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Full text of "Annual report of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture .."

NINTH ANNIAL KEPOIIT 



OF THK 



PEiWSYIA ANIA 



DEMIiTMEITOFiCltlCyLTyilE 




ARY 
>: N YORK 



WM. STANLEY RAY, 

STATE PRINTER OF PENNSYLVANIA, 
1904. 



OFFICIAL DOCUMENT . N«- «• 



PENNSYLVANIA Dlil'AHTMHNT OF AGRICruriiE. 



OFFICIAL LIST. 



X. I'.. CKlTCliriKLl), Serrctanj, 
Stoyestowu, Somerset County. 

A. I,. MART IX. De2)'y Sec' y and Director of Farmers' Inntitutes^ 
p]iion Valley, Lawrence County. 

M. 1). LICHLITEK. Chief Clerk, 
Alle<^heny. 

E. C. FIIIST, Stenographer, 
Plarrisburg. 

GEOKaE E. BAKXES, Messenger, 
Kossville, York County, 

1^. tl. W'AKKEN, Dairy and Food Commissioner, 
West Chester, Chester County. 

(). 1). SCHOCK. Assistant to Dairy and Food Cowmhsioner, 

Hamburg, Berks County. 

MA\ \'. RHONE, Clerk, Dairy and Food Commissioner, 
Centre Hall, Centre County. 

iiOSS R. SEAMAN. Messenger, Dairy and Food Commissioner, 

Harrisburg. 

H. A. SURFACE, Fconomic Zoologist, 
State College Centre County. 

(;. G. HUTCHISON. Clerk, Fconomic Zoologist, 
Warrior's Mark, Huntingdon County. 

LEONARD 1*EARS0N, State Veterinarian, 
Philadelphia. 

( 1) 
1— 6— IHOa 







(2) 



Official Documknt, No. ^^. 



NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OH TMK 



SECRETAHI OF ACRICOLTIIIIE. 



Department of Agriculture, 
Harrisburg, Pa., January^ i, 190.'^. 
To His Excellency, SAMUEL A\\ PENNYPACKER, Governor of 

Pennsylvania : 
Sir: 111 coiupliaiKc with (lie i-('(iuirenieiits of the act of Assembly 
ci-('iitiiig' a Depai'tineiit of Agriculture of I'enusylvania, I have the 
honor herewith to submit my i-ejiort of said l)e{)artiiient for the year 
1003. 

CROP VALUES. 

The year just closed has been a fairly prosperous year for the 
fiinuers of the State. The total value of the cereal crops produced 
during the year is estimated to be |G5,G()o,082, the value of the 
several distinct grain crops being as follows: Corn, |25,905,t5.3; 
wheat. 120,570,371; oats. |12,795,()51l; rye. |35G,84G; buckwheat, |2.- 
G(i3,180 and barley, |105,873. Some of the other crops produced 
during the year are estimated as follows: Hay. $52,G75,083, pota- 
toes. 113.775,112, and tobacco $1,042,207. making the total value of 
fjirin crops, exclusive of live stock, dairy products, poultry and other 
jtroducts of the animal industry of the State, as well as all kinds of 
fruit, $133,095,484. 

ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

The value of the products of the aiiinial industry of the State is 
moj'c difticult to estimate. The remai'kable development in recent 
years of the live stock industry in the states west of tin* ^fissouri 
liver has done much to diminish the li\(' stock production of this. 

(3) 



4 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

as well as ollici' eastern states. The Pennsylvania farmer has 
not been abk^ to compete with his western n(Mi;hbor, whose loeation 
enables liim to earry his live stock of all classes through the 
entire year williout the necessity of providing shelter for them 
and with very little feed, other than the dried BulTalo grass, which 
they gather for themsehes and on which they become almost as 
well fitted for market as the grain-fed stock of the east. Al- 
thoHgh the amount of live stock raised in the State is, for the reason 
mentioned, not as large as our extent of territory would seem to 
indicate that it should be, the industry is still one of importance 
and decided progress is being made in the quality of the stock 
jiroduced. Horses, cattle, sheep and swine are being more care- 
fullv bred than formerlv. The importance of our dairv industrv 
has led to the careful breeding of dairy stock, and at the present 
time mnny herds of exceptionally fine cattle of most prominent 
d«iry breeds may be found in the State. The live stock in the State 
at the cloae of last 3'ear was estimated as to numbers and value as 
follows: 

Horses, 578,247 valued at $147,055,151 

Mules, 37,035 valued at 3,386,185 

Milch cows, 1,044,025 valued at 32,047,472 

Other neat cattle, 1,000,000 valued at 14,000,000 

Sheep, 11,333,437 valued at 3.850,025 

Swine 1,000,000 valued at 10,000.000 

Milking a total valuation of ii?211,239,433. 

A few Pennsylvania farmers have undertaken the raising of An- 
gora goats, but as j'et the interest in Angoras is not large enough 
to attract attention to their production as one of th(> distinct 
animal industries of the State, \^'ith the large areas of land in 
the mountain r(?gions of the State from which the timber has re- 
cently been removed, that is especially adapted to the production 
of the kind of browse suited to these animals, there is every reason 
to believe that the Angora will, in the near future, occupy a much 
more prominent place in Pennsylvania than it does at present. 

EVIDENCES OF IMPROVEMENT. 



f 



The best way to determine whether the agriculture of our State 
is in a more flourishing condition at the preseat time than it was 
at any given time in the past, is to compare results. The compari- 
son should not be for too short a period. I, therefore, take the 
figures given in the Eleventh U. S, Census Report, showing the 
lolul producHon of some of the leading farm crops of tin.' State in 
the year ISSO. IMncing these figures by the side of those given in 
ilie Crop Reporter, issued by tke U. S. Department of Agriculture, 



Xo. 6. 



UEi'Arn'.MioN 1 (iK Ai :i:icui/runK. 



ui\ill.U' file l()t:il plodlK-l ion nl' (hi' sjllilc n-ops foi' tin- \<;ir i'.MI.;. 
we lia\'(' ii sliowiiiji' wliiili points to .1 \i-y\ (irridcd iniprovcuHni 
made during the i!il<T\<Miing roiiitccii ycai-s. 

The lignrcs ^^iveii for jlic two yoai'S nauMMl Hliowin^f I In- prodnf- 
lion of somo of llic lu-iiicipal crops, arc ns follows: 



3 



Corn, .*. . 

Wheat 

Rye 

Uuckwheat, 
Irish iiotatoes, 




45,447,636 

:;6,«3S,444 

o,74«,525 

4,161,218 

22,217.923 



42,318,279 

21,995,499 

3,742,104 

3,069,717 

12,899,3:5 



3,129,3r,7 
4,042,945 
2,0O4.3ta 
1.091,501 
9,318,608 



Tlir ouiy one ol" the leading ceix-al crops for which a larger yield 
is reported in 18S9 than in 1903 is oats, the production being 1,- 
091,501 bushels less in 1803 than in 1S89. 

Another evidence of improvement in the condition of our agricul- 
ture, is found in the improved condition of the Pennsylvania farm 
home. Our State has always been noted for its fine farm buildings; 
but it is only within recent years that a general movement has been 
made in the direction of introducing into the farmer's home the 
modern improvements that add so much to the comfort of its in- 
mates. Much of this imi)rovement, no doubt, has resulted from 
the discussion of questions relating to the home at our Farmers' 
Institutes; but while the institute lecturers have directed attention 
to the importance of this subject, the improvements could not have 
been made without the necessary amount of surplus cash coming 
into the farmers' hands, with which to make them. In mauv sec- 
tions of the State it has come to be no uncommon thing to find farm 
homes supplied with the same heating apparatus that is found in 
the larger towns and cities, while the water supply is so arranged as 
to pro\'ide hot and cold water for every part of the house where 
needed, making the bath-room and inside toilet practical attain- 
ments. 

I shall not attempt to enlarge upon the evidences of improve- 
ment in recent years in the agriculture of our State; but before 
leaving this subject, 1 wish to call attention to one more mark of im- 
provement, which is, the advanced high character of the farm litera- 
ture of the State. The literature relating to any subject will, to 
a very great degree, correspond with the condition of the class, 
association or people in whose interests it is published. It must 



8 ANNUAL IIKPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

lu'ccssaril.y be sohkw Imi in advance (»f the class i( is inlciidcd to 
lu'iiefit, widioiii wliich il could not Iw a leader of tliought, but its 
jMlvancomont will be largely regulated b,v the progress that is being 
made by the jieitple it represents and in whose interest it is pub- 
lished, il gives me great ])leasnr(» to speak of th(^ superiority of 
the agi-icultural papers published in i'ennsylvania, and, believing 
the proposition just stated to be correct, the pleasure is greatly 
enhanced by ihe thought that this excellence is at least partially 
One to a call that comes as the result of better training and better 
conditions that are to be found u\)on the farms and in Ihe farm 
homes of the State. 

WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT. 

The Department of Agriculture has a large tield to cover and its 
olTJcers and agents have been kept busy during the year with the 
many duties with which it is entrusted. The regular routine work 
carried on under the special direction of the Secretary, consisling 
of Special Examinations, Nursery Inspection, Inspection and Analy- 
sis of Fertilizers, Concentrated Feeding Stutts, etc., together with 
the publication of bulletins of information, has gone forward in 
regular order during the year, each item recei\ing attention at its 
ov;n apjaopriate time. 

The work of collecting samples of various kinds of Concentrat<'d 
Commercial Feeding Stutl's found upon the market for analysis was 
])laced in tlu' hands of Mr. Fnos J>. ICngle. who is one of the regularly 
emi)loyed agents of the Department. As Mr. Engle is a i)ractical 
pomologist, part of his time is devoted to nursery inspection, a 
work which has been assigned to the Division of Economic Zoology. 
The season during which the inspection of nurseries must be made 
in order to be etfectual being too short to enable one man to cover 
the entire State within the period, the services of Professors Geo. 
C. Bntz and W. A. Muckhont, both of whom are connected with the 
I'ennsylvania State College, were secured and they were assigned 
to the Division of Economic Zoology to assist in this special work. 

The period during which samples of Commercial Fertilizers may 
be secured is necessarily limited to the short time immediately pre- 
ceding the spring and fall seeding, at which time they may be found 
in the warerooms of selling agents and upon I lie farms where they 
are to be used. To accomplish this work in I lie short time that 
could be given to il. Hie Stale was ilixided iulo iwehe sections and 
an agent was eni|)lo\((I for each seciiou. I'.y this means the entire 
State was gone over in aboul one nioiilli, and six hundred more 
samples wer<' taken than were ever before taken in a single year. 

The acts 111 .\ssembly of IS7!» and I'.Mll regulating t he uianufacture 
and sale of commercial fertilizers has jiroven of inestimable value 



Nn. (i, |)i;i'Ai:TMKNT OF A( : KK M : LTirHE. 7 

In lilt- r.-irimrs (»!' I he Sl;i(r. 'J'lic <(tsl of such IViiili/crs used :itiiiu 
nllv ill r<'iiiisvl\ jiiii;i icimIii'S s<\<-r:il millions of dolhirs, niid willionl 
tlic iiKMiis |»ro\ idrd liv l;i\\ !<• diin ( fraiul, IIk' Iriiiplnt ion lo nn- 
s<'niinilons men lo |il;nr upon (In- iii;iiis.cl ^^-oods of iiifriior \;ilii<' 
would no doulfl lend to very ^rcat nliuscs. II is iinfoiMiinilc Hint 
;i lew fiiinicrs seem lo lliink lli:il ;i l;i\\ rc(|niiin;; a icrlain ffc lo 
lie i)ai(l bv (lie nianuraci urri- foi' i hi' i.ii\ ilc;^c of |daciiij;' ('a<li l»ra:id 
of ji'oods Ilia I ln' makrs upon I In- maikd, adds to tln' cos I of i in- fcr- 
tili/.cr llic larnicr hiiys. willioul securing' (o liim any sultslaul iai 
|)ci,cii(, and llial as a rcsnll id' this \ ic\v attcmpls arc sonn-tinics 
made lo ,uci manufacturci's lo prepare for tliciu special niixlures, 
for whitdi llie luanufaclurcr lias lilcd willi lliis Departiin'iil no 
guaranteed analysis and which he has no liuhl uudei- I he law to 
make or s(dl. It should he I'emembei-ed Ihat the license fee paid 
by the manufacturer goes for the i»ayuient of the expenses of col- 
lecting samiiles and having them analyzed, so that the character 
of the goods may be made public and that the prosecution of the 
manufacturer, if his attempi lo defraud is apparent, may follow. 
If the manufacturer sells but one hundred tons of any given brand, 
Ilie fee paid amounts to fifteen cents per ton, and if he sells five 
hundred tons the fee amounts to but four cents. Surely, if this 
were rightly understood by all, even though the fee were paid by 
the farmer directly, no complaint would be ottered at having to pay 
so small an insurance fee for the anu)unt of protection secured. 
Every farmer should interest himself in seeing, so far as he may be 
able, that I he manufacturer observes the requirements of the law. 

The otticial connection of the Secretary with the State Live Stock 
Sanitary Board has added a considerable amount to the personal 
work he has had to perform during the year. The leasing of a farm 
upon which to continue on a larger scale the investigations that 
have been in progress relating to the immunizing of cattle against 
tuberculosis, the stocking of said farm, the repairs of buildings and 
adapting them lo the special uses to which they have been applied, 
together with the purchase of farm imi>lements, the employment 
of labor and directing the same, have all received the attention of 
the Secretary, in conjunction wiih I he State Veterinarian. A more 
complele account of this work is given in the State Veterinarian's 
report. 

In ihe latter part of the month of Ai)ril. T received from :Mr. A. 
1. Loop, of Xorlh East. Pa., a section of Ihe State where grape cul- 
ture is one of the chief indnsli-ies, the following letter: 

"North East, Pa., April 21, 1903. 

"Hon. N. B. Critchfield, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

"Dear Sir; Last fall at a meeting- of grape growers of this section, Mr. R. 
S. Pierce, of this place, and I, were made a committee to see what could be 



8 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

dune in the way of getting State aid to rarry on experiments and give grape 
growers instruc-tion in the way of preventing grape rot nnd controlling injurious 
insects, etc. 

"We drew up petition to Legislature and secured names of five hundred 
or so people directly interested in the matter. We had bill drawn up and intro- 
duced by our Senator, Mr. Sisson, appropriating ?8, 000.00 for the work. This 
passed the Senate without opposition. Mr. Pierce and I-made trip to Harrisburg 
and appeared before Committee on Appropriations with Senator Sisson and 
Dr. F. N. Thorpe (a largo grower here), and Prof. Jno. F. Hicks, who has had 
charge of this work in Ohio for some years past. The committee * * * gave 
a negative recommendation. We are utterly at loss to understand why this 
was done, as this is a thing of great importance to thousands of people in this 
section. 

"I enclose a copy of statistics that we got together to use before committee 
and others who might be interested. We can give you our assurance that 
every statement made tlierein is true to our personal knowledge. Cannot you 
with your Department do the work for our growers that Ohio does for their 
growers? Send an expert here. I have only from 10 to 12 acres. I do not need 
any instruction or example as to what to do, neither does Mr. Pierce, although 
he has about one hundred and fifty acres in grapes. There are, however, hun- 
dreds of others who do need a practical illustration, growers who have 10 to 
50 acres each, to whom the loss of two or three crops will mean loss of their 
farms, homes and savings of a lifetime. Rot has appeared in every vineyard 
in the county the 'past season and in v.-est end of county it has m.ade total 
loss of crops. You of course know if anything is to be done, work mu.st be 
begun in three weeks or so. 

"I hope your Department is in a position to take it up. Others will probably 
write you. Prof. Hicks will, I know, bo glad to give you pointers that his 
experience with the trouble in Ohio has brought him; his address is Wooster. 

"Very respectfully, 

"A I. LOOP." 

'!Vi this letter I responded as follows: 

"Harrisburg, Pa., April 2S, 1903. 
"A. I. Loop, Esq., North East, Penna.: 

"Dear Sir: Your letter of the 21st instant is before me. I think I shall be 
able to arrange to come to North East in company with Prof. Surface of this 
Department, and one or more specialists in the line of Horticulture about 
Tuesday of next week (May 5th), to meet some of your people and see what 
can be done to help you. Can you arrange for a place of meeting, and have 
as many of your grape growers as convenient meet us? If you can, let me know 
at once, and I will wire you about calling meeting. 

"Very truly yours, 

"N. B. CRITCHFIELD, 
"Secretary of Agriculture." 

I ;ii oiicc wrote to Trof. (Jt-o. ( ". Iiiitz, hotaiiist of the Pciinsvl- 
vaiiia lv\|)crimeiit Slalion. and to Trof. -Folni F. llicics, assistant 
botanist of the Ohio KxiMiinicnt Station. lo whom Mr. Looji referred 
in liis Idler, asking,' tlu'in to meet me nl North East, Pa., on May 
r>lh, at the same time direct iii;,^ that a meetlui,' of g;rape growers 



N,,. t5. iJlCl-.MilMKNT OP AOUICULTURK. 9 

!!.- ,;ilh-l ai licit I'lm-c :iii(l <I:ilr. .\( lliis iiic'tiii;^ t!w viiicyai-disiH 
who •/.( Ti prcsi'iil |j:;iv(' i\f full ;» description ol I lie (liHcas<'8 aiul iii- 
sccls tliat were tlic cause of i lu-lr loss aa they were able to give, 
111)111 which the y[)ccialisls 1 liad with me had no ilillicully in'dcterni- 
iniii.i;- the nalure of the trouble. Vvol'. SiirXace at once underiook 
lo lottk after the desiruitive insects, av.d an arran;;f'nu'nt was subse- 
(juently made with Dr. U. P. Armsby, Director of the Peuusylvauia 
lixperlment Station, whereby it was a;;-reed that the work of reli<-f 
^i'.en to the grape grower.s sliouid be divided between the Experi- 
ment Station and this Depart men I, the statioji taking charge of the 
fungous diseases, and the Economic Zoologist of this Department, 
the insect pests. Fortunately for this Department the insects did 
not appear in such quantities as to make any very serious trouble, 
hi order to satisfy myself as to the result of the treatment given 
the vineyards, I visited them during the seasou when the grapes 
were being gathered and found the ti'eatmeut to h:\ve been most 
successful. A very great saving was secured to tla^ vineyardists 
for the present year, and at the same time such an object lesson 
was given iri methods of treatment as will enables them, in th<' 
futurt", to successfully combat the adversaries with which they 
must contend. Following is a letter from Prof. But/., giving a full 
account of the work that was done: 

"State College, Pa., November 13, 1903. 
"Hon. N. B. Critchfield, Secretary of Agricultvire, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

"Dear Sir: The spraying operations in the vineyards of Erie county, v.hioh 
were the outcome of the conference you arranged for at North East, Pa., on 
May 5, 1903, have been concluded with the most satisfactory results. The 
problem of the injurious insects was assi.gned by you to the Economic Zoologist, 
but as the insects did nut appear in threatening numbers this season, nothing 
was called for along that line. The spraying operations proposed to protect 
grapes against the destructive attack of fungous diseases were under my direc- 
tion and were carried on in several vineyards. I can now report that the vine- 
yardists are well pleased with practical benefits which may be derived from 
the proper use of fungicides upon grapes. In the sprayed vineyards of 25 
acres of Mr. Z. Rogers^, not a single rotted berry could be found at the time 
of harvesting, while in a neighboring vineyard, not sprayed, from 2.5 per cent, 
to :]0 per cent, of the crop was ruined. Messrs. Crawford Bros., of North East, 
Pa., who sprayed their 50 acres of vineyard, as well as other fruits, have 
placed the value of their spraying operations of the past season at $0,000.00. 
Many vineyardists who had no faith in spraying last May are now making 
prepaiations to spray ne.xt season. 

"The detailed report of the operations will ai),'.;,.!- in a;i raiiv huilft-n ..f th^^ 
Experiment Station. 

"Very truly, 

"GEO. C. BUTZ." 

DISCOURAGING FEATURES OF THE TEAR. 

Amonj^ the discouraging features with whidi the farmers of the 
State had to contend during the past year, I may nu-ntion. first, 
2 



10 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

an unusunlly cold snimnei-, with conditions nnfavorable to cro]) 
])rodnction. Tlie season was especially unfavorable for corn. Im- 
mediately after tin? planting season there was in most parts of 
the Statexa long continued period of drouth, that prevented the 
prompt germination of the seed. In many places corn did not come 
up until this dry period was past, when it was too late to mature 
in lime to be harvested before tlie winter set in, and, as a result, 
a great deal of corn remained in the field during the first months 
of winter, and even now in mid-winter, tliere is much still stand- 
ing out. In some localities the wet weather, which set in later, in- 
terfered with the cultivation of corn, thus causing the crop to fall 
short of what it otherwise would have been. The continued precipi- 
tation during the season for harvesting wheat and making hay was, 
in many sections, the cause of great loss, and it is a matter of sur- 
prise that with these conditions prevailing, the crop reports are as 
favorable as they are. 

The second discouraging feature worthy of mention was the 
failure in so many localities of orchard fruits. While in some sec- 
tions of the k^tate, esj)ecialh' in the southeastern counties, the apple 
crop was abundant, in other localities the late spring frosts de- 
stroyed the crop entirely, and the peach crop, w'hich, in recent 
years, has become quite impoitant, was much below tlie average 
all over the State. 

Another source of great discouragement to our fruit growers, 
and one that needs to be met with resolute and persistent treat- 
ment is the presence of the Ran Josi^ Scale in almost every locality 
of the State. It is unfortunate that this Dejjartment does not 
have the means to render the fruit growers of the State the aid 
they need in comliatting this fo(\ Without united action on the 
])art of the laud owners upon whose premises shrubs or trees 
that are infested, or that are liable to be infested, with this de- 
structive pest are growing, the fruit producing industry of the 
State is destined to be greatly injured. It is gratifying to know 
that in some localities farmers and orchardists are organizing for 
systematic warfare against this dangerous enemy, and it is to. 
be hoped that the example of such will be followed by others, until 
such organizations may cover the entire State. The Economic 
Zoologist of this Department is doing all in his power to assist 
in this conflict in localities where the people have taken up the 
fight and to lead it in other places where fruit growers have not 
been aroused to a sense of the danger to wdiich they are exposed; 
but without the assistance that we trust the next General As- 
sembly will give us, we cannot hope even to hold our ow^n in the 
struggle, and much less may we hope for permanent success. 



No. fi. DEPARTMI':NT of AGRICUI/riTRK. n 

CORHESPONDENCE. 

The coi-respondcnci' of llic 1 )('])iiiinu'iil has j^rovvu Lo very larj^-e 
proportions, a fact that 1 think sliows that farmers are apprecia- 
linj; more and more the worlc that the State is doing, through the 
Department, in tlieir behalf. Mneh of the corresjiondence goes 
direct to the heads of the seveial Divisions, to which it properly 
belongs. Requests for literature published by the Department are 
answered by the clerks, and there is still left a large amount which 
comes to the Secretary's desk, much of which has no very direct 
relation to agriculture, but contains inquiries that are matters of 
interest to farmers in other directions, and that, therefore, are 
entitled to receive attention. 

AGRICULTITRAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

The work done during the year by the various agricultural asso- 
ciations of the State has been very helpful. At the meetings of 
these associations questions relating to the several farm industries 
of the State are discussed by practical men. Many excellent papers 
are read, upon topics interesting to farmers, wliereby the farm 
literature of the State is greatly increased. On account of the 
value of these papers and discussions to the agriculture of the State, 
it is the policy of the Department to render these associations all 
the assistance it is able to give, and appropriations have been 
made during the year from the limited funds at the disposal of the 
Secretary to aid in defraying the expense of such meetings and the 
publication of their proceedings. The annual meetings of these as- 
sociations are usually held in the first months of the year and the 
reports made of the work done are in reality reports for the pre- 
ceding year. It has been the custom of this Department to publish 
such portions of the proceedings of these meetings as have been 
heretofore published with its Annual Report, as a jiart of the 
report for the year in which the meetings were held. This, it seems 
to me, is not as it should be. For example: The last Annual INIeet- 
ing of the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture was held on 
the 2Tth and 28th days of January, 1904, but the reports of the 
officers, consulting specialists and standing committees were made 
for 1903 and related to work done during that year. It is evident, 
therefore, that whatever report is published of that meeting should 
be made a part of the report of the w^ork done in 1903. To with- 
hold it for an entire year and then publish, would be to allow much 
of the matter it contains, especially in the way of suggestions for 
improvement, to lose its value. "With this view, such ])ortions of 
the reports of these associations as it is tliought ]>roper to embody 
in the report of this Department, are included in the present report. 



12 ANNLAJ. IIEPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Aw a reyulr, ii will l)e sreii tliat in sonio iustan<'es llx- vopoi-t of the 
pi-oc'cediri.us of Iayo aniuinl i)H>etin!L;,s of ilie same body ov association 
appear. 

PUBLICATIONS, ETC. 

The regnlai- pu!)lication of bulletins of information has been kept 
up during the year. In addition to the niouLhly and quarterly bulle- 
tins Issued from the Dairy and Food Division and the Division of 
Economic Zoology, fourteen miscellaneous bulletins have been pub- 
lished, as follows: 

No. 107. Analyses of Concentrated Commercial Feeding Stuffs. 

No. 108. The Hessian Fly in Pennsylvania. 

No. lf)9. Tabulated Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 

No. 110. Containing Statement of ^Vork of Dairy and Food Divi- 
sion from July 1st to December 1st, 1902. 

No. 111. Small Fruits, their Origin, Culture and Marketing. 

No. 112. List of County and Local Agricultural Societies. 

No. 113. Methods of Milking. 

No. 114. Tabulated Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 

No. 115. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of Farmers' Institute 
Managers and Lecturers. 

No. IIG. Farmers' Institutes in Pennsylvania. 

No. 117. Potash Fertilizers — Sources and Methods of Application. 

No. 118. Containing the Law Creating the Office of Dairy and Food 
Commissioner in Pennsylvania, and also a Digest of the Acts of 
Assembly Committed to his Administration. 

No. 119. Tabulated Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 

No. 120. The Apple-tree Tent Caterpillar. 

The demand for agricultural literature is largely on the increase. 
Kequests for the bulletins, as well as the Reports of the Depart- 
ment, come from every state and territory of the Union, including 
our recent annexed provinces. Such requests come also from all 
countries in Europe, from Australia, China, Japan and from Brazil, 
Uruguay and other countries of South America. Kequests for lit- 
erature of the Department come from all sections of Canada, nearly 
every week. To meet this demand, about 60,000 bulletins were 
mailed during the year 190.3, exclusive of the regular monthly and 
quarterly bulletins already referred to. 

In response to a call made by the Executive Oflicer of the Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition Commission, the Department has under- 
taken to prepare for the exposition an exhibit of birds, mammals, 
insects, etc., which will show their economic relation to agriculture. 
The investigation necessary to be made in order to prepare such 
an exhibit, as well as the work to be done in its preparation, were 
placed in the hands of the Eeonomic Zoologist, who is, at the time 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 13 

of Lliis writing, ciU'rymg forward the work as ra])i(lly as is possible 
with the many other duties pressing upon him. Tlie collection that 
is being- made will be returned from the Exposition to be placed 
in the contemplated agricultural museum in the new Capitol Build- 
ing, if the etforts to establish such museum shall prove successful, 
and so will be of permanent value to the State. 

The Executive Ollicer of the Exposition Commission also re- 
quested the Secretary to write an article on the Agriculture of 
Pennsylvania for a publication authorized by the Commission, enti- 
tled '-'Pennsylvania at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition," which 
book will be distributed gratuitously at the Pennsylvania Building 
at the St. Louis Fair. This request was complied with and as the 
nmtter contained in the article is pertinent to this report, it is 
here given in full: 



AGRICULTURE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



Persons unacquainted with Pennsylvania are liable to underrate 
her position and rank as an agricultural state. The fact that she 
stands first among the states of the Union in the production of 
iron and coal and second in the value of her manufactured pro- 
ducts, naturally leads to the conclusion that but little attention 
is given to agriculture. Instead of this being true, the thrift of 
the Pennsylvania farmer is proverbial, and the extent and variety 
of the crops grown in the "Keystone" State give her a very high 
rank as an agricultural state. 

A number of ridges or mountains cross the State, diagonally, 
from the southwest corner to the northeast boundary, which favor- 
ably affects the climate of certain sections of the State and renders 
a failure, in farm crops, a thing almost entirely unknown. The soil 
in the extreme southwest portion of the State is particularly well 
adapted to the growth of grass. The pasturage of this section is 
almost equal to the famous Bluegrass region of Kentucky, and, as 
a result, the farmers of this section turn their attention largely 
to raising live stock. Many fine cattle, annually, go from these 
southwestern counties into the coal and coke regions of the western 
part of the State, where they find an excellent market. Sheep and 
wool are also numbered among the staple products of this section. 
The wool products of Greene and Washington counties, alone, in 
1900, amounted to .^,008,390 pounds, valued at |681,761.90. 



14 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Tlie soil of all the counties, west of the mouiiialu ranges, is of 
excellent quality, producing fine crops of grass for j»as(nrage and 
hay. as well as large jdelds of the chief cereal crops grown in this 
latitude. Except in sections around JMttsburg, and some of the 
other leading manufacturing towns in the western part of the 
State, general farming is usually i)racticed. AVhile this is the rule, 
like-all general rules, it has its exceptions, and a number of farmers 
in these western counties are beginning to specialize. Prominent 
among the specialties receiving attention is the dairy industry. 
Many line herds of dairy cows may be found in these western coun- 
ties, 3'ielding a profitable income to their owners. Many cattle, 
sheep, hogs and horses are raised in tliis section that find a ready 
market in the manufacturing and coal towns that abound in the 
western and southwestern portions of the State. The extreme 
northwestern part of the State possesses special advantages as a 
fruit-growing section. The influence of the hike upon tlie climate is 
such that the fruit crops grown are rarely injured by the late frosts 
of spring or the early frosts of autumn so common in other portions 
of the State. The largest vinejairds in the State are to be found" 
here, and the grape-growing industry is a source of great profit to 
those who are engaged in it. Many carloads of grapes are shipped 
from this section every year. Peaches, plums, apples and other or- 
chard and small fruits are produced here in great abimdance and are 
sold for good prices at the city of Erie and other points near home. 
J^''r<un Erie county eastward along the New York boundary, con- 
ditions are much the same that are found in the western part of the 
State, except that the countr}- is somewhat more elevated and por- 
(ioiis of it quite mountainous. But even u})on the mountains in 
this part of the State the soil is of good quality and seems to be 
especially adapt(>d to the growth of grass. The leading farm indus- 
tries in this northern tier of counties are dairying and stock raising. 
Large quantities of milk are shipj)ed from these counties in refrig- 
erator cars to the cities of New York and Philadelphia, while a 
number of creameries and many cheese factories are engaged in 
l»reparing the }»roducts of the dairy for market in a more condensed 
form. The valleys near the center of this northern boundary are 
well adapted to the growth of tobacco, and wherever planted ex- 
cellent fields of this valuable crop are produced. 

The eastern border counties of the State are not so uniform in 
their natural features and soil products as those last named. The 
surface of the noi'theastern counties is somewhat broken and mount- 
ainous, while the southeastern counties are comparatively level. In 
the northeastern section fine cro{)S of grass, oats and barley are 
l)ro(luced, as well as a considerable (piantity of inaiz-e or Indian 
corn. Except in the \ alleys of this section Indian corn does not re- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT (~»F AGRlCUI.Tn RE. 15 

ceivc the saiuc atteiilioii Ihat is given to otlici- cci-cal crops. The 
principal reason for this is to be found in tlie fact that in the more 
elevated sections of tlie north the season is shorter and the cooler 
climate is not so well adapted to corn production, while other cro])s 
ji'row equally as well and, in some instances, better than in tlie lower 
lands of the south, (leneral farminj;- is practiced in these north- 
ern counties of I lie cnst boundary with many exceptions in favor 
of dairying. 

The southeast section of the State or southern counties of 
the eastern border, possess a climate adapted to the production of 
all the crops grown in this latitude with equally favorable soil con- 
ditions. The vicinity of these counties to the city of Philadelphia 
has much to do in determining the kinds of crops to be grown or 
the distinct branch of the farming industry to which their popula- 
tion shall turn their attention. The immense milk supply required 
to meet the wants of this great city gives the milk dairy a very 
prominent place among the farmers of this section, and some of the 
most finely equipped dairies to be found anywhere in America are 
located here. Truck farming, or market gardening, is also very 
profitable in this section, and large areas of farm lands are de- 
voted to this industry, while other farmers, with equal success, turn 
their attention to fruit growing, making a specialty of small fruits. 
The counties along the southern border of the State are also quite 
different in their natural features. Going west from the neighbor- 
hood of Philadelphia along the boundarj^, the country for a distance 
of about one hundred and twenty miles, presents an unbroken ap- 
pearance. The slight elevation of this section and its location im- 
mediately east of the Appalachian Mountains, which favorably af- 
fects the climate, together with an exceedingly rich limestone soil 
make it one of the best farming sections to be found anywhere upon 
the American continent. The principal grains grown in this section 
are corn and wheat. Tobacco is also one of the staple products and 
as the quantity of tobacco grown in other parts of the State is lim- 
ited, it is the large amount produced in this section that gives to 
Pennsylvania the distinction of being one among the first states 
of the Union in tobacco production. The animal industry of this 
section is also very important. Cattle, sheep and swine are among 
its farm products, while many cattle are shipped into this section 
from other points and are f(^d here for the Philadelphia and New 
York markets. From twenty to twenty-five thousand head of cattle 
are distributed every year to feeders from the stock yards of Lan- 
caster city alone. Here, also, are to be found many finely equipped 
dairies, the dairy herds being composed of well-bred and well-se- 
lected stock and the dairy barns and other buildings being most com- 
plete in all their appointments. 

The remaining counties of the southern border are more or less 



16 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

broken, but in every one of tln'm are to be found rich valleys where 
fine crops of grain, grass and fruit are grown, and where the occu- 
pants of the farm homes are |>rosp{^rous and happy. 

The interior counties of the State, in their soil and climatic condi- 
tions, are so much like the border counties as to render a detailed 
description, such as has been giveji of tlie border counties, unnec- 
essary. Everywhere in tiie State, where proper care has been exer- 
cised, the native and cultivated grasses grow luxuriantly. As a 
result of the adaptation of the climate and soil to grass production, 
hay is a never-failing crop. In 1903 the value of the hay crop 
amounted to |52,675,083.()(). 

The principal grain crop grown in the State is maize, or Indian 
corn. \\'hile the high altitude of some portions of the State render 
the seasons too short for profitable corn growing, the peculiar 
adaptation of other sections to its growth causes the State to 
average well as a corn-producing state. The rich sections known 
as the Cumberland, Lebanon, Lancaster and Chester valleys, in the 
east; the Monongahela valley, in the west, and the Penns, Buffalo 
and other smaller valleys in the central part of the State are ex- 
ceptionally fine corn-growing sections, where large quantities of 
this "saluable cereal is grown, much of which is fed to live stock 
upon the farms where it is produced, thus contributing to keeping 
up the fertility of the soil in these naturally rich valleys, and, at 
the same time, yielding a fair income to the farmer. The corn 
crop of the State in 1003 amounted to 45,447,836 bushels, valued at 
$25,905,153.00. The average production per acre was 3L2 bushels. 
As a wheat-growing state, Pennsylvania possesses several ad- 
vantages over some of the other states of the Union. As already 
stated, the soil of the valleys is usually of that rich limestone type 
that seems to be inexhaustible and, in many sections of the State, 
where the land has been under cultivation for nearly two centuries, 
crops are grown that surpass the crops grown in the virgin soil 
of some other sections of the country. On the more elevated lands, 
in the mountainous portions of the State, the snow covering af- 
forded the growing crop during the winter prevents it from being 
winter-killed, and the dry, cool air, incident to the increased alti- 
tude, produces a quality of grain harder and richer in its good 
fiour-raakiug qualities than can be produced under other conditions. 
The quality of the flour made from the wheat grown upon the table 
lands of the State, if properly manufactured, is but little, if any, 
inferior to the flour made from the hard spring wheat growm in the 
Red River Valley and other sections of the northwest. 

The total wheat crop of Pennsylvania in 1903 amoimted to 26,- 
033,444 bushels, valued at $20,570,371.00. The average yield per acre 
was 15.1) bushels, an average equalled by very few states of the 
Union. 



No. (1. DEPARTMENT OF AG lUCULTU KE. IT 

The Ihird in value of (he cereal crops pi'odnc«'d in Pennsylvania 
is the oat crop. As it' lo create a fair average for all sections of 
the State, nature seems to have provided that in the portions of the 
State possessing the least adaptation to raising corn, oats shall 
grow luxuriantly. It is no uncommon tiling to see large fields of 
oats, in some of the more elevated counties of the State, that yield 
from fifty to sixty bushels per acre. The very high value that 
oats possess as a feed for dairy stock gives to this grain a special 
importance in this State, where the dairy industry is so prominent. 
The total production of oats in the state in 1903 was 34,582,863 
bushels, valued at |12,796,659.0(». The average production per acre 
was 28.0 bushels. 

Of the grain crops, next to the oat in value and production comes 
rye. Large (quantities of rye are raised in the dairy sections of the 
State that is cut befort^ ripening and fed as green roughage in the 
early part of the summer before other ^.oiling crops are sufficiently 
advanced for use. There are certain sections of the State that 
yield unusually large crops of this valuable cereal. Notably among 
these sections is the eastern slope of the Allegheny Mountains in 
the southern part of the State, where a red colored soil is found 
that seems especially adapted to the production of rye. The total 
number of bushels of rye raised in the State in 1903 was 5,746,535 
bushels, valued at .f3,5G2,346.00. The average production w^as 15.4 
bushels per acre. 

Another of the valuable grain crops grown in Peunsylvartia is 
buckwheat. Everywhere upon the uplands of the State, during 
the mid-summer months, large fields may be seen covered with the 
beautiful white, sweet-scented bloom of growing buckwheat. Under 
favorable circumstances from thirty-five to forty-five bushels may 
be produced per acre. Until recent years the buckwheat crop was 
not counted among the money crops of the Pennsylvania farmer. 
What he needed for consumption in his own family w^as made into 
flour and the remainder of the crop was fed to stock. At the 
present time, however, the demand for the flour or meal is so great 
that with an equally great and yearly increasing demand for buck- 
w^heat middlings as a dairy food, the farmer whose soil and climatic 
conditions are favorable to its x)i'oduction, finds buckwheat to be 
a very valuable ready-money crop. The total yield of buckwheat in 
the State in 1903 was 4,161,213 bushels, valued at |2,603,1S0.00. 

The last of the grain crops to be mentioned is barley. That so 
little barley is grown in Pennsylvania seems very strange to the 
writer. Years ago, when the only variety, of which we had any 
practical knowledge, was the heavily bearded; and when we had no 
means of harvesting except by cutting with grain cradle and binding 

2—6—1903 



IS ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Dor. 

by liaiul, t licit' was soinc excuse foi' avoidin.o; this crop on account 
of its bcin^- so unpleasant to handle. J>ut with the excellent varie- 
ties of smooth barley, fi-om which we may select our seed, and the 
improved harvesting;' machinery that we have at the present time, 
it seems stranj>e that so little of this valuable cereal is grown. 
In the northeastern i)arl of the State, where most of the barley 
grown in Pennsylvania is produced, the yield is but 3.'> per cent, less 
per acre tlinii I he yi<']<l of oats, while the price per bushel is 50 per 
cent, greater than that of oats. The total yield of barley in the 
State in 1!)U:J was 18,951) bushels, valued at |1{)5,8T3.()(). 

Another valuable farm crop (hat is extensively grown in Penn- 
sylvania is the potato crop. Jlverywhere in the Slate the Irish 
l)otato yields well, while the quality produced is unsurpassed. In 
1!)0;> the total production of potatoes was 22,217,923 bushels, valued 
at .f 13,7-75,112.00. The average ])roduction was 91 bnshels per acre. 

During the last Iwenty-five years the business of ])roducing vege- 
tables and flowers in winter time, under glass, has grown to very 
large proportions. This business is conducted on small farms close 
to large cities. It happens, however, that in some purely- agricul- 
tural districts, and particularly in the southeastern corner of the 
State, there is a large development of the business of producing 
vegetables under glass. On farms in this same section mushroom 
production is an important interest and quantities of this highly 
priced product is shipped daily during tlie season to the markets 
of all of the large eastern cities. The principal flowers that are 
produced are roses, carnations and violets. This business is still 
growing at a rapid rate and is becoming an important feature in tlie 
agriculture of Pennsylvania. 

An article on agriculture of Pennsylvania would be incomplete 
that made no reference to the amount of maple sugar produced. 
Although the nmnufacture of maple sugar is limited to small areas, 
there is, nevertheless, a comijaratively large amount made in the 
State. In recent years great improvement in methods is noticeable. 
The old-styled furnace, with its heavy cast-iron kettles, has disap- 
peared and the galvanized iron evaporating pan, with furnace at- 
tached, has taken its ])lace. liy the improved methods, a better 
(piality of both sugar and synip is produced, and while there seems 
to be a decliiK' in I he anniml jM-oduction, owing to th<> fact that 
many farmers seem to think that greater profits can be realized 
by turning their sugar orchards into Imuber and devoting the 
grounds to other purpos(^s, thei'e will, no doubt, remain for many 
years to come, farms on which these delicious luxuries are produced 
and from which those who are willing to 7)ay a fair price may receive 
at least a limited sujiply. The total yield of sugar in the State re- 
ported Uii Hie year 1S9!>, the last year for which we have any report, 
was 1,429,540 j.ounds. 



N(.. G. DETAltTMIOX'!' (iF AOIllC'lJLTUIiE. 19 

Several i*efei-eiiccs li;i\c already been iiiadi,' lo ilic li\e stock in- 
dustry of tlif Stale, but not iu the speoilic niannei- llia( its iiuiioi't- 
ance demands. 1 shall, therefore, conclude this Report on the Agri- 
culture ot J*ennsyl\aiiia by directing' more pnrl ienhi i- :it I en Hon to its 
live stock. 

In the earliesl days, I'euusylvania took hij;h iaiik in horse pro- 
duction. While a large number of road horses were bred, the 
(Quaker and Dutch settlers were more inclined to the production of 
horses of the highest uliliiy, and so devoted themselves to breed- 
ing and improving animals for draft purposes, it resulte<I that the 
only delinite strain of draft horses produced in the United States 
was originally and for a long time confined to Pennsylvania. These 
were the famous Cones toga horses and were used largely for haul- 
ing the heavy freight wagons carrying iron and merchandise be- 
tween I'hiladelphia and I'ittsburg. The rich limestone soil of the 
farms in the southeastern part of Pennsylvania prove to be admir- 
ably' adapted to the production of horses with good bone and 
stamina. Later, less attention was paid to breeding draft horses, 
or, perhaps, it would be more correct to say that the attention of 
breeders was divided between draft and road horses, and at present 
many farms are devoted largely to raising light horses for racing, 
riding and driving. Some of the lirst Hackney stallions brought 
to the United States were brought to Pennsylvania farms, and 
these have made a decided impress on the character of the horses 
of some of the eastern counties. One of the largest horse import- 
ing farms in the United States, until a few years ago, has its head- 
quarters in the northwestern part of the State of Pennsylvania,' 
and through the draft horses and coach horses imported by this 
firm the horse stock of Avestern Pennsylvania, and of other states 
as well, has been greatly improved. 

A number of imported draft horses were brought into the soutli- 
western part of the State about a half century ago, and from that 
time to the present the practice of bringing such horses into this 
section has been continued, and, as a result, some of the finest draft 
horses produced anywhere in America are still bred in the south- 
western and southern part of the State, on the farms whose table 
lands and rich valleys border upon West Virginia and Maryland. 
To enumerate the trotting bred stallions that have been bred or 
have been used in Pennsylvania, and the high class harness horses 
that have been produced here, would be to catalogue many names 
best known to horse breeders. 

While many horses are bred in the State it is, nevertheless, true 
that at the present time the farmers of Pennsylvania do not pro- 
duce nearly so many horses as are needed to carry on the work of 
the State, and horses and mules are imported in large num- 
bers from the west. There are, however, still sold in all the 



20 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doe. 

eastern markets, aud for exportation a large number of horses, 
classed as Pennsjlvania draft horses. Many of th(^se horses are 
western horses that have been fed aud lltted for market on the 
farms of Pennsylvania. The feeding and fitting for market of 
horses is sonu^thiug^that is understood to perfection by many farm- 
ers of this State. On the first of January, 1903, there were iu 
Pennsylvania 578,247 horses, valued at .$47,055,151.00, and 37,035 
mules, valued at $3,380,185.00. Pennsylvania is practically the 
largest horse and mule consuming State in the country; that is to 
say, iu connection with the A'ast industrial enterprises, miuing, oil 
production and commerce of the State, more horses and mules are 
employed and nsed up than in any other state of the Union. It is 
interesting to note, in this connection, that, thanks to an efiicient 
veterinary control, there is less of that baneful disease of horses 
and mules, glanders, in Pennsylvania than in any neighboring state 
and, so far as known, less than in any other state in the Union. 

In the older days beef cattle wH're produced in Pennsylvania on a 
large scale, and some of the earliest importations of cattle of im- 
proved breeds were brought to Philadelphia and were used in neigh 
boring counties. At present, however, and as a result of the growth 
of the larger centers of population, especially in the eastern part of 
the State, cattle are kept chiefly foi- dairy purposes, but the dairy 
interest in Pennsylvania is by no means new. As already stated, 
most of the land in large parts of the State is splendidly adapted 
to grass production and the growth of corn. The farms are well 
watered, a large proportion of them being supplied with cool spring 
water. This combination of favorable conditions led to early de- 
velopment along dairy lines, and for more than a century Pennsyl- 
vania butter has led the market, and, indeed, for much of that time, 
it has been almost the sole occupant of the highest class- of this 
commodity. At this time, the dairy interests are developed to such 
an extent that Pennsylvania ranks second in milk production among 
the states of the Union. There were, in the State, in 1903, 1,044,625 
milch cows, valued at $22,947,473.00, and there were also nearly 
a million other cattle valued at about fourteen million dollars. 
These great possessions in cattle give Pennsylvania a very high 
rank among the cattle-producing states and amply justify the great 
care exercised by the Commonwealth in protecting the health of 
members of these herds. In I he parts of the State that are not 
favorably located for shipping milk to the cities, creameries and 
cheese factories are to be found, where the milk from the neighbor- 
ing farms are taken and manufactured in1o a more condensed pro- 
duct. I have already alluded to the northern and northwestern 
counties of the State as those in which most of the cheese factories 
are located, while butter factories are to be found in considerable 
numbers in almost all the counties of the Commonwealth. 



No. 6. DEPAKTMIONT OF A( ; lilCDLTUJiE. 21 

Wlioep art' not raised in IN'nnsvhania in large numbers excepi in 
a limited area in the soiitliwestern part of the State, where they 
have been bred from (lie lime of the first settlement of that region. 
This section has some of the best flocks of fine wool sheep in the 
Union and more recently has introduced flocks of long wool sheep. 
A year ago there were in the State l,lo?>,437 sheep, valued at |3,- 
S5(),G25.0(». The production of early spring lambs has been carried 
on with great success in some of the eastern counties and for this 
{)!irpose many flocks of sheep of mutton breeds are kept. 

As would be expected in a State where dairying is so extensively 
carried on, the production of swine has for a long time been an 
important part of animal industry. One of the few original Ameri- 
can breeds of swine, namely, the Chester White, was originated in 
Pennsylvania and has gone forth to improve the quality of swine in 
many distant states. There are, in the State, about a million 
hogs, valued at about ten million dollars. 

In poultry i)roduction, Pennsylvania ranks fifth among the states 
of tlie Union, and with the increased attention to breeding poultry 
rhat has developed in recent years, there can be no doubt that ii 
is destined to occupy, ere long, a higher relative position. As it is, 
Pennsylvania produces annually, poultry and eggs valued at more 
than sixteen million dollars, and this from less than twelve million 
fowls, valued at about five million dollars. 

Pennsylvania was among the first of the states of the Union to 
avail herself of the benefits arising from the land grants provided 
by what is known as the "Morrill bill," which was passed in 1862. 
As early as 1855 she had established a school of agriculture in the 
center of the State, so that she was ready as soon as the opportunity 
came to accept the endowment provided by Congress and to begin 
to lay the foundation for one of the best industrial schools in the 
land. In this institution the science of agriculture has been taught 
far a number of years, and many of her graduates have gone out to 
accept positions'in other states, where their knowledge of scientific 
agriculture has given them prominence as benefactors of the race. 
Under the encouragement of the intelligent farmers of the State, 
the General Assembly of the Commonwealth has, year after year, 
adopted a policy of increasing liberality towards this institution, 
and at the present writing there is in process of erection, as a part 
of the Pennsylvania State College, a building which, when com- 
pleted, will cost 1250,000, in which the science of agriculture shall 
continue to be taught and where young men who choose farming as 
their life-work, may so acquaint themselves with the laws that 
control in Nature's great laboratory as to enable them to under- 
stand not only why certain conditions are necessary to success, but 
how such conditions may be secured. Evervwhere within the'Com- 



22 ANNUAL llEPORT OF THE Off. Doe. 

monwoallli intelligint interest in agriculture is increasing and, 
altliougli nianv of the farms in the State Ikhc been under cultiva- 
tion for more than iwo centuries, the future promises much more 
foi- the agriculLuiH^ of Pennsyhania than has ever been realized in 
the past. 

CONCLUSION. 

In closing this report, I desiri' lo express my apju-eciation of the 
vei-y efficient work that has been done by the heads of the several 
Divisions of the Department. 

When i took charge of the affairs of the Department, I found 
the work well organized, each snbject of s})ecial importance to the 
State having been assigned by my predecessors to the Division to 
which it properly belongs. The work of the Department has, in 
this way, been great 1}' simplified and the lie.ad of each Division, 
knowing what subjects are especially under his care, is able to give 
them closer stud}' than they could otherwise receive. The work of 
every Division has been characterized by intelligent activity and the 
results secured dui-iug the year in every line has been very gratify- 
iug. Full information in regard to the specific work of each Divi- 
sion will be found in the reports of the heads of Divisions which are 
herewith submitted. 

I have the honor to be, 

Very truly yours, 

N. B. CRITCHFIELD, 
Secretary of Agriculture. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AG UlCl ' I -Tl ' Ui:. '.'S 



NINTH ANNUAL REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTI- 
TUTES FOR THE YEARS 1902-3. 



ilarrisburj;, I'euua., Deceiiibei- 31, 1!J0;J. 
To Iho ITonorable N. B. Critclificld, Secretary of A<iTiciiHiire : 

Sir: 1 have the honor to present herewith the Niiilli Annual Re- 
port of tlie Director of Farmers' Institutes. 

Tlie year's worlc has progressed satisfactorily, i liave lo report 
a greater number of days of institute than lias heretofore been held 
in any one year within the State— three hundred and twenty-seven 
(327) days. The practice of assigning three instructors to attend 
each institute has been strictly adhin^ed to. The wisdom of this 
course is fully vindicated by results which follow. Such is the de- 
mand amongst our progressive farmers for accurate information 
relating to the '"Soil"' which he cultivates; how to increase that 
great plant-growing quality, Nitrogen, and unlock the scarcely less 
import ant elements, Potash and Phosphoric Acid, and make avail- 
able these combined fertilizers in such proportions as to increase 
fertility of the laud, and at the same time increase the yield per 
acre, is one of the problems which agricultural science is analyzing 
for the farmer; hence, we assign to all our meetings one man versed 
in some line of agricultural science, in order that the farmer may 
avail himself of such knowledge and light as the chemist has devel- 
oped within the last decade, which is a wonderful advantage to the 
farmer, who avails himself of it. Years of experience has fully 
taught us the importance of having the practical aud experienced 
farmer and instructor attend all our institutes, for by continued 
years of actual work and experimenting upon the farm, his instruc- 
tions are accepted as true, and generally adopted as rules of prac- 
t ice. 

Pennsylvania, having a greater variation of soil, clinuite and alti- 
tiide than any other state, her farm operations are more diversilied; 
hence, no corps of institute lecturers would be complete, unless 
equipped with a specialist along some line of agricultural pursuits, 
such as dairying, stock breeding, poultry, horticulture, market gard- 
ening, swine breeding, sheep husbandry, bee-keeping, tobacco grow- 
ing, etc. The specialist farmer is amply qualified to give instruc- 
tions along certain lines as above mentioned. His example has 
been the means of lifting many a farmer out of the old rut, causing 



24 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

biiu to centralize his ett'orts upon some special line of operation best 
suited to his soil, location and market surroundini>s. Thus we liave 
these three: The scientist, the practical farmer and the specialist. 

Did space pi^rmit, it would afford me great pleasure to speak of 
the qualifications of the different persons engaged as institute in- 
structors. By reference to the appended list, a fair knoAvIedge of 
their topics, standing and equipment for the work can be seen. 

The following is a complete list of institute instructors, with their 
topics; also, brief biography, giving that part of their life devoted 
to the preparation for institute work. 



GENKKAL I.Ii^T OF LECTURERS, ^^PEAKEKS AND ESSAY- 
ISTS. ^MTH THEIR SUBJECTS. 



19031904. 



BARBER, SPENCER F., Box 104, HarrisUurg, Dauphin Co., Pa. 

1. The Soiling System. 

2. The Silo; How to Build One, and How and When to Fill It. 

3. How to Put Milk on tlie Market in the Best Condition. 

4. Proper Stabling of Cows. 

5. Scientilic Feeding of Live Stock. 

6. Breeding and Feeding Hogs for Market. 

/■ 

S. F. BARBER was born in Union county, Pa., in 1855, was educated in the 
public schools and worked upon a farm until he was twenty-one. He then 
went into the mercantile business; 1877-8 was in the employ of the Buck 
Mountain Coal Company, in Luzerne county, as general manager of their 
company store, and in 1878-9 was in' charge of the company store of the Stout 
Coal Company. Afterwards traveled In the west, particularly in Colorado, 
and then spent one year traveling for a dry goods firm in Philadelphia. In 
1881 he settled down to farming, and has been engaged in that business ever 
since. His specialty is dairying, although he i*aises the general crops usual 
upon a Dauphin county farm. 

BASHORE, DR. HARVEY B., West Fairview, Cumberland County, 
Pa. 

1. Farm Hygiene. 

2. Village Sanitation. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 25 

DR. HARVEY UASIIURJO was born lit West Fairview, Pa., JuPy 31, 1864; at- 
tended Hariisburg Academy; graduated at Yale College 1886; graduated in 
medicine at University of Pennsylvania 1SS9, and spent three years in New 
Y'ork city studying hygiene and working in the various city hospitals; since 
then has been practicing medicine in West Fairview, a suburb of Harris- 
burg; was appointed inspector fur the State Board of Health, and is the author 
of "Outline of Rural Hygiene." 

BEAKDSLEE, K. L., WaiTeiilunii. llnulford County, Pa.: 

1. How to Kciiovate an Iinpoveiished Farm. 

2. How to Eslablisli and Maintain a Dairy. 

3. Diversilied Farming'. 

4. Fodder, Corn, Silo and Silage. 

5. Producing Grass and Making Hay. 

6. Potato Culture. 

R. L. BEARDSLEE, of Warrenham, Pa., was born in 1835, received a liberal 
academic education, and among the studies pursued, was a course in "Practi- 
cal Agriculture." He began farming for himself at twenty years of age, as a 
dealer in cattle, and followed feeding and dealing in cattle until about 1864. 
He then insJuded sheep in his stock business, and continued in this until the 
western trade reduced the profits, when he began dairying and put in forty 
cows. He has received as high as $1,000 for a single load of butter. Hfe raises 
from 1,600 to 1,800 bushels of grain each year, and sells about 1,000 pounds of 
washed wool and 150 lambs annually, besides from 1,000 to 1,200 bushels of 
potatoes. 

BLACK, AV. C, Mercer, Mercer County, Pa. : 

1. Comparison of Beef and Dairy Types of Cattle for Beef Pro- 

duction. 

2. The Beef Breeds of Cattle. 

3. Kaisiug the Calf. 

4. The Corn Crop and its Uses. 

5. Preparation of the Soil for Successful Crop Raising. 

WM. C. BLACK was born in Mercer county. Pa., in 1843. He was educated in 
common schools, and at Westminster College. A soldier in the war of the 
rebellion; a teacher in common schools, and a farmer in his native country, 
where he breeds short horn cattle, Shropshire sheep and Berkshire swine. For 
fifteen years he exhibited his cattle at the principal fairs in Western Penn- 
sylvania, with a good degree of success. Since the organization of the 
Pennsylvania Live Stock Breeders' Association he has been chairman of its 
committee on fairs. By appointment he was a member of the Columbian Ex' 
position World's Fair Congress. 

BOND, M. S., Danville, Montour County, Pa.: 

1. History of Discovery and Culture of Potatoes. 

2. Bcaefits Derived from Farmers' Organizations 

3. Growing and Marketing Vegetables. 

4. The Farmerti' Garden. 

5. Feed and Care of Milk Cows. 

6. A Country Home; What it is. 



20 ANNUAL REPUltT OF THE Off. Doc 

7. Intensity in Farming a Necessity. 

S. My Ex])ciicii('e with Coninicrcial Fertilizers and Uow to Buy. 
!). How Wo Can Keep llic (Ji'.ls on the Farm. 
10. Growing Onions and Celery. 

M. S. BOND was born on a farm in Montour county, Pa., February 26, 1834; 
lived and worked on a farm until eighteen years old, then taught school seven 
years, then was employed as freight and passenger conductor for nine years, 
and traveled as lost freight and car tracer and purchasing agent for the Dela- 
Avare, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company for five years. Has been 
for over twenty-five years engaged in farming and market gardening; during a 
part of this time, engaged in breeding and raising blooded Jersey cattle and 
still keeps some of the best in the Slate; has ma,de the raising of potatoes by 
the thousands of bushels a specialty for twenty-five years; has been and is 
now using more fertilizer to the acre than any man in his county, and is 
now making gardening a specialty. 

BKODHEAD, C. W., Montrose, Susquehanna County, Ta.: 

1. Horseshoeing and Anatomy of Foot and Leg, with Speci- 

mens. (45 minutes.) 

2. Care of Horses' Feet and Teeth, with Specimens. (40 min- 

utes.) 

3. Some Things Every One Should Know who Owns or Handk^ 

a Horse. (30 minutes.) 

4. Zoology of the Horse; a Nature Study. (Illustrated with 

chart and specimens.) (30 minutes.) 

C. W. BKODHEAD was born December 20, 1852, near White Haven, Luzerne 
county, Pa. He received a common school education; commenced to work 
in a horseshoeing and jobbing shop at 16 years of age; worked six years at 
the business before he knew anything about a horse's foot; then began to 
study anatomy and to dissect feet and legs, and has been a student of the best 
authors and in actual practice ever since; has one of the best libraries on ani- 
mals and agriculture that can be had; is a registered specialist as a veterinary 
dentist and in animal castrations. He divides his time, in the shop, in the 
care of a ten-acre vegetable garden, and reading for general information; 
takes great interest in farmers' organizations, trying to elevate their calling. 

BRUBAKEH, A. L., Hogestown, Cumberland County, Pa.: 

1. Potato Culture. (30 minutes.) 

2. The Farmers' Home. (30 minutes.) 

3. The Farmers' Education. (30 minutes.) 

4. The Farmers' Account Book. (30 minutes.) 

5. Other Crops. [A plea to the farmers' boy or girl.) (30 

minutes.) 

A. L. BRUBAKER was born on his father's farm in Lancaster county, Pa., 
In 1863. In 1871 the family removed to a farm near Mechanicsburg, Pa., where 
he worked during the summer and attended school in the v/inter until twenty- 
one years of age. He received a good common school education, which 
was supplemented by several terms at a select school. He has taught country 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AC 1 MClTLTUiiK. 27 

iind \'illaf;i' sdidols rur lifleen iLTins, ;iL the same lime inanagingr a farm and 
wiirkiny im ii in the summer. By close application he has Imill ftn- himself a 
fiiu' liome, while he gives his attention chiefly to wheat and potato tjinwing:. 

BURNS, .1. S.. Cliiihdi, Allc^liciiy Coiiuly, Fa.: 

J. lircc (liiiji and (Jai<' ol' Swine. 

2. Slieci) llusbaudi'v. 

3. Training the Colt (<> Harness. 

4. Farmers as We Find Tli-ni. 

5. The Fanner and His Wife. 

6. Home Inlluence. 

7. The Farmer's Accounts. 

S. (Jrowini; and I'reservinj^- I'ork for Family Fse. 
V. Kehition of Stock Kaisiiiji' to Farm Fertility. 
10. Education for Country Children. 

J. S. BURNS was born February 22, 1847, on the farm he now owns, near 
Clinton, Pa. His father died when he was seven years old, and from that 
time until he was twenty-one he worked upon the farm as hired help, re- 
ceiving- his board and clothing, and attending the public schools in the winter. 
His education received a brief finish in LInnean Academy, at Clinton. He 
was married when twenty-one, and soon after bought out the other heirs, 
and from the farm made the money that eventually paid for it. He has kept 
strict account of every item of income and expense since he was twenty-one 
years old, and to this habit of careful accounting he attributes much of his 
success. He has had large experience in the breeding and care of all lines 
of farm stock; but during recent years has given more special attention to 
the breeding of Poland-China swine, and raising mutton lambs, together 
with the growing of all the different crops usually raised on a western Penn- 
sylvania farm. He has had considerable experience as a correspondent upon 
agricultural topics, and for a number of years has taken an active pait in 
the institute worlc of this State. 

BUTZ, PKOF. UEOKGE C, State College, Centre County, Pa.: 

1. Modern Treatment of Apple Orchards. 

2. Peach Culture. 

3. Insect Enemies of Farm and Garden. 

4. Ornamentation of Home Grounds. 

5. Botany of the Farm. 

G. Agricultural Education. 
7. Small Fruits. 

GEORGE C. BUTZ was born in 1863, in New Castle, Pa.; his father was a nur- 
seryman and florist. His education consisted of a common, though excel- 
lent, public school and later of a course through high school. After this 
he was graduated from the Pennsylvania State College, in the class of '83. 
This was followed by post-graduate studies, and two years' experience in the 
fruit districts of Southern California. Since 1887 he has had charge of the 
Horticultural work at the Pennsylvania State College and the State Experi- 
ment Station. For the past four years he has been one of the regular lec- 
turers upon the State institute force. 



28 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc 

CAAIPBELL, J. T., llaitstown, Crawford County, Pa.: 

1. Construction of INniltiy Houses and Fixtures. (25 minutes.) 

2. Profitable Ega: Production. (20 minutes.) 
8. The Louse Problem. 

4. Economic Methods of Maiutaininsj: the Productivity of the 

Soil. 

5. Proper Physical Condition of the Soil, and How to Get It. 
G. Gumption in and About the Farm Home. 

7. The Farmers' Garden. ; 

J. T. CAMPBELL was born in Springhill township, Fayette county, Pa., De- 
cember 18, 1872; is the son of a prominent farmer; received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native district; left the public schools with 
a more than average education, and at once took up the study of agriculture 
at home, while working on his father's farm; he studied carefully all leading 
books and journals of his day. Married in 1894, and took up gardening and 
poultry culture, and wa.s successful from the start. When the Pennsylvania 
State College started its Correspondence Course in Agriculture, he took up 
the ^york and has since pursued same with diligence. Owns a large farm 
in Crawford county, upon which he has worked out many important agricul- 
tural problems; in poultry culture has been especially successful, having made 
it a subject of special study, together with soil physics. Keeps in close touch 
with the State Experiment Station and National Department of Agricul- 
ture; has written some for various agricultural and poultry journals. 

CLARK, M. N., Claridge, Westmoreland (^ounty, Pa.: 

1. The County Fair. 

2. P>uying and Care of Farm Implements. 

3. Why the Farmer Should Belong to the Grange. 

4. The Farm Journal for the Farmers' Home. 

5. The Result of Eight Years Growing Swine. 

6. How the Farmer Can Get a Practical Education. 

7. The Up-to-Date Farmer. 

M. N. CLARK was born near Export, Westmoreland county. Pa., July 16, 1848; 
received a good common school education, with several years at an academy* 
and a full course at Duff's Commercial College, at Pittsburg; has always 
taken much delight in farming; is ^ close observer, and for many years has 
taken an active interest in agricultural affairs of his county; the cause of 
education has always found in him an earnest supporter; has been engaged 
in general farming from boyhood, except a few years spent in selling imple- 
ments; was several seasons in the fruit-growing regions of the South, and 
there gained much information in the use of commercial fertilizers and frviit 
growing; has been a member of the State Board of Agriculture for many 
years, and at present Is looking after the interest of his farm. 

CONARD, DR. M. E., Westgrove, Chester CoHnty, Pa.: 

1. An Inexpensive Up-to-Date Cow Stable. 

2. How to Produce Pure and Wholesome Milk. 

8. How to Grow and Care for Horses' Feet. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUI.TURE. 29 

4. Dow shall we li('i)Uiiish Our Dairv llci-ds. 

5. Some Facts About tlie Care of Farm Teams. 

6. Some Neglected Points in the Feeding of ('alves. 

COOKE, PKOF. VVKLLS \V., i:!28 Twelfth Street, N. W., Wash- 
ington, 1). C: 

1. Economical Feeding of Farm Stock. 

2. The Value of Farm Manure and How to Retain 1(. 

3. The Effect of Feed on the Quantity and Quality of Milk. 

4. Theory and Practice of Crop Fertilization. 

5. Feeding from the Silo throughout the Year. 

6. Forage Crops as a Substitute for Pasture. 

7. Care and Feeding of Dairy Stock. 

8. Handling jMilk and Butter-Making. 

9. Nature Study in the Country School. 

10. Economy in Feeding the Farmer's Family. 

• 

WELLS W. COOKE was born in Massachusetts and educated at the public 
schools, the University of Iowa, Ripon College, Ripon, Wis., where he gradu- 
ated in 1879, and the University of Vermont, in which latter institution 
he took a post-graduate course in chemistry. Had charge for four years 
of industrial farm schools in the west, and in 18S6 was appointed professor 
of agriculture of the University of Vermont and director of the Vermont 
Experiment Station, holding both positions until 1893. During this time, 
for six years, had charge of the organizing and conducting of the Farmers' 
Institutes of the State. From 1S93 to 1900 was professor of agriculture of the 
Colorado Agricultural College. The past two years has been connected with 
work of the Correspondence Course in Agriculture at the Pennsylvania State 
College. 

COX, JOHN W., New ^Vilmington, Lawrence County, Pa.: 

1. Soil Fertility and the Preparation of the Seed Bed. 

2. Maintaining Soil Moisture and Vegetable Matter in the Soil. 

3. Poultry Raising and Feeding for Profit. 

4. Easiest and Most Profitable Way to Grow Potatoes. 

5. Commercial Fertilizers. 

JOHN W. COX was born near New Wilmington, Lawrence county, Pa., De- 
cember 27, 1868; received a common school education and a course at Duff's 
Commercial College, Pittsburg; has spent all his life on the farm; is a breeder 
of Jersey Cattle on his 200-acre farm, besides Barred Plymouth Rock poultry. 
Wheat, oats, corn, hay, and potatoes are his principal crops; is much inter- 
ested in the education of the farmers' children, and is serving his third three- 
year term as school director; is pursuing the Correspondence Course of the 
Pennsylvania State College. 



30 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

CUKE. Z. T., Jciinyii. Lackawanna Couuty, l*a.: 

1. I'lodiKlioii and Care of Orchards. 

2. Corn Culture. 

3. The Economic Use of Commercial Fertilizers. 

4. Potato Culture. 

5. Education to (he Farmer a Necessity. (25-80 minutes.) 

(J. -The liaiidlin^ of Sheep and the Production of Early Sprinj; 
Lambs. 

7. How the Kaisin*;' and Early Traininji of Colts may be a Pro- 

fitabh' Adjunct to General Farminj^-. 

8. The Proper llandlinft- of Heifer Calves u]) to. and Durinj;- the 

First Year of ^laternit}'. 

Z. T. CURE was born in 1S48, and attended the public schools, including the city 
high school, until seventeen years of age, after which he taught school for five 
years, and has followed farming and stock raising- ever since. His school 
training has been supplemented by extensive reading courses, ^^Jlich, by 
the aid of free translations, covered the subjects tanght in college courses, 
with the exception of higher mathematics. As sources of information on 
the topics w^hich he discusses, he depends upon experience and observation, 
aided by Prof. L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University, in the domain of horticul- 
ture and kindred subjects, and Andrew S. Fuller on the propagation of plants, 
etc., and other publications of authority, together with a careful perusal of 
the best agricultural periodicals of the day and a studious consultation of the 
latest bulletins of the Experiment Stations. He has had considerable experi- 
ence in the discussion of literary and scientific subjects before teachers' insti- 
tutes, and has made a careful study of the topics chosen to present at Farmers' 
Institutes. 

HETKICH, REV. J. D., Flourtown, Montgomery County, Pa.: 

1. How to Keep Twenty Head ctr INTore of Dairy Animals on 

Fifteen Acres. 

2. Eighteen Years' Experience in Soiling. 

;!. Sixteen Years' Experience with Wood(Mi Silo. 

4. Shall AVe (irow Crops on a Fifteen Acre Farm and no Fer- 

tilizer? 
.~). I^'eed, l>i-eed and ("are of tlu' Dairy. 
(». Breeding and Raising the Dairy Animal. 
7. The Agricultural ("olh^ge and the Farmer. 

5. The Farmer's A\'aste P»asket. 

!». The Small Farm ys. Tlie Large Farm. 
10. I'eiich, ]»o(»k and Farm. 

REV. J. D. DETRICJI'S knowledge of agriculture as a science dates from 1882, 
since which time he has been availing himself of all the bulletins, magazines 
and books relating to snil, crojjs, dairying, l)rpeding, feeding and roaring 



Xu. G. DEPAIiTAFIONT OF AGRICULTITRE. 31 

of dairy animals. This, together with information furnished by the Colleges 
and Experiment Stations, he has put into p;-actice, and the result has been 
a satisfactory and profitable system of inttnsive farming. 

DKAKK. W. M. C, Volnnt, Lawiciicc ('(uiiily. Tn.: 

1. ]M('pai*a(ion of the Heed Bed. 

2. Feed and Care of Farm Animals. 

8. The \^ahie of Clover and How to Get il to Crow. 

4. Fruit Culture. 

5. Potato Culture. 

G. Market (Jaiden; What to Crow and How to Crow II. 

W. M. C. DllAKE was born on a farm near Volant, Lawrence county, Pa., 
August 16, 1S60; was educated at public school and a Normal School in New 
Castle, Pa.; passed an examination for teaching: was interested in the Farm- 
ers' Alliance movement In Pennsylvania, being president of the county or- 
ganization one term; was sent as a representative gf the Pennsylvania State 
Alliance to the Labor Conference at St. Louis, February 22, 1892. All his life 
has been spent on the farm. 'For several years past has been in partnership 
with a brother conducting a market garden, together with handling fruit of 40 
acres of orchard and farming 600 acres. 

FOIGHT, JOHX C, Export, Westmoreland County, Ta.: 

1. The FaruKn- of To Dav. 

2. Small Fruits on the Farm. 

3. Success in the Dairy. 

4. Farm Literature. 

5. Why Should Farmers Organize. 

6. Our IJoys and Girls, the Best l*roducts of our Farms. (1.") 

minutes.) 

JOHN G. FOIGHT was Ijorn on his father's farm in Westmoreland county. Pa., 
in 1842; was educated in the public schools and at Laird Institute, Marysville, 
Pa.; enlisted in company F, 204th Pa. Vols., August, 1864; discharged at 
close of war" at Vienna, Va. He began farming for himself in 1868, and has 
been actively engaged at it ever since, with average crops about as follows, 
each year: 600 bushels wheat, 800 bushels oats, 1,200 bushels corn, 400 bushels 
potatoes. 100 tons hay, and ships to the city $1,000 worth of milk per year, 
from 12 to 14 fine shorthorn and Ayrshire cows. 

FORNEY, DAVID P., Hanover, York County, Pa.: 

1. Corn. 

2. Common Sense in the Dairy. 

H. Limitation of Production in Agriculture. 

4. Farm Statistics. 

5. The Boy and the Farm. 

6. The Instructive Changes in Farm Life. 



'!->' 



D. P. FORNEY was born in Hanover, York county. Pa., of Pennsylvania 
Dutch parentage. Educated in the common schools of Hanover and at Penn- 



32 • ANNUAL REPORT OF THP: Off. Doc. 

sylvania College, Gettysburg. Began farming forty years ago on a fifty acre 
farm, and now farming about two hundred acres and running a dairy of 
twenty-flve cows and selling their milk on a retail route. Has been sta- 
tistical agent for both State and National Department of Agriculture for more 
than thirty years and has been president of Farmers' Agricultural Association 
of Adams county, almost all the time since its establishment and is yet. 
During this time has spoken before agricultural associations of every sort 
almost every year, and has done a good deal of writing for the agricultural 
papers. 

FUNK, DR. J. H., Boyertown, Berks County, Fa.: 

1. Southern Versus Northern Apph^s for Pennsylvania. 

2. Peach Culture. (30 minutes.) 

3. The Commercial Orchard as a Business. (30 minutes.) 

4. Pruning, Fertilizing and Thinning. (30 minutes.) 

5. Cultivation Versus Mulching for Fruits. (80 minutes.) 

6. Sprajing; When, How and What For. (30 minutes.) 

7. Small Fruit Culture. (30 minutes.) 

8. Potato Culture. (30 minules.) 

9. The Birds and Insects as Friends and Foes, and How to Dis- 

tinguish Them. 

10. Soil Fertility; How to Get and Retain It. (30 minutes.) 

11. The Family Garden. (30 minutes.) 

Dr. J. H. FUNK was born March, lS-14, and was raised on his father's large 
dairy farm in Montgomery county, Pa. At the age of 19 years he commenced 
the study of medicine. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 
spring of 1S65. After practicing a few years, became interested in fruit grow- 
ing, and raising and sale of nursery stock. Planted a large orchard in 1879 
but finding New York state varieties not suited to the latitude, visited the 
largest orchards in the different states, and in the spring of 1896 planted 
another large commercial orchard of several thousand trees, all of southern 
origin^ He now has one of the finest orchards in the State. In his orchard 
an off-year is unknown. 

GROFF, PROF. GEO. G., Lewisburg, Union County, Pa.: 

1 . Farm Hygiene. (1 hour.) 

2. Dairy Hygiene. (I honr.j 

3. The Origin and Restoi-ation of Soils. (I hour.) 

4. ""'.Veeds of our Farms. (30 minutes.) 

5. Modern Life Built on Chemistry. (30 minutes.) 

6. The Teachers Needed in our Rural Schools. ('>() minutes.) 

GEO. G. GRCjFF w^as born on a farm in Chester county, Pa., in 1851; was edu- 
cated in the public school, Treemount Seminary and Michigan University. 
Taught in public school, West Chester State Normal School, and since 1879 
In Bucknell University. Served in the Spanish-American War as Brigade Sur- 
geon and unde"" the military government, was Superintendent of Public In- 
struction in Porto Rico. Has been a member of the Pennsylvania State Board 
of Health almost since its organization. Is engaged in fruit growing and ex- 
perimental agriculture. Dr. Oroff has done murh institute work, lioth at 
Teachers' and Farmers' Institutes. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AO inCULTURE. 33 

HALL, llOKACE IL, Ji:ilisbiii'j,% Union County, Vn.: 

1. Docs llie Silo Pay? 

2. Two < ro|is a Year for llic Silo. 

3. Conient Stable Floors arc Econoiuic. 

'i. Strawberries for the Home and for ^Market. 

5. How to Seed for Permanent Pastnr^. 

G. Dynamite; Its Uses on the Farm and TTow to Handle H. 

7. Farmer Tele])hone Line; How to Build and Maintain One, 

8. A Neglected Study in our Schools. 

9. IToAv to Keep the Boys on tin? P^arni. 
10. Our Greatest Duty as a Citizen. 

HORACE H. HALL, of the Triplet Oak Farm was born on a farm near Couders- 
port, Potter county, Pa., in 1S53. He receh'ed most of his educatien in the 
common scliools, though he attended the Emporium graded and the Couders- 
port high schools for a limited time. He received his first teachers' certificate 
when twenty and taug'ht in the schools of Potter county for twenty years, 
mostly in the district schools, though he served as principal of the Galeton 
and Oswayo graded schools. When not engaged in teaching he worked at 
farming or in the lumber woods. At forty he turned his whole attention 
to farming, having bought 114 acres of bark slashing and woods, which he 
stocked with sheep while he was clearing and stumping, and in about ten 
years he has logged and stumped fifty acres, built substantial farm build- 
ings, changed from a sheepman to a successful dairymen, and is a large pro- 
ducer of the finest strawberries. 

HANTZ, PKOF. J. M., I\rerrittstown, Fayette County, Pa.: 

1. Potato Culture. 

2. Money in Poultry. 

3. Til e Dairy Cow. 

4. Our Homes. 

5. How to Build up a Run-Down Farm. 

6. The True Idea of an Education. 

7. Tlie Growing of Strawberries, Raspberries and Blackberries. 
S. Soil Moisture and Soil Culture. 

1). Hov/ to Grow a Grass Crop. 

PROP. J. M. HANTZ was born in .Westmoreland county in 1844; has had the 
advantages of a thorough college training, and has been a professor in dif- 
ferent academies, colleges and universities for years. Having been reared 
on a farm and always feeling an interest in farm life, he has been, for the 
last twelve years, actively engaged in farming In an intensive w^ay, follow- 
ing a three year rotation. He is interested in dairying and has made the 
dairy cow a special study; he has been a member of the State Board of Agri- 
culture for many years and takes a deep Interest In agriculture. Having 
thus had a practical knowledge of farm life since boyhood, he is prepared to 
talk to farmers from real and scientific knowledge as well as from actual ex- 
perience. 

3—6—1903 



34 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

liAKLAX. IIOX. A. 1)., Wcnonah, N. J.: 

1. Alaska; Our Land of the Midnight Sun. (70 to 90 minutes.) 

2. Hawaii and the Hawaiians; The Great Advantage the Islands 

are to our Nation. (GO-DO niiuutes.) 

ABRAHAM D. HARLAN was burn in Chester county, Pa., September 3, 1833; 
educated in the public and private schools of the county; spent ten years on 
the farm; Avas a merchant for fourteen years; served in Christian Commis- 
sion during- Uw summer of 1862 at Fortress Monroe, Harrison Landing, Wash- 
ington and Antietam; served in an independent company of cavalry and was 
first lieutenant of the 157th Regiment of P. V.; transcribing clerk of the 
House of Representatives, regular and special session of 1864; message clerk 
of the same body 186.j, 1866 and 1867; assistant clerk of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of Pennsylvania, 1872-73; special clerk in the Internal Revenue De- 
partment for two years; assistant cashier of customs at the Port of Phila- 
delph?a lor six and one-half j^ears; represented Chester county in the Senate 
for ten years and was Chairman of Agriculture for eight years; had charge 
of the Diplomatic Gallery of the United States Senate four years; was special 
agent of the United States Treasury for two years in Alaska. 

IIARSHBERGEK, J. W., Ph. 1).. IMiiladelpliia, Ta.: 

1. Kusts of Agricultural Plants and How to Combat Them. 

2. Accumulation of Soil Mtrogen. 

^*. The Role of Leguminous Plants in a Rotation. 

4. The Roots of Plants and What They Teach. 

5. IMosquitoes and How to Combat Them. 
0. The Life History of a Dozen Weeds. 

7. Smuts and Related Fungi. 

8. A Historical Review of Our Know'ledge of the Potato Rot 

Fungus. 
0. The Botany of JNIaize, or Indian Corn. 
10. The Story of a (h-ain of Wheat. 

JOHN W. HARSHBERGER, Ph. D., was born in I'hiladelphia, January 1, 
1869. His early education was received in the public schools, terminating in 
his graduation from the Central Hig-h School of Philadelphia in 1888. He 
entei'ed the University of Pennsylvania on a city scholarship, taking his 
B. S. there in 1892 and his Ph. D. in 1893, when he was made instructor in 
Botany, General Biology and Zoology, a position which he still holds. In 
addition Dr. Harshl>erger has studied at Howard University and at Berlin, 
Germany, and has traveled extensively for botanical purposes in Mexico, the 
West Indies, California, Maine and Europe, where he carefully inspected the 
several noted l)otanical instituti(jns. Dr. Hai s^hbergei- has been identified with 
the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching, the Pocono 
Pines Summer School, the Department of Lectures, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. He has been recorder of the Botanical Section of the Academy of 
Natural Science, and is a member of the more prominent botanical societies 
in America. His published works consist of. Maize: A Botanical and Economic 
Study, 1893, pp. 12.5, translated later in Mexico into Spanish; The Botanists 
of Philadelphia, and their Work, 1988, pp. 457, forty plates, and Students' 
Herbarium for I)escri[)tive and Geographic T'urposes, 1901, pp. 210. He is 



No. G. i)i.:i'.\i;'ii\'iK.\"i' uF A(;iiR'iii/n;i:K. 35 

botanical editor of a new American p]nglish Diotionary under course of pulj- 
lication by J. 15. I.iiipincott Company, and j.s engaged at present in writing, 
An Introduction to the Phytogrography of North America, for a fi!ni in 
I.ieipzig, German.N'. His inlntcd p.ipcrs numt)er above ninety, mainly on 
Botany and related subjects. 

HEKK, JOEI. A., Codai- (Springs. (Uiiiloii ( "oiiiity, Pa.: 

1. F('('diiij; and CaiT of C-'attle. * • 

2. Fertility. 

11. Fniit Growing". 

4. Farmers' Accounts. 

5. Specialties in Fai*niinj>'. 

0. Graded Schools. 

7. I'ractical Koad-]\!akinj;'. 

S. The Jirioht Side of Fann Life. 

I). Selection and Care of IMilch Cows. 

10. Education Throuii'h Organization. 

JOEL A. HERR was born in Clinton county. Pa., and educated in the public 
schools and at Dickinson Seminary. He served in the Civil War and has been 
a student, teachei' and farmer all his life. He lives now on a farm and gives 
special attention to fruit culture and stock raising. He is a member of the 
State Board of Agriculture and a trustee of the Pennsylvania State College. 

HILL, W. F., Mont Alto. Franklin County, Pa.: 

1. Potato <'ulture. 

2. The Fanners" Chance, 

'>. Our Education, Our Capital. 

4. Soil Conditions for Successful I'lniil (Jrowtli. 

5. Saving and Applying ^Manure, 
t). DevelopuK^it of Our Children. 

W. F. HILL was born in South Shenango township, Crawford county. Pa., 
March 4, 1867. After attending several different schools he spent three years 
at A^llegheny College. From college l)ack to the farm, to which he added 
another by purchase later. He is an active advocate of organization for 
farmers in the township, county, state and nation. After acceptably serving 
in subordinate and Pomona Grange offices he was, in 1S94, chosen lecturer of 
the State Grange, and in 1898 was elected Master of the State Grange organi- 
zation. He is also a trustee of the Pennsylvania State College, and a member 
of advisory committee of the State Experiment Station. 

HOOVER, HON. E. S., Lancaster, Lancaster County, Ta.: 

1. Cultivation of the Tobacco Plant; Its Proper Curing. 

2. Handling and Preparation for Market. 

3. Incentives to Farming. 

4. Failure in Fanning and the Causes. 

5. System on the Fann. 

6. Farming the Chief Support of the Nation. 

7. Soil Improvement. 



36 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

8. Farmers' Institutes; Tbcir Importance and Benefit. 

9. Care of Farm Crops. 

10. Proper Use and Care of Farm Machinery. 

11. The Horse; His Breeding, Bearing and Training. 

12. Beautifying Home Grounds. 

13. Growing Trees on tlie Farm. 

E. S. HOOVER was born in Lancaster county, Pa., in 1839, was educated in 
the public schools. White Hall Academy and the State Normal School at 
Millersville, taught school four terms, owns and controls a farm. Is engaged 
in general farming, at one time gave special attention to growing and feed- 
ing of live stock, especially in raising and training horses, and later devoted 
himself to the horticultural branch of agriculture. Acquired knowledge of 
agricvtlture by study, actual experience and experimenting. Is at present 
time a member of the board of trustees of Millersville State Normal School; 
was a member of Legislature, 1883-1S84: for some time and at this time en- 
gaged in Farmers' Institute work. 

HULL, GEORGE E., Orange ville, Ohio: 

1. Mailing Marketable Butter from a Few Cows. 

2. The Farm Creamery, 

3. Construction and Filling of Silos. 

4. Construction of a Dairy Barn. 

5. Marketing Farm Products. 
. C. The Farm Water Supply. 

7. Feeding Steers for Market. 

GEORGE E. HULL, of Orangeville, Ohio, the subject of this sketch, a num- 
ber of years ago moved upon a worn-out farm without buildings in Mercer 
county. By industry, perseverance and intelligent effort he has succeeded 
in restoring it to the highest state of fertility; has placed thereon substantial 
and convenient farm buildings, and educated his children, without other in- 
come than that derived from the farm. His silos, stock scales, farm imple- 
ments and improved live stock are the admiration of all progressive farmers. 

KAHLER, HON. A. J., Hughesville, Lycoming County, Pa.: 

1. Soil Fertility. 

2. Corn Culture. 

3. Taxation and How it Effects the Farmer. 

4. Hogs for Profit. 

5. Concentration of Schools in Rural Districts. 

6. My Experience with Lime and Commercial Fertilizer. 

7. Proper Care of Barnyard and Manure. 

8. How Best to Keep the Boys on the Farm. 

A. J. KAHLER was born in Hughesville, Pa., in 1834; was educated in the 
public schools and afterwards taught school in his native county; has always 
lived upon a farm; has filled every local office in his township; was a member 
of the Legislature in 1891-1892; was president for six years of the County 
Agricultural Society; is a member of the State Board of Agriculture and 
has been identified with most of the leading farm organizations of the State. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGUICULTURE. ' H 

LEDY, J. 11., Miirioii, l-^i-mkliii (bounty, Vn.: 

1. General Fi'iiiL ( Jrowiii^',; How to Take ('are of Trees. 

2. Poach, Apple and IMum Culture. 

3. Pruning-, Cultivating and Fertilizing the Orchard. 

4. The Farmers' Garden. 

5. Alfalfa; Its Value and How to Grow It. 

6. Small Fruit Culture. 

7. Tomatoes and Cantaloups; How to Grow Them. 

8. Poultry' and Profit, and How to Make Hens Lay. 

9. Roads and Road Taxes. 

10. Crimson Clover and Soja Beans; Their Value and How to 
Grow Them. 

J. H. LEDY was born in Marion, Franklin county, Pa., August 3, 18G4, and 
received his education in the common school in Guilford township and at the 
Chambersburg Academy. After leaving school he engaged in the mercan- 
tile business for seven years at Marion and Waynesboro, Pa. In the spring 
of 1889 he accepted a position with S. Smucker & Co., wholesale grocers of 
Philadelphia. He remained with this firm four years, when he was elected 
register and recorder of Franklin county, after which he became half owner 
and business manager of the People's Register, of Chambersburg, an inde- 
pendent journal of large circulation. He now owns and superintends 151 
acres of apple trees, inlaid with peaches and plums. Mr. Ledy is a practical 
fruit grower, who loves the work and has turned his whole attention to it. 

KERN, D. N., Allentown, Lehigh County, Pa.: 

1. Twenty-Eight Years' Experience with Poultry on the Farm. 

2. Sixteen Years' Experience witIi*Fish Culture on the Farm. 

3. Twenty Years' Experience with Bees. 

4. Preserving Soil Moisture. 

5. Potato Culture. 

6. Wheat Culture Illustrated. 

8. Feeding and Watering the Cows. 

9. Keeping Accounts of the Farm. 

D. N. KERN was born in Shimerville, Lehigh county. Pa., June 24, 1849, was 
raised on his father's farm; was educated in public schools, afterwards 
attended a high school near Philadelphia, Pa. When seventeen years old 
learned the gunsmith and plow making trades. In 1870 took his father's farm 
and farmed till 1S97. Then retired from farming and moved to Allentown, Pa., 
where he used his leisure time in studying agricultural and archaeological 
books; also traveled a great deal. 

LEHMAN, AMOS B., Fayetteville, Franklin County, Pa.: 

1. Breeding, Feeding and Profit of Hogs. 

2. Forestry for Farmers. 

3. Our Insect Friends and Foes. 

4. Comparison of Profits; Dairy vs. Beef Cattle. 

5. Legumes for Feed and Fertilitv. 

6. Nature Study in our Public Schools. 

7. Corn and Cow Peas for the Silo; A Balanced Ration. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

AMOS. B. LEHMAN was born in Scotland, Pa., on the Lehman homestead, 
September 9, 1859, of Pennsylvania-German parentage. He had access to the 
public schools until sixteen years of age. This school training has been sup- 
plemented by an extensive investigation of the best authorities and personal 
experiments upon the subjects of farm theory and practice, i. e., aiming 
to produce the greatest amount of product at a minimum cost. He began 
farming for himself in 1884, and makes a specialty of corn and legumes, hogs, 
beef and dairy cattle. He was for three years State lecturer of the Farmers' 
Alliance and Industrial Union, and is at the present time experimenting to 
prove that farmers can't use acid phosphate at a profit, neither can they afford 
to pay $20.00 per ton for nitrogenous feeds. Farmers should soon learn to 
mix fertilizers and grow protein. 

LIGHTY, L. W., East Berlin, Adams County, Pa.: 

1. Tlie Farmers' Cow; Her Care and Feeding. 
'2. Producing and Marketing Dairy Products. 
;>. Silo Experience and Practice. 

4. Soiling and Soilijig Crops. 

5. Culture and Feeding of the Corn Crop. 

C). Value, Care and Application of Farm ?tfanur(\ 

7. The Making of a Home on the Farm. 

8. Education for our Boys and Girls; >\'hat and How. 

L. W. LIGHTY was born in York county, Pa., in 1857; 'attended the public 
schools of his neighborhood; afterwards attended a select school in Adams 
county and then taught school for seven winters. During this time he at- 
tended the York County Academy one term and also attended the State 
Normal School at Millera\'ille. He then kept store, but not liking the busi- 
ness, he got out of it, and started in the poultry bvisiness, keeping both 
market and fancy poultry, and engaged in bee-keeping and the culture of 
small fruits. In 1893 he purchased the faim upon which he now lives. The 
land was worn out and the buildings quite dilapidated. He has improved this 
until it is now one of the best farms in his county. He has a large library of 
standard books, keeps a selected dairy of cows, and has all the modern im- 
provements needed to equip a first class farm. 

McDonald, JOHN T., belhi, N. Y.: 

1. How I have JNIade Dairy Farming a Success. 

2. How 1 Make Poultry Pay with the Dairy Farm. 
:{. How it has Paid :\Ie to W a :Tack-of- All-Trades. 

4. Steaming Food for (he Dairy. 

5. Value of Skim Milk F( d Buck to the Dairy.' 

JOHN T. McDonald was l)nin in 1842, near Delhi, N. Y., and lives upon a 
farm of about 200 acres, 160 of which is improved. He w-as educated in the 
public schools; began farming in 1875, w^ent heavily into debt for his farm, and 
paid for it in twelve years, at the same time improving the buildings and land. 
He produces from 20,000 to 25,000 pounds of butter annually, which he sells 
for 35 cents per pound. He turned out last year about .$10,000 worth of pioduce. 
He keeps ninety cows, and they average a little over .300 pounds of butter 
each. He sold, during the year, over .$2,000 worth of chickens, eggs and 
turkeys. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTL' l{E. 31) 

^r(■I)o^^■!^LL. I'uor. ^r. s.. sinto (\)ii('<iv. ('cuti-c c'oiiniy. v-a.-. 

1. ('oiiiiiiciM i;il l''ci-(ili/.t'i-s. 

2. Lime and I Is Ad ion. « 
:i. Soil Moist iii-c. 

4. F»ani.v.'U'(l IMannrc. 
.1. Wliy Educate. 

M. S. McDowell, u^s born in MifTlin county, Pa.; attended the public schools, 
and Lewistown Academy; entered Pennsylvania State College in 1888, and 
was graduated in '92; after graduation was connected with a fertilizer manu- 
facturing establishment in Baltimore, and later came to the chemical depart- 
ment of tlie Experiment Station, with which he has been connected four y^ars. 

:McV\ILLIAMS, 1). ]{., I'ort Eoyal, Juiiiala County, Pa.: 

1. Manure and Fertilizers; Tlieir Value and Applioalion. 

2. How I'lants Feed and How to Feed Them. 

3. Education Through Organization. 

4. The Ideal. 

5. How the Natural Agencies Help the Farmers. 
C. The Ship that Passed in the Night. (Evening.) 

MENGES, PEOF. FRANKLIN, York, York County, Pa.: 

1. The Advantages of a Knowledge of Chemistrj^ to the Farmei-. 

2. Fixation of Free Nitrogen Explained. 

3. Nitrification; Conditions Necessary to Produce It. 

4. The Maintenance of Soil Moisture. 

5. Methods for the (Cultivation of Hay anVl Leguminous Crojis. 

G. The Functions of the Various Foods Necessary to Plant 
Growth. 

7. The Feeding Powers and Habits of Some Agricultural Plants. 

8. The Necessity of Education for the Farmer Compared with 

Other Vocations. 
!). A'alue of Our Native Birds to the Farmer. 
10. Insect Friends and Foes of the Farmer. (20-30 minutes each.) 

PROF. FRANKLIN MENGES, Ph. D., was born forty-four years ago at 
Menges' Mill, York county, Pa.; the first nineteen years of his life were spent 
on his father's farm, with all the ardour that farming meant in those days; he 
then began a course of preparation for college at the Baugher Academy, Han- 
over, Pa., and entered and graduated from Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, 
with the class of 188(5; was immediately tendered and accepted the position of 
assistant professor of chemistry in his alma mater, which position he held 
until 1896, when he came to York and took the professorship of the sciences in 
the York high school, which position he now holds; received the degree of Ph. 
D. from his alma mater for special work in chemistiy, mineralogy and physics. 
He has for years been a student of the "Experiment Station Record," and 
has continued an interest in practical agriculture, and has lectured before 
Farmers' Institutes. 



40 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

NORTIIKOP, r. [)., Elklaiid, Tioga County, Pa.: •? 

1. Fe(Hling and Care of the IJairj Cow. 

2. iJaUing nnd Marketing Gilt-Edged Butter. 

3. How to Use the Babcock Test in the Dairy, ([llustiated ) 

4. Coip Crop and Silo. 

5. Potatoes and How to Grow Them. 

G. Farm I'crlility ; Experience with Run-Down FaruKS. 

7. Education tor Farmers and Their Children. 

8. Making a Home in (lie Country. 
<). The Wife a Partner. • 

10. Broad Tires and (Jood Koads. 

11. Farmers' Mutual Telephone Line. 

C. D. NORTHROP was born in Brookfield, Tioga county, Pa., in ISS-): was 
educated in the public schools at Woodhall (N. Y.) Academy. In 1891, ho 
attended a dairy school at Geneva, N. Y., under the auspices of the New York 
Dairymen's Association. For the past twenty-one years he has made a 
specialty of dairying and the making of fine butter. He has been a teacher in 
the public schools, and has devoted a good deal of time to lecturing before 
alliances, granges, farm clubs, etc. 

NORTHUP, HENRY \V., Glenburn. Lackawanna County, Pa.: 

1. Selection, Care and Management of the Dairy. (30 minutes.) 

2. Practical Experience with the Silo. [--A) minutes.) 

3. Potato Growing. (20 minutes.) 

4. The Exhaustion and Restoration of Our Soil. (30 minutes.) 

5. Fruit Culture. (20 minutes.) 

G. Farm Products and How to Market Them. (20 minutes.) 

7. Nature Study for Country Schools. (20 minutes.) 

8. Educating the Farmer and Increasing his Usefulness. (20 

minutes.) 

0. DesiraliU' Country Homes and How to Enjoy Them. (20 

minutes.) 

HENRY W. NORTHUP was born on a farm in Abington, once considered the 
banner agricultural township in Luzerne county; he was educated in the 
public schools and at Madison Academy. His chief bu.sincss is that of farmer 
and dairyman: has been greatly benefited in this line of business for the 
last ttn years by having associated with some of the best and most prac- 
tical agriculturists in this and adjoining States in the institute work; has 
had some experience in fruit and market gardening and in the dispositon of 
these products in the city of Scranton, where an excellent ninikpt has been 
secured. 

ORR, T. E., Beaver, Beaver County. Pa.: 

1. Poultry Breeding. (30 minutes.) 

2. Poultry Feeding. (30 minutes.) 

3. Poultry Houses and Yiirds. (30 minutes.) 

4. Poultry Incubators and l?rooders. (30 minutes.) 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 41 

5. ruulU-v as a Side-Line for Fai'mors. (;U) miuufes.) 
(). The Faniu'i- and tlie i'ublio School. (30 minutes.) 

7. The Farniei- as a Hnsiness Man. (130 minutes.) 

8. Youi- Youth and Mine on (lie Farm. (40 minutes.) 

9. The Smalh st, but Most Useful Implement. (20 minutes.) 
10. Ship- ^^-'- ^' ■-- "^ the Night. (40 minutes.) 

T. E. ORR was born in Brooke county, Va., September 28, 1853. When nineteen 
years of age he was on the stock farms of his father and grandfather and 
attending- country schools. From 1872 to 1876 he taught country school two 
winters and atti ndcd National Normal School balance of that time, gradu- 
ating in 1S75. Taught surveying and civil engineering in 1876-7. From 1877 
to 1SS6 was superintendent or principal of public schools as follows: Mt. 
Vernon, Ind.; Le Mars, la.; Wellsburg, W. Va., and Bridgeport, O., doing 
Teachei-s' Institute work each summer. Leaving Bridgeport in 1886, and at 
a salary of $1,800 per year, he took an interest in the "National Stockman and 
Farmer," being one of its publishers and editors, which position he occupied 
until 1901, doing occasional Farmers' Institute work and acting as expoi t 
judge on poultry and live stock. Mr. Orr has always lieen closely identified 
with live stock and poultry associations. 

PATTON, JAMES Y., New Castle, Lawrence County. Fa.: 

1. Breedinji' and Feeding Poultry. 

2. Winter Eggs. 

3. now I made Dairying I'rolitable. 

4. Silos and Silage. 

5. How to Grow- Good Clover. 

6. Preserving Soil Moisture. 

7. When and How to Apply Barnyard Manwre and Why. (15- 

20 minutes each.) 

J. T. PATTON was born forty-two years ago, and has been engaged in agricul- 
ture all his life: has conducted a dairy for the past fourteen years, and en- 
gaged in he poultry business for seven years. 

PEACHY, J. H., BellevilhN Mifflin County. Pa.: 

1. The Farmer's Boy; His Education. 

2. Half Hour in the Corn Field. 

3. Hogs for Profit. 

4. Soil Improvement. 

5. Care of Farm Animals. 

6. Nature Study in the Public Schools. 

7. The Inside of the Farmer's Home. 

8. Th(^ Making of a Farmei'. 

J. H. PEACHY was born in Mifflin county. Pa., in 1851. His boyhood was spent 
upon a farm: Vv'as educated in the public schools, and graduated from the 
Ohio Normal University in 1881. After completing h:s course at school he 
followed teaching. In 1887 he began farming for himself and gave attention 
chiefly to raising hogs, sheep and cattle. 

4 



42 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

PHILIPS, HOX. THOMAS J., Allien, (^hcstcr Coiinly, Pa.: 

1. The Silo ail J^coiiouiic. 

2. Koncwod Fertility; How to Get It. 

3. Lime; Do You Need Some? 

4. Protit or Loss in tlie Dairy. 

5. Commercial Fertilizers; Their Nature aiul Use. 
G. Intelligent Feeding. 

7. The Farmer's Garden. 

8. Higher Education for Farmers' Children. 

J). How Shall We Study and Teach from Xalurc? 
10. The Wife's Share. 

THOMAS J. PHILIPS was born upon a farm in Chester county, Pa., December, 
1S46; attended public and private schools and graduated from Bucknell Uni- 
versity in 1S67; spent three years in manufacturing iron, and traveling, and 
then settled upon the farm where he still lives, giving special attention to 
dairying and raising dairy stock, but devoting much of the 200-acre farm to 
the production of mixed crops, suitable to that location and market. That he 
has been a success is attested bj- the fact that he has been a director in a 
national bank for many years, a manager in one of the largest fire insurance 
companies in the State, and 'of a Imilding and loan association; served two 
terms in the State Legislature, as a representative of the farming interests; 
he has contributed acceptably from time to time of his experience to the 
agricultural press, and in every way has kept in the front amongst the most 
progressive of his locality, believing in higher education, attractive country 
homes, and that success is the result of individual effort and judgment. 

KIDDLE, W. H. II., Butler, Puller County, Pa.: 

1. The Practical Farmer. 

2. The Value of Pure-Bred Stock to the Farnu^r. •' 
'.i. The A'alue of Humus. 

4. The Home and Its Surroundings. 

T). \\ hat is Doing to Advance Agriculture. 

C. Hints on I'oultry for the Farmer. 

W. H. H. RIDDLE w£^r born at Carnegie, Allegheny county, Pa., December 
11, 1840; li\'ed and worked on his father's farm until about 18 years of age; 
attended Sunbury Academy, A\here he received an academic course; after 
teaching school seven years, read law and practiced thirty years. During 
twenity-five years the subject of this sketch owned and managed a farm; he 
also helped organize an agricultural and fair association, and has taken an 
active part in its management for the past twenty-two years, being its presi- 
dent for ten years; has l)een a member of the State Board of Agriculture since 
1886, and local manager of institutes for Butler county. A love of agricul- 
tural pursuits led him to abandon his law office and devote his entire time to 
the management of his farm of some 200 acres, upon which special attention 
is given to the propagation of plamt.s under glass, etc. 

SCHOCK, OLlNLi: !)., Ilambnig, Berks County, Pa.: 

1. Poultry on the Farm. 

2. Good Local Government. 



No. G. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. « 

.".. Milking Isiniici-s* lloiiics AHrnrtivc. 

4. Amalenr (Irape Ciilture. 

5. Tlu' Family Gardoii. 

G. Floriciillure in the Country. 

7. The K('spoiisil)ili(ies of Farmers. 

8. Progress in Ajirieultiire, 

OLIVER D. SCHOCK was born on a farm near Hamburs, Berks county, Pa., 
in 1858, and has always taken a deep inteiest in agrieultuial and horticul- 
tural affairs. He was educated in the common and high si'hools, including 
a course in a commercial and scientific academy. At the age of fifteen 
he became a newspaper correspondent, and continues to represent leading 
daily papers and agricultural journals. For a number of years he served as a 
special agent of the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture, and later as a 
clerk in the oflice of the Board, assisting Secretary Edge. With the creation 
of the Department of Agriculture, in 1895, Governor Hastings promoted Mr. 
Schock to the position of Chief Cerk of that Department, which position he 
filled until July, 1899. After several years experience in mercantile pursuits, 
he was appointed in the spring of 1903, under Governor Pennypacker's admin- 
istration, to the position of assistant to B. H. Warren, Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner of Pennsylvania, which position he now holds. 

BCHWAKZ. liOX. R. F., Analomiiik, Monroe County, Pa.: 

J. SuccH'Ss with Criiusou Clitvcr and W^ehe.s. (4.5 minutes.) 
2. Market Gardening and Small Fruit Growing. (Two parts, 

.30 minutes each.) 
'.\. The Commercial Orchard. (25 minutes.) 
5. A Thorough Understanding of the Fertilizer Qupstion. (:>5 

minutes.) 
0. Does Poultry Pay. (20 minutes.) 

7. Good Tools; How to Cse Them and Their Care. (20 minutes.) 

8. The New Koad Law and the Farmer's Duty Under It. (20-40 

minutes.) 

0. Vegetables and Fruits for the Farmer's Table. (2.") minutes.) 
10. Why Education is as Essential to the Farmers' Success as to 

that of Men in Other Occupations. (4.5 minutes.) 

R. F. SCHWARZ was born near Berlin, Germany, in 1S53; educated in Ducal 
Gymnasi and Ducal College, at Dessau. He came to New Yoik in 1871, re- 
moved to Chicago in 1873, and 1875 bought a farm in Monroe county, in this 
State, where he has since followed the business of fruit grow'ing and market 
gardening, devoting at the present time about thirty acres to this pursuit. 
He was a member of the House of Representatives two terms, 1893 and 1895. 

SEEDS, K. S., Birmingham, Huntingdon County. Pa.: 

1. Value of Fertility and Cheapest Way to (Jet It. (;5(l 10 

minutes.) 

2. What Constitutes a Country Home. (:10-40 iniimtes.) 

3. Education and the Farmer. (.'^O minutes.) 

4. Benefits Derived from Farnu'rs' Institutes. (20 minutes.) 



44 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

5. Wlial I Know About Roads. (20 minutes.) 

6. Soil Improvement, the Keynote of Agriculture. (30 minutes.) 

7. Mistakes of Life Exposed. (E. L.) (60 minutes.) 

R. S. SEEDS was born in Huntingdon county, Pa., in 1852; was educated in 
the public schools and at the Shade Gap Acadenfy. He was raised upon a 
farm and traveled for eighteen years among the farmers, selling agricultural 
implements. In 1892 he bought a farm that had been run down, which he has 
greatly improved. 

SEXTON, HON. JASON, North Wales, Montgomery County, Pa.: 

1. What is Successful Farming. (20 minutes.) 

2. The Production of Lambs for Early Market. (20 minutes.) 

8. How Farming Can be Alade to Pay. (20 minutes.) 

4. Our Wasted Resources. (oO minutes.) 

5. How to Make the Dairy a Success. (30 minutes.) 

6. Why Farmers Should Encourage Road Improvement. (20 

minutes.) 

7. What the Farmer's Home and its Surroundings Should Be. 

(30 minutes.) 

JASON SEXTON was born in Schoharie county, N. Y., in 1834, and was edu- 
cated in the public schools of his township. Worked upon his father's farm, 
who always kept a dairy of from twenty-five to thirty-five cows, making both 
butter and cheese; enlisted in the Union army in 1862, and served throughout 
the war; upon retiring from the army he bought his father's farm of 200 
acres, going in debt for two-thirds of the purchase money, and paying 
7 per cent, interest. He continued the dairy, but in 1874 sold the farm, and 
in 1876 moved to Montgomery county. Pa., where he now resides. He there 
became manager of William M. Singerly's farms, comprising 825 acres of 
land. He had charge of the breeding of several hundred registered Hol- 
steins and Jerseys, Southdown sheep and Berkshire pigs, also feeding as many 
as 125 eteers and from 800 to 1,000 sheep, besides milking a large dairy of 
from 59 to 100 cows. 

STOUT, W. H., Pinegrove, Schuylkill County, Pa.: 

1. Fruit Growing. 

2. Experience in Draining Clay Bottom Land. 

3. Theory vs. Practice. 

4. Commercial Fertilizers and Compounds. 

5. W^asting Manure. 

6. Geological Observations. (30 minutes each.) 

W. H. STOUT was born October 18, 1840, in Dower Nazareth township, North- 
ampton county, Pa.; was educated in the common schools and engaged in 
various occupations, serving an apprenticeship at coopering and milling; also 
as clerk and traveling salesman; has lived on his present farm for the past 
twenty-seven years, and is engaged in general farming, trucking, fruit grow- 
ing and bee-keeping; has acquired practical and scientific information by ob- 
■ervation and study; speaks English and German. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 45 

STUAKT, K: K., CalU'iisbui-fi:, Clarion County, Pa.: 

1. Kaising Swine for Profit. (20-30 minutei.) 

2. Dairy Bacteriology. (30-40 minutes.) 

3. Sheep Husbandry. (25 minutes.) 

4. Shall "NVe Educate the Farm Boy. (30 minutes.) 

5. Centralization of Township Schools. (45 minutes.) 

6. The Home and the School. (30 minutes.) 

7. The Advantages of a Scientiiic Education to the Farmer. (30 

minutes.) 

8. Fruit Culture for Home and for Market. (30-40 minutes.) 

9. Stable Manure. (20 minutes.) 
10. Life; \Miat is it. (50-60 minutes.) 

SURFACE, PROF. H. A., Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

1. The Economic Value and Protection of Our Native Birds. 

(40-50 minutes.) , - 

2. Greneral Principles and Methods of Insect Warfare. (Illus- 

trated.) 

3. The Hessian Fly in Pennsylvania. (Sometimes illustrated 

by lanterns.) 

4. Nature Study and Agriculture in the Public Schools. (25- 

30 minutes.) 

5. The Centralization of Schools. (20 minutes.) 

6. Higher Education for Farmers' Boys and Girls. (15-20 

minutes'.) 

7. The Elements of Success. -(15 minutes.) 

HARVEY ADAM SURFACE, M. S., Economic Zoologist, was born on a farm in 
Warren county, O., in 1867. He worked on the farm and attended and taught 
country school. He was educated in the Lebanon (O.) Normal, the Ohio State 
University, the University of Illinois, Hopkins (Stanford) California Seaside 
Laboratory and Cornell University. He taught in the Ohio State University, 
the University of the Pacific, Cornell, the Ithaca schools, teachers' institutes 
and the Pennsylvania State College. He held a fellowship in Cornell and waa 
also appointed Dykman Research Fellow in Columbia University. He was 
field naturalist for the Illinois State Biological Station and University Exten- 
sion lecturer in New York. He has also been lecturer in Zoology at the West 
Coast Chautauqua Assembly and scientific assistant on the United States 
Fish Commission. He has taught in every known grade of school work, and 
is noted for his enthusiasm and ability as a teacher, speaker and writer. He 
is ornithologist of the Pennsylvania State Board of Agi-iculture, and is making 
investigations of insects for the Pennsylvania State Department of Agricul- 
ture and fishes for the Pennsylvania State Fish Commission. Among his 
writings are articles on nature study, zoology, mollusks, insects, fishes, 
birds, mammals, pedagogy, anatomy, etc. He is nature study editor of the 
"Popular Educator," ornithological editor of "American Gardening," member 
of the American Society of Naturalists, American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, the American Ornithologists' Union, the Pennsylvania 
State Audubon Society, etc. He makes a specialty of the biologic and economic 
features of his subjects. He was appointed Economic Zoologist by Governor 
Pennypacker in 1903. 



46 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Dor. 

TllAVKK, DK. 1. A., Xcw Castle, l^awrciicc rounty, IVa.: 
1. IJcnetils of Tile Drainiui;. 
1*. How to Tile Drain. 
:>. Soil Moisture. 

4. Preparation of the Seed Bed. (40 minutes.) 

5. Stable Manure. 

6. Commercial Fertilizers. 

7. The Clovers as Food. 

S. The Clo\ers as Fertilizers. 
!». JV)tato Culture, 
lil. Strawberry Culture. 

11. Feeding and Care of Farm Animals. 

12. Bovine Tuberculosis. I 

13. Home Hygiene. 

14. Nature Studies. (20-30 minules each.) 

DR. I. A. THAYER was born near Warren, o. , in November. 1840. He was 
reared on a farm of which he was foreman for a number of years under a 
scientific and successful farmer; was educated in Hiram College, under the 
presidency of Gen. Garfield. He graduated in medicine in 1S66, and practiced 
that profession several years. Since laying down that practice he has been 
engaged in public speaking, having during fifteen years filled important lec- 
ture engagements from Boston to St. Louis, under the management of the 
leading lyceum bureaus. He has recently finished the course in crop produc- 
tion and that in live stock production in our State College. For nine months 
in the year his time is given wholly to his farming opeiations, for years * 
conducting a veritable experiment station where he has" worked with a book 
in one hand and a hoe in the other; hence, he is equipped with a practical 
knowledge that he has the ability to express in the clearest manner. 

^VALTZ, SAMUEL W. H., Williamsport, Lycomino- County, Pa.: 

1. The Apiary. (Illustrated.) (20(50 minutes.) 

2. Corn Culture. (Hlustrated.) (20-40 minutes.) 

:i. The Apple Orchard. (Illustrated.) (20-40 minutes.) 
4. "Home, Sweet Home." (Evening Lecture.) ((>0 minutes.) 
n. Protitable Poultry Keeping. (Illustrated.) 20-40 minutes.) 
(i. Our Insect Friends and Foes. (Illustrated.) 20-40 minutes.) 

7. The Culture and Value of Clover. (Illustrated.) (20-40 

nunutes.) 

8. The Farmer's Garden and Mis Table. (20-40 minutes.) 

!). The Ideal Cow— Her Fare; Her Care; Her Ware. (20-40 min- 
utes.) 

10. Some Common Birds and Their Relation to Agriculture. (Il- 

lustrated.) 

11. Lost Fertility; the Cheapest Way to Regain It and the Best 

Way to Maintain It. (20-40 minutes.) 

12. The Farm \\'orkshop and Library; their Inlluence on the 

Character of the Country Youth. (20-30 minutes.) 



No. fi. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 47 

1.!. Is the ronmioii Scliool Furnisliin^ tlic riopcv Kdufation 
Nocdod by I'^irnicrs' Roys and (Jirls. IL'()-4(I iiiiiiuii's.i 

14. Clover, Cow and Urn; (he W iniiiiii; .Moncy-Makin;.; Conibinu- 
tion <«r (he Twculictli Century Farmer. (20-40 minutes.) 

SAMUEL W. H. WALTZ was born in Anthony township, Lycoming county, 
Pa., January 8, 1869. He wa.s educated in the public schools, Muncy high 
school, Lyconung County Normal Schu<jl and Williamsport Dickinson Semi- 
nary. He taught in the public schools for several terms, and was afterwards 
elected a member of the school board of his native township. His home 
has always been on the farm, and he grew to manhood among scenes and 
circumstances that thoroughly iiiiluud him with an intense love for nature 
and the intrinsic value of self-reliance. Mr. Waltz is essentially a self-made 
man, experience being his best teacher. He began to study agricultural 
science in boyhood and ever since has strenuously endeavored to follow those 
principles taught him by experience. He regards experience his safest teacher, 
but is ahvays ready to entertain, with due consideration, what others may 
have acquired and ever anxious to profit by their diligence and reseach, 
which stand him in good stead to acquire those elements of knowledge that 
go to make up a progressive and up-to-date agriculturist. He is particularly 
fond of horticulture, botany, ornithology, apiculture, geology and astronomy, 
all of which bring him in close touch with every-day life on the farm. 

WALLACE, MRS. MARY A. ("Aunt Patience"). Ellwood City. Law- 
rence County, Pa.: 

1. A Country Plome; Its Convenience, Sanitation, etc. 

2. Domestic Science. 

'S. A Talk mtli Country Boys and Girls. 

4. The Summer Plague. (30 minutes each.) 

MRS. MARY A. WALLACE is a daughter of the late Chester W. Ballou, Esq., 
one of the most successful and progressive of the pioneer farmers of Lawrence 
county. Pa. She was educated in the public schools, and Beaver Seminary, 
Beaver, Pa., and previous to her marriage taught school in her home district. 
Later, to her household duties, she added newspaper work, and became widely 
known in literary and journalistic circles through her pen name, "Aunt 
Patience." Mrs. AVallace was a charter member of the Pittsburg Women's 
Press Club, and was its treasurer for a number of years. She is also promi- 
nent in patriotic societies, and this year delivered the Memorial Day ad- 
dress at Slippery Rock Presbyterian Church, and at the close was given a 
public vote of thanks by the soldiers present. Her home is on a farm near 
Ellwood City, Pa. 

^VATTS, PROF. R. L., Scalp Level. Cambria County, Pa.: 

1. HoAv Plants Feed and (Jrow. (30 minutes.) 

2. Conservation of Soil Moisture. (30 minutes.) 

3. Care and Management of Orchards. (30 minutes.) 

4. Apples in Pennsylvania. (30 minutes.) 

;j. Tlie Cultivation of Small Fruits. (30 minutes.) 

6. Market 'Jardening. (30 minutes.) 

7. Xatiire Study in the Public Schools. (30 minut<>s.) 
J^. IJeautifyiiig- the TTome Crounds. (:]0 minutes.) 



48 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

9. Opportunities and Advantages I'oi- Young Men on the Farm. 

(oO minutes.) 
10. ]\lental P'quipment for Farming. (80 minutes.) 

R. L. WATTS was born at Kerrmoor,_ Pa ..June 5, 1869; raised on the farm of his 
father, Martin Watts, which farm was largely devoted to fruit culture. 
Entered Pennsylvania State College in 1887; graduated frr>m agricultural 
course in June, 1890. He was elected Assistant Instructor in Botany and 
Horticulture of the University of Tennessee and Horticulturist of the Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station of this institution in September, 1890. Later he 
was made Instructor of Horticulture, followed by Assistant Professor of Hor- 
ticulture and Secretary of the Experiment Station. Besides the I'egular duties 
as secretary, he had charge of the Farmers' Institutes of the State, held under 
the auspices of the University and Station; he prepared programs, con- 
ducted correspondence and participated in the meetings. While at the Station 
he conducted various experiments with fruits and vegetables in the greenhouse 
and out of doors, the results of which have been published in bulletin form. 
He wrote Farmers' Bulletin No. 39, on "Onions," for the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. For several years he was editor of the fruit and vegetable de- 
partment of the "Southern Florist and Gardener;" he is now engaged in 
gardening and fruit culture with a poultry plant to accommodate 500 hens. 

WATTS, D. H., Kerrmoor, Clearfield County, Pa.: 

1. The Dairy Herd— The Stable; The Feed. 

2. The Silo and Why Profitable. 

3. Gilt-Edge Butter; How to Make It and How Sell It. 

4. The Steam Engine; How Used on Our Farm. 

5. Farm Buildings and their Location. 

6. The Apple Orchard. 

7. Getting Out of the Euts. 

8. Recollections of the Old Farm Home. (30 minutes each.) 

D. H. WATTS was born near Kerrmoor, Pa., May 25, 1861, was raised on the 
farm of his father, Martin Watts, and educated in the public schools, which 
schooling was supplemented by a few months attendance at the Indiana State 
Normal School. He has always been interested in farmers organizations and 
served two years as president of the Clearfieid County Agricultural Society. 
He located upon his farm in 1886 and erected thereon modern buildings and 
established a dairy plant where fine butter for a special trade is produced. 
The growing of fruits is also a specialty. On his farm, known as "Orchard 
View Farm" there are 3,000 apple, peach, pear and plum trees, all his own 
selection and planting. 

WAYCHOFF, G. B., Jelferson, Greene County, Pa. : 

1. Drainage. 

2. Lime and Liming. 

3. Raising Clover. 

4. Clover as a Food. 

5. Glover as a Fertilizer. 

6. Unlocking Soil Fertility. 

7. Leaks on the Farm. 

8. Berries for the Home. 

r>. The Farmer's Opportunity. (20-25 minutes each.) 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. " 49 

B. H. WAYCHOFF was born and raised on a farm; was educated in public 
sciiools, and attended Monongahela College, graduating in tiie scientific course. 
Taught several years in public schools; also taught in Monongahela College, 
in Beaver College and in Beaver High School, and has had considerable experi- 
ence in public speaking'. At the age of 23 he bought a poor and almost aban- 
doned farm, and by drainage, liming and raising clover, together with good 
tillage, it has been brought up to a good degree of productiveness. 

There were lield, in all, of what may be termed regular scheduled 
institutes, oiJT days. These meetings were sub-divided into thirty- 
one institutes of one dav each, and seventy two-dav institutes, and 
two three-day institutes, or two two-day institutes with sessions con- 
tinued for three days. In addition to the regular schedule, there 
were held twentj'-one special meetings, in which the Division of In- 
stitutes joined with the pomona granges, farmers' unions and clubs 
in what may be properly termed special or local institutes. 

These 327 days were sub-divided into 831 sessions. The average 
attendance upon ea«h of these sessions was 150, or a total of 123,- 
384. We expended, last .year, in the employment of instructors, for 
hall rents, hotel and traveling expenses and incidentals, in 
all. $L5,000. We employed, last 3 ear, in all, fifty-two State speakers 
or instructors. Associated with these instructors in the different 
counties of the State where institutes are held is a vast army of 
local institute workers, who read papers on the various lines of 
farm w^ork, joined in the discussion of topics, and have thus become 
a mighty force in the development of the work within the bounds 
of the State. The one new line of work, only partially inaugurated, 
is the sending of specialists in the line of the leading agricultural 
industries as carried on in the State to give special instructions as 
to management of the dairy, handling of milk, ventilation of the 
barn, etc.; also, in horticultural lines, mixing of spraying material 
and how to use it, demonstrating the difference between insects and 
fungous diseases, and how to apply the remedies suited to each. 
Special mention should be made of the work accomplished in this 
line by Prof. H. A. Surface, Economic Zoologist of this Department, 
who has devoted much of his time in attending these meetings and 
giving valuable instruction to the farmers on topics above men- 
tioned. I am pleased to say that in so far as we have advanced in 
this line of instruction, results have been entirely satisfactory. 

This report would be incomplete without making mention of our 
Annual Meeting of Institute Managers and Lecturers, held at Hunt- 
ingdon, Pa., June 2, 3 and 4, which meeting may be fairly regarded 
as representing the topics and standard of work embraced in our 
general institute plan. The proceedings of this meeting are pub- 
lished in bulletin form, three thousand of which have been distrib- 
uted throughout the State, and the same will be found inserted in 
another part of this volume. 

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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTi: HE. 



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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



Tabulaied ic'i>ui-t,is from the various local agricultural societies 
reiuforccs my recommeudatious last year, as to the importance of 
encouraging none but expert jiulges to pass upon the merits of all 
competing articles, as more .than two-thirds of the societies hare 
adopted this practice. The attendance last 3'ear was not so great 
as in previous year, 911,074 being in attendance, as compared with 
1,024,250 in 1001. Collection of membership fees, however, shows 
a marked increase — |7,S72 — as compared v/itb |2,2!)7.10 in 1901. 
raid in premiums, |91,261.06, as compared with |113,347.93, in 
1901. The falling off in attendance was no doubt a result of 
v)-)ient wind and rain storms which prevailed in the months of Sep- 
tember and October; so furious were these storms in some instances 
as to drive the people from the grounds. This was especially true 
whilst the fair was in progress at iSazareth, Northampton county, 
where the exhibits were in every line large and of special merit. 

Too much emphasis cannot l)e placed upon the importance of the 
active farmers of Pennsylvania taking charge of these agricultural 
exhibits, and so controlling them as to eliminate therefrom all ex- 
hibits and shows of immoral and doubtful propriety, thus by exer- 
cising proper attention, care and discretion, these fairs will be- 
come real object lessons, living and vital examples showing forth 
the best features of agricultural advancement in its various de- 
partments. The appended list will show in detail the corporate 
name of each society, address of president and secretary, also date 
and place where fairs were held during 1903: 



No. 6. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUETUUE. 



57 




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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



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No. 6. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



63 



*CROP REPORTS. 

Gill' crop report lias been placed in bulletin form and upwards of 
3,000 copies distributed amongst the farmers of the State. Since 
1899 there has been, with but few exceptions, a uniform and steady 
advance in the price of farm products. Along with this increase in 
crop values has come advanced wages for farm labor, as will be 
noted bv reference to brief table scheduled since 1899, as follows: 



Wheat 

Corn, 

Oats 

Potatoe.s 

Hay, clover 

Hay, timothy, 

Butter 

Ewes, 

Lambs 

Horses, 

Cows, 

Chickens, live, per pound 

Chickens, dressed, per pou:jd 

Labor, per day, without board, 

Labor, per month, without board, 
Farm land, improved, per acre, .. 
Farm land, average, per acre, 



1899. 



$0 68 

42 

26 

42 

8 20 

10 69 

20 

3 72 

3 22 

78 49 

39 13 

OS 

11 

1 11 

20 00 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 



10 73 
48 
32 
53 

11 20 
13 85 

22 

3 GO 

3 26 

87 61 

33 08 

08 

12 

1 15 

20 55 

58 CO 

38 00 



?0 71 

58 

41 

75 

10 81 

13 30 

22 

3 48 



3 11 


98 OO 


32 00 


08 


12 


1 23 


22 00 


60 00 


38 00 



$0 74 

54 

39 

55 

10 00 

12 50 

20 

3 50 

2 76 

110 00 

38 00 

10 

13 

1 25 



55 00 
37 00 



The Farmers' Institutes in Pennsylvania have, since their organi- 
zation, experienced a steady and uniform growth. The demand on 
the part of the farmers of the State for accurate information rela- 
tive to every subject associated with his occupation exemplifies 
the importance of the work. When we come to consider its im- 
portance, the vast interest involved, yet he must realize the fact that 
last year we held 327 days of institute at the nominal cost of $37.50 
per day. This sum includes all expenses connected with said meet- 
ings, both under county and State management. In order that this 
great work should be equipped in a manner commensurate with its 
importance and the demands of the farmer, the coming Legislature 
should, and I trust, will, appropriate the sum of |25,000 annually 
for the carrying on of this great and important work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. L. MARTIN, 
Deputy Secretary and Director of Institutes. 

*See Appendix for Tabulated Report. 



64 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



Rl^PORT OF THK DAIRY AND FOOD COMMIS- 
SIONER. 



Harrisburg, Pa., December 31^ 1903. 
Hon. N. B. Critchfield, Secretary of Agriculture: 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to present for your consideration the 
following report of the operations of this Division of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, since my appointment to the position of Dairy 
and .Food Commissioner by his excellency, Governor Samuel W. 
Pennypacker. 

Having assumed charge of official duties on April 1, 1903, the 
I'cport will cover a period of the nine months ending December 31, 
1903. 

WORK OF THE DIVISION. 

The work accomplished and the results attained in the enforce- 
ment of the several acts of Assembly placed under my administra- 
iio'n are unprecedented, both in the number of prosecutions insti- 
tuted and the fines and license fees collected and paid into the State 
Treasury. These figures are respectfully submitted for the informa- 
tion of all concerned. The detailed report which follows shows 
that the total amount paid into the State Treasury, including fines, 
costs of analyses, etc., aggregate |93,458.71. An examination of 
the legal records show that about 1,800 prosecutions were ordered 
since April 1, and the number of suits instituted and the amount of 
fines collected proves conclusively that the pure food laws are being 
more rigidly and successfully enforced in Pennsylvania than in any 
other state of the Union. 

It is also safe to assert that the information imparted to those 
who are engaged in the manufacture and sale of food products t\111 
prove a lasting benefit to the trade as well as to the public, gener- 
ally, resulting in a deserved regard for the pure food laws by the 
former and ability on the part of the latter to secure better and 
purer food products than ever before without any increase in cost. 
Ov/ing to the more general enforcement of the dairy and food laws 
of Pennsylvania, the danger to health through the use of harmful 
adulterants and poisonous drugs as preservatives, is now receiving 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 65 

almost uiiivcM'Siil attention, and as a result, many correspondents 
from all parls of the State have Aolunteered infoi-mation that in 
numerous instances has proved helpful in eradicating existing evils. 
The plain system of absolute fraud in the sale of inferior articles 
deserved condemnation, but when lives were placed in jeopardy, it 
was imperative that official action should be rendered as vigorously 
and promptly as possible. 

TENDENCY TO ADULTERATE. 

The prevailing custom to adulterate articles of food and drink is 
but one of the many devices that are being resorted to to an alarm- 
ing extent for the purpose of gaining wealth speedily. Many years 
ago, that brilliant and observant author, Ruskin, refc^rred to the 
fact that poisoning people of large estates was employed in the 
Middle Ages, in order that such estates might fall into other hands. 
Adulteration of the food of people of small estates is a method ex- 
tensively employed to-day to accumulate large estates quickly. 

Public officials and law.yers have spent many busy hours in devis 
ing methods whereby these evils might be counteracted, if not en- 
tirely controlled, in order that the health and purses of all concerned 
may be protected, and the dishonest and unscrupulous manufac- 
turer, jobber, w^holesaler and retailer deterred from committing of- 
fenses against the laws of the Commonwealth. That the fraudu- 
lent producer and unscrupulous agent are still in the field is made 
self-evident by the exceptionally large number of prosecutions which 
were instituted during my short term of office. 

NEW METHODS OF DECEPTION. 

New methods of deceiving and defrauding the public are con- 
stantly being brought to light, and when prosecuted, these trans- 
gressors of the laws are equally prolific in presenting unique and 
novel defenses. Just how to close such loopholes of escape is one 
of the problems that confront the Commissioner and his legal ad- 
visors, but it is gratifying to be able to report that in nearly every 
instance the remedy to meet the emergency has been found and 
that, in the main, the efforts to enforce the laws through numerous 
suits, resulted in their successful termination. While our legal 
advisors met many obstacles in their part of the w^ork of enforcing 
the laws, a continued perseverance and unquestioned honesty of 
purpose resulted in winning many critical and important ca^es and 
also resulted in the conviction and punishment of the transgressors. 

5—6—1903 



66 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

PURE POOD LEGISLATION. 

The successful work accomplished in this Commonwealth has 
mainly resulted from the "Pure Food Act of 1895," which was re- 
garded at the time of its passage as the most perfect pure food law 
that had, up to that time, been adopted by any state of the Union. 
In a number of instances this act was made by other states a basis 
for the enactment of pure food legislation. The results attained 
have confirmed its utility and demonstrated its justice. 

It is, however, true that my brief incumbency of the ofiSce has 
shown the need of some additional legislation. While certain 
statutes now in force are very good in their character and scope, 
there are certain changes to be recommended at a later and more 
appropriate period, that could not do otherwise than still better 
fortify the Commissioner and his assistants against possible de- 
lays and annoyances in the courts, and in securing a more speedy and 
proper termination of all suits. It is essential that delays oc- 
casioned by minor causes and quibbling shall be avoided, as the best 
moral effect is secured when the guilty ones are speedily brought 
to justice. 

FOOD PRESERVATIVES. 

The use and abuse of food preservatives is a subject that has re- 
ceived my earnest and serious consideration. The fraudulent prac- 
tice of employing injurious preservatives that are tasteless and not 
noticeable to the consumer has been on the increase, notwithstand- 
ing the existence of laws prohibiting their use and providing severe 
penalties in cases where the laws are violated. It is asserted by 
eminent medical authorities that few, if any, food preservatives 
have been discovered which are entirely nontoxic, and which do 
not have a marked influence on digestion, even when taken in small 
quantities. The people of Germany decreed wisely when they de- 
clared that the use of all preservatives in articles of food and drink 
should be prohibited. Manufacturers and dealers usually commit 
two wrongs when using such agents: First, they violate the laws of 
the State, and, second, they add to the article a substance which, in 
many instances, is injurious to health. A number of dealers have 
been found selling the same preservative, '^mixture" or "compound" 
under a variety of names. 

Another feature that attracted attention was the fact that the 
mysterious (?) "compound" was in some instances sold at prices 
from double to twenty times its true value. The physiological 
studies made and the evidence which has accumulated all condemn 
the addition of salicylic acid and certain other preservatives under 
all circumstances. Commercial food preservatives that are dele- 
terious to health are jdaced undor the ban of the Pennsylvania pure 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 67 

food laws, and, as in the year just conolnded, it shall be my purpose 
to continue an nctive warfare against their unw^arranted and illegal 
use. 

ADULTERATED CEREAL PRODUCTS. 

The cereals and the numerous preparations made therefrom form 
a very important part of human food and constitute a large part 
of the trade in food products. These articles, particularly flour, 
are susceptible of manipulation to the detriment of the consumer. 
In one of the leading flour-producing states the practices of adultera- 
tion became so common that it was necessary for the legitimate and 
honorable producers to combine, in order that their trade reputation 
might not be entirely destroyed by unscrupulous producers and deal- 
ers. As a result, anti-adulteration leagues were organized, and to- 
day their former prestige is being gradually restored, and the de- 
mand for their products has once more attained a normal and 
healthy condition. It is probable that, with your approval, cereal 
products will be a subject of special examination at a later period. 

CONSIDERATION OF CASES. 

The Commissioner respectfully reports that in the preparation 
of a case for prosecution, its various phases are carefully consid- 
ered and that possibly more pains are taken and more expense in- 
curred in securing evidence than has been customary in the past. 
It is only when actual fraud and deception have been attempted 
or practiced, or when positively harmful or poisonous adulterants, 
admixtures, dyes or compounds are employed in the preparation of 
:joods for sale, that the law^ is invoked to correct abuses and thus 
prevent physical injury to a long-suffering and much-defrauded class 
of consumers. 

EDUCATING THE PUBLIC. 

A vast amount of the w^ork of the office force, as well as that of 
the attorneys, special agents and other assistants, connected with 
this Division, might very properly be regarded as of an educational 
character. The official correspondence has assumed very large pro- 
portions, and the concern manifested in the work of securing better 
and more wholesome food and drink for the people has aroused 
an unparalleled interest in all sections of the Commonwealth. 
Wherever actual fraud was shown by correspondents the Commis- 
sioner promptly exercised his legal authority to improve conditions, 
w'hether they were either local or general in character. This hearty 
co-operation of the public materially added to the zeal and inspira- 
tion necessary to successfullv enforce the laws. 



68 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

EXAMINING MILK SUPPLY. 

The nine xxioiiths of my incumbency of this office has been a period 
of intense activity as the facts presented in tabular form will at- 
test. Conspicuous amongst the many investigations conducted was 
an examination into the milk supplies of numerous cities, towns and 
boroughs. This work was inaugurated primarily because the selling 
agents of "milk preservatives" were reported as having been un- 
usually successful in disposing of their i^reparations, such as for- 
maldehyde, boric acid, benzoic acid, ''boron compounds," etc. Our 
investigations, in numerous instances, resulted in the finding of 
these materials, together with coloring matter, some of which is 
very poisonous in its character. The condition of the milk and 
cream sold in some towns was of an alarming nature, the use of 
harmful drugs having reached proportions hitherto unknown. In 
fact, it is claimed that the use of excessive amounts of such preserv- 
atives was directly responsible for the increased mortality amongst 
small children in Western Pennsylvania towns, while in other cases 
infants were made ill and narrowly escaped death before the cause 
was discovered. While preservatives and antiseptics interfere 
with digestion, even in the case of the strongest adult, it is very 
easy to surmise what disastrous effects must follow when adminis- 
tered to a weak and tender babe, whose only food consists of this 
poisonous, and death-dealing fluid. 

EXCESSIVE DOSES OF POISON. 

The analytical results showed conclusively that preservatives 
were not only freely used by milk dealers, but that in scores of 
instances, the quantity used was far in excess of that required 
to prevent fermentation, thus adding to the great danger connected 
with their use. The fact that such fluids and compounds can be 
sold at comparatively low prices is a menace to health and life, 
because their cheapness induces many unscrupulous and ignorant 
producers and venders to drug their milk and cream to a very dan- 
gerous extent and to use artificial preservation or "embalming" as 
a substitute for cleanliness. 

IMPOSING DOUBLE FINES. 

It is a remarkable fact that a second investigation following 
closely upon a test which had resulted in a number of arrests, con- 
victions and payments of fines of $50.00 each, again resulted in cap- 
turing some of the same offenders in the drag net of justice. The 
penalties for the second ofTense were doubled, and, so far as we are 
able to ascertain, a more healthy condition of affairs exists at the 
present writing. 



No. G. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 69 

MALT AND VINOUS LIQUORS. 

The preliminary examination recently inaugurated of some of 
the malt and vinous liquors that are beinji^ sold in Pennsylvania 
has attracted wide attention. The subject is one of xjrime import- 
ance, and the indications lead to the belief that the legitimate 
brewer and distiller will be in most hearty accord with the Com- 
missioner in his endeavor to enforce the law. Imitation, drugged 
and poisonous liquors are positively harmful and pernicious in their 
effects. The harm done when such products are allowed to have 
an unrestricted sale is simply incalculable, and the danger to human 
life is particularly great when they are sold for medicinal purposes, 
when none but the purest and best stimulants are recommended 
by physicians. That the imposition practiced was a far-reaching 
one cannot be controverted, as the number of prosecutions success- 
fully brought against liqnor dealers, hotel keepers, druggists, etc., 
will attest. Many thousands of dollars were paid into the State 
Treasury in tines imposed for the sale of such adulterated, com- 
pounded and chemically preserved liquors, and the w^ork will be 
continued until, if possible, the present conditions are removed. 

ANALYSES OF BEER. 

A preliminary examination of the beer that is being sold in Penn- 
sylvania has been commenced and is now in progress as the result 
of the alleged use of harmful adulterants. These aualvtical tests 
were made mainly to discover preservatives. A summary of the 
chemists' reports shows that out of a total of 13G samples of beer 
analyzed 100 brands did not contain preservatives, while 26 samples 
were drugged more or less heavily with salicylic acid or other anti- 
septics. Twenty of these prosecutions against brewers, hotel keep- 
ers and proprietors of restaurants were settled in the courts upon 
the paj-ment of the usual fine and costs. Six cases are still pending 
and remain untermiuated. In five of these unfinished cases, the 
grand juries found true bills, and the cases will be tried in the 
several courts, at the earliest possible date. 

The following correspondence explains itself: 

"603 West End Trust Building, 
"Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 30, 1903. 

"My Dear Sir: In August and October, 1903, prosecutions were begun against 
Messrs. Carl Lampe, Dennis McGowan, James F. Shannon, William Wallace, 
Charles W. Soulas and John F. Betz & Sons, for the alleged sale of beer re- 
ported by our chemist to be adulterated. Early in December of this year, true 
bills were found against these defendants with the exception of John F. Betz 
& Sons, whose case, as I am informed, has not thus far been presented to the 
grand jury. 



70 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

"It is the wish of this Department that these cases should be tried as promptly 
as possible. Will you kindly let me know when thej' will appear on the list, 
so we may make our preparations to have the evidence ready and may, if neces- 
sary, have attorneys present who can aid you with their knowledge of the 
cases and possibly suggestions? 

"These cases have, in the past few months, been the cause of several un- 
pleasant editorials in certain newspaper^. By having them speedily disposed 
of by the court, we can avoid a repetition of such unjust criticism. 

"Very truly yours, 
"(Signed) "B. H. WARREN, M. D., 

"Commissioner. 
To. Hon. John C. Bell, District Attorney, Philadelphia." 

The appended reply fully explains the conditions as they exist in 
the courts of the county of Philadelphia : 

"District Attorney's Office, 
"Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 15, 1904. 

"Dr. B. H. Warren, Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Dairy and Food 

Division, Harrisburg, Pa.: 

"Dear Sir: I have your favor of the 30th uit., requesting a speedy trial of 
tiie cases of the Commonwealth vs. Carl Lampe, Dennis McGowan, James F. 
Shannon, William Wallace, Charles W. Soulas and John F. Betz & Sons, for 
the alleged sale of beer reported by your chemist to be adulterated. In these 
cases the indictments were only found by the grand jury at the December term 
of court, with the exception of the case against John F. Betz & Sons, which, 
though returned by the magistrate, has not yet, I believe, been acted upon by 
the grand jury. 

"In reply, I beg to say, that I will put these cases upon the list and try them 
in due course, as soon as reached. I am obliged to say to you, however, that 
unless there is some special and urgent reason requiring an immediate dispo- 
sitiOH of these cases, I shall not be likely to be able to try the same for a con- 
siderable lapse of time, perhaps several months. 

"Ih spite of my best efforts to expedite the disiiosition of the criminal business, 

there are now over four thousand untried indictments in this county, and I find 

it difficult, if not impossible, to keep abreast of the work of the grand jury. 

I 
"Your cases, therefore, unless there be exceptional reasons as above noted, 

must await their turn. Regretting the necessity for the delay, I am 

"Yours truly, 

"(Signed) "JOHN C. BELL, 

"District Attorney." 



No. G. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



71 



The iist of uulinisshcd riiiladelpliiii cases to wliich District At- 
(.oi'uey Bell alludes is as follows: The llarrisbur^- case cited is of 



but receut origin: 



Nome. 



Carl Lampe, 



Dennis McGuwan, 



James F. Shannon 
(Hoffman House). 



Chas. W. Soulas, .. 



J. F. Sidie. 



William WaJlace, 



Address. 



SGS N. 10th St., Phil- 
adelphia. 



i:.lh & F;;nPom Sis., 
I'liiladelphia. 



102 S. 13th St., Phil- 
adelphia. 



Betz BIdg., Buoad 
^•t., Philadelphia. 



Grand Hotel, Har- 
risburg-. 

Rid.?e Avenue, Phil- 
adelphia. 



Article. 



Beer, 



Beer, 



Beer, 



Beer, 



Beer, 



Beer, 



Manufacturer. 



Brewed by Peter 
Schemm & Son, 
Philadelphia. 

Brewed by Peter 
Schemm & Sons, 
Philadelphia. Bot- 
hy Wni. Linch, 
Philadelphia. 



Tannhaeuser, 
Bergner & 
Brewing Co. 
thony Kiser, 
adelphia. 



The 

Kngle 

An- 

Phil- 



Old Stock Lager, 
Pale Export. J. 
F. Betz & Ron, 
I'hiiadelphia. 

F. A. Poth & Son 
(T i V o 1 i Beer), 
Philadelphia. 

Brev.'ed by Peter 
Schemm & Sons, 
P h i 1 a d e Iphia. 
Standard. Bot- 
tled by Wm. 
Linch, Philadel- 
phia. 



Action by Magis- 
trate. 



Held in $500 ball for 
court. 



Held in $500 bail for 
court. (True Bill). 



Held in $500 baa lur 
court. (True Bill.) 



Entered bafl for 
court. (True Bill.) 



Waived hearing- and 
entered bail for 
court. (True Bill.) 

Held In $500 bail for 
court. (True Bill.) 



IMPROVED LIQUOR SUPPLY. 

It is but fair to give the gratifying iuformation to the public that 
there is an appreciable improvement in the liquor now being offered 
for sale, as compared witli the conditions that prevailed six months 
ago. When the investigation w-as commenced fully 85 per cent, 
of the samples of blackberry brandy, cordials, etc., which were sub- 
jected to analytical tests were found to contain salicylic acid, coal 
tar dyes, as well as other coloring matter, glucose, and a variety of 
other objectionable ingrediests, while in scores of instances the 
li(luor itself was entirely spurious and failed to contain a trace or 
particle of the blackberry, grape or fruit after which it had been 
wrongly named. 



WOOD ALCOHOL AND OTHER HARMFUL DRUGS. 

The {>reliminary examination made into the alleged use of w^ood 
ulcohol, a most harmful substitute for grain alcohol, in compounding 
and blending whisliey, etc., has just been fairly begun, and while the 
research is in its incipiency, the results obtained by chemical analy- 
sis, show that the use of ^vood alcohol is less common than has 
been suspected. Some of the higher grades of whiskey were sub- 



72 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

jected to the test, as well as the cheaper and inferior brands of 
y;oods, and a general examination will be continued until entirely 
reliable and trustworthy conclusions may be reached. Wood alco- 
hol w^as not found in the majority of samples. 

Prof. O. B. Cochran, chemist, in a recent report to the Commis- 
sioner, declared that so far as his investigations extended, all 
of the whiskey bottled in bond and bearing the Government stamp 
was found pure. Other whiskeys are pure when taken out of bond; 
some of them are afterward subjected to manipulation, and in such 
goods there are occasionally found traces of wood alcohol, glycerine, 
red pepper and coloring matter. Eminent authorities declare that 
hundreds of the unfortunate classes who inhabit insane hospitals 
and asylums for inebriates, were brought to their terrible mental 
and physical conditions not alone through the excessive use of 
liquor; but that the vile and poisonous adulterants contained in the 
liquor were in a large degree responsible for the evil eifects pro- 
duced. The bad effects of the continued use of alcoholic liquors, 
both upon mind and bod}', are in themselves a sutiicient evil, and 
.when to this is added the destructive influence of such drugs and 
poisons as are frequently used in compounding and adulterating 
such beverages the limits of toleration are passed. Legislation ade- 
quate to stop the nefarious practices of those engaged in the manu- 
facture, distribution or sale of adulterated liquors, who recklessly 
sacrifice the mental and physical well-being of their confiding cus- 
tomers, for the sake of increasing their revenues, cannot be too 
speedily adopted. 

OLEOMARGARINE AND RENOVATED BUTTER. 

The enforcement of the laws enacted to regulate the manufac- 
ture and sale of oleomargarine and renovated or '^process" butter 
in Pennsylvania has received due attention at the hands of the 
Commissioner. The financial statement incorporated into this 
brief resume of the work performed shows, in a measure, what 
has been accomplished in the interest of these two important acts 
of Assembly. The amounts collected from license fees for the 
manufacture and sale of oleomargarine and renovated butter show 
very clearly that the laws are being enforced, and that the sale of 
these substitutes for the genuine product of the American dairy cow 
has not decreased. 

DAIRYING INTERESTS. 

The following ({notation from a circular letter issued by this 
Division is respectfully submitted, as it gives, although in a con- 
densed form, some idea of the importance of the interests to be pro- 
tected: 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 73 

"The gradual increase in population, combined with a rapid development ut 
the transportation facilities, have not been without a beneficial effect upon 
the vast dairying interests of Pennsylvania. These facts make it possible for 
the dairy representatives and farmers, generally, not only to sell their products 
to an increased constituency, but at materially higher prices. The latest 
figures obtainable report that the value of dairy products in Pennsylvania are 
exceeded by but one State in the Union, aggregating $35,860,110 per annum, 
and that, according to the last census, there were 32,600 farms in Pennsylvania 
which derived their principal income from the dairy. In 1900 the State had 
943,773 dairy cows and these produced 487,033,818 gallons of milk in one year. 
The total number of farms in the State, as reported by the last census, is 
224,248, and the number reporting dairy products was 200,036, with a total valua- 
tion of $35,860,686. The butter made on 159,837 of these farms aggregated 
74,221,085 pounds, of which amount 51,309,833 pounds were sold by the pro- 
ducers." 

These figures at once reveal the somewhat startling evolution that 
has been effected from a simple and crude beginning, to the high 
standard of dairying that prevails to-day throughout this State. 
I am especially anxious to foster this industry and to protect con- 
sumers against the sale of illegal dairy products. If renovated 
butter be sold without a license, or if oleomargarine be sold without 
a license or illegally colored, or if a dairyman sell preserved, watered 
or otherwise adulterated milk, the offender in each case when de- 
tected, will be held to a strict accountability. 

The oleomargarine and renovated butter acts legalized the sale 
of these commodities, but the Legislature has placed certain condi- 
tions in the statutes that must be fully observed by both manufac- 
turers and dealers, as wx41 as the proprietors of hotels and boarding 
houses, and w'herever oleomargarine and renovated butter may be 
sold or used outside of the private family. 

I vvould respectfully solicit the cordial co-operation of the agricul- 
tural class, including granges and all kindred organizations, as well 
as that of the press and citizens generally, in my efforts to abolish 
all illegal traffic in substitutes for pure butter and other dairy 
products. 

OLEOMARGARINE IN CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

During the brief term of official life, covered by this report, it was 
discovered that oleomargarine was being used to a considerable ex- 
tent in certain charitable and penal institutions which received 
State aid, and were therefore prohibited by the legislative enact- 
ment, from using the same under any conditions. Prosecutions 
were instituted against certain officials in different counties for vio- 
lations of the law prohibiting the use of imitation or adulterated 
dairy products in charitable or penal institutions, and in all such 
prosecutions the cases were sustained bv the courts, and the defend- 
6 • ' 



74 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

ants subjected to a fme of $100.00 and costs. In order to avoid the 
possible plea of ignorance, every superintendent and manager of 
such institution within the Commonwealth was advised of the ex- 
istence of the law in question, and informed that all violations, when 
discovered, would be rigidly dealt with. Although there are nearly 
live hundred such institutions in Pennsylvania, including hospitals, 
almshouses, county prisons, workhouses, homes and asylums for the 
deaf and dumb, blind and insane, etc., all of which are subject to the 
supervision of the Pennsylvania Board of Commissioners of Public 
Charities, the information and warning imparted was not lacking 
in (>lfect. The enforcement ot this commendable legislation protects 
the unfortunate inmates of such institutions who have no means 
for self protection from such imposition. 

VALIDITY OF LAW AFFIRMED. 

Hon. Hampton L. Carson, Attorney General of the Common- 
wealth, rendered an opinion and in discussing the aboAc act of As- 
sembl}', ex]3ressed himself as follows: 

"The inmates of such charitable or penal institutions have no option in the 
matter, either in the purchase or in the consumption of the article. They are 
not clothed witli the discretion vested in all other citizens of the Commonwealth 
as to whether or not they shall buy or use the article so manufactured and 
sold after receiving, through the marking of the packages, full notice of its 
contents. They are obliged to take exactly what is furnished to them, and, 
inasmuch as it is prescribed by the act of the 23d of May, 1903, as a part of 
the management of the charitable institutions, that the inmates shall not be 
furnished or compelled to use the substance described in the act of May 21, 
1895, I view this as a regulation, not of the manufacture and sale of oleomar- 
garine, but as a part of the regulation and discipline of a penal and charitable 
institution." 

The best evidence of the fact that the law is being generally ob- 
served is the statement made by prominent dealers in oleomargarine 
that their trade from such institutions has entirely A'anished. As 
these unfortunate human beings are obliged to use whatever may 
be furnished them, it is deemed proper to avoid, so far as practicable, 
all possible imposition upon the inmates of such institutions, as well 
as the taxpayers who suj)port them. 

COMPOUND LARD. 

The field for educational work was also extended so as to reach 
those who were selling compound lard for the genuine pure fat of 
swine, contrary to law. The sale of compound lard, under certain 
restrictions is not prohibited, and it can be sold without subjecting 
the vender to prosecution when the provisions of the law regulating 
its sale are complied with. After the proprietors or owners of 



N,). G. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 75 

a nunibei' ol: stores had been brouglil; into eourt in various counties 
of the Commonwealth, the lard manufacturers, as well as the job- 
bers and retailers became thoroughly convinced that the law could 
no longer be safely disregarded, and the theory that pure lard 
could not be placed upon the market in salable condition during 
the hot summer months was abandoned. One marked result of these 
compound lard prosecutions is the fact that the same party is seldom 
found violating this law a second time after arrest and conviction. 
The tendency to substitute compound lard for pure lard on the part 
of provision dealers and others was far too common, and it was only 
after heroic treatment of the question that the imposition was 
checked, if not practically abolished. 

SWINE IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Pennsylvania, with its vast agricultural interests, is entitled to 
protection against the illegal sale of "compound lard," and the co- 
operation of ail concerned is heartily solicited. I shall be glad to 
learn of any violations, and where proof is available, prosecutions 
will follov/. 

The Census report of 1900 shows that on the 224,248 farms in 
Pennsylvania, no less than 1,107,981 head of SAvine were kept or 
raised in that year. It also appears that nearly every farmer had 
a surplus quantity of lard for sale, thus proving the importance of 
securing a proper observance of the iard laws of the Commonwealth. 
Compound lard can be produced at much less expense than the 
genuine article, and when sold as pure lard at a reduced price 
tends to produce a like reduction in the price of the genuine pro- 
duct. The same report shows that there was a decrease in the 
number of swine raised in Pennsylvania since 1890 of 13..3 per cent., 
which was probably due to the introduction and increased sale of 
"compound lard." 

The love of money, with its kindred tendencies as usual, is respon- 
sible for these violations of the law, and the worst feature is the 
undeniable fact that the poorer classes, many of whom have large 
families to support, are the greatest losers from this fraudulent 
practice. 

ANALYTICAL WORK. 

The analytical work required has been very extensive, and, com- 
paratively speaking, considerably in excess of any similar period 
in the history of this Division. Results attained were commen- 
surate with the expenses incurred, and many of the existing evils 
were speedily corrected when the manufacturers and dealers real- 
ized that all food products must be labeled true to name, and that 
no fraud of any nature, if discovered, w^ould be tolerated. 



76 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

STATE LABORATORY NEEDED. 

The results accoMiplislied have demonstrated the absolute need 
of increased facilities for analytical work. At the present time, 
the thousands of samples of food and drink which are collected by 
the special agents of this Division for analysis are submitted to 
chemists located in various parts of the Commonwealth, and as 
some of these chemists are also doing a large amount of private 
work, delays in analyses and in securing reports of results are in- 
evitable. It is believed that the State could profitably and with 
great advantage to the work, establish a chemical laboratory at 
Harrisburg, and I would heartily recommend such a project. Its 
utility and economy can hardly be questioned. The establishment 
of such a laboratory would also materially assist in more promptly 
detecting violations of the law and expediting court trials. This 
subject should receive early and careful consideration. If estab- 
lished, the laboratory could be made available for other analytical 
work of the Department of Agriculture, which is now being per- 
formed by special contract by outside parties. 

BENEFICIAL FOOD LEGISLATION. 

Pennsylvania has, perhaps, done more for the improvement of the 
food supx>ly of her citizens than any other state in the Union. This 
State will no longer be permitted to become the dumping ground 
for bad food. The laws, with a few needed changes, are ample 
and will continue to be enforced. The unjust ideas that were preva- 
lent at one time have been removed, and the policy carried out and 
recommendations made by this Division have driven from our 
markets many of the fraudulent products which formerly com- 
manded a ready sale. Their projectors at first condemned the law 
as being too severe, alleging that it was the only law of its kind 
which did not contain a proviso to give it elasticity, as in the case 
of the laws of certain other states. Wilful and fraudulent adultera- 
tion has been carefully checked, while the legitimate trade has 
always been accorded the most careful consideration in order that 
possible wrong or injustice might be avoided; and this class of 
tradesmen are to-day amongst the staunchest supporters of the 
beneficent pure food laws of Pennsylvania. 

MEATS DOSED V^ITII DRUGS AND DYES. 

It has been discovered that agents of certain manufacturing and 
wholesale concerns are endeavoring to flood the State not only with 
illegal preservatives, which are employed to "doctor" milk and 
cream, but they are likewise imposing on many butchers and other 
dealers in meats by the sale of preservatives which are sold under 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 77 

uLtractivo trade uainos. Certain of these preservatives used to pre- 
pare meats, especially Hamburg steak, pork, sausage, "chopped" 
meats, fresli roast beef, beef steak, etc., contain a considerable 
quantity of sulphites which our chemists and medical experts claim 
are most injurious to health when added to articles of food and 
drink. 

Coal tar or other objectionable coloring agents are also found by 
chemists in these chemically prepared meats. 

Some of the dealers who have placed these health destroying pre- 
servatives in the hands of our well disposed and honest tradesmen, 
give, it is said, guarantees of purity, and assert that these products 
comply with the laws of Pennsylvania. They attempt to impress 
the improper and untruthful claim that these fortifying agents are 
"Boron Compounds," hence are permitted by the act of April 27, 
1903. 

The meats, poultry, etc., which are treated with these objectiona- 
ble drugs and pigments are generally sold at reduced prices, so as 
make them more attractive to the poorer classes, hence the wage 
earner, who requires a most nourishing and healthful diet, is slowly, 
yet surely, undermining his physical powers when he consumes, as a 
part of his daily fare, these meats ladened, as they are, with in- 
sidious poison, 

A number of prosecutions of preserved, fresh meats have been 
started, and our efforts to prevent such outrageous practices will be 
continued with unabated vigor until the nefarious business ceases, 
and when the General Assembly again convenes, a measure should 
be promptly passed which will absolutely prohibit the use of all 
preservatives on meats, poultr}-, etc., which are sold as fresh. 

OBJECTIONABLE SULPHITES. 

The following paragraphs concerning sulphites are from the pen 
of Adolph Koenig, M. D., editor "Pennsylvania Medical Journal," 
Pittsburg, Pa.: 

"There are three kinds of sulphites in common use, viz., Sodium Sulphite, 
Potassium Sulphite and Mag-nesium Sulphite, all having practically similar 
properties. 

"The first of these is the one ordinarily used as a. preservative, especially for 
chopped meats (Hamburg Steak), and sausage. It is chosen in preference to 
other preservatives for the reason that in addition to its germicidal and an- 
tiseptic properties, it has the property of freshening the color of meat, and 
thereby making it more pleasing to the eye, and, consequently, more salable. 

"Sodium Sulphite is described in the United States Pharmacopoeia as 'color- 
less, transparent, monoclinic prisms, odorless, having a cooling, saline, sul- 
phurous taste.' 

"The sulphites are rather unstable salts: when exposed to the air they are 
prone to change into sulphates by the absorption of oxygen. 



78 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

"When the sulphites are decomposed in the stomach or in meat the first pro- 
duct is SO^ or sulphur dioxide gas. This gas immediately combines with a 
molecule of"water and forms sulphurous acid ^ SO^ H O ( — or H^ SO — ) which 
is much more active than the gas and represents the poisonous action of the 
sulphites. 

"As sulphites they possess little or no germicidal action. Whatever action they 
possess in that line is due to the liberation of sulphurous acid, which is readily 
libera,ted when sulphites come into contact with acids. In fresh meat for in- 
stance, there are found acid phosphates, which, when the meat is treated with 
sulphites, attacks them and breaks them up with the liberation of free sul- 
phurous acid, and it is that substance that acts as the preservative. Given 
by the stomach the sulphites are a,ttacked by the hydro-chloric acid naturally 
found as a constituent of gastric juice, and here also sulphurous acid is the re- 
sult. 

"Sulphurous acid is a powerful corrosive poison and its action in the stomach 
is baneful in several ways. First, it lowers the vitality of the tissues with 
Vv'hich it comes into contact. Second, it interferes with the digestive powers 
of the ferments in the gastric juice, and third, it lowers the nutritive value 
of the food itself. Absorbed into the blood, Harrington saj^s, it exerts in 
large doses, a marked and sometimes fatal poisonous action, and small doses, 
long continued, affect seriously the circulation, lungs and kidneys. Indeed, it 
cannot but affect seriously owing to its corrosive nature, any living tissue with 
which it may come into contact, and should under no circumstances be per- 
mitted to be used as a food preservative." 



IMPURE' DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 

The correspondence of this office has developed the fact that the 
man who buj-s medicine, as well as he who buys food desires to 
know that he is getting what he pays for, and that no imposition 
is being imposed or practiced upon him. A preliminary examina- 
tion of certain articles revealed a condition that was not entirely 
satisfactory. There are but few opponents who would not admit the 
wisdom of and actual necessity for making the suggested investi- 
gations of drugs, and where the opposition is loudest, selfish per- 
sonal interest is often conspicuous. 

The drugs sold in Pennsylvania, when sold under or by a name 
recognized in the United States Pharmacox)oeia should conform to a 
certain standard of strength and purity. In the case of so-called 
"patent" medicines there seems to be a wide field for investigation 
on account of their unlimited scope for doing great harm. The 
universal extent to which they are used makes it important that they 
should be free from any substance th.at is injurious to health. If 
the assertion that is often made be true, that many of these medicines 
are made up largely of inferior alcoholic liquors and other constit- 
uents, harmful in character, the public have a right to know it, and 
if untrue, justice to the proprietors of these medicines could only 
be done by determining the disputed question by chemical examina- 
tion. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 79 

RULINGS AND REGULATIONS. 

Aftor a tareiul consideration of the requirements for an intelli- 
j;ent and conservatiA'O interpretation and enforcement of the pure 
food law of June 26, 1895, and after consultation with my attorneys 
I was satisfied that no fixed "ruling" could be safely or legally 
adopted, as no otlicer or citizen not connected with the judicial 
branch of the government has a legal right to annul an act of As- 
sembly. Hence, the so-called "rulings" which were in force under 
previous administrations were revoked. This action was rendered 
necessary because of the possibility of such personal views interfer- 
ing to a greater or lesser extent with legislative enactments, and 
tlie further fact that certain manufacturers and dealers were in- 
clined to interpret such "•rulings" more liberally than may have been 
originally intended. The attitude of the Commissioner can not be 
better or more fulh^ expressed than by the phraseology of the laws 
with the enforcement of which he is charged. Where exceptional 
cases may appear to work a hardship or cause excessive trouble 
and expense, the only remedial agency that can be safely recom- 
mended is legislative in its character. The Commissioner can only 
enforce the laws in their entirety, and it is not within his province 
to pursue any other course. 

CRITICISMS OF ARTICLES OF FOOD. 

I desire to call attention to the fact that my special agents are 
specifically instructed to withhold criticism of any articles of food 
or drink that may be found in the markets. It is not within their 
province to eitlier condemn or recommend and thereby hinder or 
aid the sale of any article of food or drink which may come under 
their notice, excepting by a special order to that effect from the 
proper authority, should the exigencies of the case demand such 
extreme action. When in the regular routine of their official duties, 
samples are purchased, sent to the chemist for analysis, and adulter- 
ants or harmful ingredients are found, or where fraud is practiced 
the Commissioner orders prosecutions to be instituted, but ever 
in such instances a general condemnation of such an article ot 
the part of agents would not be permissible. Different manufac 
turers employ varying formulas, and it often occurs that the same 
manufacturer produces goods under the same label with vei'y ma- 
terial changes of ingredients, to meet competition in different lo- 
calities. 

PUBLICITY IN ENFORCING LAWS. 

Publicity is most efiicacious in enforcing the pure food laws. This 
has been well illustrated in numerous instances. While such treat- 



80 ANNUAL. REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

meut of offenders may appear somewhat drastic, bonest manufac- 
tm'crs and dealers in food and drink commodities have nothing to 
fear. Dealers who have been flooding the markets with inferior and 
adulterated goods will soon find that the publicity accorded to 
prosecutions by the press and publications of the Dairy and Food 
Division will destroy their objectionable and unlawful business. 
Another gratifying fact consists in the knowledge that even those 
articles which were formerly grossly adulterated are now sold by 
the same firms in a pure or unadulterated state. Energetic action 
at a critical time has produced a marked change for the better, and 
the ofiflcials in authority will continue to perform their several duties 
vigorouly, fearlessly and impartially, shielding no one, but simply 
obeying the mandates of the law. 

DAIRY AND FOOD BULLETIN. 

Upon assuming charge of the duties incumbent upon the Dairy 
and Food Commissioner, it was at once determined that a monthly 
resume of the operations of this branch of the Department of Agri- 
culture was exceedingly desirable. After consulting with my legal 
advisors and having received your approval, a publication known 
as the ^'Monthly Bulletin" was issued regularly. This publication 
relates entirely to the operations of the Dairy and Food Divisio'R 
of the Department of Agriculture. It is distributed to all who 
apply for it that are interested in the work of enforcing the dairy 
and food laws of this Commonwealth. Each number gives a brief 
resume of the work accomplished by the Commissioner and his force 
of assistants during the preceding month, and as it is distributed 
gratuitously, and only upon applicatiO'U by those especially inter- 
ested, it reaches the desired class of readers, and aids most effeetu- 
ally in the educational work. B}^ authority of law, nearly twenty- 
five thousand copies are distributed monthly. The bulk of this large 
edition reaches grocers and general storekeepers, wiiile the miscel- 
laneous list includes representative people of this and adjoining 
states who are interested in the enforcement of the laws relating 
to this Division. The numerous letters received by the Commis- 
sioner show most conclusively that a strong public sentiment in 
favor of pure and better articles of food and drink has been aroused. 
Whether the comparatively small tradesmen who might possibly 
complain because of the publicity given to suits brought against 
them come under the ban, or whether a business produces millions 
for the investor, the same publicity is accorded to all in the columns 
of the "Monthly Bulletin." This medium of publicity has already 
accomplished an almost incalculable amount of good, and assisted 
very materially in successfully enforcing the various acts of As- 
sembly placed under the administration of this Division. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 81 

REPORT OF ANALYSES. 

The regular publications of the "Monthly Bulletin" and other 
printed matter already referred to, containing as they do, a com- 
plete statement of analyses made by the chemists, it would be un- 
necessary repetition to give such a statement in this report, and it 
is therefore omitted. 

To reprint the thousands of chemists' reports, together with a 
history of prosecutions ordered and their termination, lists of 
articles of food found not adulterated, etc., would alone require 
a volume as large as the annual report of the Department of Agri- 
culture. The number and variety of samples analyzed during the 
past nine months can best be comprehended by an examination of 
the files of the "Monthly Bulletin." 

LIST OF LICENSES ISSUED. 

Owing to frequent requests, complete lists of the oleomargarine 
and renovated butter license certificates issued appear regularly in 
each number of the "Monthly Bulletin." This enables dairymen and 
others interested to promptly discover and report violators of the 
law. All licenses expire with the close of each year. The follow- 
ing financial statement will prove of special interest in connection 
with the sale of oleomargarine and renovated butter in Pennsyl- 
vania: 

REPORT OF RECEIPTS OF THE DAIRY AND FOOD DIVISION FROM 

APRIL 1 TO DECEMBER 31, 1903. 

In compliance with your request I shall present as part of this 
report, the appended financial statement relating to the amounts 
received by this Division for oleomargarine and renovated butter 
license certificates, and also the amounts received through prosecu 
tions brought against the numerous offenders against the dairy and 
food laws of Pennsylvania. The period covered by these figures 
includes the brief official term, namely, from April 1 to December 
81, 1903, inclusive. 

All of these license fees and the fines and costs collected were 
promptly paid into the State Treasury, in conformity with the pro- 
visions of the several acts of Assembly placed under my administra- 
tion for enforcement. 

But for the fact that unavoidable delays in securing analytical 
reports retard prosecutions, and because of the dilatory court pro- 
ceedings in some sections of the Commonwealth, the aggregate re- 
ceipts, although presenting a most favorable showing, would have 
been considerably augmented. 

As the present Commissioner assumed charge of the office under 

6—6—1903 



y: ' ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Governor Peunypacker's administration, on April 1st, the amounts 
collected between January 1 and Aju'll 1, 1903, by my predecessor are 
stated separatel3\ 
The statement for the year 1903 is as follows: 

PURE FOOD FINES. 

January 1 to April 1, |1,79S 39 

April 1 to December 31, 37,953 79 

Total during- 1903, |39,752 18 

OLEOMARGARINE LICENSES. 

Januai-y 1 to April 1 |31,617 70 

April 1 to December 31, C,293 48 

Total during 1903, 37,911 18 

MILK FINES. 

April 1 to December 31, |6,093 56 

Total, 0,093 56 

OLEOMARGARINE FINES UNDER ACT OF 1899. 

January 1 to April 1, $37 66 

April 1 to December 31, 578 54 

Total during 1903, 616 20 

OLEOMARGARINE FINES UNDER ACT OF 1901. 

January 1 to Aj)ril 1, .^2,356 75 

April Ito December 31, 3,550 53 

Total during 1903, 5,907 28 

OLEOMARGARINE FINES UNDER ACT OF 1893. 

April 1 to December 31, $125 88 

Total, .125 88 

RENOVATED BUTTER FINES UNDER ACT OF 1899. 

January 1 to April 1, $17 37 

Total 17 37 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 83 

RENOVATED BUTTER FINES UNDER ACT OF 1901. 

January 1 to April 1 |296 51 

April 1 to December 31, 1,335 54 

Total during 1903, 1,632 05 

VINEGAR FINES UNDER ACT OF 1897. 

January 1 to April 1, |112 18 

April 1 to December 31, _. 667 16 

Total during 1903, 779 34 

LARD FINES. 

April 1 to December 31, |357 00 

Total, 357 00 

RENOVATED BUTTER LICENSES. 

April 1 to December 31, |266 67 

Total, 266 67 



Total, 193,458 71 



In order that a proper comparison can be made as to the progress 
of this Division of the Department of Agriculture, the following 

statements showing the aggregate receipts for the two preceding 
years, 1901 and 1902, are also presented: 

1901. 

Pure food fines, $4,883 23 

Oleomargarine licenses, 1899, 20,516 74 

Oleomargarine licenses, 1901, 1,089 26 

Milk fines, 225 00 

Oleomargarine fines, 1899, 5,446 97 

Oleomargarine fines, 1901, 2,070 87 

Renovated butter fines, 120 00 

Cheese fines, 105 00 

Vinegar fines, 1897, 'm 12 

Renovated butter licenses, 175 00 

Total, $34,705 19 



84 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

1902. 

Pure food flues, 

Oleomargarine licenses, 

Millv fines, 

Oleomargarine fines, 1899, 

Oleomargarine fines, 1901, 

Renovated butter fines, 1899, 

Renovated butter fines, 1901 , 

Renovated butter licenses, 

Cheese fines, 

Vinegar fines, 

Lard fines. 



^j 



Off. Doc. 


18,082 


20 


23,927 


05 


1,177 


24 


8,238 


18 


5,225 


75 


5 


90 


572 


68 


766 


67 


169 


50 


447 


24 


23 


00 


$43,635 


41 



Total, 



AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Realizing the magnitude of the dairy industry and the importance 
of its development, I have endeavored to interest and secure the 
more active co-operation of all agricultural organizations in the 
enforcement of the law. The help received through the State, 
Pomona and Subordinate Granges, Farmers' Alliances and kindred 
agricultural organizations was of especial value, and merits this 
grateful acknowledgment. The Pure Butter Protective Association, 
through its officers, namely, Thomas W. Sharpless, i)resident; Isaac 
W. Davis, secretary, and W. F. Drennau, chairman of the executive 
committee, also assisted very materially in the effort to place Penn- 
sylvania in the first rank as a dairy state. By the earnest and intel- 
ligent co-operation of the above named organizations, at least sev- 
eral thousand dollars were collected and paid into the State Treas- 
ury on account of fines imposed and license certificates issued as 
the result of information received of violations of the oleomargarine 
and renovated butter laws. 

GROCERS UNITED IN THE WORK. 

The Retails Grocers' Association, of Philadelphia, through its 
energetic secretary, William H. Smedley, has also demonstrated 
its sympathy with and support of rational pure food legislation. 
Representatives of similar associations throughout Pennsylvania 
have given their hearty support, although no other class of business 
men in the Commonwealth have greater issues at stake. While 
separate and independent views might have prevailed at the be- 
ginning relative to the utility and propriety of certain legislation, 
the opportunities to realize the beneficent effects of such laws, 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 85 

wheu properly t'liforccd, huvo deinoustiated their actual worth, and 
whatever doubts luay have existed, have been removed so that the 
legitimate manufacturer, producer, jobber or retailer has, with rare 
exception been converted into a genuine advocate of the pure food 
laws of Tennsylvauia. 

LIVE STOCK SANITARY MATTERS. 

The Commissioner begs leave to make grateful acknowledgment 
of the valuable assistance rendered by the officials of the Pennsyl- 
vania Live Stock Sanitary Board. Many dairymen and others who 
desired information relative to the care and improvement of their 
live stock and products, received much lielpful assistance from 
Dr. Leonard Pearson, who holds the responsible position of State 
Veterinarian, and to whom many inquiries were referred. The co- 
operation of such interests is most desirable, and the consequent 
good that follow^s meets with hearty appreciation on the part of the 
agricultural classes, who have occasion to ask for advice or infor- 
mation. Having opportunity to know the important objects and 
high purposes at which the State Live Stock Sanitary Board aims, 
and the good it is accomplishing, this acknowledgment is freely be- 
stowed. This is especially true because proper dairy barns, better 
sanitary arrangements, absolute cleanliness, proper food and greater 
intelligence on all these subjects w'ill insure purer milk, better 
cream and butter, and thus the public has received a service of the 
highest value. 

NEWSPAPER COURTESIES ACKNOWLEDGED. 

Tke influence of the press has been a valuable and potent factor 
in the enforcement of the dairy and food laws of Pennsylvania, and 
the friendly assistance so freely rendered has at all times proven 
an inspiration to renew^ed efforts to enforce the jmre food laws 
with still greater zeal. Its sjmpathy and approval of the difficult 
task afforded genuine pleasure and much encouragement to all in- 
terested, and thanks are due and hereby freely acknow^ledged for 
the courtesies extended. The meanest kind of stealing is from the 
poor by means of adulterating their food supplies, yet instances 
hare been known where defendants attempted to create or arouse 
false or mistaken sympathies, thus endeavoring to poison the pub- 
lic mind by newspaper criticism. Happily these cases were in- 
significant in number, and the usual wise discernment of the editors 
prevailed. No manufacturer, jobber or concern which makes . or 
sells an adulterated article can long continue its imposition and live 
under the glare of the newspaper publicity that must accompany 
every honest prosecution. 



Se ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

GRATEFUL, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

For the uniform and valued courtesies received through the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, and his constant willingness to advise and 
assist in the solving and adjustment of the many intricate questions 
which frequently arise in connection with the work incident to a 
careful and conscientious interpretation and enforcement of the 
dairy and pure food laws, especial gratitude is hereby acknowledged. 
Although his duties are varied and burdensome, his valuable time 
was always available whenever his co-operation and friendly help 
were needed. It was largely through his hearty approval and 
earnest encouragement that the Commissioner was enabled to pro- 
duce the present gratifying results, and it is with the assurance of 
the continuation of this hearty assistance and co-operation that I 
venture the hope that still greater benefits for the masses may be se- 
cured during the coming year, if pur health and lives are sx)ared. 

In numerous instances, the Secretary of Agriculture and Dairy 
and Food Commissioner in response to requests received from dairy- 
men, patrons of husbandry, business people and others, visited to- 
gether various sections of the State to organize systematic investi- 
gations into violations of the laws. The co-operation of the State 
officials and the public has produced excellent results and estab- 
ished public confidence to an unparalleled degree. 

In concluding, words of appreciation and gratefulness are also 
due to numerous persons, including attorneys, chemists, special 
agents, office force, and others who have rendered valuable assist- 
ance in their several capacities. The Commissioner entertains for 
them a personal and friendly regard, for without loyalty to the 
work and a willing and conscientious recognition of duty, our. best 
efforts would have proven unavailing. It is our bounden duty and 
within our reach to greatly beneiit the general public, and the ex- 
perience of the nine months just ended justifies the belief that their 
support, sympathies and best wishes for continued success are not 
lacking. Our duties are only begun. May the future be gracious 
and grant a still greater measure of success! 

Very faithfully yours, 



Dairy and Food Commissioner. 



No. G. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. . 87 



RKPORT OF THE STATK VETERINARIAN. 



Harrisburg, Pa., December 31, 1903. 

Itouoi-able N. li. Critchflcld, Secretary of Agriculture, Ilarrishurg^ 

Pa.: 

Sir: I liave the honor to present to jou this report on the work of 
the State Veterinarian for the year 1903. With the report of the 
Veterinary Division of the Department of Agriculture, I have in- 
corporated a report of the work of the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board, for the reason that these two lines of work are so intimately 
connected that it does not seem possible to disassociate them. 
While the State Veterinarian is an ofilcer of the Department of Ag- 
riculture, authority for the control of the infectious diseases of 
animals is not vested in the Department of Agriculture, but in the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board. This Board is composed of the 
Governor of the Commonwealth, the Secretary of Agriculture, the 
Dairy and Food Commissioner and the State Veterinarian. It will 
be seen that while the State Live Stock Sanitary Board is a separate 
organization, all of its members, with the exception of the Governor, 
are officers of the Department of Agriculture, and thus it happens 
that the Board has come to be looked upon as a part of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture although, strictly speaking, this is not the case. 

During the year that has just closed, the work that has fallen to 
me as State Veterinarian and as Secretary of the State Live Stock 
Sanitary Board, has continued to grow in volume and, I believe, 
in importance to the well-being of the animal industries of the 
State. It is pleasing to record the fact that, as heretofore, this 
work has been carried out in complete harmony and accord with all 
of the organized agricultural, live stock and public health interests. 
The live stock owners of the State realize that it is chiefly in their 
interest that diseases of animals are controlled. It is a great ex- 
ception to find a live stock owner who is not willing to co-operate 
heartily and effectively in such measures adopted by authority of 
the State as may be necessary to repress an outbreak of an infec- 
tious disease am.ong animals. While this conditoin is one that, theo- 
retically, seems to be entirely natural, if not inevitable, it is, never- 
theless, worthy of note for the reason that in many states the most 
active opposition similar work has had to meet, has been from the 
owners of animals. There can be no difference of opinion among 



88 ANNUAL, REPORT OP TJIE Off. Doc. 

owners oi" live stock as to tlie desirability of eradicating diseases 
that damage or destroy their valuable animals. But opjiosition 
comes when it appears that the measures that haA'e been adopted 
are not well planned to effect the purpose in vi(^w, or when the 
measures of repression are more burdensome and expensive than 
the disease that they are intended to repress. Even in the latter 
case, in times of serious danger, Mve stock owners will co-operate 
if the necessity for the measures that it is proposed to employ, is 
made clear to them. 

As a res-Ill t of the friendly co-operation between the State Live 
Stock Sanitary Board and the owners of live stock, outbreaks of 
infectious disease are in most cases immediately reported to the 
Department, w4th the knowledge that the most effective measures 
that are authorized and can be employed, w'ill be used in the interest 
of the individual owmer, as w^ell as in the interest of live stock 
owners in general. 

The work that comes under my care increases in importance and 
volume from year to year, in proportion to the growth of the live 
stock interest of the State, to the extent that domestic animals and 
the public, through the products of domestic animals, suffer with 
or are threatened with disease, and to the extent that the work 
of this office is apijreciated and called for. As Pennsylvania grows 
in population, there is a constantly increasing need for food pro- 
ducts of animal origin — for milk and other dairy products — for 
poultry products and for beef, mutton and pork. A large part of 
the additional supplies of food stuffs that are required comes from 
other states, but still the demands upon the farms of Pennsylvania 
are sufficient to cause a steady increase in importance of those 
branches of agriculture that are related to the animal industries. 
The greatest growth has been in connection with the dairy industry. 

Pennsvlvania ranks second among the states of the Union in 
milk production, and bids fair soon to occupy the first position. The 
business of ])roducing milk appears to develop most rapidly upon 
the rather high-priced farms in the most thickly populated sections. 
This condition long ago gave rise to the business of bringing cows 
from less thickly populated sections, where land is cheaper and 
where the cattle can be raised more economically, to those districts 
where milk is in greatest demand. At first, dairy cows for this 
use were purchased in the interior of the State and were driven to 
the neighborhood of Philadelphia, where they were sold to milk 
producers. Later, the business developed of shipping such cows 
by rail from the central and western parts of Pennsylvania and 
from adjoining states. Recently, it has become common to ship 
cows long distances. Many of the dairy cows in Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania have come from Tennessee, Missouri and the districts tribu- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AciJvU'UJ/rURE. 89 

tary to the greiit cattle market at Chicajj^o. Tli« luiinbei- of cows 
bi'ouglit aiiniiallv to Pennsylvania in this way amounts to from 
15,000 to l!0,00(). There are many sections of rennsylvania admir- 
ably adapted to the ])rodn('tion of cows for this use where the in- 
dustry is but little cultivated or is ignored. 

A\'liether based upon sutlicient reason or not, there is uo doubt 
that th(^ dairymen who buy all of their cows and who do not raise 
their calves, much prefer larger cows that show a preponderance of 
Shorthorn blood. Such cows, if in good condition, with well-de- 
veloped udders, of good conformation, and giving promise of large 
milk yield, generally command the highest ])rices at sales of dairy 
cows. The reason for this is that when their term of usefulness as 
dairy cows has passed, they are worth considerable to the butcher, 
and when beef is high they are sometimes sold, dry, for as much 
as thej cost, fresh. It would, appear, therefore, to be well for 
those who wish to (engage in the business of i^roducing cows for 
sale in the milk-shipping districts to use bulls of one of the breeds 
of cattle that are large and at the same time are heavy milkers, 
such as the dairy Shorthorns or the Red-polls. 

On the other hand, farmers who are so situated that they can 
themsehes raise the cows that they need, appear to derive greatest 
profit from the use of some one of the special-purpose dairy breeds 
as the Jersey, Guernsey or Holsteiu-Fresian. It would mean a great 
deal to the cattle raisers of the State if the money, amounting to 
millions of dollars, paid for cows from other states, were retained 
in Pennsylvania. In many districts it would be more profitable to 
market cattle than to sell crops from the farm, and it would do 
much to conserve and improve the fertility of the soil. In addition 
to purchasing dairy cows from other states, Pennsylvania imports 
every year a large number (from 25,000 to 30,000) steers for feed- 
ing. If an effort were made to supply the cow market by breeding 
Shorthorns or Eed-i»olls this would, at the same time, result in the 
production of a large number of steers valuable for feeding. 

For some reason but little attention has been paid in many parts 
of Pennsylvania to the production of cattle of a definite type and 
of high quality. This is in marked contrast with the condition that 
prevails in the cattle-raising districts of most of the central and 
western states, where it is the exception to find animals that do 
not clearly show the prominent characteristics of one of the im- 
ported breeds. No cattle raiser can afford to use a bull that is 
not pure-bred and of the best quality obtainable, and after having 
started in a definite line of breeding, a change should not be made 
lightly; a change should not be made excepting for the strongest 
reason. The objection that will be raised to this suggestion is that 
good bulls are too expensive. A little investigation will show that 



90 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. r>oc. 

this is not really the case. Good bulls of any of the imported breeds 
may be bought as calves for low prices and may be shipped in crates, 
by express, at comparatively small cost. But even if a high price 
is paid for a good bull that is mature and that has shown his worth 
for breeding, the increased cost will soon be returned in the extra 
value of each of his progeny. By co-operation of several farmers 
in a neighborhood, a bull may be purchased for the use of several 
herds. Members of farmers' clubs have found it profitable to join 
in the purchase of a good bull or a good stallion. 

In many parts of Pennsylvania, nondescript animals are raised of 
no definite breeding which can be classed fairly as ''scrubs." To 
properly mature such an animal costs almost as much as to prop- 
erly mature a highly bred animal, which, on maturity, will sell 
from 25 to 50 per cent, more than its plebian competitor. There 
is no room in the animal husbandry system of this State for animals 
that are not bred and designed for high utility in some definite di- 
rection. There is an improved breed that is adapted to the condi- 
tions and possibilities of every section of the State. If the condi- 
tions of life are too rugged for the large breeds, and if the condi- 
tions in respect to the market for milk are not good enough to 
justify keeping the Channel Island cattle, such breeds as the Devon 
or Aryshire may do well and worlc great improvement in the exist- 
ing cattle population. The seed for improvement is near at hand, 
because there are in this State many of the best herds of cattle 
to be found anywhere. It is to be hoped that the need for improve- 
ment will become so manifest that our own progressive breeders 
will have a better home market for herd improvers. This subject 
is one that deserves the serious attention of farmers' institutes and 
local agricultural organizations of all kinds. There are, approxi- 
mately, 1,000,000 milch cows in Pennsylvania and about 2,000,000 
cattle of all kinds. By improved breeding the average value of each 
of these animals could readily be increased $5, and this would mean 
an addition of |10,000,000 to the resources of the State. 

The work of. the laboratory of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board 
has always been an important part of the activity of the Board. 
The laboratory continues to occupy the rooms provided for it free 
of charge in the Pepper Clinical Laboratory of the University of 
Pennsylvania. It is gratifying to be able to state that authoritative 
worlc has been done by this laboratory in many directions, and that 
it is now one of the most productive laboratories of the kind in this 
country. All of the tuberculin, mallein and anthrax vaccine used 
for the Live Stock Sanitary Board have been made in this laboratory, 
and the total value of these products that have been made and used 
in the State more than equals the total cost of the running expenses 
of the laboratory. The advantage derived from the laboratory in 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. * 91 

makiuj;- its own biological products, lies uot ouly iu the tiiuiucial 
saviug aifoided in this way, but also in having- perfectly fresh and 
reliable material available at all times for immediate use. 

The use of tuberculin continues to increase as its accuracy as a 
diagnostic agent become more widely known. I believe that the 
great increase in llie use of tuberculin in Pennsylvania is due largely 
to the fact that the preparation used is always fresh and reliable 
and that misleading results have not been obtained through the 
use of faulty material. The mallein test has also increased very 
largely the past year. The results from the anthrax vaccinations 
that have been made liave been wholly satisfactory. The vaccine 
material used in the experiments upon cattle against tuberculosis, 
has also been prepared in this laboratory. 

Dr. S. H. Gilliland has made an anti-tuberculin serum with which 
he and Dr. C. Y. Vv^hite are experimenting in the prevention and 
cui'e of tuberculosis. The work that Dr. Gilliland has done in this 
direction is original work and will be reported upon separately by 
him. 

The laboratory is used more and more each year by the veterin- 
arians of the State as a place for obtaining an authoritative report 
upon the pathological material submitted. It often occurs in the 
course of a veterinarian's practice, as in the conrse of a physician's 
practice, that diseases are met with that cannot readily be diag- 
nosed. To establish a diagnosis requires a careful laboratory ex- 
amination of a secretion or tissue or pathological product. Tlie 
physician who is confronted by a case of this kind may have access 
to any one of a very large number of laboratories at medical colleges 
and hospitals throughout the State, but the veterinarian is without 
any opportunitj' for assistance excepting that which is furnished 
by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. To be sure, the large lab- 
oratories maintained for the use of physicians, are sometimes called 
upon for assistance, but these laboratories are equipped and main- 
tained to do such work as physicians require done. They are 
not accustomed to examine material from animals. Their direct- 
ors are, as a rule, unfamiliar with the diseases of animals, and, 
generally, they do not care for this kind of work. Consequently, 
if it were not done by the laboratory of the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board it would not be done at all, as was the case before this 
laboratory was established. Frequently it is of much public im- 
portance that a diagnosis of a disease of animals shall be estab- 
lished quickly and accurately. In the beginning of an outbreak of 
anthrax, for example, it is of vital importance that it shall be 
known at the earliest possible moment whether the disease under 
observation is anthrax or not. If the diagnosis of anthrax is es- 
tablished, it is possible immediately to take such measures as will 



92 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

cii'ciunscribe and control the outbreak. Exposed animals may be 
vaccina Ud and rendered immune, the carcasses of those tliat have 
died may be disposed of by biu'iiinjj;-, and the premises may be thor- 
oughly disinfected. In this way the outbreak is nipped in the bud, 
as it were. On the other hand, if the diagnosis were not promptly 
established and there remained a doubt as to whether the disease 
were anthrax or something else — and the differential diagnosis is 
sometimes quite difficult — effective measures would not be taken 
under such conditions. Without a definite diagnosis the carcasses 
of animals dead of anthrax would be permitted to lie upon the 
ground, their parts to be distributed by dogs and birds as well as 
by water and wind, and this may result in the condition that exists 
in old infected districts. In such districts the germs of this disease, 
having entered the soil, retain their life and their virulence for many 
3'ears ;ind are, at all times, available for the infection of animals 
that pasture over such regions or that drink the water that has 
drained across infected soils, or that feed upon the crops grown 
there. 

Similarly, in outbreaks of black-quarter or Rinderseuche, it is of 
great importance to the animal husbandry and the Commonwealth, 
to establish promptly an accurate diagnosis. 

In the diagnosis of the above-named diseases and of rabies, gland- 
ers and hog cholera, the laboratory has rendered valuable assist- 
ance, and is called upon for aid b}' veterinarians, health officers 
and live stock owners in all parts of the State. 

For several years a good deal of attention has been paid in the 
laboratory of this Board, to the bacteriological and miscroscopical 
study of milk. This has resulted in the accumulation of a large 
amount of data in regard to these important subjects that are just 
nov/ attracting so much serious attention. And if, as seems prob- 
able, it becomes necessary for the State Live Stock Sanitary Board 
to take a more active part in the matter of dairy inspection, the 
facts that have been accumulated in the records of the laboratory 
in respect to the above items, will be of great practical advantage. 
Part of this material has already been published in papers and ad- 
dresses by Dr. Ravenel and Dr. Gilliland. 

In field research some very important discoveries have been made 
in relation to the pathology of forage poisoning of horses. This 
work has been reported upon by Dr. D. J. McCarthy and Dr. M. P. 
Ravenel. Their report is published as an appendix to this report. 
This piece of work is of great importance because it reveals the al- 
teration that has occurred in a large number of horses afflicted 
with this disease. Under the auspices of the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board, certain definite causes for forage poisoning of horses 
have been revealed and a pathology of the disease has been made 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 93 

known. Fornicilv. liolh (lie cause of the disease aud its pathology 
were shrouded in niystci-.v. Throuj^h l^nowing- the cause of forage 
poisoning, it has been possible, in a great many cases, to prevent 
(he disease, aud the knowledge of the pathology that has been given 
US by l>rs. McCarthy and IJavenel must be regarded as the first 
efl'ective step toward rational treatment. 

The greater part of the energy and resources of the laboratory 
have been devoted during tlie past year, to the study of immuniza- 
tion of cattle against tuberculosis. This work was started some 
years ago, and has been reported upon in part by Dr. S. H. Gilli- 
land and the writer, who have had the entire responsibility for it. 
Our work has been amplified and, as will be shown in another part 
of this report, it has been placed on such a basis as to be tested 
under practical farm conditions. 

The legislature of 1908 enacted two laws which are destined to 
have an important influence on the work of the State Live Stock 
Sanitary BojArd. These are the acts of Assembly that follow: 

No. 60. 

AN ACT 

To encourage the repression of tuberculosis of cattle, and to provide for the 
disposition of the carcasses of meat-producing animals that are infested with 
tuberculosis to a degree that renders their flesh unfit for use as food. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c., That whenever it comes to the 
knowledge of the secretary of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, 
or an agent of that Board who is authorized to inspect animals, 
that a meat-producing animal, killed for food, was found to be in- 
fected with tuberculosis, or with a disease resembling tuberculosis, 
it shall be the duty of the secretary of the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board, either himself or by deputy, or of an authorized agent 
of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, to make an inspection of the 
said dead animal and its parts, for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether it is or was infected with tuberculosis, and, if infected, to 
what extent. 

Section L*. If it shall be found that the animal, from which the 
carcass or meat came, was infected with tuberculosis, or other 
infectious disease, and to a degree that renders the flesh unfit for 
use as food, the said dead animal, carcass or meat, shall be con- 
demned, and shall be disposed of by the use of any method that 
is approved by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. For the guid- 
ance of inspectors of animals and meats, and of agents of the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board, rules for the inspection of the carcasses 
of meat-producing animals may be promulgated by the State Live 
Stock Sanilarv Board, or, in the absence of such rules, the rules of 



94 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the United States Bureau of iVnimal Industi\v, that cover the in- 
spection of animals and carcasses for tubercnlo.^is in abbattoirs 
under federal inspection, shall be observed. 

Section 3. When it is decided by a meat inspector, approved in 
respect to competency and reliability by the secretary of the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board, or by a member or agent of the State 
Live Stock Sanitarj' Board, and certified by him in writing on an 
official form that shall be provided for this purpose by the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board, that the flesh of a meat-producing 
animal is unfit for use as food, on account of the fact that the animal 
from which it came was infected with tuberculosis to an injurious 
degree, the said meat or carcass may be appraised, by agreement be- 
tween a member or agent of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board 
and the owner or his agent, or, if an agreement cannot be made, 
three appraisers shall be appointed, one by the owner or his agent, 
one by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board or its authorized agent, 
and the third by the two so appointed, v/ho shall, under oath or 
affirmation, fairly and impartially appraise the meat or carcass, 
taking into consideration its apparent market value at the time of 
appraisement: Provided, however, That such appraised valuation 
shall not exceed five cents per pound, nor twenty-five dollars for 
the entire carcass. 

Section 4. The amount of the agreed or appraised valuation shall 
be paid by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, in the same manner 
as other expenses of said board are paid, upon the presentation of 
satisfactory certificates of condemnation and valuation, and satis- 
factor}'' evidence in writing that the condemned animal has been 
continuously in the State of Pennsylvania for not less than four 
months prior to slaughter, and that the carcass was disposed of in 
such a way that had been approved by the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board. 

Al)proved— The 2.5th day of March, A. D. 1903. 

SAML. W. PENNYPACKER. 

No. 80. 
AN ACT 

To prevent the spread of the disease known as rabies, or hydrophobia; and 
to authorize the quarantine, restraint, confinement, or muzzling of dogs, 
during outbreaks of this disease; and to einpower the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board to enforce the provisions of this act. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c., That whenever the disease known 
as rabies, or hydro})hobia, shall occur among the dogs or other ani- 
mals, in any locality of Pennsylvania, and it is adjudged by the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board that the disease is spreading, or is 



No. G. • DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. ' 95 

liable to be spread by dogs lliat have been exi»osed, the said Board 
may order tlie (jiiarantine, restraint, confinement, or mnzzlinj; of any 
or all do<xs, within the limits of the locality in which the danger of 
infection is deemed to exist. The authority hereby conferred is not 
to annul or restrict tlu^ authority now possessed by cities or bor- 
oughs to quarantine, restrain, confine, or muzzle dogs, within the 
limits of their respective jurisdictions. 

Section 2. A quarantine, or order to restrain, confine or muzzle 
dogs, shall be operative when it is ai^proved bj' a majority of the 
members of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and when a copy 
of it has been left at the usual place of residence of the owner 
of the dog that it is believed to have been exposed to rabies, or 
hydrophul)ia; or when the notice or order to quarantine, restrain, 
confine or muzzle dogs, has been published in each of two papers in 
each of the counties within which the regulation is established, and 
when printed notices, giving the text of the regulation or order, 
have been posted in public places, in the locality in which the regu- 
lation or ordiM' applies. 

Section 3. Should dogs be permitted to run at large, or to escape 
from restraint or confinement, or to go without muzzle, in violation 
of the quarantine, or regulation, or order, established by the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board to restrict the spread of rabies, or hydro- 
phobia, as provided by this act, such dogs may be secured and con- 
fined, or they may be shot or otherwise destroyed, and the owner 
or owners thereof shall have no claim against the person so doing. 

Section 4. Any person violating the provisions of this act, or of 
a quarantine, or of a regulation or order to restrain, confine or 
muzzle dogs, duly established by the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board, for the purpose of restricting the spread of rabies, or hydro- 
phobia, in the manner provid(^d in the other sections of this act, 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor; and upon conviction shall 
forfeit and pay a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than 
one hundred dollars, at the discretion of the court. 

Approved— The 27th day of March, A. D. 1903. 

SAML. W. PENNYPACKER. 

■ 

Reference has already been made to the development of the dairy 
industry of Pennsvlvania. This industrv now ranks as the most im- 
portant part of the agriculture of the State. The steadily increas- 
ing demand for milk denotes that the dairy industry must continue 
to grow. It is, hovt'ever, to be observed that milk consumers are 
becoming more particular as to the quality of the milk they con- 
sume. This is shown by the increased attention given to milk in 
spection by boards of health and by the State Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner, as well as by the growth of milk businesses that are con- 



96 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

ducted on a high plane and aim to furnish none but the most whole- 
some milk. So many farmers are now dependent upon the milk 
market for their income that anvthinj;- that affects this market 
deleteriousl\-, has far-reaching importance. 

While the greater part of the market milk that is produced is of 
good quality, unadulterated and w^holesome, it occurs, every now 
and then, as undesirable conditions occur in other businesses, that 
milk that is not desirable or safe for use as food, is delivered to 
customers. Some of the undesirable qualities of milk accrue in 
the household of the consumer, others at the hands of the dealer, 
others during transportation, and still others at the seat of produc- 
tion. 

In order that milk may be good, it is necessary that it shall be 
produced under proper conditions, and that it shall be handled prop- 
erly at every step on its way to the consumer's table. It is neces- 
sary, first of all, that the cows furnishing the milk shall be in a 
condition of health. Milk is harmed not only by the existence of 
tuberculosis and all other constitutional or infectious diseases, but 
also by local diseases of the udder. Microscopic examination has 
shown that a considerable proportion of cows furnish milk contain- 
ing j)us cells and strepticocci. These elements and organisms show 
that the udder is, or has been, the seat of a purulent inflammation. 
Sanitarians consider that milk of this description is unwholesome 
and should not be used. This means that it is necessary to exclude 
from milk production, cows with garget or with other evidence of 
inflammation of the udder. Generally, this is done, but through 
lack of attention, it is sometimes overlooked with the result that 
the milk is contaminated and the consumer is injured. Another 
important factor in the production of wholesome milk, and perhaps 
the most important factor of all, is cleanliness — cleanliness in rela- 
tion to the cows, cleanliness of the stable, cleanliness of the utensils 
and of the milk<n'. Some cows are so kept, and some premises are 
so constructed and maintained, that the production of clean milk is 
quite out of the question. The harm that conu'S from the use of 
dirty milk is believed to be very great, and no one has a right to sell 
it. 

The importance of a pure water sup])ly on dairy farms is some- 
times overlooked and wilh dangerous resulis, as was clearly shown 
by a recent incident in connection wilh the milk supj)ly of Philadel- 
]ihia. A large number of people became afflicted with typhoid fever 
in two of the wards in the southern pari of llie city. At that time 
there was so little typhoid fever in other parts of these particular 
wards, where the water suy)ply was th(» same, that the attention 
of the health aulhorilies was drawn to tliis unusual distribution 
of the disease. Investigation showed thai practically all of the 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 97 

pei'sous, iiuuibei-ing lioiu fifty to sixty, that were siiUei-iiij^ with 
tvi)lioi(l fever, bad obtained milk from tlie same milk man. An 
examination into the source of the milk sold by this dealer showed 
that it came from three farms in a nearby county. On one of 
these farms there were several cases of tyi)hoid fever, and the 
conditions were such as to render inevitable the contamination with 
the germs of typhoid fever of both the spriu<j, house and the well 
at the dwelling- house. A review of the history of the occurrence 
of the disease upon this farm and among the peoi)le using the milk 
from this farm, showed that the disease started among the con- 
sumers about two weeks after it started on the farm, and not 
another case developed after this milk supply was cut off. These 
facts and the other attending circumstances Avere such as to con- 
vince the health authorities that the disease had been carried in 
milk from this farm to the city. This case is cited here to illus- 
trate the necessity for care in milk production. 

By far tlie majority of milk producers wish to furnish milk tliat 
is above reproacli. It may cost a little more to produce clean 
milk than to produce dirty milk. If it does not cost more money 
there is at any rate an additional expense in supervision and care. 
It is not fair to those who take tlie care that is necessary in the pro- 
duction of clean millv to allow careless, slovenly individuals to sell 
their product under the same conditions in the same market. More- 
over, it is unfair to the consumer to have delivered to him milk 
that is unw'holesome and that may contain the germs of an infec- 
tious disease. It appears, therefore, that distinct advantage would 
accrue both to the producers of good milk and to consumers, if there 
were such an inspection of dairies as would raise the standard of 
those who are doing the poorest work and would exclude from the 
market milk that is likely to be unwholesome. 

There is no question as to the wholesomness of good milk or 
as to its importance in the dietary. There is scarcely any other 
food that is more nourishing, or that is so easily assimilable, and 
tew that are as cheap. There is, therefore, _every reason why milk 
should be consumed in large quantities by the people of towns and 
cities. A feature that has served heretofore to restrict the de- 
mand for milk has been the suspicious character of some of the 
milk that has been sold and lack of confidence in the general supply. 

Milk is peculiar in that it may not show evidence of serious de- 
fects. The appearance of milk has little and often no relation to 
Its wholesomeness; therefore, to a greater extent than with any 
other food, it is necessary for the consumer to have confidence in 
the quality of this product. 

The consumption of milk per capita in the various cities of the 

7—6—100.3 



98 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

United States is sliown by a report of the Dairy Division of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. From this report it ap 
pears that the amount of milk consumed in Philadelphia is much 
less than it is in many other cities. In St. Louis and Louisville, 
where the milk is admittedly of low grade, and where the cows are 
fed on brewer's grain or brewer's slojjs, the quantities consumed 
per day per inhabitant are 0.37 and 0.31) jjiiit respectively. In 
Philadelphia, the quantity consumed is 0.4G pint; in New York, 0.76 
pint; in Rochester, 0.83 pint, afld in Boston more than one pint 
per inhabitant per day. There appears to be no sufficient reason 
why more milk should be consumed in New York Cily than in Phila- 
delphia. If Philadelphia should consume in proportion as much 
milk as is consumed by the inhabitants of New York City, this would 
give rise to a d(>mand for an additional supply of at least 150,000 
quarts per day. This would necessitate the employment of, say, 
25,000 additional cows, which would mean the addition of at least 
1,000 additional farms, worth, with their equipments, approximately 
|8,000 each, lo the business of producing milk for the Philadelphia 
market. In other words, additional capital to the extent of |8,- 
000,000 would find employment in this industry. 

Experiments made at the State Agricultural College in Maine 
and elsewhere have shown that where milk enters largely into a 
dietary, it is not taken as additional nutriment but is substituted 
for nutriment in another form and usually in the place of meat. 
This seems to support the belief that if milk were more extensively 
used, it would not be at the expense of any local farm product, but 
it would be at the cost of meat, the largest part of which, at 
j)resent, comes from the west. With these facts in view, I wish to 
suggest ll'.e desirability of a State inspection of dairy farms to be 
carried out for the purpose of correcting faulty conditions that 
exist that are a menace to the consumers of milk and that injur 
iously affect the trade. Several of the western states and Massachu 
setts have adopted this system. Tlie results are beneficial. Whether 
the plan, if it wore introduced here, would prove to be usefiri or not 
would depend, first, upon the character of the supervision, and, sec- 
ond, upon the intelligence and industry of the inspectors. 

Expenditnres. — For the fiscal year ending May 31, 1903, the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board was allowed |40,000.00 for its general 
work in repressing diseases of aninvals. Expenditures under this 
fund may be classified as follows: For tubercular cattle, !p24.00C).00; 
for glandered horses, $941.00; for inspecting tubercular cattle and 
herds, $2,964.05; for insjjections for the puri)ose of suppressing dis- 
ease otlier than tuberculosis and for vaccinating cattle against an- 
thrax and l)lackleg. |3,035.84; for togs, marking cattle, for materials 
for vaccine, tubei-culin and for shijjping, for cremating carcasses. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AlHilCULTURE. 99 

serving- qnarautine notices and enforcing- quaraiatines, |1, 058.68; 
for supplies, j^ostage, ofilice lielfj and miscellaneous expenses, |3,- 
488. 11; expenses for enforcing- the law requiring the inspection of 
dairy cows and for catth? for breeding purposes brought into Penn- 
sylvania fi'om other states, ^2,014.82. 

Glcoiders. — The following- list shows the distribution among the 
counties and the extent of prevalence of glanders during the past 
year: 

Berks, 1 

Bradford, 1 

Butler, 9 

Cumberland, 1 

Centre, 1 

Chester, 1 

Dauphin, 1 

Fayette, 1 

Franklin, 1 

Luzerne, 4 

McKeau, 2 

Mercer, 9 

Montgomery, 2 

Philadelphia, 3 

Susquehanna, 6 

Wayne, 1 

Total, 44 



It will be seen that the disease was widely distributed, occurring 
in many parts of the State, but that its prevalence was not great in 
any section. The most extensive outbreaks were found in Butler 
and Mercer counties; in one instance, among a load of mules belong- 
ing to a horse and mule dealer, and in the other instance among the 
horses Of a livery stable. The outbreak in Susquehanna county 
was next in order, necessitating the destruction of six horses. The 
other cases were scattering, with but one or two in a place. These 
statistics show clearly that the disease was in every instance of 
recent introduction and, indeed, in almost every case it was possible 
to trace the disease to an afflicted animal from another state. 
That glanders is frequently brought into the State is well known 
and this is not to be wondered at in view of the fact that it is quite 
prevalent in several western states and also in parts of New York 
State and in parts of New England. In order to prevent the dis- 
tribution of this disease, it is necessary not only to deal promptly 
with every infected animal, but to investigate every report indicat- 
ing the possibility of the existence of glanders. A large number 



100 _ ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

of communications are received from vetei-iiiarians, licaltb officers 
aud stock men to the effect that certain horses are or are sus- 
pected of beini^ afflicted with glanders. Investigations made in 
such cases usually show tliat the suspicion is not well founded. 
In following up reports of this kind it is often sufficient to make 
a physicial examination, and in this Wiiy ascertain that glanders 
does or does not exist. In some instances it is necessary to resort 
to a laboratory examination of the discharge from the nose or 
from ulcers upon the skin, or to the malleiu test. Since the labora- 
tor}' examination requires more time than the mallein test, the 
latter method of diagnosis is more frequently employed. During 
the vear. 183 horses and mules were tested with mallein. Nearly 
all of the animals that were condemned as glaudered were thus 
tested. The test has been found by experience covering more than 
ten years, to be exceedingly reliable and, indeed, if made under 
proper conditions, almost infallible. 

Vriiere glanders is found to exist and it is learned that horses 
or mules have been in close contact with the infected animal, 
through working in the same team or through association in the 
stable, it is customary to apply the mallein test to the animals 
so exposed. It happens frequently that animals so tested react to 
mallein in a characteristic way, both in respect to rise of tempera- 
ture and in respect to swelling at the point of injection. Such 
reactions are taken to indicate that the animal is actually in- 
fected with glanders. That this is the case is shown by the ex- 
cessive rarity of similar reactions among horses not known to 
have been exposed. When an animal exposed to glanders, but 
showing no external evidence of this disease, is found to react in 
this characteristic manner, it is placed in quarantine through serv- 
ing upon the owner an order requiring him to keep and care for the 
animal in a way that is specified. It is not always required that 
the animal shall be closely quarantined and isolated. If it is be- 
lieved that the owner can and will observe the precautions that 
are necessary, he is permitted to use the horse under certain re- 
btiictions. It is required, for example, that the horse shall be 
stabled nowhere excepting in his own stable and stall, that he 
shall not be tied or allowed to stand in a public place where horses 
j.-'ather, that he shall not be permitted to drink from a public water- 
ing trough, that he shall not be driven or worked with another 
horse, etc. After a period of from four to six weeks, the horse 
is again tested with mallein and retests are made at subsequent 
intervals of from four to six weeks, until upon two successive tests 
the horse has shown no response to the mallein test whereupon, 
if he shows no external signs of glanders, it is considered that the 
i'jfectiou has been overcome and the quarantine is raised. Uusally, 



No. 6. bEPArwTMENT OF AC I tK'lJLTUiiE. 101 

it lias been found that tlio qntirantiue can be raised after the fouii ii 
or lif(h tci-t. This system lias been in operation for several years 
and horses that have at one time been under suspicion and have 
be( n frei'd from suspicion in (he maniu'r stated, have been under 
observation since for two, Ihree or four years and have shown 
no evidence of glanders and have not propagated glanders among 
the horsrs v\itli which llicy have worked and have been stabled. 
TJnforluiialely, it has not often berii possible to make post mortem 
examiualioiis on horses so treated, but through so much of this 
wori< as it has been jjossible to do here, and through work of this 
character (hat has been done abroad, th(n'e appears to be little 
ground to doubt that under such conditions the disease may be 
actually cured and that such nodules as are found in the lungs 
or elsew^here, may be free from living bacilli of glanders. In a 
number of cases it has been found that horses that do not cease 
reacting to the mallein test, subsequently break down with this dis- 
ease. Since, however, such horses are continued in quarantine no 
harm has come from permitting them to remain alive until the 
disease has reached a stage of development rendering it possible 
to diagnose it by means of a physical examination. If such horses 
had not been tested with mallein, since they did not at first show 
external signs of glanders, they could not have been kept under 
careful observation and under the complete or partial quarantine 
that they were kept under, and so they would have had an oppor- 
tunity to have distributed infection. 

This method of dealing with glanders has the advantage of being- 
conservative to a very high degree and at the same time of being- 
effective. In other words, by means of it, it is possible to eradicate 
glanders with .a minimum of expense and loss. No horse is de- 
stroyed that does not present physical signs of glanders, and no 
horse that has once reacted is relieved of suspicion until he has been 
under observation for at least three months, during which time he 
has shown no evidence of glanders either upon physical examination 
or repeated mallein test. 

The efticiency of this method is perhaps best shown by the infre- 
quency of glanders in Pennsylvania, and the fact that the cases that 
do occur, can, in practically all instances, be traced to infection from 
without the State. 

Whether mallein may actually be classed as a curative agent or 
not is a point u])on which evidenc'e gathered in this work is insuffi- 
cient to base [in opinion. It may be, as is held by some, that glan- 
ders is a disease from which in its very earliest stages a large pro- 
portion of horses recover, and that the disappearance of the mallein 
reaction in horses that have been exposed and have once reacted, 
is but evidence of the course that the disease naturallv follows in 



102 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Due. 

a large percentages of iustanees. A few experimeuts liave been 
made with tlie view of deciding tliis question, but the data is still 
insutiicient. At anj' rate, there is no reason or excuse for the treat- 
ment or for the maintenance of a horse that shows visible signs 
of glanders. 

Anthrax. Anthrax has occurred during the past year in the fol- 
lowing counties: Chester, Crawford, Cumberland, Erie, Franklin, 
Jefferson, McKean, Philadelphia, Susquehanna, Warren, Wayne and 
Wyoming. Last year anthrax occurred in all these counties ex- 
cepting Crawford and Philadelijhia, and, in addition, occurred in the 
counties of Bradford, Clarion, Lancaster, Lycoming, Perry and 
Sullivan. Although it is not safe to draw definite conclusions from 
this observation, it appears to indicate that the distribution of 
anthrax is being diminished. The outbreaks that were observed 
varied in size, but usually were quite small, not more than five or 
six animals dying of anthrax in any one outbreak. Immediately, 
in every instance where anthrax was reported, provision was made 
for the safe disposition of the carcass of the victims of this disease. 

Vaccination has been practiced on all the animals where anthrax 
has occurred, and has been applied to all the exposed animals on 
farms where the disease appears and also on neighboring farms 
whenever it vras considered that there was danger of infection. 
The vaccination consists in injecting, with a h3'podermic s^'ringe, a 
small quantity of a culture of anthrax bacilli that has been so re- 
duced in virulence as to be incapable of producing disease in cattle. 
The second vaccination is applied twelve days after the first. The 
The second vaccine material is also a culture of anthrax germs of 
diminished virulence, but they are somewhat more potent than those 
used for the first vaccine. It is customary in some places to use 
a third vaccine, but this has not been found to be necessary in our 
work. Two vaccinations have regularly furnished complete pro- 
tection. It has been observed, however, that immunity thus con- 
ferred may disappear in the course of a year, so that vaccination 
every spring is advisable where animals must be exposed. There 
are numbers of farms in diifcrent parts of the State where the 
rearing of cattle is impossible without the protection afforded by 
vaccination. TJi)on such farms it is necessary to vaccinate every 
year, and if uninfected cattle are brought to these farms it has been 
found repeatedly that they die of anthrax while the vaccinated 
animals remain immune. 

It is of highest importance Ilia I the carcasses of animals dying 
of anthrax, shall be cremated or deeply buried and covered with 
lime. If the carcass is disposed of in the careless way that is cus- 
tomary ill so numy farming districts, the anthrax germs that i1 
contains mav enter the soil and become distributed over a consid- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 10:3 

eru'ole area. Aii(lii-ax is raused by a bacillus which, at'Ler death, 
is found in the blood and in numerous places in the vascular parts 
of the body. This bacillus has (he peculiarity of forming a spore 
that is excessively resistant to unfavorable conditions of life and 
that may retain its vitality and virulence in the soil for many years. 
Therefore, when the carcass of an animal that dies of anthrax is 
neglected, the soil may become infested with the germs of anthrax 
and from this point they may be distributed by wind or water, or 
by the f.eet of passing people or animals, and infect susceptible 
animals .wdth which they come in contact. Even forage grown on 
soils infected with anthrax, has been known to convey the disease. 
All of these evils that are of such a very serious nature and continue 
for so many years, may be avoided by disposing of the carcasses of 
anthrax victims b}' cremation or deep burial. If burial is practiced, 
the grave should be so arranged that it may not be washed out by 
flood and it should be so deep and so protected that it may not be 
excavated by do^s or other animals. Moreover, a layer of lime 
several inches thick should be spread over the carcass before the 
earth is filled in, in order to prevent earth worms from burrowing 
in the carcass and subsequently carrying the infectious material 
obtained from it to the top of the ground, where it would be availa- 
ble to infect large animals. It has been shown that this danger is 
a very real one and should be guarded against in the manner recom- 
mended. 

Of all methods of disposing of carcasses of anthrax victims, the 
best is cremation. Even if the carcass is deeply buried and the 
grave is protected so that it may not be opened, there is a possi- 
bility that surface or subterranean water draining through the 
grave may convey the germs of anthrax long distances and bring 
them to the surface at a lower level. It has been shown by 
actual experiments that the germs of anthrax can be w'ashed 
through several feet of earth. The cost of cremation is small, but 
it is not much more, if any more, than a jjroper burial, and when it 
has been carried out this serious danger has been removed for all 
time. 

Instructions for cremating carcasses of animals dead of anthrax, 
have been given repeatedly in these annual reports. Advice has 
also been furnished upon this point by letter. It appears, however, 
that there is still need for instruction upon this procedure, because 
wasteful and laborious methods are still occasionally practiced or 
cremation is neglected. 

To cremate a carcass with a minimum of fuel and labor, it is 
•necessary that the carcass shall be placed above the source of heat, 
and shall be burned from below. The reason for this is so evident 
that it would seem that one vrould instinctively adopt tliis plan, but 



104 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

every now aud then attempts are made to destroy carcasses by piling 
wood on top of them and burning this. The result is that the sur- 
face of the carcass is seared and charred, but the great bulk of it 
is not consumed or even healed through. To properly cremate a 
carcass requires from one-half to three-quarters of a cord of wood. 
The wood should be piled in such a way as to make a pyre from 
six to eight feet square and about two feet high. It is well to have 
some large sticks, such as railroad ties, for this purpose. The wood 
should be well sprinkled with kerosene in order to help ignition. 
The carcass is to be drawn to the top of this pile upon poles used 
as skids. After the carcass is in place, the fire is to be lighted and 
the skids and everything that is contaminated with blood from the 
dead animal should be thrown upon the fire. Detailed instructions 
for cremating a carcass with the least possible amount of fuel by 
methods successfully used in Germany, are given in the annual 
report from this division in the year 1902. This report appears 
on pages 154 and 155 of the Department of Agriculture for that year. 

It seems to be desirable that this opportunity should be used to 
give warning anew in regard to the danger of skinning anthrax 
carcasses or making jjost mortem examinations upon them. The 
danger from these operations are two fold, and applies first to the 
person who does the work and who exposes himself to a grave 
infection and, secondly, to animals or persons who may subsequently 
became exposed as a result of the infection of the soi"! where it is 
contaminated by blood and other juices from the carcass. A great 
many men who have handled anthrax carcasses, have become in- 
fected with anthrax. The infection of the skin with the germs of 
anthrax results in the production of an area of suppuration and 
necrosis known as a "malignant carbuncle." This condition can 
usually be cured if appropriate treatment is prom])tly applied, but 
if the condition is neglected, it will lead to general infection and 
death. 

If anthrax is suspectid and the diagnosis cannot be made from 
the symptoms alone, it is best to treat the carc^ass as though it 
were known that the animal h;id died of anthrax, and thus be on 
the safe side. In order, however, that a positive diagnosis may 
be established and, thus, uncertainty for the future be removed, 
a sjxH'imen from the subject should be submitted for- laboratory 
examination. For the diagnosis of anthrax a little blood is^neces- 
sary, because it is in (he bhtod that the germs of the disease are 
most numerous. It is best that blood for this purpose should be 
sent in tie natural blood vessels, that is to say, in a piece of tissue, 
rather thaa to be drawn into a bottle or receptacle and in this w^ar 
exposed to accidental contamination. A convenient method of sub- 
iiiilliiig a specimen foi' llir laboratory examination lias been found 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUT.TUIIE. lOi 

(() he to cut off one of the ears of the animal that has died. Tlii.s 
small object can be packed in such a way that it is entirely safe to 
ship it, and, moreover, the specimen can be obtained without open- 
ing the carcass, which would almost inevitably be accompanied by 
grave results. The specimen should be placed in a fruit jar which 
should be closed and packed in cracked ice in a large bucket. The 
bucket should bo covered and shipped by express to the laboratory 
of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, 3Gth and Spruce Streets, 
rhiladelphia. A tag should be attached to the package giving infor- 
mation as to the origin of the specimen, and a letter giving all of the 
known facts in regard to the origin, history and nature of the dis- 
ease should be sent to the State Vetreinarian. 

Black-quarter. Black-quarter has occurred during the past year 
in the counties of Erie, Jefferson, Lackawanna, Montgomery, Sus- 
quehanna and Warren. The prevalence of this disease has been 
considerably less than for several years past. This malady is sim- 
ilar to anthrax in that the germ causing it may liA^e for a long time 
in the soil, and in that the disease is prevented through a system 
of vaccination. Black-quarter is chiefly a disease of young cattle, 
selecting those that are in the best condition. It is most prevalent 
in the spring and fall and in some regions occurs so extensively as 
to cause very serious losses. Vaccination was applied during the 
year to 720 animals, and no animal that was vaccinated developed 
black-quarter, although all of them were on farms or in neighbor- 
hoods where the disease had occurred. The vaccine used for thi.s 
purpose was obtained from Dr. D. E. Salmon, Chief of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry. 

JRinderseuche, Hemorrhagic Septicaemia or Spotted Fever of Cattle. 
In ni}- report for last year a description was given of this disease 
and a statement was made that its existence in Peuns^^lvania had 
been positively proven through researches made by Dr. S. H. Gili- 
land and myself. The occurrence in Pennsylvania of a disease, 
closely related, clinically, and in its jjathology, to Rinderseuche, has 
long been known. Although efforts have several times been made 
to obtain bacteriological evidence as to the nature of this disease, 
these efforts were not wholly successful until last year during the 
outbreak in Carbon county in the vicinity of Manch Chunk and 
Tamaqua. This disease has been reported during the year from 
several parts of the State, but almost always in the mountainous 
and less well cultivated districts. 

During the past year, however, there have been on well cultivated 
farms a few outbreaks of the disease. In these outbreaks all the 
principal forms of rinderseuche have been seen. They are those 
in wiiich the alterations are most pronounced in the skin, or in the 
organs within the chest, or in the digestive tract. In Minnesota, 
8 



106 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

chronic cases of rinderseuche or hemorrhagic-septicaemia have been 
described by Dr. Keynolds. Clironic cases of this disease have not, 
up to this time, been identified in Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvania 
it is confined entirely, so far as is known, to cattle. In some out- 
breaks in Europe it has been found to extend to buffalo, horses, 
swine and deer. It appears that young- cattle are more susceptible 
to the disease as it occurs in Pennsylvania than are mature animals. 

The cause is an oval bacterium that is found in the blood and 
oftentimes in the spleen, liver and in the exudates of the thoracic 
and abdominal cavities and the exudates about the throat and be- 
neath the skin. The mode of transmission of the disease is not yet 
established, although it is thought by some who have given this sub- 
ject a great deal of attention, that it is conveyed through the saliva, 
the discharge from the nose and by the blood that escapes from the 
anus and that leaks through the skin. The organism causing this 
disease is somewhat difficult to cultivate and it is one that rather, 
quickly loses its virulence when grown in the laboratory upon artifi- 
cial culture media. A large amount of investigation has been car- 
ried on in Europe and at the laboratory of the Minnesota State 
Board of Health, for the purpose, if possible, to discover a means of 
protecting animals against this disease by a process of preventive 
inoculation. Some of this work carried out in Italy encourages the 
hope that a successful process of preventive inoculation may be de- 
velojjed, but as yet none is available. 

More cases of the "pectoral" form of rinderseuche have been seen 
during the past year than during any of the previous years, and 
there has been less of the skin: or exanthema tic form. The pectoral 
variety of this disease usually appears in Ihe form of an acute 
pneumo-pleurisy. In these cases there is high fever, depression, 
loss of appetite, rapid breathing, dullness in the lower part of the 
chest, blood}' discharge from the nose, some swelling about the head 
and throat and sometimes swelling of the legs. In most cases 
death occurs from two to four days after the onset of the disease. 
Some of these cases are complicated by diarrhoea and by very 
extensive and painful swelling of the legs, especially about the 
hocks and knee joints. Upon post mortem examination it is found 
that there are numerous hemorrhagic areas from the size of a split 
pea to half a dollar in the subcutaneous connective tissue. If there 
is swelling about the throat it is found to be caused by an accumu- 
lation of serum in the meshes of the connective tissue around the 
pharynx and beneath the skin. The chest cavity contains a large 
quantity of serum, usually red in color, that rises from three to 
six or eight inches above the sternum. The surface of the pleura 
is coated with more or less fibrin. The lungs are infiltrated with 
serum, are red in color and sink in water. It has not been pos- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 107 

sible iu tlu'Si' cases to obtain cultui-es or suitable material for 
laboratory examination, and so it is not known whether the organ- 
ism producing this form of hemorrhagic septicaemia is identical 
with that which caused the outbreak in Carbon count}' that was 
studied bacteriologically. An outbreak of hemorrhagic septicaemia 
of the exanthematic type which occurred in Luzerne county in July 
and .\ugust has been studied and reported upon by Drs, Hogg and 
Phipps of Wilkes-Barre. In this outbreak ten cattle belonging to 
two owners died. The disease pursued in these cases a rapid course, 
killing in one, two or three days. The symptoms were depression, 
weakness, disinclination to move, loss of appetite, staggering gait, 
bloody discharge from the nose, blood evacuation from the -bowels, 
swelling about the throat and beneath the jaws. In some of them, 
leakage of blood through the skin on the side of the chest or abdo- 
men was observed. In some, swelling of the legs or beneath the 
trunk, and cessation of milk flow was seen. Similar outbreaks have 
been described in the adjoining county of Lackawanna and in 
Wayne county by Dr. Jacob Helmer, of Scranton. 

Whether, as seems probable, the organism of this disease may 
live from season to season, has not yet been proved, but in the 
absence of positive information on this point, it has seemed wise 
to recommend and require the destruction by fire or b}"^ deep burial 
of the carcass of all animals dying of this disease. Where this 
malady has occurred on settled farms and in or about farm build- 
ings, disinfection of the most thorough character that could pos- 
sibly be employed has been recommended. In some instances the 
disease has occurred several years in succession among cattle on 
the same farm or on the same mountain cattle range, and has then 
disappeared and the cattle have remained exempt. It is, neverthe- 
less, true that the disease is very much more, prevalent in some 
parts of the State than in others. In come districts it seems to be 
stationary and occurs in greater or less jjrevaleuce every year. 

Here is an important and wide and, probably, profitable field for 
research work. 

liahies. Rabies is known to have existed in the past year in the 
following counties: Allegheny, Beaver, Bedford, Blair, Bucks, Car- 
bon, Centre, Chester, Clinton, Clearfield, Columbia, Crawford, Dela- 
ware, Erie, Franklin, Lackawanna, Lawrence, Luzerne, Lycoming, 
McKean, Montgomer}', Montour, Northampton, Northumberland, 
Philadelphia, Potter, Schuylkill, Somerset, Sullivan, Susquehanna, 
AVestmoreland, Wyoming and York. Heads of animals from nearly 
all of the counties listed above have been sent to the laboratory of 
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board for examination and diagnosis, 
with the result that it has been ])roven by microscopic examination, 
confirnKH] in numerous instances by inoculation lests, th.nt i-abics 



108 ANNTTAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

has existed as stated. Rabies has been proven not only in do^s but 
also in cows, calves, sheep, swine and horses. Notwithstandinij,- 
the very great prevalence of rabies that has been shown by investi- 
gations carried ont during the past year, it is believed that the dis- 
ease is not actually so prevalent as it was during the previous year; 
the greater number of cases reported being due, to a large extent, 
to a desire to obtain definite information in regard to diagnosis and 
as a result of greater efforts to obtain such reports. 

The increased efforts that have been made to obtain reports of 
outbreaks of rabies has been due to the passage of a law by the last 
Legislature, which was approved by the Governor March 27, lOOo. 
The text of the law follows: 

No. 80. 

AN ACT 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c.. That whenever the disease known 
as rabies, or hydrophobia, shall occur among the dogs or other ani- 
mals, in any locality of Pennsylvania, and it is adjudged by the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board that the disease is spreading, or 
is liable to be spread by dogs that have been exposed, the said 
Board may order the quarantine, restraint, confinement, or muz- 
zling of any or all dogs, within the limits of the locality in which 
the danger of infection is deemed to exist. The authority hereby 
conferred is not to annul or restrict the authority now possessed 
by cities or boroughs to quarantine, restrain, confine, or muzzle 
dogs, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions. 

Section 2. A quarantine, or order to restrain, confine or muzzle 
dogs, shall be operative when it is approved by a majority of the 
members of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and when a copy 
of it has been left at the usual place of residence of the owner of 
the dog that it is believed to have been exposed to rabies, or hydro- 
phobia; or when the notice or order to quarantine, restrain, confine 
or muzzle dogs, has been published in each of two papers in each of 
the counties within which the regulation is established, and Avhen 
printed notices, giving the text of the regulation or order, have been 
posted in public places, in the locality in which the regulation or 
order applies. 

Section 3. Should dogs be permitted to run at large, or to escape 
from restraint or confinement, or to go Avithout muzzles, in violation 
of the quarantine, or regulation, or order, established by the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board to restrict the spread of rabies, or hydro- 
phobia, as provided by this act, such dogs may be secured and con- 
fined, or they may be shot or otherwise destroyed, and the owner 
or owners thereof shall have no claim against the person so doing. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 109 

Section 4. Aiiv jtcisoii violatiii.^' tlie provisions of this act, or 
of a quarantine, or of a regulation or order to resh-air., (-online or 
muzzle (l()^?s, duly established by the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board, foi" the purpose of restricting the spread of rabies^ or hydro- 
phobia, in Ihe manner provided in the other sections of this act, 
shall be deemed j^uilty of a misdemeanor; and upon conviction shall 
forfeit and pay a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than one 
hundred dollars, at the discretion of the court. 

Approved— The 27th day of March, A. ]). 1903. 

SAML. W. PENNYPACKER. 

In view of the existence of this law it has been possible to deal 
more effectively with rabies than has been possible in previous years. 
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board has frequent r.equests from 
boards of health and from individuals in all parts of the State to 
investigate and to assist in the repression of rabies. Interest in 
this matter is due not alone to the great losses among domestic 
animals that are caused by this affiietion, but also on account of 
the danger to which human beings are exposed when this disease 
prevails among the animals of a region. 

A few years ago it was the fashion of a number of Individuals to 
deny the existence of rabies and to ridicule those that claimed to 
recognize it. Whenever a report of rabies was placed on record it 
was "the signal for an outburst of ridicule, i^rotest and denuncia- 
tion. There v/as a propaganda organized and sustained by enthusi- 
astic and well meaning, but misguided, people, which had for its 
object the dissemination of the view, first, that there is no such 
disease as rabies, or, that if there is, it is of such rare occurrence 
as to be of little significance, and second, when the first ground 
became untenable, of the view that rabies does not occur in man 
and that the cases that do occur are really hysteria caused by 
fright. In substantiation of the latter view, physicians of long and 
extensive experience were quoted as having stated that they did 
not believe that rabies occurred in man because they had never 
seen cases of this disease. It is strange that such a weak argument 
could have had any influence whatever. Thousands of physicians 
have never seen the bubonic plague, the yellow fever or leprosy, but 
this is not looked upon as a reason for the denial of the existence 
of these diseases. One positive observation is worth innumerable 
negative observations. Such a case as is reported by Dr. G. Morton 
Illman, and has been confirmed by the most searching examinations 
and tests by Dr. D, J. McCarthy and Dt. M. P. Ravenel. an account 
of which is published as an appendix to this report, is worth infi- 
nitely more than the statement of any individual who claims that 
he has for many years been looking for cases of rabies, but does not 
recognize the disease when he sees it. 



no ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

One of the favoi-ite arguments of those who enjoy denying that 
rabies exists -is that certain keepers of dog ponnds who come in 
contact with and handle large numbers of stray dogs that are gath- 
ered up in cities, have been bitten repeatedly but they do not fear 
rabies and are not attacked by this disease. Of course it is perfectly 
well known that an animal cannot jjropagate a disease with which 
it is not itself infected, and before such a statement as the one above 
cited can be considered to be of any service whatever as an argu- 
ment in support of the claim that people may not get rabies from 
the bite of a mad dog, it must be shown that these pound keepers 
have been bitten by rabid dogs, and upon this point evidence must 
be conclusive. It is as sensible to take the word of a pound keeper 
or a kennel keeper upon the question of a diagnosis of rabies in a 
dog as to take the word of a policeman or hotel keeper upon the 
question of a diagnosis of a disease of man. As a matter of fact, 
many people bitten by rabid dogs develop rabies and die of the 
disease, and this occurs when the question of hysteria or of fright 
does not enter into the matter. Young children that know nothing 
of rabies or of any special danger attending the bite of an animal, 
have died of rabies. This has occurred in Pennsylvania during the 
past year. People who are misled by the belief that there is no such 
disease as rabies and whe deny its existence, have died of rabies fol- 
lowing the bite of a rabid dog, and this has occurred to my knowl- 
edge in Pennsylvania in recent years. So long as any one who made 
a diagnosis of rabies in an animal or person was, figuratively, hooted 
at and held up for ridicule, many known cases of this disease were 
kept private. But this tendency need exist no longer now^ that it 
is possible by laboratory means to confirm the diagnosis of rabies 
and place such, a diagnosis iipon as sound and unassailable footing 
as a diagnosis of any other disease. 

When the history- of opinion on rabies is written, it will be most 
interesting to follow, step by step, the evidence of conflict of opinion 
in regard to the existence and prevalence of this disease. It is most 
interesting and peculiar that such radical and conflicting views 
should have prevailed on this subject. It is, however, to be noted, 
and this point should stand out clearly, that men trained in the la- 
boratory and in the exporimental study of disease, as well as in 
clinical or veterinary medicine, are not among those who have 
denied the existence of the possibility of the ready transmission 
of rabies. 

Here is a disease in which the virus is present in the saliva; there- 
fore, it may be propagated by biting. Nearly all animals afflicted 
with rabies have a tendency to bite, but since this tendency is 
strongest in the dog, and since the dog, when rabid, has better op- 
portunities than other domestic animals to roam around the coun- 



No. «. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Ill 

try and to bile auimals and jjorsons. it liai)pens that tho chief factor 
in tlie spread of rabies is the bite of rabid doj^s. When one sees as, 
unfortunately, there have been sucli frequent opportunities in Penn- 
sylvania to see, a large number of animals bitten by a dog that pos- 
sessed an apparently uncontrollable desire to bite, whose whole 
habit and demeanor had undergone a sudden chjuige, and who died 
of a general paralysis within a week of the beginning of the abnor- 
mal condition, and when subsequent investigation shows that a 
large proportion, sometimes even from 75 per cent, to 100 i)er cent, 
of the animals bitten, develop symptoms and tendencies similar 
to those shown by the dog by which they were bitten, it can not be 
doubted that there is a very real and a very dangerous disease. It 
may be shown by further investigation that it is of wide distribution 
and that it causes very great losses in Pennsylvania. 

The chief difficulty that has occurred in connection with enforce- 
ment of procedures directed against rabies, has come from the lack 
of public sympathy and support. It is on this account that it has 
everywhere, in foreign countries and in other states as well as in 
Pennsylvania, been difficult, event to the point of impossibility, to 
enforce adequate measures of protection against this disease. 
When, after rabies had prevailed extensively in Great Britain for 
a long series of years, it was proposed that the only effective general 
measure that is known, should be placed in operation and that, for 
a time, all dogs should be muzzled, the procedure was met by a 
storm of protest and opposition that threatened to cause the disor- 
ganization of the British Board of Agriculture. But, the measure 
was adopted and it was enforced. It was required that all dogs 
should be muzzled, that no dogs should be admitted to the coun- 
try without a proper certificate of health, and without undergo- 
ing a term of quarantine. By these means rabies has been com- 
pletely exterminated in England, and for two years not a case of 
rabies has occurred in that country. Similar measures have been 
used and similar results have been obtained in Scandinavian coun- 
tries and in parts of Germany. The countries of continental Europe 
are generally unfavorably situated in respect to the eradication of 
rabies and as they have not succeeded in arranging to co-operate 
in the eradication of this disease, it happens that countries such 
as Germany where active repressive measures are in operation and, 
generally, are successful, are still infested, from time to time, by 
the entrance of rabid animals from across the frontier. Similarly, 
one of the American states is not in position to eradicate rabies so 
long as it is surrounded by states that do not adopt equally effective 
measures. i ' I 

If all the dogs in Pennsylvania were quarantined and muzzled 
for six months, and if no dogs were permitted to r-ross the wState 



112 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

line, rabies would become extinct in Peunsvlvania. It will be evi- 
dent, however, tliat the admission of dogs from other states comld 
not be iirevenled and rabies exists and is quite as prevalent, or 
more preA'alcnt, in all of the adjoining states as it is here. Hence, 
if rabies were completely eradicated here Pennsylvania would be 
subject to almost immediate and to frequent reinvasion. Still, 
there is satisfaction in the knowledge that rabies does not spread 
rapidly across a country. 

The range of a rabid dog is rarely more than a few miles. When 
a number of dogs within the limits of this range have been bitten 
and have developed rabies, the disease is pretty thoroughly estab- 
lished in that district, and from these limits may be spread by 
developed cases a few miles in all directions. From these limits it 
is spread by animals afflicted with the disease of the next generation 
into a larger zone, and so on until a whole state, or whole group of 
states, has been invaded. 

It will be seen bv reference to the list of counties in which rabies 
has occurred during the past year that a large proportion of these 
are border counties or, if not immediatelj' adjoining, are close to, 
the State line. There is, however, one important exception to this. 
There is a group of counties extending in a northeasterly direction 
from the center of the State and embracing the counties of Centre, 
Clinton, Lycoming. Northumberland, Montour, Columbia, Sullivan, 
Luzerne, Wyoming and Lackawanna, in which a large number of 
cases of rabies have occurred during the past year. 

Quarantines have been placed on dogs in all of these counties, 
and the prevalence of the disease has been greatly restricted. It 
is hoped that the continuation of these measures in localities 
where they are esx)ecially needed, will result in the elimination of 
rabies. There is no doubt that this result could be more quickly 
reached by establishing a general quarantine of all dogs in the 
State, but so long as neighboring states have no organization to 
co-operate effectively in an effort to repress rabies, and so long as 
there is no United States law upon this subject, it seems that such 
a general quarantine which, after all, could afford but temporary 
relief, would not be justifiable. ^ 

It is clearly evident that the measures that are ado])ted are of 
value, although they are not so immediately or completely effective 
as would be more stringent quarantines applied to larger districts. 

The plan that is adopted in dealing with rabies is as follows: 
Upon the receipt of reports of the existence of rabies in any part 
of the State, an investigation is made to determine the distribution 
of the disease. Authority is immediately given to a local agent 
of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board 1o (quarantine all dogs that 
are known to have been exposed or that there is reasonable cause 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTTIRE. 113 

to believe may have been exposed (o infection. This (juarautine is 
established by the serving of a notice on the owner, under which the 
dog is required to be confined and not to be permitted to go at large 
unless muzzled or led. In other words, the dog must be confined, 
or if he is permitted to go in public places or to escape from direc.^ 
restraint it is required that he shall wear a close and well fitting 
muzzle that will effectually prevent biting. Dogs that are known to 
have been bitten by a rabid dog are required to be very closely con- 
fined until they are destroyed. Destruction of such dogs is provided 
for under the act of Assembly approved April 1, 1884. 

Whenever it is possible to obtain the head of an animal that is 
alleged to have died of rabies, this specimen is sent to the laboratory 
where it is examined by Dr. M. P. Ravenel or Dr. D. J. McCarthy. 
The quick method oi diagnosis by histological examination is one 
that is usually adopted, for it has been shown by many control 
examinations made by the inoculation of rabbits, that the histolog- 
ical method is eminently reliable. 

When quarantines of individiial animals are established in this 
way, a good many, often more than one-third of the (luarantined 
dogs, are destroyed b}- their owners who do not wish to incur the 
risk that w^ould result from the development of rabies in the quar- 
antined animal. The others are held in quarantine 100 days from 
the time of the possible exposure. ^Vhen several cases of rabies 
have occurred in a given district, and it is evident that many dogs 
have been exposed that cannot be identified, a general quarantine 
is established by proclamation of the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board of all dogs within a specified area. In order that such a quar- 
antine may be enforced, ai'rangement is made with the constable 
or other local officer to destroy dogs found running at large in 
violation of the quarantine. This method of enforcing the quaran- 
tine is most effective, and results in the destruction of a large num- 
ber of stray and homeless dogs that are usually quite worthless 
and miserable and are a source of great danger in a district where 
rabies prevails. When a (luarantine of dogs has been established in 
a borough by ordinance of a borough council, it is important to the 
efficacy of the quarantine that dogs in the immediately surrounding 
territory shall also be kept under restraint. In such cases, ui)on 
request from borough authorities, quaranlijies are established upon 
dogs in the surrounding townships. 

A large number of instances are knov,'u wherein dogs that have 
been quarantined have developed rabies, but as they were at the 
time under observation and restraint, th(\v were destroyed before 
there was an opportunity for tluMu to propagate disease. Tn this 
way, rabies has been kept* in check and often completely eradicated 

8—6—1903 



114 ANNTJAI^ REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

from entire counties, and luneh anxiety and loss have been pre- 
vented; for whereA'er the disease exists these are the inevitable eon 
comitants. 

As a general measure toward the control of rabies, it will be 
of high utility to diminish the number of useless and worthless 
dogs in almost every part of the State. The system of taxing 
dogs, as it is practiced, is not sufficient to accomplish this purpose, 
A great many dogs are not assessed. There is no prescribed method 
for marking or identifying those upon which tax is paid, and the 
result is there is at large in the State a vast number of dogs that 
are under little, if anv, control, that do not furnish anv revenue 
and that are a constant menace. I have referred to this matter 
in previous reports, and am now^ more than ever convinced that it 
is desirable that the Legislature should considf'r seriously and deal 
with this question. 

Forage Poisoning of Homes. — The greatest prevalence of forage 
poisoning during Lie past year has been in the counties of Alle- 
gheny, Berks, Bucks, Chester, Cumberland. Erie, Franklin and Le- 
high. This disease is sometimes know^n as cerebro-spinal menin- 
gitis of horses. This name was lirst suggested by Professor Large, 
of Brooklyn, who considered that the symptoms of this disease, 
consisting of nervous excitement and later in paralysis, were 
similar to those of cerebro-spinal meningitis of children. This 
designation is a misnomer, for the reason that the lesions of cere- 
bro-spinal meningitis do not exist in this affection. Indeed, in 
most cases, no lesions are discernible by the naked eye examination, 
and the pathology of forage poisoning was for a long time a matter 
of uncertainty'. This subject is one to which much attention has 
been given at the laboratory of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, 
and it is gratifying to report that a pathology for forage poisoning 
has been worked out and is reported upon by Drs. McCarthy and 
Ravenel. Their paper is published as an appendix to this report. 
The effect of this work is to substantiate the observation that has 
heretofore been made to the effect that this disease is actually a 
forage poisoning. In a previous report I have called attention to 
the definite production of this disease in experimental animals 
by feeding them silage that was somev/hat damaged. The observa- 
tion has been made in numerous instances and by many veterin- 
arians that forage poisoning may be produced by silage even when 
it appears to be in pretty good condition. As a matter of fact, 
there is danger of producing this disease whenever horses are fed 
on any damp and easily putrescible food. Brewer's grains have 
been known to produce it in many cases, and it has been caused by 
mouldy hay, oats and corn. It is much more likely to affect horses 
kept in dark, damp, poorly ventilated stables than those kept in well 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 115 

lij^lited, (lean and well ventilated stables. The hay seed and chalT 
that accumulate beneath or in the bottom of a deei) box-manger, 
and that has become damp and mouldy ma}' produce forage poison- 
ing when it is eaten by a greedy or hungry horse. When the dis- 
ease occurs among horses kept in a clean, bright stable, it is 
usually due to feeding corn or hay that were damaged before ar- 
rival upon the premises. 

Contaminated water, wells subjected to overflow and surface 
drainage, or shallow wells in a porous soil comtaminated with or- 
ganic matter, may give rise to forage poisoning. Since the general 
facts in regard to the origin of this disease have been made known 
and the cause avoided, forage poisoning has become less prevalent 
and is diminishing in prevalence from year to year. The old, unsani- 
tary, dark, damp stone basement bank barns that were formerly re- 
garded so favorably are now known to be unsanitary and unsafe. 
The need for dryness, sunlight, cleanliness and fresh air are becom 
ing better understood each year, and there are now few who do not 
realize that a place suitable for the winter storage of turnips and 
potatoes is not a suitable habitation for farm animals. 

No one who can avoid it would think of living in a dark cellar, 
where the wall is damp and covered with mould. Light, dryness 
and fresh air are jmst as necessary for domestic animals as for the 
families of their owners. It is because these facts are becoming 
better appreciated and because more attention is given to the 
quality of the food, that forage })oisoning is becoming less preva- 
lent. 

Since this disease does not respond at all readily to treatment, 
and is fatal in a high percentage of cases, it is important that it 
shall be prevented. Prevention can be accomplished by the ob- 
servance of the points referred to above. 

Cow-pox. — This is a disease that is most likely to occur in large 
herds of dairy cows that are recruited by purchase. Where a large 
number of animals are kept together and many additions are made 
to the herd or flock, there is greater probability of infection than 
in the case of smaller herds, and especially when these herds are 
self-sustained. Tuberculosis, contagious garget and abortion occur 
more often in large herds to which purchased animals are fre- 
quently added than in small breeding herds. In such herds there 
is not only greater opportunity for the admission of the disease, 
but there is also greater opportunity for its spread after it has 
entered. 

During the past year, several large dairy herds in the eastern 
part of the State have been seriously infested with cow pox. Gen- 
erally, cow pox is not in itself a serious disease, but when erup- 
tions occur on the udder and teats of milking cows, and these are 



116 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

disturbed twice a da}' h}' the milker, secondar}' conditions may arise 
that cause serious results. 

Cow pox is a fever characterized by the occurrence of vesicles 
upon the skin of the teats and udder, thi«j;hs, abdomen or other parts 
of the body. The vesicles occur four or five dajs after exposure by 
contact. Tli(> vesicles are transferred in a day or two into postules; 
gradually the layer of cells covering them is softened, then it breaks 
away, leaving a raw surface which covers with a scab and heals 
more or less slowly. The whole course of the disease, from the 
.appearance of the vesicles to complete healing may not be more 
than ten days. 

The disease is verj' mild and without special significance ex- 
cept in milking cows. As a result of the manipulation incident 
to milking, the vesicles are broken, the raw surface beneath be- 
comes inflamed and suppurating sores develop. The surrounding 
tissues become inflamed so that the teats and skin of the udder 
are swollen, reddish, sensitive and of higher than normal tem- 
perature. The inflammation thus engendered may extend into the 
cavity of the teat or milk cistern and sometimes leads to an in- 
fection of the substance of the udder. This infection is not a cow 
pox infection, but is an infection with streptococci, the germs caus- 
ing suppuration and present on account of the preparation that 
has been made for them by the cox pox infection. The infection 
of cow pox and the purulent infection may be carried upon the hands 
of the milker from cow to cow until a large proportion of the mem- 
bers of the herd are affected. 

The passage of this disease through a. herd is slow, and it may 
require from two to four months for it to disappear, and after it has 
disappeared it is likely to have left behind a number of permanently 
damaged teats and udders. The damage consists in deformities 
of teats due to the contraction of scar tissue, that occurs where 
there was much loss of tissue from deep or extensive ulceration; 
from stricture of the teats; from rough, dry irritable skin cover- 
ing the teats, that is constantly subject to irritation and cracking; 
from the growth of callosities; from long continued streptococcus 
infection of the udder and from the permanent destruction of quar- 
ters of the udder as a result of severe mastitis following such in- 
fectious. 

After cow pox seems to have disappeared from a herd of dairy 
cows as an acute disease, it is found that the infection lingers 
in the premises or upon the animals for a period of several months. 
Consequently, other animals that are introduced into the herd are 
exposed and are likely to become infected if they have not previ- 
ously suffered with cow pox. 

Since cow pox in itself is a mild disease, and since bad conditions 
that follow in its wake are the result of secondary infections and 



No. 6. Dli:PARTMENT OF AGRICUJLTLTRE. 117 

of rough luaiiipiihition, every eltort should bo used to aroid the 
causes of complications. Dui'inji,- tlie acute stage of the ei-uptiou, 
the udder and teats should be washed at least twice daily with a 
warm antiseptic solution, such as lysol 1^ per cent., or creolin 2^ 
per cent., or bicliloride of mercury 1 to 1,000, or a solution of boracic 
acid in water may be used for this purpose. If possible, rain water, 
or other soft water or distilled water, should be used for making 
this solution, because it leaves the skin less harsh and with a less 
tendency to crack. Following the M'ash, and before milking, the 
teats should be annointed with sweet oil or with cosmoline. After 
milking, oxide of zinc ointment should be applied. If the scabs are 
not softened and the secretion of pus diminished by these appli- 
cations, the udder and teats should be well washed, soaked and 
softened with warm water and castile soap before the antiseptic 
wash is applied. The operation of milking should be conducted 
as gentlj' as possible. Tlie milk should not be used for human food. 
If this treatment is observed the course of the disease is likely 
to be mild and without permanent bad results. The infected cows 
should be kept apart from the herd and not milked until the sound 
cows have been milked. 

In Europe, where sheep pox is a ])revalent disease, it has been 
the practice for a great many years to vaccinate all sheep added to 
a flock in which there is likely to be infection. In nearly all coun- 
tries of Europe it is, indeed, required that all sheep exposed to pox 
shall be v;ircinated. The method is to apply the virus to a scarified 
area on the under surface of the tail or upon the ear by a process 
similar to the vaccination of people against small-pox. By this 
, means sheep are rendered immune. It is well known that young 
cattle that are used for the production of vaccine virus become im- 
mune to cow pox. From these observations it would appear that 
this disease might be prevented among cattle by preventive inocu- 
lation, and thus avoid the injurious effects to fresh milking cows 
added to dairy herds where cow pox exists, or has recently pre- 
vailed. For this purpose, the glycerinated vaccine lymph used 
for the vaccination of people could be used. In applying it, the 
skin should be shaven over an area of three to four inches in di- 
ameter. This surface should be cleansed by washing with soap and 
water. The soap should be washed off by rinsing with water, after 
which the skin may be dried by the use of clean towels. The skin 
should then be scarified by making several shallow line incisions. 
These should go through less than one-half the thickness of the 
skin, and should not be deep enough to cause much, if any, bleeding. 
The virus may then be applied and rubbed thoroughly into these 
incisions with a spatula or case knife. Vaccination could be applied 
in this way betweeo tlie thighs, above the udder. By vaccinating 



116 ANNUxVL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

a cow when she is iiot giving milk, pi-acticallj all danger of injury 
to tbe udder would be avoided. In this case, the vaccination might, 
indeed, be applied directly to the skin of the udder. From the large 
experience that has been had in the vaccination of cattle for the 
production of vaccine virus, it is evident that no serious results 
need be anticipated from such vaccination as is here proposed, pro- 
vided the work be done in a cleanly and surgical manner. 

Hog Cholera. — Hog cholera has occurred in the following coun- 
ties: Adams, Bradford, Bucks, Clinton, Columbia, Delaware, Frank- 
lin, Lancaster, ]Montgomery, Philadelphia and Somerset. Hog 
cholera is not now stationary in any part of Pennsylvania. Out- 
breaks, as they occur, are controlled and the disease is usually 
eradicated before it has spread much. 

The occurrence of hog cholera, in almost ever}' instance, may be 
traced directly to the introduction of hogs from other states. Some 
of them, no doubt, are diseased when shipped, others contract the 
disease in the cars and in the pens and stock yards through which 
they pass. There is so much hog cholera in the great swine- 
producing states of the Middle West that it is impossible to keep 
stock cars and stock yards free from infection from this 
disease excepting by frequent and thorough cleansing and disin- 
fection. Unfortunately, this is not practiced and so there is great 
risk in shipping hogs that are not intended for immediate slaughter. 
Hogs that are to be kept and fed should be either purchased in 
the neighborhood from farms that are known to be free from 
cholera, or, if purchased at a distance, and in a region that is 
known to be free from infection, they should be shipped in box cars 
that have not been used for the shipment of live stock, and they 
should by no means be unloaded at public stock yards or pass 
through the chutes or pens that it is customary to use for hogs. 

No practical raetliod for immunizing hogs against hog cholera 
has yet been devised, although this subject is still receiving careful 
attention at the hands of experts employed by the Bureau of Animal 
Industry. 

When hogs are purchased for addition to established herds, they 
should be placed under a system of quarantine and kept entirely" 
apart from the hogs formerly on the premises until a period of ten 
weeks has elapsed. It would also be well to dip purchased hogs 
in an antiseptic solution made with one of the cold tar disinfect- 
ants before they are permitted to associate with healthy animals. 
The object of dipping is to destroy disease germs that the animal 
may carry on the surface of its body, and also to destroy parasites. 
Should a purchased hog kept in this way develop cholera, the ex- 
tension of the disease to the sound herd could be prevented; 
whereas, if the purchased animal wefe introduced t|,| 0?»cf; juto the: 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. lift 

buildings occupied by the sound hogs, the whole herd would be ex- 
posed and much loss might occur. 

The need for quarantining for the period recommended depends 
not only upon the fact that the hog may have been exposed to 
cholera and that subsequently it may develop and thus be able to 
propagate this diseases but also in the fact that animals coming 
from a herd in which cholera exists, may harbor the germs of cholera 
in their intestines for a long time. The quarantine advised is valu- 
able in diminishing the danger from both sources. 

Mange of Horses. — This is a prevalent disease in several of the 
western states, and it is said that it is becoming more prevalent 
from year to year. Mange and glanders })revail so extensively 
among horses in some of the far western states that horses from 
such states are refused admission into some of the states of the 
middle west until they have been carefully examined and their free- 
dom from infection has been proven. Such inspection at the border 
of the State would not be justifiable so far as Pennsylvania is con- 
cerned, because, although glanders and mange are from time to 
time introduced from other states, it is possible to control them 
by measures taken within the State and to require and provide for 
inspection would cost more than the sum of the present or prospec- 
tive losses from these two diseases. 

Mange of horses was practically unknown in Pennsylvania until 
about four jears ago. During recent years it has prevailed more 
extensive! ■ each year and requires careful attention in order that 
its distribution may be kept within bounds and the disease may be 
prevented from spreading within the State. Up to this time nearly 
all of the horses afflicted with mange were contaminated before 
they reached Pennsylvania, although upon some farms and in some 
stables the disease has gained considerable distribution among na- 
tive horses. This disease has prevailed most extensively in the 
counties of Allegheny, Berks, Northumberland, Perry and Phila- 
delphia. 

Mange is injurious to horses in that it destroys the coat and the 
appearance of the animal and by the irritation of the skin that it 
causes, the rest of the afflicted horse is disturbed and broken. 
From this cause a horse looses strength and is unable to do his ac- 
customed work. The disease is not a direct cause of death, al- 
though it is stated that on the open ranches of the west, horses 
with mange are less able to resist the cold and exposure of winter 
than horses without this disease of the skin, and in this way mange 
is indirectly a cause of mortality. 

Foals and young horses are more likely to be afflicted than ma^ 
ture horses, but iii this State the disease has occurred among horses 
of all ages. 



120 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Many remedies for inanj;e Lave been tried, including all of the 
usual antiseptic washes, ointments and liniments that are commonly 
i-ecommeuded for this disease. The best remedy that has been tried 
and one, indeed, that has shown itself to be thoroughly efficacious, 
is a lime and sulphur wash, such as is used for dipping sheep 
afflicted with sheep scab. A satisfactory method of making this 
wash, recommended in a report of Liie United States Bureau of 
Animal Industry', is as follows: 

Place one-half pound of unslaked lime in a bucket or kettle. To 
this add enough water to form a paste. luto this paste sift one 
and one-half jjounds of flowers of sulphur and stir the mixture 
well. Place the surphur-lime-paste in a kettle with about three 
gallons of water, and boil. The boiling should be continued until 
the sulphur disajjpears, or almost disappears, from the surface, 
which will require from one to three hours. The solution is then of 
a chocolate or liver color. Water may be added as necessary. 

Pour the mixture and sediment into a bucket and allow two or 
three hours for the sediment to settle, then carefully dip off the 
clear liquid, taking care not to disturb the sediment. Place this 
liquid in a wooden receptacle, or a keg that can be closed tightly 
to exclude the air, or in a glass receptacle, such as a large demijohn. 
To the clear liquid thus dipped off, add enough water to make six 
gallons. The sediment should be thrown away. This mixture can 
be used freely for washing the horse. As it stains the hands of the 
person who uses it (although it does no harm otherw'se, and the 
stain does not last long) it may be applied with a spoi.ge attached 
to the end of a stick, or rubber gloves may be worn. About one- 
half of the body of the horse may be covered at a time; that is, 
on a single day, and the applications should be repeated at inter- 
vals of two or three days so long as may be necessary. In the west, 
where many horses are to be treated, they are dipped in lime and 
sulphur wash in special vats. 

This wash should be applied with a sponge to the diseased area 
and the surrounding apparently healthy skin. It is well to apply 
little but not much friction in order to cause the wash to soak 
through the scurf and accumulation and to penetrate into the bur- 
rows and fissures of the skin. The wash should be applied at 
intervals of two or three days until recovery is complete. 

It has been found that the disease can be cured in about three 
weeks. 

Infectious Ahortion of Cows. — Infectious abortion has prevailed 
much less extensively in Pennsylvania during this year than at 
any time during the past decade. There was a time but a few years 
ago when infectious abortion was one of the principal posts of 
breeding cattle, and the loss amounted to several hundred thou- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 121 

sand dollars every year. It is now known that the light that has 
been thrown upon this disease and the treatments that have been 
recommended by Noeard, Bang and others has resulted in enormous 
savings to the owners of dairy herds. Until this disease was thor- 
oughly studied and it was traced to a definite infection, the owners 
of dairy herds were helpless. They couJd not combat the trouble 
because they did not know what caused it, nor why the cows 
aborted. Diverse theories arose as to the cause of abortion, which 
was ascribed to ail sorts of dietetic and hvgienic errors. As soon 
as the bacterial cause of the disease was discovered by Bang and 
it was shown how this germ operates and is conveyed from animal 
to animal, it was possible to adopt effective preventive measures. 

The occurrence of abortion can not wholly be prevented, but there 
is now no excuse, excepting ignorance or uncleanliness, for the con- 
tinuation and propagation of this disease in a herd of cows. 

This subject is one upon which a considerable amount of work of 
investigation has been conducted under the auspices of the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board. Not only have bacteriological studies 
been made of the membranes and fluids of aborted foetuses and of 
the uterine contents of aborting cows, but aborting herds have been 
taken in charge and have been treated under the direction of the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board until they were cured. This work 
has been carried on in Susquehanna county, with the co-operation 
of Dr. E. E. Tower; in Montgomery county, with the co-operation 
of Dr. E. Mayhew Michener, and in Bucks county, with the co-opera- 
tion of Dr. W. H. Kidge. From the work that has been done by 
investigators elsewhere and by the experience obtained by our own 
investigations, it has been shown that the plan of treatment recom- 
mended in the circular printed as an appendix to this report, is 
thoroughly effective. 

The great central fact for herdsmen to remember is that in- 
fectious abortions may be kept from spreading in a herd by treat- 
ing every case as though it were infectious, and thus taking no 
chances. It is not expensive to burn the aborted foetus and to dis- 
infect the premises occupied by the aborting cows, nor is it expen- 
sive to maintain this cow apart from the balance of the herd and to 
treat her by intra-uterine and intra-vaginal injections until the 
genital passages are well and the parts arp restored to their general 
condition and are free from discharge. 

Pa7'turie7it Paresis^ or Milh^ Fever, of Cows.. — Tremendous ad- 
vances have been made in recent years in the treatment of this 
disease, which was formerly one of the most destructive and fatal 
diseases of cows. Milk fever, for this is the name by which this 
disease is commonlv known, was at one time the most dreaded of the 
non-contagious diseases of cattle. This disease is one that selects 
9 



122 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

and attacks the best milking cows in the herd, those that are in 
the prime of life, that are in the best of condition and are most 
profitable. Many of the heaviest milkers in nearly all herds of 
pure-bred cattle of the dairy breeds have been carried away by 
this disease. The significance of this fact from the breeder's stand- 
point is very great, because from tliis cause the breed is deprived 
of the benefit of the product of many of its most costly and improv- 
ing members. As an instance: A few years ago the agent of a 
wealthy breeder of Guernsey cattle, was commissioned to buy the 
best Guernsey cow that could be found anywhere. A cow that had 
won a large number of prizes and that was considered the best 
that could be obtained on the Island of Guernsey w^as had. After 
she arrived at the owner's farm in this country it was found that 
she had cost about |5,000. This cow died of milk fever after calving 
for the first time in this country. The great and far-reaching effect 
upon a breed of a calamity of this sort can scarcely be estimated, 
but it is evident that it must be very great. 

The history of the development of knowledge of this disease is 
most interesting. It has been regarded at different times as a 
disease of the womb, as a disease of the spinal cord, as a disease of 
the brain, as a disease of the blood, and now it is known to be 
caused by the development of an abnormal condition in the udder. 

Any method of feed or care that has the effect of increasing the 
activity of the udder, predisposes a cow to this disease. It has, for 
a long time, been known that heavy milking cows in plethoric condi- 
tion are more likely to be attacked with parturient paresis than 
are similar cows in low condition. This led some observers to the 
opinion that plethora is the cause of parturient paresis. This view 
is not correct, because parturient paresis does not occur in highly 
nourished cows unless such animals are heavy milkers. The cows of 
the beef breeds that yield but little milk are not attacked by par- 
turient paresis, however fat and well nourished they may be at 
time of calving. It is, therefore, evident that high condition is a 
cause of parturient paresis only in so far as it tends to stimulate 
the udder. Cows that have once suffered with paturient paresis 
and have recovered, are predisposed to a second attack and must 
be watched with particular care at every calving. 

The postmortem examination of cows dead of parturient paresis 
is practically negative. There are no lesions that may be said to 
be characteristic of the disease, and sometimes w^hen death has 
occurred quickly, postmortem examination is wholly negative. 
These and other observations gradually led to the opinion that 
parturient paresis is an intoxication resulting from the absorption 
of poisonous compounds produced in the udder at the beginning 
of the period of lactation. It remained for a Danish veterinarian. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 123 

Schmidt-Koldiiij;, to base a successful plan of treatment upon this 
theory. Schimdt's treatment consisted in injecting solutions into 
the udder for the double purpose of washing- it out and, so far as 
possible, of neutralizing the poisons that it contained. For this 
purpose it was found that a 1 per cent, solution of iodide of potash 
was well adapted and the Schmidt-Kolding or iodide of potash treat- 
ment for parturient paresis was used for several years with highly 
beneficial results. By means of this treatment the mortality from 
the disease was reduced from 40 to 50 per cent, down to from 14 
to 18 per cent. Thousands of cows have been saved by using this 
treatment. The general introduction of this treatment into Penn- 
sylvania was brought about several years ago by sending to 150 vet- 
.erinarians full instructions and materials for applying the treat- 
ment, with the stipulation that reports upon the animals treated 
with it, should be'returned to the oflSce of the State Veterinarian. 
Reports upon approximately 200 cases showed 83^ per cent, recov- 
eries. In 1902, Schmidt published, in a Danish journal, a review of 
the work that had been done in the five preceding years in regard 
to the development of a plan of treatment for this disease. He 
had himself found that it was useful to introduce into the udder 
a considerable amount of air with the iodide of potash solution that 
he employed. The results from this appeared to be somewhat better 
than when the idodide of potash solution was introduced without 
air, although many veterinarians not accustomed to administer air 
had obtained excellent results (some, indeed, administered idodide 
of potash solution intravenously and found the treatment to be 
beneficial, although not so good as when it was introduced into the 
udder). In the paper referred to above, Schmidt gives statistics 
on 914 cases of parturient paresis that were treated more or less 
in accordance with his method. Of these, ^914 cases, 884, or 96 per 
cent., were cured; 12 died of parturient paresis; 6 were killed during 
the course of the disease and 6 were killed later on account of com- 
plications. The treatment Schmidt recommends is to inject about 
one pint of 0.7 to 1 per cent, solution of iodide of potash and follow 
this immediately with an injection of air, filtered through cotton, 
sufficient to widely distend the udder. Other remedies are used, 
in addition, in cases where heart failure threatens. In this way 
he had recently treated forty nine patients, all of which v/ere cured. 
A number of veterinarians reported at the time Schmidt's paper 
was presented that they were using injections of air without the 
other treatment, and that they were obtaining good results. 

In the same year (1902) Knusel reported on the treatment of par- 
turient paresis by infusion of pure oxygen into the udder. In treat- 
ing eighteen cows in this way he found that the result was most 
remarkable. All of the cows were cured. In many cases improve- 



124 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

ment was noted in from thirty to sixty minutes after the infusion 
was made. Animals that were entirely comatose and that were 
breathing with difficulty and were snoring, whose tongues were 
paralyzed and were unable to move were, in some instances, upon 
their feet and eating within an hour. 

Other veterinarians in various countries have adopted this treat- 
ment and have found it to be exceedingly satisfactory. The leader 
in this reform in Pennsylvania is Dr. W. H. Ridge, who has equipped 
himself fully for the treatment of cows by this method, and has 
succeeded in curing several cases of parturient paresis, all, in fact, 
upon which he has used this new treatment. Several other veter- 
inarians have had equally good results. 

In carrying out this treatment there are several important pre-, 
cautions to observe in relation to the sterilization of the imple- 
ments and the washing and disinfection of the udder' and teats 
of the cow and of the hands of the operator. If these well-known 
surgical precautions are not observed, infection of the udder may 
follow, and although the cow may recover from parturient paresis, 
she may be permanently injured as a dairy cow. Therefore, no one 
should attempt to carry out this treatment who is not thoroughly in- 
formed and accustomed to the proper use of antiseptics and the dis- 
infection of the surgical utensils and the skin. 

The mode of operation of the various substances that have been 
found to act so beneficially, has not been satisfactorily explained and 
cannot be explained until there is more definite knowledge as to 
the precise nature of the toxin which is supposed to be formed in 
the udder and which, when absorbed, produces in cows the com- 
plex group of symptoms known as parturient paresis. The disten- 
sion of the udder with any fluid or gas that may be injected into it 
appears to give a certain amount of relief. It may be that relief 
from this cause is due to the compression of the veins of the udder, 
due to the distension and pressure upon the tissues outside of them, 
and by thus shutting off the current of blood leaving the udder, 
the carriage of toxins from the udder is prevented. It may be that 
the toxin of this disease is very readily oxydized and destroyed, 
and that it is on this account that the oxygen infusion is so bene- 
ficial. In this way one could also explain the beneficial results 
that follow the infusion of air and of fluid mixed with air. If the 
theory of the formation of toxin is correct, the substance that is 
injected to neutralize and destroy this toxin, should pass into the 
branches of the ducts of the udder as deeply as possible. The 
oxygen gas may be forced more directly into the glands than a fluid, 
and to this extent, other things being equal, it is likely to be more 
beneficial. It may be that there is an infection of the udder with 
anaerobic bacteria, and that these are destroved or rendered harm- 
less by oxygen. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 125 

From our present knowledge of this subject there appears to be 
every reason to believe that the oxygen treatment is the best treat- 
ment that has thus far been devised, and if subsequent results with 
it are as good as those already reported, we may expect to save 
from 9U to JJ5 per cent, of all cases of parturient paresis, and by the 
use of this treatment, the lives of at least 5U,0UU cows should be 
saved every year. These are the best cows used for dairy pui*- 
poses, and if they have an average value of |50, the total amounts to 
$2,500,UUU. It is believed that this amount represents conserva- 
tively the saving to the country that will come from the general 
use of the knowledge or the treatment of parturient paresis that 
has been developed in the last decade by veterinarians. It is a 
striking illustration of the value of veterinary research to animal 
husbandry and national economy. 

Tuberculosis of Cattle. — Tuberculosis prevails in practically all 
parts of Pennsylvania, but it is much more prevalent in some dis- 
tricts than in others. In some of the mountainous counties, no 
cases of tuberculosis have been found. In a number of other coun- 
ties the disease is exceedingly rare, but in the oldest settled parts 
of the State, where the dairy industry has reached its highest de- 
velopment, and where the herds are recruited by purchase, there is 
found the maximum prevalence of this disease. Attention has been 
called in previous reports to the factors that govern the distribution 
of tuberculosis. This disease is more prevalent in some places 
than in others, because, having been introduced, it has been per- 
mitted to spread from animal to animal, and from herd to herd 
until, at length, it has attained a very wide distribution. Naturally, 
the disease was first introduced into the districts importing the 
greatest number of cows. Such districts were constantly more 
heavily seeded with tuberculosis through the continued importa- 
tion of diseased animals. It is possible to ascertain definitely that 
tuberculosis is comparatively a recent disease in almost all of 
even the oldest dairy sections. While reports of other diseases 
came down to us from the early days of the republic, there are few 
reports of disease of cattle that may be recognized as referring to 
tuberculosis. Such reports are rare and show that this disease 
was so infrequent as to be of very little importance. As tubercu- 
losis was not known to be contagious until after it had spread con 
tagion to a tremendous extent, no effective precautions were taken 
or could be taken to restrict its progress. 

A great many things occurred in the early ''boom" days of several 
breeds of cattle that helped to establish tuberculosis in maoy herds 
and to scatter it OA^er wide areas. It happened, shortly after the 
Civil War, that several breeds of cattle were exploited in a way 
that while it was, no doubt, beneficial in some respects, still it had 



126 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

ail uiihealty effect ou the cattle industry and prevented it from de- 
veloping soundly along proper lines and, incidentally, did much to 
scatter tuberculosis. For about two decades cattle were imported 
in large numbers; they were boomed by skilful promoters in this 
country, who were far more capable as advertisers and as salemen 
than as stockmen. Under these conditions, cattle of certain strains 
were sold for fabulous prices. The pedigree of an animal was 
by many regarded far more critically and carefully than individu- 
ality. These statements apply not to one breed of cattle alone, but 
to at least four breeds. When a c;ow belonging to one of these en- 
thusiasts, became ill with tuberculosis, the disease was not likely 
to be identilied because so little w^as known of it at that time. If 
it were identified, proper steps were not taken to prevent its 
spread, because such steps had not been worked out and the need 
for them was not known. Therefore, when a cow believed to be 
worth several thousand dollars, or even several hundred dollars, 
developed tuberculosis, she was continued in the herd. Every effort 
was made to cure her; she was treated and pampered and nursed 
until she could no longer get about and possibly even then she 
was permitted to die a natural death in the hope, to the last minute, 
that there might come a turn for the better. During all of this 
time the cow was excreting and distributing tubercle bacilli, and 
during the latter stage of the disease, the seeds of disease were being 
produced and distributed in enormous numbers. As there was no 
isolation, it was inevitable that the entire herd should become 
tainted and that many of its members should, successively, pass 
through the same disease. It is interesting to observe that most 
of the herds that were established at such enormous expense during 
the boom days here referred to, have passed out of existence, and 
most of them because they were so seriously infected with tubercu- 
losis. From such herds individual animals were sold to go into 
other herds, and disease was carried and introduced by them. In 
this way, pure-bred cattle have had a great deal to do with the 
^ide dissemination of tuberculosis among the herds in the United 
States. This has occurred so often and to such a noticeable ex- 
tent that there has gi*own up in the minds of many practical stock- 
men an impression that pure-bred animals are not desirable be- 
cause they are believed to be tender and predisposed to tubercu- 
losis. Such, however, is not the case. This impression, which has 
done a great deal to restrict the market for pure-bred animals and 
to prevent the improvement of the live stock of the country, is to 
be traced to the injudicious methods of some breeders and pro- 
moters of cattle. 

That pure-bred cattle, even of the Channel Island breeds, are no 
more predisposed to tuberculosis than cattle of other breeds, or 



No. fi. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 127 

gi-adt'.s, or iiali\c'S is sliuwn most clearly by the statistics ol' the 
iiis[)ections made undei- the auspices of the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board. Tlie worst infected herds tliat have been found In 
JVnnsylvania were herds of natives. Additional proof is furnislied 
by the fact that there are a number of well-established herds of 
Jersey and Guernsey cattle that are, and always have been, free 
from tuberculosis. These herds were formed many years ago, 
before tuberculosis became a prevalent disease and it hai^pened 
that they were composed of aninuils free from tuberculosis. Great 
care has been exercised in purchasing additions to these herds. 
Added animals have been few^ in number and generally bulls pur- 
chased when calves. In this way the introduction of animals suf- 
fering with and scattering the seeds of tuberculosis, has been 
avoided and the herds have remained wholly exempt. 

Through the operation of a similar cliain of circumstances some 
large districts of the State have remained clear of tuberculosis 
of cattle. These districts are usually interior valleys, more or 
less isolated, into which cattle may not readily be shipped, and 
from which the current of the cattle trade is outward. Since these 
districts were stocked with cattle long ago, before tuberculosis was 
prevalent, they were stocked wdth cattle free from this disease and 
it has happened that the few animals taken in, have not carried 
infection. But, without repressive measures, all of these sections 
would, in time, have been reached by tuberculosis precisely as many 
others have been reached. In some instances, that have fallen 
under my observation, the introduction of tuberculosis and its 
spread in a region formerly free from it, have occurred so recenth^ 
that it has been possible to trace the process step by step. It has 
been possible, in some instances, to ascertain that, for a long series 
of 3-ears, there has been no disease corresponding to tuberculosis 
among any of the cattle on a large group of neighboring farms. 
Later, animals decline and die wdth tuberculosis in herds on several 
of these farms and inspection show^ed the disease to be widely dis- 
tributed. Investigations in such cases have sometimes shown that 
the disease started in a cow brought from without, possibly from 
some famous pure-bred herd The cow seemed to be healthy when 
she was purchased and afterwards developed a wasting disease, 
the description of which enables one to identif}^ it, with a practical 
certainty, as tuberculosis. Subsequenth', other cattle in the same 
herd developed a similar condition and the bane was carried to 
other herds in the neighborhood through the sale of cattle from the 
one first infected. In the beginning of the infection of the cattle 
of a region, and for a number of years, tuberculosis spreads very 
slowly. The disease is propagated chiefly by contact. Therefore, 
as one cow usually comes in contact with but a limited number of 



128 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

cattle, the individual tubercular cow is not likely to spread tuber- 
culosis rapidly or widely. Wlieu several animals have become in- 
fected from this individual and are carried to other herds, the 
disease will spread as many times faster than at first as there are 
more animals spreading- it. As the number of animals distributing 
disease increases, the ratio of its spread increases until, at length 
when one hundred animals have been infected and are distributing 
the disease it goes at one hundred times the original rate of pro- 
gress. 

Notwithstanding the very wide distribution of tuberculosis in 
Pennsylvania, which has been so great as to convince many stock- 
men that little could be done in the way of repression and that they 
had come to look upon tuberculosis as a necessary evil and to figure 
the losses caused hy it annually as a part of the necessary expenses 
of keeping cattle, it has been possible, during the comparatively 
short existence of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, to bring 
about a very great diminution in the prevalence of this disease 
and in the losses from it. The results so far attained encourage 
the belief that it is not only possible but entirely probable, that 
tuberculosis may be reduced in the course of a series of years and 
abolished to a point where it may readily be kept in control and 
where it will cease to cause losses of material importance. Tuber- 
culosis has already been eradicated from a large number of indi- 
vidual herds and from many large groups of herds. In some in- 
stances the disease has been practically eradicated from entire 
counties. What can be accomplished, and what has been accom- 
plished, in relation to individual herds and groups of herds in large 
districts, can be accomplished in relation to other herds and groups 
of herds and in relation to the cattle of the entire State. The task, 
however, is a large one. The size of Pennsylvania and the great 
number of herds in the State render complete inspection of all of 
the herds so expensive an undertaking as to make it impossible of 
accomplishment under existing conditions. Fortunately, however, 
Pennsylvania has a body of veterinarians of unusual intelligence 
and skill. The results that have been accomplished by the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board are due largely to the enthusiastic and 
efficient co-operation of the veterinarians. Moreover, and the im- 
portance of this item cannot be exaggerated, the Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board has, at every point, had the most friendly co-operation 
of the owners of cattle. These facts have made it possible to ac- 
complish a great deal more with the funds at the disposal of the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board than could possibly have been ac- 
complished with several times as much money if, as in some states, 
the veterinarians and live stock owners were not in sympathy with 
and were not working in co-operation with the authorities having 
charge of the control of the diseases of animals. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 129 

Numerous instances of exceedinj^ly lieuvy losses arising from the 
prevalence of tuberculosis in lieids could be cited. Two may be 
taken to serve as an illustration of many. A pure-bred herd that 
had been built up with much expense and effort, extending over 
twenty years, became infected with tuberculosis. Infection was 
shown first by loss of condition of a few of the older cows. These 
cows gradually became thin, and coughed more or less, ^^'hen they 
fell into such a condition that they could no longer be used as dairy 
animals they were sold for slaughter. Later, some of the younger 
animals in the herd became unthrifty; they declined in condition, 
consumed a great deal of food but did not profit by it and were 
killed or died. This sort of thing was repeated so often that the 
owner had his herd examined and this led to the removal of several 
cows showing signs of advanced tuberculosis. But the trouble 
did not cease, and so a State inspection and State aid were applied 
for, with the result that all but one of the herd of about thirty 
cows were found to be tubercular. These cows were killed and 
the antemortem diagnosis was proven in each case by the post- 
mortem examination. The fault here was that the owner of the 
herd permitted it to remain infected for so long without taking 
effective measures to discover the infected animals and isolate them 
from those that were still healthy. If this had been done as soon 
as there was reason to believe that there was infection in the herd, 
there can be no doubt that a large number of the members of the 
herd could have been saved. Many instances have occurred wherein 
herds have been inspected immediately after the appearance of the 
first evidence of tuberculosis. Uusually, in such cases, it is found 
that the distribution of the disease is small. Sometimes, when the 
inspection is made immediately after the owner has received his 
first intimation of the. existence of tuberculosis among his cattle, 
it is found that the disease is even then widespread and involves 
a large proportion of the members of the herd. Usually, however, 
in such cases, the disease has been present in the herd for a much 
longer time than was at first thought by the owner and the earlier 
manifestations of its presence were disregarded, through lack of 
knowledge of their significance. 

A recent instance has been observed that instructively illustrates 
a method by which tuberculosis may enter a herd. A large breed- 
ing and dairy herd that had been founded for a long time was known, 
as a result of its having been tested with tuberculin, to be free from 
tuberculosis. Some young cattle purchased for addition to this 
herd were tested with tuberculin and found to be sound. After- 
wards, they were pastured for the entire season on an outlying 
farm, in contact with tubercular cattle belonging to another herd. 

9—6—1903 



130 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Oft. I>oc. 

When these lieifers calved and were placed in the milking herd, it 
was observed that some of them were unthrifty and a cow in con- 
tact with one of them developed a cough, was tested and found to 
be tubercular and was killed. After this, the entire herd was tested. 
It was found that the disease was confined to the parts of the prem- 
ises occupied M- the exposed heifers and to animals in stalls imme- 
diately adjacent to the heifers that were infected, or in the next 
stall. The source of the disease that was brought into this herd was 
clear, and the manner in which it was spreading was clearly shown. 
In this case, the loss of the herd, or of a large part of it, was pre- 
vented by testing the herd with tuberculin before it was too late. If 
it had been known, at the time, that the heifers had been exposed to 
infection, and if thev had been tested and those that were tubercular 
had been eliminated before this lot of animals was added to the 
general herd, a greater saving would have been effected. 

While there is no systematic or periodical inspection of all herds 
in the State and, therefore, no figures can be given to show the 
exact prevalence of tuberculosis at different times, there are, never- 
theless, convincing facts to 'show that tuberculosis of cattle is 
decidedly less prevalent in Pennsylvania than it was a few years 
ago. People who are in close touch with the cattle industry of the 
►Srate and who are in position to know, in a general way, the extent 
to which tuberculosis prevails among the cattle in certain sections 
testify, almost unanimously, that there is a marked diminution in 
the prevalence of this disease. Perhaps the most striking evidence 
on this point is that furnished by the chief meat inspector of Phila- 
delphia, Dr. A. F. Schreiber. Dr. Schreiber's experience in this 
office covers a period of about twelve years. He has been familiar 
all of this time with the number of tubercular cattle found among 
those coming from the eastern part of the State to Philadelphia to 
be slaughtered. His evidence, supported by that of other meat in- 
spectors, slaughterers of cattle and commission men, is to the effect 
that the j)revalence of tuberculosis among dairy cows in Pennsyl- 
vania coming to Philadelphia to be slaughtered, has been reduced 
at least 50 per cent. It is the experience of veterinarians through- 
out nearly all sections of the State that, for several years, losses 
from tuberculosis have been steadily diminishing, but still these 
losses are very great, and they have not diminished as much in 
some parts of the State as in others. The diminution has been 
greatest in those sections where the owners of cattle have taken 
the matter firmly in hand and have co-operated intelligently with 
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Co-operation of this sort is 
most active and effective in those districts in whirli tuberculosis 
of cattle is best understood, and where the greatest amount of work 
has already been done by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 131 

It has como to be pretty generally understood tliat an animal 
that declines in condition without visible cause and while continu- 
ing to eat well, should be suspected as being afflicted with tuber- 
culosis, and should be isolated from the herd. The suspicion at- 
tached to such an aninml is intensified if the animal is afflicted 
with harsh breathing, chronic cough, enlarged glands or chronic dis- 
charge from any of the natural openings of the bod3^ There is 
still, however, need, and, in some parts of the State, great need, 
for more attention to this fact, because it happens altogether too 
often that cows that show S3^mptoms of a chronic disease, as de- 
scribed, are permitted to remain in a herd in contact with their 
herd mates until great and irretrievable damage has been done. 
Every herd owner should have a place for isolating animals that 
are in an unthrifty conditioai, or that may possibly be afflicted with 
an infectious disease. The need for isolation applies not only to 
tuberculosis, but is also important in relation to the control of con- 
tagious abortion, contagious garget, contagious ophthalmia, and 
other disease. Every cow showing unthriftiness or evidence of any 
constitutional ailment should be taken away from the herd and 
kept in isolation until it has been cured or until a positive diagnosis 
has been made 'or, as in the case of tuberculosis, until it has been 
finally disposed of. 

Formerly payments were not made by authority of the State Live 
Stock Sanitary Board for any tubercular cattle unless the entire 
herd was submitted for inspection and tuberculin test, for the pur- 
pose of entirely eradicating infection and of putting the herd on 
as healthy a basis as could be reached. In time, the demands for 
herd inspections became so numerous that it was quite impossible 
to require the inspection of a herd whenever visible tubercular 
cattle were found, and so the system was developed of immediately 
disposing of the animals afflicted with advanced or generalized tu- 
berculosis, or with tuberculosis of the udder, and of deferring the 
herd test until it could be reached in regular order or, as not in- 
frequently happens, on account of the increased number of applica- 
tions for herd tests, until there is additional reason for the general 
inspection. Admittedly, it is unfortunate that every herd in which 
tubercular cattle have been found, cannot be tested with tuberculin, 
so that the infected cattle may be designated and kept apart from 
those that are uninfected. It is, however, quite out of the question 
to attempt the tuberculin test of all herds in which the disease has 
been recognized without a very large increase of the funds available 
for this work. On this account, owners of herds are encouraged 
to have tests made at their own expense and tuberculin for this 
purpose is furnished free of charge by the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board. Tests of entire herds are made by this Board on as 



132 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

large a scale as the funds will allow, and in the cases that are most 
urgent and where the best assurance is given that the results of 
the work thus carried out will be permanent. Such tests are made 
only upon the receipt of a signed application from the herd owner 
as follows: 

Request for Inspection and Tuberculin Test of Herd, at the Expense 
of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. 

, 190.. 

To the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 

Gentlemen: I have reason to believe that some of my cattle are 
afflicted with tuberculosis, and I wish to have my entire herd in- 
spected, and tested with tuberculin, if such test is deemed necessary 
by your representative, and the diseased animals disposed of accord- 
ing to the rules and regulations of the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board. 

I understand that this inspection and test are to be made at the 
expense of the Commonwealth and, in consideration thereof, I agree 
to thoroughly disinfect the premises and correct faulty sanitary con- 
ditions and thereafter to observe the precautions and measures and 
to employ the means recommended by your Board to prevent the re- 
introduction and redevelopment of tuberculosis in my herd. In 
particular, I agree to purchase no cows for addition to my herd until 
they have been proven by tuberculin test to be free from tubercu- 
losis, and if 25 per cent, of my present herd shall be found to be 
tubercular, I will have a re-test made under the supervision of your 
Board, at my own expense, wdthin eight months from the time of 
the State inspection. 

I certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, none of th( 
dairy cows or cattle for breeding purposes in my herd have been 
brought from another State into Pennsylvania since January 1, 1898, 
without having been subjected to inspection and tuberculin test, as 
required by law. 

Yours respectfully, 



(Address) , 

Countv, Pa. 



When the owner of a herd has had a test made at his own ex- 
pense and has found tubercular cattle and wishes to receive indem- 
nity from the State, an agreement is required as follows: 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 133 

Kequest for Assistance in J)isj>osiug of Tubercular Cattle in Herds 
Inspected at Their Owner's Expense. 

, 1!)0.. 

To the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 

Gentlemen: I have had my entire herd inspected and tested with 
tuberculin and have reason to believe that some of my cattle are 
atfected with tuberculosis. 

I have had (his iiispccLion and test made at my own expense and 
now wish to dispose of the diseased animals in accordance with the 
rules and regulations of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and to 
avail myself of the assistance afforded by the Commonwealth in 
such cases. If such assistance is furnished, I agree to thoroughly 
disinfect the premises and correct faulty sanitary condition and 
thereafter to observe the precautions and measures and to employ 
the means recommended by your Board to prevent the reintroduc- 
tion and redevelopment of tuberculosis in my herd. In particular, 
I agree to purchase no cows for addition to my herd until they have 
been proved by tuberculin test to be free from tuberculosis, and 
if twentA'-five per cent, of my present herd is found to be tubercular 
I will have a re-test made under the supervision of your Board 
within eight months from the time of the inspection herein referred 
to. 

I certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, none of the 
dairy cows or cattle for breeding purposes in my herd have been 
brought from another ^tate into Pennsylvania since January 1, 
1898, without having been subjected to inspection and tuberculin 
test, as required by law. 

Yours respectfully. 



(Address) , 

County, Pa. 

These agreement forms are more stringent than those that have 
been used before, inasmuch as they require more of the owner in 
the way of improving his premises and in correcting faulty sani- 
tary conditions, and in that the owner agrees to have a retest made 
at his own expense if 25 per cent, of the animals of his original 
herd are tubercular. 

More herds and more cattle have been inspected during the past 
year with the view of repressing tuberculosis than ever before. All 
of this work has been encouraged and in large part supported by 
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. During the year, 1,059 cattle 
have been condemned on account of tuberculosis. These came from 
440 herds, comprising 6,801 cattle. 



134 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

There is at this time practically complete unanimity of opinion, 
among- those who have given the subject careful attention, to the 
effect that the eradication of tuberculosis from a herd without 
the use of the tuberculin test is such a slow, laborious and uncer- 
tain process as to be unjustifiable under ordinary conditions; al- 
though it is known that the losses from tuberculosis in herds may 
be diminished by subjecting herds to repeated and careful physical 
examination. By the latter means, the animals that are afflicted 
with tuberculosis in the most advanced stages, that are excreting 
the greatest number tubercle bacilli and that are most likely to fur- 
nish infectious milk may be detected and removed. But the com- 
plete eradication of tuberculosis must, for the present, at least, 
depend on the use of the tuberculin test. This is so well under- 
stood that the demand for the test upon the part of herd owners is 
growing from year to year. 

After the herd is tested and the animals that are tubercular are 
pointed out, the immediate question confronting the herd owner 
and his veterinary advisor is, what shall be done with the animals 
that have reacted and that are infected with tuberculosis? It is 
well known that the tuberculin test does not indicate the extent 
of infection, it merely reveals the fact that the animal is infected; 
the disease may be extensive or it may be slight. It is frequently 
impossible by means of the most careful physicial examination, even 
with the knowledge that the animal has reacted to the tuberculin 
test, to determine, while the animal is alive, the location or extent 
of the lesion. But even in these cases the postmortem examina- 
tion not infrequently shows that the disease is of such extensive de- 
velopment and is so situated as to permit tubercle bacilli to be 
excreted by the animal, thus rendering it capable of spreading in- 
fection to its associates. From this it is clear that cattle that have 
reacted to the tuberculin test, even though they appear to be per- 
fectly healthy at the time, are, in many cases, capable of spreading 
the disease, and all such cattle must be treated as though it were 
known that they are actually distributing tubercle bacilli. It is 
not necessary as a sanitary measure, nor is it required by the laws 
of the State or by regulations of the State Live Stock Sanitary 
Board, that animals that have reacted to the tuberculin test, and 
that do not show evidence of advanced or generalized tuberculosis 
or lulder tuberculosis, shall be destroyed. It is required, merely, 
that such animals shall be so cared for that they may not spread 
disease. This means that they shall be kept apart from other cattle, 
and that their milk shall not be used without jjrevious sterilization 
or pasteurization in a way that will insure the destruction of the 
tubercle bacillus. Therefore, if cows that have reacted to the test 
can be maintained as a separate herd and their milk pasteurized 
before it is used, this is allowed and encouraged. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGTUCULTURE. 135 

lu Deiimaik this plan has beeu in operation for a number of years, 
and the prevalence of tuberculosis has been steadily diminished by 
means of ii. .Not only has this system worked well in that it has 
resulted in the repression of tuberculosis of cows, but it is evi- 
dent that along with this economical advantage, no sanitary dis- 
advantage has appeared. This procedure is especially applicable 
to Denmark, a butter-making country, because it is the practice 
there for all of the creameries to pasteurize the cream and to steril- 
ize the skim milk before they are used for the manufacture of butter 
or for feediag animals. On this account, the milk of cows that have 
reacted to the tuberculin test, is at no market disadvantage. It 
may be disposed of as readily and for as good a price as other milk. 
In this country, however, it is difficult to dispose of milk that has 
to be pasteurized. There is no detiuite market for this milk. It is 
regarded with suspicion and, generally, can be disposed of only at 
reduced prices. Practically, therefore, under oui* market condi- 
tions, the use of milk from reacting cows is not profitable excepting 
on farms where there are adequate facilities for pasteurizing milk 
and where butter is made. The market disadvantage to which 
such milk is subject is the result of ignorance and prejudice. 
People who are not fully informed upon this subject refuse to use 
for butter-making, milk from reacting cows even after this milk 
has been pasteurized and made wholesome. On the other hand, 
they do not hesitate to buy and use milk from tubercular herds, and 
sometimes from very extensively^ tubercular herds that have not 
been inspected. They do this with the knowledge that tuberculosis 
is a very prevalent disease of dairy cattle, and they make no effort 
to ascertain whether the cows furnishing the milk they use are 
tubercular or not. In other words, they will use the milk from 
a tubercular herd without hesitation or question until this herd 
has ()een inpected and the animals that are most dangerous have 
been removed and the milk from the other members of the herd, 
and in the earliest stages of infection, has been rendered perfectly 
inocuous and wholesome by pasteurization; when this safeguard 
has been established and the milk is infinitely better than it was 
before, the former purchaser will refuse to receive it. 

This strange situation nmkes it necessary to adopt special meas- 
ures and establish new conditions, if the milk of cow'S that have 
reacted to the tuberculin test is to be used safely and properly. 
I have suggested, in a previous report, that arrangements could be 
made to permit the concentration, upon farms set aside and 
equipped for this purpose, of cows still in good condition that are 
known to be tubercular through having reacted to the tuberculin 
test. If a man could make a business of maintaining a large herd 
of this description, he could afford to provide the equipment that 



136 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

is necessary for propeily handliug the milk and making butter. If 
such work were officially authorized, under certain prescribed condi- 
tions, and were controlled by frequent inspections, it would seem 
that it might be carried out in a perfectly safe, unobjectionable 
way, with the result that considerable saving could be effected. It 
is not likely that any one would care to use any but selected animals 
in this way. There are, however, some cows in the earliest stages 
of tuberculosis that are of great value as milk producers and that, 
still more important, are of great value for breeding purposes. By 
gathering such cows together so that they could be cared for under 
such conditions as may be necessary to prevent harm, they could be 
used profitably and their progeny could be saved. 

It has been shown by the Danish work, covering a series of many 
years ,that the calves of cows in the early stages of tuberculosis are 
born healthy and may be reared in health if they are removed from 
their dams immediately after birth and are fed milk from healthy 
cows or pasteurized milk from tubercular cows. If a plan such as 
this could be put into operation, I would suggest that it be done 
only under a system providing for the licensing of farms and of 
men. The licenses should be granted only when it is clear that 
the work could be done in a perfectly safe way so far as it concerns 
both the public health and the live stock industry. The licenses 
should be subject to withdrawal at any time that it becomes evident 
that the established conditions were not fully complied with. If 
a number of farms of this character were licensed in different parts 
of the State, the effect would be to make a market for cows in the 
early stages of tuberculosis, and this would encourage the testing 
of herds and the removal of such cows from contact with healthy 
cattle. At present, there is no means of disposing of these animals 
excepting by slaughter. As their value is often very much more 
than the amount that can be obtained either by turning them into 
beef or by disposing of them under appraisal to the State, some 
owners hesitate to dispose of them. In consequence, infected cattle 
are permitted to keep up the infection in herds. 

There appears to be no room for discussion upon the principle 
that if an outlet can be provided for such cattle, that is of such 
character that owners will be encouraged to dispose of cattle 
through it, and which at the same time will be open to no valid 
objections, it will be desirable to establish such an arrangement. If 
tubercular and tubercle bacilli distributing cows could be gathered 
from thousands of herds in whidi they are now members into a com- 
paratively small number of licensed herds, where they could be 
kept under such supervision and control as would be necessary, as 
could readily be established, it would seem to be desirable from 
every standpoint. Of course, these cows might be killed and paid 



No. «. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 137 

for by the State, but to do this would reciuire a much larger expeudi- 
huo than appears at present to be obtainable. 

Much benefit in this direction is expected to come from the opera- 
tion of the act of Assembly approved March 25, 1903, entitled "An 
act to encourage the repression of tuberculosis of cattle, and to 
provide for the disposition of the carcasses of meat-producing ani- 
mals that are infested with tuberculosis to a degree that renders 
their flesh unfit for use as food," and to which 1 have referred be- 
fore. 

This act of Assembly makes a long and important step in ad- 
vance in the matter of disposing of carcasses of animals found, upon 
slaughter, to be tubercular. Heretofore, there has been no definite 
or official method for disposing of such carcasses. The result was 
that the meat of tubercular animals killed surreptitiously on farms 
or in small out-of-the-way slaughter houses, was placed upon the 
market and was sold for consumption without restriction. There 
can be no doubt that as a result of this practice the public has been 
exposed to the use of large quantities of unwholesome meat. There 
are many men who would not dispose of their cattle in this way; 
they were reluctant to lose their cattle that were out of condition 
and possibly infected with this disease, and so the evil day was post- 
poned from time to time until serious injury to the herd had re- 
sulted. By making it possible regularly and in an officially ap- 
proved way to slaughter animals suspected of being tubercular, 
under competent inspection, with the understanding that if the 
flesh is unwholesome it may be appraised within certain limits 
and will be paid for the same as a cow with tuberculosis of the udder 
in a milking herd, elimination of such animals is likely to be en- 
couraged. To the public health, the greatest advantage will come 
from the fact that there will be no inducement to persons who 
find, after slaughter, that cattle are tubercular, to place the carcass 
of such animals upon the market, because they may be inspected, 
appraised and indemnity obtained from the State. Therefore, the 
result that is expected to come from the operation of this law 
will be advantageous to the consumer of meats and also to the 
owners of cattle. It seems to be eminently proper that appraisal 
and payment by the State should be made in these cases, because 
the principle of indemnifying owners of animals infected with in- 
fectious diseases, that it may be necessary for the benefit of the 
public to control, is firmly established in the administrative pro- 
cedures of all civilized countries. It has been found by prolonged 
trial and the most careful investigation that payments of this kind 
are profitable to the public and that they enable the public to 
avoid grave dangers in respect to both health and property, and that 
more can be accomplished by payments of this kind than in any 
other way. 

lo"^ 



138 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Tlie law priuted above, provides that rules for the iiispeetiou of 
carcasses of meat-produciug auimals may be promulgated by the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board and that, in absence of such rules, 
the rules shall be observed that are established by the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry, to cover the inspection of animals 
and carcasses for tuberculosis in abattoirs under federal inspec- 
tion. Preliminary to the promulgation of such rules by the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board, it is proposed that a commission of dis- 
tinguished sanitarians, bacteriologists and pathologists shall be 
ajjpoiuted to consider this question in all of its bearings and to 
recommend to the State Live Stock Sanitary Board such rules as 
it may be necessary for the Board to promulgate. Steps have been 
taken toward the organization of such a commission. Until the 
commission reports and rules are promulgated by the State Live 
Stock Sanitary Board, the rules of the federal meat inspection ser- 
vice will be observed. 

The law governing the inspection of dairy cows and cattle for 
breeding jjurposes brought into Pennsylvania from other states, and 
which provides that all such animals shall be tested with tuberculin, 
is working smoothly. The number of animals that it is necessary 
to condemn is not so great as it was for the first years of the opera- 
tion of the law for the reason, apparently, that shippers and deal- 
ers exercise more care than formerly in the selection of cattle pur- 
chased for shipment to Pennsylvania. It is a great advantage to 
purchasers of cows to be able to buy animals which they know have 
been recently tested and have proven to be free from tuberculosis. 
In the enforcement of this law it has been necessary to employ a 
special agent, who has been constantly on duty in various parts of 
the State looking up shipments and reports of shipments of cattle 
from other states, in order to be sure that the^' are inspected in 
the manner required by law. No serious difificulty in connection 
with the enforcement of this law has occurred during the past 3'ear. 

In connection with the research work that has been conducted 
under the auspices of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, it was 
shown, as reported last year, thai by using a system of preven- 
. tive inoculation or a accinatiou the resistance of animals to tuber- 
culosis could be materially increased. This process was developed 
by experiments made upon young cattle and on a small scale to such 
a point that it was possible to show that animals that had been 
put through a course of preventive inoculation, or vaccination, 
were able to withstand inoculations of a culture of virulent tubercle 
bacilli large enough to cause extensive and even fatal disease in 
similar animals which had not received this artificial protection. 
The great practical advantage of being able to vaccinate cattle 
against tuberculosis impressed the officers and members of the 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 139 

Stah' Live Stock Suuilai'v Board so stronj^ly dial a r<(inest was 
made to the las( Lej;islaliu*e lor an addition to the usual appro- 
priation for kiboratory and research work, so that a farm niij.'lit 
be rented and a herd of cattle established for experimental i)ur- 
poses, with the view of testing- and, if possible, of developing the 
principle and practice of vaccination against tuberculosis as ap- 
plied to cattle. It was hoped that by this means it might be pos- 
sible to develop this mode of protection to a point where it could 
be made of practical value to cattle owners. With this "object in 
view a farm has been rented in Delaware county, within easy reach 
of the laboratory of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and a 
herd of cattle has been established. It has been necessary to pro- 
vide some special equipment in the way of laboratory and stable 
accommodations. 

The experiment consists in vaccinating 3'oung cattle with vaccine 
of diiferent kinds, with doses of different sizes and at varying inter- 
vals. Each mode of vaccination is tried upon a group of from two 
to four animals. Along with animals that are vaccinated there 
are a number of similar aniinals that have not been vaccinated 
and that are kept as check or control animals. The vaccinated and 
unvacciuated animals are exposed to immediate, direct, daily con- 
tact with cows aftlicted with tuberculosis. The purpose of this trial, 
as will be seen, is to determine whether and, if so, to what extent, 
the different modes of vaccination are effective as compared with 
the conditions found in unvacciuated animals equally exposed. 
Trial is also being made as to the elficiency of vaccination in 
the protection of calves from tubercular cows that are reared 
upon the milk of their diseased mothers and are in constant contact 
with them. 

The principle of immunization of animals against tuberculosis 
having been proven, information is now particularly desired upon 
two points, first, as to the most effective and economical method 
of applying vaccination, with respect chiefly to the number of times 
that the process shall be repeated, and, second, as to the duration 
of the immunity that is thus conferred. It will be seen that in- 
formation of this kind can not be obtained quickly, but it is be- 
lieved that the object sought is of importance enough to justify 
a continuance of the experiment on an adequate scale. The final 
results are not reached and a definite report upon the work cannot 
be made until the animals under observation have been killed and 
careful postmortem examinations are made. However, so far as 
one can judge of the work in its present incomplete state, it is 
promising and encourages the belief that vaccination against tu 
herculosis may be placed upon a practical footing. 

Vei'minous Bronchitis of Calves. — The common lung worm 



140 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

{strongylus 7mcruS'Wi) has always been known in certain parts of 
the State, but this past year it has caused more damage than usual. 
It may be that the damp, cold season has some relation to this 
unusual prevalence. At any rate, it has been observed that during 
dry seasons lung worm disease of calves is less prevalent. The 
parts of Pennsylvania that are most seriously afflicted with this dis- 
ease are the northern counties, those adjacent to New York state, 
and in a few of the valleys in the central part of the State. Ke- 
cently, lung worm disease has appeared among cattle in the Schuyl- 
kill Valley. 

In some parts of the districts mentioned above verminous bron- 
chitis has proven to be a scourge and through its return from year 
to year, it has seriously injured and discouraged breeders. The 
cause of this disease is a thin, round, white worm. These worms 
reach maturity in the air tubes of young cattle. They are ex- 
pelled by coughing and afterwards they may continue to live for 
some time in stagnant water or in damp places. It is not known 
whether it is necessary for this parasite to pass a part of its exist- 
ence in an intermediate host, but there is some reason to believe 
that it is necessary that young parasites developing from the eggs 
coming from the mature worms that have been coughed out, 
must pass into some invertebrate animal in order to obtain develop- 
ment. Cattle are usually infected with this disease in the spring 
or early summer through taking up the parasites with water or 
with vegetation growing in damp places. It has also been sug- 
gested that it is possible that the larvae may be inhaled with dust 
and dry matter upon the forage. The parasite requires for its 
development from six to eight weeks. During this time it has 
migrated to the lungs. Sometimes, the infestation of the lungs 
is so great as to lead to the almost complete stoppage of the 
larger bronchial tubes and some of their branches, for distances f 
several inches. Usually, evidence of disease in the infested calves 
does not occur until late summer or autumn. On some farms where 
there is much marshy ground the disease occurs regularly each 
year about the same time. The effect of the presence of the worms 
is to cause a severe irritation in the membrane lining of the bron- 
chial tubes, constituting bronchitis. In fatal cases the inflamma- 
tion extends beyond the air tubes to the lung tissue proper and 
jjroduces solidiflcation of the lung. The symptoms usually begin 
with a severe cough that is repeated frequently and which, in 
time, becomes very distressing. The animal usually continues to 
eat well and does not decline in general condition until the cough 
has become harassing and serious changes have occurred in the 
lungs; then the appetite diminishes and loss of condition is rapid. 
Generally, the course of the disease is slow, covering a period of 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 141 

several weeks. The loss of condition, the evidence of the occlusion 
of parts of the lungs, and the cough, may readily lead one to believe 
that the young cattle are afflicted with tuberculosis of the lungs. 
The points of ditTerence are, — the cough is more violent in verminous 
bronchitis than in tuberculosis, the progress of the disease is much 
more rapid and the fact that a number of the young cattle simul- 
taneously develop almost exactly the same condition, is evidence 
rather of verminous bronchitis than of tuberculosis. If, as is some- 
times the case, one is able to detect long, slender worms in the 
coughed out material or in the discharge from the nose, there need 
no longer be doubt as to the nature of the trouble. The disease 
has a more rapid and serious course in young, weakly animals than 
in those that are older and stronger. Upon the examination of the 
lungs after death, made by cutting the air tubes open longitudi- 
nally, the worms may be found in greater or lesser numbers. 

The preventive treatment of this disease consists in keeping sus- 
ceptible animals off of the infested pastures until mid-summer. 
Cattle kept in the stable and fed soiling crops rarely develop this 
disease. Danger to mature animals following exposure to infesta- 
tion with lung worms, is not great. Something can be done to 
render infested areas less dangerous by draining them and removing 
all accumulations of stagnant water. In regard to curative treat- 
ment, perhaps the most important item is to see that the animals 
are well nourished and to provide them with generous rations of 
concentrated food, as bran, ground oats, corn meal or linseed meal, 
used singly or in combination. The idea of this is to keep the 
animal as strong as possible so that it may successfully pass through 
the natural crisis of the disease. When the worms have reached 
full development they are expelled by coughing. Therefore, if the 
animal can be kept strong until this time, it will naturally tenc? 
to recover. It may safely be said that no medicine is as useful ii 
this disease as good food and plenty of it. To assist digestion anC 
to increase the appetite, a lick should be given of salt containing a 
little Glauber salts and sulphate of iron. The practice of giving 
vermifuges by the mouth is not to be recommended because any- 
thing given in this way that would be strong enough to influence 
worms in the lungs would be certain to upset digestion and so 
do much more harm than good. If the necessary facilities are at 
hand it may be profitable to cause the infested calves to inhale 
medicated vapors. This can be carried out by enclosing the animals 
in a tight room and there vaporizing a mixture of oil of turpentine 
and tar, one part of the former to two parts of the latter. This can 
be done by heating the mixture over a water bath. 

The most direct way of bringing remedial agents in contact with 
these parasites is by intra-tracheal injection. In order to practice 



142 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

this method of treatment it is necessary to have a hypodermic 
syringe fitted with an extra strong needle. The needle may be in- 
serted between the rings of the windpipe, and in this way medicine 
may be injected directly into the air passages. A great variety 
of mixtures are recommended for this purpose. One that is said 
to be used considerably in Russia, and that is highly recommended 
is composed of oil of turpentine and tincture of cloves, of each ten 
parts; carbolic acid and olive oil, of each one part. Ten grammes 
or, approximately, 2^ drachms of this mixture may be injected daily. 

General. Other diseases upon which information has been given 
and assistance to live stock owners has been furnished are, conta- 
gious opthalmia, contagious garget, several parasitic diseases of 
sheep, several infectious diseases of poultry, influenza, strangles 
and periodic opthalmia of horses, actinomycosis and numerous non- 
contagious affections. No special features have come to my notice 
in regard to most of these diseases. Interesting conditions that 
have been observed in relation to a few of them are still under 
consideration and will be referred to in a subsequent report. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my profound appreciation for the 
helpful co-operation and support that I have constantly received 
from you and from the other members of the State Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board. 

Eespectfully submitted, 



LEONARD PEARSON 



State Veterinarian. 



APPENDIX NO. 1. 



Directions for the Treatment of an Aborting Herd. 



BY LEONARD PEARSON. 



Burn aborted foetuses and membranes. 

This material carries the germs of abortion in abundance 
and burning or deep burial furnish the only means of getting 
rid of it in a safe way. 
Isolate discharging cows. 

The vaginal discharge from cows thai have aborted is very 
virulent and nuiy furnish th(> means of infecting other cows. 
Hence, discharging cows should be kept apart from the herd. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 143 

3. Disinfect the premises. 

This procedure should be executed \vi1li (he most exacting 
care. Partial or iuefticient disinfection is practically use- 
less. To disinfect, where fumigation with the vai)or of for- 
maldehyde cannot be employed, llic spray pump furnishes 
the best means. It should be borne in mind that disinfect- 
ants do not destroy germs that they do not come in contact 
with. So, all large accumulations of bedding, forage and 
manure should be removed and every place that may harbor 
a germ should be reached with the disinfectant. Especial 
eare should be used to drive it into every crack, knothole, 
behind every loose board, on top of every beam and into 
every partly concealed hole as well as upon every exposed 
surface. 

A 5 per cent, solution of good (not crude) carbolic acid may 
be used for this purpose. 

Following the disinfection by spraying and the cleaning 
of the stable, it may be whitewashed with lime — wash con- 
taining one pound of fresh chloride of lime to each 3 gal 
Ions of water. This may be applied with a brush or, better 
with a spray pump. 

The barn yard should be well cleaned out, the manur( 
being spread in some field that the cattle do not have access 
to. The bottom of the yard should be well scraped and the 
earth stained with leachings from manure should be removed. 
Then the surface of the yard may be flushed with a saturated 
solution of sulphate of iron or thickly spread with lime. 
The outer wall of the barn, facing on the yard, and the ad- 
joining fences should be disinfected or whitewashed. 

4. Irrigate the genital passages of the cows that have aborted. 

The purpose of this procedure is to disinfect the genital 
passages. A convenient method is as follows: 

Hang a bucket containing the antiseptic solution back of 
the cow. To a spigot on the side of this bucket attach a 
rubber hose f inch in diameter and about G feet long. Insert 
the hose into the vagina and, if possible, into the uterus of 
the cow. Allow from 3 to 4 quarts of the warm solution to 
flow into the cow and out. Take a fresh hose and irrigate 
the next cow, allowing the first hose to soak in an antiseptic 
solution in the meantime. 

This treatment should l>e repeated every second or third 
day so long as there is any discharge from the cow. After- 
wards it may be used once or twice a week. As appropriate 
solutions the following are recommended: Lysol, 1 per cent.; 
creolin, 2 per cent.; bichloride of mercury, 1-3000; carbolic 



144 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

acid, 1^ per cent.; boracic acid, 3 per cent.; permaganate of 
potash, 1 per cent.; alum, 1 per cent.; chloride of zinc, 2 per 
cent. The last injection, two days before service, should be 
bicarbonate of soda, 2 per cent. 

5. Irrigale the sheath of the bull. 

The purpose of flushing out and disinfecting the sheath and 
the outside of the penis of the bull, is to prevent him from 
carrying the germs of abortion from one cow to another. 
This procedure should be enforced before and after each 
service. This is very important. The sheath may be flushed 
out bv using a small rubber hose and funnel. The end of this 
hose is to be inserted into the sheath beside the penis, the 
fore-skin is held together with the fingers and the antiseptic 
*is poured into the funnel. A 1 per cent, solution of lysol is 
good for this purpose. 

6. The long hair at the end of the bull's sheath should be cut off. 

Moreover, it is well to clip the hair from under the belly over 
a circle one foot in diameter surrounding the opening of the 
sheath. Then, by washing with a sponge this area can 
easily be cleaned before each service. 

7. Wash off the external genitals of each cow every day. 

For this purpose use any of the antiseptics recommended 
above. They can be applied with a clean sponge. The parts 
washed should comprise the root of the tail, the anus, the 
vulva and the surrounding skin for a distance of several 
inches, and the corresponding portion of the tail. A sepa- 
rate bucket and sponge should be used for the cows that 
are pregnant and those that have recently aborted. 

8. Do not breed a cow for about ten weeks after she has aborted. 

About ten weeks are required for the thorough treatment of 
a cow that has aborted and she should not be bred before the 
expiration of this period. If she shows any discharge or 
other indication of vaginal catarrh she should not be bred for 
a longer period, or until the parts are in entirely normal 
condition, 

9. A solution of carbolic acid may be administered subcutaneously 

to each pregnant cow. For this purpose use a 3 per cent, 
solution of carbolic acid and of this inject 2 drachms every 
ten days. Should this cause swelling in some individuals, for 
these use a smaller amount. 
10. Remove cows from the herd before th(\v abort, if possible. The 
purpose of this is to prevent the re-infection of the ]>remises. 
Of course, this cannot ahvays be done and when a cow aborts 
in the cow stable thorough disinfection is again required. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. • 145 

II. Rf'peat the disinfettion of the stable from time to time and pay 
particular attciition to the cleansing and disinfecting of the 
gutters. For freciuent flushing of the gutters use a satu- 
rated solution of sulpl)at<^ of iron. 

t2. Treat the cows accordingly to their individual needs. If a 
laxative or tonic is needed, give Sal. Car. Eact. of Iron or 
Arsenic according to the indications. 

13. Whenever possible it is well to use a separate bull for the cows 
that have aborted and another for the sound cows. But even 
in this case it is important to observe the precautions cited 
under heading No. 5, using a separate apparatus for each 
bull. 



APPENDIX NO. 2. 



A PRELIMINARY REPORT UPON FORAGE-POISONING OF 
HORSES (SO-CALLED CEREBROSPINAL MENINGITIS). 



By Leonard Pearsox, B. S., v. m. d. 



The disease or horses commonly known as cerebro-spinal menin- 
gitis has long been supposed to result from the ingestion of food 
that has undergone fermentation or putrefaction or that has become 
mouldy. The evidence in favor of this view has, however, never 
been of a direct but only of a circumstantial nature. While the 
disease has in many instances occurred on farms and in stables 
where horses were fed on mouldy or musty grain or ground feed, 
damaged hay or spoiled ensilage, and it has been assumed that such 
foods produced the disease, there has always been a lack of proof, 
first, that these foods were poisonous, and, second, that some other 
influence had not produced the disease. This absence of proof is 
due to no lack of efforts to fix the responsibility on suspected food- 
stuffs. Experiments have been made in large numbers in which 
suspected materials have been fed to horses in the attempt to pro- 
duce the disease called cerebro-spinal meningitis, but all of these 
trials have resulted negatively. So far as the literature of this 
subject shows, cerebro-spinal meningitis, so-called, has never been 
produced artificially or under experimental conditions. 

10—6—1903 



146 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

FriedbcTficr and Froliner state {SjjecieUe Pathologie und Thern- 
pie^ 18!H;, I'oui'tli edition), in connection with tlie discussion oT 
mould-poisoning, that feeding- exixn-imeuts ai-e usually Avithout 
result; bul, the}' add, that it is illogical to conclude from this, in 
the face of the clinical evidence, that moulds do not have patho- 
genetic properties. They do not cite any experiments to show that 
mouldy foods are dangerous; all of their evidence appears to be 
clinical. 

Case. On October 29, 1900, I was asked by Dr. Francis Bridge 
to see with him a stable in which five horses had died of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis, so-called. The purpose of the consultation was 
to determine if possible the origin of the disease. 

It was found that the horse stable consisted of a row of seven 
stalls across one end of the stone basement of a large barn. One 
long side of the basement w^as against an embankment and had 
no windows. The other long side was protected by an overhang. 
There were windows under the overhang and in each end of the 
barn. In front of the row of horse stalls and running at right 
angles to it were two rows of cow^s with stalls for about forty 
animals. There were two silos on the embankment side of the 
stable. This silage was thrown down into a dark room, formerly 
used as a root-cellar, opening into the stable at about the middle. 
The partition between the i>art of the stable occupiecl by the cows 
and that occupied by the horses ccmsisted of the front of the horses' 
mangers. This did not extend above the level of the feed-boxes. 

A silo had been opened about one week before the first cases 
developed. The silage was somewhat mouldj^ on top and had a 
musty odor. This condition extended down around the sides for 
several feet. No silage was known to have been fed to the horses, 
although some could get on their hay, which remained for a time, 
after it was thrown down from the loft, in the passageway in front 
of the cows. It was also possil)le thnt some of the milkers may 
have fed a little silage to the horses. 

The hay fed to the horses was of good quality and in good con- 
dition. The concentrated feed was a mixture of oats, corn and 
bran, and appeared to be in good condition. It was kept in a cov- 
ered feed bin in the i)assageway between Ihc horse mangers and 
the cow stalls. 

All of the seven horses in the stable became weak, showed mus- 
cular tremors, difficulty in chewing and swallowing, and gradually 
progressive paresis, which terminated in death in five instances. 
The other two horses were removed to another barn and recovered. 
The duration of the disease was from two to four days. No autop- 
sies were made. 

Suspecting the silage, on account of experience in previous out- 



No. n. DRPARTMRNT OF Ar.RTriTr.TT'UE. 147 

breaks and on account oC ilu' \ < ly nionldy condition of some of it, 
I obtained a sample and look it to tlie Veterinary Hospital of the 
University ot Pennsylvania for trial. For the trial a nine-year 
old-gelding- was used that liad been in the hospital for two months. 
This gelding- had been quite stilf from osteoporosis, but had recov- 
ered largely from his lameness, was well nourished, vigorous, and 
in good general condition. 

The feeding experiment started on October 30th and continued 
until November 2d. The horse ate altogether approximately one- 
half bushel of silage mixed with oats and bran. November 2d he 
ate and swallowed slowly and with some difficulty. His tempera- 
ture was 100 degrees F. There was no evidence of pain. November 
3d there was well-marked paresis of the throat and of the muscles of 
mastication. The temperature was 100.5 degrees F. There was 
twitching of the muscles of the flank and shoulder, desire to lie down 
much of the time, and some difficulty in arising. The inability 
to swallow continued, and the general muscular weakness pro- 
gressed, in the evening the horse w^as unable to stand. The brain 
was clear. There was no pain. The horse died at 9 A. M., No- 
vember 4tli. Autopsy negative except for swelling and dark red, 
almost black color of mucous membrane of pharynx and glottis. 
The mucous membrane of the larynx was congested. The mucous 
membrane of the stomach was also much congested and showed 
some eccliymotic spots on soft mucosa. The stomach contents 
had a putrid odor. A bolus of partially chewed hay was lodged 
between the teeth and cheek, and this had a very putrid odoi*. 
There appeared to be an excess of cerebrospinal fluid. The brain 
and cord and their meninges were normal. 

Another horse, a gelding ten years old, with ringbones on both 
front pasterns, but otherwise healthy, was given on November 5th 
four gallons of water that had percolated through a bushel of silage. 
November Gth he was given three gallons of water from the same 
silage. November 8th lie was given six quarts of silage. Novem- 
ber 9th he was offered four quarts of silage, but did not eat more 
than half of it. Up to November Gth in the afternoon no abnor- 
mal condition was noted. It was then observed that he chewed 
and swallowed slowly. In the evening there was a little tremor of 
the muscles of the shoulder and partial paralysis of the throat, but 
he could drink very slowly. He laid down most of the time and was 
weak. Temi)erature 98.2 degrees F. No pain. November 10th 
the horse was found dead in his stall, having died during the night. 
Upon autopsy lesions similar to those described above were found, 
but all were less well marked. Other investigations in this con- 
nection are now being made, and will be reported later. 

As to the name that is usually applied to this disease — i. .?., 



148 • ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

eerebro-spinal meningitis — it is evident that the name is inappro- 
priate, because there is no evidence of inlhunmation in the meninges 
of the brain or cord. Since this disease closelj' resembles the 
sausage-poisonings and meat-poisonings of man and the carnivora, 
and since tlie observations recorded above show that the as yet 
undiscovered infectious or toxic principle resides in the food, I 
wish to suggest the name " forage-poisoning " as one that would 
be descriptive and accurate. (The Journal of Comparative Medi 
cine, and Veterinary Archives, Nov., 1900.) 



APPENDIX NO. 3. 



A PATHOLOGY FOR FORAGE POISONING, OR THE SO- 
CALLED EPIZOOTIC CEREBRO SPINAL MENINGITIS OF 
HORSES.* 



(A Preliminary Report.) 

D. J. McCarthy, M.D., and Mazyck P. Ravenei., m.d. 



The disease known as infectious epizootic eerebro-spinal men- 
ingitis of horses is but little understood. In all out-breaks there 
seems to be a common cause, and there is little or no evidence 
that the disease is ever transmitted from one horse to another. 
In some cases the origin can clearly be traced to the food, and 
Dr. Leonard Pearson has produced the disease by feeding ensilage 
taken from a stable in which animals had been attacked. The in- 
fluence of food is well illustrated by an outbreak which occurred in 
a large stable in Philadelphia. It began in December, 1901, twenty- 
seven horses being affected, of which ten died. A fresh supply of 
food was obtained, and piled on top of the old. No new cases 
occurred under the use of this feed, but in May, 1902, the old food 
was again reached, and soon after fifty-nine horses developed the 
disease, twentj-four of which died, and six were destroyed. From 
his experiments and observations Dr. Pearson has. proposed the 
name ''forage poisoning," a name which is more in accordance with 
the facts as we know them at present. The term "cerebrospinal 
meningitis" is not justified by tlie clinical history nor by post-mor- 
tem findings. 

•From the Laboratory of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the William Pepper Clinical 
Laboratory. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 149 

While forage is no doubt responsible for many of the outbreaks, 
the actual pathogenic agent has not yet been discovered, thougU 
a toxic mold or fungus is supposed to be the cause. All attempts 
to find a specific raicro-organisni in the animals affected have failed 
completely, nor has microscopic examination of the tissues revealed 
any specific lesion. Gross examination usually shows hyperemia 
of the brain and cord, and their meninges, with increase of fluid in 
the subarachnoid spaces and ventricles. This fluid is clear, and 
we have been unable to discover any micro-organism in it by cul- 
tural methods. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are referable to the central nervous 
system. In mild attacks there is loss of control over the limbs 
and tail, loss of appetite, and difficulty in swallowing. The inability 
to swallow is often a marked symptom in more severe cases, and 
the name "putrid sore throat" has been applied to the disease. 
There is stupor, apathy, extreme muscular w^eakness, or actual 
paralysis. A common symptom is contraction of the muscles of 
the neck, back, and loins, with more or less opisthotonos. Par- 
oxysms of delirium occur, during which the animal will push against 
the wall, or show the disorderly movements due to meningeal irri- 
tation. Coma and paralysis come on, and death occures in from 
five to forty-eight hours. In most acute cases the animal falls 
and dies in convulsions. 

It seems probable that several diseases which are characterized 
by similar clinical sj^mptoms have been considered as one and the 
same by observers. 

MacCallum and Buckley have found in the brains of horses dying 
of this disease areas of softening "in the frontal region on each 
side, anterior to the motor region of the cortex." This softening 
was practically confined to the w^hite matter immediately under the 
cortex, the rest of the brain showing no abnormality. In these 
areas there w^as "complete destruction of the brain substance in 
which the anatomical elements are disintegrated, and largely re- 
placed by a colloid-like material." The neighboring blood vessels 
were actually inflamed, with exudation of leucocytes, and passage 
of the red corpuscles into the peri-vascular lymph sheath and adja- 
cent tissues. In a second outbreak they failed to find the softened 
areas in the brain, but the condition of the blood vessels was such 
as to make them believe that they had the earlier stages of the 
same process. They have given the name "Acute Epizootic Leu- 
coencephalitis." (Bulletin 80 of the Marland Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station.) 

The disease has engaged our attention at the laboratory of the 
State Live Stock Sanitary Board for several years, and examina- 
tion by cultural methods have been made whenever possible, but 



150 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

always without result. We were led to tlie present investigation 
iiiore than a year ago while making a study of the value of the 
rapid diagnosis of rabies after the method of Van Gehuchteu and 
N^lis, in the course of which several horses and two calves, which 
had died of forage poisoning, were used as controls. 

Pathological Keport. — AVith the excei^tiou of the lesions in the 
upper gastro-intestinal tract where the infection probably occurs, 
the only others discovered were confined to the central nervous 
system, and may be grouped for purposes of description as follows: 

1. Lesions of the intervertebral and Gasseriau ganglia. 2. Le- 
sions in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex. 3. Lesions in the cho- 
roid plexuses of the lateral cerebral ventricles. 4. Lesions of the 
peripheral nerves supplying the larynx. 

Fifteen animals have been studied. In the first six of these the 
intervertebral ganglia were not examined. In all the nine cases 
in which these structures have been studied the following changes 
have been found: In the normal ganglion the ganglion cells are en- 
closed in a capsule titting closely around the cell. This capsule is 
made up of a single layer of endothelial cells. The supporting 
structure of the ganglion is composed of a loose areola of connect- 
ive tissue, through which run the nerve fibers on their way to the 
spinal cord. All of these structures are affected. 

The ganglion cells were the seat of extensive chromatolysis. The 
degenerative changes vary from a simple diffuse chromatolysis — 
a fusing together and loss of outline of the fine chromatin points 
in the cell protoplasm — to complete destruction of the cell body 
and nucleus. At times cells were found apparently normal, except 
for the accumulation of large amounts of a yellow pigment, stain- 
ing black wdth osmic acid. In other cells, besides the diffuse chro- 
matolysis above referred to, the nucleus was found displaced to the 
periphery of the cell. As the degenerative changes advanced, the 
cell protoplasm took the stain very strongly and appeared a deep 
blue by the Nissl method. Marked vacuolatiou of the cell proto- 
plasm was present in two cases. In four cases some of the gang- 
lion cells were completely disintegrated, filaments of protoplasm 
remaining among the small mononuclear cells surrounding the cap- 
sule. 

Capsular and pericapsular changes. — In nil nine cases in which 
tlie intervertebral ganglia were examined a ]>eri-capsular, small 
round cell accumulation was present. In some of the degenerating 
ganglion cells a few nuclei were seen within the capsule in the de- 
generating cell protoplasm. The accumulation of nuclei around the 
cell capsule did not always assume a concentric shape, but was 
often eccentric extending irregularly into the stroma. The cells are 
all of the small type, the nuclei and the proto})lasm being about 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 151 

the size of ii red blood coi-puSele. There is no evidence that these 
cells are due to a proliferation of the orij^inal layer of capsular 
cells. l*oIynuclear cells, or cells with an irregular nucleus, were 
not present in any of the specimens examined. It is probable, inas- 
much as these cells stand in no relation to the vessels of the gang- 
lia, that they are the result of a proliferation of the stroma cells 
of the ganglion. 

Cortical lesions.— The cortex of the cerebrum and cerebellum 
was markedly congested both to gross and microscopic examination. 
The meninges were normal. The ganglion cells were normal to 
the Nissl and other cell stains. Numerous capillary hemorrhages 
were scattered throughout the entire cortex of the cerebrum and 
cerebellum. There were also hemorrhages in the subcortical tis- 
sues. The basal ganglia, pons, and mi'dulla were perfectly normal. 
The spinal cord, outside of some congestion of the gray matter, 
was normal. The meninges showed no trace of an inflammatory 
process. 

Lesions of the choroid plexus. — The choroid plexus in three of 
the cases was changed from a filmy membrane to a large trian- 
gular tumor-like mass. This mass was of a yellowish-red color, of 
firm consistency^, and measured two and a half centimeters in trans 
verse section. On microscopic examination the increase in size 
was found to be the result of a proliferation of the elastic tissue 
surrounding the vessels. By the Van Giesen stain the entire sec- 
tion was found to consist of whorls of delicate fibers starting from 
the neighborhood of the vessel walls and extending to the margin 
of the plexus. These fibers were not nucleated, although numerous 
nuclei of the supporting tissue of the gland were present between 
the whorls. At the suggestion of Dr. Flexner, the Weigert elastic 
stain was used and the character of the tissue determined. The 
ependymal cells covering the villi were normal. 

The peripheral nerves. — An examination of the nerves supplying 
the larynx and the neck by the fresh osmic acid method showed a 
slight but distinct degeneration. This was present in the nerve 
up to the ganglion, but w^as not present in the posterior roots, or 
the root of the fifth nerve. These lesions in the myelin corres- 
ponded to the presence of a marked degree of swelling of the axis 
cylinder in the substance of the ganglion. Hemorrhagic extrava- 
sation into the sheath of the pneumo-gastric nerve was present in 
one case. 

Summary. — Hemorrhagic inflammation of the upper respiratory 
organs; degeneration of the peripheral nerves supplying these areas; 
toxic irritation of the intervertebral ganglion as manifested by 
intense degeneration of the ganglion cells, pericapsular round (cll 
infiltration, and swelling up of the axis cylinders; widespread ca- 



152 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

pillary hemorrhagic extravasation of the cortical and sub-cortical 
tissues, tumor formation due to proliferation of elastic tissue of 
the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles. 

The ganglionar lesions above described closely resemble those 
described bv Van Gehuchten and N^lis in rabies. In rabies, how- 
ever, there is an active proliferation of the capsular cells with a 
marked tendency to extension within the capsule, while, as has 
already been pointed out, the tendency in this disease is to a peri- 
capsular accumulation of cells. In advanced cases of forage pois- 
oning the ganglion cells may entirely disappear and an accumulation 
of small round cells remain. Under these circumstances the picture 
cannot be differentiated from rabies by an examination of the 
ganglion alone. The perivascular round cell accumulation in the 
pons and medulla, which is rather constant in rabies, is never 
present in forage poisoning. There is no degeneration of the peri- 
pheral nerves in rabies. The clinical course of the two diseases 4s 
entirely different, and there should be no diificulty in separating 
the two conditions by the pathological lesions. 

Professor Van Gehuchten, of Louvain, to whom we submitted 
the specimens from our first case (a calf), confirmed our opinion 
that there was a distinctive difference between the ganglionar 
changes in forage poisoning and in rabies. 

Concerning the specimen sent to him he writes: '"It cannot be 
denied that there is a sensible proliferation of the cells of the en- 
dothelial capsule, but this proliferation does not, however, appear 
to me to be as intense as in cases of rabies; so much so, that I 
would not make the diagnosis of rabies from the examination of 
the sections alone. I do not think that this animal had rabies. 
Rabies excluded, there remains a certain amount of proliferation, 
the cause of which escapes me; but in my opinion the degree of 
proliferation cannot be compared with that which occurs in rabies." 

CONCLUSIONS. 

1. The so-called epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis of horses is 
not a true meningitis, and presents neither the gross nor micro- 
scopic lesions of true meningitis. 

2. The evidence goes to show that all epidemics are caused by 
some poisonous substance contained in the forage. This is proven 
conclusively in the epidemic mentioned above, and in the experi- 
ments of Dr. Pearson. 

3. The lesions in the intervertebral ganglia so closely resemble 
those described by Van Gehuchten and N^lis in rabies, as to offer 
the presumption that the pathological process in the two diseases 
is somewhat similar. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 153 

4. The differential diagnosis between forage poisoning and rabies 
depends upon (a) the absence from the medulla and pons in forage 
poisoning of the perivascular and peri-cellular lesions (liable tu- 
bercles of Babes); (b) in forage poisoning there is predominance 
of peri-capsular rather than intra-capsular round cell infiltration 
of the ganglion cells, (c) Lesions of the larynx and laryngeal nerves. 
The clinical history is always conclusive. 

5. Forage poisoning is a much better and more comprehensive 
term than "cerebrospinal meningitis," or than ^'leucoencephalitis," 
as proposed by MacCallum and Bucklej^ 

(The Journal of Medical Research, October, 1903, Vol. X., No. 2.) 



APPENDIX NO. 4. 



A CASE OF HYDROPHOBIA WITH AUTOPSY. 



BY G. Morton Illman, M.D., of Philadelphia. 



I think it is prudent to report this case for discussion, because 
of the fact that proper precaution, protecting* human life from 
one of the most distressingly fatal infections known to mankind, 
is overlooked, especially in the large communities of America. In 
some instances the very existence of the condition is questioned 
by a few members of the medical profession and by the laity. 

The patient was a well-developed male, aged 37, and an electrician by 
occupation. 

Family History. — His family history was negative, with the exception of the 
fact that his mother died of pulmonary tuberculosis. 

Previous Medical History. —Investigation as to the previous medical history 
showed that the patient had been a comparatively healthy man with the 
exception of a slight persistent cough, with which he had suffered some years 
ago, but which had ceased after the patient discontinued the excessive use of 
tobacco. 

Two years ago the patient met with a severe accident, necessitating the 
partial amputation of three fingers of the right hand. This accident was fol- 

»Read before the Philadelphia Co\ijjty Medical Society, December 9, J903. 
11 



154 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE OfC. Doc. 

lowed during the present year by a severe burn of the right arm and forearm. 
The patient was just recovering from the latter condition when, upon attempt- 
ing to caress a strange dog, he was bitten in the palm of the left hand, in the 
web between the first two fingers. 

The wound was thus inflicted August 23, 1903. It bled freely at the time and 
was cauterized one hour later with a solution of silver nitrate (of questionable 
strength), followed by pure carbolic acid, and an antiseptic dressing applied. 
The wound healed kindly without any decided complications. 

Premonitory Sln^e .—In the evening of October 1, 1903, just 39 days after 
infliction of the wound, the patient's attention was attracted to his left hand 
by a tingling sensation in the tips of the fingers and in the cicatrix. His wife 
states that during the following two days he appeared greatly depressed, 
restless at night, had little or no appetite, and complained of a constantly in- 
creasing aching sensation in the left hand and arm. 

Spasmodic Stage. — Upon arising from bed in the morning of October 4 the 
patient complained most decidedly of the left hand, arm and shoulder, and 
of a pronounced feeling of debility. He went to breakfast, however, as usual, 
and upon attempting to swallow the liquid it was suddenly and involuntarily 
expelled from his mouth. He then went upstairs without assistance and lay 
upon a couch, complaining at the time of feeling extremely weak. 

At 10 o'clock A. M. I was asked to attend the patient, and found him decidedly 
restless, and complaining, in addition to the aching arm and shoulder, of 
being very chilly. The skin was moist, the muscles relaxed, reflexes normal, 
and face flushed. Pressure along the nerve trunks and muscles of the left arm 
and shoulder was slightly painful, but did not seem to be productive of any 
local or general spasm. Attempts at prolonged conversation, however, seemed 
to cause, from time to time, a sudden involuntary laryngeal spasm, after 
which the patient would be unable to resume talking immediately because of 
a marked dyspnea thus produced. The temperature at this time was 101 degrees 
F. , the pulse 102; and the respirations were 24. 

Upon receiving the history of the patient's inability to swallow water while 
at breakfast, I decided to prescribe an antirheumatic in powder form to be 
taken with water during my absence, in order to avoid arousing the patient's 
suspicions regarding my belief in his ability to swallow liquids as usual. 

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon I was informed that after a great effort he 
had swallowed one pftwder, but that a repetition had been absolutely impos- 
sible, and, furthermore, that had refused all liquids and solids at lunch time. 
There was now a pain on the left side of the neck which seemed to be most 
marked along the posterior borders of the trapezius and sternomastoid muscles, 
radiating toward the occipital portion of the skull. 

The patient complained of an almost constant smothering sensation in the 
larynx, and the slightest efforts to talk would now very readily provoke a 
laryngeal contraction, during which time the patient continually held his 
hand to his throat in an effort to relieve his dyspnea and was extremely rest- 
less. The temperature continued to. be 101 degrees F., the pulse was 98, and 
respirations 26. 

Feeling that future treatment of the patient depended upon an absolute 
surety as to the diagnosis, I asked Dr. Samuel Wolfe to see the patient, and 
after a verjj careful examination and consideration of the deflnite history Dr. 
Wolfe came to the conclusion that the case wa.s almost certainly one of true 
hydrophobia. The actual state of affairs was at once explained to the family, 
and thus all obstacles to future treatment eliminated. 

At 6 o'clock the same evening (10 hours after the first appearance of active 
symptoms) it became necessary to resort to hypnotics to control the spasms, 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 155 

which were now becoming very much longer in duration and more decided in 
severity. Eight mg. (% gr.) of morphin and .4 mg. (1-150 gr.) of atropin were 
accordingly given hypodermically with a very beneficial result, enabling the 
patient to obtain a much needed rest of 4 or 5 hours' duration. 

It became necessary to repeat this injection 6 hours later, at which time 
there was a noticeable hyperesthesia of the left side, especially marked at the 
time of puncture with the hypodermic needle. The patient's general appear- 
ance was now that of a decidedly sick man and one whose suffering was any- 
thing but of an hysteric nature, his manifest desire to assist with his treatment 
and avoid worrying his family being most pronounced. 

The second administration of morphin and atropin had only been beneficial 
so far as respiration was concerned, the injection being repeated at 5.30 A. M. 
(5V2 hours after the second administration) with better results, especially 
the severitj' of the laryngeal spasms, but with no decided effect upon the fre- 
quency of recurrence. 

All attempts to have the patient take food of any variety by the mouth 
failed, and nutrient enemas (of beef) were resorted to and retained, being 
given, always after a hypodermic injection of the narcotic. 

In the afternoon of the second day of the spasmodic stage, Drs. M. P. Ravenel 
and D. J. McCarthy were called in consultation and made a careful examina- 
tion of the patient, especially as regarded the nervous symptoms, and stated 
that in their opinion the case was undoubtedly one of hydrophobia. 

There seemed to be a slight tendency to increased salivation during the past 
6 hours, and now, regardless of the atropin that had been given, there was a 
moderately abnormal flow of saliva, probably caused, to a certain extent, by 
the almost continual movement of the patient's jaws and tongue. 

With the approach of evening the general condition became gradually worse, 
and at 8.30 P. M. a series of spasms developed, extending over a period of 30 
minutes. During this series of paroxysms there was increased sanivation, in- 
tense dyspnea, rolling of the eyes, continual change of position, marked 
eructions of gas, and the passage at this time of about 6 ounces of urine, 
making 10 ounces passed within 5 hours. Delirious symptoms now became 
noticeable, but occurred only at intervals of 2 to 3 hours, and were of very 
short duration. 

During the course of the next 10 hours but 2 administrations of morphin 
were necessary, the patient resting fairly quiet until Tuesday morning (October 
6, the third day of the spasmodic stage), at which time control of the patient 
became a difficult matter. The excitement became maniacal, and it was feared 
the patient would do himself personal injury, although his entire appearance 
was at times one of terrible fear, and he would hold his throat with both hands 
in a frantic effort to relieve his dyspnea. Attempted inhalations of chloroform 
at this time and other times gave no relief, and only seemed to increase the 
suffering. 

After some effort .6 mg. (1-100 gr.) of hyoscin hydrobromate was given hypo- 
dermically with a very gratifying effect. This dose of hyoscin was repeated 3 
hours later, and was the last administration of a hypnotic of any kind that 
was necessary during the remaining course of the disease. The temperature 
was now 101.6 degrees F. , the pulse 124, and respirations 44. 

ParaJjjtic Stage. — A few hours later a gentleman who saw the patient pro- 
nounced the case one of hysteria of a remarkable type, and was so positive as 
to his diagnosis that it was decided to put the patient upon hysteric treatment. 
Accordingly, all medicinal administrations, rectal feedings, etc., were discon- 
tinued, and no .one except the nurse or a substitute allowed in or near the room. 
Twenty minims of sterile water was given hypodermically every 2 or 3 hours. 



156 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

and the nurse informed me that there was absolutely no effect as to the fre- 
quency of the spasms, but there seemed to be a steady decrease in the severity 
regardless of the time at which the injections of water were given. In other 
words, it was very apparent that regardless of treatment the patient was 
slowly passing into the paralytic stage of hydrophobia. 

The patient now began to perspire profusely, and vomited for the first time 
about 4 ounces of yellowish, frothy mucus. The profuse sweating continued, 
and few hours later both pulse and respiration began to fail rapidly. It be- 
came very evident that a return to medicinal treatment was necessary, and 
1 mg. (1-50 gr.) of digitalin and .4 mg. (1-150 gr.) of atropin were given hypo- 
dermically with much benefit. 

The periods of delirium were now of frequent occurrence and of long dura- 
tion. When rational the patient declared that the choking sensation had en- 
tirely gone from his throat, and that he was now sm.othering from oppression 
over the epigastrium, and during a spasmodic attack would put both hands to 
this region instead of to the larynx as formerly. It was, therefore, decided 
to endeavor once again to administer a liquid by way of the mouth. Two ounces 
of milk containing a fluidram of whisky was brought to the patient, and with 
a little assistance and encouragement the entire contents of the glass were 
swallowed without any great effort. On finding himself able to swallow 
liquids again the patient asked for a cup of coffee, of which he drank a few 
drams. About 30 minutes later both coffee and milk were vomited and all 
efforts to repeat the same were forcibly resisted. 

In spite of stimulants the pulse and respiration failed steadily and the 
patient became permanently unconscious, at which time 20 m. of ether was 
given hypodermically and resulted in a sudden general clonic muscular spasm. 

External heat had been constantly applied to the trunk and extremities, and 
digitalin and atropin given, either together or separately as occasion demanded, 
until the patient's death of respiratory failure at 7 A. M., October 7, 3 days 
(71 hours) after the onset of active symptoms, and nearly 6 days after the 
onset of prodromal syrnptoms. 

The hyperesthesia was a prominent symptom throughout the 
course of the disease, and became gradually more pronounced until 
finally both before and after unconsciousness warm applications 
could only be placed to the extremities very gradually and retained 
in position with difficulty. Hyperesthesia, as a rule, was most 
marked on the left side. Very slight stimulations, such as the 
sudden entrance of light to the room, the running of water and the 
ringing of the doorbell, were many times provocative of a spasm. 
The reflexes were increased and the plantar reaction always down- 
ward. The pupils became dilated and nonreactive about 8 hours 
before death. 

Delirium began to manifest itself about 86 hours after the onset 
of active symptoms, became more prominent during the administra- 
tions of hyoscin, but was still present during the period of 9 hours 
when the patient was receiving no medicinal treatment, and con- 
tinued to the period of unconsciousness. 

During the entire course of his illness there was never made in 
the presence of the patient any mention of or reference to dogs or 
hydrophobia, and he was made to believe, so far as possible, that 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 157 

he was suffering from rheumatism of the throat muscles. At no 
time during his illness did the patient simulate in any manner the 
actions of a dog or other lower animal, although he frequently 
referred to the dog-bite as being the cause of his present condition. 

The temperature showed a gradual rise until the second day 
of the spasmodic stage when it reached 102 degrees F.; after which 
it ranged between 101.8 degrees F. and 100 degrees F. The respira- 
tions, when at all regular, varied from 28 to 40, and simulated at 
times Chejne-Stokes' respiration, especially after a series of laryn- 
geal spasms. After unconsciousness, ether dropped on the larynx 
and upper portion of the chest brought about a prompt respiratory 
reaction. 

I had an opportunity to make but one examination of the urine, 
the specimen being collected during the second 24 hours, after the 
onset of active symptoms. It was high-colored, decidedly acid, and 
showed a specific gravity of 1,040; there was no albumin nor sugar 
present. No microscopic examination was made. 

Pi'oplujlaxis . — All linens, towels, etc., used around the patient, 
especially those contaminated with saliva or vomit, were at once 
thrown into scalding water and later boiled. After death, all 
needles, thermometers, spoons, etc., were either destroyed or steril- 
ized, and the floors, bedding and furniture thoroughly wiped off with 
a strong solution of carbolic acid. 

Autopsy . — The autopsy was made 10 hours after death by Drs. 
McCarthy and Ravenel, with the following results: 

The lividity of the dorsal surface of the body was very marked, and rigor 
mortis of the upper and lower extremities very well developed. 

The skull was thin. The brain and membranes were nortnal, both over the 
convexity and base. 

The spinal cord and its membranes were of normal appearance, as were the 
pancreas, adrenal glands and spleen. 

The lungs showed some adhesions in the right pleural sac, a rather marked 
emphysema along the anterior border of the right lung, and an area of healed 
tuberculosis at the right apex. 

The liver showed a slight passive congestion, otherwise normal. 

The heart was normal with the exception of a patch of old pericarditis on 
the anterior surface. 

The kidneys appeared to be normal. The inner surface of the larynx was 
covered with dirty mucus and there was considerable frothy mucus in the 
trachea. 

Microscopic Examination. — The microscopic examination of the central ner- 
vous system shows typical tubercles of Babes in the medulla. The round-cell 
infiltration around the blood vessels was very distinct. 

Sections of the cerebral cortex and base of the brain show no evidence of 
inflammatory change. 

Sections of the gasserian ganglion and also of the intervertebral ganglions 
show a round-cell infiltration in the stroma, a diffuse chromatolysis of the 
ganglion cells, and a vacuolization of some of these cells, with a proliferation of 



158 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the capsular cells, in most areas of only moderate degree, but in some areas 
filling up the entire capsule. 

The peripheral nerves and the anterior and posterior roots show no change 
after careful investigation. 

Microscopic study gave perfectly normal appearances in all the viscera with 
the exception of the kidney. These sections show some congestive swelling of 
the glomeruli and a cloudy swelling going on to marked degeneration of the 
cells of the tubules. 

In other words, pathologic lesions typical of hydrophobia were found in a 
case associated with parenchymatous nephritis. Neither the pericellular nor 
perinuclear round-cell accumulation of the central nervous system nor the 
lesions of the intervertebral ganglions are seen in cases of nephritis. 

Inoculations. — Three rabbits were subsequently inoculated from the medulla 
of the patient, with the result that all 3 rabbits died after a period of 17 to 19 
days, presenting typical symptoms of rabies, and subsequent sections made 
from the nervous systems of these rabbits showed pathologic changes typical 
of rabies and corresponding to those found in the nervous system of the 
patient. 

The Dog. — The dog was of the small terrier type, showed no signs of rabies, 
and is said to have been playing with some children only a short time before 
biting the patient. The killing and cremation of the dog prevented a subsequent 
autopsy. 

(American iVEedicine, Vol. VII, No. 6, pages 213-214.) 

I close this report with tbe earnest plea that an effort will be 
made to have constituted or enforced the proper laws, compelling 
the muzzling of and quarantining of dogs at all seasons of the yeav, 
that society may thus be protected from this fatal condition, and 
that, if possible, it be thus completely eliminated, as in many foreign 
countries, notably Australia. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 159 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE) DIVISION OF 

ZOOLOGY. 



To the Hon. N. B. Critchfield, Secretary of Agriculture; 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
Division of Zoology of the Department of Agriculture for the cal- 
endar year 1903. 

On March 30, 1903, the present Economic Zoologist was appointed 
by Governor Pennypacker, and it is our present duty to render a 
report of the work of this office for the year now closing. To fully 
understand this, one should know the conditions confronting the 
incumbent. When he entered the office, the lack of equipment was 
especially remarkable. There was no collection of specimens for 
study or for comparison, almost no reference literature, very few 
of the publications of the United States Department of Agriculture 
or of the Bulletins of the various State Experiment Stations of the 
United States, no mailing list, no facilities for mailing, no mailing 
machine, no collecting material, no spraying apparatus nor facili- 
ties for experimentation, no cabinet nor accessories for preserving 
insects or other specimens, no room for the proper kind of work, no 
office boy, scientific assistant, field assistant, nor stenographer. 

B}' 3'our kind aid, Mr. Secretarj-, and that of the Governor, and 
the Board of Public Grounds and Buildings, most of the minor 
deficiencies have been met, and the most urgent needs of the Divi- 
sion have been supplied. 

I beg to submit the present report under the following sub-heads: 

Page. 

(1) Present Equipment, 160 

(2) Correspondence 161 

(3) Investigations and Experiments 161 

(4) Demonstrations, 164 

(5) Collections , 164 

The Collection for the St. Louis Exposition, 165 

Summer Collecting and Investigating 167 

(6) Publications, 168 

(a) The Monthly Bulletin of the Division of Zoology, 168 

(b) The Zoological Quarterly Bulletin, 168 

(c) Brief Articles for Periodicals 169 

(7) Addresses or Lectures 169 

(8) Acknowledgments 170 

(9) The Needs of the Division 171 

(10) Recommendations , ' 171 

(11) A Review of Economic Zoology in Pennsylvania 172 



160 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

(1) Mollusca, 172 

(2) Arachnlda, &v Spiders and Mites 172 

(3) Insects, (a) Upon Wheat, (b) Corn, (c) Clover, (d) Potatoes, (e) Cucur- 

bitaceous Plants, (f) Asparagus, (g) Cabbage, (h) Celery, (i) Po- 
maceous Fruits, (j) Drupaceous Fruits, (k) Grapes, (1) In Granaries, 
(m) In the Household, ( n) On Out-door Ornamental Plants, (o) Mis- 
cellaneous Insects, 173 

(4) Birds, 176 

(5) Mammals 177 

(12) Report of Special Zoological Features During 1903: Insects, Birds, Mam- 
mals , 177 

Report of Nursery Inspection in Pennsylvania 181 

(1.) PRESENT EQUIPMENT: 

During the year we found it necessary to move from the one small 
room in the Bay Shoe Factory Building to four rooms on the third 
floor of the Real Estate Building, corner Court avenue and Lo- 
cust street. Our rooms are now equipped with a fine metal cab- 
inet for insects and a nucleus of a collection to be placed therein, 
all of the available bulletins of all the Experiment Stations 
of the United States and the publications of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, scientific publications from 
other sources, including certain current periodicals pertaining to 
our subjects, a few necessary reference books by private pub- 
lishers, a rapid mailing machine with 24,500 stencils, a mailing list of 
over twenty-four thousand names, some apparatus for making col- 
lections, three first-class pieces of spraying apparatus for practical 
work and experimentation, a good case for card catalogues and card 
indexes, photographic material, a dark room, tools and minor equip- 
ment for the essential work of the Division. We have here a main 
office room, a library reference room, a mailing room and a room 
for preparing and preserving collections, keeping apparatus, etc. 

I should report the fact that during the year we have received 
the following donations of valuable apparatus: The L. H. Kline 
Company, Penusburg, Pa., one bucket spray pump and accessories; 
The Deming Manufacturing Company, Salem, Ohio, one hand spray 
pump and case, complete; The Goulds Manufacturing Company, 
Seneca Falls, N. Y., one Barrel Kerowater Sprayer, complete; The 
Ripley Hardware Company, Grafton, 111., one stock feed cooker 
for boiling the liine-sulphur-salt wash, and the Animal Trap Com- 
pany, Abington, 111., five dozen traps, assorted kinds. Acknowledg- 
ment should also be made to the directors of the various Experi- 
ment Stations, the United States Department of Agriculture, the 
New York State Museum, etc., and to many publishers who have 
freely responded to our calls and have sent their publications for use 
in this office. Notwithstanding the present equipment, we sorely 
need a few more recent books by private publishers, and named 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 161 

specimens of our injurious and beneficial species of insects for com- 
parison with the many we are receiving, which are generally' not in 
the proper state for preservation. We also most seriously need a 
regular stenographer and a scientific assistant.* 

(2.) CORRESPONDENCE: 

During the year we have written 1,957 copied letters, besides 
hundreds of letters that were not copied, and thousands of circular 
letters that were sent out calling for information. Many of these 
letters are necessarily of unusual length on acv ount of required 
details. 

Specimens have been sent to us for identification or preservation 
to the number of over 2,000, or an average of about seven per day. 
These have all demanded the most careful scrutiny, mostly under 
the microscope, and it was essential that accurate reports must be 
given to inquirers in order to enable them to save their crops or take 
such practical measures as each individual case demands. 

Much correspondence has also taken place between ourselves and 
observers in various portions of this State in order to obtain definite 
knowledge of the various forms of animal life as it exists in the 
different counties of this Commonwealth. This knowledge is neces- 
sary in order to form a working basis for the Zoologist during the 
coming years of his term. Based upon such correspondence, we 
shall soon be ready to prepare reports showing the distribution 
of certain insects, reptiles, birds and mammals in Pennsylvania. 
We have already prepared such maps, showing the distribution of 
the San Josd Scale and Hessian Fly, and have at hand the material 
for similarly charting the extent of the Seventeen-year locust, or 
Cicada, during the summer of 1902. 

Thousands of letters have been received, calling for publications 
or for information that could be answered by sending marked copies 
of published articles, and these and thousands of others have asked 
for the bulletins which we issue. All such communications receive 
the personal attention of your Economic Zoologist, and are kept on 
file for future reference. 

(3.) INVESTIGiTIONS AND EXPERIMENTS: 

The investigations of this Division are of paramount importance 
to our citizens. The annual loss by the destruction of insects in the 
State of Pennsylvania is not less than |20,000,000, and the loss by 
plant diseases is equal to this, making an annual loss to the cultiva- 
tors of at least |40,000,000 per year through the effects of plant 
pests. It thus becomes important that something be done to stay 
the ravages of such pests and diseases, and save for the husbandman 

*We are pleased to add that since the above was written Governor Pennypacker and Secre- 
tary Critchfleld have devised a means to supply these two additional needs. — H. A. S. 

11_6— 1903 



162 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

this euormous loss. Resting upon nie is the responsibility of giving 
correct information to all persons who make inquiries of subjects 
pertaining to my profession, and if such reports be not accurate, se- 
vere injury or loss may ensue for the cultivator. All remedies that 
are found to be successful for obnoxious insects in other portions of 
the country should be tested in our own State before we can say that 
they will be eciually successful in our climate, upon our crops and 
with our pests. For this reason, although we may have reference 
literature upon most of the subjects pertaining to the work of this 
office, it becomes important for us to make practical tests and inves- 
tigations within our own State. Also, it is very frequent, indeed 
that methods are suggested, or even strongly advocated, which, 
w^hen tested, are not found to be efficient. An example of this is the 
aqueous solution of caustic soda for the San Jos^ Scale. This was 
advocated in the report of a writer in the far west by a prominent 
agricultural publication. Fortunately, we had the equipment, and 
immediately tested it, with the result that we are now able to 
say with a certainty that it will not prove satisfactory or effective 
in our own State. Yet, to-day, there are hundreds of persons ap- 
plying this supposed remedy and losing their fruit, crops and trees, 
because they do not know that this is not an effective remedy. 
Thousands of others in our Commonwealth would be doing like- 
wise were it not for the practical test which we gave this sup- 
posed remedy, and for our publications, warning our citizens against 
relying upon it. We can give several such illustrations for other 
insects. 

We find it necessary to make investigations of a different nature 
in the biological features, habits, haunts, enemies, diseases and 
practical measures for the various insects and higher animals 
which live within our State. Of the thousands of species of insects 
known to attack vegetation in Pennsylvania, there is not one of 
which very useful knowledge could not yet be obtained by further in- 
vestigation. Of only a comparatively few insects do wx^ know their 
complete life history, annual cycles, enemies and simple and effec- 
tive practical measures for either suppression or propagation, as 
the occasion may demand. This means that we should make prac- 
tical investigations when possible, and it is earnestly hoped that 
another session of the Legislature will see this office equipped with 
a field assistant for aiding in the needed experimentation, investi- 
gation and collecting. 

We have completed a series of investigations upon the Hessian 
Fly in Pennsylvania, which we undertook three years ago at the 
direction of Prof. John Hamilton, then Secretary of Agriculture. 
The results of these studies are embodied in a bulletin, which has 
been so delaved that it has been issued onlv recently. The results 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 163 

of these inA'estigalions show that all wheat planted the last of 
August and the lirst week of Septenibei* is likely to be attacked 
with the Hessian Fly. Of the wheat planted during the second 
week of September, two-thirds of the fields are liable to be infested, 
and of that planted during the third week of the month about one- 
third of the fields may be infested, while the fly will not be likely 
to be bad in that planted during the last week of September, and 
we have never found it occurring in destructive numbers in any 
field planted after the first of October. 

The San Jos(5 is b}^ all means the most serious pest to fruit trees 
and certain kinds of ornamental shrubbery and hedges in Pennsyl- 
vania. This insect has become so destructive and so extensive in 
its distribution that we have been giving it special attention during 
the entire year. We have now found it in almost every county in 
the State of Pennsylvania, and we are confident that its presence 
may be suspected in any orchard that has been planted during the 
past ten years. We have studied this pest in orchards and in the 
library, we have experimented with remedies for it, and have en- 
deavored to propagate its enemies. The results of such studies are 
given in the monthly bulletins of the Division. In brief, it may be 
said that there is only one unfailing remedy that is safe to use upon 
all kinds of trees, and which has been fully tested both by the 
scientist and the practical operator. This is the lime-sulphur-salt 
wash, made by boiling together for two hours a mixture of lime (30 
pounds), sulphur (20 pounds), and salt (15 pounds), with enough 
water to make it boil well, and finally adding water enough to make 
tl^e whole amount to GO gallons. This should be sprayed on the 
plants while warm. IVfake two applications per year, one just as 
the leaves drop in the fall and the other just before they expand 
in the spring. It is not injurious to any trees, and is a valuable 
fungicide, as well as a very efficieut insecticide. We know where 
fruit growers in this State have used this wash during the past year 
and have gathered excellent crops as a reward for their industry, 
while others in the same region, who failed to use it, had no fruit 
fit for the market. 

In recognition of the very severe injuries of the San Jos6 Scale, 
the need of prompt action and practical measures for this pest, the 
Pennsylvania State Horticultural Association and also The State 
Board of Agriculture, during their annual meetings last January, 
passed unanimous resolutions agreeing to ask the next session of 
Legislature to appropriate $10,000 annually for two years to the 
Department of Agriculture for the use of this Division in sup- 
pressing this most serious pest of our fruit trees. It is to be hoped 
that this action will bear good fruit in behalf of our citizens. 

Other investigations have been undertaken. Among these are 



164 . ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

studies of the Tent-caterpillar, the Codling Moth, the Fruit-tree 
Bark-borers, Grape Pests and other injurious insects, as well as 
mice, rabbits, hawks and owls, sparrows, reptiles, toads, etc. These 
investigations are not completed, but will be continued, and the 
results published in due time. Our office work, however, is so vol- 
uminous as to prevent very much personal scientific work of an 
original nature. It is to be hoped that this can be remedied by 
the appointment of the help we need. 

(4.) DEMONSTRATIONS: 

We have had a great number of calls, especially from the fruit- 
growing regions of this State, for our services in demonstrating 
to growers the methods of making and applying insecticides, 
which have not previously been used. This is especially 
true for the application of the lime-sulphur-salt wash for the 
San Jos6 Scale. Our oflfice work has been so urgent, however 
that we could not well undertake such important demonstrations 
upon an extensive scale, but we have gone to several places, 
and have met the orchardists in field sessions, and have endeavored 
to show them how to make and apply the most approved modern 
remedies. At the numerous public meetings where we have spoken, 
we have generally exhibited some kind of spraying apparatus for 
the purpose of showing in a practical manner the difference between 
spraying and sprinkling, and the necessity for the former rather 
than the latter. 

There is no better means of serving our citizens than to teach 
them the best methods in this practical work. They hesitate to 
apply the methods which we have found best, because these rem- 
edies are new to them, and they fear that they will make mistakes 
and be unsuccessful in making such applications. One demonstra- 
tion in each township in the State would give our agriculturists and 
horticulturists practical aid to the value of hundreds of thousands 
of dollars. It is to be hoped that arrangements can be made to 
enlarge the work of this oflfice, and equip us with a field assistant 
for such useful services, or with a permanent competent oflfice as- 
sistant, that will enable your Zoologist to go into the field to do 
the work. 

(5.) COLLECTIONS: 

As has been said above, there were no specimens in this office 
when we entered it, and we are receiving hundreds every month, 
with the request that we identify them and tell the inquirers what 
practical measures should be taken in connection with them. A 
professional naturalist is unwilling to risk his reputation by basing 
his communications upon conjecture, or by being forced to do im- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 165 

perfect work without a collection of typical named specimens, it 
is impossible for anyone to name all this great mass of miscellaneous 
material readily and accurately without types for comparison, since 
we receive so many kinds. For this reason, and for the proper aid 
to our citizens, a good, reliable collection of the fauna of this State 
is essential for the proper kind of work in this office. We have 
undertaken such a collection, but it necessarily requires great time 
and care. We now have thousands of specimens in the office, but 
most of them have been sent in such condition, that they are not 
tit to be preserved as permanent typical specimens. We should col- 
lect our own material expressly for this purpose, and have it 
preserved in the best possible manner in order to obtain the col- 
lection needed for comparison. This is especially true of insects, 
as we need specimens showing the different stages in the life history 
of each species in order to facilitate the study of life histories, 
and also, to give us other practical information. We hope to have 
time to do this important work when a scientiiic assistant is ap- 
pointed. 

While our practical work for the agriculturist deals mostly 
with the enemies and diseases of plants, we must nof forget that 
the broad work of the Zoologist must necessarily extend to the 
higher animals, including the reptiles, birds and mammals. For 
this reason we are making studies, notes and observations, as well 
as collections, of the Vertebrates, and preparing the bases for 
future publications upon such subjects, especially upon the reptiles 
in their relation to agriculture. However, such publications can 
not be completed until we obtain and study many specimens from 
all i)arts of the State. For this purpose we are inviting readers 
and correspondents to make a special effort to send us all possible 
specimens of Pennsylvania animals of the lower kinds as well as 
of the higher. 

THE COLLECTION FOR THE ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION. 

Under this head it is our pleasure to report to you that the Collec- 
tion of Pennsylvania Animals in Relation to Agriculture prepared 
in this office for the St. Louis Exposition has been completed in a 
manner which, under the circumstances, should be quite gratifying 
to all persons concerned. This interesting exhibit was made pos- 
sible only through the appreciation and timely aid of Governor 
Pennypacker, yourself, Col. James A. Lambert, of Philadelphia, and 
Col. John A. Woodward, of Howard, Pa. The collection was not au- 
thorized until December, 1903, and not a specimen was received until 
the middle of January, 1904. During the subsequent two months 
all the material for this large and interesting collection was brought 
together by us, mounted and arranged in cases and shipped to St. 
Louis. 



166 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The chief purpose of the eoUection was to show, as far as pos- 
sible, Avithiu our limits of time and moderate expenses, the economic 
features of the more common native animals of Pennsylvania. It 
was not our purpose to represent the complete fauna of the State, 
nor to show the rare animals, but rather to exhibit the reptiles, 
birds and mammals in their relation to agriculture. We should 
have been glad to have added the insects to thi« collection had 
it not been that the time was so short and the collection was made 
at such time of year as to prohibit the gathering and preparation 
of the invertebrates. 

This collection is prepared and exhibited in thirty-six cases, each 
eighteen inches in depth, four feet long and three feet high. The 
animals are mounted in natural attitudes as far as is possible, and 
the chief element of the food of each, and other important habits, 
enemies, etc., are shown, as completely as was found practicable. 
Among the important birds are the fish-eating birds, the ducks, 
hawks, owls, crows, quail, shore birds, the Order of the cuckoos 
and kingfishers, the Order of the nighthawks, swifts and humming- 
birds, and the families of the great order of Tasseres, or perching 
birds, among which are the flycatchers, crows, blackbirds, meadow- 
lark, orioles, sparrows, warblers, thrashers, nuthatches, chicka- 
dees and thrushes — the last-named group including the robin and 
bluebird. 

Among the chief kinds of mammals shown are the following: 
The Didelphida3 or opossums, Leporidte or rabbits, Muridie or rats 
and mice, Sciuridiie or squirrels, Hystricidae or porcupines, Soricidae 
or shrews, Talpidse or moles, Urisdie or bears, ProcyonidiB or rac- 
coon, Mustelidae or weasels, minks and skunks, CanidiE, represented 
by the foxes, and Felidie or cats, represented by the wild cat, etc. 

This will undoubtedly be one of the most attractive and interest- 
ing exhibits at St. Louis, and it is our desire to see it retiu'ned to 
Harrisburg and become the nucleus of a State collection, showing 
our complete natural resources and possessions. It will be a great 
credit to our State, and I wish to express my very high appreciation 
of the fact that it was made possible only through the intelligent 
directions and assistance of yourself and our good Governor. Our 
thanks are also due to Mr. D. K. McMillan, who, from the start, 
took great interest in the work, and spared neither time nor effort 
to make the undertaking a success. Mention should also be made 
of the w^ork of ^Ir. Boyd P. Kothrock, expert taxidermist, of Wil- 
liamsport, I*a., who mounted many specimens and later came to oui' 
office and spent six weeks in finishing this collection, and putting 
it into the best shape for shipment and exhibition. His experience 
as an expert taxidermist, and his great interest in seeing the col- 
lection properly prepared to express our ideas of the economic 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 167 

foaliins of these aiiiiiials, lunc made it possible foi- us to j^et 
this collecliou into its present I'oiiii. Kii'st-class work in taxidermy 
has also been done by Mr. Geo. 1*. J^'riant, of Scranton, Pa., who 
mounted many sfu-cimens for ns. Hundreds of persons contributed 
to (he success of this undertakinj>- by loaning or donating material, 
or by collecting for us at our direction, and we should gladly give 
them credit in this report, but we have not now space or time, 
since this is to be done in another publication. 

SUMMER COLLECTING AND INVESTIGATING. 

Due to your appreciation of the needs of the office and your kind 
assistance, 1 was able to employ an agricultural student of the State 
College, at a very slight expense, during three months of the 
summer to collect insects, and make investigations and notes in 
the fields and orchards for the use of this Division. We now have 
these specimens preserved in mass as collected, and are ready to 
perform the detailed work of pinning and identifying them as soon 
as we have time and the essential accessories. It is through the 
fact that we have this collection upon which to draw, that it was 
possible for us to undertake the St. Louis Exposition collection for 
this Division. This small collection of insects gave us that material 
which we needed to use in illustrating the food of the insectivorous 
mammals, birds and reptiles. Otherwise this interesting feature 
could not have been shown. The collector was Mr. W. R. Gorham, 
of Coudersport, Pa., and he is to be commended for his zeal and 
faithfulness in the performance of the work, and for the amount 
of material and useful notes which have been thus placed at our 
disposal. It appears proper tliat I should here make mention of 
at least some of his investigations' of the Codlin Moth, which, 
with the exception of the San Jose Scale, is the worst insect of our 
pomaceous fruits. In time we shall publish upon other investiga- 
tions, which were made at the same time, but the subject of the 
Codlin moth being of prime importance is here introduced: 

Experiments were undertaken with a view of determining whether 
the larva? of the Codlin Moth crawls up the trunk of the tree to the 
scales of bark under which it spins its cocoon and becomes a 
chrysalis, or whether it descends the trunk in order to reach this 
place. To determine this a band of sticky fly paper was fastened 
tightly around the trunk of the tree, and a gunny sack tied loosely 
around the tree below the sticky band and another tied above it. 
It was found that TO per cent, of the larvt^^ descended the tree 
to find a plac(^ 1o pupate, instead of falling with the apples and 
crawling up, as is supposed to be the general method. This shows 
that the method of destroying the fallen fruit in order to avoid 
the subsequent broods of the Codling Moth can not be wholly 



168 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

effective or satisfactory. It was foimd also in opening and exam- 
ining recently fallen fruit that the majority of the larviB of the 
Codling Moth leave the apples before the fruit drops from the 
tree, even though it should fall v^hen quite green, as in the middle 
of the summer, A study of the weight of the green fallen apples 
which were infested, compared with the weight of those not in- 
fested, but also fallen, showed that the latter weighed 12 per cent, 
more than the former. Another very interesting point is the proof 
that the abundance of the Codling Moth in the fallen fruit gradu- 
ally increased from the first of July, when the work was under- 
taken, until the twenty-fifth of that month, when it gradually de- 
creased until the latter part of August, when no more dropped 
fruit was found infected with this insect, although the apples 
continued to drop from various causes. These facts emphasize the 
value of other measures, such as spraying with arsenites, when the 
blossoms drop, in order to destroy the Codling Moth, rather than 
depending upon the destruction of fallen fruits or the banding of 
trees.* 

(6.) PUBLICATIONS: 

(a) The Monthly Bulletin of the Division of Zoology. — Among 
the publications of this office there has been a monthly bulletin 
of thirty-two pages devoted to the practical measures that should 
be followed during each respective month of issue in order to 
preserve crops against the effects of diseases, the depredations of 
insects and higher animals, and also to preserve our fish, game and 
insectivorous birds, beneficial raptorial birds and other beneficial 
creatures. 

The demand for this bulletin has been so great that our mailing 
list is now over twenty-four thousand, or within less than one thou- 
sand of the maximum limit, which the law permits printed. In 
order to serve all of our citizens who are calling for this practical 
publication, it will be necessary for the next session of the Legisla- 
ture to provide for the publication of a larger issue. Its distribu- 
tion has been confined to those who have requested it, and thus I 
can assure you that it is not scattered broadcast over the State 
to be lost, but is placed only in the hands of persons who desire to 
read and use the information therein contained. 

The calls for these Bulletins have been from persons engaged in 
every pursuit in life. They have not by any means been confined 
to farmers and fruit growers, and a list of the professions or pur- 
suits indicated by the letter-heads of our correspondents will em- 
phasize this point. I have been pleased to send the Bulletins to 
persons without regard to any qualifying features whatever, not 

•since the above was written a Report upon these Studies of the Codiin^ Moth has been sub- 
mitted to Secretary Critchfleld, and he has ordered it printed as a Special Bulletin by the De- 
partment of Agriculture. This will consequently be issued soon.— H. A, S. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 169 

onl}' in oui- own State, butalso from almost every State in the Union 
and also from foreign countries. 

(b.) The Zoological Quarterly. — This is a bulletin devoted pri- 
marily to the exploitation of the economic features of our native 
Vertebrates. In it I have commenced a discussion of the value of 
our native birds, and the methods of preserving those that are bene- 
ficial, and avoiding loss by those that may at times be destructive. 
This discussion will be continued according to the scientific sequence 
of the orders and families of our native fauna until we have dis- 
cussed in a systematic manner all of the birds. We hope to issue 
similar publications upon the mammals, the reptiles and other 
Vertebrates. This Quarterly Bulletin has been sent to all of those 
persons who have received the monthly bulletins, and its circulation 
has, consequently, been the same, or over 24,000 per quarter. We 
have been fortunate in being able to issue these publications practi- 
cally upon time. This is due to the aid of Mr. W. S. Ray, State 
Printer, who has done his part toward serving our citizens promptly. 

(c.) Brief Articles for Periodicals. — We have written many short 
articles for publication upon the subjects pertaining to this office, 
and the newspapers throughout the State have given a very great 
amount of space to reviews of our bulletins and the publication of 
extracts from the same. In fact I wish to pay a tribute to the 
many intelligent editors of our State by saying that the work of 
this office could never have reached its present proportions and 
.usefulness without the cordial co-operation and support which we 
have received from them. 

(7.) ADDRESSES OR LECTURESj 

A great portion of the work of this office has been to deliver 
public addresses upon topics pertaining to entomology, ornithol- 
ogy and general zoology, as well as on spraying, plant diseases, 
etc. Most of the meetings which we have attended have been 
Farmers' Institutes, in co-operation with Hon. A. L. Martin, 
Dejiuty Secretary and Director of Institutes, but we have also 
spoken at the meetings of farmers' clubs, granges* alliances, 
teachers' meetings, meetings of the boards of school directors, scien- 
tific clubs, schools and other educational and agricultural assem- 
blies, as well as before the Pennsylvania State Horticultural Asso- 
ciation, the State Board of Agriculture, the Annual Meeting of the 
Farmers' Institute Managers and Lecturers and Teachers' Insti- 
tutes. We have averaged about two lectures per week during the 
entire year. This has been an efficient means of explaining the sub- 
jects pertaining to our profession, and the citizens have uniformly 
appeared gratified with the kind of services that have thus been 
rendered them by the Division of Zoology of the Department of 
Agriculture. 
12 



170 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Eeceiitly the preparation of bulletins, correspondence and other 
duties within the office have been so great as to preclude the pos- 
sibility of })ul)lic addresses, and we are forced to deny ourselves 
the pleasure and benefits of going into the various counties, and 
meeting the citizens personally. I would call attention to that fact 
that it is very important, if we are going to give the proper services 
to the residents of the different portions of this State, that I be given 
an opportunity to become personally acquainted with the condi- 
tions surrounding them in the different ^localities. There is nothing 
that will give me this knowledge better than to go into the various 
regions of the State, and see these conditions for myself. Before 
one can tell how to combat the pests in any one locality, he must 
understand every particidar feature of his subject, as well as the 
methods of farming, kinds of crops, rotation of crops, methods and 
time of planting and cultivating, etc., as is practiced in the various 
portions of our Commonwealth. A competent office assistant 
would help me greatly in this regard by making it possible for me 
to get away from the routine duties of the desk. 

(8.) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS/ 

(a.) For Material or Apparatus Donated: 

(1.) To many citizens of Pennsylvania we acknowledge our in- 
debtedness for the specimens contributed — either donated or loaned 
— for the St. Louis Exposition Collection. 

(2.) The Deniing Manufacturing Company', Salem, Ohio, one spray 
pump. 

(3.) The Ripley Hardware Company, Grafton, 111., one feed-cooker 
for boiling the lirae-sulphur-salt wash. 

(4.) Mr. L. H. Kline, manufacturer, Tennsburg, Pa., one Eagle 
spray pump, complete. 

(5.) The Goulds Manufacturing Company, Seneca Falls, N. Y., one 
barrel sprayer, complete. 

(6.) The Animal Trap Company, Abbingdou, 111., several stop- 
thief traps, and other traps for collecting purposes. 

(b.) For Publications: 

(1.) Books and Bulletins. — We have received bulletins or books 
from the following sources: U. S. Department of Agriculture — 
Division of Entomology, Division of Biological Survey, Bureau of 
Forestry, Bureau of i\nimal Industry, The "Weather Bureau, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, Bureau of Chemistry and Office of Experiment 
Stations; bulletins from all of the experiment stations of the 
United States and from Canada and England. Reports from the 
various State Boards of Agriculture, bulletins and reports from the 
New York State Museum, the Illinois State Museum of Natural 
History, the different Styte Nursery Inspectors, the British Museum 
(Natural History), etc. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 171 

(2.) iV'i'iodieals: The Western Fruit Grower, St. Josepli, Mo.; 
The Aiiiericun P>oy, Detroit, Mich.; The American Sportsnian, New 
Yorli City; The Farmers' Friend and Grange Trade Bulletin, Me- 
ehanicsburg, Pa.; The National Stockman and Farmer, Pittsburg, 
Pa.; The American Agriculturist, New York City; The Rural New 
Yorker, New York City; The Entomological News, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; The National Sportsman, IJoston, Mass.; Public Health, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; The Ohio Naturalist, Columbus, Ohio; The Pennsyl- 
vania Chautau(iuan, Lebanon, Pa.; The Centre Reporter, Centre 
Hall, Pa.; The State College Times, State College, Pa.; The Key- 
stone ^V'eekly Gazette, Bellefonte, Pa., and The Clinton County 
Times, Lock Haven, Pa.; the Bryn Mawr Record, Lancaster, Era, 
etc. 

(9.) NEEDS OF THE DIVISION.- 

The great needs of the Division have been indicated in the fore- 
going report, and can be summarized in one phrase: Reorganiza- 
tion of this otfice upon a broader basis for more extended services. 
This means ofiice and field assistants, stenographers, curators, room 
and equipment. We believe that the citizens of Pennsylvania are 
anxious to see such a reorganization made, and we, therefore, urge 
the consideration of this subject. It is undoubtedly true that 
under the present conditions we can not maintain this double pace 
of excessive duties both indoors and outside. 

(10.) RECOMMENDATIONS: 

We have, throughout the foregoing report, shown our reasons 
for making the following recommendations: (a.) Those that are 
immediatel}^ necessary: The first recommendation for extending 
the usefulness of this olfice, and reaching our citizens by corres- 
pondence and otherwise, is the appointment of a regular and 
permanent stenographer, and the second is the appointment of a 
scientific assistant, an olfice boy or some other kind of help for 
either the oftice or outdoor work. With these met, as urgent 
and immediate needs, we shall be able to successfully continue the 
work until the next session of the Legislature can make further 
provisions. 

(b.) Recommendations for more effective services, which should 
be considered by the next session of the Legislature: 

(1.) Library facilities and card indexes to our references. 

(2.) A complete collection of specimens, not only of insects, but 
of all other invertebrates and also higher animals, including rep- 
tiles, birds and mammals. 

(3.) Field assistants for making proper investigations and experi- 
ments. 



172 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

(4.) Provisious for orchard iuspectiou and the suppression of the 
jSan Jos6 Scale and other pests. 

(5.) Room for the proper prosecution of this important work. 

(6.) A contingent fund in order that we may be able to meet 
various conditions as they arise. 

(7.) An Insectary or room similar to a green-house for rearing and 
studying living insects and their enemies. 

We have asked only for that which is needed in order to put this 
work upon a proper footing and to give our citizens the services 
that are greatly needed, and we earnestly hope that there will in 
time be a means of supplying these desiderata. 

(11.) A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY IN PENNSYLVANIA FOR 
THE YEAR : 

It is fitting that we should report upon the chief features of 
Economic Zoology to which our attention has been called during 
the past year. This shows the line of investigation and publication 
that is needed in this State, and also gives a historical record for the 
future reference of workers on these subjects. 

(1.) MOLLUSCA: 

Some complaints have reached us of the destruction by slugs 
or shelless snails, especially in beds of young plants, such as to- 
bacco, and in some hot-beds and green houses. These reports 
have come mostly from the southeastern portion of the State, and 
from regions where the soil and atmosphere were damp. Upon 
garden crops we have found the slugs very abundant and destruc- 
tive, especially upon peas and cabbage, as well as on other plants 
growing close together in such a way as to form shade and keep the 
ground damp. These pests feed during the night or upon damp 
days, when the air is moist, and conceal themselves under rubbish 
or in the soil or under boards during the day time, or when the air 
is dry. If it become very dry, they go into soil for aestivation. 
When they are to be found, they may be killed by dusting them 
with freshly-powdered lime. One should hunt them in tobacco beds 
and other beds of plants, remove them, and then surround the 
beds or plants to be protected by a row of ashes, or of air-slaked 
lime. As long as this is kept dry the slugs will not cross it. 

(2.) ARACHNIDA, OR SPIDERS AND MITES: 

There has been much complaint of red spiders or red mites, espe- 
cially upon plants in houses or in green houses. Also, the peach- 
leaf mite upon peaches in nurseries has caused hundreds of dollars' 
worth of loss. Sulphur is the chief material to use against these 
either as a dry dust (using the flowers of sulphur), or in water as a 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 173 

spray, oi- fumigate with it. Ui)on young peach trees nothing will 
be fouud better than the lime-sulphur-salt wash as made and applied 
for the San Jos^ Scale. 

(3.) INSECTS, (a.) Upon Wheat: 

The chief pest of the wheat crop has been the Hessian Fly, 
although this was not bad during 1903. The false army worm, or 
wheat-headed worm, was present in some places, but birds and para- 
sites aided in holding it in check. To avoid the Hessian Fly one 
should not plant before the last week of September. 

(b.) Upon Corn. — In fields that were planted with corn upon sod 
ground the cut-worms and grub worms were very bad. These can 
be destroyed by poisoning them with sweetened bran and paris 
green or arsenic, or sliced potatoes and paris green, or with bunches 
of damp clover poisoned with arsenites. This is to be put on the 
ground along the rows just before or after planting, and applied 
in the evening. The better plan is to plow the ground in the fall, 
and cultivate it well and deeply in order to kill the larvae. 

The corn-ear worm, or boll worm, has done some damage, es- 
pecially in the southern and southeastern portions of the State, 
and is particularly bad upon sweet corn. This is the best combatted 
by planting an early variety of sweet corn, and then gathering the 
ears of corn while in the soft condition, and destroying the larvse 
which hatch from the eggs laid by the moths which they thus entice. 

(c.) On Clover. — A minute hymenopterous or wasp-like insect, 
known as the Clover-seed Midge, has been very destructive in the 
heads of clover, preA^enting the perfection of the flowers and seed. 
This destroys the clover seed to such an extent that many fields 
can not be made to produce enough seed to pay for the cutting for 
seed purposes. The best method is to mow the first crop of clover 
early, or as soon as the blossoms commence to appear. This will 
destroy the first brood of the pest, and will insure seed from the 
second crop. 

(d.) On Potatoes. — The Colorado potato bug, or beetle, has not 
been so abundant as usual in most portions of this State, yet in 
some of the eastern counties it has been unusually destructive. 
In the latter region an article was circulated in the press stating 
that ammonia or hartshorn, in water, would kill this insect. We 
tried this, and found it to be entirely ineffective. The best remedy 
is paris green or other arsenites. 

The Blister beetles, or "old-fashioned" potato beetles or bugs, 
both the black and brown, have been very destructive in some 
places. They are not readily killed by arsenites, but may be effec- 
tively driven out by whipping with bundles of switches and burning 



174 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

with a small row of straw strewn between the potato rows, and 
setting on fire after the Blister beetles have been driven into it. 

(e.) Cucurbitaceous, or Viniug Vegetables. — In vines of squash 
and pumpkin the squash borer has been very destructive, and it re- 
quires a combination of methods to combat this, such as are given 
in our Special Bulletin, No. 91, upon the insects destructive to these 
plants. The Stinking Squash bug was not destructive in our State 
last year, although three years ago it was so abundant in most 
of the Eastern States that even the regular pickle growers could 
not produce pickles for their canneries. Its absence is due to para- 
sites which destroy it. The Striped Cucumber Beetles or Bugs 
were very injurious in the early spring, as usual, and the best truck 
growers kept them out by using air-slaked lime and turpentine 
dusted over and around the hills of plants. Some secured absolute 
immunity by covering their plants with mosquito netting in addi- 
tion to the lime and turpentine. The larva of this beetle feeds upon 
the roots of the plants which the adult infests, and these are to 
be prevented by the use of powdered tobacco in the hill. 

(f.) Asparagus. — The Asparagus beetle is become more destruc- 
tive every year, and its range is extending. It is not yet found in all 
of the counties of our State, and asparagus growers should meet 
it with prompt measures. Air-slaked lime should be dusted upon 
the worms or larvie where they occur, and a few plants may be 
left at one side to treat with a spray of some arsenite. The adults 
can be driven from one portion of the patch or field to another by 
sowing over them air-slaked lime to which a little turpentine has 
been added. 

(g.) On Cabbage. — The Green Cabbage worm, or larva of the 
Cabbage butterfly, has not been more destructive than usual, be- 
cause gardeners are learning to combat it by using paris green 
before the heads are half -grown, and by wood-ashes, pyrethrum or 
hellebore, later. 

(h.) On Celery. — The Celery Caterpillar, which is the larva of a 
large black and yellow butterfly, has been found doing some dam- 
age, and reported to us. This is so large and consiucuous that it 
can readily be found and removed by hand. 

(i.) Upon Pomaceous Fruits: Apple, Pear and Quince. — The chief 
pest of the year was the San Jos^ Scale, which has also infested 
other fruit trees. This is treattnl in detail in the various issues 
of our monthly bulletin. The pest has increased to such an ex- 
tent that it is now found in almost every county in the State, and 
is killing many thousands of trees. It is important that the Legis- 
lature ])rovide us with funds for combatting this worst pest of the 
fruit interests of our country. 

The Codling Moth was not destructive in those orchards that 
were properly treated, but it was conspicuous in those orchards 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 175 

not siti-.iycd. An insect Ilia I is so easily conibatted as this should 
not be permitted to Ihtoimc so abundant as it was in our State last 
year, A spray with paris j>reen — one pound in one hundred and 
fifty gallons of water, just after the petals fall, and again in ten 
days — will be sufficient to insure against the Codling Moth. 

Upon (hes(! and other fruit trees the Oyster-shell scale and the 
Scurfy scale have been reported to us by hundreds of persons. The 
remedies for these are similar to those which we have published 
for the San Jose Scale. 

(j.) Dupraceous Fruits: Peach, Plum and Cherry. — The San Jos^ 
Scale has also been the chief enemy of these fruits, but in addition 
to this the plum curculio has been very abundant and destructive. 
The chief remedy still to be advocated for this is the old method 
of jarring the tree, and catching the beetles in a cloth or a curculio 
trap arranged for the purpose. Some practical growers have 
claimed excellent results by using Paris green and Bordeaux mix- 
ture, applied as a spray. The Peach-tree borer has been very de- 
structive, causing serious loss in our State, but we discovered one 
grower using a simple and effective remedy. This is one pound of 
concentrated lye in twenty gallons of hot water, and one quart ap- 
plied while hot to the base of each tree after the mass of gum and 
rubbish had been cleared away. 

(Iv.) On Grapes. — As far as our investigations and the reports to 
us show, the insects on grapes have been unusually few during the 
past year. We went to Erie county several times for the express 
purpose of investigating the insects injurious to grapes, but at no 
time could we find them in sufficient abundance to justify extended 
experimentation. One person sent us w^ord that there w^ere im- 
mense numbers of eggs of the Crape Leaf-hopper upon his vines, 
and by examination we found them to be globules of natural ma- 
terial or exuded sap upon the growing parts. 

(1.) In Granaries. — The Weevils (two species), the Angoumois 
grain moth and the Mediterranean flour moth have been reported to 
us in stored grain and in warehouses. We have advocated fumiga- 
tion with hydrocanic acid gas or sulphur. The Flour worm was 
reported from some of the w^arehouses of the large railroads, and 
we advised the cleaning up of all flour and meal left in corners and 
in cracks of floors, and the filling of cracks with some material 
that would prevent the flour from settling there, and becoming 
the food for these worms or beetle larvre. This prevents their mul- 
tiplication, and appears to have been a successful method. 

(m.) In the Household. — A few^ reports of cockroaches have 
reached us, and we have advocated rat poison or the use of powdered 
borax, or powdered sugar and a very little Paris green or w'hite ar- 
senic, A mixture of powdered sugar and plaster of paris in equal 



176 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Do€. 

proportions is also said to be effective. For carpet moths, which 
have been injurious, the carpet should be removed and well beaten in 
the open air, then sprayed with water containing corrosive subli- 
mate, dissolved in alcohol or warm water, around the edges and 
where furniture will rest permanently upon it. Clothes moths have 
been destructive, and should' be prevented by putting clothes into 
tight boxes, sealed with strips of paper, before these pests lay their 
eggs. Tightly-closed paper sacks will also keep them out. When 
infested, the clothing may be fumigated or well aired and shaken 
in the sunshine and open air, and brushed. 

There have been a few reports of fleas, such pests, have been 
trapped by sticky fly paper beneath beds and tables and eradicated 
by thorough cleaning up of the sleeping places of cats and dogs, 
and by using insect power liberally in the infested rooms. Bed 
bugs are likely to occur from various causes, and may be killed by 
applications of benzine or gasoline, and kept out by a liberal use 
of corrosive sublimate dissolved in alcohol, and put into the cracks 
of beds or other places that they are most likely to inhabit. 

On plants in the house, insects may he found and should be re- 
moved by hand picking, or killed by fumigation or by spraying with 
strong soap suds, tobacco decoction or other remedies in accord- 
ance with the species of the pest. 

(n.) On Out-door Ornamental Plants. — The Kose slug has been 
very injurious, and can be destroyed by dusting with air-slaked lime, 
as for the Pear slug. The Rose scale is often sent to us, and the 
remedies for this are the same as for the Scurfy and Oyster Shell 
scales. Osage orange, Japan quince and certain other plants are 
infested with the San Josd Scale, and much injury by this pest has 
been reported to us on shrubbery and hedges, especially along the 
railroads. 

(o.) Miscellaneous Insects. — Much complaint has been made of in- 
sects which are general in their attacks, such as June bugs, both 
adult and larval, and also, the Wire worms. It is difficult to apply 
effective remedies for the former, but the latter may be met by 
thorough drainage, ^ood and frequent cultivation and the rotation 
of crops. 

(4) BIRDS: 

The bird concerning which the chief complaints have reached 
us is the English sparrow. We have advocated poisoning with 
sugar-coated grain and shooting. One peculiar observation which 
is worthy of record is the American crossbill ( L'^xhi ein'vi- 
rost7'a mwof') cutting apples to pieces in the fall in order to obtain 
and eat the seeds. Our chief records of birds have been commenda- 
torv, rather than condemning:. While there has been some com- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 177 

plaint of robins, catbirds and others destroying fruit, tills has been 
caused by tlie failure of tlie fruit growers to provide natural food 
for these birds. Loss from this source can be avoided, if this 
be done, and the birds can thus be retained. The way to meet this 
loss is by planting, along the roadside or fences, a few of such 
trees as service or shad-berry, mulberry, elder, wild cherry, sweet 
cherry, hawthorn, etc. We have published in our Quarterly and 
Monthly Bulletins upon this subject. There has been considerable 
slaughter of the raptorial birds, or hawks and owls, with the re- 
sult that injurious rodents are increasing, and the consequent loss 
to farmers and orchardists is becoming greater. The next State 
Legislature should make provisions for the stringent protection of 
sparrow hawks and all owls excepting the great horned owi. 

The winter has been one of most extreme severity upon quail, 
and these beneficial game birds have been exterminated throughout 
entire counties in our State by the prolonged snow and severe 
weather. It is possible to preserve them by taking proper pre- 
cautions, and this is better than to attempt to import them in 
numbers from other States. The methods of saving them have been 
published in the Bulletins of this Division. 

(5.) MAMMALS: 

During the year there has been unusual complaint of destruc- 
tion to farm crops and fruit trees by rodents. In some parts 
of the State, especially in the Susquehanna valley, rabbits have 
been particularly destructive to cabbage, while during the winter 
they have gnawed the bark from many fruit trees, and have thus 
wrought much damage. 

The Meadow Vole, or Pennsylvania meadow mouse {Microtus 
pennsylvmiicus) ^ has destroyed thousands of fruit trees in this State 
by completely girdling them beneath the snow, and other species of 
mice have also had a part in this destruction. Trees that were 
banded with tar, thinned with linseed oil, were not attacked until 
the middle of January and then the pangs of hunger became so 
great that these were also injured. We know of one orchard where 
all the trees were killed late in the winter, although the above 
treatment had been given. These injurious animals should be 
poisoned by arsenic, paris green or strychnine. If the snow be 
kept packed around the trees, the mice will not come out on top of 
it to eat. The preservation of the hawks and owls is the only 
means of effectually suppressing such pests. 

While there has been some destruction to the young and eggs 

of game birds by the skunk, it has undoubtedly done much more 

good than harm in the agricultural regions by destroying injurious 

insects. In the game preservations the skunks, wild cats, minks 

12—6—1903 



178 ANNUAL- REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

and foxes have been unusually abundant and destructive, and as a 
result game birds and game mammals have been reduced in num- 
bers. The foxes and wild cats are also valuable in agricultural 
regions in destroying mice. We can learn of but few raids upon 
poultry by predaceous birds or mammals, and we are convinced 
that the result of the extermination of such birds and mammals 
has been detrimental to the interests of the husbandman. 



(12.) REPORT OF SPECIAL ZOOLOGICAL FEATURES DURING 1903. 

It is important that an annual record should be made of the 
striking zoological features within our State for each year. This 
will, in the course of time, prove of value, not only to the students 
of zoology, but also to the husbandmen. In accordance with this 
idea we here offer the following brief report upon the zoology 
of our State during the year of li;U4 and the winter of 1903-4, 
which may not be of an economic nature, but of such scientific im- 
portance as to be worthy of record in our Annual Report. 

Insects. The Praying mantis {Mantis religiosa) , which is a very 
beneficial predaceous insect in Europe, has been accidentally intro- 
duced into certain portions of ^Vmerica, especially in the vicinity of 
Rochester, N. Y., and during the year we received reports of the 
occurrence of this •desirable insect in two of the counties of our 
State. These were Luzerne and Northampton. It is to be hoped 
that this insect will continue to thrive and multiply in Pennsyl- 
vania, as it is especially desirable as a destroyer of obnoxious 
species of insects. The Japanese Mantis (^Tenodera sinensis) has 
also become established near Philadelphia, and will prove valuable 
as a predaceous insect. 

The Wheat Saw-tly borer ( Cephus pygmanis) has been found de- 
structive to the wheat in Elk county, although 1 have not yet been 
able to learn definitely of its occurrence in other portions of the 
State. It is with regret that we have heard of the appearance of 
this pest within our borders. 

Birds. During the summer the turkey buzzards or turkey vul- 
tures ( Cathartes aura) were unusual in their northern flight. These 
liave been seen as far north as Williamsport, and a few at State 
College, Centre county. Pa. Although this beneficial scavenger 
is so common as to occasionally nest in the southern portion of 
our State, its occurrence in the northern part is very rare. 

During the fall a cardinal, or red bird i^Cardinaliscardinalis) was 
seen by us in Centre county, which is, as far as we can learn at 
present, the only record of this beneficial bird at that latitude and 
altitude. 

The American crossbill {Loxia curvirostra minor) was abundant 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 179 

in tho uortherii portion of oni- State, and we received a report from 
Tioga county ol" this biid cutting aj)[»les to pieces in order to 
obtain and eal their seeds. A specimen sent to us at our request 
made it possible to be accurate in the determination of the species. 
I have evidences that this crossbill nests in the central part of 
Pennsylvania, in the fact that during the middle of the summer of 
1902 a pair of old birds accompanied by four of their young were 
seen for two days npon the State College campus, in Centre county, 
feeding upon the combs or mites of the cock's-comb elm gall. 

During the winter, which was unsusually long and severe, there 
was a decided immigration of northern birds into our State. Es- 
pecially remarkable among these were the pine grosbeak {Pinicola 
enucleator)^ Hie crossbills (both species of the genus Z<9«/«), the 
snow ilake { Pled j^opJienax nivalis) ^ and the pine siskin or pine fincli 
( /Spinus pin us. ) 

Tlie severity of the winter resulted in killing most of the quail 
( Colinus virginianus') of our State, many of the wild turkeys and 
some of the ruffed grouse. This spring many persons will attempt 
to procure and introduce quails from other States. We know a few 
individuals who feed and shelter the quails on their premises, ac- 
cording to th(^ directions given in the Monthly Bulletin, and thus 
save these birds, which are of such great value to farmers and 
interest to sportsmen. 

During the early portion of this spring (1904) there has been an 
unusual Uight of the aquatic birds. In the vicinity of Harrisburg 
gunners have shot several species of wild ducks, holeboeH's, grebe, 
several specimens of the whistling swan ( Olor columhianus) and 
one specimen of the trumpeter swan {Olor huccinator) . We have 
been fortunate in scuring specimens of these very rare birds in this 
State, and hope to receive funds for having them permanently pre- 
served in a State Museum. There was also an unusual flight of 
gulls along the Susquehanna river after the breaking up of the 
ice, and this was doubtless due to the masses of ice filling the bays 
and covering their feeding grounds near the mouth of the river. 

Notwithstanding the severity of the winter, we have recorded 
two reports worthy of note, the robin having remained in Monroe 
county, and the bluebird in the southern portion of the State. 

Mammals: One occurrence worthy of record is a panther {Felix 
Goncolor) in the vicinity of Altoona, Pa., November, 1903; another 
is the fisher, or pekan {Mustela peymanti) trapped in Monroe county, 
and sent to this office, where the skin is preserved. This animal 
is now^ almost entirely extinct in our State, and this specimen shows 
its occurrence in a different region from that indicated in Warren's 
''Poultry Book," in 1897, in which he says "At the present time 
about the only counties where these animals are to be found are 
Clearfield, Potter and Sullivan." 



180 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

One of the rare ties of the year is a specimen of the Alleghenian 
least weasel {Piitoriiis allegheniensis) sent to us for the collection 
of Pennsylvania mammals for the 8t. Louis Exposition by a friend 
of West tSpi'inglield, Erie county, Pa. Another unusual occurrence 
is the common weasel {Putorius noveboracensis) killed and sent to 
us in February, which had not changed in color from the brown of 
summer to white of winter, as is common with this species. This 
is also preserved in our collection. 

It should be recorded that a Canadian beaver dam, with live 
Canadian beavers ( Castor cwnadensis) is at present to be found 
in its natural condition and in a site selected by these valuable 
rodents, which are supopsed to be extinct in our State, near Strouds- 
burg, Monroe county, Pa. These are upon land owned by Judge Et- 
tinger, of Stroudsburg, who has fortunately succeeded in having a 
special law passed by our Legislature for the purpose of protecting 
this colony. 

There has been unusual destruction in the forest preservations, 
particularly to game birds and game mammals, by foxes, weasels, 
minks and wild cats. Sunks have also been reported as devouring 
the eggs and young of ground-nesting species of birds, although 
upon cultivated ground they are valuable insect-eaters. 

The destruction to forest trees by porcupines has been unusual, 
and there is evidence that in certain portions of our State from 
Wyoming to ^^■arren counties, the Canadian porcupine {Erethizon 
dorsatus) is increasing. It is interesting to know that we have 
actual evidence that their natural enemies are the wild cats and 
foxes. In preparing specimens of the two species last named, the 
spines of porcupines were found embedded in the skin and flesh of 
their heads. The porcupine has been unusually destructive to 
forest trees, and there has also been an unusual abundance of red 
foxes ( Vidpes pennsylvanicus^ gi'ay foxes ( TJrocyon cinereoargen. 
teus) and wild cats [Lynx rufus) in our State during the past 
year. We also received from Wayne county a specimen of "Cross 
Fox," which is preserved in our St. Louis Exhibition Collection. 



N«. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 181 



ri:port on nursery inspection 



During the year the work of the inspection of nurseries of this 
State has passed through this office, as in previous years. The 
inspection has been made by the State Nursery Inspector, Mr. Enos 
B. Engle, assisted during the month of August by Prof. W. A. Buck- 
hout and Prof. Geo. C. Butz, both of the Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege. For this inspection the State was divided into three sections, 
Prof. Butz taking the eastern section, Prof. Buckhout the central 
and southern section and Mr. Engle the western and northern sec- 
tion. The total number of nurseries inspected was 167. 

The law requires that when the San Jos6 Scale is found in a 
nursery the trees containing that pest must be destroyed, and all 
other nursery stock upon those premises must be fumigated, ac- 
cording to methods approved by this Department, before the stock 
can be sold. All nursery stock grown in the State of Pennsylvania 
must bear our certificate of inspection, which becomes a license 
permitting the growers to sell their trees. This certificate is neces- 
sary in order to have the trees carried by the transportation com- 
panies in our own State, and it is also necessary in order that they 
may be shipped into other states. Some states further require 
not only the certificate of inspection, but a certificate showing 
that the stock has been fumigated, whether the scale had been 
originally found upon it or not. When nursery stock is not found 
infested a certificate is granted directly without further require- 
ments, but if it be found infested, then the owners are required not 
only to destroy all visibly infested stock, but also to construct 
a fumigating house, that must be inspected and approved by the 
State Nursery Inspector. They must further make affidavit before 
selling that they will fumigate all the stock, which is subject to in- 
festation by the San Jos^ Scale, and which is grown upon their 
premises. This fumigation must be done with hydrocyanic acid gas, 
and the formula that we require is as follows: For every 100 cubic 
feet of space use one ounce of cyanide of potassium (98 per cent, 
pure, by weight), two ounces of sulphuric acid (1.83 specific gravity, 
by measure), and 4 ounces of water. The plants must be subjected 
to these fumes for not less than forty minutes in an air-tight room 
or box. 

Fumigation can be made successful, and it is safe to plant in^ 
fested trees that have been fumigated, if the work be properly done, 



182 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

but it is not always successful owing to the various conditions, 
which were discussed in the Monthly Bulletins of this Division for 
January, 1904, in the appended article, entitled ''Nursery Inspection 
in Pennsylvania." 

During the .year 167 nurseries were inspected of which 56 were 
found infested. Sixteen nurseries were inspected twice in order 
to see that the suggestions were carried out, as recommended by 
the inspector; while it was found necessary to inspect 5 three times, 
in order to secure satisfactory evidence of proper treatment. Seven 
nurseries have not yet acted upon the recommendations of this 
Department, although they were found infested, and we are not 
assured that they are not going to sell stock, and 2 nurseries upon 
whose premises stock was found to be infested preferred to go out 
of business, and leave their trees unsold, rather than go to the 
expense of constructing fumigating houses, and giving their trees 
proper treatment. 

Nursery stock is inspected not only for the San Jos^ Scale, but 
also for wooly aphis, crown borer and root aphis of strawberries, 
crown gall, black knot, peach yellows, leaf blight of strawberries, 
cane blight of blackberries and raspberries, anthracnose, etc. 

As a rule the nurserymen of this State have been gratified with 
the work of the Department in this direction, because they realize 
that clean stock must beget increased sales. Our inspectors have, 
with few exceptions, met with every courtesy that the nurserymen 
could give them. However, a few nurserymen have adopted the 
short-sighted policy of opposing the work of nursery inspection, not 
realizing that at the same time they are opposing their own inter- 
ests. It should be said, however, that these instances are becoming 
more rare ejtch year, and it is earnestly to be hoped that the slovenly 
nurseryman, with the shiftless farmer, soon will have become a 
thing of the past in our State. The conscientious nurserymen of 
our State have complained of the injustice done to them in requiring 
them to destroy their infested stock, and fumigate their salable 
stock each year, while the San Jos6 Scale is permitted to multi])ly 
unchecked upon the private premises of adjoining neighbors. Often 
a seriously infested hedge or orchard is seen growing upon the 
private grounds of some owner close beside a nurscn'v. It needs but 
the flight of a bird or a strong Avind to carry the pest from these 
infested })lants on the private premises to the nursery stock. It 
appears that their complaint is justly founded, and that our State 
is justified in taking steps to ameliorate this condition. 

Copies of blanks and circulars are used in connection with the 
nursery inspection in this State will be sent free upon application 
to this office or to the^ Department of Agriculture. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE. 183 



NURSERY INSPECTION IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

The law of this State iHMniires thai all uiirsei-ies fi-oin which trees 
or shrubs are to be sold shall be inspected annually, by an expert, in 
order to protect obnoxious insects and diseases, if present, and to 
prevent their spread throughout the State and to other states and 
countries by the shipment of the young trees upon which they might 
otherwise be disseminated. When trees^ are found infected with 
such diseases as Crown Gall and Peach Yellows they must be de- 
stroyed, and when infested with such a serious pest as the San Jos^ 
Scale they must be either destroyed or fumigated with hydrocyanic 
acid gas before any shipment will be permitted from the nursery in 
which the infested trees were found. This fumigation must be done, 
in a fumigating house that has been inspected and approved by the 
authorized representative of this Department, and the law further 
prescribes the exact amount of the potassium cyanide (1 ounce per 
100 cubic feet of space) that must be used in generating the gas, as 
well as the length of time (at least fortj' minutes) that the infested 
trees must be subjected to the poisonous fumes in order to destroy 
the pests. 

Other states have similar laws and methods, and no trees of spe- 
cies likely to be infested with San Jos^ Scale can be shipped into this 
State from another without the certificate of inspection from the 
latter; neither can any trees grown in this State be shipped to an- 
other without our certificate of inspection. This is a fairly effective 
means of checking the dissemination of the most destructive pest 
that has ever attacked the horticultural interests of America, yet it 
is not wholly satisfactory in its practical results. Theoretically, 
fumigation is the very best and perhaps the only certain method of 
treating the San Jos6 Scale, but in practice the destruction is not 
always effected on account of some of the following conditions or 
their combinations: (1) A leaky or improperly constructed fumigat- 
ing house. (2) The use of a cheap grade of cyanide of potassium, 
which may contain so little of the poison as to fail to generate gas 
strong enough to complete the desired work of destruction within 
the allotted time of exposure. (3) Fumigation for too short time or 
in gas too weak. (4) Fumigating the trees while they are wet, as 
the gas does not act as effectively on the scale when a film of water 
covers the bark as it does when the tree is dry. (5) Over-packing 
the fumigating house, to the extent that the gas does not permeate 
all the spaces and reach all infested twigs. For these reasons any 
purchaser of trees is justified in rejecting any bunch of trees which 
he may receive and upon which he may find the San Jos6 Scale, even 
though they may have been fumigated. To do this he should have 



184 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

such a proviso in his purchasing contract. He can not tell whether 
the scale be dead or alive until the trees start to grow and the pests 
have time to shrivel or develop. 

It is not the purpose of this office to persecute the nurserymen, 
but rather to aid them. There are not one-half as many fruit trees 
planted annually in this State as there should be, and throughout 
the southeastern portion of this State, where the San 'Jos^ Scale is 
rampant, there will not be one-tenth as many trees bought and 
planted this year as there would have been had the scale proven 
less destructive during recent years. When it is possible to assure 
prospective purchasers that the pest will not be carried to their 
premises on infested stock, and that it can be held in check by 
simple and effective means in growing orchards, then the sales of 
fruit trees will increase, and this very important industry will 
commence to assume something near the important rank it should 
in this great Commonwealth. 

Since the first of August last 167 nurseries have been inspected in 
this State by the State Nursery Inspector, Enos B. Engle, assisted 
by Professors Wm. A. Buckhout and Geo. C. Butz, of the Pennsylva- 
nia State College. Many of them were visited twice and some 
thrice. All this important work has gone through this office, and a 
record of every detail is kept here. 

The following is a list of the nurserymen of Pennsylvania whose 
trees have been inspected and who have complied with the require- 
ments of the law, holding certificates entitling them to sell and ship 
stock: 

Adams County. 

Name. Place. Acres. 

M. E, Hartman, Arendtsville 4 

William Starner, Arendtsville, % 

A. D. Taylor, Arendtsville, 4 

E. W. Cook Aspers, 2 

R. E. Elden Aspers 2 

E. E. Eppleman, Aspers, 1 

W. S. Adams Bendersville 6 

John Dietrich, Bendersville, % 

John Eppleman, Jr., Bendersville, 14 

R. E. Garrettson, Bendersville, % 

O. P. House, Bendersville, 7 

R. S. Little, Bendersville, % 

Wm. Myers, Bendersville, 1 

J. H. Peters, Bendersville, 3 

E. C. Porter, Bendersville 3 

Mrs. Angelina Sheeley, Bendersville, 2 

A. S. Wright, Bendersville, 6 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 185 

Adams County — Continued. 

Name. Place. Acres. 

Weigle Bros Bendersville 4 

Eli Garrettson Biglerville, 2 

Charles Wilson Biglerville % 

H. L. Bream Cashtown, 4 

C. A. Hartman, Cashtown Yz 

J. P. Stover, Cashtown, 4 

J. M. Hare, Fairfield, 4 

C. L. Longsdorf Floradale, 20 

B. F. Wilson Floradale 1 

George E. Wright Floradale, 1 

Storrick & Hartman Gettysburg, 1 

N. M. Horner, Gettysburg, % 

C. A. & J. E. Stoner, Gettysburg, 13 

Cornelius Bender, Idaville, i^ 

H. W. Sowers, Latimore 1% 

Charles J. Wilson, Mummasburg, 4 

Mrs. G. P. Weaver New Oxford 1 

W. E. Grove, York Springs 13 

John Kurtz, York Springs, 2 



Allegheny County. 

J. B. Murdoch & Co., Pittsburg 10 

J. Wilkinson Elliott, Springdale, 30 

G. 11. Elliot Westview, 1 



Beaver County. 

Mackall Bros Beaver, 32 

James Smith, Beaver Falls, 6 

A. P. Goodwin, Industries, 10 



Bedford County. 

Austin Wright, Alum Bank, 2 

Jacob Earnhardt Bedford, 3 



Berks County. 

William Stoudt, Centreport 



Butler County. 
Pierce Eros., Butler, 10 

Blair County. 

1. N. Kemp, East Freedom, 7 

13 



186 ANNUAL REPOIiT OF THE ©ff. Doc. 

Bucks County. 
Name. Place. Acres. 

J. L. Lovett, Emilie 10 

Somerton Nurseries, 125 S. 5th St., Scmerton 20 

Phila., A. U. Bannard, Mgr. 

Henry Palmer, Laughorne, 4 

Horace Janney, Newtown 7 

D. Landreth's Sons, Bristol 10 

The W. H. Moon Co., Morrisville 225 

S. C. Moon, Morrisville, 50 

Chester Count3^ 

George Achelis, West Chester 200 

The Conard & Jones Co., Westgrove 4 

The Dingee & Conard Co Westgrove 4 

Rakestraw & Pyle, Keunett Square, 150 

J. A. Roberts, Malvern, 16 

Hoopes Bros. & Thomas West Chester, 600 

J. B. Reif Spring City 2 

Clearfield County. 

W. S. Wright Clearfield Va 

G. L. Tyler, DuBois % 

Crawford County. 

Prudential Orchard Co., Ehermansville, 30 

Cumberland County. 

John Peters & Co., Mt. Holly Springs, 50 

D. C. Rupp, Shiremanstown, % 

Dauphin County. 

C. p. School, P'isherville, 4 

Gilbert Troutman Millersburg, i/^ 

J. R. Snavely, Progress, 5 

Rife & Ulrich, Royalton, 1 

Delaware County. 

Oak Nursery Co., Collingdale, 12 

Oak Nursery Co Concordville 5 

J. J. Styer, Concordville, 3 

The Folsom Nursery, Collingdale, 3 

M. F. Hannum, Concordville 1 

Samuel Johnson Collingdale, 1 

W. L. Rementer, Lansdowne, 1 

Conrad Lamm Lansdovv^ne 2 

W. E. Caum (Lessee), Haverford ,,.,, 4 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 187 

Fulton Couut.y. 
Name. Place. Acres. 

Eli Covalt Covalt 2 

Erie County. 

A. F. Youngs. Noi-th East, 6 

Orton Bros., North East 4V^ 

L. G. Youngs, ^ . .North East, 14 

D. C. Bostwick & Son, Ripley, N. Y 12 

C. E. Archibald Girard V4, 

Fayctti' County. 
J. sterling & Son, Masontown, 20 

Franklin County. 

Byer Bros., Chambersburg and yVaynesboro, 1 

J. W. Hefflefinger, Green Village 6 

J. W. Zook, Chambersburg 14^ 

Juniata County. 

Elmer Graygill, Richfield 4 

Landis & Wagner McCuliough's Mills, 10 

Lancaster County. 

John G. Engle, Marietta, 6 

A. H. Erb Lititz i^ 

J. H. Gamber New Providence 2 

H. M. Engle & Son, ^Marietta, 2 

Maurice Brinton, Christiana 20 

W. P. Bolton, Bonview, 6 

D. D. Ilevr, Lancaster, 5 

H. H. Harnish, Ruber, S 

S. R. Hess & Son Ephrata, 1/2 

John Kready, Mt. Joy, i^ 

Wilson Kready, Mt. Joy, % 

Calvin Cooper, Bird-in-Hand 3 

0. W. Laushey Bird-in-Hand 3 

A. W. Root & Bro., East Petersburg 17 

Lehigh County. 
W. B. K. Johnson Allcntown 30 

Lawrence County. 

J. W. Hayes Bessemer, 3 

W. T. & F. P. Butz New Castle 1 

A. S. Moore. New Castle 1 

D. W. Fisher New Wilmington, 1 



188 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Luzerne County. 
Nam*. Place. Acres. 

P. Sutton Exeter 3 

Lycoming County. 
Evenden Bros., Williamsport, 1 

Montgomery County. 

R. B. Haines & Co., Cheltenham, 6 

C. H. Wilson Gladwyne, 3 

J. B. Heckler, Lansdale, 4 

Wm. Sturtzbecker, Lansdale .' 3 

J. W. Thomas & Sons, King of Prussia, 65 

J. Krewson & Son, Cheltenham, 12 

C. Haenni's Sons, McKinley, V^ 

T. N. Yates & Co North Wales, 100 

J. B. Moore Hatfield, 5 

Adolph Mueller Hoyt 6 

T. Meehan & Sons, Dreshertown , 200 

Mercer County. 

C. L. Unangst, Transfer % 

C. L. Unger, Chess, 21/2 

J. L. Hoobler & Sons Chess, 6 

Northampton County. 
Theodore Roth, Nazareth, 2 



Perry County. 

Geo. A. Wagner, Alinda 30 

Philadelphia County. 

W. Warner Harper, Chestnut Hill, 300 

Thos. Meehan & Son, Germantown, 65 

W. H. Harrison Philadelphia % 

T, N. Yates & Co., Germantown, 4 

Robt. Craig & Son, Philadelphia, 

Christ. Koehler, Fox Chase, 1 

Snyder County. 

J. F. Boyer Mt. Pleasant Mills, 7 

J. A. Grim, Freeburg, 1^ 

F. G. Moyer, Freeburg, 2^^ 

F. G. Arbogast, Freeburg, 1^ 

Somerset County. 

Village Nurseries, Harnedsville 35 

H. E. Daniels, Harnedsville, 4 

H. C. Pfeiffer & Bro., Gladdens 2 



N©. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUI-TURt;. 189 

Susquehanna County. 

Name. Place. Acres. 

E. A. Smith, Heart Lake, 7 

E. B. Sprout, Montrose, 9 

Geo. Sprout, Montrose, 2 

B. D. Hinds, Montrose, 2 

Venango County. 

H. S. Sutton & Son, : . .Franklin, 6 



Westmoreland County. 
John McAdams, Mt. Pleasant 8 

York County. 

J. A. Patterson, Stewartstown, 15 

Geo. E. Stein, East Prospect, 5 

W. S. Newcomer Glenrock, 3 

J. G. Patterson, Stewartstown, 40 

Four other nurseries in this State have been inspected, found in- 
fested, and condemned; but as the owners have not filed the affidavit 
to fumigate, as required by law, they hold no certificate and can not 
legally sell any kind of nursery stock. 

It must not be inferred that the San Jos^ Scale was found in all or 
even most of the nurseries belonging to the persons named above, 
for it was not. In justice to our nurserymen, it must be said that in 
general we have found them most anxious to learn what pests may 
be present upon their premises in order that they may take all pos- 
sible measures to suppress them and sell only clean stock. — From 
the Monthly Bulletin of the Division of Zoology. 



CALL FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF A NURSERYMEN'S ASSO- 
CIATION OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

We have been asked by some of the prominent nurserymen of this 
State to aid them in the preliminary work of establishing a Nursery- 
men's Association. We are requested to issue a call for a prelim- 
inary meeting of all persons directly or indirectly interested in this 
important profession, and consequently take pleasure in hereby sug- 
gesting that the best time and place for this is during the Annual 
Meeting of the State Horticultural Association, at Lancaster, during 
the 19th and 20th of this month. 

It is therefore requested that all persons who desire to receive the 
benefits of such a society meet at the Court House at Lancaster at 
4.30 P. M., on Tuesday, January 19, for discussing plans and organiz- 



190 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. DoC. 

iug if found advisable. This will give an opportunity for those in at- 
tendance to hear the inij)ortant papers presented at the meeting of 
the State Horticultural Association and also to take part in the dis- 
cussions, some of which will be of unusual value to nurserj'men. 
We especially need your help in discussing that most perplexing and 
inmportant probhMu of oui- day: The San Jos(5 Scale. 

Unless we ha\(' the cooperation of our citizens, and particularly 
the aid of our nurserymen, in controlling important pests this office 
can not hope to obtain the desired results in this direction. For this 
reason we give the plan our most cordial endorsement, and shall be 
present to aid in any manner possible. The proposed association 
should be'of great im])ortance in many ways for both the nursery- 
men and orchardisls, besides along the needed line of i)est control. 
It is hoped that every person whose name appears in the preceding 
[)ages will attend and discuss the proposed ])roject. Special railroad 
rates may be obtained by writing at once to the Secretary of the 
Pennsylvania llorlicultural Association, E. B. Engle, Harrisburg, 
Pa., who will send, upon request, orders for reduced railroad rates 
upon the Pennsylvania and Reading lines. The fare will be one and 
one-third for the round tri]), good during the entire week. — From 
the Monthly Bulletin of the Division of Zoology. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE NURSERYMEN'S ASSOCIATION. 

I*ursuant to the above call the nurserymen met in Lancaster 
on January 21, 1904, and formed an association with the following 
officers: President, W. H. Moon, Morrisville; Vice President, Thos. 
B. Meehan, Philadelphia; Treasurer. Thomas Rakestraw, Kennett 
S(iuare; Secretary, Earl Peters, Mount Holly Springs, Pa. 

Persons interested in this organization should correspond with 
the secretary. 



Kecomuiendalions: I should here indicate the present deficiencies 
of our })resent Nursery Inspection Laws, which T earnestly recom- 
mend for the consideration of our next Legislature. 

I. Under I he present law our jurisdiction of the nurserymen ends 
when the owner makes affidavit that he will fumigjite. While most 
of the nurserymen of our State are lionest, and would not take ad- 
vantage of this, it is possible for a dishonest owner to avoid con- 
siderable expense and trouble by not fulfilling his obligations. We 
have no authority to determine whether plants have been fumi- 
g:it(^d, and no means of knowing whether this work be properly 
doiu\ It should be remembered that impropei' methods in this 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT oF AGRICULTURE. 191 

process aiL- wuitlik'ss, as sliowu iu tlie above article ou "Nursery 
luspectioii." 1 would therefore recommend that fumigation be 
made under the direct supervision of an expert or State ollicer, and 
Avould also recommend re-inspection after the fumigation to make 
sure of the death of the pests. Such precautions are absolutely 
necessary in order to protect the growing interests of the orchard- 
ists of our great State, which annually produces one-seventh of the 
entire apple crop of America. 

II. The nurserymen are justified in their present demands for 
protection from the serious sources of infestation by the San Jose 
Scale upon the premises adjoining those in which their nursery 
stock is growing. For the protection of the orchardists stringent 
requirements are made of nurserymen, but unless we take the 
most radical means to prevent the infestment of their stock, strin- 
gent laws, regarding the subsequent treatment of this stock, and 
even the most careful efforts of our conscientious nurserymen, can 
not be entirely effective in avoiding the dissemination of the w^rst 
of all fruit pests, the San Jos6 Scale, which has been called the 
small-pox of horticulture. 

The same kind of condition prevails concerning the infestment of 
private premises. A man who takes care of his trees is likely to 
have pests brought to them from the trees that are neglected. This 
discourages a thrifty and enterprising person, and it means that 
we are justitied in making provisions for the inspection of private 
premises for the presence of the San Jose Scale, and arranging to 
have them properly treated, especially when infested plants are 
growing near nurseries or other orchards. 

III. Another source of great evil in our State is the seedling trees, 
and the old and neglected trees that are often seen along fences and 
in the remnants of old orchards. These are the greatest means of 
breeding, continuing and disseminating serious pests, and we ear- 
nestly recommend that the Legislature provide laws for their de- 
struction, or the treatment of such trees that are likely to maintain 
pests injurious to nurseries or orchards. 

In conclusion, 1 desire to commend the efficiency and industry of 
our State Nursery Inspector, Mr. Enos B. Engle, and also, of the 
two assistants. Prof. Buckhout and Prof. Butz, who aided him during 
the summer. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. A. SURFACE, 
Economic Zoologist. 




(192) 



PROCEEDINGS 



OK THE 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING 



OF THE 



Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture 



HELD IN THE 



BOARD OF TRADE ROOMS, HARRISBURG, PA., 

JANUARY 28 AND 29, 1903. 



15—6—1903 






I 




( m) 



MEMBERS 

or THK 

PENNSTLVANIA STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

FOR THE YEAR 1903. 



MEMBERS EX-OFFICIO. 

HON. SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER, Governor. 

MA J. I. B. BROWN, Secretary of Internal Affairs. 

DR. N. C. SCHAEFFER, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

DR. G. W. ATHERTON, President of The State College. 

HON. E. B. HARDENBERGH, Auditor General. 

HON. N. B. CRITCHFIELD, Secretary of Agriculture. 



APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNOR. 

Col. R. H. Thomas, Mechanicsburg-, Cumberland county, Term expires 1903 

R. I. Young-, Middletown, Dauphin County Term expires 1906 

Gen. James A. Beaver, Centre County Term expires 1906 



APPOINTED BY THE STATE POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 
Norris G. Temple , Pocopson , Pa. , Term expires 1906 



ELECTED BY COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

Term expires. 

Adams, A. I. Weidner, Arendtsville 1906 

Allegheny J.S.Burns Clinton, 1906 

Armstrong S. S. Blyholder Leechburg, 1905 

Beaver, A. L. McKibben New Sheffield 1905 

Bedford S. S. Diehl Bedford, 1906 

Berks, H. G. McGowan Geiger's Mills 1904 

Blair, F. Jaekel Hollidaysburg 1904 

Bradford L. Piollet Wysox, 1904 

Bucks W.T.Davis Ivyland 1906 

Butler, W. H. H. Riddle, Butler 1906 

Cambria H. J. Krumenacher, ..Nicktown, 1906 

Cameron W. K. Howard, Emporium 1906 

Carbon 

Centre John A. Woodward, ..Howard, 1906 

i 195 ) 



196 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE OfE. Doc. 

Term expires. 

Chester M. E. Conard, Westgrove 1906 

Clarion, S. X. McClellan, Knox 1904 

Clearfield 1903 

Clinton, J. A. Herr Cedar Springs 1905 

Columbia H.V.White Bloomsburg 1906 

Crawford M.W.Oliver Conneautville, s 1904 

Cumberland Chas. Mullen, Mt. Holly Springs 1906 

Dauphin 1903 

Delaware J. Milton Lutz, Llanerch 1904 

Elk, 1903 

Erie H.H.Chaffee, Lowville 1904 

Fayette 1903 

Forest C.A.Randall, Tionesta, 1904 

Franklin C. B. Hege, Marion 1905 

Fulton R.M.Kendall McConnellsburg, 1904 

Greene B. F. Herrington Waynesburg, 1904 

Huntingdon, Geo. G. Hutchison, ...Warriors' Mark, 1906 

Indiana, S. M. McHenry Indiana 1904 

Jefferson Chas. G. McLain, Ringgold 1965 

Juniata Matthew Rodgers Mexico, 1906 

Lackawanna Henry W. Northup, ..Glenburn 1906 

Lancaster, W. H. Brosius Drumore 1904 

Lawrence Sam'l McCreary, Neshannock Falls 1906 

Lebanon, H. C. Snavely, Lebanon 1904 

Lehigh, P. S. Fenstemacher, ..Lanark, 1906 

Luzerne 

Lycoming A. J. Kahler, Hughesville 1906 

McKean S. B. Colcord Port Allegany, 1906 

Mercer 

Mifflin, D. E. Notestine Lewistown, 1904 

Monroe, R. F. Schwarz, Analomink, 1905 

Montgomery, J. Sexton, North Wales, 1905 

Montour 

Northampton W. F. Beck Nazareth 1906 

Northumberland, ..J. A. Eschbach Milton 1905 

Perry A. T. Holman Nekoda, 1904 

Philadelphia E. Lonsdale Wyndmoor 1904 

Pike 

Potter 

Schuylkill W. H. Stout Pinegrove 1906 

Snyder J. F. Boyer, Mount Pleasant Mills 1906 

Somerset Jacob S. Miller, Friedens, 1904 

Sullivan J. K. Bird Millview, 1906 

Susquehanna C. W. Brodhead, Montrose, 1904 

Tioga F. E. Field, Stonyfork 1905 

Union J. Newton Glover, Vicksburg 1905 

Venango August Morck, Oil City 1904 

Warren R.J.Weld Sugargrove 1904 

Washington, D. M. Pry Burgettstown 1905 

Wayne Warren E. Perham, ...Niagara 1904 

Westmoreland M.N.Clark, Claridge 1904 

Wyoming D. A. Knuppenburg, ..Lake Carey 1904 

York B. F. Koller Shrewsbury 1904 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. VjI 



OFFICERS. 



PRESIDENT. 
Hon. Samuel "W. Pennypacker, Governor, Harrlsburg. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Gen. Jas. A. Beaver, Bellefonte. 

C. W. Brodhead, Montrose. 

Joel A. Herr, Cedar Springs. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Harrlsburg. 

M. N. Clark Claridge. 

H. C. Snavely Lebanon. 

Matthew Rodgers , Mexico. 

John A. Woodward Howard. 

A. T. Holman Nekoda. 

W. H. H. Riddle Butler. 

N. G. Temple Pocopson. 

R. F. Schwarz Analomink. 

N. B. Critchfleld, Seeretary Harrisburg. 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE. ^ 

N. B. Critchfleld , Secretary, Harrisburg. 

M. N. Clark Claridge. 

A. T. Holman Nekoda. 

W. H. H. Riddle Butler. 

CONSULTING SPECIALISTS. 

Botanist Prof. W. A. Buckhout State College. 

Pomologist Cyrus T. Fox Reading. 

Chemist Dr. William Prear, State College. 

Vet. Surgeon Dr. Leonard Pearson, Philadelphia. 

Sanitarian Dr. Benjamin Lee Philadelphia. 

Microscopists and Hygienists, Dr. H. Leffman Philadelphia. 

Prof. C. B. Cochran West Chester. 

Entomologists Prof. R. C. Scheldt Lancaster. 

Dr. H. Skinner Philadelphia. 

Ornithologist, Prof. H. A. Surface Harrisburg. 

Meteorologists E. R. Demain Harrisburg. 

J. L. Heacock, Quakertown. 

Mineralogist Col. H. C. Demming, Harrisburg. 

Apiarist Prof. Geo. C. Butz State College. 

Geologist, Dr. M. E. Wadsworth, State College. 



198 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



STANDING COMMITTKKS. 



LEGISLATION. 

Jason Sexton, Chairman North Wales. 

A. J. Kahler, HughesvlUe. 

G. G. Hutchison Warriors' Mark. 

W. H. Brosius, Drumore. 

W. F. Beck Nazareth. 

CEREALS AND CEREAL CROPS. 
C. B. Hege, Chairman IMarion. 

ROADS AND ROAD LAWS. 
S. M. McHenry, Chairman Indiana. 

FRUIT AND FRUIT X:ULTURE. 
Enos B. Engle, Chairman, Waynesboro. 

DAIRY AND DAIRY PRODUCTS. 
H. W. Northuii, Chairman, Glenburn. 

FERTILIZERS. , 
H. G. McGowan, Chairman, Geiger's Mills. 

WOOL AND TEXTILE FIBRES. 
Samuel McCreary, Chairman Neshannock Falls. 

LIVE STOCK. 
M. \V. Oliver Conneautville. 

POULTRY. 
Nortis G. Temple, Chairman, Pocopson. 

FORESTS AND FORESTRY. 
l>r. J. T. Roihiork, Chaiiman, Harrisburg. 

APIARY. 

» 

,1. W. Nelsiin. Chairman Sha\\\ille. 

FLORICULTURE. 
Edwin T^onsdale, Chairman Wyndmoor. 



No. C. DKI'AKTMICXT ()]•' AC li ICUl/PUKK. 199 



tw£:nty-sixth annual mkb:ting of thk 
state: board of agriculturf. 



HELD IN THE BOARD OF TRADE ROOMS, HARRISBURG, PA.. JANUARY 

28 AND 29, 1903. 



PROGRAM. 

Wednesday Moi-niiig-, Jan. 28^ 1U()3. 

Call to order at 9.30. 

1. Roll Call of Members. 

2. Reading of Minutes. 

o. Appointment of Committee on Credentials. 

4. Reception of Credentials of Members-elect and Delegates. 
i>. Report of Committee on Credentials. 

6. Election of Officers for 1903. 

7. Reports of Standing Committees. 

5. Appointment of Standing Committees for 1903. 
9. Unfinished Business. 

10. New Business. 

11. Miscellaneous Business. 

12. Adjournment. 



AVednosda.y Afternoon, Jan. 28, 1903. 

Call to order at 1.30. 

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS. 

1. REPORTS OF OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES, Continued. 

2. "MARKET GARDENING AND THE MARKETING OF PRODUCE," 

By Hon. R. F. Schwarz, Analomink, Pa. 

3. "A BIRDS-EYE VIEW OF THE WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA FARMS," 

By M. N. Clark, Esq., Claridge, Pa. 

4. "POULTRY FOR PROFIT," 

By Norris G. Temple, Esq., Pocopson, Pa. 

.5. "HOW TO MAKE REASONABLY SURE OF A SUCCESSFUL CROP OF 
POTATOES ON HEAVY LIMESTONE SOIL," 

By. Hon. W. F. Beck, Nazareth, Pa. 



200 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Wednesday Evening, Jan. 28, 1903. 

Call to order at 7.15. 

1. "TEA, COFFEE AND COCOA," 

By Prof. C. B. Cochran, West Chester, Pa. 

2. "THE RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF STATE BOARDS AND 

TEACHERS OF AGRICULTURE," 

By Prof. I. P. Roberts, Professor of Agricul- 
ture in The Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. T. 

3. "THE TUBERCULOSIS PROBLEM," 

By Dr. Mazyck P. Ravenel, Bacteriologist, 
to the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Thursday Morning, .Jan. 29, 190.3. 
Call to order at 9. 

1. "THE IMMUNIZING OF CATTLE AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS," 

By Dr. Leonard Pearson, Veterinarian of the 
Department of Agriculture. 

2. "SCIENTIFIC HORSESHOEING," 

By Dr. John W. Adams, of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

3. "THE SOUTHERN COW PEA AND ITS PROBABLE PLACE IN THE 

AGRICULTURE OF THE MIDDLE STATES," 

By Prof. W. F. Massey, Raleigh, N. C. 

DISCUSSION. 

ADJOURNMENT. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 201 



MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, HELD AT 
HARRISBURG, PA., JANUARY 28 AND 29, 1903. 



Wednesday Morning, January 28, 1903. 

The Board met in the rooms of the Board of Trade, January 28, 
and was called to order at 9.30 A. M., Vice President White in the 
chair. The roll was called, and the following persons answered to 
their names: 

Members ex-officio: Hon. S. W. Pennj-packer, Governor; Dr. N. 
C. Schaeffer, Superintendent of Public Instruction; Prof. John Ham- 
ilton, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Appointed by the Governor: R. I. Young, Gen. James A. Beaver. 

Appointed by the State Poultry Association: Norris G. Temple. 

Eelected by County Agricultural Societies: Messrs. McGowan, 
Jaekel, Piollet, McOlellan, Herr, Hege, Hutchison, McHeury, Bro- 
sius, Snavely, Colcord, Notestine, Schwarz, Sexton, Murray, Beck, 
Holman, Lonsdale, Stout, Critchfield, Bird, Brodhead, Glover, Per- 
ham, Clark and Knuppenburg. 

The minutes of the Gettysburg meeting were then road and ap- 
proved. 

The following persons were appointed a committee on creden- 
tials: Messrs. Herr, Clark, McClellan, Notestine and Snavely. 

On motion of the Secretarj-, a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Kahler, Hutchison and Temple were appointed to wait upon the 
Governor and invite him to attend the meeting of the Board. 

The order of business was then taken up and reports of Standing 
Committees were called for. 

The report of Committee on Cereals and Cereal Crops was pre- 
sented by the chairman, A. T. Weidner, which was, on motion, re- 
ceived and ordered on file. 

The Committee on Fruit and Fruit Culture reported, through its 
chairman, Enos B. Engle. The report was read, and, on motion, 
was received and ordered on file. 

The report of the Committee on Fertiliz«rs was called for and 
the chairman stated that he had not expected to be re-elected and 
so had not prepared a report. 

The next report called for was on Wool and Textile Fibres. The 
14 



202 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

chairman, Air. McCieary, stated that his term as a member of the 
Board had exjiired, that he did not expect to be re-elected and, 
consequently, he had not i>repared a report. 

The report of the Botanist, Prof. W. A. Buekhout, was read by 
the Secretary, whereupon the paper was, on motion, received and 
ordered on file 

Dr. Pearson, Veterinary Surgeon of the Board, reported verbally 
upon foot and mouth disease recently discovered in New England. 
He also called attention to the spread of garget, and also to the 
outbreak of glanders among mules in the anthracite coal region. 
* The attention of the Board was called to the presence of Prof. 
I. P. Roberts, of the Cornell University. On motion, Prof. Roberts 
was accorded the privilege of the Hoor. He acknowledged the cour- 
tesy and spoke for a few minutes in discussion of the report of the 
Veterinarian. The discussion was continued by Messrs. Hutchi- 
son, Jaekel, Conard, Nelson, Brodhead, Sexton, Beardslee and 
Glover. 

The report of the Committee on Credentials was then read, and 
the credentials of the following persons were presented and found 
in proper form: 

Names. Address. County. Term Expires. 

W. H. Stout, Pinegrove Schuylkill January. 1906 

George G. Hutchison Warriors Mark. Huntingdon January, lOO* 

William F. Beck Nazareth Northumberland. January, 1006 

S. B. Colcord, Port Allegany McKean January, 1906 

W. H. H. Riddle Butler Butler January, 1906 

M. Rodgers, Mexico Juniata January, 1906 

P. S. Fenstemacher Lanark Schuylkill January, 1906_ 

H. V. White Bloomsburg Columbia, January, 1906 

Watson T. Davis Ivyland Bucks January, 1906 

Samuel S. Diehl. Bedford Bedford January, 1906 

Henry W. Northup Glenburn, ..: Lackawanna January, 1906 

Col. John A. Woodward Howard Center January, 1906 

Henry J. Krumenacher Nicktown Cambria, January, 1906 

Samuel McCreaiy Neshannock Fall;; Lawrtnce January, 1906 

A. J. Kahler Hughesviile Lycoming January, 1906 

J. S. Burns Clinton Allegheny January, 1906 

W. H. Howard Knipcirium Cambria January, 1906 

Dr. M. E. Conard Westgrove Chester January, 1906 

Norris G. Temp'.e, Pocopson (i'ouitry Ass.), Chester January, 1906 

A. I. Weidner Arendtsville Adams January, 1906 

On motion, the gentlemen above named were duly admitted to 
membership of the Board. 

The following ])ersons, representing agricultural organizations, 
were, on motion, given the privilege of the floor: 



Xo. 6. DEPAUT.MENT OF AaRICUI.Ti:i;E. 20:5 

Name. Representing 

J. G. Jleist, Mt. Joy, Liancastei- Cu. ] 

.1. L.. Rife, West Fairview, Cumberlana Co I 

W. P. liolton, Liberty Siiuare, Lancaster Co.,.. J- .Slate Horticultural Society. 

Chas. M. Leslier, Northumberland Co.. j 

Daniel D. Herr, Lanca.ster Co I 

Hon. T. K. Beaver ) 

J. Scott McLaughlin )- Juniata Co. Agricultural Society. 

John Adams, ) 

Hon. W. F. Rutherford 1 

J. P. Nissley ^ State Agricultural Society. 

Hon. Hiram Young ) 

Cyrus T. Vox '.Representing Berks Co. Agriculluial Society. 

Dr. C. E. Delaney 1 

Chas. H. Deckerd > Perry Co. Agricultural Society. 

James E. Stephens ) 

W. A. Crawford ( \'enango Co. Farmers' Institute. 

H. F. Kahler ) Lycoming Co. Muncy Valley Farmers' Club. 

iS'ext order of business was the election ol' officers. 

Ou motion, Hon. iSumuel W. Penuypaclier, Governoi' of tlie Com- 
mon wealth, was elected president of the Board. 

The following gentlemen were nominated for Vice Presidents: 
General James' A. Beaver, C. >\'. Biodhead and J. A. Herr. On mo- 
tion, nominations were closed, and the Secretary was instructed to 
cast the ballot of the members for the gentlemen named. 

Gen. Bea\er w'as then called to the chair and addressed the 
Board upon the representative character of the State Board of 
Agriculture. On motion, John Hamilton, was selected Secretary 
for the ensuing year. 

The following persons were nominated for Executive Committee: 
Messrs. ^Voodward, Clark, Holman, Riddle, Temple, Snavely, 
Kodgers, McHenry and Schwarz. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. "White and Herr as tellers to collect 
and count the votes. 

The tellers reported that the following persons had received the 
majority of the votes cast and the Chair accordingly declared them 
elected: Messrs. ^\'oodward, Clark, Holman, Riddle, Temple, 
Suavely and Mathew Rodgers. 

On motion, Mr. Nelson, of Clearheld, whose term expired with 
this meeting, was invited to sit as an advisory member. 

The hearing of reports of Standing Committees was resumed. 

Dr. J. T. Rothrock, chairman of the Committee on Forests and 
Forestry, presented his report. Discussion followed, participated 
in by the chairnmu and Messrs. Nelson, Rothrock, Schwarz, Jaekel 
and Bird. On motion, the report was read and ordered on file. 

The chairman of the Committee on Roads and Road Laws stated 
that he had no report. 

The chairman on Dairying and Dairy Products also stated that 
ho liad not })repared a report. 



204 ANNUAL, REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

Dr. M. E. Conard, chairman of the Live Stock Committee, pre- 
sented his report, which was received and ordered on file. 

The committee appointed to wait on the Governor, reported that 
they had performed that duty and that he would be present at 
the meeting at 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

Adjourned to meet at 1.30 P. M. 



Wednesday Afternoon, January 28, 1903. 

The Board met at 1.30 P. M., Vice President Beaver in the Chair. 

The committee on credentials asked permission to make a supple- 
mentary report. The committee presented the names of W. P. 
Bolton, of Bonview, representing the State Horticultural Associa- 
tion, and that of J. Blair Garretson, representing the Adams County 
Agricultural Society. On motion, these gentlemen were accorded 
the privilege of the floor. 

The report of the Committee on Floriculture was then read by 
the chairman, Mr. Lonsdale. Discussion followed by Messrs. Pear- 
son, Lonsdale, Patrick, Kogers and Prof. Roberts. 

The Governor of the Commonwealth was then announced. He 
was invited to the Chair, and made a brief address to the Board. 

The discussion of the report on Floriculture was resumed, par- 
ticipated in by Messrs. Lonsdale, Governor Pennypacker, Prof. 
Roberts and Prof. Massey, of North Carolina. On motion, the re- 
port was received and ordered on file. 

The chairman of the Legislative Committee, Hon. Jason Sexton, 
presented his report, which, on motion, was received and ordered on 
file. 

Mr. McHenry moved the following: ''That we emphatically en- 
dorse the recommendations set forth in the report of our Legisla- 
tive Committee, and instruct our Legislative Committee to use all 
honorable means to have the same enacted into law." Carried. 

The regular program of papers and discussions was then taken 
up. The first paper was on ''Market Gardening and the Marketing 
of Produce," by Hon. R. F. Schwarz. 

The Secretary announced that the meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the Allied Agricultural Organizations of Pennsyl- 
vania, will be held in this hall at 7 P. M. this evening. 

Dr. Lee, Secretarv of the State Board of Health and Sanitarian 
of the Board, then presented his report. Discussion followed by 
Messrs. Brodhead, Dr. Lee and Judge Beaver. On motion, the re- 
port was received and placed on file. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 205 

The Pomologist of the Board, Cyrus T. Fox, presented his re- 
port, which, on motion, was received and phiced on file. 

On motion of the Secretary, Mr. W. F. Hill, of the Pennsylvania 
State Grange, and Prof. W. F. Massey, of North Carolina, were in- 
vited to sit as advisory members. 

The Committee on Credentials reported the name of Mr. E. S. 
Hoover, of Lancaster county, as representing the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. On motion, Mr. Hoover 
was invited to sit as an advisory member. 

The report of the Executive Committee nominating the Standing 
Committees of the Board for the year 1903 was presented and, on 
motion, the recommendations were adopted, and the report is as 
follows: 



:^UtJ ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



STANDING COMMITTERS. 



LEGISLATION. 

Jason Sexton , North Wales. - 

A. J. Kahler Hughesville. 

G. G. Hutchison Warriors' Mark. 

W. H. Brosius, Drumore. 

W. F. Beck, Nazareth. 

CEREALS AND CEREAL CROPS. 
C. B. Hege, Chairman Marion. 

ROADS AND ROAD LAWS. 
S. M. McHenry, Chairman Indiana. 

FRUIT AND FRUIT CULTURE. 
Enos B. Engle , Chairman Waynesboro. 

DAIRY AND DAIRY PRODUCTS. 
Henry W. Northup, Chairman, Glenburn. 

FERTILIZERS. 
Howard G. McGowan, Chairman Geiger's Mills. 

WOOL AND TEXTILE FIBRES. 
Samuel McCreary, Chairman Neshannock Falls. 

LIVE STOCK. 
M. W. Oliver, Chairman Conneautville. 

POULTRY. 
Norris G. Temple, Chairman Pocopson. 

FORESTS AND FORESTRY. 
Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Chairman Tlarrisburg. 

APIARY. 
J. W. Nelson, Chairman Shawville. 

FLORICULTURE. 

Edwin L(jiisdale. Chairman Wyndmoor. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTU UK. 207 



OFFICRRS. 



PRESIDENT. 
Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor Harrisburg. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

H. V. White Bloomsburg. 

W. P. Beck, Nazareth. 

Joel A. Herr Cedar Springs. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Harrisburg. 

J. A. Woodward , Howard. 

M. Rodgers Mexico. 

H. C. Snavely Lebanon. 

A. T. Holman Nekoda. 

W. H. H. Riddle, Butler. 

N. G. Temple Pocopson. 

M. N. Clark, Claridge. 

* John Hamilton , erretary Harrisburg. 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE. 

*John Hamilton , Harrisburg. 

M. N. Clark, Claridge. 

A. T. Holman Nekoda. 

W. H. H. Riddle Butler. 

CONSULTING SPECIALISTS. 

Botanist, Prof. W. A. Buckhout State College. 

Pomologist, Cyrus T. Fox Reading. 

Chemist Dr. William Frear State College. 

Vet. Surgeon Dr. Leonard Pearson, Philadelphia. 

Sanitarian Dr. Benjamin Lee Philadelphia. 

Microscopists and Hygienists, Dr. H. Leffman Philadelphia. 

Prof. C. B. Cochran, West Chester. 

Entomologists Prof. R. C. Scheldt Lancaster. 

Dr. H. Skinner Philadelphia. 

Ornithologist, Prof. H. A. Surface State College. 

Meteorologists E. R. Demain , . : Harrisburg. 

J. L. Heacock Quakertown. 

Mineralogist Col. H. C. Demming Harrisburg. 

Apiarist Prof. Geo. C. Butz State College. 

Geologist Dr. M. E. Wadsworth, State College. 

•John Hamilton having resisno-ci as Secretary of Agriculture. N. B, Critchfleld, his successor, 
by virtue of hi? ofTice, became the Secretary of the Committee. 



208 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The Older of business on the program for the afternoon session 
was then resumed. 

Mr. M. N. Clark jjresented a paper on "A Bird's-eye View of the 
Western Pennsylvania Farms." 

The next paper was by Mr. Norris Cx. Temple, on ''Poultry for 
Profit." 

Adjourned until 7.15 this evening. ' 



Wednesday Evening, January 28, 1903. 

The Board was called to order at 7.15 P. M., Vice President Brod- 
head in the Chair. 

The first paper of the evening was by Hon. W. F. Beck on "How 
to Make Reasonably Sure of a Successful Crop of Potatoes on 
Heavy Limestone Soil." 

The next paper was by Prof. C. B. Cochran, on "Tea, Coffee and 
Cocoa." 

Mr. Sexton offered the following resolution: 

"Whereas, The material prosperity of the community, State and Nation rest 
upon agriculture as its foundation, and 

"Whereas, The liberal and practical education of the farmer is essential to 
his success under the sharp competition of recent years, and 

"Whereas, The public provision for ag-ricultural education in Pennsylvania 
is far below that in any other state and entirely inadequate to supply the 
demand, and 

"Whereas, A combined effort is being^ made by the agricultural organizations 
of the State to secure adequate and necessary means and equipment for educa- 
tion in agriculture and forestry at The Pennsylvania State College; therefore, 

"Resolved, That the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture, as a member of 
the Allied Agricultural Organizations, pledges its hearty support to that effect 
and recommends to its members that they use all proper means to secure from 
the present Legislature a liberal appropriation for the erection and mainte- 
nance of a suitable agricultural building and the support of instruction in agri- 
culture and forestry at The Pennsylvania State College. 

"Resolved, That the Board hereby expresses appreciation of the favorable 
action of the Legislature of 1901, in making an appropriation for a Dairy Build- 
ing, and regrets that that appropriation failed to receive the approval of the 
Governor. 

"Resolved, That a special committee of three (3) be appointed to co-operate 
with the Legislative Committee of the Allied Agricultural Organizations, and 
that the chairman of said committee be the representative of the Board upon 
the Executive Committee of the Allied Agricultural Organizations." Adopted. 

The next paper was by Prof. I. P. Roberts, of Cornell University, 
on "The Responsibilties and Duties of State Boards and Teachers of 
Agriculturo." Hiscussion followed, participated in by Messrs. Ham- 



No. 6. DKPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 209 

iltou, ilai'tiii, Trof. Masscy, l*rof, Cocbraii, iJv. Schaeller, Prof. 
Roberts, riollet, Dr. Kothrock, Prof. Surface, Herr, Clark and 
Fenstemacber. 

On motion, the Board adjourned until to-morrow morning at 9 
\. M. 



Thursday Morninj::, January 29, 1903. 

The Board met at 9 A. M., Vice President Brodbead in the cbair. 

The cluTirmau appointed on the committee to carry into effect 
Mr. Sexton's resolution, R. J, Weld, Jason Sexton and W. F. Beck. 

The Board, on motion, selected State College as the place for its 
next meeting, and the time to be fixed by the Executive Committee. 

The Secretary addressed the meeting on Legislation for the Board 
and the future of the Department of Agriculture. JEe also called 
attention to the commodious rooms of the Department as planned 
in the new Capitol Building. 

On motion, the regular order of business was changed and the 
paper of Prof. Massey, on ''The Southern Cow Pea and its Probable 
Place in the Agriculture of the IMiddle States" was made the first 
order of the day. 

Discussion followed by Messrs. Stout, Massey, Baker and Sexton. 

Dr. John W. Adams then made an address on "Scientific Horse- 
shoeing." Discussion followed by Messrs. Critchfield, Brodhead and 
Hamilton. 

Dr. Pearson made a statement w'ith regard to the use of vaccina- 
tion in "The Immunizing of Cattle against Tuberculosis," where- 
upon the following resolution was offered and, upon motion, 
adopted: 

"Whereas, We are convinced of the great value of a successful method of 
protecting cattle against tul.erculosis by vaccination, and 

"Whereas, Some results ( f experiments in this direction that have been made 
by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board appear to show that such a method 
may be developed, be it 

"Resolved, That we, the State Board of Agriculture, in annual meeting as- 
sembled, hereby recommend that an appropriation be made by the Legislature 
to the Live Stock Sanitary Board for the purpose of supporting further investi- 
gations upon the immunization of cattle against tuberculosis to the end that 
the method may be tested and developed as soon as possible." 

Adjourned to meet at 1..30 P. M. 

The Board met at 1.30 P. M., Vice President Brodhead in the 
chair. 

14—6—1903 



210 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Thuisdav Afternoou, Jauuaiv 29, 191)3. 

The lirsl order of busiucss was tlu' report of the Oruithologisl, 
Prof. Surface. 

Moved by Mr. McHenry, that the State Board of Agriculture 
hereby declares itself as opposed to the passage of the bill now 
pending in the Legislature, which provides for the destruction of 
owls. Carried. 

On motion of Mr. McHenr}', the following resolution was adopted: 

"in view of the large increase of pei'fectly wortliless dogs, the danger to 
life by hydrophobia and the immense loss to farmers in this Commonwealth, 
by the loss oi sheep killed by the useless curs, and other depredations on a 
farm caused by them; therefore, be it 

'■Resolved, That the legislative body now in session be requested to enact a 
law, declaring dogs personal property, that it shall be the duty of the assessors 
to assess said dogs at a value placed upon them by the owners (that the taxes 
for said dog" or dogs be ten per centum of their value per annum, but in no case 
shall such taxes be less than one dollar' per dog). That the taxes shall be col- 
lectible as other taxes are. That after the dog or dogs are so assessed the 
constable of tils' district shall furnish to each owner of dogs a metal tag on 
which thQ number of the dog corresponding to that of the register of the as- 
sessed dog made out by the assessor, for which the constable shall receive 
a compensation of a sum not exceeding twenty-five cents per tag, and it shall 
be the duty of the constable to kill airy and all dogs found in his bailiwick with- 
out such tag attaclied to its collar, for which service he shall receive a com- 
peiTtation of fifty cents per dog killed. 

"And said constables make their return under oath to the court of quarter 
sessions every three months at the regular term, that no dog without a tag can 
be found in his district. 

■'And the owner or owners of dogs so assessed shall be liable for all damages 
caused by them to sheep or other property." 

The report of the Geologist, Dr. Wads worth, was then read and, 
on motion, was received and ordered on file. 

The report of the Mineralogist, Col. H. C. Demming, was pre- 
senti^d and, on motion, was received and ordered on file. 

On motion, a vote of thanks w^as tendered to l*rofs. Massey, and 
Dr. Adams for their instructive addresses. 
On motion, the Board adjourned sine die. 

JOHN HAMILTON, 

Secretary. 



No. fi. t»EPARTMRNT OF ArinTriU.TTTRE. 211 



RE)PORT OF SPECIALISTS OF THK STATE 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, PRFSKNTFD AT 
THF ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT HARRIS- 
BURG, PA., JANUARY 28 AND 29, 1903. 



KEl'ORT OF SANITARIAN. 



By Benjamix 1>ee, M.D., PhihtddphUi. 



By command of the Secretary of Agriculture I agaiu appear 
before you to offer a few words of friendly advice on that most im- 
portant topic, the preservation of health, or, to attack the subject 
on its negative side, the prevention of disease. I was instructed to 
prepare a report, but,' as the oecupant of the important position of 
Sanitarian to this Board has no duties assigned him, he, with great 
diligence performs no duties and has, therefore, nothing to report 
upon. 1, therefore, -venture to style my paper an address rather 
than a report. 

The question may be pertinently asked, whether I have had the 
advantage of an agricultural training which would fit me to advise 
a body of practical farmers on matters pertaining to farm aiid 
homestead life. I am reluctantly compelled to answer this ques- 
tion in the negative. But I Hatter myself that I possess by inherit- 
ance certain traits which may command your confidence. My grand- 
father ran awa}^ to sea when a boy^ and the surmise is that he cul- 
tivated oats of the wild variety with considerable success. For 
many years, as a sea captain, he ploughed the ocean and his keel 
drew broad furrows across many seas. His log-books bear witness 
to the fact that he often passed through harrowing experiences. 
He invariably called a spade a spade and was in the habit of using 
such expressions at ''Ho(e), there!" or "Hay, you!" when addressing 
his mariners. I do not think he was a horse breeder, as he never — 
well — hardly ever — said "dam," although as a naval officer, he was 
quite familiar with the mauagjtMiienl of tlu^ horse marines, and in 
navigating the southern seas lia<l many opportunities of studying 



212 ANNUAL REPORT OF, THE Off. Doo. 

the habits of sea cows. If bis commands were not instantly com- 
plied with, be well understood tbe value of threshing in enforcing 
them. He was alwa3S able to recognize old Father Neptune by 
his pitchfork. If, therefore, there is anything in the doctrine of 
heredity, and I presume all cattle breeders are satisfied that there 
is, have 1 not made good my claim to an inherited aptitude for agri- 
cultural pursuits? Without further prelude, let me call your at- 
tention for a few moments to the subject of 

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE. 

Preventive medicine is unquestionably the medicine of the 
future. The physician of the future will no longer feel that he 
has done his full duty when his patient has recovered from typhoid 
fever, or the surgeon when he has cut off a leg. He will be some- 
thing more and higher than a mere prescriber of pills and po- 
tions. The oldest nation on the face of the earth is the wisest in 
its initial thought on this subject, although its arrested develop- 
ment has not permitted it to work out the idea satisfactorily in 
detail. The duty of the Chinese physician is rather to keep his 
patrons well than to cure them when sick. It has even been as- 
serted that his salary ceases, if, indeed, his head is not cut off, when 
his patron becomes a patient. The whole trend of modern medicine 
is towards the discovery of the causes of diseases and their avoid- 
ance, elimination or destruction. The ounce of prevention is easily 
the winning horse in its race with the pound of cure. The subject 
naturally divides itself into tw^o sub-divisions — preventive medicine 
as related to the individual, which is called personal hj^giene, and 
preventive medicine as related to the people at large, to which are 
applied the titles of public hygiene, public health or state medicine. 
It is to the latter that we will, with your permission, devote a few 
minutes' consideration. 

PUBLIC HYGIENE AND STATE MEDICINE. 

No sooner do individuals begin to group themselves into com- 
munities than the most dominant inincipal of human nature, selfish- 
ness, asserts itself in the effort of each to throw upon his neighbor 
the duty of maintaining healthful conditions in all property which 
is held in common; while, at the same time, the proximity of dwell- 
ings renders it vastly more necessary to strictly observe domestic 
sanitary precautions. Each man waits for his neighbor to clean 
out an offensive gutter or ditch, or remove a putrefying carcass 
from an open lot. ''What is everybody's business is nobody's busi- 
ness." No man is willing to go to more expense or trouble than his 
neighbor in keeping his own premises in a clean, healthful condi- 
tion. Every man maintaining an industry disposes of its waste 
products, however offensive, in such manner as shall involve the 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 213 

least labor and expenditure to himself. Under such conditions, it 
does not require a very long period to produce so poisonous a con- 
dition of the soil, water and air that disease is recognized as the 
result of these uncivilized methods. The North American Indians 
had a very simple plan for meeting an emergency of this kind. 
Their medicine-man held a pow-wow and declared that the Great 
Spirit had cursed the ground on which they were encamped, and 
ordered them to abandon it. This they did with little ado. Strap- 
ping their wigwams on the backs of their ponies, and their house- 
hold effects on the backs of their wives, the braves marched off in 
search of a site for a new village. In so-called civilized communi- 
ties, however, habitations and commercial buildings are not so 
easily transported and possess too great a money value to permit 
them to be lightly abandoned. The alternative is the establish- 
ment of local self-government of the form known as municipal, 
and the appointment of a special authority to which this most im- 
portant "nobody's business" shall be assigned. Such authorities 
discharge their duties with more or less efficiency, usually, unfor 
tunately, it must be admitted, less, inasmuch as, first, selfishness 
and self-interest cannot be entirely eradicated by an act of incor- 
poration; and, secondly, as communities are invariably unwilling 
to provide their health authorities with sufficient money to prop- 
erly carry out the measures necessary for the prevention of dis- 
ease. Moreover, in small communities, the underpaid officials do 
not possess the knowledge or training necessary to enable them to 
recognize and efficiently combat the causes of disease. Hence, as 
individual families, when crowded into a small space, become the 
cause of injury or "nuisance," as it is technically called, to one 
another, so villages and towns, as they multiply, become nuisances 
to neighboring towns. 

The necessity for a central health authority which shall, first, 
instruct local boards in their duties, secondly, ensure greater effici- 
ency in their administration, and, thirdly, aid the Legislature of the 
State in framing proper laws for the better protection of the public 
health and the prevention of disease, uniform in their action through- 
out the entire body politic, therefore, becomes apparent. Singu- 
larly enough, this conclusion was not arrived at until the latter 
half of the last century. The phrase "State Medicine" is compara- 
tively a new one. It is used to describe a combination of the study 
of the causes of diseases and of the means for their prevention 
with that of the appropriate methods of official administration 
for the enforcement of those means. In different countries the 
official administration assumes different forms. In Encrland, the 
central authority is the local government board, to which all local 
health boards must report and to whose rulings they are amenable. 



214 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE * Off. Doc. 

In the Republic of Mexico, it is the Superior Board of Health which 
sustains a like relation to the Boards of Health of the several 
slates, while they, in turn, exercise supervision over the municipal 
boards. In the I>omini()u of Canada, we find Provincial Boards. 
In the United States, very few of the states and territories are 
without a State Board of Health. In some of the states they 
possess executive powers more or less absolute. In others they 
are simply advisory. In many they have the supervision of the 
registration of vital statistics, a very important branch of state 
administration, and without wliidi it is impossible to achieve the 
best results for the health of every portion of the state. In the 
majority of the states, the State Board is in direct relation with the 
municipal boards, both of cities and of townships. In a few there 
are couutv boards of health or couutv health officers, which form 
an intermediary body between the two. 

This would seem to be the ideal plan; but in every state the genius 
of The people, and their traditional forms of government, often 
widely diverse, must be considered if the ready acquiescence of the 
])eople is to be obtained. In some states the township seems to 
be the natural unit of political organization; in others, the county. 
At one time there also existed in the United States a National 
Board of Health, whose chief function was the investigation of the 
cause of disease, and between which and the various state boards 
a loose relationship existed, principally of an advisory and consult- 
ing nature. This board fell to pieces through the influence of state 
jealousies, mismanagement and the lack of natural cohesiveness. 
The necessity of some such central body to co-ordinate the diilerent 
state boards, harmonize contlicting interest, diminish the incon- 
veniences and annoyances of inter-state quarantine, and render 
seaboard quarantine's uniform in their methods of administration, 
in addition to investigating the great problems of the causation 
of disease on a scale which the national treasury alone could pro- 
vide for, has, however, been thoroughly comprehended both by the 
medical profession at large and by practical sanitarians, who have 
been untiring in their elTorts to secure legislation from Congress 
to that end. Such an act has at h'ngtli been passed, and became 
a law, by receiving the signature of llie I'residenl of the United 
States, on the lirst dav of Julv, 1!!U2. Its title is "An act to in 
crease the Efficiency and change the Name of tin- United States 
Marine Hospital Service." The name of that service is changed 
to 'Tublic Health and Marine Hospital Service of the United 
States." The title of the ''Supervising Surgeon-General" is changed 
to "Surgeon-General" and his salary is increased to |5,()()0.()() per 
annum. Provision is made for the appointment of a permanent 
advisory board for the hygienic laboratory already in existence, 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 215 

to bo detailed, oue nieniber each, fioiii the army, the navy, and the 
Bureau of Animal Industry, to which five civilians api)ointed by the 
Surgeon-General arc added for the purpose of taking part in an 
annual conference for a period of not longer than ten days in any 
one year. 

An annual conference of the health authorities of all the states 
and territories and the district of Columbia, each to be entitled 
to one delegate is made compulsory. The Surgeon-General may 
also, at his discretion, invite a conference with health and quaran- 
tine authorities from such states and territories as he deems desir- 
able, as occasion ui-dj require; and, on the api^lication of not less 
than five state or territorial boards of health, quarantine authori- 
ties or state health officers, it becomes his duty to call a conference 
of delegates from such states and territories. Provision is also 
made for the national '"'registration of mortality, morbidity and 
vital statistics." The system of health organization in this country 
may now, therefore, be said to be complete and symmetrical, com- 
prising a central Public Health Bureau at the National Capital, a 
board of health in each state and territory, and local boards in every 
municipality. 

THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF HEALTH AUTHORITIES. 

Having then the necessary machinery established, what are the 
powers and duties of health authorities with reference, first, to the 
causes of disease, and, second, to their avoidance, elimination or 
destruction? 

The powers of boards of health in their relation to the individual 
citizen, ought to be and in most cases are, autocratic and absolute. 
The Czar of Russia, himself, scarcely possesses more unlimited au- 
thority. This is necessary from the very nature of the case. The 
matters with which they are concerned are those of life and death, 
and the utmost promptness of action is often demanded in order 
that life may be saved and grave disaster prevented. Under com- 
mon law, the courts are the recourse for those whose lives or health 
are threatened in any way whatever. To such the courts have 
always been open. But the law's delays are proverbial, and. since 
during such delays many lives may be lost and great calamities 
may result, all legislators recognize the necessity for an authority 
in this most important domain which may act promptly, independ- 
ently, and autocratically within the limits of its jurisdiction. 
Neither person nor property are exempt from its pains and penal- 
ties. It may restrain the liberty of the one and destroy the other 
on the simple ground that in its judgment, such action is necessary 
for the protection of the public health. ''^Salm popvJi suprema 
est ?(?«'." ''The health of the people is, indeed, the supreme law." 



216 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The highest diguitary of the land is as amenable to its rule as the 
beggar in the street. Local health authorities often fail to recog- 
nize the full extent of their powers and are too timid in their 
exercise. The law which creates them carefully defines their duties 
and the limitations of their jjowers, and within these lines, no' one 
can interfere with them. 

The first duty of a board of health is to discover the causes of 
disease within the territory under its jurisdiction. This it accom- 
plishes in two ways: First, and most important, by insisting on 
prompt and accurate returns of births, deaths and communicable 
diseases, from all persons in any way connected with such occur- 
rences, such as physicians, midwives, undertakers and heads of 
families. In this manner alone can it determine what diseases are 
prevalent and in what parts of their territory they are most preva- 
lent, and thus arrive at a conclusion as to their causes. Important 
as is their duty for the abatement of nuisances, this does not com- 
pare in beneficent and far-reaching results with that for the en- 
forcement of the registration of vital statistics. And yet this is 
usually the last which boards of health in small towns are inclined 
to take up, and that for which municipal legislators are willing to 
appropriate the least money. The intelligence of a community, 
or even of a Commonwealth, may be gauged with accuracy by the 
attention which it devotes to this matter. It is the basis of all 
intelligent sanitary adminstration. Secondly, by inspections. These 
must be made by officers trained to the work, frequently and sys- 
tematically, especial attention being, of course, devoted to those 
quarters, villages or districts which the returns indicate as being 
the foci of disease or centres of infection. Blanks should be pro- 
vided on which every possible condition liable to affect the health 
of a street, alley, yard, dwelling, place of business or manufacture 
should have its appropriate place. At certain seasons, and during 
epidemics, house-to-house inspections should be made. Systematic 
inspection of schools is essential. 

Having determined the causes of diseases and their haunts, how 
shall health authorities procec^d to their elimination and destruc- 
tion. 

First, by adopting and rigidly rnrorcing regulations for protect- 
ing the purity of food products, especially of meat and milk. These 
latter articles should be kept under supervision from the pasture 
and the stable to the slaughter house, the market and the delivery 
wagon. 

Second, by using every means in their power to obtain copious 
supplies of pure water for their communities. The frequent exam- 
ination of water sup])lies, both public and private, and the publica- 
tion of the results is an imporiant means to this end. AA'arice 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 217 

and official chicanery will oppose them at every step, but they 
eannot neglect this duty if they possess honesty and self-respect. 

Third, by compelling landlords and employers to provide means 
of ventilation and sullicient air space in all sleeping apartments 
and work rooms. 

Fourth, by compelling private individuals and corporations to 
maintain their dwellings, places of business and premises in a 
state of cleanliness and freedom from all nuisances prejudicial to 
health. i 

Fifth, by calling the attention of the municipal government to 
all offensive accumulations on streets, alleys, roads or commons, 
and to the importance of provision for effective drainage. 

Sixth, by strictly isolating all cases of contagious disease, which, 
in their judgment, demand such treatment for the protection of the 
public. ' 

Seventh, by instructing those in whose homes contagious disease 
exists as to the precautions necessary for their own protection 
and that of their neighbors. 

Eighth, by thoroughly disinfecting all apartments, houses, public 
vehicles, clothing and personal effects which have been exposed 
to infection. 

Ninth, by insisting on the establishment by the municipal authori- 
ties of a hospital for contagious diseases, and by removing persons 
suffering from such diseases to said hospital in every case in which 
such action is practicable, in an ambulance reserved for that pur- 
pose alone. 

Tenth, by making provision for the gratuitous vaccination of the 
poor and furnishing diphtheria antitoxin for the poor on the appli- 
cation of a reputable physician. 

Eleventh, by keeping the people informed of the condition of the 
public health, and especially of the prevalence of any communicable 
disease, and by distributing, from time to time, circulars instructing 
the people how to avoid such diseases. Concealment of such dis- 
eases is a crime, by whomsoever committed, whether householder, 
physician or board of health. 

Twelfth, while the microscope has failed to demonstrate the ex- 
istence of bacteria as the cause of some of the infectious diseases 
with which we are most familiar, such as measles, chicken-pox and 
small-pox, it has succeeded in the case of so many others, that we 
are fully justified, reasoning by analogy, in the conclusion that all 
communicable diseases are dependent on a like cause. 

The discovery of these causes, the devising of methods for their 
prompt recognition, and of means for their elimination and de- 
struction are among the most important duties assigned to national 
and state boards of health. Such researches call for the expendi- 
15 ' ^ 



218 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

ture of large amounts of money and are, therefore, not so readily 
prosecuted by local boards, but the furnishing of opportunities 
for the prompt diagnosis of such of the communicable diseases as 
can be thus distinguished is now recognized as the duty of the 
boards of health of all cities. 

Wherever in this summary of the duties of boards of health I' 
have made use of the w^ords municipalities or municipal authorities, 
1 desire to be understood as including those quasi-municipalities 
known as townships, the importance of Avhich the State Legislature 
is just beginning to recogni/.e as essential factors in State adminis- 
tration by conferring upon them for the first time in the history 
of the State, powers of self-government. Tw^o comparatively recent 
acts make them self-governing as regards the enforcement of sani 
tary laws and regulations. TIk se enactments have come none too 
soon. The country districts are sadly in need of sanitary super- 
vision. In the words of another, a practising physician living in 
the country, "the experience of every countr}^ physician will bear 
us out when we say that such diseases as typhoid fever, diphtheria, 
scarlet fever and measles have quite as many victims in the country 
as in the city. There is many a household with a vacant chair 
by the hearth in every neighborhood in our broad land, which can 
also testify to this terrible truth." Today he might have added 
to his list, small-pox, which is going up and down through our rural 
districts, not like a roaring lion, but rather like a sneaking wild 
cat, seeking whom it may devour, maim or disfigure. Some years 
since, I requested a distinguished physician to read a paper before 
a sanitar}^ convention on "Typhoid Fever and its Prevention.'' 
When he came to the platform, he announced that he had taken 
the liberty of changing the title to "Ty])hoid Fever, a Disease of 
the Village and Farm." His essay amply justified the title. "Sub- 
urban and rural districts," he maintained, "possess a special lia- 
bility to this disease, which lies chiefly in the contamination of 
their w^ater supply. > These conditions iwv (^asily understood and 
are usually due to direct communication hrtween cesspools and 
wells. The fluids percolating the soil fi-om a cesspool near a well, 
or overflowing in time of rains carry the disease with tenfold more 
certainty than the much dreaded sewers of the city. Ju«t so long 
as townshi])s are without regularly constituted, eflicient and intelli- 
gent health authorities, just so long will the farmers of our State 
sow abundant cro])s of little white headstones in th(Mr God's acres 
as well as of wheat and corn in their broad fields. 

In conclusion, it may be asked whether State medicine has 
achieved results which justify its existence? The answer is not 
far to seek and is most gratifying and conclusive. In the Cen- 
sus Bulletin of the Twelfth Census of tlie United States, published 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 219 

August LM), 11)01, Mr. \V. A. Iviug, Cliief Statistician for Vital Sta- 
tistics, in a conimunicatioii transuiittiiig the pi-eliminai'.y statistics 
of deaths to the Director of the Census, says: "The most import- 
ant feature of the results presented is found in the decrease in 
the general death rate in the registration area of 1.8 per 1,00(J 
of population, a decrease of nearly 10 per cent., and the decrease 
in the rates from the particular diseases to which the general de- 
crease is due. The effect of the advances made in medical science 
and sanitation, and in the preventive and restrictive measures en- 
forcd by health authorities is still more strikingly shown in the 
comparative rate for the registration cities of the coi^ntry taken 
together." In 181)0, the death rate was 21 per 1,000, and in 1900 
only 18.0 pei' 1,000, a reduction of 2.4 per 1,000. 'The average age 
at death in ISDO was 31.1 years; in 11100 it was 35.2." The addition 
of four years to the average of human life in cities within a de- 
cade seems almost incredible, but the writer has recently inquired 
of Mr. King whether, on carefully going over the returns in the 
meantime, he had seen any reason to modify his conclusions? The 
reply was, that, on the contrary, they were fully sustained. 

More astonishing, if possible, however, are the results achieved 
by American sanitarj"^ officers in the cities of Cuba and in Manila. 
The annual death rate in Havana has been, in the short space of 
two 3'ears, reduced from 67 per 1,000 to 25 per 1,000, while that 
terrible scourge, yellow fever, which used to carry off more than 
one hundred of her people every month, has entirely disappeared. 
In Santiago de Cuba, similar brilliant results have been obtained. 
In the city of ^Manila, the results have been not less striking and 
gratifying. The death rate for the month of October, 1899, the 
first month for which we have reports, was 01.39 per 1.000. The 
death rate for ten months of 1900 was 41.99, as compared with a 
rate of 33.4 for the same ten months of 1901, figures for the other 
two months not being available. The present cholera epidemic has, 
of course, raised the" rate, but in the main, the figures go to show 
that, during the period of American occupation, the death rate in 
Manila has been lowered nearly fifty per cent. It is true that this 
wonderful transformation was accomplished under military rule, 
but this simply means intelligent, honest, fearless performance of 
duty, backed by an adequate appropriation. 

When such results reported by trained and thoroughly reliable 
observers can be adduced, it is no longer possible for the most in- 
credulous to doubt the imme:nse bf>nefits which sanitary science, 
applied by s.initary officers, is conferring on the world. 



■22« ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



REPORT OF THE BOTANIST. 



By Prof. W. a. Buckhout, state ColleQe, Pa. 



During the year 1902 the Botanist has answered inquiries upon 
various matters connected with plants and plant life. The most 
frequent and important were as follows: 

1. Specimens of weeds were sent for naming and for directions 
how best to eradicate them. The range of kinds was not large, 
nor did it include any which were really new to farmers and gard- 
eners generally, although in many cases new to the senders. Re- 
plies to these letters have been necessarily of the same general 
character, inasmuch as it is doubtful whether there are any specific 
methods of weed destruction which are practicable on a large scale. 
Rotation of crops, clean cultivation and fertile soil will ordinarily 
sufiBce to crowd out or prevent the entrance of weeds. Indeed, the 
presence of troublesome weeds means that one or more of these 
factors is lacking. The process of weed eradication may require 
some years of patient labor, owing to the difficulty of getting some 
soils into the fertile condition and in establishing a rotation of 
crops, but no other methods are satisfactory. 

All who are interested in this matter should send to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, for Farmer's Bulletin. 
"Weeds and How to Kill Them." This gives the gist of the whole 
weed question. If the farmers in a given community would unite 
in a war against weeds, including cutting those upon highways and 
uncultivated lands so as to prevent seeding, two years would show 
a marked reduction in weed injury with cleaner fields and better 
food crops. 

One correspondent, intending to make some changes iu his yard, 
raises the query what efi:'ect, if any, will be caused by filling in 
earth about his fruit and ornamental trees. This inquiry is perti- 
nent, since experience plainly shows that any change of grade or 
level about trees is a check and injury to them. To remove surface 
earth, thus bringing roots nearer to the air, is generally'understood 
to be an injury, but many persons seem not to have learned that 
filling in earth about a tree, thus removing its roots to deeper level, 
is fully as injurious. Sometimes it is sought to minimize the injury 
by making the filling largely of stone or gravel and by building up 
a wall about the trunk of the tree. The result is seldom satisfac- 



N't*. «. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 221 

tory. vyhile there is a diilerence in trees and in soil this is largely 
theoretical; 'it is never safe to fill in about a tree more than a 
foot and the danger rapidly increases with the depth of the filling. 
The injury may not be marked for several years. That it is not 
more frequently caused is chiedy due to the fact that, owing to the 
spread of roots and the inclination of the surface, some parts are 
left unchanged or so slightly changed that root action is not ma- 
terially alfected. There is much barbarous treatment of trees be- 
sides cutting off their roots and surfacing about them with asphalt 
and pavement blocks, where everything must be sacrificed to the 
rigid level of the engineer. In case material changes in grade and 
level are necessary, it will be, in the long run, more satisfactory to 
remove old trees entirely and reset them, or, if they are too large, 
to destroy them and start anew with young trees. 

3. Many of the inquiries are, naturally, respecting fungi and 
fungus diseases of cultivated plants. They range over the whole 
field of that voluminous subject. Some of them are simple and 
easy, so far as determination of the fungus and the disease are 
concerned, such as wheat rust, for instance; one soon learns to dis- 
tinguish this at sight. A patch of rusted wheat, particularly in 
the fall, is apt to suggest the "work of the Hessian fly, and, indeed, 
they are frequently associated, but not probably as to cause and 
effect; they are, presumably, independent. Kemedy for such dis- 
eases is quite a different and a much more difficult matter, chiefly 
because of the practical ditficulties connected with their applica- 
tion. The expense incurred in the direct application of fungicides 
is frequently prohibitive. Preventive measures are to be sought 
for, and these take a wide range and often call for a nicety of knowl- 
edge and a closeness of observation not appreciated by farmers who 
are generally slow to change old practices. The conditions sur- 
rounding growing plants should be the best which can be made for 
producing a rapid, continuous and vigorous growth. Such healthy, 
active plants have a measure of resistance to fungus attack which 
is not possessed by weaklings. 

One must sometimes choose between a variety of vigorous growth 
and productiveness, though of somewhat inferior quality, and one 
which is of weaker growth and less productive, though of superior 
quality, the former being not subject to fungus injury while the 
latter suffers seriousl}'. Coupled with this must be proper atten- 
tion to crop rotation, since fungus germs tend to accumulate in a 
soil or its plant refuse under continuous cultivation of one crop, 
and can be removed only by periodically introducing some new 
kind of crop. Burning or removing refuse is a great aid in securing 
immunity from injurious fungi. The particular case which called 
out these recommendations was one in which the celery blight wa* 



222 ANNUAL FlEPoRT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the fnii^iis coiiccnuMl. CclcrN hiiulil consists in an vavlv wither- 
inj; of tin' IcnNcs of the cclcrv jjlant and their cousequont growth 
of small, ])Oor and pithv k'af stalks, useless for food. The insignifi- 
cant little fnngns which tlins blights the leaves may be reduced in 
destructiveness by the process of spraying with Bordeaux mixture 
and other fungicides, l^ut if this remedy is tried at all it should 
be as early in the growth of the plants as possible or the stalks 
will be unfit for food. Since the blight is apt to continue into the 
early fall it is evidence that spraying is of doubtful value. The 
choice of resistant varieties, clean culture and crop rotation are 
the most feasible means of relief from this particular pest. 

Still more obscure and uusatisfactor}' with which to deal are 
certain mould-like fungi which live in the organic debris of the soil, 
and when conditions are fa^orable may attack living plants which 
have been weakened by frost or other means. These soil fungi are 
not uncommon, but it is comparatively seldom that the conditions 
are so favorable as to make them effective parasites upon useful 
plants. Generally, should they attack them at all, they cause but 
a temporary check and are soon outgrown. It is probable that the 
use of lime is the most satisfactory remedy for such disorders. At 
times and places where young grain has been visibly checked in 
growth and examination has shown these soil fungi as the probable 
cause it has been noticed that well-limed fields are exempt. 

One of the most interesting of recent specific inquiries was that 
concerning a curious disease of ornamental white birches, which 
is accompanied by an exudation of red or brown slime, offensive to 
the sight and smell. These slime fluxes have long been known in 
Europe upon a variety of common trees, but are yet very imperfectly 
understood. They appear to be the result of some mechanical in- 
jury, or following frost cracks and checks. Eut they often occur 
wiien it seems improbable that there could have been any such 
causes. AMiatever the initial cause may be, the sap of such trees 
seems to undergo fermentation and to become filled with various 
kinds of yeast and moulds which cause it to become slimy and 
frothy to an extraordinary degree. 

The writer has never seen this disease, nor is he aware that it 
has been made the subject of study in this country. Without the 
lack of more definite information, he does not feel warranted in 
making any recommendations for treatment. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 223 



REPORT OF THK GEOLOGIST. 



BY JJH. M. K. Wauswoktu, StuU' Ciill-ent, 



At the time of my appointment to the office 1 now hold under 
the direction of your honorable iJoard, it was stated to you that 
my tirst duty would have to be to the students under my charge, 
at The Pennsylvania State College, but that 1 was willing to give 
such time as i could find to the duties of (jeologist. Since my es- 
tablishment in my present position, my time has been almost ex- 
clusively given to reorganizing the Department, and rearranging 
and enlarging the collections. The result lias been most gratifying 
in the increased interest taicen bv the students, and in the further 
fact that the attendance has been doubled within a year. 

The chief interest to your honorable JBoard lies in this: That 
part of the above instruction is given to the students of the State 
College of agriculture. At the outset, the students in the agricul- 
tural course had instruction under me, only, for one semester for 
three hours a v>eek, in geology. Such an arrangement as this was 
unsatisfactory, as these students had to be united in one class 
with others who had had a preparation more or less satisfactory 
in the preliminary study of minerals and rocks. After calling 
the attention of the faculty or the School of Agriculture to the 
difhculty, I \sas kindly allowed two hours during the first half, and 
three hours during the second half of the second semester of the 
freshman year, and one hour during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year, for the preparatory studies. \\ hile an improvement, the 
time granted is insufficient and too fragmentary for satisfactory 
work. • I ; 

The position of Geologist for your Board has brought to me also 
numerous samples of rocks and minerals, to be determined for 
members of our rural communities, scattered all over the State. 
These determinations relate principally to clays, ores of iron, man- 
ganese and copper, and sujjposed cobalt, silver, gold, coal, etc. The 
amount of ignorance displayed in these matters, and the stubborn 
unwillingness, on the part of the inquirers, to accept the truth, 
all point to the preceding moral, thai time, more time, ought to be 
given in all of our agricultural courses, to practical instruction in 
mineralogy, petrography and general and economic geology. 



224 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Why need millions of dollars be wasted by our farmers in vainly 
trying to obtain native gold, when all he has is some of the yellow 
sulphides of iron, or of iron and copper, or of shining mica scales, 
weathered yellow. If they know the simple fact that native gold 
is soft and will cut without falling to pieces, while all other yellow 
minerals, mistaken for gold, are harder, and when cut are brittle, 
no such costly mistakes need exist, even when in minute quanti- 
ties, the properties of gold can be shown by scratching the supposed 
gold with a knife blade or a needle point. If it be gold, the metal 
will ridge up and lay over without breaking, as will a damp soil 
with a stout sward under the plow. If the mineral is not gold, it 
will ridge up and crumble on both sides of the furrow, like dry, bare 
soil under a double mould-board plow. Or, again, if a bit of the 
mineral is struck by a hammer, it will ilatten and spread out, if 
gold; but crumble, if some other yellow mineral. 

Simple practical facts like these, can easily be taught students, 
if they are given sufficient time for the laboratory practice. The 
student of agriculture in Pennsylvania, working in any rocky dis- 
trict, ought to have a practical acquaintance with the commoner 
minerals and rocks; to know how to distinguish the useful from the 
useless; to have some familiarity with building stones, road-making 
materials, the modes of occurrence of coal, petroleum, gas, salt, 
clay, limes, mortars, cement, slate, ochres and mineral paints, fer- 
tilizers and waters and ores of iron, manganese, gold, silver, lead, 
zinc, etc. It is not to be expected that so much work can be intro- 
duced into the already crowded curriculums of the various schools 
of agriculture, but it would be comparatively easy to insert it in 
the form of options or electives, so arranged that the geological 
subjects need be taken only by those who have an aptitude for 
them, or who expect to put them into practical use on their own 
land. This knowledge is as necessary for the agriculturist to 
protect himself from being swindled into the belief that he has 
minerals of value on his land as to prevent his being cheated out of 
valuable mineral property which he has. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 225 



REPORT OP THE) MINIi:RALOGIST. 



Bv Col. Hbnry C. Dxmming, Harrisburj, Pa. 



The work of the Mineralogist of your Board during the year 1902 
was varied and interesting. Much of the time was taken up in 
other states and territories, but part of this was for the purpose 
of helping our own Commonwealth in the very important matter 
of water filtration. 

There are three subjects of importance to be reported upon at 
this time. Some of you may remember the report last year upon 
soil analysis of every field of a 550-acre farm near Harrisburg. 
Acting on that report, the owner put a special plot of thirty-five 
acres in wheat, first adding two of the five constituents recom- 
mended. The result was an increase in the crop of seventeen 
bushels of wheat to the acre, and the largest and solidest heads of 
wheat ever seen in this part of the State. The cost of the two 
constituents was equal to about five bushels of wheat to the acre, 
leaving a net gain of* twelve bushels, or a total net gain of 420 
bushels to the thirty-five acres. 

Many fires take place in the country and in towns due to "defective 
flues." A careful investigation during the year convinces me that 
the flues and chimneys were not apparently defective when the 
dwellings were built, but became so by reason of the inferior sand 
or lime used in the mortar. Of all the states of the Union, Penn- 
sylvania produces the best sand and lime for building purposes, and 
it has become almost criminal that such inferior stuff is allowed 
to take their place. An analysis of sand used in one of Pennsyl- 
vania's chief cities gave nearly 20 per cent, organic matter, such 
as decayed vegetation, animal fats, etc., and some lime proved to 
be over one-fourth foreign matter. To test the properties of such 
materials, we had quantities of mortar and plastering made up in 
my laboratory, and placed between bricks and on walls. We found 
that fire would find its way through such mortar in the course of 
a few hours, and that the plastered walls were not only damp in 
damp weather, but sometimes fairly soggy; that, furthermore, they 
were porous and unhealthy — in some instances containing infectious 
germs. The only remedy is the using of best qualities of silica 
sand and limestone running highest in carbonate of lime. 



226 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Pure water has boon haviiiji^ its sliarc of attention. ^^> now 
know that on every farm, as well as in every town home, there is 
danger of water pollution. Happily, there is a Aery cheap and 
effective remedy. The most primitive, as well as effective, is by 
boiling. But as few resort to this method for cattle, it has been 
ascertained that if water is allowed to pass through comparatively 
clean gravel, and then through coarse and fine sand — the whole 
mass about three feet thick — the upper part to be scraped off 
to the depth of only half an inch every two months — the animals 
drinking the water thus purified will be in better condition in evoi'y 
way, and bring a higher price than when allowed to drink the im- 
pure water of most of our farms. Many of our good, old-fashioned 
farmer friends may not see the importance of this, but the time is 
not far off when the miry barnyard and the impure water of the 
barn and many of the fields will have to go. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF ACRH ni l/P r KK. 227 



REPORT OF THE ORNITHOI.OGIST. 



By I'HOF. J}. A. Surface, State Cotletie, Pa. 



It appears to us that tliis report should be based upon two <2:eiieral 
features, one dealinj; with the personal work of the committee, and 
the other treating, at least briefly, of the general progress of Orni- 
thology during the past year. This shall, therefore, be the method 
of treatment. 

JFtrst, Personal Woj'k of the Committee — This has necessarily 
been either in disseminating knowledge or obtaining it. The meth- 
ods of the former have been by (a) private correspondence, (b) by 
writing articles for publication, and (c) by speaking or delivering 
public lectures. We ask to be permitted to discuss each in turn. 

(a.) Private Correspondence. — During the past year our corres- 
pondence upon subjects in ornithology has not been nearly as vol- 
uminous as in certain other scientific subjects — especially ento- 
mology, but it has been enough to indicate a general ^'hungering and 
thirsting" after this knowledge on the part of our citizens, especially 
teachers. It is one of the encouraging "signs of the times" that 
teachers in public schools — from the country, the graded and the 
high schools — are commencing to take such an interest in Nature 
Studies that they realize the deficiency of their own knowledge 
(which is the first essential in obtaining more), and are appealing 
to those persons who should be considered as experts in their 
several fields for the treasures of truth that may be obtained from 
the larger storehouses. Since the appointment of this committee 
a year ago, it has been called upon to answer eleven letters, or 
about one per month, upon subjects pertaining to ornithology. 

(b.) Writing for Publication. — We have written several general 
articles on birds, mostly of an economic value; but our most fruitful 
method of reaching the public has been by a series of press circu- 
lars sent to every newspaper and other periodical publication in this 
State, and to some of the agricultural publications issued in adjoin- 
ing states. These have been widely reprinted and circulated, and we 
trust that they have proven useful. We should say that they were 
made possible, financially, by the co-operation of the authorities 
of The Pennsylvania State College. In the second of these press 
circulars we discussed "The Economic Value and Protection of Our 



228 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Native Birds," in a manner similar to that outlined by us in our 
address before this appreciative assemblage one year ago. Also, 
we published the following method of poisoning such obnoxious 
birds as the English sparrow: 

A. "Poisoned \Yheat for Seed-eating Mammals and Birds: It is 
often desired to poison certain destructive seed-eating animals, such 
as rats, mice, muskrats, gophers and woodchucks, as well as English 
sparrows. The difficulty of poisoning th.ese mammals and birds is 
well known to those who have tried it, as the poison renders the 
food distasteful to such an extent that it is not generally eaten in 
sufficient quantity to cause death. This difficulty can be overcome 
and success can be obtained by first poisoning grains of wheat, 
then sugar-coating them. To do this dissolve about one-fourth of 
an ounce (or eight grams) of strychnine in one-fourth of a pint of 
boiling vinegar, then add water enough to make one pint. Pour 
this over three or four pounds of wheat and let it soak one day (24 
hours), stirring occasionally. Next, spread the wheat in the sun 
or by a fire and let it dry. When dry, add one pound of coarse 
sugar to one pint of hot water and boil it down to one-half pint. 
Stir well and add about ten drops or one-fourth teaspoonful of anise 
oil. Stir and pour the hot mixture over the dry wheat, stirring 
thoroughly until cold and all wheat is covered. This is now dan- 
gerously poisoned sugar-coated wheat, which has its legitimate 
uses, but will kill anything that eats it, whether given by intent or 
accident. For this reason it should at once be labelled and always 
handled with care. To use it for rodents, bury a small quantity — 
from a few grains to one-half teaspoonful — just beneath the surface 
of the soil near the burrow of the animal. Having been buried, 
it will not be found by fowls or seed-eating birds, but the rodents 
will readily smell the anise oil and dig it up. In using this bait to 
kill English sparrows, place it in vessels on roofs and at other places 
where domestic fowls can not find it." 

In the third of those press circulars we discussed "The Birds of 
the Winter Time," making the following statements that are ap- 
j)ropriate just at this season and intended to direct attention 
toward the efficient services rendered by these faithful but too often 
neglected allies: 

B. "The Birds of the Winter Time. 

"Certain small birds that remain with us during the winter time 
are of very great value, although their economic effects are not 
generally known. Those birds are very beneficial for their destruc- 
tion of both weed seeds and insects. Some, like the sparrows and 
horned larks, feed during the winter upon seeds alone, most of 
which are the seeds of weeds that are more or less obnoxious; 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 229 

others, like the quail, i'eed upon both seeds and insects and some 
feed upon insects alone, even during the winter, when it is popularly 
thought that no insects are to be found. It is to these and the 
necessity of preserving them that we wish to call especial attention 
at this time. 

"Two very important small birds that remain with us all winter 
and feed entirely upon insects, especially in orchards, are the downy 
and hairy woodpeckers. Members of this family can be known 
by their dipping flight, their short, sharp notes, their sharp, rigid 
tail feathers pressed against the tree for support, two toes in 
front and two behind, insuring a firmer grasp, their hard pecking 
against wood, their modest white and black colors, and the patch 
of red on the head of the male. They are found mostly on the 
trunks and larger limbs of the trees, head upward, searching for 
grubs, chrysaiids, etc. They are erroneously called "sapsuckers," 
and are killed through ignorance of their own value. They do not 
suck sap, and do not injure the trees. Protect the small wood- 
peckers of the winter time and thus protect your fruit crops. 

''Two other valuable winter birds are the two species of nut- 
hatches. These can be known by their drab and grayish colors, 
no red, the call of which is a nasal "pank," and their alighting on the 
trunks and larger branches of trees, mostly head downward. They 
do not peck into wood, as do the woodpeckers, but they pry into 
every crack and crevice and under every possible scale of bark in 
search of insects of any and ail kinds and stages, and will freely 
eat eggs, such as those of the pear tree psylla, apple aphids, etc., 
larval such as hibernate beneath loose bark, pupye or chrysaiids of 
all kinds of insects that are to be found in cracks and under bark, 
and adults or mature insects that are hibernating. For the extrac- 
tion of such pests these nuthatches have bills that are especially 
long, slender, straight and pointed. 

^'Mr. Mann, a well-known pear grower near Rochester, N. Y., told 
the writer that one year the pear tree psylla had destroyed his 
entire pear crop, amounting to thousands of dollars in value, and 
the eggs of the insects were so numerous in the fall that he thought 
there were no prospects of a crop the following year, but the nut- 
hatches, both species, worked in fiocks in his orchard all winter, 
and in the spring he could scarcely find an insect left. The birds 
of this one species had saved him thousands of dollars in one winter. 
These birds are also often mistaken for the so-called sapsucker and 
ignorantly killed. Is it any wonder that we advise all fruit growers 
and others to preserve their birds? 

"Another remarkably valuable bird of the winter time is the 
common chickadee. It can be known by its small size, black cap 
on its head, bluish-gray back and lighter under side, and especially 



2;;0 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

by the lael ilia I it jicuuially aliglils ou the twigs of trees and swings 
liead downward and every way, while clinging with its feet, like a 
veritable acrobat. It lives altogether upon insects, and eats an 
immense number of them, its chief food consisting of the eggs of 
plant lice, small chrysalids, etc. A study of its stomach contents 
has proven beyond a doubt that it is one of the most valuable 
birds known to the farmer and fruit grower. 

"The brown creeper also often occurs in our orchards during the 
winter. It is a small bird, slightly larger than the chickadee, with 
a very long, slender, curved bill, with which it extracts insects of 
all kinds and in ail stages from their winter hiding places where 
none but an expert entomologist w'ould think to tind them. It is 
one of the few kinds of birds with stilf and pointed tail feathers 
upon which it rests at times, as upon a third leg. All of these birds 
can be aided by putting fat meat, suet, or trimming from butcher- 
ings, in trees for them. Place bands of tin around the trees and 
cats and squirrels will not get the food put up for the birds, which 
are our most useful allies. 

"For quails, it is necessary, while there is prolonged snow, to 
feed them by setting sheaves of unthreshed grain of any kind in 
brush piles and scattering straws with grain in the head or brush 
so the falling snow will not cover it. If this is not done most of 
the quails in this State are likely to die of starvation soon." 

In addition to these we have written a few articles on "Making 
Bird lioxes in Manual Training Schools," which have proven useful, 
and also gave directions for bird study in the public schools. 

In a text-book on General Biology, prepared by us during the 
year, we gave due prominence to the scientific and economic features 
of ornithology, and we have advised and put into successful opera- 
tion certain new laboratory methods of studying birds, by which the 
knowledge of the student is derived directly from specimens and 
living creatures instead of relying entirely upon the indirect and 
second-hand method of text-book teaching. 

In the work of disseminating knowledge of birds by public speak- 
ing, we have delivered twenty-eight lecttu'es, chieily at Farmers' 
Institutes, both summer and winter, upon the subject of the '*Eco- 
nomic Value and Protection of Our Native Birds," reaching over 
ten thousand i)ersons, and calling attention to the alarming de- 
crease of many kinds of our native birds, the consequently attend- 
ing increase of insects, and tlie necessit}^ and methods of our help- 
ing our feathered friends. 

Our personal work in obtaining new knowledge has been by experi- 
mentation, investigation and observation. Having had such a mul- 
titude- of other primary obligations at Iho State College, there has 



No. 6. DEJ'AinMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 331 

bc'L'ii ui) oi)pi)iLiiniLj> lor cxLcudcd iu\cstigaLious iu this line; yet 
a few simple expei-inients were iindeitaken. For example, in erect- 
ing boxes or houses for nests, I found that the interesting little 
house wrens would readily nest in the old skull of a beef or horse, 
01' in a large cigar box with a hole one inch in diameter. This 
size hole admits the wrens, but excludes the English sparrows. 
Bluebirds nested in a box 8 in. x 8 in. x 12 in., with a hole, one and 
one-half inches in diameter cut above the middle of one side. From 
this box, erected on our front porch, two broods of bluebirds came 
forth last summer. Upon the same porch were the nests of the 
bluebirds, the wrens, and the song sparrows. This shows how we 
may practically aid in establishing colonies of birds. 

A related experiment was in driving awa}^ the English sparrows. 
The morning the bluebirds were first seen around the box the Eng- 
glish sparrows were driven away by us, but of course these per- 
sistent intruders returned and entered into combat with the de- 
sired tenants. A few missiles convinced the British that over- 
whelming forces were allied against them, and they retired until 
toward evening. A skirmish ensued, again ending in favor of the 
allied forces. For a few days these occasional attacks continued, 
with the same assistance and results, until the forei'gners learned 
that they were attempting a campaign of hopeless aggression on 
the land of irresistible enemies, and the native forces gained confi- 
dence in their own power and in the faithfulness of their newly- 
formed allies. Thus were established a happy home and, we hope, 
mutual pleasures until the sounding of the farewell whistle from 
a clear slvy one autumn evening, and we hope may be renewed with 
the joyous twitter indicating the welcome return on a fair spring 
morning ere long. 

This shows how, in ornithological affairs, to answer such vexing 
questions as often perplex human beings regarding the erection of 
suitable tenement houses and securing desirable tenants. 

Another experiment has been in feeding birds. We have found 
that they will come regularly to food and water placed on a board 
near a window, where they may be watched and much pleasure 
derived by watching them. The insectivorous birds of the winter 
time will enjoy bits of fat meat and crumbs, and nearly all species 
will eat the parings and cores of apples and other fresh fruits. 
Also, we have had opportunitj" to definitely observe the satisfactory 
results of planting mulberry trees near gardens and berry patches 
to feed the birds and relieve them from the necessity of their slight 
attacks on the desirable fruits. This we have had verified by re- 
ports from careful observers from other counties — especially Law- 
rence. 

We have made some scientific observations along this line that 



232 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE* Off. Doc. 

naturalists have considered worthy of record. Among these are 
such records as the occurrence for a few days in the latter part of 
July of a family of American crossbills {Loxia ourvirostra) on the 
campus of the Pennsyhania State College feeding, not on the cus- 
tomar}^ pine seeds, but upon the "cock's-comb" galls of the elm tree 
and upon the mites that cause these peculiar excrescences. This 
family consisted of six birds — an adult male, an adult female, and 
four young of the year. We thus have proof of their nesting in 
Central Pennsylvania. It is but just to add that they did not fall 
victims to the insatiable gun of the ambitious collector. 

Another record worthy of note because unparalleled, as far as 
we can learn, is that of the occurrence of the cardinal, or red-bird 
{Cardinalis cai'dinalis) in Centre county in November. We can 
not learn of this conspicuous bird having been previously recorded 
in Centre county. Other observations have been made upon the 
migrations and peculiar feeding habits of the red-headed wood- 
peckers. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 322 



REPORT OF THE POMOLOGIST. 



Bv Cyki'S T. Fox, lieadino. Pa. 



As the Pomologist of jour honorable body, it becomes incumbent 
upon me to give the result of observations in regard to the fruit 
crop of 1902 in Pennsylvania, with some thoughts on the general 
subject of fruit culture. 

APPLES. 

First, as to the apple crop. Of all fruits the apple is the most im- 
portant, and that this is so is evidenced by the fact that the acreage 
devoted to apples in this State is greater than that of all other 
fruits combined. Pennsylvania ranks as the third apple-producing 
state of the Union, being only excelled by New York and Ohio. 
Missouri is credited with having the largest number of trees, but 
stands sixth in the matter of production. The apple crop of Penn- 
sylvania in 1902 amounted to 35,000,000 bushels, worth more than 
125,000,000. 

These figures are somewhat less than those of the previous year, 
when the crop amounted to 38,000,000 bushels, while in 1900, when 
the yield was exceptionally large, there were 40,000,000 bushels. Es- 
timating the yield in this State last year at three and one-half bush- 
els per tree, there are 10,000,000 apple bearing trees in Pennsylvania. 
New York is credited with having 15,000,000 trees, and Missouri 
with having no less than 20,000,000. 

That the apple is a northern fruit, requiring a cold climate, is 
apparent by the larger yield of the orchards of New York and 
Canada. New York, having three-fourths as many trees as Mis- 
souri, had as large a crop last year as the states of Missouri, Kan- 
sas, Illinois and Arkansas combined. The Province of Ontario, 
Canada, having about one-half as many trees as New York, had a 
crop of 50,000,000 bushels of apples in 1902, as against New York's 
52,000,000. The average per tree in Ontario was seven bushels. 
These figures are given for purposes of comparison. If as much at- 
tention would be given in Pennsylvania to the apple crop as is given 
in Western New York, where five counties produced one-fourth of 
the crop grown in the Empire State, it would easily stand at the 
head of the apple-producing states of the Union. 

No other state furnishes apples of finer quality; and yet there are 
belts stretching across the State particularly adapted to this crop, 
having the requisite soil and exposure, where but little interest 
16 



234 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

is manifested iu the subject. If tliese localities were properly 
designated, and then devoted to apple culture, Pennsylvania would, 
in the course of a few years, become a large shipper of apples, in- 
stead of consuming the crop at home, as well as thousands of barrels 
from New York, Ohio, Michigan and other states. 

While in the aggregate there was a falling off of several million 
bushels in the yield of apples in this State last year, there were 
some sections where the crop was uncommonly large. This state- 
ment is true in regard to a number of counties, and jet it was not 
unusual to find a well-bearing orchard in a district iu which other 
orchards bore poorly. This was due probably to a difference in time 
of blossoming, and to protection from frost in the blooming period, 
owing to different exposure. In visits which we paid to a number 
of counties, orchards were seen so heavily ladened Avitli fruit that 
the trees were breaking down. Photographs were taken of some of 
the fullest trees. One orchard of ten acres in the Shamokin Valley, 
in the southern portion of Northumberland county, having 400 
trees in i)rime bearing condition, averaged fifteen bushels to the 
tree. An orchard on the line of Berks and Lancaster counties 
yielded nearly 10,000 bushels, and the owner has at this time over 
6,000 bushels in storage which he is selling in the markets of the 
city of Eeading at an average of |1.20 per bushel. In this orchard 
much attention is paid to fertilization, and there is a good crop 
every year. 

PEARS. 

The pear crop was an abundant one in most sections of the State. 
The fruit was choice and of excellent flavor. The liartlett, which 
is undoubtedly the most popular variety in the entire list, and cer- 
tainly one of the very best for the table, yielded largely. Unfor- 
tunately, it is an early fall pear and cannot be kept any length of 
time. Such winter varieties as the Duchess, Kieft'er and Vicar, 
while large and showy, are not equal to either the Bartlett or Seckel 
in point of flavor. The Kieffer, of more recent introduction than 
any of those mentioned, is grown in Pennsylvania to a greater ex- 
tent than any other pear. This is because of its wonderful produc- 
tiveness, and its high color around the holiday season, when the 
fruit has been fully ripened. It is also a variety that is almost 
storm-proof, the fruit sticking to the branches no matter how much 
the limbs may be swayed by the wind. It is, however, one of the 
least desirable of all for eating, being of poor flavor and rough 
quality; but for cooking and canning purposes it is one of the 
very best. In the latter respect it has well been termed "the ideal 
family pear." 



No. •;. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 235 

PEACHES. 

Tlic'iT' wais a partial ci-op of iteaelu'S, but tlie season was short, the 
early and mediimi varieties ripeninj^ almost at one lime. For a 
week or so there was a glut and prices were low. Later in the 
season, when tlie demand was {greatest, such fruit as was offered 
commanded good prices. Iji some parts of Southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania, and along the Pennsylvania and IMaryland line, the -yield was 
good. Some new varieties, such as Iron Mountain and Gold Medal, 
did exceedingly well. One Schuylkill county grower, having mostly 
Iron Mountain trees, reported having realized |1.50 per basket all 
around, some having been disposed of at wholesale, while those sold 
at retail brought $1.50 to |2 per basket. The line condition of his 
fruit was due to the fact that he had severely thinned his crop. 
Had all the fruit which set been allowed lo mature the result would 
have been inferior specimens, which perhaps would not have 
brought more than fifty cents per basket. The same grower be- 
lieves in thorough cultivation. 

PLUMS. 

As to plums, there is not that attention paid in Pennsylvania to 
this fruit which its importance deserves. For years the plum crop 
was more liable to attack by insects and fungus diseases than any 
other. Fruit growers, discouraged by the ravages of the curculio 
and black knot, for a time discontinued planting. Then came the 
discoveries in regard to spraying with the Bordeaux and other mix- 
tures. Next came the introduction of the hardy Japanese varie- 
ties, such as the Abundance, Burbank, Chabot and Satsuma, which, 
while free from black knot, are inclined to rot. Nevertheless, they 
are productive and early bearers, and our markets are now well sup- 
plied with plums of these varieties. There was a good yield of 
plums last year in most counties of the State. The very wet 
weather experienced in July resulted in considerable rotting. 

QUINCES. 

Quinces, a rather neglected but not to be despised fruit, did fully 
well. More attention is being devoted to this fruit because of the 
good prices which it commands. Fifty cents a dozen is not an 
unusual price, and in a favorable year an acre in ijuince trees will 
readily net |12U. 

Although the trees suiter from blight, this can be overcome by 
spraying them. The borer is one of the worst enemies of the quince. 
It has been found that the ai)pli(ation of a strong solution of whale 
oil soap, two or three times during the season, is a sure extermin- 
ator of the borer. Unlike the apple and pear the quince has no 
''off-year.'' A crop nuiy always be expected, although the yield is 
larger in some seasons than in others. As to soil, strong clav loams 



236 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

are the best for quinces; but the trees also thrive well on damp, 
gravelly drifts, although they do not stock up so well. 

CHERRIES. 

The cherry crop was excellent throughout the State. The early 
varieties, such as the Richmond, did particularly well. The late 
varieties were damaged by excessive moisture. The greatest de- 
mand is for sour cherries, and these are being the most extensively 
grown. They are less subject to rot than the sweet kind. Cherry 
trees were in healthy foliage all summer, there having been less 
leaf rust than usual. While the Early Kichmond is regarded as 
the most profitable cherry, some growers lay ^great store by the 
Montmorency, which is larger and better than the Early Richmond, 
although a little later than the latter variety. Other favorite kinds 
are the Governor AVood, Napoleon Bigarreau, May Duke, Yellow 
Spanish and liilack Tartarian. 

GRAPES. 

The season as a whole was favorable for the grape crop. Al- 
though July was rather wet, there were plenty of hot days in August 
and September to properly develop the fruit, and fine bunches were 
plenty, especially such as had been bagged. In fact, spraying and 
bagging was essential to assure success in grape growing. The 
finest display of grapes in Pennsylvania last year was, beyond doubt, 
that which was made at the Lehigh County Fair, held in Allen- 
town in September. One grower had 147 plates of grapes on exhi- 
bition, and in one collection had 82 varieties. In this collection 
there was not an imperfect bunch, and every variety was true to its 
name. Every bunch had been bagged, and perfection was thus 
obtained. It was a hard matter for some persons to believe that 
these grapes had not been raised under glass. Other grapes on 
exhibition, of the same varieties, were decidedly inferior, because 
proper attention and care had not been given them. Here were 
fittingly exemplified the correct and incorrect methods of growing 
grapes. 

It is scarcely necessary to refer to varieties, inasmuch, as of the 
many in the list, there are only a few that succeed everywhere, and 
they are well known. The Concord, for instance, is nearly every- 
body's first choice, on a-ccount of its size, productiveness and hardi- 
ness. Not choicest in flavor, nevertheless, it has that natural 
piquancy inherited from the wild fox grape, from which it origin- 
ated, that is liked by most people. The sweetest grapes, such as 
the Delaware, have not the same bouquet. With the Concord may 
be classed Moore's Early and Worden as among the best black 
grapes. Of the white varieties, the four best are possibly the Ni- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 237 

agara, Moore's Diamond, Green Mountain and Pocklington. No 
one, however, should think of growing the Niagara without bagging 
it, owing to its delicate skin. As to red grapes, the Delaware, 
Salem, "W'oodruff and perhaps Brighton (which is an imperfect 
bloomer) are among the best and most easily- cultivated. The Clin- 
ton and Ives' Seedling are the wine grai)GS of Pennsylvania, pro- 
ducing a quality of wine, wlien the grapes are mixed in proi)er 
proportion, equal to the imported claret. 

SMALL, FRUITS. 

Small fruits, with the exception of raspberries and blackberries, 
never did better. Strawberries were late in ripening, owing to the 
cool weather experienced in May. However, the crop was large. 
Currants and gooseberries yielded well. Raspberries and black- 
berries were cut short by the rainy weather in July, there having 
been only five perfectly clear days. While strawberries were 
plenty, the supply did not exceed the demand and good prices were 
obtained. Although the list of varieties is constantly growing, 
there are no kinds more salable than the Sharpless and Bubach 
No. 5. The former, however, is a shy bearer, when compared with 
the Brandj^wine, Crescent, Cumberland, Gandy, Greenville, Haver- 
land, Parker, Earle and Warfield. Size and color are the strong 
points of the Bubach. A new variety of great promise, which orig- 
inated on the farm of D. M. Seyler, in Berks county, a chance seed- 
ling, was brought to our attention last year. It is a medium early, 
a conical berry, of large size and very productive. It has been given 
the name of the originator's wife — Rebecca. 

The Cuthbert raspberry still holds the first place in the reds and 
the Gregg in the blacks. Other favorite kinds are the Marlboro', 
Golden Queen, Ohio, Palmer and Souhegan. In blackberries, the 
Erie and Snyder are among the best, although the former does not 
succeed everywhere. The latter is well adapted for a cold climate. 
The Kittatinny, Minnewaski, Taylor and Wilson, Jr., are also recom- 
mended. Of course, in regard to varieties of small fruits, it must 
be remembered, that while certain kinds are well adapted to some 
sections of the State they do not do so well in other places. 

NUT CULTURE. 

Nut culture is recognized as a branch of pomology and should 
have a brief reference here. Under this head it may be said that 
it has been mainly confined to the raising of the improved varieties 
of chestnuts. The Numbo and Paragon varieties have been grafted 
on native trees with great success, the grafts bearing fruit in three 
years, the nuts being more than twice as large as the common kind 
command double the price at which the latter sell. The Japan 



238 ANNUAL REPOFiT OF THE Off. Doc. 

(riant is OIK' (»f (lie ]R'w importations and is reported to do well 
on American cliestnnt trees. Some walnnt groves have been set 
out in Pennsylvania, the idea being to raise the trees, not alone for 
the nuts, but for wood for commercial purposes. Several Japan 
varieties are being tiied. The English walnut (or Dutch nut) does 
well in ])rotected situations and is ])rofitable. 



GENEKAL OBSERVATIONS. 

There is cause for congratulation that greater attention is being 
devoted in Pennsylvania to fruit culture. The i)romulgation of in- 
formation by the Department of Agriculture and State Horticul- 
tural Association in regard to the best modes of combatting insect 
enemies and fungi has done much to dispel the clouds of discour- 
agement. It is now possible to raise perfect fruit in favorable 
seasons. And yet, with all the pains taken to disseminate facts 
concerning insecticides and fungicides, it is surprising that there 
should be so much defective fruit in our markets. There is no 
excuse for it. Farmers permit their orchards to go unsprayed be- 
cause of other pressing work. The fruit grower, however, who 
is in the business for the money that is in it, realizes that without 
spraying it is impossible to produce good fruit and, therefore, he 
gives the matter his earnest consideration. It has been well said 
that the discovery of the various formulas for fungicides and insecti- 
cides has been worth millions of dollars to the fruit growers of the 
United States. The formulas originally used have undergone some 
changes, it having been found that weaker solutions are just as 
efficacious as those first promulgated. 

NURSERY INSPECTION. 

The system of nursery inspection inaugurated by the Department 
of Agriculture has also been a great boon to the fruit growers of 
the State. It has prevented the sending out of trees affected with 
crown gall, the San Jos6 Scale or other diseases and destructive 
pests. The fact that last ^-ear ten nurseries w^ere discovered in 
Pennsylvania in such bad condition with diseased and infected trees 
that licenses to sell could not be issued to them by the Department 
was positive proof of the importance of careful investigation. 
About one-tenth of the acreage devoted to nursery culture came 
under condeninalion. The most formidable of all enemies of agri- 
culture and horticulture are insect pests and fungus diseases, which 
result in an annual loss in this country of .f:^00.000.0()(). Therefore, 
there cannot be too great vigilance in fighting these d(^structive 
agents. 



Xo. fi. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 2:59 

Upon the npi)oarance of a coiitajiioiis disease in any fruit reuion 
of the Slate an investitJ[ation should be made under the direction 
of the Agricultural Exj)erinient Station of The Pennsylvania State 
College, by and with the advice of the Department of Agriculture, 
and for this purpose there should be an appropriation by the Legis- 
lature of 110,000 per annum. 

PEACH YELLOWS AND SCALE. 

The passage by the Legislature of 1899 of an act to prevent the 
dissemination of such contagious diseases as yellows, black knot, 
peach rosette and pear blight, as well as the spreading of the San 
Jos^ Scale, was a step in the right direction. A grower need but 
call his neighbor's attention to the existence of the law in order 
to secure the removal of an infected tree. As to peach yellows, the 
origin and nature of this disease is still a subject of dispute, but it 
has been definitely determined that it is an atmospheric disease, 
communicable by inoculation, and that the eradication and destruc- 
tion of an infected tree is the only safeguard to prevent the ruin 
of all peach orchards or trees in the neighborhood in which the 
disease has appeared. 

The San Jos^ Scale no longer has its terrors. Several sprayings 
with the whale oil soap solution when the scale is dormant will 
get rid of the pest. A later discovery, is fumigation by means 
of hydrocyanic acid, but this is difficult, dangerous and expensive. 
As to scurfy scales, oyster-shell bark lice and wooly aphis, the ap- 
plication to the bark of a 10 per cent, kerosene emulsion in June 
will kill 90 per cent, of the young insects. Another excellent wash 
for winter or early spring is made by taking fifteen pounds of live 
lime and slaking it with water, in which two pounds of copper sul- 
phate have been dissolved; then add about fifty pounds of fine hard- 
wood ashes. This mixture,- diluted by the addition of fifty gallons 
of water, should be sprayed on trunks and branches, using a coarse 
sprayer. This treatment clears off old bark, destroys insect eggs 
and fungus spores and has a tendency to remove many of the hard 
scale insects. The effect on the bark is very pronounced. The old- 
fashioned system of whitewashing the trunks of trees is also recom- 
mended. It will go a great ways towards destroying the winter 
quarters of various forms of insects. 

NOMENCLATURE. 

The subject of nomenclature is one of much importance. Tn visits 
paid to a number of county fairs last fall we found much fruit mis- 
named. Some well-known varieties of apples, for instance, were 



240 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

exhibited under the names of the owners of the farms on which they 
were grown. The Niagara grape was exhibited under a half dozen 
names. So with the Duchesse, Lawrence and other pears. Some 
fruits are known by various names and i)rominent varieties are 
given local appellations. The Golden Pippin, it may be remarked, 
has thirteen, the Canada Reinette ten and the Twenty-ounce apple 
eight names. There are also different types of the same fruit, as, 
for example, the Baldwin apple, of which at least three types are 
known. It would be well to have colored plates or lithographs 
of leading varieties displayed at all exhibitions for purposes of 
comparison. 

FRUITS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

The native fruits of Pennsylvania are many, and some of them 
are of great excellence, superior in productiveness and hardiness 
to varieties brought from elsewhere. Northern varieties of apples 
mature earlier in Pennsylvania than where they originated, and 
such as the Baldwin and Nortliern Spy, which, in New York, are 
winter apples, become fall varieties here. The varieties most pro- 
ductive in Pennsylvania are native to the State, and the work of 
collating such varieties and ascertaining the history of each should 
be undertaken. There is no showier nor more salable apple than 
the York Imperial, which had its origin in York county. It is also 
one of the best keepers. Lancaster county is the home of the 
Smokehouse, one of the most desirable of all apples, coming early 
into use and having a long season. Other natives of Lancaster 
county are the Agnes, Barbour, Belmont, Breneman, Harnish, Hess, 
Klaproth, Paradise, Reist and Lancaster Greening. 

The Fallawater, or Pound, known also locally as the Tulpehocken, 
is of disputed origin, both Berks and Montgomery counties claiming 
it, but the fact that it has been long known as the Tulpehocken 
(after the stream of that name in Berks county), rather gives Berks 
the right to it. This apple is such a reliable bearer in Eastern 
Pennsylvania that no orchardist in that section of the State would 
think of doing without it, and one enthusiastic admirer of it stated 
at a fruit growers' meeting that if he was to set out an orchard 
of 100 trees, every tree would be a Fallawater. The most profitable 
apples of Berks county are the Baer (spelled also Bare), Keim and 
Krauser, because of bearing large crops every year. They origin- 
ated in the county, as did also the Berks Mammoth, Doctor, Evening 
Party, Gewiss Good, Haas, Hain, Hepler, Host, Hughes, Kelsey, 
Kuser, Long Stem, Marks, Meister, Neversink, Schwarzbach, Stable, 
Staudt, Sweet Bambo, White Doctor, Yost and a number of others. 

In the adjoining county of Lehigh the Kocher and Lehigh Green- 
ing are the favorite locals. Chester county has given us such ex- 



No. 6. DEPAKTMii^NT OF AGRICULTURE. 241 

celleut varieties as the Diekiusoii, Jett'iies, Melt-iu-tLe-Mouth, Not- 
tingham, Brown and Pennock. Montgomery county is the home of 
the Jenkins, Kambo, Kidge Pippin and Yacht. Buclcs has produced 
the Bucks County Pippin, Cornell's Fancy, Jackson, Old House and 
Smith's Cider; Centre county, the Boalsburg and Townsend; Frank- 
lin county, the Meutzer; Allegheny county, the Pittsburg Pippin; 
Lebanon county, the Focht and Winter Sweet; Lycoming county, 
the Republican Pippin; Clinton county, the Mann; Cumberland 
county, the Herman and Pink Sweeting; Mifflin county, the Mifflin 
King; Lackawanna county, the Clark; Northumberland county, the 
Major and Priestly; Union county, the Adams, and Washington 
county, the Traders' Fancy. These are but a few of the native 
apples of Pennsylvania, almost every county in the State having 
several, and we have only mentioned some of the more meritorious. 

OTHER NATIVE FRUITS. 

As to pears, the Seckel, KiefEer, Brandywine, Chancellor, King- 
sessing, Moyamensiug, Maynard, Mather, Ott, Petre, Reading, 
Rutter, Tyson, Uwchlan, Wiest and VN'atermelon are native of Penn- 
sylvania. In grapes, we have such varieties as the Creveling, Mar- 
tha, Maxatawny, Merceron, Seltzer, Taylor and Telegraph. In 
peaches, Pennsylvania can claim two of the largest and finest — the 
Globe and Susquehanna; also the Red Rareripe, Morris White and 
other excellent sorts. There are a number of choice native varieties 
of cherries, such as the Conestoga, Ida 'and Lancaster Red. The 
Johnson quince is a native of Lehigh county. As to small fruits, 
the Sharpless, which stands at the head of the list of strawberries 
in this State, originated in Columbia county. Other good natives 
are the Brandywine, of Chester county, and the Jacunda, or Knox's 
No. 700, of Allegheliy. 

SOIL LOCATION AND CULTURE. 

As soil, location and culture are among the most important con- 
siderations in fruit-growing, it is pleasing intelligence, imparted 
to us by the Secretary of Agriculture in his Annual Report for the 
3'ear 1902, just published, that a bulletin will shortly be issued by 
the department, giA'ing much valuable information on these points, 
and specifying the places in the State where each variety of fruit 
has shown the best results. It is believed that this bulletin will 
be of valuable assistance in locating orchards, and in selecting the 
particular varieties of fruit w^hich are adapted to given localities. 

While Pennsylvania can boast of some large orchards, it is cast 
completely in the shade by the extraordinary operations in some 
other states. The biggest apple orchard in the United States is in 

16—6—1903 



242 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Lliu Uzark luouutaius of iSoutlieru Missouri, consisting of 2,oUU acres. 
Another company has just been formed wliich lias purchased 5,000 
acres near Lebanon, Mo., every acre of which will be planted with 
apple trees. When the trees are all bearing it will be the largest 
orchard in the world. Missouri has come to the fore as a fruit pro- 
ducer. The Ben Davis is the popular apple in that State, and the 
r),000-acre orchard alluded to will be planted with but two varie- 
ties — the Ben Davis and Jonathan — fifty trees to the acre. This is 
because these are reliable bearers in Missouri, adapted to the soil 
and climate, and, therefore, xery productive. On account of bright- 
ness of color they are also most ready of sale. This matter of color 
is a very intiuential factor. In the markets of the large cities any 
apple will sell "so it's red." A white, yellow or green apple, no 
n)atter how much superior in (juality, will not sell as readily as a 
Ben Davis, ^^'inesap or other red fruit. So, likewise, in regard to 
pears, the KielTer, on account of its rich color, is the most salable 
fruit during the holiday season, although of all the winter varieties 
it is the most tasteless. Consumers of fruit in the cities, however, 
are being educated in the matter of varieties, and the time is near 
when the Ben Davis apple and the Kieifer p(^ar will be relegated to 
the rear. Both have undoubtedly done more to demoralize and 
degrade the fruit trade in the cities than anything else. 

THE MATTER OF FERTILIZATION. 

An acquaintance of mine purchased several adjoining tracts of 
land, containing nearly 400 acres, on which he established a fruit 
farm. The land had the proper exposure but the soil was thin. 
He spent as much as $10,000 a year for fertilizers, intense cultiva- 
tion was observed, and to-day the farm is one of the most pro- 
ductive in the United States, yielding every year thousands of 
bushels of apples, pears and peaches— the fruits principally grown. 
Although ten miles from the nearest market, the business has 
proved highly remunerative, the receipts in one year having been 
as much as |20,000. And this brings us to the very weighty matter 
of fertilization. Had not the owner spent large sums for manure 
the tract would at this time, perhaps, be worth but little more than 
$10 per acre. The lack of fertility of the soil is often the cause of 
the failure of the fruit crop, and even certain diseases, such as 
the peach yellows and blight, have been ascribed to this cause. How 
many farmers think of fertilizing their orchards? Yet they will 
haul out barnyard manure and spend, besides, large sums for artifi- 
cial fertilizers for their grain crops, while neglecting their apple 
orchards, which can be made to bring them more money than any 
other crops that can be raised. Fruit trees require plant food, and 
unless pro}jerly fed cannot hv expected to go on producing. 



No. t;. DKPAltTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 243 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT AT EXPOSITION. 

A I'esuliitiou liuviiig been introduced in llie tSlate J-.egislaLure, 
which has already passed the Senate, appropriatinj^' |3()(),()U0 to the 
St. Louis Exposition, and providing for a Commission to take charge 
of the Pennsylvania exhibits, steps should be taken at an early day 
to have the fruit interests of the State properly represented. Al- 
though tifteen mouths will elapse before the Exposition opens, the 
arrangements for a fruit display should be made this year. Casts 
and models in wax and plaster can be made of fruits produced in 
1003, and space in cold storage houses should be secured in which 
to keep specimens of next year's fruits. Some winter fruits can be 
kept in storage for the Exposition. There should be an exhibit of 
nuts of this year's production. (Commencing with strawberries, 
the display of fruit could be continued until the close of the Expo- 
sition. The best native fruits of Pennsylvania, especialh', should 
be shown. Missouri will endeavor to surpass all other states. She 
made a very creditable display at the Pan-American Exposition in 
Buffalo in 1901. 

l*eiiusylvania was not represented in the fruit display at the 
World's Fair in Chicago because of lack of funds. After prepara- 
tions had been commenced, the promise of exhibits by the leading 
fruit growers of the State obtained, arrangements for cold storage 
made and designs for platforms and shelving secured, the State 
Commission called a halt, as their total appropriation was running 
low, and it was feared that the expense could not be met. It had 
been intended to allot |2,00() for the fruit display, although at least 
|3,000 should have been set apart for the purpose. Other depart- 
ments, however, pressed for more money, notably mines and mining, 
and it became evident that unless the Legislature would grant 
the Pennsylvania Commission 160,000 in addition to the .$300,000 
already voted there would have to be a curtailment of expenses. 
A bill was introduced with that end in view, but it failed to carry. 
Finally the fruit display Avas abandoned, although later on it was 
thought that some money could be set apart for pomology. This 
was in August, and there Avas no certainty as to the amount of 
money that would be appropriated or whether, in fact, any could 
be spared. It was then too late to do anything in the way of get- 
ting up a creditable display, and, by the advice of leading horticul- 
turists of the State, your humble servant, who had charge of the 
arrangements, deemed it prudent to avoid incurring any further 
liability. It is to be hoped that there will be no such balk in regard 
to the St. Louis Exposition, and that the fruit interests of our 
grand old Commonwealth will receive better consideration at the 
hands of th(^ Comniissiou to be appointed. 



244 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Dckj. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES PRESENTED AT 
THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE STATE 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, HELD AT HARRIS- 
BURG, PA. , JANUARY 28 AND 29, 1903. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY. 



Bt Br. J. T. ROTHBOCK, Chairman. 



Your chairman of the Committee on Forestry is again glad to 
report progress for the past year. In the nature of the case, 
progress is all he can report, for the work never will be ended so 
long as men use timber, or so long as general prosperity is based 
upon abundance of raw material. From the cradle to the grave, 
there is not an hour in which he can dispense with wood. Remove 
it from our grasp, and civilization would disappear from the earth. 

The year elapsing since we last met has been one of marked ac- 
tivity in forest work. The State is now in actual possession of at 
least 360,000 acres, with about 200,000 acres more in process of 
acquisition. The average price paid per acre for all this land has 
been about |1.90. The quality of the land and the quantity of the 
timber have not been the only factors in determining the price 
paid. For the same character of land and the same quality of 
timber a higher price would, should and must be paid when the 
pm'chase is made near a region with large interests at stake, and 
requiring protection, than when the adjacent territor}^ is barren. 

We may cite the case of the Mont Alto Reservation, in Franklin 
and Adams counties. This occupies the larger part of the South 
Mountain range, and lies in the fertile region between Chambers- 
burg and Gettysburg. Yast agricultural and manufacturing inter- 
ests are concentrated there. Timber is needed for fencing, for 
building and for fuel. Abundant water is needed for farming and 
for power. That mountain range is the one available spot to satisfy 
the demands of Cumberland, Franklin and Adams counties, from 
which the timber and water flow must come. The streams there, 



( 
No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 245 

though they drain mostly into the Potomac, nevertheless, water 
an area of approximately a thousand square miles, or 640,000 acres 
of farm land. This would allow for 4,266 farms of 150 acres each, 
less what was occupied by several thriving towns. If you estimate 
the average value of each farm of 150 acres at $50 an acre, it would 
mean that the agricultural value of the land was, per farm, $7,500, 
and of the 4,266 farms, -$31,01)5,000. Of couse, the value of the 
land occupied by towns would be greater. There is no portion of 
all this wealthy and populous region which is not directly or indi- 
rectly influenced for good by the presence of forests upon these 
mountain regions. It is noteworthy, too, that the good produced 
by these forests can be produced to the same extent by no other 
agency of which we have control. Let us suppose that, in round 
numbers, $100,000 were paid for this land. It would be but about 
one-three hundred and twentieth of the value of the farm land. It 
would be paid once for all, and be a perpetual benefit to the whole 
region. True, the county would lose the taxes on the mountain 
land, but it would have $25.00 a mile annually on the roads running 
though the reservations; it would have increase of work for its 
laborers, and a perpetual supply of cheap timber within easy reach. 

Evidently the question to ask is, not whether such a reservation 
should be created, but what is the least cost for which it can 
be obtained, because it would appear to be an essential to the 
continued prosperity of the country. It is nothing to the purpose 
to say that the same area of land could be obtained cheaper at 
some distant point. The statement would be true, but it would be 
misleading, because the Cumberland Valley region in question would 
receive no direct benefits therefrom. 

There is another point to be taken up. Criticism is sometimes 
made because rough mountain tops have been purchased by the 
State. It is true, such have been purchased. But would the 
owner of any extensive tract sell the mountain sides or flats with- 
out selling the top as well? Suppose, however, that we left the 
rough parts still in his hands and purchased only the better por- 
tion. The State could never have a continuous area. It would be 
obliged to endure vexatious litigation, increased cost of adminis- 
tration of its lands, and seldom, if ever, be able to obtain the great- 
est return from its own holdings. 

I have taken much of your time to place this subject plainly be- 
fore vou, because I find that those who are not called to deal 
with such questions, often fail to obtain a proper view of 
them, and it is important that so vital a question should be fully 
understood. Everything thus far done in forestry has been founda- 
tion work. Now that the State owns land, it should care for it in 
order to bring about the largest results. 



246 ANNUAL REPORT UF THE Off. Doc. 

Forestry is for I wo purposes: First, for protection to the many 
interests dependent upon timber <;'rowtli, and, second, for revenue. 
-The first of j;hese lias been so often dwelt upon that it requires no 
further elucidation here. The second, for revenue, demands a fuller 
statement now. New York State possesses considerably over a 
million of acres in her reservation system. Recognizing an impend- 
ing danger to the water flow of the state if the woodlands of the 
Adirondack and Catskill regions were further denuded of timber. 
New York took prompt measures to obtain possession of the ground. 
This was done, in the first instance, mainly by purchase of lands sold 
for taxes. The land acquired was often purchased, it seems, with- 
out the extreme care as to title which our purchases have received. 
The consequence is that New York has had endless litigation to hold 
its lands. This Pennsylvania will, in great part, avoid. Timber 
speculators have endeavored to obtain possession of New York's 
timber, until driven almost to desperation, the legislation, and the 
people, by constitutional enactment, have absolutely prohibited all 
cutting of timber for lumbering purposes on the State reservations. 
Even the cutting which was necessary for demonstration purposes 
on the land placed under control of the State Forestry School 
aroused the most positive denunciation. Now, as a matter of fact, 
all scientific forestry begins with the axe. Trees which are ma- 
ture and marketable should be removed. Trees which never can 
have any value should be cut out. Nothing should be allowed to 
grow, and use the strength of, or occupy the soil, unless it is the 
best possible product. It would not be good business methods to 
tolerate their presence. Besides, except in the case of white pine 
and hemlock, where these covered the ground densely to the ex- 
clusion of everything else, our natural forests have never been the 
most productive which the soil was capable of sustaining. 

Fortunately, Pennsylvania is hamjjered by no such unwise re- 
strictions as New York. The Forestry Commission not only can, 
but is expected, to produce revenue from its woodlands as soon as 
possible, where this can be done without public injury. Taking all 
of our receipts of this year we have already turned into the State 
Treasury, directly or indirectly, |19,000. There is no reason why, 
within a year, we should not be able to show a revenue several times 
as great, if we are able to go systematically to work to reap the 
timber harvest which can be removed without injury to the State 
forests. Such harvesting will be a positive benefit to the remain- 
ing timber. For example, there are places where the virgin white 
pine trees were cut thirty years ago. At that time only the butt 
cut, or perhaps two logs, were takeji. and the remainder of the 
tree was allowed to lie on the ground. Tn s])ite of the years elaps- 
ing, the heart of those logs is still sound. Hundreds of thousands 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 247 

of good white piue shingles could be made from such timber, which 
is now Wi^U seasoned and for the most part practically free from 
knot. To utilize this niaterial, while it is still valuable, contracts 
should be made with reliable men to make it into shingles as fast 
as possible and pay a royalty per thousand to the State for the 
product. There are thousands of cords of good paper wood on 
the reservations which should be thinned out to give the remaining 
timber a chance to grow rapidly. We have, likewise, a vast quantity 
of good young oak and chestnut suitable for producing tanning 
extract, which might be removed with advantage to the remaining 
timber. 

Another source of revenue, not, however, to the State but to the 
agricultural community, should be considered; I mean pasturage 
of cattle on State lauds. It is a cardinal doctrine of scientific for- 
estrj' that this should not be allowed. I am not, however, prepared 
to take, off-hand, so ultra a view of the case. There are many in- 
stances where, in my judgment, no harm is done by the cattle. If 
trees are mature and the stand of timber dense enough, or if the 
growth is so large that the lower limbs have commenced to fall 
off, but little injury is done. Under such conditions, I am of the 
opinion that it is wiser to cultivate amicable relations with th« 
farming communit}', and allow the pasturage of a limited number 
of cattle upon State land, providing the owners of these cattle 
will lend their immediate and hearty co-operation in extinguishing 
forest tires when these occur. I am glad to say that such a co- 
operation has been most happily established in portions of Clinton 
and Centre counties. On the other hand, 1 believe no one living 
near enough to State land to pasture his cattle upon it has any right 
to expect such a i>rivilege unless he returns an equivalent to the 
State in the way of help, when his services are so urgently needed. 
In my judgment, this matter should be systematically entered upon 
by the contracting parties. On the other hand, no cattle should 
be allowed to range over ground where seedlings or young sprouts 
are coming forward. 

Forestrv is a new movement in this countrv. There are govern- 
inents where, by long experience, a definite, permanent forest policy 
has been established and from which policy an ample revenue has 
constantly been derived. Take, for example, Germany. I find that 
the annual receipts from her forests are, according to Fernow% 
|l()0,00(),()()i), or $3.00 gross and probably fl.To net per acre, from 
soils that are mostly not fit for any other use, and which by being 
so used contribute to other favorable cultural conditions. This 
net income, figured at 3 per cent., would make the capital value of 
soil and growing stock nearly |G0 per acre, and the value of the 
entire for('t?t resources of Germany two thousand million dollars. 



248 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

In a country where forestry is so well established as in Germany, 
it is noteworthy that the State of Bavaria distributed during the 
period from 1^93 to 1899 not less than 127,000,000 tree plants. This 
is an example which I think Pennsylvania might safely follow. The 
cost of production of white pine seedlings is exceedingly small. 
In the state nurseries we can raise them bv the million, and I think 
it would be wise to do so and distribute them among those who 
have vacant land which could be planted and who would agree to 
care for them until started in growth. 

We have now a well-established nursery of about five acres at 
Mont Alto. Thus far it is devoted mainly to white pine seedlings. 
Last autumn we collected and obtained seed from sixty-four bushels 
of cones. This will be planted as soon as the snow leaves the 
ground. March is none too early if the ground is in favorable con- 
dition. We shall probably soon commence with the red, or Norway 
I)ine, and with the various so-called hardwoods. 

The most important work which is now pressing is to have the 
exterior lines of the reservations surveyed and so plainly marked 
that no one could commit a trespass upon State land without know- 
ing it. This line should be cut out at least six feet wide. Our 
rangers should ride around the entire tract at least twice a week, 
and follow any trails running toward State land to ascertain where 
they lead and for what purposes they are made. 

Again, I must call your attention to the following act of Legisla- 
ture. No matter what 3'our county commissioners may say, this 
has never been declared unconstitutional, so far as I am informed. 
It is a just and useful act and you can compel its recognition if you 
are determined to do so. It is as follows: 

AN ACT 

To encourage the preservajtion of forests by providing for a rebate of certain 

taxes levied thereon. 

Section 1. Be it enacted, &c., That in consideration of the public 
benefit to be derived from the retention of forest or timber trees, 
the owner or OAvners of land in this Commonwealth, having on it 
forest or timber trees averaging not less than fifty trees to the 
acre, each of said trees to measure at least eight inches in diameter 
at a height of six feet above the surface of the ground, wnth no 
portion of the said land absolutely cleared of the said trees, shall, 
upon filing with the county treasurer of their respective counties 
and with the tax collectors of their respective townships or dis- 
tricts an affidavit made by said owner or owners, or by some 
one in his, her or their behalf, setting forth the number of acres 
of timber land within the requirements of this act, be entitled 
to receive, annually, during the p<Tiod that thf Raid trees are 



Nu. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 249 

maintained in good condition npon the said land, a rebate e<iual to 
80 per centum of all taxes, local and county, annually assessed 
and paid upon said land, or so much of the 80 per centum as 
shall not exceed in all the sum of forty-five cents per acre, the 
said rebate to be deducted from said taxes, pro rata, and receipted 
for b^^ the respective tax colh^ctors or county treasurer: Provided, 
however, That no one property own(.'r shall be entitled to receive 
said rebate on more thau fifty acres. 

Section 2. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. 

Approved— The 11th day of April, A. 1). 1901. 

WILLIAM A. STONE. 

There is one point to which I should make allusion here. In my 
trips through the State I find the farm buildings unprotected 
against the blasts of winter to an extent which is somewhat sur- 
prising, when the value of protection against the cold is so well 
understood. That it should have been so originally I can well see. 
The farm was hewn out of the forest, where trees bounded the fields 
on all sides. The trees were an encumbrance. The cleared area 
was so small in comparison with the uncleared that a violent sweep 
of the cold north wind was almost impossible. Now, however, 
the cleared areas predominate. The protc^cting forest area is cor- 
respondingly reduced, and our buildings need protection. In ar- 
ranging for this, two methods are open. One is by planting trees 
which will eventually grow into lumber of a marketable size and 
The other is by planting such as are intended simply as a hedge. 
If you can adopt the former, there is a wide range of trees from 
which to select. Of course, if you plant evergreens, which retain 
their foliage during the winter, the protecting belt of timber need 
not be so wide. Densely planted, white pines would soon clear their 
trunks of lower limbs and to that extent open the barrier to the 
passage of Avinds. In other words, they would act, sooner or later, 
the same as the deciduous leaved trees. According to the character 
of the soil the oaks, hickories, chestnuts, western catalpa and locust 
would be the most valuable trees for your belt of protecting wood- 
land. Among the oaks, owing to its dense mass of downward bend- 
ing limbs, there is no species so valuable for purposes of protection 
against storms as the jiin oak. It has, however, no value for 
lumber. If you should decide upon planting merely a hedge, I 
would by all means advise one of two of our native trees — either 
the arbor vitae or the hemlock. Both grow rapidly and both can 
be allowed to become tweniy-five feet high and either one can 
be trimmed and kept strictly within hedge size — being at the same 
time very dense and very ornamental. 
17 



250 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. ©oc. 

Forestiy is here to stay. It is a profession. Only the wide- 
awake agriculturist can hope to succeed in his calling. To this end 
the State provides a college for instruction in agriculture. This 
is all right. The only fault I have to find is that the State does 
not provide for it as liberally as other states do for theirs. So 
it is with instruction in forestry. The State College is anxious to 
gi\e thorough instruction in this. There is no class of citizens 
whoso interests are more wrapped up in the water supply for the 
soil than you are, and there is no other known agency under our 
control than forests bv which it can be influenced. 

We desire to take lads on the Mont Alto forest reservation and 
give them a chance to do a good work for the State and earn for 
themselves a living and an education at the same time. There, in the 
woods, is the place to learn practical forestry. From among those 
lads the best will aspire to a higher education in the science of 
forestrv at the State College. 

I am not a political economist. The complications of financial 
relations puzzle and confuse me; but there is one fact which is 
so plain that even I can recognize it — to wit: The farmer produdes 
the food of the nation. The keen business man handles it on the 
markets of the world and sells wheat which he never saw, bv the 
thousands of bushels. The farmer's profit, if there is any, is a 
mere margin. The financiers' profit mounts up into a fortune. The 
farmer ends his days usually on a mere living, the latter ends his, 
as a rule, in affluence. It appears hardly fair that the one who 
produces that upon which we live, and out of which fortunes grow 
should receive less substantial benefits than the one who merely 
sells it. There are but two things which can change this and 
equalize the returns, namely, education and organization. Yon will 
understand, then, why I am so earnest and persistent in my appeal 
1o you to demand for vour sons an education which will fit them to 
compete successfully in the world's work. I can recognize no 
eternal fitness, or reason, which relegates the farmer or the for- 
ester to a position inferior to that of his commercial brother. 
There is another point to which allusion should be made here in 
connection with the State Forestry Reservation. It is this. The 
tendency of the age appears to be irresistibly toward those com- 
binations of capital, called trusts. • I am not of the mmiber who 
consider these wholly undesirable. They undoubtedly do possess 
great power for good and for bad. In my judgment. President 
Roosevelt has taken, as he usually does, the sensible position that 
we should allow them to render all the public service they can, 
but curb them when by any abuse of power their tendency comes 
to be evil. 

The large bodies of unutilized land in this and in other states 



No. 6. DJfiPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. iV.l 

ottered tlieiu a tempting" field. In Ihe iiatiu-al course of e\cu(s the 
liine would have come when it would have paid them to invest 
in such lands at low prices and hold it against Ihe time when dis- 
covery of minerals would have made their development profitable, 
or the increasing scarcity of land, due to increase of population, 
would have enabled them to reap large financial returns by entering 
into grazing- or lumbering. In either case it would have passed 
beyond the power of the people. State acquisition of this land 
secures it to the people. It would be a most unfortunate thing 
for our citizens if there should ever come a time when the people 
at large would cease to have ground which was wholly theirs and 
upon which they could go for the rest and the recreation which 
are made so necessary by the accumulating demands of our busy 
civilization. 

These reservations now b(^long to the j)eo])le. and may the owner- 
ship never be changed. 



252 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



RKPORT OF THE COMMITTKE ON FRUIT AND 

FRUIT CULTURE. 



Enos B. Engle, Chairman. 



It may be safely said that Peimsyivania is not realizing the full 
measure of its opportunity as a fruit-growing state. With a variety 
of soil and climate adapted to almost every kind of fruit that 
can be grown in the temperate zone, we find our fruit industries of 
third-rate importance, and, except in a few localities, where move- 
ments have recently been made towards commercial planting, no 
well-directed effort is being made to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunities at our command. 

True, we have some individual planters, especially of peaches, 
who, for years, have made a specialty of this fruit, and have real- 
ized handsome profits, but the so-called "peach belts" have had 
their rise and fall, and it is a question whether we have to-day as 
many large peach orchards in the State as w^e had ten years ago. 
Yellows, that fatal disease of the peach, has done and is still 
doing its work, and now, in addition, we have San Jos6 Scale and 
a number of minor pests and diseases which combine to make the 
business more discouraging than ever. 

Possibly the most important of the neglected fruit industries 
of Pennsylvania is that of apple culture. It has been shown by 
experience and observation that we have a variety of soil, climate 
and altitude in this State that will produce not only the standard 
and well-known winter apples of New York and the New England 
States, but, in addition, many well-known local varieties, native 
to our own State and equal in (luality to the best grown anywhere. 
In fact, it has been admitted b}^ experts and the best judges of fruit, 
that Pennsylvania apples grown to perfection are superior in quality 
and appearance to those grown in the great apple-producing dis- 
tricts of the United States. 

Notwithstanding the fact that we are not yet awakened to the 
full inii)ortance of our State as a producer of first-class aj)ples, 
it has been stated recently in public print that in 1902 we stood 
third in the aggregate yield of apples for the year, New York and 
Ohio being first au<d second respectively. 



No. (i. DEPARTMENT OF AC.RICULTURR. 253 

In recent j'^ears the commeicial idea in the cultivation of apples 
in I'enusylvania has made some progress. We have learned by 
practical experience that certain localities are specially adapted 
to llieii' profitable culture, and iluit wliik* sonui varieties will 
succeed admirably almost anywhere, others have local preferences 
of soil and altitude. 

V\'e are encouraged, therefore, in the hojte that the large plant- 
ings in recent years in the counties of Bedford, Adams, York, Frank- 
lin, Cumberland, Mifflin, Juniata, Monroe and elsewhere are but 
the forerunners of a movement that will eventually make this one 
of the greatest of apple-producing and exporting states. Year by 
year the laws governing the principles of fruit culture are being- 
better understood and more intelligently applied, and while there 
are many local conditions of soil and methods of culture that must 
be studied and practiced we are progressing slowly, but surely. 

To succeed, we must study more closely the adaptation of varie- 
ties to localities; and above all, in the case of commercial orchards, 
confine ourselves to as few varieties as is consistent with a proper 
succession of crop and proper fertilization, while in the blossoming 
season. It is far better, for market purposes, to have five varie- 
ties of winter apples than have twenty, or even ten. 

In fruit culture, as in agriculture, we must feed our crops that 
they may feed us in return. Unless we sow we cannot reap. The 
same intelligent care and attention given an orchard as is given a 
business or mercantile pursuit, or a crop of potatoes, corn or hay, 
will usually bring more profitable returns. But the growing of 
fruit is not the alplia and omega of this calling. Gathering, stor- 
ing, packing, shipping and selling are equally important jn'oblems, 
requiring, not only intelligent judgment, but some business tact. 
Just here let an earnest plea be made for fair and honest packing. 
The market for first class fruit of all kinds is practically unlimited, 
and if we would establish and maintain a permanent demand for our 
products it must be along the line of a superior grade of fruit, 
honestly and tastily placed before buyers. If we would wa'est from 
the Pacific coast fruit growers any of the prestige they have es- 
tablished for fine fruit, it must be done by imitating their methods 
in reaching the great markets. 

But our possibilities as a fruit-growing state are not confined 
solely to apples and peaches. The same soils and conditions that 
will insure profit and success in those fruits will do the same with 
pears, plums, cherries and quinces and the entire line of small fruits. 
In a state teeming with cities, towns and villages, the inhabitants 
of wbit^i are chiefly consumers and seldom producers, there is an 
ever-growing demand for all these fruits at remunerative prices. 

This report would be incomplete without reference to a bulletin 



254 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

I No. lOr)) recent Iv issued hy the Department of Agriculture of this 
State, which is the beginning- of a work that will greatly aid the 
seeker of intelligent information in regard to varieties and their 
adaptation to soils and localities. It has been prepared by one of 
our most intelligent and practical fruit growers and is the result of 
a most systematic and extensive correspondence witli practical 
Iiorticulturists in everv section of the State. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 2^:. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION. 



BY Hon. JA.SON SEXTON, Chairman. 



Again your Legislative Committee presents its annual report for 
jour consideration. In so doing we find that we shall, in some 
instances, make recommendations of measures that have been con- 
sidered by you, and met j'our approval at former meetings of the 
Board, and up to the present time have failed to become laws- 
some by reason of failing to receive the constitutional majority 
on final passage, while others failed to receive executive approval 
after having passed finally. So, undaunted by failure, we shall 
again, with your approval, appear, by petition at least, before our 
lawmakers as the humble suppliants of their favor, trusting we 
shall be heard, and that some good may come to the agricultural 
classes through our efforts in this direction. 

We fully appreciate the good work done by the Legislature of 
1901, not only for the public generally, but more especially for 
the agricultural classes, when they passed, among other bills, the 
amended oleomargarine bill, the amended pure food 1-aw, the 
amended vinegar law, the amended renovated butter law and the 
new law regulating the manufacture and sale of commercial fer- 
tilizers and some others of more or less importance to the farmers 
of the State. Among the first of these bills that failed to pass, 
and that we considcu' of the utmost importance, is the amended act 
of 1897 (known as the '-Hamilton Road Bill") by providing for and 
making an appropriation for the building and improvement of our 
roads that would place the law in active operation, which is now, 
as it stands, wholly inoperative. 

Your committee, as well as yourselves, knowing the many ob- 
stacles in the vC'ay of securing annual appropriations which woulfl 
be absolutely necessary when this law once becomes operative, 
would recommend and urge that a public road fund be created, 
by asking the Legislature to place an addition tax of one mill, to 
be collected under existing laws, on all corporate and personal prop- 



256 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE "Off. Doc. 

ei'ty, tlnis creating an annual permanent road fund. 1o bo paid over 
by the Htale Trinisurer to the eounty treasurers in proportion to 
tlie liuniber of miles of road in ea<;h county, and b}' them to be 
})aid over to the supervisors of each township in proportion to the 
number of miles in each township— no township to receive a sum 
larger than the amount raised and expended on the public roads 
of that township annually'. Up to the present time the great 
burden of constructing and maintaining the public roads has been 
and is now borne by the farmers and land owners of the State, and, 
as a result, their acres are taxed almost beyond endurance. Hence, 
arises the opposition and indifference that is manifest among a large 
class of our farmers when any public road improvement is advo- 
cated that means an addidonal tax to their already overtaxed acres, 
and, as the public roads are for the use and benefit of all the people, 
it is unfair to expect the farmer and land owner to assume to bear 
the increased burdens of public road improvement that the new 
and present conditions demand, and we consider it only fair and 
just that all classes of property and industries, some of which are 
paying a great deal less than their share of taxes, should contribute 
their just and equitable proportion toward their construction. 
This plan, which seems so just and right, and which passed the 
House as the amended road bill in the session of 1901, would create 
a permanent annual road fund of nearly' or quite two millions of 
dollars, and would place the plan of '^State aid" on a firm and 
strong basis, and beyond the necessity of the Legislature to make 
annual appropriations for the public roads, as well as beyond the 
corrupting influences that eminate from securing such appropria- 
tions. We are, therefore, unalterably opposed to any plan that does 
not tax all kinds of property for road purposes — are decidedly op- 
posed to the placing of our public highway's under the control of a 
centralized State commission. 

We regret that the act passed by the Legislature of 1901 appro- 
priating hfty thousand dollars for the erection of an agricultural 
building at the State College failed to become a law because of the 
veto of the Governor, and we most respectfully urge the members 
of the Board to renew their efforts to secure the passage of a like 
appropriation for the erection of a building at the State College, 
so much needed, where agriculture, including dairying and forestry, 
can be taught in all of their branches; and we also urge that an 
additional appropriation of i!?10,000 be secured, if possible, for the 
]>ub]ication and distribution of bulletins and leaflets to the schools 
and farmers of the State for which there is so great a demand. We 
also desire to state, as we have done in the past, that we deem it 
of the utmost importance that our State College be better — far 
better — provided for, both in buildings and equipments, for the 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 257 

teaching of agiiculture to our fainiers' boys in all of its branches, 
and instead of asking for the paltry sum of |50,000, |100,000 would 
be nearer the mark and should be demanded, and the present pros- 
perous condition of our State's finances would and will warrant such 
expenditure if our lawmakers could only see it, and the necessity 
for it. We deplore the fact that our agricultural college and 
school should have been permitted to lag in the rear because of the 
lack of necessary appropriations to push forward the work. Let 
us hope that a more liberal policy will be adopted and such appro- 
priations made as will place our agricultural college w^here it ought 
to be, in the front rank among the agricultural schools of our 
sister states. We also recommend that the Board do what it can 
to assist the Secretary of Agriculture in trying to secure an addi- 
tional appropriation of |10,000 for the Farmers' Institute work in 
spreading agricultural knowledge a,mong the farmers of the State; 
and, also, to repeal the law and extend the authority of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture to publish farmers' bulletins, not exceeding 
25,000 copies of any one bulletin; also, to provide that the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture be j)rovided with 8,000 copies of the Annual 
Keports of the Department for its use. Again, w^e urge the Board 
to ask for an appropriation of |3,000, or so much of it as may be 
necessary, to reimburse them for money expended for their neces- 
sary expenses in attending the annual meetings of the Board. 

In consideration of the fact that our country roads leading to and 
from the great cities and towns are being covered with a network 
of electric trolley lines, which, to 90 per cent, of our people, are a 
great convenience, we are satisfied they would be of much greater 
use to the farming community w-ere they allowed to carry freight 
as well as passengers — it would be of untold advantage to the 
farmer if he could load his produce on a trolley car at his door 
and deliver it at his stall in the market or direct to the consumer, 
and that at a much less rate than he could haul it with his own 
team. Any service this Board can render to bring about these con- 
ditions will be of untold value to the general public and a God-send 
to the farmer. 



17—6—1903 



258 ANNUM. REPORT OF THE Off. Dec, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LIVE STOCK, 



By Dh. M. E. CONiiRi), Chairman. 



In reporting upon the live stock of Pennsylvania at this time, 
we feel very much handicapped for want of more definite knowledge 
of changes that have occurred and are constanj_ly going on affecting 
values and numbers since the last census. That the values have 
radically advanced we are very sure, but whether the brute popula- 
tion has decreased in proportion we are very doubtful. In fact, Ave 
do not think it has. We believe that a census taken at this time 
would show a marked increase in money values, but for want of this 
knowledge a correct sum total cannot be reached. The past two 
3 ears have presented a remarkable combination of conditions di- 
rectly affecting the live stock industry of the Eastern States. Con- 
ditions that require careful study and intelligent manipulation to 
accomplish the best results and avoid hardship and loss to the 
dairy and stock man. The shortage of the corn crops of 1901, 
followed by the excessively high prices demanded for all kinds of 
mill feed and the present short crop of hay without a corresponding 
increase in the prices of milk and butter has cast a shadow over 
the dairv business, which even though it may be and probablv is 
temporary, has had the effect to induce every keeper of cows to 
take advantage, more or less, of the inflated beef market to thin 
out his dairy, and in some cases to dispose of the entire breed and 
substitute beef cattle. And now that the beef is approaching its 
original price this move has not proven a judicious one in many 
cases; but it has had the effect of reducing the number of dairy 
cows in the country so that the price demanded for them has ad- 
vanced at least $10 per head in the past two yenrs, making it very 
oppressive to the man who depends upon the purchasing of cows 
to replenish his herd. 

The sympathetic high price of veal has done much to embarrass 
the rearing of graded and common stock calves, reducing to a 
measure tlu' supply of home-raised stock for the dairy. We believe 
that dairy cattle are demanding a price at the present time, in Penn 
sylvania. never before surpassed, if it wns ever equalled. The con- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 2i^9 

stautly improving railroad facilities for the shipment of dairy ])ro- 
duots from remote districts malces it necessary for the eastern dairy- 
man to compete with his western neighbor at present prices, with 
little or no hope of relief resulting from advanced retail prices of 
milk or butter. Hence, it is plainly necessary for us to apply the 
same business principle as do our mercantile brethren— "Reduce 
the cost of production." 

With the price of dairy products, the prices of feed and labor are 
more or less -arbitrarily governed by conditions over which we do 
not have control; the only factor left is acquirement of the cow and 
her productivity, and w^e believe that under existing conditions 
this is the most flexible factor in the problem, because it is, in a 
great measure, possible for the majority of dairymen (not all), by 
intelligent breeding, feeding and care to raise cows for less money 
than drove cows cost, and of better quality. Is there not a lack 
of real business methods applied in the replenishing of a dairy herd 
and farm stock generally? Are we not too easily influenced by local 
and temporary conditions? 

The recent demand for beef has stimulated the demand for the 
dual purpose cow, such as the Shorthorn and Holstein grades, 
rather than the smaller and richer breeds, quantity and fair quality 
being the acme of perfection. 

In endeavoring to procure the dual purpose cows, we wish to en- 
courage radical crosses, as the Jersey and Holstein or Shorthorn, 
for a less per cent, of such crosses prove to be failures. It is much 
safer, in selecting dual purpose cows, to obtain animals from the 
larger breeds possessing this dairy type and by careful mating 
and feeding develop in them the desirable characteristics for the 
dairy. Where calves of desirable grades can be had and a portion 
of the skimmed milk can be retained on the farm for feeding pur- 
poses, there can be "no doubt that the rearing of such cows can be 
made a profitable feature of the farming operations. 

The reaction following the glut in the horse market is fully upon 
us, as can be seen by a visit to our city horse market. It is safe to 
say that horses have advanced in prices 40 per cent, within the past 
two years. The average horse known in trade as the "general pur- 
pose horse," or the "delivery chunk," which is a well-built animal 
with good legs and feet, making no pretense at style or action, was 
seeking a market two years ago at about |75, while now he is sought 
after at from |125 to $150 in the same market. Animals of higher 
grades are very scarce and demand prices only limited by the ability 
of the customer to pay. The necessity for us to raise our own 
is so evident to all that we will not take the time of this meeting 
to discuss it. 



260 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The scarcity of western horses to consume the present satisfac- 
tory corn crop has operated favorably to the eastern farmer who 
was fortunate enough to have a stock on hand for fall and early 
winter feeding. Prices ranged from $7.50 to $9.50 per cwt., with 
corn at 50 cents per bushel offered a very favorable opportunity 
to feed pork at a profit. We believe Pennsylvania was better pro- 
A'ided with a stock of feeders than many of the Western states and 
fared well in taking advantage of the favorable market conditions. 

The sheep industry of Pennsylvania does not enjoy the record of 
progress that belongs to almost all other kinds of live stock, but 
(shows a decrease at the last census of over 40 per cent, since 1890, 
a condition that is rather a surprise. 

Since it is an acknowledged fact that the live stock is the base 
of agricultural operations, the manufacturer of farm products into 
marketable commodities, is it not necessary that we should more 
thoroughly understand the fundamental principles of breeding, 
feeding and caring for our brutes. The growing and feeding of un- 
profitable animals is one of the greatest leaks on the farm, and 
how many farmers are trying to prevent this leak? What is the 
cause? It is not because we do not have suitable pastures, feeds 
{>nd climates. It is not because we do not have within easy reach 
suitable animals of all the breeds for breeding purposes. It is not 
because we cannot find a fair market for a good animal of any breed 
or kind, or for her product. 

Then, is it not because we do not give sufficient time and careful 
study to the underlying principles of breeding, feeding and growing 
animals so as to develop the best possible individual. The better 
an animal is bred and grown to maturity the better it will pay for 
its cost, be that what it may. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, we do realize that much credit is due to the 
liirector of Farmers' Institutes for his untiring efforts in enlighten- 
ing the dairy farmer and stock raiser. But we do wish to impress 
upon the Director of Farmers' Institutes the growing importance 
of employing on the institute force an increased number of men 
who are well prepared to discuss with the farmers of this State 
''Animal Husbandry" in its various phases, and by their enlighten- 
ment, dispel from their minds the prevalent impression that breed- 
ing is a lottery, and assist them in proving to themselves by actual 
experience that reasonable, definite result will follow intelligent 
breeding, feeding and care. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OP AGRT CULTURE. 2(51 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTKE ON CKRE)ALS AND 

CERE^AL CROPS. 



A. I. WEinxER, Clmirman. 



Tlie season oi' 1UU2 has varied iu different parts of the State and 
has had its iullnence on the different cereals and cereal crops ac- 
c«n'dingly. 

Wheat that was sown early in the fall of 1901 has been good 
and yielded a fair crop; the average that has been reported to the 
chairman of the committee is about twenty bushels per acre of 
the early sown wheat. That which was sown late has not done so 
well, which will bring the general average lower. Many of the farm- 
ers in the fall of 1901 deferred seeding until late to avoid the 
ravages of the Hessian fly, but, unfortunately, the rainfall was 
light and the ground dry. Wheat that was sown late did not make 
a good growth and was not in good condition to winter well. The 
winter, being open, had its effects upon it, especially the late sown 
wheat and rye that did not have a strong growth of plant, and 
much of it was injured and winter-killed and many of the fields 
did not yield near the normal crop. 

The quality also was poor iu many cases, the fly having got in 
its work where the wheat plant was not well established and strong. 
Wet weather, in many instances, had its effect also on the quality; 
some of the wheat was rushed in before it was dry enough and 
was mow-burned and did not come out in good condition; others 
was injured in the field by the rains that came frequently and wet 
and bleached it, and some sprouted; therefore, the general results 
iu some parts of the State was not satisfactory. 

Oats were a good crop, with average above normal; quality also 
reported good. Some counties report straw unusually good, as long 
as wheat straw, and well harvested and will furnish much rough 
feed for stock this winter. 

Of rye, the average acreage was very low, below normal and not 
much groAvu. In some of the eastern counties it was grown more 
for straw than for the grain. When put up in nice bundles, straw 
brings one dollar per hundred pounds in some of the eastern 
markets. 



2«2 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The coi-ii crop was good, especially m the eastern part of the 
State. Some of the counties are reported to have had as fine fields 
of corn as ever grown; other sections of the State, the reports 
came not so favorable. Some of the corn was frozen down aad 
could not be cultivated properly on account of wet and cold %veather 
in the early part of the season, and the corn did not mature properly 
and much of the late corn was poor and did not get solid. Some 
of the comities reported yield above the average; others below. 
So the general average for the State was about normal. 

Buckwheat was not much grown. Some reports indicate about 
one-half crop. 

Grass was a very light crop the past season. In the spring the 
stand was unusutilly good, but dry w^eather set in about the time 
grass should have made its growth and continued until time for 
cutting, consequently tiie crop was very light, w'ith a good propor- 
tion af weeds when haying time arrived. So the average for the 
hay crop is much below the normal. 

IJhe winter wheat is in good condition at this time. The fall was 
fa\'orable, even that which was sown late, having made a fine growth 
and covered the ground well and the general outlook for a wheat 
crog is good for season of 1903. 

Prospects for grass crop are not so good for coming season. The 
drought before and about harvest time last summer was very in- 
jurious and burne'd out the young set grass in w'heat stubbles in 
many parts of the State. Some fields do not have any grass on 
them and will be plowed up for corn and other crops. 



Xo. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 263 



REPORT OF THJ^ COMMITTP^p; ON FLORICUL- 
TURE. 



UV KdWIX LoNSDALB. Cliuiniuin. 



It gives luo pleasure to be able to sa^- that tioricultiu'e iu in a 
most thriviug conditiou, as to tlie demand —this includes cut flow- 
ers — as orchids, roses, carnations, \iolets, lily of the valley and 
many other cut ilowers. CalhiK- {Rlckardia (jethiopica) are being 
grown in greater quantity now than in the recent past and find 
readv sale, so also the same may be said of the brilliant red bracts 
of the poinsettia pulcherrima. Neither of the two last-named 
tlow(,'rs are new, as both were popuhir twenty or thirty years ago; 
they later became "old-fashioned" and were considered out of date. 
Now, old-fashioned flowers are attracting attention again. 

The calla and poinsettia are, however, so easily multiijlied and 
grown that the sup})ly is very likely to quite soon exceed the de- 
mand. The calla, sometimes called "calla-lily," but botanically it 
belongs to the Arum family, and is not a lily at all — is grow^n almost 
altogether as cut flov>'ers, its peculiar white spathe api^ealing in- 
tensely to the esthetic. The brilliant scarlet bracts (leaves) which 
surround the insigniiicant inHorescence of the poinsettia are very 
popular for Christmas and New Year's Da}' decorations; everything 
of a bright-colored nature being more in demand at that season of 
the year, both as pot plants and cut flowers with long stems. When 
used as pot plants the poinsettia gives greatest satisfaction, propa- 
gating late, say in July and August, and a number of the small 
plants are placed together in a pan nicely arranged as to size, the 
larger being plan led in the center and smaller ones graded down 
to the sides. 

The difference between a pan and a pot is: The flower-pot in gen 
eral use is about as deep as it is broad at the top, w-hereas, the 
l)an is much more broad and shallow in comparison. Pans are be- 
coming more popuhir each year, as they conform so readily as an 
(»rnam<>nt, when fiiled with, living plants, to the dinner table. 

One of Philadelphia's more prominent retail florists grew 6,000 
p(!insettia plants for his own Ijoliday trade i:i Phi]ade1j)hia at hi» 



264 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

grcenliouse establislimeiit in Delaware county, this State. Callas 
are being more generally grown, though not in sucli large quantity 
in any one place. 

The tendency iu the building of greenhouses is towards a greater 
permanenc}' in the use of galvanized iron and steel entering into 
the structures wherever practicable, and the greenhouses are being 
built much larger now than formerly; especially does this apply 
to the width and^the height of the houses; especially is this the 
case in which to grow roses. Several advantages are claimed for 
these wider houses, one of which is the more uniform ditfusion of 
light. This latter point applies more especially when the house 
is to be used in which to grow tlie American Beauty rose for cut 
llowers. In the greenhouses built formerly the maximum width 
was twenty-six feet, and after the plants have a luxurious growth 
of five or six feet high, densely clothed w^ith its dark green foliage, 
it is then the house appears darlc and it is dark from a growing- 
viewpoint. 

A wholesale flower market was organized in Philadelphia, No- 
vember 1, 1902, capitalized at $20,000, where it is expected the grow- 
ers' product will be distributed among the retail florists of that and 
other cities, the object being to centralize this part of the business 
as far as possible. 

Floriculture in its various branches is attracting outside capital, 
as it is found that a large establishment is much more economically 
and profitably operated than a small place, costing less for heating 
and labor- -two of the most important items in running greenhouses. 
These growing establishments are best located outside of the larger 
cities, where the air is more pure and where the shipping facilities 
are ample and adequate for rush orders. The ideal place, generally 
speaking, would be on a hillside, facing the south or a little east 
of south, and convenient to a railroad station, so that the hauling 
of coal, manure and other freight would be convenient, but far 
enough removed so that the smoke from the locomotives would not 
darken the glass. It is better that pot plants should be grown 
within city limits or easy of access, as they are more bulky and are 
best delivered by the growlers' own teams and teamsters. 

There is no falling off in the demand for palms, ferns, azaleas, 
etc., for decorative purposes and home adornment, and the florifer- 
ous French Begonia Gloire de Lorraine as a pot plant has been found 
to be a great help at Christmas time, wiien the supply of the better 
class of cut flowers is not equal to the demand, as it gives more 
general satisfaction than the same amount of cash spent on cut 
flowers alone would do. 

As a note of warning, allow vour committee to sav that if there 
were enough flowers for all demands at Christmas time there would 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 263 

be a glut at oliior limes, excepting possibly at tlie otbci- floral fes- 
tivals of the year, as New Year's day, Easter and Tlianksgiving day. 
In conclusion, tlu; coal strike has attected Ihe profits of floricnl- 
ture very materially during the present year, more, perhaps, than 
any other industry. But if it should bring about the use, in some 
way, of tlie millions of tons of culm now apparently going to waste 
in the coal regions it will prove a blessing in disguise. 



18 



2C.'i ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



-PAPKRS READ AT THE ANNUAL MEETING OF 
THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, HEED 
AT HARRISBURG, PA., JANUARY 28 AND 29, 
1903. 



THE KESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF STATE BOARDS 
AXD TEACHERS OF AGRICULTURE. 



Bv PliOF. 1. P. KoBEltrs, ijj CoriU'U Univfrsity. Itluua. X. i'. 



Upon whose slionlders rests the responsibility of promoting agri- 
cultural knowledge throughout this great Commonwealth? This 
question is both fair and pertinent at this time. Fair, because the 
leaders in agricultural thought and the officers or members of your 
various distinctively agricultural organizations and teachers are 
largely responsible for the conditions of the rural poijulation and 
the productivity of your arable lands. A few score men have been 
chosen as leaders. The multitude will not — cannot — be expected 
to go faster nor farther than those who have been placed at the 
head. 

The question is pertinent because I address a large body of gentle- 
men who have been selected because of their fitness to manage the 
various agricultural associations, with the sole view of teaching 
the people, trusting thereby to promote and improve the agriculture 
of the State. You are to originate, plan, and, so far as possible, 
see to it that your plans are carried out. You hold the power, 
since you are organized, hence the private individual is not likely 
to originate or push any new scheme how^ever worthy. If you do 
not act promptly and energetically you simply block the way. 

What is the character and extent of the work the State has 
handed over to this and similar organizations and the teachers at 
your agricultural colleges? It may assist us in our efforts to under- 
stand the responsibilities, if the number and value of the farms and 
the chief agricultural ju'oducts of your State be set forth in figures. 

According to the last census there were, in your Commonwealth, 
224.248 cultivated farms. Premising that there arc as many fami- 
lies as farms and that an average family consists of five persons, 



No. C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 2(17 

tJu'ic are 1.121,1'1(I persons living on t'^Ai-nis. U is safe Lo esliinaie 
Jliat foni^iit'ths of these are old enough to ie(;eive instruction, in 
round numbers, there are one million persons on farms capable of 
receiving instruction relating to their calling, in addition, at least, 
ten per cent, of the urban population is greatly interested in the 
growing of plants and animals. In 1900 there were produced in 
this State 117,810,11)2 bushels of cereals. You owned 871,505 horses 
and mules, more than a million and a half (1,541,135) sheep, over a 
million (l,265,oi27) swine and nearly two millions (1,907,192) of neat 
cattle, one-half of which (1,022,074) were dairy cows. The value 
' of the principal crops exceeded one liundred and twenty millions 
of dollars. The value of the hay and forage crop alone exceeded 
thirty-seven millions of dollars (|37,514,779). The vegetables were 
worth nearly sixteen million dollars (| 15,832,904), and the value of 
animals sold and slaughtered was more than twenty-seven million 
dollars. Is agriculture worth the liberal attention of your Legisla- 
ture? 

But the census report does not set forth many of the incidental 
products of the farms. For instance, if there w^ere 224,248 farms, 
it may be presumed that there were an equal number of gardens 
planted when the census was taken. V/ho would take less than 
|10 for his planted garden in June? Then, each year, there are 
$2,242,480 worth of property in the farm gardens of the Keystone 
State. 

In 1896 there were mined in the State 40,600,000 tons of anthracite 
arid 36,000,000 tons of bituminous coal. In 1900 there were mined 
of both soft and hard coal 79,318,362 short tons. What the average 
pMce was of this coal f. o. b. at the mines I am unable to discover. 
However, this matters little, since it will be but a comparatively 
short time when the value of mined coal in your State will be nill. 
A conservative estimate places the unmined coal at eight billions 
tons and the end of this great industry of your State at 100 to 150 
years hence. The agriculture of your State will then be in its 
infancy. If the soil be kindly treated and intelligently tilled for 
a long time to come its productivity will steadily increase and the 
products of your farms, at no distant day, will be more than 
doubled. If you are wise, by the time the coal beds are exhausted 
the seamed mountains should be covered by umbrageous forests and 
the black, bleak, bare hills be clothed in sylvan beauty. Life wall 
then have become normal and man will be found w'orshipping in 
God's first temples not made with hands. 

"Who is to set the legislative wheels in motion that the reclothing 
of the mountains and hills be began and in time completed? If 
this distinguished body of men does not undertake the work no 
one will. Must we wait until much of the most valuable land in 



268 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc, 

the valleys is washed to the; mouths ot Lhc rivers, where it fills the 
estuaries, before anythiug is attempted? Must floods and torna- 
does devastate the State again and again, and yet again before 
remedial action is taken? Does the responsibility for prompt action 
rest with this great organization? 

Professor Fernow, of Cornell University, the highest authority 
on forestry in this country, says: "The supply of timber will not 
last another thirty jears, and even immediate adoption of proper 
methods of management could not insure long continuance of the 
supply at the present rate of consumption, which is 25,000,000,000 
cubic feet a year. While it is now too late. to avert wholly the 
calamities which follow forest destruction, there is yet time to 
modify them. What is left of the virgin forests should be protected 
and cared for and wanton destruction prevented. Few people 
realize what the consequences of destruction would be. It means 
that fertile valleys will become wind-swept, torrent-scarred deserts, 
and vast ai-eas, now productive, will become incapable of supporting 
human life. 

The coming generation will realize all tins and wonder that its 
predecessors were so foolhardy." 

Pennsylvania embraces 28,987,000 acres. It is said that one- 
fourth of this area is covered with the mountains of the Appalachian 
system, in round numbers 7,000,000 acres. These seven million 
acres should be covered and kept covered with forest growth. 

It will cost something to reclothe the hills, but there is always 
money enough in a great state like Pennsylvania to carry on and 
carry out all vital undertakings. What is too often lacking is self- 
sacrificing, courageous, intelligent leaders. The tree which will bear 
abundant and precious fruit must be planted by some one. We 
cannot gather grapes from thorns nor figs from thistles. The rising 
generation must have ample opportunity for securing advanced 
and technical training. It cannot set the educational machinery 
at work. Our children are benefited by the work begun by their 
ancestors. Where, in all your broad State, can a student go and 
receive such instruction as will fit him for the management, care 
and economic development of forests? How many students in your 
agricultural college are fitted to make an agricultural or soil survey 
of the State? How many can intelligently advise the farmers as 
to the best location for orchards, or the best varieties of fruits for 
any given locality? How many teachers are there capable of teach- 
ing the farmers' boys how to keep accounts? Is there a single 
farmer in the State who can tell from his accounts, accurately kept, 
whether it is most profitable to rear swine or sheep or produce 
milk? If not, why not? Because adequate provision has not been 
made for giving instruction in the principles and practice of account- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



269 



iu^-. ('an you imagine any complicated manufacturing industry that 
could go on for more tlian a single year without finding out which of 
the particular branches of the undertaking was carried on at a profit 
and which at a loss? An establishment may manufacture iron, 
wire, nails and screws. If, like the farmer, only one single entry 
book or no books at all were kept and they never took stock or 
an inventory, the windows of the factory would soon be covered 
with boards kept in place with their own screws. 

The activities on most farms are as many and far more compli- 
cated than are those carried on in an ordinary manufacturing es- 
tablishment, yet on the farm guess-work is substituted for facts. 
The farmer begins in the spring' by guessing it might be well to 
plow up the old meadow or plant the back lot to potatoes and the 
front lot to cabbage. In a week he begins to guess that he will 
not plow the meadow nor plant cabbage. He has no well-matured 
plan for th(^ year nor for the years to come. Why? Because he 
is like the small child, ignorant for want of intellectual training. 
Like the child, he is usually helpless because of his ignorance due 
to lack of opportunity and insj)iration. Again, like the child, he 
is selfish. Selfishness is the legitimate fruit of ignorance or a lack* 
of training, hence farmers cannot be induced to co-operate. Each 
wants his own corn harvester when one would do quite well for a 
half dozen corn raisers. 

Who is to blame? Why, the leaders and directors of your educa- 
tional system. We have been attempting, metaphorically, to train 
a few boys so perfectly that if by any chance they should fall into 
the water it is hoped they could swim. Would it not be better to 
put them into the water and teach them how to swim? They 
would certainly get the same technical training and more certainly 
acquire the art of swimming. AVhy will we persist in educating 
one boy's head and another boy's hands and produce, too often, two 
monstrosities. The former will despise the latter, and the latter 
will hate the former. Mistakes of the past rest with the leaders 
in education; the mistakes of the future will rest with you. 

In a similar manner, what is transpiring in the forest domain 
which I have tried to describe, is taking place on most of your 
farms. True, here and there, a farm is being conducted more ra- 
tionally and more profitably than formerly, but for one acre so 
managed there are many that are steadily growing less productive. 
Who is to arrest this depletion of the soil if the leaders are timid 
and hestitating? What did your distinguished and able Governor 
say a few days since? '"Wliatever tends to bring about an improve- 
ment in the condition of the masses of mankind and assists in their 
cultivation and elevation is an advantage to the State and should 
be encouraged." And, again, he says, ''I suggest that the Legisla- 



'K 



270 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

tnre consider the propriety of imposing a slight tax on some of the 
products of the State, the proceeds to be applied to the betterment 
of her roads." 

These are wise words, but if it is not presumptuous T would sug- 
gest that a tax of one-tenth of a mill be levied on all taxable prop- 
erty of the State, the proceeds to be expended for the promotion of 
agricultural knowledge. We sometimes complain because the pro- 
ducts of the west glut our markets and not infrequently we at- 
tempt to disparage this section by calling it "the wild and wooly 
west." Iowa levied a tax of five mills on all taxable property for 
the maiutenace of one institution — her state agricultural and me- 
chanical college. Would that the East might get a little "wild" and 
grow even a short crop of "wool," which would be better than 
none at all. 

Have the rural citizens of the East lost their pride? Do they pro- 
pose to stand aside and let the Western states, born when you were 
an old Commonwealth, outstrip you? 

These words apply to New York as well as to the State which 
keys the ai'ch. The assessable property of this State is .f3,528,585,- 
578. A tenth of a mill tax would yield $552,858.00, and would mean 
that upon each thousand assessed valuation a tax of ten cents would 
be levied. 

Is such a fund necessary and could it be put to a good use? If 
the great masses interested in rural pursuits are to be taught 
many teachers will be required. But a teacher cannot teach ac- 
ceptably unless he has been taught. Then, somewhere, there should 
be a central college or laniversity devoted, among other things, to 
training teachers. In this democratic county there is no good 
reason why a college may not offer instruction in primary subjects 
related to agriculture, thereby giving opportunity for the girls to 
secure a better knowledge of cooking and of the English language, 
and for the boys to studj' those subjects related to the art of hus- 
bandry and English, and for other boys and other girls to take such 
advanced courses as will make them equal in training and in a 
knowledge of the sciences and languages to the graduates of the 
so-called literary colleges. The leaders in agricultural affairs will 
never be equal to the leaders in other professions until they are 
equal. And to be equal, they must receive instruction, training, 
discipline and development corresponding in quantity and difficulty, 
though not exactly in kind, to that received in our great univer- 
sities, training equal to that required for entrance upon other 
difficult pursuits and professions of life. 

It all amounts to this — there must be wisdom showil in outlining 
•ind planning equal to the vastness. intricacies and far-reaching 
character of the work to be undertaken. When the work is planned 



No. 6. DE3PARTMENT OF AGRICUI^TURE. 271 

Llit'ii iiiii|)U' funds must be provided fur i-arryiuj^ on the work. 
"There is that seattereth and yet increaseth and there is that with- 
hokleth more than that is meet, but it tendeth to poverty." Write 
in kirge characters over the doors ot every building devoted to the 
training of farmers — Millions for improving the farms and the 
farmers but not one unjust cent for the millionaires. 

This is fair, for from time immemorial, except for the last few 
decades, almost nothing has been done for the greatest industry 
the world has ever known. 

"That art on which a thousand million of men are dependent for 
their sustenance, and two hundred millions of men expend their 
daily toils must be the most important of all, the parent and pre- 
cursor of all other arts. In every county, then, and at every period, 
tiie investigation of the principles on which the rational practice 
of this art is founded ought to have commanded the principal atten- 
tion of the greatest minds." ]SIo matter how large provision may 
Jh' made for investigation and instruction in agriculture it will take 
a hundred years before the rural population receives full educational 
justice. 

Naturally, your people have paid most attention to the iron and 
'oal industries. From now on agriculture should receive most at- 
tention. In three generations your coal will be nearly or quite 
exhausted. That means that the iron and many other industries 
will languish. It means that new fields will be sought where fuel 
Is abundant. It means that there will be twice as many railways 
as can find profitable employment, unless they can be employed in 
carrying agricultural and forest products to the sea-board for ex- 
portation. But will there be any timber forest, or will your forest 
furnish only a meager supply for fire-wood? 

If you practice farm mining, as too many are now doing, the land 
like the mine will be measurably exhausted in a century. But if re- 
.eiprocal farming be practiced then the soil will remain in its place 
and be productive for untold centuries. But you will say that agri- 
culture is not as profitable as many of the other industries. I think 
that this is true in manv cases and this because farming is not ra- 
tionally carried on. As I write these lines I find on my table two 
letters from which I make brief extracts: 

''We have had about fifty one-half blood winter lambs. Have 
been shipping some time. The price is so good I wish I had a few 
hundred more. I purchased the farm just across the road at $140 
per acre; have been offered §160 for it. I picked 1,040 barrels of 
apples from the orchard on the farm purchased and 1,3G0 barrels 
from the home orchard. I sold these 3,000 barrels for $G,000. I 
am not anxious to sell my farms at any price." Another man on 
the extreme end of Long Island one hundred miles from market 



272 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

raises on a modest size farm .f 20,000 worth of garden products, at a 
cost exclusive of land rental of |10,000. These are only two cases 
out of many which might be cited to show that trained effort 
applied to agricultural pursuits brings abundant reward. 

Finally, let me say, prompt actio^n should be taken this winter, 
here, and now to preserve and improve your forests, to furnish 
facilities for a better and fuller training and education of the rural 
population, especially the youthful part of it, that citizenship may 
be elevated and^that the arable land may be increased in produc- 
tivity. This means that a fuller and more comprehensive education 
must be offered the farmers' children. In my own State the forces 
are already gathered at Albany. Some of our lawmakers talk not 
in thousands but in millions. Schemes are on foot for securing 
appropriations for a multitude of objects, some good, some bad. 
1 presume conditions are much the same in your own State. The 
best organized forces push the hardest and get the most. Are your 
various organizations united as to the total and separate wants of 
the people you represent, or is each organization skirmishing for 
itself; if so, the three other leading industries are likely to secure 
the lion's share. 



No. (5. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 273 



TIIK SOUTHKKN COW TEA ANJ) ITS I'KOIiABLE J'LAOK IN 
TIIK AGiaCULTUKP: OF THE MIJ)I)LE STATES. 



Bv I'lioF. W. h\ Massev, Horticulturist of the Nsrth OaroUna Exi>friment Station ami Eilitur of the 

Practical Farmer of Pliiladcliphin, Pa. 



The great problem lliat has for years engaged the attention of 
thoughtful farmers ou all the older cultivated lauds in the country, 
is how to restore and retain the humus which long cultivation has 
taken from the soil, and the loss of which has resulted in a more 
dilticult mechanical condition and a greater tendency to suffer 
from droughts. This is particularly an important matter in the 
South, for in the southern uplands the original supply of humus 
has always been smaller in the North, and the continuous cul- 
tivation of the soil in the cleanest culture ])racticed, that of the 
cotton crop, has deprived the soil of what it had. In the open wood- 
lands of the southern hills the wind in winter blows the leaves 
off into the bottom, while in the north the snow falls and packs 
them in place to decay there, so that when first cleared the southern 
uplands have a thinner coating of vegetable matter than those of 
the north. But in all of our older cultivated lands the great defi- 
ciency is humus. Not that humus, per se, makes the soil fertile, 
but that it enables the plants more readily to reach the food at 
hand through the better mechanical condition of the soil which 
it causes, and especially is it valuable as a retainer of moisture for 
the solution of plant food in the soil, and enabling the crops to 
better tide over the droughts that are becoming more and more 
common as the forests are cleared away and, finally, as a form to 
retain nitrogen still more available. An ardent advocate for com- 
mercial fertilizers some time since advised writers on agricultural 
matters to "give humus a rest," and insisted that a lavish use of 
commercial fertilizers was all that is necessary for the profitable 
production of crops. The statement showed simply how little the 
man knew of the conditions for the successful use of the commercial 
fertilizers. These fertilizers do not furnish any humus-making 
material as a stable manure does, and if we had an abundance of 
the home-made manures there would be little deficiency in well- 
manured soil in this respect. But, unfortunately, few farmers, if 

18—6—1903 



-74 ANXTTAL RKPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

any, are so woil situated tliat they can keep up the humus supply 
iu (heii* soil tlii-ou^i^h the use of barnyard manure alone. They can- 
not get enough of it. 

Farmers, in the practical working of their farms, have often dis- 
covered facts and left the exphmation to the scientists. Long years 
ago tliey found that a clover sod plowed under did, in some way, 
not only supply the soil with humus, but that it actually increased 
its productivity through the accumulation of organic nitrogen. 
How the clover did this was for many years a subject for discus- 
sion, many farmers imagining that the plants absorbed ammonia 
from tlie air. In fact, it is not yet proved that plants cannot or 
can get the use of the ammoniacal gas in the air. Dr. Gray used 
to say that he could not see why they could not, but admitted that 
it had never been proved that they did. Tt was not until tlie 
students of pure science took up the matter that it was discovered 
that not clover alone, but many other plants of the same botanical 
order did get the free nitrogen from the air and locate it in the 
soil in the form of organic matter capable of nitrification. It was 
found that this work is being done through certain micro-organisms 
Avhich live parasitically on the roots of some legumes, for it wa« 
found that unless these were present the legume had no power to 
get the free nitrogen. It is still a matter of speculation as to 
what the exact process is through which these microscopic plants 
get the nitrogen. But for all the purposes of the farmer it is suf- 
ficient to know that they do, and under what conditions they do get 
the nitrogen. The wonderful adaptation of the processes of Nature 
to the needs of humanity is well known h(M'e. It is well known that 
green plants, as a rule, take nitrogen through their roots only 
when it is presented in the form of a nitrate of some base iu the 
soil. It is also known that when the nitrogen has gotten into this 
form it readily escapes from the soil in the drainage waters. Hence, 
the importance of the way in which the legumes get and keep the 
nitrogen. It is not simply an oxydation and formation of nitric acid 
and, hence, a nitrate left in the soil, but an absorption of the nitro- 
gen and its location in the organism of tlie plants, where it must 
subsequently go through the process of decay and be acted upon 
by the micro-organisms of nitrification before the nitrogen becomes 
available to plants. This is evidently a provision of Infinite Wis- 
dom, so that the crops of the succeeding year can get the use of the 
nitrogen fixed in the soil by the growth of the i)revious season. 
Were it simply a nitrate left in the soil, tliei-e would be little of 
it for the next year's crops. 

Learning, through the labors of the men in tlu' labo;alory. the 
uses of these micro-organisms which live on the roots of Icgunu^ 
crops, the farmer has at hand the greatest of means for restoring 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AdRICULTUKE. 275 

Lhc liuiiuis to his soil aucl at the suuie time supylyiug the needed 
nitrogen whUc growing- crops to feed his stock with the most expen- 
sive part of the ration, the protein, and at Ihe same time give him 
snpplies of the richest manure. 

The great forage and fi rtilizing crop of the Middle and Northern 
states is, and probablv al\Nays will be, red clover. It is a plant well 
adapted to the climatic conditions in these states, and fits into the 
usual rotation of crops better than anything that could be adopted 
in his place. In the South the case is very ditferent. From Virginia 
southward clover succeeds only in the mountains and Upper Pied- 
mont sections and on a clay soil. In the warm, sandy soils, common 
in the cotton belt, it is universally a failure. What I have to say, 
therefore, in regard to the southern pea does not mean that it ever 
should be adopted in the Middle states as a substitute for clover 
where clover can be grown well. My first experience with the cow 
pea was in a beautiful limestone valley in Northern Maryland but 
a few miles south of the Pennsylvania line. Its luxuriant growth 
there, and the large amount of forage of the finest kind made 
from it, caused me to believe that in certain conditions the plant 
would become valuable far north of where it had generally been 
grown. Going then to the improvement of a large farm in upper 
Virginia right at the foot of the Blue Ridge, I again tried the cow 
pea with the most gratifying success. One spring, having lost my 
clover over a large field of wheat through an untimely frost when 
it was germinating, I determined not to resow the clover so late 
in the season, but to use the cow pea after the wheat had been 
harvested. This was done, and the r(isult w'as the heaviest crop of 
peas I had ever seen. I then began the study of the curing of the 
crop as hay, and 1 soon found that a modification of the method I 
had been using in the curing of clover hay was equally good for the 
pea vines, and that the only difference was that the peas needed to 
remain outside longer than the clover. And it is one great ad- 
vantage which the pea has over clover that it is very little injured 
by rain on it while curing. I found that my pea vine hay was a 
very superior article for my cow'S, and in fact was better than 
clover hay, for I found that through its aid I could dispense with the 
purchased bran that I had been using largely. Since that time 
a number of the Experiment Stations have taken up the same in- 
vestigation, and have all arrived at the same conclusion I reached 
over fifteen years ago, that with the cow pea we can grow the 
needed protein for the cattle ration while growing a plant that helps 
the soil on which it is grown. 

When I moved further south, I was surprised to see how little 
attention was being paid to the cow pea as a forage crop and soil 



276 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

improver in tlie very section where it reaches its greatest value. 
I at ouce determined to Avage a light for the cow pea iu the South. 
What 1 said and wrote on tlie subject attracted great attention 
also in the north, and farmers began to experiment with the cow 
l)ea far north of where 1 ever thought it could possibly succeed. 
What i was endeavoring to do was not so much to extend the cul- 
ture of the pea northward as to get the southern farmers to realize 
its value and to understand what could be done through its aid 
in the improvement and restoration of their worn lands, and thus 
to get them into a more systematic method of farming for cotton 
or tobacco. But here and there, all over the north, men claimed 
to be succeeding with the pea and considering it of great value 
to them. In Southern Illinois, where clover has gotten to be very 
uncertain, the cow pea is now a staple forage crop with the farm- 
ers. Two years ago a farmer up in Wisconsin wrote to me that he 
had ripened 100 bushels of the peas and last spring he wrote that 
he had made contracts with seedsmen to grow 1,650 bushels the past 
summer, as they assumed that peas grown that far north would be 
better for northern conditions. A dairyman in Southern Vermont 
wi'ote that he had found the pea indispensable, and that with it he 
was able to do without buying bran. And yet, in the high mountain 
plateaus of North Carolina west of the Blue Ridge, where the farms 
lie 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea, the cow pea does not thrive 
1o any profitable extent. The nights are too cool and the soil too 
heavy for the peas. It is noticeable, so far as I have been able to 
observe, that in any place north of the fortieth parallel if the 
pea is a success it is on a warm, sandy soil and at a slight elevation 
above the sea level. Under other conditions it may make a fair 
growth in the warmest part of the season, and may pay as a summer 
})asture when grass is dry, but as a forage and hay crop I hardl}, 
think it can be a success north of that line on a heavy, clay soil 
and in a mountain section where the summer nights are cool. 
When I first began to advocate the use of the cow pea, the editor 
of a paper published in the Cumberland Valley tried to ridicule 
what I had written, and said that the cow i)ea had been tried in 
Southern renns3lvania and had proved a failure. Now, where that 
editor lived there has been great success with this pea. A few 
years ago, when I was temporarily visiting a town in Eastern North 
Carolina tlie first of July, t found a. farmer gathering ripe peas and 
preparing to plant a second croj) from the seed. I begged him to 
plant all that he could, for I felt sure that a pea that would ripen 
in sixty days from the ])]anting of the seed was the pea that I 
had been looking for for northern planting. He did as I asked, 
and I got a Philadelphia seedsman to introduce the pea under the 
name of ^^';ll•ren's Extra Early, and it is this pea that is being 



Nu. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 277 

i-ipcued ill Wisconsin and Micliij^an, There is no doubt that the 
cow pea, like Indian corn, has a gi-eat capacity for gradually ac- 
climatizing as it is brought slowly north. Years ago we sent to 
the Delaware Station a great many varieties of peas. Among them 
was one known in the south as the "Unknown" and "Quadroon," 
and recently renamed the "Wonderful."' This is one of our latest 
peas, and when brought to Delaware it rip<med very few peas, but 
since then Dr. Neal has told me that it regularly ripens a full crop. 
Several years ago 1 had a letter from a farmer in Iowa. He said 
that he moved there from Southern Missouri, where he had been 
accustomed to the Black Eye pea as a table vegetable, and thought 
he would try them in Iowa. He got some seed from Missouri and 
planted a row in the warmest part of his garden. Of the whole 
row but one plant matured three pods. These he saved and the 
next summer planted in the garden and every plant ripened a crop, 
showing that it was getting acclimated. The following summer he 
planted three rows along side his corn field. That summer there 
was a severe drought and the hot winds nearly destroyed the corn 
crop. A neighboring stockman came over to his house one day 
to condole over the loss of the corn crop, and he showed him the 
rows of peas growing rankly and of a dark green color. His neigh- 
bor begged him to save every seed, for, said he, "that plant will be 
the salvation of this country in a drought." In Kansas, further 
south, the crop is being grown with great success and is highly es- 
teemed. These localities, though north of Pennsylvania, with the 
exception of Kansas, have dilferent soil and climatic conditions. In 
the eastern part of the Middle states the mountain sections come 
in with a climate verj- different from the lower country, and condi- 
tions less favorable to plants that need hot summer nights. But 
it is evident that in such locations in the Middle states, where the 
soil is light and warm, and the nights are hot enough to give corn 
lis best condition, the southern pea can be grown with success as 
a forage crop. The investigations of scientists have shown that 
the nitrogen-fixing power of the legumes is in direct proportion 
to the amount of available nitrogen in a combined state in the soil, 
and that where the soil has a large store of available nitrogen these 
plants will not go through the more difficult method of getting 
it from the air. In other words, it would seem that the nitrogen- 
fixing is better done in a soil very poor in nitrogen. But in such a 
soil it is difficult to get clover to grow at all. And here comes in 
«n advantage of the cow pea in the fact that it Avill grow in a soil 
far poorer than clover Avili. From various sections we hear that it 
is increasingly difficult to get a stand of clover as they once did. 
In such cases the cow pea stands ready to help. It has been shown 
that acidity in the soil is detrimental to the growth of clover be- 



278 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Olf. Doc. 

cause the microbes will not thrive in an acid soil. But the cow pea 
(leliglits in an acid soil, and is damaged by a. direct application of 
lime. Of course, in most instances, where the soil does not lack 
fertility', an aj^plication of lime will restore the conditions which 
clover needs, but in other cases it may be an advantage to use 
the pea in building up the soil, for the growth of clover for the 
oi'gauic matter it furnishes will make the application of lime for 
the clover more effectual. The south does not need clover, since 
the southern farmer can, with the pea, accomplish all in a few short 
weeks that the northern farmer takes two years to do with clover. 
As a quickly grov^'n source of forage of the finest kind, and of nitro- 
gen for the soil, there are few plants that can equal the cow pea 
where it attains its best development. 

Now, as to its place in the agriculture of Pennsylvania and other 
states in this latitude. There are large sections of the State of 
Pennsylvania in which I w^ould never advise the farmers to waste 
time and money in experimenting with the cow pea as a forage and 
hay-making plant. The elevated mountain country, with the heavy 
clay soil will present conditions that will alwaj's result in a small 
growth and an unsatisfactory crop. But all along the southern 
tier of counties south of the fortieth parallel, from the mountains to 
the Delaware and in the lower Susquehanna Valley, there are thou- 
sands of farms where the cow pea can be used as a forage crop to 
great advantage. Not, as I have said, that it can ever, or ought 
ever, to supersede clover, but to come in as a supplemental crop 
to save a legume growth when clover fails, as it often does. Then, 
too, there are other sections of the State where the pea can be 
used as a summer pasture to enable the farmer to tide over a 
drought and save his grass from utter destruction. If pastured 
before blooming, the pea can be eaten down several times during 
the summer, and there is no pasture that will give more or better 
milb. I once pastured down a piece of peas in the Virginia moun- 
tains three times during one summer. If an early sixty-day pea 
is used, there is nothing that will make a finer hog pasture in the 
fall, when the peas are ripe, and the hogs will need little corn to 
finish them off after being taken from the pea field. Where the 
conditions of soil and climate are favornble-to a strong growing 
vinlng variety, like the large Black or the Clay, they will make the 
finest of hay. The large Black and the Clay from North Carolina 
seed ripened seed at Cornell some years ago, while seed of the 
same A'arietie's from the far south failed to ripen, showing the 
adaptation of the pea to climatic conditions. There is no one point 
in regard to the cow pea about which there is such a diversity of 
opinions as the making of the hay. The general opinion in the 
south is that it is very hard-to cure, and one sees all over the south 



N(p. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICLTLTURE. 279 

all .sorts of coiilrivaiKrs for Lliis purpose. Some stick u[) bushes 
all over tlie field to bang the vines on to cure. Some make scaffolds 
of several stories of fonce rails and put a tbin laj^er of bay on eacb 
sbelf. Tbe result of all tbese eontritances is that they finally get 
a lot of dried stems and lose the leaves, tbe best part of the 
whole, and what they get is of an inferior quality. I long ago 
came to the conclusion that nnless we could cure tbe hay in a 
more business-like manner and in a more economical way, we could 
not afford to make it at all. I began experimenting with it many 
years ago, and soon found that the same method I bad been using 
with clover was equally well adapted to tbe pea hay, provided some 
allowance is made for tbe ranker growth and heavier stems. For 
thirty years I have bad no dillficulty in making tbe finest of hay 
from the cow pea as easily as from clover. But, to show tbe diffi- 
culty of getting men to properly apply a method of practice of any 
kind, 1 have gotten numerous letters saying that tbe writers bad 
tried my method and that the bay had moulded. Tbe only answer 
I could make to these men was "come and look at the bay in my 
barn, which w%is cured as I advise, and is not mouldy but sv/eet and 
green in color." Telling farmers how to cure legume bay is some- 
what like telling men who have bad no experience how to grow 
mushrooms. I can grow mushrooms easily and with certainty, but 
I never knew a man to take directions for growing mushrooms and 
make a good crop with tbe first effort. Tbe trouble in making 
legume bay of any kind comes from tbe fact that no two crops are 
in precisely the same condition, and there are variations in tbe 
weather, so that the farmer needs to know how to handle the crop 
under various conditions. I told one farmer this season that my 
pea vine hay was put in the barn tbe third day after cutting it. 
He wrote to me afterwards that be left some of his out six 
days and then it moulded in the barn. He had doubtless let 
it lie and beat in the cocks, which I never allow. I cut ray peas 
as soon as the first pods turn yellow. Tbe tedder follows the 
mower, and keeps the vines tossed during tbe day. Cutting in 
the morning only, I rake tbe vines into winrows in tbe evening. 
These are turned and dried tbe next day and cocked. The follow- 
ing day, if I find that I can take a handful of tbe hay, and, with a 
bard twist, can see no sap run to the twist, the hay goes in tbe barn 
that afternoon. But if not yet ready to stand this test I turn 
every cock and remake them, and never haul in till the bay stands 
the twist and is free from anv external moisture. Once in the barn 
I let it alone. It will heat some in the mow, and if then stirred it 
will be sure to mould, but let alone it will cure perfectly whether 
the barn is shut or open. With a little common. sense and judg- 
ment a farmer can soon learn the conditions on which success de- 



280 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

pends. In fact, I have gotten so used to making good pea vine 
baj that it seems to me abont the easiest hay made. And yet, nine 
men out of ten all over the South will tell vou that the great draw- 
back to the pea hay making is the great difiiculty in curing it. Last 
summer we had a series of institutes in the western Piedmont 
country of North Carolina. I invited the farmers when they came 
to attend the State Fair at Kaleigh to step across the field adjoin- 
ing the fair ground and look at the hay made as I advised. Our 
Commissioner of Agriculture, who was with the party, said that 
I was taking a heavy risk, as the hay was yet to be made. I told 
him not to fear, and when the fair came on I had the pleasure 
of showing the hay to more than one doubter. I enter into these 
details because there are a great many locations in this State 
where the hay can be profitably made and used. But the greatest 
use here for the cow pea, and the great use it will be in the greater 
part of the Middle states is as a fertilizing crop direct. No matter 
if the season is too short for the peas to ripen, the dead vines will 
bring more humus-making material on the soil at a slight cost 
than you could haul there for years in manure, and it will be gotten 
there in a very short time. In sections where the hay can be se- 
cured I do not consider it good farm economy to use so valuable a 
food crop simply as manure, but where it cannot be matured for 
hay it is well worth growing as a fertilizing and humus-making crop. 
Another fact in regard to the cow pea is worth relating. A farmer 
in Illinois wrote to me that he had a field of peas caught by frost 
and killed before maturing. He turned a bunch of cattle on dead 
pea vines^aud they got fat on them before the snow came. Where 
the vines do not mature for hay they can be protitabl}' fed off after 
they are killed. 

For the farmer in the Middle states then, the cow pea comes in 
as a catch crop to take plac(,^ which a failure of clover has left 
vacant; as a means for providing a summer pasture to tide over a 
drought that makes the grass short and worthless, for it will 
flourish under droughty conditions when most other plants fail; 
as a plant to put in the hog lots and make cheap pork, and finally 
as a plant to gather nitrogen from the air and restore hunius to 
the soil even where it fails to ripen seed. Then, too, as a pasture 
where it has failed to mature and dead vines are still valuable food 
on the ground. 

While the cow pea can never attain in (he ^liddle states the im- 
portance it does in the "Sunny South," where it more than takes the 
place of clover, there are still many ways in which the Middle states' 
farmer can use the pea at times to great advantage, though it must 
always be regarded as supplementary to clover, and by no means 
as a crop that can supplement Llie hardy perennial legumes like 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 281 

clover and alfalfa. The oft-repeated talk about clover sickuess 
is usually the neglect of the conditions that are necessary to make 
clover a success. I once took charge of a field that was reputed 
clover sick. It was a fertile limestone soil, and tests showed that 
it was acid. I gave it a liberal dressing of lime and got as fine a 
gi'owth of clover as I ever saw. Therefore, while I have for the 
last forty years been an earnest advocate of the cow pea I have 
never lost sight of the fact that with the conditions in the north 
clover is the most natural and best recuperative crop. But even 
in the Middle states there are extensive areas of thin, sandy soil, 
where clover is always a scanty growth till the soil is improved to 
a condition to become favorable to it. On such soils the cow pea 
is a boon. It will make a fair growth on the poorest of soils, but 
if supplied on these soils with a liberal allowance of phosphoric 
acid and potash it will make a luxuriant growth and furnish the 
means for getting the soil into condition for the growing of clover. 
On the sandy soils of Middle and Southern New Jersey the pea 
flourishes almost as well as it does in its southern home, and gives 
the farmers and gardeners there means to improve their soil, 
which they cannot so well nor so easily or quickly get through 
clover. On the fertile soils of Southeastern Pennsylvania the pea 
makes an enormous grow^th, and is more difficult to cure into hay. 
But when cut with corn into the silo it will make of the silage a 
fairly balanced ration and a most valuable food for dairy cows, and 
can be made, as experiment has shown, to take the place of pur- 
chased protein for the dairy. When dairymen come to fully realize 
that they can grow their protein by the use of crops that improve 
the soil on which they are grown, the days of exorbitant prices for 
mill feed will be over, and those who are still compelled to buy 
protein will get it at a more reasonable price because of the grow- 
ing of it by those having land suited to the purpose. These facts 
have been demonstrated by carefully conducted feeding experiments 
at several stations. The farmers in the mountain country of Penn- 
sylvania may possibly get some pasture from the pea in dry weather, 
but in clay soil and a region much elevated above the sea with 
a clay soil it will usually be a waste of effort to attempt its use. 

It may be said that I have said nothing about varieties. These, 
in the South, are almost innumerable. The plant has broken into 
a great number of varieties differing in the size and color of the 
seeds and blossoms and in the habit of the plant. Some make long 
vines running flat on the ground, and, hence, difficult to use as 
bay. Others are of the habit of the ordinary bush bean and make 
a smaller amount of forage, though generally a heavy crop of seed. 
Some ripen in 60 days from planting, others in 70 days and others 
run nearly to 100 days in maturing. The original species has been 
19 



262 ' ANKUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

bandied about from one genus to another till it is i-cjilly liard to 
saA' what the original species is. A few years ago 1 made an effort 
to find out what the original species is. I got from Australia 
Dolichos catiang, from Ceylon Yigna catiang, from Japan Vigna 
sinensis and from China Vigna catiang. Each and every o'ne of 
these was what we knov>- in the South as the Black Eye pea. I 
assume, then, that the Black Eye is the original species and that 
Vigna sinensis is probably the correct name. But it is well knOAvn 
in the south that there is no pea that varies less than the Black 
Eye, for it almost invariably comes true to type in plant and seed. 
It is, therefore, hard to account for the great number of varieties 
that have appeared unless there has been some crossing mth other 
spocies, and this has probably been the case. But v/hatever the 
cause there are certainly widelv variant classes of the cow pea. 
There is a group of peas, all having seed of a jet-black color, but 
in speaking of the Black pea it is well to distinguish between 
bhick peas, some being bush-like in habit and others twining freely. 
What is grown in Virginia and Noitli Carolina as the Large Black 
is the best type of this class. It is a free climbing variety and 
makes a large mass of tangled forage which is hard to harvest. It 
requires fully eight}' days of hot weather to mature it. One of the 
most popular varieties in Illinois and other parts of the Central 
West is the Whippoorwill. This has red speckled seed, is more dwarf 
in habit than the Blacks, makes a smaller crop of vines, but a large 
crop of seed. It ripens isi about seventy days from sowing, and 
hence is adapted to a wider range than the Black. The Clay pea 
is of about the same character and season as the large Black 
The most popular variety in the south is th.e one long grown there 
under the name of the Unknown and also as the Quadroon. This 
]yji, of late, becm renamed the ^Vonderful. It is the most erect 
]) a grown in its early growth, though it runs freely later and 
■ '.akes an immense crop of vines. But the erect habit of the lower 
growth makes it easier to harvest than the Black or Clay. It is 
entirely too late to mature in the north, though it has been accli- 
mated to Northern Delaware, but as a pasture plant it is probably 
the best that can be used. I mowed it twice the past season, 
the second growth from the stubble giving a fair crop about the 
first of November. Recently there have been developed several 
A^arieties which mature in sixtv davs, none of them heavv vine 
makers. I have mentioned the Warren Extra Earlv, which is a 
good type of the class. A few years ago I i*eceived from Arkansas 
in early July some large Black Eye peas, which the sender said had 
been grown that season. I planted them on the 13th of July and 
gathered them ripe on the 13th of September, showing that the 
claim as a sixty-day pea was well founded. The New Era is an- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 283 

other newly iutrodiiced sixt3'-da3' pea, which is liighly praised by 
those who have ^rowii it, but I have not tried it. The Stewart, or 
Calico pea, is similar in habit and season to the Black and Clay. 
Its seeds are mottled white and pink. There are a host of other 
varieties in the south differing mainly in the size and color of the 
seeds and the colors of the flowers, some being orange and some 
purple. In all the lower tier of counties in Tennsylvania south of 
the fortieth parallel I believe that the large Black pea will succeed, 
at least east of the mountains. The \A'hippoorwill will succeed 
there and in w'arm soils further north. For hog lots for feeding 
down wiien the peas are ripe, the Whippoorwill, V^arren, New Era 
and the Early Black Eye will be the best, and they can be used on 
warm soils far north of where the running varieties would succeed. 
For pasturage I w^ould use the Wonderful as giving more feed, 
but hardly maturing seed in any part of the State. For hay-making 
in the warmer locations the Black and Clay are the ones to use. 
Perhaps in the extreme southeastern part of the State the Delaware 
seed of the Wonderful may succeed, and where it does there is no 
hay-making variety equal to it. It must always be remembered 
that the cow pea is a hot weather plant and should not be sow^n till 
the ground is well warmed. I have often been asked if cow peas 
and oats could be sown together, like the Canada peas and. oats 
are sown. The question shows how little some realize of the 
nature of these plants, for cow peas sown Avhen oats should be would 
perish, and oats sown when cow peas should be would not amount 
to much. June 1st is as early as any cow pea should be sown. I 
trust that I have made my purpose plain. It is to warn against ill- 
judged sowing of a plant not suited to the conditions of soil and 
climate, and to suggest ways in which a valuable food can be added 
to the agriculture of the Middle states. 



:S4 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Boc. 



i\JAHKH;T GARDENING AND THE MARKETING OF PRODUCE. 



Bv Hon. li. F. SCHWABZ, Amdoinink. Pa. 



Tliree conditions must primarily be considered by bim wbo in- 
tends to enter the business of market gardening and small fruit 
growing. Tbey are: First, '*Soil," second "A suitable market," and, 
third, ''Physical as well as mental energy of the man behind the 
gun, or, in other words, the man- who carries on the business." 

As to soil, while all land used for the market garden and the 
strawberry bed ought to be smooth enough and sufficiently clear 
of stones to permit the use of the most improved labor-saving tools 
and implements, both horse and hand, the market must, to a great 
extent, influence the selection of soil. If the market requires the 
production of early vegetables, it is evident that a cold clay soil 
would be unsuitable, but that a light, sandy loam would be needed; 
while, again, if the market can most profitably be supplied with 
later varieties in their most perfect development, a good, strong 
soil, clay or heavy loam, would be best. That gardener who, w^ith 
a steady market, can combine these two soils in his land purchased 
for his garden would naturally have the best equipment. 

Soil alone does not, however, make a garden nor must it be sup- 
posed that a h(^avy applicatioin of manure and fertilizer will make 
a garden out of an ordinary farm field in one year. It takes some 
years of heavy applications of both manure and fertilizer, and 
constant working and deepening of the soil to produce the ideal 
condition of soil suitable for the production of ideal and, therefore, 
most profitable crops. Quantity alone is never an indication of 
success. Quality, and the best quality at that, must be, or ought 
always to be, the star toward which the wise business gardener 
travels. 

Few except those long in the business realize the enormous 
quantities of manure and high-grade fertilizers needed in the suc- 
cessful pursuit of market gardening. Almost all failures of novices 
in the business, and I have seen the financial death throes of scores 
of men who entered it with hearts full of hope but with an exag- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 285 

jjerated idea of its linancial results and with no realization of the 
amount of capital needed, liave been caused by the spreading of 
their store of manure and fertilizer over broad acres, when by 
applying them to more restricted areas they could have been suc- 
cessful. A'S hat success has come to me in my adopted calling I as- 
cribe to the fact that by reason of poor health my start was on a 
small scale. This was twenty-eight years ago, and I had but one- 
fourth of an acre in cultivation. On that I learned that the capital 
needed for the purchase of an acre of ordinary farm land ought to 
be duplicated and quadrupled for the land's final successful prepa- 
ration for a market garden, and if I have to-day something over 
forty acres in cultivation, the increase has come only by slow annual 
growth and gradual addition to my domain. My advice to all be- 
ginners, whether already owning farms or whether ready to invest 
in laud purchase has been and is to start on a small scale. They 
will then gradually' realize the requirements of plant food by the 
various crops, and learn that fine, juicy, tender, crisp and palatable 
vegetables can be grown only where the plant finds a never stinted 
supply of food and is never checked in its growth by hunger or 
by want of cultivation. Just try it on a beet to convince yourself, 
drow a beet under the conditions I specified and grow one on a 
poor piece of land; you will find the one tender and sweet, the other 
tough and stringy. The more rapidly vegetables grow, the more 
high quality they will possess and the greater will be the demand 
for them where their quality is known. 

I have not named '^thorough cultivation" as one of the conditions 
first given, because I believe that to be covered in the subject of 
"soil." While on land newly devoted to market gardening the 
owner may, because of the shallowness of the top soil, not be able 
to plow deeper than six or seven inches, he ought in a very few 
years, by turning up an additional half inch or inch of the sub-soil 
per year, or even both in spring and fall, be able to set his plow 
at ten or twelve inches. Few farmers seem to realize the differ- 
ence in drought resistance between deeply and shallowly plowed soil. 

The plowing should be thorough and the harrowing still more so. 
Do not think that harrowing the laud just once to make the surface 
level is the kind of harrowing needed to prepare the soil for the 
hairlike rootlets of the sprouting seed as well as of the growing 
plant. Pulverize! Pulverize!! Pulverize!!! using, if possible, sev- 
eral varieties of harrow so as to get the soil worked over and over 
and made fine enough to go through a sieve. Clods have no place in 
the soil economy of the garden, and where they exist a perfect 
seed bed does not exist. 

No man can afiord to invest in quantities of fertilizing material 
and, after applying this to his land, counteract its beneficial effect 
by want of judgment or energy in cultivation. From the time the 



286 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Do«. 

sprout bursts through the earth till it is bv reason of advanced 
growth impossible to further go through the rows, begiimiug with 
the wheel-hoe of lightest construction and, where possible, ending 
with the market gardeners' horseshoe, with its various suitable at- 
tachments, the soil should never, unless it be too wet for beneficial 
work because of a rainy spell, be allowed to be without a layer 
of protecting mulch of fine soil. Those who presevere in tkis and 
insist on it will be surprised to find how little need there is for 
the hand hoe, a tool which, under present conditions of the labor 
market, is the most expensive implement used in gardening. The 
development of tools specially fitted for the work at hand has been 
great, but the necessity for them by reason of labor scarcity and 
cost is still greater, and no man can afford to be without them in 
the market garden. As when speaking of harrowing the soil, I 
would say: Cultivate! Cultivate!! Cultivate!!! Don't wait till 
the weeds get ahead, and weeds of luxuriant growth will appear 
where conditions are right for the best growth of vegetables, but 
kill your weeds by constant cultivation before they get above 
ground. 

Where, then, so much expense is involved in the feeding, prepara- 
tion and working of the soil it must be the business and the garden- 
er's special endeavor to make his soil produce more than one crop 
during the season. Where early peas are grown, cabbage, cauli- 
flower or celery ought to follow; the early cabbage patch ought to 
produce a crop of horseradish, and the second and third early cab- 
bage patches, if not planted in horseradish, should be made to give 
crops of spinach or turnips. Two years ago I realized .$200 clear 
from one and one-quarter acres of spinach following cabbage. Early 
beans may be followed by a second crop of beans or by sweet corn 
or tomatoes for late use or by celery or late cabbage. 

The strawberry acres are my early sweet corn field, the same 
work which keeps the corn in trim also making the clean bed for 
the strawberry runners. The next spring, as soon as picking is 
done, the bed is plowed under and used for cabbage or celery, 
thus virtually making the strawberries a catch crop in between. 
This has proved pnrticularly profitable and successful. 

Where ])lantatioiis of asparagus or i-aspberries are made they 
should, foi- Ihe first two years, be interplanied with cabbage, beans, 
peas, potatoes or sweet corn, or in fact with any crop in single or 
double rows which may be salable. The early celery, after handling, 
is interjjlanted with latei- celery and so on. t hav(^ not the space 
in this paper to enter into the details of these plantings, but simply 
want to impress on the gardener's mind the idea that while, so to 
speak, he must gorge the soil's stomach, he must also insist that 
the soil shall gorge his baskets, crates, barrels and wagons with the 
largest j)ossible amount of choice produce. 



No. 6. DHPARTMENT OF AORTCMI.TURR. 287 

There is where the physieul and inenlal eneri^y of lh(^ man behind 
the gnn should mnlco itself felt. The moment one erop is harvested 
no time should l>e lost, the weather hoin<i; all ri;.?ht, in },'etting in 
the next crop. If my Inst picking of peas is done by noon I make 
the effort, not alwaj'S snccessful it is true, to have that piece of 
lasid ])lov^'ed, harrowed, fertilized, furrowed and planted in cabbage, 
cauliflower or celery before night. Plants set in fresh-plowed soil, 
even in an ordinarily dry time, will be apt to take root quickly. 
All this work should, of course, be planned ahead and unless sudden 
w^eather changes compel an alteration of your plans, every laborer, 
when he comes to work in the mornijig, should have his day's work 
laid out for him. I employ fifteen hands, but even if I go out in 
the wagon at three or four in the morning, my foreman can, from 
my work paper, pre[)ared the evening previous, place every man 
at the post intended for him. Systcim is necessary as much in a 
market garden as in a large business house. 

As to the marketing of produce, I can give but little advice, 
because co'nditions are so vastly different in various localities. 
Few gardeners can make a profit if they are obliged to ship all 
their products to commission men, and yet some do make money 
in this way because of the name they have established for the 
quality of their produce. They are the people who thoroughly 
understand that it pajs to use nice clean packages, containing the 
same quality or size of produce all through the package. No top- 
ping off with high quality goods to hide the scrubs in the lower 
layers! Pack cleanly, neatly and honestly and you will find a 
market. But — and here is why I claim that the gardener must 
also, or in fact first, be a business man — you can in almost any 
neighborhood or along the line of any transportation company es- 
tablish a market for your produce without the aid of commission 
men. 

\\^here you can reach your market by wagon the question is easily 
solved, the gardener's main care being the choice of men or kind 
of men he puts in charge of his wagon or wagons. Running four 
wagons throughout the summer season, I know this difficulty and 
the constant watch and care necessary. The only safe way is to 
i^o with each of your men once in every weelc or tw^o and you will 
soon know from your customers whether a man is a good or bad 
investment for you. It is, however, only in exceptional cases 
that you can get the right kind of man without paying the right 
kind of wages. 

AVhere wagons are run, a system of cheeking, not always used, 
but always available, ought to prevail, so that none of the men 
know just what tri]) may be checked off. To do this in my business 
we prepare pads on which is a complete list of all the fruits and 



288 - ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

vegetables curiied ou our wagons at the tiiiie. Kigbt after this 
list come four columns for tbe various routes, headed, 1, 2, 3, 4. 
The man ruuning each route puts down the day before the quantity 
of each article of produce he thinks he can sell, so that looking down 
his column you can at a glance tell of w^hat his load consisted. After 
the day's gathering is done one man then divides the loads as 
nearly as possible in accordance with the list, sometimes adding 
and sometimes deducting from the given quantity, according to the 
supply on hand, but alwaj^s marking the change on the original list, 
so that this list shows every article on the wagons. The men are 
required, in their wagon books, to specify sales, and it is then 
easy, after the wagon's contents, if any, are checked off on its re- 
turn from the route, to compare the sales in cash and account book 
with the original list and find out just how much of each article 
has been sold, and how much is unaccounted for and chargeable to 
expenses, to carelessness or even to dishonesty. Even this leaves 
some loopholes, but they are not of great seriousness. 

Where shipment by rail is necessary to find the market the gard- 
ener should take example of larger business concerns who send out 
traveling salemen, .Tud should himself go once a year to his pos- 
sible shipping points and endeavor to get what might be called the 
store trade. By doing this I have succeeded in establishing a trade 
from the smallest Aillage to the largest cities in my reach, which 
keeps me busy filling orders at fair prices and is worth some thou- 
stnds of dollars annually in my total sales. Of course such trade 
will not stand overcharging nor the shipment of inferior produce. 

Railroad facilities, of course, control this trade but then no 
business man ought to establish a business in a locality where there 
is no demand for his goods. In my case I can ship by freight peas 
jticked before 11 A. M. and have them in the grocery stores for next 
morning's trade. Or I can jjick strawberries by noon and have my 
customers receive them by express by 4 P. M. in time for supper 
trade, or ship at 7 P. M. for next morning. Yet I do not consider 
my railroad and express facilities ideal. Some gardeners may have 
better chances and a good many worse. 

In conclusion, I have tried in this short paper not only to warn 
the novice by pointing out the laborious and arduous task before 
him, for his work Avili require, so far as he is personally concerned, 
not a nine or ten-hour day, but during the season, an eighteen or 
tv/enty-hour day, but I have tried to give him some idea of the 
cajntal required, and 1 hope that I have also been able to incorpor- 
ate some suggestions of value to the older brothers of the fraternity 
of market gardeners and small fruit growers. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 289 



POUI/rKY FOR PKOF^TT. 



BV N. (i. TKMI'LE, KSl^)., PdCdlHiDII. Pl(. 



With the new year comes new plans for the future. Air castles 
they may be, yet, nevertheless, they are important inasmuch as 
they are periods of inspiration, the times that urge us forward to 
better endeavors. How many there are among us planning this 
yecir, either to better the home surroundings or build an entirely 
new home, and how many thousands are arranging to leave the 
crowded cities and find a home in the suburbs, or perhaps build 
a country home, with its business connected therewith, for the time 
has come that the farm is no longer run on the slip-shod principles 
of the past, but now with better understanding as to its require- 
ments a larger profit is obtained therefrom. Can anything be more 
ideal than such a home when conditions are right? True, it savors 
of labor, but in what is there more pleasure than in honest labor 
that we take a daily interest in. Here is the secret of successful 
poultry raising, for the successful poultryman is the man who 
loves his business. It needs the spirit of enthusiasm to make the 
self-uiade man a successful man of to-dav, I care not what his 
pursuit. 

There is nothing that will contribute more to the comforts of a 
family occupying such a home as I have suggested than its flock of 
poultry. Village, town and city folks have no business to keep 
I>onltry unless they are willing to give them the decent and neces- 
sary attention consequent upon keeping poultry in limited areas. 
As I pass through sections of the country it gives me great 
pleasure to note the improvement being made everywhere in the 
matter of thoroughbred poultry. The good work goes on and those 
who have been giving their fowls the care and attention they merit 
are beginning to reap the rich reward of time well spent and labor 
well done. It is an impossibility for any one to get a corner on 
the chicken market or have an over-production as the result. The 
breeders who start with good foundation stock, well and carefully 
mated, properly looked after and cared for are the ones who make 

19—6—1903 



290 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

a success in the business. The man who malves his poultry raisinji; 
a side issue never sees the importance of the careful attention and 
manv little things that are so very necessary to observe to secure 
success. The regular poultry raiser who looks after the comforts 
of his flock doesn't sidetrack his hens, for he knows success hinges 
on little details, and there are scores of them that combine to form 
the cog-wheel of success. 

One man will keep a large flock in health, and they will be very 
productive though they are kept in a small space. The owner of 
the flock is continuous with his attention; he provided conditions 
that the restricted quarters rendered necessary. He is keen in his 
(>])servations, in fact gives the occupation intelligent study. If 
he increases his flocks, he knows he must increase their accommo- 
dalions. Another man goes in on the trust-to-luck plan. His sur- 
roundings may be very favorable for a small flock of thirty or forty 
hens. They do comparatively well. He is i>leased. He increases 
his flock to double the number, making no change in their accommo- 
dations, and soon he is crying ''There is nothing in raising poultry." 
His hens are neglected, so that the larger flock soon becomes un 
sightly. It can well be seen, therefore, that if a man is not success- 
ful in poultry raising the hens should not be blamed. 

Select the breed best adapted to your object and market; and 
here is a wide range. Many advise tliat each person breed and rear 
Avhatever variety they like best, and while we believe every ijerson 
possesses the inalienable right to do so, yet we also know the sale of 
fowls is restricted unless one breads a variety that somebody else 
wants. Few, if any, continue in a business that is not attended by 
commercial success, and in order to make a financial success, one 
certainly must be able to make their income exceed their outgo, 
therefore, when one is depending upon the purchasing public to 
aid in their success they must of necessity produce an article or 
product that is desired by others as well as that to which they in- 
cline. 

We shall not attempt, except in a genei-al way, to tell how 
the various foods, appliances, etc., are made. They are generally 
prepared and for sale by those who have made an exhaustive and 
sometimes expensive study of that particular phas? of the business, 
and in purchasing from the manufacturer or dealer one is not only 
saved a great deal of trouble and waste but receives the benefit of 
years of jterhap's costly experiment and the advantage of large 
ca])lta] in Ihe production and preparation, for it must be understood 
in Ihe very beginning that to produce eggs in winter certain ])repara- 
lion and arrangement is absolutely necessary, that certain foods, 
aids to digestion, material for the formation of Ihe shell and its 
contents, as well as the support of the general system must be 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUKE. 291 

}tro\ided on the same general principle and for tlie same reason lliat 
tlie winter gardener provides certain surroundings and artificialities 
in imitation of the proper seasons, plant foods, etc., with this differ- 
ence, however, that the preparation to keep hens for winter-laying 
should not entail anything like the expense incident to winter gard- 
ening. The latter requires artificial temperature and light, a con- 
stant expense; but heating of this kind is not necessary with winter- 
layers — in fact, is ratlier to be rigidly avoided. Many, very many, 
utter failures in the general poultry business can be laid directly 
to the use of artificial heat and glass. No greater mistake was ever 
made as to general principles. 

The building of the houses is one of the most important things 
in the poultry business to make poultry profitable. In my travels 
among the poultrymeu I have seen houses of every shape and kind. 
I have seen those that cost -fo for each fifty birds and those that 
cost fnOO for the same number, homes that were almost palaces 
and those that were hovels. There are extremes in everything. 
We have found, in the inspection of these houses of different make, 
that the low house, with little head room, is where we find the 
healthiest and best plumaged birds. We have also found in the 
inspection of different houses where the most were hooded, the birds 
liave come through the winter of the north in best condition. A 
very safe and practical house for general purposes, is one 20 feet 
long and 10 feet wide and 3-|- feet at back and 7 feet in front, the 
ends and back being of single ploughed and grooved pine boards, 
with a hemlock board roof covered with tarred paper. In the front 
is a board one foot wide on top and bottom, and the balance of the 
front being frame covered with heavy ducking, and the frame, or 
door is hinged at the top so as to be opened up on the inside. The 
nests are at the back of the house and are hooded with heavy 
ducking, and this hood should be dropped down every night. Do 
not sell your foundation stock when once you gained a victory and 
your stock is good; it is unwise to sell or dispose of the seat of suc- 
cess. Do not sell your winning birds unless vou are sure vou 
have a better one to take the place. 

FERTILE EGGS AND INCUBATORS. 

Eggs are seeds; seeds are eggs. Both are propagators of their 
kind, producing an offspring identical to the parent; for the greater 
is included in the less. If the parent be strong and healthy the off- 
spring will have the same qualities, provided, in the case of the 
artificially jn'oduced chick, that the conditions are proper for its 
development. This much is generally known and recognized. But 
most people fail to recognize the fact that weak, unhealthy parental 
stock produces weak, unhealthy offspring, regardless of the incu- 
bator, should it succeed in hatching, but generallj^ it has not 



292 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

sufficient inherent strength to develop, and ekes out its supfjly 
about hatching time or about the eighteenth day. "Weak stock 
produces weak eggs." Button-hole that. Some stock produces 
weak offspring because thej were from weak parents themselves; 
other stock produces weak offspring through improper food, shelter 
and care, while it is caused in others by disease. In-breeding, when 
recklessly done, is a sure cause of degeneracy, with its disease and 
impotency, but when carried on with a point in view it is a good 
thing. In-breeding simply intensifies characteristics, be they either 
good or bad. One of the best possible rations for a chick, whether 
reared under hen or in brooder, is what we call dry ration. It is 
the nearest approach to the natural diet of a fowl possible to at- 
tain. This method calls for all drv food, such as rolled wheat and 
oats, small broken corn, rice or grain of any kind, small seeds and 
beef scraps mixed; to this should be added small grit of some kind. 
The beef scrap should be of good quality, that has been properly 
prepared and nicely ground. This kind of food can be greatly im- 
proved by the addition of some well-broken peas and beans, and a 
little properly prepared clover. The peas, beans and clover furnish 
the vegetable and green food, the rest the grain seed and animal 
portion of their diet, giving them a most perfectly balanced ration. 
Should it be preferred to add to this a mixed food, it should be 
thoroughly scalded; if cooked or baked, so much the better, for this 
takes away the unnaturalness of the food. But little trouble from 
feeding is experienced when this method is followed. Those who 
follow this system have but little trouble when care is given to the 
proper mixing of the food, but when carelessly done and too much 
of one kind is fed at one time, its good results are lost. Nothing 
can be more injurious to a chick than too much millet seed; while 
a little is excellent for them, too much is almost sure destruction; 
the proper amount of prepared beef is beneficial, too much quite 
the opposite. All these facts show the necessity of care in feed- 
ing. Another fault is in giving sour feed. Some may mix up a 
lot of raw meal or other ground grain and leave part of it until 
next meal. The result may be bowel trouble. Don't do it. If you 
must feed raw stuff, be sure to mix it up fresh every time. Only 
mix up just enough and not too much. If you leave meal wet it 
sours very quickly, in the course of a couple of hours. Never feed 
any meal that is musty or decayed. Any kind of grain or feed 
not in good condition should never be fed to fowls or chicks. 
Musty grain or meal has likely lost some or perhaps most of its 
valuable qualities. Any food not in first-class condition is liable 
to cause some derangement in the chick's life and bring on disease. 
The best is none too good. The best alone will favor rapid growth 
and good development. A good way is to bake the ground feed. 



Xo. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 293 

Take a mixLufe of iiu-al, bran, ground oats, etc., mix it with milk aiid 
bake. A very little salt and some soda may be used. The result is 
something- that may be kept a couple of days and does not need to 
be mixed every time you feed. 

Wheat, cracked corn, millet, etc., are good feeds after the chick 
is older. Begin to feed these after the chick is a week old. The 
quantity may be gradually increased as the other feed is left out. 
Never feed too much. A little and often is a good rule to follow 
when the chicks are young. Feed five times a day when beginning. 
After three weeks they may be fed only three times a day. « 

A hen will tui'n grass into greenbacks if she has the right kind 
of backing on the part of her owner. She will turn conn into gold 
if too much is not expected of her, and she is not given too much 
corn to convert into the yellow metal. This is a growing industry 
and people are going into and out of it as the years go by. Men 
and women are seeking their level, and they find it sooner or later. 
Some have to quit the business to find this level, but in the mean- 
time others will double the capacity of the business. No costly 
machinery is needed in carrying on the poultry business, and there 
are no shares of stock that need watering. The hen is the machine, 
and she needs but little water, and that should be fresh. Trusts 
that have endeavored to conti'ol her output have gone a-glimmering, 
and she has developed such powers of mixing animal and vegetable 
matter that she has set even her owner to thinking along this line. 
The one thing that stands most in the way of profitable poultry 
production is the failure to fully understand the needs of the hen. 
We are coming to it slowly, and each year a few more are added 
to the ranks. The use of clover hay as part of the ration for hens 
has become quite general. Almost everyone who pays attention 
to a winter egg yield feeds more or less clover. Ground clover is 
used as a part of the mixture for the mash. In some cases too 
much is given in this way, in other instances not enough. When 
the amount thus made use of is out of proportion it makes a mash 
that is not enjoyed by the hens, and for this reason it is best to 
limit the use of ground clover or clover meal to that amount 
that seems most attractive to the hens. Have the mixture in the 
mash so that the hens will enjoy it and eat it up readily, amd, in 
addition to this, give them cut clover hay to pick and scratch 
amongst so they will eat all the clover leaves they need. The 
hay should be cut quite small in a cutting-box and thrown amongst 
the straw for them to help themselves. Clover is admitted to be 
most useful as an egg-producing food; at the same time it is only 
a portion of a desirable ration. It is quite possible to give too 
much of it, but not probable; more frequently they have too little 
of such food, and for this reason we urge a plentiful supply of cut 
clover hav as above stated. 



294 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

To keep hens healthy and laying well they must have exercise; 
and this is best induced by scattering straw or chaii" four or five 
inches deep over the floor of the poultry house, and then throw 
the whole corn into the straw and let the hens w^ork to get it. 
This straw should be changed at least once a week or often enough 
to keep it clean. Feed in the morning a vrarm mash of one part 
ground oats and corn and two parts wheat bran. Twice a week 
add one part buckwheat bran, and once a week add a little oil cake 
meal and powdered charcoal. At noon feed whole wheat, oats and 
byckvidieat. In the eA'ening give whole corn, about all they will eat. 
Be sure the fowls have plenty of clean water to drink. If the 
weather is very cold, warm the water and empty all drinking vessels 
at night so as not to allow water to freeze in them. Supply plenty 
of grit and crushed oyster shells, and a dust bath in some sandy 
corner of your poultry house. 

Alw'iays feed your hens as regularly as possible. Save the table 
scraps, mixing these with the morning mash. A little raw beef 
twice a week should also be fed. For green feed, nothing is better 
than cut clover, steamed and fed in the morning. When the ground 
is not covered with snovv^ allow the fowls the run of the yards. 

The one great stumbling block that stands in the way of success 
with poultry, as in everything else, is ji lack of application. There 
is not a season but what some new experience is met with and new 
ideas are constantly presenting themselves. Hence, only the closest 
of application will enable one to master the details of his own work 
and make it that success and to bring those results that we are all 
searching for. And so it is from mating to the fitting of a good 
bird for the show room. Hard work and plenty of it, and constant 
work is necessary to get good results. 

No one can jump into success without proper training and school- 
ing. You have got to go through the same experience that others 
have gone through. You have got to learn the same lessons that 
they have learned, and must bump up against the same mistakes 
and difiiculties that have taught them what to avoid and what is 
invariable and must be done. Brilliancy cuts no figure. Hard 
work and close application on the part of a veritable "chump" will 
attain a degree of success that inactive brilliancy can never hope 
for. Look around and note the successful business men in your 
communit}'. They are the constant workers. There are others in 
the same line that are more brilliant and had better opportunities, 
but the persistent and aggressive "hustler" is the man that gets 
there every time. It may liave taken him longer to learn than 
it would Ihe more brilliaiit man with the same application, but 
when the brilliant man stopped to fuss with something outside his 
business, the "husthn-" was nuiking headway and he never stopped. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 2fl.") 

but kept gaining ground and lu-dav lie stands in Hk' ironl in youi- 
community as a sviceessfiil and prosperous man. Ko it is with the 
poultry business. If you wish (o succeed, go to woi'k witli both 
hands and do not stop or relinquish your efi'ort until you can enjoy 
the distinction of being at the front. The time to commence is now, 
and the time to stop is never, for this Miiole world is progression 
and there is no limit and no end. 



296 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off, Doc. 



HO\A' TO MAKE KEASONABLY SURE OF A SUCCESSFUL 
CROP OF POTATOES ON A HEAVY LIMESTONE SOIL. 



Bv Hon. W. F. Beck. Xuzareth, Pa. 



^Vbeu 1 wpeak of raisiug a successful crop of potatoes ou a heavy 
limestone soil, it is because 1 uever bad an opportunity to" grow a 
crop of any kind on a different soil. I was born and reared in a 
section of country wbicb is limestone land altogetber for miles 
around, and ever since I bad tbe pleasure of managing a farm bad 
to contend witb sucb. As many of us know, it is naturally ricb 
in plant food, but easily compacted, being underlaid witb a clayey 
and sometimes gravelh' or sandy sub-soil. It becomes very bard 
wben dry, frequently forming large cracks wben an insuflScient 
supply of moisture is present to keep it from sbrinking. All intelli- 
gent farmers wbo have made a special study of potato growing, 
and wbo have had experience in this line, are very familiar wath tbe 
fact that such is not an ideal soil for growing potatoes, and that 
looseness and richness of soil and a plentiful supply of soil moisture, 
continuously during tbe growing season, are absolutely required 
to insure success. Hence, it is that an abundance of humus or 
humus-forming material, sucb as decaying organic matter, becomes 
sucb an exceedingly valuable adjunct in the formation of an ideal 
soil for this purpose. 

It has the property of making tbe soil mellow, porous and per- 
meable to air and w'ater, wbicb aids decomposition of tbe mineral 
matters, thus making plant food soluble; it fixes ammonia that 
would otherwise be carried awav by heavv rains, and increases tbe 
water-absorbing and moisture-conserving capacity of the soil, all 
of which are features that will prove to be of tbe utmost import- 
ance when trying to make reasonably sure of a successful crop of 
potatoes on a heavy limestone soil. "With considerable experience 
of almost twenty years, I am fully convinced that the potato crop 
should have its place in a rotation where it wall immediately follow 
a crop of clover, or clover nnd timothy mixed, if you please, cut 
once for bay. 

This should be cut rather high, however, thus leaving much more 
vitality to tbe plants, wbicb. nnrlor sucb conditions, will not only 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 2*7 

stai-t uew growth much quicker, but will become much more luxuri- 
ant thiiii if cut too close, in which event, in case of a prolonged 
drought immediately following, new growth would naturally be 
very feeble and come along very tardilj^, or perhaps the plants would 
perish altogether for want of energy. This second crop should be 
left to grow uninterruptedly, or if absolutely necessary to be pas- 
tured, to be done cautiously and very sparingly, so as to have it 
grow as rank and form as much top growth as possible, before 
the end of the growing season. During the early or late fall 
this amount of vegetable matter should be supplemented by a heavy 
coating of manure, thus forming a massy cover which will pro- 
tect the soil from all danger of losing fertility during an open and 
severe winter. Such a covering will also largely contribute towards 
still further improving the physical condition of the soil; thus, in- 
stead of diminishing, will increase its fertility, not only from this 
source, but through the plant food contained in the manure as 
well, and when finally turned under, will, in connection with the 
myriads of strong and fibrous clover roots already in the soil, 
produce such a vast amount of humus-forming material that the 
potato crop follo^ving, with proper treatment, can not help but 
thrive and yield to the highest degree. I have always found it ad- 
vantageous to plow such sod as early in spring as the proper con- 
dition of the soil would permit. This will prevent the stores of 
soil moisture, which are always present in early spring, from be- 
coming dissipated by evaporation, thus being retained for the future 
use of the growing plants. Then, again, turning sod and burying 
vegetable matter when it is still in a dormant condition, causes 
it to break up, decompose and become available as plant food 
much more rapidly than if left to green and toughen before being 
buried, which is another great advantage when a quick-maturing 
crop is at stake. Potatoes, being deep-rooted plants, and the tubers 
having to form and develop within the soil itself, special care should 
be exercised to have the plow run as deep as possible without bring- 
ing up too much of the sub-soil, and have it cut as narrow a furrow 
slice as it is capable or inverting properly. 

This will break up and disintegrate the furrow slice to the great- 
est possible degree. The jointer is a valuable adjunct, and should 
be brought into service by adjusting it so as to run deep enough to 
completely bury all trash and vegetable matter and still further 
improve upon the disintegration of the furrow slice. This will 
admit of proper surface tillage without disturbing the sod, or being 
hindered by the buried surface matter, and will require much less 
work to secure a perfect seed bed. As soon as the plowed land 
is sufficieutly siu'face-dried to prevent it from packing, the roller 
should be run over it to level it dow^n, thus closing up crevices 
20 



298 ANNUAL REJPORT OP THB Off. Doc. 

cind cavities undeiiieatli, which otherwise would tend to cut off the 
moisture from working up into the surface soil. Such an operation 
will also make it comparatively easier for the implements of surface 
tillage to do perfect work, and will increase the Avater-holding 
power of the soil. The spring-tooth harrow is a good implement 
to be used after the roller, and should not be spared until the 
soil is thoroughly pulverized to almost the depth plowed, and 
until it has attained the proper tilth and texture necessary for 
a growing crop of potatoes to do its best. For common field 
culture, medium early potatoes planted not later than the 25th 
of April always gave best results for me. A variety that is natu- 
rally inclined to grow vigorous, heavy stalks, with such an abund- 
ance of leaf surface, when full grown, as to cover and shade the 
ground between the rows to the greatest possible extent, is the 
most desirable and will generally produce the heaviest yield. The 
ground being thus shaded, the hot rays of the sun and the drying 
v.'inds will be more or less excluded, and prevented from licking 
up the soil moisture so requisite to transform organic matter into 
available plant food, and convey the same into the living plants, 
not to mention the effect it will have in smothering the young weeds 
that would otherwise be tempted to grow up and rot the potato 
plants, both of moisture and of plant food. 

However, to still further promote thj chances of securing a crop 
attended with such characteristics, I usually apply a complete com- 
mercial fertilizer, especially rich in potash and nitrogen, with a 
fair proportion of available i)hosphoric acid. 

I want to emphasize the fact that you can hardly furnish your 
potato crop with too large an amount of plant food, providing it 
consists of the three principal ingredients, balanced in conformit}- 
with the requirements of the crop. 

For the last five or six years I always had my fertilizer mixed 
;tt the factory, according to a formula of my own, furnishing a 
guaranteed analysis of 4 per cent, nitrogen, 7^ per cent, available 
phosphoric acid and 10 per cent, actual potash. The nitrogen is 
equally derived from nitrate of soda and high grade dried blood; 
the phosphoric acid from dissolved South Carolina rock, and the 
potash from high grade suli)hate. The nitrogen will furnish an 
ample supply of immediately available plant food to push the 
growth of the young plants onward until the more slowly acting 
organic nitrogen, in the form of dried blood, becomes available, 
and will carry their thrifty growth to the end of the growing- 
season. Suli)liate is preferable to muriate of potash, inasmuch 
that a large percentage of chlorine or common salt is combined with 
the latter, whirl) exerts a vcn-y deleterious effect on potatoes, by 
impairing quality and uniformity of size. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURF:. 299 

An application of 4U0 pounds to the gicre is about ilie ininimuni 
quantity that will produce good results, while about SOO pounds 
will possibly be the most profitable on land prepared as already 
described. Because of having liad a number of miserable failures 
by the use of small potatoes for »eed, 1 have, for the last' ten or 
twelve years, used nothing but well-formed, large and medium-sized 
tubers for this purpose, and since then have had not one crop that 
could be termed a failure. Seed should be cut down to contain not 
less than two or three eyes, exercising care to divide the seed 
ends, as far as practicable, without having too little flesh remaining 
to the seed pieces. They should average not less than an inch 
in diameter either way, when cut, and a little larger still would, 
in the majority of cases, prove to be an advantage, as it largely 
conduces to the vitality and vigor of the starting young plants 
before the formation of a perfect root system to sustain them by 
seeking nourishment elsewhere. ^Ve should make absolutely sure 
to keep seed from sprouting before planted, as that will tend to 
materially v.eaken its vitality, and if a proper storage room is want- 
ing, where the temperature can be kept down to at least 37 or 38 
degrees, the better plan is to shovel them from one place to another 
with a wire shovel at least once a week from the time they show 
any signs of starting to grow until taken to the field and planted. 
Not only have I found by experience that you can restrain them 
from sprouting by such a treatment, but that the latter will have 
a quickening influence upon the growth of the potatoes, making 
them equally as vigorous after being deposited in the soil as would 
be the case if previously kept in a temperature sufficiently cool to 
retard growth without the shoveling process. My custom has al- 
ways been to change seed about every third or fourth year, even if 
J wanted to use the same variety, as there is no other farm pro- 
duct that will sooner deteriorate or respond more favorably to a 
change of seed than that of the potato. No matter what precau- 
tions have been taken, they will deteriorate in spite of everything. 
AA'hen I change I generally procure my seed from a more northern 
localit\', where the climate is colder and the soil different. Plant- 
ing single pieces of potatoes, properly cut, about four inches deep 
and thirteen inches apart in rows thirty-four inches apart, in soil 
made ideal as per instructions already given, after much experi- 
menting, has proved the most profitable for me, the object being 
to have just enough between the rows to admit of proper inter-till- 
age and yet have the rows close enough together to make it possible 
for the foliage of the growing plants to cover and shade the 
grouiul completely, for reasons already stated. When a large acre- 
age of potatoes is to be plarited, the planter of the present age 
can be used with advantage. I have been using it continuallv for 



300 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doe. 

almost two decades, giving universal satisfaction. It deposits the 
seed at a uniform depth and in a perfectly straight line in the row, 
thus admitting of closer cultivation to the young plants and does 
away "with the costly labor of dropping and covering by hand. My 
planter has two sets of coverere, and the plow, through which the 
seed is to drop to the bottom of the furrow, is so constructed as 
to open the upper half of the furrow sufficiently wide to admit 
of the coverers to run inside, thus utilizing the moist, pulverized 
soil to the lower half of the furrow for the covering. The front 
coverers are so adjusted as to cover up the seed with about an 
inch of this soil, on top of which the fertilizer is evenly distributed 
through a fertilizer attachment. The rear coverers following add 
another inch, thus covering up the seed, with only about two inches 
of this moist, pulverized soil all told, still leaving a depression of 
several inches in the row when finished. This light covering of 
the seed admits of air and light putting in their effective work, 
by forcing the eyes of the seed to send forth strong, stubby sprouts, 
a feature which means much to the potato crop in its later stage of 
growth. My method of proceeding after this is to wait until those 
young shoots have nearly all appeared above ground and are plainly 
visible through the row, but not of sufficient height to bend over 
under the pressure of another covering, which generally requires 
about eighteen or twenty days after planting. The soil that was 
pushed aside in opening the furrow will then be drawn back and 
the depression filled in again, thus giving the seed another covering 
of about two and a half inches, forming slight, broad ridges. If 
you don't like to do this, I would advise you to do it anyhow, simply 
shutting your eyes while doing it, then leave the field and never 
return until seven or eight days have elapsed and you will be 
surprised at the headway the young plants will have made. They 
will practically all have again appeared above ground, stalky, strong 
and thrifty, finely tucked up in a fresh, mellow, finely pulverized 
soil, entirely freed from the millions of young weed plants which 
had germinated and surrounded them before their second burial, 
and of which hardly any will ever reappear to rob them of nourish- 
ment and soil moisture thereafter. Another great advantage de- 
rived from this second covering is that it lifts the soil in stirring, 
and after the operation leaves it as clean and mellow as possible in 
the rows, where the tubers are to form, whereas harrowing, so fre- 
quently resorted to by many potato growers, to level down ridges 
and destroy young weed plants, will continually pack the soil, and 
should positively be avoided on heavy limestone land. The only 
thing that remains to do to provide for the comfort of the young 
growing plants and their ability to spread their fibrous roots and 
assimilate [)lant food, as they become in need of it, is to operate 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOi 

a iiarrow-tooth cultivator before their tiny roots have spread piuch 
—for root pruning is dangerous — break up and pulverize the soil 
between the rows, as well as in the rows, in a practically perfect 
condition for the young plants to thrive, only an occasional shallow 
stirring with a weeder or light single cultivator being required 
thereafter to prevent some straggling weeds from growing and to 
l:eep the earth mulch perfect, so a.s to check the evaporation of 
soil moisture. This process of cultivation should be continued 
until it will be utterly impossible to get through without grievously 
breaking the vines, which is hardly worth considering until the 
ground between the rows is nearly covered. Level culture may be 
profitable on a gravelly or sandy loam, where the lower half of the 
surface soil is not inclined to pack and solidify, but on a heavy soil, 
such as limestone, slightly ridging is absolutely necessary to main- 
tain its proper texture favorable for the formation and the develop- 
ment of the growing tubers. 

If I should happen to fall back and resort to hand planting, I 
would certainlv strive to follow the same svstem and have all con- 
(Jiti'ous similar to what they are when using the planter. There 
would be only one danger, which does not exist when using the 
planter, of which I would have to be mindful; that is, that no cut 
seed be left uncovered in the row and exposed to the hot rays of 
the sun for any length of time, as such will impair its vitality if 
not destroy it altogether. Early and late blight can be kept under 
control fairly well by applying Bordeaux mixture liberally and fre- 
quently. Yet, after having taken under consideration the value 
of labor involved, wear and tear of the machine, and cost of ma- 
terial, compared with the general increase in crop due to such treat- 
ment, I have nearly always found it attended with very little profit, 
and consequently abandoned its use altogether. Now, for a number 
of years, I have always made it a point to push my potato crop to 
its utmost capacitv, by practicing what I have already fully ex- 
plained, in order to induce early maturity and get ahead of the 
blight as far as possible, in which I have succeeded, I am happy to 
say, to a considerable extent. My potato crop is generally so far 
advanced by the time early blight puts in an appearance that its 
raA^ages need not be very much dreaded any more thereafter. This 
usually means a heavier crop with less expense. 

Some varieties of potatoes have the power of resisting blight 
to a greater extent than others, and should have the preference, 
providing their other qualities are desirable. If potato scab is 
present on seed, that can be successfully treated by the use of a 
solution of corrosive sublimate, but can likewise be almost wholly 
avoided by using a variety that is not subject to the disease, of 
which there are many. 



302 ANNUAI^ REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The jjotato bugs, which are oue of the worst of the enemies of 
the potato at the present time, should be closely watched and 
desperately fought, before they are able to put in their pernicious 
work, as it is of the utmost importance that the foliage of the 
young growing plants should be unmolested, to enable it to carry 
on the good work assigned to it. The partial annihilation or punc- 
turing of the leaves by the beetles will often induce blight, and 
when the young plants are thus affected in their early stage of 
growth, they will never fully revive, but will die prematurely, 
without result, often curtailing the crop very materially. For this 
purpose Paris green is very effective, but should always be used in 
connection with limewater, which must be well strained, to have 
it free from sediment and allow its passing through nozzles without 
clogging them, if sprayer is used. The limewater should always 
be produced from freshly burnt lime, of equal weight with that of 
the Paris green with which it is to be united. The lime has the 
property of neutralizing the caustic power of the Paris green, and 
thus the mixture has a similar effect upon the foliage of the plants 
as Bordeaux mixture. It will tend to freshen up, instead of burn- 
ing andMujuring the plants. To keep on the side of safety and make 
sure of success, I would certainly not venture to apply Paris green 
without the addition of lime. 

To lessen labor and expenses, when growing potatoes, a good 
potato digger, sorter and light, strong bushel boxes are almost in- 
dispensable. When it is necessary to store potatoes in bulk of 
hundreds or perhaps thousand of bushels, necessitating them to 
be placed in bins or large hea[)s of from four to five feet in thick- 
ness, they should positively be allowed to remain in the soil at least 
from ten to fifteen days after (he vines are entirely dead before 
being dug, in ordcM- to become fully seasoned and have the skin 
become hardened, to admit of their handling without bruising and 
rupturing the same, which would make them subject to decay. 
Also, the seasoning process in the soil, naturally destroys, to some 
extent, their power of generating heat when stored, which, if in 
excess, would likewise induce rot and cause an endless lot of trouble. 

For good results, I" have found it best to have them stored in 
a dark, cool and slightly moist place, with conditions somewhat 
similar to those of the soil itself, from which they were taken. As 
a money crop, the potato possibly ranks first among the many other 
common farm crops of the present age and should, for this simple 
reason if for no other, be, at least to some extent, included in our 
rotation. With this same purpose in view the very best care and 
attention should be given it and every means should bo employed to 
make as reasonably sure of a successful crop as possible, even if 
a heavy limestone soil must necessarily be employed on which to 
raise it. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING 



OF 



Fiiriiiers' Institute Maiianers and Lecturers, 



HELD IN THE 



COURT HOUSE, HUNTINGDON, PA., 

JUNE 2, 3 AND 4, 1903. 



( 303 ) 



( ?M ) 



FARMERS' INvSTlTlITES. 



LIST OF COUNTY CHAIRMEN. 



SEASON OF 1902-1903. 

County. Name. Pla«*. 

Adams, A. I. Weidner, Arendtsville. 

Allegheny, J. S. Burns Clinton. 

Armstrong, S. S. Blyholder, Leechburg. 

Beaver A. L. McKibben New Sheffield. 

Bedford W. Clay Lutz, Bedford. 

Berks H. G. McGowan Geiger's Mills. 

Blair H.L.Harvey Kipple. 

Bradford, L. PioUet, Wysox. 

Bucks Watson T. Davis, Ivyland. 

Butler W. H. H. Riddle Butler. 

Cambria, H. J. Krumenacker Nlcktown. 

Cameron, W. H. Howard, Emporium. 

Carbon J. A. Werner, Weatherly. 

Centre, John A. Woodward, Howard. 

Chester Dr. M. E. Conard, Westgrove. 

Clarion, S. X. McClellan Knox. 

Clearfield, J. -W. Nelson, Shawville. 

Clinton, Joel A. Herr Cedar Springs. 

Columbia, H. V. White Bloomsburg. 

Crawford, M. W. Oliver Conneautville. 

Cumberland , Rev. T. J. Ferguson Hogestown. 

Cumberland, R. H. Thomas, Mechanicsburg. 

Dauphin, S. F. Barber Harrisburg. 

Delaware, J. Milton Lutz Llanerch. 

Elk, John B. Werner St. Marys. 

Erie , Archie Billings Edinboro. 

Fayette, J. M. Hantz Merrittstown. 

Forest Chas. A. Randall Tionesta. 

Franklin C. B. Hege Marion. 

Fulton R. M. Kendall McConnellsburg. 

Greene J. Ewing Bailey Carmichaels. 

Huntingdon G. G. Hutchison, Warriors' Mark. 

Indiana S. M. McHenry Indiana. 

Jefferson Chas. G. McClain Brookville. 

Juniata Matthew Rodgers, Mexico. 

Lackawanna H. W. Northup Glenburn. 

Lancaster, W. H. Brosius Drumore. 

Lawrence, Samuel McCreary Neshannoek Falls. 

(305 ) 

20—6—1903 



''M ANNUAL, REPORT OI^ THE Off. Doc. 

County. Name. Place. 

Lebanon H. C. Suavely Lebanon. 

Lehigh F. Li. Schreiber, Hosensack» 

Luzerne J. E. Hildebrant, Lehman. 

Lycoming^, A. J. Kahler, Hughesville. 

McKean, L. W. Howden Coryville. 

Mercer S. A. Williams, Volant, 4 R. D. 

Mifflin, D. E. Notestine Lewistown. 

Monroe Randall Bisbing E. Stroudsburg. 

Montgomery Jason Sexton North Wales. 

Montour, J. K. Murray Pottsgrove. 

Northampton Wm. P. Beck, Nazareth. 

Northumberland, J. A. Eschbach Milton. 

Perry, A. T. Holman Nekoda. 

Philadelphia, Edwia Lonsdale, Wyndmoor. 

Pike, J. H. Van Etten, Milford. 

Potter Horace H. Hall, Ellisburg. 

Schuylkill W. H. Stout Pinegrove. 

Sn jrder F. J. Schoch Selinsgrove. 

Somerset Jacob S. Miller Friedens. 

Sullivan J. K. Bird Millview. 

Susquehanna, C. W. Brodhead, Montrose. 

Tioga, F. E. Field Wellsboro. 

Union J. N. Glover, Vicksburg. 

Venango W. A. Crawford Cooperstown. 

Warren R. J. Weld, Sugargrove. 

Washington, D. M. Pry Burgettstown. 

Wayne, Warren E. Perham, Niagara. 

Westmoreland, M.N.Clark Claridge. 

Wyoming, D. A. Knuppenburg, Lake Carey. 

York, B. F. Roller, Shrewsbury. 



No. G. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



307 



LIST OF STATE SPEAKERS ENGAGED IN FARMERS' INSTI- 
TUTE WORK IN PENNSYLVANIA. 



DURING SEASON OF 1902-1903. 



Dr. H. P. Armsby, State College. 

S. F. Barber, Harrisburg. 

Dr. Harvey B. Bashore, West Fairview. 

R. L. Beardslee, Warrenham. 

M. S. Bond, Danville. 

C. W. Brodhead, Montrose. 

Dr. C. A. Browne, Jr., State College. 

A. L. Brubaker, Hogestown. 

Prof. W. A. Buckhout, State College. 

J. S. Burns, Clinton. 

Prof. G. C. Butz, State College. 

George Campbell, Green's Landing. 

J. T. Campbell, Hartstown. 

M. N. Clark, Claridge. 

Dr. M. E. Conard, Westgrove. 

Prof. Wells W. Cooke, Washington, 

D. C. 
John W. Cox, New Wilmington. 
Z. T. Cure, Jermyn. 
Rev. J. D. Detrich, Flourtown. 

F. E. Field, Wellsboro. 
John G. Foight, Export. 

Dr. William Frear, State College. 
J. A. Fries, State College. 

D. C. Gillespie, New Castle. 
Prof. J. M. Hantz, Merrittstown. 
Joel A. Herr, Cedar Springs. 
Hon. E. S. Hoover, Lancaster. 
George E. Hull, Orangeville, O. 

G. G. Hutchison, Warriors' Mark. 



W. A. Hutchison, Jeannette. 

Hon. A. J. Kahler, Hughesville. 

Hon. J. H. Landis, Millersville. 

J. H. Ledy, Marion. 

Amos B. Lehman, Fayetteville. 

L. W. Lighty, East Berlin. 

John T. McDonald, Delhi, N. Y. 

M. S. McDowell, State College. 

Prof. Franklin Menges, York. 

C. D. Northrop, Elkland. 

Henry W. Northup, Glenburn. 

M. W. Oliver, Conneautville. 

T. E. Orr, Beaver. 

James Y. Patton, New Castle. 

J. H. Peachy, Belleville. 

Hon. Thomas J. Philips, Atglen. 

W. H. H. Riddle, Butler. 

Oliver D. Schock, Hamburg. 

Hon. R. F. Schwarz, Analomink. 

R. S. Seeds, Birmingham. 

Hon. Jason Sexton, North Wales. 

W. H. Stout, Pinegrove. 

Dr. I. A. Thayer, New Castle. 

F. J. Wagner, Harrison City. 

Samuel W. H. Waltz, Williamsport. 

Prof. Geo. C. Watson, State College. 

Prof. R. L. Watts, Scalp Level. 

R. J. Weld, Sugargrove. 

Hon. H. V. White, Bloomsburg. 

Col. John A. Woodward, Howard. 



DEPARTMENT LECTURERS. 

HON. N. B. CRITCHFIELD, Secretary of Agriculture. 

HON. A. L. MARTIN, Deputy Secretary and Director of Institutes. 

DR. B. H. WARREN, Dairy and Food Commissioner. 

PROF. H. A. SURFACE, Economic Zoologist. 

DR. LEONARD PEARSON, State Veterinarian. 



308 ANNUAT. RBPORT OF TMB Off. D»c. 



ANNfJAL MEETING OF INSTITUTE MANAGERS AND LEC- 
TURERS, HELD AT HUNTINGDON, PA., JUNE 2, 3 AND 4, 

1903. 



PROGRAM. 

Tuesday Evening, June 2, 1903. 

Call to order at 7.30. 

G. G. HUTCHISON, Warriors' Mark, Pa., Chairman. 

Introductory Address by Hon. N. B. Crltchfield, Secretary of AgrlQulture. 

Reading Minutes of Last Annual Meeting. 

A Word of Greeting by Hon. A. L,. Martin, Director of Institutes. 

PREPARED PAPERS. 

1. "CLOVER AS FOOD AND FERTILIZER," 

Dr. I. A. Thayer, New Castle. Pa. 

2. "HOW PLANTS FEED AND GROW." 

Prof. R. L. Watts, Scalp Level, Pa. 

3. "FEEDING POWERS AND HABITS OP SOME AGRICULTURAL 

PLANTS," 

Prof. Franklin Menges, York, Pa. 

4. "THE MAKING OF A FARMER," 

J. H. Peachy, Belleville, Pa. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 



Wednesday Morninij:. June 3. 1903. 
Call to order at 9. 

SAMUEL McCREARY, Neshannock Falls, Pa., Chairman. 

1. "SOIL MOISTURE," 

M. S. McDowell, State College, Pa. 

2. "COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS, THEIR NATURE AND USE," 

Hon. T. J. Philips, Atglen, Pa. 

3. "THE VALUE OF FARM MANURE AND HOW TO RETAIN IT," 

Prof. Wells W. Cooke, Washington, D. C. 

4. "THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF MARKET GARDENING," 

Hon. R. F. Schwarz, Analomink, Pa. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. S09 

6. "©ROWING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FOR CANNING PACTORIHS," 

Prof. G. G. Butz, Stat« Collsge, Pa. 

€ENERAL DISCUSSION. 



Wednesda}' Afternooii, Juue 3, 1^03. 
Call to order at 1.30. 

W. A. CRAWFORD, Cooperstown, Pa., Chairman. 

1. "BREEDING AND FEEDING POULTRY," 

J. Y. Patton, New Castle, Pa. 

2. "POULTRY HOUSES," 

T. E. Orr, Beaver, Pa. 

3. "SHEEP HUSBANDRY," 

J. S. Burns, Clinton, Pa. 

4. "EASIEST AND MOST PROFITABLE WAY TO GROW POTATOES," 

John W. Cox, New Wilmins'ton, Pa. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 



Wednesday Evening, Juue 3, 1903. 

Call to order at 7.30. 

C. B. HEGE, Marion, Pa., Chairman. 

1. "PRACTICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL HORSESHOEING," 

C. W. Brodhead, Montrose, Pa. 

2. "HYGIENE OF THE FARM," 

Dr. Harvey B. Bashore, West Fairview, Pa. 

3. "WHAT CONSTITUTES A COUNTRY HOME," 

R. S. Seeds, Birmingham, Pa. 

4. "WHAT CONSTITUTES A PRACTICAL EDUCATION FOR THE 

FARMER," 

T. D. Harman, of National Stockman and 
Farmer, Pittsburg, Pa, 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 



Thursday Morning, June 4, 1903. 

Call to order at 9. 

Dr. M. E. CONARD, Westgrove, Pa., Chairman. 

1. "THE RELATION OF BACTERIOLOGY TO DAIRYING," 

Dr. M. P. Ravenel, Swarthmore, Pa. 



310 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

2. "MAKING AND SELLING FINE DAIRY BUTTER," 

L. W. Lighty, East Berlin, Pa. 

3. "FEED, BREED AND CARE OF THE DAIRY ANIMAL," 

Rev. J. D. Detrich, Flourtown, Pa. 

4. "GENERAL FRUIT GROWING— HOW TO TAKE CARE OF TREES." 

J. H. Ledy, Marion, Pa. 

5. "THE APPLE ORCHARD," 

Samuel W. H. Waltz, Williamsport, Pa. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 



Thursday Afternoon, June 4, 1903. 

Call to order at 1.30. 

COL. JOHN A. WOODWARD, Howard, Pa., Chairman. 
Session devoted to general discussion of topics relating to Institute work. 

QUESTIONS. 

1. "IS IT DESIRABLE FOR THE STATE TO SUPPLY MORE THAN TWO 

SPEAKERS AT AN INSTITUTE?" 

Opened by J. A. Eschbach, Milton, Pa. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

2. "SHOULD THE INSTITUTE LECTURER USE THE BLACKBOARD TO 

ILLUSTRATE POINTS IN HIS LECTURE?" 

Opened by S. F. Barber, Harrisburg, Pa. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

3. "WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO QUIET A SPEAKER WHO IS USING 

THE TIME UNPROFITABLY?" 

Opened by W. H. H. Riddle, Butler, Pa. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

4. "HOW MAY A FARMER OBTAIN COMPENSATION FOR TUBERCULAR 

CATTLE?" 

Opened by Dr. Leonard Pearson, State Vet- 
erinarian. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION, 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT ©F AGRICULTUIIE. 31.1 



l^KOCEEDJNGS OF THE FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF 
FARMERS' INSTITUTE MANAGERS AND LECTURERS, 
HELD IN THE COURT HOUSE, HUNTINGDON, PA., JUNE 2, 
3 AND 4, 1903. 



Tuesday, June 2, 1903, 7.30 P. M. 

HON. A. L. MARTIN, Deputj- Secretary of Agriculture and Direc- 
tor of Institutes, called the meeting to order promptly at the time 
designated and announced the Chairman for the evening, Mr. George 
G. Hutchison, of Warriors' Mark, Pa. 

ADDRESS OF CHAIRMAN. 

My friends, it is a pleasure to welcome you here this evening to 
Huntingdon county. We are delighted to have you meet with us. 
It v/as somewhat uncertain at the last meeting whether we would be 
favored with your presence, but by solicitation on our part we se- 
cured the sanction of the State College to have the meeting in our 
county, ^^'e have been desirous for r ome years of having you meet 
\\'ith us, but other places seemed to demand the meetings and, as we 
are modest in this county, we yielded to their desires; but after cor- 
responding with the State College they kindly granted or agreed to 
withdraw their grant of the meeting at that place and allow us to 
have it here. You have received a cordial welcome to-daj' from the 
Mayor and he has assured you that the best that this town can 
afford is yours; but in behalf of the farmers and agriculturists of 
the county, I would say, we are delighted to have you with us. 

In going through the county on the main line of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, you are not very much impressed with the agricwltural 
interests of our county, as ti.e railroad leads along the river, and 
the blutTs and hills are not the best presentation of the section, so 
far as agriculture is concerned; but I assure you that lying out from 
the river we have some of the finest agricultural sections in Penn- 
sylvania. That may seem a little egotistic to our friends from 
Chester., Lancaster, York, Lebanon and other eastern counties; but 
when r tell you that we have the finest limestone belt in the north- 
ern and^ westeru end of this county than anywhere in Pennsylvania; 
that from this county, Blair and Centre, more limestone is taken 



312 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. DoC. 

than from all the rest of Pennsylvania combined, I do not think I am 
exaggerating in the least. Lying on top of that limestone is a fine, 
productive soil, and we are proud of the agricultural interests of 
this county. One day, as I was riding through the county on a train 
and we had passed into the section where myself and Mr. Seeds 
reside, a lady said to a gentleman sitting by her: "My! I believe half 
the people of this county commit suicide." And the gentleman said: 
""Why?" She said: "Look at those hills and bluffs; there is nothing 
to live on.'' Up on those hills there is as fine land as there is any- 
where in Pennsylvania, and 1 have y^t to know of any one commit- 
ting suicide there. 

This county has been devoted to agriculture for one hundred 
and thirty-five to one hundred and forty years. Our forefathers 
came here from the eastern sections and settled, and have been 
following the pursuits of agriculture for that length of time. The 
farm that I have the pleasure of owning and living on has been cul- 
tivated for one hundred and thirty years, and others in this section 
have been for nearly the same time. We have, besides the agricul- 
tural, other interests. We have a county that has produced a 
number of great men. We have contributed to the welfare and the 
building up of this Commonwealth. We have had the honor of hav- 
ing a Governor, Potter; a Secretary of Internal Affairs, J. Simpson 
Africa; an Auditor General, General Gregg; two United States Sen- 
ators, John Scott and William A. Wallace, two of the levelest 
headed men of this Commonwealth and a number of Congressmen. 
Among others, I might mention R. Milton Spear, whom I consider 
one of the brightest men Pennsylvania has produced, H. J. Fisher 
and a host of others. 

We have a number of interests here that I would like you to visit, 
among which are the J. C. Blair Manufacturing Company, the Key- 
stone Manufacturing Company and many others. We have situ- 
ated in this county the Silica Brick Works at Mt. Union; the coal 
operations at East Broad Top and other industries. We have 
also located at the end of town a State Normal School, known 
as the Juniata College, of which our friend. Prof. M. G. Brumbaugh, 
is president; and on the outskirts of the town is located the Hunt- 
ingdon Kcformatory, one of the finest institutions of its kind in the 
State. All of these extend to you a cordial welcome. I know that 
your <'oming amongst us will do oui* agricultural interests good and 
I hope your stay will be a pleasant one. 

We are now ready to proceed with the program of the evening. 

HON. A. L. MARTIN: Before starting upon the program proper, 
it might be well that we have a committee elected or appointed to 
take charge of what is known as the "question box," to collect ques- 



No. 6. DEPARTMP:NT (IF AGRICULTUHF:. 313 

tions tlml may cuim- into the mind of any auditor during the reading 
or disens'sion of papers on this program, and also a committee on 
resolutions. 

The ('BAIKMAjN: What is your pleasure in regard to a (Question 
Box? 

J>K. M. K. COXAHl): Mr. Chairinau, L mo\e ihat a Committee on 
Queries be selected to be composed of as follows: S. S. Blyholder, 
Chairman; A. U. Lehman, J. K. Bird and W. H. H. Biddle. 

The inotion Avas agreed to and the ('hairman annonn(<'d as a 
Committee on Queries the gentlemen named. 

Mli. KOBEKT K^EEDS: Mr. Chairman, I move that a Committee 
on Resolutions be selected to be composed of as follows: J. M. 
rianti!,;, Chairman; !!. \\". Northup, A. J. Kahler, Jason Sexton and 
George E. Hull. 

The motion was agreed to and the Chairman announced as a Coni: 
mittee on Resolutions the gentlemen named. 

HOX. N. B. CRITCFrFIELD. Secretary of Agriculture: Mr. Chair- 
man, 1 do not know whether Mr. Martin has in his mind any time 
when ihis Committee will be called upon to make its report. Pos- 
sibly vhe beginning of the morning session would be as good a time 
as any. 

MIv. M.ARTIN; Mr. Chairman, we believe in an audience of this 
character having tliis niatier largely in its own hands. Proba- 
bly at tlie morning session would be a very suitable time to jjresiMit 
these ([uestions. However, circumstances ought to direct that 
matter. 

I just want to supplement the remark made by 'the Secretary; th^t 
i'" at any time during the reading of a paper or in the discussion after 
it is finislied, any lady or gentleman should feel disposed to ask a 
ciU(\stion relative to that i)ai)er or discussion, should f(^el free to 
rise in their place and ask the (luestion. >A'e believe in free speech 
at these meetings, Otherwise, w^rite the question and have it sent 
in through the Query Committee. We suggest that the Query Com- 
mittee take these blank papers and at once distribute them through 
the audience so that they may have paper to write upon. 

The CHAIRMAN: The next ou the ])rograni is an "Introduc- 
tory Address," by Hon. X. B. Critchhi^ld, Secretary of Agriculture. 

I now have the honor and pleasur<' of introducing to you the 
Secretary of Agriculture, Hon. X. B. Critchfield. 

ADDRESS OF HON. N. B. CRITCHFIELD. 

Mr. ("hairiiian and Gentlemen of the Convention: 1 am sorry that 
our good Brother Martin has seen fit lo dignify wlint I may have to 
21 



:n4 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

sa.v on this occasion by calling? it an address. He said to me when lie 
was preparinj^ the program that he would like to have me say some- 
thing at the opening of the session, and I said ''All riglit." but 1 
expected to say bnt a very few words. 

I am glad that the Chairman for the evening has had as much 
to say as he had at the beginning, because I do not feel like talking 
so soon after supper. You all know how hard it is talk when 
you are too full for utterance. 

The Chairman spoke in glowing terms of the agricultural and 
industrial features of Huntingdon county, casually mentioning 
Chester, Delaware and Lancaster counties and the northwestern 
part of the State as possible places where conditions might be 
especially good, but he did not say a word about the west, as though 
we were not in it at all. I guess he was never out in our section 
of the country. 

I hardly feel that it would be just for me to take up very much 
of your time. I see you have a very full program for this even- 
and, therefore, I shall take but little time. I am glad, however, 
to have this opportunity of looking you in the face, of renewing my 
acquaintance with those of you with whom I used to travel up 
and down this Commonwealth, engaged in Institute work, and to 
make the acquaintance of others whom I have never met before. I 
am glad to be here and 1 am glad to be reckoned as a member of 
this meeting and still, in some measure, a participant in the Insti- 
tute work. I do not know that we have any more important work 
than this, and I think the idea that was suggested or acted upon 
first of all by the first Director of Institutes, and that has been fol- 
Ipwed out by Brother Martin, is certainly a good one, that of having 
this "Round-up Meeting." It is a good thing for the men engaged 
in this work to come together at a time like this and to compare 
notes, to talk over disputes in which they have been engaged, 
and their failures likewise, if any. I have no doubt but that you will 
be able to carry into your work the succeeding year some of the 
enthusiasm gathered here. You will be better prepared in conse- 
quence of having had this meeting. I take it that any work that has 
for its end in view, the improvement of our agriculture and the 
betterment of the condition of those who have taken up farming 
as their chosen calling, is an important work, and I do not think 
that there is, as I have said, any more fruitful source of accomplish- 
ing these things, helping the farmer, improving agriculture and bet- 
tering the condition of the agriculturists of the State than the 
Farmers' Institute work. I was pleased, at the supper table this 
evening, to hear some gentlemen telling of what had been achieved 
in their communities in the counties from which they came. Every- 
where over this Commonwealth we can see the improvement made 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. :nf. 

siucc the- Kaiincis" Institute work was b('}j,ui) in the Stiilc (jf Teun 
s.ylvauia. \A'e have better aj^riculture, better homes. Our farm 
I)eoi)le are payiug more attenlion, as evidenced in the discussions 
that took phK-e at the supper table this evening, to the education 
of their sons and daughters, and A^ery much of this has been brought 
about through the agency and the instrumentality and the labors 
of these men who are engaged in this work. 

And now, as I said at the outset, I am glad to be here and bid 
you Godspeed. I am not likely to be able to remain with you until 
the end of the session, but I want to say, while I have the floor, that 
r will be glad to have you come to see us at Harrisburg whenever 
you can. The Department of Agriculture will be doing business 
with open doors and with t'le latch-string on the outside. We want 
your counsel and help. The ]>epartment of Agriculture is a great, 
big Department, and there is very much to do, as Brother Hamilton 
said to me as he was about turning the keys over to me, and I have 
found it so, and I cannot hope to succeed in the administration of 
the affairs of the Department, as well as I would wish to succeed, 
and as well as you wish it to succeed, without your help; and so, 
my ears will always be open to take any counsel or advice you will 
give. I shall be glad to have your assistance. 

I do not know that it is necessary that I should detain you any 
longer. You have a large program for this evening, and wiien you 
get through with it I am sure we will all feel that it is time to ad- 
journ. I thank vou for vour attention. 

The CHAIRMAN: The next business in ordci- is the reading of 
the minutes of the last annual meeting. 

A. L. MARTIN, Director of Institutes, read the minutes of the 
last annual meeting of the Farmers' Institute Managers and Lec- 
turers, held at Gettysburg, Pa., May 28 and 29, 1902. 

There being no corrections the minutes were approved. 

The CHAIRMAN: The Secretary will now call the roll of County 
Institute Managers. 

The Director of Institutes called the loll of County Chairmen, 
season of 1902-1903, with the following result: 

County. * Name. Place. 

Adams A. I. Weidner, Arendtsville. 

AUegheny, J.S.Burns Clinton. 

Armstrong, S. S. Blyholder, Leechburg. 

Bedford W. Clay Lutz, Bedford. 

Blair, H. L. Harvey Klpple. 

Bucks Watson T. Davis Ivyland. 

Butler, W. H. H. Riddle, Butler. 

Cambria, H. J. Krumenacker, Nicktown. 

Centre, John A. Woodward Howard. 



316 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc, 

County. Name. Place. 

Chester Dr. M. E. Conard Westgrove. 

Clarion S. X. McClellan, Knox. 

Clearfield , J. W. Nelson Shaw ville. 

Clinton, Joel A. Herr, Cedar SpriVigs. 

Dauphin, S. F. Barber, Harrisburg. 

Elk, John B. Werner, St. Marys. 

Erie Archie Billings Edinboro. 

Fayette J. M. Hantz, Merrittstown. 

Franklin, C. B. Hege Marion. 

Fulton R. M. Kendall, McConnellsburg. 

Huntingdon G. G. Hutchison, Warrioi's' Mark. 

Juniata, Matthew Rodgers, Mexico. 

Lackawanna H. W. Northup, Glenburn. 

Lancaster W. H. Brosius Drumore. 

Lawrence, Samuel McCreary Neshannock Falls. 

Lehigh, D. S. Fenstemachti Hosensack. 

Luzerne, J. E. Hildebrant, Lehman. 

Lycoming, A. J. Kahler, Hughesville. 

Mercer, S. A. Williams Volant, 4 R. D. 

Mifflin, D. E. Notestine, Lewistown. 

Montgomery, Jason Sexton North Wales. 

Northampton, Wm. F. Beck Nazareth. 

Northumberland J. A. Eschbach, Milton. 

Perry, A. T. Holman, Nekoda. 

Potter, Horace H. Hall Ellisburg. 

Schuylkill, W. H. Stout, Pinegrove. 

Snyder, F. J. Schoch Selinsgrove. 

Somerset Jacob S. Miller Friedens. 

Sullivan J. K. Bird Millview. 

Susquehanna, C. W. Brodhead Montrose. 

Union, J. N. Glover, Vicksburg. 

Venango W. A. Crawford Cooperstown. 

Warren, R. J. Weld Sugargrove. 

Westmoreland, M. N. Clark, Claridge. 

Wyoming, D. A. Knuppenljurg, Lake Carey. 



The roll of State Lecturers was then called by Secretary ^Nlartiu 
and absentees noted. Th<- following were present: ' . 

Dr. H. P. Armsby, State College. Prof. Wells W. Cooke, Washington, 

S. F. Barber, Harrisburg. D. C. 

* 
Dr. Harvey B. Bashore, West Pairview. John W. Cox, New Wilmington. 

R. L. Beardslee, Warrenham. Z. T. Cure, Jermyn. 

M. S. Bond, Danville. John G. Foight, Export. 

C. W. Brodhead, Montrose. Dr. Wm. Frear, State College. 

A. L. Brubaker, Hogestown. Prof. J. M. Hantz, Merrittstown. 

J. S. Burns, Clinton. Joel A. Herr, Cedar Springs. 

Prof. Geo. C. Butz, State College. Hon. E. S. Hoover, Lancaster. 

George Campbell, Green's Landing. George E. Hull, Orangeville, O. 

J. T. Cami)bfll, Hartstown. G. G. Hutchls-un. Warriors' Mark. 

M. N. Clark, Claridge. W. A. HutchLson. Jeannette. 

Dr. M. E. Conard, Westgrove. Hon. A. J. Kahler, Hughesville. 



No. (!. 



Ul^l'AllTIVlF.NT OV AGRICULTURE. 



317 



J. H. Ledy, Marion. 

Amos B. Lehman, Payetteville. 

L. W. Lighty, East Berlin. 

Jolin T. McDonald, Delhi, N. Y. 

M. S. McDowell, State College. 

Prof. Franklin Menges, York. 

C. D. Northrop, Klkland. 

Henry W. Northup, Glenburn. 

T. E. Orr, Beaver. 

James Y. Fatten, New Castle. 

J. H. Peachy, Belleville. 

Hon. Thomas J. Philips, Atglen. 

W. H. H. Riddle, Butler. 



Oliver D. Schock, Hamburg. 

R. S. Seeds, Birmingham. 

Hon. Jason Sexton, North Wales. 

W. H. Stout, Pinegrove. 

Prof. H. A. Surface, State College. 

Dr. I. A. Thayer, New Castle. 

F. J. Wagner, Harrison City. 

Samuel W. H. Waltz, Williamsport. 

Prof. Geo. C. Watson, State College. 

Prof. R. L. Watts, Scalp Level. 

R. J. Weld, Sugargrove. 

Col. John A. Woodward, Howard. 



Tlie CHAIRIMAX: Tlic next business on the program is "A Word 
of Greeting," by Hon. A. L. Martin, Director of Institutes. 

Gentlemen, it is with great pleasure that I introduce to you this 
evening. Hon. A. L. Martin, Deputy Secretary of Agriculture and 
i>irector of Instiiiit(^s, who has taken such an active interest in our 
Institute work. 



ADDRESS OF HON. A. L. MARTIN. 

Mr. Chairman and Friends: I would be false to 1113- feelings 
should I fail, in a few words, to express some of the motives which 
has prompted me to address you for a moment or two this evening. 
I have a very vivid recollection of the first Annual "Round-up Meet- 
ing" of the Farmers' Institute workers, which was held at Blooms- 
burg. A pretty green looking farmer from Western Pennsylvania 
was there and he formed the acquaintance of a large number of 
men who then, as well as now, had local charge of Farmers' Insti- 
tutes in Pennsylvania. I remember that meeting more especially 
because of the events which have followed it ; realizing as I then did, 
and I now do, to some degree, the importance of the work in ha,nd; 
and realizing the warm grip of the hand which you men gave me 
there and -the few words which passed between us that day. 

To-day we have the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Institute Mana- 
gers and Lecturers, and as we look back over the four years past, 
it is certainly with some degree of satisfaction that we can meet 
face to face to discuss the great problems with which we have to 
do. We may look back and learn from the lessons of the past some 
things by which we may improve in the future. But whatever this 
may be, my friends, I assure you that had it not been for the wise, 
considerate and manly counsel which you men gave me from time 
to time regarding the work, not only in your own county, but 
throughout the State, many more mistakes would have been made. 

In the outset of my remarks I want; to say this to you as County 
Chairmen of Institutes: The success and the advancement that 
will attend these Farmers' Institutes in Pennsvh^ania if our lives are 



318 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Spared lor four years, largely depends upon the ways and means 
that are devised by the County Chairman of Institutes in the differ 
ent counties. I say that to you after four year's experience along 
that line with all the manliness that I am able to bring to bear, I 
want you at all times to give me your best and candid advice, 
whether it might make me feel good or not, I want to know it. By 
the uniting together of the best thought and the best practice in the 
different counties and bringing it together at a meeting of this kind, 
comparing notes in all the greatness and vastness of this work, we 
can expect to succeed to the greatest extent. This is not my work. 
1 am simply the agency for the time being to join with you in the 
different counties in carrying on this great work which belongs to 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

Now, my friends, a good Providence has very kindly dealt with 
the farmers of Pennsylvania and this organization during the 
past four years, when we come to remember that out of this body of 
men, in the sixty-seven counties of the State, as County Mana- 
gers, so far as I can recall at this time, there has just occurred five 
deaths. Shall I recount them? Hon. Gerard F. Brown, of York 
county, who met with us at Bloomsburg. You remember him. You 
remember the kindly counsel which he always gave us and the manly 
man that he was. And then, after him, the Hon. George E. Hep 
burn, of Delaware county. He, too, was very suddenly taken away. 
It was my pleasure to serve with him two sessions in the House of 
Representatives, had a very intimate acquaintance with him, and I 
bear testimony to his sterling worth. And then, Mr. C. F. Barrett, 
of McKeau count}-, within the last year. My acquaintance with him 
was not so intimate, but through years of correspondence I had 
learned his value as an Institute Manager. Another one was Mr. D. 
H. Pershing, of Fayette county. Many of you remember him and the 
great interest he manifested in agricultural matters. He was one 
of our leading Grange and Farmers' Institute lecturers. .He was a 
man who kept himself well informed and, having always lived a 
righteous life, tilled many positions of trust among his neighbors. 
And then the other loss I shall name, so far as I can recall, is that 
of J. L. Schreiber, of Lehigh county, now succeeded by the gentleman 
on my right. You remember this manly man and his i^lain counsel 
and advice. He often came to my office and gave me counsel, when 
others knew not of it, of the kind that w^as intended to cement the 
friendship of man to man and broaden my love for that true man- 
hood which ennobles. These five have been called to join the Great 
Majority beyond. Their work is finished here, but the fruits of 
that work, I believe, will continue many years. Now, my friends, 
1 simply recall this thought, bringing to our minds that T*rovidenc<' 
lias been good and kind to us. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 319 

iMiriiij; (lirsc four years we liavc uoticM'd, and you have noticed, 
marked advaneeiuent in (he manner and the mode of carrying on 
farm oiieradons in Pennsylvania, in the h'ne of animal indusiry, in 
the management of the dairy, in horticultural lines, in the prepara- 
tion of tlu,' soil and the seed bed and in the growing of the legumin 
ous jdants intended to draw down fertility from the air and plant 
it in the soil we cultivate; in all these questions, my friends, what 
a marked improvement is stamped in every line; and we are egotisti- 
cal enough to believe that a large portion of that at least was 
stimulated and brought about by the persistent teaching of those 
engaged in Farmers' Institute work. 

I want to say just a word to the Lecturers. Most of my remarks 
have been to the County Managers of Institutes. I want to say to 
you, my friends, Lecturers at Farmers' Institutes, that we have 
come to a time in the history of this work in Pennsylvania in which a 
man to succeed and do his best must be no novice. He must be a 
man or woman equii)ped for this work, capable of imparting the 
knowledge and the practice which he possesses to the audience 
which he is to address. It is no child's play. We have come to a 
time in the history of agriculture in Pennsylvania, my friends, in 
which the man who undertalces to address an audience must know 
whereof he speaks and be of a teachable spirit on all occasions. 
The reason for this is largely due to the fact that the farmers of 
Pennsylvania are to-day an educated people. They read and think, 
and year by year they bring to bear upon their farm operations a 
better cultivated brain and more accurate knowledge of the princi- 
ples which "underlie the line of farming in which they are engaged, 
and the Farmers' Institute Lectui'er who succeeds now in Pennsyl- 
vania must be, not only abreast of the times, but he must be a 
little in advance. He must know of the things whereof he speaks; 
know all these things and know nature. Why, my friends, there are 
only two ways a successful teacher at the Farmers' Institute may 
know. He may have studied agriculture, chemistry or botany and 
all lines of scientific knowledge; and that is right. He cannot teach 
them properly unless he has spent time in the study of them. But 
that is not all. After they have been studied theoretically and 
learned and pounded into these brains and minds of ours, there is 
something else. After this is completely studied mentally, when the 
man has worked it out somewhere in the soil, or the shrub, or the 
tree, or the plant, or the roots of them, he is the better equipped to 
impart that knowledge to his neighbor. That is what I mean by 
this, my fellow lecturers. We come to that time in which, in mv 
judgment, the very best qualifications must be demanded and noth- 
ing short of that accepted. So it is for you to decide at these meet- 
ings. 



niO ANNUAL, ilKl'OKT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The Legislatiu-p of the State lias (le.-ill with us. also, rery kindly. 
It has increased our fund — not to a greai extent — after the first 
two years. Then we had an increase of ii?5,0(t0 added, and during 
Ihe past year the Legislature gave us an increase of |5,000 ad- 
ditional, so that our institutes are equipped with |35,000 for two 
Aears or |17,500 per annum. Xow we come to the problem. Shall 
\v<.' have more institutes or shall we equip them and make them 
better? That is a question for you to decide. We want your 
opinion about that. My judgmeni is thai we ought to make them 
more effective if we could. 

Now, my friends, 1 shall not inflict ;iiiy longer talk upon you. It 
is a pleasure to meet you. It has always been and 1 hope it will con- 
tinue so, and I can only say to you what I said four years ago: "I am 
here to join wilh you in the various counties for the u])lifting of the 
fai'mers and the Farmers' Institutes." 

COL. JOHN A. WOODWARD: Mr. Chairman, it is customary 
in our field work in Farmers' Institutes to have the serious and 
regular work of the institutes interspersed with entertainment of 
some kind in order that we may keep the interest alive, and for 
that purpose^ we frequently introduce music. It may not be known 
that among our County Institute ]Managers we have a musical 
genius who happens to l>e present to-night, and I propose that we 
now listen ro a song by Mr. Horace M. Hall, the Institute Manager 
of Potter county, before wo proceed to the work of the evening. 

Mr. Hall came forward and entertained tlu^ audience with a song 
entitled "Two Kinds of People." 

The CHAIRMAN: There is a sentimerit in that song that some 
])eople who lecture at Farmers' Institulcs could get a good lesson 
from. 

We now come to the prejjared paptn's. The lirst number on the 
program is ^'Clover as Food and Fertilizer," by Dr. I. A. Thayer, 
of New Castle, Pa. 

DR. I. A. THAYER ])r(^sente(l his ]>nper ns follows: 



No. fi. 



DEPARTMENT OF AC lUrUI/PURK. 



321 



CLOVKH AS FOOD AND FERTILIZER. 



\;\ |)K. I. A. I'HAVKU, yt'W (.'antli. P(( . 



We will estimate the value of tiie clovers as food accoi-diiig to 
our purpose iu feeding. If we feed pi-iraarily foi- milk, muscle, wool 
or eggs we will place one estimate; if for fat, heat and energy, our 
estimate will be different, since in the first we seek a narrow ration, 
or a nutritive ratio of about one to six; in the second, a wider one, 
or a ratio of one to ten or twelve. 

The place occupied by the clovers as food may be (piickly seen in 
1he following statement: 

FEEDING STUFFS. 
Digestible Pounds in a Ton. 



•a 
>, 

O 

.Q 

o 



3 



Corn stover, . , 
Timothy hay, 
Orchard grass. 
Red clover, . . . 

Alfalfa, 

Wheat bran. 



40 

58 

96 

128 

208 

240 



695 
937 

903 
770 
S59 
908 



1 to 17.3 
1 to 16.2 
1 to 9.4 
1 to 6. 
Ito 4.1 
1 to 3.8 



Here it is seen that as a muscle or milk maker Red clover has 
more than two and a half times the value of timothy hay, and more 
than three times the value of corn stover; while for these purposes 
alfalfa is worth nearly as much pt^r ton as wheat bran. Bed clover 
would itself constitute a well balanced ration for muscle or milk 
making, but for the bulk necessary to consume. Alfalfa would con- 
stitute too narrow a ration and should be fed with corn stover, 
silage or corn meal. 

While the clovers as protein food are seen to be far richer than 
timothy hay. why do they not command a higher price in market? 
Horsemen object to clover hay because it usually contains more 
dust and hard, indigestible tibre. And this is the fact in the case of 



21—6—1903 



322 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the common red clover usually offered on the market, because im- 
properly made. \Vhen grown with timothy, ripening as it does two 
weeks earlier than does the latter, it is too ripe when harvested. 
When timothy is at its best, the clover blossom has browned and 
its stem becomes woody and largely indigestible. Red clover should 
be cut before many heads are brown, though not all are yet in bloom. 
If clover and timothy are to be grown together, the variety should 
be the Mammoth; but the manner of curing clover hay has much 
to do in producing the objectionable features complained of. It 
should never be sun-dried, but cured in a mow practically air-tight, 
or what is more practicable, in a shock. Thus cured, the leaves 
containing the larger per cent, of the plant protein, retain their 
bright green color, and the blossoms, their red. Dark brown clover 
hay, sun-dried, is unfit for horse feed and has lost half its value for 
the dairv cow. 

At the present prices of concentrated protein foods, the Pennsyl- 
vania farmer must seek to produce his own protein, or abandon his 
hopes of large profits from his dairy. In the clovers we have the 
most available source oi Drotein. With clover and shredded corn 
stover or silage for roughage, and corn meal and wheat bran as con- 
centrates, we readily compound a balanced ration for the herd or 
team; a ration the most healthful that can be produced, and the 
greater part of which is produced on the farm. Or with alfalfa, 
corn silage and corn meal with a much smaller proportion of wheat 
bran, an equally valuable ration may be compounded at a trifling 
cash outlay. 

But so much attention is now being given to rations of the dairy 
cow especially, that I shall not enter the subject farther, my only 
purpose having been to point out the important place occupied by 
the clovers in a well-balanced and healthful ration. 

It will be noted that I couple "well-balanced" with ''healthful,'" 
as modifying rations, for healthfulness must go before the standard 
ratio. From one i)oint of view the cow is a machine for the manu- 
facture of the raw material into the finished product — milk; but 
she is far more than a machine; she is a living, sentiment being 
whose nerves go before her lacteal glands, and whose health and 
comfort condition her profitable performances. In the selection of 
her food, therefore, not only the chemist but the physiologist must 
be consulted. Clover has been proven to possess not only a high per 
cent, of digestible protein, but other properties that are greatly 
relished by the flocks, herds and teams, and that contribute to the 
health of the animal. Physicians prescribe a clover hay infusion for 
the nervous spasm peculiar to whooping-cough. They also classify 
it under that vague name "alterative," and administer it success- 
fully in scrofulous affections of the glands and skin. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OK AGRICULTURE .^2S 

I >isiiiissin;; llic food fonini-c, \\v must now j^ivc at(«'iilion to a fai- 
more difticiilt ami impoi'tanl i»hasc of tlu' subject; I mean the; resto 
ration and maintonnuce of soil fertility with the use of clovers. 

It is beyond question that the supreme need in the soils of our 
State, as well as in all the older states in the East, is humus rich 
in the forms of nitrogen. The present superiority of our western 
empires arises chietly from the vast stores of humus with which 
Ihe prairies are coA'^ered. When this accumulation of decayed vege- 
table matter is passed, their soil is found inferior to our own. It 
has not the mineral element of fertility that ours possesses. Our 
soil contains large quantities of these mineral elements, unavailable 
for the most part, but present and needing only such agents as will 
disintegrate them to become available to our growing crops. Such 
agents are supplied by decaying vegetable matter in the soil. The 
acids set free in such decomposition attack the insoluble luineral^ 
co7upounds and reduce them to soluble forms. This action, with 
the improved mechanical condition of the soil which it produces, is 
common to all decaying vegetation. The clovers render this ser- 
vice and go much farther; they gather large quantities of nitrogen 
from the air and add it to the soil as a net gain above the benefits 
derived from the decay of the non-leguminous plants. 

Some years ago the Cornell Experiment Station conducted the 
following experiment: There were sown three plots, side by side, 
one to Crimson clover, one to Red clover and one to Mammoth 
clover. In three months and four days a chemical examination 
was made, which showed that the Crimson clover roots and tops had 
gathered at the rate of 155 pounds of nitrogen per acre; the Mam- 
moth, 145 pounds and the Red, 103 pounds. The amount of nitrogen 
contained in the acre of Crimson clover, after it had been growing 
but three months and four days, was equal to that contained in 
13 tons of average stable manure. 

Several years ago I began the production of Crimson clover as a 
fertilizer by seeding one acre of early potato ground, on the 15th 
of August. There was a fine stand and a rank growth, the clover 
averaging thirty inches in height. On the 25th of the following May 
this was turned under, and in July the ground was set to late cab- 
bage. On the next April this land, with two adjoining acres of the 
same kind and condition, excej)t the clover, were planted to early 
potatoes. From the beginning the difference between the two soils 
was marked. The clover acre remaining spongy and moist through- 
out the dry summer, while the adjoining ground became very dry and 
dusty. On digging the tubers, the difference was still more marked, 
for from the clover acre were picked up 202 bushels of merchantable 
tubers, the first w-eek in July, that wholesaled at 70 cents i)er 
bushel, while from the two adjoining acres were secured but 112^ 



324 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

bushels pel- acie. it is true tbat this ditl'ereuce was not wholly due 
1,0 the additional elements oi fertility derived from the clover, but 
in a large measure to the mechanical condition of the soil resulting 
Crom the addition of this large amount of hunins. 

Bej'oud the elements of fertility that the clover gives to the soil, 
and their value as humus, they aid in soil improvement by perfor- 
ating the sub-soil with their long roots, thus opening it to the action 
of the air and pumping up the soluble plant food that had leached 
beyond plow deiJth. 

The importance of the clovers as fertilizers is being appreciated, 
but man}" are discouraged by the diificulty of securing a crop. To 
this we must now give attention, 

I believe that when we understand the demands of the clover 

plant as well as we understand the demands of our common farm 

plants, such as corn, oats and ])otatoes, we will be able to raise as 

good a crop of clover as we do that of the others. Our jjoor soil illy 

worked will raise nothing Avell. Certain unforeseen conditions of 

weather may militate against any crop, but no more against clover 

than against others. Any other crop treated as unwisely as we 

often treat the clover plant would result in as great a failure as we 

often experience with this. The fact is that clover is no baby; 

it is one of our hardiest plants. It takes hold on earth and air 

and sun, and what it cannot secure from one it draws from the 

other. Frost and flood and drouth do not affect it as readil}' as 

they do most other farm plants. It asks no special favors. It only 

asks what we concede to other plants; an open field and a fair 

tight. And this reasonable demand is precisely what we have 

usually ignored. >Vho would think of growing a crop of corn and 

of oats, or of rye and of buckwheat,. or of potatoes and of timothy 

on the same ground at the same time? And yet in the production of 

clover we have died to raise three full crops on the same ground at 

llie same time, and we have generally failed. \A'e give the use of 

a field a 3'ear to corn, oats or wheat; but to the chner cro]), worth 

more hard cash than either of the others, we give the chance to 

steal an existence (he best it i)i;iy in the shadow of the others. We 

have thought it should have a "nurse crop" to shade it, as though 

the sunlight wei-e not one of th(^ supreme conditions of its growth. 

A nurse that consumes (he moistui'e, fertility and sun-light needed 

by the young plant is not a profitable oue. Prof. Thorne, of the 

Ohio Experiment Station, at ^Vooster, in a letter to me in which he 

recited the observations of the Station, concluded by saying: "It 

is our firm conviction that the so-called 'nurse crop' is the robber 

crop." True, now and then we may secure a stand of clover in the 

wheat or lye crop, but it is usually uneven, strong where the grain 

is weak, and weak where the grain is sdong; luU a good, excn s1and 

is the exception and not the rule. 



No. G. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 325 

ir llii lifld (iinnol be jj;iveii ('xc!iisi\ dy to llir cIonci-, aud a tjij<' 
so<Hl-bed prepared and sown in April, a wheat or rye stubble field 
may be prepared by burning off the stubble, if necessary, and thor 
oughly harrowing- it, with the chances that not only a better stand 
will be obtained, but a be tier root system will be developed than in 
tlie feeble plants that have struggled among the grain for a foot- 
hold and tluMi been suddejily thrown into the scorching sun and 
drouth of mid-summer at harvest time. 

Crimson clover, that queen of fertilizers, being an a}inual, may be 
sown as an aft(U'~crop and turned under near the latter part of 
.May, when in full bloom, for corn ov potatoes. It will have acted as 
a cover-crop of great importance, and will furnish a vast amount of 
humus and nitrogen. It is better to sow it after early potatoes or 
on stubble ground i)repared as alreadN^ indicated, it nmy be sown 
in corn ahead of the last working, never later tlian the first of 
August, if the corn is a small variety and rowed wide apart, with 
the rows running north and south, so that sunlight will be freely 
admitted. Home-grown seed should always be used, not less than 
fifteen pounds to the acre, and it should be well cultivated in. 
Unless well coAered, the drj-, hot weather usual in August and Se])- 
tember, will probably destroy most of it. Early seeding and thor- 
ough covering is necessary also to secure a root development suffi- 
cient to prevent heaving during the wi'iiter, though freezing the 
plant does no harm. My experience shows that under like condi- 
tions Crimson clover is as hardy as Red clover. 

Scores of unsuccessful attempts to secure a clover stand have 
been detailed to me during Institute work, and I have usually found 
that in such cases the chief causes of failure, named in t4ie order of 
their importance, were the following: Lack of humus and frequently 
the presence of acid; the ever-present "nurse crop;" imperfect seed- 
bed and seeding, and imperfect drainage. 

I condense the statement of the conditions of clover production 
into five sentences: Clear the soil interstices of stagnant water; 
fill the soil with humus by plowing under stable manure or rye and 
vetch; apply caustic lime, 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre; ^^repare a 
deep, fine seed-bed and thoroughly cover the seed; give the field 
wholly to the clover as early in the season as practicable. 

The growth of the clover will be greatly promoted with a top- 
dressing of well-rotted stable manure. It is a mistake to suppose 
that, because clover derives much of its nitrogen from the air, it 
needs no nitrogenous fertilizer to start its growth. But if the soil is 
dark with humus, a commercial fertilizer containing about eight per 
cent, of potash and twelve per cent, of phosphoric acid, if on a clay 
soil; or twelve per cent, of potash and eight per cent, of phosphoric 
acid, if on sandy ground, drilled at the rate of 150 to 250 pounds per 



326 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

acre, will be prolitabk'. The addilioii of linn,;, wbicli will m.-uti-alize 
the acid and thus favor the work of the soil bacteria, will render the 
mineral elements of fertility more available, rend(?r the soil more 
friable and feed the plant direct. In many soils lime will be in- 
dispensable; in all it will be highly profitable. 

The production of alfalfa has greatly interested dairymen since 
learning its value as a protein food, and the tonnage that can be 
produced on a given area. So much has recently been written on the 
subject that I give it the briefest mention. Alfalfa requires a gar- 
den soil. The surface must be rich and fine and the subsoil porous, 
easily permeable by the roots of the plant. The soil need not be 
sandy nor the subsoil an open gravel. A rich, clay loam, without a 
dense hard-pan will bring good results. The water level should be 
at least seven or eight feet below the surface. The seed should be 
sown as early in the spring as the soil can be put into first class 
condition. Sow by itself twenty-five pounds to the acre and cover 
with a light harrow or a weeder worked both w^ays. If the soil is 
sandy or quite dry it should be rolled after seeding, following the 
roller with a w^eeder. These conditions may all be furnished and a 
perfect stand secured, and yet a failure result if the subsequent 
treatment be neglected. In about six weks from the time of seed- 
ing, the young plants wdll begin to show a blue blossom here and 
there. Xow the mower miist be run over it and the plants clipped. 
In another six weeks the operation must be repeated, and again the 
third clipping at the end of the same period, and the clippings al- 
lowed to remain on the stubble as a mulch. If the young plants are 
allowed to run up and mature seed the crop will be ruined. The 
clipping is Mecessary to prevent this, to give stronger root develop- 
ment, and to check the growth of weeds that are especially destruc- 
tive of the alfalfa during the first ycdr. The subsequent cuttings 
of the plant for hay should occur at about the same periods. 

Though necessarily too brief to be of the greatest value, l am 
glad to make this slight contribution to the study of a subject that 
I find is greatly interesting the farmers of the State; an interest 
that is full of promise, since it is growing more and more important 
that, in largely increased quantities, we produce our own protein 
feed and our niti-ogenous fertilizers. 

The CIIAIKMAN: These papers will all be subjects for discussion 
after we get through with the numbers on the program, so any 
questions you may have to ask, just hold them until after the 
program for the evening is finished. 

The next number on the program is "How Plants Feed and Grow," 
by Prof. R. L. Watts, of Scalp Level, Cambria county. Pa. 

Prof. Watts then presented his pn])(>r as follows: 



N(i. 6 DEPARTMENT OK .\( ;Rl(UII/rnRE 327 



HOW IMiANTtS FKKI) AND GROW. 



Uv PuOF. K. L. Watts, Scalp Level. Pa. 



A Llioi*ouj;li kiiowiedgi' of how pluuts feed aud grow, coupled 
with industry and good uiaiiagement, will insure success for every 
tiller of the soil. Satisfactory crop production is purely a question 
of knowledge and its application. Plants must grow and yield 
bountifully when they receive the proper treatment. As to the 
right treatment, under existing conditions, each farmer must de- 
cide for himself. Books, bulletins and lecturers may instruct and 
guide, but only experience will settle the perplexing problems that 
come to the thinking farmer. He must study, observe and experi- 
ment to gain that knowledge which Avill lead to tlie greatest success. 

It is not within the province of this brief jjaper to discuss techni- 
calities relating to the nutrition aud growth of plants. But an at- 
tempt will simply be made to bring out some of the more important 
facts regarding conditions most favorable to the development of 
plants. • 

PHYSICAL, CONDITION OF SOILS. 

in recent years probably Loo much attention has been given to 
the use of commercial fertilizers and not enough to the improvement 
of the mechanical condition of soils. There are thousands of acres 
of land in Pennsylvania where crop jjroduction would be only 
slightly increased by the most liberal application of commercial fer- 
tilizers. It is not our purpose to condemn the use of fertilizers, but 
we do not hesitate to say that, with most soils, a change in the physi- 
cal proi)erties is of much greater importance than the application of 
fertilizers. We have found in our own operations that even the ex- 
travagant use of fertilizers fails to give satisfactory results when 
the texture of the soil is unfavorable. One small plot, distinctly 
clayey, has been heavily manured and treated with a high grade, 
home -mixed fertilizer for four successive years,, and yet the soil 
fails to respond in a satisfactory manner because it is not a suitable 
medium for root development. The soil needs lime to make it loose 
and frirtl)le; aiid neither manure nor commercial fertilizers will have 



328 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the desired effe<'t until theiH' is a liberal applieaiion of lime. Limiug 
should be recommended more for its value iu improAing the physi- 
cal condition of verv heavy soils than for its action iu liberating 
plant food. Whenever the soil is rendered flocculent by lime and 
the addition of vegetable matter, then commercial fertilizers will be 
niorc effective and the important woii; of the bacteria of the soil 
Avill be greatly augmented. 

Again, the j)hysical properties of \ery sandy or gravelly soils are 
not conducive to the growth of large crops, and the tiller should 
consider how he might economically increase the supply of organic 
matter instead of simj)ly the amount of the various elements of 
plant food. 

HUMUS. 

The great problem before the American farmer is, how to main- 
tain and increase the sujjply of humus in cultivated soils. Were 
il simply a matter of preserving the supply of available food ele- 
ments, the question would be greatly simplified. We would then 
purchase in available forms the food elements needed. We would 
not need to concern ourselves about manure, clover, cow peas and 
green crops as means of increasing the fertility of the soil. 

The value of humus as a factor of soil fertility is not disputed, 
t^oils rich in decaying vegetable matter are, as a rule, highly pro- 
ductive, it was the enormous supply of humus in the western 
prairie lands that induced farmers to seek those soils. It is the 
large store of organic matter still found there that makes it possi- 
ble to produce such large crops of cereals, and this accounts for the 
very limited use of commercial fertilizers on western farms. 

It is diilicult to comprehend the full value of humus in the feeding 
of jdants. All the factors of soil fertility are more or less influenced 
by the supply of decaying vegetable matter. Soils rich in humus 
are dark in color, and this means a warm soil, as dark colors ab- 
sorb more heat than light ones. Chemical changes and bacterial 
life are more active in warm soils, hence, plants iu such soils grow 
rapidly on accoimt of the available supj)ly of plant food. This fact 
is especially recognized by market gardeners whose profits are 
largely determined by the early maturity of their crops. Humus, 
when added in sufficient quantity, impi'oves the tilth of the soil, 
making it lighter and more friable, thus decreasing the labor ner- 
essary for tillage. Humus renders the particles of stiff soils less 
resistant to root growth. Humus absorbs and holds water to a 
gi-eater extent than any other soil ingredient, iliimns l)inds to- 
gether the loose particles of sandy and gravelly soils, rendering 
tluni more retentive of moisture and i)lant food. Humus aids in 
the decom])osition of the miiienil mutters of the soil by whi<-ii un- 



N... (1. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 329 

mailable yiaiil loud is convei-lcd iiiLu uNuilubk-. LLuiuus, because of 
its retentive power, decreases the loss of nitrates by leaching. 
Humus fixes and holds ammonia in the soil until it is converted into 
nitrate nitrogen, a form which can be used by the growing plants, 
llumus ordinarily contains from o to 12 per cent, of nitrogen, making 
it of inestimable value as a source of this element, llumus also 
contains potasli, lime, phosphoric acid and other essential elements 
of plant food. Humus is necessary for the life and work of micro- 
organisms which must be present in large numbers to insure a pro- 
ductive soil. ?>o great and varied are the good influences of humus 
that its importance as a factor of soil fertility cannot be emphasized 
too highly. When any soil is cropped with grain or plants requir- 
ing clean tillage, without manuring or plowing under of green crops, 
the supply of decaying vegetable matter rapidly decreases and the 
fertility of the soil diminishes in proportion to the decrease of 
organic matter. Every possible means should, therefore, be em- 
ployed to maintain the supply of humus. This may be done by the 
liberal use of farm manures, green manuring and a proper rotation 
of crops. 

• BACTERIA OF THE SOIL. 

In this age of ad\ anced agricultural science, we hear much of the 
great work bacteria are doing for the farmer. Even the institute 
soloists are beginning to sing about microbes in the air, and 
microbes everywhere. The Experiment Stations and State Depart- 
ments of Agriculture have taken up a detailed study of the bacteria 
of the soil, and the literature on the subject is profuse. Our own 
State Department of Agriculture should be commended for its quite 
recent bulletin on "Soil Bacteria in their Relation to Agriculture." 
This treatise should be carefully studied by every farmer of our 
Commonwealth, for no cultivator can work intelligently without a 
knowledge of the micro-organisms of the soil. 

Not many years ago the soil was regarded as simply dead, inert 
matter, entirely devoid of life, except the root of the crops which 
were being produced thereon. But scientific study and research 
show that the soil is permeated with living beings; that the soil is a 
veritable workshop or laboratory where myriads of micro-organisms 
are constantly engaged, when the conditions are favorable, in con- 
verting the hard, insoluble, unavailable particles into forms that 
the plant can use. There is a most intimate relationship existing 
between the lower and tlie higher forms of })lant life. The lower 
forms digest the food for the higher so that it can be assimilated and 
utilized. 

The action of bacteria in the formation of nitrates is especially 
important to growing x)lants. Plants derive most of their nitro- 
22 



330 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc-. 

i;t'b iioui uitraU's, and Liie process of coiivertiu^ various oj-^aiiic 
lorms iuto nitrates is knowu as nitrificatiou. 

As the growtii of plants is so largely dependent upon the activity 
of soil ferments, it is important for the farmer to know the condi- 
tions most favorable for their work. A certain amount of humus 
is necessary, but excessive quantities are unfavorable, as this re- 
sults in an acid condition which retards the work of the soil fer- 
ments. Here we note another reason for the use of lime. The 
activity of nitrifying organisms is increased by an alkaline environ- 
ment secured by liming, and it is not improbable that, on many 
soils, this is the most important use of lime. The ferments flourish 
best near the surface of the soil, where there is an abundance of at- 
mospheric oxygen. Prof, Frederick D. Chester, of the Delaware 
Agricultural Experiment Station, found at four inches from the 
surface, 1,632,U0U bacteria per gram. At six inches from the surface, 
l,fi23,U()0 bacteria per gram. At twelve inches, 73,000 per gram. At 
eighteen inches 21,000 per gram. At twenty-four inches only 4,000 
per gram. We hnd in these figures an argument against the deep 
plowing of very heavy, compact soils. For the turning up of soil 
so deficient in nitrifying organisms we cannot expect the plants to 
be liberally fed. 

The number of bacteria of the soil is largely dependent upon 
the extent of aeration. It is often necessary to expose to the air 
for a season or two certain lands, especially pastui'e fields of long 
standing, before they will respond satisfactory to tillage. This 
necessity arises from the fact that the number of ferments in some 
soils is too limited to digest the supply of food needed to make a 
large crop. Last summer the writer thought he would prepare an 
ideal plot of ground for late cabbage by plowing a small area 
heavily covered by a blue-grass sod, which had been pastured for 
a long series of years. After plowing, harrov>^ing and dragging, the 
soil was loose and friable, and the workmen and the writer were 
unanimous in their opinion that the yield would be large. But 
the crop there was a failure. The nitrifying ferments were not 
present in sufficient number to feed the cabbage and commercial fer- 
tilizers alone could not do the work. 

As aeration is necessary for the activity of the nitrifying organ- 
isms, the advantages of thorough tillage are apparent. From the 
figures given by Prof. Chester and other investigators regarding the 
number of bacteria in the soil found at different depths, we learn 
that good plowing and good harrowing do not consist in the pulveri- 
zation of only a few inches of surface soil, but we must conclude 
that thorough tillage to the depth of at least seven or eight inches is 
necessary to secure the best results. Previous to this time the 
frecjuent tillagi^ of cultivated crops has been agitated chiefly t)e- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 'iH 

cause il < oiiservcs soil liioisLurc, and wvy lew lia\e aUacbed sulTI 
cieut impoitauee to tillage as a means to augment chemical ac- 
tivites by favoring the work of various bacteria. If thorough aera- 
tion is so essential to the work of nitrifying ferments, is it not 
highly probable that farmers would find it prolitable to cultivate 
hoed crops even more frequently than is deemed necessary to simply 
conserve soil moisture. In this connection the fact should be made 
prominent, that a reasonable amount of moisture is essential to the 
greatest activity of bacteria, so that in cultivating, a double pur- 
pose is accomplished in conserving the moisture needed by the 
ferments, and also by the growing crops. When the soil becomes 
very dry, bacteria cease to increase in number and many of them 
die. 

Barnyard manure, when properly cared for, contains large num- 
bers of nitrifying organisms, and this is one of the reasons why 
barnyard manure is so valuable as a fertilizer. It not only supplies 
food elements and improAes the mechanical condition of the soil, 
but it also inoculates the soil with bacteria, which liberate food 
from unavailable forms. 

NITRATE OF SODA. 

It is not disputed, that of the three elements, of fertility fre- 
quentlj'' delicieut in the soil, and hence necessary to be applied 
in an artificial way, nitrogen is the- most imijortant, so far as ac- 
tual plant growth is concerned. Therefore, in the feeding of 
plants, we must consider nitrogen as the most important element, 
just as corn is the most important factor in the production of beef 
or pork. It is, also, an indisputable fact that the quantities avail- 
able as plant food in most soils are very limited and that nitrogen is 
usually the first element to become exhausted. As sodium nitrate 
is available as plant food without the intervention of nitrifj'ing 
organisms, which few soils contain in sufficient number, the high 
value of this fertilizer is readily seen; but there is no doubt that 
the great mass of cultivators of the soil do not appreciate its full 
value. 

If we are seeking the production of fruits or cereals, there must 
be a vigorous growth of leaf and wood to insure a satisfactory 
yield, and, if we are working for distinctively a leaf product, such as 
lettuce or cabbage, the plants will use, economically, enormous sup- 
plies of nitrogen in the form of nitrates. As nitrate of soda is a 
very powerful and quickly acting fertilizer, it must be used with 
care, and its properties fully understood. If applied at the usual 
time of the ripening of any crop the effect will be to stimulate new 
growth and to retard maturity. Applications should, therefore, 
be made when the croj) is in ;iii a<-tive. growing condition, and when 



332 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

thi' looLs arc v/cll {iisLributed tlii'oii^huul llie soil, to [jrcvcnt loss by 
leachiug. With a garden crop, such as tomatoes, about three appli- 
cations should be made early in the season before the fruit begins 
to ripen, ^^'ith oats, wheat, barley and other cereals it should 
never be used after the plants reach the blooming stage. Both the 
small and large fruits should receive the applications early in the 
season when the growth is most activ(\ I.eaf cro])s, such as let- 
tuce and cabbage, are benelited by the use of nitrates during the en- 
tire period of growth. The Experiment Stations and private inves- 
tigators have shown how profits may be materially increased by 
the use of nitrate of soda. We have foimd its use highly profitable 
in our own operations, and to our fellow farmers who have not used 
this concentrated plant food we would say, try it on a limited scale, 
and if judiciously used, we are convinced that they will ever after 
include it in their list of fertilizers. 

The CPIAIKMAN: As suggested by Col. Woodward, we will in 
tersperse our exercises with something outside of the program. 
J now call oai Mr. MeWilliams, of Juniata county, for a song. 

Mr. MeWilliams came forward and entertained the audience with 
a song, entitled "The Old Yellow Pumpkin." 

The CHAIRMAN: The next paper on the program for the even- 
ing is ''Feeding Powers and Habits of Some Agricultural Plants,"' 
by Prof. Franklin Menges, of York, Pa. 

Is the Professor present? He appears not to be here. 

The fourth and last paper for the evening is "Jhe Making of a 
Farmer," by -1. H. Peachy, of Belleville, Pa. ♦ 

Mr. Peachy presented his paper as follows: 



Xn. (5. DEPARTMENT OF AORICULTURE. 333 



TIJK MAKli\(i OF A FARMER. 



Bv J. 11. Peachy, BHWcHh, Pa. 



Jacob liiis, ill liis iuiiuiiable and cJuiiacieristic iiiauuer most beau- 
tifully portrays ''The Making of an American." It is the simple 
story of a European boy, transplanted to American soil, struggling 
manfully to secure the blessings and privileges accorded to Ameri- 
can citizenship. During the various stages of advancement, en- 
couraged by the smile of j^rosperity, strengthened by the stern 
realities of active life, there appears that steady under-current of 
concentration so necessary for the promulgation of thought, or the 
development of an idea. 

Though his idea of "The Making of an American'' may differ some- 
what from "The Milking of a Farmer,'' the voices of history bear 
testimony to the thought that the American farmer has ever been 
the best American. Best, because he pursues the highest calling 
within the category of man's usefulness, the first and only one 
given directl}' by the Creator; best, because of his natural environ- 
ments, coming in close and daily contact with Nature and nature's 
liiws; best, because his business is productive, not merely distribu- 
tive, and the basis of all other industries; best, because of the 
natural life he lives, blest by the energizing sunshine and invigor- 
ating air, there conies from the rural home that indomitable spirit, 
that pure manhood and womanhood, that noble character, that tire- 
less energy, that bundle of possibilities, that has adorned and ele- 
vated every profession in life, and without which the great arterial 
system of the commercial world would soon clog for want of pure 
blood. 

'Tis said that poets are born; not made. And yet poetry is the 
pi-oduct of labor. The thought that shall endure the test of time 
has onl}' been obtained by persistent effort. 

Grey's Elegy embraces years of patient toil. Hawthorne's Scar- 
let Letter, that great American ronmnce, was not written in a day. 
Daniel Webster, the great constitutional lawyer, after that un- 
answerable reply to Senator Hayne, was asked how long it took him 
to prepare that speech, said "thirty years.'' 



334 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Horace Greeley, when asked how he would make a great journal 
ist, replied: ''Feed him on printer's ink," meaning by that to start 
the bo}" picking type, thei'eby learning the first principals of the ''art 
preservative of all arts." 

When Princeton and West Point were lined up for that cultured 
and refined American game of football, the referee said: "Princeton 
are yon ready?" The captain answered, "Yep." "West Point, 
are you ready?" "We are ready, sir," came the well-rounded reply. 
Notice the difference of the two answers. It means more than can 
be told in a word or grasped in an idea. It involved a principle of 
education. West Point had learned to do things right, a very de- 
sirable factor in the problem of human life. 

But what has this to do with "The Making of a Farmer." Does 
the successful operation of his business require a vast expenditure 
of thought and labor? Does he need to do anything more than 
sow the seed and reap the harvest, and sell the crop, and spend the 
money? Does he even need to think for himself, or can he continue 
to allow the other fellow to do the thinking for him? Does he nec- 
essarily need to look carefully after the details of his farming opera- 
tions in order to be successful? Can he afford to spend time in 
preparation for his life work, or gain the experience of others? 
Will it pay him to do things right? Can he afford to waste money 
on a lead pencil and learn to use it intelligently? 

On looking back to those good old times before the rattle of the 
mowing machine was heard in the land, we see those steady mowers 
swinging the mow-hook so gracefully. All day long they follow 
their intreyjid leader, generally the best mower, who sets the pace 
for his followers. By virtue of his position, the first in the proces- 
sion, he must necessarily have the best scythe. At the rear end 
of the line we see the boy with an old mow-hook, unskilled in the 
art of whetting the scythe, striving honestly and manfully to keep 
his place. He is laboring at a disadvantage, from the fact of some 
one else having used and abused the implement he now employs. 
It is a "hand-me-dowm," but sufficiently good for a boy. He might 
injure a new one, and for all that, he is only learning to mow. 

Well do I remember seeing a band of these "jolly haymakers" 
bending to their work. I also heard, but did not understand "that 
there is no time lost in whetting." That labor performed in sharp- 
ening the steel was economizing strength and rendering more eflS- 
cient service. That time expended in prej)aration was the surest 
means of accomplishing a purpose. That in the economy of labor, 
thought must devise the means of securing the best results. 

The young man ente'rs the service of a railroad company by going 
into the office and gaining a practical knowledge of the business. 
The future lawyer spends years of close application in order to be 



No. 6 DEPAKTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 336 

successful ill l('jj;al prnctico, and know what his services are reallj 
worth to his client. The physician must likewise gather the ac- 
cumulated experience of the past in his efforts to keep the human 
family from goinj? to that ''bourne from whence no traveler returns." 
The minister, also, with an eye single for the good things of this 
earth, must be prepared to tell the old, old story in a manner pleas- 
ing and effective, if he would have the world to stop, keep awake and 
listen to his message. A college education seems almost necessary 
in order to become eminently successful in these three professions. 

But what of the man that feeds them all. Does he need any 
special preparation for his life-work? Is he confronted by the intri- 
cate problems shared by those engaged in other vocations? If so, 
then, as in other lines of business, the man is the most Important 
factor. Success in any line of agriculture is measured largely by 
the accumulated experience of the farmer. Agricultural science com- 
pared with that of other lines, is yet very meagre and incomplete. 
Scientific investigations are solving some of the problems that 
trouble the agriculturist, but the conditions are so different in the 
various localities, that every farm must needs be an experiment 
station. -In other words, every farmer must put thought enough 
into his business to understand his conditions, and adapt himself to 
the circumstances, carefully choosing a special line of farm opera- 
tions naturally adapted to his taste and environment. By so doing 
he gets more enjoyment out of his earthly span, larger profits for his 
labor, and helps dignify and ennoble the greatest productive in- 
dustry in the world. 

Occasionally we hear uncomplimentary remarks concerning the 
business of agriculture. A low estimate is put upon the farmer's 
vocation, because it does not afford advantages for improvement, 
that it lacks in affording means for the development of thought; 
that studying agriculture and burying a talent are synonymous. 

Strange, indeed, that such a mistaken idea should find momentary 
existence. Such characters are better prepared to dream with Rip 
Van Winkle than to sleep the sleep of the just. Many instances 
prove the contrary. The development of that wonderful machine, 
the dairy cow, should satisfy the most critical, to say nothing of 
that massive product, the beef animal. That spirited thorough- 
bred and ponderous draft horse are also products of care and selec- 
tion. The history of the pumpkin seed, beginning with a very insig- 
nificant specimen, no larger than an ordinary cucumber, and ending 
with the old "Yellow Pumpkin," and its relative, exhibited at the 
fair, produces evidence of thought and labor. 

Modern husbandry requires the hardest kind of thinking. From 
one common centre, the soil, radiates many different lines, each in 
itfifelf difficult enough for the brisrhtest mind. To restore the former 



336 AN^'UAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

productivity of tliat liaiid-me-dowu fai-ni, witliont having to sell, 
is a question only partially solved. "Uncle Sam" says to the mili- 
tary powers of the world, "hands off," and off they go, but the in- 
numerable hosts of insect foes march grandly on through field, farm, 
orchard and garden. Greek roots are a source of trouble to the 
student, but how to grow clover roots continuous!}' is more per- 
plexing to the farmer. During a period of extreme drouth, we 
consult our most reliable almanac, watch the barometer, com- 
pare the never-failing signs with those of the lesser prophets, 
Avatching and waiting for the dews of Heaven to descend upon the 
parched earth, while the lumberman's axe continues to lay waste 
our beautiful forests, and, in a measur<\ at least, change the cli- 
matic conditions of the country. Under such circumstances we 
think of the conserA^ation of soil moisture. These are some of the 
(juestions that have to do with the making of a farmer. Upon him 
devolves the task of answering them. 

"There are but three resources of wealth — brains, muscle and raw 
material." Happily the farmer possesses all three. What he 
needs is a better knowledge of their application. How can this be 
secured? Uirst, in the farmers' home, made as good and comfort- 
able as the possessor's circumstances will allow, where the child can 
form habits of industry, learn the value of a dollar, be taught that 
labor is' dignified and honorable, build up a strong physique in 
observance of the laws of sanitation, and can be taught to learn to 
love the beautiful and good in Nature, and beyond that, the God 
\\iio created all things. Second, in the public schools, centralized, 
graded, supplemented with a i)ractical course in nature study, sup- 
plied with some needed apparatus, and e({uipp(Hl with an able corps 
of teachers, the best one being in the ])rimary departm(Mit. Third, 
in the Agricultural College and at the Experiment Station, applying 
thi; scientific principles of specialists in the various lines, making 
them levers of thought, by which the gr(^al agricultui-al interests 
of the country must ultimately be nio\(Hl. 

But some one says this is impractical. l'\>r his benefit allow me 
to say that not every farmer can secure a college education; but 
practical and scientific literature is easily obtained, and it is crim- 
inal neglect upon the part of parents at (his time to allow their 
children to grow into citizenship without learning to read intelli- 
gently. Not from books alone must come that knowledge so nec- 
essary for the making of a farmer, but it is the cheapest means of 
getting the other fellow's experience. Our ov.'n experience nmy 
make a deeper impression u]>on the memory, and yet not be so valu- 
able. Thought, and not after-thouglit. must direct the labor and 
energy upon the farm. 

A good housewife having in liei- employ :i ('hinese cook, in whom 



No. ti. 'DEPARTMENT OK AC I tici; l.Tl ' UK. 337 

slie was well pl(nised, visited Llic kilclicn one evoniiiji- nnd was 
amazed to tind this eleauly fellow washing his fcot in the dish-pan. 
Having- filed her objections to such proceedings, John indignantly 
replied: "Me feetee welley clean. Me washee, w-ashee, evely night." 
In this simple illustration we notice two visible view-points. The 
same question viewed from two different positions aroused the same 
feelings in the mind. While we have only touched the fringe on 
the garment of our subject, the principh^ remains true, that no one 
in any calling can do better than he knows. 

Thought, then, must precede action. The farmer's movements, 
lo 1)(' successful, must Ix' directed by intelligence. As steel shar- 
jx'iM th steel, so mind sliarj)eneth mind. If the mind is the man, 
then the making of a farmer depends upon the cultivation of the^ 
mind. ^^ ith increased knowledge will come higher ideals and in- 
creasingly responsibilities. By the elevation of the individual a 
clearer realization of the importance of agriculture will be secured, 
and the modern husbandman will command the resjiect which his 
business so justlv merits. 

The CHAIRMAX: That we might not go home tired Ave will 
have a little entertainment b}^ my friend Seeds, from Warrior's 
Mark township, who has kept very quiet and been very, very good, 
and I think he is now ready to perform his little part. 

Mr. Seeds came forward and gave a humorous, witty and enter- 
taining talk, illustrating the force and eiTect of saying the right 
thing at the right time and place. 

MR. Mx^RTIX: Mr. (.'hairman, we are favored at this meeting 
with the presence of our former Secretai^y of Agriculture, Pro- 
fessor John Hamilton, who is now Institute Specialist in the 
T'nited States Department of Agriculture. I desire to inquire of 
Professor Hamilton if he will be with us during to-morrow's session. 
If not, we desire very much to have some remarks from him. 

PROF. PIAMILTON: Mr. ('hairman, I hoped when I came here 
to have been with your Institute during the entire time of your 
session, including the three days, but I find it will be necessary for 
me to go aw'ay on the morning of Thursday, so I expect to be here 
all day to-morrow. 

MR. SEEDS: If you please, coming down on the train I knew the 
ex Secretary would be here, and knowing the people of Huntingdon 
( ounty and everyone present would be glad to hear from him, I 
v/ant to give my time to-morrow night to Prof. Hamilton, and let 
him have the time that T have on the program. 

PROF. HAMILTON: That is contrary to one of the rules of our 
22— G— 1903 



3^8 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE "~ Off. Doc. 

Iiislilutc woi-k. Kvci'.v man is published and expected to take th<' 
time assigned liiui, and so tliere ouglil: not to be anything to inter- 
fere with that. If, however, there is a little odd time ih:H is inuxt 
cupied I will be glad to say a word. 

The CHAIKMAN: We will be glad at some time to-morrow (o 
hear from Professor Hamilton, For years he was Director of In- 
stitutes, afterwards for four years Secretary of Agriculture, and is 
now connected with the United States Department of Agriculture 
as Institute Specialist, and I know you will be glad to hear from 
him. 

SECRETARY MARTIN: Before adjourning, I desire to call the 
attention of the audience to our program for to-morrow morning 
at !) o'clock, and for to-morrow afternoon and evening. Write out 
any question that you may want to have taken up and discussed. 

The CHAIRMAN: The Committee on Resolutions will meet to 
morrow morning at 8 o'clock. Are there any other announcements 
to make for to-morrow? 

MR. S. S. BLYHOLDER, Chairman of the Committee on Queries: 
I would state that any who have questions to hand in to raise your 
hands and we will take them up now. 

The CHAIRMAN: The Superintendent of the Huntingdon Re- 
formatory desires me to extend to you an invitation to inspect that 
institution. Promptly at 1 o'clock to-morrow afternoon convey- 
ances will be here at the court house to take you to the Reforma- 
tory, and after a tour through the institution will bring you back 
(juickly to the court house. 

MR. MARTIN: Just a word. Those who are entitled to re 
muneration for transportation and hotel expenses I trust will 
call on me for vouchers. I have them here now. It is important 
that we have final settlement for this year's expenses made very 
promptly, and that is the reason why I make this request of each 
one entitled. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned at 10 o'clock P. M., to meet to- 
morrow (Wednesday) morning, June 3, 1903, at 9. 



Wednesday Morning, June 3, 1903. 

A. L. MARTIN, Deputy Secretary of Agriculture and Director of 
Institutes, called the meeting to order at the time designated 
and announced that the Chairman for the morning would be Mr. 
Samuel McCreary, of Neshannock Falls, Pa., who thereui)on took 
charge of the meeting. 



No. 6. DlOl'AKTMENT OF AGIUCULTUHE. 33y 

Thv CHAIKIMAN: We will procecfl at once to tuUt^ up (Ir- pro 
m-iuu us piil)lislKMl. The lirsi: tliiii;^- is "Soil Moisim-o," by Mr. M. 
y. McDowell, of Stale College, Pa. 

MR. McJ>O^VELL: In view of the exceedingly dry weather that 
we have been experiencing in nearly every part of the State, and 
in view of the damage which has resulted, it would seem pre- 
posterous for us to say that it would be possible to get along with- 
out some rain. The majority of us must have some rain, and yet 
to illustrate what may be done under the most favorable conditions, 
we meet those here who claim to be getting along with a small 
amount of it. Mr. Detrich considers summer rains somewhat in 
the nature of a nuisance, and Professor Watts has been solving 
the question so that he can get along fairly well with a small amount 
of rain. Those facts go to illustrate what can be done under the 
most favorable conditions, and that it is possible by study and 
mastering the principles which underlie them to solve them to a fair 
degree at least. 

Mr. McDowell then presented his papei' as follows: 



340 ANNUATv REPORT OF THE Ofif. Doc. 



SOIL MOISTURE. 



Bv M. S. McDowell, state VoUeiji: 



Soil moisture, too littlo and in some cases too much of it, is oue 
of the niost oft recurring and i)erplexing problems which present 
themselves to the farmer for solution. It is more often than any 
Other the potent factor which inlluences success or failure in farm 
operations. In the brief tinu- allotted, it will be our endeavor to 
enumerate a few of the more salient points which bear directly 
upon the moisture-content of the soil, and, in addition, to develop 
a few observations relative to a phase of the moisture question 
not usually touched upon in considering this subject. W^ are 
familiar with the discussions on our farms and in the cities and 
loA^hs of our State concerning a pure and sufficient water supply 
for use in the home, and it is a matter which in many quarters re- 
quires continual agitation. Ture water in large quantities is a 
necessity to the human race. Water is just as important a factor 
in plant life, and is ca[)able of receiving as careful consideration. 
Notwithstanding the fact tliat the amount of water required by 
growing plants has been frequently emphasized, we often fail to 
realize how large this quantity is under ordinary circumstances. 
The plant is composed largely of water. From (i~^ to 95 per cent, 
or from Go to 95 pounds, and in some cases as high as 98 pounds, 
in every 100 pounds is made uj) of water. A\'hen clover hay or 
grass is first cut, it contains on an average about 71 pounds of 
water to every 100 ])ounds of grass; when corn is cut for silage it 
contains about 79 ])oiuh1s of water to every 100 pounds of corn; 
ulien a bushel of apples is picked, water represents 80 to 85 per 
cent, of the weight of those apples. So we might go on enumerating 
llie various agricultural plants and indicating the amount of water 
contained in each. These few incidents, however, will suffice to 
emphasize the large proportion of water delnanded by i)lants as a 
necessary part of their structure. And yet this large quantity 
rex)resents but a fractional part of the total amount of moisture 
consumed in Iheir development. We eat the food which is placed 
before us without reference to its solid or liquid condition. The 
infant, on the other hand, must be sui)plied with liquid food. It can 
not handle solid food. So it is willi I lie |)!ant. The material it 



No. 6. DEPAKTiMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 34J 

taices froui Llic soil iiiusL be in soluliou, and, oi' uecessitx', in very 
diJiUe solution. Large quantities of Abater are required to act as a 
solvent and carrier of food. It is really a breathing process. The 
root-hairs take up the water, ladened with the plant food elements, 
Iroin the soil. It is carried upward into the plant, the dissolved 
material being absorbed and the excess of water being evaporated 
from the leaves. 

Experiments have been conducted which show that for every ton 
of dry matter of corn produced 310 tons of water are required; for 
every ton of dry matter of oats 522 tons; and for every ton of dry 
matter of potatoes 122 tons of water are consumed. In addition 
to the actual needs of the plant, the presence of water is necessary 
to accomplish those changes in the soil which render plant food 
available and which bring about the improvement of the physical 
})roperties of the soil. 

The source of supply of all this water is, of course, the rainfall. 
The average rainfall for several years past has been in the neigh- 
borhood of 42 inches. An inch of rainfall means that if the water 
falling during a certain time wen- evenly and uniformly distributed 
over the surface of the ground in such a way that if it could not 
escape it would collect to a dept of one inch. To state it in a 
more concise way, an inch of rainfall is equivalent to 113 tons of 
water to the acre, so that in \hr course of a year every acre receives 
about 1,500 tons of water. This would be suhicient to supply 
any crop with an abundance of water were it all available. Much 
of this watei-, however, never sinks into the soil, but runs off the 
surface and is not only lost, so far as its use by the plant is con- 
cerned, in many cases carries with it much more soluble plant food. 
The ditficulty arises from the uneven distribution of the rainfall 
and not from its limited amounl. .Vs it is the water which falls 
during the late fall and early spring and sinks in to the ground, 
coming to the surface again during a dry season, upon which the 
plants must chiefly rely for its drink, it is apparent that the first 
problem to solve is one involving the securing of that soil condi- 
tion wjiich will permit of a innxiniuin absorption of water. Then 
if subseiiucnt unnecessary loss of this water by evaporation can be 
jireventcd, we will be a])[)ro;!cliiug a solution of the difficulty. 

Those years in wJiicli naluial moisture conditions are most favor- 
able give usually the most iibundant harvest. Now if in an unfavor- 
able season these conditions can be controlled within certain limits 
through artiticial means, the individual exhibiting the greatest 
skill in this direction will reap the greatest reward. 

Before proceeding to a discussion of a few of the factors which 
influence the retentiveness of soils for moisture, it may be desirable 
to refer, brieflv to the wa\' in which water is found in the soil. 



342 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Froe waLc'j- is thai wiiieli inovi's undci' Ibc? inllueiice of ^ravitA" and 
is the soui't'o of supply of oiii- woUs and springs. It is not directly 
useful to plants and its presence too near the surface is injurious 
to vegetable life. It, however, forms a reserve supply from which 
capillary water is continually drawn. Capillary water is that which 
nils the openings between the particles of soil and is the direct 
source of supply for plants. If a towel be suspended in water the 
former will gradually become wet a considerable distance above 
the level of the water. The' water rises in the soil in the same 
manner and this phenomena is what is termed capillary action. 
This capillary action does not necessarily take place from deep in 
the soil toward the surface, but rather from the more moist to 
the dryer portion of the soil. As a rule, of course, the dryer soil is 
to be found at the surface. Here is where water is being constantly 
evaporated and the movement is from underneath upward to supply 
this loss. In a dry time this force is sufficient to raise the water 
through several feet of earth. So-called hygroscopic water is that 
held firmly by the soil and freed only when exposed to a temperature 
equal to that- of boiling water. As far as its practical bearing is 
concerned it may be eliminated from the discussion. 

The physical character of the soil fixes in large measure its power 
to absorb and retain moisture. In general, the finer the soil grains 
the more water the soil will hold, and when once absorbed the 
more readily the moisture will respond to the capillary action, and 
the more tenaciously such a soil will cling to its moisture. Where 
a clay soil, which is composed of fine particles, under ordinary field 
conditions contains 34 per cent, of moisture, a sandy soil, under 
the same conditions, contains only a little over 17^ per cent. On 
the other hand, the smaller the size of the spaces through which 
the water must flow passing downward under the influence of grav- 
ity, the slower will be the rate at which it w il move. That soil, 
therefore, which will hold the largest volume of water, whose par- 
ticles are fine clay, is least impervious to water and much loss may 
occur through surface drainage. In cases of soils -having a loose, 
open texture, as sandy soils, water percolates readily, and may be 
lost by passing downward beyond the reach of root action. 

In the conserA'atiou of soil moisture, effort should first be directed 
toward ameliorating these conditions. The greatest factor in 
bringing about this improvement is the presence of humus or de- 
cayed vegetable matter. It is the humus which imparts a sponge- 
like condition to the soil. In case of heavy clay soils the small par- 
ticles of which they are composed will be flocculated, thus tending 
to open up the pores and admit of the more ready penetration of 
both water and air. On the other hand, it will affect the lv'>ose, open 
soil by binding the particles more closely together, bringing about 
in both cases an intermediate condition. 



No. 6. DKPAKTMENT OF AGKlCUl/rURE. 343 

Ajjplicatioii of lime for the purpose of bringing; aboiil I lie im- 
provement of these physical oonditions have been found in some 
eases to j'ive excellent results, especially on heavy clay soils. The 
binding action of lime is well known. Lime will cement the small 
particles of a clay soil at the surface, forming larger pores, thus 
rendering such a soil more pervious to water, and in many cases 
prevent washing. 

Again, imderdrainage is often an important factor in increasing 
the ability of the soil to absorb and retain moisture. The fact has 
already been noted that the presence of free water, within a certain 
distance of the surface, is injurious to plant life. Underdrainage 
lowers the level of this free water, where it exists, and prevents the 
baking and cracking of the surface which occurs when a water- 
logged soil dries out; it renders the soil above more friable and 
loose, therefore, more adaptable as a home for plants. The soil 
that can better absorb water, capillary action can go on more readily 
and water can reach the rootlets witli more ease. 

Concerning the losses of moisture, which occur subsequently to its 
absorption by the soil, evaporation is chiefly responsible. It has 
already been noted how the particles of soil form capillary tubes 
through which water is lifted from underneath to. the surface. At 
Syracuse, New York, a test was made by the Government in con- 
nection with the salt works in that city to ascertain the rate of 
evaporation as compared with the amount of rainfall. The evapo- 
ration from a water surface in a year was 50.2 inches, while during 
the same period the rainfall amounted to 41.47 inches. From this 
i( can be readily seen how rapidlj^ under favorable conditions, 
(naporatiou may occur from the soil where there is a much larger 
surface exposed. To prevent evaporation from a vessel contain- 
ing water, it is necessary to cover it, and on the same principle to 
prevent unnecessary evaporation from the soil, it is necessary t<) 
place a check at the surface of the ground. Our homes may be 
supplied with water from a mountain spring or from reservoirs. 
The water is conveyed by means of pipes into our houses. The sup- 
ply, however, is controlled by valves. The water is at our very 
hand; all we have to do is to turn the valve. This prevents the 
great waste which would occur did the water run continuously, 
The same principle applies to the feeding of plants with water in 
the soil. We have the supply or reservoir deep in the soil. Through 
capillary action it is brought within reach of the rootlets and even 
to the surface where it escapes by evaporation. Nov/ to prevent 
this waste it is desirable to put a valve at the surface; to have the 
moisture come so far and then prevent, so far as possible, its es- 
cape. Surface cultivation accomplishes this, breaking the capil- 
larv tubes and forming a mulch which arrests evaporation. Now, 



344 ANNUAL JtEl'ORT OF THP] Off. Ddc. 

as the valves in our water lines become worn tbev will beein to 
leak and if not properly packed the size of the leak will increase 
until the waste will be as large as if no valve were there. So it is in 
the soil. As the mnlcli has been formed by cultivation gradually 
settles, capillarity will again be established and the loss will con- 
iinue. Frequent cultivation is required to keep the connection at 
the surface continually broken; to keep the valves at the surface 
of the soil well packed. 

The plough, the harrow, the roller, the cultivator, all serve as 
couservers of moisture. Tlie plough by breaking up the heavy soil, 
making it loose, more pervious to water and by developing an open, 
crumbly condition which checks the rise of capillary water. The 
harrow and cultiA'ator by breaking the connections and forming the 
mulch already noted. The relation of the roller to the moisture in 
the soil is opposite to that of the cultivator. There are certain 
classes of soils whose particles are not in close proximity to one 
another, as gravelly soils, and capillary action can not take place 
so readily. The effect of the roller is to compact these particles, 
completing the connections between the reservoir and the surface. 
When the roller is used it should be borne in mind that the soil is 
then in the- best condition possible to part with its moisture, and if 
the object sought is the fining of the soil and not the bringing of 
water to the surface to assist in the germination of the seed, a mulch 
should be placed a( the surface by following immediately with the 
harroAV. In general, then, good drainage, humus and thorough cul- 
tivation are the great factors Avhich materially inlluence the ability 
of soils to retain moisture. 

In this connection, it is littiug (o refer to the belief entertained 
in some quarters, that common salt and some fertilizers tend to 
make soils more moist. This Ix'lief is not altogether Avithottt Avar- 
rant. The rale ni which cajiillarity is able 1(i raise Avater in the 
soil is influenced by substances dissoh'ed in llie soil water. The 
presence of common salt or land })laster in the soil-Avater tends 1o 
decrease the rate at which Avater Avill rise to the surface and hence 
to decrease the amount of Avater eva])orating from the surface. 

Having referred briefly to a f(nv Avell known ])i'inciples relative to 
the conservation of soil moisture, it uuiy be interesting and in- 
structive to trace the relation existing betA\'een this question of 
moisture and tliaf of soil temperature. There are limits beyond 
which life cannot exist. In the case of our bodies, these limits 
are quite narrow. A variation of a fcAv degrees means serious 
consequences. Ninety-eight (98) degrees is the normal temperature 
of the human body, and should this temperature rise 8 or ten degrees 
it usually means death; or, on the other hand, the results would be 
equally fatal should there be a di'0|» in lemperature. This ])rin- 



No. fi. DEPARTMENT ( >F AC KKlII/rH HE. 345 

eiple applies to all animal life. Ass there are limits beyoud whicli 
auimal life can not exist, so there are limits of temperature beyond 
wliioh vegetable life will wither and die; and as there is a so-called 
normal temperature, whicli is the best temperature for the par- 
ticular kind of animal, so there is a temperature at which plant 
development will take place to the best advantage. The limits in 
case of the hatter are, however, much further apart. Many of the 
changes which occur in the plant and animal, human or otherwise, 
are chemical changes. "When wood burns or when a lamp is lighted, 
a chemical change takes place; the oxygen of the air is uniting 
with it. Before this change can begin to take place, however, the 
wood must first be ignited; that is, its temperature must be raised 
to a certain point and Avhen this is once done, other conditions 
being favorable, the material continues to burn. There is sufficient 
heat produced by the change taking place to maintain the action. 

The germination of a seed partakes of the same nature. It must 
unite with the oxygen of the air in order that its vital principles 
mav become manifest. It is, therefore, necessarv that the tern- 
perature of the soil be raised as nearly as possible to the point at 
which this action will proceed to the best advantage. The mini- 
mum temperature at which most seeds will begin growth is about 45 
degrees Fahrenheit, but the best results are brought about by a 
temperature of 68 to 70 degrees. This best temperature will, of 
course, vary with the particular Icind of seed. It has been found 
by experiment that oats will germinate in three days at a tempera- 
ture of slightly over G5 degrees, VRhile wdtli the temperature as low 
as 41 degrees, seven days are required for germination. In the 
same way, corn which will germinate in three days at 05 degrees, 
requires eleven days if the temperature is down to 51 degrees. The 
desirability of having the soil warmed early in the spring is there- 
fore apparent. 

While in the animal body, danger is usually to be apprehended 
from too high a temperature, in the vegetable world the reverse is 
true. It may seem to many that if a temperature of 65 to 70 
degrees is best suited for the germination of seeds that this tem- 
perature would not be difficult of attainment and that the soil 
would easily become this wai-m. Observation of soil temperature, 
conducted at the Experiment Station show that the average tern 
perature of the soil at the surface and a depth of one and three 
inches, and extending through several years was as follows: 



2:? 



346 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 





4> 
U 

s 










s 




o 






n 


o 


c 






a> 


c 


"" 






s: 


" ' 


il 








o 


t 






■«-» 


c 


s: 






< 


C 


(-• 






X)eg. 


Deg. 


Deg. 




In March -. 


.S3. 3 


33.1 




33 ?. 




46.7 


45.7 




44.3 


In May, 


59.9 


54.2 




59.5 


In June 


69.5 
72.2 


68.6 
71.6 




68 6 


In July 


72 ? 


In August 


70.1 


70.5 




71.6 




64.0 


64.1 




65.3 







It will be seen from tliese figures that even in July and August 
the soil temperature is but little above that which is found to give 
best results. 

Aside from the direct effect which a higher temperature has on 
the ability of seeds to germinate, it greatly influences other pro- 
cesses in the soil. We know that warm water will dissolve more 
sugar or salt than will cold water. Now, as the plant food taken 
from the soil must be in solution, and since much of this material 
is not easily soluble at best, the advange of a higher temperature 
is obvious. 

Again, bacteriology teaches us that there is an optimum, as well 
as a maximum and minimum, temperature at which germ life will 
thrive. The higher the soil temperature, therefore, and the earlier 
it can be increased, the sooner nitrification and other changes will 
go forward, or in other words, the sooner plant food will become 
available. 

There are yet other actions which will be intensified by an in- 
creased temperature. Plants absorb their dissolved food through 
the rootlets by osmosis. As tlie temperature is increased this goes 
on more readily, the dissolved material is removed more quickly, 
and, as a result, the process of working over plant food is facilitated. 
The circulation of the air in the soil is also increased as the tempera- 
ture rises. When a good fire is desired the draught is turned on, 
in order that there may be a continual supply of oxygen to unite 
with the wood or coal. It is just as necessary to have good draught 
in the soil in order that there may alw\ays be oxygen present to take 
the place of that used up by the plant in the soil. 

Now, as to the manner in which this question of temperature and 
moisture are related to each other. Evaporation is a cooling pro- 
cess. Upon this fact is based a physiological process which is 
made use of by our bodies continuously. When our temperature 
tends to become too high, perspiration comes to our rescue. Evap- 
oration begins to take place and the cooling effect of this evapora- 



Nc. 6. DEPARTMENT oF AGRICULTURE. 347 

lion liolds down ilio temperature of the body. A sftndy soil will 
become warm much. more quickly than a heavy, stilf clay. The latter 
holds water more tenaciously and evaporation continues to take 
place, holding- the temperature down. 

Time will not ])ermit nor is it necessary to discuss the way in 
which control of soil moisture may affect the soil temperature, fur- 
ther than to say, that the thorougli preparation of the seed-bed, 
upon which all good farmers insist, materially aids in preventing the 
coniinual escape of water by evaporation and hence in bringing 
about those conditions of temperature which are found most favor- 
able. The formation of a mulch by cultivation as early in the 
spring as possible will arrest evaporation and avoid the unnecessary 
cooling of the soil which accompanies that operation. At the same 
time, the warmth of the sun instead of being used up in evaporating 
the w^ater will be absorbed by the soil. It is not necessary to at- 
tempt to bring these conditions about to any great depth but merely 
sufficient to permit of the early warming of a few inches of the 
surface soil. 

The CHAIRMAN: We will deviate a little from the program, as 
T presume the Committee on Queries have some questions they want 
answered, and we will have them presented now. 

MR. S. S. BLYHOLDER, Chairman of the Committee on Queries: 
The first question is addressed to Dr. Thayer: 

"Is it practical to grow corn year after year, depending on crimson 
f lover as a catch crop to maintain humus in the soil?" 

DR. THAYER: As far as the humus is concerned, it is pos 
sible; but it is not concerning other elements of fertility, and a ro- 
lation is better on that account. Now, it is not possible to raise 
crimson clover in dense corn fields, where the corn is high and with 
heavy blades and the ground shaded. You cannot depend upon it 
as humus for you cannot raise it. There would be humus enough 
there for the ground if you could get it, but by and by the phos- 
phoric acid would become scarce. 

MR. BLYHOLDER: The next question is addressed to Professor 
Wells W. Cooke: 

''How does oats and pea hay compare in feeding value with the 
ordinary mixed clover and timothy hay?" 

PROF. COOKE: As far as the feeding value is concerned there 
would not be much difference; but, of course, the proportions would 
be, that is, the pea hay will have the largest proportion of diges- 
tibility; the clover will come next, while the oat hay, if cut w^hen 
the oats are in blossom, would have about the same percentage of 
digestibility as the ordinary mixed clover and timothy hay we have 
on o«r farms. 



348 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

MK. BLYHOLDER: The uext question is: 

"Will Dr. Thayer describe his method of curiug clover hay iu 
air-tij;ht mows?" 

DK. THAYER : Very easily done. If you have an air-tight mow 
put your hay iu and shut it up and I don't care how green it is 
when you put it in. An ordinary mow will not do. I have put it in 
a mow where I could close it up and I have put it in so wet that 
my lielper said it would be manure in a short time, but I never had 
better hay. But it must be practically air-tight. This hay was 
cut in the evening from four to six o'clock and put into the mow the 
next morning, and not ten pounds of it ever mildewed. 

A Member: Might we ask what the result would be if put in a 
mow that was not air-tight? 

DR. THAYER: The result would be that it generates intense 
heat, and as tlie cold air comes in contact with it you would get 
mildewed hay. When you put j^our hay in, go away and stay away. 
Once after three or four days I turned back a board and stuck my 
head into tlie mow, and I might just as well stuck it into a bake 
oven and I shut it down on tlie hay. There was just one little place 
where the air had gotten through, perhaps a yard square, and there 
the hay was mildewed. But aside from that there was not a mil- 
dewed spot. 

A Member: I would like to ask tlie Doctor if that hay would not 
have been bettor if he had waited until the dew was off it and then 
put it away? 

DR. THAY^ER: I do uot think it would. 

A Member: 1 think it would. There might have been a little 
fungus on it. I tried it. 

DR. THAYER: That is correct. 

MR. BLYHO]J)ER: The next question is addressed to no one 
particularly: 

"How to feed alfalfa so that cattle do not become hoven?" 

The CHAIRMAN: Mr. Lighty, will you answer that? 

MR. L. W. LIGHTY: I never had any experience in feeding al- 
falfa. In feeding clover I never had any trouble. The only thing 
to be watched is to keep the cattle's digestive apparatus in proper 
condition and you will not have hoven cattle. I presume it would 
be the same with alfalfa. 

A Member: Perhaps Professor Cooke has had more experience in 
feeding alfalfa and could give us some information on this question. 

PROF. COOKE: I feed alfalfa and never found anybody yet who 
pretended to feed it without producing hoven cattle. It is always 



N(i. C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 349 

experienced, and you do uoL neeesBurily lose animals. 1 lia\'P lost 
on!}' one in all my feeding, and that was a cow fed on first class, dry 
alfalfa bay; fed in the barn, went down to the spring and drank and 
was dead in ten minutes. But there is no such thing as i>reparing 
alfalfa in such a way that it is not dangerous to feed, whether to 
sheep or cattle, and the only thing is to keep watch, and if they do 
bloat give something to bring it down. We finally settled on am- 
monia as producing the best results for reducing the bloat. Keep a 
little bottle of ammonia in the stable and on any signs of bloat we 
give it at once, and in that way we feed year after year, and have 
lost no cattle. But I want to insist on the fact that there is no 
wa^' of feeding, or cutting it, no way of curing it, which will put 
it in such condition that it is not liable at any time and A\ith any 
stock to produce hoven. 

A Member: Feed the cows all they will eat until 4 or 5 o'clock 
at night. Cut it sometime before you are going to feed it, and give 
it in a wilted condition, and it will not be so apt to bloat. 

A Member: I would like Professor Cooke to tell us the amount 
of ammonia to give an animal. 

PROF. COOKE: The ordinary household ammonia reduced to 
about one-fourth the strength, and then give about half a pint of 
that; giving it in a bottle, forcing it down the cow's mouth. 

A Member: I put in that question for the reason that I was in- 
formed it was a dangerous food in that respect. I put out some al- 
falfa, and if this is the case we want to go slow in its use. 

PROF. COOKE : It is first rate for hogs. Either sheep or cattle 
can be fed safely and the feeding of green alfalfa in the barn is 
almost as dangerous as to pasture, although the chances are that 
you can feed right along without danger; but always keep in mind 
that you are dealing with a risky material. 

MR. BLYHOLDER: The next question is: 

"^When and how to sow the clover on grain stubble so as to keep 
up the usual rotation?" 

DR. THAYER: I possibly don't quite grasp what is meant by 
the usual rotation, but I suppose to follow wheat with corn, and 
in that case crimson clover can be sown on the stubble during the 
last of May or from that on and corn planted the next year. The 
natural time for crimson clover is right after harvest, and it don't 
interfere with any rotation if followed by corn or potatoes. Of 
course we would not follow with oats or wheat. 

A Member: When would he plant his corn if he sows the crimson 
clover in Mav? 



350 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

DR. THAYER: 1 said tuiu it uuder in May. There is oue thing 
we should be careful about. When you are turuiug uuder such a 
mass of matter soon after the middle of May, you want to roll that 
ground very thoroughly. There has been a great deal of fear that 
that would soui' the soil. There is not any ground for fear on that 
score, it is more dangerous to turn under a half developed crop 
than a crop pretty well matured and up to blossoming. But roll 
and compact your ground thoroughly, and I will guarantee there 
will be no acid there to do damage. 

MR. BLYHOLDER: The next question is directed to Dr. Leonard 
I'earson, State Veterinarian. It is: 

"What is the cause and the remedy for white scours or cholera in 
newly dropped calves?" 

MR. GEORGE CAMPBELL: This disease is really known as 
a blood poison of a rapid form that results from the affection 
of the calf through the navel at the time it is born. One of the 
symptoms of the disease is known as white scours. The prevention 
of the disease depends upon the prevention of the infection. Now, 
if a calf is born at a place where the organisms of disease do not 
exist, the calf is not affected, and so we notice that calves born in 
summer time are usually exempt from this disease. It is chiefly a 
disease of the winter season when calves are born in infected 
stables. Last winter I was consulted in reference to this matter in 
a case where there had been considerable trouble from this cause. 
There the successful treatment that v/as followed was to build a 
separate calving stable, an outside building, to which the cows were 
moved two or three weeks before calving, and were kept perfectly 
clean and disinfected frequently and the calves remained exempt 
froni this disease. In parts of Ireland this disease has been a 
scourge. It has almost ruined the farmers of some large dairying 
districts because they lost all their calves, and they found they 
could prevent it by being very careful about the surroundings and 
by disinfecting the navel of the calf by washing it off with a solu- 
tion of carbolic acid or a like disinfectant solution, and after that 
the navel is painted with iodine and covered with collodium in order 
to protect it from germs, and in that way the disease is avoided. 

A Member: In our place we make it a point to raise all the calves 
we can and we haTe had trouble with the white scours, and it is 
conceded that they are caused as has just been stated. We turn 
our cows into a box stall a week previous to their calving and 
change a liberal bed every day. If our calves show any dispo- 
sition to white scours we doctor thom at once. We have tried a 
half dozen remedies. We have lost a good many calves, and I be- 
lieve the loss of r-nlvos in the United States bv white scours is 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT UF AGRICULTURE. 351 

about !it!4,(K){»,(JUU per uiiuuiu. !So we made au object of laisiug cahes 
aud wanted to liud the best remedy for this disease, and we kept try- 
ing until we found this one to be good, and in about three out of four 
eases it is successful. As soon as it is observed that the calf 
has the scours, which will be soou after it is born, give it twenty 
drops of laudanum; in six hours give it twenty drops more, and if 
no relief is manifest at the end of twelve hours more give it forty 
drops, aud in ten hours more you will have a dead calf or a live one, 
and in three cases out of four the calf revives. This has been my 
experience for five years. We raise twenty calves per season. 

MK. CAMPBELL: We have been troubled in Bradford county 
with these w^hite scours in calves for some years back. In making 
a study of that thing I found out that we have not got the right 
hold of it yet. As near as I could study it down on our farms 
1 found out that it v^'as a distinct fungus poison that takes place 
in the cow. When the cow is dry they take any old musty corn 
stalks or any old grass, or any indilTereut feed and think it ^s 
good enough for her, as she is not producing an immediate return. 
If you feed your cows good, pure food you will have healthy cows. 
If a cow wants good feed at anytime, it is the time when she is dry, 
and has double demands made upou her. And if you feed a cow- 
poison tliat works out through her, the calf will be poisoned with- 
out a doubt. So the prevention, in a great measure, is to feed 
good food to her when she is dry. If you feed a poor food when she 
is milking, that poison is carried ofif in the milk. So, you will have 
no trouble if you feed good feed when the cow is dry. 

MR. BLYHOLDER: The next question is addressed to Professor 
Watts, and is : 

"How do you apply sodium nitrate to growing cabbage, tomatoes, 
etc.?" 

PROF. R. L. WATTS: Apply it before we put out the plants, and 
then immediately about the plants a top-dressing is used. With 
cabbage we make three applications and apply about a teaspoon 
full at each application. This can be done at a small cost. 

MR. R. S. SEEDS: Last Friday a week ago, on the 22d of May, I 
went out and sowed nitrate of soda over a poor spot and now as 
far as the eye will carry, or as far as you can go, you can see that 
spot with the nitrate of soda over it. 

MR. M. S. BOND: I could not afford in my market gardening to 
go to the trouble in applying this application of nitrate of soda by 
hand. We have a machine to apply it with. We go right through 
the patch as far as a man can walk and throw the nitrate or any 
other fertilizer we wish to apply right to the side on each side of 



■>^'2 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

lli(.' plants iu the row. It is a littlu waste between the hills, but 
the waste is not near as much as the cost of labor. You can get a 
little hand machine to do this, and jou can apply it that way just 
as far as a man can walk through the patch. I can apply nitrate 
of soda or potash practically with this machine. 

MR. BLYHOLDEIi: The next question is: 

"Is it profitable to feed ensilage to beef cattle?" 

DR. H. P. ARMSB Y : Mr. Chairman, I am not able to answer that 
question from experience, having never tried the experiment. I see 
no reason, however, why ensilage would not be a good, cheap food 
for fattening cattle unless, perhaps, in the finishing stage. I be- 
lieve it has the reputation of making the cattle, as we term it, 
soft, and they think it desirable to finish them upon dry feed. So 
far, around here, it is comparatively a new feed, and as an actual 
fact I do not know. It is a question which I think needs thorough 
investigation, but I see no reason why ensilage should not be an ex- 
cellent food in the early stage of fattening. 

PROF. HAMILTON: I happened to see a report made by the Di- 
rector of the Tennessee Experiment Station on this question. 
They tried the feeding of cattle upon ensilage, in connection with 
some dry food to balance the ration. Their ensilage consisted of 
cow peas and sorghum. The results were to me startling. The 
several months of feeding averaged between two and two and a half 
pounds a day gain, I have forgotten the exact figures, but between 
two and two and a half pounds per day during the period of feeding. 
And now they are comi)aring that with pasture and have put in 
another district with blue-grass pasture, with a view to discover 
whether the pasture will increase the weight more rapidly than en- 
silage or whether there will be a falling off. When the experiment 
is completed I think it will be one of the most interesting to cattle 
feeders in the country, because I think we must come back to this 
manner of feeding. I give you this statement as the result of a 
careful experiment. The animals weighed about 800 pounds apiece, 
and when all the expenses were figured up it was found much cheaper 
than animals fed on dry feed or in any other way. The ensilage 
was carried on in connection with the ordinary way of feeding by 
dry feed, and the ensilage was not only the cheapest, but the in- 
crease the greatest of anything used. You can get the bulletin on 
this by writing to 1 >r. Soule, of tlie Tennessee Experimental Sta- 
tion. 

MR. JASON SEXTON: Mr. Chairman, 1 am much interested in 
this experiment, f have practical experience on that line, and want 
to corroborate what Prof. Hamilton lias said in the f(-eding of ensi- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 353 

lage for fattening' steers or cattle I( is an interesting qnestiou, for 
we of the East mnst compete more or less with the cattle feeding of 
the West, and my experience teaches me that there is nothing that 
the farmers of the East can feed their fattening cattle upon much 
better than upon good ensilage, now that we have learned how to 
make it. The question was, how to make ensilage properlj' and have 
it in its best possible condition. We have solved that now since 
away back in 1880, down to the present time. I want to say that a 
few years ago we started with 100 steers, all in one stable, and fed 
them upon ensilage for over four months. Those steers were fat- 
tened mostly upon ensilage, and the balance ration was the wheat 
bran and corn meal fed with it. We have never had a stable of 
cattle do better, and they were sold to Martin & Co., and shipped to 
Liverpool. We never had animals gain as rapidly as they did upon 
the ensilage fed them. The corn was nearly glazed as we put it in 
the silo. It was grown not very thickly. It was a good, strong 
feed. 

Now then, there are many farmers near Philadelphia, in my 
county, that are attending the markets weekly, that feed and 
butcher their own cattle, and these cattle now are mostly fed upon 
their corn crop, grown as you grow your corn crop, and put in the 
silo with the full ears on, and these steers are butchered and sold 
in the markets of Philadelphia and fattened mostly upon ensilage 
for the reason that it is the cheapest food by far we can secure. In 
this way we think we can compete, in a small measure, with the 
feeding of cattle in the West. 

MR. S. F. BARBER: I have been observing the benefits of feeding 
ensilage for a good many years and never in this time have I been 
able to find anything that will put on flesh so rapidly. I have not 
been feeding beef cattle on a large scale, but I find it the strongest 
feed I can get. I rememb<^r some gentlemen came to my place from 
the city of Baltimore, who were large feeders, and the question in 
their minds was whether to build a silo for feeding beef cattle. I 
told them that my best experience convinced me that they could get 
nothing that would prove more profitable. Out of the four, one 
gentleman said: '*Mr. Barber, I have made up my mind that I will 
build a silo." And then I asked him to give me a report of th(» 
result when he sold the cattle. Sometime afterward, the gentle- 
man wrote me that in selecting the same cattle out of the same 
pen that his neighbors had he had been able to put on 150 pounds 
per head more weight than by any other method. 

I notice by the Breeders^ Gazette lately that the gentlemen of 
the West, Iowa and Nebraska, are coming to see the value of silos. 
One man reported that his cattle had made a gain of three and a half 

23— 6— 190a 



354 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

pounds a day. I am convinced tliat the day has arrived when the 
farmer must have a silo to feed beef cows. I am o:lad to see the in- 
terest taken in this because I am satisfied it is only a question of a 
few 3^ears until every farmer in this country must have a silo. He 
cannot do without it. 

A Member: I want to ask Professor Hamilton whether the gen- 
tlemen in the eastern sections will have to feed beef cattle in prefer- 
ence to dairying. 

PKOF. HAMILTON: I believe ' that, the feeding of beef cattle 
is going to be general all over the East, and while dairying will 
be maintained and be a great industry, yet in the districts remote 
from the railroad the feeding of beef cattle will be the industry. As 
soon as we can do it, as has been suggested, feed in competition with 
the western grower, then we will come back to this industry that has 
departed from our midst in recent years. I feel very strongly that 
the dairying practiced in the eastern part of Pennsylvania has been 
a disadvantage to that section; that the selling of the milk crop 
in the cities has positively been a disadvantage to the farmers of 
the East, and if we come back to the feeding of beef cattle we will 
keep on our farms everything of value. I believe the time is at 
hand when we will be able to do that and this ensilage question is 
the one that will solve that problem. 

A Member: I have never had any experience of my own on this 
subject, but I watched a neighbor this winter feeding ensilage to 
beef cattle. He kept a dairy, using the silo, and he thought that 
there was too much that went off the farm in the milk. He put 
up about twenty steers and fed them ensilage. I feed a great many 
cattle, but not with ensilage. I have his report for it, and I never 
saw steers do better than those steers did. He is so converted to 
the idea that he is now building another silo. He finished them off 
at the close of the winter. They took on flesh as good as in pasture. 
We know that if cattle are fed in pasture they grow right along, 
and this they did on ensilage, and T want to agree with what has 
been said, that if we use the silo to fatten beef cattle it will be 
more advantageous to our farm than selling off the milk. 

PROF. HAMH.TON: I want to call attention particularly to the 
fact that Professor Waters, of Missouri, who used to be here, is 
preparing a bulletin for the Department of our State on this very 
subject of the feeding of beef cattle in Pennsylvania. You want 
to look out for that when it is iiublished. You know Professor 
Waters is one of the leading agriculturists in the United States. 
It will be published by the Department. It was several months ago 
that the arrangement was made for it. 1 think the members of 
this Board and our lecturers will want to studv it carefullv. It will 



No. fi. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 355 

he a doinoiistratioii of tlie bcsi method -of raisinj,^ hod' enttle in 
IVunsvlvania and of its siipcrioi-ity over any other. Tt will b» a 
frood thinii' for tho majority of onr farmors. 

DK. ARMSBY: 1 want to snj^i^ost that tiiere arc two phases of 
the subject which, I think, will lielp us in this matter of returning 
more or less to the fattening of beef cattle. One is the question 
under discussion of the more extensive use of ensilage for food; the 
utilization of the corn crop. The State College for the past three 
years has been following up a line of investigation in this direction 
which was suggested by Professor Hamilton, and one thing under 
consideration is tlie matter of diminishing the labor cost by feeding 
in bunches instead of putting up the cattle as has been the practice, 
and the result of three years' experiment has been that the cattle 
did just as well, after being dehorned; and in addition to that, there 
was a considerable saving in the manure over the ordinary method 
of handling — considerable less loss of the fertilizing material — and 
that means a considerable economy in production. 

During the last winter we have been feeding one lot of cattle in 
the barn and another lot in an open shed, but otherwise exposed to 
the weather. We did not succeed in making the conditions quite 
ideal, but the cattle outdoors did very nearly as well as those in 
the barn, and gave them a little drj^er quarters, and I am convinced 
from the results of numerous experiments that they would have 
done equally well. This contradicts the idea about the necessity 
for shelter, but it seems to be thoroughly established now by trying 
experiments that the fattening steer is producing more heat than 
he needs, and that he will be more comfortable and do better if he 
is exposed to moderately cold weather. So that there is another 
question, that is to say, we can approximate to the conditions that 
have maintained in the West, where practically from necessity and 
carelessness they make the conditions very simple, not much more 
than enclosing their cattle and giving them lots to eat, making the 
whole handling very simple. So that, in feeding operations, we 
are progressing, and our results and those obtained in other states 
will do a great deal towards rendering the beef cattle in Pennsyl- 
vania and the Eastern states generally a more profitable and de- 
sirable branch of animal husbandry than it has been heretofore. 

MR. BLYHOLDER: The next two questions in my hands are re- 
lated, and can be discussed at the same time, and T will, therefore, 
read them both now. The first is: 

''Is not timothy cut green for hay not underestimated?" 

The other is: 

"What is the best substitute for hay when the hay crop is short?" 



356 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

PROF. COOKE: My experience with early cut timothy was in 
the State of Vermont, Jind I think one of the hottest fights I have 
ever had in an agricultural iustitute was when I undertook to de- 
fend the cutting of timothy, at the usual stage of cutting, before 
a serious public and an audience of dairymen. From chemical 
analysis, timothy has the largest percentage of digestible material 
just when it is in full blossom, and judging from the chemical side, 
I advocated to that audience that that was the proper time to cut 
their timothy; and they jumped on me with both feet. The Ver- 
monter has found out by experience that just so many days as he 
cuts his timothy earlier, just so much more milk and butter is he 
going to get out of his cows in winter time. If you go up there you 
will find them depending largely on timothy hay, but cutting it 
early. They say the stage for cutting is as soon as you can see the 
first sign of an}^ purple coloring, which really is before the plant be- 
gins to blossom. And using that as their hay they are able to get a 
good flow of milk in the winter time. The time to cut clover is 
about the time to begin haying; the first Monday after the Fourth of 
July. Their idea is to begin earlier and celebrate their Fourth of 
July after. 

Chemical analysis shows that the timothy cut in that stage has a 
much higher digestibility and practically is very much richer in 
albuminoids. The objection is that by this early cutting you de- 
crease the weight of the crop, and yet you ^et a much larger in- 
crease in the aftermath, and that also has a high digestibility and n 
high nitrogen content. So, in cutting early, you are getting a 
first class material for the dairy cow. T am not talking now^ about 
selling or feeding any but dairy cow^s. 

One word more with reference to the last question under discus- 
sion. 1 have had some little experience in the line of feeding ensi- 
lage to steers, and I agree to everything that has been said about 
feeding steers in the early stage. I have found, taking steers out of 
the same bunch, and gradually breaking them off the ensilage the 
last few weeks, that they kept their condition better than those that 
had not been rounded olf with dry feed, so that \ would certainly 
advise, if the steers are to be shipped from the farm, that the fat- 
tening be finished on some dry food. 

MK. R. J. WELD: We had some timothy along our line fence and 
our dairy cows were bothering us by reaching through after this 
timothy and breaking the fence. I suggested that we cut it as it 
was and obviate this nuisance. This was just after the heads came 
in sight, about the middle of June. We cut this and put it in the 
mow and along in ihr winter when we came to it I never fed any 
kind of hny thnt tlie <(»\vs seemed to relish as much or came as near 



No. G. DEPARTMENT OF AT, HI CULTURE. 3--,7 

their likiuj; of clover hay as that green timothy hay, and Iroiu the 
cows' actions or responses I am satisiied lliat the majority of the 
farmers in our State wait at least two or three weeks too long be- 
fore cutting their timothy hay. 

MR. E. S. HOOVER: On this matter of cutting timothy hay, I 
find by experience, as already stated, that the better time to cut 
it for milch cows is before it gets into bloom or blossom; for horses 
or market 1 think the better time and most profitable is to cut it 
just before the blossom is oft". The objection I have to cutting it 
when the blossom is on is that it makes the hay dusty. 1, therefore, 
do not cut timothy while in blossom, in order to avoid the dust; I 
cut before or after, whether for milch cows or horses and market. 

MR. BLYHOLDER: You have heard all the questions sent in be- 
fore this morning's sessions. Those just sent in and any others 
3'ou may have during the morning we will hold over for our next ses- 
sion. 

The CHAIRMAN: The next paper on the program is "Commer- 
cial Fertilizers, their Nature and Use," by Hon. T. J. Philips, of 
Atglen, Pa. 

MR. PHILIPS: Those who are as familiar with this subject as 
I am will realize that it is a broad subject, and it is not possible 
to treat it very fully in the time assigned me, and I propose to 
limit myself to that time. 

I think it is proper to you to say that this paper has not been pre- 
pared practically for your information, because I presume that most 
of the men before me are just as familiar with this question as I am, 
and I have prepared it more particularly to meet the difficulties 
and queries that I hear in Farmers' Institute work, and to try and 
help some of the thousands of men who will read it after you and 
I have forgotten it. 

The paper is as follows: 



3S8 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 



COMMERCIAL FEKTILIZEKS, THEIK NATURE AND Ut^E. 



Bv Uox. T. J, Philips, Atylen, Pa. 



The last quarter of the uineteeuth century has doue more to 
utilize the waste than all time gone before. Minerals were lying in 
the earth around and among us, only waiting for organized capital 
to mine and prepare them for the use of mankind. Products that 
always had been considered waste were husbanded and made useful 
to man. 

The time, energy and capital spent in disseminating knowledge 
of and a market for these products, has been only a little less than 
that consumed in their preparation for our use. When human labor 
alone was depended upon to prepare the soil, plant and reap the 
crops, intensive farming was practicable only upon limited areas. 

The Civil War drained the country of one-sixth of its able-bodied 
men, but the ingenious mechanic supplied the deficiency by building 
machines to do their work. With the return of peace, business in 
every line received an impetus before undreamed of. Cities grew as 
by magic. ]\Iills, factories and shops poured great clouds of smoke 
skyward. These busy thousands must be fed. The cultivated 
farms under the most severe and exhaustive cropping showed evi- 
dence of failure. The available plant food had been shipped to the 
towns; its waste was in the river bottom or beyond the sea, and 
could not be returned to the soil. 

Artiticial methods were tried to repair the loss. The islands of 
the sea were denuded of their nitrogen in guano. Ashes from mill 
and tannery furnished i)hosplioric acid and potash, but these sources 
proved inadequate. The rainless desert, deep mines, etc., were re- 
quired to give up their treasures. 

To-day more than five million dollars is expended annually in 
IVnnsylvania alone for these elements, necessary to plant growth. 
And when we realize that possibly one-fourth of this great sum is 
Avasted because unwisely expended, this question of commercial fer- 
tilizers becomes worthy of the attention of any one interested 
in the growth of plant life. Our lawmakers and executive officers 
have wisely assumed to regulate the business, and I confidently be- 
lieve that the sum annually appropriated to the Farmers' Institutes 
is returned four-fold, in teaching flio people who are not chemists, 



No. ti. DEPARTMENT UF AGRICULTURE. 359 

the iiatui-e aud use of what are comnionly called "fei'tilizeis'' alone. 
Aud this is only one of several helps that are forcefully illustrated 
at every one of the more than three hundred institutes held in the 
State annually. Five weeks ago 1 visited a locality in which one of 
those institutes was held last winter, and was told that the informa- 
tion then obtained had saved them eighty dollars ($80) on a single 
car-load. The narrator himself had profited eight dollars ($8) by 
listening understandingly to one lecture. 

Of the fourteen elements that combine to make a plant, ten are 
abundant everywhere. And we need concern ourselves with only 
one, two, three or possibly four. Each of these has a peculiar func- 
tion, and cannot be substituted. 

The perfect plant lias roots, stalk and seed, and each member re- 
quires food for its development. If all are abundant and available, 
the plant is vigorous and healthy, but if any one is absent, or avail- 
able only in insufficient quantity, failure is the result. Our crops 
differ as to their requirements. A crop of wheat, for instance, re- 
quires precisely the same food that makes a paying yield of jpota- 
toes or of fruit, but the proportions of nitrogen, phosphoric acid 
and of potash differ widely, so that profitable culture demands a 
knowledge of the constituents of each. It may be helpful to some 
who may read this paper long after you and I have forgotten it, to 
know that in a general way, nitrogen makes leaf and twig growth, 
phosphoric acid is indispensable in grains and seeds, while potash 
predominates in roots and fruits. 

An acre of good corn will require twice as many pounds of nitro- 
gen as will a full crop of potatoes, because of the great stalk devel- 
opment, but the potatoes will require double the quantity of potash. 
The nitrogen of our commercial fertilizers is derived from manv 
sources, but principally from the nitrate of soda, a crude product 
found in the rainless districts of Western South America. Also 
from blood and tankage from the slaughter-houses and from bones. 
The phosphoric acid is the most abundant in the fossil remains of 
animals and fish found in South Carolina, Florida, Tennessee, Cuba 
and elsewhere. Bones are also rich in this element. The potash 
comes almost entirely from very deep mines in Germany. Plants 
c vn take their food only in a liquid form, and any material used 
to build up the structure of a plant is held in solution. The water 
absorbed by plants is not pure, containing probably two to four 
pounds of soluble matter from which plants derive their entire 
su])])ly of solid material, in each ton. If a plant is burned we find 
in the ashes all the elements derived from the soil, except the nitro 
gcu. These solids will scarcely amount to more than two or three 
per cent, of the original weight of what was supposed to be dry 
matter. The great remainder is air and water which passes oft" 



;J60 ANNUAL REPORT OP" THE Off. Doc. 

as va}M)i- or gas wliile burning. The solid matter found in the ashes, 
is pi'esenr in all soils, in practically unlimited quantities, except 
phosphoric acid, potash and sometimes, lime; and the farmer has 
no need to concern himself about any others, except nitrogen, 
which it not found in ashes, but is very necessary to plant growth. 
It too, is taken from the soil, and is the one element most easily de- 
pleted, and is at all times the most expensive. 

Then we reduce plant growth to the elements. Potassium salts, 
pliosphorus and nitrogen, all combined, forming a very small part 
of the plant. Yet if any one of them be absent the plant cannot 
exist. These elements in their crude state are not soluble, and not 
a\-;iilable to the growing crop. They become available only by the 
slow process of deca^', or by breaking down, which makes them 
soluble. All soil is a combination of broken-down mineral matter, 
pulveri;'-ed rock and vegetable matter; but if the cropping has been 
severe or continuous, nature cannot supply the soluble material 
necessary to make plants fast enough, they suffer for food, are 
liLingrv and cannot thrive. But the use of commercial fertilizers 
here alTords a way out. In these we can secure the nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid and potash, in exactly the form nature would have sup- 
plied it, if lime enough were allow^ed, and under favorable soil con- 
dition we can secure perfectly developed plants. 

Then, too, these fertilizing elements can be applied wherever and 
whenever plants are hungry. The conditions of soil may be per- 
fect as to moisture, heat, fineness, etc., but if any one of these three 
elements are not present in sufficient quantities the plant suffers. 
As a chain is not stronger than its weakest link, so a plant is vig- 
orous or otherwise only in proportion to the needed element that is 
present in most limited quantity and availability. A particular 
soil might contain enough phosphoric acid and potash to make a 
crop of wheat, but if nitrogen was lacking, there could be no growth. 
Again there might be present enough nitrogen and phosphoric acid 
to produce 200 bushels of potatoes; but if potash was not available, 
there could be no tubers, and so on through the whole range of 
plants, from the tin}' grasses to the giant tree. It is scarcely neces- 
sary for me to argue further that by the continuous use of only one 
or two of these elements, plarit growth must suffer. At first there 
was enough of the third or other one, but stimulated growth more 
quickly exhausted it, and growth and profitable cultivation halted. 
T'here are soils that seem to contain an abundance of potash, and 
others lime, for all practical purposes, and upon these to add more 
would be wasteful. On a feldspar soil, ground bone containing 
only nitrogen and phosphoric acid gives excellent results, but if that 
soil was broken-down mica schist it would beg for potash. Often 
we hear the remark that commercial fertilizers now fail to ])i'oduee 



No. C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 361 

fesiilts wlieii loimerly they were very satisfactory. I>oubtless this 
it «luo to the fact that one-sided mixtures Iiave been used, and 
<.ue of the essential elements is not present in sufficient quantity. 
In such eases the crop grows smaller and less abundant each year; 
failure results, and the fertilizer is charged with having ruined the 
soil. The application of fertilizers can never be injurious, but they 
may be so used that no return is obtained. They are simply more or 
less number of pounds of material that the plants hunger for, mixed 
through a much larger quantity of material that has no particular 
\alu(\ In the higher grades of goods, no adulterant has been used, 
bi.it the nuiterials entering into their composition were impure. 
And to purify or concentrate would be more expensive than to grind, 
mix, bag and freight the whole. Nitrate of soda contains only 
about 15 per cent, of nitrogen, and prepared fossil rock 14 to 10 
['.er cent, of phosphoric acid. Hard wood ashes, uuleached, carry 5 
or 6 pounds of potash, and about half as much phosphoric acid to 
the hundred, the balance is moisture, lime and several other materi- 
als which have no especial value; but it would cost more to ex- 
tract the two ingredients we want than to freight and apply the 
whole. I cannot urge too strongly-, that a plant's growth is in pro- 
portion to the abundance of the smallest ingredient, not to the one 
in greatest supply. 

Before I dismiss this phase of the question, allow me to insist that 
no farmer has a right to waste the manures of his farm and depend 
upon the commercial fertilizer, because the elements above dwelt 
upon, important as they are, be they ever so abundant in the soil, 
will be of no avail unless humus, decayed vegetable matter, is also 
present. And I shall insist that barnyard manure, field manurial 
crops and every such adjunct possible shall first be religiously hus- 
banded and applied. 

The most successful and economic use of commercial fertilizer 
is in conjimction with barnyard manure. Such manures are usually 
one-sided, being richer in nitrogen than in the other elements de- 
sired. Wisdom suggests that we should spread thinner and add a 
reasonable quantity of the mineral elements to balance up. If such 
manures are not available, plowing under clover, sod or some other 
organic matter may supply the necessary nitrogen. 

[ have taken an interest in classifying the goods put upon the 
market as commercial fertilizers and find that during the year 1901, 
l,0fi6 brands were licensed and sold in Pennsylvania. There were 
1,066 different names given, but they represented only 177 different 
combinations of the three ingredients allowed credit under our law. 
Fifty-seven different inanufacturers put exactly the same goods 
upon the market, but under manj- different names, another, .30, 
another, 2.3. and so on down to the special compounds of which 
24 



362 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE. Off. Doc. 

tlieie were fouud 81 samples, without duplicates iu quality. We 
found a most popular braud of lU or 12 selliug for |8.50 f. o. b. in 
Chester county, but §17.50 was paid for the same goods in another 
part of the State, not including freight. One very peculiar in- 
stance came under my notice this spring; a dealer had among others 
two brands by the same manufacturer, guaranteeing precisely the 
same grade of goods. One was offered for sale in the ordinary 100 
ib. bag, and was quoted to me at $21.50, the other was in white 
muslin bags under another name, but $35.00 per ton was asked for 
it. These illustrations prove the necessity of the farmers studying 
the question and familiarizing themselves with the quality of goods 
they buy. If it is only fairly profitable to pay |8.00 for a certain 
brand, and that is its commercial value, the party who paid $20.00 
for it, parted with his cash, and very likely pronounced commercial 
fertilizers a humbug. Almost invariably the most progressive and 
prosperous agricultural communities use the most fertilizers. 

Those who make a business of selling them, avoid the less pro- 
gressive sections. For special crops, w^here the quantity applied is 
generous, possibly the farmer can buy the ingredients separately 
and mix them himself; but for general use, when only two or three 
hundred pounds per acre are used, and possibly 16 lbs. of nitrogen 
is expected to fertilize six or seven acres, only the most thorough 
and complete mixing can be of much use; and this can scarcely be 
done with a shovel on the barn tioor. Last year there were 43 brands 
of complete goods ofLered for sale that carried that many pounds 
or less, and these possibly represented over one-half of the total 
sales. I am not favorable to the so-called unit system of figuring 
the value of any given brand, but prefer to reduce all to pounds 
and cents. To illustrate: 2-10-4 means 40 lbs. of ammonia; 200 lbs. 
of phosphoric acid and SO lbs. of potash per ton, and can be bought 
for $19.00 cash f. o. b. car lots, which represents 18 cents for am- 
monia, 4 cents for phosphoric acid and 5 cents for potash; and 
these same prices will fit any brand that came under my notice the 
past year. These j^riccs cover the cost of raw material, grinding, 
mixing, bagging and manufacturers' profit. And yet, three-fourths 
of all the goods sold in this State cost the consumer from 50 to 100 
per cent, more, freight not included. And we hear the wail ''fertili- 
zers are not good, and farming don't pay." A little more knowledge 
would save great expendittu'e and vexation. 

The CHAIRMAN: The next paper will be "The Value of Farm 
Manure and How to Retain it," by Prof. Wells W. Cooke, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Prof. Cooke presented his paper as follows: 



Xn. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AT, raCULTURE. 363 



THE VALUE OF FAKM .MANURE AND UOW TO KETAIN IT, 



BY Fkof. Wells \V. Cooke, Washinoton, U. v. 



Farmers have for years recognized the fact that farm manures 
have a value as a fertilizer for the plant food they contain, but it 
is only within a comparatively short time that these same manui-es 
have become valued for another quality, which, in many cases, h 
fully as important as the fertilizing value. The first value is chem- 
ical and depends on the chemical elements of plant food, the nitro- 
gen, phosphoric acid and potash that are present; the second is 
mechanical, and is due to the action of the manure on the soil. 

It is true that plants must have food to grow, but they must also 
have a proper condition of the soil or they cannot use the plant food 
in that soil. Farm manure is one of the best agents for putting the 
soil in this correct condition. It loosens and lightens the soil, 
making it porous, and letting in air and sunlight; farm manures are 
great absorbers of water, one pound of dry matter holding from 
four to seven poundsof water, and thus helping to tide the crop over 
a drouth. "When the manure decays, much of it remains in the soil 
as the black humus, and this has water-holding power in the highest 
degree. As the stable manure decays it gives off carbonic acid, 
though one of the weakest of acids, yet is strong enough to act 
on the insoluble plant food of the soil and set some of it free for the 
use of the plant. 

If soils contained no humus or vegetable matter they would be- 
come so compacted that the roots of the plants could not penetrate 
through them, and the crops would be failures. The air and sun- 
light are continually acting on the vegetable matter, burning it up 
and hence it is necessary to renew the supply, or the soil becomes 
in a bad mechanical condition. The roots of plants, the stubble of 
the grain, the sod of the meadow, all serve to add vegetable matter 
to the soil. The plowing in of a green crop is the common method 
in the South for increasing the supply of vegetable matter, but in 
the North this is usually too exi)ensive, and farm manures are 
relied upon to furnish the bulk of the humus needed by the crops. 

The heavier a soil is, i. e. the more clay it contains, the greater the 
need of the lightening and loosening effects of farm manures, and 



364 



ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



on sucli soil the ineclianical value of the niamire is often greater 
than its fertilizing value. On sandy soils, the good results are 
equally apparent, the resulting humus helping to bind the loose 
particles together and to retain moisture. The high value of farm 
manure for the vegetable matter it contains has a direct bearing on 
the methods of handling the manure at the barn and will be treated 
at greater length later in this paper. 

Farm manure is usually thought of as a source of plant food, and 
its value in this direction depends on the amount of nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid and potash it eontnins. 

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FARM MANURES. 
Pounds per 1,000. 






tU) 

o 



o 

o, 



Si 



Fresh manure from cattle, solid, . 
Fresh manure from cattle, liquid, 
Fresh manure from horses, 
Fresh manure from horses. 
Fresh manure from sheep, 
Fresh manure from sheep, 
Fresh manure from swine, 
Fresh manure from swine, 

Mixed manure from cattle 

Mixed manure from horses 

Mixed manure from sheep 

Mixed manure from swin.?, 

Ordinary farm manure, fresh 

Ordinary farm manure, partly rotted, 
Ordinary farm manure, well rotted, 
Liquid drainings from manure pile, . 



solid, . 

liquid, 
solid, . . 

liquid, 
solid, .. 

liquid. 



775 
713 
G46 
724 
750 
750 
790 
982 



2.9 
5.8 
4.4 

15.5 
5.5 

19.5 
6.0 
4.3 
3.4 
5.8 
8.3 
4.5 
3.9 
5.0 
5.8 
1.5 



1.7 
0.9 
1.7 
0.0 
3.1 
0.1 
4.1 



7 
6 
8 
3 
9 
1.8 
2.6 
3.0 
0.1 



1.0 
4.9 
3.5 

15.0 
1.5 

22.6 
1.3 
8.3 
4.0 
5.3 
6.7 
6.0 
4.5 
6.3 
5.0 
4.9 



MANURE PRODUCED PER ANIMAL PER YEAR. 



CO 

■d 



o 
01 



3 



Cow, 
Horse, 
Sheep, 
Pis. 



20.000 

12,000 

760 

1,800 



8.000 

3,000 

380 

1,200 



28,000 

15,000 

1,140 

3,000 



No. 6. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 
PLANT FOOD PER ANIMAL PER YEAR. 



3<5 



■ 












'~* 


o 


.c 
















P 


o 








<u 


a 


£ 


OJ 




2 


m 
o 


CO 

o 


3 




% 


F4 


CM 


►> 


Cow 


170 

125 

g 

12 


26 

48 

6 

11 


108 
42 
14 
12 


$32 00 


Horse 


24 00 


Sheep 


2 00 


Vig .. . . . 


300 







The preceding figures are, of course, averages and different sam- 
ples of farm manure may vary quite widely, depending first, on the 
kind and amount of food consumed, second, on the kind of animal, 
and last, but not least, ou the care of the manure. 

Since all of the fertilizing value of the manure is derived from 
the food, and since the Aarious cattle foods differ widely in the 
amounts of plant food they contain, the resulting manure is quite 
variable. Straw and poor hay are among the materials lowest in 
plant food, often containing hardly a dollar's worth per ton, while 
the grains are much richer, and some of the by-products, as cotton- 
seed, linseed and gluten meals, contain very large quantities of 
fertilizing material, often almost equal in value to their selling 
price. The nitrogen varies most widely, being almost lacking in 
ripe straw and rising in cottonseed meal to more than six per cent.; 
the grasses and corn are poor in nitrogen, while all legumes, such as 
clover, pea, beau, etc., are rich in this element. 

The value of the manure also depends on the kind of animal that 
produces it. A full-grown ox at rest in the stall returns in the 
manure pile all of the nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash con- 
tained in the food, i. e. the fertilizing values of the food and of the 
manure are equal. A steer in the last stage of fattening passes on 
to the manure pile nearly all of the fertilizing value of his food, 
for he has built up the frame work of his body, and is merely filling 
out the structure with fat. Fat contains no nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid or potash, and consecjuently no matter how much fat he puts 
ou his body, he is not robbing the manure of its plant food. 

On the other hand the young, growing animal is building up the 
bones of the body that are formed from the phosphoric acid of the 
food, while much nitrogen is needed for the formation of muscle, 
tendons, skin, hair, horn, hoof, blood, and all the organs and fluids 
of the body. The cow also abstracts much fertilizing value from 
her food to produce tlie casein and albumen of the milk, both of 
which {ire rich in nitrogen and phosphoric acid. 



366 ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

The poorer tlie ration tlio more compJelcly is its plant food re- 
Tnoved, so that, for instance, yonng stock wintered on straw, wonld 
produce manure almost lacking in plant food, wliile full-grown 
steers, fattened on linseed meal, furnish the richest of stable 
manure. Farm animals retuni to the manure pile from 60 to 75 
per cent, of the fertilizing value of their food. The average of all 
farm animals is about SO per cent. 

The above figures represent the amount of plant food produced by 
the animal. How much of this the farmer will actually supply to 
his crops depends largely on how he takes care of the manure. 
Some loss is unavoidable and the farmer's problem is how to re- 
duce this loss to a minimum. The largest part of the loss will be in 
tlie liquid part of the manure, and the fact cannot be too often or 
too strongly urged that this loss is one of the worst wastes of the 
farm. The liquid manure has a high fertilizing value. The figures 
just given show that a pound of liquid is worth fully two pounds 
of solid, but as the solid manure produced in a year weighs about 
twice as much as the liquid, it follows that the yearly value of the 
two is about equal, and he who allows the liquid part of the manure 
to run to waste is losing half of the plant food produced on his 
farm. 

Special attention needs to be called to the comparatiA'e composi- 
tion of the liquid and solid parts of the manure. The total nitrogen 
of the food leaves the body about half in the liquid and half in the 
solid; the phosphoric acid is found almost entirely in the solid, and 
the potash as completely in the liquid. These facts have had a 
profound influence on Pennsylvania agriculture. Nearly all the 
soils of this State are poorly supplied with phosphoric acid, and if 
this ingredient was easily lost from the manure, the settled, older 
portions of the State would years ago have become dependent on 
the fertilizer bag for their supply of phosphoric acid. But fortu- 
nately nearly all the phosphoric acid of the food leaves the body 
in a form not soluble in water, and is saved in the manure and re- 
turned to the land. Nevertheless, these same long cultivated areas 
have been so robbed of their phosphoric acid by the selling from the 
farm of wheat, hay, milk and cheese, that there are few farms in 
the State to-day that are not seriously in need of phosphates. 

The fact that the potash of the food leaves the body in the liquid 
part of the manure has been the most potent factor in producing the 
present condition of fertility in Pennsylvania farms. Nature 
was good to the farmer of Pennsylvania. She filled his soil 
with plant food, and when he cleared off the forest he found a 
soil of wonderful productiveness. Clover grew luxuriantly and 
oxery Pennsylvania farmer knows that when he has a fine growth 
of clover in the rotation, the success of the other crops is assured. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 367 

And what did the original settlers do with these crops? Mauy of 
them were sold oil" the farm, carryinj>- away larf;e quantities of jjlant 
food; tho rest wore fed to stock, and no care whatever was taken 
to save the liquid part of the manure. Indeed, in many cases special 
pains were taken to make holes and cracks in the floor to let the 
supposed worthless material escape. But all this licjuid manure 
was carrying off with it the potash of the food. In other words, 
the farmer was drawing the potash from the soil and allowing it 
to run to waste into the streams. Not many years of such a proce- 
dure would be required to affect the growth of the clover, for this 
plant requires a large amount of available potash at its command 
in order to be a success. At the same time that the clover was 
being robbed of its pota^i it was also being injured in another di- 
rection. On the removal of the forest the soil was left full of vege- 
table matter, and consequently light, springy and porous. These 
are the necessary conditions for a good crop of clover, since the 
clover plant requires air at its roots, equally as well as at its 
leaves, to grow vigorously. The system practiced of removing 
much and returning little soon decreased the vegetable matter or 
humus of the soil, leaving it more and more compact, increasing the 
difficulty of securing a stand of clover, decreasing the size of the 
crop, and adding largely to the chances of the clover freezing and 
heaving out in the winter or drowning out in the spri'jg. It is 
scant wonder that we are told in meeting after meeting that the 
farmers of the vicinity can no longer grow red clover. 

To obtain again good crops of clover, it is necessary to restore 
the original conditions, that is, to lill the soil once more with avail- 
able potash, and with vegetable matter. The beftt and cheapest 
way of doing this is by feeding stock, saving all the manure and re- 
turning it to the soil. It is best not to attempt to save the liquid 
by itself in cisterns, or to apply it to the land in the liquid form. 
The liquid and the solid portions separately rira each a one-sided or 
unbalanced fertilizer; the solid contains nitrogen and phosphoric 
acid witliout potash, while the liquid is well supplied with nitrogen 
and potash, but lacks phosphoric acid. The best plan is to use some 
absorbent for taking up the liquid portion, mixing this with the 
solid and applying both together to the land as a complete fertilizer. 

What is used as an absorbent makes but little difference; straw, 
chaff, sawdust, leaves, muck, all are excellent. One of the best 
absorbents for the cow stable is the bedding and manure from the 
horse stable. Horse manure is dry, heating and injuring easily; 
but put in the gutters behind the cows, it acts as an absorbiuit and 
all the manure is thereby improved. A liberal sprinkling of land 
plaster or finely ground phosphate rock is excellent for the absorp- 
tion of odors and the decrease in the loss of the nitrogen of the 
manure. 



368 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Stable manure loses its value in two wavs, bv heatiu" and bv 
leacbiu^-. In heating', the nitrogen and the vegetable matter are 
lost. The phosphoric acid and potash are unaffected even if the 
heating- is carried out to complete combustion. 

In leaching, the nitrogen and the potash are the principal in- 
gredients lost. The problem of the preservation of the value of the 
manure is simpl}- the problem of regulating the amount of moisture 
in the manure, keeping it wet enough to prevent heating and not 
so wet that any surplus water will leach away. 

The most perfect method of keeping manure is in a water-tight 
basement manure cellar. Unfortunately many barns will not per- 
mit the construction of a basement manure cellar, and owing to the 
liability of odors, it is hardly advisable to employ a basement man- 
ure cellar, even though it is the perfect way of saving all the value of 
the manure. Next in value comes the covered barnyard with water- 
tight floor. 

One of the common methods and the worst of all, is throwing the 
manure out by the side of the barn under the eaves. This is the 
easiest way of cleaning the stable and is used for this reason, and 
yet this method becomes among the best, if the ground is first hol- 
lowed slightly and made water-tight, and then a shed roof is built 
above to keep off the rain and carry off the water from the eaves. 
If it becomes necessary to pile the manure in a yard the pile should 
be rather small with straight sides and a somewhat dishing top to 
catch and hold all the rain. Manure should never be spread out in 
a barnyard and mixed with straw in the expectation that the straw 
will absorb the rain and prevent leaching. Too much moisture falls 
in Pennsylvania to make such a method advisable. A small barn- 
yard a hundred feet on a side contains about a quarter of an acre, 
and on such a yard, a thousand tons of water, in rain and snow, fall 
each year. 

On most farms the best way of handling the manure is to haul it 
to the field as soon as convenient after it is produced and spread it 
at once broadcast over the land. Most of the manure is produced 
during the >vinter season and an excellent metli/)d is to begin haul- 
ing as soon as the ground freezes in the fall, so that a large load 
can be hauled without cutting into the soil. Continue hauling all 
winter long, without regard to snow, since it is perfectly safe to 
scatter manure on top of deep snow without fear that plant food 
will be lost. 

Attention has been called to the double value of stable manure, 
i. e., its value as a fertilizer and also its value as an improver of the 
mechanical condition of the soil. Both these values should be kept 
in mind in dc^termining the proper treatment of the manure. When- 
ever the manure pile heats or leaches, some plant food is lost; 



No. G. DEPARTMENT UF AtiKlCULTUliE. 3«i» 

wiifii (it her of ( hese happens oi- vvlicu lint pile tsimi»ly softens aud 
rots, their is an enormous loss of vegetable matter and conse- 
(picr.ilv of the value of the niauuro as a soil improver. Half rotted 
manure has usually lost at least a third of its vegetable matter, 
(.'arrying directly to tlie field is the method that saves the largest 
part of the vegetable matter. During the cool weather of the winter 
season, when tlie manure is at or below the freezing point, there 
is little loss of either plant food or of vegetable matter. When the 
temperature in spring rises to and above forty-five degrees, the 
process of decomposition becomes more and more active. No loss 
of phosphoric acid or potash can occur from the mere action of 
decay, and if the manure is spread broadcast over the field, the loss 
of nitrogen will be slight, but the loss of vegetable matter can 
easily amount to a full half. If, therefore, the soil of the farm is a 
heavy clay that needs the lightening action of the stable manure, 
the most perfect way of preserving all the value of the manure is to 
haul out in the winter, spread broadcast and plow in early in the 
spring. 

If, on the other hand, the manure is wanted for the plant food it 
contains, tlien the general rule should be to keep it as near the sur- 
face of the soil as possible. In Pennsylvania the amount of rain- 
fall exceeds the amount of evaporation, therefore, the tendency of 
the groimd water is downward, and this carries with it more or less 
soluble plant food to depths below the reach of most of our common 
crops. Especially is this true of the grasses, and probably there is 
no better way of utilizing part of the manure of the farm, than by 
using it as a top-dressing on the mowing fields. For this purpose 
the least coarse of the manure should be selected; it should be 
applied either in the late summer on the stubble immediately after 
haying or in the early winter, as soon as the ground freezes. The 
best time in the rotation is on the clover stubble, for the crop of 
the next year is to be timothy and the roots of timothy more than 
of any other crop are near the surface and need both the food from 
the manure and especially its mulching effect to protect the roots 
in summer from the scorching rays of the sun. 

To sum up then, we may say that not enough attention is paid to 
the value of the vegetable matter in the manure, and to obtaining 
its full value as a humus-former for the bettering of the mechanical 
condition of the soil. All rotting or leaching decreases the value of 
the manure for this purpose. Hence the aim of the farmer should 
be, first, by the plentiful use of al)Sorbents to catch and retain all 
of the liquid portions; second, by the use of some sort of covering, 
to prevent the washing and leaching of the manure, while by tramp- 
ing or moistening he prevents its heating; third, to get the manure 

24—6—1903 



370 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

to the field as soon as convenient and at once spread it broadcast; 
fourth, plow in the coarse manure on the heaviest soil to improve 
the mechanical condition, while the liner portions are used as a top 
dressing for the mowing- fields. 

The CHAIKMAX: The next paper on the program is "The Prac- 
tical Side of Market Gardening," by Hon. R. F. Schwarz, of Analo- 
mink, Pa. 

MR. MARTIN: 1 would just say to the audience that 1 am in re- 
ceipt of a letter from Mr. Schwarz, stating that owung to the sick- 
ness of Mrs. Schwarz he is prevented from attending this meeting; 
consequently we will not have the pleasure of listening to his paper 
at this time. 

We have now about ten minutes less than an hour until 12 o'clock, 
and with us here to-day are a number of visitors from a distance. A 
gentleman from New Jersey, Mr. McCoy, is with us, and the Master 
of the State Grange, Mr. W. F. Hill, is present, as is also our former 
Secretary of Agriculture, Prof. John Hamilton, who is now Insti- 
tute Specialist in the United States Department of Agriculture, 
from whom we expect to hear something in regard to his work. 
Now, let us devote a few minutes before adjourning to hear from 
these gentlemen. We have a paper by Prof. G. C. Butz yet which 
we will have first, and then spend half an hour with some of these 
gentlemen on whatever topics they may choose to present. 

The CHAIRMAN: The last paper on the program for this morn 
ing's session is "Growing Fruits and Vegetables for Canning Fac- 
tories," by Prof. G. C. Butz, of State College, Pa. 

Prof. Butz presented his paper as follows: 



Mo. 6. DEPA iri'.Mk'NT (JF A( IRICUl.TUHR 371 



GROWING FKUITS AND VE(JETAB1.ES FOR CANNING FAG 

TORIES. 



BY Prof. G. C, Bt-rz. State College, l-'a. 



The business of eanniug food products is of very moderu develop- 
ment. It is true, that in an experimental way, corn was canned in 
Portland, Me., in 1840; that the first pack of fruit in hermetically 
sealed tin cans was made in California in 1861; but it is also true 
that in 1865 the entire pack of all kinds of canned goods in the State 
of Maryland did not exceed 8,000 cases. In 1880 the total value for 
vegetables and fruits put up in cans was $17,599,576; in 1890, $29,- 
862,416; in 1900, $56,668,313. 

For pickles, preserves and sauces, the value in 1880 was |2,407,- 
342; in 1890, |9,790,S55; in 1900, |21,507,046. 

Fruits and vegetables share about alike in this new industry, and 
the list of canned articles includes nearly every kind of fruit and 
most kinds of vegetables. 

Peaches, pears, plums, apricots, apples, pineapples, grapes, cher- 
ries and all the different kinds of berries are all canned by tons. 

Tomatoes, corn, peas, beans, asparagus, beets, cabbage, sweet 
potatoes, jjumpkins, squashes, spinach and okra, are all put up in 
great quantities. The growing of these crops for the canning fac- 
tories is not conducted by the market gardener and fruit grower 
as we have generally regarded them, but by farmers who have been 
induced by the prospects of larger profits to devote their best farm 
land to the extensive culture of a vegetable or fruit crop. In some 
sections of the country the new order of things has taken such a com- 
plete possession of a community that nearly every farmer in a whole 
county has become a horticultural specialist in the culture of toma- 
toes, peas, sweet corn or some other canned crop. 

It is not an easy matter for farmers, particularly here in the East, 
to modify their time-honored practices on their farms to the extent 
indicated, for they are wedded to the customs of their fathers, and 
regard with suspicion and misgivings all propositions to abolish an 
old practice to make way for something they have not tried before. 

The western farmer has been more ready to adopt new sugges- 
tions and grow new crops to conform to modern demands, and has 



372 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

surprised the staid eastern farmer bj' his progressiveness. The 
great centre of the canning business has been in Maryland, New 
Jersey, New York and Maine; but it is rapidly passing to Illinois, 
Iowa, Indiana and neighboring states. 

The comparison between the East and the West is neatly drawn 
by the wife of a Kansas farmer, and I quote her words: 

''I never before realized how rapidly the western pioneer adapts 
himself to conditions as he finds them, and the comparative ease 
with which he achieves success with material at hand, until I visited 
New England not long ago. 

"After less than three days' travel, \yhat a wonderful change. I 
had known no home but one on the broad prairies of Kansas, with 
great fields of wheat, corn, alfalfa, and open ranges. To alight on 
a 'down east" farm, with its little checker-board fields on hillsides 
and in hollows, gave an impression I shall never forget. It does not 
seem possible that those miniature fields represents hard labor; but 
there is a 100-acre Tarm which stands for four generations of toil. 
One day the owmer and I walked to the edge of a v,'ooded hill back 
of the meadow. He was lamenting that his boys had left the old 
farm for the village. 'The boys,' he said, 'got so many new-fangled 
notions into their heads while they were at school that I couldn't 
run the farm to suit them. They wanted me to plant berries where 
I always had the buckwheat; w^anted to change the buckwheat field 
from where it's always been. They w^anted everything changed 
around. They wouldn't even call it farming. They talked to me 
about agriculture, and thought they know more than their old 
father. Why, they had three or four long names for just plain mud, 
and talked about rotating crops. I told them there wasn't going 
to be any rotating while I owned that buckwheat field. So they 
just rotated off to the village.' 

"We walked on, and presently came to a piece of waste swamp 
land at the foot of a hill, which could easily be tiled and drained. 
'What are you going to do with this black muck?' I asked. 'Do with 
it? Why, nothing, but just keep out of it,' he replied. 'But,' said I, 
'it is the richest land on the farm. Can't yoii grow something on 
it? 'Never tried,' he retorted. 'Your grandpa never did anything 
with it, only to watch and see that none of the cows broke out of 
the hill x)asture and got stuck in the mire.' 'Uncle Timothy,' said I. 
'this is ideal celery ground. ]\Iake a tile drain through the meadow 
to the creek. You can soon drain this bog. Then prepare it for a 
celery field, and you will just be an up-to-date farmer.' I was really 
enthused, for the black muck seemed to hold such wonderful possi- 
bilities. Rut Uncle Timothy turned and looked me over for a full 
minute before he found his speech, and then said: 'I swan, Betsy, 
you surprise mo. Thorn's some of vour Kansas notions. I don't 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 37:; 

farm out of books; your grandpa uever farmed out of books; 1 won't 
have no trick farming on tliis place. Your grandpa raised fourteen 
ciiildreu. He always planted bis buckwheat up there by the hollow, 
and he didn't get stuck in the swamp with any fool notions that he 
could raise celery.' It occurred to me that I saw where the boys 
were right in 'rotating' to the village.'' 

Although the centre of the canning business is moving west- 
ward, as I have said;, it does not follow that there is less of it in 
the East now than formerlv. On the contrarv there has been a 
constant increase of business, but the expansion in the West has 
been so very rapid that the pack of corn especially is in excess of 
that in the Eastern states. 

The great quantity of fruits and vegetables consumed by 20,U00 
or more canning factories are grown under contract by the farmer 
in the vicinity of the factories. By such an agreement the farmer is 
guaranteed a market for his entire crop, and the price at which he 
sells his merchantable product. He may know, therefore, before he 
plants his seed, in the case of vegetables, whether it will be profita- 
ble to do so. The contract also guarantees to the canner the raw 
material for his factory and the cost at which he may purchase. 

This arrangement is mutually satisfactory and helpful, except in 
seasons when, because of drouth, blight or some other unexpected 
disaster, the crop is very light, and the market price of the article 
is much higher than that named in the contract. A Delaware 
writer reviewing this matter in a recent number of the American 
Agriculturist says: 

"In 1899 we had an exceptional yield, and the pack was, on account 
of it, abnormal; the contract price with growers for that year ranged 
from |4.50 to |G.OO per ton delivered at the factory. Those not con- 
tracted for were taken, when packers could use them, at $1.50 to 
P.OO per ton. In 1900 contracts were placed at from |4.00 to $6.00 
per ton. Owing to the fearful ravages of blight and drouth, the 
crop for that year was below normal. The non-contract tomatoes 
found ready sale at fO.OO to ,1?9.00 per ton." 

In 1901 the crop was again unusually low both East and West, and 
the price of tomatoes went as high as |24.00 per ton. This condition 
of things induced many farmers to jump their contracts, and in con- 
sequence the canners suffered great losses by not being able to fill 
their contracts. This breaking of faith created trouble for future 
dealings. It is certain that for the present year, the farmers who 
jumped their contracts will have some difficulty in restoring amica- 
ble relations with their canners, and the reliable farmers will de- 
mand a higher price for tomatoes than has been contracted for in 
recent years. In sections where farmers. have access to more than 
one factory, they would not be troubled over the failure to contract 



S74 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

their crop, knowing from past experience that all tlic tomatoes they 
can grow will be wanted in the open market. It is probable that in 
the future, farmers will not seek to contract for their crop, pre- 
ferring to depend upon the open market for better returns and 
fain r treatment than they even secured under a contract. 

Many farmers experience a measure of independence in the fact 
that they can speedily provide themselves with facilities for can- 
ning their own crop on the farm. They have witnessed enough of 
the work in the factory to make a success of packing tomatoes, and 
at a good profit too. This practice, hovv^ever, cannot be commended. 
Many losses have been sustained where farmers have canned their 
own crops, particularly if a limited acreage is available for the ex- 
periment. It is a good business to grow crops for the canner; it is 
another good business to properly and economically pack these 
crops, and each business is distinct from the other. 

The growing of crops for the factory has enough uncertainty 
about it to give it the zest of speculation. This has been made man- 
ifest in the recent experience with tomatoes. The chances of 
drouth, early autumn frosts, blight and similar adversities greatly 
affect the yield of fruit per acre. The yield is also influenced largely 
by the richness and adaptability of the soil to the tomatoes. There- 
fore, owing to conditions which mav and those which mav not be 
controlled by the farmer, the income per acre has varied from $10.00 
to .$250.00. This makes it possible to lose heavily or make hand- 
somely in growing tomatoes. 

The methods employed in growing crops for the canning factory 
are essentially the same as those practiced by the market gardener 
and the fruit grower. The preparation of the land must be thor- 
ough, the application of fertilizers should be heavy and the con- 
stant tilling of the soil with cultivators and hoes, during the growing 
season, is never to be neglected by the man who labors to reap 
a good return. This is not a time nor place to discuss the prac- 
tices of tomato culture, strawberry culture or any special crop, 
but we may sliice the fact that the canning industry has greatly 
modified the gardeners method of growing peas. When peas were 
first grown extensively for canning purposes, the picking of the 
pods was an exceedingly expensive task. Anyone who has ever 
tried to fill a bushel basket with pods from the vines will fully 
realize the nature of the work and understand why a regular army 
of men and women v^^as needed to pick the peas. Another force of 
laborers was needed to carefully remove the tender peas from the 
pods. Since the invention of some remarkable machines, all this 
tedious and expensive labor is performed by a most marvelous 
device — the Chisholm-Scott pea-viner. This machine is placed at 
the factory, and the pea vines are mowed in the fiield and hauled to 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 37o 

llio facLoi-.y upon hay ladders. Here the}' are delivered to the pea 
viner wiiich picks the pods and shells out the peas, discharging the 
latter to the proi)er receptacle and casting the vines to the side. 
Instead oi" sowing tlie seed with drills wide enough to permit cultiva- 
tion, the peas are planted with a regular wheat seed drill. The vines 
stand close and hold each other almost erect. No cultivation is 
possible after the seed is in the ground. 

It is probable that there will be no more attempts by farmers to 
do a canning business by co-operation. It is an enticing proposi- 
tion to conduct the business in such a way that stockholders may 
share both the profits of cultivation and the profits of canning; but 
all the experience of the past 30 years demonstrate clearly, that 
in practice the profits of co-operative canneries are exceedingly 
small, if indeed they are not entirely overcome by losses. To prop 
erly conduct a canning business requires not only great skill but 
also a goodly share of business tact and executive ability. The 
farmer is, therefore, wise if he is content to receive the profits of his 
crops and will devote his best energies to the improvement of his soil 
conditions, to perfect the methods of cultivation and prepare to 
meet the fungous diseases and insect foes of his crops with the 
proper remedies, and thus swell his profits by increasing the yield 
of the fruits or vegetables upon his farm. 

MR. MARTIN. We have just now one-half hour until 12 o'clock 
and if Mr. McCoy of New Jersey, is here we will be pleased to hear 
a word from him. 

Mr. McCoy addressed the meeting in reference to Farmers' Insti- 
tute work in Pennsvlvania and New Jersev. 

The CHAIRMAN: We would like to hear now from Hon. W. F. 
Hill, Master of the Pennsylvania State Grange. 

Mr. Hill came forv^'ard and addressed the meeting on Farmers' 
Institute Work and the relation of the Grange organization there- 
to, and what they were doing for the farmer. 

The CHAIRMAN: We are now ready to hear from Prof. John 
Hamilton, ex-Secretary of Agriculture. 

Prof. Hamilton then addressed the meeting as follows: 

ADDRESS OF PROF. JOHN HAMILTON. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: It is not necessary to say that it 
is a great pleasure to me to meet with the old State Board of Agri- 
culture of Pennsylvania, and with the Institute Lecturers, who are 
the leaders in agricultural thought in this great State. I can truth- 
fully say that I appreciate the work of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, and of the lecturers that are associated with the Department 



376 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

of Agriculture, as much as any inau in Pennsylvania. 1 know, per- 
sonally, the men who are here, have known them for many years, 
and have the advantage of understanding what they have been 
thinking about and doing in the last 25 j-ears, and I am ready to say 
that a more devoted band of men in the interest of agriculture, for 
the uplifting of the agriculture of this State, does not exist any- 
where in the United States, than we have here in our good old State 
of Pennsylvania. 

You doubtless want to know what is going on dowai at the head- 
quarters of the agriculture in this country. And when I speak of 
the headquarters, you ought to understand without my designating 
it, that it means the Department of Agriculture of the United 
States. Dr. Atherton in his address yesterday spoke of the wonder- 
ful event that took place about 40 years ago in connection with the 
establishment of the Agricultural Colleges of this country. I do 
not know whether you have taken the trouble to look into the his- 
tory of agriculture, so as to really appreciate how^ much has been 
done for its development in the last 40 or 50 years. The fact is that 
agriculture has come to be what it has within this period. I have 
an inventory of a farmer's property that was sold 50 years ago in 
Pennsylvania in one of our most fertile valleys on a farm that had 
200 acres of land, and that had been cultivated since the time of the 
Revolutionary War. The implements on that farm at a public sale 
brought 173.50, and it was a w'ell-kept farm for its day. And now 
implements on the same farm, or a farm of similar character, will 
cost anywhere from |800 to ^2,500. I do not know of any gauge 
that show^s the progress of an industry with greater accuracy than 
the implements of that industry. Take your manufacturing estab- 
lishments and compare them to-day, in their machinery and methods 
of manufacture with the machinery and methods w^hich they used 
50 years ago, and you can rate their progress in other respects from 
the single item of improvement in the machinery that they use. 
This is also trwe in agriculture. The agricultural implement busi- 
ness has increased in the last 50 years about 402 per cent. Our 
population has increased in that same time about 229 per cent., and 
thus you can see, that the implements of our trade have increased 
at a rate more than double that of the population of the country. 

Mr. Chairman, 50 years ago there w^as not a man living that knew 
about many of the things that we talk about in our Institute work 
in the most familiar way. For instan('(^: Who knew about fertili- 
zers and their uses as we do now, 50 years ago? Who knew about the 
action of nitrogen, i)hosphoric acid and ])otash 50 years ago, and who 
even knew that there was such a thing as a balanced ration? Who 
knew anything about agricultural bacteriology 50 year ago?* Tt is 
only about ten years since we have really «ome to understand what 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 377 

bacteria air, and what tlicy arc doing in agriculture and in the other 
affairs of life. I could continue and say: Who understood what it is 
to have a Babcock milk test 50 years ago? Who understood what 
it is to separate milk and cream mechanically, and who knew 50 
years ago about cutting, threshing and cleaning grain at a single 
operation out in the field as is done in many parts of our country 
to-day? Fifty years ago the stroke of the flail was heard through 
the valleys of Pennsylvania all winter, and the sound of the whet- 
stone sharpening the scythe was heard in every harvest field in the 
land. It W'ould have been utterly impossible 40 years ago to have 
held such a meeting as this which we now hold, with such discus- 
sions as we have, and will have, here to-day. You see that we have 
made this progress within so few years, and have lived through the 
centuries before up to 1850 with such a record as a |73.00 implement 
outfit for a 200-acre farm. Our progress has come through means 
that are as natural, and that work as certainly as any of the forces 
that are in operation in other affairs. It is clear that it did not come 
through the efforts of the so-called practical men, who were engaged 
in practical agriculture. Practical men as good as we are had been 
living in the world, and been engaged in agriculture for thousands 
of years, and yet it has only been within the last 50, 40 and 30 years, 
that progress w'orthy of the name has occurred. If our progress 
then did not come through the efforts of so-called practical men, 
how did it come? 

Dr. Atherton spoke of an act of Congress that went into opera- 
tion on the 2d dav of Julv, 1862. I, too, w^ant to call vour attention 
to that same month of July in 1862. It marks an epoch in the 
history of agriculture of the world. 

On the 1st day of July, 1862, there was an institution organized 
that has had a wonderful influence upon the agriculture of this 
country and its development since. I refer to the Department of 
Agriculture that is now organized at Washington, the extent and 
value of which many even of our most thoughtful and intelligent 
farmers do not clearly understand. In December, 1861, the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture at Washington had just nine members in its 
working force. It then was a small and unimportant Division in 
the Department of the Interior. To-day the last report shows that 
the Department of Agriculture has a working force of 3,789 men, 
all engaged in forwarding the interests of farming people in this 
country. Of these 3,789 men, over 2,000 are trained scientists, scien- 
tific investigators, or assistants in scientific investigations, giving 
their entire attention to scientific work for the development of agri 
culture both in this and other lands. There is no such university 
for scientific research of like extent in any other country, and it is 
oflScered by men, many of whom, have no superiors in their several 
25 



378 ANNUAL REPORT OP THE Off. Doc. 

specialties anywhere in llie world. The best scientists that this 
country' possesses are engaged in that Department in scientific work 
along agricultural lines, and the work that they do is respected and 
quoted as authority by scientific men everywhere throughout the 
world. That Department in the last 40 years has, as 1 have stated, 
develojjed from nine men to almost 4,000; from an expenditures of 
|G0,000 a year to an expenditure of |5,223,000 a year. The Depart- 
ment has its experts out all over this country, and in foreign lands, 
searching for plants, animals and methods that will be of use to us 
in our agriculture here at home. Reports of what they are finding 
and doing are being published from time to time in bulletins, and 
these are mailed free of charge to all who are sufficiently interested 
to send their names, postoffice addresses and make a definite 
request. 

Along with this work that is being done by the National Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, is that of the Agricultural Colleges in this 
country, which have sent out in this same period about 50,000 grad- 
uates, and that of the Experiment Stations that now have over 700 
scientific men engaged constantly in endeavoring to solve the mys- 
teries of agriculture, and who are publishing the results of their dis- 
coveries for our use. 

These are the forces that have raised agriculture from a common 
calling, into the most scientific and difficult of any that the world 
has to-day. These are the institutions that have brought us w^ere 
we are. 

The men who made speeches here this morning and yesterday, 
could not have presented the truths they did if they had not had the 
facts furnished them by these laborers in these scientific institutions 
w^hich have been established within the past 50 years. We are in- 
debted to science for w'hat we are, and the great progress of agricul- 
ture in these recent years, which is the marvel of the w^orld, has 
come through the work of scientific men who have directed their at- 
tention, not to the professions, but to the development of agricul- 
ture, and the elfect is that we are becoming informed in regard to 
the important truths that for so long have been hidden from our 
view. We are becoming uwn instead of machines. 

It w^as well said here yesterday ''that a man cannot rise above 
what he knows." We cannot rise above our ideals, and if we do not 
know, and will not learn, we will remain exactlv on that level all our 
lives. If we do know or have aspirations for knowing more we can 
at least pursue our ideals and often realize greater success than at 
the outset we had ever hoped. There are being held up before us 
to-day in the scientific world great truths which we are endeavoring 
to understand and to apply, and scientific men are reaching out to us 
their hands to lift ns out of the difficulties that surround us into a 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 379 

luoi-e prosperous and inlcrrsliii}; life. By moans of these scientific 
helps we are making progress such as the world has never seen in all 
I he centuries llial have preceded us, and the development of science 
applied to agricultural pursuits, accounts for what we have accom- 
.plishcd in the last 50 years. 

And now, if we are to continue to progress in the future, what 
must we do? The same principle that has controlled in all the past, 
is going to control in all the future. Our advancement is going to be 
just in proportion as we ourselves know more of the needs with 
which we deal, ^^'e Avill be depending in the future, as we have been 
in the past, upon the development of scientific knowledge for pro- 
gress in our art. It follows, therefore, that we as teachers of agri 
culture, as leaders in agricultural progress, must be informed. 

This brings me to the particular thought that I want to present to 
the lecturers, to the directors of the local institutes, to the State 
Board and to all of us to-day. We must be students of science. 
We must be familiar with the sciences that relate to our calling 
or else we are unfit, and shall be unfit for the position that we 
occupy as teachers of others, and the moment we cease to be 
students of the science of agriculture, we had better resign our posi- 
tions and leave our places to those who are willing to study and 
inform themselves as to wiiat is needed in the agricultural world. 
And so I am thankful to have the opportunity to-day of speaking 
to the teachers of agriculture, and to the leaders of agricultural 
thought in Pennsylvania, for it is upon these leaders that the 
burden of the future must come, and it is to the leaders that the 
great- public must look f oi- suggestion and help. If agriculture is 
to progress, it will be because you progress, and because in an un- 
selfish and devoted wav vou are willing to bestow the results of 
your labors, along scientific lines, for the benefit of your fellow- 
men. 

Whilst in some states the Farmers' Institute work has scarcely 
started, in some not at all, nevertheless, the movement has assumed 
great proportions. Last year over 2,700 Institutes were held, and 
over 800,000 peojde assembled in institute halls in the United States. 
In this work have been engaged some of the most capable men the 
country has. Indeed it has come to this, as you well know in Penn- 
sylvania, that no common lecturer can stand before an audience, 
acceptably, in this State. He must have studied the subject that he 
professes to teach, and must be able to present it in a forceful, in- 
teresting and applicable way. 

And now. you want to know what tlie Department of Agriculture 
at W^asliington proposes to do for the assistance of those who are 
engaged in institute w-ork. In a general way, I can say that the De- 
partment proposes ''to keep school." It has recognized in the 



380 . ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Farmers' Institute a means for educating agricultural people, pos- 
sessed of greater possibilities than any other educational movement 
of modern times. It furnishes a channel of communication between 
science and practice through which agricultural knowledge, that has 
hitherto been stored up in metaphorical reservoirs of learning, can- 
be distributed freely among the thousands who need the aid of 
science. The plan is to place scientific truth in the hands of capable 
men, and send them out to present it to every needy citizen. The 
office for conducting this work has just been established. The oflBce 
itself has no name, but the officer in charge is officially known as 
Farmers' Institute Specialist. 

This is the beginning, or foundation, of what is destined to be the 
greatest school of agriculture that has ever been established. A 
Universitv for American farmers, into whose facultv of teachers 
is to be brought the best talent that the country contains. The 
farmer must be elevated in his calling. To secure this, he must be 
educated. Books and pamphlets do not reach those who most need 
the information which they contain. The working farmer is too old 
and too occupied to go away from home to school, and has lost the 
habit of study and disposition to gather information from the 
printed page. 

The Department recognizes these conditions and limitations, and 
is going to send out teachers to meet these workers face to face, 
men who have made a study of the needs of agriculture, and are 
able to give information as to how these needs may best be met. 

The first thing that we w'ant to do through the Institute Special- 
ist, is to assist the State Directors. This can be done by collecting 
and publishing the laws relating to institutes in the several states, 
and by placing them in the hands of Directors, so that they can com- 
pare their systems with those in other states, and adopt such items 
as seem best adapted to their conditions. We can also assist by 
collecting the names of all of our Institute Lecturers in the United 
States, by entering into direct communication with every instructor 
in the country, and by endeavoring to place these instructors in 
touch with each other and with the Agricultural College and Exper- 
iment Station workers in their own and other states. We can 
bring these lecturers in contact with latest and best literature upon 
agricultural subjects and with the leading specialists in their lines 
of work throughout the country. We hope, in short, to unify the 
work, and become a reliable bureau of information for the assistance 
and' development of the institute workers of the United States, to 
assist in placing our agricultural people where, by reason of the im- 
portance of this industry, they ought to be, at the head in National 
affairs, in State affairs, in educational affairs, in all of our affairs. 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 3S1 

• 

aud so it'udcr our people piosperous and liappy, and secure to the 
country the perpetuity of our free institutions for all time to come. 

MR. MARTIN: Before adjourning for this morning I wish to 
remind you that owing to our visit to the Huntingdon Reforma- 
tory immediately after dinner, our afternoon session will not begin 
until 3 o'clock; but promptly at that time, whether there be a dozen, 
two dozen or three dozen present, we will proceed with our after- 
noon's program, and I desire especially that those who haA'e papers 
on program and the chairman for the afternoon be on hand at that 
time and be ready to proceed. 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned to meet at 3.00 this P. M. 



Wednesday Afternoon, June 3, 1903. 

HON. A. L. MARTIN, called the meeting to order promptly at the 
time designated and announced that the Chairman for the afternoon 
would be W. A. Crawford, of Cooperstown, Pa., who, thereupon, took 
the chair. 

The CHAIRMAN: The first thing on the program for this after- 
noon's meeting is "Breeding and Feeding Poultry," by Mr. J. Y. 
Patton, of New Castle, Pa. 

The paper read by Mr. Patton, is as follows: 



BREEDING AND FEEDING POULTRY. 



By J. Y. Pattox, Nnv Castle, Pa. 



Poultry breeding has become one of the great occupations of our 
day. It has kept pace w ith, if indeed it has not gone in advance of, 
all lines of live stock breeding. When we look back half a century 
and see what the poultry of that time was, and then look at the 
poultry of to-day, we can readily see what careful and thoughtful 
breeding has done. From the scrubs and dunghills of the past 
have been bred our grand, practical and fancy birds of to-day. 1 
will only endeavor to drop a few practical thoughts along the line 
of poultry breeding and feeding, and not attempt to tell you all 
about it for two reasons: First, because time will not permit; and, 
second, because I do not know it all. 

Volume after volume has been written upon the subject, and the 



382 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

half has not been told. I will consider (he subject iindei* two heads: 
First, fancy breeding, and second, practical breeding. There are 
many different plans for the breeding of fancy poultry which 
have been followed out by dift'erent breeders, all of which have 
been very successful. Some practice single matings, others double 
matings and line breeding. T think I see the poultry fancier with 
his flock of birds before him about to pick out his breeders for 
the next year's crop. He stands scratching his head, realizing the 
task he has before him. He selects his best male bird, and studies 
his merits and defects. From past experience he knows that he 
must select his females so as to "nick" (as it is called), with the 
male bird, and by this means overcome, so far as possible, the weak 
point? of one by the strong points of the other, and makes his selec- 
tion accordingly. 

Several instances have come under my observation where breed- 
ers, in trying to overcome some defect in their birds, would get some- 
thing else as bad, if not worse. I have come to believe that the 
best way to get a strain of birds that will produce a large per cent,, 
of good birds, is in line breeding. But I also think that a breeder 
must thoroughly understand his business in order to be successful 
in line breeding, and would caution the amateur breeders to be care- 
ful along that line, or he will lose the vitality of his birds. 

In regard to the practical side of poultry breeding, we find we have 
a much larger class to deal with. While traveling in the Institute 
work, in conversation with practical poultr}^ breeders, I found that 
one of the greatest mistakes they are making is in the selection of 
their breeders: A large number do not use select birds at all, but 
simply gather eggs from the whole flock at the time w^hen they 
wish to set. This is a very important point which I wish to impress 
upon our Institute lecturers, that w^e should show the general poul- 
try raiser the importance of breeding only from the best males 
(as they are half the flock), and then using^only the number of the 
best females that will give the desired number of eggs. We should 
select only the early developing birds of standard weight, good, 
healthy, active vigorous birds, of good form, with well developed 
comb and wattles, a bright, keen eye, short, stout beak, good, 
square head and short, stout legs, and to produce the best layers 
the trap-nest should be used in the selection of our bi-eeder. Use 
only the best layers for breeding, as like begets like. By this means 
we maj' greatly improve our flock from year to year. In this way 
I succeeded in getting a pen of twelve Silver Wj'andotte pullets to 
lay an average of twenty-one eggs in the month of January and an 
average of two hundred and thirty-seven for the year. 

In the selection of breeders, w'atch them from the time thev are 
hatched. Give careful attention to their movements, their develop- 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 383 

mcnl ill rcallici-iii};, and also in <;r()\vlh and foiin. The succeyylui 
breeder must know bis birds as individuals. The best birds for 
breeders are the liustlers; those which are vij^orous, active and 
bright, and good feeders. 

The hen is simply a machine, and the better the machine, the 
larger and better the product will be. In both fancy and practical 
breeding I believe in keeping the male birds by themselves until 
ten day's or two weeks before wishing to save eggs for hatching, and 
then as soon as the breeding season is over, separate them again. 
Good male birds will do well for seA^eral years if handled in this way. 

FEEDING. 

In the feeding of poultry, as in the breeding, wonderful devel- 
opments and discoveries have been made. Successful poultry feed- 
ing is certainly a science in itself, and but few of the would-be 
poultry breeders are, to my mind, successful feeders. If we do 
not give the proper amount of food, if we do not feed enough, if we 
feed too much, and if we do not feed in the right manner, there is 
loss. ^Ve begin to feed the chick when w^e are feeding the hen to 
produce the egg from which the chick is to be hatched, and we know 
that successful feeding- is to develop the chick to a mature bird as 
rapidly as possible, keeping it in a strong, healthy condition, at as 
low a cost as possible. The chick should have nothing to eat for 
twenty-four hours after it is hatched, as it takes from twenty-four 
to thirtj'-six hours for the chick to absorb or use up the yolk of 
the egg which nature has provided to care for it during that time. 

In my opinion more than fifty per cent, of the mortality in chicks 
is caused by injudicious feeding. We now have the chick thirty-six 
hours old to care for and feed. The first thing the chick should 
have to eat is fine grit composed of mica crystal grit, oyster shells 
and granulated charcoal. This should be kept before them at all 
times. Chicks should be fed five times a day for two weeks with 
a variety of foods. They should be fed lightly, just what they 
will eat up clean in a few minutes, and none should be left lying 
around. 

The most profitable feeding I ever did was to have Wyandotte 
cockerels weigh three and one-half pounds at twelve weeks old, and 
pullets laying at five months old. Those birds were fed five times 
a day for two weeks and three times daily from that time on. The 
first three days I fed nothing but baked pone, composed of corn 
meal, brown middlings, buckwheat middlings, coarse bran, gluten 
meal and meat meal, with a little pulverized charcoal added. This 
was mixed with sour milk and soda and a little salt, and baked in a 
hot oven the same as we would bake ordinary corn bread. After 
being well baked, it was crummed through a fine sieve and fed in 



384 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

graiiiilai- form. After three days I fed cracked wheat in the morn 
iuj>, pone at ten o'clock, chick feed at noon, cracked corn at three 
o'clock and all the pone they would eat at night. After two weeks 
I fed cracked corn and wheat on alternate mornings, chick feed at 
noon and mash at night until they were three months old, and from 
that time I fed wheat in the morning, cracked corn at noon and 
mash in the evening until yarded for the winter. 

Up to this time all birds should have free range where they can 
get plenty of clover and green food and exercise. Of course it is 
understood that they must have good, clean, pure water in abund- 
ance always before them. When my birds are yarded or housed ^'^r 
winter, I feed three times a day; in the morning grain — one quart 
to ten or twelve birds — scattering it over the straw and chaff upon 
the floor, which should be five or six inches deep, the grain being 
well forked into the litter. It is best to use a variety of grains 
alternately, such as wiieat, oats, barley, buckwheat and cracked 
corn. 

At noon 1 feed cut clover and vegetbles, such as mangels, tur- 
nips, potatoes, cabbage, etc., and at night all the mash they will eat. 
This mash is composed of finely' cut clover, corn meal, coarse bran, 
brown middlings, buckwheat middlings, gluten meal and meat meal. 
These are all thoroughly mixed together, dry, and then made into a 
mash with boiling water, with a little salt dissolved in it. The old 
theory was, to feed mash in the morning and grain at noon and night. 

Realizing the need of an abundance of exercise for the birds in the 
winter time, I saw that by changing the program I could get my 
birds to do better, and could feed heavier without danger from over- 
feeding. Feeding the warm mash* on a cold morning, the birds 
would fill up their crops, get up on their perch and sit and shiver, 
while in feeding the small grain in the morning, they get off the 
perch, go right to scratching, and hustling for their breakfast, warm 
up their blood, start circulation and keep themselves strong and 
healthy. This theory I found would work out all right in practice, 
as my birds did not get too fat and lazy, as they were apt to do by 
feeding in the old w^ay. I feed the grain and vegetables to keep the 
bird, and then at night give them all the mash they can be induced to 
eat, of foods high in protein, that is easily digested while they are at 
rest, and it has never failed to produce a good, heavy yield of eggs. 
I find in this manner of feeding I can force my birds to heavy egg 
production without overfeeding. 

The birds must be watched and care taken that the grain be all 
cleaned out of the litter each day, and if they do not clean up their 
usual heavy feed of mash in the evening, cut down on the grain 
ration next morning so as to have them always hungry for the even- 
ing mash. 



No. 8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. S«6 

Be sure that they have some kind of j-ood, sharp jjjrit, such as 
mica crystals, oyster shells, etc., and good, fresh water always be- 
fore them in abundance. I believe that much of the poultry on the 
farms do not lay in the winter because of the lack of good, fresh, 
M^arm water. Many of the farmers never stop to lliink that their 
poultry needs any water; but when they are led to think and to real- 
ize that an egg is two-thirds water, they will soon see that hens can- 
not lay eggs without water. 

By careful experiment it has been found that animal matter is a 
necessity for poultry. It is well known that when they are allowed 
to range at will they will eat considerable quantities of animal 
matter in the form of insects, worms, etc. 

How necessarv this animal matter is to the health of fowls, and 
especially ducks, was strikingly brought out by recent experiments 
at the New York State Experiment Station. Two lots each of 
chickens and ducks, as nearly alike as possible, were used in the 
experiment. One lot in each case was fed a ration of mixed grains 
and skimmed milk or curd, containing no animal matter. The other 
a ration of mixed grains with animal meal and fresh bones or dried 
blood. The two rations were about equally balanced. In one ra- 
tion, two-fifths to one-half the protein, came from animal sources, 
while in the other it all came from vegetable sources. Two trials 
were made with chickens. In each trial more food was eaten by 
the lot receiving animal protein, the gain in weight was more 
rapid, maturity was reached earlier, less food was required for each 
pound of gain, and the cost of gain was less. During the first 
twelve weeks of the first trial, starting with chicks four days old, 
the chicks on animal meal gained 56 per cent, more than those on the 
vegetable diet, although they ate only 36 per cent. more. They re- 
quired half a pound less of dry matter to gain one pound, and each 
pound of gain cost only 4^ cents as compared with 5 1-5 cents per 
pound for the grain-fed birds. During the next eight weeks the 
cost of gain was 1\ cents and 11 1-3 cents respectively. The animal 
meal chicks reached two pounds in weight more than five weeks 
before the others. They reached three pounds more than eight 
weeks sooner, and three pulled of the lot began laying four weeks 
earlier than any of the grain-fed birds. With the second lot of 
chicks the results were much the same, showing a quick healthy 
growth and early maturity with the birds fed on animal matter. 
The results with the ducklings was strikingly the same. 

In conclusion, then, it may be said that rations in which from 40 
to 50 per cent, of the protein was supplied by animal food, gave the 
best results. By careful management and by following the plan 

25—6—1903 



386 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

of feeding prescribed in this article, T li;ive succeeded in producing 
over 27,000 eggs in one year from an average of 200 pullets. 

The CHAIRMAN: Owing to the fact that several of those who 
have papers on this afternoon's program not having yet returned 
from their visit to the Huntingdon Reformatory, we will now take 
up the fourth topic on our program, "Easiest and Most Profitable 
Way to Grow Potatoes," by Mr. John W. Cox, of New Wilmington, 
Pa. 

Mr. Cox presented his paper as follows: 



EASIEST AND INfOST PROFITABLE WAY TO GROW PO- 
TATOES. 



Bv JOHN W. Cox, New Wilmingtim. Pa. 



The easiest way to produce a crop is not always the most profit- 
able, but usually economy in labor, by using the proper machinery, 
and by doing the work at the proper time, will increase the profits. 
Vv'ith the present scarcity of farm hands and the high wages which 
a farmer is obliged to pay in order to secure them, any crop can be 
made more profitable by reducing the cost of production by using 
the best farm machinery. 

In order to make potato growing profitable, it is necessary to 
have a soil that will produce a good yield of marketable potatoes. 
It is also essential to be located near a good market. With the 
present high rate of freight it costs too much to place the product 
on the market if it is necessary to ship a long distance. 

The potato crop is one of the most profitable as well as one of the 
most discouraging crops raised by the general farmer. Amongst 
the discouraging features can be nami d the extremes in moisture. 
It is often either too wet or too dry. A late frost will often 
seriously injure early planted potatoes. Some years the potato 
bugs will destroy the crop, unless considerable time and ex])ense 
is devoted to their destruction, and^the blight often strikes them 
before the tubers are half-grown. Some of these conditions the 
farmer has under his control, others he has not. He can conserve 
moisture to jt certain extent, by luiving the soil well filled with 
humus and by properly preparing the seed-bed before planting, but 
if it proves to be an excessively wet season he has no way to dis- 
pose of the surplus moisture. 

The kind of soil in which potatoes are grown has an influence on 
th(^ finality. On a niiick soil they are generally of a poor quality, 
and usually on moist black soils. A potato of poor quality often 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 387 

makes a vei-y good eating potato wlien grown in a did'erent (lualiiy 
of soil. It is important that the soil be well-stocked with decayiug 
organic matter, and that it be rather in an acid than an alkaline con- 
dition, as it has been found that the fungus which causes the scabby 
appearance on the outside of the potato, and thus decreases its mar- 
ketable value, will not thrive in acid conditions. 

The applying of lime to potato ground may increase the yield, but 
as it counteracts the acid in the soil, it has a tendency to promote 
the scab disease. A well manured heavy clover sod usually makes 
a good potato soil. The manure should be applied in the fall or 
during the early winter to allow it to become assimilated with the 
soil, as the plant cannot feed upon it in a coarse condition. 

If the soil is deficient in vegetable matter, a good plan is to plow 
under the sod in the fall and sow the ground with rye. Apply 
manure wiien the ground is frozen in the winter and plow the rye 
under in the spring when it is about twenty inches high. If allowed 
to stand until it gets much higher, the weather is usually warm, and 
it has a tendency to sour the ground. It also prevents the moisture 
from rising from the subsoil too near the surface, where it can be 
used b}^ the plant. It is remarkable how much finer the soil is 
when treated in this way. 

The potato crop is best adapted to a moist, cool climate, but will 
do well in a warm climate, if all conditions are favorable. The 
vitality of a potato can be retained longer in a cool than in a warm 
climate. If the seed is purchased from one of our Northern states, 
it usually has more vitality than our home-grown seed, and a better 
crop is usually produced. For best results, seed should be renewed 
at least every two or three years. If large potatoes are planted 
every year, the vitality will not deteriorate as rapidly as if small 
potatoes are planted. A good crop can often be secured by planting 
small potatoes, but this practice cannot be depended upon to follow 
indefinitely. We are ahvays advised to select the best corn, the 
best oats and the best wheat for seed and I think that the same 
rule will apply equally as well to potatoes. It is very essential that 
the seed be properly cared for. It should not be allowed to sprout 
until a short time before planting. If the sprout is permitted to 
start grow^th and is broken off, the second growth will have less 
vitality than the first. 

The growing can be retarded by keeping the potatoes covered 
through the winter with straw and dirt. Cover deep enough, w'ith a 
liberal quantity of straw and dirt, to keep them from freezing dur- 
ing the severe cold weather. During February or March, while the 
ground is frozen, llie piles should be covered with manure or straw 
to keep it frozen until near planting time. This will prevent the 



388 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Oft. Doc. 

sprout from starting to grow. A short time before planting, the 
potatoes should be removed to a building and spread out to give 
them an opportunity to start a good, vigorous sprout before plant- 
ing. If not properly covered while they are buried, there is danger 
of the eye being frozen enough to reduce the vitality without freez 
ing the potato. 

The scab fungus will remain in the ground from one year to 
another, and if the ground is infested with the scab, or the seed is 
affected, the seed should be treated with some preventive to insure 
a crop of clean potatoes. Corrosive sublimate will answer this 
purpose. It is not expensive and requires very little labor to use 
it. Dissolve one ounce in eight gallons of water and soak the seed 
ninety minutes. This should be done before cutting. The seed 
should be cut with one or two eyes to the piece, depending upon 
the size of the potato and the number of eyes. I prefer to plant 
large and medium sized potatoes, and one-eye pieces from the stem 
end of large potatoes will make large pieces in most varieties. 
Nearer the seed end the pieces will be smaller and have more eyes. 

Where small potatoes are used for seed, either plant whole or cut 
the pieces a respectable size regardless of the number of eyes. 
Potatoes should be planted as soon after cutting as possible. It is 
not safe to cut a large quantity and pile them up, as they may heat 
and the seed be injured, so that it will not produce a profitable crop. 
If small quantities are cut a few days before planting, put in bushel 
crates, set in a cool place and covered from the wind and sun, no 
damage will result. Medium sized potatoes can be planted whole 
if desired, and some prefer that way, but it requires more seed to 
the acre. A large yield can be secured from a very small amount 
of seed, by separating the eyes into two or three parts and planting 
in well prepared fertile soil; but this method will not produce as 
many potatoes to the space of ground occupied as where whole eyes 
are planted. 

To grow potatoes easily the grower should be supplied with all 
necessary machinery. In addition to the plow, a spring-tooth har- 
row, roller and two-horse cultivator, with which almost every farmer 
is supplied should be used; it is also essential to have a planter, 
digger, weeder, smoothing harrow, low wagon with platform and a 
number of bushel r-rates. A four-row barrel sprayer is very useful 
for spraying potatoes, to prevent blight and to kill bugs, but can be 
dispensed with, and the work done with cheaper machinery. 

The ground should not be plowed until dry in the spring on most 
soils, and in most latitudes. Wire worms and grubs can be de- 
stroyed by fall plowing, but that leaves the ground exposed during 
the winter allowing more or less fertility to leach away. The 
ground should be plowed deeper for potatoes than for corn, and if it 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 389 

has nevc'i- been plowed deep it should be plowed a little deeper ea<li 
time until the desired depth is reached. If it is deepened too much 
at one time, the chances for a good crop are lessened, as too mucb^ 
subsoil would be brought to the surface at one time. The best depth 
to plow depends upon the depth and condition of the soil. Some 
soils can be plowed ten or more inches, while it is not best to plow 
others more than six. 

It is usually best to use a drag to pulverize the clods, as a roller 
has a tendency to pack the ground too much, especially in a wet 
season, and a loose, mellow soil is desired, for best results. A cut-a- 
way or spring-tooth harrow should be used to loosen up the soil. 
Three horses should be used on a spring-tooth harrow, as it can be 
set deeper and more effective work done, without injury to the 
horses, than where only two are used. The ground should be har- 
rowed at least once a week from the time that it is plowed until it 
is planted, in order to pulverize the clods and prevent the escape 
of moisture. It should be stirred as soon as dry enough, after 
every rain, not allowing a crust to form. The harrow and roller or 
drag should be kept going until the ground is thoroughly pulverized 
and a good seed bed prepared. If the ground is prepared and culti- 
vated properly the crop will not suffer so much during a protracted 
dry spell, as it will if the work is carelessly done. The ground is 
not fully prepared for a crop of potatoes until all surface stones, 
that will in any way interfere with the planting, cultivating or 
digging of the crop, have been removed. 

A good two-horse planter can be operated by one man. It will 
open the furrow, drop the seed and cover it the desired depth. II' 
desired, commercial fertilizer can be applied with the planter. With 
the Aspinwall planter, which we use, the seed is dropped in the bot- 
tom of the furrow and covered with a small amount of dirt before 
the fertilizer is distributed, thus preventing the fertilizer coming 
in direct contact with the seed. The seed should be planted deep 
enough to prevent the harrow from raking it out, as the ground 
should be harrowed with a smoothing harrow several times before 
the potatoes come up. After they appear above the surface they 
should be harrowed occasionally until they are large enough to work 
with a two-horse cultivator. The cultivator should be run close 
and deep at the first cultivation. Follow the cultivator each time 
with the weeder until the tops are six or eight inches high. The 
weeder will level off the surface and rake the loose dirt around the 
stalks and prevent the weeds from starting to grow. If the weeds 
can be kept from starting to grow, until the tops are six or eight 
inches high, it is not difficult to keep them under subjection. Some 
weedors might be too severe on the tops, when they are eight or 
ten inches high, but we use a Z. Breed weeder with curved teeth, and 
if the tops are pulled over they will soon straighten up. 



390 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Terhaps the best kuowu insect which attacks the potatoes is the 
Colorado beetle. They do not make their appearance every year, 
but when they do corae in large numbers they must be kept under 
subjection or serious loss will result. If hand picking is depended 
upon it is very essential that all the old bugs be caught, as it has 
been estimated that one female may lay as many as 1,000 eggs in 
its lifetime, and 1,000 eggs, if not destroyed, usually means 1,000 
young bugs. These bugs are most easily killed with poison while 
young. 

There are a number of spraying devices for applying insecticides 
in a liquid form. For small fields the knapsack sprayer is very con- 
venient, but is not practicable for an extensive acreage. The 
sprayer which covers four rows at a time, while speedy, does not do 
as thorough work, on account of not having the spray as well di- 
rected as the barrel pump, with two hose, under the direction of 
two men. The grower of potatoes on a small scale can apply the 
poison very effectively in a dry form which is preferred by many to 
the liquid. 

Paris green is considered to be the best poison and should be 
mixed with something that will form a paste when dampened with 
the first deW' ; it will then adhere to the vines. If it does not adhere 
to the vines until all are hatched a second application should be 
made. Lime or gypsum is often used when applying arsenites in 
a dry form, but wheat flour is more effective as it adheres to the 
vines better. One pound of Paris green to fifteen or twenty pounds 
of flour, is estimated by some to be sufficient for one acre, or more, 
depending upon the size of the vines, while others advocate using 
one pound of Paris green to 150 pounds of land plaster. It can be 
applied by attaching a handle to a can, wdtli a perforated bottom, 
and jarring the can with a stick, being careful to have the buds of 
the plant covered, as the young bugs usually feed upon them after 
h'aving the leaf upon which they w'ere hatched. 

One of the most serious fungus diseases of the potato is the blight. 
It often makes its attack when the tubers are not more than half 
grow^n, considerably reducing the yield. "When serioush' attacked 
the tops die and the tubers stop growing. Some varieties are more 
subject to blight than others, and for the practical grower the 
safest plan is to select the varieties that are the most resistant of 
disease. Strong, vigorous plants have more power to resist the dis- 
ease than delicate plants have. 

A bulletin published by the Ohio Experiment Station says, that 
growers often confuse the bacterial blight with the early bliglit, 
and hence the difference of opinion as to the efficacy of spraying 
with Bordeaux mixture. The bacterial blight causes the branches, 
that are attacked to die, quickly turning black, and it is claimed that 



No. C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 391 

no s])i'ayiiig will pi-cNcnt il. Tlic cnrly l»li};lit is ;i [trcraature spot- 
ting and dyeing of the leaves, and S|n'a.ving with Boi-deaux mixture is 
recommi^nded as a preventive. If I he i)()(aloes are sprayed with 
Paris green to kill bugs, it is advisable to mix il with the Bordeaux; 
mixture, as the one spraying will serve both to kill the bugs and 
prevent the blight. If the weeds have been permitted to grow, they 
should be cut and hauled oil' before digging is commenced, as no 
digger will W'Ork successfully in a weedy field. 

Every grower should be sui)p]ied with a number of bushel crates, 
as they save considerable labor in handling. They should be dis 
tributed over the part of the field to be dug first. The potatoes can 
be picked into the crates or picked into buckets and poured into the 
crates. When the crates are filled, the low x^latform wagon can be 
driven along and the crates loaded on from both sides, and hauled to 
the place of storing, with a small amount of labor. When an early 
or medium early variety of potatoes are grown they can be dug in 
time to SOW' the ground in wheat. If the weeds have been kept 
under subjection, a good seed-bed can be i)repared by harrowing; 
with a spring-tooth harrow. 

The CHAIRMAN: The next subject on the program is: 
'Toultry Houses," by Mr. T. E. Orr, of Beaver, Pa. 
The paper is as follow^s: 



POULTR^^ HOUSES. 



By T. K. Orr, Bearer, Pa. 



The three essentials of poultry management are cleanliness, com- 
fort and convenience. As I can hardh' imagine that any of my 
hearers will start a flock in an old and filthy house, I shall start 
with the second of these requirements, comfort. An uncomfortable 
hen does not sing; an uncomfortable hen does not lay eggs. You 
must have the, songs of joy and comfort before you need carry your 
egg basket out to gather the eggs. Start the singing; raise the tune 
by giving warm quarters and an abundant and varied diet. 

^'Biddy" is no.t a growler. She does not complain if she is uncom- 
fortable; she simply stops doing business. If she has lost a toe, a 
comb or wattle she does not utter a murmur, but her svstem sets 



392 



ANNUAL, REPORT OF THE 



Off. Doc. 



about "restoriug the waste places," and she cannot digest a sullicient 
surplus for egg production until all sores are healed and she is again 
comfortable. 

The guise of ventilation covers a multitude of sins. "1 like plenty 
of ventilation," says the fellow who is too lazy and shiftless to bat- 
ten the cracks in his horse stable. "1 don't want pampered stock. 
I want mine to be hardy," says the alleged dairyman whose cow 
stable is so open that the snow and frost are on the backs of his 
cows in the morning; and then, rather than water them properly, 
he turns them out in cold weather to go to the creek and drink ice 
water, if indeed he takes the trouble to cut away the ice. This is 
the man who thinks "any old thing is good enough for the hens." 
He gets no eggs from Thanksgiving till Easter. Look at his hen- 
house and you will see the reason. I need not describe this building. 
You have all seen it. Ventilation? Bah! 

A hen is not an exacting tenant. She does not demand hardwood 
floors, mahogany furniture nor Brussels carpets, but she must have 
quarters free from draughts. She can endure some cold if her quar- 
ters are dry, but she must not have cold draughts down her back. 
The house need not be expensive, but it must be tight. For these 
reasons we have built our last four houses on the plan here indi- 
cated. One of these houses is passing through its third winter. We 
have never lost a comb or wattle in it. Our next four houses (and 
we are increasing capacity every year) are likely to be on the same 
plan. These houses are all 12 feet wide and in length one is 36, an- 
other 60, and two others each 120 feet long, all being divided into 
compartments 12x12 feet, so the four houses give us a total of 28 
pens each 12 feet square. » 




TTJZ 



Our sills are 8x0; all other framing^ stuff is 2x4 hemlock. The 
rafters are three feet apart, so that every fourth pair are supported 
by two upright pieces 6^ feet long. These help to make a stiflf, 
strong roof, and to these our partition doors are hinged. The front 
of each house, 5^ feet high, is covered with finished weatherboarding 
and painted; so are the ends. The rear, 4^ feet high, likewise the 
roof, is sheeted with hemlock boards, the smooth sidt' in. These are 
covered with three-ply tarred paper of the best quality obtainable, 
and immediately treated to a coat of tar. If this tarring is repeated 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 393 

iu six mouths and ouce each year therc^after (his is a roof that will 
last a dozen years or lon<;er. It is absolutely impervious to either 
water or air. 

The dropping boards of the best tongued aud grooved flooriug 
should tit snugly into the siding at the back of the house so that no 
air can circulate between tlicui. They are thirty inches from the 
floor, leaving abundant scralching room beneath. The perches, 2x4 
scantling, smoothed and flat side up, are 8 inches above the dropping 
boards, and are easily removable for cleaning and painting with 
liquid lice killer occasionally. 

On the two perches, each 12 feet long, there is abundant room for 
30 hens, but we never allow more than 25 in one flock. If we were 
keeping 7,000 hens instead of TOO we should simply multiply these 
four houses tenfold. A house 90 feet long, containing 8 of these 
12x12 apartments, is the best sized house we can imagine. The 
strong feature of this house is its low roof. The hens do not need 
to heat a large volume of air with their bodies. Their perches being 
close to the roof, with both roof and dropping board tight, and well 
removed from the ventilation in front, they can always be comfort- 
able at night. • 

Allow me to insist that you do not make the house higher. I 
would prefer to have it one foot lower but for the inconvenience iu 
cleaning it. The short man who will have a care not to bump his 
head against the rafters may profitably make the rear-posts 3^ feet 
high, the front ones 4| feet, and the tie beam that connects the 
rafters at each partition 5^ feet, and will gain more in eggs every 
month than he will save in lumber. 

Why is this? I do not know. I can only guess at it. The hen's 
body is small and she does not need to give off so much heat to warm 
her house if it is small. The hen ought to have a floor space 2x3 
feet in order to get exercise; but this space need be only one foot 
high, thus giving her a total of 6 cubic feet of air space to place her 
on equal terms with the 1,000 lb. horse or cow that occupies a box 
stall 10x14 and 7 feet high. Now in our little sawed-off house that 
I have suggested, 25 hens have more than five times the cubic air 
space they really need. So it is only to give them room to scratch 
and to give the attendant room to get into it that we make the house 
more than one foot high. 

Now, the business hen does not sutler with the cold much in day- 
time, even in so large a house. Scratching for a living makes her 
blood circulate rapidly. At night is the trying time, and we find 
that wise breeders of Leghorns, particularly, are overcoming the 
difficulty by dropping a muslin curtain from the roof to the front 
edge of the dropping board at night. This gives them a chance to 
warm up a smaller volume of air with their bodies even when inac- 
2(\ 



394 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

live; it cuts off all draii<>hts of air and they rest comfortably dmiug 
the night. In fact, many [.e.ahoin breeders throughout New York 
are shortening- the length of the perches so that the hens must roost 
more compactly together than I have indicated, and thus retain still 
more heat. Of course in moderate weather these, curtains or boards 
are not dropped. We have never used them on Rocks or Wyan- 
dottes and with a house built just as I have indicated they are not 
needed. 

THE FLOOR SPACE. 

Let it be remembered that each compartment for 25 hens is 12 feet 
square. This floor space must not be interfered with in any way, 
but must all be held sacred as a scratching space. With such a 
house we do not need any separate scratching shed. The hens may 
be kept there in a healthy condition from November until April. 
Remember that the dropping board, 30 to 34 inches wide, is 30 inches 
above the floor, so the hens can work clear under it. Not a nest 
box, dust box, feed trough, grit box or water crock is to be on the 
floor. All these must be attached to the walls so the hens can work 
under them, except the troughs for soft fee(i and these are to be 
hung up to the ceiling as soon as they are empty. The litter may be 
oat, wheat or buckwheat straw. We prefer" the last named because, 
it does not become impacted, but the grain settles down through, 
compelling "'biddy" to work hard to get it. It should be forked over 
frequently and renewed before it becomes too foul or broken. 

LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

Our windows are in the middle of the front of each house, 2^ feet 
wide, 3^ feet high, on hinges opening inward. They come down with- 
in one foot of the floor and one can step out into the w^ards through 
them. In April these glass windows come off and wire screens on 
hinges take their place until November. About our only ventila- 
tion is the exits into the j^ards, 9x14 inches. These are seldom 
closed, except in extremely cold weather. 

Morris Davenport, of New York, has invented, and Dr. Santee, of 
the same state, has given much publicity to muslin windows. The 
claim is that they give the right amount of light and ventilation, 
and that they prevent the accumulation of moisture about glass win- 
dows and on the under side of the roof in very cold weather. Last 
month we investigated a number of these houses in northern New 
Y^ork, where Leghorns were kept in safety. We are so nearly con- 
verted to their merits that we shall try them very carefully in the 
next houses we build. 

We do not advise you to build any house out of new lumber in the 



No. fi. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 395 

winter time. Colds, i-oiip jiiul all sorts of I rouble are quite suvr to 
follow. The right time to build a new house is in June or July. 
Finish the frame-work, roofing and flooring thoroughl.y, then put on 
the three-ply tarred paper and then give it a thorough coating of 
tar and let it stand and season during July, August and September. 
Begin to occupy it with your pullets in October. Give it another 
coat of tar then; an additional coat of tar each year, and the house 
will last indefinitely. The bath is just as essential to the hen as to 
the man. She does not need hers in water. Dust is what she wants. 
If you did not save some fine road dust last summer you can probably 
secure some fine coal ashes now. Sift them through a fine sieve so 
that all cinders are taken out. Place at least a bushel of these in 
a box about 2^ feet square and one foot deep, throw in a little grain 
to get them started. Stir the ashes up from the bottom every few 
days and the hens wall soon learn that these ashes are there for 
them to use, and they will make everything in that house dusty. 
The box should be so placed that the sun can shine into it and warm 
the ashes. Wood ashes are not good. The alkali irritates the skin 
and discolors the shanks. A little sulphur mixed through the ashes 
is good. Some are mixing acidulated South Carolina rock-phosphate 
with the ashes with good effect and some use this exclusively for a 
dust bath. I have not tried it, but I fear it is too heavy. 

No one thing has discouraged so many people as lice. There are 
a half dozen varieties on our domestic fowls. I have seen three 
kinds on the same bird at one time. The dust bath will enable 
"biddy" to rid herself of many of them, but there are enough lazy 
hens that will not dust themselves to keep up the supply of lice in 
the house. Besides, some of the most vexatious varieties of lice are 
not on them in daytime, but at night only. For these the dust bath 
has no terrors. There are various powders for dusting hens, but 
except for setting hens the powder business is too slow and too 
laborious. I formerly made lice powders for myself and my neigh- 
bors, but it is no small task to dust a. hundred hens thoroughly, even 
though you have a whirligig machine to help do the work. There 
are several good liquid lice killers, the fumes of which are death to 
all insect life, and these can be applied so rapidly and effectually as 
to make them cheap, even though they cost twice as much as they 
do. Don't be deluded with the kerosene theory. Lice may not enjo} 
or thrive on a diet of kerosene, but there are many varieties of lice 
that will wade through kerosene to do business. 

If you are building a new^ house you can do much in the way of 
prevention. Spray the cracks and corners with the liquid there, a 
terror to new lice and of the detestable mites uninhabitable. Paint 
your dropping boards thoroughly with the liquid when you put them 
in and you will have the disinfecting ordor of the li(iuid there, a ter 



396 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

lor to new lice aud a death to the old oues. Once in two weeks we 
want our 2x4 perches lifted from their sockets and painted with 
the liquid. In winter this has the appearance of a frost on the 
perches. The hen seats herself on the flat side of the perch and 
the heat of her body will send enough of the fumes through her 
feathers to kill the lice. A house treated in this way occasionally 
will never be troubled with lice of any kind, and it is only hens that 
are free from lice that can be profitable. Don't spray the straw 
of the nests with liquid lice killer. It will taint the eggs. The 
nest boxes should be taken out occasional!}' aud all litter removed. 
Then if sprayed aud ventilated before the fresh straw is put in 
there ^vill be no tainting and no lice. 

A Member : Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask the gentleman a few 
questions. If you are to keep 100 chickens would you keep them 
all in the same house? 

MR. OER: That would be a house four times ten feet long. I 
would not myself. I am not ready to say that it is wrong, but I 
have found that whenever you put more than 24 or 30 hens together 
they don't do so well. I am going to conduct an experiment this 
year by starting and putting 200 hens together. The trouble is 
that they will get together at the end of the house or on one perch. 
But for my own w'ork I found we had better results if we did not 
keep more than two dozen together. 

A Member: How do you break up hens that persist in hatching? 

MR. ORR: I will tell you how we do it. We have an extra pen 
away from our houses and we put our hens in there. In the sum- 
mer time we have a little park built outside the house and turn 
them out on that right on the grass. We do not scold or tie a 
string to her leg, but we give them all the feed they will eat, and 
good feed that will stimulate them up to egg laying. 

A Member: Mr. Orr, if you had 100 hens running around the farm 
how are you going to separate them? 

MR. ORR: The hen is a creature of habit. If you put 25 hens in 
a house this fall and keep them there a little while, when you let 
them out they will come back to the same pen; you can train them 
to come back to the same pens in which you have been feeding them. 
You can hardly drive them away. On the farm if you can get the 
hen in the habit of coming back to one place for three or four times 
you can hardly drive her away from it. 

A Member: Mr. Orr, on the average farm don't you think it 
would be more profitable to keep the hens penned up than vuuning 
around the farm? 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 397 

MR. OKK: Yes, sir; if they have average care it is better for the 
heus to be eonfined. 

A Member: Would it not be better to have the hen-house you 
described off the ground six or eight inches on locust posts and have 
a lloor in and ventilation thus furnished and so no vermin could 
get in, and shut up that place with a screen of close wire netting, 
and so that there would be a draught through in warm weather and 
that it could be closed up tight in winter? 

• Mil. ORR: If you are going to put a floor in at all I prefer to raise 
it up. We have one house with a floor in it and another on sloping 
ground without a floor with perches from one to two feet off the 
ground. We have it so t]iat they can get under the house and 
in this warm weather they like that. 

A Member: It is only on account of vermin that T would have the 
floor. 

MR. ORR: So would I if the ground about the house had proper 
drainage. But don't be too sure on the vermin question. I would 
have said once I would give you a dollar for every red mite you could 
find on the place. I was going through one of our houses, which I 
thought was free from vermin, with a gentleman, but the very first 
perch we turned up we found a bunch of these red mites. We got 
out our sprayers and went over every compartment. He was in- 
terested in that lice question and he was as glad as I was embar 
rassed to find that we had lice. So don't be too certain, as I was, 
that you hav'ut any lice. 

A Member: What is the remedy for these lice? 

MR. ORR: There are half a dozen of these liquid lice killers that 
will do the work. 

A Member: Crude oil will do it. 

MR. ORR: Crude oil is a good thing, but it will not kill all lice; 
but there are liquid lice killers that will do it; crude carbolic acid 
will do it. But I want to say this, that I don't care how good your 
remedy is. if you don't use it it is not going to kill them. Remember 
that. 

The CHAIRMAN: The next speaker vnU be Prof. H. A. Surface, 
Economic Zoologist. 

Prof. Surface addressed the assemblage as follows: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: It is not necessary for me to say that 
it is a pleasure for me to be here and meet the gentlemen whom T 
know well, and with whom I have been corresponding for some 
time. It seems that when T come before you or meet with you 
to-day for the first time in my official capacity as Economic Zoolo- 



398 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

gist, I should discuss the fundamental principles of the greatest 
subject with which I have to deal, and that will take us directly, of 
course, to the subject of Economic Entomology, or the application 
of insect remedies. 

As 3'ou know, we are issuing from the Agricultural Department, 
bulletins discussing the insects of each respective month and the 
remedies known for them, because that is the important subject in 
agriculture and horticulture to-day. We have also issued another 
circular, entitled "The Birds Around the Farm." These are entirely 
free of charge and will be sent to persons who write for them or re- 
turn these postal cards. (Holding up cards). If the June numbei 
did not reach their destination it is because we are changing our 
mailing list now; but after this it will be sent regularly the first 
of every month to the persons whose names we have. We are not 
spreading them broadcast, however. They will be put into the 
hands of only those persons who signify their desire to receive them. 
This is an undertaking on my part, with the permission of Secretary 
Critchfield, that means much work, but we are gratified with the 
heart}^ responses we are already receiving from the people. 

I can do little more to-day than to speak to you of the things of 
which I have already written, for we cannot be successful until we 
understand the underlying principles of insect warfare. I have sent 
for a spraying apparatus in order that I could illustrate in a prac- 
tical manner some of these things. There is just a word of explana- 
tion concerning this: If I should show you an apparatus, it is not 
that I am advertising this machine, at all. This is the apparatus 
that will best suit my purposes and the company gratuitously sent it 
to me upon the condition that I place their catalogues in this room, 
and that I have already done. That is all the advertising I am going 
to give. 

In the first place, we know that the insects that attack our crops 
are divided into two classes: First, the suctorial insects, or those 
that feed by sucking the juices from the organisms on which they 
live, as do the squash bugs, scale insects, plant lice, etc.; the other 
class is the chewing insects, that chew the tissues of the plants as 
do the beetles, cut worms, army worms, corn worms, cabbage worms, 
etc. Now, as a consequence, insecticides are divided into two 
classes: Those intended to kill by contact (consequently those that 
must be used for suctorial insects); and secondly, stomach poisons, 
or those that are intended to be for the chewing insects. You can 
readily see that if the plants were covered with Paris green or any 
other poison, a suctorial insect would not be affected, because its 
bill would be inserted into the plant, and it, therefore, would not 
get the ])oison api)lied on the surface. These insects must be al- 
tacked with the contact poisons which kill every thing with which 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 399 

Ihev come into contact. The chewing insects are kiUed by takini? 
into their stomachs the poisonous remedies that are applied to the 
plants. For example, I receiA'^ed a branch of a cherry tree with the 
leaves all curled up by the cherry Aphis. It would be absolutely 
impossible to kill these insects now with contact applications, but 
had the applications been made at the right time before these in- 
sects had caused the leaves to roll and twist into protecting shields, 
then their bodies could have been rearhed and they would have been 
killed. The plant lice are the cause of the leaves thus rolling and 
twisting. Thy are bad in some parts of the State. After they are 
in the curl of the leaf there is nothing to do but to cut olf the 
branches alfected. When inside a curled leaf you cannot reach 
them. The remedies must be applied before the leaves curl — just 
about the time the buds are bursting, especially for the apple Aphis. 
A man in Crawford countv WTote to me before the buds burst and 
sent me some apple buds, and I found that they were infested with 
the Aphis. I told him to make the application of whale oil soap, 
or kerosene mixture or emulsion as soon as the first green leaves 
began to appear. He did so, and wrote me later that he had de- 
stroyed all the pests. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, we have heard a great deal about kero- 
sene emulsion. I have this apjiaratus here to show you something 
that has taken its place. We regard the emulsion as difficult to 
make and unpleasant to apply, and for this reason I could print in 
these monthly bulletins "use kerosene emulsion," month after 
month, and the people would not do it. Now, the substance as a 
contact application that is taking its place is a mixtfire of kerosene 
and water. The object in making kerosene emulsion is that the 
oil will be in fine particles and will be diluted by water. You cannot 
apply kerosene stronger than 20 per cent, without injuring foliage, 
and that is too strong for peach and cherry and the American and 
Japanese plums. Now, taking the place of the kerosene emulsion 
and water mixture that is made by some apparatus of the kind, I 
have here. Into this tank the kerosene is placed. (Indicating.) 
Here is an index showing the percentage of kerosene in proportion 
to the water. This tank is then placed in a vessel of water and 
we set the index at the percentage of oil desired. About 15 per 
cent, is generally used. I will spray a little of this out of the 
window. 

I have here an appliance that I have arranged that is convenient. 
There are two kinds of nozzles here used; the one is the Bordeaux; 
the other is the Deming-Vermorel nozzle. This attachment is for 
spraying the underside of leaves of vines, such as cucumber, melon 
and the like. You will notice quite a difference in the kind of s])ray 
thrown by these two; one goes as a genuine spray or mist, like fog; 



400 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

the other reaches some distance, but falls in drops, sprinkling like 
rain. Where we have to reach into the tree tops, by turning this 
valve (indicating) jou will notice we get a different effect. You see 
that the one is of larger drops than the other; that is, it is doing 
niore sprinkling than spraying. The double nozzle is not generally 
used by the hand sprayer. The spray is a water mist and does not 
require much power for that. The man who has an orchard must 
use a larger apparatus. The point that I wish particularly to make 
in showing this apparatus is that we add the kerosene in the vessel 
and at the instant the spray itself is made, and the chemical mix- 
ture is effected. For the peach or plum we use from 10 to 15 per 
cent, of kerosene; for the apple and pear from 15 to 20 per cent, of 
kerosene; for lice on any animals or in poultry house a 10 to 30 per 
cent, kerosene mixture is recommended. T have never tried it in 
that quantity. 

A Member: How strong should it be for rose bushes? 

PROF. SURFACE : Fifteen per cent, kerosene is the average. I 
have used that successfully upon rose bushes this year. Another 
thing that I can recommend instead of the kerosene mixtures is 
whale oil soap, one pound to six or eight gallons of water. I have 
nsed that this year on many kinds of leaves, for the slug, etc., on 
rose leaves and for plant lice. The only thing is, that when it is 
used on an extensive scale, it is expensive. If applied to a large 
orchard it is expensive; but so far a few plants in the orchard or 
garden I should recommend whale oil soap in most cases. There 
are two well known manufacturers of this soap, one in New York 
and the other in Philadelphia. I have used Good's Caustic Potash 
^^'hale Oil Soap (941 Front St., Philadelphia), with the best results. 
This mixing apparatus does not require any material as expensive 
as that. For using the whale oil soap, kerosene emulsion, Bordeaux 
mixture, or Paris green, this pump is all that is needed. 

In the first place, the man who does not spray for plant diseases 
is not up to the times at all. We cannot handle the blights, the mil- 
'iews, the rusts, black knots, rots, anthracnose and other kinds of 
plant diseases without spraying apparatus and the proper remedy. 
For such diseases the Bordeaux mixture is generally used success- 
fully. W^e can combine the Bordeaux mixture with poisons, such 
as Paris green and arsenite of lime, and thus produce a mixture 
that is both an insecticide and a fungicide. The Bordeaux mixture 
Is simply made. Take four pounds of quick lime; dissolve four 
pounds of sulphate of copper in warm water, but not in the metal 
vessel; then pour them together slowly in 50 gallons of water, 
stirring as it is done, and you have Bordeaux mixture. This mix- 
ture is not to kill insects. It is excellent to drive off flea beetles or 
small insects that are putting holes through the leaves of the potato 



No. 6. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 401 

and otlic'i' plauls. It is tlie best thing for plant diseases that can 
be reeonimen<led. if to tliat 50 gallons of Uoideanx mixture you\ 
add four ounces of Paris green, yon have something that is eifective 
for the chewing insects and for the jjlant diseases, for the codling 
moth, etc., but it does not kill the class of insects that are sucto 
rial. We have tried it for the blight on melons and it has worked 
perfectly for that, but it is likely.to make a stain on the ripened fruit 
like a thin, bluish white-wash. That can be overcome by using for 
the last spraying a formula of a colorless remedy that I am giving 
in the June bulletin of the Division of Zoology, which is being sent 
out this week. It is the ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate. 
This iS' a clear solution and does not leave a stain. For example, 
take the brown rot of the peach. This must be met by an ai)pli- 
cation just about the time the peach is ripening, and if we apply the 
Bordeaux mixture at that time our fruit is so stained that it is not 
marketable; but if we apply a stainless mixture, as described, we 
have a fungicide or remedy for that disease that will not stain the 
fruit and is effective. It is good for the cherry and other fruits that 
may rot; the last spraying made should be the application of the 
stainless solution. Another point is that when a man is spraying 
for something like the apple scab, if Paris green is added, it will 
also kill the codling moth and other chewing insect foes. 

A Member: How would you protect the roses from the rose bug? 

PROF. SURFACE: There is no man living that can give you an 
effective remedy for the rose bug. It is recommended to spray with 
whale oil soap, kerosene mixture, Bordeaux mixture, etc. Shake 
them off into a cloth that is saturated with kerosene, or into an 
open umbrella, and burn them. That is about he only thing that 
can be done. They are poisoned so slowly that it takes two days 
to kill them. 

A Member: What about the San Jos6 Scale? 

PROF. SURFACE : You who are raising fruit should be intensely 
interested in this subject. If left alone it would cover this State 
like leprosy. The San Jos6 Scale during this month of June, from 
the 5th to 20th or later, is in a young and tender stage. It is then 
we can make the summer applications, but applications made in 
August or September would not avail. Use whale oil soap, one 
pound to five gallons of water, from the 10th to the 25th of June, and 
you will be able to hold the San Jose Scale in check until fall. Then 
when the leaves are off the trees trim back as much as advisable 
and then wash with a strong soap suds or spray with whale oil soap, 
two pounds to one gallon of water (that is strong); or use the "lime, 
sulphur and salt wash," to be described in one of our winter bul- 
letins. 

26— 6— 19«8 



402 ANNUAL. REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

A Member: Don't that application luu-t the foliage of the tree? 

PROF. SURFACE: It will, if continued frequently, but if applied 
only once or twice in a season, it will not. 1 have tried it on deli- 
cate plants this year. I have tried it one pound to two gallons of 
water and killed lice on rose bushes this summer. 

For the chewing insects, the chief remedy is Paris green, but 
there is one that is better. This is the arsenite of lime. It is the 
cheapest and most effective and the easiest to apply, because it does 
not require stirring. It is the best all around poisonous insecticide. 
This is made by boiling white arsenic in two parts of water. Take 
half a pound of white arsenic, two parts of sal-soda and two parts 
of water and boil until the w^hite arsenic is dissolved; then use only 
one pint of this solution with 50 gallons of water, and two pounds 
of freshly slacked lime, and you will find it is more effective than 
Paris green. It has the advantage of not requiring stirring like 
other applications that are merely mechanical mixtures instead of 
soluti