadequate for tibe vast mission they are expected 
to fulfil, we should suflFer no opportunity to pass, by which we 
might hope to improve ours. Legislation can find no nobler 
object of attention than to wisely provide for the best education 
of the hundreds of thousands of children now in our midst, and 
the millions yet to follow ; for if we do this faithftilly, we may 
rest our heads quietl}r upon our dying pillows, with the confident 
assurance, that, in this particular, we nave conscientiously done 
our part for the future moral and intellectual well-being of the 
State, and the permanency of our free institutions. 

SCHOOL FUNDS OF THE NEW STATES. 

^ While speaking of our own School Fund, it may be interest- 
ing to recur to the School Funds, in the ag^esate, of the new 
States generally, that we may see at a single dance with what 
provident foreeaat the General Government has treated ^e 



25: 

younger children of the Bepublic— exeroisinjz annAcea8ing'care,iA i 
this particular, that shoula shame some of our n astern Sti^ > 
to more vigilance in htisbanding and augmenting the noble fund 
confided to their keeping. 

^^Did I know/' remad[8 Judge Swift in his Digest of thelaw^: 
of Connecticut, 'Hhe^name of the legislator, who first conceived i 
and suggested the idea of common schools, I should pay to his 
memory the hi^est tribute of reverence and regard. I should 
feel for him a much higher veneration and respieot, than I do for 
Lycubqus and Solon, the celebrated law-givers of Sparta and 
Athens. I should revere him as the greatest benefactor of the 
human race ; because he has been the author of a provision, 
which, if it should be adopted in every country, would produce, 
a happier and more important influence on the human character^ 
than any institution which the wisdom of man has devised." 

"The system of free schools," observes Bancroft, "though 
still very imperfectly developed, has made such progress since it 
first dawned in Geneva and m tiie parishes of Scotland, that we 
are authorized to claim it of the rature as a universal insiiitu- . 
tion." In 1685, five years after the settlement of the town, the 
first public or common school was established in Boston. " Th^ 
schools of Boston," nobly exclaimed Hon. Gieo. S. Hillajbld, 
"are the best jewels in her crown. If I were asked by an intelli-* 
gent stranger to point out to him our most valued possessions, I 
would show to him — not our railroads, our ware-houses filled ^ 
with the wealth of all the earth, our ships, our busy wharves and 
marts, where the car of commerce is ever ^ thundering loud with 
her ten thousand wheels;' but I would carry him to one of our - 
public schools, would show him its happv and intelligent chM- 
ren, hushed into reverent silence at their teacher's word, or 
humming over their tasks with a sound like that of bees in June. 
I would tell him that here was the fbundi^tion on which our ma-' 
terial prosperity was reared, that here were the elements from 
which we constructed the State. Here are tihe fountains firom 
which flow those streams which make glad our land. The sohoola 
of Boston are dear to my heart. Though' I can have no personal 
and immediate interest in them ; though no child on earth cfaJls me 
father ; vet most gladly do I contribute to their support, according . 
to my substance ; and when I see a father's eyes filled with pleasant 
tears as he hears the music of his child's voice Unked to some strain 
of poetry or burst of eloquence, I can sympathise in the feeling in 
which I cannot share. May the blessing of Heaven rest upon our 
schools. They are an object worthy of all efforts and sacrifioes. We 
should leave nothing undone which may tend to make them more ex«* 
cellent and mofe useful. For this, we shoidd gather into our ^ifm. 



^i^' 



2$ 

Bfc6rdS all the hiyrrestB of experience which have been reaped from 
otiier soils." 

Since the planting of the first free school in Boston, the sys- 
tem has expanded, until it now embraces our whole widenspread 
Republic* Four millions of the jonth of this country are oon- 
nedied with the various educational institutions in the several 
States of the Union ; their teachers number more than a hund- 
red thousand, and the annual current expenses are estimated to 
be about fourteen millions of dollars. 

The now States of our Union have been favored as no other 
country has ever been on the face of the globe. I allude to the 
grand conception of dedicating the sixteenth section of every 
township of the public domain to the perpetual benefit and furth- 
erance of common school education ; and more recently, upon the 
recommendation of Hon. Robert J. Walker, while Secretary 
of the Treasury of tiie United States, the grafting of an addi- 
tional section in each township to the newly organized States and 
Territories — so that under this new arrangement, Oalifomia, Or- 
egon, Washington, Utah, New Mexico, Minnesota, Kansas and 
Nebraska have received double the proportional amount of other 
Western and South Western States. It is, in the language of 
Hon. Caleb Cushing, ^* a noble and beautiful idea of providing 
wise institutions for the unborn millions of the West ; of antici- 
pating their good by a sort of parental providence ; and of asso- 
ciating together the social and the territorial development of the 
people, by incorporating these provisions with the land titles de- 
rived from the public domain ^ and making school reservations and 
road reservations essential parts of that policy." 

Would that we knew the name of the member of the old Con* 

Sess, who devised the idea, and caused it to be incorporated into 
e law of the land, of setting apart every sixteenth section of 
the public domain for a perpetual educational fund for the masses 
of tne people. I should honor his name and memorv more than 
those of Solon or Ltcurous ; I should reverence his wisdom 
and patriotism as I do those of Washinqtok and Franklin. — 
But nistory is silent.* We only know, that on the 7th May^ 
1784, Mr. Jefferson, as chairman of a committee for that purpose, 
introduced into the old Congress an ordinance for ascertaining 
the mode of locating and disposing of lands in the Western tei^ 
ritbry, which did not, however, pass ; but it contained no pro- 
vision for reservations for school purposes. Mr. Jefferson then left 
Congress to represent our country at . the Court of France. — 
But on the 4th of March, 1785, another ordinance for disposing 
of the public lands in the West, was introduced in Congress — 
bjr whom, the printed Journals do not inform us ; that on the 
la^Ji of the same montb, it was re-committed to a committee 



2T. 

consisting of Pierce Long, of New Hampshire, Buftis Eix^,' of r 
Massachusetts, David HowelL of Ehode Island, Wm. S. Jphi^- , 
son, of Connecticut, R. E. Liviii28ton, of New York, Charles 'i 
Stewart, of New Jersey, Joseph Gardner of Pennsylvania, John 
Henry, of Maryland, William Grayson, of Virginia, Hugh Wil- 
liamson, of North Carolina, John Bull, of Soutti Carolina, and 
William Houston, of Georgia. On the 14th of April following, 
this committee reported the ordinance — by whom roported, no 
clue is given ; which after being, perfected, was passea the 2Dth 
of May following,and became the foundation of the existing land 
system of the United States. 

By one of its provisions, the 16th section of evenr township 
was reserved ^^for the mainUndnce of public tnhoioh;-' or, in: 
other words, one section out of every thirty-six composing each.: 
township. This same provision was incorporated in the large 
land sale, in 1786, to tne Ohio Company ; and, the following ^ 
year, in Judge Symmes' purchase. The celebrated ordinajice of 
1787, for the government of the Territory North-West of the river 
Ohio, and which confirmed the provisions of the land ordinance of 
1785, further declared, that, "Kbligion, Mobalitt and Knowl- 
edge, being necessary to good government, and the happiness of 
mankind. Schools, ^d the means of Education, shall Be 
FOREVER ENCOURAQED.'' . From that day to the present, this 
noble policy has been confirmed and extended, till its blessings 
now reach even the distant shores of the Pacific, and fifty mil- 
lions OF ACRES of the public domain have been seti apart and 
consecrated to the high and ennobling purposes of education ; 
together with five per cent, of the net proceeds of the sales of 
all public lands in each of the States and Territories in which 
they are situated. If wisely husbanded, what a munificent fund 
this is destined eventuallv to become ; and yet, large as it may 
be, it will, with our rapidly increasing millions of children, prove, 
greatly inadequate to the mighty work it i| expected to perform. 
It has been well remarked of Louis Philippe, late King of 
France, one of the most sagacious and austere, of sovereigns, 
that he had caused to be expended forty millionn of dollars for 
the defence of Paris, and had placed his batteries in such posi- - 
tions that their shots might reach every house in the city ; and 
yet, at the very first movement of the people, he fled from his 
country with but a five franc piece in his pocket. So in all the 
nii^ty West, let the intellectual batteries of the school honse 
be planted on every hill-top, with the special design of throwing 
educational shot into every dwelling. In this kind of defence, 
. a defence of moral power, consists the welfare of our race, and 
the permanence of our free institutions ; and with such a de&no^> 
i^t miSL ever prove myiocible^ ^ut to MCOmpUah tihiB ini|^^>y\ 



28 

work Sttoocssfblly, we must exercise a constant and ever-jealoua 
watch-care over onr School Fund ; and study earnestly, in the 
fear of God, and love of our race, how to make that fund sus- 
ceptible of ^^ the greatest good to the gi^test number.'* 

PRIMITIVE CONDITION OF OUB ANCESTORS. 

There are those among us who seldom or never trulj realize 
the manifold blessings of education, of civil and religious liberty, 
and of the personal comforts we in this ase are permitted to enjoy. 
They have some vague idea that our lot is somewhat better, 
perhaps, than that of our forefathers; but in precisely what par- 
ticular, they cannot tell. It may, therefore, be worth the wnile 
to revert to the customs of primitive times, and see if we can- 
not profit by contrasting them with those of our own day. 

Our Saxon ancestors once roamed the forests of Europe, sub- 
sisting on a precarious supply of the spontaneous prodflctions of 
nature. Rude huts and mud houses were their common abodes. 
Then came the oppression of Feudalism. Men with their fami- 
lies, unsafe longer to live in isolated houses, were forced to place 
themselves under some chief or feudal lord, whose vassals they 
became, to whom they paid tribute for the use of the soil they 
rudely cultivated, and whose battles they valiantly fought. 

The Normans, or Northmen, from whom our English nobility 
boast their descent, were literally northern pirates, who in the' 
ninth century infested the coasts of France and England, and 
from RoUo, their chief, descended William the Conqueror. In 
Saxon and Norman times, it was a very common occurrence for 
the children of the English peasantry to be sold in Bristol mar- 
ket, like cattle, for exportation, and many were thus sent to Ire- 
land, and some to Scotland. 

The prices of lands, products, and rentals, will afford us some- 
thing of an idea of the social condition of our English ancestors 
a. few centuries ago. In the Doomsday Book of the eleventh 
century, we learn that a carucate, or 100 acres of land, was 
valued at only 32 pence, and four carucates at ten English shil- 
lings, and sometimes at only eight shillings. By the Ma^a 
Charta, of 1215, ten pence was fixed as the price per day of a 
cart with two horses, and one shilling and two pence with three 
horses.. In 1258, wheat sold for at §8. 6d. per quarter of eight 
bushels; in 1248, the King paid 18s. 4d. for 87 sheep, or od. 
each; in 1256, brewers sold 3 gallons of beer for Id.; in 1272, 
a laborer got a penny and a half per day, and a harvest man 2d. ; 
and during that century, £20 Was the income of an English 
Knight. 

Id 1800, wheat and barley brought Ss. 4d., and oats Is. 8d. 

qasrter of eigbi bas&els; a cow 6b.; a fat shee^ Is.; a hen 



.«9 

a penny and a half; a pair of shoes 4d. ; and labor from one 
and a half to two pennies per day. In 1314, Parliament fixed 
the price of a fat ox at 168.; a oow 128.; a fat hog 8s. 4d.; a 
sheep Is. 2d.; a couple of chickens Id.; a goose S l-2d.; and 
eggs half a penny per dozen. Arable land, in Kent oounty, 
rented from 3d. lo 6d. per acre; pasture at Id.; and meadow 
from 4d. to lOd. 

In the middle of the 14th century, wine was 4d. per gallon; 
wool 2s. per stone of fourteen pounds; Kendal cloth, from Ss. 
4d. to 5s. per whole piece; wheat from 4s. to 6s. per quarter of 
eight bushels. In loOO, oats were 2s. p^ quarter, and wheat 
6s.; ale 2d. per gallon; and labor 2 l-2d. to o l-2d. per day* In 
the 16th century, in the reign of Queoi Elizabeth, a house in a 
countiT town rented for 4s. to 68. per annum, and the purchase 
was JE5. or iS6.; wheat lB.'abushel;malt and oats 7d.; an ox 268.; 
a fat sheep 2s. lOd. ; claret and red port 3d. a quart; and labor 4d. 
to 6d. per day. During the civil wars, wheat averaged £8 12s. 
per quarter ; at the Revolution it was £1 19s. In the seventeenth 
century, common laborers received 4d. per day withfood^ or eight 
pence without food, and 6d, per day was all that could be earned 
by the weaver by hard labor at the loom ; wheat was then 50s. 
per quarter; native horses, though serviceable, were held in 
small esteem, and brought low prices, not more than SOs. each. 
One half of the common people in the seventeenth century ate . 
animal food only twice a wecK, whil6'the other half ate none at 
all, or at most not pftener than once a week. The great ma- 
jority of the English people lived almost entirely on rye, barley 
and oats. At the accession of George III. wheat was 38s. per 

?uarter of eight bushels, barley 20s,, and oats 15fl. ; Imd laoor 
s. to Is. 6d. per day. 
Towards the close of the twelfth century, the use of glass in 
windows became common in England, prior to which paper^ 
properly prepared with oil, was generally used as a tolerable 
m^oittm tor the admission of light; and to this day windows are 
^ouunecated jas among the articles of luxury subject to taxation in 
iEagland. The first elothing fabrics were manufactured in Eng^ 
3ana in tl^ r«igtt of Edward III, in the 14th century, and called 
Kendal clo^h an4 HaliJbx cloth, from the places in which they 
jrere made. In 1685, the net annual receipt from the chimney 
,tax in Great Britain |ra0 twi^ hundred thousand pounds, or about 
^nine hundred thousand dollaBO, 

PHEVAILIKG IGNOEAKCJS Of PRIMITIVE TIMES* 

Anterior to the diKCOvery of printing m^ the revival of leam- 
'^gf the most profoi^d ignoran.ce reigned among the maaaoit^. 
jF^®m- i^>f///^,4i^,#^ pcjilpy, m^y biAoi^t Wiil^ 



m<3^ 



'«0 

not read, and Kings wei^ scarcely able to sign their names^ ani^ 

' hence the use of seals and sealing. These were the ages in 
which superstition, witchcraft and priestcraft obtained an as- 
cendency so universal. Beveral centuries after Charlemagne, 

• who died early in the ninth century, the German tribes consid- 
ered no knowledge of use, but that of managing the lance and 
the steed. The oarbarism was so great, that most of the laity, 
even the most distinguished, could scarcely read or write* 

. He who was instructed in these was considered a 
distinguished scholar, and he who obtained more knowl- 
edge, particularly in mathematics or natural science, ex- 
posed himself to the danger of being burnt as a sorcerer. Mac- 
aulay tells us, that in the twelfth or even in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, there was, through the greater part of Europe, very little 

. knowledge, and that little was confined to the clergy. Inot one 
man in five hundred could have spelled his way through a 
psalm • 

Li the time of Charles the Second, few English country 

= squires could write their names — the peasantry, none of them. 

'. Of the wits about his court, few or none could spell with decent 
.correctness; and the great Duke of Marlborough, we know, 
could scarcely spell at all. To most of the court belles, and 

. ladies of honor, an English maunscript was all Greek; and Queen 
. Mary, of William III, wrote of her own and husband's " crowna^ 

■ tion," for coronation. Tfie literary stores of the lady of a manor 
«nd her daughters, generally consisted of a prayer book and a 

. i^eceipt book; while the English country clerarman's library was 

. limited to a bible, prayer-book, and a well-thumbed cookery 

. book, the latter the dowry of his wife, who had frequently 
been his patron's cook. 

EARLY SCABCITT, AM) HIGH PRICE OF BOOKS. 

Before the art of printing, books were few, and bore an incred- 
ible price. It required the labor of two years of a faithful 
copyist to transcribe the Bible, and hence copies of it were very 
costly. Plato, who was not rich, paid 10,000 denarii, or about 
$1,600, for three books of Philolaus, the Pythagorean; and 
Aristotle paid three Attic talents, nearly (8,000, for a few books 
which had belonged to the philosopher Speusipbus. Pliny re- 
fused what was equivalent to about $16,000 n)r his common 
place book — Electorum Commentarii. When publicly exposed, 
oooks were frequently protected by chains, and in some ancient 
libraries, they are chained to this day; they were subjects of 
grave negotiation; and were only loaned to the higher orders, 
upon amph pledges of deposit for their safe return. We are 
/ ^Jd, tiiat eten ao hie as l471| LotiiB IXL. "9711% com^^VL^d^ Vl ^^"^ 



N • 



fSeiouIty of medicine at Paris, to deposit i| valuable aecuritj, and 
give a responsible endorser, in order to obj^n the loan of tbe 
works of Bhasifi, an Arabian physician. It is not strange, 
therefore, that the solemn injunction was often, in former ages, 
written upon the fly leaf, ^^ Cursed be he who shi^ steal, or tear 
out the leaves, or in any way.ii\jure this book/' Tbe materials 
upon which the earliest books were written were paper made of 
the Egyptian papyrus plant, the inner bark of trees, skins, palm 
leaves, wood, stone, ivory, lead and othef metals. 

In more modem times, instances of extraordinary prices paid 
for books are not wanting. A copy of the B(nnan ae la Itoee 
was sold for about <£8tf ; a Homily, we are told, was exchanged 
for 200 sheep, and five quarters, <>r forty bushels, of- wheat. The 
first book pnnted in England was by Caxton, m 1471, and bore 
for its title, *^ Willyam Caxton'$ Ileeuyel of the BtBtprye's of 
Troytj by Maoul le Feure;^* a copj of which, in modem timee, 
has been knocked down at auction, to a bibliomaniac, for 
J&1,060 18s., or nearly $4,400. At the (ar-£uned sale of the 
great Roxburg Library, in London, in 1812, a copy' of the first 
or Yaldafar edition of Boccaccio's Decameron, published at 
Venice in 1471, in folio, a collection of tales, written in the 
finest style, satirical on the monks and others, was purchased 
by the Marauis of Blandford, at the enomious price of 2,260 
pounds sterling, or over $10,000, when he before possessed, a 
copy of the same edition, but which wanted five leaves — ^for 
which five leaves, as Lord Spencer observed, he might be said 
to have given <£2,260. 

LABQK PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

When we reflect upon the comparative scarcity of books be- 
fore the discovery of printing, we are amazed at the extent of 
the fiunous Alexandrian Library, of 700,000 volumes, and of 
other large collections of ancient times ; of the twenty-eight 
public libraries in Rome, mentioned by Publius Victor ; of the 
seventy public libraries which the Moors had in Spain, in the 
twelfth century, of which that at Cordova captainefi 250,000 
volumes. Since the facilities for the multiplioation of books by 
means of the press^ immense libraries, haye been, collected in 
almost everv part of the civilised world ; among the largest of 
which may be mentioned,, the Natioinal Libirary, aA Paris, with 
its million of volumes ; the British Museum, occupying nearjiy 
a square in the heart of London, with its over 800,000 rolumea 
of books, rolls, manuscripts and papiphlets — ^upon which the 
British Government has expendea oyer $12,000,000, to si^y 
nothing of the vahie of the numeroas mognlfi^peqit b^Tie«to ^^ 
uk^viSmaism .Of. this woaderful ^iiactioQ, tke.maavkftCsVjjfc <^i4«' 



ftlogue aloae, which serves to give ni Bome praotioal idoa of ita 
extent, comprises 623 folio votnmes, flrom the letter A to the 
letter I ; and, when completed, it is expected to reach well nigh 
2,000 iblio volumes. The Icu-Kegt libraries in the United States, 
are the Aetor collection, in New York, and that of Harvard 
College, at Cambridge, DnmboriDg each one hundred thousaoil 
Totnmes. 

OUR HODBRV BLESUNaS — THE OBLIGATIONS TH£T IMPOSE, 
Let US turn from^he contemplation of the social condition of 
onr ancestors, when land in England was valued at less than a 
cent an acre, and cows at six English shillings a piece ; when 
irheat brought less than four English pence per bushel, three 
gallons of beer commanded but a penny, and labor a penny and 
a half per day ; and when few or none of the common people 
. could read a letter in the alphabet. How few must then have 
been the comforts and luxuries of onr ancestors ! It may 
be suggested, that longevity wa^ the reward of the simplicity of 
tiier lives. ' Faots do not warrant any such conclusion. In 1685, 
which was not accounted ui unhealtny year, more than <»ie in 
every twenty^three of the citizens Of London died ; while at 
present, by the improved condition in the means and comforts 
of living, only one inhabitant in forty die annually — thus has 
the term of human life been greatly extended. 
' The following graphic description, designed to represent the 
Englishman of moderate means at the present day, applies with 
equal force to a far more numerous class in our own country : 
"I am lodged," says the Englishman, " in a house that affords 
me conveniences and comforts which even a king could not com- 
mand some centuries ago. Ships are oroasing the seas in every 
direction to bring what is useful to me from all parts of the 
earth. In China, men are gathering the tea leaf for me ; in 
America, they are gathering cotton for me ; in the West India 
Islands, they are preparing my sugar and my coffee ; in Italy 
they are feeding the silk worms for me ; in Saxony they are 



shearing the sheep to make me clothing ; at home, powerAil 
steam engines are spinning and weaving for me. Although my 
patrimony is small, I have post-coaohes running day and night 



on all the roads, to carry my correspondence. I have rooSs, 
' and canals and bridges, to bear the coal for my winter fire ; nay, 
i have protecting fleets and armies around my happy country, 
to secure my enjoyment and repose. Then I have editors and 
printers who daily send me an account of what is going on 
throughout the world ; and 7n a comer of my house, I nave 
baok^—th0 niracle of all ny possessions, more wonderiul than 
tie wuhing e»p of the Anbiut Xtlw ■, far tU«f traaB^ort me 



88 

insiantlyy iiot only to all places, but to all times ! By mj books. 
I can conjure up before me to vivid existence, all the great and 
good men of antiquity, I can make them act over again all 
their exploits. The orators declaim for me ; the historians re- 
cite ; the poets sing ; and from the equator to the pole, or from 
the be^ning of time until now, by means of my books, I can be 
where I please." 

How wonderful an improvement in the social condition of our 
race ! To the invention of the art of printing, to literature, 
education and Christianity, are we mainly indebted for these 
manifold blessings. Their possession increases our obligation 
to transmit them to our children, not merely unimpaired, but 
actually augmented in number and measure. ^' Common sense," 
says Bancroft, '^ implies by its very name, that each individ- 
ual is to contribute some share toward the general intelligence. 
The many are wiser than the few ; the multitude than the phi- 
losopher ; the race than the individual ; and each successive 
generation than its predecessor. " 

BOOKS A NECESSITY AND A BLESSINQ. 

Next to the Common School, we want, in an educational point 
of view, more and better books for the people to read ; and this 
is the great subject I wish respectfully, yet faithfully, to urge 
upon the attention of the Representatives of the people. I will 
introduce the subject by a few citations of high a^thority, as to 
the necessity of good books, and the inestimable blessings they 
are calculated to confer. 

"It is chiefly through books," observed the late Dr. Chan- 
NINO, 'Hhat we enjoy intercourse with superior minds, and these 
invaluable means of communication are in the reach of all. In 
the best books, great men talk to us, give us their most precious 
thoughts, and pour their souls into ours. God be thanked for 
books ! They are the voices of the distant and the dead, and 
make us heirs of the spiritual life of past ages. Books are the 
true levellers. They give to all who will faijbljif ully use them^ the sor 
ciety, the spiritual presence of the greatest of our race. Ko 
matter how poor I am. Ko matter though the prosperous of my 
own time will not enter my obscure dwelling. If the Sacred 
Writers will enter and take up their abode under my roof, if Mil- 
ton will cross my threshold to sing to me of Paradise, and Shaks- 
peare to open to me the worlds of imagination, and the workings 
of the human heart, and Franklin to enrich me with his practi- 
cal wisdom, I shall not pine for want of intellectual companion- 
ship, and I may become a cultivated man, though excluded from 
what is called the best society in the place where I live. To 
make this means of culture efifeotuaI| a man must aek^l {{^Q^ 

5a 



84 

books, such as have been written by risbt-minded and strong- 
minded men, real thinkers, who, instead of dilating by repeti- 
tion what others say, have something to say themselves, and 
write to give relief to full earnest souls ; and these works must 
not be skimmed over for amusement, but read with fixed atten- 
tion and a reverential love of truth. In selecting books, we may 
be aided much by those who have studied more than ourselves. 

" One of the very interesting features of our times,'* contin- 
ues Dr. Channing, '' is the multiplication of books, and their 
distribution through all conditions of society. At a small ex- 
pense, a man can now possess himself of the most precious treas- 
ures of English literature. Books, which were formerly con- 
fined to a few by their costliness, are now accessible to the mul- 
titude ; and in this way a change of habits is going on in soci- 
ety, highly favorable to the culture of the people. Instead of 
depending on casual rumor and loose conversation for most of 
their knowledge and objects of thought ; instead of forming 
their judgments in crowds, and receiving their chief excitement 
from the voices of neighbors, men are now learning to study 
and reflect alone, to follow out continuously, to determine for 
themselves what shall engage their minds, and to call to their 
aid the knowledge, original views, and reasonings of men of all 
countries and ages ; and the results must be a deliberateness 
and independence of judgment, and a thoroughness and extent 
of information, unknown in former times. The diffusion of 
these silent teachers, books, through the whole community, is to 
work greater effects than artillery, machinery and legislation. — 
Its peaceful agency is to supercede stormy revolution. The 
culture, which is to spread, wnilst an unspeakable good to the 
individual, is also to become the stability of nations.'' 

" For many years," remarks that faithful friend of education, 
George B. Emerson, ^^ and many times a year, I have passed 
by the shop of a diligent, industrious mechanic, whom 1 have 
often seen busy at his traae, with his arms bare,, hard at work. 
His industry and steadiness have been successful, and he has 
gained a competency. But he still remains wisely devoted to his 
trade. During the day, you may see him at his work, or chat- 
ting with his neighbors. At night, he sits down in his parlor, 
by his quiet fireside, and enjoys the company of his friends. — 
And he has the most extraordinary collection of friends that 
any man in New England can boast of. William H. Prescott 
goes out from Boston, and talks with him about Ferdinand and 
Isabella. Washington Irving comes from New York, and tells 
him the story of the wars of Granada, and the adventurous voy- 
age of Columbus, or the legend of Sleepy Hollow, or the tale of 
me Broken Heart. George Bancroft sits down with him, and 



85 

points out on a map, the colonies and settlements of Amenoa^ 
their circumstances and fates, and gives him the eaHj history of 
liberty. Jared Sparks comes down from Cambridge, and reads 
to him the letters of Washington, and makes his heart slow with 
the heroic deeds of that god-Tike man for the cause of nis coun- 
try. Or, if he is in the mood for poetry, his neighbor Wash- 
ington Allston, the great painter, steps in and tells him a story, 
— and nobody tells a story so well, — or repeats to him lines of 
poetry. Bryant comes with his sweet wood-notes, which he 
learnt among the green hills of Berkshire. And Richard H. 
Dana, father and son, come, the one to repeat grave, heart-stir- 
ring poetry, the other to speak of his two years before the mast. 
Or, if this mechanic is in a speculative mood. Professor Hitch- 
cock comes to talk to him of all the changes that have befallen 
the soil of Massachusetts, since the flood and before ; or Pro- 
fessor Espy tries to show him how to predict a storm. Nor is 
his acquaintance confined to his own country. In his graver 
hours, ne sends for Sir John Herschel from across the ocean, 
and he comes and sits down and discourses eloquently upon the 
wonders of the vast creation, — of all the worlds that are poured 
upon our sight by the glory of a starry night. Nor is it across 
the stormy ocean of blue waves alone that his friends come to. 
visit him ; but across the darker and wider ocean of time, come 
the wise and the good, the eloquent and the witty, and sit down, 
by his table, and discourse with him as long as he wishes to lis- 
ten. That eloquent blind old man of Scio, with beard descend- 
ing to his girdle, still blind, but still eloquent, sits down with 
him ; and, as he sang almost three thousand years ago among 
the Grecian isles, ^inffs the war of Troy or the wanderings (? 
the sage Ulysses. The poet of the human heart comes from the 
banks of Avon, and the poet of Paradise from lus small garden- 
house in Westminster ; Burns from his cottage on the Ayr, and 
Scott from his dwelling by the Tweed ; — and, any time these 
three years past, may have been seen by his fireside a man who 
ought to be a hero with school-boys, for no one ever so felt for 
them ; a man whom so many of your neighbors in Boston lately 
strove in vain to see, — Charles Dickens. In the midst of such 
friends, our friend the leather-dresser lives a happy and respect- 
ed life, not less respected, and far more happy, than if an un- 
easy ambition had made him a representative in Congress, or a 
governor of a State ; and the more respected and happy that he 
disdains not to labor dail^ in his honorable calling. 

'^My young friends, this is no fancy sketch. Many who hear 
me know as well as I do, Thomas Dowse, the leather-dresser of 
Cambrid^port, and many have seen his choice and beaut\Su\^<- 
brary . ^t I mpppge tmre is ju> one here who kno^a m nev^* 



bor of his, wbo bad in hiB e&rly jcars the same advantages, but 
who did not improve them ; — who never {^ined this love of read- 
ing, and who now, in consequence^ instead of living this happy 
and desirable life, wastes his evenings with low companj at tav- 
erns, or dozes them awar by his own fire. Which of these lives 
will von choose to lead f They are both before you. 

"Some of you, perhaps, arc looking forward to the life of a 
farmer ; — a very happy life, if it be well spent. On the south- 
em aide of a gently Bioping hill in Natick, not far from the place 
where may be still standing the last wigwam of the tribe of In- 
diana of that name, in a comfortable farm-house, lives a man 
whom I sometimes go to see. I find him with his farmer's frock 
on, sometimes at the plough-tail, sometimes handling the hoe or 
the axe ; and I never shake his hand, hardened by honorable 
toil, without wishing that X could harden my own poor hands by 
his side in the same respectable employment. I go out to look 
with him at trees, and to talk about them ; for he is a lover of 
trees, and so am I ; and he is not unwilling, when I come, to 
leave his work for a stroll in the woods. He long ago learnt 
the langn^o of plants, and thej have told him fiieir history 
and their uses. He, again, is a reader, and has collected about 
him a set of friends, not so numerous as our friend Dowse, nor 
of just the same character, but a goodly number of very enter- 
taining and instructive ones ; and he finds time every day to 
wyoy their company. His winter evenings he spends with tnem, 
and 111 repeating experiments which the chemists and philoso- 

Ehers have made. He leads a happy life. Time never hangs 
eavy on his hands. For such a man we have an involuntary 
respect. 

'' On the other side of Bostoii, down by the coast, lived, a 
few years ago, a farmer of a far different charactier. He had 
been what is called fortunate in business, and had a beautiful 
fttrm and garden in the country, and a house in town. Chan- 
cing to pass by his place, some four or five years ago, I stopped 
to see him. And I coaM not but congratnlate him on having 
80 delightful a place to spend his summers in. But he frankly 
confessed he was heartily tired of it, and that he longed to go 
back to Boston. I found that he know nothing about nis trees, 
of which he had many fine ones, — for it was an old place he had 
bought, — nor of the plants in his garden. He had no books, 
and no taste for them. His time huns like a burden on 
him. He enjoyed neither his leisure nor his wealth. It would 
have been a plcssing to him if he could have been obliged 
to exchange places wini his hired men, and dig in his garden for 
his gardener, or plough the field for hiS plougn-man. He went 
Jhjm country to town, and from town to country, and died, 
*/ /jMJf, wearj- aad asck of Efe. Tet Ve hm' a. kiud man. 



and mislit have been a happy one but for a single miflforr 
tune — he had not learned to enjoy reading. The love of read- 
ing is a blessing in any pursuit, in anv course of life ; — not 
less to the merchant ana sailor than to tne mechanic and farmer* 
What was it but a love of reading which made of a merchant's 
apprentice, a man whom many of you have seen and all heard 
or, the truly great and learned Bowditch ?" 

"If I were to pray for a taste," remarked the learned Sir 
John Hersohel, " which should stand pie in stead, under every 
variety of circumstances, and be a source of hapj)iness and 
cheerfulness to me through li£e, and a shield against its ills, 
however things might go amiss, and the world frown upon me, 
it would be a taste for reading. Give a man this taste, and yoib 

Elace him in contact with the best society in every period of 
istory — ^wiUi the wisest, and the wittiest, with the tenderest^ 
the bravest, and the purest characters which have adorned hu-v 
manity. You make him a denizen of all nations — a contempo- 
rary of all ajges. This world has been created for him. It is 
hardly possible but that his character should take a higher and bet^ 
ter tone from the constant habit of associating with a class of 
thinkers, to say the least of it, above the average of human 
nature. 

" Books," says Dr. Edwards, " are the great store-houses 
of the knowledge which the observation, experience and re-; 
searches of successive generations have been accumulating.-p 
They offer to us the intellectual wealth which myriads of labor- 
ers nave been gathering, with painful toil, for thousands of 
tears." "If all the riches ot both the Indies," exclaims 
It'EXELON, " if the kingdoms of Europe were laid at my feet, in 
exchange for my love of reading, I would spurn them all." 

" The tt^orHna widn," sdys IluFUS Choate — "by whom I 
mean the yi\io\e brotherhood of industry — should set on mental 
culture, and that knowledge which is wisdom, a value sp high — 
only not supreme — subordinate alone to the exercises and hopes 
of religion itself. And that is, that therein he shall so surely 
find rest from labor ; succor under its burdens ; forgetfulness 
of its cares ; composure in its annoyances. It is not always 
that the busy day is followed by the peaceful night. It is not 
always that latigue wins sleep. Often some vexation outside of 
the toil that has wasted the frame ; some loss in a bargain ; 
some loss by an insolvency ; some unforseen rise or fall of pri- 
ces ; some triumph of a mean or fraudulent competitor ; * the 
law's delay, the proud man's contumely, the insolence of office, 
or some one of tne spurns that patient merit from the unworthy 
takes' — some self-reproach, perhaps — follow you witlain tti^ 
door ; chiJJ the Sre-Bide ; bow the pillow with thorns ; and. 1\l^ 



88 

dark care is lost in the last waking thought, and haunts the 
Tivid dream. Happy, then, is he who has laid up in youths and 
held fast in all fortune, a genuine and passionate love of read- 
ing. True balm of hurt minds ; of surer and more healthful 
charm than ^ poppy or mandragora, or all the drowsy syrups of 
the world * — oy tnat single taste, bv that single capacity, he 
may bound in a moment into the still region of delightful stud- 
ies, and be at rest. He recalls the annoyance that pursues 
him ; reflects that he has done all that might become a man to 
ivoid, or bear it ; he indulges in one good, long, human sigh, 

fdcks up the volume where the mark kept his place, and in about 
he same time that it takes the Mahommedan in the Spectator 
to put his head in the bucket of water and raise it out, no finds 
timself exploring the arrow-marked ruins of Nineveh with 
Layard ; or worsnipping at the spring head of the stupendous 
Missouri, with Clark and Lewis ; or watching with Columbus 
for the sublime moment of the raising of the curtain from be- 
fore the great mystery of the sea ; or looking reverentially on 
while Socrates— the discourse of immortality ended — refuses 
the offer of escape, and takes in his hand the poison, to die in 
obedience to the unrighteous sentence of the law ; or, perhaps, 
it is in the contemplation of some vast spectacle or phenomenon 
of Nature that he nas found his quick peace — the renewed ex- 
ploration of one of her great laws — or some glimpse opened by 
the pencil of St. Pierre, or Humboldt, or Chateaubriand, or 
Wilson, or the * blessedness and glory of her own deep, calm, 
and mighty existence.* '* 

^^ Libraries for the people are wanted," exclaims Lamastine, 
the humane statesman of France. '^ These libraries must be in 
the people's hands — in the hands of the women, the girls, and 
the children, by each fireside. In their evening hours, in rain, 
in winter, when out of work, and on Sunday, they must find at 
home, that centre of affection and virtue, the beneficial, hi^h- 
toned, poetical, historical, political, philosophical, religious, in- 
teresting, exciting, and pleasing communion with the minds 
which, in all ages, have best understood, felt, written, or sung 
the human heart and the human intellect ; these books must be 
the host, the visitors, the guests and the friends of the work- 
man's home. They must take up little room ; they must cost 
little ; they must adapt themselves to the manners, the fortune, 
and the simplicity of the family in which they are admitted. 
They must even enter it gratuitously, like the air, the sunlight, 
or the sweet perfume of tae garden.* 



89 



THE POWER Aim INFLUENCE OF BOOKS ON THE TOUNQ. 

It is almost impossible to over-estimate the influence of books 
and libraries on tne minds of children. The constant activity 
of the human intellect is known to all ; we could not cease 
thinking if we would. This has suggested the following ingen- 
ious calculation : Suppose the thoughts of a child ten years 
old, if written down and printed, would make a page of a book 
every hour — and this is bv far too moderate an estimate — and 
this thinking process continues fifteen hours a day. Then estima- 
ting 300 pages for an ordinary volume, every twenty days* thoughts 
would produce a volume ; or a little over eighteen volumes a 
year, or in fifty years over nine hundred volumes. What a 
ubrary ! What an amazing number of thoughts pass through^ 
every person's mind. The irresistable inference is plain, that* 
a proper and plentiful supply o{ food for thought ought early to 
be supplied. 

" Seldom, very seldom," remarks an observing writer, " does 
one who is fond of reading, and who therefore emplovs his leis- 
ure moments in this delightful occupation — seldom does such a 
one engage in unbefitting, or vicious pursuits ; seldomer still, 
does one fond of reading come to a disgraceful end. ' The 
idle man's brain is the devil's workshop,' says an old proverb. 
How important, then, that parents, every where, see tnat this 
deceiver does not find ' apartments to let ' in their families. 
Then, in conversation, mark the difference between the reading 
boy or girl, and the one who is debarred from books. The one 
has a thousand topics to occupy the thoughts when no company 
is by, — ^to lighten toil and make it pleasant, or to fill up an oth- 
erwise idle hour, — to ponder over, as he runs on erranas, or sits 
waiting for business ; while the other, probably for the want of 
something else to think about, is allowing his mind to run riot 
in forbidden subjects, or engaging his hands in deeds of mis- 
chief. And wnen conversation is allowed^ what stale, flat, 
profitless chit-chat consumes the precious hours, — ^neither giving 
nor receiving any useful or trulypleasing information." 

"Books,' said the Rev. Mr. HoppiN, in his address at the 
dedication of Plummer Hall, at Salem, " books and a public 
library will make readers. There are few springs of public 
education of more worth and depth than the Horary. The pri- 
vate library which nourishes but one family, distinguishes a 
bouse from others that have no books, more than upholstery or 
gilt ceilings. There is light in that house, and the rest are but 
gloomy Egyptian palaces. Where there are books in a house, 
you might as well try to keep a bright child from them, as to 
keep the roots of a willow tree from running to the water. T^^ 



best mind of youth is dnim irresiBtablj to literatare. And a 
library ia a kindling place. It baa BometimcB awakened genioa. 

" A young man vbom God has made for a great mathematic- 
iftD, enters a library. He wanders from Bhclf to shelf. He takes 
doim a volume of poetry ; it seema to him like a world of shad- 
ows : its dark sentciiceB and cloudy language prcseat nothing 
subatantial ; he puts it back, half m wonder, half in ilis^at. — 
He takes up an hietorica.1 work. This, it may be, holds him 
longer, but be finds it difficult to come at some simple fact which 
his clear mind iB ever seeking through the rhetoric of the author. 
He doubts as ho reads. He happens, perhaps, next upon a book 
of geometry. He comprehends nttle, but his attention ia caught 
by the nicety of every figure, the precision of every word. He 
is entangled and absorbed by these sharp cut lines and diagrams, 
and his rapid eye and accurate thought are charmed by the logi- 
cal and progresaive march of every aentcnce. He cannot get 
away from that book. lie must understand it. Something 
tells him that the spring of power has been touched, that the in- 
ner susceptibility has found its corresponding object. He is 
not satisfied till ne is introduced to thia new world of positiro 
demonstration and abstract truth." 

Books and libraries, it is said, are a kindling place, and that 
they have BomctimcB awakened genius. Ni^, this is too tame ; 
they have done it many a time and oft. Wuile the great Sir 
Isftac Newton was yet a youth, and was sent to market by hia 
mother with the produce of the farm, the young philosopher left 
a trusty servant to manage the sales, while he himself employed 
his time in reading, thus paving the way for his illustrious dis- 
coveries in science ; referring to which, when made, be said with 
singular humility, " To myself I seem to have been as a child 
playing on the sea-shore, while the immense ocean of truth lay 
UQexpIored before me." There is the story of Franklin, famil- 
iar to all, that such Waa hia youthful thirst for knowledge, he 
afterwards regretted that more proper books than those in hia 
father's scanty library had not lallen in hie way ; and yet few 
and inappropriate as they were, they laid the foundation of a 
mighty power for the development of human science, human 
liberty and human happiness. Rittenhouse, "with but two or 
three books," and witnout the least instruction, acquired so con- 
siderable a knowledge of the mathematical sciences, as to beablo 
to read the Prindpia of Newton, and became one of the most 
learned astronomers of hia age. WhentheDukeofArgylehappcned 
to find his young gardener. Stone, afterwards bo celebrated as a 
mathematician, reading Newton's Principia, in Latin, he, in 
aoMgemeat enquired, how he had made Buch acquisitions ? The 
gardener boy replied, "A servaBt taughl me to itad," and then 



innocently ajsked, '' does one need to know anything more to 
learn everything else ?'* Goethe's pecnliar genius, it is said, 
was called forth to life by hearing the Vicar of Wakefield rea4 
by a fellow student ; and Gibbon was drawn to the study rif 
history, by reading the historical books in his grandfather s li- 
brary. Patrick Henry, the unrivalled orator of freedom, is 
thought by his accomplished biographer, to have bad his love of 
liberty inspired, and nis dormant faculties quickened, by the 
grancfeur of the Roman character, the vivid descriptions antl 
eloQuent harangues, so beautifully and strikingly set before him 
in Livy, his favorite author. Roger Sherman, the shoemak-er, 
who became one of the most useful statesmen of his age, edu- 
cated himself at the bench and at the fireside ; and to books 
was he mainly indebted for his great success and usefulness inlife^ 
The modern historian Neibuhr is said, when but a boy of seven, 
to have had his earnest passion for literary studies kindled, by 
chancing to hear Macbeth read in the library of a friend of his 
father. Hugh Miller, the celebrated harmonist of the Mosaic 
and Geological records of creation, whose early education was 
scarcely more than a fkculty for ready-reading, speaks gratefully, 
in the narrative, of his early opportunities, of the powerful im- 
pulse imparted to his youthfiil mind, by a few old volumes which 
fell in his way. And the early educational advantages of Elihu 
Burritt, who has mastered upwards of fifty languages, were lim- 
ited to the common school and a social library in his neighborhood^ 
The recently deceased Benjamin F. Butler, formerly Attorney 
General of the United States, is said to have had his youthful 
ambition stimulated to noble aims by reading the life, writinjjs 
and maxims of the great Franklin, after whom he was named. 

How often do we find in the cases of self-made meh, that the 
reading of some chance volume inspired some latent thought, or 
prompted some noble resolve, that led the way to a distinguished 
career of fame and usefulness. And such, in the nature of 
things, must always be the happy consequences of choice and 

f)lentiful reading for the young, at a period when th^ir minds, 
ike twigs, may bd easily guided ; and thus the conscience and 
intellect may be properly trained, and the grosser passions sup- 
planted. iJot unfrequently circumstances, often trivial in them- 
selves, give bent to a child s character, and change the whole 
current of his existence. And nothing has had,, or can in fu- 
ture be supposed to have, a more powerful influenfje in this 
direction, than books — books replete with the noblest teachings 
of wisdom, and the highest incentives to public and private vir- 
tue. 



6a, 



42 



SCHOOL LIBRARIES THE GREAT WANT OF WISCONSIN. 

None can doubt the desirableness and utility of good books. 
A single booky or half a dozen books, will not answer the pur- 
pose. We want libraries. It has been truly said, that the 
conception of the Library, the assembling in one room, and 
ranging side by side, all the wisdom of the past, and its preser- 
yation unhurt by the ravages of time, completes the beneficence 
of the inventions of language and letters, and makes, and alone 
makes, any great thought uttered or written, the common prop- 
erty of mankind. For general reading, such libraries need not 
necessarily be large; a selection of modem books, which con- 
tain the real staple of intellectual life, may be made within a 
reasonable compass. Such a collection, wisely chosen, centrally 
located, and freely circulated and read, would go on its daily 
Qussion of light, and love and intelligence to bless hundreds of 
families and thousands of minds. But few individuals are able 
to procure such libraries. It may also be said, that individuals 
as such do not build school houses nor churches, canals nor 
railroads; these arc done by associated effort. In matters of 
great public concern, such as the protection of society, and the 
education of the people. Government, which is but the expres- 
sion of the aggregation of the people, steps forward and does 
the work, or leads off in the enterprise. And this is the way 
ii^ which libraries may, and shoula, be economically provided. 
Let them be School Libraries — a part and parcel of the edu- 
cational system of the State, for the joint benefit of the old and 
the young. This is no mere theory. It has been tried in many 
of our States; and wherever faithfully tried, has always proved 
successful. We have yet had no such faithful trial in n isconsin ; 
nor is it to be wondered at, for in the infancy of our State, our 

Jeople could not be expected at once to provide for all the in- 
^llectual wants of themselves and their children. 
. The subject of School Libraries, when properly considered, 
cannot but enlist the earnest sympathies and activities of our 
people. Our first great duty is^ unquestionably, to teach our 
children to read — thus providing for them a knowledge produc- 
tive of one of the highest sources of human happiness. And 
our next duty, scarcely less important, is to provide them with 
proper books to gratify and improve the taste they early acquire 
for reading. " It is in vain," writes the leamea and eloquent 
Edward Everett, " that children are taught to read, if they 
have no access to cood books, — worse than in vain, if they are 
futnished with nothing better than the wretched trash in tawdry 
binding, which is carried round by the peddlers." 
Not less to the point are the suggestive utterances of the dis- 



4» 

tingnished Rev. Dr. FBAN0I3 Watland^ now more than forty 
years engaged in the great work of American education. 
*^ Our system of general education," he writes, ^' seems to 
render some provision for furnishing abundant and good reading 
an imperatiye duty. To teach our people to read, is to accom- 
plish but half our work; or, rather to leave our work unfinished 
precisely at the point where what we have done may prove a 
curse instead of a blessing. We can only realise the benefits 
of our system of general education, when we not only teach the 
people to read, but also furnish them with such reading as shall 
cultivate the intellect, and improve the heart. When tiiis shall 
have been done for our whole country, and it will be done in * 
all the free States, a population will rise up among us such aa 
the world has never yet seen." 

We teach our chilaren in their infancy to eat, and as they 
grow up we provide them with trades and teach them occupa- 
tions by which to obtain their daily bread. We teach them in 
their childhood how to read — and shall we not also at the same 
time, furnish them proper reading matter, so that while they are 
growing up they may carefully cultivate this noble talent for 
wise and not ignoble purposes? Considered in any proper 

f)oint of view, Scnool Libraries aro, in very deed, the great intel- 
ectual want of our State — a want inherently connected with 
our system of popular educatioui and so connected by our Con- 
stitution, our laws, and by the fitness of things, as well as by 
the universal consent and approval of our people. 

THB KIND OF BOOKS KBEDBB. 

For School Libraries f we are generally apt to say, that books 
are needed to suit all capacities, to meet the wants of all classes 
of community. And this is correct. Tet the primary object 
should not be forgotten, to provide suitable books for tne youth 
of both sexes, from their earliest ability to read up to the age of 
twenty. This is the public educational limit, and School Li- 
braries are but auxiliaries of the system of popular education ; 
and this is the formative period of character. To select the 
proper kind of mental food — ^the School Libraries — ^for the 
children of a whole State, as well as the reading in a great 
measure for their parents, would be a labor of vast responsibil- 
ity ; for from sucn libraries, the most momentous consequences 
would be likely to result. What, then, are the kinds of books 
needed ? 

" In the history of the early life of any one," remarks Presi- 
dent Babkeb, of Alleehany College, '* tne imagination is Cat 
more .vigorous and lira/ tjian the rational facuUy. liOiig \)ft- 



fore we arc capable of any aastained effort of reciBOiiing, -we 
liBten with inexpressible delight to narratives of 'moving inci- 
dentB bj flood and field,' with slight discrimination between 
tmtli and falsehood, or even between that which ia conformable 
to nature, and that which is preternatural and impossible. The 
imagination draws its inspiration primarily from the senses, and 
faeuce narrative and descriptive compositions must form the sta- 
ple of every collection of books that children will read with 
interest, and that will permanently affect their principles and 
conduct. In a narrative, the truth is clothed with flesh ; it 
Uvea, it speaks to as aa a familiar friend ; we are permitted to 
' look at its features, to grasp its hand in sincere friendship, and 
call it ours by the fondest names and recollections. Examples, 
and associations which make examples prevalent, almost infin- 
itely ontweigh any array of precepts, however judicious ; and 
hence all professedly didactic essays might as well be omitted 
fVom a catalojTuc of books to be read voluntarially by school 
children. History, and biography, books of travel, popular 
descriptions of the kingdoms of nature, especially of animal 
life, and the applications of science to art, whether useful or 
ornamental, comprise moat of the works which should find ad- 
mission to the shelves of a public school library. If to these 
be admitted a judicious admixture of works of fiction and im- 
agination, such as aro true to nature and to morality, both in 
action and acntiment, such as are neither above nor below the 
capacity of youth, and, above all, that have a high philosophical 
meaning, threading upon a narrative not too gross the pearl of 
wisdom both practical and speculative, — such a library com- 
pletes the circle of that knowledge which youth will seek volun- 
tarily for its own sake. • * • If a very import- 
ant function of the public shool, is the inculcation of virtuous 
principles and the formation of virtuous habits, the literature of 
&e library should correspond with this idea of their character. 
A large portion of the library, especially tliat part of it designed 
fpr the use of the more juvenile pupils, should be selected with 
direct reference to the influence which it will have upon habits 
aiid principles. Especially should the public authorities take 
care that no hook containing loose or vicious principles, and 
even that no book merely neutral on moral questions, be placed 
in the hands of the children of the public schools. * • • 
While discussion on the vexed questions that divide Christians 
into parties, is forbidden within the walla of a room dedicated to 
the common benefit of all classes of religioniata,— it is by no 
means forbidden to inculcate that morality which all aliko deem 
to be ohYisaXon, nor the principle on which it rests, — obedience 
to the will of Ood, rere»/ed in the Holy Scriptures. Enter- 



45 



i^f 



taining narratives, enforcing the first great commandment, su- 

Sreme love to God, and the conscientious performance of relative 
uties, are a necessary part of every complete librarv for youth; 
and, least of all, should they be excluded from that library which 
is to instruct the youth of the nation in the theory and practice 
of virtue." 

'^ A library of good boolLS," said Hon. Hbstrt Barnard in 
his Rhode Island School Report of 1845, '^selected in reference 
to the intellectual wants of the old aild the young, should be , 
provided in every village. To create a taste for reading should 
DC a leading object in Uie labors of teachers and lecturers. All 
that the school, even the best, where so much is to be done in 
the way of disciplining the faculties, — all that the ablest lec- 
ture, when accompani^ by illustrations and experiments, can 
do, towards unfolding the many branches of knowledge, and 
filling the mind with various intormation, is but little, compared 
with the thoughtful perusal of good books, from evening to 
evening, extending through a series of years. These are the 
^reat instruments of self-culture, when their truths are inwrought 
by reflection into the verv; structure of the mind, and made to 
shed light on the daily labors of the work-shop. There should 
be a due proportion of books of science and useful knowlcd^Cy 
of voyages, travels, and biography, and a good supply of judi- 
ciously chosen works of fiction. It has been a great mistake 
heretofore, in selecting books for public libraries, as well as in 
providing courses of lectures, intended merely for the poorer 
and working classes, to suppose that scientific and purely useful 
knowledge should be almost the exclusive objects of attention. 
The taste for reading and lectures of this character, must first 
be created, and the ability to follow a continuous train of 
thought, whether printed or spoken, must be imparted by apre- 
vious discipline. Tjpils taste and ability are too often wanting^ 
The books and lectures, therefore, should be very interestinff, 
and calculated to create a taste for further reading and inquiry. 

Jacob Abbott, by the following contrast of three ways of 
telling the same story, has happily illustrated the narrative and 
descriptive style of addressing the nunds of children through 
the senses — or, in other words, presenting everything in such a 
way that it may convey vivid pictures to the mind, and hence 
leave the most enduring impressions : 

^' A man had a fine oog, and he was very fond of him ; he 
used to take a sreat deal of care of him, and save him all ho 
wanted ; and, m fact, he did all he could to male him comforta« 
ble, so that he should enjoy a happy life. Thus he loved hia 
dog very much, and took gr^at pleasute in seeing him oomfottv, 
ble and happy.'' 



This, noTT, prescnti Terr few senaible images to the mind of 
the child. In the following form, it would convey the same 
general ideae,, bat far more dietinctl; and riridly : 

" There was onee a man who had a larze black and white dog, 
beantifully spotted. He made a little hoase for him, out in a 
snnny corner of the yard, and used to give him ae mnch meat 
S8 he wanted. He would go and BI^e him Bometimes, and pat 
his head, while he was lying upon hia straw in his little house. 
He loTed his dog." 

Would jou give still more point to the story, let your style 
he abrupt and striking, and give the reins entirely to the imag- 
ination. Suppose the narrator, with a child on each knee, be- 
gins thus : 

" A man, one pleasant morning, was standing apon the steps 
of his door, and ae said, ' I think I will go and see my dog, 
Towser.' 

" Now, where do you think this dog, Toweer, lived ?" 

" I don't know," will be the reply of each listener, with a 
face full of curiosity and interest. 

'* Why, old Towser was out in a little square house whioh 
his master had made for him in a comer of the yard. So he 
took some meat in his hand for Towser's breakfast. Do yon 
think he took out a plate, and a knife and fork ? 

" This man was very kind to Towser ; his beautiful, spotted, 
black and white Towser ; — and when .he got to his house, he 
opened the door, and said : 

" ' Towser, Towser, come out here, Towser.' 

" So Towser come running out, and stood there waggine hia 
tail. His master patted him on the head. Ton may jump 
down on yonr hands and feet, and I will tell you exactly how it 
was. Yon shall be Towser. Here, von may get under the 
(able, which will do for his house. Then I will come and call 
you ont, and pat yon on the head," etc., etc. 

No one at all acquainted with children need be told how 
much stronger an interest the latter style of narration would 
excite. And the difference is, in a philosophical point of view, 
that the former is expressed in abstract terms, which the mind 
eomee to appreciate luUy only after lone habits of generaliza- 
tioD ; in the latter, the meaning comes through sensible images, 
which the child can picture to nimself with ease and pleasure, 
by means of those faculties of the mind, whatever tney may 
be, by which the images presented by the senses, are perceived, 
at first, and afterwards renewed throush the magical stimulus of 
hneuage. This is the key to one of the great secrets of inter- 
BBtmB children, and in teaching the young generally. Ap- 
promcb their mmde throngh the senses. Describe eveTything 



« * 

u it preaenta itself to the eye and the ear. Where yon wish 
to gain the readiest and noBt oomple access to the heart, these 
are the doors. 

And Mr. Abhott's idea of interesting children by desoriptire 
narratire applies more forcibly to juvenile books, man e»en to 
conrersation — for the former have not the living tones of the 
human voice to bring to their aid. Books, then, for children, 
should be eminently suited to their oapaoities, aad irritten in 
an earnest, life-like simplicity — true to nature, and true to mor- 
ality. No dry, tedious homilies vrill ever attract their attention, 
or benefit their intellect. 

Kitforv and Biography. — It has been properly remarked, 
" tliat intfividuals preceded nations. The picture of the former 
is more easily comprehended than that of tne latter, and is bet- 
ter adapted to awajcen the curiosity, and interestthe feelings of a 
child. Biography should, therefore, form the principal topic of 
elementary historr ; and the great jperlods into which it is nat-< 
nrally and formally divided, — ana which must be distinctly 
marked, — should be associated with the names of some distin- 
guished individual or individuals. The life of an individual 
often forms the leading feature of the age in which he lived, and 
will form the beet nuctens around which to collect in the youthr- 
ful mind the events of an ago or the htstory of a period." 

" Histories make men wise," says Lord Bacon. " History," 
says Hon. E. RyERSON, Chief Superintendent of Public In- 
stmction for Upper Canada, " History delineates the oventa 
which have marked the progress of mankind. He that knows 
history adds the experience of former ages to his own. He 
lives tne life of the world. 'Especially he learns the origin and 
character of his country's laws and institutions, the sources of 
its prosperity, and therefore the means and dnties required for 
the advancement of its interests." 

" By the study of Mstorv, of philosophy, and of the cla»* 
sicE," says LiKBia, " we obtain a knowledge of the intellectual 
world, the laws of thonght, of mental inquiry, and of t^e spir- 
itual nature of man. Whilst we hold communion with the spit^ 
its of the great and gftod of all ages, we derive from the expe- 
rience of past centuries the power of soothing and governing 
the passions, and of softening the heart : we are enabled to 
comprehend man as he exists at the present time, since hia 
moral nature remains ever the same. We are . taught to embel- 
Heh and present, in the most engaging form, the principles of 
troth, of justice and of religion, and thus to make the most en- 
during impression upon the minds of others," 

"It is beoanse God is visible in history," says BakCEOVI^ 
*' that its offioe is the noblest except titat of the poet. T\n\t(Mfc 



b at once the interpreter and Ute farorite 'of Heaven. He 
catches tbe first beam of light that flows from its uncreated 
source. He repeats the message of the Infiiiite, vithout always 
being able to analrze it, and often without knowing how be re- 
ceived it, er why ne was selected for its utterance. To bim, and 
to him alone, history yields in dignitr ; for she not only watches 
the great encounters of life, but recalls what had vanished, and 
parteking of a bliss like that of creatjnz, restores it to animated 
being. The mineralogist takes special delight in contemplating 
the process of crystalisation, as tnough he Had caught nature at 
her work as a geometrician ; giving herself up to be gazed at 
without eonceument such as she appears in the very moment of 
exertion. But history, as she roolmes in the lap of eternity, 
sees the nund of humanity engaged in formative efforts, coa- 
stmcting sciences, promulgating laws, organizing common- 
wealths, and displayiDX its energies in the visible movement of 
its intelligence. Of all pursuits that require analysis, history, 
therefore, stands first. It ia equal to philosophy ; for as cer- 
tainly as the aotual bodies forth the ideal, so certainly 
does history contain philosophy. It is grander than thenatural 
sciences ; for its study is man, the last work of creation, and 
the most perfect in its relations with ^e Infinite." 

In studying man, in studying history, we must study repre- 
sentative men, and representative events. Incur School Liora- 
riee, we need, therefore, works that will tell as, in a truthful, 
captivating manner, the story of Xerxes, Cyras, Alexander, 
Hannibal, Cieaar, and other heroes of ancient times, of the 
orusades and the middle ages ; the revival of learning ; of 
Great Britain, France, Germany, Norway, and other European 
eountriea, whence our fathers migrated ; the discovery of the 
Kew Yorld by Columbus, whose ungrateful sovereign suffered 
bim to die in chains, persecuted ondbroken-hearted; of Galileo, 
the inventor of the tdescope, who, when he declared of the earth 
titat "It docs move," was imprisoned the closing years of hia 
life for ottering such a Supposed impious thought ; of Newton, 
tiie discoverer of the laws of gravitation ; of Franklin, who, 
with bis kite, snatched the lightening from Heaven, and demon- 
strated its identi^ with the electric fluid ; the settlement and 
Bufferings of the PiJgrim fathers on the bleak shores of Xew 
England ; the heroic Captain John Smith, the settlement of 
Virgiiua, and the romantic story of the lovely Indian Princess, 
Pocahontas ; of Lord Baltimore, who planted the Catholic ool- 
ony of Maifyland, of Boger Williams, who, with his persecu- 
ted Baptist adherents, founded the colony of Bbode Island, of 
WilUuD Ftna, with bis Quaker settlement of Pennsylvania, 
a»cb proclaimiag reJigiona liberty and the frcedoiq of oojucieiuxi ; 



49 

of the founding of Oeorgia by Oglethorpe; the storv of De 
Soto and his $teel-clad warriota, while in qnest of gold, discoV'^ 
erinff the Mississippi ; the adventures of Marquette, La Salle 
and De Tonty ; oi Washington, Greene, Marion and their com-' 
patrfots, defending the liberties of their country ; of Boone, the 
early explorer of Tennessee and Kentucky, and of Clark, the 
eallant conqueror of the great Norths-West ; of Arkwright, the 
inventor of the spinning jenny, which has added millions to the 
wealth and trade of England ; of Watt, the improver of the 
steam-engine ; of Whitney, the inventor of the cotton-gin, which 
has trebled the value of all the cotton lands, in our country, and 
led to a vast diminution of the cost of the necessary clothing of. 
millions of the human race; of Godfrey and'Hadley, the inven- 
tors of the quadrant ; of Fulton, Fitch and Rumsey, the inven- 
tors of steamboats ; of Morse, the inventor of the electric 
telegraph ; and the story of the infant settlement and wonderful 
growth of the States of our Republic, the principles upon which* 
our government is founded, and the liopes upon which its stabil*- 
ity rests. 

" The chill of penury," says President Barebr, " broken 
health, religious bigotry, the most adverse circumstances, have 
yielded to the unconquerable will of the youthful devotee of 
knowledge. Or rather, instead of dispiriting, they have devel- 
oped the resources, the innate energy of the soul kindled wit>i 
the celestial fire of genius ; it has risen superior, apparently^ 
to the decree of Providence appointing its allotment ; it ^aas 
spurned its fetters, it has asserted the majesty of intellect, and 
mankind have, with one voice, admitted the validity of itp, pre«> 
tensions. Can we over-estimate the impression which th<e peru-- 
sal of the memoirs of such men will produce on the sust^eptiUe 
mind of early youth ? — Will not the example haunt the memoi^ 
by night, as well as by day ? — Will it not inspire emulation, and 
a generous rivalry — a heroic purpose, ourselves to fill a niche 
in the pantheon of history ? Was it not thus, that the youthful 
Themistocles exclaimed, that Hhe trophies of Miltiades would 
not suffer him to sleep V That Alexander prized above all the 
iterature of his age, the Iliad of H#mer ; and that, in our day. 
H^apoleon daily perused some portion of Plutarch's Lives. X 
say it without fear of successful contradiction, that example is 
the most edifying counsel, the most attractive influence, ofben 
the most lucid instruction, ever addressed to the youthful mind. 
If so, a library enriched with the lives of those who have made 
themselves a olessing to mankind, by the light of their intelli- 
gence and virtue, wiU instil love of truth aind goochiess with 
silent but irresistible energy." 

Book9 of Travel.— Vfom of thh class are full of incident, 

7a 



50 

depicting the customs, modes of life, and national pecoliaxiiies 
of people of all countries. Such works as the travels of Mar« 
guctte, Cook, Ledyard, Lewis and Clark, Dwieht, Silliman, 
Layard, Liyingstone, Lynch, Fremont, Kane and Bayard Tay- 




iVEBETT, 

ily^claim precedence of astronomy. No other science 
furnishes such a palpable embodiment of the abstractions which 
lie at the foundation of our intellectual system ; the great ideas 
of time, and space, and extension, and magnitude, and number, 
and motion, and power. How grand the conception of the ages 
on ages required for several of the secular equations of the so- 
lar system ; of distances from which the light of a fixed star 
would not reach us in twenty millions of years ; of magnitudes 
compared with which the earth is but a foot-ball ; of starry 
hosts, suns like our own, numberless as the sands on the shore ; 
of worlds and systems shooting through the infinite spaces, with 
a velocity compared ,with which the cannon-ball is a way-worn, 
heavv-paced traveller ! 

" The heavenly hosts ! There they shine and there they move, 
as they moved and shone to the eyes of Newton and Galileo, 
of Kepler and Copernicus, of Ptolemy and Uipparchus ; yea, 
as they moved and shone when the morning stars sang together, 
and all the sons of God shouted for joy. All has changed on 
earth ; but the glorious heavens remain unchanged. The plough 
passes over the site of mighty cities, the homes of powerful na- 
tions are desolate, the languages they spoke are forgotten ; but 
the stars that shone for them are shining for us ; the same eclip- 
ses run their steady cycle ; the same equinoxes call out the flow- 
ers of spring and send the husbandman to the harvest ; the 
sun pauses at either tropic as he did when his course began ; 
and sun and moon, and planet and satellite, and star and con- 
stellation and galaxy, still bear witness to the power, the wis- 
dom, and the love which placed them in the heavens, and upholds 
ihem there.'' 

Natural HUtory and Phy9tologv,*^^^Evcrj clime is tasked," 
observes Bancroft, '^ to ei^orge tne boundaries of knowledge. 
Minerals that lie on the peaks of the Himalayas, animals that 
hide in the densest jungles of Africa, flowers that bloom in the 
solitudes of Sumatra, or the trackless swamps along the Ama- 
zon, are brought within the observation and domain of science. 

^' With eoual diligence the internal structure of plants and 
animals has oeen subjected to examination. We may gaze with 
astonishment at the advances which the past fifty years have 
made in the science of comparative physiology. By -a most la- 
borious and long continnea use of the microscope, and by a vast 



51 

nnmber of careful lEtnd minute dissections, man has gained such 
insight into animal being, as not only to define its primary 

Soups, but almost to draw the ideal archetype that preceded 
eir creation. Not content with the study ot his own organi- 
zation and the comparison of it with the P^una of every zone^ 
he has been able to count the pulsations of the heart of a cater- 
pillar ; to watch the flow of blood through the veins of the silk- 
worm ; to enumerate the millions of living things that dwell in 
a drop of water ; to take the census of creatures so small, that 
parts of their members remain invisible to the most powerful 
microscope ; to trace the lungs of the insect which floats sO; 
gayly on the limber fans of its wings, and revels in the full fru- 
ition of its transcendent powers of motion." 

Chemistry, — How wonderful, how varied, and how useful is 
a knowledge of chemistry. Earths and alkalis, touched by the 
creative wire of electricity, start up into metals that float on 
water, and kindle in the air. Chemistry explains the formation 
of clouds, rain, mist, snow, water-spouts, and other atmospher- 
ic phenomena ; treats of the gr^at combinations, of naturCi 
which produce volcanoes, earthquakes, deluges, minerals ; it 
acquaints us with the best means of constructing and arranging 
our habitations, so as to render them healthy, of examining anq 
adjusting the air which we must breathe in them, guarding 
against contagious diseases, selecting and preparing wholesome 
food, drink, and clothing, discovering and explaining the influ- 
ence of occupation, fashion and customs on health and longevity ; 
k treats of the nature of plants and soils, their mutual adapta^ 
tion, the laws of production, and the nature and use of man^ 
ures ; and its apmications to the arts, manufactures, agricul- 
culture, householu economy, the health and happiness of our 
race, are most extensive, interesting and important. Every 
School Library should possess i)opurar works on a subject so 
varied and useful in all the affairs and interests of every-daj 
life. 

Q-eology. — This science is full of interest and profit to our 
race. It has faithfully pointed out the localities of- precioud 
and useful metals and coal, which have added unnumbered mil- 
lions to the comfort and wealth of the civilized world. ^^ The 
geologist," says Bancroft, ^'has been able to ascertain, in 
some degree, the chronology of our planet ; to demonstrate the 
regularity of its structure where it seemed most disturbed ; and 
where nature herself was at fault, and the trail of her footsteps 
broken, to restore the just arrangement of strata that had been 
crushed into confusion, or turnea over in apparently inexplica- 
ble and incongruous folds. He has perused the rocky tablets 
on which time-honored nature has set her inscriptions. He^^ 



s 



opened the massive sepulchres of departed forms of being, and 
pored over the copious records preserved there in stone, till 
they have revealed the majestio march of creative power, from 
the organism of the zoophyte cmtombed in the lowest depths of 
Siluria, through all the rising gradations of animal life, up to its 
sablimeat result in Ood-like man." 

Electricity.— " Of the nature of electricity," aays BAN- 
CROFT, "more has been discovered in the last fifty years than 
in all past time, not even excepting the age when our own 
Franklin called it from the clouds. This aerial invisible power 
has learnt to fly as man's faithful messenger, till the niystic 
wires tremble with his passions, and bearliis errands on the 
wings of lightning. He divines how this agency which holds 
the globe in its Invisible embrace, guides floating atoms to their 
places in the crystal ; or teaches the mineral ores the lines in 
which they should move, where to assemble together, and where 
to lie down and take their rest. It whispers to the meteorolo- 
;ist the secrets of the atmosphere and the skies. For the chem- 
_st in his laboratory it perfects the instruments of heat, dissolves 
the closest affinities, and reunites the sundered elements. It 
joins the artisan at hia toil, and busily employed at his side, 
this subtlest and swiftest of existences tamely applies itself to 
its task, with patient care reproduces the designs of the engra- 
ver or Uie plastic art, and disposes the metal with a skillful del- 
icacy and exactness which tne best workman cannot rival. — 
Kay, more : it enters into the composition of man himself, and 
is ever present as the inmost witness of his thoughts and voli- 
tions." 

Of Natural and Intellectual Philosophy, of Botany, and oth- 
er interesting subjeots, it is not necessary to speak in detail. — 
W^ea presented in popular forms, they cannot fail to interest, 
enlighten and strengthen the youthful mind. In both the natu- 
re and mental world, we find abundant sources of the noblest 
attraction, and of the highest utility to our race. Let books on 
these and kindred sutHeots, properly populariied, and stripped 
of technicalities, be placed where' children and their parents can 
eveiywhere have free and conveni^t access to them, and it 
would be impossible to estimate the happy results of a few brief 
years* expenence. 

Tho time vas when even the learned Bacon thought the stump 
of ft beech tree had been known to put forth a birdi, and when 
the great philosopher Kepler believed that the planets were 
moiwroQS ajumals — errors from which those giant minds could 
not divevfe themselves, but which the veriest school hoy now 
bnoirs to be absolutely impossible. " The collective man of the 
/niur^" an^oAa'BuxQ^QVJ, "wiU see further, and see more 



/ (58 

clearly, than the coUectiye man of to-day, and he will share hin 
supenor power of vision and his attainments with every one of 
his time. Thus it has come to pass, that the child now at sobool 
coald instruct Columbus respecting the figure of the earth, or 
Newton respecting light, or Franklin on electricity ; that the 
husbandman or the mechanic of a Christian congregation boIvob 
questions respecting God and man, and man's destiny, whioh 
perplexed the most gifled philosophers of ancient Greece." 

SOME OF THB SPECIAL BENEFITS OF SCHOOL LIBRARIES* 

« 

There are several special benefits to be derived from a gene" 
ral system* of School Libraries, that deserve pa,rticular notice* 

1. Standard histories would inform us of the different coui^* 
tries and ages, qf the men and the women, to whom we are 
indebted as a nation for our success, our biowledge, and pros- 
perity. " Our land," says Bancroft, " is not inore the red- 

fnexit of the men of all countries than of their ideas. Annihi- 
ate the past of any one leading nation of the world, and our 
destiny would have been changed. Italy luid Sp&iQy in the 

Sersons of Columbus and Isabella, joined together for the great 
iscovery that opened America to emigration and commerce; 
France contributed to its independence; the search for the 
origin of the language we speak carries us to India; our reli- 
gion is from Palestine; of tne hymns sung in our churches, 
some were first heard in Italy, some in the deserts of Arabii^, 
some on the banks of the Eupnrates; our arts come from Greece; 
our jurisprudence from Rome; our maritime code from Russia; 
England taught us the system of Representative Government; 
the noble Republic of the United Provinces bequeathed to us 
in the world of thoudit, the great idea of the toleration of all 
opinions; in the world of action,, the prolific principle of a 
Federal union. Our country stands, therefore, more than any 
other, as the realization of the unity of the race." 

2. Teachers would be improved, and they, in turn, would 
still more improve their pupils. " In the firstplace," remarks 
Prof. Daniel Read, now of our State University, **the 
teacher will be improved in the standard of his qualifications. 
No one is fit to be a teacher who is not himself a learner. This 
is a pre-requisite to all success. Unless the teacher is a learner, 
he cannot have the spirit of his profession; he cannot be an 
earnest man in his work; unless nis own mind is quickened and 
made active by thought and study, he is wholly unfit to stir up 
and energize the minds of others. In the library, he has con- 
stantly before him a stimulant to his own improvement*, wvA. Vsft 
ciU3 hnng forth from tbi$ treasure-home thingB ueir mA oW V^ 



■64 

interest and arouse his school. Instead of spending his leisure 
moments in idleness and gossip, he has, in the library, a never 
failing means of enjoyment and recreation befitting his vo- 
cation, 

" Besides, in every School Library, there would, of course, 
bo placed the standard works on the theory and art of teaching. 
Thus the beat and most improrod methods of conducting a 
school are brought directly to his attention and knowledge— the 
means of governing a ecnool — of banishing inertness and the 
stupid rontine of drawling lessons. Above all, his own mind 
will be stirred up, and he will be brought to think for himself, 
as well as to avail himself of the aids of others. How should 
the young teacher, male or female, without experience, know 
how to conduct the school, and with what etwemess will aid and 
instruction be sought from the best books. It is a common topic 
of complaint here and evBrywherefthat well qualified teachers 
cannot oe had for our schools. What shall be the remedy? 
This has been a subject of earnest inquiry in our Stete Legis- 
latures, and among our eminent educators. Some of the States 
have established rformal Schools at a vast expense; some have 
made liberal appropriations for the support and holding of 
Teachers' Institutes. No doubt these instrumentalities hare 
accomplished their moasuro of good. But I shall not soon for- 

fet the remark of an eminent teacher of another State, whose 
eart is in every great educational movement. ' After all,' said 
he, 'the little silent volumes for teachers, which have been sent 
oat in our School Libraries, have done more good in improving 
our teachers, and maldng them what they should be, than any 
1|hing else we have done. They have gone into every school- 
'hoase, and been the guides and companions of our young teach- 
ers, our young men and women, when entering upon their new 
charge, while all other instrumentalities have Deen partial and 
limited in their influence.' " 

School Libraries would open to teachers a source from which 
they could prepare lectures for the benefit of the district, as 
well as Teachers' Institutes, on the various subjects of educa- 
tion, health, morals, government, natural and civil history, the 
wonders of science, the discoveries of art, and many other 
.topics of enduring interest. ; They would have the means at 
their command to prepare themselvea, if not already prepared, 
for another important work-M>ne, in an eminent degree uniting 
pleasure and instruction: " Once, at least, each week," sug- 

Sests Hod. AkSoh Smyth, State Commissioner of Common 
chools of Ohio, " I would have the teacher accompany the pu- 
gi/f oB.aa excaratoa. tbroagh the neighboring fields anq groves. 
2l&/f occasion might he improved for the imputing vtoy.rafiV\tnv 



65 

in Botany, Geology, Entomology and Ornithology. The varie- 
ties of plants, flowers, herbs, grasses, mins, shrubs, and trees, 
—of soils and stones, — of insects ana birds, — ^would furnisn 
pleasing and profitable subjects for remark and inquiry. Upon 
these subjects all children should be instructed. It is a deplo- 
rable truth, that in all our larger towns, children are almost ut- 
terly ignorant in regard to them. There are thousands of 
school girls who, at a glance, .could name the fabrics of all the 
dresses ever worn by Caroline Woodman or Flora McFlimsey; 
but who could not tell the growing oats, barley, rye and wheat; 
nor the oak, beach, maple and hicKory apart; nor distinguish 
between an owl and an eagle, a wren and a robin.*' 

8. The influence of School Libraries up.on the pupils them- 
selves would be no less salutary. As children learn to read, 
proper books, suitable to their understanding, would prove a 
powerful incentive to their acquisition of knowledge. They 
would give a new zest to their studies, and constantly impart a 
new stimulus to learn more. It is well known, that in very 
many of our districts, schools are kept only the three months, 
the requisite period to secure a share of the School Fund appor- 
tionment; thus leavinff the children in those districts nine 
months of the year without school instruction; and the average 
months of schools taught in the State is only five and three 
fifths — ^leaving more than half of the year throughout the State 
during which our two hundred and sixty-four thousand children 
are without the least visible means of instruction. Then, in 
an especial manner, do they need School Libraries, to which 
they can resort, and find the means and incentives for intel- 
lectual growth and improvement. Let them have the best works 
of the best minds, past and present, and it will be better for 
them than to have the most brilliant lectures, incomplete as 
they always, from their nature, must be, delivered in their re- 
spective neighborhoods by Bancroft, Everett, Emerson, Bayard 
Taylor and others of the most cultivated scholars of our 
country. 

4. School Libraries would prove a^owerful incentive towarcDs 
the formation of Youth's Debating Giubs, and Literary Associ- 
ations, by furnishing sources of information upon almost every 
practical subject. Thus would the spirit of research and 
discussion be fostered and encouraged, deep, clear and correct 
thinking promoted, and the rising man fitted for the stem mental 
conflicts of life, in which many, no doubt, will hereafter be 
called upon to engage, as the law-makers and expounders of 
our State and Union. 

5, These LibrandB ebould contain an appropn|BLte^e\ee^VoTi ot 
wor1[8 of tbe besi pSeta^^g'B inUft^ttt^i^ <rf iiatoxe* TSV^ft 



66 

lUad of Homer, is unquestionably the finest epic in the world, 
and the (Edipus of Sophocles is peerless in poetic literature. 
But as a whole, it has Deen remarked, the English poetry is the 
richest gift ever bestowed, by the genius of any people, upon 
the human family. " The School Library," observes President 
Barkeb, '^ is the depository of this literature, and by the 
study of it chiefly, must the taste of our people be refined, and 
the current of their thoughts be ennobled, in Italy, pictures 
and statues, architecture and music, have performed this task; 
in England landscape gardening has infused universally a tin^e 
of po^c sentiment. Here these agencies do not exist; but li 
is tne privilege of all to see suspended itx writing, the imperial 
creations of the poet and the philosopher, and to gaze on them 
till their own souls thrill with transport, and vibrate in unison 
with these generous sentiments.*' Let us gladly scatter flowers 
along the pathway of knowledge, which may constantly fill the 
mind with the image of beauty and goodness. 

"Do any reply, asks Mrs. Sigourney, "that * the percep- 
tion of the Beautiful' is but .a luxurious sensation, and may 
be dispensed with in those systems of education which this a^e 
of utility eiitablishes? But is not its culture the more oe- 
manded, to throw a healthful leaven into the mass of society, 
and to serve as some counterpoise for that love of accumulation, 
which pervades e^ery rank, intrudes into every recess, and 
spreads even in consecrated places the ^ tables of the money- 
oiangers, and the seats of such as sell doves?' In ancient 
times, the appreciation of whatever was beautiful in the frame 
of Nature, was accoupted salutary, by philosophers and sages. 
Oalen says, ^ He who has two cakes of bread, let him sell one, 
and buy some flowers; for bread is food for the body, but 
fiower9 arefovdfor the %oulJ If the perception of the Beauti- 
ful may be made conducive to present improvement, and to 
future happiness; if it have a tendency to refine and sublimate 
the character; ought it not to receive culture throughout the 
whole process of education? It takes root, most naturally and 
deeply, in the simple and loving heart; and. is, therefore, pecu- 
liarly fitted to the early years of life, when, to borrow the lan- 
guage of a German writer, ' every sweet sound takes a sweet 
odor by the hand, and walks in through the open door of the 
child's heart.'" ' 

6. To young ladies would School Libraries prove of unspeak- 
able benefits "But to you, my young lady friends," says 
Oeobqe B. Emerson, "even more than to your brothers, it is 
important now to acquire a talent for reading well, and a taste 
for reading. I sajr more ifnportant^ for, looking forwwxl to the 
fmire,jroa will need it morethsa^ they. They are moi^ ViAft- 



.• 



w 

pendent of this resource. Thej have their shops, and farms^ 
&nd counting houses to go to. They are daily on change. — 
They go abroad on the ocean. The sphere of woman, her place 
of honor, is home, her own fireside, the cares of her own family. 
A well educated woman is a sun in this spihere, shedding around 
her the light of intelligence, the warmth of love and happiness. 
Andby awell-educateawoman,Idondtmeanmerely one wno has 
acquired ancient and foreign languages, or curious or striking ac- 
complishments. I mean a woman who, having left school with 
a finnly-fixed love of reading, has employed the golden leisure 
of her youth in reading the best English books, such as shall 
prepare her for her 4uties. All the best books ever written are 
in English, either original or translated ; and in this richest and 
best literature of the world, she may find enough to prepare her 
for all the duties and relations of life. . The mere talent of read- 
ing well, simply, gracefully, — ^what a beautiful accomplishment 
it IS in woman ! How many weary and otherwise heayy hours 
have I had charmed into pleasure oy this talent in a female 
friend. But I speak pi the higher acquisition, the natural 
and usual consequence of this, a taste for reading. This will 
give a woman a world of resources. 

" It gives her the oracles of God. These will be very near 
her ; — ^nearest to her hand when she wakes, and last from her 
hand when she retires to sleep. And what stores of wisdom, 
for this world and for a higher, will she jgain from this volume ! 
This will enable her to form her own character and the hearts 
of her children. Almost every distinguished man has confess- 
ed his obligations to his mother. To ner is committed the im- 
portant period of life. How necessary, then, is it tVt she 
should possess a knowledge of the laws of the body and the 
mind, and how can she get it but by reading? If you gain 
only this, what an unspeakable blessing will your education be 
to you!" 

7. Such Libraries would have a tendency to lop off many of 
the rougher exterior habits of our youth, and lead them to cul- 
tivate habits of refinement and politeness. They arc sadly 
needed. The ancient bow and courtesy — ^little civilities, but 
none the less significant of respect for elders and superiors — 
which were so common fortV years ago, are now become ^uite 
out of fashion. " But where," enquires Mr. Commissioner 
Smyth, of Ohio, '^ in all our land, does this good old practice 
prevail ? Where are the evidences in our children of the pos- 
session of that spirit of kind respect and appropriate regard for 
iheir superiors in years and. wisdom ? Who does not know l\ia\> 
bows and courtesies, on the part of our boys and girlB, axe o\^- 



lUad of Homer, ta unquestionably the finest epic in the world, 
tad the (Edipue of Sophocles is peerless in poetic literature. 
Bat as a whole, it hu oeen remarked, the Kagliah poetry is the 
richest gift ever hestowed, bj the seniua of any people, upon 
the human ^milj. " The School Library," observes Presiaent 
Bareeb, " is the depository of this literature, and by the 
study of it chiefly, must the taste of our people be refined, and 
the current of their thooghts be ennobled. In Italy, pictures 
and statues, architecture and music, have performed this task; 
in England landscape gardening has infused universally a tinge 
of poetic sentiment. Here these agencies do not exist; but it 
is the privileee of all to see suspended in writing, the imperial 
creations of the poet and the philosopher, and to gaze on them 
till their own souls thrill with transport, and vibrate in unison 
with these generous sentiments." Let us gladly scatter flowers 
along the pathway of knowledge, which may constantly fill the 
mind with the im^e of beauty and goodness. 

" Do any reply, asks Mrs. Sigournby, " that ' the percep- 
tion of the Beautiful' is but a luxurious sensation, and may 
he dispensed with in those systems of education which this aae 
of utilitjf eatablishes? But is not its culture the more de- 
manded, to throw a healthful leaven into the mass of society, 
and to serve as some counterpoise for that love of accumulation, 
which pervades erery rank, intrudes into every recess, and 
spreads even in consecrated places the ' tables oi the money- 
aiangors, and the seats of such as sell doves?' In ancient 
times, the appreciation of whatever was beautiful in the &ame 
^ Nature, WOB accounted salutary, by philosophers and sages. 
Galen says, ' He who has two cakes of oread, let him sell one, 
and buy some flowen; for bread is food for the body, but 
fioweri are food for iJu louL' If ihe perception of the Beauti- 
ful mav be made aonducive to present improvement, and to 
future happiness; if it have a tendency to refine and sublimate 
the character; ought it not to receive culture throughout the 
whole process of education? It takes root, most naturally and 
deeply, in the simple and loving heart; and. is, therefore, pecu- 
liarly fitted to the early years of life, when, to borrow the lan- 
guage of a German writer, ' every sweet sound takes a sweet 
odor by the hand, and walks in through the open door of the 
child's heart,' " 

6. To young ladies would School Libraries prove of unspeak- 
able benefit. "But to you, my yonng lady friends," says 
Oborgb B. Emerson, "even more than to your brothers, it is 
JiDpDrtant now to acquire a talent for reading well, and a taste 
Jbrtvsdiqg. latkj more important, for, IJooLing forwiu^ to the 
'"^^^^^J'oawiUaeeditmoniiuaibes. TVey are moift mia- 



67 

pendent of this resource. They have their shops, and farms, 
and connting houses to go to. They are dailj on change. — 
Ihej go abroad on the ocean. The sphere c^ voman,her place 
of honor, is home, her own fireside, the cares of her own family. 
A well educated woman is a sun in this sphere, shedding around 
her the light of intelligence, the warmth of loveandhappinesH. 
And by awell-educatedwoman,Idonotmean merely one wno has 
acquired ancient and foreign languages, or curious or striking ac- 
complishments. I mean a woman who, having left school -with 
a firmly-fixed love of reading, has employed the golden leisure 
of her youth in reading the best English books, such as shall 
prepare her for her 4atieB. All the best books ever written are 
in English, either original or translated ; and in tjiis richest and 
best literature of the world, she may find enough to prepare her 
for all tiie duties and relations of lite. The mere talent of read- 
• ing well, limply, ^aoefully, — what a beautiful accomplishment 
it 18 in woman ! How many weary and otherwise heavy hours 
have I had charmed into pleasure oy this talent in a female 
fiiend. But I speak of the higher acquisition, the natural 
and usual consequence of this, a taste for reading. This will 
give a woman a world of resources. 

"It gives her the oracles of God. These will be very near 
her ; — nearest to her hand when she wakes, and last from her 
hand when she retires to sleep. And what stores of wisdom, 
for this world and for a higher, will she gain from this volume ! 
This will enable her to form her own character and the hearts 
of her children. Almost every distioffuiahcd man has confess- 
ed his obli^ationa to his mother. To ner is committed the im- 
portant period of life. How necessary, then, is it tl^t she 
should possess a knowledge of the laws of the bedy and the 
mind, and how can she get it but by reading! If you gain 
only this, what an unspeakable blessing will your eduoation be 



to yoi 

7. 1 



. Such Libraries would have a tendency to lop off many of 
the rougher exterior habits of our youth, and lead them to cul- 
tivate habits of refinement and politeness. They arc sadly 
needed. The ancient bow and courtesy — little civilities, but 
none the less significant of respect for elders and superiors — 
which were so common forty years ago, are now become ^uite 
out of fashion. " But wnere," enquires Mr. Commissioner 
Smyth, of Ohio, " in all our land, does this good old practice 
prevail ? Where are the evidences in our children of tne pOB- 
Kssion of that spirit of kind respect and appropriate regard for 
their superiors in years and. wisdom ? Who does not know l^ati 
bows and eooTteeie^ an the put of our boys and ^tU, u& (i^- 



Bolete, both in idea and practice ; and arc numbered with the 
■ lost arts of the ancienta ? It has been remarked, that ' there 
are thousands of boys in this great country, not one of whom 
has ever made a bov, unless woen he had occasion to dodge a 
snoiv-ball, a brick-hat, or a bowlder.' 

" Some eight or ten winters since, Ex-Governor Everett, of 
Massachusetts, with the late Amos Lawrence, wa.<!, in a sleigh, 
riding into Boston. Aa they approached a school-house, a 
'score of young boys rushed into the street, to enjoy their after- 
noon recess. Said the Governor to his friend, 'Let us observe 
whether these boys make obeisance to us, as we were taught to 
do fifty years ago.' At the same time hc' expressed the fear, 
that habits of civility were less practised than formerly. As 
they passed the school-house, all question and doubt upon the 
subject received a speedy, if not a satisfactory settlement ; for 
each one of those twenty juvenile New Enelanders did his best 
at snow-balling the way-farinz dignitaries.' 

" That more regard," says Mr. Northend, the late distin- 
guished Principal of the Connecticut State Normal School, 
" should be manifested by the young to rules of etiquette and 
courtesy, must be admitted by every observing mind. There 
is. too little reverence for ago and authority ; too slight a rea- 
pect to laws of both man and God. The transition from boy- 
nood to imagined manhood is altogether too rapid, as by it the 
son is, often, placed above the parent, and the pupils taught 
become much wiser, in their mim estimation, than tlicir teach- 
ers. Boys.in their undue anxiety to become men, are neither 
men nor boys, but form a new, peculiar race." To rectifV 
these' evil tendencies, the School Library must come to the aid 
of the teacher and the parent. 

8. Good Libraries would not fail to exert a happy inflnenCfe 
in eradicating vicious habits. "Ilabitual novel reading," says 
Hon. John D. Philbrick, recently Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools of Connecticut, and now City Superintendent of 
Boston, " is extremely deh-imental to the health and vigor of 
both body and mind. Works of fiction, and those of the baser 
Bortj constitute almost the entire staple of the reading of the 
multitudes of our youth. This species of literature has in- 
creased, within a few years, to an alarming extent, and its read- 
ers have increased in a corresponding ratio. It is spreivding 
over the land like a moral p lagne, tainting the whole moral at- 
mosphere with its pestilential breath. The reading of such 
productions inflames the passions, depraves the imagination, and 
eorrnpta the heart. A recent author has truly said, 'Theypaint 
J^/* car uju'te/yoD, iumane murders, licentious saints, holy infl- 



de!B, and honest robbers. Over loathsome women and unutter- 
ablv rile men, is thrown the checkered lizht of a hot imE^ination, 
until they glotr with an infema,! luster.' ' 

" Would you," aska Prof. Read, "^effectaally banish from 
the generation growing up, stupid knavery, low rices, idleness, 
loafing, running about upon the Sabbath t These and kindred 
vices will be most effectuallr banished by sending out into cverr 
neighborhood the means ana inccntires of intellectual culture. ' 
"What boy," inquires Horace Mann, "what boy, at least, 
is there, who Is not in daily peril of being corrupted by the 
evil communipatioDB of his el^rs ? We aJlknow, that there are 
aelf-styled gentlemen amongst ua, — self-styled gentlemen,-~-vh.o 
daily, and hourly, lap their tongues in the foulness of profanity; 
and thongh, through & morally insane perversion, they may re- 
strain themselves, in the presence of ladies and of clergymen, 
yet it is only for the passing hour, when thcr hesitate not to 
poor out the pent-up flood, to deluge and defile the spotless pu- 
rity of childhood, — and this, "too, at an age, irhen tJicso pollut- 
ing stains sink, contre-deep, into their young and tender hearts, 
BO that no moral bleachery can erer tuterwards wholly cleanse 
and purify them." 

It is always with pain and sorrow, that the good man hears 
God's name taken in rain ; ret, in fervent charity may he hope 
that, " The aocusing spirit flew up to Heaven's chancery with 
the oath, and as she wrote it down, dropped a tear on the word, 
wd blotted it out forever." By multiplying the purest models 
of literature, we may confidently hope to do much towards root- 
I ing out this rile habit, and implanting in the breasts of our 
\ youth an uoflwerrins; reverence for the sacred name and charac- 
ter of the Supreme Being. 
Another eril habit to which a lore of reading, acquired by 
. the School Library) would prove superior, is the low and ^ror- 
elling desire to witness the vulgar minstrels, and corrupt ballet 
dancers, who stroll through the land — not of the Yenua Celes- 
tial sort, hut of the V«nu8 loferDar. "One of , the most 
striking things," says Horace Mann, " in the ' Letters from 
Mroad,' by Miss C. M. Sedgwick^ is the uniform and energetic 
condemnation which that true American lady bestows upon 
opera-dancers, and the whole corps de ballet, for the public and 
sliameleai exhibition of their persona upon the st^ge. Have 
jung ladica of our cities a nicer sense of propriety, of 
modesty, and of all the elements of female loveliness, than this 
excellent author, who has written bo much for their iraprove- 
metit, and who is herself so admirable an e.iampre of ftUtemui- 
ine parity and delicacj ? And have the joxmg men of Aiaenc& 



a higher ideal of what belongs to a true gentleman, — to a mai 
of loftj and noble natare^ than a writer, who is so justlj cele 
bnted, in both hemispheres, for her pure and elevated concep 
tiooa of hnman character ?" 

9. By placing in every School Library one or two standan 
works on School Arehttceture, we should soon see a decide< 
improvement in the size, style, arrangement, and comfor 
of our school-houses, and in the selection of the most beautifa 
and appropriate locations for them — thus rendering them at 
tractive, rather than repulsive, to the youth who rijpair then 
for the highest and holiest of purposes. What Mr. Mann aait 
eighteen years ago of the school-houses of 'MassachusettB, i 
equally applicable to those of Wisconsin at the present day.-r 
" Our school-houses," said he, " are a f^r index or exponent o 
our interest in Public Education. Suppose, at this moment 
some potent enchanter, by the waving of his magic wand 
should take up all the twen^-eight hundred school-houses o 
Massachusetts, with all the little triangular ^nd non-degcrip 
spots of earth whereon and wherein they have been squeezed,— 
whether sand bank, morass, bleak knolf, or torrid plain, — bd< 
whirling them through the affrighted air, should set them al 
down, visibly, round about us, in this place ; and then- shool* 
take uB up into some watch-tower or observatory, where, at on 
view, we could behold the whole as they were encamped ronoi 
about,— each one true to the point of compass which marked it 
nativity, each one retaining its own color or. no-color, each ODi 
standing on its own heath, nillock or fen ; — ^I ask, my fritudfl 
if, in this new spectacle under the sun, with its motley hues o 
red, grav, and doubtful, with its windows sprinkled with pat 
terns taken from Joseph's many-colored coat, with its broicei 
chimneys, with its sbii^lcs and clap-boards flapping and clat 
tering m the wind, as if giving public notice tnat they wen 
about to depart,— I ask, if, in this indescribable and uunamea 
ble group of architecture, we should not see the true image, re 
flection and embodiment of our own love, attachment and re 
gard for Public Schools and Public Education, as, in a mirror 
face answercth to face ? But, however neglected, forgotten 
forlorn, these edifices may be, yet within their walls is con 
taincd the young and blooming creation of Ood. In them ar 
our hope, the hopes of the earth. There are gathered togetlie 
what posterity shall look back upon, as we now look back upoi 
heroes and sages, and martyrs and apostles ; or as we look bad 
npon bandits and inquisitors and sybarites. Our deares 
treasures do not consist in lands and tenements, in rail-roadi 
Bad banks, in ware-houses or in ships upon every sea ; the] 



61 

arc within those doors, beneath those hiOnble roofs ; and is it 
Q not our solemn duty to hold every other earthlj interest subor- 
^^ dinate to their welmre ?" 

^ 10. School Libraries will create the germs of thought in the 
minds of our ingeniousjouthy ancl will thus be likely to lead to 
j useful inventions. We kno^ not whose humble roof may 
j shelter a Franklin, a Newtony a Watt, an Arkwright, a Fulton, 
^ a Whitney, or a Morse. 

J '^ Of what use is all your studying and your books ?" said 
^. in honest farmer to an ingenious artist. ^ They don't make 
^ the com grow, nor produce vegetables for market. My 8am 
j does more good witn his plough in one month, than you can do 
^ vith vow Dooks and paper^.in one year,'* 

*^ What plough does your son use?" said the artist, quietly. 
"Why, ne uses — — s plough; to be sure. He can do noth« 
in^ with any other. Bj using tlxis. plough, we save half the 
li£or, and raise three times as much a9 we did with the old 
wooden concern." 

The artist turned over one of his sheets, and showed the far- 
mer a drawing of his much-praised plough, saying with a smile, 
'^ I am the inventor of your favorite plougn, and my name 

is ." 

The astonished farmer, it is said, shook the artist heartily 
by the hand, and invited him to call at the farm-house, and 
make it his home as lon^ as he liked. 

11. A good School labrary in every neighborhood, would 
serve a most important purpose, in giving the rising generation 
abetter idea of the leamea professions, commerce, manufac- 
tures, and the mechanic art^ and of the requisite amount of 
knowledge and preparation necessary to fit them for engaging, 
with a fair prospect of success, in any of these several pursuits. 
An appropriate proportion. of the best works on Agriculture, 
Horticulture, stock and fruit raising, the culture of the Chinese 
sugar cane, and other 'branches of Farm Husbandry, would 
tend to dignify the earliest and noblest occupation of man, 
and would be worth many thousands of dollars annually, 
to the yeomanry of our State, their rising sons and daughters. 
^The farmer and mechanic, and even the housewife," the late 
Jad^e BusL well remarked, ^'require profMnional books, — 
boiks that will instruct them in their several employments — 
that will render their labors more enlightened, more pleasant, 
more profitable, more respectable, — as much as the lawyer, the 
physician, or the clergy re(]^uire professional books to perfect 
ihem in their several vocations.''^ 

12. How few, comparatively, have any practical knowledge 
of physical education, its wants and necessities, itsne^ect&^uid 



penalties. It is the physical condition of the child from its 
birth on\rard, and the physical condition of the parents before 
its birth, that involve its health, growth,and. longevity. Air, 
temperature, dress, diet and exercise, with their proper rela- 
tions and bearinffs to each other, have more to do with the suc- 
cessful rearing of children, than the most devoted maternal 
love, ignorant of these requisites, or any amount of the best 
medicines ever devised by the skill of man. Nearly a fourth 
part of the human race die before they attain the age of a sin- 
gle year. It has been well asked, what would the farmer or 
the shepherd say, if he should lose nearly a fourth part of all 
his lambs and kids befdre a seventieth part of their natural life 
had been reached ! Before attaining the age of five years, 
more than a third part of all our race die — a great majority of 
them from ignorance on thp part' of their parents of the great 
laws of physical education. How much of human life would 
be saved, bereavement and misery avoided ; and how much of 
joyous health, rosy beauty, and unspeakable happiness, would 
be promoted, if .we had in every School Library throughout the 
length and breadth of the State, so all could read and profit by 
them, such works as Dr. Combe's Principles of Physiology as 
applied to Health and Education, and kindred works on the 
mental and physical condition of man, and the great laws of 
nature, relating to the preservation of health, ana the longevity 
and happiness of our race. 

13. The School Library would diminish the commissioA of 
crime. It has been the experience of the civilized world, that 
education has invariably had this effect. Scotland presents a 
remarkable instance of the diminution of crime, the increase of 
public wealth,' and the diffusion of private comforts, as the re- 
sult of the increased and increasing attention to the education 
of the people. Little care is paid to educating the masses in 
SpaiUi and, as the natural consequence, we find there twelve 
hundred and thirty-three convictions for murder in a single 
year, seventeen hundred and seventy-three convictions on char- 
ges 'of maiming with intent to kill, and sixteen hundred and 
twenty persons convicted of robbery under aggravated circum- 
stances. According to the returns made to the British Parlia- 
meht, the commitments for crimes, in an average of nine years, 
in proportion to population, Are as follows : In Manchester, 
the most infidel city in Great Britain, 1 in 140 ; in Londofi) 1 
in 800 ; in all Ireland, 1 in 1600 ; and in Scotland, celebrated 
for learning and religion, 1 in 20,000 ! Out of nearly 28,000 
persons convicted of crime in the State of New York, during a 
period of ten years, but 128 had enjoved the benefits of a good 
common school edueation^ and only about one half could either 




re«d or write. Statistics of crime will everywhere reveal to ub 
the sad policy of neglecting to provide for our youth the neces- 
Barj meaoa of good education and attractive School Libraries, 
while paying at the same time a still greater tax for the protec- 
tion of community against the crimes and depredations of tho 
ijniorant, the idle, and the rioioue — whose very ignorance and 
Tice are the result of their early want of Bchoola and libraries. 
14. The School Library would increase the wealth of the 
State. " If a man," Bays Franklin, " empties his purse into 
his head, no one can take it away from him. An inveetmcnt 
in knowlet^e alv^a pays the best interest." "Knowledge," 
says Hon. J. D. Philbbick, " is the great producer of wealth. 
Just in proportion ae the hands of those who labor in the field, 
or in the work-shop, at the plow or the loom, are guided by 
intelligence, in the same proportion will their labor be produc- 
tive. This proposition holds true even in the lowest species of 
productive industry. It has been demonstrated beyond the 
shadow of a doubt, that the well educated operative or laborer 
does moro work, does it better, wastes less, uses his allotted 
portion of machinery to more advantage and more profit, earns 
more money, commands more confidence, rises mster, rises 
higher from the lower to the more advanced positions of bis em- 
ployment, than the uneducated. The farmer who reads on the 
subject of fanning, has money in the bank, while hie nc/ghhor, 
who does not take a paper, sleeps under a mortgaged roof." 

SCHOOL LIBAARX ESPERIENCE IN BI9ISB STATES. 

In the matt^ of School Libraries, we have no occasion to 
look to Enropc and profit by her experience ; they arc purely 
an American out -growth — the natural result of the necessitieB 
of an earnest and inquiring people." While several of our 
States have taken hold of the subject of School Libraries with 
more or less earnestness, all have not equally well succeeded ; 
ind where failures, or partial failures, have occurred, it is of 
18 groat importance to learn the true causes, as to ascertain 
the meftoB of success in others. Thus may we alike profit by 
the mishaps of the one, and the more fortunate experience of 
ibe other. 

New York. — It was reserved for the Empire State to lead 
the way in this noble enterprise. That far-seeing and sagacious 
itatesman, DeWitt Clinton, in his message as early as 1827, 
recommended a small collection of books and maps to be at- 
tached to common echools. (Jov.0Clinton died the following 
year, but in 18S0, Azariah C. Flagg, then Secretary ,af StatOi 
ud Superintendent of Public Instruction, presented the subject 



to the Legisl&tnre ; and, in 183S, his snccessor, Gen. John A. 
Dix, strongly urged the eatabliBhment of district libraries. — 
The next Tear, an act vaa passed, permitting the distriets, if 
they sair fit, to impose a tax of $20 for the first year, and $10 
for each succeeding year, and leaving the districts to select the. 
books. Simply permitting the districts to establish libraries, 
and throwing tne selection of books into the district meetings, 
were grave errors — the last of which still remains nnremedied. 
The former was effectually corrected in 1838, when upon Got. 
Marcy's recommendation, a portion of the United States' 
deposit fund was appropriated to each district which shotdd 
raise by tax an equal amount. Thus was $55,000 a year set 
apart by the State for books and apparatus for the School Libra- 
ries, on condition that the distncts should raise as much 
more — making $110,000 annually, an example of enlightened 
pnblic munificence for a noble object, vhich had no precedent 
in the history of legislation. 

"New York has the proud honor," says Hon. Henut S. 
Randall, in a report on the subject in 1844, "of being the 
first government in the world, which has established a free 
library system, adequate to the wants of her whole population. 
It extends its benefits equally to all conditions, and in all local 
situations. It not only gives profitable employment to the man 
of leisare, but it passes the threshold of tne laborer, offering 
him amusement and instruction, after his daily toil is over, 
without increasing his fatigues, or subtracting from his earn- 
ings. It is an interesting reflection, that there is no portion of 
our territorv, so wild or remote, where man has penetrated, that 
the library uas not peopled the wilderness around him, with the 
good and wise of this and other ages, who address to him Uieir 
Bilent monitions, cultivating and strengthening within him, even 
amidst his rnde pursuite^uie principles of humanity and ci vio- 
lation. This philanthropic and admirably conceived measure^ 
may justly be regarded as, next to the institution of Common 
Schools, tne most important of that series of causes, which will 
give its distinctive character to our civilization as a people." 

In 1841, Gov. Sewakd. after observing that almost every 
district in the State was then in possession of a library, re- 
marked in his message: "Henceforth, no citizen who shall 
have improved the advantages offered by our Common Schools 
and District Libraries, will be without some scientific knowl- 
edge of the earth, its physical condition, and its phenomena ; 
the animals that inhabit it, ibe vegetables that clothe it with 
Verdure, and the minerals older its surface ; the physiology 
and intelleotual powers of man ; the laws of mechanics ud 
their practical uses ;' those of ohemistry and their applicatioa 



to the arts ; the prittciplea of nkerai uid |K>liticaJ eoonom;' ; ths 
Ustorj of DfttiouB, .uia e^p^p^j. that 6f our eountry ; the 
progress and triumph oC the detaooratid pnnaip{fi in gavem- 
meots OD this contEineDt, apd tho prospoctB of its ^BoeDdenc^ 
throughouli the vorld ; thefithiJB aad faith, valor and conBtanu^ 
of our aaceptora ; irith. ^1: the inspiring eximples of benero- 
lence, virtue and patrLotiem, exhibited in the &Vea of the bene- 
factors of mankind. Xha fruits of this enlightened enterpiiae, 
are chiefly to be gathered by our successors. But the preaent 
generation will, n^t be altogether unrewarded. AJtfaooga aisny 
of oar citisenB may paaa the Sistriot Library heedless of the 
Measures it contains, the uuprotebding volumes will find their 
va; to the fireside, diffusing knowledge, increasing domestic 
kappiaess, and promoting public virtue. ' 

Gov. Wbiqet, in his message in 1846, reforing to the dispo- 
ution of the public funds for the purchase of libraries, and 
other purposes of popular education, remarked: *'Ko public 
fund of the State is so unpretending, yet so all-pervading — so 
little seen, vet so unirerstuly folt — so mild in its exactions, yet 
so bountiful in its benefitsr-rso little feared or courted, and yet 
io powerful, as this fund for the support of Common SchoMS. 
The other funds set apon the secular intereste of society, ita 
business, itspleasju-ea, its pride, lita passions, its vices, its mi»- 
fortunes. Tkii acts upon its mijid aad its morals. Education 
is to free institutions, ,what bread is to human life, the staff of 
their existence. The office of this fund is to open and warm . 
the soil, and sow the seed from which this element of freedom 
must grow and ripen into maturity ; and the health or sickness 
of the growth will measure the extent and security of our lib- 
erties.' 

"The crowning glory of our whole Common School system," 
exclaimed Jakbs Hbxry, Jr., tbo County Superintendent of 
Herkimer, in 1S43, " is the dnstitulaon of District Libraries. 
These institutions are designed to carry forward and complete 
the process which is bqtcom&iencedinthe schools. ThesohoolB 
are mteuded. to teach children and youth the art of aoqnir- 
ing useful knowledge ; the library is designed to afford- tJiem 
the means of reducing tJiat art to practioe." 

Such were the encouraging frords. of commendation from 
every quarter. Horace MaoQ, Henry Barnard, imd many oth- 
ers, were onstiiited.iB their, praise ;. and it seemed for a while: 
&at in the matter of' School XibrarieB, New York hsdindJeed 
discovered tbe philoBophor's stone. Time, however, began to 
develop some defeotS} an<l. these it ia proposed to point oat-^ 
or, ra%erf toletMni«9f,tba.7]Kii)uient eaiidatotB am^ inso!^ 
of eiacahan,'ia uat Stale, t&omselves point tlieiii out. 



66 

The earliest evils that developed themselves, were ^improper 
books that weiie thondhtlessly placed in ihe libraries, and th^ 
misappropriation of me library fond. &(m.HBNltT S. Rait- 
DALi/^late Superintendent of Pnblie Instniotion, o^New York^ 
and &» distinguished author of th^ Life of Jefferson, as early 
as 1842^ when County Superintendent <>r Courtlilnd, thus 
strongly and ppintedly spoke against' the^ ^Pirate's Own Book/' 
and ^' Lives and Exploits of Banditti and Robbers," whidi had 
found their way into several of the ' School Lib^ri^s. he had 
examined : • 

, VI have uniformly advised their removal, attd ' asellgned the 
following reasons 9 — ^that^ in ihe first place, aside from any di- 
rectly pernicious tendency which they are supposed to exercise, 
the information which they contain is not of a valuable cfaarac-: 
ter ; that the wild and exciting tales which thet contain, unfit 
thq youthful mind for ^e perusal of work^- of a grayer and 
moare. useful character ; that they'cater to a deprav^ taste bv 
dilating on uU the revolting details of the wolrst crimes Of which 
humanity is capable ; and, lastly; that they ef^ exercise a posi- 
tively, bad and dai^rous tendenov over the youi^iful mind. — : 
The first. step to vice is the knowledge of it: And where vice 
and crime are painted in those illusive colorings which nearly 
idiv themto virtues, they lose their naked repulsiveness. — 
When the brute courage of fiie lawless buo<^aneer is held up 
and expatiated on as lofty heroism ; when the capricious mer- 
cy, which, even the gorged wild beast wilt occasionally, and 
. perhaps equally often, manifest, is dignified with the name of 
magnanimity and generosity, it is tO be fear^ that the lives of 
such men afford not the benefit of ik negative examplie,^ — at least 
to the youtiiful mind, which the Comtilon School libraries are 
intended principally to benefit. It is to be feared that, to tiie 
mind in which sound principles htfve not .taken deep jroot, and 
had time to attain some degree of vigor and makirity, these 
tales of wild excitement and wring adv^iituries, — ^wh^re pew scenes 
and new objects for ever meet the eye,->^where the most unres- 
trained passions meet with no check, and* untold wealth may be 
had for the asking, — are more prone to claszle and captivate, 
thanto ezeite* disgust and abhorrence: Ihieive ever thoudxt 
there was a dangerous kind o{ fas^inatioii in stories of this 
kind. All hare neard of the incident Of the young man, who, 
em witnessing a thrilling representation on {he stage, ' of thef 
^ Buined Crambler,' exclaimed in an uneontrofhible burst of 
feeling, ^ I, too, will be a ruined gatnbler !' 

^^ But'it has' several times beenl said to me, ' ^ All this i^ ob^ 

viated by the faot, tli$t, in the end, 'thin piiiite' or robber was 

idSca mnd axeeukidi^ The'AnalIest<(>br; fao^Ver, kpfows.Uiiit 



'J. " 

.1! 



Ufl-fleiEnre or eica^« depends upon eontingeqciea. Some never 
Iwre been taken ; pthcrB,'we knovj have di^d peaceably in tdieir 
beds ; manv have fallen in battle, the common and tlie honora- 
ble lot of the Boldier ; and, when seized and pnt io death, eTeo 
by those vindictive methods, nntil ao recenUy praoticec^ — ^by ' 
the cross, by impalement, etoi, — if the yosthful mind has not 
already been prepared td regard ft as the martyrdom of a hero^ 
we, at least, oave th£ w^irant of ezperieiice, in saying that th^ 
public exhibitions of scones of this kind, eitiier on paper or in 
actnai life, have never been found to exercise that salntary in- 
fluence, which, perhaps, it would be so natural to expect, 

" Such, Sir, is an outline of the reasons wluch I have urged, 
when I have found such books in the Common School libraries, 
to procure their removal ; and, in corrol^oration of some of the 
positions assumed by me, I would r^m^^ that, where I have 
fqnnd such books, liorarians and other school ofScers present, 
have uniformlv admitted that they are more read by boys, than 
any other booKS in the library. A sensible fanner complained 
to me, last week, that he ' wished the Pirate book was ou^ of 
the library, for his son wonld read nothing else — his whole 
thoughts were on it day and night.' " , 

Speaking of the. same class of books, Hon. Samuel Yqdno, 
while Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kcw York., in 
1842, remarked; '* They serve only to rainlster ^o that mort|i<i 
appetite for the revolting and disgusting details of vice anid 
cnme, especially when exhibited on an extensive scale, wbioU 
charactenies the undisciplined ^d vulgar mind. They stimu- 
late and excite the worst propensittes and passions of our 
nature, without contributing, in the slightest degree, to the im* 
provement or elevation of the intellect or the heart. It ia 
* deeply and seriously to be regretted, that any considerable por> 
tion of an enlightened community should countenaiice the diSii- 
lion of works so exceptionable m their tendency.*' * * * 
*' I am bound," he continues, " by the position to which I hare 
been called, and by the obligations I have assumed, to see thai 
no contaminating influences ar^ permitted %o , mingle with the 
pure streams of knowledge and instruction designed to be 
secured by the introduction, of District Xibraries into the 
several school districts of the State, The publie funds set 
apart by the enli^tened munificence pf the; Legislature for tl^e 
general diffilsioa.of iijtellcotqal and moral science, shall never,, 
with my consent or ^owledge, be perverted , to unworthy, 
degrading, and imoblft purposes; and whenever I am sa^sfie^ 
Ihatthe fiistrictTlibrar^es nave been, p^mutfied, by those tO 
whoin tlie selection of-bopts has J^.^on p9n&q^d,,tQ becoxne ^w 
Tehidea of conv^tiq^Abtf ^ntettinatiog appeals io &Q puuwA^ 



68 

1 

the ima^nation, or the fancy, I shall promptly apply the.remedy 
whjich the law has placed iix my hands." , . 

Hon. Christopher Morg^K, when Buperintcndent of 
Schools of ]^ew York, speaking of t^e School Libraries in hia 
report of 1851, observed: '^Jnjadipious selections of l^ooks 
are not nnfrequently made^ by the !tru8te^s> and the library 
fnnds committed to their charge squandered., upon worthless, or 
worse than worthless publications." Hon. Y tCTOR M, Bics, 
in his report as School Superintendent of New Tork. ip 1854^ 
after speaking of there being nearly 12,000 District Libraries 
in the State, says: ^^ In those districts where the libraries have 
been best appreciated and most extensively read, the interest in 
their contents is to the largest degree exhausted, and can only 
be renewed by a constajit replenishing of the shelves with fresh 
books. The existing appropriation is too small to produoid a 
very marked effect in this way, and the consequence is, that 
both the old and the new volumes are fieJling into neglect." In 
the same report, Mr. RiCB elsewhere adds: '^ The undersigned 
is constrained to believe, that the future supply of the libr|irieB 
should be regulated by some safer agency tnan the hawkers and 

Sedlars, who too often succeed in palming off upon the School 
'rustees, collections of wretched irash, tnat have no other re- 
commendation than their nominal cheapness." 

\' My official investigations and experience," writes Hon. 
HSKRY S. Randall, ^' have amply satisfied me, that if the 
purchase of libraries is made optiooAl with the districts — the 
alternative being that the library money may be diverted to the 
)ayment of teachers' wages, &c. — the system will prove a 
ailure. There is no doubt that a better method of selecting 
the books could be devised than having it done by the Trustees 
of the districts. On the whole, I should be much inclined to 
favor the plan proposed in your communication. .If its details 
were well adjusted and carried out, I se^ no reason why it would 
not succeed, and result in a vast saving of the public money, 
and a vast improvement of the character of the works placed in 
the hands of the readers of Common School Libraries." 

Amos Dban, L L. D., of Albany, the Chancellor elect of 
the Iowa State University, and author of the present school 
system of lowa^ thus writes : ^* :The idea of small districts 
providing themselyes with libraries that will be of any real 
yalue, is, in my judgment, perfectly idle. They Thrill not half 
of them have any books at all, and tfhose that they do have, may 
stand a great chance of doing more harm than good* If the 
quality of food that nourishes and sustains the body is at all 
worth attending to, much more is that which builds up and gives 
Auve to theminA, the spiritual princip^^." . , ■ 



I 



d9 

^^ The most active tod fVaitful seeds of good and evil in our 
Bocial syBtem," writes BeMon J. LossiNO, of New York, the 
well-known author of the Scli6ol Historiep, ^^are found in the 
literature of the day ; and the wisest dUcrimination is neces- 
sary to separate one from the other. Xt is impossible — abso- 
lutely impossible — to have anything apjproa^hihg to the exer- 
cise of such wisd discrimination in the system oi JDistrict Li- 
hntries, as organized in some States, How can the Trustees 
of schools, elected for a temporary purpose^ many or most of 
them away from the centres of business and general knowledge, 
and engaged in absorbing pursuits, be acquainted with the 
character of the thousands of books that fall from the press 
every year ? They have no data to guide them, and they are 
lefttd the mercy of pedlars and otner^i who 20 about the 
country with * sensation books * — in other words, moral and 
intellectual poison — and are compelled to form their judgment 
from the statements of lyin^ advertisements. This is a mon- 
ster evil ; and many of the ubraries of this State are crowded 
with booke that no judicious parent would willingly allow his 
child to read. In view of the importance of the matter, I 
heartily coincide with your expressed opinion In relation to 
Town Libraries, leaving the selection of the books to the 
State, through proper agents duly chosen by the people." 

Hon. Samuel S. Randall, formerly Deputy State Superin- 
' tendent of Schools of New York, and now City Superintendent 
of Schools of New York City, writes : " I cordially approve 
the substitute of the Town School Library system for. that of 
INstrict LibraHes. In our own State the latter plan has l)een 
in ^jcistence for some twenty years, and althougn great good 
has undoubtedly been accomplished by thie diffusion of compar- 
atively a few volumes in every disirict, yet it is m^bnifest wiat 
an innnitely greater amount 'of benefit would have b<^en accom- 
pUshed by the consolidiEttion of the funds apportioned to th^ 
several districts of each towti, and the purchase itnd gradual 
expansion ' of a Town Library, centrally located^ and eaailj 
accessible to all. These viet^d X' have repeatedly and earnestly 
urged upon the Legislature, "but as yet without success. I 
consider the funds thus comparatively frittered away upon a 
few cheap books in each district, as little better than wasted ; 
while by the adoption of the Township plan, large and valuable 
libraries would- Speedily sjpriing.up, the worth of wl^ich would 
be unapprdciable 16 the ^rising generation, and to the citixens. of 
the S tategci[ier$lly . " 



TO. 

needed^ is frittered into 8umB of -one, two or throe dollarsr-r 
8am8 too insignificant to produce any appreciable effect^ or even 
to repair loiases. It is believed that tne appropriation should 
be increased, and that it should be accompamed with such Leg- 
islative provisions as will secure the greatest eponomj in its ex- 
penditure, and the most jiidioious selection'' of books. The 
trustees, hating but one, two, three, or four dollars to invest, 
purchase a very few Wumes, at a very high price, compare^, 
with which they coiifd be obtained in larger Quantities. In 
some of the Stated, the funds appropriated tor tno increase of 
district libraries, are expended oy an agent of the State, who 
procures, directly from the publishers, two or three thousand 
copies of such works aj9 he mav select, and apportions the vol- 
umes to the districts instead of money. True economy would 
be consulted by purchasing a whole •edition of ten or twelve 
thousand volumes ; for the same money would command at least 
twice the mercantile value of books w&ieh is obtained by tho 
present method ; while it might also be reasonably hop^d that 
the intrinsic literary value 01 the books would be equally en- 
hanced.'* 

The report of Hon. H. H. Van Dyck, the present Superin- 
tetident of Public Instruction of New York, made in January 
last, gives some interesting facta relative to the condition of 
the school libraries of that State. It appears, that in 1847, 
there were, in round numbers, 1,810,000 volumes in the School 
Libraries of the State ; in 1853, they had increased to 1,604,- 
000 ; and since have gradually decreased, so that in 1857 
therfe were only 1,877,000 volumes reported ; showing a dimin- 
ution of 226,000 volumes in four years, or an average of over 
56,000 per annum, while $55,000per year had been appropriated 
on the part of the State for that purpose, on the express condi- 
tion that the districts should raise for the same object an equaj 
amount. Thus the total number of volumes in the School Li- 
braries of New York exhibit but a slight increase during the 
last ten yeiars^ notwithstanding the expenditure of $1,100,000 
within that period for library purposes. 

That something should be allowed for the natural wear of 
books is reasonable ; but the real causes of the diminuition are 
unquestionably found in the reasons assigned by Mr. Yak 
pTGK in his last report — their probable destruction, to some 
extent, by use ; their dispersion and loss by neglect ; and the 
want of sound judgment by the local Boards of Trustees in 
regard to the selection of books. ^^ Works of an ephemeral 
olmracter," adds Mr. Van Dtok, ''embodying little amusement 
and less instruction, have too often been urged upon Trustees, 
aodfonnd theit way into the library, more to tiie gratification of 



71 

' ' _' ■ . . f '' ' '' I- •• • : I'liU- 1 • 



tk^frabiisliiiigf^eiit tkAn the benefit iof theidistrieti'^ Itii 
akio IB maqycaeea, tW when a library has : attuned* to a 
pectable number of volameB, as measured in ihe estimation of 
those having it in chairge, they look upon its enlargement ais 
unnecessary,^: and seek to turn the appropriation from its lejdti^ 
xoate purposes. He^nce arise frequent applications to the De* 
partment for leave to appropriate the library money to the paT* 
ment of teachdrs' wa^es.; whilst others, it is apprehended; 
divert it to this and oi£er purposes, without the formalities re* 

quired by law*" 

In a personal interview with Mr. Van Dtok, in Septembet 
last, he attributed the. partial fbilure of the New York systemc^ 
to the £»ct, that on the limited' distri<;t plan, the libraries .are 

Senerally too small. to be attractive and useM ; tiuut verj'many 
istricts receive froufL the State the mere pittance of one, two^ot 
three dollars a jes^yim library replenishment — ^an amount knul^ 
ifestly too insignificant. te do any material good, even if the few 
books purchased were of the very best chairsfeter, and hence, im 
his opinion, the Township plan would be far preferable. It 
will be seen, that by dividing the total number of volumea in 
the School Libraries of New York by 12,000, the nuinber of 
District Libraries in the State, the average number is 114 vol* 
nmes to each District Librarv — the large majority of them^ 
doubtless, being far less — as the result of twenty eonseoutiVe 
years' additions, and at a total cost of $2,200,000, or $182 upon 
an average to each library — pr an average of a little ovev 
nine delist to eachk annually. / ' 

These facts and aearly bought experiences of New York, the 
pioneer State in the' establishment of School Libraries, point 
unmistakably to two ^and defects in the system of: tba^ State 
-Hfijst, the District labraries being so small as. to render' them 
almost useless ; and, secondly, the sad waste of a noble fund 
by its unwise expenditure by local Trusteet, who necessarify 
know but little of the most suitable books ; and if they db^ 
have no proper opportunities to select . them. H^nce the wi^ 
dom of tne opinions of Hon. Henry S. Bandall, Chancellbr 
Dean,:Benso])L J. Leasing,; Hon. Samuel 8. BaodaU, and Hon; 
H.H. Van Dyck, that a Township Library system, with the 
books carefully selected by proper State officers, Would be de* 
eidedly prefenible. 

Masaachu^ettS'^The first to imitate the example of NeiT 
York, was the State of Massachusetts. Xt was a noble aspira^ 
tion of Ho&AOB. Kakn, when he became Secretary! of the 
Massachusetts Board of Bducation,to plant the School Library 
in every neighborhood, so that there should not be a spot with- 
in the borders of the State^ where a child should be at ag;re^tet 



72 

.. itance than a half hour's walk from a library of boo)[8 suited 
tofaiBlrdEuling. But the first effort of Masisiiushiidettfl ih ^8T, 
lUce that of New York, simply permitted the distticts to ' tax 
themselves, and procure libraries. It proved a failure,, as it 
did in New York; those who needed them most; were motrt bKnd 
ta their own pressing wants. In 1842, a Legislative grant of 
fifteen dollars was made to each district, on conditioli of raising 
an equal amount, for the purchase of a library. The State 
Board of Education suggested two series of books, of fifty 
volumes each, nearly all small works; but the districts, after 
all, were left to their own discretion in the selection. Publish- 
ers having on hand old publications, re-bound them, and though 
pften mere trash, disposed of them upon tempting terms of 
cheapness to the districts, and thus much that was almost worth- 
less, if not positively injurious, found its way into the School 
Libraries. After three years experience, itim the powerftil aid 
of HoRACB Mann, only about two thirdi^ of the districts 
availed themselves of the benefits of the law, and about $60,000 
wiere thus appropriated. A vast deal of good wa$ unquestiona- 
bly aocomplishea. Yet, except as a temporary measure, ^t is 
conceded tna4; the system proved a failure. The poorer districts, 
where libraries were most needed, were confiparatively unsup- 
pHed. : There were three principal ' causes of failure: 
1. Adopting the district instead of the township svsteiu. 2. 
The law provided for only a single appropriation, with no pro- 
visions for replenishing tne libraries; so when the books were 
once read, they were laid aside, and the interest in the libraries 
ceased. 3. No proper provisions were inadb for the manage- 
ment of the libraries, and hence they were often thrust one side 
by some blockhead of a librarian, and left to neglect. These 
libraries have gradually disappeared. 

In 1858, the Legislature authorised each town to raise moticy 
for the eistablisbment of a Town Public Library; some thirty 
cities and towns, in the course of five years, have established 
libraries — at which rate it would require fifty-five years for all 
the towns to be supplied. So far as adopting the town Library 
plan is concerned, this appears to be a step in the right direc- 
tion; but "Mthout State aid and encouragemeht, ai^'d* that 
permanently^ a few spasmodic effbrts,* and at best -only partial 
success can be expected. 

Maine. — Little has been done in this State as/yet for School 
Libraries. In 1849, there were but Seventeen District Libra- 
ries; and in 1851, after the district plan had been seven years 
in operation, only nine towns reported their establishment. Hon, 
£• M. Thurston, SiBCfetary ot the State Board of Education, 



1* 

in bia annual ropprt of 1851, tl))U reponuneBijU': '' It aeema to 
me, that the onl; feasible nay of est^bliahuig a. general ayatem 
of public libraMjBB in the State, is to apply tEe aystem to tomiB, 
instead of school districts,'* i 

^ew Hampshire and Vepi^ont have no State «yBtem . fi^ 
School labrari'ea; but In Sih<>de-,Itlani and CormMfioKt^.whiai^ 
Mr. Barnard has laboredand sown ^legoodieed, bBtterreaolta 
have been accompUebed; Kr. £>AtCNARl>, as , the S«t< JQr. 
Wayland BBBured las, in conversatioa, " did a great work for 
Rhode Island in the matter of School Libraries, whilo at ..ths 
head of the department of Public InatrvctioQ of that Stat«,''by 
infuaiDgihe right spirit among the people/' The StataXumishaa 
DO direct aid, we believe, aqd the ^irna land dlatrifita vera 1^ 
to their own discretion. Some 20,000 volomes were reported 
in 1852, in the School LIbraucs of the five small «ountiea,!Cioii- 
prising thirty towns of ti^ Sfate, ,. . , , , ■ 

Connecd'cii/.— Inl841j Mr- Barmard, thtn^eMetary«f.tti^ 
Board of School CommiBaioiiters of Cooaectibut, eloiifivntiiy 
QTged the Establishment of School .Jl^ibruiea, the distncts.to 
fnmiab as much as the State for the[;qbJMt). £nbli<a sei^tinKlit 
was not then prepared for this 40U9. mqosujre. Hoti. Jomi Dt 
PniLBRiCE, aa Superintondeat of C^mnvn Sohppls of l^at 
State, in 1855, again bfou^t Ihe abject to .the .^ oaaideratioQ 
of the Legislature, and pressed tha ;aatter with suwh enrneefr 
nesa, that a law was cnaote«[,th« foUowing year, granting tea 
dollars to every school district,. for a School Library, and firs 
dollars each succeeding year,, on condition of snoh, district raiRf 
inz as much by tax or aubacriptiQQ,',.for the saine purpoeet-^ 
Aoout one third, ofi.Uie disttiicta of .;4ia State havci availed thflUr 
golvesof the proTisLtma of thib Jaw, the aiaMiotf. heivg <Iefl< to 
select the hooKft, sutyecti tq the.appf^ovaloftbe Board of Tovn 
Visitors. .. ■,' .,■',.■.■ ■ : ■ 1 

Middle and S6%titm ,Statc».-^%Ji.<iSifi Npw Ygrjc, aodia.lpM- * 
modic effort in I^e,w Jersey, none of 'the Jdiddle Statea have yet 
done' anything towards SchooIy^Librariea. In Pettnsylvaltia, 
tbcir necessity is feU, but t))ey have no State School: fund, Mid 
hence have a npayy edncai^nal t»x ito low. Tba S««tliettL 
States have done noihins in the ^uection of Seho.ol: Libraries. 
The J^fuf^thedaiit, .West, .has o.iitdooq thesj^aU, 

Michigan.— Tioa gt^te took theJe^ in tlfs; W^st^ im . est^r 
lishing libraries for ScI(ools. {[JiBy ^ene at.firat Diat<ficti .Lj- 
brariea, but in 1843, Ve End them changed into Towoahip Xi' 
brariea. The Bum of $25 is.byl^w annually «et apart by aach 
town,, out of its local tax, fur ui,e XoFOahip Lihcary ;- vdA to 
this ia add^d abou;k|aii et^ual aaaoaut^: 4<3i>Ted &Qta: the. olett 
.■'.'■.. : '■ .. . ..'iOa . , .1 ;. ■. ' ;w .• . 



T4 

jjMroeeeds of all fines $&d pmaltles tot bi;each! of the penal laws 
b{ tlie State, recogniz.ance8, and exemption equivalents ff^oin 
military duty. Tnus the snm of al}6at fSO^OOO, id annually ex*| 
pended for tne replenishment of these libranes,, the Township 
School Inspectors being charged Wiin^ me duty of selecting *ana 
purchasing the books. It is the testimony of 'Hon. Iea jSIaV- 
HSW, the Superintendent of Public Instruction' of that State, 
that ^^ wherever Township Libraries have been established^ ana 
properly maintained, th<^.hayc been productive of incalculable 
good." . ' ^ ^ 

' There are now over ;60P Townstip Libraries in Michigan, 
poMessine an aggregate of over 200.000 volumes, or a;n average 
6f 400 volttmes to each library. From the lar^e amount of 
money appropriated to this purpose, i^ would seem that there 
riKmld have Iveen a much larger number of volumes in the li-: 
braries ; but we may charge sometUhg,. dpubtle^s, of this ap- 
Mrent deficiency, to the system bi purchasing * tne books of 
ranerant hawkers and pedlars, who iiaturally enotigh feel that 
tiiey should have pret^ liberal profits, Witn something clever 
added for freights, and still^perhaps, another item for select- 
ing the books for the local officers. . 

Ohio.— ILoh. Samuel. Lewis, Hon. John Sloane, Hon, 
SAM0BL Galloway, Hon. He^y W. Kinq, and Hon. H. H. 
Barney, suecessiye heads pf this School Department of that 
State, urged the establishment of School Libraries. After 
fifteen years' agitation of the subject, the Legislature at lengtli 
beoame aw^ened to. its imt^ortahce, and in 1858, one-tenth of 
a mill State tax was impos^a on the State valuation, and annually 
»^propriated for the specific p^rpQse of School Libraries, the 
^ate Commissioner bejng charge^' with tlfc duty of selecting 
the books, and contracting for their delivery / This tax amount^ 
to upwards of eighty thcmaand dollars a yejE^r ; and in the years 
1864, 1856, and 185o,. the tptal value of the books distributed, 
taiounted to civer ^ hmd'M. and two thousand doUarSy and 
amd tiie yftlu'e of over nineteen thousand dollars in addition was 
distributed in school apparatus. The total number of volumes 
distributed to' the (School Libraries of. Ohio in those three years^ 
iBlras 88^,579. After a' suspension of the libriary tax for two 
years, it hasa^in .l>e(eiome operative, and probably not. less 
t&an 100,000 additional Volumes will shortly be distributed. 

The present library law of Ohio^ fraught as it is with such 
inealoulable good, has -met with, some opposition, which the 
present State /Sciitk)! Commissioner^ Hon. Anson SmytH| 
thinks '^has arisen frc^ the fact that sub-diitriet^, rather than 
Toumship libraries have been attempted. This plan has given 
^ msny of tie districta so small a number of books, as to 



*s 

reader these libraries little :eUie than objeets: of oontemMlj 
whereas, if all tl^e books . appbrtioned to the totmship m4 
formed a single labttkry, it wottld hare been an object of es^ 
toem and proper teanagetnent. .For exainple, here la a 1}oini<» 
■hip which reoeiyea an apportionment of books to thi» 'value ^ 
$100 ; sulEcient for the bte^nin^ of an extensive' ^and^tidicffttl 
library. But the Township is divided into 'twelve sub-districtb 1 
and when the books are distributed^ each, receives a libMry m 
the average valuQ.of about eight doDariSi It has been a disput- 
ed point, whether the law dimgned to establish 'Tmn9kipj6t 
wb-dUtriet Libraries. In remrd to the matter, Jt is' not so 
4ear and explicit as it. should be. I t&erilbre reeommend iShait 
the langnaj^e of the law be so amended as te require the esta6«- 
lifihment of Toum^Up Libraries.- If this shall beclone, I dfoubl 
not that the Library Law will soon become a^eptableand pop'*" 
ular throughout the State." 

Indiana. — As noblv as Ohio has done fbr School LibrsriM 

for her children, Indiana. has done still better. Seven years 

ago, when the School Laws of Indiana were undev^oing a' revis* 

ion, Prof. Daniel RbaD, how of our State Uni viairsitv, and 

then a Professor in the Indiana State Uhiveniilrv, and who had 

shortly jprev^ous held a ^elLt in the Oonvention fdrthd revielion 

of the Constitution of that State, Was invited by the joMt-<)6m^ 

mittee on education of the two houses, of thC' Legislaiure, tJo 

deliver an address on the means of promoting common scliool 

education. Among other appropriate' topies, Prof. RdAl» 

strongly urged the establishment or an efficient Sdibol Library 

plan, as incuspensable to give vitality to any school system 

whiidi might be adopted ; and, with some hesitancv, ventureft 

^propose an appropriation of some $30,000 for this object.!^ 

** The next day,'^ Bays Prof. BBkD, *• Bobwit Dam Ow*i, 

now our Mimstclr residtot at the Cotort of the Two SSoilies, who 

was then chiairman of the joint commitieb en • bducatiejiv seiit 

for me to call at his ro<MDl. He said to me, ^ You propiobed 

$30,000 for School Libraries. That wiljlinever do. The Oete- 

mittee will tiot assent to inch' an af^ropriation. What I' (iaid 

he in his earnest malimer, — will the people of Indiana freelV 

nise taxes to pay the interest on millidns of money for '^hieh 

they never received the valu^of a pin-hook'; and when the diil- 

drenof the State cry for the bread of intellectual life jiihall 

they refuBo them, or put them off with the half of a loaf t No^ 

sir ! No, sir ! The committee will report nearer $130^0dO,' fot 

this the greatest object which has ever been proposed to bur 

consideration.'" • ^ ■ 

Where 0uch enlarged and patriotic views' prevailed, it v<a% 
scarcely necessaty t>t> ade^ ibaA othnm ciMigbt the wtani- tMib\^ 



78 

Vpiritr imcL the present Township * Library sjsteni — the praise 
|y»d achptunition of all the lana — was promptly adopted. A 
Siat6 property- tax of (me-^fowih of a millj and a tfffenty-fim 
emt poU taX| proyided the means for the purchase of the hbra- 
liea^.and tibe State Board of Ednoation were charged with the 
Avty of Aeleeting the book's, and contracting on the best termi 
for them. 'The Jaw was limited in itisi operations to' two y^arii, 
but h»s dince been renewed. Bnt two purchases have yet been 
niade,:and thei reports of 1865 and 1856 seem to exhibit ov^ 
^^e hundred and 'seventy thousand volumes in 'the several 
Towiwhip Libraries of the State, at an apparent cost of $296,- 
90^—or an average ot- 80 cents a! iolnme. The partial susj^en- 
sion of l^isliEition which has- «inoe unfortunately existed, has 
cheeked the progress -of the library system of Lidiana, but this 
c^ be only la timiporary evil, nrom which the State will speedily 
recover, and continue in the noble career upon which it 'bias so 
asMiolOiUsIy entered. 

. Mon. Oakeb MiLiis, formerly Suporitttendent of Public ha- 
atruotion.of that State, denominates the Township Library 
leiUuir^ as the ^^ crowning excellenee " of the- Indiana educational 
$jfi;tem. . .'^ The operation of tiie Kb iury feature of the' evstem^ 
as&r a(9 hdard from,!' he remarks in his annual report of.Peb., 
iASiSj ^;has been^ excioedingly happy, dibappointins ihe predic- 
tiops of its enemies, and the fears of its timid friends, and 
ftveH^rtrsosoendii^ the most sanguine expectations of its more 
wdeUt advocates.. The: ihterest awakened by its use, tiikA the 
eetinsMiolaL in which it is held* by aduKs, as well asyouthycon- 
firm the wisdcmi -that gave it a township character rather than a 
^tribt mission. Its selection ahd purchase by the Board of 
Edttoation ii^ not without advantages of an important character] 
pi!lie,fonnea> tkay be : controlled Und ffbvcrned by the prinoipldA 
afi.|k,wiM,>$edim6u8 and wcUma^urrapian, Mid thus secure all 
thftt c^di)e desived in fonning the tastit and -givii^g direction 
tO) the oreading material fuhiishedby the State, wUile the latter 
owaot h^ else than sx^erior in economy to any other method.^ 
1,1 JUHnovB^' Iowa, and Mii^auri. — ^These States have as yet 
done'bttt Uttld in> tbe way of School Libraries. In Illinois 
p9iiif«te enterprise i^ doing somethixig for the supply of libra* 
xb^i with the enaction of the local Boards, and Superintendeiit 
af;i£ubli0 Instm^oni. Iil the' revised School Law of lowa^ 
pmvisiom is made for Towmishijfi Libraries. Missouri has re* 
|M>rted the temmenoement of a district system . • 
• ) Vfpet Canada has an efficient school system, not the least im* 

Sortant or successful feature of which is its School Libraries: 
fhliBe M^! furnished- for doimtyp Townihip, or District oi^niza- 
if4't»0ff W'6k>r0riusgeoibappartiomngoi^^ 



Boms eontributed for thM parpoiid of not leas tlian fi^e dollabri^^ 
either for tiie ^tAbUsbmeitf or increase of Bnblici Librariee^-^ 
the. Govemknent famishing the books at the liywest wholesale 
rates. Daring the three years since tiiis system wenit ibto ap^ 
eration, about > 170,000 volumes hare b^n iJistribnted ; ^and 
about one third of all the auctions or ilistriots>tn the- PxH>vince, 
have secured librai^ies. . 



I . . 



II 



THS TbWflTSHIP LIBRABT sVsTsk JJS^ WAlfP ^F WlTSCOnSIN/ 

i. ■ ' ■ ■ 1 ". » ... 

I hesitate not' to say, that after a Careful l^ni'vey of : the 
School Library experiences of this eount)r^^ every imprejiTf 
diced, impartial man wil} come to tJbe conclusipn, that. the greats 
est success has attended that system where the State has provi- 
ded the books,' and sent them forth to every towolship within her 
borders. The Taum$hip Jjibrary system is what we want in 
Wisconsin. Its superiority over the old district plan, is thnfl 
briefly pointed out by Hon. Calbb Mills, late Supenntendent 
of Public Instruction of Indiana, in speaking lof the system of 
that State : '^ Its, peculiar and crowning excellence is^ that.it id* 
a To2(;n«%rp in distinction from a dUtriet -library. :> Libraoies 
on this basis assumCi at once, a character for permanence, im- 
portance and usefulness, that the lapse of years and the expen- 
diture of ten-fold the funds will hardlv: itnpart to the district 
collection. It also posseses another element^ distinguishing it 
m the product of a mere township association, charged with 

e responsibility of selection and purchase, which may be de- 
nominated its State feature, and securing to e^ob tow;iship. itfli 
due proportion of books, under circumstances that promise a 
more judicious selection, and a more economical purchase. — 
These features are sufficient to reco^nmend it to the favorable 
regard of the public, and justify the expectation that the priti-* 
ciples controlli^ the selection, will be sound and judicious, as 
well as the purchase will be wise and economical. 

Let us see what Wisconsin has done for School Libraries un- 
der its district. system, during the ten years since its organiza- 
tion as a State. In the first place, ten, per cent', of the State ap- 
portionment was to be appropriated by the Town Superintend- 
ents for District Libx^ry purposes ; this requirement was sub- 
sequently changed, so as to leave it optional with the Superin- 
tendents whether or. not to so appropriate it. In either case, 
the districts' were aathorized to levy a tax not exceeding thirty 
dollars annually for the establishment or increai^e.of , t]ieir libra- 
ries. This simple ^p^nmWan for the Town Superintendents^ 
and the districts, to do something for libraries, was long ago 
regarded as a signal failure in, New ^oA and l^ew ^4xig|b^d;«-r-- 



IS • 

JthtiA icartfl^ly Worked any beUer ; in , WJiconsin-^^tie inkerent 
pria4ipk! ill the satie everywhere. Town' Siiperintendents, in 
▼ery saiiBy inetojlceft) it may oharitably be supposed, give the 
aaMter. little thooght ; aiid when they- .do, iim^not bepopnkr, 
fQr;there is always a class in almosi everf eomxaunity who pos- 
sess little knowledge of bookey and for that very reason oppose 
a tax for libraries, and object to the Superintendents' setting 
apart ten per cent, of the State apportionment for library pur- 
poses, as the .district would thereby have so much less with 
which to pay their teachers, and consequentlv have just that 
aitioubt adaed to their ordinary local tax'fo^ that object. — 
8d that between .ignorance^ dtomagoguism, and prejudice, 
Sehool Libraries have been but too ^en^rally neglected. ' 
- The recent rdtnms show 1,1(25 District Iiibraries, and 25Q 
jiAtki libraries in the State, with an aggregate of 88.755 volumes 
-'t^an average of 28 volumes to each ubrary. As tne result of 
ttniyears|> ^prts, it is inisi^ifioant; showing tipon an average 
an- aumoal increase of onlv 3,876 vDlmnes for a great State like 
imrs, wit^ a population of nei^flv a millton of people,* and two 
hundred and sixty-four thousand children of sehool age. This 
would, if equi^lly distributed, fundish one^volmne to about every 
serien scholars; ^r a library of about ntn^ volumes, on an 
avevage, to each of the 4,000 school districfta in the State, each 
aveni|^ff sixty-six childish; or exhibit the Very stinted increase 
of iess'than a volume a year to each such ' nbrary, upon an 

_ ^, I!ppuL^Tio:f ov WiBOONJiNw^By takii^ tJiiQ oeufns of 1850, l|iich, in 
rd>and 'niiml)er8, was 805' 000, and tliat.9f 18^, which was 552,000, and by tho 
ailnb^r of Totes piollod in those respective years, and the number of school 
^ikiren repprtea in those years reB|>eptively; and contrasting them with the 
vote .and, ACiiool c^ildr^n of t^is year, we can very nearly aeoea^tain the present 



pophtatlon of 4ihe State. 

The ^otie, in round nttmbers, hi T850,.w((b 42,000: in 1855, 73,000; in 1858, 
ilCLOOO; The number' 6f sehool dhildren of 1860, -in round numbers, was 
llpOOi Jn.l855, 188.000} in 185k a64iOQQ. .^ ' 

^ If, therefore, 42,000 Votes in 1850, gave a j>qpulntion of 805,000, then 116,000 
Totes in 1858, shoiMd f^i^ a pb^iHatSon 6f 842,000. If 72,000 votes in 1855 
•xiilbltedft ponmlAtton eJr<553,<k)0; th^n 116.000 in 1858, should show a popula- 
U^ of 389,000. The aven^ resoH of both ealcnlations would show a present 
pomilation of 865.000. 

' If 9^,006 sehboi children in 1850„ exhibited a population' of 805,000, then 
9^4^000 sohopl ohildren; in 1858, would show a ^pulation of 875,000. If 
19^1(100 ,8pheol children in 10(^5.; exhibited a pcpalatton of 552,000, then 
2^000 children, in 1858, would show a population /Of 775,000. The ayerage 
f^lt ef theite <klctdat{ons wonid show a present population of 825,000s 
oraveraging the oibculations b6lh hf the TOte 6^ llU^, 1855 and 1858, and the 
sel^ children o^ thpse yearSk,witfa ihJe eensua of 1800 and 1855, and we shall 
snpw; a prejBentpopulation of 845,P0p. Sine^ therel^re, the census of 1856 
we haVe incTH^d, n][>on an ayerage, iOO,(wO . annually. . Bj the middle J[ 
1860>, irhien the oensiis will be taken^We AMI exhibit a pepulation of over one 



oiilUonjfabdi^ihe.ri(tfeQ^bomp«s8iQnal.rmnreientatiett should W increased 
A^98,m to as, high ^s 125jQPP^^ or^^T^i .W,Q0O, Hf i^eonsE 
^jHxHeMhaM, dahaot jbara ma than el^t representatiTes. 



i Aio^QOp, Hf i^eoBs^ under the nezi 



7» 

ayerage, daring theien j^ars since our Bcho^ ajrstem w^tinta 
operation. Take anot&er view or our Wiaeofifun library statiih 
tics; of the 56 counties in the.State, 20 o£ them report not a 
single library; 6 others rcnpprt 9 libraries, irit)i a total of 181 
Tolumes; 8 others report ol libraries, irith S^OIT volume€b-« 
thus exhibiting in 84 counties 70 libraries, with 2,148 volumes^ 
and this for nearly ihree-fiftliB of th^ couiities of the State* 
So that, in round numbers, 86,000 of thei 88,000 volumes in ttie 
District Libi;arie8, are (Confined to twentj-siz of the more popu* 
lous and wealthy counties, which comprise less than (me-eighth 
of the territorial limits of the State.. Ap4 Wc as elsewhere, 
in the sparsely settled counties, wbere there is most poverty, 
and least intellectual adyantaffcs^-where, indeed, School Libra- 
ries are most particularly needed, such a thing is seldom or 
never known. 

Such is our destitution in the matter of School Librariei|.r 
It should be humiliating io our St^te pride to ponder tlie9e 
fifiicts — aiid doubly humlliiating when we see, as we must, th^ii 
wo are doing almost next to nothing whatever in furnishing 
useful reading for our over a quarter of a million of children. 
When we bring to mind the 200,000 volumes in Township Libra- * 
ries of Michi^an,the 382,000 in the Sichool Libraries of Qhio,and 
the 870,000 m the Township Libraries of Lidiana^-making 
altogether over nifie Hundred ihovsand volumes, all engaged in 
a work of love, intelligence, virtue and happiness, the magni-* 
tude of which is beyond all human calculation, fraught with the 
noblest and richest olessings to over a piillion and a half of 
children, we should feci a sentim^Dt of pi;ide that we have such 
sister States in the noble North-West, who are doing so much 
for the intellectual growth of our country. While we wonder 
and admire, shall not' these amajiing intellect^ial achievements 
, quicken and encouragi^ i^ to imitate their wise and munificei^t 
example. 

On the present district svstem we have but one third of the 
districts in the State supplied with libraries,, and they so small 
as scarcely to deserve the name ; and thes^ few are located ini 
portions of the State where they could better be spared tban in 
me more remote destitute frontier regions. The few bod^s 
purchased are btit too generally obtained of itinerant hawketis 
and peddlers, at extravagdnt prices^ ^which could well be borne 
if they did not prove, as they frequentljr do, moral pests of 
society. The district plan must necessanly euibit puny, inef- 
ficient, and unsatisfactory results ; emphatically failing to 
accomplish the noble objecte souglit to be gained by suoh collec- 
tions. Other States ba'fe wisely abandoned the distriot plan, 



80 

and others axe preparing to dQ,'B6j.an4 the Township systexn 1q 
invariably the sabstitnile/'' 

'. By the' Township plan,, with State provisipn foi: their estah- 
Hriiment and replenishment^, as in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana^ 
we should have ^ar larger libraries, i^nd their benefits far more 
general!^ diffused ; for every town in the State,, the poor as well 
as 'the rich, Would hive, i^ propoH;ionate share. As in the 
olden time, the blessedness or Onristianity was manifest, in that 
•^ to the poor the gospel Was preached," so would these precious 
Libx'aries perform their noblest mission to the poor and the neg- 
lected, though often the excellent of the earth. 

By the Township system, we should have a far greater vfiri- 
ety of books. Under the old district plan, suppose each of a 
dozeti districts in a' town was to have ten new volumes given for 
a new Library, or replenishing an old one — the same ton vol- 
umes that'AvouId be ocst and cheapest for one, would he best and 
^eapest for all ; so that in all the twelve districts there would 
be in truth but ten different works ; while upon the Township 
plan, there would be d hundred and twenty different works for 
tfie same money. Any one can readily sec how much more 
$tiractiye the large number would be tcj poth youth and adults ; 
how many more tastes could be gratified ; . and how n^uch more 
knowledge would necessarily^ ht diffused among the people. 

By the Township plan, with the State to select and provide 
the oooks, k far better class of w6rks would be obtained. The 
whole range of literature would be open from wbiph to select 
with the most scrupulous care ; and thus the miserable trash 
served up by the itinerant vend'ers would be avoided. It would 
not be possible to estimate the gain in virtue and morality that 
would result from this procedure. Very many of the districts 
are so situated, that if they buy books, they must procure them 
of peddlers, or not at all — thi latter alternative, as a general 
rule, might prove the wisest and safest to adopt. 

. By the Township system, we should get far more books for 
the same amount of money expended; and, I should fondly 
hope, with this system, we should have the needed State en- 
couragement, so as to devote far more meanS) tq.this important 
object than has ever been done before. Certainly its magni- 
tude and importance urgently demand it. . As an evidence of 
how much cheaper proper books can fee procured by State con- 
tract, in lan;e quantities, the experieuQe . of other States may 
be citedr In Michigan, it wpuld appeieir .from a letter .from 
Hon. InA Mathew, State Superintendent of Fublio Instruc- 
. tion, that the. cost of the volumes as purchased by the local 
Sclibol Inspectors, of merchants or itinerant venders, may be 



81 

set down at one dollar per Tolume, — and, if full statistics were 
had on this pointy it would probably be found to considerably 
exceed that sum, as the aggregate number of volumes at that 
rate, bears no proportion to the amount of means provided for 
that purpose. In New York and Massachusetts, where the 
books have been purchased by local school directors and com- 
mittees, at retail stores or of hawkers and peddlers, the most 
of them bound in cheap muslin, the average cost has been nine- 
ty cents per volume. In Ohio, under the better system of State, 
contract, equally as good — doubtless fL far better, selection of 
books was obtained at an average of sixty-two cents per vol- 
ume. The experience of Indiana is, we believe, fully equal to 
that of Ohio, m demonstrating the ^eat saving by these whole- 
sale purchases. The economy of this mode of purchase is so 
apparent, I trust, as to need no farther elucidation. Su£Sce it 
to say, that from the experience of Ohio and Indiana, and from 
what I have learned from the leading publishers of the country, 
a contract can be made for the delivery of the very choicest 
class of books at some central point in Wisconsin, at an aver- 
age of from thirty-three to fortv per cent, less than the usual 
retail prices, and that too in a far superior style of binding. , 
This matter of binding is an exceedingly important consider- 
ation in a State system of School Libraries. When the State 
contracts for the whole, a particular style of binding would be 
Specified, combining neatness, uniformity and durability — with 
each volume stamped ** Wisconsin School Library " oh the 
back of the cover, and the Library Rules and Regulations 
pasted on the cover within. Under the first contract entered 
mto by the State of Ohio, much complaint was made of the 
poor and defective charaf^ter of the binding, by which not a few 
otherwise valuable books were soon rendered almost worthless ; 
but under the present contract, made in behalf of the State by 
Hon. A^rsoN cImtth, the' present Commissioner of Common 
Scboolfl of that State, a superior style of half roan binding is 

Iirorided for, wiUi fine blacx muslin sides, marbled ed^es and 
inings, and three head bands^ At prices rangii^ from fourteen 
fe twenty-five cents per volume— Specim^np ■ of which I have 
carefully examined, '^and better, cheaper, or' inpre. substantial 
binding I ncrver saw. I feel the uitnost confidence, that 'in thi^ 
flinsle itesnr af Ibinding, aTon^, adopting the very superior styt^ 
of Ohio, a vast amount^ would be , saved to the State, and oui 
Librufies; in addition to their Incre&sed attractiveness^ wQuld 
prove iierviceable a far longer neirlod than they possibly .cbul^ 



of bootee which ought to be in every Township, conld be grad- 
Tially introduced. I allude to each noble works as the X4'ew 
American Cyclopedia, Benton's Congreseional Debates, Baa- 
croft's and Hildreth'« Histories of the United States, PreB- 
cott's Histories, the works of Franklin, Xrvi:^ and Sparks, 
Lossing's Field Book of the Kevolution, and Randall's Life of 
Jefferson. TJuder the present district plan, few or none of these 
desirable works could ever be procured. What a fiood of light and 
knowledge would works of this superior character, in a few 
brief years, pour into every Townsnip in the State. Our no- 
blest sources of litcratura would no longer be confined to the 
favored few, but placed within the reaoh of the humblest citisea 
and poorest youth of our State — and thus would our School 
Libraries become, what our Common Schools should and must 
be — " Good enough for the richest, and cheap enough for the 
poorest." jijH*, 

There are two objoetiohs I wwn here to meet. The first is, 
that the Township system would not be quite so conveniaot as 
the district plan, as the majority of persons in each town would 
have farther to go for the books. Tais is true. But with oar 

E resent district plan, two thirds of all the districts in the State 
ave no libraries at all, and hence suffer an iaoonccivable loss ; 
and under the present system, the poorer, and thus really need- 
ier districts, wiU always be deprived of the priceless blessing of 
School LibTariea. Cannot, and ought not, some personal sacri- 
fioes, if need be, be made .by all good oitisens, lor the general 
good ? Is it not the special duty of governments, to provide for 
precisely just such ca«es as this, as a. part and parcel of a cheap 
public education, which, it is universally conceded, we are bouia 
to provide for all the children of the ^atc 7 

By having all Uie books concentrated in a single .School la- 
brary in the Towitstup, there, would be such an increased num- 
t>er and variety of books, from which to selept, as wfluH ricb^ 
compensate for a little extra wall: in their pirocu-smeqC Bui 
even tUs might bo measurably obviated, by leaving each toirnr 
by vote of ita annual meeting, .or bj.UiiediBCPeibtaQ of its oroper 
school, officers, to determine whetTier the Towneliip Lihrsry. 
should be divided into two or three sections, smd these re^tec-. 
tirely placed in ae many convenient looalitius, for six moixthSr 
or a year, and then interchajige these, eectious with pther.ltteaU- 
ties, and so the several sections would be alternating, and brofigbt 
jritnin the convenient reach of every part of the town..'. 0''>*'> 
m Michigan, some district officer might be piTmitted to draw 
from the rownehip Library, evety, three uioutlis, the nimib!eF ift 
which his district would be eA^itled, and then loan them -uAiler 
^^e^^f^^'/^jjtjffl^^tM^l^e.'jlieop^^ pE^Ks .^^ict. ISiiiut of 



83 

these arrangements in connection with the Township plan, wonld 
sabserve nearly every facility of the District Library system, 
with the superior advantages of a largely increased number and 
greater variety of books, offered, in permanent binding, and at- 
tractive style, to ffladden the hearts, and improve the moral and 
mental faculties of all classes of community. 

The other objection which I have intimated, is, that by a 
State system of supplying the books by contract, injustice would 
be rendered to a worthy class of our own citizens engaged in 
the business of book-selling. I do not think there can exceed 
fifty regular book-sellers in the State, who deal in miscellaneous 
literature, such as District Libraries are in the habit of pur- 
chasing. During the past year, in round numbers, there have 
been 10,000 volumes purchased and added to the libraries in the 
State, probably not to exceed one half of which were bought of 
regularly' establishedbook-sellers, the rest having beenpurcaased 
of peddlers. If, then, for the 5,000 volumes bought of thelegit- 
imate trade of the State, we estimate a dollar and a half upon an 
average -for each volume, it would be, upon an average, (150 
trade with each merchant, with a profit of from thirty-three to 
fifty per cent. Ought this trifling advantage to fifty of our 
worthy merchants, to stand in the way of infinitely greater ad- 
vantages to all the rest of our fellow citizens ? ^' The greatest 
good, to the greatest number,'' is a maxim applicable in this 
case. But we may well doubt, whether, after all, this State 
system of providing School Libraries, would work any disad- 
vantage to the book-sellers of Wisconsin ; for, in the aid, the 
largely increased library attractions and facilities, would natur- 
ally beget a love of reading, and in this way, make many a pat- 
ron of books and book-sellers, that would never otherwise pur- 
chase so much in a whole twelve-month, as the value of a Family 
Almanac. And I should calculate, too, that not only the book- 
seUers would be benefitted by this certain mode of increasing the 
lovers of readitig, but also the publisliers of agricultural, educa- 
tional, and literary magazines, as well as the publishers of news- 
papers generally. ' 

TOWnSIP LIBRARIBS — AUB THfiY nSUAVDED? 

. The people of Wisconsin, we may be very certain, want no 
feeble system, no hatf way work. The very best Library plan 
18 none too ^ood for them, if they can but feel a reasonable 
assurance that a really better system can be provided, and can 
but see the way clear to meet the expense^ That a better 

Sstem can be devised, the ample experience of the Township 
ftn of our Western sister States of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana, 
as compared with the partial^ inefficient and dilapidated diattict 



of books whicb onght to be in erery Township, could be md- 
nallj introduced. I allude to 6ucb noble works aa the Now 
American Cvclopedia, Benton's Gongrefieional Debates, Baa- 
croRi'B and Hildreth'« Histories of tbe United States, PreH- 
cott'a Histories, tbe works of Franklin, IrviRg and Sparkfl, 
Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, and Bandall's Life of 
Jefferson. Under tbe prcBent district plan, few or none of theee 
desirable works conld ever be procured. What a flood of light and 
knowledge would works of this superior character, in a few 
brief years, pour into every Township in the State. Our no- 
bleat sources of literature would no longer be confined to the 
favored few, but placed within the reach of the humblest citixen 
and poorest youth of our State — and thus would our School 
Libraries become, what our Common Schools ahould and moBt 
be—" Good enough for the ricbeat, and cheap enough for the 
pooreat." ^ 

There are two objections I wish here to meet. The first it, 
that the Township Bjstem would not be quite so convenient >■ 
the district plan, as the majority of persons in each town would 
have farther to go for the books. This ia true. But with oar 
present district plan, two thirds of all the districts in the State 
nave no libraries at all, and hence suffer an inconceivable low ; 
and under tbe present system, the poorer, and thus really need- 
ier districts, will alwaya be deprived of the pricclesa bleaaiog of 
School Libraries. Cannot, and ought not^ some personal Muiri* 
flees, if need be, be made .by all good, oitiEens, for the general 
good ? Is it not the special duty of governments, to provide for 
precisely just auch cases ae this, »e a part and parcel of a oheu 
public education, whicb, it is universally conceded, we are boiua 
to provide for all the children of the State 7 

By having all the booka concentrated in a sin^e School Li- 
brary in the Township, there, would be such an increased numr 
t>er and variety of booka, from which to select, a« WQuhl rSo^^ 
compensate for a little extra walk in their procurameut, .Bui 
even this might be meaturably obviated, by loaving eiach toirJlf 
by vote of its annual meetiug, or by tiu' difiCretiQu of Itsprcjpei 
school, officers, to determine wbether tin' Townsliip LiGtsiJ 
should be 'divided into two or three sections, and these reap^C: 
tively placed in as many convenient localities, for six mojwta, 
or a year, aild ti\6n interchange these sections with ,i}tlict,l4f«ili- 
tiea, aid bo thescvorftlacctionewould be alternating, and brdl^M 
withhi the convenient reach of every part of the Town., Qr^M 
in Michigan, flomc district officer miglit be permitted' to drwi 
from the fownsbip Library, eveij, three monttis, the naiftb{eBAg 
which hi^ district would \io entitled, and then loan them ■oifi^ei 
^rof)^ r6^}itJaa^ U)i the'|)eople of.hIa itistnot' Mi^«l ol 



83 

these arrangements in connection with the Township plan, wonld 
sabserve nearly every facility of the District Library system, 
with the superior advantages of a largely increased number and . 
greater variety of books, offered, in permanent binding, and at- 
tractive style, to gladden the hearts, and improve the moral and 
mental faculties of all classes of community. 

The other objection which I have intimated, is, that by a 
State system of supplving the books by contract, injustice would 
be rendered to a worthy class of our own citizens engaged in 
the business of book-selling. I do not think there can exceed 
Sfby regular book-sellers in the State, who deal in miscellaneous 
Gterature, such as District Libraries are in the habit of pur- 
chasing. During the past year, in round numbers, there have 
been 10,000 volumes purchased and added to the libraries in the 
State, probably not to exceed one half of which were bought of 
regularly establishedbook-sellers, the rest having been purchased 
of peddlers. If, then, for the 5,000 volumes bought ot the legit- 
imate trade of the State, we estimate a dollar and a half upon an 
averagefor each volume, it would be, upon an average, $150 
trade with each merchant, with a profit of from thirty-three to 
fifty per cent. Ought this trifling advantage to fifty of our 
wortny merchants, to stand in the way of infinitely greater ad- 
vantages to all the rest of our fellow citizens ? ^' The greatest 
good, to the greatest number,^' is a maxim applicable in this 
case. But we may well doubt, whether, after all, this State 
system of providing School Libraries, would work any disad- 
vantage to the book-sellers of Wisconsin ; for, in the aid, the 
largely increased library attractions and facilities, would natur- 
ally beget a love of reading, and in this way, make many a pat- 
ron of books and book-sellers, that would never otherwise pur- 
chase so much in a whole twelve-month, as the value of a Family 
Almanac. And I should calculate, too, that not only the book- 
sellers would be benefitted bv this certain mode of increasing the 
lovers of r^iiig, but also the publisliers of agricultural, educa- 
tional, and .literary magazines, as well as the publishers of news- 
papers generally. 

TOWVSAP LIBRARIBS — AUB THfiY nSMAVDED? 

. The people of Wisconsin, we may be very certain, want no 
feeble system, no hatf way work. The very best Library pi to 
h none too jgood for them, if they can but feel a reasonabli 
assurance that a really better system can be provided, and can 
but see the way clear to meet the expense. That a better 
system can be devised, the ample experience of the Township 
plan of our We^t^m sister States of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana, 
as compared with the partial^ inefficient and dilapidated diatnct 



H 

avstems of the older States, most conclusively demonstrates. 
The only remaining question, it seems to me, is, are the people 
able to Dear the expense? 

Before answering this question, let us see what other comma- 
hities have done, and are doing, when high moral and intellectu- 
al appeals are made to their patriotism, their generosity, and 
the love they bear their children. Over a hundred and fifty 
years ago, xale College was founded by ten thoughtful and 
benevolent men, each laying a few volumes on the table, with 
the declaration, ^^ I give these books for the founding of a 
college in this colony." Even the venerable University of 
Harvard was once supported by the scanty and precarious ^ifta 
of the infant colony of Massachus^ts, presentea in their primi- 
tive form — a bushel of wheat, a cord or wood, and a string of 
Indian wampum. We can better establish a noble library for 
every town m Wisconsin, and provide for its permanent growth 
and replenishmiont, than our New England fathers, a hundred 
and fifty or two hundred years ago, could found their infant 
colleges. 

Look at the unparalleled sacrifices of Prussia. ^^ Prussia/' 
says Bancroft, ^'in the hour of its sufferings and its greatest 
cftlamities, renovated its existence partly by the establishment of 
schools." " Prussia, who furnishes us with a pattern of excel- 
lence in the present state of her public schools," says Prof. 
Stevens, of Girard College, in a letter to the Supenntendent 
of Common Schools of rennsylvania, written from Berlin, 
'' affords us a still more brilliant example in the noble policy by 
which she sustained them in times of great public distress. 
Of all the nations of Europe, Prussia was reduced to the great- 
est extremity by the wars of ifapoleon. In 1806, at the battle 
of Jena, her whole military force was annihilated. Within a 
week after the main overthrow^ every scattered division of the 
army fell into the hands of the enen^. Napoleon took up his 
quarters in Berlin, emptied the arsenal, and stripped the capi- 
tol of all the works of art which he thought worthy to be trans- 
mitted to Paris. By the treaty of Tilsit, in 1807, the King of 
Prussia was deprived of one half of his dominions. A French 
army of 200,000 men were quartered upon the Prussians till the 
end of the year 1808. Prussia must pay to France the sum of 
120,000,000 francs, after her principal sources of income had 
been apprppriated by Napoleon, £iwer to himself or his allies. 
The system of confiscation went so far that even the revenue 
from the endowments of schools, of poor-houses, and the fond 
for widows, was diverted into the Treasury of France. ThesQ 
last were given back in 1311. Foreign loans were made to 
iaeet the exorbitant claims of the oonqueror. An army must 



85 

be created, Ind^eB rebuiltp ruined foriifieatioiui in every quar- 
ter repaired, ana so great was the public extremity, tnat the 
Prussian ladies, witn- noble generosity, sent their omamentB 
and jewels to supply the royal treasury. Rings, crosses, and 
other ornaments of cast iron were given in return to all those 
who had made thjis sacrifice. They bore the inscription, ^Ich 
qah gold urn eUeUj^ (I gave gold for iron); and sucn Spartan 
jewels are much treasured at this day by the possessors and 
their families. This state of things lasted till after the ^ war 
of Liberation,' in 1812. But it is the pride of Prussia, that 
ftt the time of. her greatest humiliation and distress, she never 
for a moment lost si^ht of the work she had begun in the im- 
provement of her schools." Thus, in 1809, the minister at the 
nead of the Section of Instruction, wrote as follows to some 
teachers who had been sent to the institution of Pestalozzi to 
learn his method and principles of instruction: ^' The Section 
of Public Instruction begs you to believe, and to assure Mr. 
Pestalossi, that the cause is the interest of the government, 
and of hii majestyj the KinOy personallvy who are convinced 
that liberation from extraordinary calamities is fruitless, and 
only to be effected by a thorough improvement of the people's 
education.*' And amid these sufferings and calamities, the 
educational advancement of Prussia never flagged for a moment; 
universities were established, and seminaries founded for the 
education of teachers. 

Some twenty years ago, there was at least some talk that 
Pennsylvania would be compelled to repudiate her State debts, 
so large had they become, and so difficult even to provide for 
their interest; when a distinguished citizen of that State 
proposed to divert the money appropriated for the support of 
common schools to the payment of interest on these debts. 
Alluding to which, Prof. Stephens, after enumerating the 
herculean efforts of Prussia in behalf of public education, even 
amid her severest sufferings, thus eloauently remarks: ^^ Is not 
tiiis noble policy, on the part of an aosolute government, at a 
time when the nation was struggling for existence, a severe 
rebuke upon the narrow and short-sighted expedients of those 
republican politicians, who can invent no better way to pay a 
public debt tiian by converting into money that institution on 
which the virtue and intellfgence of the people, and the special 
safety of a republican State, mainly depena?" 

But, we believe, this unrighteous diversion of the school 
money was not made. This was indeed creditable to the sturdy 
integrity of Pennsylvania ; and to this day, the Key Stone 
State must pay heavier taxes, and with more becoming cheerful- 
ness, than the people of any other State in the Union. "Penii- 



86 

sylyania has unfortunately no School Fund. She appropriated 
last year from her gcnerai fund nearly $300,000 for school pur- 
poses, the counties raising the balance needed, which ,amounte(i^ 
to nearly two millions of dollars more, including building ex- 
penses, and this too, when direct taxation is necessary to pay 
all their ordinary State expenses besides, and over two millions 
of dollars annually in adoition to meet tl^e interest on their 
forty million State debt, incurred for internal improyements, in 
which the State does not bow possess a dime's interest. Yet 
cheerfully and ungrudgingly do the sturdy sons of Pennsylva- 
nia insist on maintaining their excellent school system, at any 
cost and every sacrifice. The people of Wisconsin could vastly 
improve their schools, and inaugurate a Township Library sys- 
tem which should annually augment its priceless treasures, and 
never feel a tithe of the expense, compared with the heroic sac- 
rifices of Prussia and Pennsylvania, to educate their children. 

Wherever the Township library has been introduced, as in 

" Indiana, it has proved e 
ry popular. We hear n( 
iperintendent of Michigai 
Township Libraries of that State '^ have been productive of in- 
calculable good." Hon. H. H. Barney, wrote in Au^st, 
1856, when State Commissioner of Common Schools of Onio : 
^^ During the last four months^ I have visited about sixty coun- 
ties, and have not found one man in fifW that desires a repeal 
of this library provision of our School Law. I have also found 
that the demand for the books on the part of the youth, as well 
as adults, is rapidly increasing, so much so that not the least 
doubt is entertained, that those libraries will ultimately create 
a general taste for reading throughout all classes and ages of 
our people." 

" Good books," says Hon. Harvey Rice, of Cleveland, the 
father of the School Law of Ohio, " are not only eood tools^ 
but indispensable in the field of education ; or, to cliange the 
figure, they may be regarded as teachers of the highest order^. 
both for the young and the old. In twenty years, if the libra- 
ry tax be continued, the people of Ohio as a mass, I will ven- 
ture to predict, will become the most intelligent people on the 
fh'ce of the globe ; and that, too, at a cost nobody would feel/* 

Hon. Caleb Mills, late Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion of Indiana, pronounced their Township School Libraries 
" the crowning excellence " of the educational system of that 
State. Xor is it wonderful, when we learn, that one Township 
reported 1,230 volumes taken out in three and a half months ; 
another 687 in four months ; another 1,242 in nine months ; 
another 1,050 in six months ; another 700 in nine months ; 



87 

aaoiher 1,540 m ten montlm ; another 2,127 in eight and a half 
montiifl ; others during the year, 1,900, 1,920, 2,075, and even 
2,226 volumes -=— when not one of these libraries contained more 
ttan 330 Tohimes, In the whole city of Cincinnati there is but 
a single School Library, which happily ^avoids a wasteful multi- 
plication of the same books ;' and with little more than 12,000 
Tolnmes in the Library, the circulation of books during the past 
year was 47,866 volumes, or four times the total number in ther 
Library. 

As an instance illustrative of the strong feeling of attachment 
with which the Township Libraries are regarded where they 
have been established and tested, and how cheerfully the ex- 

Ese is borne by the people, I cite the following from an excel- 
; address by Prof. Rbad : " I will give the STlbstance of a 
conversation which I had during mj recent visit to Lidiana, 
while in the Auditor's office, examinmgthe most beautiful series 
of books — the Indiana School Library. A fiirmcr from the 
remotest township of the county came m. After a little, I said 
to him, * Gentry, you are heavily taxed here in Indiana ; I 
have been running away to "Wisconsin where they have no old 
dead horses in the form of canals to pay for, and no interest to 
pay on bonds which our sharp-sighted Indiana Commissioners 
were cheated out of.' ^ Well, said he, * we are heavily taxed, 
and this year, with our short crops and hard prices, it is as much 
as we can do in our neighborhood to pay our taxes.* *But,' 
I said to him, ^ it will be the policy of tnis Legislature to di- 
minish taxation.' He said * in all mercy he hoped so.* * They 
will begin upon your extravagant school system. Now, look at 
these books — what is the use of them ? Do they do a particle 
of good?' *Let them,' said he, *cut off what else they please 
— ^let them even cut off the whole school tax beside, but the 
books we must have.' He then told me, that the books had 
done his neighborhood more good, and had produced a greater 
change in the habits of families, than any other means of im- 
provement which had ever been brought to bear upon the peo- 
ple." 

The citizens of Wisconsin are not less sensible of these ines- 
timable advantages, nor less ready to make sacrifices to secure 
them, than are their neighbors in other Western States. People 
who truly love their children will willingly, nay gladly, make 
any possible sacrifice for their intellectual and moral ctilture ; 
and auite as cheerfully too, will they learn to do it for the x;om- 
mon oenefit of all the children of the community in which they 
Kve. 

I think that it may justly be regarded, that this matter of 



88 

TownBhip School Libraries is emphatically the present great ed- 
ucational want of WiscoiMiin. It rises superior, in my humble 
estimation, to all others. It appeals most powerfully to the 
parent) to the Legislator, and to every lover of his race. It is 
only a question of time. It must come. I firmly belieye the 
people of this State are already prepared for it, and waiting for, 
and demandinj; its inauguration. They lon£ to witness legisla- 
tion the benefits of which will accrue directly and tangibly to 
every child and every family in the State — redounding to the 
lasting eood of the State itself, to virtue, intelligence, and mor- 
ality, xbey long to see legislation which shall, like tiie dews of 
Heaven, bring untold blessing to the very domicils of the hum- 
blest in community— ^legislation, of which every man, woman 
and child in Wisconsin can emphatically see and enjoy its happy 
results. They are willing to pay for the economical support of 
the State ffoviemment, an upright judieiair dispensing justice 
alike to all, and humane institutions for the unfortunate ; but 
they ask also for the bread of intellectual life for their children. 
They demand School Libraries — the very best that wisdom and 
economy can devise — shall they have them 7 Never was a truer 
r^nark uttered, than that of Ca&l Schubz when he recently 
thus admonished our legislators : ^' Let them never forget, that 
true economy does not consist in close parsimony alone, but iu 
a wise and appropriate application of the public moneys." 

There should be a special fiind permanently set apart for 
Township Library purposes, to be annually used in the purchase 
^f carefully selected and approved books, uniformly and sub- 
stantially bound, and apportioned ^unong the^ties and towns of 
Wisconsin according to some just system of equalization. That 
the books be selected by the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, or a State iSoard of Education, or in such other 
manner as the Legislature may designate, and the contract made 
for them on the best terms, and in such manner, as may be pro** 
vided by law. 

The three States of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana, which have 
taken the initiative in the grand enterprise of Township Libra- 
ries, have neither of them taken a dollar from their Scfaoor 
Funds for this purpose— and doubtless because those funds were 
not sufficiently large to warrant it. In the discussion of the 
present and prospective condition of the School Fund of our- 
State, I thinic I nave shown conclusively, that it is not now, nor- 
ever can be, in a condition to divert from it any considerable, 
amount for either library or other similar purposes. It should 
be husbanded with the most rigid watch-care exclusively for sus- 
taining the Public Schools, i could not, therefore, with these 



89 

views, advise an^ divoraion of. this fond for even so noble an 
object as establishing and perpetually replenishing Township 
LiDranes. 

While Indiana imposes a State tax of a quai^r of a mill on 
taxable property, and a poll tax of twenty-five cents, and Ohio 
levies the tenth of a mill, for Library purposes, I would be in* 
dined, to suggest, whether a Library Fund for Wisconsin could 
not be best created, by setting apart one third of the annual in- 
come from the Bank tax,, and all of the Railroad tax income. 
The State of Maine devotes the whole of her Bank tax to the 
benefit of her public schools, and so does Lddiana. Assuming 
our present population at from 800,000 to 1,000,000, this would 
^ve us about the same proportional amount set apart for Libra* 
Tj purposes as in Lidiana, where as much as $110,000 a year 
has been raised ; and would bo none too much to secure e£Scient 
and useful Libraries. Estimating, as has been done, the Bail- 
road tax at $20,000, and $30,0^ as one third of the Bank tax, 
we should have $50,000 annually for Library purposes ; or, 
upon an average, about seventh-five dollars for each of the six 
hundred and fifty towns and cities in the State — some getting t 
more, and others much less than that amount. Of course, an 
increase of population, together with an increase in the number 
of towns in the frontier counties, might or might not diminish 
the number and value of the books to be apportioned to each 
town, depending very much upon the fact whether the Library 
Fund would be of such a nature as to increase in a relative pro- 
portion. 

For the 10,000 volumes added last year to here and there iso- 
lated district Libraries tbtroughout the State, the people of Wis- 
consin could not have paid probably less than fifteen thousand 
dollars ; audit would oe safe to estimate, that one half of the 
works,' obtained of the itinerant venders, were worthless, or even 
worse. Deducting this worthless expenditure, we should be 
paying some $15,000 for 5,000 useful volumes, and these in 
poor, varied, and unsubstantial binding. Suppose we were to 
expend $50,000 annually for Township Libraries, and secure 
sa^ 65,000 or 70,000 volumes^— all thoroughly examined, and 
fiuthfully tested as ^ood and useful — we should then f<Hr the 
$35,000 in addition to what we now expend, got not less than 
sixty thousand useful volumes more than we now do.^ We 
should, besides, have them in a far neater and more serviceable 
style of binding, and they would be three tunes as generally 
di£Fused as are our present libraries — ^for only one third of the 
State, after ten years' steady eforts to that end, has as yet beexk 
supplied with libraries, and that with but a few volumes to each 
coUection. Sixty*five or seventy thousand volumes a yeas «^ 

12b 



90 

portioned to the several towns and cities of the State, would be 
a very different matter from the weak and utterlv inefficient sys- 
tem which has thus far given, upon an average, less than a vol^ 
ume a year, for the last ten years, to each of the several school 
districts of the State. Larger libraries, annually replenished, 
would prove far more attractive than the present small and ill- 
assorted collections, and hence the real amount of reading done, 
and useful knowledge imparted, would be increased beyond all 
estimation. 

If all the districts in the State should promptly onmge ia 
the great work of securing libraries for themselves under the 
present library law, it would prove a far more onerous tax on 
the people, and they have far less to show for it, than by the 
State svstem here suggested. The universal experience of 
other States has proven beyond a doubt, that the district 
library svstem is, pecuniarily, a wasteful and extravagant 
one, while the township plan is not only one of true 
economy, but fraught with the richest and most enduring bless- 
ings to the people. 

Perhaps the objection might be raised, that this new system 
would create new officers to eat out the substance of the people. 
If additional officers were really needed to carry out so noble 
a reform, they should unhesitatingly and ungrudgingly be pro- 
vided. But under the Township Libraiy plan, there need 
necessarily be no new offices created. Under the present 
district plan, we have 1,875 libraries, and each of these mus€ 
have a librarian; while, with the Township system, we should 
require but about six hundred and fifty librarians for the whole 
State— one for each town and city. Here then would be a large 
decrease of officers. I think, however, it would be but just and 
proper, that as a Township Librarian would have largely 
increased labors over the District LibrMian, he should receive 
some reasonable compensation. This should be provided either 
by the town, or by imposing a tax of one cent on each volume 
taken out of the hbrary. This idea of a cent tax on the books 
taken out of the Library is not a new one, as Hon. Hbnbt 
Barnard assured me; and he advised it as a good regulation. 
Fines and penalties could either be applied towards the Libra- 
rian's compensation, or for Library fixtures and occasional 
re-binding. 

It may be asked, what, in the event of establishing Township 
Libraries, should be done with the present district libraries? 
I should hardly think any legislation would bo necessary. 
They are indisputably the property of the districts possessing 
them; and probably a large majority of the volumes, from 
uyudicioas selootionB and-long usage, would not prove sufficiently 



91l 

desirable for the Township library as: to have them appraised, 
and the other pasts of the town taxed for their prefer share. 
]^ each a course, in a town where several district librariev 
exist, many worka mi^ht thus be duplioated. It would seem to 
me most proper, that if the districts woold not generously con- 
tribate them to the Township Library, they had better retain 
them. for their own use. In addition to famishing eaoh town 
and city in the State with a library, I would suggest whether it 
woold not be advisable, to furnish such a selection, as the State 
officer or officers, having this matter in charge, might deem ap*. 
propriate, to the State Library, Ae Libraries of the State His- 
torical Society, the Department of Public Instruction, the State 
Prison, House of Refuge^ Deaf and Dumb Institute, Insane 
Asylum, Blind Asylum, and to each State Normal School, or 
Normal department, under Statepatronage and supervision. In 
each of tnese, I am very conndent a proper selection would 
prove eminently useful. ^^ Every man and wonuui,'' writes Hon. 
E. M. Macgraw, State Prison Gommissicmer, ^^who can read at 
aD, is very an:dou8 to have books and papers, and the greatest 
uneasiness is manifested when a book is read uurough before the 
da^ of chapge, and they have no reading matter on hand. I 
think reading has a very beneficial influence on the inmates of the 
Prison." 

This general plan; — at least the superiority of the township 
system over the old district plan, and the decided advantages <»- 
the State, through its properly constituted agents, selecting the 
books with a view to economy and superior excellence,^ has met 
with a far more general approval by the leading educators and 
firiends of education in the country than almost any other matter 
connected with our Common School system. Among them it is 
gratifying to observe such a brilliant galaxy of names as those 
of Henrv Barnard, Horace Mann, Bamas Sears, Caleb Mills, 
Ira Maynew, Geo. S. BoutweU, Henry S. Randall, John D. 
Philbrick, H. H. Barney, Anson Smyth, W. C. Larmbee, Henry 
C. Hickok, H. H. YanDyck, David N. Camp, J. S. Adams, 
and Matunn L. Fisher, who are now, or have oeen, at the head 
of the School Departments of their respective States, and such- 
eminent men and friends of education as the venerable President 
Nott, Francis Wayland, Chancellor Amos Dean, Theodore 
FreUjighuysen, Alexander D. Bache, Samuel S. Bandall, 
Edward Everett, Wm. H. Prescott, Washington Irving, Bayard/ 
Taylo^r and Benson J. Lossing, together wuh a long array of 
worthy names of our owh State. Extracts of letters from, 
these several gentlemen, may be found appended to this Beport> 
and cannot fau to produce a favorable impression. 

Such ia an OQtUne of the ^owni^hip Library syatem, 'Wii^ . 



92 

Bomething of a 8urvey of its stip^riority over the old district 
plan. It is feasible; it is practicable; it is within onr means^ 
What other States have done, and is really worth doing, Wid^ 
consin can do. Look at Indiana with her 870,000 volnmes in 
her Township Libraries, Ohio with her 232,000, and Michigan 
with her 200,000 yolomes ! What a ma^ificent spectacle! And 
Michigan, too, reports bat 173,000 chilaren of school a^e, while 
Wisconsin reports 264,000; and, with this number (? school 
children, Wisconsin onght, bv the same ratio, to have over 
800,000 volumes in her School Libraries; but so &r from it, she 
has in reality, by her puny and d^enerate system, only 88,000. 
No sane man, at all ac<][uainted with the two States, would ven- 
ture an opinion that Michigan is the superior of Wisconsin in 
any point of view; the wonderful increase of the latter over the 
former during the past ten years in wealth and population is 
sufficient proof on this point. It is then, the funaamental dif- 
ference in the two systems that has made such a wide variance 
in the results of wieir respective school library experience. 
Unfortunately for .Wisconsin, ours has been the old fogy system, 
which Michigan wisely abandoned long ago. We can, if we 
will, do the same. We are fully able to ^ up and possess the 
land, for there are only ima^nary giants in tne way. With a 
property valuation of well nigh two hundred millions of dollars, 
we nave the ability. A quarter of a mill tax on this valuation, 
would yield $50,000. 

As a people, we are very ready to spend our money freely for 
purposes o£^ very doubtful utility. The cost of crime alone 
foots up a very heavy item. Judging from its cost in Dane 
county,for officers* fees, jurors* expenses, <fcc., the aggregate for 
the wnole State cannot be less than $300,000 annually, and fully 
two-thirds as much more should be added for lawyers' fees, in 
criminal cases, which would swell the total amount to half a 
million of dollars— one tenth of which annually, would soon 
bless every Township in the State with a noble library of the 
intellectual productions of the mightiest minds that ever 
existed. Had we more libraries, we should have less crime; 
the preventive is always cheaper and better than the cure. 

I admire the firank and manly advice of Prof. J. B. Turnek^ 
of Illinois, to the farmers of that State, urging them to write 
more than they do for their agricultural papers. '^ But when 
you write,'* he says, " don't let it be exclusively about com, 
pork, wheat and cattle, and pecuniary interests, — all of which 
are vastly important to you and to the world ; still, I say, don't 
speak of these exclusivdy, but let us also hear what you are do- 
in^ to raise up a fine stock of children-— of men and women — to 
Iiv0 on these Deautifal pndries, and rule this Western Continent 



d8 

whea you and I are dead, and the world haa forgotten tts, and 
all Iiave wholly forgotten us, saye those dear children that now 
aak a School Library at our bands. When you write, tell us in 
few words whether you haye got this School Library ; how you 
like it ; how your cnildren like it ; whether their eyes sparkle 
more bristly, and earthly and immortal hope swells more buoy- 
antly in tneir youthful hearts than before its purchase. For of 
these things we would like to hear, and your report and your 
light will encourage others to ^go and do likewise.' " 

No man could begin to estimate the good effect which would result 
from six or seyen hundred noble Township Libraries iu Wiscon- 
sin, with fresh and interesting additions xoade eyery year. ^^The 
history of a single country neighborhood," says rroif. BeaDi 
'^ which I intimately know, most remarkably illustrates the pow* 
er of a single library in awakening and calling forth talent. It 
is a neighborhood in our own West — in Athens County, Ohio. 
It lies some twelye miles from the county seat, in the midst of 
hills, with no important thoroughfare passing through it, and 
with as few exterual causes of mejiiial excitement as any nei^- 
borhood which can be found anywhere in our country. Its in- 
habitants are in moderate circumstances, and do not, eyen at this 
day, exceed one thousand in number. About the close of the 
last century, andbutsomefburorfiye years aftertheyery first blows 
were struck in feUing the forest in that region, a few of the 
settlers came together to deyiae a plan for opening roads in the 
neighborhood. After this business had been completed, one of 
the comjgany raised the question, ^How shall our young pjeople, 
in their isolated condition, be led to make the most of themsefyea 
by intellectual improyement V 

^' The idea of a neighborhood library was started. But money 
would be needed to buy the books, and money among the early 
settlers of that day,' was almost as much unknown as among the 
heroes of Homer. . But where there is a will .there is a way ; 
and it was finally agreed, to hold, under suitable leaders, a se- 
ries of hunting matches, and to deyote the furs and peltries that 
mi^ be the result, for the purchase of a small library. The 
plan was faithfully executed ; the furs and peltries sent on to 
Boston^ where the Key. Thadde^s M, Stsirds; and the Bey. Dr.. 
Manasaeh Cutleir, made the selection. I haiye often seen this 
collection, i^r it had been much e&larged beyond the ori^nal 
purchase. It coAsisted of such books as Plutarch's Liyea, 
Franklin's Life, (Goldsmith's Animated Nature, Bohertson's 
America, and works of thia- general type. 

^^JSfow^ mark the result of this libi^y upon those Rowing up 
in iheneigfiborfaood, durina the half o^tary, and Bttle more^ 
since it was commenced. More men and women ot lug)i b^VaxA- 



94 

ing and wide influence in society, have come forth from that sin- 
gle- country neighborhood, than from the whole comity besides, 
and, I think I may say, than-from the fiye snrroanding counties. 
Lawyers, physicians, merchants, teachers of high rank, and cler- 
gymen have come from it in remarkable numbers, in proportion 
to the population. Some of these are of such eminence as to 
be well known throughout the nation. 

" I once made inquiry of Thomas Ewing, the eminent lawyer, 
formerly Secretary of the Treasury, and afterwards Secretary of 
the Interior, who was from the neighborhood of which I have been 
speaking, as to the cause of a spot apparently so unpromising, 
having produced so many persons of aistinction, as well as con- 
cerning the exciting oause of his own impulses. ^^ The Libra- 
ry," he replied, ** the library has done the whole, both in my 
own case and in that of others." In the same conversation, he 
proceeded to relate an anecdote of himself, which, as it illus- 
trates the means which the children of the poorest families will 
employ to secure tiie opporhmity of reading, I will repeat. "I 
haa gathered," said he, ^^my usual quantity of hicicory bark 
for my evening's light, and with book in hand, taken my seat in 
the chimney comer. A centleman staying that night at my fath- 
er's, asked to see the bo<^, and by some means, in handing it 
to him, it fell on the hearth, and was soiled with' grease and 
ashes. There was by the library rules a fine, of a fip for every 
soiled spot, and never since tiave I been in such distress to know 
how I snould meet the demtad, which^ however, the directors at 
their next meeting, oonsiderinc all the circuinstances of the case, 
but especially toy pover^, and ardent love of reading, generously 
remitted, without depriving me of the use of the library. ' 

^^ Were School LibraneflLscattered abroad throu^out the State, 
the books would be used in many a family by the light of hick- 
ory bark or pine knots, and would be the meand of bringing 
forth from poverty and obscurity many who otherwise would 
nev^ know their own pqwerSi". The boy who was so distressed 
because he could not play his /ip fine,' b^ the blessing of a Bin- 

Sle^ieighborhood library ro9s to distinction, ai^d has since hadf 
[ie management V>f 'h\miired%[ of milUpf^ of (he people*8 treaa? 
^ ure; Plant School LiWAries in everjir township in Wisconsin^ 
and properly noavMi Aiem', and'. those of us now on the stage of 
action who may yet be lingering on the shores of Time twenty 
or thirty yeoM hiehce. will he aCle t<i point to manv a leading; 
stateamatt and-man of eminehee — Governors, jurists, congress?* 
men, ambassadors, cabinet oiStceni, and perhaps even Presia^is,' 
wiioae humble be^ffninss may be traced to these teb^ Ubrsries.. 
The rude eabiiM in the frontier settlements of Chippewa, Man^- 



95 

thou, Shawanaw, Door, and Oconto, may shelter maliy an un* 

J^romisinff jouth, who may yet date the dawning of true geniilfl 
rom reading, by the light of hidcory bark or pine^ knots, the 
Tolumes in our School Libraries,, and whose honored names* will 
yet be placed biAh in the Temple e{ Fame. Such ever has 
been, and ever will be, the power of books — ^the mighty influ- 
ence of libraries. 

^' The dewKlrop on the iaftuit pUnt. 
Ha8.wari>ed the giant oak foretef.'^ 

Let me sum up the claims of Sdiool Libraries by citing the 
grf4>hic and powerM appeal of that veteran friend of education, 
Ho&AOE Mank : *^ He would, of course, dwell upon the facili- 
ties which a library would furnish at all times, to the children, 
for useful mental occupation ; he wotild speak of time, redeemed 
from idleness and from that wantonness of juvenile mirth, that 
tends to mischievous habits, and, if unchecked and undiverted, 
grows up into adult vice ; he would advert to the wealth of in- 
formation it would dispense, and to the nobleness of action it 
would inspire ;---tbus, wherever its influences flowed, making ita 
efi'ectB, in im|^oved conduct and more elevated character, as 
visible to the m^tal vision, as the vigorous jgrowtfa of meadows, 
which are. watered 'by an enriching stream, is to the natural eye* 
He would explain the wonderful results of mere tendencies ; 
how, with but few elDceplioBS, a uniform bias, on one Ade or the 
otheri during the veam of minority, settles diestiny for Hfe.-^ 
truth almost wholly overlooked by Uie mass of men ; and he 
would' illustrate,-H5ot painting from fancy, but copying from 
some original ^act,< — how wide asunder is the terminaiion of 
paths,, whose divergesK^y is scarcely perceptible. He would 
enumerate some of the iij[>08Ures^ to wHch -aMive-minded chil- 
dren are now erudly subjedted, fit>m the want of an attractive 
employment ; bow ^eir sup^bundant eheorgy is tempted to 
flow out into «iets of childish roguery, where, at first, the game- 
someness and Cua predominate over the maliee, but, at last, the 
malie^-^ts -the ascendency oVer them ; how they are tempted to- 
occupy tbeir leistre with ijatnies of dbanee,^ — a habit of which 
ripens ta^m^tutfestint^'eiloye of gamblini^ of. dissipation,!^ of 
horse-racing, of tavern-haunting, of dHnkiAg,^af drunkenness, 
of.'de$th lioif how^ f^om ii edMtami seekiiig al^er excitements, 
from a wsAt of; stable foilndifttion of tn^ith^ unsetUed: habits and 
a yolatilit^ of. thought are slcqttired^ which, 'of course, are fbl- 
l(9]pred«by . va^nsMMD^y of purpose and of action, and IcskI outwavd 
and f]^war4 t4^«nthriftiMSS( to penury^ and the pepivdK>nse> and,' 
i|t le9Prt,..^.tmpoti^f^rditi(fii) Hr vodld'shefw^ thlit all these' 
erute'ai^pei^bopni, hvti]g<»tth<d tame h)ad, arid not^ver^f fiar* 
spa^» .. Qatbe other iMo^jb^.ireald'iriioir^ how ibba\at ^ VoJUEi^ 



96 

ligent reading, not only enridies the mind with facts, bat creates 
ability, and thus enables it to take up and master many more of 
the innumerable problems of life, which observation and experi* 
enoe- force upon it ; that the reading of ^ood books, gives both 
the love and the power of instructive and elevating conversation, 
and tends to pruaence, and wisdom, and benevolence in action ; 
that it would turn the whole current of social feeling, which 
flows impetuously in the youthful mind, towards associations, 
formed for the mutual improvement of the members ; towards 
the reading-room, instead of the ball-room, the lecture-room, in- 
stead of the theatre ; that it would refine and elevate the social 
intercourse between the sexes, which has so decisive a bearing 
upon the indirect education of children ; or, if it led to privacy 
and seclusion at all, it would be the retirement of the study, 
where great plans for human advancement are devised and ma- 
tured, and not the secrecy of the gaming-table, where abomina* 
tions are wrought. ' ' 

"Now no one thin^," says Mr, Mann, elsewhere, "will con- 
tribute more to intelhgent reading in our schools, than a well- 
selected library ; and, through intelligence, the library will also 
contribute to rhetorical ease, grace and expressiveness. Wake 
up a child to a consciousness of power and beauty, and you 
might as easily confine Hercules to a distaff, or bind Apollo to 
a tread-mill, as to confine his spirit within the mechanical round 
of a school-room, where such mechanism still exists. Let a 
child read and understand such stories as the friendship of Da-' 
mon and Pythias^ the integrity of Aristides, the fidelity of Reg* 
ulus, the purity of Washinffton, the invincible perseverence of 
Franklin, and he will thinl differently Mid act differently all 
the days of his remaining life, Let«^ys or girls of sixteen 
years of age, read an intelligible and popular treatise on astron- 
omy and geology, and from tiiat day new heavens will bend over 
their hea£, and a new earth will spread out beneath their feet, 
A mind accustomed to go rejoicing over the splendid regions of 
the material universe, or to luxuriate in the richer worlds of 
thott^t, can never afterwanls read like a wooden machine, — a 
thing of oranks and pipes, — ^to say nothing of the pleasures and 
the utility it will reaiiie,"' 

If we wisely provide Sdiool Libraries of appropriate books 
for our children, they viHlealm to drink in the patriotism and 
virkies of. our fathers, 'and inbibe the sentiments of the noble 
repreaontatiye men of our -raoe of eiv<ery age. tmd dime. *^ Oan- 
we breath the pvre mountaiv air, aAd net be reflf^shed ) can we 
walk abroad amkkii the beautifiil and the jBiatid of the works of 
creation^ and feel no kindlingi of detotioat t^' '■ Otoe <^ our noblieet 
siBteBai0B Jms'Midy ibat -^-yrt texMkiem^t^' often, lior dweD- 



AT 

loo long) upon the lireB and characters of each Taea ; fbr onr 
own wiU take something of their form and impression firom those 
OB which they rest. If we inhale the moral atmosphere in which 
they mored, we must feel its purifying and invigorating influ- 
ence. If we raise our thoughts to tneir elevation, our minds 
will be expanded and ennobled, in beholding the inmieaeurable 
distance beneath and around us." 

Freely and ungrudging furnish School Libraries for our 
children, and History will trace in our future literature the 
chastened, hopeful, enterprising spirit that roigned in the prayer- 
ful cabin of tne Mayflower, in the primitive settlements of the 
Catholics of Maryland, the Baptists of Rhode Island, and Qua- 
kers of Pexmsylvania, and whidi hovered over the suffering and 
agonies of the never-to-be-forgotten heroes of Valley Forge. 

MORAL EDUCATION. 

It has been well remarked, " That it is a State's duty, and 
the true object had in view by an^ system of public education, 
to make a virtuous population, will hardly be doubted. Indeed, 
the ezp^iditure of the public money for any system of State 
Sdioob, can scarcely be justified on other grounds than those of 
8elfH)re0ervation, and iiie duty to promote tne general prosperity 
of ^e commcmwealth. Ignorance does dog the wheels of en« 
terprise, and fetter the stqss of all improvement. 4^ * ^n 
It becomes therefore the right, nay, the imperative duty of the 
State, to encourage the spread of intelligence, and the repression 
of ignorance. But ignorance is not, by anundred-fold, so deadly 
a foe to the quiet and permanence of a society, as is vice ; and 
hence, the duty of the State to suppress this most destructive of 
monsters. The penal laws all proceed upon the supposition that 
It is a solemn duty to punish the overt aict of crime and vice.*-^ 
Is it not then a duty to prevent these ? And this can be done 
partly by education, if tnat education embraces suitable sutgects, 
and IS imparted in a proper manner. The right of a community 
to take measures for its own self-preservation, therefore, implies, 
and carries along with it the duty, to educate its chilcbren, and 
save them from both ignorance and vioe — the one of which be- 
numbs and stifles, the other of which corrupts and blights, what- 
ever might be good and noble* 

'^ To make our schools^ then,'* contiaiMS the Hon. Robsrt 
Ajlltn, late Commission^ of Public Sdiools of Rhode Island, 
** what they are intended to be, the oodMrvators and stimulators 
of all eoo&ess and cnteipiiae, they ttrtt^^'be made redolent of 
moral infloenees ; they.iMrt be at ail SUmB filled withtiie all- 
Pervading preeioee oli^viftaiNui inotnpfiosB. It must be the 

18a 



98 

teacher's daty to stady daily in what maimer he/oan best fons 
hia Bcholara to the maonera of good, kiw^abiding citixena, and 
brave-hearted, energetic defenders of the weak and defenceless* 
He must remember that no external ornaments of learning — nif 
mere polish of refinement— can atone for the possession of » 
debased and an unworthy souL We' must insist on this hi^h^ 
nnsectarian, moral instruction, in all the school rooms whioih 
the State sends its money to support^ and its officers to oversee. 
We must insist that a moral chaiacter is the first requisite in » 
teacher, and that an ability to teach the same morality, is a mat- 
ter of higher importance than any amount of merely secular 
knowledge." 

It is not necessary to discuss this subject at length, in this 
connection, important as it confessedly is, as it has been quite 
fully treated in a separate paper, which will be found appended 
to this Report. 

NOBMAL SCHOOLS. 

*^I have heard," says Hon. Horace Mann, ^^ihat distiuCTisb* 
ed surgeon, Doct. John G. Warren, of Boston, relatethe follow^' 
ing anecdote, which happened to him in London : — Being invil^ 
ed to witness a very difficult operation upon the human eye, by 
a celebrated English oculist, be was so much struck by Hbe skifr 
and science which were eshibited by the operator, thathesonght 
a private interview with him, to inquire by what means he had 
become so accomplished a master of his art. ^ Sir,^ said the 
oculist, ^ I spoiled a hat-fiill of eyes to learn it. ' Thus it is with 
incompetent teachers ; they may ^oil schoolrooms-full of chil'- 
dren to learn how to teach, — and perhaps may not always learn 
even then." 

It has been senftentiously and tridy remarked, '^ The life or 
death of the school tt the teaeherJ** ^^ As is the teacher, so is 
the school," is a great fundaifaental maxim. ^^No teacher,^' 
says President Wayknd, ^^ is fit to have a scholar unless he is 
able to make his mark upon him." Every sentiment inculcated 
by the teacher should be snob that he oomd conscientiously say, 
*** Nothing which dying I would wish to blot." ' 

We do not knowingly trust illiterate men to instruct us iir 
spiritual and divine &ing8 ; nor quacks to trifle with our lives' 
or health, nor ignorant pretenders to defend our characters or 
property in courts of justice. We want thorou^ly disciplined 
men for these impoiiant professiohe^. Nor is it less important 
that we should have* men as thoiDu^^ly fitted to teach our chil- 
dren — to so direct their toui^ iiamortatiiitellecte, that they may 
b^ led to pnrsua the patti of knowled^ virtue and happiness. 
ihoMug^ ix>urse of preparatisa IS only aoqmr^l at A orraal 



99 

or Training Schools.' As these are of European origin^ let us 
take a brief view of their fruits, by which alone we can properly 
judge them : 

" On reviewing a period of six weeks," says Horace Mann, 
'^ the greater part or which I spent in visiting schools in the 
North and Middle o( Prussia ana Saxony, (except, of course, 
the time occupied in going from place to place,; entering the 
schools to hear, the first recitation m the morning andremaming 
until the last was completed at night, I call to mmd three things 
about which I cannot be mistaken. In some of mv opinions and 
inferences I may have erred, but of the following mcts there can 
be no doubt : 

^^ 1st. During all this time, I never saw a teacher, hearing a 
lesson of any kind, (excepting a reading or spelling lesson,) with 
a book in his hand. 

^^ 2nd. I ne¥<er saw a teacher sitting while hearing a recita- 
tion. 

*^ 3rd. Thou^ I saw hundreds of schools, and thousands. — X 
think I may say, within bounds, tens of thousands of pupils, — 
I never saw one child undergoing punishment, or arraijgned for 
misconduct. I never saw one child in tears from having been 
punished or from fear of being punished. 

" During the above period, 1 witnessed exercises in Geogra- 
phy, ancient and modem, in the German language, — - from the 
explanation of the simplest words up to belles-lettres disquisi- 
tions, with rules for .speaking and writing ; in Arithmetic, Al- 
gebra, Geometry, Surveying and Trigonometry ; in Book-keep- 
ing, in Civil History, ancient and modem ; in Natural Philoso- 
phy ; in Botany and Zoology ; in Mineralogy, where there were 
hundreds of specimens ; in the endless variety of the exercises 
in thinking, knowled^ of nature, of the worla, and of society^ ; 
in Bible history and Bible knowledge ; and, as I before said, in 
no one of these cases did I see a teacher with a book in his 
hand. His book, — his books, — his library, was in his head#. 
Promptly, without pause, without hesitation, from the rich re- 
sources of his own mind, he brought forth whatever the occasion 
demanded. 

'^ I have said that I saw no teacher stttina in his schooL 
Aged or young, all stood* Nor did they stand apart and aloof 
in sullen dignity. They mingled with their pupils, passing rap- . 
idly from one side of the class to the other, animating, encour- 
a^g, sympathizing, breathing life into less active natures, assu-s 
nng the timid, distributing en<Soaragement and ^idearment 
to all. 

^' These . incitements and endearments of the teachers, this 
personal ubiquity, as it were, among all the pupils in the claat^^ 



100 

prevailed much more as the pupils were younger. Before the 
older classes the teach^r^s manner became cafm and didactic. 
The habit of attention being once formed, nothing was left for 
subsequent years or teachers, but the easy task of maintaining 
it. Was there ever such a comment as this on the practice of 
having cheap teachers because the school is young, or incompe- 
tent ones because it is backward ! 

"In Prussia and in Saxony, as well as in Scotland, the power 
of commanding and retaining the attention of a class is held to 
be a 9ine qua nonm a teacher's qualifications. If he has not 
talent, skill, vivacity, or resources of anecdote^ and wit sufficient 
to arouse and retain the attention of his pupils during the accus- 
tomed period of recitation, he is deemed to have mistaken his 
calling, and receives a significant hint to change his vocation. 

" The third circumstance I mentioned above was,' the beauti- 
ful relation of harmony and affection which subsisted between 
teacher and pupils. I cannot say, that the extraordinary cir- 
cumstance I nave mentioned was not the result of chance or ac- 
cident. Of the probability of that, others must judge. I can 
only say that, during all the time mentioned, I never saw a blow 
struck, I never heard a sharp rebuke given, 1 never saw a child 
in tears, nor arraigned at the teacher s bar for any alleged mis- 
conduct. On the contrary, the relation seemed to be one of duty 
first, and then affection, on the part of the teacher — of affection 
first, and then duty, on the part of the scholar. The teacher's 
manner was better than parental, for it had a parent's tender- 
ness and vigilance, without the foolish doatings or indulgences, 
to which parental affection is prone. I heard no cMld ridiculed, 
sneered at, or scolded, for making a mistake. On the contrary, 
whenever a mistake was made, or there was a want of prompt- 
ness in giving a reply, the expression of the teacher was that of 
grief ana disappointment, as though there had been a failure 
not merely to answer the question of a master, but to comply 
with the expectations of a friend. No child was disconcerted, 
disabled, or bereft of his senses, through fear. Nay, generally 
at the end of the answers, the teacher's practice is to encourage 
him, with the exclamation, *good,' * right,' * wholly right,' &c., 
or to check him with his slowly and painfully articulated ^ no ;' 
and this is done with a tone of voice, that marks every degree of 
flu9 and minus in the scale of approbation and Vcgret. Wlien 
a difficult question has been put to a young child, which tasks 
an his energies, the teacher approaches him with a mingled look 
of concern and encouragement ; he stands before him, the light 
and shade of hope and fear alternately crossing his countenance ; 
and if the little wrestler with difficulty triumphs, the teacher 
felicitates him upon his success ; perhaps seizes, and shakes him 



101 

by the hand in token of congratulation ^ and, when the difficulty 
has been really formidable, and the effort triumphant, I have 
seen the teacher catch up the child in his arms, and embrace 
him, as though ho were not able to contain his joy. At another 
time I have seen a teacher actually clap his hands with delight 
at a bright reply ; and all this has been done so naturally and so 
unaffectedly as to excite no other feeling in the residue of the 
children than a desire, by the same means, to win the same ca- 
resses. What person worthy of being called by the name, or of 
sustaining the sacred relation of a parent, would not give any 
thing, bear anything, sacrifice anytnin^, to have his cnildren, 
during ei^t or ten years of the period of their childhood, 
surround^ by circumstances, and breathed upon by sweet and 
humanizing influences like these ! 

" Still, m almost every German school into which I entered, 
I enquired whether corporeal punishments were allowed or used, 
and I was uniformly answered in the affirmative. But it was 
further said, that, tnough all teachers had liberty to use it, yet 
cases of its occurrence were very rare, and these cases were con- 
fined almost wholly to young scholars. Until the teacher had 
time to establish tne relation of affection between himself and 
the new comer into his school, until he had time to create that 
attachment which children always feel towards any one who, day 
after day, supplies them with novel and pleasing ideas, it was 
occasionally necessary to restrain and punish them. But after 
a short time, a love of the teacher, and a love of knowledge, be- 
come a substitute, — ^how amiable a one ! for punishment.- W hen 
I asked my common question of Dr. Vogel, of Leipsic, he an- 
swered, * that it was still used in the schools of which he had 
the superintendence. But,' added he, Hhank God, it is used 
less and less, and when we teachers become fully competent to 
our work, it will cease altogether.* 

'^ To the above I may add, that I found all the teachers whom 
I visited, alive to the subject of improvement. They had libra- 
ries of the standard works on Education, — works of which there 
are such great numbers in the German language. Every new 
book of any promise, was eagerly sought after ; and I uniformly 
found the educational periodicals of the day, upon the tables of the 
teachers. 

" The extensive range and lugh grade of instruction which so 
many of the German youth are enjoying, and these noble quali- 
fications on the part of the instructors, arc the natural and legit- 
imate result of their Seminaries for Teachers. Without the 
latter, the former never could have been, any more than an effect 
without its cause." 



102 

The distin^ished M. Guizoiy repeatedly Minister of Public 
Instruction m France, when introducing the Li^ of Primary 
Instruction to the Chamber of French Deputies, in 1833, said : 
" All the provisions hitherto described, would be of none effect^ 
if we tooK no pains to procure for the public school thus consti- 
tuted, an able master, and worthy of tne high vocation of in- 
structing the people. It cannot oe too often repeated^ that it i$ 
the master who makes the school. What a well assorted union 
of qualities is required to constitute a good master ! A good 
master ought to be a man who knows much more than he is ^li- 
ed upon to teach, that he may teach with intelligence and with 
taste. ; who is to live in an humble sphere, and yet have a noble 
and elevated spirit ; that he may preserve that dimity of mind 
tod of deportment, without which ne will never obtain the res- 
pect and confidence of families; who possesses a rare mixture 
of gentleness and firmness; for, inferior though he be, in station, 
to many individuals in the Communes j he ought to be the obse- 
Quious servant to none; a man not ignorant of his rights^ but 
tninking much more of his duties; showing to all a good exam- 
ple, and serving to all as a counsellor; not given to change his 
condition, but satisfied with his situation, because it gives him 
the power of doing good; and who has made up his mmd to live 
and to die in the service of Primary Instruction, which to him 
is the service of God and his fellow creatures. To rear up mas- 
ters approaching to such a model, is a difficult task, and yet we 
must succeed in itj or we have done nothing for elementary in- 
struction. 

Victor Cousin, who like Guizot, has served with distinction 
as Minister of Public Instruction in France, in his Beport on 
the Public Instruction of Prussia, justly observes, that ^'the 
best plans of instruction cannot be executed except by the in- 
strumentality of ^ood teachers; and the State has done nothing 
for popular education, i/ it does not watch that those who devote 
themselves to teaching he well prepared J^ Three years subse- 
quent to his visit to Prussia, M. Cousin made a tour in Holland 
with a view of investigating the educational system of that 
country; and Says, as the result of his further inquiries on the 
sulgect: *^ i attach the greatest importance to Normal Primary 
Schools, and I consider that all future success in the education 
of the people depends upon them. In perfecting her (Holland^ 
system of Primary Schools, Normal Schools were introducea 
for the better training of masters. AH the School Inspectors 
with whom I met in tne course of my journey, assured me that 
they had brought about an entire change in tne condition of the 
school-master, and that they had given the young teachers a 



of digaitj in their profflBsion^snd had thetcliy initrednced 
an improved tone and style of manners.^ 

Prof. A. D« Baojub, a great^grandaon . of the iHostrions 
FranUin, now at the head of the United States Coast Sanrej^ 
who went several years since to Europe, a)t the instance of 
Girard College^ to examine edncational svtBtems abroad, makea 
ihe following impressive remarlu in his able Beport on Ednoa- 
iion in Europe: 

^* When edjaeation is to be rapidly advanced, seminariee for 
teachers offer the means of securing this result. An eminent 
teacher is selected as Director of the Seminary; and by tbb aid of 
competent assistants, and while benefiting the community by the 
instruction given in the schools attached M the Seminary, trains, 
yearly, from thirty to forty youths in the enlightened practice of 
his methods; these, in their turn, become teachers of sdiools, 
which they are fit at once to conduct, without the fiulures and 
mistakes usual with novices; for though beginners in name, they 
have ac<]^uired in the course of the two or three years isKpent i^ 
the Seminary, an experience equivalent to many years of un- 
guided efforts. This result has been fully realized in the sue- 
cess of the atitempts to spread the methods of Pestaloazi and oth* 
ers throu^ Prussia. Tne plan has been adopted, and is yielding 
its appropriate fruits in UoUand, Switzerluid, France anil 
Saxony; while in Austria, where the method 4>f preparing teach* 
ers by tiieir attendance on the primary schools is still adhered 
to, the schools are stationary, and behind those of Northern and ^ 
Middle Germany. 

^^ These Seminaries produce a strong esjmt de cofp% among 
teachers, which tends powerfully to interest them in their pro- 
fession, and attach theuL to iti, to elevate it in their ieyes, ana to 
stimulate them to improve constantly upon the attainments, with 
which they may have C(Hnmenced its exercise. By thek aid, a 
standard of examination in the theory and practice, of instruc- 
tion is fumished, which may be &irly exacted of candidates who 
have chosen a different way to obtain access to the profrasiiOtt. 

^^ Wherever Normal. Schools have been established," says 
Hon. EsB&TOir RtEESOK, Ohief Superintendent of Public la- 
structidn of Upper Canada, ^^ it has been found thus &r that 
tiie demand for regularly trained teachers has exceeded ^h» snp- 
|)Jy which the Normal Schools have been able to provide. It is 
so in the United States ; it is so, up to the present time, in 
France ; it is most pressingly and painfully so in England, Ire- 
land and Scotland. I was told by the Btead Masters of the 
Sreat Normal Schools in London, m Dublin, in Glasgow, and in 
dinburgh, that such was the demand for the pupik of tiie ^ot-* 
mal Bohoohf as teachers, tb&t, in many instances^ t\i«y fottiA Vh 



104 

impoJMibla t# retain them in the Nonnal School during the pre« 
, Bcribed course — even when it irae limited to a year." 

Prc^. Calvin E. Stowe yisited Europe in 1839, and on his 
return, submitted a Report on Elementary Public Instruction 
in Iiurope, to the Legislature of Ohio. To the objection, *' We 
hare had good teachers without Normal Seminaries, and may 
have good teachers still," he makes the following characteristic 
and graphic reply: " This is the old and stereotyped objection 
against erery attempt at improvement in every age. Whoh the 
bold experiment was first made of nailing iron upon a hor8e*8 
hoof, the objection was probably urged that horse-shoes were 
entirely unnecessary — ^ We have had excellent horses without 
them, and shall probably continue to have them. The Greeks 
and Romans never used iron horse-shoes; and did they not have 
tiie best of horses, which could travel thousands of miles, and 
bear on their backs the conquerors of the world ?' So when 
chimneys and windows were first introduced, the same objection 
would still hold good. ^ We have had very comfortable nouses 
without these expensive additions. Our fathers never had them, 
and whjr should we V And at this day, if we were to attempt, 
in certain parts of the Scottish Highlands, to introduce the 
practice of wearing pantaloons, we should probably be met with 
the same objection. We have had very good men without pan- 
taloons, and no doubt we shall continue to have them. In fact, 
we seldom know the inconveniences of an old thing until we 
^ have taken a new and a better one in its stead. It is scarcely a 
year since the New York and European sailing packets were 
supposed to be the ne pbu ultra of a comfortable and speedy 
passage across the Atlantic; but now in comparison witn the 
newly established steam packets, they are justly regarded as a 
slow, uncertain and tedious mode of conveyance. ThehuHUUi 
race is progressive, and it often happens that the greatest con* 
veniences of one generatickn, are recKoned among the clumsiest 
waste lumber of the next. Compare the best printing press at 
which Dr. Franklin ever worked, with those splendid machines 
which now throw off their thousand sheets an hour; and who 
will put these down by repeating, that Dr. Franklin was a very 
good printer, and made very good books, and became quite rich 
without them? 

^^ I know that we have good teachers already; and I honor the 
men who have made themselves good teachers, with so little en* 
eoaragement, and so little opportunity of study. But I also 
know that such teachers are very few, almost none, in compari- 
son with the public wants; and that a supply never can be ex- 
peoted wiQuoTkt the increased fiunlities wnicn a good Teachers* 
SemjJDtuj would fumiBh.'* 



106 

^' The moert moment otui practical questions/' says Hobace . 
Mann, " now before onr State and country, are these : In or^ 
der to preserve our republican institutions, must not our Com- 
mon Schools be elevated in character and increased in efficiency? 
and, in order to bring our schools up to the point of excellence 
demanded by the nature of our institutions, must there not be a 
special course of study and training to qualify teachers for their 
office ? No other irorldly intereiit presents any question compa- 
rable to these in importance. 

** In maintaining the affirmative of this question, — namely, 
that all teachers dp require a special course of study and train- 
ing, to qualify them fbr their profession, — I will not higgle with 
my adversary in adjusting preliminaries. * He may be the disci- 
ple of ^any school in metaphysics, and he may hold what faith he 
pleases, respecting the mind s nature and essence. Be he sjpirit- 
uidist or materialist, it here matters not, — ^nay, though he should 
deny that ^here is any such substance, as mind or spirit, at all, I 
will not stop to dispute that point with him, — ^preferring rather 
to imitate tne example of those old knights of the tournament, 
who fblt such confioence in the justness of their cause, that they 
gave their adversaries the advantage of sun and wind. For, 
whatever the mind may be, in its inscrutable nature or essence, 
or whether there be any such thing as mind or spirit at all,- 
properly so called, this we have seen, and do know, that there 
come beings into this world, with every incoming generation of 
children, who, although at first so iterant, helpless, speechless, 
— so incapable of all motion, upri3it or rotary, — that we can 
hardly persuade ourselves that they liave not lost their way, and 
oome, by mistake, into the wrong world ; yet, after a few swift 
years have passed away, we see thousands of these same igno- 
rant and helpless bemgs, expiating horrible offences in prison cells^ 
or dashing themselves to aeath against the bars of a maniac's 
cage ; — otiiers of them, we see, holding * colloquy sublipie * in 
halls where a nation's fate is arbitrated, or Solving some of the 
mightiest problems that belong to this wonderful universe ; — and 
others still, there are, who, by daily and nightly contemplation 
of the laws of God, have kindled tnat fire ot divine truth within 
tiieir bosoms, by which they become those mortal luminaries 
whose light sfaineth from one part of the heavens unto the other. 
And this amasing chance in wese feeble and helpless creatures, 
— this transfiguration of them for good or for evil — is wrought 
by laws of organization and of increase, as certain in their ope* 
ration, and as infallible in their results, as those by which the 
skillful gardener substitutes flowers, and delicious finits, and 
healing herbs, for briars and thorns and poisonous plants. AiA 

14a 



1»9 

as we hold the gardener responaible for the prodactiong of his 
garden, so is the community responaible for the genera} character 
and conduct of its children." 

But at this late day, it is believed, no special plea in bdialf of 
Normal Schools is necessary. They have been tested as well in 
this country as in Europe, and everywhere have produced the 
most marked beneficial results. Very many of our States have 
established, or otherwise encouraged Normal Schools. There 
is not known to be a leading educator in the country who does 
not heartily approve tfaom^ when properly conductea, as a most 
important instrumentality in proviaing gooc[ teachers for our 
schools, and thus elevating the standara of common school eda- 
cation. ^^ ^Knowledge is power,' '' said Lord Bacon, — ^^ there- 
fore, the more knowledge a people possess, the more powerftU 
will thejT become, as compared with, and as brought into Compe- 
tition with other people. What means, then, should be adopted 
to secure this desirable improvement in education ? Instructocs 
can never teach more than they themselves know. The tMfj 
therefore, is clear. If the pupils are to be well and thorougfalV 
taught, tneir teachers must be tau^t more highly — their knowl- 
edge must- be increased, and their qualifications enlarged, im- 
proved and elevated.*' 

It is not alone the additional number of well qualified teachers 
the Normal Schools furnish, but their influence also on others, 
that should be taken into consideration. I was told, in Massa- 
chusetts, that the influence of their Normal School graduates 
was of the highest value in «very district where they tMght — el- 
evating a new standard; and the people seeing it, ever after seek 
teachers of this class to maintain this elevated standard ; other 
teachers, who have not enjoyed the same advantages, seeing the 
difference, try to profit by it; and thus, these Nomral gradaatea, 
in the schools, in the neighborhood, in' Teachers' Institutes, ana 
among their less-favored instructors, exert a most beneficial in- 
fluence, very much as do the West Point Military Aca4emy gradu- 
ates among the militia wherever they eo. Hon. Robert Alltv, 
in his report of 1850, as State School Commissioner of Rhode 
Island, says: ^^The effect of the graduates of the Normal Schools 
is already felt to some extent, for good upon the teachers of the 
State. They have gone abroad into various schools, and by comr 
ing in contact with other teachers,' and by making popular the 
methods of instruction learned in the Nohnal School, they are 
gradually but surely causing the standard of attainments in 
school teachers to rise, as weu as the standard amount of duty 
they shall be required to perform. If such an influence begins 
io 0e apparent within two years from its commencement, we may 
wiii certainty expect that its bene&ts w\\\ coii^^ASitV^ increase 



till aU parts of our State shall feel it, and be made better there- 

We have imtvmraied a system of Normal Schools in Wiscon- 
sin, and provided liberal means to sustain them. There are 
manj in oar State, — ^I think a large majority — ^who look hope- 
fully upon this measure; while there are others who reoird it as 
little better than an utter waste of the fund davoted by the 
State to that purpose. The latter class, I believe, regard the 
system as copied from the experience of the New York Nor- 
mal Academical departments, wnich all concede has not proved 
any too successful, to say the least of it. The Literature 
Fund of that State is distributed ^ to certain Academies widi 
Normal departments, and little or no care is. taken by the 
Begcnts of the University, who have the management of the 
matter, in reauirinj^^ a faithful adherence to the standard of 
study and qualification adopted; and, worst of all, no State su- 

fervision is exercised over these Normal departments. Ten 
oUars is granted to these institutions for eacn scholar in the 
Normal department { and the main strife seems to be, on the 
part of the Academies, to tmng in all the scholars they can, 
and get the public money. Even the Regents of that State, I 
learn, are s atisfied, that the $18,000 thus annually appropriated, 
is almost an utter waste, so far as specially educating teachers 
is concerned. 

Our Board of Normal Regents seem to be earnestly endeav- 
oring to avoid the rock on which the New York Academical 
Normal system has split. Though Universities, Colleges, and 
Academies, complying with the requirements of our Normal 
School law, have established Normal Departments, they are un- 
der, and are likely to be under, a ve^ different system of man- 
agement from those of New York. U is, in the first plac€^ a 
creat saving of expense for the separate erection of. suitable 
buildings, and support of separate faculties; the standard of^ re- 
quirement is sufficiently elevated, it is believed, for the present; 
and a most thorou^ system of supervision is contemplated. 

The Normal Regents have no power to employ, ana remuner- 
ate from the fund, an able and efficient State Normal School 
Agent, to visit the several schools, spend such time with them 
as the Normal Board should deem propor, see that they com- 
ply with the reouirements of the law and the Board, encourage 
the schools in tneir work, advise with the teachers as to the 
mode and course of instruction, lecture to the students, perhaps 
form them for a while into Teachers' Institutes; secure, as near- 
ly as possible, a uniformity in the qualifications of pupils, and 
modes and extent of instruction, in die several schools, and ex- 
cite a sfint cf emulation and enthusiasm ia thie noUi^ ^oxV. 



108 

Witliont Btich fiiithftil Bnpervision by a man of large experienee, 
indomitable energy, with a heart overflowing with zeal .aniLeii- 
thnsiasm in the great canse of edncationy there is serious reason 
to fear that the system will &il to produce the results expected 
from it. The Regents will seek of the Legislature an amend- 
ment to the act organizing the Normal Board/ conferring on 
them the power to employ, and remunerate, such an Agent: and 
have, in anticipation of the favorable action of the Legislature 
in a matter of such apparent vital necessity, already selected 
Hon. Henry Barnard as such Acent, who has accepted — 
promising to devote a reasonable porUon of his time to tnis ob- 
ject. From the earnest and conscientious eflbrts of the. Normal 
JBoard, and Mr. Barnard's large experience in the practical 
workings of the Normal Schoolp both m this country and in Eu- 
rope, I cannot but cherish the most lively hope, that our Normal 
School system, with the sympathy and encouragement of the 
Legislature, and all classes of citizens, will yet prove eminently 
successful. The time is not far distant, when a Central State 
Normal School, with superior facilities, and bavins an intimate 
relation with those already established, will undouotedly be de- 
manded. 

Regarding, as I do, Mr. Barnard's connection with our State 
University, and our Normal School system — especially the lat- 
ter, as the most important event that has ever occurred in our 
educational history — if not, indeed, the most important, in view 
of its probable conseauences, that has ever transpired in the his- 
tory of the State, I snail venture to give some notice of his most 
prominent services — thus endeavoring to show what we may 
reasonably expect as the result of his earnest labors here, by 
what he has elsewhere so largely and so thoroughly accomplish- 
ed. 

Bf r. Barnard was bom in Hartford, Connecticut, Jan. 24tii, 
1811; first a pupil at the common school, and finally a graduate 
at Yale College, in 1830, with a high character for scholarship. 
It is said of him, in a well written memoir, in the MoBnaehuietU 
Teacher^ that in the early part of his collegiate course, he was 
^^ a successfal competitor for the prizes for English and Latin 
composition; for tne last two years, diligently pursuing a sys- 
tematic course of reading in English literature, with the practice 
of English composition; during the last half, also acting, as li- 
brarian, to secure free access to the library, and acquire a knowl- 
edge of books; participating with zeal in the exercises of the 
literary societies, by written and oral discussions; and possess- 
ing fine natural endowments, he came out of college, as might 
have been expected, already a ripe scholar. The five subse- 
qnent yean were mainly devoted to fb thorough professional 



100 

I 

training for the practice of the laW| the severer study of the le- 
gal text-books being relieved by the dailjr reading of a portion 
of the ancient and modem olassics. Tms coarse of study was 
fortunately interrupted for a few months, to take charge of an 
Academy, where he improved the opportunity to acquire some 
knowledge of the theory and practice of teaching. This expe- 
rience probably had considerable influence in determining some 
of the most important subsequent events of his life." 

He next spent several months in travel, visiting ahnost every 
part of the Union, and haying been admitted to the bar, sailed 
i^r Europe in 1835, where he ^ent eighteen months, traversing 
the greater part of England, Scotland, and Switzerlaiid, on foot, 
devoting his att^tion mainly to the social condition of the peo- 
ple. Becalled from this tour, by the sickness of his father in 
1S87, in the very first public address which he had occasion to 
make after his return, he said, ^^ Every man must at once make 
himself as eood and as useful as he can, and help, at the same 
time, to ma&e every bodv about him, and all whom he can reach, 
better and happier." This has ever been the controlling senti- 
ment which has influenced his motives and conduct, fidelity 
to this noMe and philanthropio aim, induced him, not long after- 
wards, to abandon the flattering prospects of professional emi- 
nenoei and political advancement, after a three years brilliant 
career in the Connecticut Legislature, as the representative of 
his native city in that body. Wliile in the Legislature, ^^ he de- 
voted special attention," says an appreciative memoir in the 
New American Qyclapedia^ ^^ to the promotion of humane and 
scientific objects, urging and securing appropriations for the ed- 
ucation of the deaf and dumb, and the blind, for tiie improvement 
of the condition of the indigent inisane, and the town poor ; the 
re-or^anization of county prisons, the incorporation of public 
libraries, and the completion of the geological survey of the 
State. The most signal service, however, which he rendered to 
the State, was, in the ori^ation and carrying through an act 
for the re;K)rganixation of its Common School system. The bill, 
which, under his influence, passed the L^islature, provided for 
the appointment of a Board of Commissioners of Common 
Schools, who should investigate the condition of the Schools of 
the State, and by addresses, lectures, correspondence, and the 
recommendation of such measures as might promote the cause 
of education, endeavor to elevate and improve them. Of this 
Board, Mr. Barnard was a member and uie Secretary for four 
years." 

^^ Possessii^" wjBHiQ MaudekuketU Teacher ^ ^^fine powers 
of oratoiy, winding a relbdy aAd able pen, animated by a gener- 
ous and ipdpn)|tftble spirit, willing to spend and be spent m tibA 



no 

cause of benevolence and humtinity, be had every qualification 
for the task, but expefrienoe. Speaking of his fitness for carrr- 
ing out the measures of educational reform and improvement in 
Connecticut, and of the resultd of his efforts, Horace Manh 
said, in the Mag^achuutts 0<mimon School Journal j ^ it is not 
extravagant to say that, if a better man be required, we must 
waii^ at least, until the next veneration, for a better one is not 
to be found in the present. This a^ent entered upon his duties 
with unbounded seal. He devoted lo their discharge his time, 
taJents, and means. The cold torpidity of the State soon felt 
the sensations of returning vitality. Its half suspended anima- 
tion beean to .quicken with a warmer life. Much and most vlilu- 
able information was diffused. Many parents began to appre- 
ciate more adequately what it was to be a parent ; teachers were 
awakened ; associations for mutual improvement were formed ; 
systems began to supersede confusion ; some salutary laws were 
enacted ; aU things gave favorable augury of a prosperous car 
reer, md it may be further affirmed that the cause was so admin- 
istered as to give occasion of offense to none. The whole move- 
ment was kept aloof from political strife. All relirious men 
had reason to rejoice that a higher tone of moral and religious 
feeling was making its way into schools, without giving occasion 
(^.jeiJousy to the one*sided views of any denomination. But all 
of these auguries were delusive. In an evil hour the. whole fab- 
ric was t>verthrown.' " 

In 1842, by a change of political power, the act establishing a 
Board of Commissioners was repeiEiled, and the old order of 
things restored. The ensuing fifteen months were spent in a 
tour of the United States, coueoting materials for an educational 
work; but before writing which, he was called to take charge of 
tho public schools of Khode Island. ^^ Reluctant," says the 
MtU8achu9ett9 Teacher^ ^^to accept the invitation,, as it would 
make it necessary to postpone the work in contemplation, Gov. 
Fenner met his objection with the reply, * Better make history 
than write it.' H!e accepted the task, and soon organized a 
system of agencies which, in five years, brought about an entire 
revolution in the condition of the schools in the State. It is 
not easy to fully appreciate the difficulties and magnitude of tiie 
woriL undertaken in Rhode Island. From the foundation of the 
colony, the common sdiool had been excluded from the care and 
patronage or tho govemmeat, and for more than a century and 
a half there is not the sliglitest trace of any legislation whatever 
for this great interest." 

^'In the matter of school libraries, ahd all else relating to com- 
mon school education^- ' reiparked President Wayland to me in 
aoovoTBaiioD^ ^^Mr. BarnaiNl did« great: work for Rhode Island.'* 



Ill 

*'Hfre," Bays the JVisw American Cyclopedia, "in the short 
apsoe of fire years, he creftted and thoroughly established & sys- 
tem of popalM" edacfttioo, which, nnder the wise and caj-efdl ad- 
ministration of his snecessore in ofEce, has become a model for 
general imitation. His labors daring this period were escesBiTe, 
and bat for the eztraordinarr rigor of hts constitution, he must 
have Bimb nnder them. At length his health began to give vay 
nnder sach seyere toil, and he was compelled to rosigp his office. 
He returned to Hartford, resolred to reat from, his labors; but^ 
to a man of his ardent temperament, rest was impossible. His 
pen and mind were still busy on his favorite subject. School 
Architecture, a matter on which he had bestowed great labor and 
thought, the organisation of Teachers' Institutes, which ho had 
originated in 1839, the practical awakening of the minds of the 
people to the necessity of a higher standard of education, oil 
employed his time. Through his influence, wcaltby and intel- 
ligent mra throughout the State faeoame interested in the cause. 
Graded schools became popular; high schools were established 
in several of the cities and larger towns; Teachers' Institutes 
were orvanised in every countv, and, in 1850, the demand for 
edncat^ and skillfol teachers nad become so great, that a for- 
mal School was demanded. It was established, and the part of 
Principal was conferred on Mr. Barnard. To the duties of this 
ofBce were added those of State Superintendent. The progress 
made in the canse of education in Connecticut during the suc- 
ceeding four years was extraordinary, and testified to the energy 
and ability of the Superintendent. During this period he re-' 
visited Europe, for relaxation from his arduous labors, and for 
the benefit of his health, which was poor, and added largely to his 
knowledge of facts and details of the European systems of edu- 
cation. Betnmingfrom this voyage, "at length, continues the 
New American Cyclopedia, "in January, 1855, enfeebled health 
compelled him again to retire from the work of his choice, not 
as b«fore to see it overthrown, but to commit it to other hands' 
who would carry out his views. In the summer following, he- 
commenced tlie publication of the American Journal of Educa- 
tion. To this and to the Reparation of some works on educa- 
tion he is now devoting his time. Mr. Barnard deserves th9 
credit, to an uncommon degree, of possessing great practical 
talent. In his whole career, his aim has been to secure the 
greatest amount of practical resuhs in & given time, in the pro- 
motion of educational measures, Mr. Barnard is well known > 
and hi^lj honored by the friends of education in Europe. In 
this coimtry he warelected to the Presidencv of the Ameriean' 
Associfttion for Ate Advancemcoit of Sdncation in 1855, aad waft 



112 

offered the Presidencj of two State Universities. The degfee 
of LL.B. was conferred on him in 1851, by Yale and Uuion 
Colleges, and the year following by Harvard University,'' 

Since 1854, Mr. Barnard has devoted himself exclusively to 
his pen, and has done, and is still doing, a great work in behalf 
of general education. He has published altogether no less than 
twenty-eight documents, reports, and treatises on educational 
topics, for which our whole country is creatly indebted to this 
public benefactor. And especially win Wisconsin have cause 
for gratitude to him, for the detailed report he is now preparing, 
at the request of our Normal Regents, on a suitable plan for 
oonductin^our Normal school system. 

"With Henry Barnard," says HoUister, in the second volume 
of his valuable Kistorv of Connecticut, ^^ whosenamc is so inti- 
mately associated witn one of the great reforms of the world, 
life is valuable onlv that it may be spent in improving the con- 
dition of mankind, not only in the prcsemfc generation, but 
in all ages. To this noble work he has consecrated talents and 
ac(][uirements of the highest order. Descending from one of the 
emigrants who settled tnc colonv, with strong local attachments 
to Hartford, his native city, and to the old mansion whare he was 
bom, — with academical acquirements among the best that Yale 
College can bestow upon iicr sons, — with intellectual endow- 
ments, and a gift of eloquence, which might have done honor to 
die Senate, — with a mind trained by the l)est models of Greek 
and Latin letters, and enriched by the poetry, the philosophy 
and science of England's best minds, — a thorough lawyer, with a 
lucrative and honorable practice opening before him, at the age 
of twenty -seven years, he abandoned all attractions of political 
and professional life, and the pleasures of literary and social re- 
lations; and went forth, like a crusader of the middle ases, to 
wage war with the bigotry, the parsimony, and the old habits of 
thinking, whiob encrusted the minds of a large proportion of the 
parents of Connecticut, in relation to that most vital subject, 
the education of their children. They frowned upon him as an 
intermeddlcr; and intimated, if they aid not tell him in so many 
words, that he had better mind his own affairs, and thej would 
take care of theirs. He expostulated with them. They told him 
that their school-books ana school-houses had been good enough 
for themselves, and that their children were no better than they. 
He reasoned with them, stated facts to show them that the com- 
mon school system had degenerated firom its old estate, and 
begged themi to remember that the times were changing, and 
that, especially in such a government as this, every generation 
obght to improve upon its predecessors. They told hSa that he 
demanded of them to open their purses and contribute to him; he 



118 

replied, that he only wished them to make an investment for 
themselves, which should add to their wealth and happiness an 
hundred-fold. Graduallj their views began to relax, and after 
years of obstinate resistance, they have yielded, and commenced 
m earnest the reformation so ardently desired and advocated by 
him. 

" We cannot here review his labors. After encountering the 
honest prejudices of many, and the active oi|position of not a 
few, who aecm to have misunderstood his motives and his aims 
— ^he has succeeded in collecting and disseminating a vast amount 
of information, as to the actual condition of the schools; in 
making provision through a. State Normal School, County Teach- 
ers' Institutes, a State Teachers' Association, and a monthly 
educational periodical, for the prgfcssional training and improve- 
ment ofv teachers; in establishing a gradation of schools m the 
large villages and cities; in working not a change, but a revolu- 
tion in the construction and furniture of school-houses; in re- 
storing the old Connecticut principle of property taxation, for 
the support, in part, at least, of the common school; in securing 
the more permanent employment and better compensation of well 
qualified touchers; in drawing back again to the improved com- 
mon schools the children of the educated and the wealthy; in 
subjecting the district schools to some genop'al society regula- 
tions as to attendance, studies^ books, and vacations; and as the 
source and pledge of still greater improvements, in interesting 
the j)ublic mind in the discussion of questions touching the or- 
ganization, administration, instruction, and discipline of common 
schools.". * , 

"Dr. Barnard." spAi the late eminent educator, Dr. Voqbl, 
of Leipsic, " by liis writing pn school architecture, has created 
a new department in educational literature." " I cannot omit,," 
savs Bishop Potter, in his work on the School and School 
Mastersj " this opportunity of recommending the reports which 
have emanated from this source, as rich in important sugges- 
tions, and full of the most sound and practical views in regard 
to the whole subiect of school education." The learned Chan- • 
cellor KexTj in his Commentaries on American Law, character- 
izes Mr. Barnard's first report as " a bold and startling docu- 
ment, founded o|i ;the most pains-taking and critical inquiry, and 
containing a minute, accurate, comprehensive and instructive 
exhibition of th^ prftcti,cftl condition and operation of the com- 
mon school system of education;" and in referring to his subse- 
quent reports, the distiii^iahed jurist SBcak^ of him as '^the 
most able, efficient,. and bent informed omcor that could, perhaps, 
be engaged in the servipe,":*rand of his publications «l& qou- 
hAmng ** B digest of the fulleat and most valuable ixnpoTlwiC^ 

16a 



114 

that is readily to be obtained on the subject of common schools, 
both in Europe and the United States. I can only refer to these 
documents with the highest opinion x)f their merits and value." 
**Mr. Barnard," sinrsthe nestminster Review^ of Jan. 1854, 
** in his work on ^ l/attanal Education in Europe^^ has collected 
and arranged more valuable information and statistics than can 
be found in any one volume in the English language. It groups 
under one view the varied experience of nearly all civilized 
countries." "The first number of the American Journal of 
Education*^ says the same Review^ of January, 1856, " we 
received with umninded pleasure, save in the regret that Eng- 
land has as yet nothing in the same field worthy of comparison 
with it." "in Connecticut," says the Chicago Pre%B and Tri- 
hune^ " where Mr. Barnard resides, and in allNew England, he 
is regarded as the foremost man in the nation in whatever con- 
cerns the management of institutions of learning and the scho- 
lastic teaching of the young." 

" The career of rfenry Barnard," says the Masiachusetti 
Teacher^ "as a promoter of the cause of education, has no pre- 
cedent, and is without a parallel. We think of Page as a great 
practical teacher, or Gallaudet as the founder of a new institu- 
tion, of Pestalozzi as the originator of a new method of Ihstruc- 
iion, of Spurzheim as the expounder of the philosophy of 
education, and of Horace Mann as its most eloquent advocate; 
but Mr. Barnard stands before the world as the national educa- 
tor. We know, indeed, that he has held ofiSce, and achieved 
great success in the administration and improvement of systems 
of public instruction in particplar States. But these labors, 
however important, constitute only a segment, so to speak, in 
the larger sphere of his efforts. Declining numerous calls to 
high and lucrative posts of local importance and influence, he 
has accepted the whole country as the theatre of his operations, 
without regard to State lines, and by the extent. Variety, and 
comprehensiveness of his efforts, has earned the title of the 
American Educator. It is in this view, that his course has been 
patterned after no example, and admits of no comparison. But 
if in his plan, caually beneficent and original, he had no example 
to copy, he has rumished one, worthy i^ike of admiraiion and 
imitation." 

Such is Henry Barnard. The great educational reforms he has 
elsewhere achieved, should incline xl^ to look hopefully for im- 
provement in our own State, under the moulding influence of his 
practical mind, indomitable energy, and extensive experience. 
We have reason, as a 'State, to felicitate ourselves on tne acqui- 
sition of such a man. It ought to form a new era in our State 
historj; and it mil, if we are true to ourselvea and to him. 



U6 

We Bhall best honor onrBelTea, and bless our State, by listening 
confidiDglif to, and promptly carrying into effect, whatever s«g- 
gestions and advice such a man as Henry Barnard, in his ripe 
experience, and noble devotion to the good of his race, may 
deem it hia dnty to offer upon matters pertaining to the great 
cause of popular eduoation in Wisconsin, 

TBACHBRS' INSTITUTES. 
Highly aa the Normal School deserves commendation and en- 
conragement in the great work of preparation of teachers, I wonld 
not forget that other agencies are vaBtly important — chief among 
which are Teachers' Institntes. It has been nearly twenty years 
since they were first institnted by Hon. Henry Barnard ; and 
they have now come into general use wherever education is pro- 



New York, formerly Superintendent of Public Instmction of 
that State, "is but a drop in the bucket—graduating a handiul 
of teachers annually, while probably five thousand new teacherb 
enter the schools yearly. The teadiers' departments in the 
Aoademies do something ; but they taJce in but a small portion 
of the whole number, and in very many cases really do nothing 
towards preparing the teachers for their business besideB instruct- 
ing them in the necessary branches. They do not instruct ia 
the art of teaching. The only feasible plaa I have seen for any 
tlsng like a general fitting in the latter particular, is by our 
^ Iiutitutet,' as they are called. I need not explain them to yoa. 
They are usually much too short — teaching but two or tnree 
veeks. But even in that time they do a wonderful amount of 
ffentntl good. They get abroad correct ideas on leading points, 
and some familiarity with routine. They, at least, Ktart teach- 
ers on the right track, and is a uniform direction. Could a 
State Normal School supply enough teachers for the Institutes, 
and could the latter be extended through the two months imme- 
diately preceding the opening of the winter schooh— one in each 
County, and snch arrangements made that the mass of the teach- 
ers would attend them — it would, in my opinion, be a better sys- 
tem of preparation than any State has yet bad ; and it cer- 
tainly would not necessarily be a more expensive one than 
ours." 

In several of the States— Connecticut, Massachusetts, and 
Maine, among them — the ablest instructors in the several de- 
urtmraits in common school instruction are employed by the 
State to attend a series of Inatitates, bo arranged that they ««&. 
paw rapidly ft«» one to Buotber, and tbu dnrii^j iito oi Wow 



116 

mpQtl^s in the aatnmn, the teachers of the entire State Jiave the 
opportunity of being benefited by their experience apd instruc- 
tions. At these InstituteSi the teachers undergo thorough driUs, 
reviewing the studies appropriate to their calling ; and are taught 
to think and act with manly independence, simplifying and ma- 
king attractive the rudiments of knowledge, andsliaking off that 
slavish adherence to the strict letter of the text-books so com- 
mon with timid and undisciplined minds. ^' They afford to the 
young and inexperienced teachers," says lion. Henry Barn- 
ard; '^ an opportunity to review the studies thev are to teach, 
and to witness, and to some extent practise, the oest methods of 
arranging and conducting the classes of a school, as well as 
obtaining the matured views of the best teachers and educators 
on all the ^reat topics of education, as brou^t out in public 
lectures, discussions and conversation. The attammenta of sol- 
itary reading will thus be quickened by the action of living mind. 
The acquisition of one will be tested by the experience and 
structure of others. New advances in any direction by one 
teacher, will become known, and made the common property of the 
profession* Old and defective methods will be held up, exposed 
and corrected, while valuable hints will be foUowca out and 
proved. The tendency to a dogmatical tone and spirit, to one- 
sided (ind narrow views, to a monotony of character, which 
every good teacher fears, and to which most professional teach- 
ers are exposed, will be withstood and obviated. The sympa- 
thies of a common pursuit, the interchange of ideas, the discus- 
sion of topics whicn concern their common advancement, the ne- 
cessity of extending their reading and inquiries, and of cultiva- 
ting toe power and habit of wntten and oral expression, all 
these things will attach teachers to each other, elevate their own 
character and attainments, and the social and pecuniary estimate 
of the profession." 

^^ The general opinion," says Mr. Barnard, in his Connecti- 
cut School Report of 1858, *^ as to the utility of these Institutes 
in their twoi-fold operatipn on the profession, and tiie community 
^nerally, haa been confirmed by wother year's experience. 
They have enabled even experienced teachers to refresh their 
memoiies as to the lei^ding principles and faots of the several 
studies usually pursued in our. district schools, by rapid reviews, 
and, in some instances, it may be safely said, by new and better 
methods of presenting the same to their pupils. They. have 
brought th^ youn^ and inexperienced teacher to profit in the 
work: of self-iknprov^ment by hints, su^stions, and practical il- 
luptvati^ns, fi)9m those, who have acquired skill and reputation 
b^ years of laJborious. and sac6esBftLl experience. They hare 
Btiavilated I2ie oidftr and the best teachers of the State, to renew- 



IIT 

ei and more zealoas efforts to perform their datiee vith even 
greater Buceeas. Tbey have helped to awaken and diffuse a 
great degree of mental activity and professional feeling ia the 
irhole body of teachers. Beyond the circle of the profe8Bion',_ 
for Those special benefit tliey are held, these InBtitutee have in- 
terested a large nnmbcr of citizens, parents, and Toune people, 
in the subject of education, tho principles of school architecture, 
methods of teaching, the government of children in the family 
and school, and other leading features of school organization 
and administration," 

Alluding to Teachers' Instigates, the Becond Annual Report 
of the Board of Education of Maine, remarks ; " The exercises 
consist of a review of the elementary branches, of practical ex- 
positions and illuBtrationB of the moat approved methods of ia- 
struction in them, of the best inodes of organizing, governing, 
and disciplining a school, of incalcating the -principles of 
morality, an J keeping alive In the hearts of children an inter- 
eet in the studies in which their minds are engaged; the whole 
being interspersed witii the expression of the views, opinions 
and experience of the pupils, and practical demouatrstive lec- 
tures by the teachers. 

There mast be not less than five thousand persona in onr 
Stateengagedmoreor less in the bnsinoss of teaching in ou 
common schools. The great mass of these teachers cannot be 
expected to avail themselves of Normal School privileges; tho 
Teachers* Institute IB their only hone. Wherever these Insti- 
tutes are held, the teachers attending them are the guests of the 
hmiliee of the immediate neighborhood imd surrounding coun- 
try, and these families, becoming interested in the exercises, 
in large numbers attend the evening lectures. Thus not onlT 
the teachers are greatly benefited, but a new educational spirit 
is infused among the' people, which cannot bnt result in lasting 
good to erery such community. 

The great essential element of success in these Institntos, is 
the employment of first-clasB instructors and lectnrers; uid 
this invftlves considerable expense, too much for those attending 
the Institutes themselves to bear. The State, I am fully per- 
suaded, should promptly and unhesitatingly lend a liberal help- 
ing buid in this matter'. Other States have done it, with the 
most marked beneficial results. " It is believed," says Hon. 
RoBEBT Allyh, Commissioner of Public Schools of Rhode 
Island, in his Report of 1856, " that no money which the State 
expends for the benefit of its schools, accomplish^ a better ser- 
vice than tha^ appropriated to defray the expenses of theso 
Institutes." As the Teachers' Institute is emphatically* & ^vs^i 
— and a very intpertaittjiart, too, o£ a State syBtem ot '£^ormit!V 



118 

inBtraotion, I would respectfully reoommend that such power m 
shall be necessary for tne purpose, be granted to tlie Normal 
School Board to employ such number of teachers, peculiarly 
fitted for the work, as they majr from time to time think neceesa- 

Sr, to attend and carry on Institutes, under the direction of the 
card or State Normal School Agent; to be remunerated, as 
the Board may deem proper, out of the income of the Normal 
School Fund, These Institutes might, in many instances, be 
held, as Mr. Barnard has suggested in conversation, in connec- 
tion with the Normal School departments which are already, or 
may hereafter be, established. 

The State Superintendent, and His Assistant, could, to some 
extent, lend their personal aid and encouragement. But they 
alone, howerer willing to do their part, could not impart the va- 
riety of instruction and interest necessary to ^ve the lar^e 
Bdeasure of success and usefulness to such sathenngs as wotua 
be anxiously Koped and desired. Nor could the State Normal 
School Agent do all this work. As the Institutes are mostly 
held in the autumn, it would be almost impossible to so arrange 
th^m, but that two or more would frequently be held, and 
often at widely different points, at the same time. Superin- 
tendents and State Agents could not be ubiquitous ; bcsiaes in 
the autumn the Superintendent is expected, if faithful to his 

Eosition and the State, to be preparing his annual report, as the 
iw requires. 

As already indicated, the true policy of the State would be, 
to employ, as other States do, able and competent instruotodf» 
and lecturers — the verv best that can be obtained ; one, for ia- 
stance, pre-eminently fitted to instruct and lecture onGrammaTy 
another on Arithmetic, another on Natural History, another on 
music in schools, and so on. Such men would draw together 
an immense attendance on the Institutes, and ttiey would leave 
their mark wherever they should go. Let Henry Barnard, the 
originator of Teachers' Institutes, take the lead, with such a 
qorps of instructors and lecturers as he would draw around him, 
and such an.ipipetus would, in connection with the noble work 
performed by our Normal Schools, be given to our common 
school system, as has never been seen in the Great West— ^^er- 
hws never in the history of the civilized world. We have a 
noole State — a noble army of children — a fine fund set apart for 
the special purpose of Normal instruction; and let us but rightly 
and wisely use it so as to accomplish the greatest possible 
amount of good,, and future generations will yet rise up and 
pronounce our memories blessed. 



rBHALSB A3 tBAOHERfl. 

Females, In oonsaquence of their hisher monl instincts, th«ir 
more refined tastes, tosetbeT with tbeur more patient and aym< 
pathising natures, are fitted in a more eminent degree than the 
male sex for imparting instruction to the joting. Many a fe> 
male has distingoialied herself in tho republio of letters; aad 
some, like Caroline Heraohel, Mary SomerriUe, and our own 
Miss Mitchell, hare attained to the nicest grade of icholarship, 
and solved problems of science generally thought to be only 
within the grasp of the maaenline intellect. It has, however, 
been unfortunate, that but few modes b; whioh to obtain an 
honorable reputation and independence, have been, by common 
consent, assigned to females; and even this occupation of teach- 
ing, for which thej^re .so pre-eminently fitted by nature, has 
been but too generally wrested from them. If they were uni* 
Tereally employed, as they shoald be, in having all the primary 
schools of the State in charge, for children not exceetiing the 
age of ten or twelve years, then there would be a wide field 
opon,for the exercise of their peculiar talent, and an honorable 
inducement held out to them to seek a higher edncation. The 
establishment of Normal Schools and Teachers' Institutes will ' 
have a tendency to draw out this class of talent, and prepare a 
noble army of femaJc teachers, which nothingelee could half so 
well accomplish. In Kew York and Massaonusetts, about two-' 
thirds of the pupils in the Kormal Schools are femalos. I con- 
fess, I rejoice that it is so, regarding it as a favorable omen for 
the more juvenile portion of school children ; and I shall ex- 
pect to witness in Wisconsin the same results as in New York 
and Massachusetts. 

"In all the schools," says Mr. Barnard, in his Rhode 
Island School Beport of 1845, " visited the first winter, or from 
which returns were received, out of Providence, and the primar 
ry departments of a few lar^e central districts, I found but six 
female teachers; and inoludiug the whole State, and excepting 
the districts referred to, there cannot have been more than twice 
that number employed. This is one evidence of tho want of 
prudence in applying the school funds of the districts, and of 
the low appreciation of the peculiar tolents, when properly edu- 
cated as teachers,: — their more gentle and refined manners, purer 
morals, stronger interests and greater tact and oontentment in 
managing and iostructins young children, and of their power, 
when properly developecT, of governing even the most wild and 
stubborn minds by moral infioences. Two-ttiirda at least of all 
the Icbools vi^icJi.I. visited, muld have been better tauo^t. ^I'j 
female teachers, who eoald bare been employed ab^a\i tae com- 



i?9 

pensation actually paid to the male teachers, and thus the length 
of the winter school prolonged on an average of two months. 
Convinced, as I am, from many years observation in pubjic 
0eho61s, that these institutions will never etei!^ the influence they 
should on the manners and nioralfr of the children Mucated in 
them, till a larger number of well-traitied and a<^compIidhed 
females are employed permanently as teaohe^s; either as princi- 
pals or assistants, I- have everywhere, and on all occ&siobs, 
urged their peculiar fitness for the oiBee. t \iAre reason to believe 
that at least fifty female teachers', in atddifion to the number em- 
ployed last year, are now* engaged iii the public" schools of Uie 
State. But before the superior efficiency of woman in the holy 
ministry of education, can be felt ih its largest measure, ' her 
education must be more amply and* universAlly^ provided for, 
and an opportunity afforded for some special training in the du- 
ties of a teacher, and a modification of thef)resent practiije aSid 

arrangement of districts bo effected, " ' * 

^^The eariier \re can establish,'' says Mr. I^ariyard, ih his 
^mm<;an t/btemaZ of Education, for Dec. 18S6, "in eVery 
populous district,- primary schools, tlilder female teachers, 
whose hearts are made strong by deep religiouB principlie,-^ifho 
have faith in the power of Christian love steadily exerted to 
' fashion anew the bad manners, and soften the harsh and Self- 
willed perverseneBs of neglected childrei!i^»--with the patience to 
begin every morning, with but Httle if any perceptible advaMe 
beyond where they oegan the previous mbrmng,^^with p^mpt 
and kind sympathies, and ready skill in tniisicy draining, ' idtnii 
oral methods, the better it will be for the <^ause of odueatioln, 
and for every other good cause." 

" Where are we,'* asks Prof. R«ad, " t6 find teacher^ ' for 
our schools? Here is the great difficulty.- ^Frotii" our 'mile 
population, we cannot have suitable teachers for our primary 
schools. There arte so many other 'iSelds of enterprise in a rap- 
idly growirig community, that few youift; men are '•willing' to 
embark in the humble, toilsome, anfd thanlcles^s vocation of 
teaching, and especially to embark in it as a profession, as a life 
business. 

' " What is the remedy ? I answei*, fcmaleft must be emploiyed 
iis the teachers of all our primary schools, and as the teachers 
cff their own sex in all schools. Is the question here ttsked, 
"will not this deteriorate our schools ? I answer, no. It will 
raise them. This is uniform experience. It is, ioo, but the 
simplest justice to restore to the female sex that business for 
%hich God Almighty has peculiarly fitted them. They were 
designed by the great Creator himself to be the early instruc- 
tors of the whole human race, Whelt man over knew ho'w to 




teach children as woman l^ Let any one who doubts on this. 

Stlbj( 

tion, 
pub^( 

tlieir report of last jrcar to the. Council' of that tfitj, declare that 
their experience is cohclnsive as to the nropnetjr andltppottdnc^ 
of employing a very large pl'bp^rtion or female teachfers in all 
their schools; that in the power of controlling ai^d UoftQulii^ 
the feelings of th'efr ptipils, in the forming of a correct arid delir 
cate taste^ and in the rtill higliei^ power of giving' ton^ to the 
moral skitiments, the female t^ach^^^is indispcnG^Dle; and that 
to their corps of female teachers, they attnbute a largo shate 
of the prosperity and high standing of the Cincinnati schodlsV 
In all tne btatesy and every Wher^, precisdy a^ the systems 6f 
general education have* been improved, had ft larger proportioif^ 
of female teachers bedu introduced into ill the scnoofii J 

" Females," says the able Ecport of the School Cbmmittfefe 
of Fariningham, Masis;, ^^ seen^ to be better adapted by nattgre 
to the wofK of teaching^, ^hdrie is more truth than hyperbole 
in a rem*irk reccnHy made to a body of teachers by Dr. Way- 
land, that Mt is a'raire thing to find a man who has a gift for 
teaching, and it is an eaually rare thing to find a woman who 
cannot teach well.^ It is ^a rare thing to find men who havd 
a peculiar tact for teaching the yot^rig. Experience evinces 
their adaptation to their ormnary and appropriate pursuits. 'A 
larger proportion of men are found to distingui^ themsclvdif 
for ability and sucdeds in other departmefhts in life thahin'thie 

{profession of tejichingl ; But'^ small number of niale .teacHer^ 
eave theii* iiApress cleaHy marked' upon their pupils^ ^^hfejf 
lack the recjuisite patiehc^ and perseverence in little things— 
the quick discernment of character — the sympathy and sensi- 
bility to penetrate the youthful spirit and brouse its doni^'^ 
faculties; Above all, they arc destitute of 'those delicjite'* attti 
which are SQ requisite to win the affections of childri^n^ to call 
forth and direct 'their eai^llest', asplirations, and to imparl the 
reqidsilc impulse to' their tnirids. Cheerfulness and , eiithuBi|- 
asm,*courtesy and kindflcfss, and the powei; of easy, quiet,' ui^- 
conscious iriflaence^ aire i'equisit'^B indispensable to the ^ttfact^ 
iveness, order atid efficiency of the scmool. Females ar^ en- 
dowed with a bduntifur shkrQ of these desirable qiialiticfir. 

" In ouf high Schools. and colleges— whiere minu^ in its matu- 
ring state anCfuller development, is stimulated by the strongest 
in'bentivcs to slud^, and subjected t6 the severest discipune, 
and led onward into the higher departments of literature pnd 
science — it is olivjously b^ttei* to employ permanent inaU teach- 
ers. But in all elementary ihstructiori, ihe verj: Btxuclxict^ Sll 

I6a 



i2i 

her miBd fits woman for the task. ' Nature has marked her oat 
for ihiB great work. Outside of the family, she nowhere seems 
so truly to oocupy her appropriate sphere. ^1 her attainments 
and powers can Jiere be actively and earnestly employed. The 
work is adapleato her mental and moral constitution. No oc- 
cupation harmonizes better with her character, or yields her more 
genuine pl^ure. 

" The leading objection to the policy Kere adrocated, is foun- 
ded on the supposition that delicaie and timid women will not 
succeed so well in the government of a school in which rough 
and refractory boys arc gathered together. This is the most 
common and plausible objection, and is worthy of respectful 
consideration. . It was formerly supposed that pn^sical strength 
was. a prime characteristic of a good disciplinarian, and that 
brute torc6 was the phicf agency in school government. • The 
objection under cpnsideratJon has some affinity to this antiquated 
notion. Horace Mann has well said^ ' Aman may keep a difficult 
school bymcans of authority and physical force j; a woman can only 
do it by dignity of character, and such a superiority in attainment 
as is too conspicuous to be questioned.'. A silent moral power 
Ottgj^t to reign in the school-room^ rather than ostentatious and 
coercive measures. Its influence IB mpr? happy, effective and 
permanent. Corporeal punishments may be used as a dernier 
resort in extreme cases. But true wisdom and skill in school 
government consists ih the prevcntaon, rather than in the pun- 
ishment, of offences — in cultivating the better feelings or our 
nature — ti*uthfulness, generosity, kindness and self-respect* 
3.uch influences women are pre-eminehtlv fitted to wield. Re- 
fined and lady-like manners, with ji mellow and winning Yoice^ 
will exert a peculiar sway even upon the rudest and most un- 
mannerly youth. There is a silent power in the very face of 
a teactier beaming with love for her pupils, and enthusiasm in 
her noble work. • 

"It has often been remarked," observes Hon. H. H. Bar- 
NBY,^ in his Report as State School Commissioner of Ohio, in 
18,54,.. " that females, make better teachers for young children 
than ihe bther sex ; for they have more talent for oral or con- 
versational teaching, more quickness of perception in seizing 
the difficiUties whicn embarrass the mind of a child, and more 
mildness of manner in removing them. They are more inge- 
nious in introducing little devices calculated to animate and en- 
courage children, and relieve the monoftony of school exercises. 
They attach more importance to the imnrovement of morals, 
and pav more attention' to cleanliness ana good manners, than 
men. They have a peculiar faculty for awakening the sympa- 
tiues or children, and Inspiring tllem with a desire to excel. 



They posse* .irirmer aSiBetioBS, more delioate taste^ greater ^n^ 
fidence in hmaaa natere, more untirtng leal in behdf of those 
committed to tiieir oharge. When the mind of a child has gone 
astray, they will lead it back into the right path more gently 
and more successfully than meut ^How many a- tender chfld 
is injured by the stem administration of a male tekoher; by 
harsh decisions fofrmed in haste, where there was not time to oodh^ 
sider all the citroumstanoea of the base; and by the ill-treatmeni 
and rough language of the older scholars* The 'intellect' 4it 
children stands in need of the traimng which woman is beat 
qualified to give. She paints to the imagination^ When the maltf 
teacher defines the reasons. She giv^s fonui and color, ani 
life to what the male teacher treata as ao abstract prineipl^; 
The male teacher, is prone to take too kmg steps in his instFue^ 
tion, to which the minds of the pupils are not yet adequate, and 
has not the patience to graduate his elementary instruetions b^ 
so minute a scale, and to adyande by so slow a paoe asis re-^ 
quired by the conditions of the young mind/ " 

^' FemsJes,'' observes Hon. A. G. Curuv, late Superint^ttd- 
ent of Common Schools of Pennsylvuiia, i^'possesa tnose deK-^ 
cate arts which win the love of children; their constancy atld 
kindness, gite them that easy and uneonsoious influence, which 
is indispensable to the attractiyeness and efficiency of the school; 
The occupation is in harmony with the female character ; and 
her ambition cannot be flattered by the hope of greater success 
in other branches of human pursuit. It yields her more profit 
than any other art or occupation; her affections are conceiftra- 
ted on her pupils; and her enthusiasm is excited in her noble 
work. Her winning voice, and smile of love, will correct where 
punishment would fail; and she succeeds by the cultivation of 
the better feelings of our nature." 

Such evidences of woman's appreciation fbr the teacher's 
office, is truly gratifying. Females are ahnost universally emh 
ployed in> the public schools of the larger oities of the* Union, 
as principals or assistants, with salaries ranging from $850 to 
$700 per annum. In our own State, whifo nme years ago femsiH^ 
teachers received on an average but $6 92 per montb, or $82 0^ 
per year, their wages have since attained to $15' 16 per month! 
on an average, ox $181 92 per year; and, bI ai least one inErt;iEU[ice^ 
to $29 00 per montti, or $84iB 00 per year. With a more 
thorough preparation in our Kormid Schools and Teachers' Jn« 
stitutes, we may confidently expect to see females take a yet 
higher rank in our noble army of educatonft, and receive an in-; 
creased corresponding reward. Possessing, as womw does, a 
more graoeful and a&otionate disposition^ an exhaustless pa- 
tience, a keen and quick power of perception, and a xeadij 



tt4 

adwtfttum to oircamstaiideB^ she ib eniinenily - fitled to •moiild 
the iznpreisible minds of joiiih — and for tiiis- noble bSce, the 
paritj end graoefulnesB of her character , the generous Bymp^o 
thies of her niltiire-*^^^.last at tibe cross and first at the grave*' 
TtpDint h^r out as the ohosen of God. 

. it oennot, in closing .tiie topic of females as teachers, refrain 
firom citing the eloquent tribute to woman b^ the historian 
Banorofi; ..f'lt may seem to be at Tarianoe withonr theme, 
that as. repwblican institutions gain ground, womah ^pjiearslbSB 
OH the theatre of events, i. She, whose presenoe in tnis briary 
W^rld is as a lily among thorns, whose smile is pleasant like the 
]i«ht of morning, and whose eye is the gate of Heaven; ' she, 
whom nature so refvcres, that the lovely veil of her spirit is the 
best terrestrial emblem of beauty, must cease to o(»nlnand ar- 
ikiiAS or reign supiieme over nations. Yet the progress of liberty, 

3bile it has mMo her.kis oonspicuous, has redeemed her into 
le posaession of the full dignity of her nature, has made her 
not man's slave, but his companion, his counsellor^ and* fellow- 
sMurtyii;. «nd, for an occasional ascendency in political affufs, 
hlH substituted the uniform enjoyment of domestie> equality. 
The avenue to active public life seems closed against her, but witn- 
oii( impairing her power over mind, or her fame. The lyre is as 
Qbedient to her touch, the muse as coming to her call, as to that 
of man ; and truth in its purity finds no more honored inter- 
preter." • . 

BTAM BOARD OP KDtTCATlOK. 

. 11. . . . ■ 

Tl^e Cqniftitutiou of Our State provides, that '^ the eupervisT 
ipu pf public instruction shall be vested in a State Superintend 
q^nt, M^d suph other officers as the Legislature shall direct.'' 
^'Public instruction" is, evidently enough, that instractioa 
desimed for the pqblio benefit, and over which the public, through 
its cnpspn representatives in the Legislature, and other officers 
cpnstitutefl.fQr the purpose^ ha,ve a controlling supervision and 
dji^oetion— hepce, unquestionably, the Common Schools, the 



ifU|i^,vuuBW4/UUDB qeQiares " snaii oe vestea in aim, cjKc«9pi» ui 
thQ.mat^r c^ the Vonmsl Schools, in the msaaffement of whi<d& 
]^9,has only a.' noTiHno/, not an;^ iMctual part. These three de- 
piurtmants of our State educational system, are under separate 
afid distinct mwegement.; and while each department is devoted 
to its own special sphere, there ifi no general aim at ooncert and 
Ijarmony of actioA and purpose in the system. It is not taierelT 
niy. own opinion, but that of nutny distinguished ednoators witk 



whoni I ban conTened— Html Hmst - B&bvabi^, hdodb 'tfat 
nnmbcr — that the Gommoik Sohools, Ifomukt Sohooli, kod BtMtfc 
UmT«r8it(j, oonld best ha nnnaged, and idl their aias ud ^ta^ 
poAM more' faUj h&nnoiiiied, by & ringle Board — a Stati 
BoABD or Education. Then there eonld, and woald. be,' no 
clashing of intereHtB, bv the three dep aitawnt a «F mt edtMit- 
tiooal ayeteia; and anen a Bvard wonld, inall its aMion, atlidr 
how best to aubserve the general mteresta Of the irhole. Bnai 
Board ahonld have all powers now «anAnwl o& tiib re^ctivt 
Boards of Korual and Universitj Begentt, -with further povor 
to Mieofe and aMtrore auitabl^ books we Bohool LibraHes, wfaeib- 
ever «o dlraatedby law, and perbapaireeoiQis«Dd tiext bookafot 
GomiBOD £oho6le, ud adviiewitht»State8iiperintehdei4,relB>- 
tire to Mibednoational iirterwts of tin StaterWfaehevea-deairable 
by the Board or that officer. i- : : - 

Under .theCooBtitation, the State Bnperintendent wonM n»> 
eeasatily be made a taember of .soeh Btfard'; the Ohahcellor of 
the Uaireraity abould be aiitrther; and, I shotdd STipp^, itwotlld 
be eminently proper, that the Gdtreifnor, and one or all of^the 
Commissioners of the School, University and Normal Funds, 
shonld also be made «e o^in'd tnemberA of soofa Board. And 
that six memberB, in addition, should be ele>ated by tb« Legisla- 
ture, holdine their officea, 4fter the first elsetion, for six yearO) 
to be elected byclaases, as the J4>g)BlsituEt may designate^tib 
Governor to fill allraoauoies; and absence, from bny oatwe, os 
the part of those members elected by the Legiblature^ bom ibtw 
Bncceasire regular mating* of tbe Board, to vacate thbir office. 
Pay should m provided for tliose meqibera who would steMSa- 
rily have to mue jonmeys to attendthemeetingaofit^eBohrd; 
bnt )t would be oheaper for the State to pay one aadi Bonv^ 
than two, as is now the case witii: the Normal and naiversitr 
Regents. INo geographical Iimite«^ttldfeeBp4oifiedfromwhiaB 
the Legiylatore ahonld select the Board, exoept those embneing 
the whole State; for it would behoove the Legislature, in iiiab- 
ingauch flelection, to aot wisely, and make ctioioe of the twry 
bue men that could possjibly be found in the State, without hmo- 
ial .regard to their locality. 

The State Superintendent, at meetings of the Board, should 
bring forward matters for oonsidflrfttion relative to hit derpart- 
ment.; the Chancellor of the Uw.Viersity, relative to thaifc . jiiBti>- 
totion, and the State Jiformal School Agent, relative to the Nor- 
mal Schools under State patronage and ebperriaion;' and the 
ChaocoUor of tbe Uuirersity, and State Normal' Agetat,- tb 
prepare the annual reports of those respective departmtet8,.{ait 
theappcovftl of the Board, and subraiesion to Uie Legislattre. 



126 

to be-tinweildy, nor too miAil to load Its prestiffe, I should hope 
for a marked improrement, and harmony of action, in the ad- 
miniiitratioii of the several educational interests of the State; 
and that each of those separate interests, would receire its share 
aad. oii?^ its proper share, of attention and encouragement. 
The Legislabiro would then feel, that whatever recommendations 
andsu^estionsi might be made by the State Board, would have 
ihetaerit of having- been oarefiiUy matured, with a view to the 
general good of the whole educational system of the State, and 
hot run the risk of advanoiii^ one interest at the expense, or to 
the detrinient' of the others. Andnever, perhaps, couldtherebea 
better time than the present, to inaugurate tne new Board — 
when the Normal School system is just fairly going into opera- 
tion, and the University is to commence its career under tho ad- 
ministration of the newly chosen Chancellor, with a re*arrange- 
mentsof its schools, or departments. Our educational policy 
needs to be fairly adjusted, and placed in charge of an able and 
experienced State Board, who should study how to give uni* 
formity, stability and completeness to the system. 

. oousTY 0& dist&i<;t supbrintsndent. 

In Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Pennsylvania, each 
county has a Superintendent; in New York each Assembly 
Distnct; and in Indiana Circuit Superintendents have been 
recommended, each circuit to embrace nine counties, or about 
ninety-four townships. * 

Hon. Henry S. Uakdall, Ion? the County Superintendent of 
Courtland county. New York, ana subsequently Superintendent 
of Publici Instruction of that State, has given us tne result of 
his p^sonal experience while County Superintendent; and his 
testimony carries with it the highest evidence of the great im- 
portance of such a scho<^l officer: 

Speaking of the lesal powers and judicial jurisdiction confer- 
sed on the State and County Superintendents, Mr. Randall 
remarks, that of the school system of New York, this was *^ the 
most important feature of the whole,' at least that one without 
which all tho rest amounted to comparatively nothine. You 
xaust clothe Vonr school officers with authority if you wish them 
to have wsight in the community and be looked up to; and then 
again, there^can be no such thing as successful schools where 
any quarrblsome man in the Sta^ can plunge a school district 
into'oontention and litigation in the ordinary courts of law. 
Our laws did not prevent an aggrieved party in very many eases 
from going to a court of law. 

^^But it opened another oUmhi bfcoutiiS to him where there 
were no lawyera, bo costs or fees, and no wire drawn tedhnidftli- 



ties: in short, vbere a maji fsmiliM with Bchqota, and vho 
ongttt to be familliar with scnool laws — who ought to be above 
local excitemeutB. and paltry prejudices — acted as a judge, a 
jury — a court of conciliation— a court of law, a court of equity, • 
and finally, as a firm and ienaihle friend of all the partiet! Our 
County 8uperintendcntB answered tq.a coufity court, and the fev 
Mpeals that went vp front theif diecieions, went to the State 
&u per iti ten dent, who in school ^cases, (conimcnced before a 
County Superintendent, or before himseif,) ^swercd.to a court 
of appeals. 

" In our Stato Uie State Superintendent was i^nd is an officer 
within his juriodiction, the most abeolute knqwn to our laws. 
No Legislature, perhaps, would ever at onqc and directly, have 
conferred such powers. It grew gradually out of drcuioBtanceB, 
and out of the necessity of the case — u,nie»» the schools were to 
be swamped by litigation, and unless the vast machinery neces- 
sary to carry on ne^ly 12,000 schoo1s,and to annually pay from 
the public treasury over a million of dollars, ifas to be left to 
fall into irregularity or inefficiency. And never have our people 
complained of the nigh and summary powers of the State Super- 
intendent, In the few xjucstions ever raised on the sutiject, 
they have invariably stooi by him. Indeed, I hardly now re- 
collect an instance of such a question getting to any extent be- 
fore the public, unless in the case of my decision, inthc case of 
Quigley v». Oiffbrd, qn tbs subject of compelling Cafliolic chil- 
dren to read the version of the Bible used oy Erotestantr, and 
t<yittend Protestant religious services. 

'* This is a question on which so much scnsitiyenebB exi^s in 
the public minu, that my decision called out a few public , mur- 
mars, but the newspapers of the State, almos^in a body, witb- 
,out reference to any party or sect, rushed to, my defense and 
sustained me triumphantly, Our State Superintendent alVravs 
has the flood-tide of public sympathy m his favor— aiid oe 
inu6.t decide outraffeovtt^ not to nave the entire community at 
his side. 

" I don't remember, and hare no statistical table to Bhow, 
before me^ how many c^t^s we^e appealed annually front the 
eoQUtr officers to tbe State bupcrintcndent, while we 
had County Siiperintendentsi. ' I know however they wer« tcrj 
few. I can speak for thi^ county, for the two terms jn which I 
held its Sup^rinteadeiicy. There was not a single case appeiJed 
during those two .l^rms. l^Ay, there was scarcely a case carried 
out in form before me. When I found one was arising, I always 
asked the parties to wait until 1 coU|ld come on the ground and talk 
with them all face to face on the subject. In nineteen cases out 



with them all face to face on the .subject. 
of twenty they oasented to tiiis^ana I.hjii 



ivenot aBmsVecuftii! 



recollection where I failed to lettlqlho matter to the compara- 
tive, and frequently the entire satiafactlon of all. I presame 
this TraB very much the eame over the entire State. 1 would not 
' '0Tp a farthing for a. system where the officers are not armed with 
piiopoi: powera. I do not mean with the mere power of advising, 
(if that can be called a power,) hnt with authority to enforce, by 
rcmOTiilB from office, by withholding the public money, &c. It 
is tlto sheet-anchor of any efficient eyatem. 

"Our County Supenntendency operated admirably. iTo 
intelligent man will now deny this. When the law' first went 
into, effect, that very able man, John C. Spencer, wm State Sd- 
pcriiitoadcnt. Through his efficient debuty, Mr. Samuel 3. 
Kandall, he solicited alio and public Bpirited' hieh throughout 
the State to become candidntea for the focal Superintcndencies, 
Many a man did ao, and was elected, (by the Supenisors,) who 
' would not have looked at" what mai^ at the time would have 
oonsidet'ed much more important offices. Many of them wore 
or had been tcnchers, but they were not a band of opinionated, 
ci^tchetty pedagogues; they were of eenenj information — of 
knowledge of the world — of standing. Thoy were liot mcilwho 
could bo sunk doxninto agents and puffers for book puhlisher^I 
[Two dollars a day (and no margin for 'roast beef,'} paid their 
borse hire, nnd for their time and efTorts thoy found their pay in 
the g9Qd which they dally saw themaelvea aiccomplishing! Oh, 
air, I look back witn delight to a period of my life when I wis 
facing storms, breaking thrpugh wintar drifts, going irit^out rfij- 
Jar meafa, to bear what X may^erm the missionary tross un'&g 
the hyie and valleys of tbj« county. 

: ''Hpwljhe 'b'sw offi^cor' was dreaded at his firat approach by 
.fossil school-masters and jealous town officers'! They had some 
ocoasioo to dnafd him. I repicmber well my first visit to the 

tpwn of to examine teachers. That was before we had Town 

Superintendents, and while wo had ihree commissioacrs and 

thr€e inspectors in each town. In the town of '■ — 'tbeao 

wep? all my. political and personal friends,- niid thorclbre cfime 
oijt T^rj coroially to meet me at the examination. They were 
tjbe leading men of the town; two.of them decidi dly its mag- 
;wto8, ', One of the magnates . had n Jaughtor, and' another a 
.Bijtejr, to be examined. Both of the jgung' ladies hai^ taught 
fqr scyerpl sensona, and were hot aware i)iat it was n6ceSBat)y 
fof: them t9 think of lookin" over ' theii- Btudjef) or ' brightening 
^p,. for tl^f examination. Thait father's and brother's friend, 
f^thc ii)i\h whom |thcir fathers 'aifd btothers had supported for 
,offiec,— r^ect them ? Thoidea ir^B prepoBt^rous !, I prolonged 
' &c examination half an bonr, revolvinz Ditttlrly In tiiy mind hoW 
T should perform mj doty with ah^ dfegTco of gra'ce-. Seeing 



1 129 

no' way to do^this^ I finally shut my eyes and took the leapJ-I I 
rejected the entire 'tila£(8 I Had a stunning clap of thunder oroke 
from that clear April sky^ there would not have been such a mo- 
mentary look of surprise. . The next instant, mortification and 
wounded feelings filled the room with sobs. I escaped; but 
then I had accepted an invitation to take tea and stay over nighf 
with magnate numb.dr one. Here was a new trial. I marchec 
oyer, bb cool (just about) as a soldier mounting ^ the deadly im- 
minent bre^V ^ith Hydei^ Ali or a Russian garrison on th< 
<>ther 9ide. .. Wogcrtdown to the tea table. The Squire evi 
dently hadt a terrible chbking sensation about the throat. * Final- 
ly he thought he must relieve his mind, and he said — ' Randall, 

what did you reject —r- — for?' At that moment—^ — 

1 entered the room, with eyes redder than another Niobe's, 

Said I, 'You hear your father s question; can you answer it for 
• me 7' ^!l suppose^ $ir, becauBe I was not Qualified,' was the re- 
ply » ^Exactly,' said I; ^ Squire, be goou enough to pass me 
the bread?' i 

** The next morning and the two other rejected and 

dejectcKl ones were started off by their parents for the Academy. 
I told^them I. thought with two or three weeks of rubbing up, 
they would ' pass muster.' But no, they had made up their 
minds that they would be beholden to no man's lenity in future. 
They weat to. the Academy. They staid until they became pol- 
ished scholars, and on two of them I afterwards conferred S&te 
certificates, as teachers of the highest grade of attainment and 
. praotica} skill. Now for the moral of this anecdote. I knew 
thi&t the law creating County Superintendents was terribly unpopu- 
lar in the town of , even before I came down on them * like a 

;wolf on thefpld r They thought it a terrible thing in theory 
to clothe a ^ jcfentt^ \ dfficer with such powers, and certainly they 
jhfld fijmnd it nO joke in practice ! So when a few mohths after- 
wards I turned my hot*ses' heads into the quiet little valley of 
the . ,1 coufd not but reflect with what' secret if not open 
atersion I ehould be received in the schools. However remem^ 
bering ' faint heart never won ' anything worth having, I drove 
struct to the Squire's and > put up. ' ' His nephew, a fine young 
man, was the new Town Superintendent. On I went for two or 
three days through the schoolfl, calmly and firmly administering 
praiiie or cenaujre as I thought ciircumstanoes d^nanded. The 
teachers quivered and blanched a little at the outset, but. all 
vere4ee(]av respectful, and finally a good many of them got on 
pretty.gCKHa terms with themaelvea and me before the examina- 
tion of ttieir schools closed- The Trustees dnd people tijuaied 
. O]itio;me^tjnie. Xhey 'bore the rebokeit I administered wKeie 
I tiiiought it necessaij^/or dtelNkl conditmof thj^BoloL^^^^ 

17a 



180 

libraries, &c., with a capital graee^ and manj asked me home 
■with them. Finally, I remarked to the Town Superintendent 

- that I met a more cordial reception than I ejected, after such 
an opening in the town. ^ Oh, sir,' said he, ^ that opening reyo- 

. lutionized our town. A petition has been sent here from abroad 
for signers, to have the Legislature abolish the County Superin- 
iendency. Our people have mostly si^ed a remonstrance 
against its abolition. They say when disinterested officer^ are 
lent in, and justice comes even-hancled on big uid little, and 
ieachers are made to earn the worth of the money, the law 
jaust be a> good one, and they are ready to meet the extra ex- 

, pense.' The next time I entered that town I was met by a con- 
vocation of schools, arranged in their holiday bravery, banners 

. waving and a band of music alternating its strains with songs 
and hymns, written for the occasion, p^ed forth by the entire 
body of the children of the town. And foremost in the demon- 

' stration^ were the rejected teachers of the preceding season ! . 
" Indifference warmed into interest, and interest swelled into 

'. '. enthusiasm in our schools. Such I believe to have been the histo- 

. ry of the County Superintendency in a large proportion of the 
counties of the State — everywhere where competent men filled 

. the office.'' 

Such was the admirable working of the County Superintend- 
ency in New York. In an evil hour, the system Was abolished, 
but after a while the great error was made so manifest, that the 

'. system was restored by providing for a Superintendent for each 

W Assembly District — which are nearly three times as populous as 

- our Wisconsin Assembly Districts — and the largest measure of 
success has attended the restoration. 

The annual reports of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 

of Pennsylvania for the years 1856 and 1857, give a synopsis of 

the working of the system of County Superintendency in that'State, 

. after only two years' trial, as shown in the well administered 

Counties, which' exhibit the following most cheering results : 

"1. Organized, well attended and efficient Institutes and As- 
sociations oy teachers for self-improvement. 

" 2. Largely increased interest by Directors in the dtities of 
their office. 

" 3. Improvement in school houses and furniture. 
"4. Great increase in uniformity 0|f text-books, and improve- 
ment in classification. 

"5. The enlargement of the number of promising qualified 
■y. teachers in the profession, and the retirement of by far fibre, 
i who were found to be incompetent. 

^' 6. Increase in the salaries of teachers-, and in their rtahding 
> aD^/'istfffeIlce armeifibers of!S6<^ty^ >•'. : ;• i > i 

••.VI 



181 , 

" 7. Manifest improvement in the schools, with a strong tend- 
ency towards grading them, and the introduction of a more lib- 
eral course of study. 

" 8. More frequent visits to the schools *by parents, and a 
greater interest on iireir part in the means providea by the State, 
for the intellectual culture of their children. 

'^ 9. Numerous public examinations and exhibitions, at the 
close of the term, well attended by parents, and showing a noble 
conviction on the part of teachers, tnat their duty has been so 
discharged as not to fear the publix; eye. 

" 10. Strong emulation not only between neighboring schools 
and districts, but between neighboring counties, and different and 
distant sections of the State. 

" 11. Marked improvement in the methods of teaching, and 
more interest in the literature of the profession. 

** 12. A pervading consciousness of the necessity of more 
and better means for the education of teachers, as such, and a 
determination to secure them at the earliest possible period." 

This oflSce of County or District Superintendent, appears to 
fill a gap in the School system, that will sooner or later be de- 
manded in Wisconsin. At present, the Clerks of our Boards 
of Supervisors make an annual return of the school statistics 
of their respective counties, but farther than this, they do noth- 
ing — nothing more being required of them. Perhaps this is all 
that could reasonably be expected of that officer, wno has other 
duties to perform, this matter of making an annual report on 
school statistics, being merely an isolated and secondary consid- 
eration. I can see very clearly, that a powerful stimulus would 
be given to the cause of popular education, if there were a 
County or District Superintendent, to devote his whole 
time to the educational interests of his special district, exercis- 
ing a thorough supervision of the schools, examining, with oth- 
ers associated with him, candidates for teadhers' certificates, 
furnishing to the State Superintendent statistics and detailed 
statements of the condition and progress of the common school 
interests of his district, arranging for, and assisting in. Teach- 
ers' Institutes, adjusting controversies, lecturing on educational 
subjects, and using every possible means to inspire in the schools, 
school officers, and people of his district, a generous enthusiasm 
in the noble work and objects of education. 

There are four of the matters here indicated as appropriate 
duties for such a County or District Superintendent, of Such 
paramount importance, that I must not dismiss them without 
further reference. 

1. Supervision. — The school officers, under our prewnot «3%- 
tem, ifhoBe duty it is made to visit and inspect BcUooVft, ^o '^wrj 



182 

little in this exceedingly important matter. A proper yisitation 
of schools, by intelligent and able visitors, is productive of un- 
speakable good, to both teachers and pupils. In Europe, from 
oespotic Russia, down to the smallest canton of republican 
Switzerland, there are able officers, who exercise an active and 

. provident supervision over the public schools. It is soin Mas- 
sachusetts, Uonnccticut, Upper Canada, and elsewhere. This 
school visitation and inspection, if done by thorbughly compe- 
tent Bten, gives an opportunity of discovering errors of prac- 
tice, and suggesting remedies, as to the organization, classifica- 
tion, and methods of teaching — securing uniformity in the use 
of the best text books, school management, and modes of in- 
. fltruction — examining the pupils, animating and encouraging the 
teachers in their arduous work, and stirring up the parents and 
school officers to a deeper interest in the noble work of educa- 
tion. Too much impoiiance cannot be attached to such school 
inspection. "Holland," says Hon. E. Ryerson, Chief Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction of Upper Canada, "is probably 
' .superior to erory other country in the world, in its system of in- 
1 spection. With some of these Inspectors it was my good for- 
tune to meet in Holland; theyaccompanied me to various schools 

> under their charge; their entrance into the schools was welcom- 
ed by the glowing countenances of both teachers and pupils, 

. who seemed to regard and receive them as friends, from wnom 
they expected both instruction and encouragement; nor were 
their expectations disappointed, so far as I had an opportunity 
of judging; the examinations and remarks in each instance, 
showed the Inspector to be intimately acquainted with every 
department of the instruction given, and imparted animation 
and delight to the whole school." The importance attached to 
this class of officers, may be inferred from the admonition of 
the venerable Vanden Ende, late Chief Commissioner of Pri- 
mary Instruction in Holland, to M. Cousin, in 1836, '* Be care- 
ful %n the choice of your Inspectors; they are men who ouaht to 
be sought for with lantern in hand.'* No such supervision is 
possible on the part of the State Superintendent; for if he 
' were to devote his entire time to visiting the schools of the 

• . State, to the utter neglect of every other Suty, and should visit 

. two schools a day, it would require between six and seven years 
to get once around — more than three times the length of his 
term of office. 
'■ 2. Teachers* Certificates. — It is not necessary to dwell upon 

({ ' the inefficiency and want of uniformity in the present mode of 

;». each Town Superintendent examining teachers and granting Cer- 
tificates. Many of these Town Superintendents are not them- 

/ ./selves qualified t6 properly examine a candidate for a teacher's 



133 

•■.■':• 

certificate; and where one is capable and faithful, and the candi- ^ 
date is rejected as wanting in the necessary qualifications, it iS:.'. 
but too frequently the case, that the rejected candidate will pass 
on to the next Town Superintendent, and readily succeed in pass- 
ing an examination, or securing a certificate without being sub- ; 
jected to any ordeal whatever. This practice of certificating 
unworthy teachers is ruinous to the best interests and hopes (» 
education,and calls loudly for redress. Could a County or District 
Superintendent, chosen with special reference to his/, peculiar 
fitness for the office — perhaps a man of lon^ and eminent expe- 
rience as a teacher — with perhaps two practical teachers, select- 
ed by the Teachers' Association of the district, form an Exam- 
ining Board, to visit — if a County Board — each town in the 
County, at least twice in each year, to examine and grant certi- 
ficates to properly qualified teachers, I have no doubt that this, 
or some similar plan, would have an admirable effect upon the 
whole school system of the State; and doubly so, if a graded 
system of certificates could be established. ^^ Our graded 
Provisional certificates,'* states Hon. H. C. Hickok, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania, '^ which are good 
for only one term or one voar, indicate the exact qualifications 
of inferior applicants, and stimulate self-improvement and pro- 
gress. The Professional or Permanent certificate, sometiBoes 
called III County certificate, is of a much higher character,, and 
is. granted only after a thorough examination in the branches 
named, and actual observation in the school, of the holder's 
skill and success in the ' Art of Teaching.' Both of these cer- . 
tificates are granted bv the County Superintendent, and limited 
to the County in which issued. It is not proposed to issue any 
other certificates, except the two classes of State certificates 
provided for in our Normal Sohool act, viz : 1st, a State certifi- 
cate of sct^larshipj tb be granted to the graduates of the Nor- 
mal Schools, or to common school teachers of equal qualifica- 
tions, after a public examination by not less than three, nor 
more than five principals of Normal Schools; 2nd, a full State 
certificate of competence in the practice of teaching j by the 
same authorities, to the holders of the certificate of scholarship, 
after the expiration of two years, and two full terms of success- 
ful teaching in the common schools; so carefully is it intended 
to protect and elevate the professional character of the vocation. 
In no c^ase will a certificate, either State or County, be panted 
to a teacher as a matter of compliment; no applicant, wnatever 
his pretensions, can receive these passports to the profession 
from favoritism in any quarter; but only as evidence of intrin- 
sic merit, after the thorough and unrelenting scrutiny, which I 
have indicated." 



184 

8. FumUhing Stati$ttc$ and Information. — A County or 
Pistrict Superintendent could fumiBn all statistics and school 
information needed from his district by the State Superintend- 
ent; and thus these necessary statistics would not be, as they now 
very frequently are, so erroneous as to make it necessary to 
return them repeatedly for correction, and sometimes utterly 
fail of securing; the corrections desired. Such County or Dis- 
trict Superintendent could collect and embody in his annual 
report a full statement of facts relative to the condition, pro- 
gress and wants of his district — a sad want for which no means 
of supplying is now provided. The State Superintendent con- 
stantly feels the need of some such officer, familiar with a spe- 
cial locality — a county, for instance — ^to whom to apply for 
much needed information. The reports of the County Super- 
intendents of Pennsylvania, appended to the State Superin- 
tendent's Annual Report, are full of interest, information, and 
suggestions, alike to the State Superintendent, the Legislature, 
and readers in general. 

4. Adjusting Controversies. — Whoever knows any thing of 
the difficulties under which the State Superintendent now fre- 
quently labors in appeal cases — perhaps some important fact 
improperly or obscurely stated, which if fully known, might pro- 
duce a very different decision — whoever knows any thing of such 
difficulties, knows very well how much more undcrstandingly 
such oases could be examined and decided on the spot, with au 
the facts brought fully to view — perhaps relating to a school- 
house site, the propriety of which could only be determined by 
a personal inspection. This would be a very important part of 
the labors of a County or District Superintendent, and from his 
im partial decision, few appeals would ever be made to the 
State Superintendent. 

All things considered, I should think a County Superintend- 
ent, at least for many years to come, would prove more suitable 
to our condition than one for an Assembly District or Judicial 
Circuit. The most of the Assembly Districts would be 
unable to maintain such an officer in service for any useful 
period; and a Judicial Circuit would be too large for 
a Superintendent to properly visit and inspect the schools, 
examine candidates for teachers' certificates, thoroughly learn 
the condition of the schools, adjust wraiiglings and diffi- 
culties, and infuse a spirit of emulation and enthusiasm among 
the people on the subject of popular education. Let the County 
Superintendent be elected by the people at the Spring election, 
so as to keep the office as distinct as possible from party poli- 
tics; or let him be appointed by the Uounty Board of Supervi- 
sors, or by the State board of Education upon proper rccom- 
mendations of Stncaa ana qualification; to serve for three years. 



ISfri 

Bnbjdct to rediOYal) for ' just causA^ by the State*' Saperintenden - 
or. otate Board of Eduoation; and the State to appropriate oui 
of the School Fund income, or General Fund, as tne LegiEK 
lature may direct^ one hundred dollars annually to each Oounty 
Superintendent, on condition that the county should pay at least 
as much more, and such County Superintendent should deyote 
at least thi^ee months exclusively to the duties of his offioe; and 
the State to appropriate an additional one hundried dollars annu- 
ally to ,each Gouftty Superintendent .who should devote at least 
six months during the year exclusively to the duties of his office, 
and the county pay him at least as much more; and for the pur* 
poses here specified, such sparsely settled counties as Douglas 
and La Pointe, could be coupled together,at least until the next 
Legislative apportionment, and one Superintendent made t<y 
serve for the united counties. As remuneration for the two 
members of the Examining Board, to be associated with the 
County Superintendent, for the purpose of examining and grant- 
ing certificates to teachers, a reasonable fee could be charged 
for each such examination— n9t for granting certificates, for that 
might possibly prove a temptation to grant them to unworthy • 
aspirants; or the county could allow them a reasonable compen- 
sation. ^ 

TOWNSHIP OOVBRNMENT. 

• 

There is a revolution gjging on in our country regarding th 
division of Townships intcpgeographical districts. The distric 
system has been so long in general use, that the people are sloii 
to discover its inequalities and • inconvenienced, and hesitate tc ' 
make a change, even when convinced of a better arrangement. 
That the Township system of school government has many and 
decided advantages over the old district plan, let facts and ex- 
perience testify: 

" As a general fact," says Hobacb Mann, in his Tenth Ann 
nual Report as Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Edu- 
cation, ^Hhe schools of undistricted towns are. greatly superior 
to those in districted towns; — and for obvious reasons. The 
first class of towns,— the undistricted, — provide all the school- 
houses, and, through the agency of the school committee, em- 
ploy all the teachers. If one good school house is provided for 
any section of the toi^n^ all the other soctions, having contribu- . 
ted their respective portions of the expense to erect the good , 
house, will demand one equally good for themselves; and the 
equity of such a demand is so obvious, that it cannot, be resist- 
ed. If, on the other hand, each section were a separate district, 
and bound for the whole expense of a new house, if it should 
erect one, it would bo tempted to continue an old house, long 
after it had ceased to he coudortahh; aud, indeed, aa ^xi^^ 



186 

leno^.has too often and sadly proved, lonj^ after it 
;eased to bo tenantable. So, too, in nndistrioted towns, 
re never see the painful, anti-irepnblican contrast of one 
I chool, in one section, kept all the year roand, by a teacher who 
receives a hundred dollars a month, while, in another section 
of the same town, the school is kept on the mihimum principle, 
both as to time and price, and, of course, yielding only a mini- 
mum amount of benefit, — to say nothing of probable and irre* 
mediablo evils, that it may inflict. In regard to supervision, also j 
if .the School Committee are respfbnsible for the condition 'ofaH 
the schools, they are constrained to visit all alike, to «are for all 
alike, and, as far as possible, to aim, in all, at the production of 
equal results; because any partiality or favoritism will be re- 
bvked at the ballot-box. In undistrictod towns, tKerefore, three 
grand conditions of a prosperous school, — viz., a good house, 
a good teacher, and vigilant superintendence, — are secured by 
motives which do not operate, or operate to a very limited ex- 
tent, in districted towns. Under tne non-districting system, it 
is obvious that each section of a town will demand, at least, an 
equal degree of accommodation in the house,- of talent in the 
teacher, and of attention in the Committee; and, should any self- 
ish feelings be indulged, it is some consolation to reflect that 
they, too, will be harnessed to the car of improvement. 

^\ I consider the law of 1789, authorizing founts to divide 
themselves into districts^ the most unfortunate law, on the sub- 
ject of Common Schools, ever enacted in the State. During 
the last few years, several towns have abolished their districts, 
and assumed the administration of their schools in the corpo- 
rate capacity; and I learn, from the report of the School Commit- 
'^es, arid from other sources, that many other towns are con- 
nnplating the same reform.'* 

Speaking of Mr. Mann's opinion of the unforihnate law of 
789, authorizing the division of towns into districts. Rev. Dr, 
iEABS, Mr. Mann's successor as Secretary of the Massachu- 
setts Board of Education, observes, in his Report of 1850, 
•• The justness of the above observation is illustrated every day 
by the evils which are forcing themselves upon the public at- 
tention from every quarter." 

Hon. H. H. Barney, in his Report of 1855, as Commissioner 
of Common Schools of Ohio, gives the following synopsis of 
the able argument of Dr. Sears, in favor of the township sys- 
tem, and the evils incidenttothe old district plan : Afterexplain- 
ing, at great length, the nature of these evils, he sums up the 
wJiole matter, by saying that the schools ordinarily maintained 
in the districts into which they are divided, are no longer capa- 
jbJo of giving the education required by the character of the 
time$; tbBt tbejr preolude the introduction of a system of proper 



isit' 

gradation in the schools; that the claBsification 0/ the pupils is ' 
necessarily imperfect, and the ntimhcr of classes altogether too 
great for thorough instruction by a single teaeller; the fact that 
the district schools without any of the advantages of gra4ation, . . 
orice answered their purpose very well^ does" not prove that we 
need nothing better now; that the old systtin is' much more ex- 
pensive in proportion to ^hat it aCcomplishilys than the other; 
that by means of it, hundreds of sdhoob are kept in opiiration. 
which would otherwisdbe abandoned, as the}" ought to pe; ihal' .; 
in 1849 there were in Massachusetts 25 spbools, whose highesl" 
average attendance was oiiiy five pUpild; 205;! whoSje highest av- 
erage attendance was only ten; SiG^mvrhichit y^a^'oh]^ fifteen; 
1,009, where it was only twenty; and 1,456, where ^s was only 
tirentj/'fivc; that most of these schools were of so low an order 
as not to deserve the naifte, and that the mi|)r6yf8ion which they ' 
marie upon the agents of the Bodrd of ttoucatlon while visiting , 
them, was that the money of the drstrictsf' aind the time' of the 
teachers and pupils, were little better thun ^ wasted; that while 
some schools thtis grddually dwindled xiito' coriiparative' insig- 
nificance and' worthlesshess, others becapic too large for STiitabTe 
instruction by one teacher; that another evil almost invariably 
resulting from the division 6t the townships into independent 
school districts, was the uiyust distinction which it occasioned 
in the character of the schools, and in the distributipn of the 
school money; th^t when there was no responsible township 
School Committee authorized to act in the liamo of the township,', 
there could not Be that equality in the schools which' the .'law 
contemplated; that the inhabitants of one, district, being more 
intelligent and public-spirited than .those of another, would have ^ 
better school houses} more competent, zealous' and deVbted / 
School Directors, and consequently better teachers and better 
schools; that4;he smaller and more retired districts^ which stood 
in greatest need of good common ichools, because entirely de- 

{)endcnt on them, were more likely to languish for want of pu|b- 
ic spirit and good management tnan to:be prosperous 5 that in- 
asmuch as the theory .of popular education is founded upon the 
principle that the public security requires the educat'ion of all 
the citizens, and tnat it is both just and expedient to tax the 
property of the people for the education of all the children of 
the people, and inasmuch as the school taxis levied equally Upofi 
all parts of the township, and as the object contemplated, which 
alone justifies such taxation, is the educatiot^ of the whole miiss 
of the population, without distinction, nothing short of an equal 
provision for all, should satisfy the public conscience. . 

With such fiicts and arguments presented and enforced, through ' 
a series of years, by two of the most accomplished, and ex^am- 



enced friends of popular edacation in this eountry,-^HoraRe 
Mann and Dr. Sears — gentlemen who have carefi^lly observed, 
thoroughly studied, and minutely noted the practical workings 
of th^ various school systems of this country and of Europe, 
the people became aroused at last to the importance of the 
change which had been so ably advocated, and the utility of 
which had been so completely demonstrated. 

In a recent report oi the Secretary oi^ the Board of Educa- 
tion of . Massachusetts, the following important statement is 
found, viz : 

" A v^ry considerable number of the townships have dropped 
the former mode of dividing the sdioolsaccording to districts, and 
have placed the whple matter of th^ir organisation and distri- 
bution in Ihe hands of th^ School Committee of the township. 
This change has already been made in about sixty townships of 
the Commonwealth, and the subject is now, more than ever be- 
fore, engaging the attention of other townships, so that the year 
to come islikely to show greater rjosults than any preceding 
year. The perceptible ii}npi:oycment of the schools in those 
places which hS'VO made th^ change, is an argument before which 
nothing can stand, and whiqh is now acting upon the minds of 
the people at large, with silent but resistless power, 

"The clear intelligence, steadiness and sobriety with which 
the people are beginning to pursue their object, as contrasted 
with the adventurous and uncQrtain efforts in the same direction 
in former years, is ope of the many pleasing indicai^ons that the 
days of turmoil and confusion in settling great questions of 
school policy, are passing away, and a wise regard for the in- 
tereste of posterity .is becoming more and more controling in 
themanagen^ent of this branch of our public interests. It is 
hardly too much to say that, under the guidance of such lofty 
sentiments, all the towi^&ihips of the State Avill, within a short 
period, be found adopting that policy in the management of their 
public schools, which experience shows to be the best. 

" The gradual abandonment of the district system as here 
stated, results in no small degree from its connection with an- 
other mcasui:e,. which has been regarded by the, people with 
grieiat favor, namely, the gradation of the schools. The dis- 
tricts are luiown to stand directly in the way of this improve- 
ment,, and are reoeiyin;^ judgment accordingly. It was not un- 
til somewhat recently that a subject so important, so fundamen- 
tal as that of establishing schools of different grades, for pupils 
of different a'^es and attainments, received much consideration 
from those who alone possessed the power to make the change. 
Distinguished men had written on the subject, and those who 
had studied the philosophy of education, were generally agreed 
In respect to it But it was knowfi chiefly as a theory passing. 



in only a few instances, except in the, cities, from the closet to, 
the school room. By deffreeii, the results of these few experi- " 
ments became known. Measures were taken to Communicat'e ' 
them to the people, the majority of whom were still without any. ' 
definite information on the subject. From this time, a course ' 
of action commenced in the townships whicn were favorably' 
situated for trying the experiment, and has been followed 'hp 
with increasing vigor ever since. .!.'/•/ 

**But what particularly distinguishes the present state of ed-' 
ucation amongst us from that of former times, is the existence '^ 
of 80 many free High Schools. Until (Juite recently ' such ,' 
schools were found only in a few large to wnS. The iidea of aft'eie , 
education did not generally extend beyond that givfen in the or- j' 
dinary district schools. All higher education wati supposed' to 
be a privilege which each individual should purchase at hib own ^ 
expense. But at length the great idea of providing by law for*' 
the education of the people in a higher grade of public schoolEi ' 

Erevailed. The results nave been most nappy. High. Schools ' 
ave sprung up rapidly in all parts of the Commonwealth; and 
within the last six years, the number has increased from* scarcely 
more than a dozen to about eighty. 

" The effect of this change in the school system, of this higher 
order of schools, in developing the intellec5t of the Cfommpn- 
wealth, in opening channels of free communication betweeil aTI. . 
the more flourishing towns of the State, and the colleges or 
schools of science, is just beginning to be observed. They dis- 
cover the treasures of native intellect that lie hidc(en among'' 
the people; making men of superior minds conscious of their 
powers ; bringing tnose who are by nature destined to public 
service, to institutions suited to foster their talents; giving a , 
new impulse to the colleges, not only by swelling the number of . 
their students, but by raising the standard of excellence in.' 
them, and finally, giving to the public, with all the advantage^, 
of education, men who otherwise might have remained in ob- 
scurity, or have acted their part struggling with embarrassments 
and difficulties.'^ 

Hon. Geo. S. Boutwell, the present Secretary of the Board., 
of Education of Massachusetts, remarks in the Twentieth An^ 
nual Report: "In many districts, the number of pupils is too 
small to constitute a good school. This evil was fully di^cuss.ed^ 
by Dr. Sears, in the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Secretary 
of the Board of Education. The evil, however, continues^ . 
without much alteration for the better; nor is there greai hope - 
of improvement while the present system remains. A district, 
however small it may be, is anxious to preserve its existence,., 
and especially unwilling to be united with, or merged in a largely . 



one^ As the district proVides its own house, tlie town is com- 
paratively* without interest in the matter, and therefore is slow 
to. exerciset its 'power. Hence the district for generations is 
allowed to continue a small school, comparatively valueless un- 
der the ihost favorable circumstances, in charge, probably, of a 
cheapk and necessarily incompetent teacher, in a nouse entirely 
unfit for the custody, to say nothing of the education of children. 
Now transfer the suppopt of thei swiool-houses to the town, and 
at once' a general interest takes the place of local custom or 
prejudice, and small schools are alsoUshed as far as is consistent 
witn the' public convetiience, and the erection of one suitable 
house is likely to be followed by a successful, because just, 
demand for equal accommodations for all." 

A similar cnange from the old system to the new, is slowly 
progressing in Connecticut. Referring to an enactment au- 
thorizing and facilitating this change, the Superintendent, in a 
recent report, remarks: " Among the objects proposed to be 
accomplished by this act are, to simplify the machinery of the 
system, by committing to thie hands of one board of school offi- 
cers what is now divided between three; to equalize the advan- 
tages of the schools, by abolishing the present district lines, 
and placing all the schools und^r. one Committee,^ thereby also 
facilitating the gradation of schools and the proper classifica- 
tion of scholars, and the establishment of schools of a higher 
grade in towns containing a sparse popula'tion, and substituting 
a Simpler and more efficient organization." 

Hon. Oalbb Mills, when Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion of Indiana, declared in his Keport of 1855, that the town- 
ship feature of the school liabw of that State was " one of the 
crowning excellences of the system." Hon. Henry C. IIickok, 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania, 
reiharked to me mconversation, " (The crowning glory of the 
Penhsylviania school system, in addition to its County Superin- 
tendericy^ is its new township plan of government, and the con- 
sequent avoidance of the ensmalling of districts." 

(As Indiana has faithfully tried both systems, and is a sister 
Sxate of the ^eat North-'^est, I shall freely cite the results 
of ltd Township experience, as contrasted witR the old district 
pjaii:'^ 

^ *'^ TTnder the old district Qjrstoin," says Hon, W. C. L.vrra- 
BBE, in his report as Superintendent of Public Instruction in 
that State, in l852, " heretofore in use in this State, and until 
lately in all the Eastern States, serious inconveniences, and 
sometimes insurmountable difficulties could but exist. I myself 
cftnie near being wholly cheated out of an education by this 
227^^ Jnjadicious and iniquitous system. The township was 



mapped off into districts bj geographical lines. The district 
boundaries could not be passed. A family must seiicl only to 
the school to which they might be geographicfQly assigned, 
though a swamp or a river be ih the way, though imluckily^ they 
might live on the. very frontiers of the district', and there might 
be in another district a school-house provokingly near thfem, 

" Under t)ur present system these districts are utterly, abol- 
ished. Each civil township forms a corporation for school pur- 
poses. The township Trustees are authorized and required * to 
establish, ind conveniently locate in. the township a siifificicnt 
number of schools for the education of all the children therein.' 
Each family may send to any school in the township most Qon- 
venient or agreeable. Whenever any person can be more con- 
veniently accommodated at the school of some adjoining town- 
ship, or even in an adjoining county, than in his owii township 
or county, he is at liberty to make his own selection, and attend 
where he pleases. 

" This repudiation of arbitrary district lines, and this liberty 
to the family of choosing a school according to its own conve- 
nience and pleasure, is one of the most admirable features of 
our system. It gives, wherever it has been put in practice, un- 
bounded satisfaction. It only needs, in order to become uni- 
versal! v popular, to be understood in its practical advantages. 
One of the committee who reported the law last winter^ a.gen- 
tleman, whose services and experience in the cause of education 
render his opinions of great weight, thus writes tome, of the 
operation of this principle in his own county : * The people 
express much satisfaction at the provision of the new law, 
which enables them to make their own selection of schools, un- 
restrained by geographical lines. A few days ago, I met a 
farmer, whose name had by accident been omitted m our , enu- 
meration. I requested him to give me the number of his chil- 
dren, which he said he would do, as it might be of some advan- 
tage to us, although it was of no use to him. I asked him, 
why ? He said the school in his own district was so remote, 
and the road so difficult, that he had altogether given up sending 
his children. I told him that districts no longer existed, that 
he could send his children, without charge', to any public school 
he might select. On this his countenance directly brightened 
up. * Well,' said he, ' there is sense in that. I shall send my 
children to-morrow.' Another venerable man, nearly seventy 
years old, as he was paying his tax yesterday to the. Treasurer, 
said, * I have been paying a heavy school tax for Several years, 
and have derived nc^ benefit therefrom.' T asked him. why? 
He answered, ^ I reside in a remote part of the school oistrict. 
It is utteirly impracticable tor me to 'send to our BcV(>qV)|x<i!^%^< 



142 

There is a school-lio'use in an adjoining townshijp close at hand, 

bat I have no right to its priyileges.' I told him that senseless 

' obstacle had been removed under our new system. He could 

now send to school, if more convenient, in an adjoining town- 

"'ship, or even in an adjoining county. * Well,' said he, * I shall 

^ hereafter derive some benefit from tne school system. ' Wherever 

this principle is understood by the people, it is popular.' 

" In sucn a territory as ours, in many parts nearly roadless, 
and intersected by bridgeless streams, ana in some of the north- 
em counties, obstructed in communication by impassible swamps, 
such a system is the only one promising any success. It is in- * 
deed strange, that the people have so lon^ submitted to the dis- 
trict system, so replete with inequalities, injustice, and inconve- 
niences, and so dencient in redeeming qualities. So true it is, 
that we often remain, for a long time, unaware of the serious 
inconvenience and injury we suffer from imperfections and abu- 
ses to which we are ascustomed. But when the remedy is dis- 
■ covered, and the corrective applied, we wonder how wo could 
. so long overlook so simple a remedy for so serious evils." 

" Indiana," says Mr, Larrabbb, in his report of 1853, " was 
the first State to abolish the old district system. But not the 
last. Ohio has followed in her footsteps. Massachusetts is 
preparing to follow, and in a few years the township system 
will be the rule, and the district system only the exception, in 
more than half the States of the Union. It is conceded on all 
hands, that this system will, in the end, when fully developed, 
work out the most favorable results. It is the only system by 
which we can make any tolerable approach to equality in edu- 
cational advantages for all parts of tne State." 

" Unequal burdens and unequal privileges," says Hon. Ca- 
■ LBB Mills, of Indiana, in his report as Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction in January, 1857, "in the same township, cease 
to vex and annoy. ' These sources of complaint and dissatisfac- 
tion will be dried up, and these inseparable concomitants of the 
district feature will be numbered among the. things that were 
and are not. The superiority of the present over the former 
system, in the equity of its requisitions, is very striking and 
-manifest. Uuder the former system, districts in the same 
township, haviig an equal number of children, and consequent- 
ly needing school-houses of similar size and accommodations, 
would be very unequally taxed to erect these structures. The 
' property in one district would not be assessed fof this purpose 
' more than fifteen cents on the hundred dollars, while the wealth 
' . in the other must respond to the demand of not less than three 
/ ^:ipi^f that amount. Xs that right, equitable, and in accordsmce 
W^Iih ^the principle that demands equaul^ ot v&Eea&ment for gen- 



■' -148 

eral interests and common benefits, in the same corporation ? 
Shonld such a gross inequality df Ihirdens be tolerated any lon- 
ger? Should neighbors, living in flailj intercourse with each 
other, be subject'to such unrighWdus levies? The present system 
protects us against all such incqtiitable assessments, and pro- 
vides that each district shall have, at the common expense of the 
township, a coinfortable, comnlodious and tasteful house, whose 
associations shall be pleasant and instructive; Such is the con- 
trast, in reference to Equality of burdens, presented'by the past 
and present educational trodes of Indiana. 

" An inequality of privilege^ equally gross and manifest, ex- 
isted imder the oft district system, which disappears by the 
operation of the township principle, Drdtricts of equal geo- . 
graphical area in the same corporation will often be exceed- 
ingly diverse in comparative population at diflfereut peri'ods. of 
their history. One may have twenty-five, another fifty, a third 
seventy-five, and a fourth otie hundred pupils. On' the district 
system, the educational funds were necessarily distributed on 
the per. capita basis. These funds, converted into tuitron,would 
be represented by one, t^o, three, or four month's instruction. 
Should friends, perhaps even brothers, living in the adjacent 
angles of the aforesaid districts, be subject to such an inequita- 
ble participation of a common patrimony? Should the children 
of these families be so unequally cared for by her who claims 
the name and assumes to be their educational foster-mother? 
Such palpable injustice was the inevitable result, the legitimate 
sequence of the district system. Weak districts seemed only 
the weaker by contrast with the adjacent strong ones. What 
could be more annoying to those thus situated in the same town- 
ship, citizens of that miniature republic, where we first begin 
to govern ourselves politically, where ar'e first awakened those 
official aspirations which extend, perhaps, through a series of 
coveted elevations till tl^ey culminate in the Presidency. It 
has existed, still exists, is deplored and lamented elsewhere. 
Our own experience attests the reality of the evil. Various 

Srescriptjons have been suggested for tne disease, termed weak 
istricts, by distinguished physicians, but the honor of discov- 
ering an effectual remedy for this wasting malady belongs to the 
Indiana faculty, who have nobly made it patent to the world. 
It is found in the 27th section of otir revised School Law, ind 
reads thus: ' The schools in each township shall be taught an 
equal length of time, without regard to tne diversity m the 
number of pupils in the several school?.' It iust meets the 
exigencies of the cas^, and will prove an effectual and pemanent 
correcti6n of the' aforesaid evi^. It is pre-eminently wi%e',vi^\i 
tsAh(mor^\e,I&r'it8MiredaJi hqxiimAt participaitxou i6i ^^ 



ti » 



^44 



<e|iucatioii^l,proyi8i(^iis fumishcd'by the State, as completely .as 
Ibuman wisdom aivl sagacity could devise. It iuvolvesno injus- 
ticein the operation, for the commonwealth, pledged by her fun- 
damental law to educate ^\l her youth, as a wi'se^^nd judiciqus 
parent, provides for the training of the twenty-j5ve of one dis- 
trict, and the seventh-five of another, during, an ecjual period of 
time. If she can give, them only six months tuition annually, 
nbne,enjoyingthat amount of instructilon,are wrongcd,J?jecau8C oth- 

. ers,numerically less, receive a simihir favor. It is no^ nion^y that 
the State proposes to give her youths. It is sojinefching better, 
more enduring, and. pertaining to both worlds, mqntaJ a9d moral 
culture. Tlus she designs to distribute equally, and, by the 
aforesaid provision, effects as nearly as human ingenuity will 
admit.". 

Hon.^S. H. Bakn^ex, in his Rej^ort as Commissioner of fhe 
Common Schools of Qhio, in 1855, remarks of the School I^w 
of that Siate of 1853. that it " constitvitos each and every or- 
ganized township in the State but one school district for all pur- 
poses connected with the general interests of ; education in the 
township, and confides its management and control to a Bop.rd 
of Education. The law also pontains provisions for introducing 
a system of Graded Schools into every city, town, incorporated 
village and township in the State. In accordance with the same 
principles, and for the purpose of accomplishing the same bene- 
ficient object, the Legislature of Indiana, in 18$2, qnactcd a 
School Law abolishing all the school districts, and declaring. CNich 
civil township^ in the several counties a township for school pur- 
poses, and the Trustees for such township. Trustees for sclfool 
purposes; and the Clerk and Treasurer, Clerk aad Treasurerjfor 
school purposes; i)^d that 'the Board of Trustees shall take 
charge of the educational affairs of the township, employ teach- 
^ ers, establish and coi^ve;ai.ently locate a suflScient number of 
schools for the education of the children therein,' and that 
* they may also establish Graded Schools, or such modifications 
. of them as. may be practicable.' 

** Whatever diversity. of opinion may exist among education- 
ists, as to the best manner ot constituting Township Boarjds of 
•Education, there can be but one opinion as to the propriety of 
, having a township school organization. Facts, expenments, 
the observations and opinions of those competent to judge, have 
. fully settled this matter. It is not, however, .so clearly, deter- 
mined whether the School Committees or Boards of £duc9.tion of 
townships should consist of three or six persons; one-third to be 
elected, and the other third to, go out of office annually; or 
wheth^ they should be elected by the township at large, or, by 

\ Me BubrdiBtrictBf, Spr isi the principle fully settled, w^tiier 



145 

a township should be dividech, for certain specific purposes, into 
sub-districts or not. But it is fully settlea that it a township is 
thus divided, the lines of the sub-districts should not in the least 
interfere with the proper classification, gradation and supervi- 
sion of its schools. ^ 

^^ It is thought by some that to provide the same amount of 
means and facilities for educating those who reside in the poorer 
and less populous portions of a township, as for those, in the 
wealthier and more thickly settled portions, would deprive the 
latter of their rights; just as if the taxes for the support of 
schools were levied upon sub-districts, and not upon the State 
and townships. 

" If all the property of the Stat^ and of the townships is 
taxed alike for the purposes of educating the youth of the State, 
there is no principle plainer than that all should share equally, 
so far as practicable, in the benefits of the fund thus raised, 
whether they reside in sparse or populous neighborhoods." 

I trust I have adduced an array of facts, experiences, and 
authorities that are well calculated to carry, sreat weight with 
them. Suppose, then, the County Superintendency, and County 
Examining Board, should be adoj>tea, and the cUstrict system 
abolished, what would be the necessary Township school offi- 
cers ? A Town Superintendent, a Town School Treasurer, 
and a Town School Clerk, would be sufficient, and would form 
the Town Board of Education; at the first election, the Clerk to 
be chosen for one year, the Treasurer for two, asd the Superin- 
tendent for three years, and thereafter each officer for three 
years, thus giving experience and stability to the Board. They 
should have the entire control of the school-houses^ theif sites, 
erection, repairs, supply of fuel, &c. ; should personally attend 
the examinations of the County Examining Board in their town, 
and acquaint themselves with the scholastic fitness and Qualifi- 
cations of the several teachers who should obtain certincates, 
80 as to Judge their respective adaptations to the several schools 
for which they would be employed, and to which assigned; and 
the Town Board should alone employ the teachers tor all the 
schools of the town. They should also serve ifts overseers or 
inspectors of the schools, and unite with the County Superin- 
tendent in his visitations of the schools of the town; and have 
the control of the Township School Library. They should 
make the annual report of the statistics and condition of the 
schools of the town to the County Superintendent, and furnish 
JEUiy educational information desired of them by eitner the State 
or County Superintendent. Appeals from their action should 
be tilie privilege of any person or persons aggrieved^ to ^^ 
County Bupermtendent, if mide witmn a reasonable t\]M\ ^*i 

19i" 



U6 

t 

also from the action or decieion of«tbe County Superintendent 
to the State Superintendent. 

Such a system of Township school government, with the 
abrogation of the district system, would produce, among others, 
the following beneficial results, viz : 

1. The. provision of the Constitution of our State, which re- 
quires '^ the establishment of district schools as nearly uniform 
as practicable,'^ would, by constituting the Township as the 
district*, be more fairly carried out; anahence the State Schoojl 
Fund income would be much more equally distributed than it 

now is. ^ 

2. Taxation for school purposes would be better equalized, 
for, under the present district system, the people of some dis- 
tricts, owing to the smallncss of both their numbers and taxa- 
ble property, pay two or three times as mtich as their neighbor- 
ing wealthier districts, and get no more — often much less in 
quantity and value, for it; and in joint districts, the several 
parts composing them, are, from the necessity of the case, very 
unequally taxed. 

3. All the primary schools of the town would beheld the 
same length of time, thus producing an equality of school privi- 
leges which does not, and cannot, exist under the old district 
plan; for instances are not wanting in our State, where a poor 
and weak district, with great difficulty, and heavy taxation, 
manages to maintain a three months' school, and that kept by a 
cheap and perhaps almost worthless teacher; while the amoining 
wealthy district, with comparatively light taxation, easily sus- 
tains a ten months' school, with an able and successful teacher. 
iThis i§ exceedingly unequal, and bears heavily and unjustly 
upon the poor, and fails to carry out the heavenly injunction, 
"Bear ye one another's burdens.*' 

4. By the Township plan, there would be a juster distribu- 
tion ana equalization of teachers, suitable to the several locali- 
ties; and less of the favoritism practised, as under the present 
district system, in employing relatives to teach the schools — 
for in a Town Board of only three members, there would bo 
less opportunity of practising it than by the present half a dozen 
to a dozen District Boards in the town. 

5. There would be more uniformity and adaptation in school- 
houses; for they would be built economically, by the lowest 
and best bidder, and not, as is now too often the case, by one 
pr more members of the District Board, on pretty much his or 
their own terms; and such localities as now neglect fto provide 
good, comfortable school-houses, would have them provided for 
%eii!i, and the children of such stingy, miserly souls would no 

Jongejr Buffer tor a suitable place in which to acquire an educft* 
tion, wiu'cb would be wortn vasily mote \>o ViieTXi ^^^^xl^ tko 



147 

wealth, without it, which their ignorant and niggardly parents 
could ever heap together. 

6. It would not only be a far better, but afar cheaper eystem 
to maintain, lopping off the weak, inefficient and worthless 
schools, and diviaing the larger and unwieldy ones; lessening 
the number of officers, as tne * Town Board of three officers 
would perform, all the necessary school duties of the town, and 
do it cneaper and better than the half & dozen or more local 
Boards of at least six times as many officers; and instead of 
selecting eighteen or more persons in a township, as is now the 
case, for these local boards, the people would select three of 
the very best and most efficient lor the Town Board. Here 
would be a great savins of expense, and the objects sought 
more equally obtained, better in quality, and far more useful to 
the people. 

7. By abrogating the district and joint district system, we 
should be doing away at once with one of the most fruitful 
sources of trouDies, wranglings, contentions, and petty jealous- 
ies, incident to the district system; and woula, at the 
same time, put an end to that greatest bane of the system, the 
constant ensmalling of districts, to gratify whims and caprices, 
and oftentimes ^ adjust an angry controversy, thus steadily 
lessening the ability of such dismembered districts to either 
employ a good tcacner, or maintain a school even the legal re- 
quirement of three months. 

. 8. It would give to. the people all over the State the perfect* 
freedom^ while taxed in their own toWn, to send their children 
to any public school, without regard to district, township, or 
county lines — thus, in the enlightened spirit of progressive 
legislation, doing away with an oppressive restriction already 
too long and too patiently borne by the people, and which has 
only been productive of inconvenience, injustice and inequality, 
and deprived many a worthy tax-paying family of invaluable 
school privileges. ' 

9. And lastly, but not leadt in importance, whil(i the primary 
schools generafly cannot well be ffraded, and but little cffectea 
in the way of properly calssifymg the pupils, yet under the 
Township system, eacn town containing a specific number of 
inhabitants, or a certain amount of taxable property, or^ both, 
coidd have its Central Graded High School, free to all of acer-r 
tain age, say betWeen ten or twelve and twenty years of age — 
this dentraf School to be kept in session at least ten months i^ 
each year. With such a Graded School in each town, for the 
more advanced youth, the accruing benefits would be of so de- 
cided and general a character, that the plan could ndt but meet 
with the most umveraal favor. 



148 



OBADED SCHOOLS. 



A 



So important do I regard a Central Graded High School for 
each town in Wisconsin, that I shall venture to cite a few expe- 
rienced authorities upon their necessity and value: 

"In the Fourteentn Report." says Dr. Seaks, Secretary o^ 
the Massachusetts Board of Education. " I have endeavored ta 
show how dijficult it is, even for a good teacher, to give a thor- 
ough and systematic course of instruction in a school made up 
of scholars of every diversity of age and attainment. In a 
mixed district school, the classification of the pupils is necessa- 
rily imperfect, and the number of classes must be altogether too 
great for thorough instruction by one teacher. During the past 
year, teachers have been found in some of our public sohoola 
having at the rate of thirty-six recitations a day. In graduated 
schools, a few large classes may be formed, to pursue all their 
studies together, and the teacher having no others under his 
charge, will have a much greater amount of time for each. But 
where nothing of this simplicity and order exists, and teachers 
are changed, or liable to be changed, every term, the best meth-t 
ods of instruction are of but little avail; for they could not be 
successfully introduced, even if a good teacher were employed. 
There is not time enough in the dauy exercises for thoroughly 
teaching each class, nor is the ordinary term of service long 
enough to lay the foundations of knowledge, and to rear a fabric 
which shall prove the hand of a master. .The, teacher feeling 
compelled to win a reputation, and secure the good opinion dt 
hid employers before the term expires, or is even far advanced, 
seeks to create a sensation, and adopts methods which the char- 
acter and organization of the school will best allow, and which^ 
at the same time, will make the speediest show of progress. 
Only in this way can he hope to be re-appointed, or to be re-^ 
commended to another school. Thus the district system tends 
to check that improvement in modes of teaching which it is the 
object oi the State to promote. 

" Let it not be supposed that these evils, resulting from the 
district organization, can be remedied by grading the schools of 
the several districts. There are but few districts that admit of 
different grades of schools. Larse and compact di^ricts are 
usually divided into two, afber whicn they cannot be associated 
together for the classification of their schools. A dUtriot may 
be too large for one school, and not large enough for two. Two 
a^joinin^ districts may both be in this condition^ and yet 1^ 
line wlucn divides them will effectually prevent any mutual ar- 
rangement for the accommodation of both.. It is an jron sysr 
tern, that admits of no yielding to circumstances, whereas iti| 



» 



• 149 

opposite is like yuletoized India rubber, which may adjust it^ 
self to ever varying cercumstances, by contraction or expansion. 
If the impossible boundaries of districts did not preclude the 
enlargement or curtailment of the schools of a town, it would 
be easy, in ttiost cases, to organize them in such a manner as ^ 
equalize the number of chiloren in each school, and to distrib- 
ute tbem according to their isiges and attainments. Biit now it 
18 exactly as if a tailor, instead of having whole pieces of cloth 
from which to cut his garments, had nothmg but remnants, some- 
times too large, and sometimes too small, and rarely or never 
exactly fittea for his purpose. Suppose the different wards of 
pur cities were to constitute so many school districts,^each hav- 
ing its own schools, is it not evident that more schools and more 
• school-houses would be necessary than upon the present plan 7 
There would be a liability in eaqh ward to have a remnant for 
which no provision could be made without over-crowding the 
schools, or establishing smaller ones at a disproportionate ex- 
pense. Iki the rural towns, it often happens that parts of three 
or four districts teed he taken off and united to lorm one new 
school. All such changes in districted towns are effected only 
after long delays, and with infinite trouble; aild even then they 
are not accommodated to graded schools, as they result in simply 
adding one to the number of the same kind of districts. If the 
districts were abolished, the School Committee could, from time 
to time, according to circumstances, unite small schools and di- 
vide large ones, and adapt them to the wants of the pupils, and 
then adapt the teachor to both. 

" The resort to unioi^ [or joint] districts is a poor relief from 
those embarrassments. However urgent the necessity which 
leads llo it, t}ie an'angement is an inadeouate one, and tne oper- 
ation 6f it exceedingly inconvenient. The best union district 
is that in which all tne districts of the town are united into one. 
Then there is an effectual relief froni one class of difficulties 
without plungiiig itito another. In general, union districts are 
a perpetual qource of trouble ahd of contention. ^Key make 
confusiop. worse confounded. The two districts remaining dis- 
tinct for certain purposes, while they are united for others, add to 
the complexity pf the system, not merely by adding one to the 
number of ,incorp6rated districts, but by introducing a joint 
jurisdi'Ctipn. ^e points on which differences^ may arise are 
multiplied. The cnoice of a site for the union school, the 
dimensions, style, and expense of building, and the appointmenii 
of the teacher, are matters in regard to which each party wilj 
be likely to have its own preferences. When we consider that 
neighbcvhoodf fetids and diatrict iealonBies are the vultures t\ial 
most freqnentJy gnaw at the vitals of our rural Bchools, it 'wVSL 



150 

* ■ I 
not appear tinimportant to remove the decision of controverted 

points as far as possible from the contending parties. 

" Such is the difficulty of providing for the suitable education 
bf the young in the common district school, and such the neces- 
sity of establishing schools of a different order. The fact that 
the district schools, without any of the advantages of gradation^ 
once answered their purpose veiry well, does not prov^ that we 
need nothing better now. The application of science to the 
arts, now so universal, the connection of business of all kinds 
with the progress of knowledge^ and the opening of a much 
wider sphere of thought than existed formerly, to all the people, 
by means of the easy and rapid communication now existing 
between different parts of the world, thus taking away the pro- 
vincial lifc.of the people, and rendering it cosmopolitan, demand 
an increased amount of knowlec^e, in order: to a corresponding 
Respectability and usefulness. Furthermore, such is the eager- 
ness with which young men rush into business, that their scnool 
education is closed at a much earlier period t^an wits that of 
their fathers. It, therefore, becomes doubly necessary to or- 
ganize the public schools in such a way as to prevent the loss of 
any time or labor, and to adopt methods of instruction which 
produce the greatest amount pf solid education in a given time." 

" To enable children," saVs Hon. Henry Barnard, "to de- 
rive the highest degree of benefit from their attendance at 
school, they should go through a regular course of training in- a 
succession of classes, and schools arranged according to similar- 
ity of age, standing, and attainments, under teachers possesfh 
ing the (]^ualifications best adapted to e^h grade of school. 
The practice has been almost universal in New England, and in 
Other States where the organisation of the schools is bi^ed upon 
the division of the territory into school districts, to provide out 
one school for as many children of both sexes, and of idl ages 
from four to sixteen years, as can be gath\^red in from certain 
territorial limits, into one apartment, under one teacher; a 
female teacher in sunimer, anu a male teacher in winter. The 
disadvantages of this practice, both to pupils and tead^era, are 
great and manifold. 

" There is a largo amount of physical suffering mi4 .disoom* 
fort, as well as great hindrances in the proper arrangement of 
scholars and' classes, caused by crowding the older and youngs 
pupils into the same school-room, without seats and fu^nitur^ 
appropriate to either; and the greatest amount of suffering and 
discomfort falls upon the young, who are least able to bear it, 
and who, in consequence^ acquire a distaste to study aad the 
0chool-room. 

'* The work of education going on in auch echoobi cwinoi be 

J .. , f , '• ■ •> . .(S • ■ ■ . ■■...•'■•.-,■'■ 



161 

appropriate and prdgresi^lte. There cannot be a re^idar coarse 
of discipline ana instmction, adapted to the age andproficiencv 
of pupils — a series of processes, each adaptea to certain peri- 
ods in the development of mind and character, the first intended 
to be followed by a second, and the second by a third, — the 
latter always depending on the earlier, and all intended to be 
oondncted on the same general principles, and by ipethods vary- 
ing with the work to be done, and the progress already made. 

^^ With the older and younger pupils ip the same room, there 
cannot be a system of discipline wnich shall be equally well 
adapted to both classes. If it secures ithe cheer^il obedience 
and subordination of. the older, it will press with unwise severi- 
ty upon the younger pupils. If it be adapted to the physical 
wants, and peculiar temperaments of the young, it will enuanger 
the good order and habits of study of the more advanced pupils, 
by the frequent change of posture and position, and other indul- 
gences which it permits and requires of the former. 

^^ With studies ranging from the alphabet and the simplest 
rudiments of knowledge, to the higher branches of an English 
education, a variety of methods of insttjuction and illustration 
aire called for, which are seldom found together, or in an equal 
degree, in the same teacher, and which can never be pursued 
with equal success in the same school-room. The elementary 
principles of knowledge, to be made intelligible and interesting 
to the young, must be presented bv a large use of the oral and 
simultaneous methods. . The higner branches, especially all 
mathematical subjects, require patiefnt application and habits of 
abstraction, on the part of the older pupils, which can with diffi- 
culty, if at all, be attained by many pupils, amid a multiplicity 
of distracting exercises, movements and sounds. The recita- 
tions of this class of pupils^ to be jprofitable and satisfactory, 
must be conducted in a manner which requires time, discussion 
and explanation, and the undivided attention both of pupils and 
teachers. 

^^ From the number of class and individual recitatioivs, to be 
attended to during each half day, these exercises are brief, 
hurried, and of little practical value. They consist, for the 
most part, of senseless repetitions of the words of a book. 
Instead of being the time and place where the real business of 
teaching is done, where the plough-share of interrogation is 
driven down into the acquirements, of each pupil, and his abil- 
ity to comprehend clearly, remember accurately, discriminate 
wisely, and reason closely, is cultivated and tested, — where tho 
difficult principles of each lesson are developed and illustrated, 
and additional information imparted, and the mind of the 
teacher brought in direct contract with the mind of each ^\i^^!L^ 



162 

t 

•to arouse, interest^ and direct its openin|^ powers — ^instead of aU 
'tills and more, the brief period parsed m reoitation, consists, 
on the part of the teacher, of hearing each individual and class, 
in regular order and quick succession, repeat words from a book; 
and on the part of the pupils, o£ saying their lessons y as the opera- 
tion is significantly described by most teachers, when they sum- 
mon the class to the stand. In the mean time the order of the 
school must be maintained, and the general business must be 
going forward. Little children without any authorized employ- 
ment for their eyes and hands, and ever active curiosity, must 
be made to sit still, while every muscle is aching from suppressed 
activity; pens must be mendea, copies set, arithmetical difficul- 
ties solved, excuses for tardiness or absence received, questions 
answered, whisperings allowed or supj)ressed, and more or leas 
of extempore discipline administered. Were it not a most 
ruinous waste of precious time, — did it not involve the deaden- 
ing, crushing, distorting, dwarfing of immortal faculties and 
noble sensibilities,— were it not an utter perversion of the no- 
ble objects for which schools are instituted, it would be difficult 
to conceive of a more diverting farce than an ordinary session 
of a large public school/ whose chaotic and discordant elements 
have not been reduced to system by a proper classification. 
The teacher, at least the conscientious teacner, thinks it any 
thing but a farce to him. Compelled to hurry from one stud^ 
to another, the most diverse,— -from one class to another, requi- 
ring a knowledge of methods altogether distinct, — from one 
recitation to another, equally brief and unsatisfactory, one re- 
quiring a liveliness of manner, which he does not feel and can- 
not assume, and the other closeness of attention and abstraction 
of thought, which he caimot give amid the multiplicity and v|^ 
riety of cares, — from one case of discipline to another, pressing 
on him at the same time, — ^he goes through the same circuit dav 
after day, with a dizzy brain and aching heart, and brings his 
school to a close with a feeling, that with all his diligence and 
fidelity, he has accomplished but little good. 

^^ But great as are the evils of a want of proper classification 
of schools, arising from the causes already specified^ these evila 
are aggravated by the almost universal practice (^f employio^ 
one teacher in summer, and another in winter, and difierenl 
teachers each successive summer and winter. Whatever pro<* 
gress one teacher may make in bringing order out of the chaotic 
elements of a large public school, is arrested b v the termination 
of 'jiis School term. His experience is not available to his sao» 
cecisor, who does not come into the school until after an interyal 
of weeks or months, and, in the meantime, the former teacher 
has left the town or State. The new teacher is a stranger. tQ 



I ? 



the children and their parents/ is unacqilainted'with flie kiysfem 
jHinued by his predecessor, and has himself but little or' n6 
experience in the business; in consequence, chaos (Rothes bact 
again, and the confusion is still worse confounded by the iiiCt^ 
duction of new books, for every teacher prefers to teach fH)i& 
the books in which he studied, or which he has been accustomed 
to teach, and many teachers cannot teach profitably froth a^j^ 
other. Weeks are thus passed, in which uie school is g6ing 
through the process of organisation, and the pupils are'be($dtn[> 
ing accustomed to the methods and requirements of ^ new 
teacher — some of them are put back, or made' to retrace tUisir 
studies in new books, while others are pushed forwai'd inti 
studies for which they are not prepared; and lit the end of 
three or four months, the school relapses into chaos^ Tnere it 
constant change, but no progress. 

'^ This want of system, and this succession of new teacher^ 
goes on from term to term, and year to yea^-^-«i process whi<!||^ 
would involye any othier interest in speedy' and utter ruib'» 
where there was not provision made for fresn material to b'^ 
experimented upon, and counteracting influences at Work to re^ 
store, or at least obviate the injury done. ' What other business 
of society could escape utter wreck, if Oonducted with sticli'a 
want of system, — wim such constant di^egard of the fuii'dfei- 
mental principle of the division of labor,' and with a succesisi^xl 
of new agents every three months, none -of them trained' to. tUp 
details of the business, each new agent acting without 'ii^y 
knowledge of the plan of his predece8S0^, or any M^ell settled 
plan of his own ! The public school is Aot an anomaly, tui exT" 
cention, among the sreat interests of society. Its success. Ot 
fiulure depends on tne existence or abseiice of certaih eolidi- 
iions; and if complete failure doei^not follow the utter ^hej^iict 
of these conditions, it is because every term bringii intd;th^ 
schools a fresh supply of children tobe experimtoted u]^oii|'4^ 
sweeps away others beyond the reach of 'bad school indtructibi 
and aiscipline; and because the minds of' some of thes^ thSl^ 
dren are, for a portion of each dayv left to the action of .fheit 
own inherent forces, and the more kindly influences .of natUk'^y 
the family and society. . ■ i 

^' Among these concUtions of success in the operation' 6fji 
system of public schools, is such a classification of the sditMn 
as shall bring a larger number of similar age and attaitufi^Ms^ 
at all times, and in every stage of advancement, uflder t'eachen 
of the right qualifications, and shall enable these teachers to iMJt 
upon numbers at once, for yeanr in successioti, and canir ^^^^ 
all forward effectually togetiier, in a regtilar course of itsttuo^ 
tion. •■.'■•,'•' ^ 

20a 



^. ^^ ThQ.gri^at.prmoiple to be regarded in the clasBifibatio^ 
,eiihef of the Bcnools of a town or district, or of scholars in the 
same school, is equality of attainments, which will generally 
ii^olude those of the same age. Those who haye gone over sub* 
Btantially the same around, or reached, or nearly reached, tbe 
fli^me point of attainment in several studies, should* be put 
|ogether, and constitute, whenever their numbers will authorise 
it, one school. These again should be arranged in different 
qlasses, for it is i^eldom practicable, even if it were ever desira- 
ble, to have but one class in every study in the same grade of 
school. Even in very large districts, where the scholars are 
piromoted from a school of a. lower grade to one of a higher, 
after being found qualified in certain rstu'dies, it is seldom that any 
considerable number will have reached a common standard of 
scholarship in all their studies. The same pupil will have made 
very differeAt progress . in different branches. He will stand 
h^gner in one, and lower in another. By arranging scholars of 
the same general division in different classes, no pupil need be 
detained by companions who have made, or can maKe less pro- 
cess, or be hurried over lessons and subjects in a superficial 
manner, to accommodate the more rapid advancement of others. 
Although equality of attainment should be regarded as the gen- 
eral principle, some regard shoujd be paid to age, and other 
pircumstances. A large boy of .sixteen, from the deficiency of 
DX^ early education, which may be his misfortune and not his 
f^ult| ought not ta be put into a school or class of little children, 
iilthough their attainments may be in advance of his. Thia 
d^Qp i would mortify and discourage him. In such extreme 
oases,, tb^t arrangement will be best, which will give the indi- 
yidua) the greatest chance of improvement, with the least dis^ 
cpmfort to Idmself, and hindrance to others. Great disparity 
ojf^age in the same class, or the s^ne school, is unfavorable to 
l^j^orm and efficient discipline, and the adaptation of methods of 
jbei^ing, and of motives to application and obedience. Some 
rieg^^d, too, should b^ had to the 'preferences of individuals, 
epp0cia)ly among the older pupils, and their probable destina> 
UQn in life, The mind comes into the requisitions of study 
bore readily, and works with higher results, when led onwara 
J)ry.,thp heart;; and the utility of any branch of study, its rela- 
ti^JDjf. to future success in Ufe, once clearly apprehended, be- 
(Hunes, a pqwerful motiyp to effort. 

^ , f^;!^ch qlfMSis in a school should be as lareo as is consistent 
yitn thoroughness and minuteness of individufu examination, and 
practicable, without bringing together individuals of diverse ca* 
pficity, knowledge and habits of study. A good teacher can 
teich a class of forty with as much ease as a class of ten,, and 



155 

with far more profit to each individual, than if the same amount 
bf time wias divided up. among' four dlaf^Ms; ^aidh ^oiitainingf one^ 
fourth of the whole number: 'When the dans is large, there is a 
spirit, a ^ow, a struggle whioh can nevier be infused or called 
forth in a small clasd. vTluAevet* time is' spent upon a few, which 
could have been as profitably spent bn a larger tmmber, is a lose 
of power and time to the extent of the number who Were not thUB 
benefited » The Tecitations of a'liirge class tiiuift be more varied^ 

both as to order and methods, so as to r^ach those whose atten- 

f I ' 

tion would wander if not under the pressure of conStaiit ekciue* 
ment, or mi^ become sh^tiifVil ' fh)m inaction 'or a'se^eof 
security. Some studies' will admit of ia larger number in & 
dasB than others.- ' . ' » " • ■ ' .. ■* 

' ^^ The liumber of classes f6r teoitatiott in the Sbme iinartmelit, 
b^ one teacher, should be smUK * ' This' will fiEiciKa;te me proper 
division of labor in instruction, and ^<>W mdre 'time f&r each 
class. The teacher iAtrtBted' with - the os^e bf l)M few iptudies, 
and few recitations^ con hate 9h^ eK(ni3l^;1>bi' indoleiice' ot'th^ 
want of capacity, if he does not master' thebe branches thoroughly, 
and soon acquire the most skilUul and' Varied n^ethodft'bf teach-^ 
ing them. His attention will not- be disfrabted by a tnultiplicity 
and variety df ckres, pressing Upon him t^ thidsiime ttine. ' Thia 
principle does hot require that every school' sliould b6 toaU, t^ut 
that each teacher should hate' a smalt number of studies 'and 
classes to superintend. • '' "" ■'. 

^' In a lairge school, properly tiflaiOBifietf, H diyiaron of labor dA 
be introduced in the dej^rtment of gdVeiiuh^t^ aS well as id 
that of instruction; By assigning the dlfferclnt studies td a sufll- 
cient number of assistants, m separlLte class-rboms, each Well 
qualified 'ta teach the branched assigned, the principal teachi^r 
mby be selected with Special reference to his ability iharran^ng 
the studies, and order of 'exerbises of the sehdol, in adtpiiiistering 
tbe discipline, in Adapting moral iiistnictibn'to individuiil lichola^^ 
knd superintending the operatSbns df 'each 'ctiMd-h)om, sbf-as 't6 
secure die harmonious' iaiction'and prbgi*^ of ^rt d^artttdettt: 
The talents and tact re^uii^d for these and sifiiiW duties,' a&^e 
more rareHr found than the skill and attainments kquhrcfd to iMcU 
successfully* a partiedlar study; Wh^n'fetindfj' the^iiaflueneeof 
such a principal, possessiiig in a high 'degree, theiexe<hitf^e talent 
spoken of, will be felt through every class, Wd .by Wi^ry .subol^ 
dmate tedoher, givitf^ t^ne and efficiency to thid whole schbbl/' 
I To fiicilitate ilie introdiiotioh bf these, aud simitar* prmibipted 
of classification, into the oi^taiSation Wld' amnffemf^ts 
schools of a town, as fast Hnd as fat* a^.the circumstances of thQ 
population will admit, Mr.- Blimard su^eisiis'that' the foUowingi 
amoi^ other ffrovisions, Should be bug^led'iiito'the Mlh(i<A>3^ 



166 



• i 



tepiof every State, vii: Thai ^^erery town Bboald be olothed 
wUii all the powers reauisite to establidi and maintain a sufficient 
number of sc^ioals of oifferent grades^ at oonv«nieni locations, to 
accommodate all the children residing within their reapective 
limits — irrespective of any territorial division of the town into 
school districts." 

^^It seems not nnoonnected with this sul^eet/' says Horaob 
Mavn, ^^ to inquire, whethei; in many places out of oar cities a 
plaa may not be adopted to ffiye greater efficiency to the means 
now devoted to common s<£ool education. The population of 
many towns is so situated as conveniently to allow a gradation of 
schools. For children under the age of eight or ten years, about 
a mile seems a proper limits bevond which they should not be 
required to travel to school; . On this supposition, one house, as 
centrally situated as eizcmn&tances will permit, would accommo- 
date the population upon theti^tory of four square miles, or, 
which is the same thing, two isdles square. But a child above 
that age can go two, miles to scjbool, or even rather more, without 
serious inconvenience* . Theire aa^e knany persons whose experience 
attests, that they never etyoyed 'better health, or made greater 
progress, t^an. when they went 'two miles and a half, or three 
miles, daily, to school. Supposing, however, the most remote 
scholars to live pnly at fbont the distance of two miles from the 
school, one house will then accommodato all the older children 
upon a territory of aizl^en square miles, or four miles square. 
Under such an arrangement, while there .were four schools in a 
territory q£ four miles. square, u.e.y sixteen square miles, for the 
younger childxen, there would be one Central School for the olden 
suppose tib^re is $600 to be divided amongst the inhabHants of 
thi^ territi^ of sixteen sauare nulea, or $160 for each of the 
four distriqtS:. Supppse, rarther, that the average wages for the 
male . toacheni is .^^{p, .^nd for female $12 60 per moiith. If^ 
i^cprdjn^to.iljie pi^entsvstom, i^bur male teachers are employed 
for tb(^ .winter term, audi four fen^ale for the summer, each of the 
Qiuome^iiiuujlriwjuater iichools may » be kept^ four months. The 
pioney vou^ then.be exhausted; i. e., four months summer 
fchopl.a|t$il2'50;=s$fi^,:and four months winter, at $26ss:$100 ; 
bot)isF$160, But apoordiug to, the plan suggested, the same 
mon^ woujd pny fptr six months summer school instead of four, 
in each ifif.. the .four; districts, and for a male teaoher-s school eight 
mOAtnS'y ■„ ^t $86 . a month, tinst^d of four ^at . $25- a month, and 
woold U^en leaye $20 in the treasury. 

** 3y thjs plai^, the great superiority of f^Maale over male train« 

ing. for chili&en under, eight, ten or t^ye years of age, would 

ha jseoured;, ;ihe. larger; scholara would be separated itom the 

smaller, snd tiiua the great diversity oi atadie^ andl of classes in 



157 

-■• t 
ihe same school, irhich now crombles the teacher's time into dost, 
would be avoided i the female schdols would be lenff&ened one 
half ; and the length of male sehools ironld be doubled^ and for 
the increased compensatidn, a teacher of fonr-fold qualifications 
could be employecL * * * We have not yet broudit 
Uie power of united action to bear with half its force upon flie 
end or the means of 'education. I think it' will yet be found 
more emphatically true in this depaHanent of human action, than 
in any other, that adding individual means multiplies social 
power." 

^^ By the establishment in each society," says Mr. Barnard, 
'^ of one Central School, or one or more union schools, for the 
older children, and more advanced stridies, the district school 
will be relieved of at least one half the number of classes and 
studies, and the objections to the employment of female teachers 
in the winter, on account of their alleged inability to govern and 
instruct the older boys, will be removed. As the compensation 
of female teachers is less than one half that paid to males, etery 
instance of the employment of a female teacher in place of a male 
teacher in the district school, will save one half of the wages 
paid to the latter, which can be expended in increasing, partly 
the wages of the former, and partly thewages of the male teacher 
in the Union or Central School. It will Be found that the same 
amount of money now expended in three districts, on three.female 
teachers in summer, and three male teachers in winter, will em- 
plov three fS&male teachers for the whole length of the summed 
ana winter school, and one male teacher for* the winter, a;t an 
advance of one third or one half of the average rate of wages 
paid to each. 

^* This arrangement will thus lead to the more permanent em- 
ployment of a larger number of female teachers, at an advanced 
compensation, thus holding out an additional inducement to 
females of the right character and qualifications, to teach in' 
the district school. It will also reduce the demand for male 
teachers, except of the highest order of qualifications, and in- 
crease the wages of those who are employed. In both ways it 
will diminish the expense, the loss of time, and other evils of a 
constant change of teachers in the same school, and give perma- 
nence and character to the profession of the teacher. It will 
enable the teachers of the several' schools to introduce studies, 
discipline and instruction appropriate to each. In the district 
primary school, the younger children need no longer be sub- 
jected to the discomforts alid n^lects which they now experi- 
ence, or primary studies be ei^owaed one side, to make room for 
the higher branches. In the Union or Central School, tihe 
scholm, coming, as they would,- from the primaiy achool^ ^^1$ 



168 

gioanded ia the fiuidaaieRtal branoheB, will bfi pr«jmr«d to 
enter profitabl7 npoa Btadies vhich itre now pursued to advtuk- 
tage only in Aoademiea and other prirote schools of a sinilftT 
gt%ie, Thiia, all that is now accomplished in the district 
■cbool, will be better done, the course of study very mooh ex' 
tended, and the sdrantages of & more thbrough Hid complete 
•docatioD be more' wide^ diffused." 



If it should be found impractieabl^for each town to maintain 
A Central School, whose highest department should be able to 
fit youths to enter our Colleges and Unirersities, then « Oonuty 
Hi^ School should be provided for that purpose; andin both 
the Town Central School, and the County High School, tuition 
should bo equally froe as in the primary schools, and provision 
shonld be made lor their sharing in the School Fund apportion- 
ment. Then we should have a complete publii! educational sys- 
tem, graded from the primary sobool to tue State UniTersity'— 
is whiob, too, at the earliest possible period, instruction should 
ftlso be made entirely f'ree. By sucb a graded system, Aoade- 
mies and private schools would necessarily bo supplanted by 
cheaper and bettor educational institutions; and they ought to 
be, as from their very nature, the poor would necessarily be 
excluded from their privileges and benefits — for w« do not 
often find such a friend of his race as J. L. PickaKD^ of the 
Piatt vi Ho Academy, who has generously educated, free of 
charge, many a poor youth thirsting after knowledge. With 
mch a system, we should soon find not only our State Univer- 
sity, but ilII our other Colleges and Universities, filled to over- 
flowing with the noble-hearted, arabitioua youths of Wisconsin, 
earnestly seeking the highest intellectual attainments within 
their reach, preparatory to altering upon the largest sphere of 
hnman usefulness. 

STATS SCHOLAKSHIPB, 

In 185-J, the Legislature of MasaacbaaettB passed a Isw pro- 
Tiding for forty-eight State scholarships — each of these scholars 
properly prepared to enter college, and having undergone a 
thorough examination, is selected by the State Board of Edn- 
cation, and is entitled from the State to $100 per yearfor his four 
years collegiate course in any college within the State he may 
select for toe purpose. Twclvo are choseu annually from di»- 
' ^otg.ia tbeirjjroper order; and so, in. t^ coarse or four y«an,' 
tie fall complement is made up', an& ever after, as twelve grad- 



160 

• 

ute yearly, that number must be annually chosdn to (Supply %hd 
vacancieB. At the close of eaoh year, each of these Stiftte 
scholars, beforb being able to draw his hundred dollars, must 
produce a certificate n*om the President of the college he is 
attending, to the effect that he ranks, in point of scholarship,, 
with the first half of students of the institution; and failing m 
this, his scholarship is declared vacated, and is filled by the 
appointment of some one prepared to enter the same class left 
vacant, so as to keep up the regular number of annual gradu- 
ates. Preference in the selection is given to those most mer- 
itorious and most needy. 

^^ Sufficient time has not elapsed," says the Report of the 
State Board of Education of 1856, ^' to justify an opinion of 
the merits of this measure, based upon experience; yet every 
circumstance known to the Board of Education leads to the con- 
clusion that the expectations of the State will be fully realized. 
The specific object of the Act is to furnish competent teachers 
for the High Sceools; and there has never been a time when 
the demand for such teachers was greater. There are probably 
one hundred High Schools in Massachusetts, and the number 
of towns required by law to maintain such schools is annually 
increasing. These schools ought all to be supplied with well 
educated, thorough t^tchers. In addition to tnis manifest want 
of our own, there is a constant, and in some cases, pressing de- 
mand, for teachers of different grades to go into other States. 
This demand has in a few instances borne hard upon our own 
schools. It is not, of course, the primary object of our sys- 
tem to furnish teachers for other States, nor does it seem to be 
wise to attempt any restriction. It is no trifling compliment to 
our system of public instruction, that it furnishes teachers 
whose services are desired by the citizens and governments of 
other States.'' 

Something of the kind, 1 venture to suggest, would prove ex- 
ceedingly useful and desirable in our State. It would stimu- 
late the youth in our primary and higher schools to noble emu- 
lation. The State scholarship, while it would assist and en- 
courage many a poor young man to pursue a thorough collegiate 
course, should yet be regarded as a reward of the highestmerit. 
Let there be established one hundred State scholarships, one 
for each Assembly district, and the remainder to be chosen 
from the State at large — twenty-five to be appointed annually, 
by the State Board of Education, upon recommendation of the 
County Superintendents, or other proper persons, after due ex- 
amination, and thorough preparation to enter college ; and for a 
period of four years, if a certain required scholarsnip be m^\Ti'^ 
tained, in the State University, or other regular CoWe^^ ti^ 



100 

l][iu¥6r8ity in the State, each State Boholar to receive from the 
State fifty dollars annually, on condition that he pledge him< 
self to engage in the business of teaching, within the State* 
fqr a term of timf equal to that for which ne shall have receiyra 
such bounty; and if ne shall fail so to teach, if in competent 
health,. he shall refund the money so received from the State, or 
render himself liable to an action at law for its recovery. 

tthis would require the sum of $5,000 annually, and, I doubt 
not, its appropriation in this direction, would prove a powerful 
stimulus to the youth of the State to seek these State scholar- 
ships, and would eventually secure^, a noble annual addition to 
the number of highly qualified teachers for our High, Central 
ai4 Normal Schools. Every such encouragement on the part 
of the State, would tend to elevate the standard of Common 
School education among us, foster and encourage our Universi- 
ties and Colleges, and provide for our future wants, a class of 
superior instructors for our higher graded schools. 

TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS. 

The frequent incapacity of Town Superintendents to proper- 
ly examine and determine the qualifications of candidates for 
teachers' certificates, has been already referred to; and a Coun- 
ty Examining Board of three persons, composed of the County 
Superintendent, and two practical teachers, has been suggested 
as, in my opinion, the best remedy for this great evil. Could 
this, or some similar change be adopted, a multitude of evils 
would at once be obviated. But if such change be deemed im- 
practicable or premature, I would suggest that for the purpose 
of examining teachers and granting certificates, that two practi- 
cal teachers in each town be recommended by the teachers of 
such town to the Town Board of Supervisors for their approval 
and appointment, to be associated with the Town Superintend- 
ent for the purpose of examining and granting certificates to 
qualified candidates for the teacher's profession. While I 
snould regard this as a step in an improved direction, I should 
still look upon it as infinitely inferior to an able County Exsmi- 
ining Board who would make thorough and impai^tial work of 
their examinations, and grade the certificates according to 
merit. 

If neither a County nor Town Examining Board be provided, 
then some legislation will be needed with reference to the remo- 
val of a Town Superintendent for refusal or neglect to perform 
his dutie?. When a member of the District Board refuses to 
nerform his duty, or declines to obey a decision of the State 
Superintendent, Mb office is dedarea vacant, and filled acoord^ 



161 

ingly. Bat a Town Superintendent may — as has actuallj been 
done — ^refuse, out of mere spite, to examine a candidate for a 
teacher's certificate, to whom he has two or three times prevx- 
oasly granted a certificate, whose moral character is good, and 
whose seryices as teacher are greatly desired by his district; 
and though the aggrieved parfcy appeals to the otate Superin- 
tendent, and the L^ter should deciae asainst the action of the 
Town Superintendent as ui\just and arbitrary, yet I know of no 
way of enforcing such decision — no way of declaring the office 
vacant. It is true, the Town Board of Supervisors nave power 
to make a temporary appointment whenever a Town Superin- 
tendent ^^ may be unabie** to perform the duties of his office; 
but there is, so far as I know, no power to remove for unwilling- 
ness or refusal to perform those duties. As the law now is, the 
State Superintendent's decision maj be mocked at, a petty 
tyranny exercised over a worthy citiacn, and the reasonable 
wishes of a whole district oppressively denied, and all without 
a remedjT. Such power is not in accordance with the genius of 
our free institutions — equal and exact justice to all, and a reme- 
dy for every wrong. 

CHANQB or TIMS FOR MAKING REPORTS. 

Section sixth of the School Law passed the last night of the 
last session of the Legislature contained, when published, some 
unaccountable blunders and incongruities which the authors of 
the law never designed. It was intended to specify the time 
for the District Clerks to make their annual reports not between 
the first and fifteenth days of July, in each year, and bear 
ing date the first of Jul^, but between the first and tenth 
days of September^ bearing date the fir%t of September 
— ^thus making the school year close, as formerly, the 3l8t of 
August. This arrangement of dates best corresponds with the 
time now designated by law for the Town Superintendent to 
make his report, which is between \}ie fifteenth and twentyfifth 
day$ of September; the Clerks of the Boards of Supervisors to 
make theirs on or before the tenth day of October y and the State 
Superintendent on or before the tenth day of December. 

n the school year were to close the 80th of June, as the law 
now erroneously provides, it would prove a serious hardship up- 
on such districts as are unable to maintain a winter scnool, 
and depend upon the summer for their three months' school. 
It leaves a long and unnecessary gap between the 15th of July 
and 25th of September in which for tiie Town Superintendent to 
make his repoi%, when ten days would be sufficient, and was so 

21a, 



intended. Id view of the difficulties wlucli the law, in this ar- 
ticular, if enforced, would involve tlie districts, I directed the 
SiBtnct Clerks, with the approval of the Governor, to make 
their reports the past ;fear hetween the first and tenth dajs of 
September, bearing date the first of that month, and they ac- 
cordingly did 80. If the present district system is adhered to, 
it will be neceraar; to remedy the defects in the law here 
pointed ont. 

BTATB TBAOHERB' ASBOCIATIOK. 

The annnal meeting of this body of educational laborers it 
subserving a very useful and important purpose both to them- 
selves anif the people. If thero conid be an auxiliary Associa- 
tion formed in every county in the State, to report to Hie St»te 
Association; and the full proceedings of the latter, inclnding 
such essays of merit as are read before it, together with an ab- 
stract of the r^orts of the County Associations, be reported to 
the Legislature for publication, or to the Statt' JJoard of Educa- 
tion, or State SnperinteniJent, to be appended to the Annual 
Report of the latter, if deemed worthy of it, — if this could be 
done, much additional information of n useful tind interesting 
character would be disseminated among thu teachers thcmaclvcB, 
and spread before the pcopli?, upon the subject of the teachers' 
Tocation, labors and usefnluess. The State of Massachusetts 

?rovide8 for the annual publication of the proceedings of the 
'eachers' Association of that State. Onr State Journal of 
Education, with the variety of mattter it is expected to fnmish, 
and the apace accorded to the State Superintendent for notices, 
opinions and decisions, has not sufficient room for the publication 
of the proceedings, essays and reports of the State Teachers' 
Association; and to bo published in an embodied form us a State 
document, would give to it a far wider range of circulation and 
nsefDlneBS, and at a cost comparatively trifling. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL A880CIATI05S. 

At the instance of D. T. Kilgore, Esq., City Superintend- 
ent of the public schools of Madison, there li.ns been organised 
in this city ApuhUc School Association, conipriaing the patrons 
and friends of the public schools. The officers consist of a 
President, two Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Header, and an 
Bzecutive Committee of five persons. A weekly meeting is 
held, each Saturday evening, witn the following order of exercises: 
Ist, reading the minutes of the last meeting; 2d, reports of com- 



168 

mitfcees; 8d, report of the Saperintendent; 4th9 lecture, or dis- 
cuBBion, or both; 5th, reading communicationfl and selections; 
and 6th, miscellaneous business. 

The object of the Association is to create a greater interest 
in the minds of parents with regard to the education of their 
children at the public school, and to awaken a spirit in the 
minds of the people which should, to some extent, appreciate 
the labors of the teachers, and co-operate with them in securing 
that intellectual training which would result in the highest good 
to all concerned. It was rightly judged, that by bringing the 
schools as much as possible under the supervision of parents, 
and the patrons and teachers into a more intimate relation, 
offering frequent opportunities of friendly interchange of opin- 
ion, advantages of a practical character would result to the 
children profitable alike at school and at home. 

The results have, thus far, been in the highest degree satis- 
factory. Several lectures have been delivered, and the discus- 
sions of educational questions have elicited an interest amount- 
ing almost to enthusiasm. Committees have been appointed 
each week to visit the several schools of the city, and report the 
result to the Association. Thus is increased attention paid to 
the public schools, and both teachers and pupils encouraged* 
Instead of becoming eloquent with indignation over some fan- 
cied or exa^erated grievance, parents are more inclined to sym- 
pathize witnthe teacher in his difiicult, pains-taking and respon- 
sible labors, and contribute what they can to listen his burdens , 
and increase his joys — for the public appreciation of his labors, 
is to the earnest, faithful teacher his " exceeding great reward.". 
Judi;ing the future of this new organization by the past, we may 
confidently expect that it will become a fixture in our education- 
al system, destined to confer mutual benefits and lasting bless- 
ings upon both schools and families. 

I would earnestly recommend the organization of a similar 
Association in every city and township in the State. We need 
by every possible means in our power to encourage the public 
teacher, and elevate the standard of public education. The com- 
mon school — the free school, is the hope of the State. " Like 
the dew of heaven,'' says President Lorin Andrews, of Ohio, 
" it distils alike its blessings upon the poor and the rich. It 
practically carries out those glorious principles of Liberty and 
Equality o( which we so much boast. Every child in this 
broad land has a God-given right to claim from the powers that 
be, moral and intellectual^ as well as physical development. 
We imprison in the deepest, darkest dungeon, the wretcn who 
has brutally crippled his child or ward; but we inconsistently 



164 

pennit thousands of our respectable citizens to cripple and 
Btarre, with impunity, the deathless energies of the minds of 
our children, and wantonly to deface the image of God from 
their souls. The free school, and the free Bchool aloney aflfords 
to every child the privileges of intellectual and moral culture, 
and hence in principle, and practice too, it is right/' 

EDUCATIONAL TRACTS. 

Several of the States have made appropriations for the wide 
dissemination of ably written tracts upon educational topics of 
great public importance. These tracts are designed to contain 
a brief, yet strong, pointed, condensed argument, and generally 
limited to eight pages, and never exceeding sixteen pages. The 
type-setting, therefore, costs comparatively nothing — the cost 
being almost exclusively confined to paper, press-work, and 
folding, no stitching being necessary. As many as thirty 
thousand copies of an eight pa^e tract have been furnished in 
the Eastern States for the small sum of two hundred dollars. 
Tracts like that of Charles Northend's Teacf^er's Appeal to 
the Parents of his PupilSj on Graded Schools, S^ool Li- 
braries, Consolidation ot School Districts, Improved Qualifica- 
tions in Teachers, Superiority of Female over Male Teachers 
for Primary Schools, on School Visitation, Education in its 
relations to Health, Insanity, Labor, Pauperism and Crime, on 
Vocal Music in Schools, Normal Schools and Teachers' Insti- 
tutes, and many subjects of this kind, could be tersely and 
pointedly presented in a small tract — a large edition published, 
scattered over the State through the medium of Teachers' Con- 
ventions and Institutes, and other modes of distribution, that 
would enter many families destitute of such information, and 

E've a new direction to the future career of many a parent and 
s children, and accomplish a vast amount of good. So impor- 
tant did Mr. Barnard, when Commissioner of Common Schools 
of Rhode Island, deem this mode of reaching the mass of the 
people, that he caused upwards of ten thousand copies of Edu- 
cational Tracts to be stitched to the Almanacs circulated in 
that State, which were sold during the winter of 1844-'45, and 
tiius they found access to many a family they would otherwise 
never have reached. 

In the Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools of 
the State of Maine, last year, it is thus observed: ^^ It is the 
testimony of other States, that a free circulation of Educational 
Tracts has prepared the public mind for some of the most deci- 
sive and beneficent measures in behalf of popular education." 
While the Pbbss is universally conceded to he the mighty lever 



165 

irhicfa moves the world, we should make a wise use of its influ- 
ence in awakening our people to^the never-ceasing necessity of 
public education, and tne best methods for its advancement. I 
respectfuUj submit, whether it would not be true policy to 
autnorise the Superintendent of Public Instruction, under the 
advice of the State Board of Education, if one be formed, to 
cause the publication through the State Printer, of one or more 
Educational Tracts annually, not exceeding sixteen pages each^ 
in such quantity as he may judge necessary. 

SCHOOL ABCHITECTUEE. 

This subject has been already casually adverted to; but such' 
is its conceded importance, that further reference to it seems 
necessary. '^ The subject," says Mr. Babnard, in the preface 
to his* valuable work on Sekoof Architeetuxtj ^^ was forced on 
the attention of the author, in the very outset of his labors in 
the field of public education. Go where he would, in city or 
country, he encountered the district school-house standing in 
disgraceful contrast with every other structure designed for 
public or domestic use. Its location, construction, furniture 
and arrangements, seemed intended to hinder, and not promote, 
to defeat and not perfect the work, which was to be carried on 
within and without its walls. The attention of parents and 
school oiBcers was earlv and earnestly called to the close con- 
nection between a good school-house and a good school, and to 
the great principle that, to make an edifice good for school pur- 
poses, it should be built for children at school and their teach- 
ers; for children differing in age, sex, size and studies, and^ 
therefore, requiring different accommodations; for children 
engaged sometimes in study, and sometimes in recreation; for 
chudren, whose health and success in study require that they . 
should be every day, and frequently, in the open air, for exer- 
cise and recreation, ^d at all times supplied with pure air to 
breathe; for children, who are to occupy it in the hot days of 
summer, and the cold days of winter, and fco occupy it for 

Eeriods of time in different parts of the day, in positions which 
ecomo wearisome, if the seats are not in all respects comforta- 
ble, and which may affect symmetry of form ana length of life, 
if the construction and relative heights of the seats and deska 
which they occupy are not properly attended to; for children, 
whose manners and morals, whose habits of order, cleanliness 
and punctuality, whose temper, love of study and of the school^ 
^re, in no inconsiderable degree, affected by the attractive or 
repulsive location and appearance, the out^door arr^XigemexiXA) 
and the mtemal coDstmction of the place where they Apenidi) QX 



. 166 

should spend, a large part of the most impressible period of 
their lives. This place, too, it should be borne in mmd, is to 
be occupied by a teacher, whose own health and daily happiness 
are affected by most of the various circumstances above alluded 
to, and whose best plans of order, classification, discipline and 
recitation may be utterly baffled, or greatly promoted, by the 
manner in which the school-house may be located, lighted, 
warmed, ventilated and seated." 

"If any one doubts," says Hon. H. H. Barney, in his Re- 
port as Commissioner of Common Schools of Ohio in 1855, 
" the intimate connection between good school-houses and good 
schools, let him consider how difficult it generally is to induce 
a good teacher to go into a district where the school-house is 
too small, badly constructed, improperly seated, unpleasantly 
located, without the requisite means of ventilation, destitute of 

Slay grounds and out-buildings; and, more important still, how 
iffioult it is to secure regularity of attendance, and rehder the 
school attractive. If he still doubts the indispensable agency 
of good school-houses in creating good schools, let him, as he 
travels through the State, stop and contemplate the forlorn, 
gloomy and repulsive aspect of some of those ancient ^BOtiatterB* 
on the public highway; let him enter them, and note their dimin- 
itive size, rough and filthy floors, low ceilings, dilapidated desks, 
slab seats, dingy walls, and their unhappy and cheerless in- 
mates; and after he has observed the slovenliness, disorder, 
coarseness, vul^ai'ity, and the marks of obscenity on the very 
walls of the building, let him listen to the recitations, and ob- 
serve how perfectly thev correspond with the condition of 
things already noticed. Then let him pass on until he comes 
to one of those tasteful, attractive, elegant school-houses, with 
which the State is beginning to be honored and blessed; and 
after viewing its fine proportions, pleasant site, and ample play- 

Sound, let him enter it and examine its superior facilities for 
e successfal prosecution of study, its excellent arrangements 
for promoting the convenience, health and comfort of the teacher 
and pupils, for forming in them habits of neatness, order, taste 
and purity, and for exciting them to make high attainments, and 
aim at honorable distinction. Let him extend his observations 
still further, and he will find not only the building located and 
constructed with special reference to the laws of health, mind 
and morals, replete with everything that can delight the eye and 
gratify the taste, and admirably adapted to cultivate courteous 
Bianners, to inspire refinement of feeling, and to promote habits 
pf study and thought, but he will actually find neatness and 
order among the pupils, skillful teaching, prompt and accurate 
reeitaiioDay reSned manners, and good morals. 



16T 

'^Tlie explanation of this striking contrast in the character 
and condition of the two schools is easy. The cheerless and' 
forbidding appearance of the school-house first described, its 
utter destitution of every convenience and comfort, had, from 
time immemorial, repelled from it all good teachers, while the 
other had been equally effective in attracting them. Show us 
a school-house wnere vou will, which by the combined action of 
time and ruthless hands has become a monument of dilapidation 
and ruin, presenting, in its dingy and repulsive aspect, the per- 
fect image of desolation and cheerless poverty, and wq will . 
show you a school in perfect keeping with the tenement which it 
occupies. 

** How gratifying, then, to be able to assure the friends of 
popular education throughout the State, that a large majority of 
our common school houses are reported ^ good^^ and that in many 
of our cities, towns and villages, a large number of school- 
houses may now be seen, to which the following beautiful de- 
scription of a model school-house in another State, will substan- 
tially apply : * Its generous size, its graceful proportions, and 
the good taste displayed in the finish, produce the most agreeable 
impression. Taken together with its pleasant grounds, it con- 
stitutes a view which charms the beholder, and renders it the 
fairest ornament of the village which it blesses. Within, every' 
thing is in keeping with the perfection which reigns without. 

** * The preservation of health, the demands of taste, and the 
requirements of convenience, are equally regarded in all its pro- 
visions and arrangements. For each scholar there is a separate 
desk and chair, mounted on iron supports, and combining, in a 
high degree, elegance, comfort and ourability. The scholars are. 
seated facing the north, and on that side of the room which is. 
occupied by the teacher, the wall is covered with black-boarded 
and maps. There, too, wo find, ready at hand, all needed appar 
ratus and a library, in a safe and convenient repository. The 
light is not admitted in front, to the great injury of the eyes, as 
is too often the case, but is received from the cast and west, thus 
falling, as it should, upon the sides of the pupils, and affording 
the greatest supply when most needed, namely, in the morning 
and afternoon, xhe warming apparatus is so constructed as to 
diffuse an equable temperature throughout the room, without 
subjecting any part to extremes of heat and cold; while the ap- 

Earatus for ventilation effectually removes the air as fast as it 
ecomes unfit for breathing, and supplies its place with the pure, 
nnadulturated atmosphere of heaven. Mats, scrapers, clothes- 
closets, and a suitable place for fuel, are all supplied. 

" 'And there it stands, the beautiful structure, with its 
shrubbery, its flower-pots, and all other needed appurte\i^QJi<(^^ 



168 

and ornaments. There it stands, the surest ^aranty of the fo- 
tare happiness and prosperity of the commonitj among whom it 
is located. 

^' ' It is itself a teacher. It teaches neatness and order, it 
promotes good manners and morals. It instills into the tender 
mind of childhood a love of the beautiful in nature and art, and 
proclaims to every passer-by the dignity and importance of edu- 
cation. It is not a cold abstraction; it is a living epistle to be 
read of all. 

^* ^ But this fit home for the school to dwell in, did not spring 
up out of the eround, like Jonah's gourd, in a night. It cost 
treasure, and it cost labor, but it amply compensates for both. 
Such a school-house is far more economical than those of the 
poorest class. By a few simple operations in addition and sub- 
traction, it may be shown that no district can afford to support a 
poor school-house. If any one doubts it, let him sum up the 
cost of keeping up such a concern. Let him reckon the sums of 
money annuaify sunk in paying teachers to work without suitable 
tools and means, not forgetting the fact that the district will be 
compelled to employ the poorest teachers, for the best will not 
put up with such accommodations without extra compensation. 

" ' Add to this the loss of half or three-fourths of the school- 
time of the children. Calculate the value of that knowledge 
and intellectual culture which the pupils are deprived of forever. 
Compute the loss sustained in injured lungs, and spines, and 
eyes; in colds and fevers, and consumptions, and all the train of 
evils generated or aggravated by the defects of the bad school- 
house; and to this, add its unhappy effect upon the taste and Uie 
moral sentiments, those faculties which are so intimately con- 
nected with whatsoever is lovely, and whatsoever is of good re- 
port. 

*^ ^ Bring together these items in one grand sum total, and 
then say whether any community can afford to support a poor 
school-house.' " 

It has been elsewhere shown, that the total value of school- 
house property in Wisconsin, is over one million^ one hundred 
tkouBand dollan^ and the increase in value of this year over the 
last, is over two hundred and sixty-three thousand dollarM. 
During the past year, the amount paid for teachers' wages alone 
exceeds three hundred and thirty-four thpy^sand dollars ; and 
the aggregate of the increase in school-hou§^ property, and the 
amount paid for teachers* wages, reaches, during tue past year, 
nearly six hundred thousand dollars. Is it not, then, of vast 
importance, that we everywhere have suitable school-houses, tAs 
very best adapted to the purpose we can possibly secure^ in order 
that this immense annual expenditure may realize the largest re- 



169 

tarns in the intellectual advancement of our children ? We want 
goody comfortable, convenient, school-houses — not miserable ex- 
ouses, or mere hovels, worse than we provide for our cattle or 
horses; we need pleasant locations for tnem, and attractive Sjcur- 
roundings — we need to have them warm in winter, and yet at all 
times properly ventilated. How true is it, 

** We mutt have air and exercise, 
To live, and thrfye, and grow." 

Standard works on School Architecture are what is so much 
needed to guide and instruct our people in the size, style, an4 
adaptation of their school houses. Several States have wiseM 
provided works upon thissubject, for their several townships; aaa 
to illustrate the effect, it may be stated, that, in 1852, tne L^- 
islature of Ohio authorized the purchase and distribution of a 
copy of Barnard* 8 School Architecture to every township Board 
01 Education, and local directors, in the State. This aistribu- 
tion was followed by the construction of many new houses, and 
the thorough repair of old structures, on tried and approved plans 
of arrangement and furniture — over half a million of dotlari 
were expended for these obiects in the single year of 1854. 

If provision is made for Township Libraries, I would by all 
means have placed in each a copy ot the three standard works $ 
on School Architecture — the pioneer work of its kind, Bamard'i 
School Architecture^ Burrowe*s Pennydvania School Architect 
turCy and Johonnofa Country School Mouses, ' If such a libra- 
ry system should find no favor with this Legislature, I would 
still eamestlj^ suggest an appropriation from the School IiWd 
Licome sufficient to furnish each township in the State with i 
copy of each of these works, to be deposited with the Tolm 
Superintendent, to loan out for the use of districts erecting or 
repairing school houses. A State like ours, erecting annuattj^ 
nearly five hundred school edifices, and expending for that pur- 
pose over a ouarter of a million of dollars, ought to have 8aftl| 
judicious and economical guides in a matter of such momentoini 
importance, both in a pecuniary and intellectual point of vieW. 
These works on School Architecture are the guides we need^ 
and all three, finely illustrated, could be obtained at wholeslklA 
rates, for about four and a half dollars. 

WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. 

This periodical, under its present able and efficient manage* 
ment, has better succeeded in its aims and purposes during uie 
past year, than at any former period. Expressions of genital 
satisfaction and approval have come up from all parts of tho 
State, since the opinions and decisions of the Department ha)ri 
been regularly published in its columns. It has been m«A^ <bA 

22a 



ITftf 

medinm of circulars from the Department to Town and District 
school officers, and has thus acrved a very beneficial purpose. 
Such a medium of communication between the Department of 
Pnblic Instruction and the twelve thousand Town and District 
school officers in the State, la of the utmost value and convem- 
anoe. As no other State Department has such a constant and 
increasing correspondence to carry on, every such aid as the 
Journal of Edncathn affords, is, and must continue to be, re- 
garded as a valuable source of relief, as well, at the same time, 
H a real service to the public. The State thus far has paid but 
fifty cents per copy — but half the ordinary subscription price 
— fox the necessary number to supply one to each Town Super- 
intendent and District Clerk in tne State, — a sum which haa, 
most of the time, been leas than the actual cost. I think it but 
an act of justice, that the State should pay a fair and jnst 
oqaivaleut for this really useful Journal; and as some of the 
flcnool officers to whom it is sent, complain that they have the 
postage to pay, and some few oven refuse to take it out of the 
post-office on that account, I would suggest, that the State Sa- 
perinteudent be authorized to allow its publisher fifteen cents io 
addition per copy, on the express condition that he pre-pays the 
* postage on the entire number sent out in behalf of the State. 

SCHOOL BBGIBTERS. 
: The States of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and many other 
States, furnish the School Registers for the use of the pnblic 
schools. It tends to give more system and uniformity, th&a 
There left, as at present, for the District Clerks to provide them 
st the expense of the district. It is extremely probable, that 
Tiiy many Diatrict Clerks fail to comply with this very impor- 
tftDt provision of law. When printed forms arc furnished, they 
nmst cost the people many times over, in the aggrcatc, what 
^j would if (he State had a large quantity printed from the 
BVne form at one time; and so long as the people have the ez- 
MDBe to pay in either case, it would not only prove true econo- 
mj Uf have the State furnish the School Registers, through the 
Department of Public Instruction, but would produce more sys- 
tomatic uniformity, and hence greatly increase their usefulness. 

TRAVBLINO FDND. 

In compliance with the requirement of law, I would report, 
that with a view to makine thorough inquiries in regard to the 
Bflhool Library systems of other States, and other matters per- 
teiaing to public education, I spent part of the j>a8t summer and 
ma^ann in riaitiag the States of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Ken- 



171 

tncj, Michigan, Pennsylvama, New Jersy, New York, Massa- 
chusettB, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the Province of Upper 
Canada. After full consultations with the Superintendents of 
Public Instruction of most of these States, and many of the' 
most distinguished educators of the Union, I feel far better pre- 
pared than! otherwise should, to speaJk understandingly of the 
wants and defects of our own system; and in pointing them out^ 
as I have faithfully endeavored to do, X have generally aimed to 
fortify my positions and suggestions with such authorities and 
experiences of other States as were calculated, in my estima- 
tion, to carry weight with them. I feel c(»ifident, therefore^ 
that my educational tour abroad of two months has reEfulted, and 
is likegr to result, in far more practical benefit to the publie 
school interests of the State, than if many years had been spent 
in traveling and lecturing in the State. 

Owing to the time necessarily devoted to the preparation and 
publication of the new edition of the School Laws, and my own 
absence from the State, less opportunity has heen had for trav-^ 
eling and lecturing in the State, than would otherwise have been 
desirable. My able, faithful, and efficient Assistant State Sui 
perintendent, S. H. Carpenter, Esq., has found time during 
the year, amid the pressingcares and heavy correspondence of 
the Department, to attendTTeachers' Institutes in the counties 
of Dane, Dodge, Columbia, Washington, Adams, Iowa, and 
Richland, as well also to visit other portions of the State, and 
lecture upon educational subjects. The total amount expended 
in traveling expenses during the year, has been $412,70. 

Webster's ukabridgei) sictiokary. 

In April last, I made a special report to the Legislature^. ]>j 
requirement of law, relative to the distribution of Webster-^ 
Unabridged Dictionary. In order to a full understanding of 
the matter, I will repeat some of the statistics then fumishedy 
making such additions as the fact0 in the caise call for. I have 
received the following copies of the work since I came into the 
ofBce, vis r 

January 4, 1868, from former State Superintendent, , . , . flftA 

March 18, 1858, from Bliss, Eberhard & Co., in store, S8SI 

March 24, 1858, from CUrk of Board Superriaors,- Dane Go., I 

March 26, 1858, from Register of Deeds, Dane Cow, % 

June 6, 1858, from Town Superintendent, Ixonia, Jefferson Co., 2 

June 35,1868, from RegiaCer of Deeds, Washington Co., 

Jul J 3, 1856, fi^m Town Superintendent, Somers, Kenosha Co., I 

ToUl, , 7^ 

Of this number, 550 have been distributed, according to lawy 
upon affidavits furnished^ and receipts taken thereioT* TVifiA^ 



172 

were all disiribated to the seyeral towns and distriots in the or- 
der of their applioation; and the seven copies on hand, hare 
been assigned to towns entitled to them, but have not been sent 
for, nor directions given as to the mode of forwarding them to 
their destination. 

There are now on file in this Department applications for 382 
Dictionaries, and these do not include all the unsupplied towns 
and districts. It is now nearly four years since the State com- 
menced the policy of supplving each school district with a copy 
of Wd>8ter*8 Unabridged iHctionary ; and those districts which 
have, firom various causes, been so long delayed, ought not 
surely to be put off any lonffer. As the larger portion of the 
State has been supplied at the expense of the School Fund In- 
acme, it is but just and proper that the remainder should be 
promptly supphed from the same source. 

The State has, altogether, purchased and paid for, 8,850 copies 
ai four dollars each. I should think it safe to presume that 100 
copies, before the eotumencement of my term of office, never 
reached the districts, and remain unaccounted for; some, I have 
reason to think, we^ stolen before their delivery from the rail- 
road ware-house; others are known to have been, in some in- 
stances, squandered or misappropriated by County Registers 
send Town Superintendents; and yet others unsatistactoriiy ac- 
counted for by the careless and loose manner in which they formerly 
were distributed by this Department. I should say, then, after a 
careful examination of the report of the investigating committee 
of September, 1867, and such records as I fina of their distri- 
bution in this Department, including a few copies distributed by 
order of the investigating committee in August and September, 
1857. and including also the seven copies jet on hand, that 
8-^1^0 are all that have reached, or will be hkely to reach, the 
distriots of the State. 

B^ the recent reports, the number of separate districts in th« 
Stale is shown to be 3,181, and 1,566 parts of districts, whidi 
form ioint districts; and estimating two and a half parts as equal 
to a district, we shall have 626 to add to the 3,181 whole oii- 
tricts, making a erand total of 3,807 districts in the State. 
Allowing that 3,250 of these have been supplied with Dictiona- 
ries, then we should, in round numbers, require 550moie copies 
to supply the deficient districts. To this should be added 
sometning for new districts; and something, too, for the several 
departments of public schools, each of which is entitled to a 
copy. 

I should think, therefore, that 600 additional copies will be 

required to meet the existing demand; and as the increase of 

distnctB lua been 245 the past year, we may calculate on at 



178 

least an equal increase the coming year, and no proyision would 
be made for their suppl;^ — and so long as the district system is 
maintained, and the diyiding and ensmallii^ process continueSy 
another year will be very sore to bring forth tne usual crop of 
weak ana puny districts, each of which will be entitled to a 
Dictionary. It will be for the Legislature to determine what 

frovision, if any, shall be made for this class of districts; and 
would respectfully suggest, that a law be passed authorising 
the purchase of such number as the Legislature may direct, on 
terms at least as favorable to the State as those formerly pur- 
chased. 

THE SCHOOL CODB. 

The edition of 5,000 copies of the School Laws, directed by 
the last Le^slature to be prepared and published, has been 
complied with, and the whole edition is already exhausted. 
Applications are constantly being made for more. I anticipated 
that the edition published would be entirely inadequate to sup- 
ply the demand from school officers. According to my under- 
standing of the law, I have already sufficient authority to direct 
the printing of a new edition whenever the interests of educa- 
tion demand it. I shall think it best to await the adjournment 
of the Legislature, so as to incorporate whatever revisions or 
amendments may be made during the session. 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT LIBRARY. 

The Library of this Department, after deducting historical, 
miscellaneous and school books, is exceedingly meagre. In 
such a Library, there should be found, for the use of the State 
Superintendent, and such educators as might wish to consult 
them, all the distinctive standard works on education in the 
English language. I regard this as a matter of vital interest. 
We need to know, and to avail ourselves of whatever is found 
to be of practical progress, pertaining to popular education, 
whether made in this country or in Europe. As it is, there are, 
I am sorry to say, not a dozen distinctive works on education 
in the Library, aside from a few volumes of bound reports and 
periodicals. 

There is a law on our Statute, book authorizing the purchase 
of books for the Library, to the amount of finy dollars per 
year, but it has no appropriating clause; and there have been 
no additions made to the Library for the past five years. I 
respectfully ask the Legislature to appropriate $300 for this 
purpose, including the year 1859 — whion, 1 believe, is none too 
mudi for this important object. 



i° 



174 



THB OFFICE OF STATE SUPEBINTENDENT. 

The duties of this officer involve an amount of care, anxiety 
and responsibility of no ordinary character. The management 
and superintendence of nearly four thousand school districts, 
irith more or less official intercourse and correspondence with 
over twelve thousand -Town and District School Officers and 
Clerks of Boards of Supervisors — supplying them with School 
Laws, Blanks and Dictionaries, — returning their reports for 
correction of errors, so that their districts may not lose their 
share in the State School Fund apportionment — deciding ap- 
peal cases, with an earnest wish and aim to render equsti and 
exact justice to all— hundreds and thousands of letters, upon 
almost every conceivable subject relating to common school 
urisprudence, to answer — some requiring specific points of 

w to be determined, and many simply calling for judicious 
advice to settle and harmonize discordant elements — ^to keep in- 
formed, and properly study the school systems of our own and 
other States — circulars to prepare and send out to the towns 
and districts — statistics to collect and arrange — the annual and 
special reports to make, together with a large amount of "mis- 
cellaneous labors and duties to discharge, — if all these matters, 
when faithfullv performed, do not demand of the State Superin- 
tendent, and his Assistant, the most constant care and unceas- 
ing labor, then I confess I have yet to learn in what care and 
labor consist. 

In an address delivered by Prof. Daniel Read, now of our 
State University, before the Legislature of Indiana, in Dec, 
1851, he thus speaks of the importance of this office: " The 
question of who shall be the first State Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction of Indiana, concerns the character of the State, 
and its true and permanent prosperity, more, far, than who shall 
be the first Governor under the new Constitution, or who shall 
be the Supreme Judges, or who shall be our next United States 
Senator. If a man is to be selected chiefly because he belong 
to this sect or to that-sect, and I may say, to this or that politi- 
cal party, I shall regret any humble part which I may have 
had, in giving the office a permanent Constitutional existence. 
*' We want a man for this office glowing with enthusiasm on 
the great subject of popular education: one capable of awaken- 
ing in the breasts of others the same feelings which are fervid 
in his own; a man wise in counsel and efficient in action, of an 
industry which shall never tire, of amenity of manners and ad- 
dress, and a practical good sense which shall win the confidence 
of the people; a man who holds the pen of a ready writer, whose 
circul&TB and addresses to school officers and teachers, and 



176 

whose educational tracts for the people, shaU, as was said of 
those of Guizoty late Minister of Public Instruction in France, 
carry with them to every part of the State, the power of a con- 
stant personal presence and influence; a man who shall know 
all that elsewhere has been done, or is doih^, on the subject of 
education, but who shall possess that sound discriminating judg- 
ment which will point out what is best adapted to Indiana. 
Such a man we want for our Superintendent, and one, too, of a 
character too lofty for mere party or sectarian influences. 

" Where — where shall we find such a man ? We may filnd 
twenty men who would make good Governors, or Supreme 
Judges, or Senators, where we could not find one suited to this 
oflSce. Much, very much will, in my opinion, depend upon the 
first Superintendent — much of all our success in the great un- 
dertaking of universal education; besides he should be an exam- 
ple and a model to all who shall succeed him. 

"I here declare that, did I deem myself in any adeauate de- 
gree possessing the qualifications for this office, and were I 
ambitious of a name; did I wish to secure a standing and repu- 
tation in Indiana and out of it; a reputation which should cross 
the Atlantic, a reputation which should go down to posterity; 
above all, did I wish to be a public benefactor, and to have 
the blessings of the people of Indiana, old and young, male and 
female, resting upon my head, give me the office of Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction, rather, far rather, than offices which 
will be much more coveted. 

" Here allow me to say, to this officer let us give a compen- 
sation which will show in what estimation, as a people, we hold 
the office, and what we expect of the man holding it. Surely, 
he who holds this great trust, and superintends an interest 
dearer to us than all other earthly interests, and performs la- 
bors the most arduous that can task the powers of man, ought 
to be paid not less than we pay for superintending a canal. 

" In the choice of this officer, then, we are called as a people, 
to the exercise of one of the first, and most important duties, in 
regard to a system of general education. It is a duty, too, 
which will have a bearing upon all else that is done in this great 
concern." 

Hon. Caleb Mills, of Indiana, now a Professor in Wabash 
College, thus frankly spoke of the office of Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, in his last Annual Report, in January, 1857, 
on retiring from that office: " He must be permitted to say with 
all plainness, that there is nothing more disastrous to personal 
comfort and official success, than for that functionary to go forth 
to his work under the auspices of party triumph. If a strong 



lie 

and bitter partisan himself, he will awaken prejudice by his yery 
presence, provoke opposition by the mere recollection of the 
recent conflict, and soon discover his plans for progress more or 
less thwarted by influences originating in partisan intolerance. 
Even if his political antecedents have not created animosities, 
yet his party affinities will be sufficient, in the estimation of not 
a few, to entitle him to a cool reception, and to a heartless co- 
operation. While there may be noble exceptions to the above 
remark, yet the general tendency is all in that direction. Such 
are the proclivities of human nature, that we can scarcely ex- 
pect any other result. 

" Politics should have nothing to do with the selection of the 
candidate for Superintendent of Public Instruction. It should 
not intrude into the sacred precincts of education, nor lay its 
unsanctified hands on her ark. As well and wisely might it ar<> 
rogate the power and province of dictating who should be the 
reurious teacher of a community, as to claim the right of ap- 
plying political shibboleths to educational servants. If it 
would be the consummation of folly to make the school-master's 
political faith the basis of his employment, how much more un- 
wise and absurd to act on that principle, in the selection of the 
individual, who shall have the supervision of both the work and 
the workman ? Why subject that officer to such adverse influ- 
ences, why compel him to encounter and struggle with such re- 
lentless foes, why embarrass the work and unnecessarily impede 
the progress of an enterprise, which, by no inquisitorial torture, 
can DC made to assume a partisan character, or accomplish a 
partisan mission?" 

Speaking of the constitutional brevity of the official term of 
service of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Indiana, 
Prof. Mills adds : '^ It is a serious loss to the educational in- 
terests of the State, to be subject to such changes, as practi- 
cally deprive the commonwealth of all the benefits of the expe- 
rience of the Superintendent's two years' labor. Though the 
aforesaid term may be as long as the ceaseless toil and the un- 
remitting pressure of responsibility will make the office an 
object of desire to any one, who faithfully discharges its 
arduous duties, yet the State loses not a little by the witndraw- 
al from her service of the practical experience, mcility of labor, 
and minute acquaintance with the details of the system, neces- 
sarily involved in the changes incident to the aforesaid consti- 
tutional infelicity." 

Citing these views because I fully endorse them, I should be 
glad to see them put in practice in Wisconsin. Our Constitu- 
tion makes the office of State Superintendent elective by the 
people, and provides that his salary ^^ shall not exceed the sum 



of twelve hundred dollars annually," When ho shall be elect- 
ed, and iow long be sball seire, aro wisely left for the Legislft* 
tare to determine. Tbe fra^cr^ of our Conatitation, in order' 
to remoya tbe choieeof oi^ Supreme,- Circuit, and Gouiity 
Judges, as far as possible, from party inflaeaccs, provided that 
tbcir election Bboold not take plac« iu connection witb tbat of 
other State oEGcers; aqd our people have fully endorsed tbe 
visdom of this provision. The office of .State Superintendent- 
should be.eqiuilly kept aloof from party politics and party influ- j 
CDces. Were not the constitutional inhibition in the way, I j 
would' wish to see that officer chosen by a, Stato Soard of Edu- j 
cation for a period of three yoara, Aeatis, I would respect- J 
fully suggest, that his term of of£c$ be extended to three years, I 
and bis election take place at tbe tiqie of the spring Town meet- 
inga. In !N'ew York, the LeuiBlature elects by Joint ballot the 
Super intendeiit for a term of three years; in Pennsylvania, the 
Governor appoints tbo Superintendent for a term of three 
years ; in Omo, the people elect the School Commissioner for « 
term of three years; in Massac busette the State Board of Edu- 
cation annually elect their Secretary, whose office is the same 
as State'Superintendeiit elsewhcfe, but he is practically contin- 
ued during good behavior, without reference to party ohangea 
or influences; and in Upper Canada, the presentable anddistin- 

fuisbed Chief Superintendent o£ Public Instmatioo, Hon. - 
lOERTON RYskgo^, has, for tbe pa^t fourteen years, been con- 
tinued in office during aU the chimgea in tbe administrataon of 
the Province. • 

As I have always contended for the principle of paying pub- 
lic officers odeouate salaries, aod then holding them strictly ac- 
countable for tne honest and faithful performance of their duties, 
I have no hesitation in suggesting, for tbo benefit of those who 
may succeed me in tbe office, that tbe State Superintendent'a ' 
salary bo increased to tbe constitution!,! limit, 81,200 per an-' 
num, and that fho $600 allowed him per year for travehng ex- 
penses, be granted bim unconditionajly, for tbat purpose — the ' 
some OS the appropriation is made' to the G-ovcmor for visiting 
and inspecting the public institutions of our own and other 
States. California pays her Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion a yearly salary of $3,500; New York, $2,500; Louisiana, 
$2,000; Massachusetts, $1,900; Fenniiytvunia, $1,750; Ohio, 
Illinois, and Missouri, each $1,500; Ijidiaua, $1,300; Iowa, 
$1,200; and even lUiodo Islaqd, scarcely larger Id territory ' 
than the single county of Dane, pays &er State School Com- \ 
missioner $1,200. Yet here in Wisconsin, with labors and ' 
responsibilities not less arduous oi important than those of any - 
other civil or judicial officer in ti^ iStote, we pay our &tab« &%- 



H8f 

perintendent — ^w&o, in addition to his other mnltifariong duticg, 
serves, in all school mitters, as a Conrt of Appeals — a salary 
of only a thousand dollars a year, whil^ we pay the Governor s 
Private Secretary, Assistant Secretary of otate, and ^Assistant 
State; Treasurer, $1,200 per year; and our Supreme Court and 
Circmt Juges, ^2,500; the State Controller and Bank Con- 
troller, ea(£ $2,^000; and other State officers, in addition to 
1 their regular salaries, receive liberal perquisites. I think any 
Cfuidid man, who has any just knowledge of the duties of the 
several State officers, civil and judicial, will feel constrained to 
acknowledge that, excepting the Governor— whosie salary is so 
meagre as to be a standing disgrace to the State — the State 
Superintendent receives the least salary of them all. Whether 
' our diversified educational interests — " so unpretending/' said 
Silas Wriqht, "yet so all pervading — so little sfecn, yet so 
universally felt— so little feared or courted, yet so powerful '^ — 
whether these vast interests are of less importance, and hence 
require a less amount of talent and application, than those per- 
. tainin^ to State finance, banking interests, auditing accounts, 
and adjudging criminals, I leave for others to determine. 

The office of Assistant State Superintendent has in New 
York a salary of $1,600 attached to it; and in Pennsylvania, 
$1,400. Here, in Wisconsin^ we pay other Assistant State offi- 
cers $1,200 per year; and it is no disparagement to those faith- 
ful and wortny officers to say, whose salary is none too much 
for their responsible positions, that a dozen suitable men could 
be found to fill their places, while you would find one suitable 
to worthily fill the office of Assistant State Superintendent. 
Yet he is only allowed $800 per year. It should be $1,200, 
and I respectfully suggest, that it be increased to tliat amount. 

. Por clerk hire, the State Superintendent is allowed but $600 
per year. This is too small, by at least $200, for the amount 
of faithful labor the clerk is required to perform. New York 
and Pennsylvania pay the clerks m their School Department 
$1,000 each, and tnere are two in each State. I hone a reason- 
able increase in the salary of clerk will be choerftfly granted; 
for his present allowance is absolutely insufficient for the decent 
support of himself and family. 

I have thus endeavored to lay before the Legislature of Wis- 
consin a full, true, and faithful picture of our common school 
e({ucational interests in all their diversified* relations and 'bear- 
ings. In all the suggestions for the modification and improve- 
ment of our system, 1 haf e earnestly and steadily kept this oho 
leading idea in viewc *^The machinery of ;i school system,*' 
as justly asserted hy Hon.; Caleb Mills, one of the most de- 
voted Mid experijtxxce^ educated in this <^ountry^ ''should be 



simple in olutnuster, and eflfeetivein H" operation. Let there 
be no unneceaaary mnltiplieation of offices, but a concentrbtioD 
of dutiee and reaponsibitities, whidi will do more to render it 
Boccessfal than almost anything else. X/et these be clearly de- 
fined, and the manner of performing ao plain and aimple, that 
there can be no reasonable doubt of what is expected of all." 

Thna have I recommended the concentration of School Li- 
brariea into a single collection for each town, thus increasing 
their power for good six-fold, and lessening the nnmber of Li- 
braxians from nearly four thousand, if each district had one, to 
abont six hundred and fifty. Thus have I urged the adoption 
of the aystem of County Superintendents, and a County Ex- 
ftn ining Board, and the tdtal abrogation. of the district aystem, 
to be tupplanted by the simpler, cheaper, and more efficient 
Township system — thns while creatang abont 1,250 new school 
officers in the whole State, at the same time doing away with 
11,400 others, showing a clear diminution of over ten thousand 
officers; and providing for a more economical, more equal, and 
better grade of poblic education — better teachers, better gchool- 
houses, and better snperrision; and above all, cutting up by the ' 
roota the suicidal poncy of dividing and ensmalling districts, 
and leaving all to attend, freely, " without money and without 
price," whatever school should be most convenient to them, 
without regard to arbitrary district, township, or county lines. 
Thus, also, have I urged the concentratiwi of the management 
of the State University, the Normal Schools, and, to some ex- 
t^t, the Common Schoola, also, in a Single State Board of Ed- 
ucation, 80 as to adjust and harmonize the entire system of pub- 
lic education as a whole — and not parcel out these mighty inter- 
ests to different Boards, who inignt, and doubtless frequently 
would, entertain and put in practice ^i^^^i^^d, and perhaps 
even dashing, metkidfl of accomplishing the objects committed 
to their charge. * 

I have suggested and urged these rtforms because I have 
thought they were demaoded by thfi progressive spirit of the 
age, and by the earnest longings of the people. " Wherever," 
says Bancroft, " a permanent reform appears to hava been in- 
stantaneonsly effected, it will be found that the happy result 
was but the sudden plucking of fruit which had slowfy ripened. 
Succesaful revolutions proceed like all other formative processes 
from inward germa. The institutions of a people are always 
the reflcctioQ of its heart and its intelligence; and in proportion 
as these are purified and enlightened, must its public life mani- 
fest the dominion of universal reason. 

" The statesman^ whose heart has been purified by the \o've o^ 
his lund, and whoee parpoae, Bolenmiied by faiUi in the inmnAa^ 



180 

• 

bility of justice, seekB to apply every principle which former 
ages or his own may have ma!stered, and to make every advance- 
ment that the culture of his time will sustain. In a word, he 
will never omit an opportunity to lift his country out of the in- 
ferior sphere of its actual condition^ into the higher and better 
sphere that is nearer to ideal perfection. 

^' The course of civilization flows on like a mighty river 
through a boundless valley, calling to the streams from every 
side to swell its current, which is always growing wider and 
deeper, and clearer, as it rolls along. Let us trust ourselves 
upon its bosom without fear; nay, rather with confidence and 
joy. Since the progress of the race appears to be the great 
purpose of Providence, it becomes us all to venerate the fu- 
ture. We must be ready to sacrifice ourselves for our succes- 
sors, as thev in their turn must live for their posterity." 

That noble patriot, John Adams, when in nis eightieth year, 
observed in a letter to J^ffsbson: ^^ Education! oh, educa- 
tion ! the greatest grief of my heart, and the greatest affliction 
of my life! To my mortification, I must confess, that I have 
never closely thought, or deliberately reflected upon, the sub- 
ject, which never recurs to me now without producing a deep 
sigh, a heavy groan, and sometimes' tears." How sudi a con- 
fession, by such a man, should quicken the sensibilities, and 
nerve tne efforts aiid patriotism of every legislator, every public offi- 
cer, and every person connected in any manner wi& the maJking 
or executing our school laws, to redouble their energies in the 
noblest work in which, th^ can possibly be engaged. Let us 
all prayerfully adopt the oonseorated sentiment, and imitate its 
spirit and example, of the great Prussian School Counsellor, 
DiNTBR, who (Commenced his forty years of prodigious labors, 
seliT-denials and charitiei9> with this solenm engagement: <*I 
promised God that I would look upon every Prussian peasant 
child as a being who could complain of me before God, if I did 
not provide for him the best education, as a man and a Christian, 
it was possible for me to provide." 

LYMAN C. DRAPER, 

Svp*t. of Public InBtruction. 
Mabisok, Dec. 10th, 1858. 



EDUCATIONAL HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS. 



Obligations op Parents to Societt. — A parent who sends 
bis son into tbe world uneducated, does a CTeat injury to man- 
kind as well as to his own famtlv, for h6 defrauds tne conmnnity 
of a aeeful citiEen, and beqneatna to it a nuisanoe. — Chancellor 
Kent. 

A FoaCTBLE Troth Fobciblt Pdt. — Tie mobs, the riots, 
the bamings, the lyiKfbingB perpetrated by the men of the pres- 
ent day, are perpetrated because of their.. yioiouB or defective 
edacation when children. We see and feel the havoc and the 
ravage of their tiger passions ^low,' when they are full grown, 
bat it waa years ago when they wef e whelped and snclded. — 
Kent. 

StRIKTNO ThouOHT. — If poor children are not ^trained np in 
&te way they should go, they will certeinly be trained up in the 
way they should not go, and, in all probability, will persevere 
in it, and become miserable themselves an4 mischievous to soci- 
ety, which, in event, is worse, upon account of both, than if 
they had been exposed to perien in their in&ncy., — Siihop 
Sutler. 

Elevats thb MASBB3.^~The plan of this nation was not, 
and is not, to see how many individuals w« oan raise up, who 
shall be distinguished, but to see how hi^ by Free echools 
and Free Institutions, we can raiae the great masB of population, 
—Bev. John Todd. 

Education op a Threefold Character. — Education is the 
proper training of the whole man — the thorough and simmetri- 
cal cultivation of all his noble faculties. If, he were endowed 
with a mere physical nature, he would need^-he would receive 
— none but a phjsical training. On the other hand, \i Ve ■««« 



182 

a purely intellectual being, intdlectual culture would compre- 
hend all that could be included in a perfect education. And 
were it possible for a moral being to exist without either body 
or intellect, there would be nothing but the heart or affections to 
educate. But man is a complex and not a simple being. He is 
neither all body, nor all mind, nor all heart. In popular lan- 
guage, he has three natures, a corporeal, a rational, and a moral. 
These three, mysteriously united, are essential to constitute a 
perfetrtman; ind a0< they ^11 begin to expand in rerV early 
childhood, the province of education is to watch and assist, and 
shape the development; to train and strengthen, and discipline 
neither of them alone, but each according to its intrinsic and 
relative importance. — President Humphrey. 



Value op PhysiOloqical Knowledge. — Every person 
should be acquainted with the organization, structure ana func- 
tions of his own body — the house in which he lives: He should 
know the conditions of healthy and the causes of the numerous 
diseases that flesh is heir to, in order to avoid them, prolong his 
life, and multiply his means of usefulness. If these things are 
not otherwise learned, they should be taught;— the elemenjts of 
them, at least---in our primary schools. — l>r. Combe. 



, Meke CuLTrvATiON OP Intelt*ect not SuppiciEifT. — Most 
inen leave out, or regard as of very little importance, some of 
the essential elements of a good- education. They seem to for- 
get that the child has a conscience and a heart to be educated, as 
well as an intellect. If . they do not lay too much stress on 
mental culture, which, indeed, is hicrdly possiblei, they lay by 
far too little upon that which is moral ana religious. They ex- 
pect to elevate the child to his proper station in society^-to 
make him wise and happy — an honest man — a virtuous citizen 
and a good patriot, by furnishing him with a comfortable schooir 
house, suitable class Dooks, competent teachers, and, if he is 
poor, paying his quarter bills, wnile they greatly underrate, if 
they do not entirely overlook, that high moral training, without 
which knowledge is the power of doing evil rather than good. 
It may possibly nurture up a race of intellectual giants, but 
Ukc tne sons or Anak, they will be far readier to trample down 
the Lord's heritage than to protect and cultivate it. — President 
Humphrey. 



Children Must be Trained Somewhere. — Let it be borne 
in mind, that all the children in every community, will be edu- 



eated somewhere and aomehow; and (hat it devolvea npoa citi' 
lens and parents to detenniao whether the! children of tbfl.pres- 
ent generation shall rccnve their training in the tchool-Aouat 
OT in the ttreeta; and if ia thofonuer, whether la good or pooi^ 
schools. — Prof. Sfayheto, Superintendent |/ PtMic In»inu^ 
1i<m,Miehiga-^. 

The WoaK op Eddcation. — I fear we do not fully reBlise 
irhat is meant when we spe^k oOho improvement of the mind. 
I fear it is not vet enough considered by legislators or parents, 
that there dwells in CTery rational being, an intellect endowed 
with a portion of 'thb faculties which form theglorj and happi- 
ness of our nature, Sind which, developed and exerted, are the 
BOQTce of all that makes man to difffer essentially from the clod 
of the valley. Neglected and uncultivated, depriTod of its ap- 
propriate nourishment, denied the discipline mich is necesaarj^ 
to its healthy growth, this divine principle ell but expires, and 
the man whom it was sent to enlighten sinks down, oefore liis 
natural death, to his kindred dust. Trained and instructed, 
strengthened by ffi^e dJtcipUne, and giitidpd by pure principle, 
it ripens into an intelligence but a little lower than the angels. 
This is the worth of education. The early years of life are 
the period when it must cdmmouly b& obtained; and, if thi^ 
opportunity is lost, It is too often a loss which nothing can r&. 
pair. — Eaicard Mvereit. ' . 

Cultivate the Moral Nature.— Keepinjj all the while in 
view the object of popular education, the fitting of the people, 
by mora/ as well as.iatellectual diacipline, for self-govenunent,no 
one can doubt that any. system of instnlction which overlooka 
the training and : improving of the moral faculties, must be 
wretchedly and fatally defective. So &r from crime and mere 
intellectnal cnltivation being dissociated In history and statis- 
ticB, we flAd , thctn, unhappily, old acquaintances and tried 
friends. To neglect the . moral powefs in education i« to educate 
not quite half the man. To cultivate the intellect only is to 
unhinge the mind and destroy the balance of the mental pow- 
ers; it is to light up a recess, o?i,ly the better to see how dark it 
■ is. And if this is all that ie done in popular education,, then 
nothing, literally nothing, ia done toward establishing popula* 
virtue, and forming a moral people. — Son. Daniel D. Barnard. 

Education Dissipates thb Etils op lasoEAircB. — Igno- 
rance is one principal cause of the want of virtue, and of the 
immoralities which abound in the world. Were we to Ukk.% & 



'iB4 

rarrey of tbe moral state of the world, as delineated in the his- 
tory of nations, or as depicted by modem vpyagcrs. and travel- 
lers, we should find, in almost every instance, that i^orance 
of th« character of the true Qod, and ("ajae conceptions of the 
nature of the worship and service he requires, have led, not 
only to the most obscene practices and immoral abominations, 
hut to the perpetration of the most horrid cruelties. — Dr. 

mck. 

Educatiok Increases the Pro»ucxivene88 ot Labor.— 
Education boa a power of ministering to our persoaal and ma- 
terial wants beyond all other sgeaciCB, whether excellence of 
climate, spontaneity of production, nuncroil resources, or niiaes 
of silver and gold. Every wise parent — every wise communicy, 
desiring the prosperity Qf. it« children, even in the most worldly 
vense^ will spare no pains in giving them a g^erous education. 

MoJTET Value of Inthlliobscb.— In proportion aa man's 
intelligence increases, is his labor more valuable. A small 
feompcoBntion is the reward of mere physical power, while skill, 
Combioed with a tfrod'erate' amonnt ot strength, (iommiinds high 
ftges. The lahot" of an ignorant man ia scarcely more valnawe 
than the same amount of brute force;' titit the Services of an 
intelligent, skillful person afC '& htindred fold more productive. 
~~Prof. Mayhew, 

The Superioritt of the Educated.— The hand is found to 
^0 another hand, when guided by an intelligent mind. Xndividu- 
als, who, without the aid of knowledge, would have Dcen con- 
demned to perpetual inferiority of condition, and subjected to 
all the evils of want and poverty,- riso to competence and inde- 
pcudonce by the uplifting power of education. In ^eat estab- 
lishments, and among large bodies of laboring men, where all 
services are rated according to their pcquniary- valuc—r-where 
there arc no extrinsic circumstances to bind a man down to a 
fixed position, after he has shown w capacity to rise above it— 
where, indeed, men pass by each other, asoending or descending 
in their grades of laoor, just aa easily an^ certainly us particles 
of water of different dc^^rccs of temperature glide hy each other 
— under such circumstances it is found, as an almoat invariable 
fiict, other things being'equal, that those who have been blessed 
with a good common school educatioi), rise to a. higher and a 
higher poiat in the Icinils of labor performed, and also in the 



186 

• • . ■ • .,...■ 

rat^ of wages received, irhiie the Igiitfmit sink like dregfl, a^iid 
are always found at the beitom.-^Jri^^/. Mofphew. 



It IB THfe IftbkSst op Piiotiienr'Tb fiptqATB All.— prop- 
erty is deeply intererted lli the education of all^. ihere' is no 
farm, tto baink,'no mil!,' no rihop-^nnless it be a grbg-8li9p^ 
which i^ not toorri Valuable and ni()re profitablo to its owner^ if 
loeated among a well educiated, thiElii if surifouhde<i by an Ignor 
rant pcjpulatioh; Sfhnplt/ as a mdtie^ of mi^esLm K6l<i %t to 
be the duty of Pfopbrty to ii^etf to ^prdvida EdueaUo^ All. 
— Horade GHreele^. 

EnuoATiox THS i?AKS]^x 09! A^i|TB][UAL. RiiOHBs.-— A masis 
of f^cts, collQctedby Horaoe' Mann froi^ ithe xjiiosfc auitbehtie 
sources, seem to prove ancont^tably tHat education is not only 
a moral renovator^ and a muItipUpr of intellectual pdw^r, but 
that it is also ^he most !prp|ific parent of material rkhes. It 
has a right, tl^erefora^ not only to be in(?lucljed in the grand in- 
ventoipy of a. nation's resourxjei, , but to be placed at the very 
head of that inyento^. . Xt i/s notj only the* most honeist tod 
honorable, but the. surest njie^s of amassing :pr0perty.:, Ooa- 
sidering educataoiii . then> a^ a pr9dncer of wealth> ii fbllowft tfatlb 
the mpre educated a peopl^ firoi ^W mor^^jthey will .aWted- in 
all those cony^ences, comforts aqid satisftictions^ which mobey 
will buy; a^d, other things b[eia^ equal, the if^crtSMt of. combe^ 
tency and the decline of paupert$m mil be measurable '■ on Mi 
scale. — Prof MayUew, 



■t-i— I. 



Thb Gs&iiOF GltiMC.-^Ho is no more physically blisd, or 
bereft of his natural senses, who cannot iee^ a culpiit in the 
hands of a sherifiFi or ^ criminai court, with its officers, or a 

S risen with its aniaed guards, il^an he is^ ino/ally Iblind who 
oes not see criminal mimhood in n^lbcted childhooii.-^f or^etdi? 
Mann. . _ . 



^PUCATIOSTt DlMINISHJSS pA.UPJBRjUflC A^J> CB(MB^r— Bduoa4ton 

is to be regarded as one of the n^ostimpprfant means' of eradi- 
catinjg the germs of panperiamirom t^e'nsinggeperatioi^,andof 
securing in the mina^ and in the mora^^ of #0 people^ ^ beet 
protection for the ii^stitii(.tixms of souiety.-^JSngUtk Meport to 
Some Departinent. 



How Edtjcation DtJOKisHEs CiltME. — Great as is he^ poor 
tax, New York contributes annually an immensely gteaiet «uxa. 
24a 



186 

■ -V 

for the support of her criminal police; for the erection of court 
•houses, appia jailSy and penitentiariei^ and-bouBei of oorrtetion; 
for the arrest, trial, conyiction, punishknont ^ of craininals, and 
for their support in prison, and at the various landing places on 
their way to the ^Ilpws, and to a prei^iature and ignominious 
death. Kqw, had one half of the mou^y which this State has ex* 
pended in flies^ two ways been judiciously bestowed in the qarly 
edii6d*tion of these unfortunate persons, who ct^n question that 
the pbor and criminal io^xes of that State would have b^ea re* 
ddcecl to less thaii one tenth pf whati they now are, to. say noth- 
ing of the fpiintains of tears that would thus be\ dried- up,^ and 
tdf the untold happiness that would be enjoyed, by p^sons who, 
in every generation, lead cheerless lives ana die ignoble deaths ? 
Lest some persons may labor under an erroneous impressjfon 
in relation to this subject, I will give the sta^iistics of Education 
and crime in New York, as derived from official reports, for the 
last few years. Of eleven hundred and twenty-two persons — 
the whole number reported by the sheriffs of the different coun- 
ties of tbie dtate as under c^nvictibh and punishment for crim^ 
during the year' i847 — tw^njky-t^o only had a common 
education, ten only had a tolerably good education, lund 
only six were «?^ZZ educated. ' Of the ttiirteen hundred and 
forty-five criminals s6 returned in the several counties of 
the SMSq for the year 1848, tweity-three only had a common 
school education, thirteen only had a tolerably <good education, 
and only ten were censidered well educated ! ' The returns tot 
other years give like results . Had the ' w'hole eleven or thirteen 
hundred of these convicts been wdl educated instead only of 
six or ten — and the moral and religious education of even these 
was defective — ^how many of thcffi^ould society be called upon 
to support in prisons andi penitentiaries ? In all probability, as 
WQ shall hereafter^ I hope^ be able to show, not b^s. And 
what is true. of thd t\iy and connty of Philadelphia and of the 
St«U;e of New* York, wiU' apply to other cities, counties and 
States of .this TJlaion* — Pr^^ maykew. 



Striking Results. — The different countries in the world, if 
arratigeid according to the State of education in them, will be 
found to be arranged also according to wealth, morals and 
GBNBRAii HAPPiNfiSfr; ht the sAtij6 time, the condition of thb 

PBOPLfl, AND THE B!STBW;6f ORlMS AND yl()Ii:BNCE AMONG THEM, 

FOLtiOW A likb ORDBRi — National Educdti&n^ ly Fred. Hill. 



The Education Requisite for the. People.— The educa- 
tion reguired for the people is that which will give them the 



,187 

full cpmioaiid of every , faculty, both of mind and of body; 
which will call into play their |)0wers of observation and reflec- 
tion; which will make thinking and reii^onable beings of. the 
mere creatures of impulse, nrejudioe and passion;, that which 
in a mordl sense will give tnem objects of pursuits and l^abits 
of conduct favorable to their own happinedS, and to that of the 
community of which they will form a part; which, by multiply- 
ing the means of rational and*ihtelleotutol enj6yment, ^ill -di- 
minisb the temptations of -vice and sensualUy; wliich^ iii f^e 
social relationit 6f life^ and asicoinnected with obiects of'Iejgis- 
lation, will teach them the identity of the individual with the 
general interest; that which, in the physical sciences, — especi- 
ally those of chemistry and mechanics, — ^^wiU make them mas- 
ters of the secrets of nature, and give them powers w:hich eyen 
now tend to elevate the modems to a higher rank thq^n thtit 
of the demi-gods of antiquity. All this, and more, should \>^ 
embraced in that scheme of education whicl^ would bd 
worthy of statesmen or of a great nation, to receiye; aid the 
time is near at hand, when thc^ at'ti^mehti ' of an object,, thus 
comprehensive in its character,^ and leading to results, the prac- 
tical benefits of which it is impossible for even the imagination 
to exaggerate, will not be considered a Ut()pian scheme.-^ TFi^^- 
minster Heview, 



Political Necessity op NatioKal EnucATipK.r-T-In piro^ 
portion as public opinion gives force to the struqture of gov- 
ernment, it is essential that public opinion should be -enlight- 
ened. — Washington. . ' 

I do not hesitate to affirm, not on\y that a.knowkd^ of the 
true principles of government is important and useful to Amer- 
icans, but that it is absolutely indispensable to carry on, the 
government of their choice, and to transnrifittotheirpoijtpri[i;y. 
— Judge Story. 

The stability of this government requires that universal edu- 
cation should precede universal suffrage. — Prof. Mayhew. 



Education an Insurance of Propbrxt. — The people do 
pot yet seem to see, that. the intelligence and the morality 
which education cto impart, is that beneficent kind of insurance 
which, by jpreventing losses, obviated' the necessity <>f indemni- 
fying for them; thus saving the premium and risk. 

W hat is ingulfed in the vortex of critoe, in each generation, 
would build a palace of more than oriental splendor in every 
school district in the land; would endow it with a library be- 



• » ' ■ • 

yond tliQ abilitj of & life-time to read; would supply it with 
aparatiis and-laboratorics for the illustratiou of every study 
and exemplification of every art, apd munificently requite the 
service&i of teachers worthy to preside in such a sanctuary of 
intelligence and virtue. — Soraee Mann. 

■ ' ■ ■'*■' 

tviFiiUENCS OP AN Ignora'nt Man. — To send an uneducated 
child into the world is injurious to the rest of mantkind; it is 
littler better tban to turii a mad dog or a ifild beaidt into the 
streets. — Pdley. 



DuTt OF T&s State to Educate. — ^In Prussia it is said 
thit every child is " due to the school/' Here it may be laid 
down>s one of our social principles, that, as the best services 
ot djQ her children are due to the State, so it is the duty of the 
State to bring out, to their fullest extent, all the talents mid 
powers for good, of all her children. — Sm. Thoma$ S. JSur^ 

roivesy fi>rm^rly Supt, of Pvh. Instruction of Penn. 

• 

I 

ClhiTiVATE THE MiNOR MoRALS. — Cleanliness of peri^on, 
decency of conduct and propriety of manners, are as essetitial 
to the comfort and happiness of the social state, as a cultivated 
intellect and a well ordered store- of j^ractical knowledge are to 
inflivi&al su'cces6. When regarded m thef r relation to society, 
those degencife, which have been aptly denominated " the minor 
itrorals," rise at once to importance, and demand the utmost 
care at the hands of those to whom the training of the youth of 
a iiountry iBintPtiB^ted.^^Burrowes. 






!l!^E Blessing o;p Fb^eb Schools^ — When the rich man is 
called from the possession of his treasures, he divides them, as 
he will, among his, children and heirs. But an equal Providence 
deals' not so with the living. treasures of the mind. There are 
children just growing up in the bosom of obscurity, in town and 
in country, who have inherited nothing but poverty and health, 
wiiowill, in i few years, be striving in generous c6ntendon 
with the great intellects of the land. Our system of free sohoolfli 
ha|3 opened a straight way from the threshold of every abode, 
howeyer humble, in the tillage or in the city, to the higti placed 
of usefulness, iikflteo^e and hopor*. And. it is left for eatoh, by 
the^ultivation of eVery talent; by watching with an eagle's eye, 
for, every chtoce of improvement; by bounaing forward, like a 
greyhound, at tb^ moist distant glimpse of honorable opjportu- 
-Q^'4r/ bjr redeeming time, defying temptation, and scorning 




sensual pleasure, to make h,imself useful, honor.ed, and happj. 
— Edward Everett. • 



A MoHSNTOUS RE8PON.sxBiLitY.--n-I7nder the soundest and 
most yigorous system of education Trhich we ctin now commahd, 
what proportion, or per-centage, of all the children who are 
bom can oe made. useful and exemplary men, honei9t dealers, 
conscientious j\(rors, true witnesses, incorruptible voters or, 
magistrates, good parents, ^ood neighbors, good members of 
society ? In other words, with our present knowledge of the 
art and science of education, and wiw such new fhut of experi- 
ence as time may be expected to bear, what proportion, or per- 
centage, of all the chilcbren must be pronounced irreclaimable 
and irredeemable, notwithstanding the most vigorous education- 
al efforts which, in the present state of society, can be put forth 
in their behalf? 

What proportion, or per-ccntage, must become drunkards, 
profane swearers, detractors, vagabonds, rioters, cheats, thieves, 
aggressors upon the rights of property, of person, of reputa- 
tion, or of life ? 

In a single phrase, what proportion must be guilty of such 
omissions of right, and commissions of wrong, that it would 
have been better for the community had they never been bom ? 
This is a problem which the course of events has evolved, and 
which society and the government must meet. — Horace Mcmn. 



Better than Soil, oe Climate, or Government.— That 
vast variety of ways, in which an intelligent people surpass a 
stupid one, and an exemplary people an immoral one, has infin- 
itely more to do with the well-being of a nation, than soil, or 
climate, or even than government itself, except so far as gov- 
ernment may prove to be the patron of intelligence and virtue. 
— Horace Mann. 



GoD-LiKE Powers op Intellect. — ^Lb Verribr, the discov- 
erer of the planet JS'entune, wrote a letter to Galle, of Berlin, 
in which he said: ^^ Tnis star no one has seen, but it exists. I 
have measured its distance. I have estimated its size. I have 
calculated its diameter. It is there. Look for it, and you 
will find it." He looked — it was discovered from the observar 
tory of Berlin, on the 2drd of September, 1846, juBt where the 
student^ in his eloeety had told the practical Astronomer to 
look ! 



A Fearful Responsibility. — If, with saoh educational 
means and resources as we can now command, eighty, ninety, 
ninety-five, or ninety-nine per cent, of all children can be 
made temperate, industrious, frugal, conscientious in all their 
dealings, prompt to pity and instruct ignorance, instead of ridi- 
culing it, and taking advantage of it, public-spirited, philan- 
thropic, and observers of all things sacred; if, 1 say, any given 
Eortion of our children, by human efforts, and by such a divine 
lessing as the common course of God's providence authorizes 
us to expect, can be made to possess those (qualities, and to act 
from them; tlion, just so far as our posterity shall fall below 
this practical exemption from vices and crimes, and just so far 
as toey shall fad to possess these attainable virtues, just so far 
will those who frame and execute our laws, shape public opinion, 
and leadjpublio action, be criminally responwiole for the differ* 
ence, — Horace Mann, 



Love op Chtldren.— Ho is not worthy to have the care of 
children, either as officer or teacher, whose heart does not 
yearn toward them with parental fondness and solioitude.-7- 
Horace Mann, 



Children's Time FOR Education. — It would be more ra- 
tional £0 talk about not affording seed corn, than to taclk about 
not affording our children as much of their time as is necessary 
for their education. What ! shall a man plant his field, and 
allow his child's intellect to run to weeds ? It would be as wise 
to cat up all the wheat, and sow the husks and the chaff for 
next year's crop, as, on a principle of thrift, to spw ignorance 
and its attendant helplessless and prejudices in your children's 
minds, and expect to reap an honorable and a happy manhood. It 
would .be better husbandry to go, in the . summer, and clatter 
with a hoe in the bare gravel, where nothing was ever sown, 
but the feathered seed of the Canada thistle, which the west 
wind drops from its sweeping wings, and come back, in autumn, 
and expect to find a field of yellow grain nodding to the aickle, 
than to' allow ypur so^i to grow up without Useful knowledge, 
ai^d expect that he. will sustain himself with ' respectability in 
life, or^ if consid^riktion ijiust be had of self-interest — prop and 
comfort vour decline. Nqt pp6xe oui^ children's time ! Spare 
it, I 'might aek you, from what ? Is anything mobe important ? 
Spare it for what ? Can it be better employed than ih that cul- 
tivation of thd mind which will vastly increase the value of 
every subsequent hour of life? And to confine them in 'the 
iDoming of their days, to a round of labor for the meat that 
perlsbeib, ia it Dot, when our childxeiL aek tot \iT^^d, to give 



' .. I l' 



191 

them a stone ? When they ask for a fish, to give them a ser- 
pent, which will sting our bosoms as well as theirs ? — Edward 
Everett. 



Education the Gre;at Question-— I may safely appeal to 
every person who. hears me, and whp is in the habit of reneoting' 
at all on the character of the age in which we live, whether, 
next to what directly concerns tn^ eternal welfare of man, there 
is any subject whicn he deems of more vital importance than 
the great problem, how the whole people can be best educated. 
If the answer of the patriot a^nd statesman to this appeal were 
doubtful,! might still more saifely inquire of every considerate 
parent who hears me, whether the educiition of his children, 
their education for time and eternity — for, as fax as human means 
are concemed,^ these objects are intimately connected — is not 
among the things which are first, last, and most anxiously upon 
his mind. — Edward Everett. 



Compulsory Education. — I hold that the State has a right 
to compel parents to take advantage of the means of educating ' 
their onildren. If it can punish them for crime, it should have 
the power of preventing , tnem from committing it, by giving • 
them- the habits* and the educf^tion that are the surest sa&guards. 
— Hon. Jonah Quincy. 

The Rbdbbming Power of Common Schools. — If all bur 
Bchoola were under the charge of teachers possessing what I 
regard as the right intellectual and moral qualifications, and if 
all the children of the community were brought under thfe influ- 
ence of these schools for ten monthd in the year, I think that 
the work of trikining up the whole community to intelligence 
and virtue would be accomplished as coim)letely as any human 
end can be obtained 'by human means. — Mev, Jacob jS>bott. 

■ ■ • 

Necessity of ISIoral Education. — The exaltation of talent^ : 
as it is called, ahpye religion and virtue, is the cUrso of (the age. 
Education is now chiefly a stimulus to learning, and thus men 
acquire power, wtthotit the principles which aloiiie make it good. 
Talent IS worshipped; bui if divonced from , reotitud^, it will 
prove more of a aempn than ft god,--r(7Aannw^. «. 



«;> I < 



D«rY oip PAR'iiNfs.— Tbat pajr^'ii who rtefusos to ,p^irt't4^...v. 
children to the school eijiiabHsWd i-AA opened in hia ne\^ia\iOT- 
hood, daP5 to those children a cruel injustice, and commV>% «• 



192 

'.' i. 

flagrant wrong upon the community and the State. — Governor 
Briffga. 



I . < 



A Striking Picture. — Were wo to visit all the Primary 
Schools of the commonwealth, we sHould be sure to find nearly 
all* the miniBters, lawyers, physicianB, judges, legislators, pro- 
fesBors and other teachers, merchants, manufactuk*ers„ ana, in 
short, aJI the most intelligent, active and useful men o^ the n.ezt 
generation in these schools. We canqot now point' them out by 
name. We cannot toll who of th^jm ^ will do gpVenxorB and 
judgesj and merchant princes, but they are all there. 

They are receiving the rudimeh'ts of their education under 
such teachers as we pronde for them, and in the period of life 
when the most lasting impressions arc made. I will venture to 
Bay, more ii done^ during the first ten or twelve years ^ in the 
humble district sehoohhousej to ^e tone txnd sHctpe to tJ^ pop- 
ular mind^ than in all the years that follow: — President Aim-' 
phrey. 

An Answer to those who Murmur at the School Tax. 
-rFor the support of our State Government msiny of u$ pay, 
in the course of years, large sums of taxation, foir which we 
personally receive little benefit. I know not how mucli 1 may 
nave paid during the last thirty years^for the judiciary adn^inis- 
tration of the laws; yet I have never availed myself of the Courts 
as a means of obtaining personal rustice. And there are many 
citizens who never had a case in Court, adid p^haps never will 
have.. Yet we all cheerfully submit to taxation for the support 
of the Judiciary Department, because the public good is Bup- 
posed to re(}uire it. We volufitarilir act on this unselfish and 
philanthromc principle in all our religious and charitable asso- 
ciatiomf. We buila churches, employ and pay religious teach* 
ers, and support religious instatutiond, not for our own personal 
benefit. We usually fieuicy we can be devotional and religions 
in our own quiet way.. But the good of society requires expen- 
sive organizations for religious purposes, and we are all wiuiog 
to bear olor part. 

.These principles of sacrifice of selfishness-r-of submission to 
taxation of some kind for the public good^ — must lie at the foun- 
dation of every form of civilized society, on earth. If we pro- 
scribe the principle, we must go back to a state of natural 
society — to barbarism-^o savage independence. Our people 
are a liberal, a generous, a magnanimous people, and when the 
general interests of public education in the State require 9iiiie 
esczT^e from the more suQCQssful individuals in favor of the 



193 

poorer families, who will hesitate to act the part which honor 
and magnanimity re(juire? — JBTow, W. C. Larrabee^ State Su- 
perintendent of Indiana, 

Argument for the Payment of School Taxes. — Some 
persons who a<e willing to paj taxes in proportion to their prop- 
erty, for general Slate purposes, object to any species of taxa- 
tion for educational purposes. This objection is founded on a 
radically wrong notion of the relation of the children, and the 
education thereof, to the State. The State, within Constitu- 
tional limits, has soTereign power over the property within its 
jurisdiction. The children within the State are, in a certain 
sense, the children of the State. The State taxes her property 
for the education of her children, not for thet personal interest of 
the children, nor for the interest of their pp^p^ts, but for her 
oien intere%t% as a State, This is the American idea, and who- 
ever cannot become reconciled to this idea, had better emigrate 
to some other country. — Hon. W. C. Larrabee. 

A Home Thrust. — You say you have no children to educate^ 
and why should you he taxed to educate the children of your 
neighbors f So, perhaps, you have no occasion to travel over a 
particular country road, and why should you be taxed to build 
it ? You have no csSe in court, why then should you be taxed 
to build the court house, or pay the salary of tiie Judge ? You 
have no criminals of your own family to try, and jbo put in jail^ 
why then should you oe taxed to pay the expenses of trying 
criminals raised by your neighbors, and to build jails to hold 
them? 

You answer, the good of society requires court-houses and 
courts. So does the good of society require school-houses and 
schools. You say that the good of society requires that crim- 
inals should be tried and punished. So does the good of society 
require children to be educated. The criminal, you say, is not 
tried and piyiished for his own benefit, or the benefit of his 
family, so much as for the protection of society. ■ So, the child 
is not educated so much for his own benefit, or the benefit of his 
family, as for the protection and good of society. -^^07>. W> 
C, Larrabee. 



I 



For those who Object to the School Tax. — A gentleman 
was complaining to me of his School Tax. He said ^^ he had 
educated fais own children at his oum expense, and yet he was 
annually paying tax to educate others." I told him he was in- 
directly compensated four-fold for all his expendiluxe. "EL^ 
ridiculed the idea. Said I, there are two farms o{ one \i\&jidcce^ 

25 



191 

acres ^ch; intrinsically of the same yalne. One is located in 
an intelligent and virtuous community, the other in Heathen- 
dom, or where ignorance and vice prevail. How much more 
would you give, per acre, for the former than the latter ? " Ten 
dollars,*' said he. The interest on one thousand dollars.is aixty 
dollars per annum — ^your school tax is six dollars. Tour com- 
pensation is ten-fold. The argument was conclusive. — J. V. 
CHbson*8 Report. 

YouNa Children should not bs Confined. — It would be 
infinitely bettef and wiser to employ suitable persons to super- 
intend the exercises and amusements of children, under seven 
years of age, in the fields, orchards and meadowy, and point out 
to them the richer beauties of nature, than to havtj tnem im- 
mured in crowded school-rooms, in a state of inaction, poring 
over torn books 'aM primers, conning words of whose meaning 
they are ignorajit, and breathing foul air. — Dr. Caldwell. 

Frequency OF Recess. — A law' of' the muscular syitem 
requires that relaxation and contraction should alternate, oc, in 
other words, that rest should follow exercise. In accordance 
with this law, it is easier to walk than to stand; and in standing, 
it is easier to change from one foot to the other than to stand * 
:8till. This explains why small children after sitting awhile in 
school become restless. Proper regard for this organic law 
requires that the smaller children be allowed a recess as often, 
at least, as once an hour; and that all be allowed and encour* 
aged frequently to change their position. — Prof. 3Iayhew. 

Effects of Bad Ventilation in Schools. — Both irrita- 
bility of the nervous, system and dullness of the intellect arc 
unquestionably the direct and necessary result of a want of 
pure air. The vital energies of the pupils are thus prostrated, 
and they become not only restless and indisposed to stxidy^ but 
absolutely incapable of studying. Their muids hence wander, 
and they unavoidably seek relief in mischievous aM disorderly 
conduct. This doubly provokes the already exasperated 
teacher, who can hardly look with complaisance upou 
ffood behaviour, and who, from a like cause, is in the same 
irritable condition, of both body and mind, with themselves. 
He, too, must needs give vent f o his irrascible feelings somehow. 
And what is moi'e natural, under such circumstances, than to 
resort to the use of the ferule, the rod and the strap ? — Prof, 
Mayhew.. 



Valitb of Vocal Music tn ScS6oLg".-^I'h(»re introdude 
a fact wMch has beea suggested to me by mj profession, and 
that is, that the exeroisp of the organs of the breast, by singing, 
contributes very mneh'to defend. them ft'om those diseases to 
which the climate and other caused expose fhem. l!hie Genoans 
are seldom afflicted with consumption, nor have !• ever known 
but one instance of spitting blooa amons them. ThtSj IbeUevCy 
is in part occasioned by the strength which their lungs acquire 
by exercising them frequently in vocal musicy for this constitutes 
an essential branch of their education. — Dr. Rush. 



Evils of Badly Constructed School Furi^ituub. — 
There is a radical defect in the seats of our. school-rooms. 
Malformation of the bones, narrow chests, cou^s, ending in 
consumption, and death in middle life, besides a multitude of 
minor ills, have their origin in tho school-room. To the badly 
constructed seats and writing desks, are we to look, in some 
ineasure, for .the ijause of so many distortions of the bones, 
spinal diseases arid chronic Jlifections, now so. prevalent through- 
out the country. — Dr. J. V. 0. Smith. ' 



Act Upon It. — High and narrow seats arenot only extremely 
uncomfortable for the young scholar, tendingV^onstantly to make 
him restless and noisy, disturbing his temper and preventing his 
attention to his books, but they have a direct tendency to pro- 
duce deformity of liis limbs. Seats without backs have an * 
equally unfavorable influence upon the spinal cdltimn. If no 
rest is afforded tho backs of the children while seated, they 
almost necessarily adsunc a bent and crooked position. Such a 
po8ition,often assumed and long continued, tends to that deformity 
which has become entremely common among children of modem 
times, and leads to diseases of the spine in innumerable instances, 
especially #yith delicate female children. — Dr. WooJtward. 

i> ■■ ■ 

On Imparting Collateral Knowledge.— We cannot re- 
mind teachers too often of the signal benefits they may confer 
upon their pupils, by communicMLting collateral Knowledge to 
them; — that is, such knowledge as is directly eciniiected with 
the subJQct of their lessons, though rarely, if ever, found in ti 
text-book, This practice should be commenced with a child the 
first day he enters the school room, and should never be discon- 
tinued until the day when, for the last time, he leases il. " 

The whole Vasiness of th(5 school room, from moTOixig, \S\ 
nlgbt, Bbould, in this waj, he made attractive and pToftA»Xi\e> 



Children do love infonnation which ia adapted to their capaci- 
ties, and they will desire to g^ There it can be found, as natu- 
rally as bee^ to flowers.' An absurd objection is sometimes 
ursed against sach a conrae; namely, that it nill only amuse 
children, tnm what should bo toil into pastime, anA create a 
disrelish for close, pains-takinx, solitary application. This ob- 
jection is theoretic, merely, {t ia never made by those who 
have tried the experiment. It is urged only by such as are too 
ignorant or. too indolent to make the necessary preparation, 
^ot oitly reason, hut experience, proves that it is the best pos- 
sible means of kindling a deeire for knowledge in the bosoms of 
the young; and when uiis .desire is once kindled, the teacher 
has only to direct the car instead of dragging it. — Horace 
Mann. 

Tme Teacher's Mission. — Do not undervalue the import- 
ance of jour jnission. Although the career of a primary teach- 
er is without ec'af— although his cares are aoa£ned to, and his 
days spent in, the narrow circle of a country pariah — his labors 
interest society at large, and his profession participates ia the 
importance and dignity of a great public duty. It is not for 
the sake of a parish only, nor for the mere local interests, that 
the law with that fvery native of France shall acquire the 
knowledge n^ceesary to ipcial and civilized life, without which 
human intelligence sinks into stupidity, and often into brutality. 
It is for the sake of the State also, and for the interests of tne 
public at laree. It is because liberty can never be certain and 
complete, unless among a people anfficiently enlightened to listfoi 
on every emeo-eency to the voice of reason. 

.Univerfial edueation is henceforth one of the guarantees of 
liberty, and social etability. As every principle in our Govern- 
ment js founded on justice and reason, to diffuse education 
among the people, to developa their understandings, and en- 
lighten their minds, is to streng^en our constitntional goTtm- 
ment, and seoure itp stability. So penethatcd, then, with ihe 
in^Mrtance of your missioD. Let its utility be ever present to 
your minfl in the discharge of the difficult duties vitieh it im- 
poses on you. — Af. Ouizot, long Minister of Public Imtrue- 
tion in Jrrance. 

Vai,u£ or Eddoatioh. — Education makes the maB;''tbtit 
alone is the parent of every virtue; it is the most saered, tnp 
most usefal, and, at the same time, the most neglected thing m 
every country.— Jtfon*««jt«'ew. . 



No Fbeedom wiiHOUT iNTELLiGBircE. — If a natiw expects 
to be ignorant §ind free in a state 'of civilization, it expects what 
neTer was, and never will be. The functionaries of every gov» 
emment have propensities to command at will the liberty and 
property of their constituents. There is i^o safe deposit for 
these but with the people themselves; nor ican they be safe with 
them, without information. . W.here the pr^ss.is free, and every 
man is able to read and write, all is safe. 

' The object of • the establishment of common schools, is to 
bring into action tl)at mass of talent which lies buried in pover- 
ty in every country, for want of the means of -development, and 
thus give activity to a mass of mind which, ii^ i)roportion to the 
popumtion, shall be double or treble of what it is in most coun- 
tries. — Jefferson. 

— — I 

Free Edtjcation the Satett of our Country.— I have no. 
conception of any manner in which the popular republican insti- 
tutions under which wo* live couM possibly be preserved, if 
early education were hot freely furnished to all by public* law, 
in such forms that all shall gladly avail themselves of it. — 
WA^ter. . %' . . * . 



Nboessity 6j Purlio EpucATioar. — If I am elected 'Gover- 
nor of Virginia, I will give all, and do .all, for the agrienlture. of 
the Slate, that we m^ make a 'spear of 'gr«88 to grow where 
none grew before.. There is something inore important than . 
this— K>ne that embraces' er^y thin^, cov^s all, bounds all, 
promotes all^ saves all. It is that which reaches the inner mian 
of the commonwealth. ' It is that which is all in ill to the peo- 
ple of a republican country, i mean public education. If 
there be aiiy stingr old man in this assemojkif e, who values his 
dollars ^ncTpents petter than, wqme^ and children/ let me tell 
him, if he does not wish to be. taxed to sustain public education, 
to lise evi^j exertion' to defeat me; for I%ell him I want a .full 
and thorough system of instruction to all and for all classes. 

Ton tell iae of the equality of the people — ^that every man is 
created equal — when the poor man has to compete with the rich, 
and, instead of providing food for the mm?, cold necessity de- 
mands he should obtain food for the mouth The only true 
Democracy, is that which will reach down to the lowly add low* 
estan the distribution of .its benefits of learning. Does th^ 
owner of property complain to me, ' that the properkv he has 
acquired. should not be taken for education J Why, What better 
guard can he have for his' property th^ the virtue which 
' springs from intelligence ? Re says he has nothing lo di^ m^ 



198, 

I 

• 

tbe poor man's child, and he should be let alone. Does he not 
know that his property pjay, all of it, some day, come before a 
jury of hid countrymen, in which shall be'this Yefj child ? And - 
then i» it npt worth all the yalae of his property to have this 
diild educated, and be able to decide properly and understand- 
ingly as a juror ? Does he know that this jury may be called 
upon to jav whether bis will was his will, or whether h^ died 
sane or a fool ? Does he know that ignorance abases mankind, 
and leaves them base and dependent ? Would he not have the 
whole mass of the people intelligent choosers of what was best 
for the State? Are you not an elective peo{>le, aaad hjave not 
all to decide for the best interests of the State ? How can you 
do this, unless you provide food for the intellect ? — H'on. Henry 
A. Wise, speed at jPetershurgJi, Va.,'Jan, 10, 1855. 



Infubnce of Eduqation. — I think with you, that nothing is 
of more importance for the public weal, than to form and train 
up youth in wisdom and virtue. Wise and good men are, in 
my 'opinion, the strength of a State; much more so than riches 
or armsj which, under the management of ignorance and wick- 
edness, often draw on destruction, instead of providing for the 
safety of the people. And though the culture bestowed on 
many should be successful only with a feu^, yet the influence of 
those fdw, and the seJrvice in their power, may be very sreit. 
Even a single wc^man, that i^ks wise, b^ her wisdom saf ea the 
city. I think also, that general virtue is more probably io be 
expected and obtained from the education of youth, than from' 
the exhortation of &dult persons; bad habits' and^ vices of the 
mind being, like diseases of the body, more easily prevented 
than cured. — J)r. Fraiiiklin, 



. TRANSMissiiON-OF KmwhtDOis. — In thirty years, a^l now in . 
dbtive life will be gone or retired from the scene, and anew gen- 
eration will have- eneceeded. This mighty process does not 
take, place at once, eitBer throughout the world or in any part of 
it; but it is constantly going on,— silently, effectually, in&vita- 
• bly; and all Jbho knowledge, art, and refinement, now in exis- 
tence, must be either acquired by those who are coming on the 
stage, or perish with those who are going off, and be Tost for- 
ever. There is no way by which knowledgecan beht^ded down, 
but by being learned over again; and of all the science, art, and 
skill m the world, so much only will survive, when those ifho 
possess it "are gone, as shall be acquired by the succeeding gen- 
eration. * ^ • 

The rising generation is now called upon to take up this mighty . 



199 

weight; to carry it along a little way; and then hand it over, in 
turn, to their successors. 

The mmds which, 19 their maturity, are te, be the deposito- 
ries of all this knowledge, (ire comisig into existence, every day 
and every hour, in every rank and station of life; all equally 
endowed with faculties; all, at ifie commencement, equally des- 
titute of ideas; all starting with the isAorance and helplessness 
of nature/ all invited to run the noble race of improvement. 
In the cradle there is as little distinctioi;i of persons as in the 
grave. — Edward Everett^ 

The Duty of Government to Provide Education. — ^It is 
the undoubted right, and the bounden duty- of Government, to 
provide for the instruction of all youth. That which is else- 
where left to chance or to charity, we secure by law. For the 
purpose of public instruction, we hold every man subject to tax- 
ation in proportion to his property, and we look not to the ques- 
tion, whether he himself have, or have not, children to be bene- 
fitted by the education for which he pays. We regard it as a 
wise and liberal system of police, by which property, and life, 
and the peace of society are secured. We seek to prevent in 
some measure the extension of ihe penal code, by inspiring a 
salutary and conservative principle of virtue, and of knowledge, 
in an early age. We strive to exoite a feeling of respectability, 
and a sense of character, by enlargmg the capacity and increas- 
ing th§ sphere of intellectual eiyoyment. By general instruc- 
tion, we seek, as. far as possible, to purify the whole moral at- 
mosphere; to keep good sentiments uppermost, and to turn the 
strong current of feeling and opinion^ as well as the censures of 
the law and the denunciations of religion, against immorality and 
crime. We hope for a security beyond the law, and above the 
law, in the prevalence of an enlightened and well principled 
moral sentiment.— ^Z>a/ie6i2 Webiter, . 



Education our National Safktt.— Education, to accom- 
plish the ends of good government, should be universally, dif- 
fused. Open the doors of the school-house to all the children 
in the land. Let no man have the excuse of poverty for not ed- 
ucating his own offspring. Place the means of education within 
his reach, and if they remain in ignorance, be it his own re- 
proach. If one object of the expenditure of your revenue be 
protection against crime, you could not devise a better or cheaper 
means of obtaining it. Other nations spend their money in 
providing means for its detection and punishment, but it is the 

?rinciple of our government to provide for its never occurriiv^. 
!he one acts by coercion, the other hy prevention. On t\i^ dii- 



200 

fusion of edacation amon^ the people rest the preserration and 
perpetuation of our free institutions. I apprenend no danger 
to our country from a foreign foe. The prospect of a war with 
any powerful nation is too remote to be a matter of calculation. 
Besides, there is no nation on earth powerf\il enough to accom- 
plish our overthrow. Our destruction, should it come at all, 
will be from another quarter. From the inattention of the peo- 
ple to the concerns of their government, from their carelessness 
and negligence, I must confess that I do apprehend sdme dan- 
ger. 1 fear that they may place too implicit conficlence in their 
public servants, and fail properly to Scrutinize their conduct; 
that in this way they may be the dupes of designing men, and 
become the instruments of their own undoing.. Make them in- 
telligent, and they will be vigilant; give thetn the means of de- 
tecting the wrong, and they will apply the remedy. — Webster, 



What Comprises Education. — I have already expressed the 
opinion, which all allow to be correct, that our security fer the 
duration of the free institutions which bless our country, de- 

f>ends upon the habits of virtue and the prevalence of know- 
edge and of education. The attainment of knowledge does not 
<M)mprise all which is contained in the larger term of education. 
The feelings are to be disciplined; the passions are to be re- 
strained; true and worthy motives are to be inspired; a pro- 
found religious feeling is to. be instilled^ and pure morality in- 
culcated, under all circumstances. All this is oomprised^n ed- 
ucation. — Wd^ter. * 



Selp-Educated Men anp Books. — To the poor, ignorant 
man, I say, let no man tell you that ^' a little Icaining is a 
dangerous thing." The least of it is not half so dangerous as 
that ignorance which cdnnot read and write. If Patrick Henry 
* once said — ^^ Natural parts are better than all the leamitig in 
the world" — don't believe it, though he said it. What would he 
not have been, had he possessed only half the learning of the 
world? Of what would the power of his " natural parts** have 
stopped short in human greatness, in human eloquence, . if he 
baa been possessed of the purchase of the lever of Icamins ? 
The self-mado man may boa^t — I love to admire him rising by 
tho lone power of his genius; but I despise his self-sufficiency , 
when he boasts against "rte books.** Not once in an age does 
it happen that one self-made man stamps the age with his genius. 
But at last, how can any man be said to be self-made ? Those 
who claim to be self-made, are so made by the booksy if. not by 
^lic ^c^hooJmaster. Tell me the knowledge that any one of you 



allhM, which was not deriyed^ direotljr or iimotel;^, fj^omthe. 
books? NonOy — there is tioiie in hiw^ none. in medieuie^ nonein= 
agriculture, -none ia meohanio arts^ not ti^aeeable to ihe books ;' 
And, my frieiidB, if you would only youraelves go to ike booki, 
they would inform you much bettef than you ape now inatruoted^ 
by tradition^. or second-hand infonnerfl, ..Ijook for younidTed/ 
learn for yoursijlyesT— to the books! .to the boekal and be self-r 
made yoqrselvea, if you iriUt Bat' the- soheohnaBter must 
teach you how to read, and wiriU» Remember. that the books 
are sealed to those who cannot read rad. write. I will- not dea«^ 
cant, upon the pauperism and the jOrime whi(Sh '^a little karn^ 
ing^l would diminish. No; theife ias a much more interesting- 
class than thfkt of inmates of ppoorplioiifeB and of Jails to be die* 
cussed. Imea^ one C)f thcibeeii disailes of xaen on Gdd'eeartti 
— a class witl^whom ^HhcLgocU" are ^aid to take part in l^eur- 
strug^les through life — ^that plass of good men, wno^ nbtwitho' 
standing they were never taugat, aiife s6 endowed by nature with 
noble instincts as to perform -xheir whole duty- woarthy of them- 
selres, worthy of the State, and w<>rtby of their eternal destiny. 
Men whom ignorance dQos not debase} whom it does not ener- 
Tate or make to despair; men who HiH>rk iD: the woirld. against all 
odds of ienorance, and wiAilcro^mof earthly hoiiorand'etemal' 
rfory. iTknow who they are-^I know erery ^ne of them in mr 
old ffistrict by name.. JL would haTe a Irord intix them. They 
are the goodj hard-fioiorking^ honest clasd of !ikiien, who, notwith- 
standing they cannot rei^ and write* Haa.^^make their marks'* 
in the world. May God bleas them ! 

I know an ased man^— small in stature-^liki head ia mhrered 
over witU the white frost of years— with a lively joyous faoe, and> a 
twinkling blue eye that needs no ^as» for ,m keen : TisioiH<-«aii 
honest hear^ and a hand as hud as aie<h|lvte and plongitbaiidla: 
would have it— who. does '^ not know a letter in tlm book>" ' and^ 
who yet is rich in Uie store$. of nraoticid itisdoni and . of real 
wealth, Soqie one near Guilforai. in. Ai)eomack^ can gueiis- who 
I mean. I would have a word J^iUi that good old! friend of mib^ 
I sneak to his Aoble example — ^I siteak to nimbbcauselloTefaiia, 
ana he belongs to a c1M9 by whotn I iltish to be heard^^ 
speak to him for his class/ Iiisteato me, ^od old man; I 
see you smile and swear you ora rtot old* Well, that is >ezAetly 
like you, but I am. serious, f ou o/e ^rlMi^ in my eye. You 
cannot read and write^— ^ou will hi(v» to get- some one to' readl 
what t write to you and all like yon — buf you have^ without 
learning, achieved a conquest ill li^^r You began a negleoted,' 
ponnyless, friendless boy — you havd worked, \ honeBtly worked,- 
at hard labor,, until your hand is is hard, as your heart ia toft 
and tender. ^^Scom cannot point het slow-moving finger'-* bA 

26 



I 



.202 

OQ. f There is n0/b\ot on your name. Yoa have dug the earth 
or your bread, and lived literally by the sweat o£ your brow. 
Yon have Kved honestly; you have paid yeur debts with the 
cash dowuy you owe no man any thing but good will; your in- 
dustry has >been untiring) a thoitsarna and a thousand sturdy 
blows haTte you Btraek with a freeman's^^ right good will" for 
atxe "glorious privilege of being independent." Every way by 
which you have won "geer" is justified by honor. You have 
oppreBsed no man^ yon have been just to 'every man, and have 
nevy robbed the poor, or the widow, or the orphan. You are 
a happy old 7?ia7i^here is jollity in your very eye, and temper- 
ate habits have made you healthfully buoyant and cheefful. 
God has given you children and grandchildren, and your sons 
anddaiiflhterfl are like a thick forest around you. The kind, 
hospitaUe pai'tner of your bosom and ^f your journey through 
life, still abides withy6u on earth; and you have laid vc^ plenty! 
plenty! and have peace with it for your goo"d old age. This is a 
mastery, this is a self-fnademan. Now, tell me, good and great 
old man, what would yon not have been, had you held in your 

f rasp the lever of knowledge? Ah! you know what it is to 
ave a hand-spike at a log-rolling or a house-raising. You know 
what a >^jiurrAase" of power is. Knowledge, learning, is all 
that, and more. How many blind licks itwould have saved you? 
Ho# jnany thousands and tens of thousands more than you have 
now in your old "blue chest," you would have had, could you 
have seen by " learning's light the dark ways of nature? Do 
you know that learning made your axe-helve, your plough-handle 
— ^thab it applies in the most proper way that very hahOfSpike — 
yoiyrox*cham — ^that' it prepares the very best manure — tliat it 
can beat you all hollow in applying it to the soil — that it knows 
more tiUki you do all-out the soil of every field you plough, 
and can tell you of every plant which grows on it, and tne fooa 
it craves. ' jDid yoa know that learning saves labor — sells your 
grain, fixes the price, and carrieis it away for yon. Ah! you 
shake your head, and say, — ^^ Well, I would not give my poor weak 
experience for all your book-learning!" Do you say that? 
Well, if that be so, -if you know something which the books 
don't teach^ I am the more urgent still — you mntt write it down 
for the rest of the world — for y^ur own posterity — ^erite it, 
record it, you are bound to do so for the sake of some poor fel- 
low who is to come after you in your way of life, and wno hasn't 
your experience. But you can't write. Pity! pity! You 
know semething, then, whichyouban't communicate to more than 
the few who hear the sound of your voice. Learning would 
enable you to do thAt much at least. Suppose you go and set 
some one else to write it down for you, your experience in cuTti' 



20S 

a eam^jpotatoes. You told me tobacco is a valuable medi- 
lor borsefr^noe. ' Write' it. Z sar^andb^e it printed, and 
it, and wbat then does, it Decomo bnt book-learning! 
rleaming to be dispensed by somebody else, perhaps, in the 
nt or coming ffenertttion; and wbdt is poor despisea '' book- 
bi^," at last, but som(^bodj's d/scpvery, somebody's expe- 
A cf 'natiuce's laws or nature's trutfia?- - Don't despise it, my 
K bnt go to that old, long-used, well-worp leather^ baff| ;0r 
siin^-leg'* purse in that Same old blite chesi. an^.ti^e urOm 
liw, jnsf Uvehe of those hard dollars for Wmch you, liave 
ed 00 honleslly and so hiaird, for etch and every child a^d 
lohild you bave^ put it in his satchel and send him ^ schoql. 
fmi Menry A. W7sr, Addresi to hi$ Consiitucnti, . .^ 



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204 



SCHOpI^ LrtRAEY ^JORRfi^PONDENGKi 



Bbab Si^: — ^I desigu to ux;g^ upon tiiQattei(^ipnx>f th^iLe^- 
lature of tms $taie^ at its approachiiig seaaioiiv tbe adoptioh 
of a State Bysiejm of supplvix^ each T<^wn ip WuM^OASibiHth/ 
a School Li^baby, the oooks to be selected with ffrealt'ioMe by 
competent persona^ and to be aiuiiUkUjrepleiiUbied. bypAnnaitent 
State provision for that purpose. 

I may state as the result of ten years^ experience of our 

5 resent district library system, that only about one-third of the 
istricts have any libraries at all, and those generally so small 
as scarcely to" deserve the name, — averaging less than 19 vol- 
umes each, — and hence utterly fail to fuL&ll the great mission of 
School Libraries. That what few books are thus collected, are 
procured at hi^h prices of book peddlers, and but too generally 
relate to Banditti and MobberSy the Pirate* s Own Mook^ and 
other trashy and injurious works, which could onlv incite in the 
minds of children a desire themselves to become desperadoeB. 

If we continue the District Library plan in our Sti|te as it 
now is, and continue to leave the districts to procure a Library 
or not, as they may elect, so long will the Library system of 
Wisconsin, it seems to me, prove a failure; but if we can have 
the Town Library plan adopted, as it is in Indiana, Ohio, and 
Michigan, have the State provide the Libraries for each town 
according to some just plan of distribution, carefully selecting 
books suitable to meet the tastes and wants of all classes of 
community, replenished annually so as to keep each collection 
fresh and attractive, we should then have in each Library sev- 
eral times the number and variety of books that any district 
plan could ever possess. The same amount of money now ex- 
pended on the district plan would, by a judicious State system, 
purchase from one-third to one-half more volumes, beside seca- 
rii^ a vastly better selection, and having the advantage of a 
uniform and far more permanent style of binding. According 
to the present district plan we have small and almost worthless 
Libraries; by the Township system, we should have large, 
attractive and invaluable collections; and instead of only about 
one-third of the State, as is now the case, having a few ill- 
chosen volumes, every town in Wisconsin would, oy the new 
system, have its solid Library of the choicest works to gladden 



205 

the yotmg minds of our two l^wdred and sixty-four thousand 
childreny and furnish mental food for our other three-quarters 
of a million of people. 

If the citizens or the town should de^zn proper, they could 
•sub-diyide their Town Libraiy iiM^o two or, wee sections, and 
have tliem placed in as manj convenient localities for six 
monihs or a year, and then interchange these sectious with the 
other localities; and so in due time, ihe several sections or sub- 
divisions of the Library would be placed within the convenient 
reach of every part of the town, thus subserving nearly every 
iacriity of the iJistrict Library^ with the moat accidea super- 
added advantages. ' 

I. would esteem it a great personal londness, and a real ser- 
vice to the whole people of Wisconsin, if you would furnish me, 
at j'our earliest convenience, your views of thiisiplan, even .if but 
bnefly expressed. 

Very respectfully, 

LYMAlf C. DRAPER, 
State Sup^t. nf PvMie Instruetion. 



From Hon. Henry Barnaj^J). 

Mr. Barnard kindly promised a letter on the Town School 
Library plan, but an unusual pressure of labors has prevented 
its preparation. In. conversation with him. on this subject, he 
expressed his decided preference for Township over jjistrict 
Lioraries, and that the State should purchase and distribute the 
books. And in his address before the State Agricultural So- 
ciety, at Madison, October 7th, 1858, he strongly recommended' 
the Indiana School Librair system — ^the leadm^ features of 
which, it will be remembered, are the Township characteristic, 
and the State selecting and supplying the books. 

From Hon. Horace Maijk, long the well-known and distin- 
guished Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Edu- 
• cation. 

Ever since the reception of yotir Circular, dated October 28, 
I have diligently souj^ht to find a leisure half hour to comply 
with your reouest — for, I think, few can be more important; 
but such a half hour I have not fo|znd, and could not make it. 
My health is breaking down under my labors, and I write this 
line now only because I hold jour plan for School Libraries for 
Wisconsin,' to be worth many times more than my life. 

As to the value of Libraries, what n^ed for me to say 'any 
thing, when everybody knows that tbey beaar the same relMion 



.r ■. 



206 



to the mind, that food c^oqs to the bo(lj. ' But ks children at an 
ehrlj age oumot always distingiiish between nutritions and 
notions foody between tnat which is healthful and that which is 
poisonous; so in the early httngcr for knowledge,' there M dangei 
that to' nndireeted appetite, and certainty that a deprayed one 
will long for books, more fatal to the soul than helleoore to th< 
body. If we cultiyateas m&uy poisonous weeds in our gardens 
as we do wholesome ones, would' any mother sutfcr her litth 
child to run At large in it,' and plucK and eafc what it mighi 
fancy ? n hy then should the State — the nursingrmother o\ 
its children — ^iye them access to all and any books which th( 
market may afford, when we know, that the literature of ih< 
present age abounds With the most baneful and pernicious worb 
— with works which do worse than to destroy the moral life, foi 
they substitute a depraved life in its {;tcad. 

If oyer all your. fertile. and: beautiful State, you would no 
sow Canada thistlee instead of wheat and com, then beware tha 
over the more precious moral domains of your youthful mind 
you do not sow bad, ruinous, destructive idefis and sentiment 

instead of good ones. . 

■ I 

From Hon. IfiA Mathkw, auttior of the work on TfriiverBa 
mdumtifm, nmi Superintendent of Publio Instruction o 
Michi<ran. 

Tour Circular of the 28ih of October has Wn received 
and I fully concur with the viewf therein expressed. 

There has been no material change in the Library aystem c 
our State, from that stated in the pamphlet cditiop of the Sohoc 
Law of 1848. . . 



From Dr. Bailxab S£AE$,now President of Brown Univeraitj 
and formerly Secretary of the State Board of Education c 
Massachusetts. 

Your plan of haying Town, instead of dListrif t Librsf iet, t 
be duly superintended and , annually replenished^ has mtn 
things to recommend it. School Libraries have often proved 
failure, tor tlie want of re^lar .anc} systematic supervision, an 
of. the interest awakened by new books an4 nnceasi^g effort! 

■ ^ 

.<. 1, 

From npn. Geo. 6: Boutwbll, Secretary of the State Boai 

of Education of MassadhuBctts. 

Your commnnication of the 26th of October last, in regard 1 

Town Libraries, is before mc. The experience of Massachi 

setts js quite h'mited. A few ycaxa Mi(ic> \\\^ ^i^.'ait^ made pr 



.207 

riaion for tlia eatabliBfament of Sdhool llJirtrioti. LibrarieB, but 
ther have not bees maintoiaed gSaeMiy. It is not, hoirmw, 
to be inferred that the attempt wm a complete faihii^. -Tfae 
books were generally read by tlie 'fihildien,! and ottflD'bjthb 
parents. Crraduallv these librariei havndiaappeared. In 1^68, 
the IfegisUtare authorized each' toW^i.to niae money for As m- 
tablishment of a public library. Aiffiw.tovas only hare ^ict«d 
in the matter. There is, bowever, reamnto think that otore 
will soon avail trbemftelvee of thb oppartuaity. Aa '£» «8 
known, the rcBults have been highly brorable. 

In Groton, vhare I reside, abo[it$SltO hare, been expea^t^, 
and the U,brary oontainB nine bondred vohimes. In tha VtftU- 
1857> two tboueand and eight hundred tohimes ware taken froia 
the library. There are, probably, thirty cities and toWns id 
Massachusetts, in which public libraries are established. 

From Hon. Hbnrt 3. Raitdall, fomierlj;' Secretary of State 
and Superintendent of Public Instruction of New York. 
My views' on Coupon Sohool Libraries arc giveii in A ttwiH 
on thai subject, whi«)iXniad6itL 1^44, at rtha requcBt of Col. 
Samuel Young, then Superintendent of Ooipnion Schools in,thi8 
State; and you will find this paper in his official report of that 
year. I then thought, and still think, such Librarioa are a.vital 
portion of any system of popular education adapted to the 
wants of an intellrgent and self governing people. 

My official investigations and experience liFwe amplv saUafiqd 
me, that if the purchase of. Libranea is iqade optiona.! with the 
districts — the alternative being that the Libraiy money piay bo 
' diverted to the payment of teachers': wages, &,€,, — the: system 
will prove a' failure. There is no doubt that a better mjethod sf 
selecting the books could be devised than having it done by the 
Trustees of the 'districts. On theVtible, I should he much io- 
clined to favor the plan proposed in your (!ommuni cation. If 
its details were well adjusted'und carried out, I see no reason 
why it would 9ot succeed, and resall; in a vast savingi of the 
public mone^, sad a vast improvnoebli.'Of tile oh«raat^i/^thfi 
works placea in the hands of the readers of the Common; tHbool 
Librsriek. 

Prom Hon. John D. Fuilbrick, lat^ ^tate Superiniend^..,Qf 
Common Schools of Connecticut, ajid poir City Suptirintead- 
ent of Public Schools.of Boston. 
I have the honor to aoknpwled^ the>e««pt of yout cirenlsr 

respecting tb« system of School Libraries' m Wi«oo&Bm. "Vxi. 

reply* I flaw to^/.- : i '^.i\i 



>908 

.1^ Tbkt I an itroiigly in favor of tiie establishment and 
mAinkenaaoe of free Sohool LibnrieB hj State sathoritjr,' 
Withoat the free I^ibrai^, no eastern of pnblio iDstnietion cao 
be owtBidered oompleta. Some of my views respecting the im- 
.portante of this elsueat in a system of public schools, ar« eoa- 
-tMnod in the report -whidil had the honor to submit to the heg- 
islafcure of Conneotient in 1655. 

2, That I am abBtrMtly in favor of the Town plan of ScTiool 
L&iraritt, though in the Report refen-ed to, I proposed the 
district plan, vliich iras adopted, because in that State, at that 
time, the towns, a« saoff, bad no legal connection wiUi the bc^ooI 
system, and had no school offioers to manaee the affairs of Town 
Xiibraries. I favored the district system then from tite necessi- 
ty of the circumstances, and a eooddistnct system was adopted, 
r heartily approve the plan of Town Libraries contained in your 
Circular, aaa I have no doubt but that it is the one nhich will 
and ought to prevail wherever free schools are eetablished. 

From Hon. Hehry C. Hickor, State Superintendent of tma- 
mon Schools of Pennsylvania. 
The Town School Library proposed in your Circular of Oct. 
28th, I regard as every way preferable to your existing district 
art«ngement. 



From Hon. W. 0. LakAabbe, State Snperinteiide;it of Public 
Inatmction of Indiana, 
1 hare examined carefully your plan for a State system of 
supplying each Town in Wisconsin with a School Library, aad 
I pigbly approve of it. A system very similar has been in op- 
eration for several years in this State with very gratifying 
results. 

From' Hon. Calib Mills, now a Professor in Wabash College, 
a^ formerly State Superintendent of Public Instruction of 

I rejoice in the prospect of your young and growing State 
incorporating into its educational code tne Township Libnuy 
feattoc. It bas vorked well with ojb, and, indeed, we have 
mora satisfactory evidcTnce of its efficiency, as an educational 
instrumentality, than of any other feature of our system. The 
rtasons for the enperiority of tiie Township over the District 
litbraiT are too obvious to escape the observation of piny one 
wJio will devote to the subject 8>momftnV% ^^^%bt. JBlad tite 



&etB on the subject of the use of the TownBhip Libraries in 
this State been properly gathered up, the year succeeding my 
retirement from the office of Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, ire should hare had for our own use, and that of others, 
the elements of our unanswarable argument in favor of the 
TovDBhip Library feature. I have some isolated facts on this 
point, relative to the experience of Bomo townships, authorizing 
the belief that the Libraries were read even more the year sue- ■ 
ceeding the one reported by me than during the one I partially 
reported. In divers instances, the number of volumes taken 
out in one year, was from one hundred to six hundred per cent. 
of the whole number in the Libraries. 

Ton will accept these hasty lines as an expression of my 
cordial sympathy with you in your preaent enterprise. 



From Hon. N. Eateman, late Principal of the Jacksonville 
Female Academy, and now State Superintendent elect of 

Illinois . 

I have just received your Circular announcing your purpose 
to urge the lown^plan of LibrarieB, upon tbo notice of the Legis- 
lature of your State, instead of the District plalL heretofore 
adopted. 

The objectionB to the latter plan seem to me ananswerable. 
It has worse than failed, so far as I know, wherever it has been 
adopted. I Bay, worse than failed, because while it has not 
secured the object intended, it has, on the other hand, by the 
meagre number and wretched character of the books, not only 
' exerted a demoralising influence upon the minds of the young, 
but also brought the whole syatem of School Libraries into ut- 
ter contempt. 

The reasons stated in the Circular, in favor of the plan pro- 
posed, are, I think, coaclusive, and the advantages claimed 
could hardly fail to be secured by its adoption. 

Of the right of the Legislature of a State to make such 
appropriations, and of the eminently beneficent and salutary 
effect of Buch legislation upon the intellectu^ and moral inter- 
ests of the people at large, and especially of the young, there 
surely can be no doubt. 

Good books are a blessing which we cannot afford to be 
deprived of — bad books are a curse. I repeat, it seems to me 
&&b the measure yon snggest, iB the best toat can be adojited to 
secare the former and banish the latter. 

I wish TOu oil success in yoiir efforts in behalf of this 
importuit ftia&oh of yoar public duties, 
27 



210 • ■ 

The duty of selectinff the books is the ihoBt difficiilt and 
delicate — rone that cannot bo so performed as to meet the views 
of all. But many methods will readily suggest themselves, 
which are as free from objections^ as the nature of the case will 
admit. 



From Hon. Anson Smyth, State Commissioner of Common 

Schools of Ohio. 

In reply to your communication and enquiries, I have to say 
that our experience in Ohio has been such as to commend 
ToumsJupj rather than Buh-district Libraries. Wherever sub- 
district Libraries have been attempted, they have failed to 
realize the expectations of their friends; the books in each 
Library haVe been so few as to become objects of contempt, and 
from want of regard and care they have very generally been 
scattered, and have come to nought. The lownship plan has 
proved far more successful, and, for the future, books will be 
distributed only to Townships. 

In regard to your other point of inquiry, I feel some delicacy. 
From my official position it might be supposed that I would 
favor the plan of having books for our Libraries selected and 

t)urchased by the State School Commissioner, rather than by 
ocal school officers. Aside from all personal motives, I am 
decidedly in favor of this plan. The books will be selected 
with more care, and a deeper sense of responsibility; and they 
will be purchased on much more favorable terms. Much more 
could be said in favor of thi^ plan, but for obvious reasons I 
choose to be excused from the further consideration of the sub- 
ject. 

I sincerely hope that the Legislature of your young and 
vigorous State will soon enact an efficient Library law; and 
that the time is not far distant, when all our North-Westem 
States will enjoy the advantages of carefully selected and wise- 
ly managed Township Libraries. 



From Hon. J. S* Adams, Secretary of the State Board of 

Education of Vermont. 

I am now so pressed with work, that I can only say, that I 
most heartily wish you " God speed" in your plan of urging 
the matter of Town Libraries upon the attention of your Legi^ 
lature. The establishment of such Libraries in every town 
will tend to occupy the ipainds of community, give them a taste 
for hooka, a love of knowledge, and conAoquenily an interest in 



211 

the schools; and this active interest in Bchools is every where the 
great desideratum-^for in its wake follow benefits innumerable. 



From Hon, David N. Camp, late Principal of the Connecticut 
State Normal School, and now Superintendent of Common 
Schools, of Connecticut. 

The Library Svstem of Connecticut works well. The books 
must be approved by the School Visitors, who are generally 
men of intelligence and of hi^h moral and christian character. 
I have drawn nearly four hundred Library orders, in a year and 
six months. Our plan has been in operation but a short time, 
and though working well, unless there were town libraries gen- 
erally established, 1 am of opinion that, for matter of books for 
general reading, the town plan would be preferable. 

From Hon. Maturin L. Fisher, Superintendent of Public 

Instruction of Iowa. 

There are as yet but few School Libraries in Iowa. Thp 
act for the Public Instruction of Iowa, passed at the last ses- 
sion of the Legislature, contemplates the establishment of Town- 
ship not District Libraries. I recommended the Township 
system, for the reasons you well express in your Circular.. I 
am happy to find that my opinion is corroborated by your Judg- 
ment. 



From Hon. Samuel S. Randall, long Assistant Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction of the State of New York, and 
now City Superintendent of Public Schools of the City of 
New York. 

I have perused, with gr^at pleasure, your Circular of the 28th 
ult., in reference to the establishment of Town School Lihnk- 
ries throughout your State, and cordially approve the substitu- 
tion of this system for that of District Libraries. In our State, 
the latter plan has been in existence for some twenty year's. 
And although great good has undoubtedly been accomplished, 
hj the diffusion of comparatively a few volumes in every di£<- 
trict, yet it is ibanifest, that an infinitely greater amount of benefit 
would have been accomplished bythe consolidation of the funds 
apportioned to the several districts of each town, and the purchase 
and gradual expansion of a Town Library, centrally located, 
and easily accessible to all. These views I have repeatedly 
and earnestly urged upon the Legislature, but as yet without 
success. I consider tne funds cQinparatively frittered ^^^^ u"^- 
on a few cheap books m each district, as little better t\iaii7^tjii^\.^a\ 



212 

f 

while by the adoption of the Township plan, large and valuable 
libraries would speedily spring up, the worth of which would 
be inappreciable to the rising generation, and to the citizens of 
the State generally. I sincerely trust the Legislature of Wis- 
consin will adopt your enlightened views and suggestions in this 
regard, — as I am sure they could do no act of greater and more 
lasting importance to the interest of Popular Education, than 
thus to bring within the reach of every individual and family, a 
well selected collection of English and American literature, 
keeping pace with the advancing civilization of the age, and the 
practical wants of the community. 



From Hon. Amos Dean, LL. D., of Albany, N. Y., Chancellor 
elect of the Iowa State University, and author of the revised 
School Law of that State. 

I have just received and read your Circular of the 28th ult., 
relative to Town Libraries for District Schools, and am delight- 
ed with the plan you briefly unfold. The idea of small 
districts providing themselves with Libraries that will be of any 
real value, is, in my judgment, perfectly idle. They will not, 
half of them, have any books at all, and those that they do have, 
may stand a great chance of doing more harm than good. If 
'the quality of food that nourishes and sustains the body is at all 
worth attending to, much more is that which builds up and gives 
force to the mind, the spiritual principle. Your plan, if well 
matured and carried out, will place in every town a valuable and 
useful collection of books; with a power of increase in propor- 
tion to the ratio of increase of the population — these may, to a 
large extent, be the same in every town. Their, selection will, 
of course,-be of the first importance. The plan of Bub-division 
and distribution in different sections about the town, will enable 
each in turn to have the benefit of the whole Library. It will 
thus be an ever-fiowing stream, fertilizing in turn every part of 
the town. The discussions in the different parts of the town to 
which this division and these changes will naturally give rise, 
will necessarily keep the subject of books and libraries constant- 
ly before the minds of the people, and thus lead to a greater ex- 
tent and variety of reading. 

If your Legislature will carry that plan out fully, I entertain 
no doubt but that it will ultimately result in sending sueh en- 
lightening and civilizing influences into every family, as will ooih- 
tinually be felt more and more among your people, as time coi^ 
tinues to move onward through his generations and centuries. 




218 

' From Rot. Dr. Fbahcib Watland, late Freeident of Brown 
UmTorsitj, and author of works on Moral Sctenct, Politieal 
Heonom]/f Intellectual Philotophy, etc. 
I am tLapp; to leam, that the importance of fomishine abund- 
ance and good reading for the whole people, is now under coo'^ 
aideration in the State of WiHconsin. Our s^Btem of general 
edacstion seems to render someprorision of this kind ui- im- 

Eeratire duty. To teach our people to read, is to accomplish 
ut half our work; or, rather, to leave our work un&iished, pre- 
cisely at the point where what we have done may proTC a cnrse 
instead of a blessing. We can only realise the benefits of out 
system of general education when we not only teach the people 
to read, bat also provide them with snoh reading aa shall oulti- 
vate the intellect and improve the heart. ' When this shall have 
been done for onr whole countrr, and it will be done in all the 
free States, a population will rue np among ns'snch as tUe world 
has never yet sean. 

MasBachusetts has already taken the lead in this matter. By 
an act passed a few years since, every town is authorized to tax 
itself for the purchase and increase of a library. The people 
are availing themselves of this act, and Libraries of a most 
valuable character are springing op in all the cities and towns 
of that commonwealth. 



From Dr. Eliphalet Nott, President of Union College. 

Those connected with the edncational provisions of the older 
States, sympathise in the trials and triumphs of those connected 
with the educational provisions of the younger States. 

The perfecting and continuuioe of our free institutions, de- 
pends on the intellectual and moral training of the rising genersf 
tions. As the physical system can never lie developed without 
food, so neither can the mental. But hoc^s are the appropriate 
aliment of the mind; And the guardians of our children, and of 
the Republic, are bound to furnish, in convenient localities, 
Libraries containing such books as are necessary for providing 
the future men and women of America with the means requisite 
for qualifying them for the performance of the duties incumbent 
on American citizens. And we are happy to leam, that tUe 

fuardiana of Wisconsin are not behind the guardians of siste^- 
!tate« in the discharge of this important duty. 



214 

From Hon. Theodore Fbelinghuysen, fonnerly Chancellor of 
the University of New York, and now President of the Rut- 
ger'fl College, New Jersey. 

I duly received your Circular on the subject of School Libra- 
ries for every town in Wisconsin; and desiring a word from me 
in regard to your proposed improvement of the Totm in plaee. 
<>f the District Liorary. I take it for granted that ^our plan 
bnn^ the Library nearer in locality to the people, and there- 
fore 1 agree with your views folly and heartily. A well selected 
Library, excluding all books of immoral or doubtful tendency — 
and, I would add, th« whole mass of romances, excepting a very 
few — and the less in number, the better — cannot be of too easy/ 
access to the people. 

I rejoice to find your Western States giving such early atten- 
tioii'to the cultivation 6f the mind. With the Bible, an open 
volume, on every shelf of the school, and in every window of 
the -cottage, and a public taste for reading, and a growing desire 
for useful knowledge, we may hope, by the Divine blessing, that 
our country will hold her place among the nations. 



From Hon. Washington Irving. 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Circular, announe- 
ing your intention to urge upon the attention of your Le^la* 
ture, the adoption of a system of supplying each town in W is- 
cousin with a School Library of books, selected with great 
care. 

The design you specify is admirable, and ought to be adopted 
XOl every State throughout the Union, I hope and trust you 
will meet with entire success. 



From Hon. A. D. Bache, author of Education in Europcy 

formerly a Professor in the University of Pennsylvania, P^n. 

cipal of the Philadelphia Hi^h School, and President of Gi- 

' rard College, and now Supenntendent of the United States 

Coast Survey. 

Ae requested, I have looked into your strictures upon the 
present plan of School Libraries of Wisconsin, and into your 
pi'oposed substitute for it, and consider the arrangements which 
you suggest in relation to Town Libraries as highly judicious, 
and calculated to produce all the benefits which you claim for 
them. 



215 

From Wm. H. Prescott, the Historian. 
I have received the Circnlar jou have done tne the honor to 
Bend me, and have read it with pleasure. The aubject ie not one 
which Ihavebefbrc had occasion to consider; but I fe^ no doubt 
that the plan jon propose for supplying the School Libraries of 
Wisconsin would be superior to that at present established, - 
both in regard to the character of the books selected, and econ- 
omy in purchasing them. I wish your enlightened endeavors 
for the advancement of education, all success. * 

From Uon. Jared Spares, formerly President of Harvard 
University. 
]tbave perused, with great satisfaction, jour plan of procur- 
ing books for School Libraries, under the immediate direction 
of the State government. The superiority of this plan over 
every other is too obvious to admit of argument. Not only a 
, vastly better selection of books may thus oe made, under the 
guidanceand judgment of a single agency, but by a judicious 
system of purchasing them together, in the requisite quantities, 
for the vanons Libraries, they may be obtained at reduced 
prices. In fact, there is but one side to the question, and it 
may pafely be said, that no State in the Union could more ef- 
fectually promote the intellectual, moral, and religious culture 
of the rising generation, than by supplying them, by some per- 
manent arrangement, with the use of valuable and well-chosen 
books. As yon ask my opiiiion, I have thus eicprcsBed it freely. 



From Hon. Edwasd Evebett, formerly President of Harvard 
University. 
I am very glad to perceive, by your Circular of the 28th ult., 
that measures are in contemplation for supplying each town in 
Wisconsin with a School Library. No greater service can be 
rendered to the rising generation. It is in vain that children 
are tau^t to read, if tSey have no access to good books; — worse 
than in vjun, if they are furnished with nothing better than the 
wretched trash in tawdry binding, which is carried round by the 
peddlers. If the State would adopt the plan of advancing to 
each town, for a School Library, as much as the town is willing 
to raise by itself, the greatest amount of good will be effected by 
the least bttrden on the State Treasury. You have my best 
wishes for the success of the movement. 



216 

« 

From Bayard Taylor, Esq. 

My views on the subject of School Libraries are entirely in 
accordance with those expressed in your Circular. I cannot too 
strongly recommend the plan of establishing Townsliip Libraries, 
at the cos^of the State, as has already been done on so liberal 
a scale by the State of Indiana. The advantages are not only 
those of cheapness, and permanence in the supply, but the selec- 
tion of the works— on wnich so much of the value of all Libra* 
ries depends — would unquestionably be made with more taste 
and intelligence than if entrusted to so many different hands. 
The more our Common School system is made broad, liberal, 
and comprehensive in all its features, the more thoroughly and 
beneficently will it accomplish its mighty work. 



From Benson J. Lossing, author of the Field Book of the 
Revolution^ Pictorial History of the United States for 
Schools^ Primary History of the United States for Schools ^ 
etc. 

Feeling great interest in the subject of popular enlightenment 
by means of schools and public libraries, i have reflected much 
upon the real and ideal character of both — the real as it exists, 
and the ideal as I hope it may be. Surely, no subject more 
important than the proper education of the people can occupy 
the thoughts, and employ the efforts of the statesman, the pat- 
riot, and the christian. Such education lies at the basis of pri- 
vate and public virtue, which is the only stable foundation bf a 
State. 

Next in importance to the School ^ in the work of education, 
is the Public Library. It is a copious spring from which 
fenowledge flows among the people. How important, then, that 
the waters thereof should be wholesome and invigorating ! How 
careful should all righf-minded men be to keep these fountains pure 
and undefiled ! The most active and fruitful seeds of good 
and evil in our social system, are found in the literature of the 
day; and the wisest discrimination is necessary to separate one 
from the other. It is impossible — absolutely impossible — to have 
anything approaching to the exercise of such wise discrimination 
in the system oi District Litrairies as organized in some States. 
How can the Trustees of schools, elected for a temporary pur- 
pose, many or most of them away from centres of business and 
general knowledge, and engaged in absorbing pursuits, be ac- 
quainted with the character of tne thousands of books that fall from 
tJie press every year ? They have no data to guide them, and 
' thej are left to the mercy of pedlars and others, who go about 



I 



217 

the conntry with "tentation books " — in other words, moral and 
intellectual poison, and are compelled to fonn their judgment 
from the statements of l^ing advertisementa. Thie is a monsCer 
evil; and many of the LibrarieB of this State are crowded with 
books that no judicious parent vonld willingly allow his child 
tor«ad. 

In view of the importsnce of this matter, I" heartily coincide 
with your ezpressed opinion in relation to Tovm Lihrariet, 
leaving the selection of the books to the State, through proper 
agents duly chosen by the people. Your State has a noole 
education fund — (what a burning shame it was, to pour a part 
of it into that sewer of corruption, called the Drainage Fund, I 
beliere) — and it? should be the business of the wisest jand best 
men of year yoimg and vigorous State to asnst in forming a 
virtuous and efficient system for the establishment and main- 
tenance of public libranes in every town in the commonwealth. 

From Carl ScnuRz, Esq., Milwaukee. 
The Circular which you had the kindness to send me, came 
into my hands but a short time ago. I have had no iime since 
to study the details of your plan minutely; but it strikee me, 
that it will be a great improvement on the District Library sys- 
tem, which, from my own observation, I know to be complete 
failure in a large portion of the State. * If there are no financial 
obstacles in the way, I trust your plan will find a great many 
supporters in the Legislature, and will at an early day be car- 
ried into effect. 

From Rot. Edwabd Cooke, D.D., Fresident of Lawrence Uni- 
versity, Appleton. 

Your plan for supplying Town School Libraries throughout 
the State meets my most nearty concurrence. It combines the 
following advantages over the old district systems adopted in 
most of the other States where anything of the kind exists: 

1st. It proposes one Library for each^wn, for the use of all 
the districts in common. In this way, a better Library may bo 
secured, and its supervision will be more efficient. ' 

2d. It proposes a Board of competent and responsible indi-. 
viduals to sele^ these Libraries, thereby securing the right 
kind of books to be placed in the handa of our yoat£. Thi» ia 
a very important feature. • 

Such a system, once put into operation thronghoat the State, 
would be a power for an incalculable amount of good. It woold, 
be silent moral influence conataDtiy forming the Bocial audi mteV 



218 

lectnal habits of the youth in every nook and comer of our new 
but rising State. 

Liberal provision is akeady made for the support of common 
schools throughout our State; and an adequate fund is also set 
amirt for tbe encouragement of Academies and Normal Schools. 
What is now wanted to complete our system of public educa- 
tion is, reading of .the right kind for the people, such as shall 
form the right material for intellectual culture. Would not a 
portion of the Drainage Fund prove .much more permanently 
useful to the people if expended in this way than in grubbing 
out roads and cutting ditches? 

Of course, strong guards will have to be thrown around the 
plan to secure the real benefit of the people, rather than that of 
book agents and putllishers. If all these objects can be secured, 
and the plan put into operation, it will, I have no doubt, prove 
-one of the greatest blessings ever conferred upon our State. 



From Rev. Dr. Roswell Park, President of Racine College. 

In reply to your Circular, I do not hesitate to state my deci- ' 
ded opinion, that the system of Town Libraries which you pro- 
pose, woult be far more beneficial to our State than that of 
School District Libraries, now in operation. Especially would 
this be the case, and a difficulty remedied, if,^ where .there are 
two or more villages in a township, the Library should be divided 
correspondingly, and an exchange of the portions be made knnu- 
ally, with permission for any townsman to take a book from 
either portion, under proper regulations. By Legislative action, 
the present District Libraries might be combined, to form the 
nucleus of Town Libraries; multiple copies of the same work 
being retained or exchanged, as might seem best. 



From I. A. Lapham, Esq., Milwaukee.* 

I most heartily concur with you in the proposed movement in 
regard to Libraries for our public free schools. The books 
should be chiefly such as convey useful information, rather than 
mere works of amusemcfht and pastime. All such vile books ai 
you mention should be rigidly excluded. 

A large saving may be made by the State purchasing tiie 
books from first lianas, and having them sent in suitable num- 
bers, directly to the several county seats, frofia whence they 
could easily be obtained by the town officers — thus avoiding 
much unnecessary expense of distribution. 



219 

I ■ ■ ■ 

From Hon. Charles Durkeb, Kenosha. 

You suggest a remodeling of the present Library system 
connected with our district schools, that is, to establish Town 
Libraries throughout the State, instead of the present imperfect 
district system, and ask my opinion as to the propriety of the 
change. 

I give you my views briefly, and with much diffidence, as they 
are not the result of mature reflection, nor pf an extensive 
observation. The reasons you assign, going to show the supe- 
riority of this new proposition over the present one, seem to 
me to be very obvious. In my opinion then, the ad(5ption of 
your views is only a question of time. If the people are now 
prepared to incur the expense, the sooner the change is effected, 
the b^ter for the causp of education, and the welfare of the 
State. 



From James W. Strong, Esq., of Beloit, Secretary of the 
State Teachers' Association of Wisconsin. 

The plan proposed in your communication of the 28th ult., of 
" supplying eacn Town in Wisconsin with a School Library,'* 
"to be annually replenished by a permanent State provision for 
that purpose," meets my hearty approval in its main idea. ' 
The value of ^ood Common School LibrarieB, to which all the 
children and citizens of a Town may have access, cannot bi^ 
over-estimated. 

. Public sentiment with regard to this, seems to be advancing; 
and I confidently hope, that before many years shall h*ive passed, 
School Libraries will be regarded not only as an addition to our 
educational facilities, but as a most essential requisite in the 
work of properly educating the young mind, and disseminating 
tiirough tne whole community a correct and iftlevating literary 
taste. 

The question now, however, does not relate so much to the 
importance of School Libraries, as to the methods of securing 
ana maintaining them. Probably no plan can be devisea 
entirely free from objection, or respecting which great care will 
not be requisite in carrying out the minor provisions. A plan 
most excellent in its general idea, may be rendered inefficient, 
or indeed, quite worthless, by an unsKillful arrangement of ittf 
details. It must be evident to every one who has at all observed 
the operation of our present sy8tem,that, however commendable 
its design, it entirely fails of its great object. My own* obser- 
vation, though limited, corroborates your statement, that only a 
small portion of the districts have any Libraries at all, and these 
are scarcely deserving the name; and, moreover, only Cb'^wj 



220 

few of those books which are possessed, are ever used by either 
pupils or parents. These Libraries are but seldom replenished; 
and when they are, it is too often by the purchase of yoluii)je8 
which ou^ht never to be placed in the hands of children, and 
which had better not be read even by adults. 

Whether the Town Library system, which has the same olnect 
in view, will be more successful, will very much depend, I 
think, upon the wisdom of its details. I do not propose to dis- 
cuss these, but will simply make one or two suggestions. Very 
especial care should be taken, it appears to me, in the arrange 
ments of the plan, that it be properly guarded with respect to 
the selection of books. This is a vital point. I would also 
suggest, that selections should be made not for pupils only, but 
also for the teachers. Every Town Library should include a 
" Teachers' Library," small it maybe, but select, of which those 
ffivinff instruction may freely avail themselves. I know not how 
the scnolars or the community may be reached more beneficially 
by the Library, than through the teachers in this way. 

I am not quite prepared to approve, nor yet to oppose deci- 
dedly your idea or sub-dividing the Library, and changing the 
localities of the sections once in a few months. It is true that 
this would secure some of the peculiar advantages of a District 
Library, but the danger of losing the books, from having them 
under the charge of so. many different individuals, none of whom 
might feel any especial or permanent responsibility, would be 
much increased. It does not appear to me quite safe to ma 
thus a Circulating Library. Almost every town has some locality 
sufficiently central for practical purposes, where the Libranr 
could be permanently kept, and all the citizens accommodated. 
But still some such plan as that which has been tried in Michigan, 
where the Director of each district draws from the Township 
Library every three months, the number of volumes his 
district is entitled to, which, for the time being, constitutes the 
District Library, might prove successful, and I am not certain 
but that this would be the best way of making the Library 
available to all. 

It is to be hoped, that some action will be taken upon this 
subject by the next Legislature, as almost any plan, it seems to 
me, would be preferable to our present inefficient system. 



From Hon. Chjleles M. Bakeb, Geneva, Walworth CQuntj« 

I have just received your Circular of the 28th ult., requesting; 
my views as to a proposition to be submitted to the next Legislar 
ture of this State to change the present School District Libraij 
sjBtem^ to a Town Library ftyBtem, 



221 

It appears to mc that such a change is called for, and with 

S roper gnarde and provisions would oe eminently us^ul. Two 
esirable results would be thus produced; Ist, good selectioDs of 
books; and 2d, a much larger number of volumes furnished for 
perusal; the effect of vhich should be a greater diffusion of 
intellisence, and that of a wider and hi^er range. The chief 
objection would be, that the faoilitiee of access to the Library in 
remote districts would be less than under the present system. 
This in part might be obviated by granting the sse of books to 
those living'two or more miles from the Library for a longer 
period than to those living nearer. 

From Rev. Alfred Brunson, Ijfairie du Ghien. 

Your Circular in reference to the Town Library system, was 
received a few days since, and the contents dulv considered. 
At the first sight the plan stn^ my mind favoraoly, and also 
the thought that it might be connected with existing or future 
formed town and city Libraries to advantage, thus giving a 
greater number of both books and variety, and have the whole 
Buder better municipal regulations, than tohave separate Libra- 
ries in the same place. f 

I saw by your issuing a Circular, that you desired to feel of' 
the public ptilBe on the subject, and, believiDg that the stronger 
this pulse beat, the more satisfactory to you, I submitted the 
Circular to " The Literary and lAbrary Aatodation of Prairie 
du Chien," which was incorporated last winter; and the Asso- 
ciation at once approved of your plan, as will be seen from the 
vincxed copy from their proceedings last night. 

As you do not give the details of your plan, nor the provis- 
ione ot your proposed bill, to be presented to tUe Legislature, 
but ask my opinion generally upon the subject, in addition to a 
favorable answer, I venture a few suggestions. 

1. Itmust be a paramount object, to have the Library pre- 
served as much as possible, from teaste and damagem the use 
of it. To secure this object, it must be under the care and 
supervision of a suitable and tmsty person; and such a person 
should receive some compensation for his time, trouble, and use 
of the room, as Librarian; giving the Town Superintendent the 
general oversight of the Town books, whether in one, two, or 
more divisions. 

2. What better way to raise the means to meet this expense 
of Librarian, than a tax of 25 oenta pe^ quarter, or 6 or 10 
cents per volume, upon those who use the books, and a fine for 
•II damages done the books, or. for detaining them longer than 
ihe prescribed rule permits? 



222 

' ■ ■ . • 

8 . Either the law should prescribe all the rules and regulations, 
or a Boarcl of Directors should be elected, who should make 
such rules and regulations. 

4. Where there is a Circulating Library already, or here- 
after established in a Town, cannot this Town Library be attadi- 
ed to the one in existence, and be subject to the control of the 
same Board ? 

Our town is in two general divisions — upper and lower town. 
The Literary and Library Association is in the 'lower town, 
while a majority of the inhabitants are in the upper town. 
There is a spirit of rivalry existing between the two, and wheth- 
er the upper town will agree to have all the Library in the low- 
er town, is questional#e; and if not, the Town Library must be 
divided, as tne lower town will not go up town for. their books, 
while they have over 800 volumes of their own. The upper 
town is in two or three school districts — the lower town in one, 
as yet. But the lower town has the largest and best school- 
house, now nearly finished, in which we contemplate a primary, 
intermediate, and high school to be kept. 

5. The Library should be subject to as few removals as pos- 
sible; to preserve from damage, and should be in the hands of a 

' person whose business keeps nim at home, in his shop, store, or 
office, as much as practicable, so as to accommodate the issue 
and return of books. 

" At a regular meeting of the Literary and Library As9(h 
ciation of Prairie du Chien^ held Nov. 9th, 1858, the Presi- 
dent, Rev. A. Bbunson, presented a printed Circular from Hon. 
L. C. Draper, Superintendent of Public Listruction, dated Oct* 
28, 1858, relative to a town system of Libraries, instead of 
District ones, as now provided for by law; whereupon, it was 
unanimously, 

Resolvedj That this Association heartily concur in the views 
of Mr. Draper, and recommend the adoption of the system of 
Town, instead of School District Libraries. 
Attest * 

(Signed) GEO. COUSLAND, 

Secretary. 



From Rev. Reuben Smith, Town Superintendent, Beaver Darn. 

I appreciate fully the honor of being consulted on the subject 
of School Libraries. It is a subject on which I have thou^ 
much, and with which I haj^e had something to do— both here 
and elsewhere, and I shall be happy to communicate with yim, 
on any views I may entertain on me subject. 
As to it$ importance^ no one can entertain a doubt, who has 



1 ,' 



223 

riven any attention to the subject; and I am persuaded that his 
convictions will be increased as to that importance, in proportion 
o his experience and observation. I succeeded last year, for 
he first time, in procuring a Library for our principal city 
Kshool, of about 70 volumes. I had all the work to do myself — 
jrhile the Board-^to whom (according to our present law) it ex- , 
slnsively belongs — ^barely suffered me to go on; and I appro- 
priated, at discretion — as permitted — a certain amount of our 
umual appropriation from the State for that purpose. But 1^ 
liad also to make the selection, provide a book-case, cover the 
bck>ks, insert nrinted rules, and put all into tJie teacher $ hands, 
who consentea to act as Librarian. Kow you will see, that in 
much of this, I had to act in the place of others, and that the 
law needs amendment. Then things must he done by one T/kin, 
or they will not be done at all. 

And now as to results already experienced. One of th^ pop- 
ular objections against providing any Library, was — ^that our 
young people had books enough, lying 'on the parlor table at 
home, which they did not read; why then procure more ? The 
answer is in the fact reported by our Librarian, at the close of 
the first six months— of these 70 volumes, there had been about 
600 readings ! — i, e. at the rate of 1,000 a year. 

2. As to the books selected. I agree with you, that under 
our present system, they are generally worse than useless. 
Miserable trash, or mischievous poison — the only alleviating cir- , 
ciunstance is, that they are so miserably bound, or so carelessly 
looked after, as to be out of the way in a short time. Here, 
a^in, we want amendment in our law, and stringent provision. 
All this should be attended to, in my opinion, by one many in 
advisory conjunction, perhaps, with the Board of Directors, and 
subject, of course, to an annual report. He should be a man of 
large reading, good taste, sound judgment, and, above all, |)os- 
sessed of an honest and enlightenea. morality. Such service, 
jou cannot get, or expect, in a popular Board. 

I believe 1 may say without arrogancy, that in the Library 
selected by me, there is not one volume in history, biography, 
science, or general literature, which might not be read with pro- 
priety by a senior daughter. But it requires no small sum, to 
make a competent selection of this character. Ours ought to 
be doubled at once, and then added to every year. I have given 
notice, that, if I am continued Superintendent, this shall be, 
together with a'pair of globes. We have some philosophical 
apparatus alreaoy. 

8. Thus far, I presume, we should entirely agree; but in re^ 
gard to making them Toum instead of iJistrict Librari^^l 
submit for your conBideration, aome objections. On. il[u& p\QiXi^ 



224 

\ 

I am confident, as before, you must have one man to attend- to 
the whole; and then, it is obvious, it would require all his time, 
and could not be done, without a small salary. Perhaps, how- 
ever, the State will provide for this; and then the question will 
only have to be decided, whether there would not be iealousies 
and collisions Ictween the districts — and whether the whole work 
would be as well done, as by a proper Superintendent, and 
proper Librarian for each school, and more stringent laws, such 
as 1 hope we shall have. 

I On tne whole, my prevailing view at present is, that the State 
should make separate appropriations for Libraries, maps, appa- 
ratus, <fcc., andfnot have it discretionary with districts whether 
they will nave a Library or not. That a given sum should be 
granted to each town or city, graduated by population; or bet- 
ter, by the number of scholars attending each school— -S3 cents 
to a scholar, perhaps, would make a good beginning. Li the 
particular regulations adopted, the State should designate the 
proper officers, and forjn of organization — whether in town or 
districts; and make them responsible both for books selected, 
and the care that is tak^ of them. I wish you much success 
in the prosecution of this important enterprise. 



From Rev. J. B. Pradt, Sheboygan, formerly County Super- 
intendent of Potter County, Penn. 

Your Circular in regard to School Libraries is received, and 

am truly glad you have taken the matter in hand. 

It has long seemed to me, that a principal defeot in our man- 
agement of school afairs, in this and other States^ is a want of 
concentration of interest and effort. The little district or neigh- 
borhood Library, is a natural concomitant of the district school, 
and both are abortive. Town Libraries, having everything to 
recommend them over the smaller Libraries now contemplated, 
and would readily connect themselves with the idea of a Union 
Central School, in each town, or other municipality. The 
two things would mutually help each other. The location 
of the Library is a matter of less consequence, however, 
than its being called into efficient existence, and while it 
miffht properly be deposited in a Central High School-house, 
and thus stimulate and aid the larger pupils, and form an addi- 
tional link between the people and the principal school in the 
town — where such school exists — ^it inight of course be located 
in any other. suitable place. 

The divisions" of a Library into sections, as you propose, 
might have advantages,' and it would be well enough to permit 
this armngementy if desired. ^ 



I am more in doubt about tlie matter of fumisliing the 
books. In thia, two things, it seems to me, are to be kept in 
view — the selection of good books, and the excitement of proper 
interest on the part of the people. Economy* in tho purchase 
of the books should not be overlooked. Should the State send 
a Library to eachitown frte of_ all expenu, and without invok- 
ing any action on their part, it is to oe feared that the boon 
■would not be properly appreciated. People take far more inr 
tcrest and pride in what they have got up themselves, and will 
take better care of that which has cost them something, than of 
a gratnitv. 

I ehonm say, therefore, that tho best plan would be for the 
State to provide for the selection of aiudicious list of books; 
that a catalogue should be sent to eacu town; that the offer 
Bhould bo made to furnish each town Twithui cortain restrictions, 
according to the population, or pupils in the schools,) with an 
amount of books equal in value to the amount which they should 
elect to purchase themselves. It would he vory easy to indi- 
cate in tne catalogue, judicious nqjcc.tions of books worth, one, 
two, five, or any number of hundred dollnrn, which would be 
sent to anv town, agreeably to the prescribed rules, on receipt 
of one-half the cost. 

It is to be presumed that in many towns this course would be 
preferred. If, however, any towns preferred to select their own 
Itooks wholly or in part, though they might not always select 
ju<lioiously, they would at least be confined within the limits of 
uu unexceptionable catalogue. By suitable arrangements with 
the best publishcrB, the best books could of course bo obtained 
at a very moderate cost. 

I trust you may be successful in awakening new interest in 
this important instrunient of public instruction, and that your 
suggestions will have the weight which they ought to have with 
the Legislature. The BUggestionB which I have made, scconl 
most nearly with the Upper Canadian Lihrary syeteui, which 
seems to me, on the whole, to be the most juibcious of anv 
which I have examined. You are undoubteoly familiar with 
the system. 

Prom Col. L. H. D. Crane, of Ripon, formerly Town Superin- 
tendent of Dodgevillo, 

I consider the present system of District Libraries to be a 
perfect humbu;^. A State system properly guarded might do 
well. Vou arc on the right track. Elahorat«> the system, and 
if it seems practicable, and not too expensive, count me in. 

2e» 



226 



Proiii A. M. Mat, Esq., Ripon. 

In reply to your Circular, concemiug the establisliment of 
Tosin Dcnool Libraries, I would say, tliat it meets my decided 
approval. 

I have long considered the present system as almost useless, 
and the purcuasing of books tor our present Libraries almost as 




only means of accomplishing 
Libraries were established. 

As far as I am acquainted with District Libraries, I know of 
but two that are wortny of the name; and these two are in small 
districts ; and although many districts have Libraries, (so called,) 
they are of a class that no parent that wishes to furnish proper 
food for the minds of his children, would place in their hands. 

As a secondary matter; The districts of the State are now 
supplied with Wehster^i Unabridged; and it seems to me, that 
the State could do no better thing for the interests of the rising 
ceneration who attend her coftimon schools, than to funiish each 
district with a copy of Lippincotfs Crazetteer. It is a work 
that every teacher ought to have, but which, I am soiTy to say, 
most of them are, or at least feel, too poor to buy; or, at least, 
on account of their migrating propensities, perliaps, they think 
it will not pay to get, and carry around the world with them; 
which evil 1 hope will be remedied as far as possible, by the 
adoption of the School System proposed at the last State Teach- 
ers' Association. But the State might furnish the districts 
each with a copy, and it would be a lasting benefit; ot*, make it 
one of the books of the Library spoken ol. I earnestly hope 
the Town School Library System will be adopted. 



From A. Pickbtt, Esq., Principal of the Horicon High School. 

I am satisfied thait our present' Library system, as well as our 
general school systerti, fails of proper results. I have visited 
many schools in the' State, but have rarely suen a Library, 
though I think, perhaps, the fault lies most in want of vitality 
in our general school system . 

Wherever we find either gopd schools or Libraries, tliey seem 
to be the offspring of individual enterj)rise, and not the effect of 
any general plan. There Is, in my mind, no doubt of the su- 
periority of your pLan over the present. Yet jve feel most the 
want of a school room Library. 



227 

From James H. Magoffin, Esq., Principal of the High School^ 

Waukesha. 

Tour Circular, dated Oct. 28, 1858, on the subject of School 
Libraries, was received last evening, and I hesitate not to reply, 
that my feeble voice may give its mito of encouragement to 
the head of our Public School System. 

I am much pleased with the plan proposed. I have often 
wished for something of precisely this kind. I think, however, 
that instead of its being merely an advised plan in regard to the 
sub-division of the towns into sections, it should be a provision 
of law. 



From Dr. Wm. Henby Brisbane, of Arena. 

Yours of the 28th ult. is at hand. I approve the idea of hav- 
ing the Town instead of the District Library System, provided 
we can have the Librarian appointed by the State Superinten- 
dent, with a salary of fifty-two dollars a year, so as to allow him 
to attend every Saturday afternoon at the Library, to receive 
and give out books. I would have the Librarian give bonds for 
the safe care of the books; and I would have him to require a 
deposit of some other book, until the one taken out be returned, 
the book on deposit being of higher value than the one taken 
out; or the deposit might be in money, more than the value of 
the book. In this way, there will be security for the return of 
the books. 



MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION 

IN PPBLIf SCHOOLS. 



Office op Sui-'t of Puhlic Inijtiutction, 

M.\nisON, Wis., May iilst, 185«. 

Dbak Sir; — I ihiiy received your favor of tlic iiOth iiist., in 
wliicli you iufonu me, that the Jjoard of Education of Watcr- 
tDwri, of which you arc a member, have " unanimously resolved, 
thiit the rcndiiuj of the Bible, uud all forms of prayer, be dis- 
wiitinucd," You assign, aa your juatification for this action, 
tlie fact that your eomjuuuity is composed of so many different 
Tiationa,! elements; and, in concluajon, you ask my opinion on 
tho subject, 

I very much regret that there uhoiild have occurred any seri- 
ous differences of opinion in regard to the iiianaguncnt of tho 
public schools in your eityj and, above all, do I regret that 
such differences BhouUl have hail their origin with reference to 
the use of the IJlblc. The Constitution, very properly, I think, 
[inihibits " sectarian instruction " in the public schools of tho 
^tate; Wt this certainly eaniiot justly he construed to mean 
the total exclusion of the Bible from the seliools, or that simply 
repeating the Lord's Prayer, as has been done in your public 
scbi)ol-<, iir indeeil uttering any other liberal, unobjectionahlu 
iirayer, could. In any just sense, be regarded as sectarian. This 
IS my view and u niter stjin ding of tlie matter, and I feel quite 
eoiihdent that this is also tlie practical, coniinon-senao view 
taken of it by the great mass of the people of Wisconsin, with- 
out any re^'ard to seetariau coniiectioiis or partialities. 

You ask if the i-eading of the Scriptures and offering prayer 
are the coiumou practice in the public schools in this State ? 
To a considerahlo extent, I presume it is; perhaps almost inva- 
riably so, wlien in accordance with the teacher's wishes. And 
Hueh, too, is tho practice, to a great extent, in other portions of 
.iLir own country, and in Europe. And, more than tills, reliitious 
instruction is hnparted in the iinblic schools of the moat enlight- 
ened countries of tho world — in sonic of them it is sectarian, 
but iu many It is not.' In Grc^it Britain, France, "PtMawa., Qi«.t- 
oiaujr, Bc/^iaia, HoUaml, Bnvana, Saxony, Autlfia, "Sw-wa-j, 



280 

Sweden, and Switzerland, more or less religious instruction is 
given in the public schools; and even in Russia it is a national 
maxim, that " religious teaching constitutes the only solid foun- 
dation of all useful instruction/' 

No more enlightened statesman, or abler advocate for religious 
instruction in the public schools, has appeared in any age or 
country than the celebrated M. GuizoT, who has repeatedly 
been chosen as the Minister of Public Instruction in France. 
In addressing the French Chambers, while discussing his scheme 
of primary education for France, he said: " You have admitted 
moral and religious instruction as an essential part of primary 
education; but, gentlemen, moral and religious instruction is not 
like a reading lesson, or a question in arithmetic, to be gone 
through at a particular hour, and then laid aside. Moral and 
religious instruction is a work of all hours and all times. The 
atmosphere of a school ought to be moral and religious, and this 
is the only condition on which you can have moral and religious 
instruction in your schools. Children reach the age in which 
the sciences are to be studied, but in Primary Schools, if you 
lay not a foundation of morality and religion, you build upon 
the sand. Does not the teacher open and close the school with 
prayer ? In teaching the children to read, is it not in the Cate- 
chism ? In teaching them History, is it not that of Scripture ? 
In a word, religious instruction is mingled with all the proceed- 
ings at all hours, in a Primary School. Take heed of a fact, 
which was never so brightly apparent as at this day: Intellectu- 
al culture, if accompanied by moral and religious culture, pro- 
duces ideas of order, and of submission to the laws, and becomes 
the basis of the greatness and prosperity of society. Intellec- 
tual culture alone, not so accompanied, produces principles of 
insubordination and disorder, and endangers the social compact." 
Elsewhere speaking of his bill, he observed: " By moral and re- 
ligious instruction, it provides for another class of wants quite 
as real as the others, and which Providence has placed in the 
hearts of the poorest, as well as of the richest, in this world, 
for upholding the dignity of human life, and the protection of 
social order." Speaking of the teacher, and his high and im- 
portant mission, he remarked: *' Nothing can supply for you, 
the desire of faithfully doing what is right. You must be aware, 
that, in confiding a child to your care, every family expects that 
you will send him back an honest man; the country, that he 
will be made a good citizen. You know that virtue does not al- 
ways follow in the train of knowledge; and that the lessons re- 
eejved hj children might become dangeroud to them, were they 
addressed exclusively to the underatanAm^. Let the teacher, 
therefore, bestow his first care upontYie c\x\\IvN^\AQ\vQ>^'Ctv^xsiTOXA 



281 

of his pupils. He must unceasingly endeavor to propagate and 
cstablisli those iin perishable principles of morality uud reason — 
without which, universal order is in danger; and to sow in tho 
hearts of the young those seeds of virtue and honor, which age, 
riper years, and the passions, will never destroy. Faith in IJi- 
vino Providence, tlio sacrednoss of duty, submission to parental 
authority, the respect due to the laws, to the King, and to tho 
rii^hts of everv one — such are the sentiments which the teacher 
will strive to develop." 

Professor Stowk, in his Report on Ulenientary Instruction 
in Europe y remarks: *'In regard to the necessity of moral in- 
stniction an«l tho beneficial influence of the Bible in schools, the 
testimony was no less explicit and uniform. I inquired of all 
classes of teachers, and men of every grade of religious faith, 
instructors in common schools, high schools, and schools of art, 
of professors in colleges, imi versities and professional seminaries, 
in cities and in the country, in pltices where there was a uni- 
I'ormity, and in places whore there was a diversity of creeds, of 
beliovers and unbelievers, of rationalists and enthusiasts, of 
Catholics and Protestants; and 1 never found but one reply, 
and that was, that to leave the moral faculty uninstructed was to 
k'ave the most important pai't of the human mind undeveloped, 
and Uy strip educiition of almost everything that can make edu- 
cation vahmblc; and that the Bible, independently of the inter- 
est attending it, as containing the most ancient and influential 
wi'iciiigs ovev recorded by human hands, and comprising the re- 
liirions system of almost tho whole of the civilized world, is in 
iistli* tho best book that can be put into the hands of children, 
to interest, to exorcise, and to unfold their intellectual and moral 
powers. Every teacher whom 1 consulted, repelled with indig- 
Ti;itiou that uior.ii iuBtruction is not proper for schools; and 
sjmrnod wi til contempt the allegatioji, that the Bible cannot be 
iiitro<luc<.Ml into common schools without encouraging a sectarian 
])ias in the matter of tea citing; an indignation and contempt 
which 1 believe u ill be fully participated in by every high-mind- 
♦ •dh'achor in Christendom." 

IM'ofessor Stowk, speaking of the German teacher, observes: 
•• Sometimes he calls the clasH around him, and relates to them, 
iu his own language, some of the simple narratives of tho Bible, 
'«'i- reads it to tliem in the words of the Bible itself, or directs 
one of the ehildr'.^n to rea<l it aloud; and then foUows a friendly, 
lamiliar conversation between him and the class, respecting the 
uarrativo; their little doubts are proposed and resolved, their 
({uestions put and answered, and the teacher unfolds the mov^i 
and religious iiisfcrua/iou to be dmved from the leason, OiTiii W\w.t^- 
imU-s it bjr appropriate quotatious fmm the didActvG audipt^e^- 



2S2 

• 

tive parts of the Scriptures. Sometimes he explains to the class 
a particular virtue or vice, a tiiith or a dutv; and after having 
clearly shown what it is, he takes some Bible nan-ative which 
strongly illustrates the point in discussion, reads it to them, and 
directs their attention to it, with special reference to the preced- 
ing narrative." 

^'Nothing," says Horace Mann, " receives more attention in 
the Prussian schools than the Bible. It is taken up early, and 
studied systematically. The great events recorded in the Scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testament; the character and lives 
of those wonderful men, who, from age to age, were brought up- 
on the stage of action, and through whoso agency the future his- 
tory and destiny of the race were to be so much modified; and 
especialy, those sublime views of duty and of morality which arc 
brought to light in the Uospel, these are topics of daily and 
earnest inculcation in every school. To these, in some scliools, 
is added the history of the Christian religion, in connection with 
contemporaiy civil history. So far as the Bible lessons are con- 
cerned, I can ratify the strong statements made by Prof. Stowb, 
in regard to the absence of sectarian instruction, or endeavors 
atproselytism." 

Lord BuouaHAM, in pleading for a system of national educa- 
tion for England, exclaimed: " Shall wo, calling ourselves the 
friends to human improvement, balance any longer upon some 
party interest, some sectarian punctilio, or even some refined 
scruple, when the means are within our reach to redeem the time, 
and to do that which is most blessed in the siglit of God, most 
beneficial to man ? Or shall it be said, that between the claims 
of contending factions in Church or in State, the Legislature 
stands paralyzed, and puts not forth its hand to save the people 
placed oy Provid(»nce under its care, lest ott'ence be given to some 
of the knots of theologians who bewilder its ears with their 
noise, as they have bewildered their own brains with their con- 
troversies ? Lawgivers of England ! I charge ye, have a care I 
Let us hope for better things. Let us hope it, through His 
might and under His blessing who commanded the little chil- 
dren to be brought unto Him, and that none of the family of 
mankind should be forbidden; of Him who ^ has promised the 
choicest gifts of His Feather's kingdom to those who in good 
earnest love their neighbors as themselves.'' 

Hon. Thomas Wyse, who wn^, a few years since, a distin- 
guished Roman Catholic member of the British Parliament, in 
his work on Education Reform^ thus expresses himself on this 
point: " What is true of individuals, is still truer of societies. 
A reading and writing community m«y be> a very vicious t^om* 
mnnity, if moralitj (not merely its t\veorj,WX,\\A y^'^^^^^ ^^ 



288 

not as much a portion of edacation ua roailing and writing. 
Knowledge is only a branch of education, but it has too often 
been taken for the * whole.' " " When I speak of moral educa- 
tion," continues Mr. Wyse, ^^I impl^ religion; and when I 
speak of religion, I speak of Christianity. It is morality, it is 
conscience par excellence. Even in the most worldly sense, it 
could easily be shown that no other morality truly binds, no 
other education so effectually secures ercn the coarse and mate* 
rial intci-csts of society. The economist himself would find 
liis gain in such a system. Even if it did not exist, he should 
invent it. It works his most sanguine speculations of good into 
far surer and more rapid conclusions, than any system he could 
attempt to set up in its place. No system of philosophy hsm 
better consulted the mechanism of society, or joined together 
with a closer adaptation of all its parts, tlian Christianity. No 
legislator who is truly wise — no Christian will for a moment 
think — for the interests of society and religion — which are, 
indeed, only one, — of sepai*ating Christianity from moral edu- 
cation." 

Mr. Wyse obsci-ves ngain: "In teaching religion and morality, 
wo naturally look for the best code of both. Where is it to be 
found? Where, but in the Holy Scriptures? Where, but ii^ 
that speaking and vivifying code, teaching by deed, and sealing 
its doctrines by death, arc we to find that law of truth, of 
justice, of love, which has been the thirst an»l hunger of the 
liunian heart in every vicissitude of its history. From the 
mother to the di;rnitary, tliis ought to be the Book of Books; 
it should be laid by the cradle and the death-be<l: it should be 
the companion and the counsellor, and the consoler, the Frim 
and Thunimim, the light and the perfection of all earthly exist- 
ence." 

lion. J. B. MiiliiLEUU, late Superintendent of Education for 
Lower Canada, thus reuiarkn in his last Annual lleport: '* As 
the moral and religious department of education has become 
matter of discuHnion, and some have proposed that we should 
limit our teaching in our schools to the ordinary acquirements 
of .science, without troubling ourselves with religious education, 
I consider it my duty to protest in this place against the fatal 
tendency of such a system. The aim of education is to render 
men perfect, and to qualify them to fulfill their duties toAvards 
G«kI, towards their families, towards society, and towards them- 
selves. Every system of education having a different object 
would be subversive of the great principles on Avhich society is 
based, and Avithout which a nation could never become v»>Iyo\\^^ 
or great, or prospei'ows. JE very system of uatiouaV e^MCi^twiU 

30a 



284 

oaght to bo, abovo all, moral and religious, and without this we 
could not have a well-ordered society." 

WASHiirGTON, in his Farewell Address to the American Peo- 

51c, has left us this noble testimony in favor of Religion and 
loralitv: ^^ Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to 
folitical prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable, 
n vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who 
should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, 
these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The 
more politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect 
and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their con- 
nexions with private and public felicity. Let it simply be 
asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for 
life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which 
are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And 
let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can 
be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to 
the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar struct- 
ure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that nation- 
al morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It 
is substantially true, that virtue or morality is a necessary 
spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends w^ith 
more or less force to eveiy species of free government. Who, 
that is a siuccro friend to it, can look with indifference upon 
attempts to shako the foundation of the fabric ? Promote, 
then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the 
general diffusion of knowledge." 

The profound intellect of Daniel Webster was especially 
directed to the connection of the Bible and Christianity with 
educational iustitutiouH, as may be seen by the following ex- 
tracts from his niasteily ar^jument in the Girard College case in 
the Supreme Court of the United States: ''I maintain,'* said 
Webster, ''that, in any institution for the instruction of 
youth, where the authority of God is disowned, and the duties 
of Christianity derided and despised, and its ministers shut out 
from all participation in its proceedings, there can no more bo 
charity, true charity, found to exist, than evil can spring out of 
the Bible, error out of truth, or hatred and animosity conic 
forth from the bosom of perfect love. * ♦ * 

'* The ground taken is, that religion is not ncccsf^ary to mor- 
ality; that benevolence may be insured by habit, and that all 
the virtues may flourish, and be safely left to the chance of 




de 
woi'ld has uot thought; for by that 0\xn^tv^\ ^QxW^^xwi^tfs^^ 



235 

its broadest extent, it has been, and is, held as a fundamental 
truth, that religion is the only solid basis of morals, and that 
moral instruction not resting on this basis is only a building 
upon sand. And at what age of the Christian era have those 
who professed to teach the Christian religion, or believe in its 
authority and importance, not insisted on the absolute necessity 
of inculcating its principles and its precepts upon the minds of 
the young ? In what age, by what sect, whore, when, by whom, 
has religious truth been excluded from the education of youth? 
Nowhere; never. Everywhere, and at all times, it has b^en, 
and is regarded as essential. It is the essence, the vitality, of 
useful instruction. * * * ♦ ♦ 

*'Mr. Girard says that there are such a multitude of sects, 
and such diversity of opinion, that he will exclude all religion 
and all its ministers, in order to keep the minds of the children 
free from clashing controversies. Now, docs not this tend to 
subvert all belief in the utility of teaching the Christian relig- 
ion to youth at all ? Certainly, it is a broad and bold denial of 
such utility. To say that the evil resulting to youth from the 
differences of sects and creeds overbalances all the benefits 
which the best education can give them, what is this but to say 
that the branches of the tree of religious knowledge aro so 
twisted, and twined, and commingled, and all run so much into 
and over each other, that there is therefore no remedy but to 
lay the axe at the root of the tree itself? It means that, and 
nothing less ! Now, if there be anything more derogatory to 
the Christian religion than this, I should like to know what it 
is. In all this we see the attack upoii religion itself, made on 
its ministers, its institutions, and its diversities. And that is 
the objection urged by all tlio lower and more vulgar schools of 
infidelity throughout the world. In all these schools, called 
schools of Rationalism in Gemiany, Socialism in England, and 
by various other names in various countries which they infest, 
this is the universal cant. The first step of all these philosoph- 
ical moralists and regenerators of the human race, is to attack 
the agency through which religion and Christianity are udminis- 
tered to man. But in tliis there is notliing new or original. 
We find the same mode of attack and remark in Paine's ' Age 
of Reason.' We find the same view in Volney's 'Ruins of 
Empires.' * * * 

"But this objection to the multitude and differences of sects 
is but the old story, the infidel argument. It is notorious that 
there are certain "rreat reli;'ious truths which are admitted and 
believed by all Christians. All believe in the existence of -a. 
God. All believe w the immortality of the soul. AWVcWeN^ 
jD the responsibility, in another worJd, for our conduet Vu ^\iv&. 



236 

All bcliovc in the divine authority of the New Testament. Dr. 
Paley says that a single word from the New Tcstauieiit t<huts 
up the mouth of human questioning, and excludes all human 
reasoning. And cannot all these .ii:re<at trutlis be taught to chil- 
dren without their minds being perplexed with clashing doc- 
trines and sectarian controversies 'i Most certainly they can. 

^C 3|C 3jC 3jC *f» *^ *jt ^k 

" But, it is a«ked, what could Mr. Girard have done ? He 
could have done as has been done in Lonibardy by the Emperor 
of Austria, as my learned friend has inibrmed us, where, on a 
large scale, the principle is establisluMl of teaching the elemen- 
tary principles of the Christian reli;2;ioii, nf enforcing human 
duties by <livine obligations, and carefully abstaining in all 
cases from interfering with sects or the inculcation of sectarian 
doctrines. How have they done in the schools of New Eng- 
• land? There, as far as I am acquainted witli them, the great 
elements of Christian truth are taught in every school. The 
Scriptures are read, their authority taught and enlorced, their 
evidences exj)lained, and prayers usually offered. 

'' The truth is, that those who really value Christianity, and 
believe in its importance, not only to the si)iritual wcuarc of 
man, but to the safety and j)rosperity of human society, rejoice 
that in its revelations and its teachings there is so much which 
mounts above controversy, and stands on universal acknowledge- 
ment. AVhile many things about it are disputed or are dark, 
they still plainly See its foundation and its main pillars; and 
they behold in it a sacred structure, rising up to the Ueavcns. 
They wish its general principles, and all its ^reat truths, to be 
aprciid over the whole earth. Eut those vho do not value 
Christianity, nor believe in its imiJortance to society or individ- 
uals, cavil about seets and scliisms, and ring monotonous 
r*hanges upon the slnillow and so olten rofuted objections found- 
ed on alleged variety of discordant creeds and clashing doc- 
trines." 

"We scruple not to say here,'' says Ijauxakd's Anwrican 
Journal of JSducaUon^ '''ihiit our \)n\)\U are y^^ung immortals, 
and we realize our duty to them in tliis important aspect. Wo 
open our schools with the reading ot* a ]>assage t^f Scriptui*o 
without note or c<nnm('ut, and we ijivo-vc the l^lessini;- of (jiod at 
the commencement of eaeli day i']»o:'i the duties and labors of 
the day before us. it is (U>ne solemnly and se-iousiy, and ni»t 
as an unmeaninii: service. Nor do we!ie:iit:.re to use the ixoneral 
precepts of religion in moi-al in: traction; but not Ijv a word or 
act, or even by inq>lieation, is ojie a:temr»i lu.ide t') inveigle or 
decoy any pupil into the meshes oC any denomlnatiomil net, or 
to cany tho citadel of any lieavt for u-u vi^WvwoX l^xm^ v>\ ^"Sk^i^ita- 



28T 

rian creed. We believe that cdncati6n can never be complete 
without the culture of the heart. Wo know of no truth like 
Bible truth, no power like IVihle power, for tliis purpose. We 
avoid, with the most scrupulous enre, the propagation of any 
sectarian view, but if we wish a golden rule, ' AH things what- 
soever ye would that men sliould do to you, do ye even so to 
them,' wo hesitate not to adopt it because it is in the Bible, or 
because the sublime procopt first fell from the lips of the Redeemer 
of man. Nor do we hesitiitc to p^o to the Bible for those funda- 
mental truths that lie at the foundation of all correct philosophy, 
and which can bo derived from no other source with equal clear- 
ness, some of them from no other source at all, as the creation 
of the world, the Bible view of which alone can set at rest all 
questions on the subject of cosmogony. It is general truth, 
simple moral truth, as it affects our relations with and to our 
fell()w-men, and simple religious t/uth, as it affects our relations 
to God, not controversial or controverted points, that wo feel at 
perfect liberty to use and inculcate, because they are in con- 
sistency with the views of all sects. It is what may lead our 
pupils, when they grow up, to be thoughtful and examine for 
themselves their duties to God and man in their broadest sense. 
Let us take care that in our hoiTor of sectarianism, we do not 
lose sight of the fact admitted by all sects, that the God of our 
Bible is the God of our nation, acknowledged in its foundation, 
acknowledged hitherto in its progress and in its rising glory. 
Let us not, from a dread oi* sectarianism, induce Him to spread 
his sheltering wing, and take his flight forever from our public 
institutions. Disastrous indeed, fatally disastrous, would such 
withdrawal be. We have no greater evil as a nation to fear." 

Nearly all our Legislative Assemblies, and successive ses- 
gions of Congress, have, from Colonial days to the present, so 
far recognized a superintending Providence as to open their 
diily sessions with prayer. What could be more befitting both 
teacher and scholars, in their arduous and important avocations, 
than to unite, at the commencement of thei^ daily toils, in read- 
ing a portion of the Sacred Scriptures, repeating the memorable 
prayer of our Lord and Savior, or otherwise humbly invoking 
the blessings of the jVtost High. 

*' At the meeting of the fii\st Congress," says Webster, "there 
was a doubt in the minds of many of the propriety of opening 
the session with prayer; and the reason assigned was, as here, 
the great diversity of o])imon and religious belief* At length 
Mr. Samxjkl Adams, with his gray hairs hanging about uis 
shoulders, and with an impressive venerablencss now seldom to 
be met with, (I suppose owing to the difference of habits,) rofto 
in that assemblj^ and^ with the nir of a perfect PutWniTi, f»A^ 
that it did not become men, profcaaing to be Christittu men, ^^ 



388 

had come together for solemn deliberation, in the hour of their 
extremity, to say that there was so wide a difference in their 
religious belief, and they could not, as one man, bow the knee 
in prayer to the Almighty, whose advice and assistance thev 
hoped to obtain. Independent as he was, and an enemy to all 
prelacy as he was known to be, he moved that the Rev. Mr. 
DucHK, of the Episcopal Church, should address the Throne of 
Grace in prayer. 

"And John Adams, in a letter to his wife, says that hcnever 
saw a more moving spectacle. Mr. Duciie read the Episcopal 
service of the Church of England, and then, as if moved by 
occasion, he broke out into extemporaneous prayer. And those 
men, who were then about to resort to force to obtain their 
rights, were igoved to tears; and floods of tears, Mr Adams 
says, ran down the chcoks of the pacific Quakers who formed 
part of that most interesting^ssembly. Depend upon it, where 
there is a spirit of Christianity, there is a spirit which rises 
above forms, above ceremonies, independent of sect or creed, 
and the controversies of clashing doctrines." 

How replete with practical wisdom and good sense were the 
remarks of the illustrious Franklin, in the Federal Convention 
for the formation of our Constitution, pleading for prayer at the 
opening of each daily session. " Groping, as it were, in the 
dark,'* said Franklin, "to find political truth, and scarce able 
to distinguish it when presented to us, how has it happened. 
Sir, that we have not hitherto once thought of humbly applying 
to the Father of Lights, to illuminate our understandings ? In 
the beginning of the contest with G reat Britain, when we were sen- 
sible of danger, we had daily prayer in this room for the Dirine 
protection. Our prayers. Sir, were heard, and they were gra- 
ciously answered. All of us who were engaged in the strug- 
gle must have observed frequent instances of a superintending 
Providence in our favor. To that kind Providence we owe this 
happy opportunity of consulting in peace on the means of estab- 
lisning our future national felicity. And have we nowfoi^tten 
that powerful friend? Or do we imagine that we no longer need 
his assistance? I have lived. Sir, a long time, and the longer I 
live, the more convincing proofs I see of this truth — that God 
governs in the affairs of men,^* 

It will be recollected that General Taylor, during his Presi- 
dency, recommended a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer, 
on account of that dreadful scourage, the cholera, that then 
prevailed so extensively and fatally in our land. It is wdl 
known, that [the scourge ceased almost instantaneously after 
the observance of the day of prayer, as did the tempest on the 
/gea of Qennes&reth when the audible voice of God commuided^ 
^Peace^be still V 



In discusfling a subject of this ehftraeter, muiy other high 
authorities might eftsily be cited in faror «f the use of tliP 
Bible, and of tnoral ana religious instruction in public schools, 
utd of the peculiar proprietj of opening their dailj sessioAR 
urith prayer — and all this, without necoeb&rilj having the leait 
connection vith sectarianism. Enough, I trust, on these point*; 
has already been adduced. With the treighty opinion of n 
WASBmaTON, a Frahelim, an ADAH8,a Jztfbrsob, »Bdbke, & 
Brouguam, a Webster, a Stowe, and a Mann, among Protest- 
ants, and of a GDiZ0T,a Wyse and a Meillbub among the enlight- 
ened educators of Catholic coimtries, together with the almost 
nnirersal experience of this country^ ana my own personal ex- 
eervation of nearly forty years, I am unwillin" to believe that 
any other than the happiest results would be likely to follow a 
discreet, un-sectaritui use of the Bible in public schools, the 
inculcation of moral duties and obligations, and the opening of 
daily sessions of school with prayer. 

A recognition of (rod as rnling in the affairs of men is suh- 
fitantially found in the Declaration of Independence, in the 
Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of Wis- 
consin.* Christianity is everywhere incorporated in the law of 



* Tho Boaton ImaligaloT^ the avowed orgui and cipouent of Uie Freo 
Thioken of this oountr;, hu charged ne with DMking a '" fUiw •tat«iiiunt" 
in BaHertinf; that " & reuofmitioa tf Ood, iw ruling la tiie k^ni irf' niva. in snb- 
vtantially Ibnnd is tlic DecUrntion of Indopendsnce, in tb« Coiutitution of Ihp 
Dnitpil BtatPH, and (he Coostitatioa of Wisconaia." The sipiu-iatthe humoi^ 
tal Declaration of Independence expressed in that inEtnuMat their " firm reli- 
ance on tho piotection of DiTina ProTideuce;-' ' and the Conatitalian of this 
State commences with the declaration, '' We, the people of Wiaconsin, gmtelul 
to Qod bronr IVeedom,'' &o. 80 for, then, aa these two State papprs ar* con- 
c«mod. they not only lubilnilialfjr, but jwnfrKiy, rooognlie 6od M rUlin^f In 
the affaim of men. I woa fully aware uf thia when 1 penned Uie aentenoe thai 
the ifoifon /nw^fiira'')'- DOW so baldly denies; and as the Gonsmntion of thf 1 
United Btateawaa IcKS explirit, I msdo the qualification that auch rcoofinition 
is " niAitimriaUy fband " in those three State papera. in two of tham, the re- 
cognition is pOHJtiTei in the other tlie " niiilBiiu" ia bund, aa I ahall prooeaJ 

While the woid " God'-' is cot oiprBesedin the ConHtitution of the United 
Slates, jet twice in that instrument are oatiia or aflSmistioiui prorklBd — ithe 
President l>eing Ttijuired to ''aolamn^/ twmr " that he will fiuthiblly perfbrm 
the duties of his office and preacTTa, proteol, and defend the ConittitnlioD; find 
the Senaton and RejireaentatiTaH in Oongreas, members of the several State 
Lesialatnrea. and all eieeative and judicial lAoeni. both of Iha Uriitfd Stalr.i 
nnd of the several States, " Hhall be bound by outb or aihlmulion, to support 
the Coaatitution.'" 

What, then, la the nature of an oath? Davibl Wbbbtkb. 'the great ex- 
pounder of the U onatitutioQ, declares, that '■' We hold life, IJhertjr, and prcfierty 
in this country npon a system of oattis; oaths founded on a i'eli{[ioua belirf of 
•ome aort. And that system which would atrikc away the great aubstratuDi. 
destroy the m(b poHsession of life, liborty, nnd profierty, deMroj a\l Uib 'ln^V\- 
ttitiona oT oivil aoeiety, eannot siid will not be oonstdered aa etA\a«lto ttte ^m- 



the land. It is reco^iscil bj CongrcPB niul by State LegiBln- 
tureB, aad by the biwa they eiiaot, ns wcUnebyaJlourCourtBor 
Judicature. The recognition of tlie Ohristiau Sabbutli, and of 
the reli<^ouB obiigutious of oaths, tht^ incorporation of so many 
of the laws of Giid, as rocunled in the Bible, into the funda- 
mental tan's of the land, and the iiitivorBal rcepcct paid to relig- 
ion and roligious observances, all tend to pruve that the Rilont, 
yet all-powerful influences of Ohriatianity arc indissolubly iu- 

tnction of n ctnirt of eiinitj." JuiIjip Stobv. ioliU Coiiimtalnrift on tht. C-n'fi- 
'u'lnn. rpfisrrmRfn tlio FroMilcnt'i" otith oriiflW, nlwcrveii: "It in n nuit«hl.i 
pIHinof hiiificlelitjanil rwnnnsibilitj lolii* coiiMrf; ami cmloa miiMi hit 
iMiDm'kuoe K iWp KviMt <}' iluly. Ay cm i^gicul tii tuirt, in IJujircniirt t/ (lOit uh-I 
mail, to lir m-ul tarivl awl tolfmii r-iiirii-im n-iieh am mtfnlr.iiii //,-■ inniiiv mint." 

WAiiniMCTOir nrMiiW ntit tlip Conm fin lion nl U<invi>nli<>a. niiJ vlirii Ibv 
«ith nf ntKen an Pniiidunt ira« Ndiiiiiudcrod to bini lij CfaMimiHar LnriHUitTOK 
in VMO, lip (locUri'd in Lii ionuKutal biIiIcukm, tliut " it wuiilil be pcL'uliai'l:!' 
impTDpiT to omit, in tliii> iiri"t i>fliciHl lift, iny rcm-nt KU|iTilirHti»ng to tliKl .\l- 
jiinnTv Bsixd wliu rii!i!i< over Dip nniTprtp — wli" pn-siid'n in t1i» conncils of 
natiimii — anil whunn Tiroriilrntiul aIU omi AUiiplf tvrry hnmin deterl, that Hi:' 
tirnodictian m^ cuucucntc In llm lilwrtiix) unit ]i;i)ij>iii<''^'> ot tlm )Hiaj>lo bt the 
United Staloa. a fc'vcnimuut iusliliiti-d Uy dieniitftvoit f..r Dimo unaiiilinl pur- 
]itiffii: and mnjr cnnliTc rrc-ry iniitriiiiicnt MnplovM in itii ndmliiii^rallnn to fxp- 
fnit«irithsiioocMt1ii'(\in«ti'nniin11ottr<l to bU ibaire. iu t«advrinic Ibis hum- 
afW In tin- (iiiBAT ArTiiOK 'if cv.'i'y (iiibliv and private phmI, I a^<slllv luyiu'ir 
Uial it cjpr,iiiw« j-oiir Hi'iitiiiiciili' lurt W** lluiu my i.Tfii; nor tli.nip of lu^rcllnv 
ritiien"! nt liii^ii, leas tliim citluT. So iii'i.|ilc can Im' Ih.iiihI to ui'lcnuvli^i)^ nml 
sdoro tho inTiaihio hniiH wliirh Foiiduot!<tltPali;iin)ariucA. munrthantlii-i'ooiili- 
nr th« Uaili.-d tUtnicB. Ktery rlrp hj nhirb tbry bavo tulvMiu-«l t<i tba i.'bM-nr- 
trr ot nn iiulapcndeut notion, mmiH to bavft iicon divtiii^iiitbcil by Mnn« loki-n 
of proTid«ntinl Hgi-ncyj ami in thf> important n-rulutioii ,|uit •ccunipll*bril in 
tbe lyiitpiii of thnir nnitod piVM-amcnt. tbi> tnuii)nil ili-lilHratiioiH, mid roliin- 
tnry runiirnt of no miny distinet coinnninilirit. t^ianwliich Ibc i!v<>ut bi>« rroultvd. 
Ri>n[iot h« Donipnrfsl mlh Ibp lup^ins by irhii;li moil fcov[Tnin<,'Ut-> liitw bpfii 
pHtii)ili»hed, iritlidut riont n'tum of pinna trratituila. nluiifCHith an Imuihln nuiir- 
ifHition of Ih* fnliirc iil«»!iinf(ii wliiob tlii' imst Rci-m to pro!iii|w. Tttuau i-rtiiic- 
lionn, liTi^ing out oT the prPKi-nt uriiiiii. batu Airueil tlipinfclTcN t«u Hlrunft)jr mi 
my mind to lie nupjirawcd.'' ' 

l'resid«irt Mavijiox, v'hn iH itpir<]i:<l ns th« Fnlbprof the Connttlution. and 
was th«mnirtn>4|iirit of the Ronreiitiiii vliirh Girmrd it. olmei-vvii in liia lint 
inanipintl siliirei>ii. '■ We linvo nil lieen Fnooiirnf^id to fi-pL the giui-diunabii> uml 
fniidance of tbirt -VtsfiiiHTv IIrinq, -wlm^o p<>wiir rO|inlai(-it tlie di'i'tiig' oi' ua- 
tioiiK. whose ble*»iiiirii linvi! been fo iTii]>iiii-iioii?1_v ili^pciisiil to this riainK Ui- 
Itiibltr.'' JmmnnoK. in bin liivt inaiiporxl nddiswii. '■ aolcaiiitledged nnd 
adored an oTrr-nittng I'miviuBKaB '' in ilie a&irH nf men. 

Tba ConMitution ot the Unitvd rtlate:< rpoogniirn (iou an mlinfc in ibe afTair^ 
of inpn. by the Mkniii milhH of ufficp nhivh H impom-n: sanutioued by Wakii- 
iNRTOit. FnAKELiy nnd Masihux. who frerv mumburaol' the tiuiiventiun Ti'liicb 
fl-amedit; aonelinncd by every an«rp>>Hive Trwidcnt takiii); Ikit wilrmn oath. 
■dminiKtrred upon tbv Kiblei armctianed by uU the rrcitidrntH. iii Ibi'ii' iunui:u- 
taliiddvt'ziHi-HaiidaniuiiiImi-i-H^p-H: ami liirtb<-r i.»iii'lionrd by the interprcla- 
tionx nf all our freat eonHtiliitional pxpouiiiteni. Tfa« Coiislitutiun lortlwnnon-. 
At its oloM. rpengniira "onr Loud " in recordiiif: the niemnrnble year uf ilM 
IbrmuCion, Thun, it vitl bo aeen. thai thera in aubMhiiitiiilly a rei.iwnilinti of 
Quu, BM TulinK in the affair:' >if miii. in llit> UrdlarHtiiin nf Inilnx-u(l«HiH>, tlie 
VonnlitutioB ot the I'liltcd Ntat«H. niul tlin I'nnntilutiun of IViHtuaain. 

k. G. a. 



241 

terworeD in our lawB, &tid pervftde all olasBee of society. That 
Ood govemt in the affairs of men, WM the deep conviction of 
the eminent philosopher, Franklin; and in every thoughtful 
human heart there is an intuitive acquieaoence iji the truth of 
this profound remark. 

" There ie nothing," Bays Webster, " that we look for with 
more certainty than this general principle, that Ghristiajoity is 
part of the law of the land. This was the case among the Pu- 
ritans of New England, the Episcopalians of the Southern 
States, the Pennsylvania Quakers, the Baptists, the mass of the 
followers of Whitfield and Wesley, and the Presbyteriana;'all 
brooght and all adopted this great truth, and all have sustained 
it. And where there is any religious sentiment among men at 
«JI, this Bentiment incorporates itself with the law. lEverything 
tUelaretit. The massive cathedral of the Catholic; the Epis- 
eopalian church, with its lofty spire pointing heavenward; the 
plain temple of the Quaker; the log church of the hardy pio- 
neer of the wilderness; the mementoes and the memonala 
around and about us; the consecrated grave -yards, their tomb- 
stones and epitaphs, their Bilent vaults, their mouldering con- 
tents; all attest it. The dead prove it as well at the living. 
The generation that are gone before speak to it, and pronounoe 
it from the tomb. We feel it. All, all proclaim that Christi- 
anity, general, tolerant Christianity, Christianity independent 
of sects and parties, that 'Christianity to which tne sword and 
fagot are unknown, general, tolerant Christianity, is the law of 
the land." 

If it be true, then, that Christianity pervades all the ramiS- 
cationfl of society, why should we wish alone to exclude i£ from 
the nurseries of education ? It has been decided by the Vice 
Chancellor, in the highest court of England, that " Courts o» 
EQUITY, IK THIS COUHTRT, WILL NOT 6AHCTI0N ANY BTSTEM OP 
EDCCATION m WHICH RELIGION IS NOT INCLDDBD." FrANELIK 

Bud to Painb, when advising against the publication of one of 
his infidel works, " Don't unchain the tiger ! If men are so- 
bad with all the restraining influences of the Christian religion, 
what would they be without them !"* Jefferson remarked to 

• The Botlon InvatlgatoT, in Iti glrictures on this Ciroalar, has seen fit to 
tiM this Uugnage: " Tbe moti who hns the effronterj to ARsert, as he does, la 
the Cironltr ot whith w6 are spaaking, that Fbabklim wrote against on* of 
Faihi'b works which was not commenced until after the former waa dead mora 
than thfee yeara, will not be lilflj to be more mamanimouB than intelligent." 
ltis,ne*erttieleai, "in thehii^heBt degree probable,'' ae Jabid Sfabkb obECiret, 
that Paimi anbmitted to FiiAiiKt.111 a deistical manusaript aa early as about 
1787; uid Fkamklin'* rsply contains not only what I have quoUd, but mucb 
tnor« qiltte M poinud and tigniBcaat. Bee oparkg' edition ot l^e 'ffWIu oj 
IhuMji, nd. I. p. JtSl, 383. t. C.1J. 

■Sl3 



Webst^, " BuRKB never uttered a more importaot truth, than 
when ho exclaimed that a religious education was the cheapeBt 
defense of natiooB." A prominent secular newspaper of oar 
couatry, the New York Courier ^ Enquirer, recently remarked: 
"It will not be denied by any man, wnetber religious or other- 
wise, that the effect of personal religion upon the individual — 
and, aa a neccsaary reault, upon society, which is but an aggre- 
gation of individuals— ia in the highest degree happy, important 
and desirable. In the allaying of unruly passions, the ameli- 
oration of aelfishneas, the uprooting of immorality and.vioe, the 
security of life and property, the steadying of trade, the in- 
crease of industry — all these upon motives far higher and more 
reliable than any mercenary ones — its advantages are palpable, 
and are admitted on every side." 

Shall it ever be deemed a sacrilege — a desecration of the 
noble and holy purposes of education — a blighting injury to the 
morals of our beloved children, to permit the ieachers in the 

fublic schools of Wisconsin to read a portion of the Sacred 
oriptures, offer a prayer invoking, the blessing of Ciod npOQ 
their labors and the efforts of the children committed to their 
charge, or repeat the Lord's Prayer, all beautiful, as it is, in 
its simplicity and adaptation to the wants of all; or impress 
upon their young and susceptible miuda those iacomparable 
teaichings, derived from the Bible, touching their moral duties 
to their parents, to each other, to society and to God? I confess 
I canuot conceive how there could be "any reasonable objection, 
any possible harm, in all this — untinctured with Bectarianism as 
it would and should be; but, on the contrary, enduring good, in 
my opinim, would be the inevitable consequence. 

There could be no more beautiful spectacle, none more truly 
ennobling, than a teacher inculcating aud enforcing inoral duties 
upon the young — love to parents, brothers, siatera, companioDs 
— love to the race of man, and love to the Giver of all good; 
loveof country, truth, honestyand virtue — charity to the poor 
and unfortunate, and kindness to the brute creation; — in a word, 
. pressing upon their attention those foundation principles which 
alone can make, them good children, good men, good women, and 
good citizens. And such instructions can be imparted by the 
judicious teacher at suitable opportunities, without ever for a 
moment trenching on sectarian peculiarities. 

Such is the abiding conviction, and such the praotioes of the 
civiliKcd world. I am aure that the people of Wisconsin, who 
are generally conceded to poasesa aa«mucQ virtue and intelli- 
gence as the citizens of any of their sister States, would aevtr 
consent to utterly banish tne Bible from their schools, and thus 
rirtuBlIj repudiate its anequalled teachings of virtue and mo- 



248 ' 

r&lity ae unfit for the iaBtruction and guidance of the children 
of their love — children who, at no distant day, must become the 
mlere and law-givers of the State, and the custodians of all that 
we now hold dear and sacred, our homes, our country, Chris- 
tianity and the Bible. 

I would not force the attendance of scholars, against tjieir 
parents' or guardians' will, on the exercises of reading the 
Scriptures and offering prayer. The conscientious scruples of 
men are always deserving of respect; and no School Board, or 
liberal community, woula wish to be arbitrary or overbearing in 
matters of conscience. In all such differences of opinion, there 
are necessarily two parties, and each have their rights; and 
these should be equally respected, so far as it is possible to do- 
BO. Where there are any honest objections to such exercises — 
and the School Board should be the judge in such cases— then it 
might be advisable to have these exercises conducted a tittle 
before the regular hour for opening the school, as I learn has 
been the case in the Watertown schools, or if in school hours, 
that such scholars might be permitted to retire; so that the 
children and wards - of parents and guardians conacicntioualy 
objecting to their attendance on these exercises, might not be 
compelled to be present. 

If a majority of the School Board prefer to have the common 
version of the Bible read in school, it is their right to claim 
their preference; if a majority prefer to have Douay or Catholic 
edition read, it is their equal right to have it— but, in a matter 
of this kind, the Board in fairness and justness should faithfully 
represent the wishes of the district. But let the Bible be read, 
whatever be the version, reverently and impressively, and the 
blessing of the God of the Bible will never fail to attend it. 

If the teacher sees proper, with the consent or approval of 
the School Board, to make remarks to his school of a moral 
character and application, he should be extremely cautious, and 
not travel out of his way to lug in anything that could, even by 
the most fastidious, be construed into a Eectarian tendency. 
Such conduct wpuld be bigoted, uncalled for, and unjustifiable 
— a direct infringement of the Constitution, and a violation of all 
confidence reposed by the district in the judgment and propriety 
of the teacher; and would, in my opinion, be sufficient cause for 
his dismissal. 

Thousands and tens of thousands of judicious teachers, in 
the Old World and the New, constantly impart moral instruc- 
tion to their pupils, without ever once obtruding, or desiring to 
obtrndi', their views or opinions upon religious tenets or secta- 
rian differences. I should have no fear of any such narrow- 
minded obtrusions, and violation of good faith, in the t«acb.«i% 



244 

of Wisconsin; while, on the other hand, to carry out the true 
spirit of moral instruction, on all suitable occasions, devftid of 
all sectarian tendencies, would, beyond all question, make the 
most enduring beneficial impressions. It would be folly, nay 
worse than folly, to say that no moral instruction whatever 
should be given in our public schools. It is done every day, in 
every school of the land — for nearly every text-book, from the 
primary reader to the higher works on philosophy, geology, and 
intellectual science, convev very properly more or less moral 
instruction, and none thiuK of branding them as sectarian. 

But, you may ask, may not a majority of the School Board, 
if they see fit, utterly refuse to tolerate the Bible, prayer, and 
moral instruction in the public school ? We might ODstinately 
and insanely refuse food for our perishing bodies, as well as for 
our craving immortal minds, but we should only spite and injure 
ourselves by so rash and suicidal an act. I have no doubt the 
Board might legally thrust the Bible from the school-house, and 
stifle the voice of prayer, for these are not among the studies 
specially prescribed by law; but they may very properly be re- 
garded as among the " such other branches of education as may 
be determined upon by the Board," as the law allows, if the 
Board think proper to include them. The District Board, too, 
under the advice of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
have power to determine the text-books to be lised; and I should 
ever feel bound to regard with special favor the use of the Bible 
in public schools, as pre-eminently first in importance among 
text-books for teaching the noblest principles of virtue, morali- 
ty, patriotism, and good order — love and reverence for God — 
charity and good will to man. 

Very respectfully, 

LYMAN C. DRAPER, 

Sup't Public InstriLe^n. 



TEXT BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 



In ttua age of improved text books it is no pleasant task to com- 
mend one book or series of school books, as superior to all others 
of the kind. Yet it is one of the obligations imposed by law 
on the State Superintendent — " it shall be his duty to recommend 
tbe introduction of the most approved text books, and as far as 
practicable to secure a uniformity in the use of text books in the 
Common Schools throughout the State." " The Board in each 
district shall have power, under the advice of the Superintendent 
of Puilic Instruction, to determine what school and test books 
shall be used in the several branches taught in the school of such 
district." The law, then, makes it the "duty of the State 
Saperintendent to recommend," while "the power of determin- 
ing what school and text books shall be used," is vested in the 
District Board, under the advice of the State Saperintendent. 
It is a further duty of the State Superintendent to secure, as 
far as practicable, a uniformity in the use of text books throueh- 
out the State, How all this can be effected, is not so easily 
determined. 

It would be folly for the State Superintendent to recommend 
text books, and endeavor to secure a uniformity in their use, if 
the District Boards have full power to determine this matter for 
themselves. And if the four thousand District Boards in the 
State, have full control of this subject, and can select what text 
books they please, how can a uniformity by any possibility be 
secured? But this power on the part of the District Boards is 
plainly limited; they can only determine under the advice or 
recommendation of the State Superintendent. To meet this 
view of the case, and leave the District Boards some latitude, 
two kinds of text books upon the principal branches taught, are 
respectfully recommended in the following list. 

Other series of Readers are regarded as good, — Towers', 
Sargent's, Town & Holbrook's, Sanders', and Lovell's; but 
after a careful examination of tbe merits of all, and consultation 
with several of the prominent educators of the State, preference 
is given to Parker & Watson's new series of National Keaders, 
and McQnffey's Eclectic Educational series. 

It has heen already observed, that when different text books 
from those here recommended are at present in use, ft Buid.«ii 
change migit not be deairable; but as soon as the old flUf pV^ ^ 



246 

worn out, and sooner, if tlie district will sanction it, let the 
proper change be made— for the proficiency of the scholars will 
greatly depend upon their having the best text books. extant. 

Spellers and Readers: 

National Series. 

McGuffey's Series. 
Moral Inetruction: 

The Bible. 

Cowdery's Moral Lessons, 
Qrammari: 

Greene's First Lessons. • 

Greene's Elements of English Grammar. 

Greene's Analysis. 

Clark's Grammar. 
Geographies: 

Monteith & McNally's Series. 

Warren's Geography, 

Warren's Physical Geography. 
Mathematics: 

Davies' Arithmetics and Algebras. 

Ray'a Arithmetics and Algebras. 

Stoddard's Intellectual Arithmetic. 

Colbum's (Prof. D. B.) Arithmetic,and its Applications. 

Daviea' Higher Mathematics.* 
Composition, jfc: 

Brookfield's Firet Book. 

Quackenbosa' First Lessons. 

McEUigott's Analyzer. 
Spealrers: 

Northend's Little Speaker. 

McGuffey's New Eclectic Speaker. 

Northend's American Speaker. 

Zachos' New American Speaker. 
Booi-keeping: 

Maynew'a Practical System. 

Fulton & Eastman's Book-keeping. 
Histories: 

Lossing's Primary U. S. History. 



*8iDae the pnblicatioQ or the preceding 1i«t, RobUiian't Italhmatkal Striu. 
ioetifu' Normal Arilhmilic, and Olrai'fd't Budiinentt of Nalaral PhiiMoptin fi 
j^f/rcnomtf, bHre l>«eo eismined, knd (bund irortby of being reooiniaendBd U 
naetliit«Ktbookf, 



2^7 



Z ■ 



Lossine's Pictorial U. S. Histbiy for Schools. 
Wilsoir 8 Outlines of General Hisf orj. 
Willard's Universal History. 

Outline Map97 
Pelton's. 
Mitcheirs. 

Drawing: . , • • 

Coe's Drawing Cards. ^ 
Otis' Drawing, 3poks q^ Animals and Landscapes. 

Q-ovemment: 

Sheppard's Constitutional Q^eizt Book. 

PhiloBophyj ^c: 

Parker's Philosophy. ' 

Wells' Philosophy. 

Wells' Science of Cotaimon Things. 

Peterson's Familiar Science. 

Chemiitry: 

Porter's First Book of Chemistry. 
Porter's Principles of Chemistry. 
Youman's Class Book of Chemistry. 

Botany: 

Wood's First Lessons. 
Wood's Class Book. 
Gray's Botanical Text Book. 

Astronomv: 

Kiddle's Manual. 

Geoloay: 
Hitc 

gyy Hygien 
Dais' Physiology 
Mrs. Porter's "Know Thyself." 



itchcock's. 

Physiology^ Hygiene^ ^c: 
Loomis' Pnysiology. 



Cutter's Physiology. 

Zoology: 

Mrs. Redfield's Chart of the Animal Kingdom. 
Mrs. Redfield's Zoological Science. 

3fusic: 

Bradbury's Toung Melodist. 
Bradbury's School Singer. 

Reference Boohs: 

Webster's Dictionaries. 

Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World. 

Lippinoott's Gazetteer oi the United States. 



worn out, and sooner, if the district will lanctJon it, let the 
proper change be made — for the proficiency of the Bcholara will 
greatly depend upon their having the best text books extant. 

Spellers and Readert: 

National Series. 

McGuffey's Series. 
Moral Instruction: 

The Bible. 

Cowdery'a Moral Lessons. 
Grammars: 

Greene's First Lessons. ' 

Greene's Elements of English Grammar. 

Greene's Analysis, 

Clark's Grammar. 
Geographies: 

Monteith &. McBTally's Series. 

Warren's Geography. 

Warren's Physical Geography. 
Mathematics: 

Daviea' Arithmetics and Algebras. 

Ray's Arithmetics and Algebras. 

Stoddard's Intellectual Arithmetic. 

Colbum's (Prof. D, B.) Arithmetic,and its Applications. 

Davies' Higher Mathematics.* 
Composition, ^c: 

Brookfield's First Book. 

Quackenboss' First Lessons. 

McElligott's Analyzer. 
Speakers: 

Northend's Little Speaker. 

McGuffey's New Eclectic Speaker, 

Northend'a American Speaker. 

Zachos' New American Speaker. 
Booh-Tteeping: 

Maynew's Practical patera. 

Fnlton & Eastman's Book-keeping. 
Histories: 

Lossing's Primary U. S. History. 



'Binoe the publioUoD of the preaodicp list, RaUnion'i Malhmatical Seria, 
Zeomit' Normal Arilkmelic, and Otiniled'i Rudimenti of Xalaral PhilMophu aiA 

AttroKoB^, JiBTe been exunined, ftud tbu^d iiQrtiL; of beiag neommuided u 



■ t 



247 

Louine's Pictorial U. S. Histbi^ for Schools. 
Wilsoirs Ontlines of General HiiBtoTj. 

Willard's Universal History. 

Outline Map9: 
Pelton's. 
Mitchell's. 

Dramng: 

Ooe's. Drawing Cards. 

Otis' Drawing, 3,ook8 pf Animals and Landscapes. 

Q-ovemment: 

Sheppard's Oonstitutional Text Book. 

PhiloBophy^ ^c: 

Parker's Philosophy. 

Wells' Philosophy. 

Wells' Science of Cotaimon Things. 

Peterson's Familiar Science. 

Chemistry: 

Porter's First Book of Chemistry. 
Porter's Principles of Chemistry. 
Youman's Class Book of Chemistry. 

Botany: 

Wood's First Lessons. 
Wood's Class Book. 
Gray's Botanical Text Book. 

Astronomv: 

Kiddle's Mannal. 

Geoloatf: 

Hitchcock's. 



. •* 




:now Thyself." 
Cutter's Physiology. 

Zoology: 

Mrs. Redfield's Chart of the Animal Kingdom. 
Mrs. Redfield's Zoological Science. 

3fusic: 

Bradbury's Young Melodist. 
Bradbury's School Singer. 

Reference Boohs: 

Webster's Dictionaries. 

Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World. 

Lippinoott's Gazetteer of the United States. 



218 

I 
I ." 

School Architecture: 

Barnard's School Architeeture^ or Oontribntions to the 

Improyemeut of School Honses in the United States. 

$2. 
Samard's Practical Blustrations of the Principles of 

School Architecture— an abridgement of thepreceding 

— price 60 cents. 

JohoYinot's Country School Houses. 
*^* The School Teacher* 9 Librarp is eminently worthy of the 
attention of all educators. The series consists of — 
Northend's Teacher and Parent. 
Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching. 
Mansfield on American Education. 
De Tocqueville's American Institutions* 
Davies' Logic of Mathematics. 
Mayhew on Universal Education, 
Root on School Amusements « 



^ ■ 



TABULAR STATEMENTS. 



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4.013 46 

10,311 84 

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145 86 

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10,459 40 

354 20 

322 00 

1,066 80 

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4,636 80 
60 87 
6,137 83 
6,063 45 
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152 64 

4,855 68 
514 08 

6,320 88 
174 96 


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TABLE No. m. 

'SHOWINO NUMBER OF DISTRICTS IN EiCH VEAR. 



CounlicB. 


1849 1850 


,.5, 


1852 


mas 


1854 


18561856 


1857 


1858 


Adams 








14 
11 
15 


16 


62 
37 

28 


75 
49 

4 
2 
111 
36 
161 
1*'. 




, 


BhJ Ai 




7 
17 


8 
17 


i% 

7 18 
32 44 
6 11 
2 5 
119, 134 
53' 69 
166, 176 
1311 139 

4J 

8\ 15 
133 127 
131 ; 140 




"e 


25 






' 


7 


■ 3 


17 


17 


31 

4 


1 




ci«tk :,:: 














97 


71 

20 

135 


83 
9 

153 
147 


91 
11 
313 
133 


96 
13 
164 
134 


110 

13 
ISO 
142 


109 
91 
169 








D»f:::::::::::::::;:::: 


Douglass 














2 


= 



































70 


101 
95 

74 


lOfi 
100 

79 


114 

109 
82 


119 

108 
83 


"94 


130 
113 
M 


124 
114 
00 






Green Lake 




« 






61 


61 


68 


" 


68 
5 
93 


178 


83 

'io6 








321 S 
107| 89 
63i 64 
6 36 
62 52 
2P 34 
83 83 


Jcffuraon 


78 


88 


91 


89 


99 


Junoau 
















4 
49 






61 


57 
2 
69 


68 
19 
69 


64 
13 

71 


54 

15 
77 


57 
34 
73 








61 


64 


L> Pointe 




' 


3 


S3 


33 


39 

2 
74 
64 


46 

8'> 
03 
8 

64 


6-2 
6 
84 

15 
6 
31 

61 


63 
6 
90 
64 

a 

63 


69 85 
5 7 






i 


60 
63 


76 
66 


64 






54 

7 

44 

03 


63 
12 
54 
49 

36 
5 
U 
65 
77 
903 










6 
31 


5 
23 
49 








19 


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3 
3 
10 
66 
31 
115 


1 
4 
21 
07 
27 
108 
» 


5 


10 


24 
4 
42 
62 
71 
308 
















10 

104 

2 


14 

"t 


6<: 

18 

114 

A 


21 


30 
71 
67 
122 




133 






99 

1 


St. Croix 



,266 
TABLE No. in.—anllttmd. 

SnOWINQ NUMBER OF DISTRICTS IN EACH YEAR. 



Ctfliptit-a. 


1849 


1860 


1851 


1852 


1853 


1854 


1855 


1856 


1857 


IBCS 




36 


37 


37 


" 


63 




81 
91 

B7 

89 

83 

- SJ 

42 

■ 07 


i 


H6 

4 

100 
IS 
96 
83 
87 

sa 

09 
03 
T 










&3 


Tl 


72 


" 


6i 


86 
9 
M 
«1 

83 
22 

58 










108 

I la 
ei 


100 
lU 
101 


104 

100 
8 


146 

"ii 

■60 


92 

ei 

8S 
17 

a» 

■M 


























38 


S9 


4T 






































!«3S 




3014 























TABLE NO. IV. 



APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL FDND INCOME— 1858. 



Ctmntiea Mid Iditdj, 



Adftms 

Cheater 

Dell Prairie . . . 

EOBlOIl 

Qrand Marsh... 

Jackson 

Qoincy 

Riclifield 

SlTong'a Prsirie, 

SpringriUo 

White Creek.... 

Preston 

New UsTen 



Webster 

Groenirood . . 
Harmony . . . . 
Hillsboroagh 

Btirling 

Forest 

Whitestown. . 

Frauktiii . . . . 
Ei^BpoD.... 
WheatWd... 
ChristiuiB. . , 
JvStnoa — 



984 00 
81 re 

1B9 DO 
Be 30 

153 75 
89 00 

102 00 
S4 00 

154 50 

173 as 

73 00 

81 n 

153 75 




OreeDBBr City... 
Oreen B&y Towa.. 

Pittsfbrd 

New Denmark.... 
Lawrencei 

Deper« Tillage.... 

Bell«Tn« 

ITri^U Town.... 
MorImb 1 ■ ■.■«•>>. 



087 78 

»eo 00 

114 75 
88 W 
IBS 00 
241 60 
177 78 
100 78 
M7B 



CoontiM ud Town*. 


No. of 
CUldren. 


Apportion- 


BxowK— em/iMMil 


m 

118 

n 


$103 75 












Glewaow ^ 


S9 7S 


BWTJAtO— 


4,m 
so 

77 
S3 


8^7 60 
















15B 

sas 

eo 

340 
177 
374 
S98 
80 
424 

«a 


119 30 








180 00 






























CnmwA— 


1988 

64 

84 


1,491 75 










Claxk— 


1S8 

SS 

61 


108 SO 










Cbawfobd— , 


88 

MO 
301 
133 
138 
«« 
108 
134 
IM- 


64 00 




























14fiS0 


CMraBiA— 

fflSa;..:::::::;;;:::.:;;;:::::;;;::;;:: 


33H 

sas 

SM 


1,681 35 

174 75 
338 SO 



Couutiea tnd Towna. 



COLDUB I A — canlimied. 

CourtlBud 

Colnmbiu 

Ft. Winnabngo. .. 
Fountain Prairie. 
Huopden 

LowYille'.!!.'.'!"! 

Lewittou 

MarceUon 

Newport 

pMifio X. '.!!'.!". 1 

Porl«go City 

Raudolpb 

Scott 

SpriDB V«le 

WS9t Piriiit 




Albion 

Blmak Xutb 

Blooming Grore. . . 

Bins Honndf 

BriMol 

Bnike 

Cbrirtiuim 

CoUi^ QroTe, , , , 

CiMi PImu 

Dut* 

DMriteld 

Dunkirk 

Fitcbbnn 

Htdiwn 

ShdiMnCi^ 

MwUbb 

Mlddleton 

HontroM 

Pen7 

PlBM«Bt Bpri^S. . 

Auti^.'.'.'!!!!!.". 



2f9 



CmiDtieB and Towns. 


Ko. of 
ChUdrSD. 


Apportion. 


Daub— eon (tnurf. 


308 
386 
US 
19S 

368 
315 
271 
339 


$381 00 
297 00 






































13,800 

095 
670 
S34 
870 
347 
6S7 

bfa 

4M 
726 
600 
890 
496 
300 
470 
606 
74S 
874 
568 
638 
004 
180 
566 
580 


10,850 00 


























































CkOroxe 


668 75 
665 50 




436 00 








446 50 


















^nn — 


18,118 

43 
62 

n 

100 
1S4 


0,884 75 




46 50 


RockCrtek 

IS^^S^'::■:■■:::::^:/■::;:::::::::::: 


84 « 
75 00 

138 00 






»*''<'^»Si„ 


4S1 

900 
46 
S3 
60 


815 7S 




















MB 


\ «vw 



Counties and Towns. 


No. oT 
CUldniD. 


ApporUon- 
ment. 


farm— 


287 
81 


$177 75 








FOXD BU LAr— 


81B 

845 
671 

eu 

380 
460 
878 
410 
443 
434 
276 
600 

6ai 

430 
406 
318 
S21 
W6 

ses 

4S1 
361 


388 SO 

1,B80 00 
388 W 
688 76 




Kipon 














































































Obut— 


11,899 

447 

361 
463 
893 
388 
897 
914 
443 
868 
187 
130 
781 
353 
607 
389 
366 
370 
1,071 
993 
J37 
191 
SOS 


8,649 3ft 












































?sss 


























944 00 
«90 3B 
MS SO 
lOSM 






irnla*iae 



Coonties and Towm. 



WingrUla 

Bine fiirer 

Hickoij Grov«.. 
ITmtereUiwn 



UoDToe 

JeO^non 

Spring OroTe.. 

ByWelMr 

Cadii 

Mt. riBuaot... 

Brooklyn 

Jordan 

WuhioRtOD. .. 
New Qbrus. . . 
York 



Clyde 

Dodgeiille 

Highland 

Linden 

MiDeral Point 

Mineral Point City.. 

Mifflin 

Puluki 

Ridgeway 

Wyoming 

Waldwi(5 



Jaokioh— 

Albion 

Bristol 

■Irring 

Hiiten 

Manoheiter. . 



Connties Mid Towns. 


No. of 

Cliildreo. 


■"-'• 


jBrnBsos— 


S90 
293 
627 
633 
368 
6S4 
1,008 
749 
633 
623 
430 

eoo 

682 

678 
930 

'■Z 

489 


$317 60 
























































■ Wateriffwn City 


S,653 7S 












13,040 

46 
87 
49 
5 
18S 
107 
281 
118 
483 
330 
171 
139 
124 
143 
139 


9,780 00 
84 SO 










3 75 












SE":-*; « 


87 00 
839 75 






133 35 




















Kmwivn^*— 


3,839 

145 

130 
89 
330 


1,746 75 


















EnosHA- 


574 

1,418 
B78 
063 

4M 
444 


4S0 50 

1,06135 
'488 50 
















S^::::::.;:::::::::::::::::::"::::::. 


SSSM 



268 



Counties and Towns. 



KmiKOBUA'-wnitinued. 

Somen 

Salem 



La Cso88E — 

Onalaska 

Farming^n .... 

Buchanan 

Berrie......... 

Bangor 

Neshonio 

Bums 

Greenfield 

La Crosse City. 



La Fatittb — 

Argyle 

Belmont 

Benton 

Centre , 

Elk OroTe , 

Fayette 

Gratiot , 

Kendall , 

Montioello 

New Diggings ...... 

White Oak Springs 
Willow Springs..., 

Wiota 

Wayne 

Bhullsburg 



Maxitowoc — 

Ccntrefille 

Cooperstown 

Eaton 

Franklin 

Kossuth 

Manitowoc ■ 

Manitowoc Rapids 

Maple GroTe 

Meeme 

Mishicott 

Newton 

Rockland 

Schleswig 

Two l^Tert / 



No. of I Appor- 
Children, tionment. 



439 
544 



4,946 



356 
264 



207 
162 
108 
212 
157 
867 



2,822 



385 
223 
833 
501 
419 
430 
361 
402 
175 
577 
272 
843 
619 
226 
879 



6,644 



322 
296 
288 
819 
465 
980 
436 
197 
339 
605 
566 
166 
130 
812 



329 26 
408 00 



3,708 75 



266 25 
190 50 



155 25 
121 50 
81 00 
159 00 
117 75 
650 25 



1,741 60 



288 75 
167 25 
624 75 
375 00 
314 26 
322 60 
270 75 
301 50 
131 25 
432 75 
204 00 
257 25 
464 26 
169 50 
659 26 



4,983 00 



241 50 
222 00 
216 00 
614 26 
348 75 
735 00 
827 00 
147 75 
264 26 
468 75 
424 50 
124 50 
97 50 
609 00 



6,421 I 4,816 76 



ConutiM and Towns. 


Ho. of 
CUldnn. 


„i=, 


Uakatroh— 


138 
60 


•S3S 


M<MinM 


BIi»QnitT»— 


188 

eao 

390 
SIS 
SH 
107 
347 
800 
846 
868 
183 
148 
364 
460 
148 
182 
164 
271 
380 
410 
05 
238 
316 
lOS 
146 
303 


187 3S 

610 CD 
317 BO 
334 75 
190 00 
U7 78 

185 35 
390 35 
3WH 

^374 00 

186 SO 
107 SS 
378 00 
846 00 
107 26 

00 00 
123 00 
308 39 
170 39 
80TB0 

7136 
17100 
163 00 

78TO 
100 00 
19190 


Berlin 






Ci7rt«l Lake 










UonUUo 


































«,00S 

638 
863 
056 

1,057 
737 
702 

1,016 
11,870 


4,044 00 
471 00 


















696 GO 














17,088 

IGl 
178 
78 
16 

les 

■s 

86 


18,453 00 
118 3S 




















LZr!;:::::::::::::::".:!::;:^:;" :":;:: 






MM 



Coantiea and Towns. 


Ho. of 
ChUdnn. 


tioDment. 


MosB oc— eiHirintMif. 


87 
119 

74 
444 

101 
78 
90 


»6S35 




























OcosTO— 


1,887 

193 
91 


1,419 as 












90 








OiTiAaAius— 


ns 

STO 
84 
100 
169 
SB 
313 
ISO 
303 
197 
898 

laa 


379 70 
































140 38 








126 00 






Omckbb— 


3,868 

89S 

678 

871 
B20 


1,764 79 








474 00 








S48 00 














Presoott 


S,911 

887 
33 
84 

189 
47 
16 
8S 
S8 


4,438 35 
398 76 


























•^ sii" 





Coanties &nd Tomu. 


Ho. of 
Children. 


ti^= 




74 
91 


*^5!! 








POLK- 


86S 

176 
i8 


S51 M 


St. Croii 


30 00 


POETAOB— 


234 
M7 

ai7 

235 
ISl 
IDO 
87 
106 
70 
83 


168 00 






































Baoink— 


1,818 

3,418 

49B 
456 
433 
480 
830 
33S 
77fl 
G33 
S8S 


1,218 SO 
l,M8M 




W»terfcrd 


8^00 




































8,310 


6,157 60 




836 
238 
386 
158 

les 

S81 
160 
S30 
196 
167 
190 
























M»nh«ll 


189 00 




240 00 




147 00 




140 3S 




97M 


if^::::r :::::':::'::::::::::: ::::::::::. 


78 H 



S«T 



Oonntles uid lomi. 


No. of 
Children. 


Appor- 
ttonmenl. 


BicBb A BD— «Mif inuof. 


152 
388 


$114 DO 








St. Cioix— 


2,W4 
400 

fie 

41 

TO 
01 
49 
117 


8,?46 60 






























Book— 


790 

«)5 
873 
413 
683 
463 
440 
MS 
878 
235 

488 

845 

8,880 

685 

403 

asi 

818 
048 
063 
411 
434 
411 


003 00 
























958 70 




Beloit. 








Rocit..........!.'...;: 
















Turtle .... 
























JohDStairn 




Lima 








Shawanaw- 


13,857 

30 
89 


10,017 70 










Save— 


99 

468 
393 
136 
378 
186 

9» 


74 36 




















1 \eaTE 


FrtakOB. 


\ \«v^ 



CoDutiM uid Toinu. 


No. of 
Chltdnn. 


tionmaiK. 




S1« 
IBS 
339 
367 
43S 
334 
S39 
679 
MO 
400 
4» 


$339 35 




































300 00 




337 60 






BanoraiM— 

Abbott 


e,30s 

471 

5H 
filO 
718 
618 
616 
308 
324 
737 
363 
113 
434 
319 

■■a 


4,696 00 
8S3 3S 






























pi.™ 


373 36 




84 00 






ShebojgMi 


330 35 




7U 76 










TM«PiLmiD— 


8,608 

378 
133 


e,4M 00 
308 60 


Qale' 


99 7S 








46 














Walvoktk— 


48T 

633 

936 

637 

SIS 

4B7 

\ Ml 


343 79 


























I* Ortagt 


S7VM 



1» 



Conatiet ftnd Towiu. 



La PmyetM. 

Troj 

Bloomfleld 

Undson 

Spring Prtiria, 

East Troy 

Elkhora 



WjkBBixaioic — 

Addison 

Erin 

FumiDgton. , 
Gcmoiitowii. 

Hftrtfbrd 

Juckson.... 
Kcwoskum.. 
Po!lt...„, . 
Richfield . . . . 
Trenton. . . . . 

West Bend.. 



T*OPA0A— 

MakwaV. 



Wahkisha— 

Brookfield... 
Delufleld. . . . 

Eagle 

Oeneuee.... 

LUbon 

Monomonee. . 
Herton 

MukwHDftgO. 

Muekego, . .. 
New Berlin. 
Oconom«itoc, 

Ottawa 

Puwanke*. . . 

Summit 

Vernon 

Waukesha... 



Conntiea and Town). 


No. of 
CMlJnn. 


Appop- 
Uonment. 


Wa ur A c A — enn ' tn uf ^/. 


VU 
164 
60 
167 
386 
127 
43 
74 
3S 


ITS 00 






FomlnBton 

Dayton 


117 75 
914 00 
99 93 


















Wi,D»IIA>A- 


3S30 

83 
140 
180 

96 
109 
295 
179 
114 
139 
309 
144 
234 

10 
313 
316 
166 
148 
270 


3133 60 




























85 60 




104 35 


Pl»infiBld 


331 n 
lOSOO 




168 00 






























WuflBBAOO- 


8103 

334 
319 
260 
DOB 
614 
846 
80S 
257 
1456 
748 
186 
680 
8M 
498 
860 
379 
84 


2326 BO 

175 50 
184 95 












885 H 
960 60 












1093 00 








l2CrfV;;;;;;;;;;;;.v.v.v.v. ■.■.•;.■.■.■.■. :;:::■ 


473 60 


Utioa 


843 90 




908 30 










7148 


BMIM 



271 



Counties and Towns. 



Wood— 

Grand Rapids 

Centralia 

Rudolph 



No. of 
Children. 



201 

66 

128 



886 



Appor- 
tionment. 



$160 76 
42 00 
96 00 



288 76 



Total No. of Children *. . . . 241,646 



K 



tc 



Amount Apportioned 

** paid far Educational Journal .... 

'* paid for Dictionaries 

]>aid Columbia County per chapter 

24 of Laws of 1858 

'* paid Dane Co. per same Laws .... 
'* paid Jackson Co. *' .... 

paid Qreen Co. per act approTed 

March 24, 1858 



Being, 75 cents per scholar. 



$181,168 76 

1,700 00 

600 00 

48 80 
821 42 
830 00 

69 40 

$184,217 87 



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pu« frjaio'un'ix aUCiiP 
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332 


1 21 


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imnm 


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498 
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1378 
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2401 
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OBEX, 



: TABLE OP CONTESTS. 



Alwtnet at wboot report* 9—10 

nnmbsr of children A 

■choni ittcDdaDM i 

length ofMhooln 7 

number of districta 8 

number and Tslae of ichool-houKi , 'B 

tnacheri' iraf^i 9 

Mhool IlbrariM 10 

Rdneatlon — ill importaiiM 10—14 

Eiehool Fund M 

Mnrceit of augmoDting 14 

owanp IumI jcrant 14, 16 

■chool landi nnanld « 15 

Ave per oent. proceeds Iff 



andBChool populatioD vontraated 19 — 3S 

i(a dlTenioD deplored 23 — M 

flohool Fnnda oTthe new SUtna :I4— 30 

PrimitiTe condition of our anveaton tt, M 

I'rcTailing ignonmce of primitWe (imea 39 

Karlj Koarcit; and hi^ price of booiu M 

I^rge PoMie Libraries 31 

flar modern blevsingi — their obUgatiana ', 33 

Book* a ncceuity and blespinf; , , 33 — 88 

The power and inflnenee of boalit on the jonng 39 — 41 

.tehool Libraries the fcnut want of Wiieouitn 42, 4S 

The kind of booki needed , 43—51 

Some of the special benefits of ttchool Libraries Q3 — 6S 

School Library eipericnco in sister Statea 6'i — 77 

The Township Library ijiitem the want of Wisoonsln TT — ttS 

Township Libraries — are they demanded 7 83 — 87 

Moral Ednoation 07 W 

Normal Sehooli 9ft— 115 

Teacher*' Inntitutes :.. 11.1 — 118 

Females as tcachen 119 — 134 

HtBte Board of Education 134— l:M 

<'uunty Superintendent 136 — 135 

TowDiiliip fOTertunent. 139 — 147 

Oraded achools ; 14S— IflS 

Gradad system, from th» primary Mheol to the Unircrii^ , . 



•d system, fro) 
SwolanUpa. 



DtaU SeiolanUpa \W— \«k 



366 

Town Superintendents 160, 161 

Change of time for making Reports. 161, 162 

State Teachers' Association 163 

Pnblio School Association 162 — 164 

Educational Tracts 164,165 

School Architecture 165-->169 

Wisconsin Journal of Education 169,170 

School Registers r 170 

TraTelling Fund 170, 171 

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary 171 — 178 

The School Code ^ 178 

School Department Libcarv.* .«..,. ^ ..•• ^.g. . r... . ^ ••••• ^ 178 

The office of Stote BAperiritekd^nt . .:...'../....... 1 1 ... .= 174—178 

Conclusion of Report 178 — 180 

Educational Hints and Suggestions 181 — 203 

School Library Correspondence 204 — 228 

Moral and Religious Instruction 229 — ^244 

Text Books recommended 245 — 248 

Tabular SUtements 250—888 



1. 



.* 



« I 



'i -^ •••. "4 



INDEX. 



/ ;i (1 1. 1 



INDEX. 



: « I 

9 

I 

- I 

I 



AbboU, Jaoob, ciUd ., 45^ Ml 

AdtoM, John, oiud 180, Stt> 

AdAim, J. 8., oktd... 91, tl€» 

AdAmj, Bamu«l. eited Sf7 

Allyn, Robeiit, «it«d 97, 106, H7 

AmerisAn Journal of Education Ill, lU, 130, S86 

AncafltoTH, oniv-their prlnitiYO condition 28, 39 

preTatling iffnoranoe 39, 80 

Andrawa, Lorin, cited 103 

Arobitecture, achool 00,166—109,348 

AstroMmy fiO 



B. ' ■ 

I cited 

Bacon, Lord, cited' 



Bache, Prof. A. D., cited 91, 108, 3U, 

47,108. 



Baker, CM., letter..... iOO, 

Bancroft. Qeorjce. cited 25, 33, 47, 61, 52, 53, 82. 84, 134, lt9 

Barker, President, cited 48,49 

Barnard, Daniel D., cited ,18|l 

Bimard, Heni^', on school attendance 7 

on school librarieH 45,66,78,90,91,305 

life and senrices 108---115 

oiiffinates teachern^ institutes 116, 116, 1X8 

on females as teachern 119, 130. 

on graded schools 15O--«108 

on educational tracts ' 164 

on school architecture 165, 169, 348 

Bamej, Hiram H., cited 74,86,91, 122, 186—188, 144, 166 

Bateman, Prof. N., letter 309 

MantOQ' s Congrcnsional Debaten 83 

Bible in schools 229—244,346 

Biography and History 47 

Blessings — their obligations '. 83 

Board of Education lor the dtate 134—136 

Books, their earl^ scarcitv and high price '80. 81 

large public libraries 81, S9 

Bolton InYeatigator, strictures of 3S9, 340, 341 

Bontwell, Gov., cited , 91,189,306 

Briggs, Gov., cited 191. 193 

Biisbane, Dr. W. H., letter ; 337 

Brougham, Lord, cited 383, 389 

Bnmaon, Alfred, letter 331 

Bual, Jndge, cited '. 61 

Bwke, ££BiiBd, cited 343 



390 

Bnlfowem, Thomas H., cited 188 

school architocturo 189 

Burritt, Elihu, citod 41 

Butler, Benjamin F., cited 41 

Butler, Biahop, cited 181 

C. . . 

Caldwell, Dr., cited /....'..'..',/..> 194 

Camp, Prof. D. N., cited 91, 211 

Carpenter, Stephen H., Aas't. Sup't 171, 178 

Chonninp:, Dr., cited. .^ S3, 34. 191 

Cheniifltry .". T)] 

Chicago PrcHS and Tribune, citod 114 

Children, number in WisconBin 5 

future increase 20. 21 

G4i6ate, Kufus, citod 37 

Clinton, De Witt, first to suggest school libraries 63 

OMilie, Dr., cited v 03, 18*2 

O0dc, President, letter v.., 317 

Oiiinty Superintendent 12^—189 

. experience in New Vork : ».«..•. 12^— If 

• < ^ PentiiylYunia experience 130. 183, 184 

ntcMdty to 181 

>'. ' better school supervision 181, 189 

(■■ more thorough examination of teachers 182, 183 

for securing educational statiatica 184 

^' . Adjusting controversies 184 

t ' appointment and remuneration 184, 189 

Cou>«in, Victor, cited 102, 132 

Crane, Col. L. H. D.. letter 225 

Crime and .ignorance, 62. 185, 186. 

tiortin, A. G. cited .' .....' : 19^ 

Coitfhing, Caleb, cited 2^ 

^ntler, Dr. M^nassch, cited .• '. . 99 

D. 

Dean. Amos, cited 68, 71, 91, 212 

Dick, Dr.., citod 188, IH4 

Dinter, School Counsellor of Prussia, cited 180 

district Clerks, their reports ; . 181, 162 

Districts, number of. 8, 254, 255 

DJ:^, Johii A., cited 64 

Durkce, Charles, letter ; 219 

E. 

jiDrcATioK, Its Vastness and importance 10 — W 

provision for in Wisconsin ^^""ri 

. , proTioion fbr in the West ' 24— 2ff 

moral 97, 98. 182, 183, 191, 229—244. 

phyMioal « 81. 0!$, 

of teachers 9H— 11«- 

of females 119 — 124 

tiduoAtional hints and Suggestions 181 — ^209 

9)i)ligaiions of jmrentK , . . 181 

a foporblo truth ...: ...; .....:.: ".' t8<J 

.striking thoufrht.. '. '. 181; 

olovate the masses ..... -. IBli'- 

. , «duc.itlOn throe-fold .•.i'.'-'lSf ' 

, .. ]ihyHioligical knowledge ;.;..' IWg 

cultivation oV intellect 1 ....'.. .-'• ."'ITCM- 

training of children i. .: : .'.V>*')8S' 



wtirV iif nlucnlioii 133 

cultiTnto (ha riinntl nstnn) , Jff 

efiUa of if^ornnci? — Up 

eitui^atioti andlnbnr 184 

laUv of InteltigeacF 1S« 

supPriQrUj uT tho ijdiiciited ,-..... 18^ 

property ah od14 educate &1I 1B|( 

ediuiBt ion, tint pAfCnt of richcB lfl|t 

ihe gi^nn of crime ■ ■ U§ 

pnuporiam and crime ■ 18S 

education leaaon a oHme ■ 189 

Ktrilcing resuItH 189 

odoMtion rer|uirc<I 189 

edaoBtion ft poiitioal nsctMit; 18T 

eduoBtion a anrtt; to property IST 

iDflaence of innariinc* .••>..■ 188 

(dneation A Sute duty 189 

the mioor morali 189 

UsBaing of free aohonU • ••...■•.> 101) 

ikninmentoiiBTCBpoaiiibilit;. .< — • •...• ...... Mt 

better d>an«JI orolimate Mt 

tiod-Uko powers of ialellcat 189 

feurful rcapciDsiliility 199 

!ovn of children 190 

children's time Air education ISO 

education tb.e (;r«At iiUCsUoQ •,■.. 191 

eonipUlanry cducalion . • ...^ ■■■ 

poverof MchoolK 

moral education neteEsair 

dufj of piirenta , 

stnting picture . 

marmurerB at the Bchool tai Jm 

payment of achool taict lil 

.1 hciioe throat . 

objectors to ihc school Ux 

coulhieinont of children , 

ffcqaency of tenMI lU 

'bad Ttntilation '. ... n< 

TOcalmoaic IBS 

erils of Ul-conitructed teats IBS 

act upon it. .i..., Iffi 

-' '-- : 196 



iienkterBl knowledge .' 

the teachers miaaion , m 

value of education 186 

ft«*d*iBaAd intelligence W 

education tba oauntrr's safbtj ,- In 

neoeoity of ednoation ttt 

influence of education IBS 

trlin^niiaiiion of knonledgc IBS 

' July of j!OveRinient 199 

cducalion Otirunliona ailMjr....^ i.,.. 109 

<i(hAt compriaes educatjoD,. > v.... 909 

self-edueated men , 200—303 

Educntioaal Trnuiu, usenilDCss of. : 184, I6B 

Edwardu, Dr., cited ■... «T 

Eiectricily ., fij 

£Menw, Ooorgt })., on iaHu^Dce of books 3to-4T 

" .. 'I importauce uf readini; to yonng Ikdias 11 

Xqgliab nport, oit«d , , 18S 

fcereH, Biward, . cited. .,.11, ;4> M, 81, 183, 188, ,139, 190, 191, l»8, 189, aU 
Eviag^ Tkoaua, MCMoM of v... ....... 94 



892 

F. 

Fftrmingfanm school report, cited ^ 121, 12S 

Females as teachers 119 — 124 

wages of. 9, 128 

Fcnner, Got., remark of. 110 

Flagg, Atariah C, cited 63 

Fisher, Matnrin L.. cited 91, 211 

Franklin, Dr., cited 40, 48, 68, 198, 2S8— 241 

Fr«linghajscn, Thco., cited ,.....! 91, 214 

ChUloway, Samuel, retenxd to 74 

Geology • . . 51 

Germany, education in ^ 99 — 108 

Gibbon, tho historian 41 

Gibson, J. v., cited 193, 194 

Geethc, the poet , 41 

Graded achools..... ,* 148— IftR 

Greeley, Horace, cited 165 

€Ktiiot, cited 102,176,196,390,289 

H. 

Harris, Thaddcus M., refen'cd to 98 

Hoary, Jatnes, Jr., ciied. 65 

Henry, Patrick, cited 41, 200 

*ter8chel, Sir John, citfed 87 

lerschel, Caroline; referred to. 1)9 

lekok, Henry C, cited...: 91, 133. 140,208 

lldreth's History of the United StWes. 82 

[ill, Frederick, cited . .• 186 

BUlard, Qeor^e 8,, cited 25 

History and biogrtiphy , 47 

Hdland, education in 99^—108, 182 

"Tollister's History of Connecticut, cited 112 

[oppin. Rev. Mr., cited 89 

fumphrey, President, cited 181, 182, 192 

i. 

Isftitutes for teachers 115—118 

Iriring, Washington, cited. ^ 91| 314 

J. 

Jefferson. President, cited 180, 187, 940,241 

jTohonnot^s Country School Houses «• . • 169. 248 

Joamal of Educatioi^of Wisconsin. . , . , 10, 169, 169J 170 

K. 

KixT, Chancellor, cited 118, 161 

Kilgore, D. Y., originates School AsaodatiaoB , 162 

King, Henry W.,rel^rred to 74 

Lamaktimb, cited 8S 

Lapham, 1. A., lelter Sli 

Uitabee, W. C, cited 91, 150, 143, 191, 189, M 

Lewis, Samuel, referred to • % 

Le Vemer the A«troBomer r ^ 1 ...... . 

UbruUSf Lurge PobHo. .•••;«. , ; 

»ee ScJkool Zibrariti. ' » 



I 



UMig, »».,dt«d 4T 

Upplaegtt'B OaiMIeer, oommenileil 33Q,M7 

I«MinB, BeniiDn J., on School Llbniriu 6&.71. 91, 914 

HUtorica) waits aS, 80, !H6, 947' 

H. 

Madkon, Prc«i<)ent, cited , 340 

■uoffin. Fnir. J. II.. Wt«r ^ 237 

IfafMir, E. M., oiled 91 

Iban, Honrc, cited, 10, 50, 60, a», 71, 73, »l, 99, 90. 9«-^101. lOS, ItO, 114, 

193, ISA, 13(1, 13S, lU, 1S4, 185, IBS, 18», 190, 199. IMl . 

21)5, 383, 3S9. 

Mirrr. Win. L,. cit<Mi 64 

UiM4chTi><.-tU teacher, oiMtl 19S— 110. 114 

Mu , X. M., lettRF ' san 

HhTicw, Ini. eltml 74,80,88,91, 184, 185, IM, 187,104,300.248 

IMUcur, J. l).,Citc4 388, 3|3». 

inner; Hugh. eit«l 41., 

MUli, Prof Caleb, cited 76,77,83,91, 140, 1«1, 175, I7«, 1?A, 3M 

Uitchell, Mie«, Iho AstroDamer llfl 

UsdCFD BIsMiDj^, Uieir oblixatioiw 99, 33 

MaBlCRquiru, cited 198. 

Ho^l Bducntion 97,98, 183,188,191,939—344 

Morgan, Chriiilophcr, cited 68 

W. 

KivcHjiK Hiilnrj nnil Physiology 50 

Nalbiihr. the HiMnrian 4t 

New AmoriennCjelnpcfiia, cited 82, 100, 111 

NavtoB. Hir Jbuc. uileil 40 ' 

N«w York Courier & Etuntircr. cited 343 

NonnaiSobuoU 88— US ' 

in I'nuBia and Smony 09 

Quiiot and Cousin'5 iRrtlinonj 103 ' 

Dr. Dacha'* ibaerriitinnB •.... 109 ' 

Ur. Byefsim'M Tiews lOB, 104 

I'rof I^to««'S plea 104 ' 

Horace Mann s vie wi 105 

in .New York and WlN<^>n«ili, contrMUd 107, 108 

Mr.Bll^na^d'Blift)^nd^<erTioeB.... 106—115 

and Teachera' InstitatCB llfr— 118 

Kotthead. Charlea, citnl 58, 104, 348 

Nott, Freaidunt, cited 91. ai3 

0. 

Owsx. BuBiBT Ualb, referred lo 7S 

P. 

Pambt, Dr.. cited 188 

Paine, Thoinas. cited 341 

Park, President, letter 318 



PhyHology . . 

Piokardj Prof. J. L., referred t< 

Pnpolation of Wikcc 



___. •na-Aw. 

Preaeott, Wm. H., cited ,W,%\,»Vt> 

ProTuUng ignorJinM efprimi^Tt limn. ..,\ », ?ft 

Tnaitltg eeaditioB ofourutetton W&^V 



t9^ 

PnuMia, education in • , 99—108 

^* nacrifices for education 84, 86 

Pnblic School Astociatioiia 163:— IM 

Pvblic Libniriei 81, tt 

Q. 
QDlV:'Tf JoaiAH, oittid 191 

Ri 

Randall. Henrj S., on School Librurici» 64. 66, 68, 71, 91, SOT 

* * Life of J cffgriion , 82- 

*^ ou Teachers* Institutes 115 

^' on County Superintendence 126— -180 

^ndall, tihiiuuel 8.. cited 69,71, 91, 128,211 

lUad, Prof. t)aniel. on School I.ibmries 68, 59, 75, 87, 93, 

** * ' on ft^miilos UH teacherit 120, 121 

_^ *^ on the office of Bute Superintondent 174 

** •* now of tUo Wisconsin University .... 75, 174 

"^ '* ibnnerly of lndi*na Univemlty 75 

'* '* member of Indiana Convention 7S 

Ri^, Harvey, oiied 86 

RiOQ. Victor M., cited.. 68,69. 

Kittvnhouse. David, cited 40 

Root. Ktcaier, cited , * 20 

Rush. Dr.. cited 196 

Ryen^<^n, Dr. Bgerton, cited 47, 103, 182, 177 

8azony, education In 99—108 

Schools, graded 14^^—168 

Schools, length of ...;.. : « 7 

School Architecture .... '., 60, 165--169, 248 

School AssoHutiony. . . ; 162—164 

School attendanoc^ in Wisconsin 5. 6 

*' '* in* rther countries 6, 7 

School Children, reported 5, 20. 306, 807 

'* '• future inci'fuMH . . . ^ 20, 21 

Hchool <?od«f . publication and dl^itributiuu 173 

School Department Lthnirv 178 

School DlHtncta, number of. 8, 2r),V 250 

School Funil, of Wisconsin '. . 14—24 

sources of augmenting it . 14 

Swamp Lund (Irant .- 14, 16 

Sclio«il Jiands tfUMild 16 

five per mmt. proceeds • . . 16 

its highest attitinment 19 - 

its divf rsion deplored 22—24 

income apportioned JO. -250, 2jl. 266—271 

School Funds of the^Western States , 24—28 

School Hounes. HUfubeV and valuation of 8. 168 

8cuooL Libraries, condition 10 

how to provide a imn\ for ' ^*- ^\ 89. 92 

a necessity and blessing • • • 88 

power and influence on the young. 39-»-48 

tho groat want of Wisconsin 42. 48 

kfnd of books needed , 48—58 

history and biography • 47 

hookA of travel i 49 

R8trohr)my 60 

natural history and physiology • M' 

chemistry 51 

S^oiogy % 51 



i k 




11 




»( 




i( 




• i 





t( 



. ir natk'iiAl ebitractemtic* 611 

It of Te«ch«r« OS 

influeoca on uupill OS 

£iToriibl8 to dchivtiug vlub* M 

pnmutc a loir at the bsaqli/ul ■ OS, fie 

promote reGDcmcnt ■. « , ST 

erailicftte tUioui babiti. > 08 

impniTe ichool arcbitrctnre GO 

produo uieful loTMiliolu SI 

impart kuuwleJge of Ibr (injle^iiioiis >. 61 

lulri of pb.viicul «t|uc*tiuu .., , 81, 63 

dimiDiib crime ^'■■... ; •■ M, ISO 

incKUG Dationul nenUh ^., ..,„..... M. 18t. 183 

«(p«i1tncc of KrwYork 83 — 71 

" " HftBMvbuKtU 11, Ti 

" '■ Moine T2 

'' '* X«ir llunptbuu i 7S 



" Khod« iBlBui TB 

■' ■■ ConnMlicul i'.. 78 

" '- Middle Nudtiuutbvru StBttis ; 7t 

■■ Uicliigai. 13.74. :i» 

■' Obiu ■H.K.n 

'■ •■ InJiHDit _ 76. 7C. 7» 

■' ■■ lIliQoi* ' 7(! 

" lowu .". 76 

■I Uimnn IS . 

'* Upper <,'*iuuk 76, 77 

th* towi^^ip Bjliteai tbi want of WUcuniin 77—88 

inefficiency of the district plun 77—79 

•spericmci uf Wwtarn Stiitc* TV 

bmcfits uf the tovnabiii plui ;. . 80—8)1 

ubjectioiiH nulifcd U3. 8S, W 

ii tbe tijwusbip lyntL-m demsndcdJ 88— 97 

priniitife Hiiurifiui-i ut 'Ntv I^ugtuDd 84 

lucrificei of Frui^is 84, 8S 

■acrlficoa uf PdiusflTauiu. S.^, 86 

wurkiDg of tbe tuwDtbip plitn in OWo and Indiana 60, 87 

pniriMion fur tbein 34.38,80.83 

tupica of tbi' public jirci<i 99, IIS 

their powiir npuu tho pinple 98. 04, 96 

Horace Mauu » uppeul fur 1)0,88 

Uonrv ilamanl'ii opiiiinD!) 300 

lIora<;c Mann's Ictti-r 306 

lraM*rhc«'« ■■ 30tt 

Preiidvnt Hears' " ioe 

QoT. Utiutweir* " aO(> 

H. H. lUnduiri " 307 

J. l^.l'hillJri^k■« '■ 207 

H. C. Ilickpk.' ■■ J 308 

W. '.'. I.tirrubve't •' 308 

I'ruf. Milla 308 

Prof. Uuteman'a ■■ 309 

.\iikuri Snijlb^ ■■ aiO 

J. H. Adum^ ■' 210 

Prof, t'umpii ,, 211 

U. L. flthn* .... 311 

e. (J, lUudulIi ■• 311 



Prumiii, PiliieUlon in 90 — 109 

" mcrificvM for pdiicaiiuD 84, 60 

PaUic Bchool Aiiocialiun* 163— IM 

Pablic Libr;tH«i SI, IS 

Q. 

Qui>-T. Jmi^h, ailui] 191 

K. 

RuiUII. HeDi7 S.. on ScLoot Librvrki' 64. «6, 68, 71, 91, 907 

■ ' Lir« i>r J<;IF<)raon 81 

" <>u Tunoherf" Jiuliiutct US 

'* un Cunnty UnpurinKmlMivr : 136 — IM 

Rudkll, ^muel S.. uilad 69,71,91, 128, 311 

lUiul, Pruf. Daniel, on l^irliool Librsnt-n 53, 60, 75, 87, 93 

'■ - on f.-m:ilp» as teuulien 130, IM' 

** -' nil i£ir> officv of tiiuia Huperintpndcat 1T4 

** ■' now u( tlis Wiieuuiiin UuiTersiiy 70, 174 

*^ " limiieTijr ijf Inifiaaft L'nivenitf TC 

" " mrmber of liiJUna L'oDTUBtivn 7S 

RtM, HBrTVT. uitcil SB 

RlM. Vialnr Si., cited: 68,86 

K[tttnhou»i>. DsTid. dt«<I , 46 

Koo(, KteaiPF. cited , 96 

Ruli. Dr.. tited ]« 

Ey«r«.n, Dr. Bgeiton. cilvd 47.103, ISS, ITT 

U. 

Hsiony, education In 99—108 

School-, BTiided lis— 166 

8«kn>I«, Itnetb of ...:.:: 7 

Sdwol Architecture.-... 60, IM— 169. 248 

liohool AiioptBtiouv 163—164 

tfcbuol Htt I' Dilution in Wiiconthi 9. 6 

in-rthrrv.iunlri.-s 6.7 

Hohoul Cbildren, rrportpJ S. 30. 806. a07 

firtuTf inei-rtiw , '. 20.21 

Hohool l.'mlfl. pablicution mid dldCrihutfun ITS 

dobool l)t[>iirtnient Lihrurv )73 

Bchoul ni*tm-U, numhprilf. 8. 25*. aW 

rtchuul PuDd, of Wliicon«!n 14—24 

'■ ■■ KouTi-n ■ir»OEtuen(iiiK It . 1* 

" SirMip Land llrout ■. 14, 16 

" " r)<^Ml I.andu tmwld IB 

■' ■' li*« per iinrt. Tirocped!' 16 

" " itii hij[ht« ittiiiiiTiisnl lit 

■' iMdiTershin deplnred 22 — 24 

'■ income npporiioni^d ^il. i.MI. 3J1. a.^t^— 271 

Suliool Fnnd» of tlic, Western t*tute 34—38 

Behiral HtnneR; "nillaUiir and Tiiluuliuii uf. 8, 168 

8cHo(iL l.iDBAsiE!!. ooiidilion 16 

iio» to pro»ide a fuml pir 24. 8fl: 89. 92 

knece-aity nnd bleHiog 88 

unvpp Mid influence on the yuuii)|. 39—^8 

ut want of Wiaeunaiu 43. 43 

_ jf book* neeitf d 4' — 88 

tiislory and biogrnpliy 47 

boot* «r tnivcl :-.. « 

aitronuray 80 

niLtural biatory and pLysiotugy ■' 60' 

obemtstry 61 

gfillo^ 61 



14 grout 1 
md of be 



dcctrieitT. \.: m 

■peuUI lilewipgs^or. S3 — U 

acmatluauT our natiunAl chtr&cteridict Cia 

InproTcmcDt of T«ii«hcn. BS 

iofluencc on iiupilf • ,. OS 

fiTonbla to ileWios uluhii 6S 

C}mote aloTB of thtlNaotiful .i,. ■ OS, M 
porUnt to lenwlca ;. 34 

promote rcfiDrncDt ■... ■ ^li...,; 07 

■radicate Ticioiu bvbita. S8 

impruTS acLool iLrcbiieclure • 6V 

produco uKefut i&Temioiu... , ........j i. 01 

imput knowledge of llir pnteMnianii , j, 01 

Uwi of pli.viical «ilucilUun .^ 01, 03 

diminiih crime ^^^.... i 41, 1S& 

incTCue oatiuAal KcaUb .....>».. t.. M, MM. 189 

experience of N'ewli'arjt. ...... ....^ 8S— 71 

" " Ua8M«bu(ett( '..r.. Tl,73 

" , '■ Maine ;.. 74 

" '' New Uunptbltii t. ..-••.. 70 

" " Tennonl ,,., r i.'..;.t.. 70 

■' " Rhuie tilanO. -....i.- 78 

'' '- <.'qDne«tirm i\. 7S 

" -■ Middle aud ttuiUUeru btaten. L i.. 7S 

•■ HicUi£ufi i....'i3.14. 7tt 

" ■■ Ohio '4.^,79 

" ■• iDdiawt *.- 7».7(;,7» 

" •■ lUlqOl* ;i..'7(J 

■' low* ■. 76 

■■ -' UiMvnri 78 . 

'' Upper ('suada 7C, 77 

tkelownkbip ijiitem tlie want of Wiwvniin TT—U 

ineSciinc^ i>r tiie district plan, 77—79 

experieaca uT WeBleni State) TV 

beneOta of tbe townaliip plan ;<.. 80--81I 

otljeotionn noticed IJ3, 88, BO 

is (be tuwtiEiliiD ij'tteiu dvniundedf i 83—07 -. 

primitiTB iBcnfici'ti ul' ^«w KnKland 81 

aacriflcr* ol Pn»!>li).... lU. SS 

■acrlficeaof PeimijlTania Vi.se 

worlcingur tbe townsliipplanin Uliia and ludians SUJ 87 

prvTiaiun fur them 31.88,89,99 

lupica of tbi- public ynut i... K, SO 

their power uiwu tb* pi-ople 00,91,96 

Horaee Mauu's appeal for Kb, W 

llear; U»ruBnr» upiuiuos HOt- ■ 

Horace Manu'i tutti-r 306 

IraMayhew't •■ 300 . 

President Hears' '■ 306 

OoT. Boutwell's ■' 30(i 

H. H. lUudall's " 307 

J. I». PbilWcJi-a " ,207 

H. C. lliqkpkr '• aOB 

W, (,'. Lurrabve'a '' ., ., , 208 

I'roE Mills . , 30S 

Prof. Uateinan'r " , > ; 300 

Auwu I^Diftb'f ,..., -,. :., 210 

J. ti. Adamf .n.. ., ■■...,.... 310 

Proft ('amp's , ■. ,.i..., all 

M. L. Pisber's .... 311 

B. B) Itaudall's ,,^, 211 



896 

■ ■ » 

Ch'nc'lopDean'a •• 212 

Pros' WayUnd'a '' ; 218 

President NoU'« *' 218 

Theodnro Freelinghuysen's • 214 

Woahingion Irving'! 214 

Prof Bache-B '' 214 

W. H. Proscott'8 " i. 216 

Jared Sparki' '• 21» 

Edward Kvorett's *' ' * . . . 215 

Bajard Taylors ** 216 

Benson J. Lossing's -. . 216 

Carlfichun' *• 217 

Pi-esidsat Cook's *• 217 

Prcaident Park's ** 218 

I. A. Lapham's ** ^ 218 

Charles JOorkee's <' « 219 

JamesW.Strong's" « « 219 

Cka's M. Baker's " 220 

Alfred Bninson's ^* **" , 221 

Pr. du Chien Lit. Ass'n 222 

Ber. R. Smith's ♦* 222 

BoT.J.B.Pradt's'' 224 

Col. L. H. D. Crane's 226 

A.M May's »' 226 

Prof. Pickett's " 226 

Prof. Magoffin's ** 227 

Dr. Brisbane 8 '' 227 

BelK)ol Kogistors 170 

School Stttlistics 1858 272—383 

fiohuol Tax raiHcd, table * 262-^253 

Sckurr., Carl, cited, 86, 217 

Softr:^. Pnisidcnt, cited 01. 186, 138, 189. 148. 206 

Sedgwick, Miss C. M., cited, .'....*. 59 

SsPirard, Wm, H.. cited, 64 

Sherman, Ilogor, cited, 41 

Sigourney, Mr«. L. H., cited, 56 

Sloane, •) ohn. referred to, ^ 74 

Smith. Pr. J. V. C, cito«i 195 

Smith, !l«v. Re ubeu, letter, .• 'i* 

Smyth, Hon. An.iun. citeil, 54. 57. 74. 75, 81, 91, 210 

Somcrrille, Mary, reierrod to. . . « « 119 

Spitrks, Jarcd, cited 83, 216, 241 

Sp^ttcet, John C, referred to, 128 

Stale Board of education 124— -126 

State ScholarshiiMS 158—160 

Stale Buporiiitendent, hiH dutiee,. > 4, 118, 174, 178 

aupervision of public education, > 124 

aid of County Superintendents needed. 134 

additional power required, 161 

annual report, .- * - 4, 118^ 161 

- should issue educational tracts, • 164 

large correspondence, «•.*•«# , 170 

traveling, and traveling fund, 170, 171 

distribution of dictionaries • . . < « 171—178 

School Code prepared and distributed 178 

deportment libniry needed 178 

multi&rious labors *,...* 174, 178 

! importance of the offio«» ■...-. 174—178 

.1- the office should not be partisan. 176. 177 

conpeuaation 177, 178 

aaaistant and clerk ^ ^ 



reronns iirfied 17B— 190 

StAte Tparhcrs' A-nnHntiim 10. 1R3 

Bt«pli<!ii^. !*«.!■., OLtr.l B4.ta 

Wmy, .Iiidjtn Jwqily. titfrl 187,240 

stowo, Pror. r . i;., citci 104, aai, 239 

BtTon^. Jiimi'* W.. iHtei- al9 

Supprinlcnilrnl, St.itf 174---17S 

(■■'unly laif— 180 

" town 160, 1(11 

Swift. JuJgc. cittcl 25 

T. 

THhulnr ntntnmi-nf-" 350— .184 

Tayl.ir, ]l9y:inl. cili'd 50, ill. 210 

Tnvl'iJ-, rr..«clcnt, rifil ■ 23» 

T.-«chere. f.'in:il.':i n- 119—134 

TmcIhts' Institutt^ 11.5— lis 

Tcaclicni' Stale Aasxeiution , 10, 163 

Titavbcni' WHffCri ". SI, 133, 342. 343 

Text linolts n>comtn«n<l(xl 245—248 

ThrustoD, E. M., i-itefl .■, 73, 73 

Todd. Unr. John, dtrd 181 

Tnwo8lii|> school (piviTmiirnt 185 — 147 

Mr. .Mnnn-H vii'ws 135, 136 

ilr. Swirs- mrr'ilionition 136 

Mv, Brt-niuy'ii syniijiEi^ ISB— 138 

MiisHuohiiMottK rcjmrt 138 

Gov. IJuutircirs vten-i' 139 

('onncoticut ov]>cricaL'C 140 

Ottlcb Mills' tD^timl>nJ 14u 

Pi'iiDsvlTaui^i <xM'rioiioc 140 

ci[)Oriencoorlm1iana 140—144 

Oliio cxiiRricni^ 144, 145 

Rumtniuf; up of iirKUinent 145 — 147 

Town Suprinuniliiiii* Itm, 161 

TrBctK on Kducrtlioii, UHufulneits of .' 1«4, 16.'. 

Tmvels, bmjkn of , -Ill 

Travel in II fund 170.171 

Turner, I'lof. J. 1!., cited 93 

T. 

Van Ujck. If. II., cit(^ 70, 71.91 

Vtnlitntioii of s;Oi.)ul lioii-sa ICy— 160, Wl 

V..B0I, l)r,. Htt-d 1i:j 

W. 

Walker. Robfrt J., favors Und grnutu for nliuMtion 21! 

Warnin, Pr, Jnbn C, ojlod its 

Wnyiuiul, p'rt«fdnnt,riWd..,.".i.'. ..'.....'...'..' .'..'.". '43.' 73. !l], Sisi uu'. ■■1.1 

WelHtnr. Dnniol, cUiil li»7. V.hK ■201), -Wt— ■.';■! 

WelMti-r'a Imnbrid]i«I I'ictionaiy ITI — 17;i 

Wcntrainslnr ISi-Tictr, i'il"l 1 Ik I "7 

VixcoiiKin, population ol' 7s 

Wipp. !I-nrv A., cilfid H'T- V-"^, ■M;>--y':: 

■Woodwar-l. Ilr.. pIi-mI Ii>:> 

Wricbt. 8i1s:i. cit."!! >'•■■■ i:>* 

Wy*c, TboniM. cil."l 'ioJ. 3;«. -Ji^lJ 



if; 



r- I 



■ "I 
i ; 



■J 



* 



\. 



K L E V E N T H 



ANNUAL REPORT 



ON TUR 



CONDITION AND IMPROVEMENT 



OF TBE 



COMMON SCHOOLS 



AND 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 



or TBB 



STATE OFJSOSCONSIN, 



1' 0|l T/fE, YEAll^eOp. 



/ , » 



\ -4 



--/ 



:<.-. y 



> . I . A >^ 



By LYMAN C. DRAPER, 

JjTATE gUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, 



MADISON, \VI 8.: 

JAMES ROSS STATE PRINTER 

PBIXTBD AT TDI ^^PAYRIOT" BOOK AKO JOB •f#lCft. 

1859.^ 



Office of Sup't opPdblic Instruction, 

Madison, Dec. 10th, 1859. 

To His Excellency, A. Vf. Randall, 

G-overnor of the State of Witcontin: 

Sib: — I herewith transmit, through you, to the Legislature, 
the Annual Report of this Department. 
I have the honor to be, with much respect, 

Your obedient serrant, 

LYMAN C. DRAPER. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



To the Legislature : 

In accordance with the provisions of law, I have the honor 
to submit to your body the Eleventh Annual Repobt of 
this Department. 

ABSTRACT OF SCHOOL REPORTS. 

• 

A^fuII abstract of all the reports received from the Clerks of 
the County Boards of Supervisors, will be found appended to 
this Report. Probably for the first time in the history of the 
State have the returns been received from every County in 
time for the use of the State Superintendent in making up 
his Annual Report. Burnett County is not taken into the ac- 
count, which has never yet been organized, and of course no 
report from it need be expected. 

Number of Ohildren. — The whole number of children of 
school age, between the years of four and twenty years, is 
278,871 — showing an increase over last year of 14,519. Last 
year's increase over the preceding year was 22,807; and the 
year before over its predecessor was 27,656. The ^reat dimin- 
ution of increase for the past two years, and especially for the 
past year, must be attributable, in a great measure, to the 
check given to immigration to our State on account of the strin- 
gency ot the times. 

School Attendance. — Owing to an unfortunate omission in a 
portion of the blanks,'',the returns are not suffici^iAlj ^Q\si^\^H»^ 



to afford any reliable data as to school attendance; but from 
the real poverty of the people in many of the newly settled 
counties, and their consequent inability to clad their children 
comfortably during the severities of the cold portion of the 
year, it may be presumed that the attendance has not been 
quite so large as last year. I have been informed, upon what 
I deem credible authority, that in the County of Columbia 
alone, fully one thousand children were unable to attend school 
last winter, on account of their parents being unable to provide 
them with the necessary shoes and clothing. As there were 
nearly 97,000 thildren of school age last year who did not at- 
tend school, we may conclude that the number the past year 
has considerably exceeded one hundred thousand. It is a 
melancholy reflection, that in this enlightened age, with all the 
facilities afforded for free education, with the liberality of the 
General Government, and the fostering care of the State, 
more than one-third of all our children of school age are grow- 
ing up in ignorance of even the rudiments of an education, and 
ignorant, moreover, of the weighty responsibilities that will 
soon devolve upon them as citizens of a great State, boastful 
of its progress and intelligence. I ventured, in my last Re- 
port, to make some suggestions on this subject, and hence need 
not repeat them here. 

Length of Schools. — Ten years ago, the average -length of 
time the schools in the State were taught, was a trifle less than 
four months. This average has slowly but steadily increased, 
until last year it reached an average of five months and three- 
fifths. This year, from the poverty of the people, no doubt, 
we find a slight diminution — the statistics showing but five and 
a half months. It should be a source of real gratification, that 
our people, amid the most oppressive poverty they have ever 
probably experienced, have so nobly and heroically sustained 
their schools — and they have doubtless been able to do so, by 
exercising, oftentimes, the most rigid self-denial. I should 
repeat my suggestion of last year, that the time required 
by law for the maintenance of public schools, in order to 
entitle them to share in the School Fund distribution, be in- 
creased from three to four months; but I am persuaded that 
the people in nearly all the sparsely settled frontier counties 
are yet too poor to meet this increased demand; and while it 
should be done at the earliest practicable day — and in due 
course of time, gradually still farther extended — it would not 
now, in my opinion, be wise to attempt it. We should all feel 
for the distresses of the poor, and not place too heavy bur- 
tbens upon them. The BtatiBtica ^\io^ that no less than six- 



teen counties have the past year failed to maintain an average 
of four months school — and these, as might bQ expected, are ^1 
frontier counties, unless Columbia and Sauk should be regard- 
ed as exceptions. 

Nurr^er of Districts, — The number of school districts in 
the State which have reported, is 8,538, together with 118 unre- 
ported, and 1,611 parts of districts. Last year the number of 
districts reported were 3,181, together with 183 unreported, 
and 1,566 parts of districts. The unreported districts are over 
one-third less than last year, and the reported districts show 
an increase of 357, and tne parts of districts 45. Last yea^ 
there were 87 parts of districts that failed to make a report; 
this year but 78. The total number of districts in the State, 
estimating two and a half parts, upon an average, to a joint 
district, is 4,381. 

Value of School Houses. — The total valuation of the school 
house property in the State ten years ago was $76,810 75; in 
1857, $868,478 49; in 1858, $1,127,191 69; and now, in 
1859, $1,185,191 73 — showing an increase in valuation, since 
last year, of 58,000 04. The highest valuation of any school 
house in the State, is one in Milwaukee, at $20,000; the lowest 
valuation is one in the town of Scott, in Sheboygan County, at 
25 cents. Milwaukee, as already indicated, reports the most 
costly school house, $20,000; Janesville one at $14,000; Ke- 
nosha one at $12,000; La Crosse one at $10,000; Sheboygan 
one at $8,000; Dodge and WiDnebago one each at $7,000; 
Racine, one at $6,000; Dane and Grant one each at $5,000; 
Jefferson one at $4,540; Crawford one at $4,323; Brown and 
Ozaukee one each at $4,000; Portage one at $3,500; Sauk 
and Waukesha one each at $2,500; Fond du Lac, Iowa, Ju- 
neau, Manitowoc, Richland and Waushara one each at $2,000; 
Green and Oconto one each at $1,600; Columbia, Eau Claire, 
Jackson and Washington one each at $1,500; La Fayette one 
at $1,400; and Bad Ax and Green Lake one each at $1,000. 

Ten years ago there were 511 school house sites containing 
less than an acre ; in 1857, 2,869 ; in 1858, 3,060 ; this year, 
3,367. There were, ten years ago, 582 school house sites un- 
inclosed ; in 1857, 2,470 ; 1858, 3,099 ; this year, 3,301. 
This would exhibit about 6ne in every five and a half unin- 
closed — and, as a matter of course, few of these can be provi- 
ded with shade trees, and other out-door conveniences. 

There were, ten years ago, 381 school houses without black- 
boards ; in 1857, 940; in 1858, 1,072; this year, 1,047- 
With an increase of 357 districts in the State) ai[i^ \& ^^x\i% ^^ 



8 



districts, there has been a decided increase in the supply of 
black-boards. The statistics show but comparatively a few 
of the school houses supplied with outline maps. 

Teachers* Wages. — Ten years ago, the average of wages 
paid to male teachers per month in the State, was $15 22 per 
month, and to female teachers, $6 92 ; in 1857, to male teach- 
ers, $24 60, and to female teachers, $15 16 ; in 1858, to male 
teachers, $27 02, and to female teachers, $14 92 ; tnis year, 
owing to hard times, we find teachers' wages somewhat reduced, 
the average paid per month to male teachers being $22 98, 
and to female teachers, $14 29. In Oconto county, the high- 
est average wages were this year paid to male teachers, $87 20; 
and in Sauk county the lowest, 112 84 ; while in La Pointe 
county the highest average wages per month were paid to fe- 
male teachers, $33 8S ; and in Portage county the lowest, 
$8 87. . It will be observed, in the following table, that since 
1849, teachers' wages have largely advanced, and especially 
those of female teacners, who are so well adapted, when prop- 
erly fitted, for the noble work of imparting instruction to tne 
young : 



Years. 



Average am't 
paid Male 
Teachers. 



1849,. 
1850,. 
1861, . 
1852,. 
1853,. 
1854,. 
1855,. 
1956,. 
1857,. 
1858,. 
1859,. 




Average am't 
paid FemAie 
Teachers. 



$6 92 
8 97 
8 35 

8 64 

9 94 

11 00 

12 08 

13 80 
15 16 

14 92 
14 29 



School Libraries. — Last year the total number of School 
Libraries was 1,875, with 88,755 volumes ; this year only 
1,250 Libraries have been repQrted, with 41,997 volumes. 
Thus while we have 125 less Libraries reported this year, thev 
exhibit an increase of 8,242 volumes. In 1857, l5,504 rof- 
umes were loaned for reading ; last year, 34,104 volumes were 
taken out ; and this year, 51,062 — ^thus showing a gratifying 
increase in taste for reading. With the improved system of 
Town School Libraries, witli iwgfct (ioW^tions and a greater 



variety of books, we may reasonably calculate on a yet greater 
demand for books for reading, both by the old and the young, 
than ever before. 



PROQRESS AND SNCOURAGEMBNIS. 

. Thus, we perceive, that Wisconsin, notwithstanding the un- 
eaualled pressure of the times, is steadily advancing in her 
educational interests. The marked improvement in our Nor- 
mal Schools, and especially the gratifying success which has 
attended the Teachers' Institutes, under the direction of 
Chancellor Barnard, held during the past Autumn, should be 
regarded as among the most hopeful signs of the times. When 
teachers are alive to the great importance of their calling, and 
evince an ardent desire to fit themselves for their high duties, 
we may be sure the schools throughout the State wiU feel the 
beneficial influence which must naturally result from such feel- 
ings and such efforts. Last year the total amount paid out in 
the State for teachers' wages in our Common Schools, was 
$334,853 96 ; this vear $536,860 66— exhibiting an increase 
of over ttco hundred thousand dollars in a single year, which 
almost staggers belief. Such an increase in expenditure for 
the maintenance of Common Schools — of^, which more than two 
thirds of the whole amount was raised by direct tax— is, in my 
estimation, highly commendable to the energy, intelligence, and 
self-denial of our people in such a time of unexampled severity. 

THE SCHOOL FUND. 

On the 1st of October, 1858, the School Fund proper, after 
deducting what goes to make up the Normal Fund, was $2,855,- 
806 32. On the Ist of October, 1859, after deducting the 
Normal Fund, we find the School Fund proper amounting to 
$2,786,767 03. Of this, there remained in the Treasury, 
September 30th, 1859, ^-32,647 95 ; which deducted from the 
principal, leaves $2,754,119 08, productive, drawing interest 
at the rate of 7 per cent, per annum, which amounts to $192,- 
788 34. To this is to be added 25 per cent, of Swamp Land 
Fund Income on hand, September 30th, 1 859, amounting to 
$6,717 88 ; and School Fund Income on hand at that date, 
paid in since the last, apportionment, $45,766 19 — thus show- 
ing a total of ^245,272 41, if all the interest should be paid 
prior to the 5th of 3fareh nexty subject to apportionment by 
the State Superintendent in March ensuing. By the same nro- 
cess, we had $240,002 11 o{ School Fund lti(iom^ WvJsi 



I 



10 

should have been ready for apportionment in March, 1858 ; but 
from failures to pay the interest promptly, it fell short some 
$70,000, leaving barely $169,185 28 to apportion, which 
yielded 65 cents to each child of school aijje in the State; It 
may well be doubted if there will be a much larger amount for 
apportionment next March, than there was last March. If the 
Legislature should firmly resist all appeals for an extension of 
the time for the payment of interest, then we might perhaps 
count on fully $200,000, or possibly $210,000, for apportion- 
ment. Estimating it at $200,000, and deducting from this 10 
er cent, for Town School Libraries, we should nave $180,000 
or apportionment among some 278,871 children, which might 
give very nearly 66 cents, the same as last year, to each chnd. 
But if the bad policy of extending the time for the payment of 
interest is continued, we could expect no larger proportion of 
the amount due to be paid in, than was paid in last year ; whidi 
would, in round numbers, amount, with what is on hand, to 
$174,000 — and deducting one-tenth for Town Libraries, ire 
should have $156,400 for apportioning, or about 56 cents to a 
scholar. 

We find the School Fund proper $69,039 29 less this year 
than last. The large amount ot School and Swamp lands for- 
feited to the State, which will this year reach very nearly 
400,000 acres, admonish us, that the School Fund, upon which 
so many of the children of the State rely for all the education 
they will ever receive, should be guarded with unusual care. — 
There is great danger of this sacred Fund becoming much far- 
ther reduced, from forfeitures of School and Swamp lands. It 
seems to me, that it behooves the Legislature to examine into 
the subject, and see if some additional legislation is mot de- 
manded, to restrain the counties from imposing excessive taxa- 
tion on non-resident School, Swamp and University lands. 
Many, very many, of the forfeitures which occur, result, I am 
persuaded, from this cause; and thus hundreds of thousands of 
acres are being thrown back upon the State, after the purchas- 
ers have paid the interest for several years, and thns the 
School, University, Normal and Drainage Funds are dimin- 
ished, and the annual accruing interest lessened. While I 
would make no plea designed to benefit the speculator alone, I 
do feel that any violation, in letter or spirit, of that part of oar 
Constitution which requires that ^' the rule of taxation shall be 
uniform,'* is unjust towards those whoihave purchased these 
lands in good faith, and are annually paying their seven per 
cent, interest for the maintenance of Free Schools; and permit- 
ting counties to impose exorbitant taxes upon non-resident 
lands of this class, is infliictiTig % t^^I m^^ry upon the whole 



Srato. aii'l o.^|H'cin]ly iipnn tlic ju,n]\ by cp.usiiij- ilio luViV'iturc 
•■-i" the lainl^', and tin; <lii;iiiinrion •)[" liif scvi-ral i'lirids. aTMi th'/ir 
lopcetive incomes, set apart lui* kftaio cducatiniial juirpnscs. 

1 will venture to cite a case in point. In the Utate Journal, 
of Febmarj last, '^an unfortunate land*owner/' as he termed 
himself, stated that he held a school section in the town of Bo* 
yina, Outagamie county, town 24, range 16, section 16; that 
it was understood, at that time, there was onlj oke settler in 
the entire township of 36 miles square, and with little pro- 
bability of the land beinff required for settlement or cultivation 
for many years. That the taxes for the year 1857, returned to 
the County Treasurer, amounted to the sum of $ 1 48 66, and 
for the year 1868, to the sum of $85. The first mentioned tax 
was returned by the County Treasurer to the State Treasurer; 
and under Chapter 82 of the General Laws of 1866, he added 
25 per cent., amounting to $37 23 — making the tax of 1867, 
$185 88. The same course, it was stated, would be followed 
with the tax of 1858, to which, on the Ist of June, 1859, would 
be added $21 25. Assuming these taxes to have been paid on 
the first of June, 1859, the amount of tax was $233 65, and 
the 25 per cent, added, $68 48, making together $302 13 — 
being a charge of $68 48 on the non-payment of $148 65 for 
one year, and $86 for ono day. The aggrieved writer closes 
his case with this pertinent inquiry: " May I be allowed to ask, 
if a charge exceeding 12 per cent, per annum, on the loan of 
money, is designated as usury, what is the proper name of a 
transaction, such as the above, to which the State is a party ?" 

I have cited this case as one of a large class, as giving a 
clue to the causes why so large an amount of Schoo), Univer- 
sity and Swamp lands are forfeited; and then the excessive 
county taxes are paid by the State, which eventually comes out 
of the sacred Funds dedicated to the education of our children, 
I appeal to the Legislature to give to this subject their careful 
consideration, and see if a proper remedy cannot be applied, 
and our educational funds protected from these unjust forays 
upon them. 

By Chapter 201, of the General Laws of 1859, certain penal- 
ties imposed for neglect to pay interest when due, were to be re- 
mitted; by the operation of which, some fifteen thousand dol- 
lars, as was estimated by the Secretary of State, would have 
been taken from the School and University funds, had not the 
Commissioners of the School and University lands, for certain 
reasons which seemed conclusive to them, as they did also to me, 
declined remitting any penalties under the law in question. It 
would seem, from the investigations of the Commissioner^^ 
that the law was notpasBed according to the conBt\Wt\OTi^\T^- 



12 

quirements. It appears to me, that this law, if not null and 
void, should be promptly repealed. Thousands of contracts 
are annually made in our State with teachers, relying in good 
faith upon the punctuality of the State in making the appor- 
tionment; but when penalties are freely remitted, we shall find 
a growing laxity in paying school interest, calculating upon 
bad precedents for either extension of time, or remission of 
penalties — and then the consequence is,cither a comparatiyely 
small amount to apportion, or a postponement of the time of 
apportionment, either of which works a sad disappointment to 
the over four thousand school districts in the State, and, if 
postponed, often causes a failure on the part of the districts 
to pay their teachers according to contract at the close of their 
term of seryice. 

In my last year's Report, I took occasion to enter somewhtt 
minutely into the condition of the School Fund, and the sour- 
ces for its augmentation. Nothing has since occurred that ma- 
terially affects those statements and conclusions. If our legis- 
lators could but fully realize the importance of our Common 
School educational interests, they would, I am sure, labor more 
earnestly for the preservation of the School Fund intact, and 
seek diligently how to increase it. When we bear in mind, (hat 
for teachers' wages, libraries, school houses and fixtures, we are 
annually paying nearly seven hundred thousand doUarij or, 
upon an average, two and a half dollars annually for the edu- 
cation of every child of school age in the State, we beein to 
comprehend something of the vastness of the educationiS inte- 
rests we have at stake. And great as it really is, this, after 
all, is but a sordid view of the matter, and bears no compari- 
son to that higher view we should all take, of the intellectual 
advancement and future well-being of nearly three hundred thou- 
sand children, whose chief, if not only, reliance is on the Com- 
mon Schools provided for them. 

Whatever tends to permanently increase the School Fund, 
will, of course, prove a lasting blessing to the educational in- 
terests of the State. I think no man can make a candid ex- 
amination into the condition of our School Fund, which is now 
actually diminishing in amount, and, in this connection, ob- 
serve the steady annual increase of children of school age, but 
must be impressed with the stern, unpleasant fact, that the 
amount per scholar to be annually apportioned bv the State 
must gradualljr decrease, unless provision is speedily made for 
the augmentation of the School Fund. 

I doubt not that proper efforts will continue to be made to 

obtain from the General Government the five per cent, fond so 

long withheld from the &ta\>«, «ad the 140^000 acres withheld 



18 

>f tho original 500,000 acre school tract. These would make 
luite an arddition to the School Fund. The policy of hurry- 
ng the school and swamp lands into market at the low prices 
it which they now rule, is questionable. Might it not be the 
iriser policy, to materially increase their price, even if it 
ihould postpone their sale for a few years ? It would be bet- 
ter, it seems to me, that these lands when sold, should be sold 
mly to actual settlers, and whatever excess beyond the present 
ow price is paid for them, should go directly into the educa- 
tional funds of the State, rather than into the pockets of spec- 
ulators. 

I urged in my former Report, that the 26 per cent, of the net 
>roceeas of the sale of the swamp lands taken from the School 
^und and added to the Drainage Fund, be restored to the 
School Fund. If this could be done — and I think it could, and 
still leave, as I endeavored last year to show, amply enough for 
ill reasonable drainage purposes — and the swamp lands snould 
\>e ludiciously disposed of, we might safely calculate on am ad- 
lition of fully one million of dollars to the School Fund, from 
khis source alone — and such an addition, with the present num- 
ber of children of school age in the State, would add over 20 
sents to the present annusJ apportionment to each scholar. — 
Once more, and for the last time, do I earnestly plead for its 
restoration. 

It will be remembered, that upon the recommendation of 
Bon. Robert J. Walker, while Secretary of the Treasury of 
the United States, during President Polk s administration, an 
additional section of land, in each township, was granted to the 
newly organized States and Territories ; so that California, 
Oregon, Washington, Utah, New Mexico, Minnesota, Kansas 
luid Nebraska, have received two sections in each township, 
lonble the proportional amount of other Western and Soutn- 
Westem States. I would respectfully suggest to the Legisla- 
ture, the propriety of memorializing^ Congress for an additional 
school land grant, to such of the Western and South-Westem 
States as have received only one section to each township — 
either an additional section for each township, or such otner 
amount as may be deemed just and proper, provided the Gene- 
ral Government has a sufficiency of unsold lands remaining in 
those several States to meet the object sought to be obtained. 
I could wish our Legislature would not only send in a single 
memorial, but continue to memorialize Congress each succes- 
sive year, until the great purpose should be gained ; and also 
memorialize the Legislatures of other Western and South- 
western States, interested in the movement, to invite t\ietsitc^ 
unite in memorializiDg CongresBy and securing coticqt\> <A 



14 

tion on the part of the Western and South Western members 
in Congress in laboring for this noble object. And such a 
measure should also include a new land grant to eaeh of our 
Western and South-Western State Universities — not one of 
which, possesses scaroely a pittance of the fund it should have, 
in order to accomplish tho great work expected of a live and 
progressire University. Could such additional grants be se- 
cured for the Common School and University Funds of our 
Western and South-Western States, I feel quite certain that 
the General Government would eventually be amply remunera- 
ted in the improved education and more general intelligence of 
the thousands and hundreds of thousands of pioneers which these 
States will vet send forth to settle the plains and valleys of the 
unnumbered States that are destined soon to spring into exist- 
ence between our western borders and the Pacific coast. 



TOWN SCHOOL LIBBAEIES. 

On the 8th of April last, I issued a Circular explaining the 
provisions of the new School Library Law, with my views and 
hopes of the new system which that law inaugurated. As 
some additional legislation is required before that law can go 
fully into effect, it seems necessary to a proper understandins 
of what has been enacted, and what yet m addition is needed, 
that some notice of the law itself should be briefly given. I 
cannot do this to better purpose, than by citing tho Circular is- 
sued last spring. It is as follows: 

''The new School Library Law, recently enacted by our 
State Legislature, has four prominent provisions, namely: 

" 1. It provides a permanent Town School Library Fund, by 
setting apart for this purpose ten per cent, of the School F^d 
Income, subject to apportionment in 1860, and annually there- 
after, together with the proceeds of a special State tax, to be 
levied each year, of one-tenth of one mill on the dollar valua- 
tion of taxable property. 

'^2. It provides that this Fund shall be set apart specifically 
for establishing and replenishing Town School Libraries. 

'^3. It provides that the books for these Libraries shall be 
purchased by public authority, and not by the local School 
JBoards as heretofore. 

^'4. It provides that an extra number of the State Laws, 

Journals and Documents, sufficient to supply each Town and 

City School Library with a set, shall be printed by the State 

Printer, and delivered to the State Superintendent, and these 

sball be substantially bound, uTidi^T Vk« d\x^<tt\QtL of the State 



15 

Superintendent, with the approval of the Governor, at a cost 
not exceeding thirty cents per volume, to bo paid out of the 
School Library Fund. 

" The precise manner in which the books shall be purchased 
and distributed, except that they shall be purchased '^ by pub- 
lic authority," and " distributed in some just proportion among 
the towns and cities of the State," is not specified in the act. 
As the means for the first purchase, can not, from the terms of 
the law, be collected and ready for use until next Spring, it was 
thought best not to encumber the act with details, which might 
have embarrassed and endangered its passage. These details, 

Srovidin^ for the selection and purchase of the books, their 
ietribution, and regulations for the management of the Libra- 
ries, will be carefully considered by Hon. Henry Barnard, 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Prof. J. L. 
PiCKARD of the Platteville Academy, who have been appointed 
by the Legislature to make such revision of the School Laws 
of the State as they may think necessary, and report the same 
to the Governor in season to be by him submitted to the next 
Legislature for its consideration. It need only be said in this 
connection, that every precaution will be taken to guard the 
interests of the State, and prevent, by every restriction of law, 
the possibility of swindling or cheating in the contract for the 
books — for upon the faithful investment of this sacred fund will 
much of the popularity and usefulness of this law depend. 

*' There never was a measure involving new and additional 
taxation, that ever passed the Legislature with such unanimity. 
The State Superintendent's Report, which strongly urged the 
Town Library system, was not laid before the Legislature until 
three weeks before its adjournment ; Mr. Barnard, who had 
been confidently expected here, and whose personal efforts and 
experience were greatly counted on in aid of the measure, was 
detained in Connecticut by severe illness ; and the Library law 
was not introduced until within eight working days of the close 
of the session, and notwithstanding all these untoward circum- 
stances, this measure — a tax measure, too, in these stringent 
times — passed both Houses most triumphantly, by a vote of 19 
to 3 in the Senate, and 5l to 10 in the Assembly ; or in the 
aggregate, by a vote of 70 to 13. I have no doubt that the 
men who supported this noble and beneficent measure, will long 
be remembered with honor and gratitude by an intelligent and 
appreciating people. 

" This School Library Fund will amount to at least $35,000 
annually, and will gradually increase in proportion to the in- 
crease of the School Fund Income, and the increase of tket^iX^VAi^ 
property of the State. There will be something \\k^ %\%,ft^^ 



16 

a jear from the School Fund Income ; and one tenth of a mill 
tax on the dollar valuation, on 1^175,000,000 of taxable prop- 
erty in the State, as equalized last year, would realize §17,- 
500, — if the taxable property should be equalized, as it may 
be, at two hundred millions, then the income from this special 
Library tax would amount to ^20,000 annually. L suould 
conclude, that the Library Fund will reach not less than ^40,- 
000 a year within the next three years. But estimating it at 
$35,000, it would ^ive on an average, to each of the U50 towns 
and cities of the State )^53 per year in books at wholesale 
rates ; and deducting the probable pro rat-a for the cities and 
villages, there would be about $40, upon an average, to each of 
the rural town^. Estimating the present population of the 
State at 850,000, and dividing it by the number of towns and 
cities, wc should have an average of 1 ,833 persons for each 
town and city ; and $40 or $50 per year in books for this 
number would appear but a very moderate investment. This 
amount, though small, will nevertheless afford a respectable 
beginning for a Towu School Library, when we take into con- 
sideration that a similar amount will be added annually there- 
after. 

^^A single volume may serve as many as twenty-six persons 
a year, each having its use two weeks. Many School Libra- 
ries have, reported twelve times the number of books loaned 
annually that were in the Library — each volume, upon an ave- 
rage, having been taken out once a month during the entire 
year. In the reports of the Town Libraries of Inaiana, occur 
such expressions as the following, which will not be lost on the 
public mind: ^ Nearly all the books have been drawn out aa 
many as twenty-five times, many of them oftener, and Quite a 
number of the books are not permitted to remain in the Library 
an hour before they are withdrawn.' Says another: ^ Our 
Library is doing more good than anything that has ever been 
done by the Legislature of this State« Great interest is mani- 
fested in it here.' 

. "I may state as the result of ten years' experience of the 
District Library system in Wisconsin, that only about one 
third of the districts have any librarfes at all, and those gene- 
rally so small as scarcely to deserve the name, — averagine less 
than 28 volumes each, — and hence have utterly failed to fulfill 
the great mission of School Libraries. That what few books 
have thus been collected have been procured, at high prices, of 
book pedlars, and have but too generally related to Banditti 
and Robber B^ the Pirate* 9 Own Book^ and other trashy and 
injurious works, which could only incite in the minds ot chil- 
ilren a desire themselves to becotxiQ de^i^eradocs. 



17 

"Had we continued the District Librnrj plan in our State, 
and contiooed to leave the districts to procure a Librnry or 
not, OS tliej might eltct, so long would the Library system of 
WisconRin, it yeems to me, have proved a sipnal failure; but 
with the Toun Library pian, as is in Indiana, Ohio, and Mich- 
igan, the State providing the Libraries for ecch town according 
to some just system of diBtribution, carefully selecting books 
suitable to meet the tastes and wants of a1I claiiEtE of commu- 
nitj, replenishing them annually, so as to keep each collection 
fresh and attractive, wo shall have, in each Library, several 
times the number and variety of books that any District plan 
conld ever possess. For instance, suppose each of a dozen 
districts in a town was to have ten volumes for a new Library, 
or for replenishing an old one— the same ten volumce that 
ironld be bett and cheapett for one, would he he»t and cheapest 
for all; so that in all the twelve districts there would bo, in 
truth, but ten different works; while upon the Township plan 
tiicre would be a hundred and twenty different works for the 
lame money. Any one can readily see how much more attrac- 
tive the larger number would be to both youth and adults ; how 
man; more tastes would be ratified, and how much more 
knowledge would necessarily be diffused among the people. 
The same amount of money expended on the District plan 
would, by a judicioaa State system, purchase fully one-tnird 
more volumes, besides securing a TostlT better selection, and 
baring the advantage of a uniform ana far more permanent 
B^le of binding. According to the old Dlstriot plan, we 
■honld always have had small and almost worthless Libraries; 
by the Township system, wo shall soon have lar^e, attractive, 
and invaluable collections; and instead of only about one-third 
of the State, as is now the case, having a few ill-chosen vol- 
limes, every town in Wisconsin will, by the new system, soon 
have its solid Library of the choicest works to gladden the 
young minds of our two hundred and sixty-four thousand cbil- 
oren, and furnish mental food for our other six hundred thous- 
uid people. 

" I presume that provision will be made, that should the 
sitizenB of any town deem proper, they may sub-divide their 
Town Library into two or three seotions, and have them 
;>laced in as many convenient looalities for six months or a 
pear, and then interchange these sections with the other local- 
.ties, and . so in due time, the several sections or sub-divisions 
)f the Library would be placed within the convenient reach of 
:Tery part of the town, tiius subserring nearly every facility 
)f the District Library^ with the most decided &u^eTaM.«\ 
idrant^jw. . 



18 

" As an iDBtance illustrative of the strong feeling of attach- 
ment with which the Township Libraries are regarded where 
they have been established ana tested, and how cheeerfully the 
expense is borne b; the people, I cito the following from an 
excellent address by Prof. Rbad of our State Univeraity : "I 
will give the substance of a conversation which I had daring 
my recent visit to Indiana, while in the Auditor's Office, ex- 
amining the most beautiful series of books — the Indiana 
School Library. A farmer from the remotest township of the 
county came in. After a little, I said to him, ' Gbhtrt, you 
are heavily taxed here in Indiana; I hare been running away 
to Wisconsin, where they have no old dead horses in the form 
of canals to pay for, and no interest to pay on bonds which oar 
sharp-sighted Indiaiia Commissioners were cheated out of.* — 
' Well,' said he, ' we are heavily taxed, and this year, with cor 
short crops and hard prices, it is as much as we can do in oar 
seighborhood to pay our taxes. ' ' But,' I said to him, 'it will 
he the policy of this Legislature to diminish taxation.' He 
Baid ' in all mercy he hoped so.' ' They will begin upon your 
extravagant school system. Now look at these books — what is 
the use of them ? Do they do a particle of good ?' * Let 
them,' said he, 'cut off what else they please — let'themeTen 
cut off the whole school tax beside, hutthebooTti we mutt have.' 
He then told me that the books had done his neighborhood 
more good, and had produced a greater change in the habiti of 
families, than any otner means of improvement which had erer 
been brought to bear upon the people." 

"And so it will be in Wisconsin. The people will never 
grumble at the School Library tax, if the money is only wisely 
expended. The tax will be light — one cent on every one ban- 
dred dollars, or twenty-five cents on every two thoasand five 
hundred dollars of taxable property. ' Taxes,' remarked that 
far-seeing statesman, Edmund Burke, ' taxes for ednoation 
are like vapors, which rise only to descend again to beanti^ 
and fertilize the earth.' 

"Snchwasthe interest of Horacb Mamn in tho nibiect, 
when reqaested to give an expression as to the valae of Town 
School Libraries for Wisconsin, that though ill, he aaid lie moat 
write a word of good cheer, at he held the plan to h» worth 
tnany more timet than hit lift. GsoROS B. EhkbboV, a 
veteran and distinguished educator of New England, with 
the zeal of a true philanthropist, urged upon our L^alatnre 
the speedy adoption of such a system, ' I congratnlate Toa and 
tbe State,' wntes Hsmrt Barnard, ' that yonr Lonalatun 
baa enabled yoa to inangoxaie a inL« lA^tary policy — utogeth- 
0r in advance, in its ^TM\,\ea\ \)««'\n%% wA c«»ii^iAn&niA,{n . 



19 

time, of anything yet attet^pted. ' It is, indeed, an advance 
Qpon the efforts of our Bieter States, all thinge considered; for, 
takiniF the three States which have adopted the Township sjs- 
tem, Wisconsin wjll raise more money, by nearly one-quarter, 
than Michigan, besides having the advantage of the State pur- 
chasing the books instead of the Township Boards, as ia done 
in Mlcoigan; it is in advance of Ohio, whose Library Fund ie 
provided by imposing the tenth of a mill tax, wbfle ours is 
raised by. the tenth of a mill tax, and one-tenth of the 
School Fund Income; and it is in advance of Indiana, not 
in the amount of tax raised, but in the permanency of the sys- 
tem. Tor in Indiana the Library Law is enacted to be in force 
only two years, and then has to pass the ordeal of seeming a 
two years renewal, and thus is subjected to the danger of over- 
throw by the caprice of the people, or through the mismanage- 
ment of those naving it in chaise. Our Wisconsin Library 
Law is in advance of all others in providing a copy of all State 
Laws, Journals and Documents, substantially bound, for each 
School Library. 

"It is a noble and beneficent law; and will yet be regarded, 
when fully known, and its benefits begin to be realized, as the 
most important educational measure ever iqangnrated in Wis- 
consin. I confess to cherishing no ordinal? feelings of hope 
ftnd pleasure in view of the unspeakable good thai must inevit- 
ably result from a judicious expenditure, every twenty-five 
years, of fully one million of dollars for booKS to scatter 
among our people — procuring not lees than a million and a 

Jnarter of volumes of the choicest literature of the age; and 
envj not the man who cannot partake of this feeling of hope 
and joy, in view of the prospective progress and happiness of 
hia race." 

At nothing has been done by the Gommissioners appointed 
by the Legislature to revise the School Laws, of course the 
additional provisions necessary to the proper carrying out of 
tiie new Library Law have not been jointly considered by them. 
I have, however, had considerable intercnango of views with 
Chancellor Basnabd upon the subject, in a general way ; and 
in these, I believe, we coincide. As this Library Law is 
jnatly regarded by all friends of education, in and out of the 
State, as a decided step in advance of all our sister States, 
wad as unquestionably the most important educational measure 
ever adopted in Wisconsin, I feel an unusual anxiety that so 
beneficent a measure sbould be carried into effect under the 
most favorable auspices. 

1. Who ihould telect and contract for tht ioolci f \ vaA.*Vi 
many muoben of tbt Jaat L^iBlatore, to CWiae\\QT'&iai- 



20 

NARD, Hon. A.J. Craio, and others, in conversation, several 
months ago, and repe<itedly since, that, in my opinion, it would 
be unwise to confide this power and responsibility to the State 
Superintendent alone, however good a judge of books he might 
be, and however pure and above suspicion might bo his repu- 
tation. It would be next to an impossibility, for any one man 
to have the selecting and contracting for from thirty-five to 
fifty thousand dollars worth of books in a single year, without 
exciting the ire and jealousy of those publishers whose books 
were not selected, or whose terms in competing for the contract 
were, in their estimation, either overlooked or overslaughed; 
and hence would arise, as has frequently been the case, first 
inuendoes and finally grave charges, that bribery had been 
resorted to by the more successful book-mongers to circumvent 
their competitors, and accomplish their purpose. Such things, 
though they might not be generally believed, would neverthe- 
less exert an unfavorable effect upon the Superintendent's in- 
fluence, and oflen prove exceedingly annoying to him. 

Let two persons be associated with the State Superintendent 
to determine the books to be purchased, the style of binding, 
and make the contract for them. These persons should be 
m«n of the highest intelligence, possessing a thorough know- 
ledge of books, and such a reputation that the people of the 
whole State would feel that their dearest interests were confi- 
ded to safe hands. Thus would the State Superintendent, 
whose duties are always numerous and onerous, be partially 
relieved from a heav^ responsibility, and have the benefit of 
able advisers and assistants in carrying successfully into tflbct 
a measure fraught with untold blessings to our people. With 
three such Commissioners to manage the whole subject of 
School Libraries, including the selection of the books, their 
binding, contracting for them, directing their distribution, and 

Erovidin^ rules ana regulations for the management of the Li- 
raries, 1 do not see any reason to distrust their Bucceasfal 
administration of this important trust. But, I would repeat, 
the two persons thus associated with the State Superintenaent, 
should be men thoroughly acquainted with books, and deeply 
imbued with a sense of the great responsibility of selectmg 
only such books as would tend to benefit the heads and the 
hearts, the morals and intelligence, of their hundreds of thou- 
sands of readers; and, above all, men whoso reputation for 
integrity would everywhere give the assurance, that no fayor- 
itism would be practiced by them in purchasing the books, and 
that the real interest of the State would be inyariably con- 
Bulted, Let it be said of ihem as was said by the Venerable 
Chief CommiBsioner of Pnmw^ \ii^Vr!w,>5VK\Ji \u Holland of 



21 

another class of educational officers: "They are men who 
ought to be fought for with lantern in hand." With good 
and Boitable men for this posiion, everything that the friends 
of the measure and the friends of education hope for, vill be 
secured ; but with an unfortunate selection, suspicions may 
be excited, and this noblest measure ever enacted b; tbie 
State, imperiled, if not destroyed. 

'2. Sow tkould these men be lelecUd^ Either deai^iate the 
Governor of the Sfcte, and Chancellor of the State Univorsi- 
tr, as ex officio the proper persons ; or select two persons, as 
tne Regents of the UniversitT are selected, hj joint conven- 
tion of the Legislature, to hold their offices, after the first 
election, for a term of six years — at the first election, the two 
chosen to draw lots, one serving three, and the other six years. 
If two were thus chosen, pay adequate to the actual services 
rendered, should necesaarily be provided ; but being paid, they 
would unquestionably feel the necessity of really doing the 
work confided to, and expected of them ; while ex-officio mem- 
bers, with their already multiplied official cares and duties, 
might not be able to bestow upon the subject the additional 
labors and responsibilities necessary. Besides, there would 
be an important advantage in baving two of the three Com- 
missioners serving long terms, so when there should be a 
change in the office of State Superin|:endent, still the ex- 
perience and settled policy of the Board would not be likely 
to be hastily or inconsiderately changed or ignored. 

3. Sow ihould the books be purchased? In brieSy discuss- 
ing this question, I must necessarily speak of the mode of their 
distribution During my personal visit lost year to Superin- 
tendents of Public Instruction, and other prominent eduoation- 
ists, in the Western, Middle and Eastern States, and Canada 
West, I made this subject a matter of special inquiry. When 
the State supplies School Libraries, the more common mode of 
procaring the books, after they have been selected, is by con- 
tracting with some individual or firm to supply the whole, ani- 
formly bound, at prices mutually agreed upon, or upon the 
lowest bid ; or, as has recently, and I think wisely, been done 
by Ohio, upon the best bid, all things considered. The lowest 
bid is most generally the dearest in tho end, as when a large 
contract is secured oy a ruinous bid, the loss that would accrue 
by an honest fulfillment of the terms of the contract, is avoided 
by * the tricks of the trade,' and profits, almost as if by magic, 
are realized instead of losses. 

Indiana made her large purchases for her Town School Li- 
braries by contracting on the lowest terms ; thea ihe ^t<i^«c 
number oi volumes were aaaigned to each town, la CvubAai 



22 

West, nnder the direction of the learned and able Hon. Edgsk- 
TOK Rterson, the books are purchased in suitable quantities 
direct from the several publishers in Great Britain and America, 
and a large Depository constantly kept at Toronto, under the 
supervision of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and 
the Provincial Soard of Education. A catalogue is made out 
and printed of all the books in the Depository, with their cost 
prices, and these catalogues sent out to the towns and districts, 
for the use of the local boards, from which t9 make their dejec- 
tion, to the amount in value to which they may be entitled. 
As all the books in the catalogue have been selected with great 
care, and been approved by the Superintendent and Board of 
Education, of course the local boards cannot well make a bad 
selection, unless perchance they should fail to secure the proper 
variety to suit the various tastes of the community for whose 
benefit they were designed. 

In a country like ours, the people, the great source of power, 
like to be freely consulted. Hence I am persuaded, that we 
should strive, if possible, to adopt a system that will most di- 
rectly came home to the people themselves. While I would 
give the School Library Commissioners large discretionary 
powers to make the best contract, and in the manner which to 
them might appear, all things considered, the best for the State, 
I would be strongly inclined to favor this mode of purchase 
and distribution : 

Give the Commissioners optional authority to contract, on 
the best termsj for the books tor each year, uniformly and sub- 
stantially bound, or to purchase them in sheets of the respective 
Eublishers, and have them uniformlj^ bound by contract on the 
est terms. Then let the Commissioners have a Depositoryi 
prepare a catalogue of the books properly arranged according 
to subject, with the wholesale cost price, including freight to 
Madison, together with a brief description, in connection wifli 
each book, of its character ; and then let the proper offioers of 
each town and city having the matter in charge, seleot the 
amount in books to which their town would be entitled, from 
the catalogue thus furnished them ; and as new purchases 
would be made each successive year, let new catalogaes be 
prepared and sent out to the several towns and cities. 

This year the tenth of a mill Town I^ibrary tax, amoonta in 
the aggregate on the $168,620,238 70 of the equalized property 
valuation of the State, to $16,862 02. It will be hardly 
reasonable to suppose, that the whole of this amount wiU be 
promptly collected. Add to this amount, one tenth of the 
ocbool Fund Income, which will be^likely to reach from $17,000 
to 920,d00j and we shaW \ia\e a\V.^^<^\i\i^t tl^^ tA exceed $85,000 



for the purchase of books for School Libraries next spring. To 
give the towns, or such of them as might wish to do so, the 
privilege of selecting from the catalogue their portion of the 
1-35,000 worth of hooka to supply the whole State, would ren- 
der it necesaar; to have a larger supply on hand than the 
$35,000 would purchase. To illustrate this point : Suppose 
a person had an order on a book-seller for one hundred dollars' 
worth of books, and that that book-seller hod only one hundred 
dollars' worth on hand, then the person having the order would 
haie no chance for'selecting what ho might wish, but must take 
the lot just as he finds them ; but if the book -seller had one- 
hundred and fifty dollars' worth of books on band, and all 
were good and standard works, then there would be an oppor- 
tunity for a choice. So if the State invests no more than the 
firecise amount which may be on band ne^t Spring for hooka 
or School Libraries, then there can be no chance whatever for 
the towns and cities to exercise any choice in the selection. 
To meet this exigency, let the Commissioners in contract- 
ing for the books, whether from the several original publish- 
ers, or from a single individual or firm, purchase say one-third 
or one-half more in value, and consequently in variety, than 
the School Library funds would then pay for, and this excess 
be contracted to bo paid for the following spring ; and thus 
this plan of over-lapping each successive year could be kept 
op, as long as it might be deemed desirable, without neces- 
sarily incurring therefor any additional expense to the State 
whatever — for publishers generally will gladly make fair terms 
to secure so large and reliable patronage. As all the books 
purchased should be of a character calculated for permanent 
usefulness, what remained over, after the selections of the year 
had been made by the towns and cities, would go towards mak- 
ing up the collection for the ensuing year. 

The School Library Commissioners should give bonds for 
the faithfdl performance of their duties, in such amount as the 
Legislature should deem proper ; and all their acts, contracts 
and Tonchers should undergo a rigid examination annually by 
the Joint Committee of the Legislature for the investigation of 
the seT«ral State Department. 

With such Commissioners, such powers, and, such a plan for 
selecting, purchasing and distributing the books, with autho'ri- 
ty to make the necessary rules and regulations for the manage- 
ment of the Libraries, I should confidently look for the tri- 
umphant success of our noble Town School Library system. 
Then make the Town Board of Supervisors, and City Boards 
of Education, the local boards for having charge of the Li- 
braries for their several towns and cities, with povei to ^viW% 



24 

the Libraries into two or three sections, and alternate their 
localities, if the people could thus be better accommodated 
than by having the whole kept together in a single collection ; 
and with power also, to appoint the Librarian or Librarians, 
and when necessary, to designate some small remuneration for 
keeping the Libraries open at least one half day in each week, 
to be paid by the Town, or by a cent tax imposed for the use 
of each volume taken from the Library, or by penalties for 
over-keeping the books, or from all these sources together. 

As to the "just proportion" in which the books should be 
distributed to the several towns and cities of the State, I do 
not believe that a better plan can be adopted, than to appor- 
tion pro rata the amount to which they would be entitlea ac- 
cording to the number of children of school age, in the same 
manner, and upon the same statistical returns, as the annual 
apportionment is made of the School Fund Licome. This, it 
seems to me, will be alike simple, just, and satisfactory to iho 
people. 

Provision should be made, authorizing such districts as see 
proper to do so, to vote their existing district libraries gra- 
tuitously to the town, to be added to the Town Library. 

The remaininff sections of the School Law relating to Dis- 
trict Libraries, should be repealed ; and should School Libra- 
ry Commissioners be appointed or elected, to them should be 
confided the duty of procuring the binding of the State Laws, 
Journals and Documents already provided by law for the Town 
Libraries. 

Having briefly presented this subject in all its bearings — a 
subject, permit me to add, to which I have given more than 
common thought and attention, profoundly impressed with the 
vast influence it is calculated to exert on the future intellectual 
well-being of the State — I earnestly entreat for it that con- 
sideration from the Legislature which its nature and impor- 
tance so imperatively demand. 



TOWNSHIP SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. 

I devoted several pages of my former Report to the subject 
of substituting the Township System of School G-ovemment 
for our present arbitrary, inefficient and troublesome district 
system. My convictions of the propriety of this change are 
so decided, that I beg once more to call the respectful attention 
of the Legislature to the subject. If the change was calcula- 
ted to impose any additional expense upon the people, I should 
not, in timea like these, deem it either wise or impolitic to aige 



25 

its adoption. The Township system has been adopted and 
works admirably in Indiana, JPennsylvania and Ohio; and has 
been warmly ur^ed in Massachusetts, by those three able suc- 
cessive Secretaries of the Massachusetts Board of Education, 
Horace Mann, Barnas Sears, and George S. Boutwell, 
and some progress has been made in securing this better sys- 
tem in Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

I do not now propose to ^o again into a lengthy argument 
upon the subject; but wishing that the matter may oe kept 
prominently before the people^ eyen if the Legislature should 
not deem it advisable to act upon it at present, I will venture 
to repeat the deductions of my former argument: 

Such a system of Township school government, with the ab- 
rogation of the district system, would produce, among others, 
the following beneficial results, viz : 

1. The provision of the Constitution of our State, which re- 
quires ^'the establishment of district schools as nearly uniform 
as practicable," would, by constituting the Township as the 
district, be more fairly carried out; and hence the State 
School Fund income would be much more equally distributed 
than it now is. 

2. Taxation for school purposes would be better equalized, 
for, under the present district system, the people of some dis- 
tricts, owing to the smallness of both their numbers and taxa • 
ble property, pay two or three times as much as their neighbor- 
ing wealthier districts, and get no more — often much less in 
quantity and value, for it; and in joint districts, the several 
parts composing them, are, from the necessity of the case, very 
unequally taxed. 

3. All the primary schools of the town would be held the 
same length of time^ thus producing an equality of school privi- 
leges which does not, and cannot, exist under the old district 
plan; for instances are not wanting in our State, where a poor 
and weak district, with great difficulty, and heavy taxation, 
manages to maintain a three months' school, and that kept by a 
cheap and perhaps almost worthless teacher; while the adjoin- 
ing wealthy district, with comparatively light taxation, easily 
sustains a ten months' school, with an able and successful 
teacher. This is exceedingly unequal, and bears heavily and 
unjustly upon the poor, and fails to carry out the heavenly in- 
junction, "Bear yo one another's burdens." 

' 4. By the Township plan, there would be a juster distribu- 
tion and equalization of teachers, suitable to the several locali- 
ties; and less of the favoritism practised, as uudeTtYift^t^%^wV» 



26 

district system, in employing relatives to teach the schools — 
for in a Town Board of only three members, there would be 
less opportunity of practising it than by the present half a do- 
zen to a dozen District Boards in the town. 

5. There would be more uniformity and adaptation in school- 
houses; for they would be built economically, by the lowest 
and best bidder, and not, as is now too often the case, by one 
or more members of the District Board, on pretty much his or 
their own terms; and such localities as now neglect to provide 
good, comfortable school-houses, would have them provided for 
them, and the children of such stingy, miserly souls would no 
longer suffer for a suitable place in which to acquire an educa- 
tion, which would be worth vastly more to them than all the 
wealth, without it, which their ignorant and niggardly parents 
could ever heap together. 

6. It would not only be a far better, but a far cheaper sys- 
tem to maintain, lopping off the weak, inefficient and worthless 
schools, and dividing the larger and unwieldy ones; lessening 
the nun^er of officers, as the Town Board of three officers * 
would perform all the necessary school duties of the town, and 
do it cheaper and better than the half a dozen or more local 
Boards of at least six times as many officers; and instead of 
selecting eighteen or more persons in a township, as is now the 
cage, for these local boards, the people would select three of 
the very best and most efficient for the Town Board. Here 
would be a great saving of expense, and the objects sought 
more equally obtained, better in quality, and far more useful 
to the people. 

7. By abrogating the district and joint district system, we 
should be doin^ away at once with one of the most fruitful 
sources of troubles, wranglings, contentions, and petty iealous- 
ies, incident to the district system; and would, at the same 
time, put an end to that greatest bane of the system, the con- 
stant ensmallin^ of districts, to gratify whims and caprices, and 
oftentimes to adjust an angry controversy, thus steaaily lessen- 
ing the ability of such dismembered districts to either employ, 
a good teacher, or maintain a school even the legal requirement 
of three months. 

8. It would give to the people all over the State the perfect 
freedom, while taxed in their own town, to send their children 
to any public school, without regard to district, township, or 
county lines — thus, in the enlightened spirit of progressive* 
legislation, doing away with an oppressive restriction already 
too long and too patiently borne by the people, and which has 



\21 

only been productive of inconvenience, injustice and inequality, 
and deprived many a T^orthy tax-paying family of invaluable 
school privileges. 

9. While the primary schools generally cannot well be gra- 
ded, and but little eflfected in the way of properly classifying 
the pupils, yet under the Township system, each town contain- 
ing a specific number of inhabitants, or a certain ^mount of 
taxable property, or both, could have its Central Graded High 
School, free to all of a certain age, say between ten or twelve 
and twenty years of a^e — this Central School to be kept in ses- 
sion ten months in each year. With such a Graded School in 
each town, for the more advanced youth, the accruing benefits 
would be of so decided and general a character, that the plan 
could not but meet with the most universal favbr. 

10. And lastly, but not least in importance, by this Town- 
ship system, females — who, by their proverbial love and affec- 
tion for children, b^ their patience and lon^-sufferin^, and by 
their thousand winning ways, are so peculiarly adaptea by their 
Creator as the natural teachers of the young — could be employ- 
ed in nearly all the primary schools, leaving only the Central 
High School to be provided in part with male teachers ; and 
thus would the same amount of money now expended in a ma- 
jority of towns in the State, employing for the same district a 
male teacher a portion of the year, and a female another, fur- 
nish to the people fully one-third more, and vastly better 
adapted instruction for the young. 

Some such system as this, must, from the very necessities of 
the case, sooner or later commend itself to the practical good 
sense of our people. When they demand it, as they will, then 
it will be readily and gracefully adopted. And then, I doubt 
not, that the people of Wisconsin, like those of Indiana, will 
only wonder tnat its very simplicity, economy and admirable 
adaptation to their very wants, had not long ago made a favora- 
ble impression upon their better judgment. 

OTHER NEEDED REFORMS. 

In my former Report, I favored the adoption of the system 
of County Superintendents, the formation of a State Board of 
Education,the procurement of accredited works on School Ar- 
chitecture for each town in the State, the authorization of the 
State Superintendent to issue Educational Tracts, and a 
change oi time for electing the Superintendent, with an in- 
cr'ease of his term of service. I still favor ihe^^ ^eNe^^xci!^'^- 



28 ^ 

snres, though I db not saj it would be advisable to adopt then 
afl at present. The County Superintendency, thougn great 

food would, as I firmly believe, grow out of it, yet as it would 
e attended with considerable expense, I should hardly think 
it wise to press such a measure in these times of pecuniary 
stringency. As to the great and pressing need of works on 
School Architecture — relating to a matter concerning which 
so much of the people's money is not only wasted, but abso- 
lutely devoted to the erection of charnel-houses for their chil- 
dren — I trust the new Sxihool Library Law, if wisely admin- 
istered, will make the necessary provision for this great pi^blio 
want. 

NULLIFYIim THE SUPERINTENDENT'S DECISIONS. 

Last year I pointed out the fact, that Town Superintendents, 
and Town Clerks, sometimes assumed the prerogative of dis- 
obeying the decisions and orders of the* State Superintendent ; 
and to meet such cases, section 7th of chapter 203 of the Gen- 
eral Laws of 1859 was enacted. There has since occurred a 
case wherein a majority of a District Board have utterly re- 
fused to obey a decision of the State Superintendent in ma 
appeal case — thus virtually nullifying his aecision, though the 
laws declare that all such decisions ^' shall be final and conclu- 
sive.'' A still further amendment to section 89 of chapter 
twenty-third of the Revised Statutes is necessary, making it 
the duty of the Town Superintendent to remove from office 
any member of a District Board who may be guilty of refusing 
to carry into effect any decision or order of the State Sunerin- 
tendent, and that such person or persons so removed shall not 
be eligible for re-appointment. 

TRAVELINQ OP STATE SUPERINTENDENT. 

During the past year, the following counties have been visit- 
ed by the State Superintendent or his Assistant, and addresses 
generally delivered, in one county at two different points, and 
m another at three — namely, Dane, Columbia, Green Lake, 
Milwaukee, Portage, Bichland, Bock, Sauk, and Waushara. 

NEW EDITION OP THE SCHOOL CODE. 

Such was the demand for School Laws, that soon after the 

adjournment of the last Legislature, a new edition was prepar- 

ed, including all the o^mendmenls ttcid additions enactca at the 



29 

last session, and a lar^e number of them have been sent to the 
several school officers m need of them. Some of the frontier 
counties had never before had a single copy, and their school 
officers were greatly at loss to know how properly to discharge 
their duties, and secure for their districts the benefits and pri- 
vileges of our system of Free Schools. I found what appeared 
to me sufficient authority to prepare such revision and order its 
printing in Section 64, Chap. 10, and Section 99, Chap. 23, 
of the Kevised Statutes; and in the law relating to rublic 
Printing, which clearly implies that the head of eac^ State De- 
partment is expected to juage of the special printing necessary 
for his particular Department. Ana added to all this, the 
pressing necessities of the case seemed to justify the printing 
of a new edition, even had the provisions of law oeen less spe- 
cific in authorizing its publication. 



WSBSTER's UNABRIDaSB DICTIONARY. 

The 600 copies of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary^ au- 
thorized, by the last Legislature, to be purchased by the State 
Superintendent, with the consent and approval of the Governor, 
were obtained of the publishers, who consented to furnish the 
new illustrated. Pictorial edition, on the same terms as the less 
valuable edition formerly supplied to the State. They oame 
in good order, and, I believe, have given the highest satisfac- 
tion to all the districts receiving them. 

The distribution of the Dictionaries on hand has been made 
to the towns and counties in the subjoined list, in the order of 
their application : 

Bad Ax. — Harmonj 4 ; TJmtn 8 ; Bergen 8 ; Greemrood 4 ; Clinton 8 ; 

Whitestown 2 ; Uambnrg 2 : Forest 4, 95 

J?rotm.-^Holland2 ; OlenmoreS ; New Benmurk4 j ReekUnd4 ; Howard 4, 17 

J?f//a/o.>-BelTidere 1 ; Maxrille 8 ; Cross 8 ; Alma 8 ) Naples 4, 14 

Calumet. — Harrison 5 ; Rantoal 2 ; Brillion 2, 9 

CZtfr*.— Pine Valley 3 ; Lewis 2, 6 

Colvmbia. — Columbus 3 ; LowTille 2; Scott 2, 7 

(^rato/brrf.— Freeman 7 ; Scott 12 ; Wauzeka 6, 25 

Dane.— Berry I ; Duiin 1 : Perry 8 ; Burke 1 ; Black Earth 2 ; Madison 2, 10 
i7(x/^.— Beaver Dam 1; Chester 1; Le Roy 1; Portland 1; Ashippun 1; 

Westlbrd 1, 6 

i>oor.— Gibraltar 4; Liberty Groye 1, 5 

Douglas. — Superior 2. , - . . * ^ 

Dunn. — Dunn 5; Spring Brook 5, ....... i }0 

£au Claire.— Bridge Creek 2; Halfmoon 4,. « •., 6 

F<md du Zac— Bosendale 1; Spring Vale 1,; Forest 1; Kl4orado Ij Fond 

duLaoS; OieeolaS; MetomenS; Alto 2; Byronl^ 21 

Grant.-'-^Boioni 8; Blve Kiver 8; ClM*^ 2, w. . •» . t B 

^^reen.—- Jefferson 6; Konroe 6, , V^ 

Qrtin Lake.Seaeee 4; Qreea Xake J; fi^rlia 8; Mark«Baii \^ • ''x^^t «« • * - ^ 



30 

/oicfl.— Mineral Point 3; Mifflin 8; Linden 2: Waldwick 3; Pulaski 7, 18 

Jackson.— iTYing 3; Hixton 3; Northfield 2; Bristol 7, 16 

Jefferson. — Aztalan 3; Jefferson 1 j Concord 2, f 6 

Juneau. — Lemonweir 1; Germantown 4; Seven Blile Creek 4; Lindina2i 

Armenia 2, 13 

Kewaunee. — Carlton 4, 4 

Kenosha. — Kenosha 7, 7 

La Crosse. — Jackson 3; Holland 4; Onalaska 4; Farmington 4; Bangor 4, 19 
La FayeUe.-^Belmoni 4; Center 2; New Diggings 1 ; Argyle 8 ; Wiota S; 

Benton 1, • 14 

La Pointe. — La Pointe 1, 1 

Maniiowoc. — Two Rivers 3; Mishicott 5; Gibson 1; Cooperstown 4; Frank- 
lin 6, 18 

Marathon. — Mosinee 1 ; Jennj 2, '. 3 

ifar^r^f.— Buffalo 3 ; Springfield 4 ; Oxford 1, 8 

Milwaukee.— Qiiy of Milwaukee 12, '. 12 

ifonro^.— Portland 10 ; Angelo 4 ; La Fajette 4 ; Adrian 2 ; Tomah 5 ; 

RidgeTille 4, 39 

Oconto. — >Iarinette 5 ; Stiles 3, 8 

Outagamie. — Bortonia 2 ; Medina 1 ; Appleton 2 ; Embarras 2, 7 

Ozaukee. — Cedarburg 1 ; Fredonia 1, 3 

Pepin. — Waubek 4„ 4 

Pierce. — Diamond Bluff 1 ; Trimbelle 4; Greenwood 3; Peri^ 2; Pleasant 

Valleys, 18 

Po/A.— Alden 3, 8 

Portage. — Stevens Point 12; Amherst 4; Almond 6; Stockton 8; Lanark 6; 

Baena Vista 6. -. 40 

Raeiiu. — Baoine 4 : Burlington 2, • 6 

J2teAZam?.— Rockbndge 2 \ Marshall 4 ; Dayton 8 ; Eagle 6 ; Henrietta 5 : 
Akan 2: Bloom 4; Richland 6; Buena Vista 2 ; Sylvan 6 ; W«Btford 

6: Willow e, 58 

Rock.—ilBrmonj 1; Newark 9; Beloh 2; Clinton 1; Rock 1, 14 

St. Croix. — Ceylon 2; Hudson 2; Erin Prairie 3; St Josephs 1; Hammond 

4: Richmond 3; Somerset 1, ■* .... 16 

Sauk. — Woodland 2; Freedom 6; Fairfield 1; Baraboo 1, ,. 9 

Sheboygan, — Mitchell 3; Herman 1 j Plymouth 1; Lima 2, 6 

2Vem^^au.-**Preston 4; Arcadia 1; Trempeleau 5, 10 

Walworth. — Sharon 12: Linn 2; Delavan 2, ; 16 

Washington. — Hartford 4, 4 

Waukesha. — Oconomowoc 2, 3 

Wattpaca.'^lolsk 3; Scandinavia 6; Weyimwega 5; Lind 3; Union 3, 18 

Waushara. — Oasis 3; Bloomfield 3; Hancock 7; Deeirfield 2, 15 

)Ftnn«&a^.-*WinQkeeter 2; Oshkosh 3; Algoma 1, 5 

Fborf.— Dexter 8, 3 

Total, 618 



Supt. of Pub. Instruction in accH with StaU of Wisconsin. 

1859. Or. Dr. 
Feb. 7th. To Dictionaries on hand at the settlement with Inves- 
tigating Committee of the Legislature, 7 

Aug. 1st. Dictionaries purchased as per act of Legislature^ ap- 
proved March 17, 1859,... ^ •.... 0I0 

^ Dictionaries returned Arem Kenosha County, 6 

Distribution of Dictionaries at above (618) as per 
Touchers In ^e office of this Department, -Bit 

Totnl, 6U ei8 



SI 

According to the best data of this Department, as ^iven in 
my last year's Report, not yery far from 8,250 Dictionaries 
had then been distributed, and now 607 others, not reckoning 
the 6 returned copies which have already been once counted as 
distributed, and we haye a total of 3,807 copies distributed to 
the several cities and districts of the State. All the copies 
the State has ordered have been distributed; and there are 
now applications on file for something like seventy-five copies. 
Many 'other districts must be unsupplied, as there are in the 
State, as shown by the statistical returns referred to in the early 
part of this Report, not less than 4,381 districts in the State, es- 
tiipating two and a half parts upon an average to a joint district. 
This would show 484 districts yet unsupphed; and as new dis- 
tricts are constantly multiplied, and each separate department 
of a public school is entitled to a copy, it is evident that sooner 
or later, quite an additional supply will be required. Probably 
200 copies might answer for the ensuing year. 

OUR PRBB SCHOOL SYSTEM, THE HOPE OP OUR COUNTRY. 

There are four millions of students, and one hundred and 
fifty thousand teachers, in the public schools of the United 
States ; or one student for every five free persons. In Wis- 
consin, with a population of 900,000, we have about 176,000 
children attending our Free Schools — or one to ever^ five of 
our population. In Great Britain there is one student for every 
eight persons ; in France, one for every ten. But Prussia ex- 
hibits the largest number in school attendance, and consequently 
the smallest number who can neither read nor write. In the 
Prussian standing armj^ of one hundred and twenty-six thous- 
and men, but two soldiers are unable to read ; and of two mil- 
lions and nine hundred thousand children between the ages of 
seven and fourteen at the last census, two millions and three 
hundred and twenty-eight thousand were actually attending the 
public schools. \Ve need here in Wisconsin to take shame to 
ourselves when we are reminded, that at the census of 1850, 
out of a population of 805,000, we returned 6,453 persons, 
over the age of twenty years, who could neither read nor write; 
and I have been assured by Mr. Magraw, the Prison Commis- 
sioner, that there are not more than half a dozen inmates in our 
State Prison who have any claims to scholarship, the great 
mass being sadly ignorant and depraved. When tne census is 
taken next year, it we have made no improvement, we shall 
have placed upon the records of the nation the humiliatinf^ fact 
of from eighteen to twenty th(m%and persoiiB, o^^t ^^ ^i^g;^ ^ 
twenty, unable to read or write. I troBt tlie uuosK^w vivj \i^V> 



32 

prove so large. If we do justice to our children, and afford 
them every possible moans of intellectual improvement within 
our power, we may feel assured that the time is not far distant, 
when there will be found within our borders few or none so un- 
fortunate as to be classed among the totally illiterate. 

Our Free Schools are emphatically the hope of our country. 
The knowledge they will impart, with their constantly ijaproved 
methods, and a higher standard of education, will give to the 
next generation a power for good, which few are now willing to 
ooDcede, or hopeful enough to anticipate. And above all, do I 
delight in the beautiful belief, that the struggling children of pov- 
erty of to-day, who are wending their way through swamps, and 
fields, and storms, aad difficulties, poorly clad without, but kni- 
mated by manly hearts and noble impulses, and firmly bent on 
the high resolve to acquire an bduoation — that these noble 
youth, hungering and thirsting after knowledge, will, a few ^ears 
hence, wield the destinies of our country, and prove ablessiuto 
millions of our race. A visitor going into a Free School in 
Boston during a recent half-year examination, observed two fine 
looking boys, one of whom had just taken the first prize, and 
the other the second. Said the teacher, ^' The boy who took 
the first prize is the son of the man who saws my wood ; the 
boy who took the second, is the eon of the Governor of our 
State." And such must ever be the legitimate results of the 
Free School system, placing the high and the low, the rich and 
the poor, upon a common level — where unconquerable devotion 
and intrinsic worth, however humble or however peer, alone 
secure the prize. 

OIIANOBLLOR BARNARD'S 5BRVICB8. 

First and foremost in this great work of providing a better 
education for the masses of the people, and, like Saul, the son 
of Kish, a head and shoulders above all his felloVs, is Hbnbt 
Barnard. He comes to us ripe in educational experience, 
and is devoting, with unflagging energy, the best years of hia 
life to the honor and glory of Wisconsin. In the marked suc- 
cess which has attended the series of Teachers' Institutes held 
at various points in our State during the past Automni we 
have the strongest assurance for the future. Our Normal 
Schools, our Teachers' Institutes and Teachers' Associationa — 
these all-important agencies in elevating the character of Free 
Schools — will all feel the genial influence of hiM perBoasive in- 
structions, and the moulding power of his jseal^ his^talents, and 
hisgenim. 
With saoh a leader, all Bboxild. fot\ "(nviL^ ^^ I^^ir % .wd for 



33 



such an educator, alf untiring, as he is, in devising plans for 
the attainment of a yet higher standard of intellectual improve- 
ment, we should all — legislators, school o£Scers, teachers and 

eople — feel it alike a pleasure and a duty to strengthen his 

anas, and encourage his efforts. 



I 



CONOLUSIOlf. 



About retiring forever from the position of Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, I cannot but flatter myself that some 
progress has been made,^uring mj two years' term of service, 
in the great cause of primary education in Wisconsin. During 
that period, there has been an increase of 87,826 children of 
Bohool age ; of 620 school districts ; of 272 school libraries, 
and of 13,869 volumes ; and the average for the two years of 
the number of volumes taken out for reading is considerably, 
more than twice the number taken out the year preceding. The 
increase of expenditures on school house property has been 
over $321,000 ; and an increase of not less than $250,000 has 
been paid alone for instruction in our primary schools ; while 
the total expenditure for the past two years, for school houses, 
fixtures, libraries, and instructional purposes has exceeded the 
sum of one million^ two hundred ana fifty thoitsand dollars. 

There have been, during the two past years, two editions of 
the School Code prepared and published, and fully 9,000 copies 
supplied to school officers; 1,164 copies of Webster's Una- 
bridged Dictionary distributed to the districts; not less .than 
5,000 business letters answered ; nearly a hundred appeal cases 
considered and decided ; many thousand circulars and blanks 
sent forth to every part of the State; the opinions and decisions 
of the Department for the first time published, and given reg- 
ularly in the columns of the ably-conducted and valuable 
Wisconsin Journal of Education; and, in repeated instances. 
State school moneys saved to towns by kindly pointing out er- 
rors in their returns, and patiently urging their correction. — 
Hundreds, if not thousanas, of district difficulties have been 
amicably adjusted, and the cause of education thereby promot- 
ed. Several important amendments to the School Code have 
been secured; and last, though not least, a new School Library 
system adopted, that has called forth the highest commenda- 
tions of the wise and the good in almost every part of the Union 
— a system that must prove an unfailing source of untold use- 
fulness and happiness to the noble army of youth, and '^ the 
toiling millions, of our State, for all coming time. The busi- 
ness of the office has been systematized, and attended to 
promptly; vso that, according to the testimony o{ t\x^ 3om\> ^« 



84 



yestigating Committee, ^^ a new order of things has been estab- 
lishea from that heretofore found in the manag'ement of the 
Department." 

So far as I know, no just complaints or accusations hare 
been made, that the appropriate business of the Department 
has ever been neglected, or partiality or prejudice exercised in 

E'ving opinions, or rendering decisions. Whatever complaints 
kve been made against me, relate to reforms and improvements 
which I have, from time to time, felt it my duty to urge in behalf 
of the great cause of primary education; and for contending also, 
earnestly for moral, and as earnestly deprecating sectarian, in- 
Btruction in our public schools ; and pleading for the sacred 
preservation of the School Fund, consecrated to the education 
of our children. In view of these things, I feel like adopting 
the eloquent and touching language of Burke : '^No I the 
charges against me are all of one kind — that I have pus*hed the 
principles of general justice and benevolence too far — ^further 
than a cautious policy would warrant, and further than the 
opinions of many would go along with me. In every accident 
Vfhich may happen through life, in pain, in sorrow, m depres- 
sion, and distress, I will call to mind this accusation, and be 
<5omforted." 

LYMAN C. DRAPER, 

Sup^t of Pvhlic Instruction. 
Madison, Dec. 10th, 1859. 



TABULAR STATEMENTS. 



I 



TABLE NO. 1. 



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TABLE NO. 3 



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TABLE NO. 4. 



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50 



TABLE No. IV, 



SHOWIHG 



APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL FUND INCOME— 1859. 



Counties and Towns. 



Adams— 

Adams, 

Chester, 

Dell Prairie, .... 

Easton, 

Grand Marsh, . . . 

Jackson, 

Quincy, 

Richfield^ 

Strong's Prairie, 
Springville. .... 
White Creek, . . . 

Preston, 

New Hayen,.... 

Leola, 

Rome, «... 

Verona, 

Brownyille, 



Bad Ax — 

Webster, 

Greenwood,.. 
Harmony, . . . . 
Hillsberough, 
Stirling, .... 
Viroqua, . . . 

Forest, 

Whitestown,. . 

Union, 

Franklin, ..., 
Kickapoo, . . . 
Wheatland,... 
Christiana, . . . 
Jefferson, . . . , 
Liberty, ..... 
Bergen, . . . . . 

Clinton 

Hamborg,.... 



No. of 
Children. 



Apportion- 
ment. 



100 
125 
309 
118 
173 
195 
177 
117 
326 
233 
93 
88 
200 



22 




$64 GO 

80 00 

197 76 

72 32 

110 73 

124 80 

113 28 

74 88 

208 64 

149 13 

59 43 

56 83 

128 00 



14 08 



2,271 I $1,453 44 



862 72 

75 62 
62 08 

121 60 

115 20 

347 52 

55 68 

27 52 

S3 92 

189 44 

195 SO 

113 28 

148 48 

280 32 

13 16 

76 78 



$1,958 92 



TtAU No. /r.— continaed. 



Coaotics and Idwdb. 



Bbowk— 

Qreen B«; City, 

Orecn 6*7 Town,.. 

Pittgford, 

Neir Denouik, 

LtwrenM, 

llowardj. 

Dcpero Village, 

BclleTDO, I 

"WrigliiB Town, 



HolIaoJ, 

Hriwardhoroiiph.. 
Baaklutd, 

OlcDniM*, 

Suunico, 



BcrTAio — 

Buff^o, . . 
BilTidere,. 

BloomiD^i 



Cold Springs,.. 

EaKlcMlilB,! 
ailnuQton,.--'. 

Waamundee,. ■ 



CXIiBMET — 

Broth ertovD,.. 

Brillion, 

Chirlestoirn,.. 

Chilton, 

NeiT Tlalslaln, 

' Rintoul. 

etockbrldge,.. 
Wo.)d»ille,.... 
Umrlson, 



88 S2 
161 93 
374 fi6 
136 B4 
177 93 
106 34 
48 64 
136 96 
90 34 
70 03 
80 64 
73 33 
loa 40 



71 68 
32 40 
09 03 



19 84 
ik 73 



261 


167 04 


356 


377 84 




183 S8 


63 


fi3 13 


376 


240 64 


104 




369 


165 76 


3,196 


11,404 80 



i 2.11 SJ i tlS.IJ s S 1 5 g 









lasa 



gasc 
Mil 



ill 



ESS 






si 



sass 



ii%l 



sill 






sJlliJlliJilip.RSS.aS.iSJJMsJ 






-r,-'-ef-*"sf p."-" 



li 



6|l|| 



i^SSSS 



ssasissssssi^ss 



5B1 



1311° CSS 



S3 



stssssss 






;|ig3| 






3 



j^rt ■* ©.oj.-* s s 






!J1 : 



ESS : 






_il 



I 

i 



TABLE NO. 1. 












ssssgs 



S33 



till 



¥S3S 






SIS 






m. 



l-l 



338 

p. 



8SS 

si 



ijll 






SSI 



: • : : : j : j : : : : : ii-S : J-S : I i ii :i 

ililiiliiciiliiiliiill 



I " |s ||3.; 11 S i 2 1 IIP I" |s IIIHp 









gsgliiis 



ssssss 



sgsija 



cSSnmMSng 






^•3 S3 1< 



g| 






TABLE NO. 2. 



et 



5|IJilslili|lpA%2sSi5,y.|ip 



|.iiliiilil3?=«JJJ. 






II 












sgi 






SiSI~s_ 



ilK.^S. 



ssslss 



coScooa oia 






3S3 



|i|gSl. 

sillllllflil^^fjli' 



sis£fiw*^^^^^ 



TABLE NO. 3. 



i 


s 


SSS32"SS£5S"asSgg3SSJP8ae5 


1 


SESssa-assg-" Issssssssssss 


1 


SSS'-S'^SSSS" is 


"ggg JSSES'SS 


1 


gSR-g'-sSsa :" I 


:3:S \S 


|| :'SS 


3SS 


S" : 


ssss i" i 


:S2§ ;E-S : JES 


i 


,.. 


5289 j j I 


is ;s ;s"s I :X 


2 


1 === 


- : ■ 


I2ss;;i 


:SSS |S 


jS 1 is 


1 




"S 


- ■ ! 


"SSiii 


:3|S ;S 


jS : :g 


: 


1 




-s 


5 ; i 


S-SS : ; i 


ill? ;s 


•s i is 


i 




;s 


•• : 


:aag ; : 


:|s; is 


is : :s 




i 




:° 


."! ; 


;2sa 1 ; 


ig8S ; : 


is i i ; 




1 


■ 


il: 


i 


ill 


SiSooOiS- 


i 


f 

J 



1 


"ssga 


S2SSSS 


SSg8SES-S28S8 


JEPSS 1 


8 .■S-3gSS3SS8"SS|:|S|"|SSSS 


siss s 


3 ;8"SS3>-3S is 


'aSEISS-gSSSI 


sssa- I 


g :8"S33-8S :S 


igpsasR-s'-sss 


^..' 1 


P :S"SSB"SS :"■ 


iSSSSSS"S"S8! 


sags : s 


t :S-gg»-sa ;> 


-asss" i is-sss 


...|| 


E J8"KS 


i-ss ;" 


"3S52"S is iSS! 


...8 II 


S ja :S3 


i"S i i i 


i-SSS-S is iSSS 


M=Hi 


S is isS 


i i- i i i 


i i33|"S is \tSt 


ri»i| 


S i- igS 




i-SSS-E ;e i|2: 


i\f\ 1 


S i- igS 




i ia :s-a is i|2i 


! i :8 i 1 




"llll 


mm 


iltt 


i^ 





[■I 



TABLE NO. 4. 



TABLE No. IV, 



APPOBTIDNMENT OF SCHOOL FUND INCOME— 18S9. 



CountieB »nd Town*. 


No. of 

Children. 


ApporUon. 


Adaks- 


100 

las 

809 

lis 

173 
195 
177 
117 
326 
233 
93 
88 
200 


eS4 00 


cSv ■;.■.■.■.'.■;;:::::::::::::::::::::::: 


















Quinoy,! 


113 3S 














Whro6eK::;::"':';i:-;i-:;;;:-:i-i":: 
















Romo vv;''.;;::;;:;:"::"::::::;;:; ■ 


33 






" 

















a,37i 


tl,*i3Jt 


Bad Ax— 


« 

118 
97 
1»0 
180 
M3 
87 
43 
63 
298 
305 

m 

282 
438 


862 -^ 






Hnrmonj, 


83 08 


Btmug, ...::::::: : : : ::;;;;;;.'.'.v;;;;:; : :: 














































68 
19 
119 








HsmboTft.. 


761* 








8,C68 


Sl,flStS! 



TahU iir«. Jr.— continued. 



own— 

Green B«j City... 
Green Biy Toirn, 

Pitlafbrd, 

New Denmark,. , . 

Lawrenoe, 

Howard^. 

Dnwre Villnge..' 

BeileTDe, 

■Wrigtlj Town,... 

HoiT<90B, 

BoltuU, 

Boiiitrdbvrougb,.. 
Bookland, 

GlenmoT*, 

Snomico, 



88 83 
161 93 
3T4 66 
188 Bi 
177 92 
106 24 
48 64 
isa 98 
90 34 
7fi 03 
60 64 



f»ALO— 

BaSA'a, "..'.'..'. 

BaWidare, 

BloomlDRton,.. 
Cold Springs,.. 

EiRloMJilV,". 

OnmintOB,...'. 

V.iumundce, ■ . 



71 es 

33 40 
69 63 



Brothertoirn,. . . 

Brillion, 

ChnrleEloirn,.., 

Chilton 

NeiT Holitein, . 

- Rantonl, 

. Stockbridge,,.., 

Woodville, 



iva 36 
3S SO 
167 04 
377 84 
193 SR 

65 13 
340 64 

66 G6 
185 76 

(1,404 80 



TabU No. JF.— continned. 



CoimUesftndTowM. 


No. of 
Children. 


Apportion- 


CfllPPlWA— 


104 
79 
86 


«66C6 














369 


$172 16 


Olakk— 


50 
121 
11 


S32 00 














183 


9116 48 


QiA-wlano— 

Prairie do Chi»a ^, 

Ewttnui, 1.... 


876 

aeo 

213 
383 
838 
239 
270 
251 
96 


9680 44 

166 4« 


















Freeman, 


160 St 








.TH 


S1,7S8 16 


OoinHBIA— 


261 
833 

41S 
787 
418 
436 
9S4 
S44 
333 
284 
461 
SS6 
403 
883 
4IS 
131 
1,081 
481 
819 
801 
366 
SOO 


1160 64 
313 46 


Clodonii, 






















Leeds ' 


















337 3S 




ou™ '::::;::::::;.■'.■.'.■.■.".■.■.■.■"::::::::: 




p«di[c; .........:.::::.::::::::::::: 














313 49 


BprinaVal 








830 «0 






8^ 


»J«rtm 



Table No. IV. — coDtinned. 



ConDtiei and Towns. 



D*1IK— 

AlbioD,. 

Bliot Euth, . . . . 
BloomiDg QroTS, . 
Blue Mounds, . . . • 

BriBtot, 

Barko, 

Berry, 

Ghriatiui*, 

Cottage Qtoto,... 
Crou PlAiDB, . . . . 

Dane 

Deerfield, 

Dunkirk, 

Fltohburg 

Madison, 

Madison City, ... 

Medina, 

Uiddleton, 

Montrose, 

Peny, '. 

Primroae, ., 

Pleasant Springs, 

Boibun', 

Ratlond 

B«y 

Spring Dais, 

SpringGsld, 

San Prairie, 

Vermont, 

Verona, 

Vestport, 

Windsor, 

York 

DODOI — 

Aehippnii, 

BeaTor Dam, .... 
fieaTcr Dam City, 

Bnmet, 

CaUmns, 

dieeter, 

Clyman, 

Elba, 

Emmet, 

Herman, 

Fox Lake, 

Hnbbard, 

Hostiafbrd,. 



Table No. /F".— contianed. 



CDDntioB and Towiia. ■ 


No. of 
CMldreD. 


Apportion- 
raont. 


Donat—tonlimud. 


399 

4oe 

781 

7se 

7oa 

450 
805 
607 
788 
651 
188 
722 
























Bublcon 

Shiold 


filS 30 
383 48 




















16,330 


$9,816 96 


DOOE— 


aSD 

106 




















DODOLAa— 


335 


8*14 jp 


174 








DwM- 


60 
111 
58 
87 
139 


$38 40 
























463 


$389 03 


Ean ClBira 


274 
131 
92 
63 


tl75 36 














Ford dc Lao— 


SfiO 

1,839 
53S 

688 
455 
300 


$856*0 

- ■ 


Riponricitjj... ..'.■;:::.■.■.■;.■.■.■;.'.■.':.■.':::: 








FonlduLlaT^.^;///.'.'.".'.;:'. :::".■.::" 














ii^" 

457 
477 












b3.u;:::::::::::::::::;;:::::;:::::::: 


SOS 38 



TiAle No. /r.— continaed. 



Ganntiei and Town*. 


No. or 

flUIdren. 


Apportion- 
m«Bt. 


FOBB DU liAU— confinufrf. 


485 

S33 

478 
342 

660 
&83 
610 
47S 

42S 
487 
388 
323 


8310 40 
268 80 


o&i^::::::;:::;;:::;:::::::::::::::" 


KrttaV;■^..■■■■"^ .■■■"■■.-. ■■ 






ElEor^o, 


BOS 93 
1M88 








A.bftird, 


B90 40 
























U^ 


97,644 16 


Obahi— 


470 
877 

363 
BIO 
418 
958 
476 
3fl8 
188 
ITS 
716 
830 
tJl» 
948 
368 
402 
1,03S 
1,003 
469 
198 
313 
240 
106 
193 
180 


tsooso 




















' Haiel Oreec 

Jamestown, 


618 12 
804 64 




130 32 






















Patch' droTO, 


367 28 










Waterloo, 

:esSf:::;:::::::::;::::;'::::.:;;;:;;:: 


138 72 
186 68 
168 00 
67 84 




88 96 




11,010 


87,046 40 




436 
349 
89S 
682 
446 








Brooklyn, 


363 80 


«;::;;::::::;.;;:;;::::::::;:;:::::;:: 


984 80 



TahU No. JF.^ontinued. ' 



Conntiei and Totdb. 


Ho. of 
Children. 


ApportiOD- 
ment. ^ 


Gehs— confintKd. 


689 
669 
S63 
916 
444 
856 
228 
S07 
488 
484 
802 






867 76 




22S&2 




688 16 








227 20 










SprEngOroTe, 


809 13 
809 76 


New Glanis, 


193 SB 




,,=80 


1 94,659 30 


OsiBs Laki— 

Berlin, (City,) 


707 
883 
893 
378 
419 
S46 
838 
201 
38S 
692 
229 
151 
127 


$453 48 














SSfc- :■•;;::::::.:.::.;■::;::::: 


221 44 

948 83 


MurqueHe, .... 


138 64 




878 88 




140 68 




90 64 




81 38 








4,698 


»3,94»73 


Iowa- 


392 
221 

'810 
639 
460 
C08 
1,309 
841 
70S 
396 
408 










aM4a 








368 «0 




831 93 




778 76 
























7,226 


«4.e34 64 


Jack* OS- 
Albion 


390 
1C2 
164 
80 
114 


•349 «> 








104 98 




01 SO 


Irring,' 


7»M 



TabU No. JF.— ooDtinaed. 



Conndei and Towns. 


Ho. (If 
ChlldroD. 


Apportion 
ment. 


CKtOtf—cenlinufd. 


«0 

38 


tiS 60 




24 83 








878 


635 93 


POUIB- 


87 
















87 


«38 6S 


r,.«o«- 


S06 
889 

ew 

1,009 
'403 
726 
MS 
MS 
Kl 
666 
670 
607 
87B 

. 6«a 
679 

3,019 






























848 80 


CoIdBprlng, 

Fanaington, 


334 61 
418 30 
433 00 




SS3 48 








860 es 




870 B6 




1,283 16 






11,208 


♦7,178 IS 


Mirion 

Bummit, 


107 
1*8 

lao 

878 
157 
618 
73 

am 

378 
3U 
88 
147 
168 
34 
79 
133 


968 48 

•m73 
.78 80 
341 83 




100 48 




838 83 




48 08 
148 86 






ai';;:;:-;;:;;;::;:.;;;:;; .:::;;:::;; 


40 83 
84 08 






ciiSSeid!"":".".:::;::!:!!;::!'.'.!":;::! 


IS 86 




SO 56 




77 73 








3^ 


tifivna 



Table JVo. IV. — continued. 



Cimntieg and Towns. 


No. of 
Children. 


A ppartion- 
ment. 


ElWACHII- 


384- 
67 

3se 

30 
108 
184 

33 
147 




















FrMklin, 


117 76 












1,36a 


«811 iS2 


ElHOIHA— 

E=:SSi;;;::;:::::::::::::::;;:::: 


1,429 
GG9 
611 
643 
628 
478 
478 
472 


1918 63 
8ST76 




















803 08 








6,092 


«3^88 




309 
951 


$131 20 










133 
336 
SO 
141 
235 
220 
578 
IBl 
106 










































2,916 


$1,865 W 


liArATITTE— 


873 
919 
880 
606 
648 
424 
41S 
40« 
1C8 
669 
3C3 
969 
641 


|S4I 81 
199 36 












ElkGi^ve, 

Fayette, 


850 7S 
271 J* 
964 81 








97 92 




43160 




161 36 




336 1( 




410 34 



TabU JTo.- jr.— contimied. 




Coaotiea and Towns. 


No. of 
Children. 


Apportion- 

moot. 


La FkT*n%—tontinued— 


338 
934 


fl49 13 










7,100 


54,544 


MiSiTOwoc— 


931 
461 
SOS 

181 
88S 

466 
1,108 
474 
348 
378 
874 
488 
188 
170 
809 


(30fi 44 




0*irt«i»il]e, 


353 90 


































Newton,.. 






















7,005 


$4,483 30 


M*Il*T[IO»— 


183 
IIS 


$116 43 










38 
















380 


S314 40 


MAncCKTtB— 


aai 

185 
186 
378 
362 
180 

9S 
330 
363 
316 
333 
lOK 
157 

19 








iffiS". *!?:::;::::: ■.■.■.■■.•:;;::::::::::: 


119 04 






uecH,.:;;:;;;;:::;:::v;.'.v '.■.■■:::::::;::: 








xcwton":' ""■.'.'.■.■.■.■::;■ I"" ::;:.::::::;: : 
















Kfflr'-.-.v;.-.:-;: ;■■:::■.;.•.■ ■.■.■::;;••■ 


67 84 












a,75S 


11,761 93 



Taile No. iT.— continued. 




CounUes and Towns. 


No. of 
Children. 


Apportion- 
ment. 


MiLWADEKB— 


677 
Wi 
1,019 
1,033 
831 
738 
917 
13,349 


948SS8 


























8,543 38 






19,983 


}12^1 13 


MOSKOE— 


19S 
126 
SO 
30 

89 

ai7 
m 

87 
6t 
ISI 
156 
111 
491 
106 
81 
6S 
126 


$78 T2 
80 64 
























L?RoJ'"'v;:;:;:.v:.:::;:'::;::::. ;:;:;;;: 


«>9e 


















S^::: ::::::::' ::::::::::::::::::':::::. 












ffiiwif^::v/.'.'.v.v.'.'.v.'.v.'.':;:;;:::::::;: 










3,a06 


»I,41l 20 


Oconto, 

Stiles 


1S9 
271 

m 

101 


$101 76 
178 44 


Peusankee, 


64 64 




640 


$413 80 


Odtaoamii— 

Applet™ (City) 


643 
69 
105 
130 
31S 

m 

2fiT 
334 
39S 
3I» 


$41163 
41 » 














Emb^^, 


43 88 


Orftadcint*. 


I4»78 






liSStv;;;;;;;;::;;"::::;::;;-::::::-: 


msM 



TabU JTo. iT.— ooQtinaed. 



ConatiMuidTinnw. 


No. of 
CUMren. 


ment 


DTI OAMit— conrtnuat— 


- 88 
179 


$40 83 










!MIW 


«1,804 16 


Ob*BK«i— 


1,000 

Ilfll 

708 

600 

.1,820 

864 

«76 


$640 00 


FrStoau^.. ...... ... ..::.:;:.:.■.:::..:::: 
























Polk— 


8,648 


HlSO 73 


mi 
oa 

13 


•116 48 


^.&l::::::::::::::^:::::r^:::::\::::: 


Alden 














TiMMem- 


asa 


$164 33 


330 
164 
fiO 
48 
41 
60 
85 


$311 20 
















SSSi\;.v.'.'.v;.v;;.v;.v;;;;:: ::; :::':::::: : 




Iiabclle, 


32 40 




103 
85 

109 
60 




Trenton, 


33 40 


Diuoond Bluff, 


38 40 




1,0S8 


«664S3 


POKIAOB— 


78 
187 
178 
168 
130 

38 
130 

98 
388 
068 
181 


$49 92 






























181 83 












1J»1 


^*v^- 



Table No. /F.^oontianed. 



CouDtiea and Towns. 



Bo!>r Creek, 

FmnkVbrt,.. 
Wftubedi,... 



R*0UO!— 

Burlington,.. 

KuchesWr,.. 

Watcrfonl, . . 



KujmoDd,. ■ 
Catcdosis,. . 



M OS 
16 34 
37 IS 



9539 4S 
348 M 
279 04 
360 33 
233 32 
838 96 
304 64 
410 te 
379 68 
850 OS 

2,075 83 



3,434 $0,397 76 



BtCBLAKS — 

Altun, I 

Bloom i 

Buoaa Vista, ' 

Dayton, 

Eagle, ! 

FqreM, [ 

Henrietta, | 

ItWca, ] 

Marehull, 

Boikbrid^e, I 

Riohland, 

Rlcbmond, i 

Riohvrood, 

Wcatfoi-d'.'.' .'.".'.'.'.'.'.'.' .'..'... : 



BB 1 8S9 04 

221 I 141 44 

332 I 313 43 

188 I 130 S3 

238 ' 153 33 

1S6 : 116 40 

179 : 114 56 

3SS I 34a S2 

316 : 138 34 

196 ! 129 44 

335 : 214 40 

243 154 aa 

343 219 03 

195 . 124 80 

187 i IIB 68 

135 I 80 00 



I 3,656 I 93,539 84 



ATon, 

Bcloit, 

Brndlbri,.. • 

Clinton, 

Fnlton, 

Harmony,... 
JuiWfiUe,. . 



(349 60 
173 80 
370 68 
S4S96 

SOS as 

479 88 
31T« 
«8H 



Table Nfi. J F.^continned. 



Conntieg &ud Towub. 


Ne. of 
Children. 


Apportion- 


RoCK—iontinatd— 


441 
483 

son 

SH 
448 
469 
487 
465 
462 
398 
482 
683 
3,656 
1,388 


1282 24 






190 73 
364 56 
283 S3 
300 16 
31168 
297 60 
389 28 
254 72 
308 48 
437 13 
2,375 84 
eS3 12 












k1^^"';::;::::::::::::;;:;:::::::::::;:: 
















14,023 


$8,974 12 


Shawaso— 

Bichmond, 








SO 


-■ikii. 
























BO 


$8dOD 


Sack— 

Prairie (la Soc, 


633 
358 
366 
384 
313 
706 
368 
224 
135 
473 
474 
263 
838 
21S 
363 
337 
316 
229 
263 
429 


t3B8 73 












































210 32 






Spring Green, ■■■■ 


183 68 




















6,707 


$4,202 48 


TMWWLiiu, 


298 
144 


tlOO 72 
93 16 


Oal", 



Table JVo. IV. — continued. 



Counties aud Towqs- 


No. of ■ Apportion- 
CfaitdnsD. 1 menl. 


laiKFBLiAV — contia ued — 


41 $26 34 


Preston! 

Somnor, 


66 4234 




Wabhimotom— 
Addi«oD, 

Brin, 
FBTinlDgtAii, 



Table N'e. IV. — oDntinaed. 



Coniitiu and Town*. 


No. of 
CbildrOD. 


App„,... 
meat. 


W& I HI H ar OH— cond'nueif. 


aw 
sas 

9H . 
»78 

sas 


|«aS44 

681 se 


Hutfowl,...'. , 


KewubiD, , 

Polk .' .,.: 

BlebG^ 


314 40 

811 ao 

MOM 






WirtBiMd, , 










9,119 


«i,88ei« 


WUKBIRl— ^ 


978 

839 
080 
SST 
B60 

" -7a0 

WB 
4S0 
488 
1,S08 


»497 83 




bIiK'::;:::::::::;:;::"::;;::;;::::::;; 






407 68 






S£i;^:::;:::::::::::.;:::;;..:::::;:: 


87t 90 
848 88 
8M« 


^-fe- :■-. ::■ 


OtttM, 


493 18 

' 377 13 

880 SO 




















io,aa 


16,585 04 




s 
s 

80S 
898. 
148 
540. 
187 

68 

IT 
112 
4l« 
106 

OS 


















198 38 




. 91 63 




846 60 












, 10 88 




71 OS 




266 24 






BwUwek, 


, 86 30 




8,347 


«2^T8«1 



Tt^U No. Jr.— continued. 



ConntUs imd Towns. 



WAOaAKA— 

Bloomflsid, 

Colomi, 

Dikotah, , 

De«rfleld, 

Haaaook, 

HnriOD: 

HoDot Honii,.. 

Oael 

Fltlufleld, 

Poy»ippi,.L .... 

Biehferd 

Rdm, 

Saoramtnlo, . . . . 

SbxtiU*, 

BpriBgwiter,.. .. 

Wftntoma, 



Toon — 

CcDtrBlis, 

Qrtnl BapidB, 

H«mlMk, 

Badolph, 

SufttogB, 



WmnASo— 

Alsomft, 

BtoAWolf, 

ClAjton, 

N««D>h, 

HflBUtl*, 

N«kli»I, 

NepeaakDii, 

Oihkoab, 

Oiihk(ntL(aity,)-- 
OriholB, 

Pojgnn, 

RiubfiiTd, 

Utioa, 

Vinland, 

WiDnseoDne, 

Winchuter, 



RECAPITULATION OF TABLE No. IV. 



Total number of Childran, 304,31 

Amonnt kpportioned, 

Paid fbr Bduutional Jaornftl, 

Paid Dodge Conoty, additional per Ciiaptcr 3S, 
Osneral Law«, 1899, 



$ies,ias 28 

3,187 60 



Apportionment, S4 cents per Scholar. 



II 



TABLE NO. 5. 



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1 1 =|SS5i 


sr°3Biss'sai- 


s 


ill 


: 8 iisns's 


eg : : 

SE : ; 


SBSg :§SgS : 


1 


S8S 


: S 


83$e88 
S|3S2S 


* : ; : 




; : :S 


a 


S8 : 


. 8 


I 






s 




: S 'I =8SiSS 


S3S3S3§3S223Sa 


3 






isijii 


















SS8S533SS3SBS3 


1 


;i; 


: 2 t 2SSS8S 

: 8 Ssaals 




1 


888 


: 8 SS3S::B 


ijfi 

Jill 


1 


' ■ ■ o~ 

nil. 




ii 

n 




4 


iil 






'p4pu»diaaa 1 n t- s n Q 



'saag 



gssssssssss 






I mojjpa^iaisj ^anoni ja it 



1 gssssfsssWs 



SogSffi 



3 11 3 



S 11 S 



If 



tiwei pn ntinnoa jonnvn 



IllllilejII §1 





s 
1 


s 


s 


S5 


28S 

82s 


145 


SSSg : 


s 


8 


ess 


s 

3 


BIS 


1 
i 


s 

1 




:8tS : : 


: :83 : 


K 










s 


s 




:gS :g 


: : :3 :| 




s 
8 






i 


sssss 


s 

1 


eiijIIJIIiSSSigll 


t 


sssss 


sa; 


i 


g 

i 




1 


sggss 


38S 
SS8 


S 


3 
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1 






S 






3 




'.gg ;SSg ;3 :§.::: : 


S 








i 


S 
1 


SES2=§S=8SgSiSSgi 

l|i|S|S||pi|P|i 


1 


$SS18 


sss 
sss 


3 

1 


s 

1 




if 


3SS2S 




























g 




s 


S 

1 


5ggSg§5S ; :SSSS :SS 

s|is§pi i :i$si ill 


1 




s 




s 

2 




SS8SS3SE :SS5SS :5S 


s 




1 


ih 


1 






-r' 


If] 

sis 


!i.i 


iM 






.it 


■ 



fill 



-Jnd joqio jqj papatdit pan R S? 3 : 



IB) iq pMivi XdQtimjo innaury 

iMaiiD»9i 4ii pspoaiJis pnv 
r«| iq pjsiBj iouom jo ]nni>uty 






"fsr 

3SS 



ssss 



.ss 



"sss" 



'paApooi £00001 JO tsooniii [«^^ 



IssI 






ills 



■Bniwi pns »ainnioo jo saarnji 



illtiHi- i^'sfl 

EB^wSsl^fc glial 






SiSSSSSSi 



is" 



sag: 















!1 






sssass.sass^ss.ss 



ilslissSISSS 






SSS3SSE6S8 



88 -.sgassssss 
33 laai!">8ssss 






lllfllillill 



ga ph ic iS f4 F cQ ^ M h) p u :Rhi n 





s 






5 


Si 






s 
s 




8SS 

sgs 




s 
s 


S : 
S : 








S8: 


•n joijjBia joj pBrnsd.o pan 
iBl fq poBinj isnomjo innoray 






















■bbShm 
.weqoisi Mj pflpnsdn pas 
roj Jq pMinj jfsttora jo ^oTiDaiv 


g 
2 


sss 






IS8 

fss 


-p»pna(Jj;aun 




SSIS6 


SSS5 


«a pspnadxa iBUont js iBbOmv 


SS3 


2 


6S 


gssssss 


■sauwq 
-n "S Pjw "nom JO innottv 






















-qoBBl Joj p,d raagiajO'iaiiamv 




ssssssg 


■p9»!B[.Bj iBnomjo jnnoniB moj, 


II 




iiis 


sssssss 


-isainOBJaqio 
mcu) paiiaDBjiBnoinj^tiBnoraV 


8 




















R23i 




wchQ psiieasj iCnaomjo lanooiv 




esEgsssg 

SSgg-EJS 


■•0*01 pns iannooa JO Mraiji 


m 


c 


3 


1. 


1= 
si 


1 


li 


1 


■ 

1 


"Jl 





1 


»SSS2R8SggS3; 


S :2§ 


1 


g ; ; : 

s ; ; ; 


: : g 
: : S 


S : 


51 


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: :g : 


g 

1 


g:g; 

lis; 


:g S 

is i 








; :§ 


: :" : ■ -S : 




S 

s 






US 

is 


1 


asssesssissssasss 


s 


5g :S 
§8; = 


: : g 


8S! 
-1 


^ 


SSagSgSg :g!S:g'g;SiSS 
|Eg|3-S5 ;2gSSSS83 






; : S 

Hi 


2S 
Si 


1 


Sg3§8BSSS8SSS 




1 


ggg : 

gga; 


2 ; s 


















is 


1 




1 


gggg 


ig S 

Is i. 




1 


sssscsggsssasssss 


1 




:g g 






ii 
















i 


it 

1 


ESSSSRg :gtSSi55SSi8 


i 


g : ; ; 
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is s 




1 


SSSIiSSS :SSSSSS5SE 


i 


g : ; ; 


is 3 


1 


t 




ifi£ 




liil 




illll 


l» 



■»9UBjq 

■Yl »J pwd isuoni JO lunomy 










|5 


SI 




-q!Hi»X mj p,cl isnorn jo lunoniv 




■pwiaoM XsBow p innoqn i»toa; 


SSKES i 


SiSi iiSHSS 


■«B9inO« JStpO 


3S 


s 
s 




isg is 


: :2 

sis 


1 


■jBJunMX njioi 


1 
i 


11 




8||||5i§|| 






Slllp=lil 


■winmoo JO »ta.H 


: : 
; : 




1 


dill. 


d 


■i 

1 



»iCiiD ;■-lA9ao5^■ -co ^oiS 
v™S -P SS-Wtf -it 'Scs 



:SS83 iSSESSgg 



SS5SS2SC5SS3SS3KSSSSS8SSSgSSCgS3=g 

§isllsipS«SiSsj3l|SSHii2Sil3gi'it 

to o o> M » "D ■-■ ^a « <a iogT«s» — ef'*(B tax ""*''' ''^'" Sf '"S 



SE 


l-l 


ssss 

m 


! 


S2S 

ir 


s?sss 


tiiij 


s 
i 


asssES 

mill 




s 

§ 






1 i 




1 




Si 

1 




Si 


B 

s 


s 


ss 
ss 














g : 


gss;gs=ssss 
||||||P|I| 


pg||si,ppK||pp 


.3 


ill* 



||||sl,|pJS. 






iUiU 
if I jll il|ii2|| II 11 flliilllf ^islilil 

000>S>«'-><->Mtdi-iijHi;aaaSSooohp.(k(L<cii«;Aai£<nii)«>.>V'V' 





■soMMq 
-n iqj pitrf iauow to loooniv 


1 








1 






ES3S 


n 
1 
I 


i 


■p»i|»9J ftnomjonniomi i«ioj[ 


sggg 


s 

i 


1 


nwj pMieaw Xanom jo gmwniY 




S 
3 




5 

1 


1 


may paAiaoBj Xaaooi jo tnnomr 


S3ES 
IIP 


1 

2 




■jBjnnMx Aaooa 
mtuj paA]e9M Xanom jo mnonrv 




1 




-iBTllinoa JO 8SOT.K 


i 


i 


1 


1 





•tad MH10 joj p*paadi» pm 



■••jiMq 
•)1 lotiiiiQ iq; papuadsa pm 
ni £{ pM)«x ^BDom JO innomy 



■■•'■A 
^SDOMX JOJ p<p»dia pm 
x«t Xq pas^ Moon jo itrnonv 






IIIIP-IIISI 



sssssses 



lii 






glP§ 









'■»iiniii)Q JO aam«|i 



ii 



-jBd laqio jiy papaadia pas 



■!1 lajJisid J(g papnsdzo p<ra 
IV) Xq pa'stiM Xaaomjoqtnioinf 



us^ssss^sss 






xvi ^q psBKi ^aaom jo lanomv 



s I ly. ij.iisjj sj 11. 



S2gE 



JOj pepmilxa iauovt jo ^mtoniv ^onn nefco n "O 



•■Bi^ano Q JO mmvn 



sl|fllsii'=>'»'isli 



I i " ^ 3 i l.sJJ i s ?J s SJJ, 1 1 






5 S_o5_3_p-_§_^S_^tS^S 



:;!gSS :S3SSSSSS!SSSI!S :S 



lllp |S lllllp III JIIIjJ 






too OrtCQ^fEcc ci^t^ c4mt^iBac^oiDCb 



ili 



Til' 






iifiqi 
lllllllllli 



TABLE NO. 7. 



158 



*j«9iC 9T[% 9aunp siooqog qons 



'Sdimepvoy p /dioooi nvq; aaq^o 

fllOOqog 'AUd pUB 90919S JO *0){ 



'paptzodxann Soinrani 
-01 sang X^Qjqi'j jo ^unomy 



o 

rm 
O 



lO 



•papaadxa sang ^ivjqn ^anonxy 



*pa)oa[[09 sang XjQjqi^ ^nnomy 



o 

o 



to 



'jBaX aqi 
Snunp panvoi saunio^ }o 'o^ 



s 



'sauvjiqii aq^ n^ ai saumio^ 'O^ 



S 



•8du«aqii lutof JO 'Offi \ 



*6auvjqi7 )aui8i(x jo 'o^ 



to 



e« 



o 

EH 



ampno ^noq^iM. siooqag jo 'o^ 



to 



t*fD -^O 



"pi«oqi[a«ig )noq)iii spoqag 'O^ | ^ ** 



<o«-ic< 



«-iaocoo 



1-1 e«ao 



e« 



'pdsop 
-aran sa^ig ognoQ looqog Jo o^ 



^ FH 



^CO "^ '^ 



i-«oc9e< 



-aaav aao nuq) ssai 3aiaiB) 
-noa 8d)|g asnoH looqag }0 'o^ 



00 fH 



^»0 CO ^ 



•osnoH 
Xooqag iCan p noi^vnivA ^saiio^ 



o 
o 



coo 
»-* o 



o o o 
o »o 



o 
o 



OiA OiO 
lO C) OQO 



% 'asnofi 



o 
o 



o 

_ o 



o o o o o 
o oooo 



o oo 



OiO o 



'sasnoH h^PQ Jo nopeniuA ib^ox 



o 
o 



s 



iHO 



o o o o o 
o oooo 

CO to CO o 
_ O t* 3 1-* 
<00 rHOO) 



8 



*eniiox pHB 891)01103 jo sanrajt^ 



00 < 

S3 

--1 






s. 

2 eS O 
a ** ol 



•HlOCDrl 



d 



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oo 



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CM 



8 



2 a 



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5r -^ 



.£3 

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6"--: 




sgissgssssgs 



isl 






jj ; tf 1^5 ^^ 



160 



'JvoiC 91^ Scrunp Sfooqog qons 



o 



'SdiaiapB9y p^djooni n«qia9q)0 
«l(^i>S »^»AHd pn« io^l^S JO -ON 



CO 



eo 



*papiiddx»nn 2ai 



'pdpnadxd sang iCjvjqi'x ^onoiuy 



o 



SI2 

o o 



O 



to 
eo 



'pe^aaiioo saag Xivjqiq ^anomy 



'j«9^ aq) 
Saijnp panvoi 6amQ[0A Jo 'ON 









eo 

s 



'98MiMqi7 aqj ii« ui saunio^ *o^ 






8 



TJ 
« 







O 



•gpu^Bid ^niof JO ojj 



I 



•BajJBiqn ;ou!>8ia JO 0^ 



i-iC<»hWi-IC<«i-I 



'sdfip^ 
dai[)no )noq)iii eiooqog jo -o^j 



eo -f 






I" I! 



« 



i 



pjiioq3io»ia inoqiiii s^qog jo o^ 



eo 



^ «« • « -f 



l§ II 



g 



'pasop 
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Tf »-< ^ eo ct •»-« o 



'8JI0V aao nvqi 8sa[ Saraiv^ 
.1100 sa^ig diinoH looqog jo 'o^ 



eor>4fHCQeOf-t -em 



8 



I 



'asnojj 
poqos ^a« JO noiivnpirA ^saiioq 



S8S 

9 



*5i8 



00 



'dsnoQ 
Xooqog ia« jo noi9«iii«A ^saqa^ 



ooo 
ooo 



s 



eo 



ooododoo 



S t«oo t*SS 



s 



oo 
oo 



d oSSoS 



s 

8 



S 



*899noH hl9S JO noi^«ni«A V^^St 



oddooooSSSoS 

OpiOOOOQpQQQOO 



eo 



'saiiox pnv sopunoi;) jo larnvj^ 



/ 



I 






a a 



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o 
pq 



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•o § o o ^ 
fl i P .S ^ 



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1 : ■! -a.-^i-Ul" 



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a 


■BaiQupuov Piilioan! UBig)JalDb [ 
B|i>oq3s!!iiiti!Jdpain3j[i».jo-o(j 1 




ill 1; 




- 


•papaadiannSni 














papasdiaBSugjCjuaqn ganoray 












-pajosnoa saag iiwqil lanomy 












.nroiatii 
aajjap paomii ■smniOA JO -uji 
























" 


•asiJwqn "i^r JO ON 






: 1 : : 






■Kuvt<aitauv\ai^''>S 






ill ii 




- 


ad»„ 

•niimo moqjin BlooqSS Jft -OS 


«, 


2 "-" 


*- 


* 


pjiraqnoBi^inoiiTii.s^qasjo'ON ) "' M" [I """ 


-'n * 


■paio[a 


"' 


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-ajairoaoairqlflaiianintBi 
-UM tBJiH atTioti 100408 JO -OjJ 


"" 


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« 




■oraoH 
looqag Jire jo naiiBDiUA (bswot 








l = S 


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s 
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■w»noH 

[ootiOB Jbb jo noinniai iBtqaig 








m 


i 


s 

1 1 






s 
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8 


Ii 


■»n»oi pm minnoo ;0 8a«nvN 


11 


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1 

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IMI 


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5 :SSI!E 


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■ — 


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<ot-OM-«C-Ja 


""""""""■-s 


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iiSS 

seas 


!S :gSS 
3E ;8S3 


s 
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ggggggggg 

gS|"SSSSS 


:giiSS§SgSS 
:g22|£2SSgS 


ssss 
ISIS 


IS ;gss 
IS ills 




600 no 

330 00 
375 00 
300 00 
601) 00 
SOO 00 
600 00 
300 00 
400 00 


:ggi8SgSgSg 


sss? 




si §gSiSiS88 
1 PIIIIPI 


:ggiStSggSS 
illlpillP 


m 


isilii 




1 i- 


M 


Hi: 




Ui 


w 

















■ 3 : 






«|obqos awtH'i r"« WSlftB JO -(in 






- 




:- : 


;" 




■papaadnanSaLaniia 
-at sauj Xisaqii Jo lanomy 


















■paptw Jia saoj iiwqn innoray 


















■papBn"^ sang ijwqiT innciny 






















i 


n 


s 




;;5SS 


■(aiJBjqn aqi 11' "! sa'DnpA ■<>& 


a| 


1 


s 


:2 ; 


: is!^- 


•»!J«qn JOiorjooN :- 


n 






::;;«' 


-HiJDjqmouiBiaio-os 


•"- 


s 


- 


:- : 


-«ww 


oniiinp ,noq,!» siooqag Jo oN 




2 


-"""""•-"s 


■pjuoq^jBlg^nomiiislooqJg ■OjJ 


— 


£ 




■paeop 
■nmn ssiig aanOH looqog Jo 0(1 


"" 


s 


-""'"''"—-'' 


■ajjo sua niiqi se9[ SoiniBi 
-ODD iaiig BsnoH looqjg Jo '0(J 




s 


—•'"■"- 


■asnon 
looqag Xair jo noLjnn[Bi laanol 


1= 


3 


SS3S3333S 
2S|gESSS8 


■obhoh 
looqag ia» JO uoiinniTiA isaqS^H 


S3 

il 


3 

1 


833333333 


MBOOH l,q3a JO Bonsnt'* PWl 


33 


1 

a 


333S33333 

PIPIISE 


'floADx pii( itiioDoa JO mnvN 


1 

y 


i 






s 


ill 


i 



165 



39 



OO 
rlO 



f-* iO 



s 






00 



o 



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CO 



CD 



o 



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o 
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o 
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i>o: CO »-• 
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^ *-4 11 CO 

oco c(o 



Od 






o> 






<^ t* 



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t* CO 06 O '* •-• 

11 CO H 



O « n 
CO O 00 



00 ^ 



d • n c< 



C4 



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CO 



O »C ^00 
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11 
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CI d 



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t*oococi»ooovat*oacor*^i*co»ocoQoeo^ooco>o 



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««-» 15 



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cot* 



t*ooococooot*t*o>co •»oooco»ocot*coco»ao>o»o 



»o 

00 



t*COiH 



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r*oocoTf:oQOt*coo5p-icooTfif5cor*ooco^»o»0"^o 



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00 00 00 



O O OO o o 
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OO O n Ci 

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o ooo OO 
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o 



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o o o o o o o 

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88 



o 
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t^o o 
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OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
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o o o o o o o 

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d o o o OO 



. ^coooocood^ 

t^dOii'^oocoooeooii 



§cp o o o 
A O O C4 



o o 
o o ,. 
la 00 d 



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o 
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o 
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coo 



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OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
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eOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOQOOOOOOOiiOOdOO 

oa>ooo5ei5oocooooooo3^0d'<«*Aiicor»dscodii 
ot«c4oi>abooooocoiaomiiooi0)00t«ooiioooaoco 

»1d^d rlOdHHd d nrld rid 1 »i d 

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O 

d 


1,575 00 
1,275 00 
2,300 00 



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fi ®c«*i Qrf3i5*~ o«»3^-C fciir»3 5*^ P P^ 9 S 2 ♦» tJ .m 





166 



'ivoX 9T{% SuTJnp fl^ooqog qons 



siooqog 0)i>Aud pau paias jo *n|{ 



-papaddxann Saiaivm 
•dj sang AJVjqii jo ^anomy 



o 



« 



o 



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'papuadxa sang XiQjqi'j ^anomy 



'pdpailoo 88x19 XjBjqii ^unomy 



'ivaiC aq; 
9aiJTip paxxvox flamnio^ jo *o^ 



s 



o coo 
aooct 









s 



'flauvjqil aq) wv m eamnioA 'Of{ 



COCO«-i o 



C4 COr-l CO 



f-io«oet 
ooeott 



g 

g 

T 

3 



'Bdijvjqii qaiof JO '0^ | 



CO c< 



'sa|j«jqii 90iJ)8iQ JO 'oj^ 



•<«0 OiH 



04 00 



t*eoet 



t*oot»^ 



'sdsj^ 
aaTi^nQ ^noqiiii siooqog jo -oj^ 



ooeoAAoot^'-iaocDcoo) 



10 «D 10 00 



'pjttoqiiovig ^noqiiA fliooqog -o^ | 



^N • i-i ^ ^^ ^^ 



1-iC* 



eieoi-ief 



'pa80[o 
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00»l*00>OO5»-<l*«t*»-« 



lO 00 ^ CO 



'ojoti ono avqi 88ai Sumre^ 
-aoo 8a;ig osnoH looqog io'ox 



oa»oo50>i*c»«-it*i^«-^ 



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CONTENTS AND INDEX. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Abftraok of School Reports, 6*8 

number of chUdren,.... 6 

•chool attendance, , 6, 6 

length of schoola, 6, 7 

number of districts, 7 

Talue of school houses, 7 

teachers' wages, 8 

school libraries, 8 

Progresii and encouragements, 9 

The School Fund, 9-14 

Town School Libraries, 14-24 

Township System of GoTemment, 24-27 

Other needed reforms, * 27-28 

Nullifying the Superintendent's decisions, 28 

Trayeling of State Superintendent, 28 

New edition of School Code, 28-29 

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 29-31 

Our Free School System the hope of our country, 81-83 

Chancellor Barnard's services, 82-88 

Conclusion of Report, 88-84 

Tabular Statements, No. 1, 88 

2, 43 

8, 48 

4, 50 

6, 70 

6, 113 

7, 158 



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INDEX. 



Abstrtet of sobool reoortSf ..........;........ 5^ 

Advantage of Townsnip Syftem of School GoTernment, 24-37 

Apportionment of School Fond, table of, ..... 88 

for 1857, .,,,. • {KH 

Architeptore, School^ works on, needed, . .............. ^ ^ .^. •• ^ .,. . 27. $8 

Attendance, School, ..'.J. i... 6, 6 



Barnard, Chancellor, cited, », 15, 18, 19 

serTices in Wisconsin, ........*. 82-83 

Boutwell, Hon. George 8., mentioned, s 35 

Barke, Edmund, cited, 18, 84 



Columbia County, alluded to, 6 

County Superintendence commended, • • • . • ; • • • • 37, i28 

Craig, Hon. A. J., mentioned, .• • • • • • • • • SOi 

Journal of Education,. 88 



Dictionary, Webster's Unabridged, distribution ol, 29-80 

additional copies needed, , 81 

Districts, number of, . . 7, 46 



Xdncational Tracts, ....».» 27 

:g4oaAtion, State Board of, 37 

Iteotion of State Buperiiit^dfe&i, i|n|if^ pt, ahoold Ibe .o^jQfe9> 37 

Xpianson, George B., cited,. •• . »,^.., ^ ^«.^« r. •.•«.«,*.^.- ••.«.<.^ 18 

Sfioonragemehts and Fxogi^^s, ;» ^ .;••;•....•..*.••,.',••.;..,....... 9, 88-84 



Vxee School System, its blessings an4«hc|MW» 81-<8d 

Fund, ^hool— fee Schpot ^und. 



Jovnal of Education, Wisconsin, i .•...,..•••..« %> « .>« « ^^ 



204 



Land Grants for Schools in the West, 18 

additional needed, 1^14 

Length of Schools, 6 

Libraries, District, noticed, 8, 16-17 

Libraries, new law for Town, 14-24, 3S 

Libraries, see Toum School Libraries. 



Magraw, Hon. £. M., mentioned,. • ^ 81 

Mann, Hon. Horace, cited, 18, 25 



New editions of School Code, 28-29 

NnUifjing Superintendent's decisions,. «. 88 



Oth^ needed reforms, i » 37-28 

Onr Pree School vystem,. .... 81-88 



Pickard, Prof. J. L., referred to, 16 

Progress and Encouragements, v ^ 8, 88-84 



Read, Proif. l)aniel, cited, 18 

Rjerson, Hon. Edgerton, mentioned, 22 



S<3>hool Architecture, works -on, needed^. , . ...... ......«.» . . 27-28 

Sehool Attendance,...;. ....; ....;.............. ........ 1....; 5, 9 

dchookr, length of,. .;.:....:. \ .. .^. 6 

number of districts, 7, 48 

YfJue of school houses, 7 

teachers' wages, 8 

' districtlibraries,. ................. ....'...;:.'... •jf; 18-17 

progress axid encoufagement^,. 1 . . : 9, 88-34 

School Code; new edition of, 28-29 

School Fund, condition and prospects of, 9-14 

productire amount of, 9 

annual income, ••-*•• 9^ 10 

' next apportionment, ...;...;'.:..::•......'.,..*.•' 18 

diminution of, y^.\ ...... ..'. . . ... ....... ji.« ,^", . ItL IS 

exis^Mn bounty taxation dn' school laii^a^ ....,...•'. . / . . l6rll 

\! remitting penalties, bad polic}rof,. ..;....;..... . .;. i'.'.*. . If-l^ 

' ' five per cent, due fh>m General Ooremment,.. . . . .'. . . . 'i\ . 12-18 

price of school lands should be ineveased, 18 

' restoration of part of Drainage Fund, 18 

additional school land grant needed,. . ^ 18-14 

School Fund Income, table of appoTaoBment,.. • 88 

apportionment of 1859,. •'. . .... . . 80 

Schonl Government, Township system, advantages of, 24-27 

School Libraries, new law for, 14-24, 88 

see Town School Lihrariet, 
School RepoxtB, abstract of, 



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SOS 

School Btatistioa, sae T&ble V., 

VI.. 

VII., 

Sohool TkieB, unonnt raisad, ubl« of, 

Seora, Prosident, mentioned, 

Btate BrperlDtendeal, chaaee of time tor election of, desirtible, . 

dedBions nallified, 

traTeling of, 

Btato UniTeraitj, needn additional land grant, 

System of Town Bchoal OoTomment, adtantnges of, 



Taxes for aehool pnrposeB, amount raised, 49 

Toachers' InBtitatea, great soccbm of. 9, 83 

Teaebeti' wages, 8 

Town School Librariee, 14-34 

provisions of new law, 14 

addiUontl iogislation required, IS 

TOlo on new law, 16 

probable annnal amount of income. 15-16 

BueceM of Indiana Town Bohool Libraries, 16, 19 

reialt of diatriot system in Wisconsin, 1&-17 

■ub-dirision of, may be provided for, 17, 34 

testimony of MaoD, Emerson and Barnitrd, 18 

superiority over other ej'sMms, IS 

who should contrect for the book), 19-21 

how the oontractors should be aeleoted, 31 

how the boolcs should be purchased 31-23 

needed powers of CammissionerB, 33, 38, 34 

income for inrestment the eoming year, 33-33 

towns and cities to select, 38 

town and city boards manage, 33-34 

mode of distribu^on, 34 

disposition of present diBtriot libraries, 34 

hopes of the system, 34, SS 

Townahip lystem of School QoTernment, adTentages of 34-37 



Dnjf ertitj. State, needs additional land grant,, . 
Talsa of school honaes,. 



Walker, Hon.Bobert J., noble Teeommendation of, 18 

Webster's Unabridged Diotionarj, diatfibution of 39-80 

additional oopies needed, 81 

Wisconsin Journal of Sdnaation, 88 



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TWELFTH 
.AJSTNTJAX. REPORT 

Oy THX 

CONDITION AND IMPEOVEMENT 

or TBI 

JOMMON SCHOOLS 

EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS 

or TBI 

STATE OF WISCONSIN, 

Por^^e Year 1S60. 
. BY J. L. PIOKARD, 

ST ATI SUPKklKTBNSINT DT PDBLIO IHSTBtrCTIOK. 



MADISON, WIS.: 

JAUBS BOSS, 8TATB PBIDTBB — ^PATRIOT OFFICE. 
1860. „. 



(BMct of 5o:]!mnttn)ttnt juf Inblic Instnufin, 

SHAJJISOZT. X)eo. IQth, iseo. 

To His Exeellenc^y Alszai4dbb W. Bandall, 

Qovemor of the State of Wuconsin : 
Sir: — I hare the honor to transmit, through joa,tothe 
Legislatnre, the Twelfth Aoniial Beport from this Depart- 
ment. 

Tery respectfully, 

Tour obedient Bervant, 
J. L. PICEABD, State Superinimdeni, 



TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



7'o the Bbnorable the I/egialaturty of the State of Witconsin : 

Gentlemen: — In accord ance with Section 67, Chapter X^ 
Bevised Statutes, I have the honor to sabmit the foltowing 

R E F O RT: 

I.— STATISTICS. 

T&hles 1, 3, and 3, of Appendix B, present an Abstract of 
the Reports received from .Clerks of County Boards of Snper- 
Tisors. 

Tliese reports aro not in all cases reliable. Especially is 
thi3 true in the columns ofgveragea. When abaolutely cor- 
rect they can not be relatively eo, since each officer pursues 
his own course of making up averages. So many are em- 
ployed in this work, it is impossible to secure any thing like 
uniformity in the results- By special reports received direct- 
ly from the Town Superintendents, I have learned that many 
schools are without registers, and of course no reliable statis- 
tics can be gathered of the number in attendance upon schools, 
or of the average attendance of pupils. 

Some averages have been so manifestly incorrect, that I 
have made changes in the figures according to what I con- 
ceived to be the true state of the case. The reports not un- 
frequently exhibit an average of from 15 to 60 months' school 
during the year, or an eqntuly incorrect average of attend- 
ance of pupils. Could I see in all cases the origin of sach 
errors, they could be easily corrected. Such changes as 
have been made in these particulars, have been made with- 
out any accurate knowledge of the facts, so that they cannot 
be fully relied upon, but must be more nearly correct than 
the figures I have changed. 

The County Clerks simply copy the reports sent them by 
the TowD Sapeiinteudents. The Town Superintendents copy 



the reports of District Clerks. It is difficult to procure anj 
correction of these reports without consuming more time than 
their value would warrant. 

The only portions of the reports upon which the distribn- 
tion of the Fund depends, are the number of children over 4 
and under twenty years of age, and the length of the school 
taught. These are supposea to be nearly accurate, eioept 
that in the latter a few mstances appear of more than twelve 
months' school in the year. 

Every county in ihe State has made its report. The 
main facts embodied in the reports, may be found in the fol- 
lowing 

summaby: 

Number of counties reporting^ 56 

Kumber of towus reporting, 737 

** " not reporting, 7 

*' of whole districts. 8399 

of parts of districts, 1JBS7 

of districts reckoning 2^