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Itt^. 

WAR DEPARTMENT 

Annual Reports, 1916 

(IN THREE VOLUMES) 



Volume I 

Reports of 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR 

THE CHIEF OF STAFF 

THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 

THE INSPECTOR GENERAL 

THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL 

THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL 

THE SURGEON GENERAL 

THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE 

THE CHIEF SIGNAL OFFICER 

THE CHIEF OF MILITIA BUREAU 

THE CHIEF OF COAST ARTILLERY 

THE SUPERINTENDENT MILITARY ACADEMY 

THE CHICKAMAUGA AND CHATTANOOGA 

PARK COMMISSION 
THE GETTYSBURG PARK COMMISSION 
THE SHILOH PARK COMMISSION 
THE VICKSBURG PARK COMMISSION 



ARRANGEMENT OF THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT 
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1916. 



Volume I Secretary of War. 

Chief of Staff. 

The Adjutant General. 

Inspector General. 

Judge Advocate General. 

Quartermaster General. 

Surgeon General. 

Chief of Ordnance. 

Chief Signal Officer. 

Chief of Militia Bureau. 

Chief of Coast Artillery. 

Superintendent Military Academy. 

Chickamauga and Chattanooga Park Commission. 

Gettysburg Park Commission. 

Shiloh Park Commission. 

Vicksburg Park Conmiission. 

Volume II Chief of Engineers (without Appendices). 

Volume in Chief of Bureau of Insular Affaire. 

Governor of Porto Rico. 
The Philippine CommJaaioiu 



i 



i M 



CONTENTS. 



PagiL 

Report of the Secretary of WarX 5 

Report of the Chief of Staff .K 153 

Report of The Adjutant General.^ 233 

Report of the Inspector General i^. 295 

Report of the Judge Advocate Genei a! i 307 

Report of the Quartermaster General .". 329 

Report of the Surgeon General.*! 463 

Report of the Chief of Ordnance.*: 803 

Report of the Chief Signal Officer !: 857 

Report of the Chief of Militia Bureau 893 

Report of the Chief of Coast Artillery 1161 

Report of the Su^rintendent Military Acadenay .". 1179 

Report of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga rark Commission 1219 

Report of the Gettysburg Park Commission 1227 

Report of the Shiloh Park Commission 1239 

Report of the Vickaburg Park Commission 1249 

3 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 



War Department, 

Washington^ D. (7., November £0^ 1916. 
To the President: 

I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of 
this department for the past year : 

On February 10, 1916, Hon. Lindley M. Garrison resigned as Secre- 
tary of War, and on February 11, 1916, Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott, 
United States Army, Chief of Staff, was appointed by you Secretary 
of War, ad interim, under the provisions of section 179, Revised 
Statutes. Gen. Scott served until March 9, 1916, when I took the 
oath of office as Secretary of War. 

THE MEXICAN SITUATION. 

TJie raid on Columbus^ N. Mex.^ and the Pershing Expedition. — 
The disturbed conditions on the Mexican border culminated in an 
attack by Mexican bandits on Columbus, N. Mex. A description of 
this attack and of several engagements that followed it, gathered from 
the reports received by the Department, is given below : 

On the night of March 8-9, 1916, the Mexican outlaw, Francisco 
Villa, with a force variously estimated at from 500 to 1,000 men, 
crossed the international border from Mexico to the United States 
at a point about 3 miles west of the border-line gate and concentrated 
his force for an attack on the town of Columbus, N. Mex. The attack 
was made during hours of extreme darkness and was for the purpose, 
according to information subsequently obtained by the military 
authorities, of looting the town after disposing of the garrison. A 
fight ensued in which 7 American soldiers were killed and 2 officers 
and 5 soldiers were wounded, and 8 civilians killed and 2 wounded- 
The Mexican bandits killed in the town, the camp, and on the border 
line numbered 67, while the wounded and captured number^ 7. 

7 



8 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

Immediately after the raid one troop of Cavalry crossed the border 
and pursued the Mexicans. An additional troop, stationed at the 
border-line gate, also mounted and struck the retreating Mexicans 
in the flank; the two troops, then joining, continued the pursuit of 
the Mexicans south for a distance of 12 miles, discontinuing the pur- 
suit only when their ammunition was e2diausted and the horses and 
men, without water and almost exhausted, could continue- no longer. 
The bandits in the meantime retreated in a southeasterly direction. 
During this running fight a nimiber of Mexicans, estimated to be 
between 70 and 100, were killed, but no accurate estimate of the 
woimded can be made. Much property and many animals were aban- 
doned by the Mexicans in their flight. 

On March 10, 1916, the commanding general of the southern de- 
partment was directed to organize an adequate military force under 
the command of Brig. Gren. John J. Pershing, with instructions to 
proceed promptly across the border in pursuit of the Mexican out- 
laws who had attacked Columbus. Under these instructions, two 
colunms were organized, one starting from Columbus and the other 
from Culberson's ranch. The advance of the Columbus column, con- 
sisting of 7 troops of the Thirteenth Cavalry, the Sixth and Six- 
teenth Infantry, Battery C, Sixth Field Artillery, and Ambulance 
Company No. 7, started, on March 15, on the road, through Palomas, 
Ascension, Corralitos, toward Casas Grandes. The Culberson col- 
umn, consisting of the Seventh Cavalry, 10 troops of the Tenth 
Cavalry, and Battery B, Sixth Field Artillery, left the same night, 
via the Ojitas route, and arrived at Colonia Dublan, 4 miles north of 
Nueva Casas Grandes, on the night of March 17. These troops pushed 
rapidly south, the bandits scattering and fleeing from their front. 
Gen. Pershing was acting under orders to respcQt in every manner 
the sovereignty and rights of Mexico and her people, and to avoid 
all possible occasion of conflict with, or irritation to, the representa- 
tives of the de facto Government of Mexico. 

The ParroL incident, — During the pursuit of Villa and his fol- 
lowers, Maj. Frank Tompkins, Thirteenth Cavalry, with Troops K 
and M of that regiment, imder the command of Col. W. C. Brown, 
Tenth Cavalry, camped outside of the town of Parral, Mexico, and 
sent a detachment of soldiers to the town for the purpose of purchas- 
ing supplies, at about 11 o'clock a. m., April 12, 1916. Maj. Tomp- 
kins was cordially received by the higher civil and military officials. 



REPOBT OP THE SECBETABY OP WAB. 9 

The Meidcan general, Lozano, accompanied Maj. Tompkins on his 
way to the camp. On the outskirts of the town, groups of native 
soldiers and civilians jeered, threw stones, and fired on the colunm. 
Maj. Tompkins at once took a defensive position north of the rail- 
road but was soon flanked by Mexican troops and forced to retire. 
The American troops continued to withdraw to avoid further com- 
plications until they reached Santa Cruz, 8 miles from Parral. Gen. 
Lozano attempted to control his men when the fighting first began 
but failed. The known casualties were 2 American soldiers killed, 
2 oflRcers and 4 soldiers wounded, 1 soldier missing, and 40 Mexican 
soldiers killed. The number of Mexican soldiers wounded is not 
known, although it is known that one Mexican civilian was wounded. 

The Carrizal incident, — For some time subsequent to this, Gen. 
Pershing's force maintained itself in substantially the same position, 
using scouting parties and detachments for the purpose of locating 
the force of Villa, which had been broken up and scattered in various 
directions through the difficult and mountainous country through 
which the expedition had penetrated. 

On the morning of the 21st of June, 1916, Troops C and K of the 
Tenth Cavalry, under the command of Capt. Charles T. Boyd, while 
on the way to Villa Ahumada on such a scouting expedition, reached 
the town of Carrizal, and sought permission from the commanding 
officer of the Mexican forces garrisoned there to pass through the 
town in order to reach Villa Ahumada. Gen. Gomez, the Mexican 
commander, sent an officer of his command to the American troops 
denying the permission requested. During the conference, Mexican 
troops were seen to move toward the flank of the American troops. 
The latter assumed a defensive position, but an engagement immedi- 
ately ensued, in which Capt. Charles T. Boyd and Lieut. Henry R. 
Adair, Tenth Cavalry, and 7 enlisted men, were killed, and Capt. 
Lewis S. Morey, Tenth Cavalry, and 9 enlisted men were wounded. 
Twenty-three enlisted men of the Tenth Cavalry and 1 civilian in- 
terpreter were captured and sent to Chihuahua City. The number 
of Mexicans killed is estimated to have been 39, including Gen. Gomez. 
The number of wounded is not known. The 23 enlisted men and the 
civilian interpreter captured by the Mexicans were released and re- 
turned to the United States with their property and equipment. 

Gen. Pershing's force has been on Mexican soil since the 15th 
day of March, during part of the time engaged in active and vigor- 



10 BEPOBT OF THE BECBETABY OF WAB. 

ous pursuit of bandits, but during the larger part of the time en- 
camped generally in the neighborhood of Colonia Dublan. The 
orders to this expedition pointedly enjoined the maintenance of cor- 
dial relations with the native population and the most entire respect 
for the dignity and sovereignty of the Government of Mexico and its 
military commanders and forces. It gives me great pleasure to point 
out the fidelity with which these instructions have been obeyed. 
Gen. Pershing's force has not only maintained itself in a state of 
physical fitness and cheerful loyalty to its task, but the men have 
developed into a robust and vigorous body of troops, and their rela- 
tions with the native population in Mexico have been characterized 
by cordiality and friendliness, which was highly creditable to the 
discipline and spirit of American soldiers. I can not too highly 
praise the members of this expeditionary force, its commander, and 
its men, for the restraint, self-control, and zeal which they have dis- 
played and for the credit which they have reflected upon American 
arms. 

Bandit raids across the Mexican border. — In addition to the raid 
on Columbus, N. Mex., several raids of more or less importance have 
occurred during the period covered by this report, the most notable 
of them being : 

Glenn Springs, Tex., May 5, 1916, the casualties being 3 American 
soldiers and 1 civilian killed ; 8 American soldiers woimded. At this 
place, it is believed that 2 Mexican bandits were killed and a number 
wounded, although it was impossible to secure definite information. 

San Ygnacio, Tex., June 15, 1916, the casualties being 4 American 
soldiers killed and 5 wounded ; 6 Mexican bandits killed. 

Near Fort Hancock, Tex., July 31, 1916, 1 American soldier and 1 
civilian (United States customs inspector) killed, and 1 American 
soldier woimded; 3 Mexicans killed and 3 captured by Mexican de 
facto Government troops. 

Call of the Organized Militia and National Guard into the service of 
the United States. — ^The known presence of large numbers of bandit 
forces and irregular military organizations, hostile alike to the de facto 
Government of Mexico and to the Government and people of the United 
States, made it apparent that further aggression upon the territory of 
the United States was to be expected. The Mexican border is a long 
and irregular boundary line, passing in places through cities and 



EEPOBT OP THE 8ECRETABY OP WAB. 11 

towns, but for great stretches running through sparsely settled re- 
gions and through a wild and difficult country. The forces at the 
disposal of the commander of the Southern Department for the 
protection of this border had been strengthened from time to time 
by the transfer to that department of a very large part of .the Regu- 
lar Army within the limits of the continental United States, includ- 
ing some detachments of Coast Artillery forces, withdrawn from 
their coast defense stations. It was, however, clear that even thus 
strengthened the forces under Gen. Funston's command were inade- 
quate to patrol this long and difficult line and to assure safety to the 
life and property of American citizens against raids and depreda- 
tions. The President, therefore, deemed it proper to exercise the 
authority vested in him by the Constitution and laws to call out the 
Organized Militia. On May 9, 1916, he issued a call, through the 
governors of the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, direct- 
ing the concentration of the militia of those States at places to be 
designated by the commanding general of the Southern Department. 
San Antonio, Columbus, and Douglas were designated as the 
places of concentration for the Militia of Texas, Arizona, and New 
Mexico, respectively, and upon the arrival of the militia, the neces- 
sary procedure for their muster into the service of the United States, 
under the provisions of the act approved January 21, 1903, as amended 
by the act of Congress approved May 27, 1908, was at once entered 
upon and vigorously prosecuted, the greater part of the militia, so 
called, having been mustered into the service of the United States 
before the close of the fiscal year. It was also directed by the de- 
partment that the Federal authorities assume the duty of recruiting 
for the militia service of the United States. In accordance with 
these directions, the commanding general of the Southern Depart- 
ment was ordered on May 27, 1916, to detail officers and enlisted 
men from the Texas Militia mustered into the service of the United 
States to recruit the Militia of Texas to its full strength, and similar 
orders with respect to recruiting were issued with regard to the 
militia of other States at a later date. The reasons which caused the 
President to issue the call for the Militia of Texas, Arizona, and 
New Mexico on May 9, 1916, impelled him, on June 18, 1916, to call 
into the service of the United States a large part of the Organized 
Militia and National Guard of the other States of the Union and the 



12 REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

District of Columbia, the call being duly issued on the date last 
mentioned through the governors of all the States concerned and the 
Commanding General of the District of Columbia Militia. 

In the meantime, the National-Defense Act had been approved June 
8, 1916, providing, among other things, for the transition of the 
Organized Militia of the several States and the District of Columbia 
into the National Guard, by taking the oath prescribed by that act, 
and this transition was in progress in the several States when the 
call of June 18 was made. The call of the President found the 
militia at the very beginning of its transition from the Organized 
Militia, provided in the earlier legislation, into the National Guard, 
provided by the recent National-Defense Act. There had been no time 
for the completion of the procedures provided for perfecting the 
National Guard, so that the mass o'f detail which under ordinary 
circumstances is involved in the concentration of the militia at 
various mobilization points was increased by the fact that some of 
the organizations existed wholly under their earlier status, some had 
completed their organization under the National-Defense Act, and 
some were in the course of changing their relation to the Federal 
Government from that provided by one to that provided by the other 
of these laws. Moreover, the provisions of the National-Defense Act, 
not having previously been applied, were required to be interpreted 
in many respects. There had not yet been time to work out in an 
orderly way interpretations of the act and instructions under it 
for the guidance either of officers of the Begular Army or of the 
militia, who were required to cooperate in such a movement. The 
task thus imposed upon the department and the chiefs of the bureaus 
concerned was most exacting, and I can not too highly praise the zeal 
and intelligence with which these difficulties were met or the self- 
sacrifice with which the personnel of the department devoted itself 
day and night to the speedy, orderly, and successful accomplishment 
of its task. 

To have worked out each detail, completed the transition of such 
State organizations, and i-ecruited it to its full strength before trans- 
ferring these forces to the border would have taken more time than 
the exigencies of the situation permitted. Instructions were there- 
fore given on June 28 to the commanding generals of the Eastern 
Central, and Western Departments to transfer each unit to tlie 
border as soon as it was reasonably equipped for field service. 



BEPOBT OF THE SECRETAKY OF WAR. 18 

On August 31, 1916, the date of the latest complete returns re- 
ceived, the troops in the Southern Department consisted of 2,160 offi- 
cers and 45,873 enlisted men of the Regular Army, and 5,446 officers 
and 105,080 enlisted men of the National Guard, making a total of 
7,606 officers and 150,953 enlisted men in that department. On the 
date given there were 1,557 officers and 28,176 enlisted men of the 
National Guard in the other military departments, making a total of 
7,003 officers and 133,256 enlisted men of the National Guard in the 
Federal service on August 31, 1916. 

The 'present situation. — The mere presence of this enlarged force 
on the border has served to preserve peace and to protect life and 
property. Disturbances by outlaws and bandits in northern Mexico 
have continued and roving bands of various numbers have moved 
through the territory, harassing Mexican forces and raiding Mexi- 
can communities, but they have not ventured an attack upon the 
people of the United States. In the meantime the militia forces on 
the border have been drilled, their organizations perfected, and 
their personnel accustomed to life in camp in the performance of 
this defensive duty. On the advice of the military commanders, it 
has been determined that full protection can be given on the border 
without utilizing the entire force of the National Guard in the 
service of the United States. The department therefore determined 
to send from time to time from their State mobilization camps por- 
tions of the National Guard which had not as yet done border duty, 
and in exchange for these freshly arrived contingents, the command- 
ing general of the Southern Department has been directed to select 
equivalent nimibers of troops which have been in actual border 
service for return to their home stations for muster out. ThcHe 
movements have been taking place with some rapidity and are now 
substantially completed. The number of National Guard now on the 
border is substantially 110,000 officers and men. 

From the beginning the department appreciated the sacrifice which 
the members of the National Guard were called upon to make in the 
interest of the national defense. These organizationw, made up of 
men engaged in all sorts of industrial, commercial, and profeiwional 
activity, were sununoned suddenly and without op[Xirtunity ade- 
quately to provide for a prolonged absenr^e from home. In many 
instances family illness, business commitmentM^ and other pressing 



14 REPORT OP THE SECRETART OF WAR. 

©ngagements had to be faced, and an effort was made by the depart- 
ment in the presence of extreme cases of hardships to minimize the 
sacrifice. The most distressing class of cases were, of course, those 
of men with dependent families or relatives for whom no provision 
had been made and who were entirely dependent upon the peace- 
time earnings of the citizen soldier. A number of cases were pre- 
sented in which members of the National Guard were the occupants 
of public office, the continued functions of which were essential to 
the National and State Governments, and in some instances members 
of the National Guard were found to be pivotal and apparently in- 
dispensable directors of industrial and commercial enterprises upon 
which the Government is obliged to rely for the proper supply of 
commissary and equipment to the Army itself. The department 
attempted to deal with these embarrassments on the principle that the 
thing best for the National Guard, the thing which would tend to 
strengthen and build it up, would be most in harmony with the inten- 
tion of the Congress in the National-Defense Act. A limited number 
of discharges were therefore granted on the ground of public policy, 
so as not to weaken the spirit of the National Guard at home by de- 
priving it of the regular performance of the governmental functions 
or of the industrial and commercial operations upon which its sup- 
ply and maintenance depended. For the relief of those members of 
the National Guard having dependent families or relatives an order 
was made authorizing the discharge of all soldiers so circumstanced 
upon their own application. A relatively small number of members 
of the National Guard took advantage of this order and were re- 
turned to their homes. By this means acute distress was prevented 
and the organization of community relief for dependent families, 
which had been imdertaken in many places as soon as the call for the 
Guard was issued, was rendered less burdensome. The Congress later 
appropriated the sum of $2,000,000 to be expended by the department 
under certain limitations provided in the act in the care of the de- 
pendents of soldiers, and this operation made unnecessary the con- 
tinuance of the original order authorizing the discharge of such 
members of the Guard. The order was therefore withdrawn, and the 
department is now engaged in the distribution of the funds provided 
by Congi*ess for the object stated. 

The National Guard is, both by law and in contemplation of its 
members, the line of defense immediately back of the Regular Army. 



BEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAB. 15 

It is organized for the purpose of responding quickly to emergency 
calls, but our country has been singularly free from international 
boundary difficulty which required more force than could be found 
in the organizations of the Regular Army within the country. The 
sort of duty presented by the Mexican difficulty, therefore, is un- 
usual and may well have been unanticipated. The readiness with 
which the militia responded to this call was most gratifying, and 
when the transitional condition in which it was found by the call is 
remembered, the confusions and difficulties attending the mobiliza- 
tion will seem insignificant in comparison with its success and with 
the splendid spirit with which both men and officers of the National 
Guard responded. 

The duty in Mexico and on the border has been of the most trying 
kind which soldiers can be called upon to perform. The move- 
ment and enthusiasm of active military operations supplies a spirit 
of its own, but the soldier who is required to wait inactive finds it 
difficult to reconcile himself to the privations of camp life and to the 
separations from home, friends, and normal occupation required 
of him, and yet this most trying of services is just what has been 
required of our Regular Army and of the National Guard on the 
border. Their time has of course been used in profitable military 
training, and an enormous incidental advantage has accrued to the 
country therefrom. But it is not strange that some restlessness and 
complaint have been heard both from an occasional member of one 
of the Guard forces and from their friends at home who have not 
appreciated the necessity for their sacrifice, in view of the absence 
of active operations. These complaints, however, have been minor 
and infrequent. The spirit of the regiments has been high, their 
service cheerful, and their appreciation both of their opportunity 
for public service and of the value of the training received by them 
has been evidenced from all quarters. 

In a subsequent part of this report I deal with the question of 
health and sanitation, so that I here but remark in passing that the 
health of the soldiers on the border has been remarkable; their 
freedom from camp fevers and from serious illnesses of all kinds is 
perhaps as striking an incident of efficient medical supervision as 
can be found in the history of any army. The initial difficulties of 
supply and transportation were soon solved. I have personally met 
the officers and men of several regiments which have returned from 



14 REPORT OF THE SECBETART OF WAR. 

engagements had to be faced, and an effort was made by the depart- 
ment in the presence of extreme cases of hardships to minimize the 
sacrifice. The most distressing class of cases were, of course, those 
of men with dependent families or relatives for whom no provision 
had been made and who were entirely dependent upon the peace- 
time earnings of the citizen soldier. A number of cases were pre- 
sented in which members of the National Guard were the occupants 
of public office, the continued functions of which were essential to 
the National and State Governments, and in some instances members 
of the National Guard were found to be pivotal and apparently in- 
dispensable directors of industrial and commercial enterprises upon 
which the Government is obliged to rely for the proper supply of 
commissary and equipment to the Army itself. The department 
attempted to deal with these embarrassments on the principle that the 
thing best for the National Guard, the thing which would tend to 
strengthen and build it up, would be most in harmony with the inten- 
tion of the Congress in the National-Defense Act. A limited number 
of discharges were therefore granted on the groimd of public policy, 
so as not to weaken the spirit of the National Guard at home by de- 
priving it of the regular performance of the governmental functions 
or of the industrial and commercial operations upon which its sup- 
ply and maintenance depended. For the relief of those members of 
the National Guard having dependent families or relatives an order 
was made authorizing the discharge of all soldiers so circumstanced 
upon their own application. A relatively small number of members 
of the National Guard took advantage of this order and were re- 
turned to their homes. By this means acute distress was prevented 
and the organization of community relief for dependent families, 
which had been undertaken in many places as soon as the call for the 
Guard was issued, was rendered less burdensome. The Congress later 
appropriated the sum of $2,000,000 to be expended by the department 
under certain limitations provided in the act in the care of the de- 
pendents of soldiers, and this operation made unnecessary the con- 
tinuance of the original order authorizing the discharge of such 
members of the Guard. The order was therefore withdrawn, and the 
department is now engaged in the distribution of the funds provided 
by Congress for the object stated. 

The National Guard is, both by law and in contemplation of its 
members, the line of defense immediately back of the Regular Army. 




, »- • 



1. •* 






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BEPOET OF THE 8ECRETAEY OP WAR. 17 

opportunities of the kind. In the development of such a program 
we can remember that for the most part any Army is made up of 
young men, and those wholesome recreations and activities to which 
young men normally resort can be made the basis of what the Army 
ought to undertake to supply for its own uses, 
r ^ Transportation of the Regular Arm/y and militia to the Mexican 
harder, — In a previous portion of this report I have discussed the raid 
on Columbus, N. Mex., and the military measures adopted in con- 
sequence of it, including the call of the Organized Militia and 
National Guard into the service of the United States. It seems 
to me worth while, however, to make a somewhat detailed refer- 
ence to the transportation of these troops to the Mexican border, 
both because I desire an opportunity to report specifically the efficient 
cooperation of the railroads with the Government and also be- 
cause the general question of transportation facilities is one of 
very great military importance. 

The railroads of the United States have been built in response 
to commercial and industrial needs. Our continent has been de- 
veloped and opened up by a process of railroad building which 
had in view the transportation of raw materials and finished prod- 
ucts, rendering our mineral and lumber resources accessible and 
enabling our rapidly increasing population to develop the agri- 
cultural and economic resources of the Nation. It is probably just 
to say, however, that very little thought has been given in our 
railroad development to their possible use for military purposes. 
We have built no strategic railroads, our frontiers have been neg- 
lected as possible scenes of military operations, and there has ac- 
cordingly been little or no railroad building which had as its object 
a possible call upon the railroads of the country rapidly to trans- 
port large bodies of men and to maintain continuous streams of 
military supplies for their support. This was not unnatural, as 
the wide seas have been the frontier of the United States, and we 
have been in contact with no highly organized and powerful mili- 
tary nation. Our relations with our continental neighbors have 
been peaceful and friendly, and the development of civilization 
on this continent has had an industrial and commercial aspect 
with little or no suggestion of military preparation. We have, 
it is true, given far less thought to the problem of transportation 

69176*'--WAB 1916— VOL 1 2 



16 EEPORT OF THE SECBETAEY OF WAB. 

the border, and without minimizing the inconvenience to which 
these men have been put and the sacrifices which they have made, I 
can not help feeling that they have received some compensation from 
the experience, as they present uniformly pictures of splendid, 
vigorous bodies of men, trained and disciplined, and with the added 
dignity which comes from having performed a saving service for 
their country. 

Many valuable lessons will be learned from this mobilization experi- 
ence which the department hopes can be applied in further organiza- 
tion of the National Guard. As yet it is too soon to sum up in detail 
all of these experiences, nor would it be just to the Guard to measure 
its response to this need by a mere statistical exhibit of its condition 
at the time of the call or the time of the transfer of its units to the 
border. In this connection, however, I desire to point out that 
under modern conditions one of the great needs of the Army organ- 
ization is a suitable program of recreational activity for soldiers 
during periods of enforced inactivity. In his home station the 
soldier of the Regular Army will undoubtedly in the future make 
use more and more largely of educational opportunities and there 
will be automatically evolved certain recreational activities proper 
to the place, the climate, and the disposition of the men, but the 
soldier in camp has not the permanent facilities which can be found 
in the well-ordered Army post. His entire time can not be spent 
in drill, and there is, therefore, very great need for the development 
of a systematic plan which will provide for the soldier under such 
conditions an opportunity for sound, healthful, and agreeable recrea- 
tion. The Young Men's Christian Association has realized this need 
and most generously undertaken to provide facilities for our troops 
on the border which under the conditions may be regarded as com- 
parable to social and recreational opportunities offered by their 
institutions to the young men of our cities. Undoubtedly, this 
service has been of the highest value and has been appreciated by 
the men as well as by the department. I venture, however, to express 
the hope that we shall be able to devise, as a part of our own siys- 
tematic provision for the Army, recreational facilities and opportuni- 
ties which will follow the Army to its camp, and both brighten the 
life of the Army and occupy the leisure of its members when the 
exigencies of the service require their separation from accustomed 



BEPOET OF THE 8ECRETAEY OP WAB. 17 

opportunities of the kind. In the development of such a program 
we can remember that for the most part any Army is made up of 
young men, and those wholesome recreations and activities to which 
young men normally resort can be made the basis of what the Army 
ought to undertake to supply for its own uses. 

Transportation of the Regulor Arm/y and militia to the Mexican 
border, — In a previous portion of this report I have discussed the raid 
on Columbus, N. Hex., and the military measures adopted in con- 
sequence of it, including the call of the Organized Militia and 
National Guard into the service of the United States. It seems 
to me worth while, however, to make a somewhat detailed refer- 
ence to the transportation of these troops to the Mexican border, 
both because I desire an opportunity to report specifically the efficient 
cooperation of the railroads with, the Government and also be- 
cause the general question of transportation facilities is one of 
very great military importance. 

The railroads of the United States have been built in response 
to commercial and industrial needs. Our continent has been de- 
veloped and opened up by a process of railroad building which 
had in view the transportation of raw materials and finished prod- 
ucts, rendering our mineral and lumber resources accessible and 
enabling our rapidly increasing population to develop the agri- 
cultural and economic resources of the Nation. It is probably just 
to say, however, that very little thought has been given in our 
railroad development to their possible use for military purposes. 
We have built no strategic railroads, our frontiers have been neg- 
lected as possible scenes of military operations, and there has ac- 
cordingly been little or no railroad building which had as its object 
a possible call upon the railroads of the country rapidly to trans- 
port large bodies of men and to maintain continuous streams of 
military supplies for their support. This was not unnatural, as 
the wide seas have been the frontier of the United States, and we 
have been in contact with no highly organized and powerful mili- 
tary nation. Our relations with our continental neighbors have 
been peaceful and friendly, and the development of civilization 
on this continent has had an industrial and commercial aspect 
with little or no suggestion of military preparation. We have, 
it is true, given far less thought to the problem of transportation 

69176'— WAB 1916— VOL 1 2 



18 BEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAB. 

from a military point of view than other great nations, but our 
occasion for thinking in that direction has been less urgent. The 
War College Division of the General Staff has made interesting 
and valuable studies upon the mobilization and use of transpor- 
tation equipment, and undoubtedly the Council of National De- 
fense will give further valuable study to this question; but the 
disturbed condition on the Mexican border in consequence of the 
Columbus raid gave us an actual experiment in the use of our 
railroads, the readiness with which their facilities could be organ- 
ized in the service of the Government, and' a most instructive and 
helpful demonstration of the hearty cooperation which the Gov- 
ernment can expect from those who manage these great trans- 
portation enterprises. From the report of the Quartermaster Gen- 
eral I quote the following description of the steps taken and the 
results obtained : 

OOOPKBATION B rf WI U CN THS TBAN8P0BTATI0N OOICPANDBS AND THE QUABTEBMA8TEB 

C0BP8. 

Especial attention was devoted daring the fiscal year 1916 to the establish- 
ment of a closer cooperation between the Quartermaster Ck)rps and the various 
transportation interests with a view to coordination in the movements of troops 
and supplies for the Army. The officer in charge of the transportation division. 
Office of the Quartermaster General, appeared before several of the transporta- 
tion associations and outlined a plan of mutual cooperation which would be of 
benefit to both the carriers and the Government in case any necessity arose 
involving the transportation of large numbers of troops, the plan outlined being 
practically that which has since been placed in effect. 

Under date of October 16, 1915, a letter was prepared in the Office of the 
Quartermaster General recommending that the Secretary of War communicate 
with the American Railway Association (which association is composed of the 
presidents, general managers, and other chief operating officials of the Ameri- 
can raUways), and suggest the establishment within that association of a 
committee on military transportation to whom the department could look for 
any information that might be desired as to the railroads of the United States, 
and with a further view to coordination and cooperation between the raUroads 
and the War Department in the transportation of troops and suppUes of the 
United States. On October 26, 1915, a letter of the nature indicated was sent 
by the Secretary of War to the American Railway Association, and after some 
further correspondence a "special committee on cooperation with the mUitary 
authorities" was appointed by that association. This conunittee was, and is, 
composed of the foUowing gentlemen: 

Fairfax Harrison (chairman), president Southern RaUway. 

R. M. Aishton, president (Chicago & North Western RaUway. 



EEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OP WAB. 19 

A. W. Thompson, vice president Baltimore & Oliio Railroad. 

W. G. Besler, president Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

Conferences were held with this committee, and a general plan of cooperation 
outlined to be placed in effect at the time of any public emergency. 

Immediately after the call for mobilization of the State troops was issued 
this committee met in the Office of the Quartermaster General with Lieut Col. 
C3hauncey B. Baker, representing that office, and the plans previously determined 
were at once placed in effect Arrangements were made for placing a compe- 
tent railroad official at each department headquarters, at each mobilization 
camp, and in the Office of the Quartermaster General. These representatives 
were to act as an advisor to the officers of the Quartermaster Corps at these 
various points on any matters affecting rail transportation. They were all 
men of the highest reputation in the railroad world and did not represent any 
particular railroad, but were representatives of all lines interested. 

Directly after the announcement of the mobilization this committee of the 
American Railway Association also called upon representatives of the various 
railroads of the country to meet in Washington for the purpose of extending 
every possible assistance among the railroads themselves. The object of this 
meeting was to make all of the railroad equipment motive power, and personnel 
of the country available to affect this movement in the most expeditious manner 
possDile. 

The main object of the special committee on cooperation with the military 
authorities was to asHst the War Department in the transportation of troops 
and supplies, and the committee acted only on instructions from the War 
Department except in matters directly affecting the operation of trains. 

When it was definitely known that an organization was to move the camp 
quartermaster consulted with the American Railroad Association representative 
at his camp and advised him as to the strength of the organization, and it was 
the duty of the American Railway Association representative to see that all 
railroad equipment other than tourist cars, was promptly assembled in time 
for the movement Tourist cars were ordered direct from the Office of the 
Quartermaster General, and the camp quartermaster was immediately advised 
by wire whether tourist cars could be furnished from point of origin; if not, 
the American Railway Association representative was so advised, and it was 
his duty to see that coaches were senired for the movement 

In 1912 the Quartermaster General's Office took up with the American Rail- 
way Master Car Builders' Association the question of placing placards, in time 
of war or threatened war, on all carload shipments of Government property. 
As a result of a large amount of correspondence a plan was formulated which 
was accepted by all the railroads in the country, and a series of placards adopted. 
Through the agency of the American Railway Association all railway officials 
and employees were notified that cars so placarded must be given right of way 
from point of origin to point of destination. Such cars are placed in the 
fastest moving freight trains and kept constantly moving to point of destina> 



20 BEPOBT OP THE SEOBBTABY OP WAB. 

tlon, where they are immediately delivered, and at once identified, shifted Into 
position, discharged, and released without the necessity of waiting for the 
formal bills of lading and official papers of the railways and the Government, 
the placards themselves serving to fully identify all shipments. All placards 
bear the legend " UNITED STATES ARMY " at the head, followed by the de- 
partment to which supplies belong, the car initial, car number, point of 
shipment, contents, consignee, destination, routing, date shipped, and con- 
signor. Oars bearing these cards are never sidetracked nor shifted into yards 
except to be placed in through freight trains. Should a car become dam- 
aged through any cause, it is given preference and precedence for any repairs ; 
and if repairs require an extended period, contents are loaded into another car 
and the movement continued. 

As a result of this understanding between the railroads and the Quarter- 
master Qenerars Office shipments of freight are being made with remarkable 
expedition. Many instances are cited where freight shipments have been sent 
through from Washington and vicinity to the Texas border in four days, and 
from New York and vicinity In five days or less; freight from Philadelphia, 
Pa., has reached San Antonio, Tex., in 79 hours ; from the Lakes to the border 
shipments have been made in an elapsed time of a little more than 48 hours. 

The hearty cooperation of the railroads in making these shipments has been 
rendered without any hesitation whatever, with all the energy possible, and 
without additional charge to the Government. 

It is believed that this simple device, with the fullest cooperation of the 
railroads, has removed one of the principal sources of criticism applicable to 
the period of mobilization in 18d8. 

Where special, urgent shipments have been made they have been followed 
through by wire to destination, and most satisfactory results have been obtained 
in every instance. 

As a specific example showing how the cooperation of the railroad com- 
panies assisted the Army there may be cited the case of the first motor truck 
company purchased for the expeditionary forces in Mexico. 

Bids were Invited for a number of trucks, and award made about 5 o'clock 
the evening of March 14. Twenty-seven trucks were purchased under this 
advertisement in Wisconsin. These trucks were inspected, the personnel to 
operate them employed, the trucks were loaded in 14 cars, and tourist car 
furnished for the personnel, and the train left at 8.11 a. m. March 16. It 
arrived at Ck)lumbus, N. Mex., 1,601 miles away, shortly after noon on the 18th ; 
the trucks were unloaded from the cars, loaded with supplies, and sent across 
the border, reaching Gen. Pershing's command with adequate supplies of food 
before he had exhausted the supplies taken with him from Oolumbus. 

In a little more than four days after orders were placed with the manufac- 
turers these trucks had gone across the border at Columbus, 1,000 miles away 
from the factory, loaded with supplies. 

The general plan of cooperation also provided for coordinating the duties of 
the Pullman Co. in furnishing sleeping-car equipment, and under this plan, when 



BEPOBT OF THE 8ECRETABY OP WAB. 21 

it became necessary to mobilize the Organized Militia, tlie supply and distri- 
bution of tourist sleeping cars was handled directly under the Instructions 
of the Quartermaster General of the Army. In order to centralize the furnish- 
ing of tourist sleepers at the point most convenient to the Oovemment, to 
utilize the available supply of these cars to the best advantage, and to ke^ 
them constantly in service the Pullman Ck). changed the supervision of the 
supply and movement of these cars from the headquarters of the company at 
Chicago to Washington, where they stationed Mr. C. W. Henry, assistant to 
superintendent of car service, with a competent force. Mr. Henry was In Imme- 
diate touch with the Office of the Quartermaster General, and on receipt of 
request from camp quartermasters for tourist cars he was advised of the needs 
and at once took steps to supply the cars if they were available at any point 
Reports were received by him dally from all parts of the United States showing 
the number of tourist cars that were available In all sections of the country, and 
in cases when, on account of the necessity for immediate departure. It was 
Impossible to furnish cars from the starting point, this branch of the Pullman 
Co. used every effort to furnish the cars en route, Inunedlately starting such 
cars as could be secured over the route to be taken by the troops, so that they 
could be transferred to tourist sleeping cars at the first possible opportunity. 
During the first two weeks of the concentration this force was on duty until 
nearly midnight every day, including Sundays, and deserves great credit for 
the excellent assistance rendered the Government 

The great value of the plans made for cooperation and coordination between 
the railroads and the War Department was fully demonstrated In the mobiliza- 
tion and concentration of the Organized Mllltla. Every assistance possible was 
rendered the Government, not only by the American Railway Association and 
the Pullman Ck)., but by the various passenger associations, and by the officials 
and employees of all the railroads concerned, from the presidents of the com- 
panies down to the minor employees. In addition to the representative of the 
American Railway Association, nearly all the Important southwestern railway 
lines had representatives In Washington during the entire movement, and these 
representatives kept In close touch with the transportation over their respective 
lines and were available for consultation at any time, if desired by the depart- 
ment. The cooperation of the American Railway Association representatives, 
with their expert knowledge of transportation conditions, has proved of great 
value to the department, and quartermasters Imve been relieved of a great 
deal of trouble and annoyance heretofore experienced In the mobilization of 
large bodies of troops. 

It is believed that the careful plan of cooperation adopted and the assistance 
of the transportation interests in this plan has demonstrated that the problem 
of rail congestion, which was the bugaboo of the mobilization of troops In 1898, 
has been entirely eliminated. 

The arrangements entered Into with railway lines in eastern and western 
territory, as referred to in the Ajmual Report of the Quartermaster (General for 
1015, pages 50 and 51, were continued during the fiscal year 1916, and resulted 



22 EEPOBT OP THE SECRETAEY OF WAB. 

In a saying of approximately $40,000 on passenger traffic. Negotiations are 
now under way witli lines in New England and soutlieastern territory on a 
similar basis with every prospect of a successful conclusion ; this arrangement 
will then cover the entire United States. Briefly, it provides for a deduction 
of 5 per cent from the usual fare available to the Government and for an equita- 
ble distribution of the traffic between all lines Interested ; it simplifies the settle- 
ment of accounts and insures the cooperation of the various carriers. 

During the early days of the transportation of large bodies of the 
militia to the Mexican border some uneasiness was felt throughout 
the country lest the great distances to be traveled by some of these 
organizations and the hurried preparation of their supplies might 
produce conditions prejudicial to the health and comfort of the men. 
This apprehension was quickly allayed. The cases of inconvenience 
were relatively few. No really serious situation developed, and it 
seems to me just to claim for the War Department and for the co- 
operating railroads that they managed a task, although of unusual 
difficulty and size, with great skill and most commendable success. 
After the first hurried days order rapidly appeared and although we 
have during the past summer moved larger bodies of troops longer 
distances than is at all customary, the movements have been carried 
out with order, and most comfortable and adequate provision has been 
made for the men both going to and returning from the Mexican 
border. 

Motor-truck transportation. — ^The absence of railroad facilities 
paralleling the international boundary between Mexico and the 
United States and the penetration of the Pershing expedition into 
Mexico at a point removed from inmiediate access to railroad facili- 
ties led to very large use by the Army of motor trucks. The report 
of the Quartermaster General covers in detail the purchases made 
and the service rendered. I refer to the subject only to point out 
that the department was able to maintain by motor truck an un- 
broken supply service for Gen. Periling and enormously to increase 
the efficiency of the border patrol by the use of motor vehicles. The 
development of the motor truck in the past few years has produced a 
vehicle which is able to traverse wild, unbroken coimtry and, ex- 
cept under abnormal conditions, to transport soldiers and their 
supplies with certainty and rapidity. Our whole experience in 
this regard is of great value, and careful studies are being made 
of the efficiency of the various types of motor vehicles in the 
border service. Undoubtedly a standard-size truck and a stand- 



BEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAB. 28 

ard design will be evolved, and the subsequent equipment of the 
Army with motor baggage trains and motor-propelled ordnance 
will proceed upon a sounder foundation of information than could 
have been possible but for the lessons learned from this experience. 



Inci^ease in enlisted strength in an emergency. — By joint resolu- 
tion approved March 17, 1916, Congress made provision for increas- 
ing the number of enlisted men of the Army in an emergency, in the 
following language: 

• • • When In the Judgment of the President an emergency arises which 
makes it necessary* aU organisations of the Army which are now below the 
maximum enlisted strength authorized by law shall be raised forthwith to 
that strength and shall be maintained as nearly as possible thereat so long 
as the emergency shall continue: Provided, That the total enlisted strength 
of any of said arms of the service shall not Include unassigned recruits 
therefor at depots or elsewhere, but such recruits shall at no time exceed 
by more than five per centum the total enlisted strength prescribed for 
such arms; and the enlisted men now or hereafter authorized by law for 
other branches of the military service shall be provided and maintained 
without any Impairment of the enlisted strength prescribed for any of said arms. 

The strength of the Army authorized under the provisions of the 
act of Februarv 2, 1901, as modified by the joint resolution of 
March 17, lOlG, is as follows: 



nnnobw of Mrvic«. 



Enlbted 
men. 



<^iMrUnnMt«r Corpi 

MsdimI D«paftm«iit 

rorra of En^liiccn 

OroDaBc* r)«ii«rtm«Dt 

Siioial Corfii 

OftTslry 

Field Artnipry 

CoMt ArtUltfy C«n» 

InluitrT 

Porto Kico Rtflmrot of Inftm try 

UnlUd SUtM HOiterY Anuteiiif dttadimtnti 

RocniltlDff partita, rttniii d«pMS, and unaaiijEDed raenilta 

UaitodStAtM Dlfciplliiary Bvnckacuarda 

Bo r rfcx o ch ool dttaenni tnts 

With dJaciplinvy or0uUt»tlau 

Moimtid orderliw 

iBdJan ■DDuta 



• 6,409 

1,083 

l.llS 

1,473 

17,694 

6,368 

19,321 

64,443 

699 

683 

6,006 

360 

746 

110 

7 

78 



Total R»ffiitar A nay. 
PhlllppiM acoitu 



117.305 
6.733 



133.038 



• InqladM tnltatod stmiKth (6,000 men) of the Qtmrtermaater Corpa, whlob under the proTliiona of the 
•ft of rooKrcMi apnrovcd Aur. 34, 1913 (37 St&t. L., 6(0), are not to be counted aa a part of the eollated 
fom provided bv law. Under the proviafona of the act of June 3, 1016, the enlisted atrength of tbe Quar- 
termaater Corpa h Included in the s&encth of the Ref^ilar Army. 

» The act of Jime 3, 1916, provldaa that the enllated «tr«nfrth of the Hoepital Corps ia not to be oountMl as 
a part of the enllated atranj^th of the Army, which la fimilar to the provlaloo contained in the act of Mar. L 
107 (M 8^t L., 436). The authorlied strength of the Uoapital Corpa on Jane 30. ivitt. was 6,3881 



24 EEPOBT OF THE SECRETARY OP WAR, 

Recruiting. — For some time prior to the date of this enactment the 
general recruiting service had been so successful in keeping the Army 
filled to the strength then authorized that recruiting had been cur- 
tailed and at various times it had been found necessary to discon- 
tinue the acceptance of new applicants for enlistment in some arms 
of the service. 

Anticipating the action of Congress in enacting the joint resolu- 
tion of March 17, 1916, orders were given en March 13, 1916, to re- 
open recruiting stations that had been closed and to open additional 
ones in productive places and to prosecute the work of obtaining 
recruits for the Army without regard to hours. Recruiting oflScers 
circularized the population of the districts in which they were op- 
erating with special circulars showing the advantages of Army life 
and urging all qualified to avail themselves of those advantages. 

An experienced sergeant in the recruiting service was detailed 
with the Government exhibit on the "Safety-first'' train, which 
made a tour of the country during last spring and summer. Printed 
matter relating to the recruiting service was distributed in large 
quantities, including thousands of copies of the law enacted May 4, 
1916, authorizing the appointment of cadets to the United States 
Military Academy from the ranks of the Army. This seemed to 
arouse a great deal of interest among a very desirable class of young 
men who visited the train. 

All recruiting oflScers were also advised of the provisions of this 
law and instructed to give it the widest publicity possible. 

A booklet setting forth the experiences of a recruit for the Army 
at a recruit depot was also published. It was prepared by a news- 
paper reporter who entered the recruit depot as a recruit and was 
afforded every opportunity to acquaint himself thoroughly with the 
manner in which the Army prepares its soldiers at recruit depots 
before sending them to their organizations. The author lived the 
life of a recruit at the depot, was granted no indulgences other than 
those extended to other recruits, and relates his experiences in a 
thoroughly unprejudiced manner. 

Another publication issued by the recruiting service shows the 
various employments in civil life open to soldiers who have availed 
themselves of the many opportunities for vocational training 
afforded by the Army and have been discharged with a good char- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 25 

acter. It is contemplated to have the recruiting officers scattered 
throughout the country in the centers of population lend every 
assistance possible toward securing for honorably discharged soldiers 
employment in civil life in the various capacities set forth in the 
publication. It is hoped and believed that the fact made known 
through this publication that the Government does not lose interest 
in the former soldier upon his discharge from the service, but aids 
him in applying in civil life the vocational training he has acquired 
in the Army, will go a long way toward convincing the public that 
the term of service in the Army is a very desirable experience for 
any young man — an experience that will not only aid him physically 
and mentally, that will not only train him morally and manually, 
but that will also enable him to advance himself by reason of that 
mental and manual training in civil life after he shall have been 
separated from military service. 

There has been an increase in the number of accepted applicants 
for enlistment since the passage of the joint resolution referred to, 
but it has not been as marked an increase as desired. This is un- 
doubtedly due to several causes. The first and probably the prin- 
cipal cause is the present labor condition throughout the country. 
Recruiting officers from all sections report that never in their experi- 
ence has there been the demand for labor in all lines of industry that 
exists and that has existed for the past several months. In the large 
manufacturing districts the demand for labor is far in excess of the 
supply. Wages are high and all who desire employment readily 
secure it. In the agricultural districts the demand for labor was 
active during the summer and early fall, and the supply was inade- 
quate. Thus the recruiting service, which is simply one of many 
employers, has been unable to secure the recruits needed. However, 
during June, July, and August, 1916, the number of enlistments 
increased practically 175 per cent over the number for the corre- 
sponding months in 1915. 

The National-Defense Act approved June 8, 1916, authorizes the 
President, in his discretion, to utilize the services of postmasters of 
the second, third, and fourth classes in procuring enlistments of 
recruits for the Army, and as a result of your action under this law 
all postmasters of the second, third, and fourth classes in the United 
States, estimated to be about 56,000, are now authorized to act as 
recruiting agents for the Army. 



26 



BEPOBT OP THE SECRETABY OF WAB. 



In addition to the duty of recruiting for the Regular Army, the 
recruiting service has been charged recently with the duty of recruit- 
ing for the Organized Militia mustered into the military service of 
the United States. 

Authorized strength. — On June 30, 1916, the authorized strength 
of the Kegular Army, including Medical Department, was 5,018 
officers and 122,693 enlisted men; an increase of 184 officers and 
25,445 enlisted men over the preceding year. In addition, the au- 
thorized strength of the Philippine Scouts was 182 officers and 5,733 
enlisted men, the same as during the preceding year. 

Actual strength. — On June 30, 1916, the actual strength of the 
Regular Army, including Medical Department, was 4,843 officers and 
97,013 enlisted men; a total of 101,856, and an increase during the 
year of 227 officers and 1,248 enlisted men. In addition to this, the 
actual strength of the Philippine Scouts was 182 officers, the same as 
last year, and 5,603 enlisted men, an increase of 173 during the year. 

On that date the Army, including the Philippine Scouts, was dis- 
tributed geographically as follows: 



Oeognphical distribution. 



Officers. 



In th€ United States* 

In Alflska. . ....... . ••••• •••••»•••••••«..• 

In the Philippine Isliuidj: 

Uesnilar Army 

Philippine Scouts. 

In China. 

In Porto Rico 

In Hawaii 

In the Canal Zone 

Troops en route and olBoers at foreign stations. 



Total. 




Total. 



71,038 
792 

U,884 
6,785 
1,374 

714 
8,445 
7.099 

610 

107,041 



« Includes troops serving In Mexico. 

* Includes 154 first lieutenants of the Medical Reserve Corps. 

* Includes 4,670 enlisted men of the Medical Department. 

Increased strength and organization provided hy National-Defense 
Act. — ^The National-Defense Act of June 3, 1916, authorized a con- 
siderable increase in the national forces; the increase in the number 
of officers and enlisted men of the Regular Army to be made in five 
annual increments, beginning July 1, 1916. It provides for four 
chesses of soldiers in the United States: First, the Regular Army; 
second, the National Guard ; third, the Enlisted Reserve Corps ; all 
of which shall exist in time of peace; and, fourth, the Volunteer 
Army, which shall be raised only in time of war. The peace strength 
of the Regular Army is fixed by the act at approximately 11,450 



EEPOBT OP THE SEOEETAEY OP WAB. 27 

officers, including the 182 officers of the Philippine Scouts; not to 
exceed 175,000 troops of the line (including the Ordnance JDepart- 
ment), approximately 42,750 noncombatant troops, including the 
unassigned recruits, and 5,733 Philippine Scouts, making a total 
of approximately 223,580. The total enlisted strength of the Medi- 
cal Department is limited to 5 per cent of the total enlisted strength 
of the Army, and it can not be determined at this time because 
the strength of all the other staff corps and departments is not fixed. 
The National Guard will probably consist of about 17,000 officers 
and 440,000 men. The number of men who will join the Enlisted 
Reserve Corps can not be foretold. They are practically enlisted 
specialists for the technical departments of the Army recruited in 
time of peace for use in time of war only, and are subject in time 
of peace to short periods of training yearly. Volunteers can be 
called in time of war when and in such numbers as Congress shall 
authorize. 

The maximum number of officers (war strength) of the Begular 
Army under the act is approximately 12,030, the additional 580 over 
peace strength being in the Medical Department. The exact nimiber 
of officers authorized can not be given because the number of addi- 
tional officers varies from time to time, and the number of retired 
officers that will be transferred to the active list tmder the provisions 
of the act of March 4, 1915, can not be foretold. The total maximum 
enlisted strength (war strength) of the Regular Army, including the 
Philippine Scouts, is approximately 298,000. This figure is based 
on total increases in the staff corps and departments in proportion 
to the increases authorized for the first increment. 

The total nimiber of officers authorized for the fiscal year 1917 is 
7,252, including 182 officers of the Philippine Scouts. 

By General Orders No. 50, September 23, 1916, as am^ded, the 
organization of the authorized enlisted strength of the Army, includ- 
ing the first increment under the act of June 3, 1916, was established 
as follows : 

Infantry, 38 regiments 51, 224 

Cavalry, 17 regiments 17, 857 

Field Artillery, 9 regiments 7, 881 

Engineers, 3 regiments and 1 mounted company 2, 108 

Coast Artillery Coii>s 21, 423 

Staff corps and departments 19. 224 



28 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OP WAR* 

Philippine Scouts 5, 783 

Miscellaneous organizations and special allowances 18,857 

Total enlisted strength of the Army (Including the Medical De- 
partment) 188,807 

Total enlisted strength of the Army, excluding the Medical Department- 182, 288 
Total enlisted strength of the Army, excluding the Porto Rico Regiment, 
the Philippine Scouts, and the unassigned recruits, and including the 

Medical Department 128, 108 

Total enlisted force of the line of the Regular Army, excluding the 
Philippine Scouts and the enlisted men of the Quartermaster Corps, of 
the Medical Department, and of the Signal Corps, and the unassigned 
recruits 106,558 

Actual increase. — ^The actual increase in the Army, provided as a 
part of the general legislation for preparedness, is as follows: 

An increase in the Army of about 6yJi20 officers at minimum or 
peace strength and about 7/)00 at maximum strength^ and of about 
llfifiOO enlisted men at minimum and about 170/)00 at maximum 
strength^ the increase to be m>ade in five annual increments, — The 
Army will be increased 34rJ regiments of Infantry, 10 regiments of 
Cavalry, 15 regiments of Field Artillery, 93 companies of Coast Ar- 
tillery, 5 regiments of Engineers, 2 battalions of Mounted Engineers, 
the necessary number of auxiliary troops in the Medical Department, 
Quartermaster Corps, Signal Corps, and the unassigned recruits, and 
in addition thereto the number of Philippine Scouts that may be de- 
termined upon by the President, not to exceed a maximum of 12,000. 

The number of general officers of the Army has been increased 
from 7 major generals and 17 brigadier generals to 11 major generals 
and 36 brigadier generals. This will provide the necessary general 
officers to command the divisions and brigades and furnish the gen- 
eral officers for the General Staff. 

The General Staff Corps has been increased from 38 officers to 57 
officers. 

The Adjutant General's Department, the Inspector Greneral's De- 
partment, the Judge Advocate General's Department, the Quarter- 
master Corps, the Medical Department, the Corps of Engineers, Ord- 
nance Department, and Signal Corps have all been materially in- 
creased to meet the increased size of the Regular Army. There is 
nothing materially new in regard to these departments or corps. 

The increase in the Regular Army will be made in five annual 
increments, beginning July 1, 1916, and running to July 1, 1920, 



BEPOBT OF THE SECKETABY OF WAR. 29 

although the President is authorized to make the increase more rap- 
idly in case of emergency. 

The figures given above (except those quoted from General Orders 
No. 50) are approximate, and while based upon the best data obtain- 
able at this time, are subject to material changes, because the strength 
of some of the staff corps and departments is not fixed by the act 
but is left to the discretion of the President to be fixed by him from 
time to time, in accordance with the needs of the service. 

An o-fficera* reserve corps; a reserve oificers^ training corps^ and an 
enlisted reserve corps. — An officers' reserve corps is provided which 
will authorize the commissioning of civilians up to and including the 
grade of major in the various branches of the Army. These men can 
be selected and trained in time of peace, and the officers so obtained 
will be far better prepared than any volunteers that could be raised 
hurriedly at the outbreak of war. In order to obtain these reserve 
officers, a reserve officers' training corps is authorized which will 
consist of units at the various colleges, academies, and universities 
throughout the country where military education and training will 
be given which, in connection with six weeks' field training each sum- 
mer, will give a personnel for the officers' reserve corps that is far 
better equipped for the duties of an officer than any heretofore 
available. 

In order to provide the enlisted men for the various technical staff 
corps and departments, an enlisted reserve corps has been authorized, 
which will consist of men whose daily occupation in civil life spe- 
cially fits them for duty in the Engineer, Signal, and Quartermaster 
Corps, and in the Ordnance and Medical Departments. This en- 
listed reserve corps will provide the railway operatives, bridge build- 
ers, chauffeurs, hospital attendants, nurses, telegraphers, etc., re- 
quired for the departments and corps mentioned. It is impracticable 
to keep in the Eegular Army the number of men of these classes that 
will be necessary in time of war, and the enlisted reserve corps will 
provide for the deficiency. 

HEALTH AND SANFTATION. 

In the health statistics of the Army the calendar year is used. 
During the past year the health of the Army was excellent. There 
were no epidemics or unusual occurrences of infectious diseases. 



30 BEPOBT OF THE SECRETABY OP WAB. 

Typhoid fever. — ^There were throughout the year but eight cases of 
typhoid fever in the entire Army, none of which resulted in death. 
This record is the more remarkable when it is considered that during 
the 14 months from May 1, 1898, to June 30, 1899, covering the 
period of the Spanish-American War, there were 2,774 deaths from 
typhoid fever, and that this disease was alone responsible for more 
than one-half of the entire disease mortality in the Army. The 
experience in 1898 was made the basis of an investigation into the 
matter of infection and dissemination of the disease in military 
camps, and from that time imtil now the medical department of the 
Army has waged a ceaseless battle against typhoid fever, culminating 
in the adoption of antityphoid vaccination, the results of which are 
even more striking than those following the introduction of vaccina- 
tion against smallpox. Indeed, the success of science in this contest 
constitutes one of the most interesting and brilliant chapters in the 
history of preventive medicine. 

Malarial fevers, — Malarial fever, formerly one of the largest con- 
tributors to the noneffective rate in the service, showed in the year 
under examination the lowest rate in the history of the Army. The 
record in the Philippine Islands is especially creditable, but in gen- 
eral it may be said that with the growth of sanitary knowledge this 
disabling group of disease is being brought under control. 

The rate for tuberculosis was 3.49 per cent per 1,000, the lowest in 
the record of the Army, and real progress was made in the control 
of venereal disease. 

The general decline in alcoholism throughout the country is seen 
in the Army in a steadily diminished rate during the past 15 years, 
and, while both in the matter of venereal disease and excessive alco- 
holic indulgence we are making obvious progress, I am entirely 
clear that the working out of the educational and recreational pro- 
grams suggested elsewhere in this report will have a tendency to 
accelerate our progress in the prevention and restriction of these 
troubles. Both are caused by personal indulgence. Personal indul- 
gence is stimulated by unoccupied and uninteresting leisure, and both 
are resisted by that sort of sound body and mind which result from 
a life lived under normal and wholesome circumstances and filled 
with an interesting variety of work and refreshment. 

The health statistics of the Army are especially interesting, in view 
of the fact that they cover about 100,000 men having a far extended 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 31 

field of action, distributed literally over two hemispheres, and there- 
fore subject to epidemic contact and to the presence of contagion in 
foreign service, from which the civilian or nonmilitary population of 
the continental United States is more adequately protected by local 
sanitary safeguards. 

Expedition into Mexico. — ^The expeditionary force which, in 
March, 1916, entered Mexico comprised troops of all branches, num- 
bering approximately 10,000 men. During the several months of 
their stay these "men have been under the most trying climatic and 
sanitary conditions, having to construct the sanitary appliances and 
facilities of their camps, and frequently being in stations where ade- 
quate water supply was difficult to secure. It is a matter of interest 
to note that the health of these troops is really remarkable. They 
have made plain their efficiency, and their noneffective rate has com- 
pared favorably with the best attained by home troops under garri- 
son conditions. 

The mobilization of the National Guard on the Mexican border 
presented to the medical staff of the Army a large and delicate prob- 
lem. The men comprising these Guard regiments were drawn from 
all parts of the United States, from our great cities and from the 
rural districts, from high uplands and low valleys, from mountain 
and plain. They were transported at the height of the summer heat 
to the climate of southern Texas, to which few, if any, of them were 
in the least accustomed. They exchanged home life for crowded rail- 
road trains and crowded railroad trains for hastily prepared camps. 
They underwent at once an immediate dietary change and as com- 
plete a change of habit and occupation. All of the facilities of the 
health service of the Army were at once devoted to sanitary and 
prophylactic measures for the safety of these men. The resources of 
the Department of Agriculture were generously and freely placed at 
the disposal of the War Department to aid in food examination and 
in the extermination of pests, which are nearly always the carriers 
of disease, with the astonishing result that the sick rate of the com- 
bined forces on the border since the mobilization has been less than 
2 per cent. This is equivalent to a noneffective rate of 18 per 
1,000. This I believe to be the lowest noneffective rate maintained 
in any similar body of men in our history, and I am told that it 
compares favorably with the best done by any country at any time. 
The credit therefor belongs primarily to commanding officers, the 



y 



32 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

Surgeon General and Quartermaster General and their associates. 
They have, however, been intelligently aided by the medical officers 
of the National Guard, and of course have had the hearty cooperation 
and support of the War Department and the use of all the facilities 
of the other departments of the Government which could contribute 
to the accomplishment of their task. The result is not only gratify- 
ing in that it shows what progress we have made in sanitary science 
in the Army, but it has given the country confidence in the ability 
of the military authorities to safeguard the health of soldiers, and 
an assurance that the inevitable casualty list of military operations 
will not be supplemented by the horrors of preventable sickness and 
death, as was formerly the case before preventive medicine had so far 
wrought its saving service to mankind. 

ADDITIONAL LEOISLATION ENACTED FOB PBEPABEDNESS. 

Increase in rmmber of cadets at the United States Military Acad- 
emy. — The enlargement of the Army provided by the National De- 
fense Act clearly called for an increase in the number of trained 
oflScers available for service. Experience both in our own Army and 
abroad has shown that while longer and longer periods of training are 
necessary to fit the soldier for his task in modem war the most serious 
delay in preparation for a great national emergency arises in the 
training of officers, who must have not only the vigorous health and 
hardened bodies of the soldier but technical knowledge of those 
new and mechanical implements which have been devised and are 
being devised for use in warfare. The officer must have too the dis- 
cipline of mind which can both obey and command, and this sort 
of discipline comes only with training and experience. 

The art of war under modem conditions engages vastly larger 
bodies of men and a more complete coordination of all the national 
resources than was formerly the case. Success may depend upon 
rapidity of transportation both of men and supplies. The use of 
railroads and of motor transportation has taken the place of the 
old-fashioned marching and maneuvering, and under modem con- 
ditions a smaller number of men moved by carefully prepared trans- 
portation facilities is sometimes enabled to ma^ its strength so as 
to overcome disparity of numbers. As no army is stronger than 
its supply train the dependence of any military force upon properly 
coordinated and efficiently served transportation facilities is obvious. 



EEPOBT OP THE 8ECEETAEY OF WAB. 8C 

The implements of war have multiplied and we now have direct fire 
from the artillery, rifle fire from the infantry, and the cavalry 
reconnaissance and charge supplemented, if not replaced, by indirect 
artillery fire at vastly increased ranges, the high explosive shell, 
the machine gun, and the aeroplane. These added agents are the 
contributions of science to the art of war. They are scientific in 
their principles of construction and in their mode of use, and the 
whole art of war is as different from that practiced a few genera- 
tions ago as the processes of higher mathematics are different from 
simple algebraic computations. The strength of the individual 
soldier has passed out of his arm and into his head, and as his art 
now depends upon intricate mechanical tools his skill must often be 
that of the trained mechanic and his knowledge that of the scientist. 
Especially are these higher requirements made of officers and the 
necessity for a longer period of training and for training of a finer 
kind is more and more apparent. 

The United States Military Academy at West Point has almost 
from its origin ranked foremost among the military schools of the 
world. Its site is one of the most impressive in America, its equip- 
ment of buildings adequate, convenient, and inspiring in their beauty 
and suggestiveness. The officers educated there have made a body 
of men who from the beginning of the Republic have demonstrated 
the spirit of self-sacrifice for the preservation of the liberty of the 
country, and while many brilliant officers have come into the Army 
from civil life it remains true that the great body of officers needed 
in the Army have come from the Military Academy and in the future 
must be expected to secure their education and discipline there. As 
the art of war has grown more intricate special service schools have 
been established, in which young officers are gathered for courses, 
post-graduate in their nature, in the several arms of the service, and 
these schools deserve enlargement and encouragement at the hands 
of Congress. This, in my judgment, is especially true of the En- 
gineer School for reasons to which I shall refer later, but the funda- 
mental basis of the officers' education must for the greater part con- 
tinue to be supplied at the Military Academy at West Point, and it 
is therefore fortunate that Congress, in the act approved May 4, 
1916, has authorized an increase in the number of cadets and has 
made that increase in such fashion that it will fall gradually upon 

69176*— WAB 1916— VOL 1 3 



34 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 

the teaching facilities of the academy and enable it to absorb its 
increased work without confusion or loss of quality. 

For a number of years the department had urged Congress to make 
some provision that would afford a wider opportunity for desirable 
young men with a taste for militry life to secure appointments to 
West Point. It was pointed out that Congress had made large 
expenditures to build and equip this splendid educational institution, 
and that there was every reason why it should be operated and main- 
tained at its maximum capacity. 

By the terms of the act of May 4, 1916, the Corps of Cadets — 

• • • shaU hereafter consist of two for each congressional district, two 
from each Territory, four from the District of Ck>lumhia, two from natives of 
Porto Rico, four from each State at large, and eighty from the United States at 
large, twenty of whom shall be selected from among the honor graduates of edu- 
cational institutions having officers of the Regular Army detailed as professors 
of military science and tactics under existing 4aw or any law hereafter enacted 
for the detail of officers of the Regular Army to such 'institutions, and which 
institutions are designated as " honor schools " upon the determination of their 
relative standing at the last preceding annual inspection regularly made by the 
War Department. They shall be appointed by the President and shall, with the 
exception of the eighty appointed from the United States at large, be actual resi- 
dents of the congressional or Territorial district, or of the District of Columbia, 
or of the Island of Porto Rico, or of the States, respectively, from which they 
purport to be appointed: Providedy That so much of the act of Congress ap- 
proved March fourth, nineteen hundred and fifteen (Thirty-eighth Statutes at 
Large, page eleven hundred and twenty-eight), as provides for the admission 
of a successor to any cadet who shall have finished three years of his course at 
the academy be, and the same is hereby, repealed : Provided further. That the 
appointment of each member of the present Corps of Cadets is validated and 
confirmed. 

Sec. 2. That the President is hereby authorized to appoint cadets to the United 
States Military Academy from among enlisted men In number as nearly equal as 
practicable of the Regular Army and the National Guard between the ages of 
nineteen and twenty-two years who have served as enlisted men not less than 
one year, to be selected under such regulations as the President may prescribe : 
Provided, That the total number so selected shall not exceed one hundred and 
eighty at any one time. 

Sec. 3. That, under such regulations as the President shall prescribe, the in- 
crease in the number of cadets provided for by this act shall be divided Into four 
annual Increments, which shall be as nearly equal as practicable and be equitably 
distributed among the sources from which appointments are authorized. 

The total number of cadets authorized prior to the passage of the 
act of May 4, 1916, was 668. The new act authorizes an increase of 



EEPOBT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 35 

664, to be made in four annual increments, so that the number of 
cadets authorized for the first year is 834 ; second year, 1,000 ; third 
year, 1,166; and for the fourth year, 1,332. 

On September 1, 1916, the beginning of the current academic year, 
there were 769 cadets on the rolls, including 4 Filipino cadets and 2 
foreign cadets, 1 from China and 1 from Cuba. Those cadets were 
divided among the four classes as follows: First class, 141; second 
class, 156 ; third class, 147 ; and fourth class, 325. 

The usual examination of candidates for admission to the Military 
Academy was held at various military posts, beginning March 21, 
1916. An additional examination was held, beginning June 6, 1916, 
to fill the 102 vacancies that existed after the regular examination, 
and also to fill the vacancies (166) in the first annual increment of the 
increase in the Corps of Cadets provided for by the act above quoted. 
Inasmuch as it became apparent that not enough cadets to fill the 
vacancies in the first increment would be obtained from this exami^ 
nation, it was decided to hold still another examination (physical) 
on June 27, 1916, mental qualification being by certificate only. The 
total number of candidates designated for the three examinations 
was 1,228. Of that number, 202 failed to report for examination; 
12 declined appointment, their appointments were canceled, or they 
were prevented by sickness from reporting; 515 were rejected upon 
mental or physical examination, or upon both ; 109 failed to complete 
the mental or physical examination, or both ; 1 was refused admission 
because of cribbing; and (at the June 27 examination) 2 qualified 
physically and failed to submit educational certificates. There were 
no vacancies for 58 alternates and 5 candidates at large who qualified. 
The remaining 324 candidates were found qualified and were ad- 
mitted to the academy. After the examination of June 27 there 
were 26 vacancies in the first increment. 

The number of cadets authorized for 1916 is 834. There being 767 
cadets on the rolls (excluding the 2 foreign cadets) on September 1, 
1916, there was a total of 67 vacancies on that date. That number 
has been increased by resignations and death, so that the number of 
vacancies now is 77. 

The training of citizens; Reserve Officers* Traming Carps. — In 
addition to the provision made for an enlargement of the student 
body at the Military Academy, the country has witnessed a rapid 



36 REPOET OF THE SECRETABY OF WAR. 

development of interest in citizen training. The reorganization 
and federalization of the militia, provided by the National-Defense 
Act, is in part a response to this impulse, but several interesting 
and promising experiments of a more novel kind are in progress. 
First of these is the establishment and maintenance at various edu- 
cational institutions throughout the country of a reserve officers' 
training corps. By this means it is hoped to utilize the facilities 
of public and private educational institutions to give instruction 
to large bodies of students in the elements of military science and 
tactics. Officers of the Army are detailed to these institutions as 
professors. In 1915, 5,200 students who had completed courses of 
training under the supervision of officers were graduated from 
colleges, while the total number of students in colleges who had 
received some military instruction in that year imder officers of the 
Army was 82,000. The total enrollment of male students in colleges 
to which this sort of instruction may be applied is about 170,000. 
By an enlargement and development of the plan it is hoped that a 
substantial portion of these students may be given the benefit of 
military instruction. An association of collegiate authorities for 
the consideration of this subject is working actively in harmony 
with the War Department and with the aid of the War College 
Division of the General Staff studies have been made which it is 
hoped will make this training increasingly acceptable and useful. 
Indeed, it may fairly be said that among the best educators of the 
country, the disoiplinary value of elementary military instruction 
is coming to be realized and appreciated, and, without at all trans- 
forming our institutions of higher learning into military establish- 
ments, the spirit of order and devotion to the service of the country, 
which is the normal result of military discipline, is being incul- 
cated into an increasing number of young men with results bene- 
ficial alike to the student body and to the institutions and with 
very promising results in the matter of preparedness against any 
emergency which may arise. 

Vocational training in the Army. — ^This is a subject to which 
serious attention has been given, but its possibilities are only begin- 
ning to be developed. The primary purpose of the soldier when not 
in active operations is, of course, preparation for active operations; 



EEPOET OP THE SECKETABY OF WAR. 37 

but armies are made of young men, in a large number of cases a 
single enlistment only is served, and these young men with strong 
and vigorous bodies return to the conmiercial and industrial life of 
the Nation often to find themselves at a disadvantage in securing 
industrial or commercial employment, because other young men of 
their age have spent years in apprenticeship and are therefore more 
available and better trained. The Army posts of the Nation can 
not be suddenly converted into schools. So far a system of volun- 
tary educational opportunity has been offered. In some posts sub- 
stantial progress has been made, and the opportunity for progress is 
particularly present in the stations of the Coast Artillery, where 
the garrisons are more permanent than are the organizations of the 
mobile army. 
The recent National-Defense Act provides on this subject: 

In addition to mUitary training soldiers while in the active service sliall 
hereafter be given the opportunity to study and receive instruction upon educa- 
tional lines of such character as to increase their military efficiency and enable 
them to return to civil life better equipped for industrial, commercial, and 
general business occupations. Civilian teachers may be employed to aid the 
Army officers in giving such instruction, and part of this instruction may con- 
sist of vocational education either in agriculture or the mechanic arts. The 
Secretary of War, with the approval of the President, shall prescribe rules and 
regulations for conducting the instruction herein provided for, and the Secre- 
tary of War shaU have the power at aU times to suspend, increase, or decrease 
the amount of such instmction offered as may in his judgment be consistent 
with the requirements of military instruction and service of the soldiers. 

Under this provision consistent plans can be made, and highly 
beneficial results should follow. 

Undoubtedly we shall ccone to a mode of Army life, which, while 
doing full justice to military drill and to that physical training so 
necessary to give the soldier a robust endurance of physical hard- 
ship, will at the same time afford him an opportunity to acquire 
mental tri^ining and manual skill, and at the same time round out 
his life with wholesome recreations and diversions, so that member- 
ship in the military forces of the Nation will have added to its 
patriotic usefulness a compensating opportunity for growth to the 
soldier and preparation for him which will make his nonmilitary 
years useful and happy. 



38 EEPOBT OF THE SECRETABY OF WAR. 

Training camps. — Something over three years ago Maj. Gen. Leon- 
ard Wood, then Chief of Staff, put into operation a plan for camps of 
instruction at which students were permitted to attend for training 
without cost to the United States. The plan was later enlarged to 
permit the attendance of business men and has been carried forward 
year by year with increasing success and interest. During the present 
year the need for the Regular Army on the Mexican border has deprived 
these training camps of some of the officers and troops which would 
have been desirable as aids in the instruction and organization of 
the work; but in spite of this difficulty, five camps were held at 
Plattsburg, two at Oglethorpe, one at Fort Terry, six at Fort Wads- 
worth, in the Eastern Department, with a total attendance of 12,200 
men and boys. In the Western Department camps were established 
at the Presidio and at American Lake. A satisfactory camp was 
held at San Antonio, Tex.; and in view of the recognition of this 
mode of training by Congress, it is safe to assume that much greater 
usefulness can be predicted for them in subsequent years, and that 
the field of selection of those applying to attend will be greatly 
enlarged by reason of the provision made for the payment of trans- 
portation and subsistence by the Federal Government for those who 
attend. 

Council of National Defense. — ^The challenge of the European 
war brought the attention of Congress not merely to the neces- 
sity for an increase in the personnel of the Regular Army, pro- 
vision for a larger supply of officers, and a better organiza- 
tion of the National Guard, but also to the fact that in any great 
national military emergency industrial mobilization was an indis- 
pensable element to success. Legislation was therefore enacted 
looking to an investigation of the financial, industrial, and com- 
mercial resources of the Nation and such prevision of them as 
would enable them to be speedily mobilized for the national defense. 
The most conspicuous step in this program was the creation of the 
Council of National Defense, consisting of the Secretaries of War, 
the Navy, the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, under 
whom, and upon whose nomination, the President is authorized to 
appoint an advisory commission of seven citizens qualified by the 
possession of special knowledge of the industrial and commercial 
resources of the country, and to this Council of National Defense, 



EEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OP WAB. 39 

advised by the advisory commission, is committed the task of coordi- 
nating the military, industrial, and commercial resources of the 
Nation in connection with its defense. Its duties are set forth in 
the act as follows : 

It shall be the duty of the Ck>uncll of National Defense to supervise and direct 
investigations and make recommendations to the President and the heads of 
executive departments as to tlie location of railroads with reference to the 
frontier of the United States, so as to render possible expeditious concentration 
of troops and supplies to points of defense ; the coordination of military, indus- 
trial, and commercial purposes in the location of extensive highways and 
branch lines of railroad ; the utilization of waterways ; the mobilization of mili- 
tary and naval resources for defense; the increase of domestic production of 
articles and materials essential to the support of armies and of the people dur- 
ing the interruption of foreign commerce; the development of seagoing trans- 
portation ; data as to amounts, location, methods, and means of production and 
availability of military supplies; the giving of information to producers and 
manufacturers as to the class of supplies needed by the military and other 
services of the Government, the requirements relating thereto, and the creation 
of relations which will render possible in time of need the immediate concentra- 
tion and utilization of the resources of the Nation. 

Power is given to the council to select a director who will be the ex- 
ecutive oflScer, and an adequate appropriation is made for the employ- 
ment of expert and clerical help, so that there will be established in 
Washington as an agency of the Government a central body which 
will catalogue the resources of the Nation and create such relations 
between our industrial and commercial agencies as will equip them 
to respond instantly to any call from the Government. In this way, 
the problems which in some countries had to be faced unforeseen until 
after a national emergency had arisen will be anticipated in the 
United States, and the confusion, delay, and loss due to haste in a 
moment of national danger will be obviated by rational, just, and 
timely provisions made in advance of trouble. It may well be that 
some part of the work of the council having a purely military useful- 
ness will not be needed, but the general effect of such a plan in opera- 
tion will be to produce more healthful and harmonious relations be- 
tween the Government and business, and to give to the great industrial 
and commercial enterprises of the country a national and patriotic 
aspect, which will both keep the country prepared, should emergency 
arise, and stimulate sound business and industrial methods through- 
out the country. The Council of National Defense is authorized to 



40 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

create commissions, subordinate to the advisory commission, for the 
study of special problems. Thus many committees of inquiry of a 
technical and scientific character, casually created heretofore for the 
consideration of special problems, will be able to be coordinated under 
the general direction of the council, and duplication of work and 
conflict of jurisdiction avoided. The act provides for reports to be 
made through the council to the President, and from the President 
to Congress, so that a great body of valuable and healthful informa- 
tion will undoubtedly result. 

Progress in aviation. — Congress has recognized the great im- 
portance of aviation to the United States Army and has made this 
recognition effective by increasing the appropriations of the last 
fiscal year from $300,000 to more than $14,000,000 for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1917. It has enlarged the aviation personnel by 
increasing the commissioned force from 60 officers to 77 for the year 
1917 and the enlisted men from 260 to 1,800. In addition, there have 
been provided for aviation, an officers' reserve corps and an enlisted 
reserve corps. 

The project for the development of the aviation section con- 
templates 7 aero squadrons for the Eegular Army, 12 squadrons for 
the National Ouard divisions, and 5 for the defenses on both coasts 
besides aerostatic units for the mobile Army and Coast Artillery. 
The personnel for these will be made up from officers and enlisted 
men of the Regular Army, of the Reserve Corps, and of the National 
Guard units. 

On May 20, 1916, Lieut. Col. George O. Squier, Signal Corps, 
assumed command of the aviation section. Since that date the 
general plan of administration has been to incorporate in the design 
and construction of equipment and in the system of training mili- 
tary aviators, lessons gained by experience in the present European 
war and in our own actual field experience in Mexico and elsewhere. 

The problem of organization of the Army air service has been 
studied with a view to establishing a sound base which will lend itself 
to future expansion into an efficient service. 

A thorough study of the aeroplane industry has been made by a 
technical board of officers and civilian engineers, to learn the pro- 
ductive capacity of the manufacturers in the United States. This 
was to insure that the War Department might obtain the best equip- 



REPOBT OF THE SEOBETABY OF WAB. 41 

ment available and also to improve and develop the general design 
of aeroplanes of various necessary military types. In this latter 
connection the department has published specifications for the differ- 
ent types of military aeroplanes, endeavoring to incorporate in these 
specifications the requirements from the military standpoint and 
those lessons in design and construction learned from actual field 
experience. 

Endeavor has been made toward the development of equipment 
for our military air service to meet conditions which are very 
similar to those that obtain in the European war and those peculiar 
to this country. Every effort has been made to improve power plants 
for aeroplanes. Bombs, bomb-dropping sights, special cameras, 
mounts for machine guns, automatic controlling devices, instru- 
ments for navigation, and for aid to the pilot, and many other acces- 
sories have been developed. A radio set has been developed which 
has transmitted messages across 140 miles. 

In all this development the policy has been to endeavor to obtain 
assistance from the greatest civilian specialists in the country. 
Material assistance has been received from the National Advisory 
Conmiittee for Aeronautics, the. Bureau of Standards, and the 
American Society of Automobile Engineers, all of which have dis- 
played a degree of interest which is extremely encouraging. 

Orders have been placed (or proposals solicited) to date for mili- 
tary aeroplanes as follows : 

Two-plane reconnoissanoe biplanes 91 

Advance training aeroplanes 120 

Primary training aeroplanes 84 

One-plane pursuit aeroplanes 18 

Two-plane reconnoissance hydroaeroplanes 155 

Two-plane land combat aeroplanes 6 



Total 419 

Five captive balloons for field artillery fire control have been 
ordered. 

Specially designed portable weatherproof hangars, machine shops, 
special trucks, and portable machine tools have been purchased, or 
ordered. 

Schools conducted by competent personnel have been established 
at Mineola, Long Island, near New York City, and at Chicago, lU., 
in addition to that already established and in operation at San 



42 EEPOBT OF THE SECBETARY OF WAR. 

Diego, Cal. A base for equipping land squadrons and instructing in 
advanced military aviation has been established at San Antonio, Tex. 
As a result of the training at these schools, the following have 
qualified since May 20, 1916, as junior military aviators: 

At San Diego, Cal., officers of the Regular Army 22 

At Mineola, Long Island, N. Y., officer of the National Guard of New 
York 1 

Total 28 

The following have qualified as reserve military aviators: 

At Mineolo, Long Island, N. Y. : 

Officers of the National Guard 8 

Civilians 4 



Total 



7 



In addition, the following students are at present under instruc- 
tion: 

At San Diego, Cal., officers of the Regular Array 38 

At Mineola, Long Island, N. Y., officers of the National Guard L 16 

At Chicago, 111. : 

Officer of the National Guard 1 

Civilians 7 

Total 62 

The nucleus of a division to operate lighter-than-air craft has been 
established. 

Procurement of military supplies. — Under the former law the Fed- 
eral Government in time of war would have to enter the markets of the 
country to obtain ammunition, arms, and other supplies just as an in- 
dividual would, but the new law authorizes the President in time of 
war to exercise a power analogous to that of eminent domain over the 
various manufacturing plants in the country and gives Government 
orders precedence over all private orders. Authority is also given to 
the Ordnance Department to prepare, in time of peace, the necessary 
gauges, jigs, dies, and other special tools required in the manufacture 
of arms and ammunition, and to give to specially equipped manufac- 
turers educational orders which while limited in amount will insure 
private manufacturers having the necessary experience and force to 
enter rapidly upon the manufacture of munitions in the event of neces- 
sity. Congress authorized the appointment of a board to study and 
report to Congress upon the advisability of exclusive Government 



BEPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 43 

manufacture of war materials. This board has been appointed and is 
proceeding with its investigation. No forecast can as yet be given of 
the conclusions, but the subject is one of very great importance. 
There are in the United States at the present time a great many 
industrial establishments which have turned aside from their ordi- 
nary business to the manufacture of war materials, and large plants 
have been established for this special object. 

After the passage of the occasion for which these enterprises 
were established the difficulty will arise as to whether their facilities 
are to be transformed and devoted to other industrial uses or any 
part of them preserved in readiness for similar supplies for the 
United States. Some of these plants are located on the seacoast and 
others at more remote places. It will therefore be incumbent upon 
the department to select for patronage and encouragement certain 
of them, and in determining which are to be so chosen a variety of 
military considerations arise. It would seem, however, that with 
such facilities in existence it will be unwise to allow them to be dis- 
mantled, and the necessary large additions made to existing Govern- 
ment facilities which would be required to equip the Government to 
supply its own needs under war conditions, and as any war condition 
requires a mobilization of the entire industrial resources of the 
Nation there would seem to be no reason why munitions of war 
should be separated out for Government monopoly, unless that course 
should turn out to be necessary to prevent the appearance of pro- 
spective war profits as a disturbing element in the policy of the 
Nation. 

Nitrate plant. — The National-Defense Act appropriates $20,000,000 
for the establishment of a nitrate plant. The manufacture of powder 
depends upon nitric acid, and the supply of nitric acid is in a large 
part based upon importations of Chile saltpeter. European Govern- 
ments finding their supply of nitric acid from a similar source inter- 
rupted have resorted to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. As there 
is no adequate body of natural nitrate to be found among the min- 
eral resources of the United States, Congress wisely provided for the 
establishment of a plant or plants upon which the United States 
could rely as an alternative to the foreign source which at present is 
the basis of all powder manufacturing in the country. Immediately 
after the making of the appropriation the department began a study 



46 KEPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

did not seem to work well, although its theory met with the 
approval of the War Department, and constant efforts were made 
both to broaden its scope and increase the efficiency of its opera- 
tion. My immediate predecessor, Secretary of War Garrison, in his 
annual report for 1913, drew the analogy between the practice of in- 
dustrial concerns and the Army, suggesting the tendency of mere 
seniority promotion to cause a lack of initiative and study on the part 
of officers. He very justly observed that there is a surprising amount 
of ambition and initiative in the Army, but that it is largely self- 
generated and receives very little stimulation from the promotion 
system. As a matter of fact, we see the same condition in civil life — 
young men of great ingenuity and devotion who are attending the 
postgraduate courses in our universities and are ordinarily required 
to do a piece of original research work as the basis of their pretensions 
to the degree of doctor of philosophy. They are filled with research 
zeal. When, however, they are through with their university course 
and undertake the daily grind of teaching in academic institutions, 
their separation from the inspiring university atmosphere and from 
daily association with others engaged in original work tends gradu- 
ally to lull the impulse to investigation, and the task of original 
research is passed along to their successors at the universities, while 
they become drill masters, disciplinarians, and teachers, but not con- 
tributors to the original thought of their science. 

The life of the Army officer when he is at the War College or 
in one of the service schools where military matters are the daily 
concern of a large number of brilliant men is full of that inspii*ation 
which maintains interest in the latest developments of military 
science. But as officers scatter to outlying Army posts, some- 
times in the Tropics and sometimes in remote sections of the conti- 
nental United States, the officer soon feels the loss of contact with 
other investigating minds, and if mere seniority is to continue to 
secure an orderly promotion for him which can neither be accelerated 
by his effort nor retarded by his inactivity, a substantial encourage- 
ment to development is lost. In response to considerations of this 
sort the act of June 3, 1916, extended the provisions of previous laws 
requiring examination to determine fitness of officers for promotion 
so as to include examination for promotion to all grades below that 
of brigadier general. Under the operations of this law there will be 
constantly before the mind of the officer the necessity of keeping him- 



BEPOBT OP THE SECBETABY OF WAB. 45 

that an invasion of this field would probably not greatly increase 
the available stock of fertilizers in peace times, because it would not 
increase the actual nitrogen supply of the country but would merely 
divert a part of it, or all of it, at certain times into war materials. 
Of course, if the Government were to adopt this source, it would 
lead to a large increase in the by-product oven method of coking, and 
in that way the fertilizer supply would be augmented. The cyanamid 
process, which undoubtedly is the most useful from the point of view 
of fertilizer product, depends upon a large supply of electrical power 
and the proximity of certain mineral and shale bodies for its economic 
iiQccess. The arc process, which likewise depends upon the presence 
of a large supply of electrical power, is independent of mineral 
resources, but is less valuable in peace times as a source of fertilizer 
production. 

We thus see that if either of the electrical processes are resorted to 
it will be necessary to select a site or sites for the production of hydro- 
electric power, and this selection will have to be made with a view 
to the accessibility of mineral elements needed for association in the 
peace and war time products of the plant, and the selection will also 
have to consider the location of the site with a view to its defense in 
the event of war and the readiness and economy with which its prod- 
ucts can be distributed in war times to the military forces of the 
Nation and in peace times to the farming community which can be 
expected to use the fertilizer product. The subject is thus seen to be 
one of intricacy, and, while the solution of the questions presented 
has not yet been made, the studies being made are of such character 
as to insure a scientific treatment of the question and a careful and 
effective use of the funds appropriated by Congress for this im- 
portant object. 

Examinations for promotion, — As early as October 1, l»yu, Mr. 
Redfield Proctor, Secretary of War, advocated in his annual report 
and secured the enactment of a measure providing a system of 
examination for all officers of the Army below the rank of major 
and making the right to promotion conditional thereon. The 
theory which has long obtained in the Army, of promotion by 
seniority, was not disturbed except that the requirement of a suc- 
cessful examination was made an additional condition precedent, 
the examinations not being competitive but qualifying. The law 



46 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

did not seem to work well, although its theory met with the 
approval of the War Department, and constant efforts were made 
both to broaden its scope and increase the efficiency of its opera- 
tion. My immediate predecessor, Secretary of War Garrison, in his 
annual report for 1913, drew the analogy between the practice of in- 
dustrial concerns and the Army, suggesting the tendency of mere 
seniority promotion to cause a lack of initiative and study on the part 
of officers. He very justly observed that there is a surprising amount 
of ambition and initiative in the Army, but that it is largely self- 
generated and receives very little stimulation from the promotion 
system. As a matter of fact, we see the same condition in civil life — 
young men of great ingenuity and devotion who are attending the 
postgraduate courses in our universities and are ordinarily required 
to do a piece of original research work as the basis of their pretensions 
to the degree of doctor of philosophy. They are filled with research 
zeal. When, however, they are through with their university course 
and undertake the daily grind of teaching in academic institutions, 
their separation from the inspiring university atmosphere and from 
daily association with others engaged in original work tends gradu- 
ally to lull the impulse to investigation, and the task of original 
research is passed along to their successors at the universities, while 
they become drill masters, disciplinarians, and teachers, but not con- 
tributors to the original thought of their science. 

The life of the Army officer when he is at the War College or 
in one of the service schools where military matters are the daily 
concern of a large number of brilliant men is full of that inspiration 
which maintains interest in the latest developments of military 
science. But as officers scatter to outlying Army posts, some- 
times in the Tropics and sometimes in remote sections of the conti- 
nental United States, the officer soon feels the loss of contact with 
other investigating minds, and if mere seniority is to continue to 
secure an orderly promotion for him which can neither be accelerated 
by his effort nor retarded by his inactivity, a substantial encourage- 
ment to development is lost. In response to considerations of this 
sort the act of June 3, 1916, extended the provisions of previous laws 
requiring examination to determine fitness of officers for promotion 
so as to include examination for promotion to all grades below that 
of brigadier general. Under the operations of this law there will be 
constantly before the mind of the officer the necessity of keeping him- 



REPOBT OF THE SECBETARY OP WAR. 47 

self abreast of the developments in military matters and of not allow- 
ing his general education to stagnate or be lost in a dull routine of 
disciplinary observances. The law ought not to be harshly em- 
ployed, but in the normal development of its operation eliminations 
will take place of oflBcers who have lost interest in their career and 
in the development of military science, and a certain minimum of 
growth will become a fixed requirement as officers advance in the 
service to positions of larger responsibility. 

* Revision of the Articles of War. — From the point of view of the 
daily discipline and control of the Army, perhaps no step in recent 
years has been more helpful than the revision of the Articles of War, 
enacted into law as a part of the Army appropriation act approved 
August 29, 1916. For many years the Army has felt that the Articles 
of War needed revision. Many of these articles have remained 
unchanged for a century, while new theories of discipline have 
been current in all the civilized countries of the world, and in our 
own country profound modifications have taken place in the admin- 
istration of both civil and criminal law. The extension of the field 
of operations of the Army of the United States beyond our conti- 
nental borders and other changes in the domestic and international 
situation of the United States have presented conditions which the 
old articles were not adapted to meet. The revision of the articles, 
therefore, was most needed, and the work of the Judge Advocate 
General in preparing the revised articles is a singularly able piece 
of work, introducing needed reforms, and throughout characterized 
by moderation and a conservative attitude toward an established and 
well-imderstood disciplinary system. 

Revision of military laws. — ^The act of August 29, 1916, further 
directs a revision and codification of all the military laws of the coun- 
try. This is a large and difficult task and yet one very necessary to 
be performed. For many years Congress has enacted a great variety 
of laws, some of them directly military in character and others touch- 
ing the Military Establishment only at a tangent, so that scattered 
through the statutes is a lot of piecemeal legislation requiring the 
most expert and trained knowledge for its use. It will be a great ad- 
vance in the conduct of the Military Establishment to have all of 
these laws brought together, placed in their true relation to one 
another, their accidental conflicts eliminated, and a consistent and 



48 REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

plain body of laws erected for the guidance of those who come 
within the scope and operation of our so-called military laws. It 
is my hope that this code can be submitted to Congress at an early 
day, and while the Congress will undoubtedly find it necessary 
carefully to examine the work before giving its approval, it will 
be presented in a form which will show that the effort has been 
to omit obsolete and redundant matter without substantially chang- 
ing the effect of existing law except in such obvious cases as will 
appeal at once to the lawmaking body. 

MILITABY TBAINING IN HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The statement made by the War College Division of the General 
Staff entitled "A Statement of a Proper Military Policy for the United 
States," gave us some idea of the size of an army which would be needed 
in this country in the event of any serious emergency. As one contribu- 
tion to the preparation of the necessary number of men, a proper sys- 
tem of training for high schools was developed by Capt. E. Z. Steever 
and applied with marked success in the public high schools of the 
State of Wyoming. The Steever plan has come to be known as the 
•* Wyoming plan." It has been extensively written up in periodicals 
of general circulation and interest, and requests come almost daily 
to the War Department for the services of Capt. Steever to introduce 
the system into the public secondary schools. The plan embraces the 
preparation of a high -school boy in military, moral, civic, business, 
and educational equipment, and its fundamental basis rests upon the 
natural evolution of leadership among boys and the value of organi- 
zation and coordination in groups of young men. The system can 
not be said to compete with recognized athletic diversions, but it 
offers opportunities for larger masses and spreads its benefit in the 
physical training over wider areas than is possible under the inten- 
sive form which modem athletics has taken. The entire enlistment is 
voluntary and the exercises are carefully adjusted so as not to com- 
pete or interfere with the normal academic work of the school. The 
exercises are only in part directly military and are designed to 
stimulate the interest of all normal and healthy boys, thus afford- 
ing an invitation to those who are not normally the most fit physi- 
cally to develop vigorous, sturdy bodies, with clean minds and or- 
dered and disciplined habits. 



BEPOET OF THE SECBETAEY OP WAE. 49 

There is just enough of a soldier aspect to teach constantly the 
lesson of the obligation of the citizen to serve the State in a crisis, 
and under the wise restraints which have been introduced into the 
system even the most devoted adherents of peaceful policies for our 
Government have not felt that there was any danger of the devel- 
opment of a militarist attitude in the student body. 

GENEBAL STAFF COBPS. 

Duties and functions as prescribed hy National-Defense Act. — The 
act for making further and more effectual provision for the national 
defense, and other purposes, approved June 3, 1916, provided many 
enlargements and changes in the Army. A large part of the dis- 
cussion in Congress and of the illustrative and preparatory work 
in the War Department had been done prior to my assumption of 
the duties of Secretary of War. Some questions as to the results 
of this act, however, and of the intention of Congress in passing 
it arose for almost immediate consideration and required a careful 
historical study of Army legislation covering a long period of 
years. None of these questions was more important or diflScult 
than that affecting the organization of the General Staff and the 
relation of the Chief of Staff alike to the Secretary and the Army. 

For many years the superior military authority in the Army 

was vested in the Commanding General of the Army. The em- 

barrkssments attending the somewhat uncertain duties of that officer 

and the growth of the principal staff organizations in the armies 

of other countries sharply directed the attention of various Sec-. 

retaries of War to the need of a reorganization, and the first step 

in that direction was taken by the creation of the Army War College 

Board, which Secretary Root described to be as near an approach 

to the establishment of the General Staff as was practicable under 

the law existing in 1899. In 1901 Secretary Root, in his report, 

formally urged the establishment by law of the General Staff, of 

which the War College Board should form a part. In his annual 

report for 1902 Secretary Root again urged his recommendation, 

saying : 

Our mUitary system Is, however, stUl exceedingly defective at the top. 
We have a personnel unsurpassed anywhere. ♦ ♦ ♦ We have the dUferent 
branches of the military service well organized, each within itself for the 
X)erformance of its duty ; our administrative staff and supply departments have 

eOlTe'—WAB 1916— VOL 1 1 



50 BEPORT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAB, 

at their heads good and competent men, faithful to their duty, each attending 
assiduously to the business of his department; but when we come to the co- 
ordination and direction of all these means and agencies of warfare, so that 
all parts of the machine shall work true together, we are weak. Our system 
makes no adequate provision for the directing brain which every army must 
have to work successfully. Ck)mmon experience has shown that this can not 
be furnished by any single man without assistants, and that it requires a 
body of officers working together with the direction of a chief, and entirely 
separate from the Army. • ♦ • This body of officers In distinction from 
the administrative staff has come to be called a general staff. 

The subject thus presented was very fully and earnestly considered 
by the Military Committees of the two Houses, and resulted in the 
passage of the act of February 14, 1903, which abolished the separate 
office of Commanding General of the Army, provided for a military 
Chief of Staff, who, under the direction of the President or of the 
Secretary of War, representing him, should have supervision not 
only of all troops of the line, but of the special staff and supply 
departments, which theretofore had reported directly to the Sec- 
retary of War, and it created for the assistance of the Chief of Staff 
a corps of 44 officers who were relieved from all other duties. The 
inauguration of this system was a complete and fundamental change 
in the administration of the AVar Department. It was not unnatu- 
rally attended by some misunderstanding and difficulties, growing 
out of the transfer of authority and independence from a series of 
uncoordinated administrative staff officers into a harmonized and 
coordinated body under the supervision and control of a single 
military officer. The embarrassing question constantly presented 
itself as to just how far the functions of the Chief of Staff invaded 
the administrative independence of various bureau chiefs, and, while 
the question was always considered in a fair and tolerant spirit, it 
sometimes became the basis of anxious controversy, if not misunder- 
standing. 

In the act of June 3, 1916, and particularly in section 5 of that act, 
some language was introduced by Congress apparently for the pur- 
pose of setting at rest some of this misunderstanding. Unhappily, 
however, doubt immediately arose as to the scope, effect, and inten- 
tion of the language so employed. One possible view of its meaning 
would have in effect limited the Chief of the General Staff and his 
associates to the consideration of more or less abstract questions of 
military policy and would have deprived him of that basis of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 51 

knowledge necessary for the performance of any coordinating func- 
tion. In effect, this would have been a return to the old system of 
more or less independent bureau organizations reporting to and 
dealing directly with the Secretary of War and coordinated only to 
tlie extent that his personal information enabled him to effect such 
a result. It would, of course, have left the Chief of Staff and the 
General Staff in existence, but would have limited their functions 
practically to the work originally undertaken by the War College 
Board, and later by the War College Division of the General Staff. 
Since Congress had apparently addressed its attention to this sub- 
ject and had used some new language, it became important very 
earnestly to inquire just what the legislation intended to accomplish 
and how far the interpretation above suggested as possible was 
necessitated by the language used. 

As this question is one of far-reaching importance, I take the 
liberty of attaching to this report as Appendix A the decision of the 
Secretary of War * on the effect of section 5 of the National-Defense 
Act, in which the subject is examined with critical care and the 
conclusion reached that — 

The structure [General Staff] erected by the act of 1903 remains as then 
created, except for the explicit modifications provided in the act of 1916. 

And— 

That the Chief of the General Staff is charged with the supervision of the 
various departments, bureaus, and offices of the War Department for the pur- 
pose of coordinating their activities and for the purpose of so informing the 
Judgment of the Secretary of War that he may not by inadvertence or unfamll- 
iarity with military practice take action which would be prejudicial to 
harmonious results In the military service. 

This conclusion was reached by a study of the language actually 
used, which, after all, was merely a prohibition upon the officers de- 
tailed into the General Staff Corps from the performance of adminis- 
trative duties and was in no expressed sense a repeal of any of the 
earlier legislation which subjected the administrative staff officers to 
the supervising, coordinating, and informing powers reposed in the 
members of the General Staff Corps by the act of 1903. It seemed 
entirely clear to me that had the Congress intended a larger effect for 



>The able opinion of the Judge Advocate General on this question Is attached as m 
part of Appendix A, so that the perplexity of the question from both points of view may 
ba seen. 



52 REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

its language it would not have been content to leave that effect to 
inference and expanded definitions of terms ordinarily having much 
more limited meaning. The result of all the legislation, therefore, 
including the provisions of the act of June 3, 1916, dealing with this 
subject seemed to me to be that Congress has adhered to the policy 
inaugurated in 1903, that it continues to recognize the wisdom of a 
General Staff in the American Army, and that not a staff for the 
academic consideration of theoretical problems, but such a staff as 
can, on the basis of intimate acquaintance with both the War De- 
partment bureaus and the Army at large, act as a coordinating and 
reconciling agency. The considerations which moved Congress to 
the passage of the act of 1903 were of the weightiest character. For- 
eign experience, which was then considered determinative of proper 
military policy in this regard, has since that time become more con- 
clusively persuasive in the same direction, and I am clear that any 
abandonment of the theory of the General Staff, or any diminution 
of the coordinating power of the Chief of the General Staff, would 
be a backward step and would scatter the military energies of our 
Army, which are now so happily concentrated and coordinated. It is 
proper to be remembered in this connection that the Chief of the 
General Staff bears a more personal relation to the Secretary of 
War and, through him, to the President than is borne by any other 
officer in the Army. The occupant of the office changes at the will 
of the Secretary of War, and in order that the policy of the Presi- 
dent may be aptly and sympathetically impressed upon the military 
establishment, it seems imperative that there should be continued in 
the Chief of Staff the largest power of supervision and that he should 
be enabled to keep constantly informed, even in detail, as to the 
operations of the various subdivisions of the military activities of 
the department, so that the Secretary of War may rely upon him in 
un immediate and personal sense for advice which is based upon a 
view of the whole Army rather than upon the advice, however frank 
and disinterested, of individuals whose chief interests are associated 
with subdivisions of, or specialties in, the service. 

Having reached a definite opinion as to the intention of Congress, 
I have directed obedience to that intention by a continuation of the 
policy established inmiediately upon the passage of the act of 1903, 
and this result, I am confident, will be regarded by the Army as 
conducive to its growth in efficiency and to the establishment of har- 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 53 

monious and just relations between the various elements of the 
service. 

Number of oificera required. — At the time of the creation of the 
General Staff Corps the number of officers at first detailed thereto 
was fixed at 45 as the proper number to perform this new and some- 
what experimental duty. In 1912 the General Staff was reduced by 
one general officer and eight captains. The reduction so seriously 
interfered with the work of the General Staff as to cause a special 
emphasis to be laid by the department in its recommendations to 
Congress on the subject. Having an intimate knowledge of the 
increase and development of its own fimctions and possibilities of 
usefulness, the General Staff recommended 94 as the number that 
should compose that body. The new National-Defense Act as passed 
by the Senate fixed the number at 92, but when the bill emerged from 
conference, the General Staff, aside from its general officers, was 
increased by 18 officers only, and they were to come, like the other 
increases authorized for the Army, in five annual increments. And 
the National-Defense Act further provided that not more than one- 
half of the officers detailed in the General Staff Corps shall at any 
time be stationed or assigned to or employed upon any duty in or 
near the District of Columbia. It seems quite clear that the law as 
thus enacted leaves the General Staff Corps insufficiently provided 
for, so far as numbers are concerned, and the department is em- 
barrassed in the selection of suitable officers for this most important 
duty, both by the restriction prohibiting the assignment to duty in 
or near Washington of more than one-half of the corps and also by 
the detached-service law and other restrictions which limit choice. 
The detached-service law was a part of the appropriation act for the 
Army approved August 24, 1912, and requires that commissioned 
officers of the line of the Army below the rank of major shall not be 
detached unless they have been actually present for duty for at least 
two of the last preceding six years with troops of that branch of the 
service in which the officer in question is commissioned. 

With the purpose of this law I have complete sympathy, in that it 
is an effort to require the return of officers to service with troops at 
such frequent intervals as to assure knowledge of troop conditions 
and line service in those who are from time to time detached for 
special and expert work. It seems to be a very safe generalization 
that all officers of the Army, with the possible exception of a very few 



54 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

performing highly specialized service, ought to be returned to service 
with troops from time to time, so that their details, or periods of de- 
tachment, will be refreshed by knowledge of actual army conditions. 
But I doubt the wisdom of allowing this principle to limit the choice 
of the department in the selection of officers for the General StaflP. 
The duties of that body are of such paramount importance to the 
success of the whole military establishment that the War Department 
ought to be free from any arbitrary restriction in reaching out into 
the service at any time for the man or men best qualified to perform 
this central and pivotal function. 

A board of officers was recently constituted in the War Department 
to recommend for selection the necessary number of officers to fill 
vacancies in the General Staff. The board reports that it — 

was seriously han<llcnpped by the fact that many of the officers whom it con- 
sidered eminently fit were either on the detached officers* list, on duty in the 
Philippines with a considerable period to serve, or were within one year of their 
promotion, or detailed In other staff departments. 

T^ndoubtedly the difficulty here sought to be solved by Congress is 
a real one. Washington, being the Capital and the seat of the War 
Department, is a desirable place of residence for officers of the Army, 
and, where personal preference is allowed to control, undoubtedly the 
tendency will be, for one reason or another, to allow too large a num- 
ber of officers in Washington, at the expense of an adequate officering 
of outlying posts. It would seem, however, that, in view of the 
firmly established theory and practice of the dominance of the Chief 
of the General Staff and his supervision over and coordination of all 
the various branches of the military establishment, the power might 
safely be left to the Secretary of War to set aside in individual cases 
restrictions of this kind in the interest of the most efficient organiza- 
tion of the General Staff Corps. Incidentally it may be remarked 
that these restrictive provisions impose upon the Government a very 
substantial increase in the expense of the military establishment, re- 
quiring, as they do, arbitrarily, frequent changes in the assignment 
of officers, and their transportation from place to place. 

SCIENTinC MANAGEMENT. 

The supplies of the Army are in part purchased in the open market 
and under contract and in part manufactured in Government arse- 
nals. The question of the relation between the Government as em- 



REPOBT OF THE SECBETAKY OP WAB, 55 

ployer and its employees in these arsenals is a part of the general 
labor question of the country. The theory which the department 
attempts to follow is, in general terms, that the Government should 
be the model employer, and to a large extent this theory is successfully 
applied. In the matter of hours of labor, sanitary conditions, holi- 
days, and sick leave there is perhaps no better industrial condition in 
the United States than that maintained by the War Department in 
these industrial plants. The question of wages and the basis of 
wages is, however, under more or less constant discussion. Roughly 
speaking, the department undertakes to establish wage rates by deter- 
mination of the prevailing rate of wages in similar employments 
within the district in which the particular arsenal is located, and it 
uses Bureau of Labor statistics of the Department of Labor in select- 
ing the territory which shall comprise the district and in determining 
rates of wages for similar work. The result is that the employees 
of the Government receive the prevailing rate of wage in their respec- 
tive occupations, but usually for a day of shorter hours than is 
observed in the private industries from which the information is 
drawn, and clearly for work done under conditions much more favor- 
able to the public employee than to the private employee. The diffi- 
culty in this whole matter, however, arises from the use of more or 
less arbitrary methods for piecework and day wage determination. 
Many efforts have been made to introduce just principles into this 
delicate determination. A system of time studies and premiums 
known as the " Taylor system " was adopted in part in some of the 
arsenals, but it met with the opposition of organized labor and Con- 
gress prohibited the use of the system. We have been obliged, there- 
fore, to fall back upon the less scientific and less just methods pre- 
viously employed. 

It seems without doubt that an efficiency system properly con- 
structed and justly applied is fairer alike to the Government and to 
the employee than any more haphazard method. The objection of 
organized labor is not unnatural; it proceeds from the belief that all 
efficiency systems tend to become "speeding-up" systems and that 
their logical operation increases the output without a corresponding 
increase of wage. This, however, must, of course, be due to the 
method of applying the system rather than to the system itself, and 
after examining the results obtained in Government arsenals where 
the system was in whole or in part followed, I am persuaded that 



56 BEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAB. 

no such evil effects as these were permitted to occur. How far the 
action of Congress was dictated by a belief that efficiency systems 
inevitably tended to the enervation of the employee I have not the 
means of knowing, nor do I know what evidences of such results in 
private establishments were considered, but under the law as it now 
is the department is prohibited from using time studies and pre- 
miums, and is therefore deprived of the means of acquiring the sort 
of knowledge without which just wage regulation is impossible, or of 
offering inducements to zeal and good workmanship, which if offered 
in moderation constitute a just recognition of individual skill and 
energy. My own belief is that most of the difficulties which have been 
felt to inhere in efficiency systems arise from the fact that they are 
employers' systems and that the employee has no voice nor part 
either in the making or application of the systems. We are un- 
happily prevented by existing legislation from any experiments. 
Were it otherwise I would be much interested to discover, if possible, 
a plan by which the Government and its employees might cooperate 
in the devising and application of methods fair to both for the 
determination of relative skill and zeal among operatives, which 
would at the same time protect the interests of the Government as 
employer, and while conserving the strength and energy of the 
employees distribute justly among them the rewards of faithful 
service. 

STJGK^ESTED LEGISLATION. 

Engineer School. — ^I have referred above to the special-service 
schools already established in the Army to supplement with post- 
graduate courses the fundamental training given to officers at West 
Point. The Army War College is, of course, one of these and de- 
votes its teaching force to the study of the principles of strategy and 
military policy. The service schools seek to specialize in their par- 
ticular branches of the service, and the rapidity with which new 
implements of war are developing and their highly scientific char- 
acter make it increasingly important that special study should be 
given to such subjects as precision in indirect Artillery fire, the use 
of the machine gun, the modern uses of Cavalry and military avia- 
tion. To one of these schools, however, I desire to ask particular 
attention. The Engineer Corps of the Army for many years com- 
prised a large part of the most eminent engineering talent in the 



BEPOBT OP THE SECRET ABY OP WAR. 57 

country. Its oflScers are still men of great distinction and ability, 
but the science of engineering in its various aspects has become 
fundamental to the entire industrial life of the Nation. The civil, 
electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineer is to be found in every 
great industry, and the rewards offered in civil life to the engineer 
are now attractive in the highest degree. It is very necessary that 
the Army should be continuously supplied with well-trained en- 
gineers. 

The peace-time occupations of the War Department and of the 
Army rest in a high degree upon the Engineer force, and the great 
problems of river and harbor improvement and development for the 
promotion of navigation and for the conservation of the water power 
of the countrj' are in the hands of that corps. Of course, in war 
the engineer, as bridge builder, road maker, builder of fortifications, 
and a variety of other construction enterprises, is essential to military 
success. But the science of engineering, like all other sciences now- 
adays, is rapidly developing. Every new application of scientific 
principles to industry affects the engineer, and it is of the highest 
importance that the Engineer Corps of the Army should continue to 
contain a progressive, highly trained body of men thoroughly abreast 
of all the developments in science applicable alike to those engi- 
neering functions of the Government in times of peace and to the 
great call made upon the engineer in times of war. The Engineer 
School maintained at the Washington barracks seems to me an inade- 
quate response to this obvious need, and I trust the attention of 
Congress can at some suitable time be called to the wisdom of 
providing facilities for original research and continuous and funda- 
mental training for our body of engineers, that will keep them in the 
very forefront of engineering science. 

National preparatory schools. — The suggestion made with regard 
to preparatory military schools is, of course, independent of the 
widespread movement for vocational training in the Army here- 
tofore mentioned. 

The method of selection of cadets for West Point has for years con- 
sisted of designation by the President, Senators, and Representatives, 
with examination as a prerequisite to acceptance ; but we are learning 
daily that a nation efficiently organized from a military point of 
view must of necessity be efficiently organized industrially. We are 
learning also that the ideal military preparation of any country is 



58 KEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OP WAB. 

one which is readily expanded in an emergency so as to include 
great numbers of men in the industrial and commercial life of 
the nation who have had enough preliminary training to make 
them convertible by brief additional training into oflScers. Should 
the United States ever be called upon to meet a great military 
emergency a large army would have to be sustained and sup- 
ported by a highly coordinated industrial system. There should 
therefore be in the country at all times a great body of men trained 
as mechanics, whose places in such an emergency would be not 
in the ranks of the fighting forces but at the lathes and forges 
from which the anmiimition supply of the Army must be drawn. 
I venture to believe that if the Federal Government were to estab- 
lish in a number of places throughout the country schools prepara- 
tory to the Military Academy at West Point and the Naval 
Academy at Annapolis, in which the rudiments of a sound edu- 
cation, the elements of mechanical skill, the principles of business 
coordination, and the beginnings of military science were taught, 
these schools would develop the natural aptitudes of the students 
in such a way as to supply those fittest by temperament and talent 
to pursue in the Military Academy and the Naval Academy the study 
of military science; and incidentally these schools would furnish a 
great body of men returning to civil life fitted by training either 
to respond in an emergency to a call to the colors or to take their 
places as civil soldiers in the service of the Government in those 
industries and undertakings fundamental to the successful conduct 
of military operations. 

The suggestion here made ought not perhaps to be further elabo- 
rated in this report, but I think it will be apparent on reflection 
that no expenditure in contemplation of a great military emer- 
gency would be more apt or helpful than one which gave to 25,000 
or 30,000 young men the inspiration of industrial education at the 
hands of the Government, indoctrinated them with the spirit of serv- 
ice to their country, and tabulated them so that they would be always 
available for either the military or industrial service which 
their academic experience indicated most in accordance with their 
aptitudes. It seems equally likely that schools of this sort would 
spread the field of selection ideally over the country and make 
the cadets at West Point and midshipmen at Annapolis bodies of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 59 

young men selected by a demonstration of their special aptitude for 
the pursuit of military service. 

THE BOABD OF OBDNANCE AND FOBTIFICATION. 

The Board of Ordnance and Fortification is one of the most 
important standing boards of the War Department. It meets 
weekly for the consideration of questions affecting the fortifica- 
tions of the United States and the arming of our forces with 
suitable implements of war. Scientific discoveries and invention 
are being made on every hand imder the stimulus of the world 
war, and this board endeavors to keep abreast of the progress made 
throughout the world, to consider and weigh the claims of inventors 
and the possible applications of science to warfare, to the end 
that our Army may be provided with equipment of the best, at 
least to the extent possible under the appropriations made by Con- 
gress for the purpose. I do not undertake to give any detailed 
account of the operations of the board, but two or three subjects 
considered by it are sufficiently interesting for passing comment. 

During the past fiscal year the Board of Ordnance and Forti- 
fication has conducted important tests at Fort Morgan, Ala., in 
cooperation with the Navy, to determine the effect of hostile gun- 
fire on our coast fortifications. An experimental emplacement with 
a gun mounted on a disappearing carriage was fired upon by ships 
with their heaviest guns at varying ranges. These tests were con- 
ducted in the presence of members of the board and accomplished 
the purpose for which they were made. 

Hammond radiodynamic system of torpedo control, — Further 
study and tests of an apparatus for the control of submarine tor- 
pedoes by radio, which had been under consideration by the board 
since the early part of 1913, had resulted in a recommendation by 
the board on February 12, 1915, for the purchase of all the secrets, 
patents, and developed methods pertaining to the Hammond radio- 
dynamic system of torpedo control. This recommendation was 
renewed by the board at its meeting on February 15, 1916, and was 
supported in hearings before congressional committees. Appro- 
priations were made for the purchase of the rights to the invention 
and the installation of one unit of the system, subject to the approval 
by the President after a satisfactory demonstration before a board 



60 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

of three Army and three Navy officers. This board has been named, 
and preparations for the test are in progress. 

The board has also been engaged in the development of railway 
mounts for certain types of ordnance, motor trucks, armored cars, 
serial photography, searchlights, and flare bombs, and in the de- 
velopment and test of the radio control of torpedoes from an aero- 
plane in flight under the Hammond system. 

Development of a portable searchlight for field artillery, inaugu- 
rated in 1906, was finally completed and the searchlight turned 
over to the Field Artillery Board for test. 

MACHINE OTJNS. 

Perhaps no invention has more profoundly modified the art of 
war than the machine gun. In the European war this arm has been 
brought into very great prominence. It had, however, been de- 
veloped to a serviceable state at the time of the Spanish-American 
War, although its use on a large scale had not been developed in any 
army until the outbreak of the European war. In 1912 Congi«ess 
by an appropriation sanctioned the allowance of the War Depart- 
ment of four machine guns per regiment. From time to time tests 
have been made by the War Department to determine the relative 
serviceableness and efficiency of various machine guns. These tests 
have been attended by considerable controversy and the claims of 
different types of machine guns have been urged upon the public 
attention by widespread newspaper comment. In the meantime, in 
response to the stimulus of the European war, inventors and makers 
have hastened to develop and improve their respective arms and the 
field of selection has constantly widened so that when the Congress 
at the last session appropriated $12,000,000 for the procurement of 
machine guns it seemed important, for obvious reasons, to free the 
air of the various controversies and to set at rest in as final a fashion 
as possible the conflicting claims of makers and inventors. A board 
was therefore created in the War Department, made up in part of 
officers and in part of civilians, all of whom were selected so as to 
avoid any suggestion of prejudice on their part growing out of 
previous controversies and tests. 

The board was instructed to take into consideration all tests pre- 
viously made and to collate and study the European experience and 



KEPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 61 

hear from the representatives of all makers, and to conduct under its 
own guidance such tests as in its judgment were necessary or appro- 
priate to a final determination of the present state of the art. On 
the basis of this sort of an investigation, the board was instructed 
to advise the department on the expenditure of the $12,000,000 
appropriated for this purpose. A preliminary report has been made 
by this board, selecting the Vickers-Maxim type for heavy machine 
guns, recommending the purchase of a large supply of them, and 
fixing a date in May at which time exhaustive tests to determine 
the relative excellence of various types of light machine guns are 
to be made. The nature of military operations plainly dictates that 
our Army should be supplied in some proportion with guns of a 
heavy and of a light type for defensive operations. From fixed 
points the heavier type is doubtless the more reliable, but in rapid 
charging and field operations and in aeroplane work the mo- 
bility of the arm is an important consideration. It is therefore 
highly important that the Army should be supplied with an ade- 
quate number of both types of arm. The recommendations of the 
board already made recognize the wisdom of this course, and its 
c'onclusions when finally reached will no doubt be accepted as 
authoritative, although this is the field of most rapid advance in the 
perfection of arms, and the department will welcome each improve- 
ment and seek to avail itself of the progress made so that our equip- 
ment can at all times be of the most modern and effective kind. 

THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT. 

Governor General Harrison's administration has continued to be 
marked by cordial relations between the executive and legislative 
branches of the government and between the upper appointive house 
of the legislature and the lower house. The recommendations of the 
Governor General to the legislature have been promptly formulated 
into law. The legislature passed satisfactory appropriation bills and 
imposed additional taxes to meet decreases in the revenues as the 
result of the European war. 

Progress among the Moros and other non-Christians in the De- 
partment of Mindanao and Sulu, where Gov. Carpenter has con- 
tinued in office, has exceeded the most sanguine anticipation. 

Peace and good order have so marked the administration of 
Governor General Harrison that it should be unnecessary hereafter 



62 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

in official reports to mention these subjects, of such frequent reference 
in past reports of the Philippine Islands. 

The financial condition of the government is excellent. 

Detailed information with 'reference to our government in the 
Philippine Islands will be found in the annual reports of the Gov- 
ernor General and the Philippine Commission and of the Bureau of 
Insular Affairs of' the War Department, transmitted with this 
report. 

Congress at its last session was most attentive to the reconmienda- 
tions of the Philippine government and of this department with 
reference thereto. In addition to making effective several of the 
less important recommendations, it enacted the new Philippine 
organic act, which was approved by the President on August 29, 
1916. While there has been continuous progress in the development 
of the Philippines toward self-government during American occu- 
I)ation, this is the first step of importance that Congress has taken 
in recognition of this development since the passage in 1902 of the 
act for the temporary government of the Philippine Islands. 

POBTO RICO. 

The past year has been one of marked prosperity in the industries 
of Porto Rico, particularly in what has become by far the greatest 
industry, the production of sugar. 

There was natural disappointment in Porto Rico at the failure 
to secure the enactment by Congress at its last session of the proposed 
new organic act. It passed the House of Representatives, but failed 
to receive consideration by the Senate, and is still pending. It is 
hoped that at the coming session of Congress this act will be passed. 
It may be said now to have been pending for six years, since the 
House of Representatives in 1910 passed a bill which embodied the 
most important features of the pending bill. The disappointment 
of the Porto Rican people is greatest because of the continued failure 
to grant to them American citizenship, an aspiration in which they 
have been encouraged by every President of the United States since 
1905. 

The progress of the government and people of Porto Rico is set 
forth fully in the annual repoil of the governor, transmitted here- 
with. 



BEPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 63 

THE PANAMA CANAL. 

The Panama Canal has been opened to commerce since August 
15, 1914. However, on account of slides, the canal was closed to 
traffic from September 18, 1915, to April 15, 1916. The governor 
of the Panama Canal, in his last annual report, has again reported 
very fully on the slide situation and corrects many misapprehen- 
sions that exist concerning conditions on the Isthmus. He is con- 
fident that the slides will be overcome finally and for all time, and 
that there will be no further serious interruptions to traffic. 

These same general conclusions were also reached by a committee 
of the National Academy of Sciences, appointed at your request, 
from which I quote the following paragraph from the preliminary 
report made by that committee : 

The committee looks to the future of the canal with confidence. It is 
not unmindful of the labor necessary to deal with the present slides; and 
it realizes that slides may be a considerable, but not an unreasonably large, 
maintenance charge upon the canal for a number of years; it also realizes 
that trouble In the Culebra district may possibly again close the canal. 
Nevertheless, the committee firmly believes that, after the present dlfllculties 
have been overcome, navigation tljrough the <anal is not likely again to be 
seriously Interrupted. There Is absolutely no Justification for the statement 
that traffic will be repeatedly interrupted during long periods for years to 
come. The canal will serve the great purpose for which it was constructed, 
and the realization of that purpose in the near future Is assured. 

During the part of the fiscal year that the canal was open to 
traffic, 411 vessels passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with 
a total net tonnage of 1,308,230 tons and 1,434,236 cargo tons. Of 
this total number of vessels, 50 were engaged in United States 
coastwise trade, with a net tonnage of 183,372 tons and a cargo 
tonnage of 227,103 tons. Three hundred and seventy-six vessels 
passed from the Pacific to the Atlantic, with a total net tonnage 
of 1,171,531 tons and a cargo tonnage of 1,705,810 tons. Of this 
number of vessels, 41 were engaged in the coastwise trade, with 
a net tonnage of 167,594 tons and a cargo tonnage of 217,285 tons. 
The total cargo tonnage that traversed the canal during the fiscal 
year amounted to 3,140,046 tons. 

Canal tolls. — ^The tolls collected during the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1916, from vessels using the canal amounted to $2,399,830.42. 



64 EEPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

In his annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, Gen. 
Goethals, Governor of the Panama Canal, again calls attention to 
the confusion resulting from the application of the United States 
rules of measurement of vessels in addition to the Panama Canal 
rules of measurement, and invites attention to the necessity of adopt- 
ing some one rule for levying tolls on vessels passing through the 
canal. He states that as time goes on and traffic increases, with a 
resulting increase in the number and classes of vessels using the 
canal, experience has shown beyond a doubt that the fairest rules for 
determining the tonnage of a vessel on a just basis are the Panama 
Canal rules of measurement ; in short, on the earning capacity of the 
ship. Furthermore, the application of the United States rules for 
measurement has resulted in exempting practically all sheltered 
spaces and deck loads of vessels transiting the canal, which, in turn, 
has resulted in discrimination against most of the United States 
vessels utilizing the waterway, due to the fact that almost all of the 
United States vessels are so constructed that they are unable to take 
advantage of shelter-deck space. On the other hand, the United 
States rules provide for the exemption of certain cabin space above 
the upper deck that is not a deck attached to the hull, which would, 
in most cases, result in discrimination against foreign vessels and in 
favor of United States passenger steamers, if the national register 
of the vessel were recognized as a factor in the levying of tolls. Had 
the Panama Canal rules for measurement been in force, the revenue 
from this source would have been $2,790,544.47, instead of $2,399,- 
830.42 as stated above, showing a direct loss of revenue on this ac- 
count of $390,714.05. 

Out velatioTiB with Panama. — Gen. Goethals also again calls atten- 
tion to the necessity of an agreement between the Governments of the 
United States and Panama for modifying the so-called Taft agree- 
ment, which is, in many respects, disadvantageous to both Govern- 
ments, and should be substituted by an agreement made in accord- 
ance with our present mutual needs and with our rights under the 
treaty. 

THE PANAMA BAILBOAD. 

The result of the company's business of every character for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, after meeting the cost of operation, 
together with fixed charges aggregating $79,023.30 and charges for 



BEPOBT OF THE SEGRETABY OF WAB. 65 

depreciation on rolling stock, floating and plant equipment of 
$461,244.48, shows- 
Net Income of $2, 453, 5d2. 84 

As against : 914, 800. 58 

For the previous year, or an increase of 1, 538, 731. 76 

During that period $2,148,542.89 was applied to additions and bet- 

« 

terments of plant and equipment. 

The increase in revenue derived from the railroad from its local 
and through business as compared with the previous year amounts 
to $704,709.37 and is due entirely to the closing of the canal to traffic 
for a large portion of the year, which resulted in the railroad's 
transporting 306,057 tons of freight in excess of prior period. 

The steamship line contributed to the net revenue $1,004,373.05 — 
an increase over the previous fiscal year of $504,519.63, due to an 
increase in rates and in tonnage carried. 

At the end of this fiscal year the company had $2,960,868.55 of 
available funds in the hands of designated depositories and, in addi- 
tion, securities purchased at a cost of $2,040,168.75 in a reserve fund 
established September 12, 1911. 

WATERWAYS AND WATEB POWER. 

The War Department is constantly dealing with the important 
question of waterways and water power, not only under the river and 
harbor legislation passed from time to time and dealing with speci- 
fied waterway improvements but also under the General Dam Act and 
other legislation dealing with the diversion of streams and the 
establishment of water powers. Congress is, of course, actively con- 
sidering this latter subject, and the prospect is that comprehensive 
provision will be made for the conservation of the undeveloped water 
power of the United States, which is enormous in its possibilities 
and comprises the great unexpended natural resource of the Nation. 

Several special problems in this connection are more or less con- 
stantly before the department. The first of these is the Chicago 
Drainage Canal. This canal was built under the authority of the 
State of Illinois for sanitary purposes, but has never had the 
approval of Congress. It was completed in 1899, and application 
was then made to the War Department for permission to connect 
the canal with the south branch of the Chicago River, thus reversing 

69176'— WAR 191^— VOL 1 5 



66 REPOBT OP THE SECBBTABY OP WAB. 

the flow of that stream and diverting its waters from Lake Michigan 
into the drainage canal and thence into the Mississippi River. A con- 
ditional permit was granted in 1901, authorizing the diversion of 
4,167 cubic feet seconds, and this amount has continued to be the 
legal limit. The drawing of water from the Chicago River into the 
canal affects the general navigation interests of the country on ac- 
count of the tendency of such diversion to lower the level of the 
waters of the Great Lakes. From the beginning the operations of 
the Sanitary District have been looked upon with disfavor by navi- 
gation interests, and the Secretary of War has not only declined to 
increase the diversion temporarily authorized but has adhered to the 
decision that the permit granted was of a temporary character and 
that no permanent diversion of the waters of Lake Michigan could 
be made without express authority from Congress. Nevertheless the 
Sanitary District has for many years been withdrawing a much 
larger amount of water than is authorized by this permit. Upon two 
different occasions the Sanitary District has refused to conform to 
decisions of the Secretary of War declining to grant authority for 
larger diversions and has declared its intention to continue excess 
diversions imless prevented by injunction. Accordingly, in 1908 and 
again in 1910, bills in equity were filed at the instance of the War 
Department by the Attorney General seeking to enjoin excess diver- 
sion. The two suits were consolidated and tried in the United States 
District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, but remain 
imdecided. 

It seems quite clear that with the growth of population in Chicago 
the authorities of the Sanitary District contemplate still larger diver- 
sions than those already made, perhaps to the extent of 10,000 cubic 
feet seconds. This, it is estimated by the United States Lake Sur- 
vey, would lower the waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron 
nearly 7 inches. Lake Erie about 5 J inches, and Lake Ontario about 
4J inches, mean lake levels, the reduction being much greater at low- 
water periods. The effect of such a lowering of lake levels would 
obviously be enormous losses to navigation interests and would neces- 
sitate large expenditures by the General Government for the restora- 
tion and reorganization of river and harbor improvements on the 
Great Lakes and their connecting waters, for which already appro- 
priations aggregating more than $90,000,000 have been made. 



KEPORT OF THE SECRETABY OF WAR. 67 

A related project to the Chicago Drainage Canal is the canal pro- 
posed to be constructed for commerce from Chicago through the Des 
Plaines River, and applications for permits have been made to the 
War Department to authorize this construction. The matter has 
also been considered in Congress, but no action taken. At present 
the authority of the State of Illinois to issue bonds for the construc- 
tion of this canal is drawn in question before the local courts of the 
State, and a temporary injunction has been issued against the sale of 
the bonds. No action has therefore been considered by the War 
Department and none will be considered so long as these legal ob- 
stacles remain in the way. It would seem that this subject ought to 
have the attention of Congi-ess, for while it is asserted in behalf of 
the project that there is no intention of making further withdrawals 
of water from the Great Lakes for tlie purposes of the canal than are 
already being withdrawn for the drainage canal, yet it seems quite 
clear that should this commercial waterway be established and con- 
structed, and then a greater volume of water be needed for its opera- 
tion than was originally estimated, the pressure to allow additional 
lake diversions would be very great; and if it le true in fact that such 
diversions are prejudicial to the navigation interests of the Great 
Lakes and the eastward-flowing waters, the relative advantages of the 
two uses of these waters ought to be weighted and finally determined 
by the legislative body. 

Another question which has constantly been presented to the War 
Department for consideration is the withdrawal of additional water 
for power purposes at Niagara Falls. Congress has allowed the 
Burton Act to expire without renewal or substitution. There is 
therefore no express donation of power from Congress to the War 
Department to deal with this subject, and I have such grave doubt as 
to the power of the department under the General Dam Act, or any 
other general legislation, that I have hesitated to grant any of the 
permits so urgently requested. Under the international agreement 
between Canada and the United States a maximum of 20,000 cubic 
feet seconds is authorized to be diverted on the American side of 
the river. At present under permits granted either prior to or under 
the Burton Act about 15,000 cubic feet seconds are being so with- 
drawn. Plainly the subject is one which Congress ought to deal 
with, involving not only the most efficient use and just distribution 
of this great power but also affecting the preservation of the great 



68 EEPORT OP THE SECRETABY OP WAB. 

natural spectacle presented by Niagara Falls. The present position 
of the department on the subject is that it ought not to complicate 
the consideration of the whole subject by Congress, and that in the 
absence of further enabling legislation the present situation must be 
maintained. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. 

Annexed hereto as Appendix B, Table 1, is a tabulated statement 
showing expenditures for the last fiscal year (1916), estimates and 
appropriations for the present fiscal year (1917), and the estimates 
for the next fiscal year (1918). This statement shows only expendi- 
tures from appropriations made by Congress in pursuance of esti- 
mates submitted by the War Department. It does not, therefore, 
include expenditures from appropriations made by Congress without 
estimates from the War Department, known as "Indefinite annual 
appropriations " and " Permanent annual appropriations." Expend- 
itures from appropriations of these two classes are included in the 
statements annexed hereto as Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5, which are complete 
and detailed statements of the financial transactions of the depart- 
ment during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, covering every ap- 
propriation made for the service of the fiscal years 1916, 1915, 1914, 
and 1913, and prior years, showing all balances from appropriations, 
the amounts appropriated under each title of appropriation, the 
amounts drawn from the Treasury, and the unexpended balance of 
each appropriation remaining in the Treasury June 30, 1916, subject 
to requisition. These statements show also the amounts covered into 
the surplus fund of the Treasury from all appropriations under the 
control of the War Department which are no longer available or 
required for expenditure. 

BETIBEMENT OF GOVEBNHENT EMPLOYEES. 

An examination of the reports of my predecessors for a number 
of years shows that they have continuously recommended considera- 
tion of the subject of an equitable retirement law providing for the 
retirement of superannuated and disabled employees of the civil 
service. I am very happy to renew the recommendation. From time 
to time bills have been introduced into Congress providing for such 
retirement, but as yet none has been enacted into law. In the mean- 
time, various industrial and transportation companies have found it 
to their interest to retire and pension superannuated employees. The 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 69 

Federal Government is and should be a model employer. The pro- 
visions now made by the Government in the matter of compensation, 
hours of labor, vacations, sick leave, and holidays, are all wisely 
generous both as an example and as establishing a harmonious and 
helpful relation between employer and employee, which both con- 
serves the spirit and health of the employee and secures for the em- 
ployer that willingness and good will out of which service of maxi- 
mum eflSciency naturally arises. There seems to remain as the chief 
thing yet to be done this provision for retirement upon superannua- 
tion. The law ought not, in my judgment, to provide a mere service 
pension as has sometimes been done in municipal and State services 
in this country, under which employees who have served a stipu- 
lated number of years are authorized to retire irrespective of their 
ability still to render competent service. The law ought rather, 
upon a minimum service required, to authorize retirement either for 
disability arising in the course of the service or occasioned by the 
service itself, and this retirement should be in the hands of a com- 
petent authority which would determine the inability of the particu- 
lar employee further to render adequate service in his place of em- 
ployment. The effect of such a law would be to give an assurance of 
a competent and comfortable old age. It would relieve the employee 
from the fear of loss of occupation and of livelihood, would further 
inspire him to loyalty to the Government as an employer, thus im- 
proving the general quality of the service rendered by Government 
employees, although that is already high, and would permit the 
replacement of some employees in the various departments who have 
long and faithfully served the Government and reached venerable 
but enfeebled years without having had an opportunity to accumu- 
late any competence upon which their retirement can rest, 

ENUMEBATION OF BEFOBTS SUBMITTED. 

I submit herewith the report of the Chief of Staff and the re- 
port made to him by the Chief of Coast Artillery ; the reports of the 
heads of bureaus of the War Department; and the reports of the 
commissioners of the four military parks, the Superintendent of the 
United States Military Academy, the governor of Porto Rico, and 

the Philippine Commission. 

Newton D. Baker, 

Secretary of War. 



Appendix A. 

DECISION OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR ON THE EFFECT OF 
SECTION 5 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT. 

War Department, 
Washington^ September ISj 1916. 

The provisions of section 5 of "An act for making further and 
more effectual provision for the national defense, and for other 
purposes," approved June 3, 1916, relating to the General Staff 
Corps, call for an opinion from the Secretary of War as to their 
effect upon the transaction of the business of the department and 
the relations to exist in the future between the Chief of the General 
Staff and the heads of various bureaus of the War Department. 

Section 5 provides that the General Staff Corps shall consist of 
one Chief of Staff, detailed in time of peace from major generals 
of the line, and various other officers, for some of whom specific 
duties are provided, as, for instance, that one of them is required 
to be president of the Army War College. The General Staff Corps 
is made a detailed corps, with the result that upon being relieved 
from duty in that corps officers return to the branch of the Army 
in which they were permanently conmiissioned, and no officer de- 
tailed to the General Staff Corps is eligible to a further detail therein 
until he shall have served two years with the branch of the Army 
in which commissioned, except in time of actual or threatened hostili- 
ties. Thus the Greneral Staff Corps is made to consist of a constantly 
changing detail of officers brought from the line of the Army and 
returned thereto, with the apparent purpose of having this corps 
represent and embody the opinion of the Army upon technical mili- 
tary subjects, as that opinion is matured and developed from time 
to time by actual experience, and careful provision is made against 
the General Staff Corps becoming a permanent body disassociated 
from the actual military forces of the Nation, and therefore, to a 
greater or less extent, out of touch with the opinion of the active 
Army. 

So far as the duties assigned to the General Staff Corps by section 

6 of the National Defense Act are concerned, they are covered by the 

following language: 

AU officers detailed In said corps shaU be exclusively employed In the study 
of military problems, the preparation of plans for the national defense, and 
the utilization of the military forces in time of war, in investigating and re* 

70 



BEPOBT OF THE SECRETABY OF WAB. 71 

porting upon the efficiency and state of preparedness of such forces for service 
in peace or war, or on appropriate general-staff duties in connection with 
troops, including the National Guard, or as military attaches in foreign coun- 
tries, or on other duties, not of an administrative nature, on which they can 
be lawfully and properly employed. 

Certain redistribution of functions are made by the act, the most 
notable being the abolition of the Mobile Army Division and Coast 
Artillery Division, the latter of which is created into a bureau of 
the War Department, and the business of the former is committed 
to the office of The Adjutant General. But scattered through this 
section there are statements of this import : 

That the War College shall remain fully subject to the supervising, coordi- 
nating, and informing powers conferred by law upon members of the Gteneral 
Staff Corps. 

That the bureau of The Adjutant General shall, " subject to the 
exercise of the supervising, coordinating, and informing powers 
conferred upon members of the General Staff Corps by act of Con- 
gress last hereinbefore cited," perform the business theretofore per- 
formed by the Mobile Army Division, and that " the Chief of Coast 
Artillery shall be an additional member of the General Staff Corps 
and shall also be adviser to and informant of the Chief of Staff in 
respect to the business under his charge." 

And then follows certain restrictive language which calls for this 
opinion. The language is as follows: 

Provided further. That hereafter members of the General Staff Corps shall 
be confined strictly to the discharge of the duties of the general nature of those 
specified for them in this section and in the organic act of Congress last here- 
inbefore cited, and they shall not be permitted to assume or engage in work 
of an administrative nature that pertains to established bureaus or offices 
of the War Department, or that, being assumed or engaged In by members of 
the General Staff Corps, would involve impairment of the responslbUity or 
initiative of such bureaus or offices, or would cause Injurious or unnecessary 
duplication of or delay in the work thereof. 

It will be observed that the section under review does not negative 
the survival of the "supervising, coordinating, and informing 
powers " conferred by law upon members of the General Staff Corps, 
but, on the contrary, reiterates those powers, and in the transfer of 
certain business in the War Department from divisions abolished by 
the act expressly subjects those powers in the hands of the new donees 
to the General Staff powers either enumerated in this section or in- 
corporated into it by reference to the act approved February 14, 1903, 
which created the General Staff Corps, no part of which act is in 
express terms repealed. It seems clear, therefore, that the new part 
of this legislation, namely, that restricting the work to be done by 
members of the General Staff Corps to work of a nonadministrative 
nature is the only phase of it calling for interpretation, and it is 



72 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

equally clear that this interpretation must proceed upon the founda- 
tion established by an understanding of the intention of Congress, as 
expressed in the act of February 14, 1903, which is not only the act 
by which the General Staff was established, but is plainly the act 
assumed by Congress as the fundamental and organic basis of what- 
ever modifications are intended by section 5 of the act of June 3, 1916. 
The development of a general scheme of systematic instruction in 
the Army, leading to the original War College Board, undoubtedly 
directed the attention of the Secretary of War to the general subject 
of Army organization. In the Report for 1901, Secretary Root said: 

The creation of the War CJoUege Board and the duties which wiU be imposed 
upon it, as indicated in my report for 1899, is probably as near an approach to 
the establishment of a General Staff as is practicable under existing law. ♦ • ♦ 

No one can doubt that the general and field officers of our Army have been too 
exclusively occupied in details of administration, with inadequate opportunity 
and provision for the study of great questions, and consideration and formation 
of plans, comprehensive forethought against future contingencies, and coordi- 
nation of the various branches of the service with a view to harmonious action. 
A body of competent military experts should be charged with these matters 
of the highest Importance, and to that end I strongly urge the establishment by 
law of a General Staff, of which the War CJoUege Board shall form a part. 

In the Annual Report for 1902 Secretary Root returns to this 
subject and argues it at considerable length, showing continuous 
improvement in Army organization, but saying: 

Our military system is, however, still exceedingly defective at the top. We 
have a personnel unsurpassed anywhere, • ♦ ♦ We have the different 
branches of the military service well organized, each within itself, for the per- 
formance of its duties. Our administrative staff and supply departments, as a 
rule, have at their heads good and competent men, faithful to their duties, each 
attending assiduously to the business of his department. 

But when we come to the coordination and direction of all these means and 
agencies of warfare, so that all parts of the machine shall work true together, 
we are weak. Our system makes no adequate provision for the directing brain 
which every army must have, to work successfully. Common experience has 
shown that this can not be furnished by any single man without assistants, 
and that it requires a body of officers working together under the direction of 
a chief and entirely separate from and independent of the administrative staff 
of an army. * * • This body of officers, in distinction from the administra- 
tive staff, has come to be called a general staff. 

The whole discussion of this subject by Secretary Root is inform- 
ing, and in order to get an understanding of the full weight of the 
argument made all that is said on that subject in his report should 
be examined. The following sentences, however, are indicative of the 
thought in his mind : 

Such a body of men doing general staff duty is just as necessary to prepare 
an army properly for war in time of peace as it is in time of war. It is not an 
executive body; it is not an administrative body; It acts only through the 
aathority of others. It makes Intelligent command possible by procuring and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 73 

arranging information and working out plans in detail, and it maliLes intelligent 
and effective execution of commands possible by keeping all the separate agents 
advised of the parts they are to play In the general scheme. ♦ • • 

The title of Chief of Staff, on the other hand, denotes a duty to advise, 
inform, and assist a superior officer who has command and to represent him, 
acting in his name and by his authority In carrying out his policies and secur- 
ing the execution of his commands. The officer who accepts the position 
assumes the highest obligation to be perfectly loyal to his commander, to 
exclude all personal interest from his advice and representation, and to try, 
in the most whole-hearted way, to help him to right conclusions, and to suc- 
cessful execution of his policies, even though his conclusions may not agree 
with the advice given. For the successful performance of his duties the Chief 
of Staff must have the entire confidence of his commander. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Constitution requires the President to be the commander of the Army, 
and a great variety of laws require the Secretary of War, who directly repre- 
sents the President, to supervise and direct the expenditure of the vast sums of 
money appropriated annually by Congress for the support of the Army. As 
every important movement requires the use of money, so long as the Secretary 
of War performs this duty faithfully he must practically control the operations 
of the Army in time of peace, and there can not be any independent command 
of the Army, except that which the President himself exercises over the Secre- 
tary of War and everybody else in the military establishment. It is because 
Congress has always looked to the civilian Secretary at the head of the War 
Department to hold the purse strings, that the laws require all the great 
departments which build the fortifications and furnish the arms, supplies, and 
munitions of war, and actually expend the money for those purposes, such as 
the Engineer, Ordnance, Quartermaster's, and Subsistence Departments, to act 
under the direction of the Secretary, and withhold from the officer who Is 
called " Commanding (General of the Army " all control over those departments. 

Continuing the argument thus made Secretary Root shows that 
the office of Commanding General of the Army and the powers con- 
ferred upon that officer were entirely inconsistent with and inade- 
quate for the duty contemplated for the Chief of Staff, which office 
he sought to have established. For the latter office he desired powers 
of coordination, supervision, and control, in the name of the Secre- 
tary of War and under the direction of the Secretary of War, wholly 
different from and greater than those previously intrusted to the 
Commanding General of the Army. 

In his report for 1903, after the passage of the Act of February 
14, 1903, Secretary Root says : 

The important military event of the year affecting the Regular Army has been 
the reorganization of the system of military control under the general stalff act 
approved February 14, 1903. ♦ ♦ ♦ This act abolished the separate office of 
Commanding General of the Army, provided for a military Chief of Staff to the 
President, who, acting under the directions of the President, or of the Secretary 
of War representing him, should have supervlson not only of all troops of the 
line but of the special staff and supply departments which had theretofore re- 
ported directly to the Secretary of War ; and it created for the assistance of the 
Chief of Staff a corps of 44 officers, who were relieved from all other duties. 



74 REPOBT OP THE SECBETABY OF WAE. 

After describing the mode of organization of the first General Staff 
Corps, Secretary Root says : 

The tenth article of the regulations relating to the Chief of Staff states ex- 
plicitly the new theory of control inaugurated by the General Staff act. 

That new theory he quotes from the regulations to be as follows: 

10. Under the act of February 14, 1903, the command of the Army of the 
United States rests with the constitutional CJommander In Chief, the President. 
The President will place parts of the Army, and separate armies whenever con- 
stituted, under commanders subordinate to his general command; and, in case 
of exigency seeming to him to require It, he may place the whole Army under a 
single commander subordinate to him ; but In time of peace and under ordinary 
conditions the administration and control of the Army are effected without any 
second in command. 

The President's command Is exercised through the Secretary of War and the 
Chief of Staff. The Secretary of War is charged with carrying out the policies 
of the President In military aiTuirs. He directly represents the President and is 
bound always to act In conformity to the President's Instructions. Under the 
law and the decisions of the Supreme Court his acts are the President's acts, 
and his directions and orders are the President's directions and orders. 

The Chief of Staff reports to the Secretary of War, acts as his military ad- 
viser, receives from him the directions and orders given In behalf of the Presi- 
dent, and gives effect thereto In tlie manner hereinafter provided. 

Secretary Root then says, with his customary clarity and decision 
of expression : 

It will be perceived that we are here providing for civilian control over the 
military arm, but for civilian control to be exercised through a single military 
expert of high rank, who Is provided with an adequate corps of professional as- 
sistants to aid him In the performance of his duties, and who Is bound to use 
all his professional skill and knowledge in giving effect to the purposes and gen- 
eral directions of his civilian superior, or make way for another expert who will 
do so. 

Commenting upon the effect of the inauguration of the system, 
Secietary Root says: 

In some cases the Intervention of the Chief of Staff and his assistants has re- 
sulted In an apparent diminution of the independent authority of other officers. 
This has been received almost universally with a cheerful readiness to subordi- 
nate personal considerations to the good of the service. 

The act of February 14, 1903, is universally regarded as the most 
important piece of Army legislation adopted in recent years. It was 
recognized at the time as a thoroughgoing and radical change in the 
theory of Army control. Not unnaturally this act received very 
earnest consideration in Congress prior to its passage. The hear- 
ings on it were extensive, and Secretary Root, one of the foremost 
lawyers of the country, and one of the great Secretaries of War of 
modem times, in his appearance before committees illustrated and 
reiterated the purpose and meaning of the measure advocated by him. 
I have examined these hearings with some care, and I find that, with- 



BEPORT OF THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 75 

out exception, witnesses and members of both House and Senate 
understood the purpose of the act to be as gathered from the previous 
quotations from the annual reports of Mr. Eoot, as Secretary of War. 
Thus, in his hearing before the Senate Committee on Military Affairs, 
Secretary Root says: 

You have imposed by law upon the Secretary of War the responsibUity for the 
expenditure of great sums of money which you appropriate every year, and you 
have established a great number of corps, bureaus and departments which the 
Secretary is bound to supervise. Now, I have doubt whether it is competent 
for the Secretary of War to do that through the intermediation of a Chief of 
Staff or a General Staff unless there is some statutory authority. I do not 
know whether in the face of the statute which makes the Quartermaster General 
and tlie Commissary General and the Chief of Ordnance directly responsible to 
the Secretary of War I can order them to report to a Chief of Staff. 

I do not want you to relieve the Secretary of War of responsibility, but I 
want you to enable him to discharge this responsibility through a military officer 
who will gather together in the performance of staff duties all the considerations 
affecting the decision that the Secretary has to make, and do it with military 
knowledge, instead of the Secretary having to dig around and gather them him- 
self and coUate the advice and requests that come from the heads of these differ- 
ent departments that are all overlapping and interwoven in their action. 

In short, I think nothing can be clearer from the written opinions 
of the Secretary of War, whose suggestions are responsible for the 
creation of the General Staff, and from the hearings before the com- 
mittees of Congress and the debates in the Congress upon the pas- 
sage of the General Staff bill, than that it was intended to supply to 
the Secretary of War a lawfully authorized military adviser to whom 
all other heads of departments and bureaus should report, and 
through whom the Secretary of War should be constantly kept 
advised and informed ; that it should be the duty of this officer, aided 
by the General Staff Corps created by the act, so to advise himself 
of all operations of the military departments and bureaus of the War 
Department as to inform the judgment of the Secretary upon any 
question submitted for his decision, and by correlating, coordinating, 
and supervising the judgments of the various heads of bureaus and 
subdepartments be able to prevent a civilian Secretary of War from 
inadvertent error, due either to a lack of familiarity with military 
matters or to the vast pressure of business of many and diverse 
characters which too far absorb the time of the Secretary of War 
to permit him, personally, to undertake the detailed study necessary 
in each case. 

It was out of this atmosphere and with this intention that the act 

of February, 1903, was passed, and the language adopted to meet 

this situation seems most apt and adequate. I quote from the 

statute : 

There is hereby established a General Staff CJorps, to be composed of officers 
detailed from the Army at large under such rules as may be prescribed by the 
President. 



76 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 

Sec. 2. That the dutie? of the General Staff CJorps shall be to prepare plans 
for the national defense and for the mobilization of the military forces In time 
of war; to investigate and report upon all questions affecting the efficiency of 
the Army and Its state of preparation for military operations; to render pro- 
fessional aid and assistance to the Secretary of War and to general officers and 
other superior commanders, and to act as their agents In informing and coor- 
dinating the action of all the different officers who are subject under the terms 
of this act to the supervision of the Chief of Staff; and to perform such other 
military duties not otherwise assignel by law as may be from time to time 

prescribed by the President. 

* • 4* * « * • 

Sec. 4. That the Chief of Staff, under the direction of the President or of 
the Secretary of War, under the direction of the President, shall have super- 
vision of all troops of the line and of The Adjutant General's, Inspector Gen- 
eral's, Judge Advocate's, Quartermaster's, Subsistence, Medical, Pay, and Ord- 
nance Departments, the Corps of Engineers, and the Signal Corps, and shall 
perform such other military duties not otherwise assigned by law as may be 
assigned to him by the President. Duties now prescribed by statute for the 
Commanding General of the Army as a member of the Board of Ordnance and 
Fortification and of the Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' Home shall 
be performed by the Chief of Staff or other officer designated by the President 

If this act means anything, it means that in large and general 
terms the Chief of Staff thereby authorized has supervision of the 
corps, bureaus, and departments therein enumerated, and the large 
and generous terms employed indicate the plain intention of Con- 
gress to empower the Chief of Staff to stand in the relation of mili- 
tary aide and adviser to the Secretary of War, and, acting in his 
name, so to direct the activities of the heads of bureaus and sub- 
departments as to coordinate and harmonize their activities. 

If the large and general purpose outlined in the foregoing para- 
graph has been changed by the language of section 5 of the National 
Defense Act, that change must result from these words : 

All officers detailed in said corps shall be exclusively employed * • • on 
other duties, not of ah administrative nature, 

or from these words in the proviso: 

and they shall not be permitted to assume or engage in work of an adralala- 
tratlve nature that pertains to established bureaus or offices of the War De- 
partment, or that, being assumed or engaged In by members of the General 
Staff Corps, would Involve impairment of the responsibility or initiative of 
such bureaus or offices or would cause injurious or unnecessary duplication 
of or delay in the work thereof. 

The weighty part of this language apparently is the prohibition 
upon members of the General Staff from performing duties of an 
administrative nature, and we are called upon, therefore, to deter- 
mine what was meant by the words " administrative duties '^ in this 
act. 

At the outset it would seem obvious that no such glancing blow 
as this could have been intended as an implied repeal of the whole 



BEPOBT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 77 

fundamental theory of the reorganization act whereby the General 
Staff was created. It is fair to assume that Congress did not intend 
to inaugurate a race for power among bureau chiefs or to erect the 
bureaus of the War Department into a system of coordinated impedi- 
ments to one another. It must not be forgotten that the Armv is a 
whole— divided, for the purposes of administration, into many parts— 
but each action by any of the parts must be consistent with the 
healthy action of the whole. A realization of this was the moving 
cause to the creation of the General Staff; and if the Congress had 
come to believe that its effort to correct the evils sought to be re- 
dressed by the creation of the General Staff was a failure and that 
no such supervision and coordination as was then aimed at had 
resulted from the General Staff when created, and so believing had 
desired to abandon that experiment, it would not have been done by 
this tentative, obscure, and admonitory sentence. In other words, an 
evil of large proportions and menacing character had presented itself 
in 1903. Congress erected a new system to deal with that evil. If 
the system has failed and Congress is disillusioned with it as an 
experiment, the whole structure will be swept aside and some new 
corrective of the old evils attempted. But it is quite inconceivable 
that the Congress in any such frame of mind would merely paralyze 
without removing the corrective agency it had created and provide 
no substitute for it — restoring the old system with all of its evils and 
the added encumbrance of a paralyzed and inoperative machine 
originally designed as a corrective. 

I have read the extremely able arguments which have been pre- 
pared for my consideration on this subject by the Judge Advocate 
General and others. To the extent that I am now disagreeing with 
the view therein expressed, it seems to me that my disagreement is 
rather one of assumptions than of logic. If it be assumed that a lot 
of promiscuous interferences, duplications, and losses of time had 
grown up in the operation of the General Staff system, then the 
language adopted by Congress would seem to be an admonition to 
the Secretary of War to correct those difficulties; and, to the Chief 
of the General Staff, recalling to his attention the primary purposes 
for which the (Jeneral Staff was created, in order to prevent a prac- 
tice growing up which woidd involve the operations of the General 
Staff in masses of detail, and so far absorb its mind as to leave no 
leisure for the consideration of general-policy questions, which are, 
of course, of great moment to be considered. It seems to me that the 
Judge Advocate General does assume that the Congress had in mind 
the existence of those duplications, interferences, and losses of time, 
and that therefore the Congress by the use of the word " administra- 
tive " must have intended to provide a rule which would exclude the 
General Staff practically from every other concern except the con- 



78 REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

sidenition of large-policy questions. I admit that where an evil 
exists and a legislative enactment is addressed to it, the rule of in- 
terpretation seeks to expand the proposed remedy to accomplish the 
purpose for which it was designed. But the Congress had before it 
no catalogue of evils. No complaints were made to the Congress by 
the Secretary of War — who ?[>eaks with authority for the War De- 
partment — that he found himself unable to secure an adequate con- 
sideration of major policy problems from the General Staff because 
Congress had imposed conflicting duties upon the General Staff. 
Individual officers of the Army may have undertaken to express their 
opinions to Members of the Congress about the exercise of the coordi- 
nating functions of the General Staff. But all such opinions are nec- 
essarily partisan and partial, so that we must limit our assumption 
to the facts, and in so doing we find no system of facts adequate as 
a predicate for action by Congress which would destroy the power of 
the General Staff, bind the Secretary of War to rely upon the uncoor- 
dinated advice of individual bureau chiefs, and while giving the Chief 
of the General Staff the duty of coordinating the functions of the 
military bureaus of the department at the same time prohibit that 
degree of supervision over the affairs of those bureaus which in his 
judgment is necessary to equip him with qualifying information: 

As a matter of fact, the word " administrative" is one of extremely 
doubtful import. Legally it perhaps means, when applied to duties, 
such duties as involve no exercise of discretion. That is to say, if 
an officer is directed by statute to pay a dollar a day to each of 10 
persons, no discretion is involved in his payments — his duty is adminis- 
trative. If such an officer is authorized to pay a dollar a day to so many 
of a group of 10 persons as shall have lived up to a certain standard 
of performance in duties assigned them day by day, then the dis- 
cretion of determining the merit of applicants for the pay is non- 
administrative, because a discretionary duty. I doubt very much, 
however, whether this word was used in any such technical sense. 
The rule of construction in such cases is that unless there is some- 
thing in the context to determine that a technical meaning is attached 
to a term, it will be assumed to be used in the plain, ordinary, and 
popular meaning of the word. Now, the plain, ordinary, and popu- 
lar meaning of this tenn in this context obviously is that the Chief 
of the General Staff and the members of the General Staff Corps 
shall not administer the offices of the bureau chiefs. That is to say, 
that the Chief of the General Staff shall give no order to a subordinate 
of the Chief of Ordnance or The Adjutant General, for that would 
be the administration of that department, and such administration 
must proceed from the head of the department. Indeed, it seems to 
me entirely likely that the statute under examination provides its 
own definition of the meaning of the word " administrative," for it 



BEPOBT OF THE 8ECRETABY OP WAB. 79 

says, in effect, that these administrative duties are such as those which 
pertain — 

to established bureaus or offices of the War Department, or that, being assumed 
or engaged In by members of the General Staff Corps, would Involve Impairment 
of the responsibility or Initiative of such bureaus or offices, or would cause 
injurious or unnecessary duplicntion of or delay In the work thereof. 

These words last quoted supply all the guide necessary for a work- 
ing definition of the word " administrative," and they enumerate the 
kind of acts which the Congress does not intend the General Staff 
to undertake. They are exactly the kind of acts which the original 
act creating the General Staff did not intend to assign to the General 
Staff. Secretary Root said the proposed duties are not administra- 
tive, are not executive, but are correlating, informing, supervising. 
So that we in effect have in this latest legislative expression a reitera- 
tion of the intentions of the Congress in the earlier act as defined and 
explained by the authority of the act and the policy which it em- 
bodied. 

It seems to me, therefore, entirely clear that the structure erected 
by the act of 1903 remains as then created, except for the explicit 
modifications provided in the act of 1916 and not affecting the cur- 
rent of this argument ; that the Chief of the General Staff is charged 
with the supervision of the various departments, bureaus, and offices 
of the War Department for the purpose of coordinating their activi- 
ties and for the purpose of so informing the judgment of the Secre- 
tary of War that he may not, by inadvertence or unfamiliarity with 
military practice, take action which would be prejudicial to har- 
monious results in the military service. Finding the intention of the 
act to be as here set forth, it is my opinion that the Chief of the 
General Staff is the primary adviser of the Secretary of War in all 
matters having to do with the Military Establishment; that in order 
properly to inform himself, the Chief of the General Staff must know 
of the proceedings in the various bureaus, departments, and offices; 
that, to as large an extent as possible, the action of these bureaus, 
departments, and offices should be regulated by large policies laid 
down by the Secretary of War, the carrying out of which would 
involve merely administrative activity; but that in order to make 
sure that these policies are not being departed from or ought not to 
be changed, in order properly to harmonize the relations of several 
bureaus, it is not only appropriate but necessary for the Chief of the 
General Staff to pursue, with as great detail as his judgment dictates, 
the execution of these policies through the several bureaus. 

It is easy to imagine a case in which the chief of a bureau or 
an officer would feel that some policy provided by the Chief of 
Staff in an effort to coordinate the work of several bureaus un- 
duly restrained his activities, and that such a bureau chief would 



80 REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

desire to argue personally for his point of view before the Sec- 
retary of War. In any such cases the Chief of Staff should se- 
cure a hearing for the bureau chief before the Secretary, and I 
have no doubt that any Chief of Staff or any Secretary of War 
would be very zealous to see that opinions earnestly entertained by 
officers were considered thoroughly, for, after all, we are all of us 
common servants with a common purpose in a common cause, and 
our zeal for particular branches of that service is merely a speciali- 
zation of our zeal for the welfare and success of the larger whole 
which includes it. A recognition of this fact produced the spirit 
which Secretary Root referred to with so much pleasure immedi- 
ately after the creation of the General Staff, in which slight irri- 
tations, due to the unaccustomed machinery, easily gave way and 
harmonious relations arose. This fine spirit for the public service 
is no less present now and will work as excellent results. 

The policy of the War Department, therefore, will remain as 
heretofore; the Chief of Staff, speaking in the name of the Sec- 
retary of War, will coordinate and supervise the various bureaus, 
offices, and departments of the War Department; he will advise 
the Secretary of War; he will inform himself in as great detail as 
in his judgment seems necessary to qualify him adequately to 
advise the Secretary of War. Should any regulations or orders 
be necessary to place the determination herein made in proper 
form, the Chief of the General Staff will prepare them for my 

signature. 

Newton D. Baker. 



July 24, 1916. 
From : The Office of the Judge Advocate General. 

I'o : The Chief of Staff. 

Subject : The lawful duties of the General Staff Corps. 

1. The question of the duties of this corps with reference to their 
relation to the duties of the several bureaus of the department 
iloubtless presents perhaps less difficulty in its legal than in its prac- 
tical solution. Practical delimination of adjacent jurisdiction lying 
within a single field of executive authority, definition of the jurisdic- 
tional boundary between the functions of the General Staff upon 
the one hand and each of the several established administrative 
bureaus of the War Department upon the other, must, from the 
very nature of the subject, involve some doubt and difficulty. Fortu- 
nately, at the threshold the statute establishes a guiding rule, which, 



BEPOBT OP THE 8FCBETABY OF WAB. 81 

though a rule of legal construction, is at the same time a practical 
guide for the government of superior authority, who should be 
mindful to apply it in every doubtful case. The recent statute estab- 
lishing and defining for the second time the duties of the Greneral 
Staff Corps is, like the antecedent and original act of 1903, organic 
in nature, and, in addition, is remedial and corrective in its purpose. 
It gives clearest evidence of the conviction of Congress that the 
General Staff has heretofore been employed not altogether on its own 
proper duties, but has been diverted from them, leaving them to 
some extent unperformed, and has invaded and interfered with the 
long-established jurisdiction of the several bureaus of the depart- 
ment, to the consequent impairment of such bureau administration 
and to the detriment of general military eflSciency. The primary 
purpose of the legislation was clearly to correct what was deemed to 
be a departure from established organic functions, to reestablish 
such functions, and to prevent future encroachments. Being correc- 
tive primarily, the statute must be construed so as fully to effect its 
remedial purpose. In so far as the statute invests officers of the 
(jeneral Staff with powers and duties in an independent field of mili- 
tary activity, it should be liberally construed; but whenever their 
powers and duties lie close to, or become such as may impinge upon, 
or affect those of an established bureau, the opposite rule of inter- 
pretation must be the one to govern. The statute must be so con- 
strued, and it ought to be so executed. 

2. The duties must be found in the meaning of the language of the 
statute measured by that rule. The recent statute (section 5,National- 
Defense Act) has to be read in comparison with section 2 of the 
original act of 1903 (32 Stat., 831). Both sections contain an enu- 
meration of General Staff duties, and the later organic expression is 
connected with the former by a general reference to some of the 
general duties prescribed in the former act. The enumeration of 
duties in the recent act is impressively qualified by limitations and 
prohibitions contained in the same section, which serve to give an 
accuracy of definition to the enumeration which the old act never had. 
Said section 5 provides that — 

All officers detaUed in said corps shall be exclusively employed [serializatioii 
mine] — 

(a) In the study of mUitary problems. 

(&) The preparation of plans for the national defense and the utilization of 
military forces in time of war. 

(c) In investigating and reporting upon the efficiency and state of prepared- 
ness of such forces for service in peace or war. 

(d) Or on appropriate General Staff duties in connection with troops, includ- 
ing the National Guard. 

(e) Or as military attach^ In foreign countries. 

(/) Or on other duties, not of an administrative nature, on which they can 
be lawfully and properly employed. 

e0176*— WAB 1916— VOL 1 6 



82 EEPOET OF THE SEOBETABY OF WAIL 

All the above classes of duties are described with sufficient definite- 
ness except the concluding one. What are the other duties " on which 
they can be lawfully and properly employed"? Omitting for the 
moment all consideration of the limitations upon the quality and 
character of the duties thus enumerated, these other unspecified duties 
are to be found by reference to the enumeration of duties in section 2 
of the original act. The duties enumerated in said section 2 and not 
brought forward and specifically enumerated in the recent section 5 
and to which therefore the general provision of the later section 
makes reference, will be found to be these : 

iff) To render professional aid and assistance to the Secretary of War and 
to general officers and other superior commanders, and to act as their agents in 
Informing and coordinating the action of all the dllTerent officers who are subject 
under the terms of this act to the supervision of the Chief of Staff ; 

(///) And to perform such other military duties not otherwise assigned by 
law as may be from time to time prescril)ed by the President. 

This enumeration, then, completed by expressing what section 5 
adopts by relation out of the original act, is a full enumeration of 
General Staff duties except as to a few detached instances not affect- 
ing this question and therefore not here considered. But the duties 
thus enumerated are substantially modified and qualified by the ex- 
press limitation and prohibition found in the section prescribing the 
General Staff duties. Those qualifications are to the effect — 

(1) That General Staff duties must not be of an administrative 
character. 

(2) Specifically, they must not consist of work of an administra- 
tive nature pertaining to established bureaus or offices of the 
department. 

(3) They must be general in character. 

(4) If they are not specifically enumerated, they must be of the 
same general nature of those that are enumerated. 

(5) They must be such as are not assigned by law, custom, or 
regulation to other bureaus and officers. 

(6) They must not be such as would, if performed by the General 
Staff, involve impairment of responsibility or initiative of such 
bureaus or offices or cause injurious or unnecessary duplication or 
delay in the work itself. 

Bestating, then, the duties of the General Staff, for the purpose of 
clarity, they may be said to consist specifically — 

(1) In the study of military problems. 

(2) In the preparation of plans for the national defense and the 
utilization of the military forces in time of war. 

(8) In the investigating and reporting upon the efficiency and 
state of preparedness of such forces for service in peace or war. 

(4) Appropriate General Staff duties in connection with troops^ 
including the National Guard. 



BEPOBT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. 83 

(5) Duty as military attache in foreign countries. 

The duties thus far specifically enumerated seem to me to be essen- 
tially such as lie beyond the domain of bureau administration, and, 
therefore, as to them, there would seem to be little field of applica- 
tion of the qualifications mentioned. If, however, those executing 
this act should have a different view, they will be restrained in the 
assignment and performance of those duties by these same limita- 
tion; and if these specific duties can be conceived to come into con- 
tact with bureau administration, then the qualifications will mark 
the delimiting line. 

Proceeding now, by continuing the enumeration, to those duties 
which by nature are such that, if not restrained by the limitations, 
might in the future, as they have done in the past, encroach upou 
and invade the field of bureau administration, they are seen to be — 

(6) Rendering professional aid and assistance to the Secretary 
of War and to general officers and other superior commanders and 
to act as their agents in supervising, coordinating, and informing 
the action of the different officers who are subject under the terms 
of this act to the supervision of the Chief of Staff. 

(7) And to perform such other military duties not otherwise 
assigned by law as may be from time to time prescribed by the 
President. 

Applying to these last two general classes the qualifications just 
mentioned, the rule is deduced that the General Staff may not render 
professional aid and assistance to the Secretary of War, to general 
officers, and other superior commanders, nor act as their agents in 
supervising, coordinating, and informing the action of the different 
bureaus, nor perform any other duty by special assignment unless 
these duties be of a nonadministrative character, not pertaining to 
any established bureau or office of the War Department, general in 
their nature, of the same general kind as those duties which have 
been specifically enumerated, and such as if performed by the Gen- 
eral Staff would not involve any impairment of the initiative or 
responsibility of bureaus. 

3. The meaning of these limitations and qualifications is not diffi- 
cult to determine. The Gteneral Staff must not perform administra- 
tive duties. The term " administrative " is not one always having a 
fixed significance, but its meaning when used with reference to War 
Department affairs is one which those conversant with such affairs well 
understand. Those duties which by law, regulation, and established 
custom are, or heretofore were, habitually performed in the several 
bureaus or offices of the department, commonly known as adminis- 
trative bureaus or offices, or at the various subordinate headquarters 
in the same administrative field under the general direction and 
supervision of, and with accountability to, the head of the bureau, 



84 BEPOBT OF THE SECBETAEY OP WAB. 

are duties of an administrative nature to which the statute refers, 
administrative duties as distinguished from those which are essen- 
tially and more intimately connected with military power of com- 
mand. It may be remembered in passing that in addition to what 
is commonly imderstood by the term "administrative duties" the 
several administrative bureaus may have duties conferred upon them 
by statute which by reason thereof pertain to said bureau, and these 
duties may not be performed or interfered with by the General Staff 
by virtue of the express provision of the statute to that effect. Of 
course, the General Staff Corps is in a very real sense a superior 
bureau of the War Department. It has duties of the utmost impor- 
tance prescribed for it by statute. The performance of those duties 
will render necessary considerable intrabureau administration. Such 
administrative duties are a necessary incident of the exercise of their 
own power. But beyond such administrative duties I perceive none 
that that corps can perform. 

Duties performed by the General Staff of whatever nature must 
be general in character. So the statute expressly provides. If the 
matter be of special rather than of general interest and concern ; if 
it be limited rather than general in its effect ; if it be a matter falling 
within and confined to the special jurisdiction of a bureau and not 
reaching directly other bureaus or the Army as a whole; if it be 
routine rather than of far-reaching consequence and importance; if 
it deal with details and specifics rather than generalities, with par- 
ticular performance rather than general policy, then it is entirely 
clear that it is not a subject for General Staff consideration and 
functions. 

All duties performed by special assignment or otherwise must be 
of the same general nature as those that are specifically enumerated. 
New jurisdictions and new activities may not be created for General 
Staff functions except in the field of general duties of the same 
nature as those by the statute specified, not of an administrative 
character, not pertaining to established bureaus or offices, not descend- 
ing into detail, and not such as by their nature could be beneficially 
or more expeditiously performed by established bureaus or offices. 

Unmistakably, whether wisely or not, Congress has sought to pre- 
jserve untouched the special jurisdiction of each of the several bureaus 
of the War Department. It has spared no pains in limiting the 
powers and duties of the Greneral Staff to matters of policy, of 
general concern, not falling within or directly affecting bureau 
jurisdiction. This it does by a reiteration which could be justified 
only by the apprehension that with less insistence the purpose of 
Congress would not be heeded, and that purpose is sealed with n 
drastic penalty. If, however, notwithstanding the effort of Congress 
to delimit clearly the boundaries of adjacent jurisdiction, there should 



BEPOBT OF THE SEORETABY OP WAR. 85 

be by reason of the nature of the subject zones of uncertainty in which 
the dividing line is obscure — a twilight zone in which, unaided, it 
could not be clearly said whether the duties fall upon one side or the 
other — then in such cases, as heretofore said, the statute establishes 
for us a guiding rule, which is in effect that in case of doubt the 
presumption is conclusive against (jeneral Staff jurisdiction. 

4. It may be well to look on the affirmative side of those General 
Staff duties lying adjacent to bureau administration. The General 
Staff relation of rendering professional aid to the Secretary of War 
and superior military commanders, and of acting as their agents in 
supervising, coordinating, and informing the action of the different 
officers subject to the supervision of the General Staff, becomes 
limited, if not by the original act certainly by the express require- 
ment of the recent statute, to matters of a nonadministrative char- 
acter, not pertaining to a particular bureau, and involving only 
general policies. Such a relation or capacity does not confer the 
right to command or to administer an established bureau or office, 
or to control its details or its methods of administration. The power 
may be only generally exercised. 

It is pertinent at this point to note the opinion of the committee 
of the War College Division, as expressed in an accompanying memo- 
randum, as follows: 

It is the opinion of tlie committee tliat the organic act giving to the General 
Staff " supervising, coordinating, and informing powers," vests in the Chief of 
Staff the responsibility, povi^er, and authority to prescribe and dictate the 
policy that will govern all bureaus of the War Department in their methods of 
administration. 

The General Staff passes upon such questions of policy as are referred to 
It by proper authority for investigation, report, and recommendation. 

The recommendation, when approved by the Chief of Staff and the Secretary 
of War, becomes settled policy which then governs all bureaus concerned. 

This War College opinion will not stand analysis when tested by 
the law. By statute General Staff officers, including the chief, are 
made special staff agents in informing, supervising, and coordinating 
the action of the different bureaus, within the limitations flowing 
from the original act and especially within those expressed in the 
recent corrective legislation. This General Staff power is neverthe- 
less but a staff power of duty, and, like all staff duty, has no inherent 
strength of its own. Neither can it gather aught by representation 
of superior authority that can enlarge its functions beyond the limi- 
tations of the statute, but must remain confined in scope and char- 
acter by the express limitations of the recent act. The General Staff 
is not and can not be a source of military command. Its duties do 
not involve the power of command, but they rather establish a 
connection between commander and commanded, a power conduit 
leading from and to the source. To inform, to supervise, to coordi- 



86 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OP WAR. 

nate, is not to command, not to " dictate." To hold otherwise would 
deprive commanders of their inherent functions. Because of the 
generality of its position, the General Staff is generally informed of 
the operations that may be of general effect occurring within the 
special and limited spheres of bureau action; from its general van- 
tage point it oversees all such operations, and, observing any lack of 
harmony in the general action of such limited authority which may 
affect general military efficiency, may devise means of coordination, 
and, in their capacity as professional advisors to military superiors, 
may address the power of command and the discretion of superior 
authority to secure such coordination. Neither the General Staff 
nor any officer thereof, including its chief, can lawfully exercise 
the power to dictate. 

Neither can General Staff power be used to govern all bureaus 
of the War Department in their methods of administration. 
The power is concerned not with intradepartmental methods, but 
rather with action, the result of activity — results, and what is more, 
results of a general effect. General policy confined within its proper 
purpose can not be concerned with mere administrative methods; 
and to adopt the view announced by the War College Division would 
be to permit the General Staff to control bureau administration of 
every character, to depart from and neglect their own general func- 
tions, and thus nullify the law and postpone the reform which Con- 
gress intended to inaugurate. It is the effect of the language, and 
must therefore have been the real purpose of the act, to reestablish 
the relation of the several bureau chiefs as special aids and advisors 
to the Secretary of War upon matters which fall within their special 
jurisdiction, uninterfered with by an outside agency. As a matter 
of organic law established or recognized by Congress, such from 
the beginning of the Government has been the special purpose and 
function of the administrative bureaus. I am well aware that 
bureau chiefs have in times past gone beyond these limited func- 
tions, and equally aware that in the old days of the commanding 
general and in the hater days of the General Staff control chiefs of 
bureau have had their jurisdiction unlawfully restricted and par- 
tially absorbed by agencies having no warrant of law for their action. 
Whether the establishment of such special bureau control is neces- 
sary or wise is immaterial, if it can be said upon a fair considera- 
tion of the statute that it is the organic system which Congress has 
prescribed and which it has so recently sought to preserve ; but both 
candor and intellectual integrity require me to say that I can see 
nothing helpful to be achieved by subjecting the action of a bureau 
chief within the sphere of his special jurisdiction to the review of 
another ©fficer of the Army whose position alone upon the General 
Staff is that which serves to endow him with a special knowledge 



BEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAR. 87 

of the subject which Congress has exclusively intrusted to a bureau 
chief, and success can hardly be expected from such incongruity. 
The original statute, as well as the recent one, contemplated, of 
course, what ordinary intelligence must appreciate, that the admin- 
istrative efforts of the several bureaus must be coordinated, and must 
be supervised for that purpose. Such a coordination lies of neces- 
sity beyond the power and jurisdiction of any particular bureau, and 
must therefore be regulated by agencies outside of those bureaus. 
But that regulation must be achieved without absorbing any of the 
bureau duties, and it must be of a general kind, and have regard to 
matters involving policies. The coordinating, supervising, and in- 
forming powers conferred upon the General Staff must be exercised 
with this principle in view. 

5. Coming now to the duties of the Chief of Staff: I do not believe 
that by virtue of any authority he has, either in his capacity as a 
member of the General Staff Corps or as chief of said corps, he can 
lawfully exercise his power so as to stand between a bureau head and 
the Secretary of War himself upon matters assigned by law, regu- 
lation, and custom to the administrative bureau except by laying 
down general rules of policy and general rules designed to coordinate 
the efforts of the various bureaus; nor is he ever justified in substi- 
tuting in such matters his judgment for theirs. I know that the 
practice under the law as it existed up to the passage of the National 
Defense Act did not accord with this view. Whatever may have been 
said in justification of that practice heretofore, in view of the unmis- 
takable purpose of Congress to reestablish bureau jurisdiction ab- 
sorbed by the General Staff and the Chief of Staff, as is so clearly 
enunciated in the recent act, the practice ought not to be continued. 
The Chief of Staff is but a member of the General Staff Corps, whose 
duties are the duties of that corps, except in so far as they may be 
found to be otherwise by section 4 of the original act, read in the light 
of the recent act, which establishes for him a special relation to the 
President and to the Secretary of War. That section is as follows : 

That the Chief of Staff, under the direction of the President, or of the Secretary 
of War, under the direction of the President, shall have supervision of all troops 
of the line and of the Adjutant GeneraVs, Inspector General's, Judge Advocate's, 
Quartermaster's, Subsistence, Medical, Pay and Ordnance Departments, Corps of 
Engineers, and the Signal Corps, and shall perform such other military duties 
not otherwise assigned by law as may be assigned to him by the President ♦ ♦ ♦ 

He is here given supervision of the line and of the staff departments. 
Supervision is a word of broad meaning. It may mean a direct 
control or it may mean a general power of overseeing, with a view to 
regulation through a power drawn from some other source. Super- 
vision does not, as a legal concept, when applied to matters military, 
carry the idea of command. The abolition of the old office of com- 



88 BEPOBT OF THE SECRETABY OF WAB. 

manding general was to bring departmental organization more in 
harmony with the constitutional precept that the Secretary of War, 
as the constitutional mouthpiece of the President, was himself the 
conmiander of the Army. Operating upon the same subject and for 
the same purpose as does the supervisory powers of that corps, the 
spervision specially conferred upon the Chief of Staff must be the 
kind of supervision which is conferred upon other members of the 
General Staff, who are in a sense the assistants of the Chief of Staff 
in the performance of his duties, though, of course, his supervisory 
power is of a much higher degree. 

The supervisory power of the Chief of Staff to be exercised under 
the direction of the Secretary of War is of a general kind, does not 
extend to the invasion or absorption of duties of a special bureau, 
but is to be exercised upon general subjects in a general manner, 
seeking a general effect, with a general policy in view. It does not 
relate to particular and routine performance, it does not descend to 
an overseeing of minor or detailed operations. It concerns only the 
higher fimctions of command and administration and must relate 
to general results rather than to particular means and particular 
activities. I see nothing in the statute which substitutes the Chief 
of Staff for the several bureau chiefs as an aid and advisor to the 
Secretary of War concerning those matters which are committed by 
Congress to their special jurisdiction and control. But, on the 
other hand, the statute expressly provides to the contrary. Indeed, 
the organic act, notwithstanding the practice which grew up under 
it, in the very section devoted to the duties of the Chief of Staff indi- 
cates clearly that it was never the intention to confer upon him 
powers and duties already assigned to the administrative bureaus, 
for, as one of several reasons, in a general clause following an enu- 
meration, it is prescribed that the Chief of Staff shall "perform 
such other military duties not otherwise assigned by law as may be 
assigned to him by the President." And the recent National Defense 
Act represcribes with emphasis and particularity the same relation 
and enjoins that hereafter it shall be observed. 

I think the true view is this, that under the statute the jurisdiction 
of the Chief of Staff does not absorb that of the several bureaus 
nor subject their action or their views upon particular matters fall- 
ing within their special jurisdiction to his review and modifying 
judgment, but that his function is limited to that of general supervi- 
sion, going no farther than to secure by the exercise of general power 
under the direction of the Secretary of War harmonious cooperation 
and successful general results. Likewise it is only in respect of such 
matters and for such purposes that he is the special superior adviser 
of the Secretary of War. 



BEPOBT OP THE 8E0EETAEY OF WAE, 89 

I am well aware that those matters which are within the exclusive 
jurisdiction of the bureau chiefs must usually, in their finality, 
require executive action, and that it would be absurd to hold that 
the Secretary of War or the Assistant Secretary must personally 
dictate or prescribe that action in the myriad of matters. To my 
mind, this gives rise to no difficulty. Certainly it ought not to be 
urged to enlarge the duties of the Chief of Staff by requiring him, 
unlawfully, I think, to act ministerially and without discretion in 
numerous matters to the neglect of his own higher functions. If 
the matters are minor matters of routine or if they are minor matters 
subject to government by an established general policy which has 
already been established for their government, it would be unwise 
administration to require the discretion of the Secretary of War to 
be addressed in the execution of such details, and in such matters only 
his order evidenced ministerially by the signature of The Adjutant 
General or other appropriate bureau chief is needed to give formal 
authenticity to his action. If the subject be of more than routine 
importance and yet not of general effect nor involving general policy, 
such an exceptional case is to be considered by the head of the de- 
partment upon the advice of the bureau chief. In all matters falling 
within the special jurisdiction of the several bureaus, Congress has 
said in effect that the views of the particular bureau chiefs shall 
govern the Secretary so far as his own judgment is to be advised; 
and if the Secretary of War respects not the advice of his lawful 
advisers but subjects it to extra-legal review, he to that extent dis- 
penses with the statute and the lawful medium of control, and more- 
over destroys the distribution of departmental organic powers or- 
dained by law. 

E. H. Crowder, 

Judge Advocate General. 



Appendix B (Tables 1 to 5). 

Table 1. 

BXPBNDITUBBS, APPBOPBIATIOITS, AND BSTIICATES. 

Expendilwres for the hut fiscal year (1916), the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year {1917), and the estimates for the next fiscal year (1918). 



Gooeral object. 



Civil Estabusoment. 
wab depabthemt pbopeb. 



Salftrios 

Ccmtingeiit expenses. War Department 

Stationery, war Department 

Postage to postal -union countries, War 
Department 

Rent of buildings , War Department 

salaries and contingent expenses imder 
superintendent public buildings and 
grounds 



Total, War Department proper. 



Civic Pttbuc Wobks and Miscellaneous 
(Exclusive of Rivers and Habbors). 

HIUTABT parks, ETC. 

Secretary's ofRce: 

ChicVamanga and Chattanooga National 

Park 

Shiloh National M ilitary Park 

Gettysburg National Park 

Vicksburg National Military Park 

National Memorial Celebration and 

Peace Jubilee, Vicksburg, Miss 

Engineer Department: 

improvement Jf Yellowstone Naticnal 

Park 

Improvement of Crater Lake National 

Park 



Expenditures 

Cor the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



11,734.131.14 
44.326.98 j 
20,866.33 I 

150.00 
0,700.00 

82,62L72 



Appropria- 
tions for the 

fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



Total 

I repayment of funds heretofore re- 
ported as e xpcnded 



Total, military parks, etc 



BUILDmCS AND GROUNDS tN AND AROUND 
WASHINGTON. 

Engineer Department: 

Improvement and care of public 
grounds, Dlstri*^ of Columbia 

Improvement and care of public grounds 

Repairs, fuel, etc.. Executive ^fansion. . 

Li^ting.ctc, Executive Mansion, etc.. 

Lighting public grounds, Distri(t of 
Columbia 

Telegraph to connect the ( apitol with 
the departments and Government 
Printing OfS'^e 

Care and maintenance of Washington 
Monument 

Repairs tu building where Abraham 
Littf oUi died 

Improvemenu«<. birthplace of Washing- 
ton, Wakefield, Va 

Erection of monuments, etc 



Total, buildings and grounds in and 
around Wasidngton 



12,076.670.00 11.074.043.33 
59,700.00 I 45.000.00 



32,000.00 

25a 00 
39,700.00 



94,666.00 



20,000.00 

250.00 
24,700.00 



90.808.00 



Estimates Cor 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1018. 



12, 168, 49a 00 
57,000.00 

86,ooaoo 

25a 00 
12,700.00 



07,173.00 



1,891.796.17 2.302,985.00 2,154,89L33 2,365,613.00 



64.092.76 
25.874.83 
39,113.66 
41,523.24 



55,260.00 
42,189.00 
42.500.00 
33,000.00 



194, .147. 67 
4 (,916.00 



292.200.00 
100.000.00 



55,260.00 
25.800.00 
42.600.00 
33.000.00 

150.000.00 



107,200.00 
50,000.00 



399,868.16 
193.28 



565.149.00 



553, 76a 00 



399, 674. 88 i 565 , 149. 00 i 553, 760. 00 



216.093.43 

14,374.63 

52,94-2.46 

6,509.G7 

22,218.10 



499.87 

13,353.21 

189.13 



45.475.00 



421,050.00 

19,400.00 

57.000.00 

8. GOO. 00 

26, 12a 00 



600.00 

13, 82a 00 

200.00 

100.00 



371,654.39 



546,790.00 



279.660.00 

14.400.00 

53.000.00 

8,600.00 

26,120.00 



500.00 

13, 82a 00 

200.00 

100.00 



55,2eaoo 

38.834 00 
42,500 00 
83,000.00 



191,25a 00 

75,ooaoo 



435,844.00 



435,844.00 



440, 55a 00 
19,400.00 

117,000 -00 
8,600.00 

26,120.00 



500.00 

13,820.00 

200.00 

100.00 



396,290.00 



626,290.00 



91 



92 



BEFOBT OF THE 8ECBETABY 0? WAB. 



Expenditures for the last fiscal year (1916) ^ the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fi,soal year {1917), cmd the estimates for the next fiscal year {1918) — Continued. 



Qeneral object. 



Civic Public Works and Miscellaneous 

(EXCLUSIVB OF RiVEBS AND HaBBOHS)— 

Continaed. 

NATIONAL CEMETBBIES. 

Qoartermaster Corps: 

National cemeteries 

Pay of superintendents of national cem- 
eteries 

Headstones for graves of soldiers 

Repairing roads to national cemeteries. 

Burial of indigent soldiers 

Antietam battle field preservation 

Disposition of remains of officers, sol- 
diers, and civil employees 

Confederate mound, Oakwood Ceme- 
tery. Chicago, III 

Burial of indigent patients, Army and 
Navy Hospital, Hot Springs, Ark 

Monuments or tablets in Cuba and 
China 

Marking graves of Confederate soldiers 
and sailors who died in northern 
prisons 

Can. etc., of Confederate burial plats. 

Confederate Stockade Cemetery, John- 
ston's Island, Sandusky Bay, Ohio... 

Burial sites, ureen Lawn Cemetery, 
Columbus, Ohio 

Reinterment of remains of Orman K. 
Osborne in National Cemetery, San 
Francisco, Cal , 

Lodge, national cemetery, Salisbury, 
N. C 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



Total national cemeteries. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 



Adjutant General's Department: 

Collecting military records of Revolu- 
tionary W ar 

Quartermaster Corps: 

Arrears of i)ay, bounty, etc. (certified 
claims) 

Pay, etc., of the Army, War with Spain 
(certified claims) 

Building Government exhibit. Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition, San 
Francisco, Ca.1 

Transporting and caring for Interned 
Mexican soldiers and militarv refugees 

Transportation for refugee American 

citizens from Mexico 

Medical Department: 

Artificial limbs 

Appliance for disabled soldiers 

Trusses for disabled soldiers 

Engineer Department: 

Survey of northern and northwestern 
lakes 

Expenses, California Ddbris C^ommis- 
slon 

Prevention of deposits, harbor of New 
York : 

Raising of U. S. B. Maine, harbor of 
Habana, Cuba 

Permanent International Conunisslon 
of Congresses of Navigation 

Bridge across Potomac Kivor at George- 
town, D. C 

MRlntenance and repairs of Aqueduct 
Bridge, D. C 

Bridge across Republican River, Fort 
Riley, Kans 



|120,55L19 

62,401.17 

42,758.54 

11,275.06 

1,820.65 

4,37L91 

46,827.70 

260.00 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



699.46 



7,006.39 
645.38 

250.00 



5.46 



3,806.75 

2,065.88 

82,113.21 

450.85 

74,9?6.9:i 

8:9. 15 

1,391.33 

122,233.61 

14,987.05 

84,418.85 

1,55a 33 

1,791.30 

1,000.00 



$120,000.00 

63,120.00 

50,000.00 

12,000.00 

2,000.00 

4,500.00 

307,50a00 

500.00 

200.00 

1,000.00 



1,250.00 

250. OG 

1,979.60 



297,857.45 664,299.60 



Appropria- 
tions for the 

fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



25,907.15 I • 50,000.00 



2,0C0.00 



65,r-cn.oo 

1,000.00 
2,500.00 



150,000.00 

15,000.00 

167.760.00 



$120,000.00 
63,120.00 

50,ooaoo 

12,000.00 
2,000.00 
4,500.00 

107,500.00 

600.00 

200.00 

1,000.00 



1,250.00 
250.00 



200.00 
l.-'iOO.OO 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

soTTois. 



364,OiX).O0 



50,000.00 
2,000.00 



65,000.00 
1,000.00 
2,500.00 



125,000.00 

15,000.00 

160,260.00 



250,00a00 
25,000.00 

so.ooaoo 



$150,000.00 

63,120.00 

5O,O00LOO 

12,000.00 

2,000.00 

4,500lOO 

67,500.00 

fiOOiQO 

200.00 

i,ooaoo 



1,25a 00 
2S0.00 



352,320.00 



25,ooaoo 
1. oca 00 



210,000.00 
1,000.00 
2,000.00 



150,000.00 

i8,ooaoo 
100, oca 00 



500,00a 00 



BEPOBT OF THE 8ECBETABY OF WAB. 



93 



Sxpenditures/or the last fiscal year (1916), the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year (1917), and the estimates /or the next fiscal year (iPi^)— Continued. 



General object. 



Omc ruBuc Works and Miscellaneous 
rExcLUsrv'E or Rtvx&s and Habbobs)— 
Continued. 

MiscsLLANBOua— contlnaed. 

Engineer Dopartmont— Continued. 

Meeting of Permanent International 
Association of Navigation Congresses 

in United States 

Board of Managers, National Home for Di»> 
abled Volunteer Soldiers: 
National Home for Disabled Volunteer 

Sold iers 

State or Territorial homes for disabled 

soldiers and sailors 

Miscellaneous relief acts, etc 



Total 

Less repayment of funds horetofioi« reported 
as expended 



Total miscellaneous. 



Total Civil Establishment 

MaiTABT E8TABLI8H1CSNT. 
8UPPOBT Oy THE A&MT. 

Becretary's office: 

Contingencies of the Army 

Construction and maintenance of mili- 
tary and post roads, tnldges, and 

trails, A lasica 

OlBoe of the Chief of Staff: 

Army War College 

Contingencies, military inliormation 
section. General Staff Corps 

Expenses of military observers abroad. . 

Umted States service schools 

Belief of Matthew E. Hanna, late cap> 
tain, Tenth Cavalry. U.S. Army 

Belief of Maj. Powell C. Fauntleroy, 
Medical CorpSi U.S.Army 

Belief of Lieut. CoL Geo. O. Squire, 
Signal Corps. U. S. Army 

Belief of Lieut. Sherman Mfles, Field 

Artillery, U. S. Army 

The Adjutant General's Department: 

Contingencies, headquarters of military 

departments 

Chief of Coast Artillery: 

Coast Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Va. 
Chief Signal Officer: 

Signal Service of the Army 

Washington- Alaska military cable aiul 
telegraph system 

Annunciat<»' buxser systems at target 



Expcndltmvs 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1910. 



1154.87 



4,205,342l81 

1,100,000.00 
1,067,749.89 



6.880.763.42 
8.85 



6,880,759.67 



Estimates lor 

the fbral year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



13,901,900.00 
1,125,000.00 



5,480,160.00 



Approprla^ 

tions for the 

fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



13,820,900.00 

1,125,000.00 
548,940.28 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

3M918. 



$3,905,900.00 
1,070,000.00 



6,220,600.28 



5,991,960.00 



5,480,160.00 6,220,601)28 5,991,960.00 



9,841,742.46 9,460,383.60 9,689,561.61 9,772,007.00 



ranees. 
Signaling equipment for coast-defense 

posts 

Comxncrcial telephone service at Coast 

Artillery posts 

Expenses, commission on selection of 

srte for aviation school 

Quartermaster Corps: 
Pay, etc., of the Army, 



Eztm-duty pay to enlisted men as 
derlEs, etc. at Army division and de- 
partment neadquarters 

Oollecting, drilling, and organising 
volunteers 



Supplies, services, and transportation, 
Quartermaster Corps 



Subsistence of the Army. 

Begular supplies 

Incidental expenses... 



16,471.87 

166,000.00 

8,776.91 

14,838.81 
10,046.66 
35,348.23 



4,855.41 

28,707.72 

1,041,213.19 

82,518.48 

149.89 

1,979.84 

7,104.13 

974.10 

52,236,837.73 

4,629.17 

6.29 

48,918,376.01 



26,000.00 

660,000.00 

9,000.00 

11,000.00 
15,000.00 
36,850.00 



7,500.00 

28,000.00 

4,641,624.06 

50,000.00 



8,500.00 



103,425,067.35 



27,536,827.03 

13,196,422.09 

2,846,385.37 



60,000.00 

500,000.00 

9,00000 

11,00000 
15,000.00 
35,350.00 



7,500.00 

28,000.00 

14,281,766.00 

50,000.00 



8,500.00 



87,345,673.00 



20,000.000.00 

11,000.000.00 

2,000,000.00 



50,000.00 

600,000.00 

9,000.00 

11,000.00 
16,000.00 
85,850.00 

632.18 

60L40 

41.46 

57.05 

7,600.00 

28,000.00 

16,600,000.00 

60,000.00 



10,000.00 



97,704,995.66 



19,293,304.00 

13,453,905.19 

2,199,419.96 



94 



BEPOET OP THE SEOBETABY OP WAB, 



Expenditures for the last fiscal year {1916)y the estimates and appropriations for (he present 
fiscal year (1917), and the estimates for the next fiscal year (1918) — Continued. 



Qeneral object. 



MiLiTABY Establishment— Continued. 
SX7PP0BT or THE ABMT— Continued. 

Quartermaster Corps— Continued. 

Supplies, etc.— Continued. 

Transportation of tiie Army and 

Its supplies 

Water and sewers at military posts. 
Ciotliing and camp and garrison 
equipage 

Horses for Cavalry, Artillery, En- 
gineers, etc 

Barracks and quarters 

Military post exchanges 

Roads, walks, wliarves, and drainage. . 

Barracks and quarters, Pliilippme 
Islands 

Construction and repair of hospitals.... 

Quarters tor liospital stewards 

Shooting galleries and ranges 

Maintenance, Army War College 

Ofhcers' quarters, remount depot, 
Front Royal, Va 

Claims for damages to and loss of 
private property 

Army storehouses, Corregidor Island, 
P.I 

Rent of buildinra. Quartermaster Corps. 

Supply depots, rort Sam Houston, Tex. 

Repairs to Duildings, etc., at Uulf ports. 

Target range, Vancouver Barraclcs, 
Wash 

Target range, Fort Bliss, N. Mex 

Purchase of land, Coronado Heights, 
Cal 

Sites for aviation school, Signal Corps, 
Cal 

Land for aviation purposes, Army 

Transportation of rifle teams to national 
matches 

Vocational training 

Council of National Defense 

Filing equipment for the Army 

Relief of Lieut. H. £. Mhier. 

Relief of MaJ. H. E. Ely 

Relief of Lieut. Sloan Doak 

Relief of Lieut. J. A. Barry 

Relief of Lieut. Waldo C. Potter 

Relief of St. Francis Hospital, Newport 
News, Va. (medical services rendered 
George Vay) 

Relief of Lieut. J. F. Taulbee 

Relief of Acting Dental Surg. Frank C. 
Cady 

Relief of Lieut. Joseidi T. Clement 

Relief of Leland Stanford Junior 
University 

Relief of Pay Clerk H. O. Foster 

Relief of Pay Clerk S.R. Beard 

Relief of Pay Clerk Hastie A. Stewart 

Relief of Lieut. Col. Frederick T. 
Reynolds, Medical Corps, U. S. 
Army 

Relief of Capt. Leartus J. Owen, Medi- 
cal Corps, U. S. Army 

Relief of^Capt. Adam E. Schlaniser, 
Medical Corps, U. 8. Army 

Relief of Capt. Jay D. Whitman, Medi- 
cal Corps, U. S. Army 

Relief of Capt. £. D. Kremers, Medi- 
cal Corps, U. 8. Army 

Relief of Capt. L. B. McAflee, Me<ll;al 
C<»rps. U. 8. Array 

Relief of Lieut. O. D. Graham, Mixiioal 
Corpi, U. 8. Army y. 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



I 



132, 
2, 



$2,014,929.93 

1,987,030.61 

74,423.61 

550,473.64 

406,170.06 

390,629.62 

11,966.01 

41,140.58 

10,060.11 

3,444.10 

545.50 

86.65 
31,700.96 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



149,92L85 
607,987.05 



24,406,740.20 



1, 
3, 

1, 



636,465.00 

985,872.76 

40,000.00 

146,000.00 

513,98L00 

490,000.00 

13,750.00 

87,620.00 

10,700.00 



5,000.00 



42,740.10 



100,000.00 
300,000.00 



Appropria- 
tions for th& 

fiscal year 

ending June 

20, 1917. 



$23,000,000.00 
4,000,000.00 

20,280,000.00 

2,500,000.00 

3,146,000.00 

48,592.00 

860,534.00 

790,000.00 

409,963.00 

14,043.00 

49,000.00 

10,700.00 



5,000.00 



42,039.10 

750,000.00 

50,000.00 

100,000.00 
35,120.00 



Estimates lor 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30,1918. 



$16,373,780.00 
3,027,964.00 

17,393,233.00 

433, 4001 00 

7,416,767.57 

75,445.00 

748,33L76 

73o,ooaoo 

1,250,767.00 
70,560.00 

45,ooaoo 
io,7oaoo 



160.00 
200.00 
150.00 
135.00 
375.00 



103.90 
200.00 

127.61 
50.00 

450.01 
350.48 
108. Sr» 
182.40 



323.90 
191.67 
278.00 
86.80 
340.00 
293.00 
301.20 



300,000.00 
300,000.00 

00,000.00 I. 

•J66,'uu6.6o"t 



I 



5,000.00 



42.225.10 



200.000.00 

200,()(».00 

45,000.00 



1 


i:::::::::::::*" 








******* 








"'•••••••••• ••*. 



























































REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 



95 



Expenditures for the last fiscal year (1916), the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year (1917), cmd the estirtxates for the next fiscal year (1918) — Continued. 



General object. 



KnjTART EsTABLiSHMKNT— Ckmtinued. 

SX7PP0RT Oy TBI ABMT-HX>ntinued. 

Quartermaster Corps— Omtiniied. 

Payment for rent of buildings, Philip> 
pine Islands 

Reimbursement to Actbig Dental Surg. 

Wm. A. Squlree 

Ifedical Department: 

Medical and hospital department 

Army Medical Museum and Library 

Hospital care, Canal Zone garrisons 

Replacing medical supplies 

Bureau of Insular Affairs: 

t are of insane Filipino soldiers , 

Care of insane soldiers, Porto Hico Reg- 
iment of Infantry , 

Eoginoer Department: 

Engineer depots , 

Engineer Scnool, Washington, D. C... 

Engineer equipment of troops 

Civilian assistants to engineer ofTicers... 

Contingencies, engineer department, 
Philippine Islands , 

Building, Engineer School, Washing- 
ton, D.C 

Engineer operations in the field 

Military surveys and maps , 

Ordnance Department: 

Ordnance service , 

Ordnance stwes, ammunition 

Small-arms target practice 

Manufocture of arms 

Ordnance stores and supplies 

National trophy and medals for rifle 
contests 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



Automatic rifles (machine) 

Replacing ordnance and ordnonco^ores. 

Armored motor cars 

Board to investigate Government man- 
ufacture of arms 



Total , 

Less repajrment of funds heretofore reported 
as expended 



Total suppOTt of the Army (including 
pay of reserve corps and National 
Guard) 



RESEBYE CORPS. 

Quartermaster supplies, equipment, etc., 
for reserve officers training corps , 

Ordnance stores, equipment, etc., for re- 
serve oflBcers training corps , 

Quartermaster supplies, equipment, etc., 
for the enlisted reserve corps 

fill^ial equipment for the enlisted reserve 
corps , 



Total reserve ocHrps 

IflUTART ACADKMT. 



Pay of Military Academy , 

Current and ordinary expenses , 

MisceUaneous items and incidental expenses . 
Buildings and grounds 



Total Military Academy 



$745,450.10 

12,582.59 

60,028.«7 

3,948.73 

804.60 



25,025.88 
25,029.04 
56,803.36 
39,994.36 

4,600.00 



330,668.64 
112,096.26 
608,295.70 
272,806.14 
981,890.48 

10,223.65 

35,336.54 

124,7&4.26 

46,491.28 



106,597,266.10 
39,096.88 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



11,722.42 

290.79 

8,164,105.95 
15,000.00 
45,000.00 



1,500.00 

300.00 

27,500.00 

25, 000. no 

660,000.00 

75,000.00 

4,000.00 



375,000.00 
3,383,000.00 
1,515,000.00 
1,012,560.46 
4,757,500.00 

10,000.00 
1,400,000.00 



150,000.00 
12,000.00 



Appropria- 
tions for the 

fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1017. 



$4,500,000.00 
15,000.00 
45,000.00 



1,500.00 

300.00 

27,500.00 

31,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

75,000.00 

4,000.00 

9,000.00 
100,000.00 



475,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

3,000,000.00 

5,000,000.00 

9,500,000.00 

10,000.00 
6,000,000.00 



500,000.00 



241,651,409.25 232,586,080.10 



106,558,169.22 241,651,409.25 232,580,080.10 



758,315.60 

136,872.79 

50,612.81 

80,017.99 



1,034,819.10 



887,902.62 

156,029.20 

56,590.00 

364,266.65 



1,464,788.47 



880,369.62 

150,330.00 

67,740.00 

118,603.95 



1,225,043.57 



Estimates Cor 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

3M918. 



$l,494,00a00 
15,000.00 
45,000.00 



1,500.00 

300.00 

35,000.00 

30,000.00 

1,174,000.00 

75,000.00 

4,000.00 

202,50a00 
300,000.00 
200,000.00 

425,000.00 

12,970,000.00 

2,500,000.00 

6,805,000.00 

14,315,000.00 

10,000.00 
2,085,00a00 



1,508,000.00 



242,421,361.22 



242,421,361.23 



4,385, OOa 00 
550,000.00 
267,650.00 
500,000.00 



5,702,650.00 



1,024,304.70 

172,745.00 

97,250.00 

764,373.60 



2,058,673.30 



96 



BEPOBT OF THE SECBETABY OF WAB. 



Expenditures for the last fiscal year (1916), the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year (1917), and the atimates for the next fiscal year (iPi*)— Continued. 



General object. 



MajTART Establishment— Continued. 

MIUTIA. 

Encampment and maneuvers, Organized 
MUitia 

Equipment of Coast Artillery armories, 
Organized MiUtia 

Field Artillery for Organized Militia 

Ammunition for Field Artillery, Organized 
Militia 

Exchanging at Issuing new pistols, ammu- 
nition, etc.. Organized Miutia 

Care of horses and material, Field Artillery, 
Organized Militia 

Ranges for Field Artillery target practice... 

Subsistence, etc., oflflcers and enlisted men 
of Organized Militia attending service 
schools 



Total militia 



NAUONAL OUABD. 

Aiming, egufppfaig, and training the 
National Guard-. 

Anns, unifcHins, equipment, etc., tor field 
service, National Qnard 

Ranges for Field Artillery target practice. 
National Guard 

Supplying and exchaziging Inftmtry equip- 
ment. National Guard 

Automatic rifles for National Guard 

Field Artillery for National Guard 

Ammunition for Field Artillery for National 
Guard 



Total National Guard. 



CrnUAN MIUTAKT TRADnNO. 



Cfyflian military tralniiig camps 

Military training camp, Fort Douglas, Utah. 
Rifle ranges for civilian instruction 



Quartermaster supplies, etc.. for military 
equipment of schools and ouleges 



Ordnance supplies, etc.. for military equip- 
ment of schools and ooUeges . 



Total civilian military training. 



rOBTinCAlIONS AND OTHSB WOSU OF 
DKTENSK. 

Engineer Department: 

Gun and mortar batteries 

Electrical installations atseaooastforti- 

flcatloos 

Sites for forUflcatlons and seaooast de- 

frases 

Bearohlights for harbor defenses 

Preservati(Hi and repair of fortlflcaticms . 
Repair and protection of defenses of 

Pensacola, Via 

Plans for fortiftcations 

Supplies for seaooast dcfienses 

Seawalls and embankments 

Preservation and repair of torpedo 

gtructures 

Casemates, gaUeries, etc., for iobmarlna 

mines, 



Fortificatioos in Insular possesskxB 

Sea wall, Sandy Hook, N. J 

Repair and restoration of defenses of 

Galveston, Tex 

Roads, trails, water, and sewer systems, 

ete 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



$389,481.31 

18, 197. 47 
1,702,674.88 

2,059,633.54 

6,408.25 

94,177.97 



4,269,573.42 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending Jime 

30, 1917. 



$1,390,000.00 



380,000.00 
200,000.00 



30,000.00 



5,000,000.00 



1,200,000.00 



1,200,000.00 



Appropria- 
tions for the 
fiscal year 
ending June 
30, 1917. 



$200,000.00 



200,000.80 



1,985,450.00 

2,000,000.00 

300,000.00 

400,000.00 

6,000,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

10,000,000.00 



454,084.67 



454,084.67 



427,798.37 

87,982.24 

2.80 
140,005.49 
168,128.62 

1,300.00 
10,000.00 
47,587.52 
23.950.00 

4,026.74 

33,657.48 

660,537.70 

8,509.86 



2,611,500.00 

iio,ooaoo 

1,867,000.00 
226,700.00 
250,000.00 



25,000.00 
40,000.00 



254.060.00 
377,000.00 



303,600.00 



30,685,460.00 



2,000,000.00 

30,000.00 

300,000.00 



2,330,000.00 



2,378.500.00 



1,400,000.00 
226,700.00 
250,000.00 



25,000.00 
40,000.00 



200,000.00 
370,000.00 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending JoxM 

ao, 1918. 



>••••••• 



$12, 727, oca 00 
4,576.00aOO 



800,OO0lOO 

6,868,000.00 

10,600,000.00 

10,200,000.00 



45,771,00&00 



8,601,000.00 

"*626.'666.'o6 

80,000.00 
660,000.00 



4,741.00a00 



8,777,00aOO 

uo.ooaoo 
ioo,ooaoo 

250,000.00 
300,000.00 



25.000.00 

4o.ooaoo 

98,000iOO 



903,600.00 



260,000.00 
1,414,600.00 



40.00QLOO 



BEPOET OP THE SECBETABY OP WAE. 



97 



Expenditures for the last fiscal year {1916\ the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year (1917), and the estimates for the next fiscal year (1918) — Continued. 



General object. 



IffnjTABT EsTABUSHMENT^Continaed. 

fOBTIFICATIONS AND OTHSB WOBK8 OF 

DEFENSK— continued. 

Chief Signal Officer: 

Maintenanoe, etc., fire-control instal^- 
tions at seaooast defenses 

Maintenance, etc, fire-control Installa- 
tions at seacoast ^fenses, insular pos- 
sessions 

Relief of Lieut. Col. Frank Greene, re- 
tired 

Ordnance Department: 

Armament of fortifications 

Proving ground, Sandy Hook, N. J. . . 

Submarine mines 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



Fortifications in insular possessions 

Submarine mines in insular possessions. 

Radiodynamic torpedoes 

Board oi Ordnance and Fortifications. . 
Special aids and appliances for manu- 
facture of arms, ammunition, etc . . . . 
Chief of Coast Artillery: 

Fire c(mtrol at fortifications 

Fire control in insular possessions 

Maintenance, Coast Artillery war tn- 
strdction , 



Total fortifications and other works of 
defense , 



ABSEMALS. 

Ordnance Department: 

Augusta Arsenal, Augusta, Ga 

Benicia Arsenal, BenTcia,Cal 

Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa... 
Rock Island Arsenal. Rock Island, 111.. 
Rock Island power plant. Rock Island, 

lU \^.... 

Rock Island bridge, Rock Island. Ill . . . 
Springfield Arsenal ^Springfield, Mass.. 

Picatfnnv Arsenal, Dm er,N. J 

Pro ing Ground, Sandv Hook, N. J 

Wat<>rtown Arsenal, Watcrtown, Mass. 

Testing machine 

Watervliet Arsenal, West Troy, N. Y.. 

Ordnance depot, Manila, P. I 

Repairs of arsenals 

San Antonio Arsenal 

Ordnance depot. Honolulu, ^wali 

Army powder factory 

Sodium nitrate storage 



$132,375.58 

9,378.54 

138.90 

2,127.230.91 

67,496.96 

92,131.12 

467,454.37 

47,371.06 



52,672.02 



60,666.49 
38,706.10 

4,074.51 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



$130,000.00 



;o,ooo.oo 



14,628,500.00 
110,000.00 
690,231.00 
2 019,000.00 
148,850.00 
947,000.00 
300,000.00 



4,662,184.38 



Total 

Jjtes repayment of funds heretofore reported 
as expended , 



Total arsenals. 



lOUTABT POSTS AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

Qoartermaster Corps: 

Military posts 

Sewerage system, Port Monroe, Va 

Barracks and quarters seacoast defenses. 
Seacoast defenses, Philippine Islands 

and Hawaii 

Electric power plant, Corregidor Island, 

P.I 

Military prison, Fort Leavenworth, 

Kans 

Military post, Schofield Barracks, 

Hawaii 

Purchase of land, Sdiofield Barracks, 

Hawaii 

Enlargement and reclamation of Fort 

Taylor, Key West, Fla 

69176*— WAB 1916— VOL 1— 



9,913.65 

115,257.41 

75,400.00 

12^411.64 

36.174.91 

22,611.41 

1,000.00 

22,867.33 

802.97 

12,653.15 

105,000.00 



318,751.06 



617,982.80 
112,050.00 

L 250. 00 



25,779,623.80 



Appropria- 
tlcois fov- the 

fiscal year 
ending June 

^7wl7. 



$130,000.00 



10,000.00 



15,970,500.00 
110,000.00 
217,000.00 

2,000,000.00 
148,100.00 

1,167,000.00 
300,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

600,000.00 
100,000.00 

1,250.00 



26,947,550.00 



51,500.00 
722,970.00 
467,825.00 

12,500.00 
18,000.00 
25,500.00 
39,000.00 
48,000.00 

112,325.00 
15,000.00 

389,900.00 
31,900.00 

350,000.00 
97,200.00 

300,000.00 



360.000.00 



732,873.53 
1,331.50 



3,041,620.00 



Estimates tor 

the fiscal jrear 

ending June 

^jTois. 



$150,000.00 
15,000.00 



45,628,000.00 

125,000.00 

in, 637. 50 

3,202,510.00 

10, 75a 00 



150,000.00 

500,ooaoo 

608,796.21 
31,537.50 

750.00 



56,999,481.21 



51,500.00 
908,470.00 
982.200.00 

12,500.00 
18,000.00 
32,600.00 
85,500.00 
38,000.00 

799,725.00 
15 000.00 

803,700.00 



350,000.00 
92,200.00 
300,000.00 
500.000.00 
225,000.00 



5,000.00 

15,700.00 

708,800.00 

4,292,600.00 

12,500.00 
20,000.00 
190,000.00 
180,500.00 
125,000.00 
144,500.00 
15,000.00 
196,100.00 



400.000.00 
130,000.00 



5,214,395.00 



6,435,700.00 



731,542.03 3,041,620.00 5,214,395.00 6,435,700.00 



187,165.01 

9,045.40 

17,994.37 

519,259.15 

21.21 

24,873.83 



127,650.00 

14.461.00 

473,860.00 

139, in. 40 



2,077,263.00 
10,000.00 



127,000.00 

9,359.99 

420,000.00 

69,000.00 



7,067,080.24 

9,359.99 

150,000.00 

178,450.00 



1,000,000.00 



1,077,000.00 



850,000.00 



98 



EEPOBT OF THE SEOBETABY OF WAB. 



Expenditures for the last fiscal year (1916), the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year (1917), and the estimates for the next fiscal year {1918) — Continued. 



Qeneral object. 



Hklitabt Estabushhbnt— Continued. 

MILITABT POSTS AND UISCBLLANEOUS— 

continued. 

Engineer Department: 

Fort Riley Military BeeervatioD. Kans. 
Buildings, Engineer School and post, 
Washmgton. D. C. 



Military struc^urej, PhiUppine Elands. 

Enlargement of Governors Island, N. Y. 

Fort Crockett Reservation, Galveston, 
Tex 

Sandy Hook Reservation, N. J 

Miscellaneous: 

Maps, War Department 

Topographic maps. War Depfutment... 

Purchase of filing equipment, etc 

Support of dependent families of en- 
listed men 



Total 

Lass repayment of funds heretofore reported 
as expended 



Total military posts and miscellane* 
ous 



Total Military Establishment. 

mVEBS AMD HABBOBS. 



Improvement of river and harbors (gen- 
eral improvement) 

Improvement of rivers and harbors (con- 
tinuing contracts) 

Relief of Lieut. CoL Mason M. Patrick, U. 
8. Army 

Relief of Washington C. Braydhouso 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



S38.22 



16,036.75 
7,900.00 

6,884.60 
7,750.90 



795,969.34 
2.64 



795,966.70 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



123,000.00 



60,000.00 

22,000.00 
97,000.00 
45,000.00 



3,089,411.40 



3,089,411.40 



118,052,254.94 281,680,937.59 



Appro]Mria- 
tlons for the 

fiscal year 
ending June 

30, 1917. 



160,000.00 

7,500.00 
35,000.00 



2,000,000.00 



3,727,859.99 



EstimateeCor 

the fiscal year 

ending Jane 

30iT918. 



$10,000.00 



8,841,890.21 



3,727,859.99 



8,841,890.28 



.1 



Relief of certain civilian employees of En- 
rineer Department at large, U. S. Army 
(dredge Comstock) 

Reliefof Peter C.Grimm 

Relief of crew of Government dredge C. W. 
Howell 

Relief of Bouncer Hebron and C^y Cald- 
well 

Relief of Italian bark Fenice 

ReUef of Robert G. Lynn 

ReUef of C. C. O'Donnell 

Relief of Prank Vumlwica 

Reliefof crew of U. 8. gasoline tender Perry. 

Relief of Col. WUliam W. Harts, U. S. 
Army 

Relief of Oscar Thomson and others 

Relief of the M. A. Sweeney Shipyards & 
Foundry Co 



Reliefofthos. J. Bye , 

Reliefer Drs. Blalr &. Blake, Dr. W. J. Max- 
well, Dr. R. C. Evans, and J. B. Blalock. 
ReUef of Theodore Ba^e for injuries 



Relief of Mrs. Joseph Oameron, widow of 

k, for injuries 

Relief of United SUtes Drainage it Irriga- 



Joseph Cameron, for : 



gationO) 

Reliefof Douglas J. Hollow 

Relief of John Simpson and Zorah E. Simp- 



son. 



Reliefof Standard American Dredging Co. 
Relief of Western Union Telegraph Co 



Total liws and harbors. 



31,837,13L90 



I": 



376,710.00 
462,800.00 

6.80 
22.00 



2,360.95 
12.00 

545.90 

25.00 
872.96 
154.75 

74.20 
419.00 
218.60 

76.00 
160.31 



302,916,378.66 372,971,755.96 



40,598,135.00 
1,482,800.00 



31,837,13L90 



45,844,458.47 



2,635.00 
500.00 

429.15 
221.91 

242.00 

9,498.43 



42,094,46L49 



31,123,000.00 
1, 005,00a 00 

6.80 
22.00 



645.90 

25. GO 
872.90 
154.75 

74.20 
419.00 
218.60 



160.31 



20.00 

100.00 

3,020. 7a 

50.77 



32,136,063.90 



BBPOBT OF THE SECBEIABT OF WAB. 



99 



Expenditures for the kut fiscal year (1916), the estimates and appropriations for the present 
fiscal year (1917), and the estimates for the next fiscal year {1918) — Continued. 



Qeneral object. 



Rbcapitxtlatton. 

CiTfl Establishment (War Department 
proper;: 
Salaries, conttngent expenses, etc. (in- 
cluding Office of Public Buildings 
and Grounds). 



Expenditures 

for the fiscal 

year ended 

June 30, 1916. 



CiTfl public works and miscellaneous (ex- 
clusive of rivers and harbors): 
Military and national parks 



Buildings and grounds in and around 
Washmf 



ington. 

National cemeteries 

Miscellaneous objects 

National Home for Disabled Volimteer 

Soldiers 

Miscellaneous relief acts, etc 



Total Civil Establishment. 



Military Establishment: 

Support of the Armv (including pay of 
Keso^e Corps and National Guard). . 

Reserve Corps 

Military Academy 

Militia 

National Guard 

Civilian military training 

Fortifications 

Arsenals 

Military posts and miscellaneous 



Total Military Establishment. 

Blvers and harbors , 

Grand total 



$1,891,796.17 



399,674.88 

371,654.39 
297,857.45 
417,666.87 

5,395,342.81 
1,067,749.89 



9,841,742.46 



106,558,169.22 



1,034,819.19 
4,360,573.42 



4,662,184.38 
731,542.03 
795,966.70 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1917. 



12,302,985.00 



565,149.00 

546,790.00 
564,299.60 
453, 26a 00 

5,026,90a00 



9,459,383.60 



341,651,400.25 



Approjula- 
tlons for the 

fiscal year 
ending June 

30/1917. 



82,154,891.33 



553,760.00 

396,290.00 
364,030.00 
725,760.00 

4,945,900.00 
548,940.28 



Estimates for 

the fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1918. 



9,689,561.61 



12,365,613.00 



435,844.00 

626,290.00 

352,320.00 

1,016,060.00 

4,975,900.00 



9,772,027.00 



1,464,788.47 
5,000,000.00 
1,200,000.00 
454,084.67 
25,779,623.80 
3,041,620.00 
3,089,411.40 



118,052,254.94 (281,680,937.59 



31,837,131.90 \ 45,844,458.47 



159,731,129.30 336,984,779.66 



232,586,060.10 



1,22.% 043. 57 

200,000.00 

30,685,450.00 

2,330,000.00 
26,947,550.00 

5,214,395.00 

3,727,859.99 



302,916,378.66 



42,094,461.49 



354,700,401.76 



242,421,361.22 
5,702,650.00 
2,058,673.30 



45,771,000.00 
4,741,000.00 

56,999,481.21 
6,435,700.00 
8,841,890.23 



372,971,756.96 



32,136,063.96 



414,879,846.92 



100 



REPOBT OF THE SECRETAKY OF WAB. 



Expenditures/or the last fiscal year (1916)^ the estimates and appropriatumsfor (he present 
fiscal year {1917), and the estimates for the next fiscal year (1918) — Continued. 



RECAPITULATION. 



General object. 



Civil Establishment (War Department 
proper): 
Salaries, contingent expenses, etc. (in- 
cluding Office of Public Buildings 

and Grounds) 

Ctvll public works and miscellaneous (ex- 
clusive of rivers and harbors): 

Military and national parks 

Buildings and grounds in and around 

Washington 

National cemeteries 

Miscellaneoa^ objects 

National Home for Disabled Volunteer 

Soldiers 

Miscellaneous relief acts, etc 

Military Establishment: 

Support of the Army (including pay of 
reserve corps and National Guard) . . . 

Reserve corps 

Military Academy 

Militia 

National Guard 

Civilian military training 

Fortifications 

Arsenals 

Military posts and miscellaneous 

Rivers and harbors 



Increase of 
esthnates for 
1918 as com- 
pared with 
estimates for 
1917. 



162,628.00 



79,500.00 
'562,'866.'66' 



Decrease of 
estimates for 
1918 as com- 
pared with 
estimates for 
1917. 



$129,305.00 

"'2ii,'979.'66" 

51,000.00 



7fifl,951.97 

6,702,&50.00 

593,884.83 



Total... 
Less decrease. 



44,671,000.00 
4,286,915.33 

31,210,8o7.41 
3,3*'4,OS0.0O 
5,7.2,478.83 



5,000,000.00 



13,708,394.51 



Net increase of estimates for 1918 as 
compared with estimates for 1917.. . 



96, 99 J, 7 48. 37 19, 100, 689. 1 1 
10,100,089.11 I 



77,895,067.26 



Less decrease. 



Net increase of estimates fOT 1918 as 
compared with appropriations for 
1917 



Increase of 
esthnates for 
1918 as com- 
pared with ap- 
propriations 
for 1917. 



1210, 721. 67 



230,000.00 



290,300.00 
30,000.00 



9, 83.% 281. 12 

5,702,6^0.00 

833, 029. 73 



1.5,085,,V:0.00 
2,411,000 00 

30,0"1,931 21 
1,22I,.'W>.00 
6,114,030.24 



71,016,308.97 



10,836,953.81 



60,179,445.16 



Decrease of 

estimates for 

1918 as oom- 

pared with ftp- 

propriatkms 

for 1917. 



$117,916.00 



11,700.00 
'548*946.'38 



2oo,ooaoo 



9,9.i8,.3P7..« 
10,836,953.81 



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151 




REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



153 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



War Depabtment, 
Office of the Chief of Staff, 
Washington, September SO, 1916. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit my aimual report. 

MILTTARr POLICY. 

In compliance with instructions of the Secretary of War, the War 
CoUege Division of the General Staff Corps prepared a Statement 
of a Proper Military Policy for the United States, which was sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of War, September, 1915. This Statement 
of Policy was published as a separate appendix to the last annual 
report or the Secretary of War, and as, m a very large measure, it 
furnished the basis for discussion of as well as the basis for the legis- 
lation passed during the past session of Congress, I have included 
it for convenience of reference as an appendix to this report. 

The General Staff in this policy report stated the military problem 
before the country in the following language : 

From what has been stated, we are forced to the conclusion that we must 
be prepared to resist a combined land and sea operation of formidable streuj^h. 
Our principal coast cities and Important harbors have already been protected 
by harbor defenses, which, by passive method alone, can deny to an enemy 
the use of these localities as bases for such exi)edition8. 

The enemy l)eing unable to gain a foothold in any of these fortified areas 
by direct naval attack will therefore be forced to find some suitable place on 
the coast from which land operations can be conducted both against the im- 
portant coast cities and the rich commercial centers in the Interior. Long 
stretches of coast line between the fortified places lie open to the enemy. The 
only reasonable way In which these localities can be defended Is by providing 
a mobile land force of sufficient strength, so located that it may be thrown in 
at threatened points at the proper time. 

It has Just been shown what the strength of these expeditions might be, as 
well as the time required for any one of them to develop its whole effective 
force. Hence, it can be seen, when we take into consideration the possible two 
months' delay provided by the Navy, that our system should be able to furnish 
600,000 trained and organized mobile troops at the outbreak of the war and 
to have at least 500,000 more available within 90 days thereafter. Here, how- 
ever, it must be pointed out that two expeditions alone will provide a force 
large enough to cope with our 1,000,000 mobile troops, and consequently we 
must, at the outbreak of hostilities, provide the system to raise and train, in 
addition, at least 500,000 troops to replace the losses and wastage In personnel 
incident to war. To provide this organized land force is the military problem 
before us for solution. 

This report was based upon the actual needs of the country, as 
they existed at that time, leaving to Congress the ways and means 
to provide the men. The first 500,000 mentioned was to be composed 
of the Regular Army and its reserve, the reserve to be produced by a 
term of enlistment oi eight years, twt) with the colors and six with the 

155 



156 REPORT OF THE OHIEF OF STAFF. 

reserve. The second 500,000 mentioned above was to be composed of 
citizen soldiers, to be ^iven nine months' military training in time of 
peace and three months' additional training on or before the out- 
break of war before they would be prepared for war service. 

The General Staff prepared a plan of organization for the first 
500,000 which called for 7 infantry divisions of 9 regiments each^ 
and 2 cavalry divisions of 9 regiments each, with necessary field 
artillery, engineer and. signal troops to complete the divisions. In 
addition, there was to be provided a total of 263 companies of coast 
artillery. The total number of units recommended by the Greneral 
Staff for the active army being: 

65 regiments of Infantry, 

25 regiments of cavalry, 

21 regiments of field artillery, 

263 companies of coast artillery, 

7 regiments of engineers, 

2 mounted battalions of engineers, 
11} signal corps battalions, 

8 aero squadrons, 

being an increase in the Regular Army of 

84 regiments of infantry, 
10 regiments of cavalry, 
15 regiments of field artillery, 
d8 companies of coast artillery, 
5 regiments of engineers, 
2 battalions of mounted engineers, 

169 ofiicers and 2«115 men in the Signal Oorps, and necessary increase In 
the staff corps. 

Congress accepted the recommendation of the General Staff in 
regard to the number of organizations, but at practically two-thirds 
of the strength recommended. 

The peace strength of the Regular Army after July 1, 1920, includ- 
ing 45,177 noncombatant troops, will be 11,827 officers and 208,338 
men, and a war stren^h of 11,942 officers and 287,846 men. The 
increase, as recommended by the General Staff, is to take place in 
5 annual increments. When the increase is completed and the neces- 
sary oversea garrisons provided, there will be left in the United 
States just sufficient troops to organize 4 infantry divisions and 2 
cavalry divisions, with necessarv auxiliary troops. 

The* recommendation of the (jeneral Staff that a citizen volunteer 
army of 500,000 men, with a minimum of nine months' training in 
time of peace, be created was not accepted by Congress. This recom- 
mendation was attacked on various grounds as being radical, unneces- 
sary, and impracticable, and as being particularly aimed at the 
Organized Militia, which the General Staff recommended be main- 
tained as it existed at the date of the report. In the policy report^ 
the General Staff summarized the limitations of the Organized 
Militia in the following language : 

It is stated later in this report that 12 months, at 150 hours per month, ** Is 
considered the minimum length of time of actual training considered necessary 
to prepare troops for war service.*' Due to constitutional Umitatlons, Congress 
has not the power to fix and require such an amount of training tor tbe 
Organized Militia. No force can be considered a portion of our first line whoee 
control and training is so little subject to Federal authority in peace. No force 
should be considered a portion of our^ first line in war unless it be maintained 
fnUy organized and equipped in peace' at practically war strength* This would 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 157 

ezdude. the Organized Militia from consideration for senrlce in the first line 
mainly because of the imposHbility of yiving it in peace the training required 
for auch function. 

In the consideration of this question, the constitutional limitations 
regarding the militia occupied most of the attention of Congress to 
the exclusion of the standard of training necessary to prepare troops 
for service in the first line. Congress believed, as shown by the 
national defense act, that the constitutional questions that were 
raised were not serious enough to interfere to any extent with the 
transformation of the Organized Militia into a citizen force sub- 
stantially in number as recommended by the General Staff, and the 
bill, as passed, provides that at the end of five years the National 
Guard will consist of about 17,000 officers and 440,000 men, the 
period of enlistment in the National Guard being six years, three 
with the colors and three with the reserve of the National Guard. 
A liberal provision is made in the bill for the payment. 

The period of training prescribed for the National Guard is 16 
days' field service, including target practice, and 48 armory drills 
of not less than 1^ hours, or an annual training of approximately 25 
days, or 75 days in three years. This period of training is six months 
less than the peace training recommended by the General Staff for 
the citizen armv, and nine months less training than necessary for 
war service, and, in my judgment, precludes this force from being fit 
for war service until it has received at least six months' additional 
training in time of war. I am entirely in accord with the opinion 
of the General Staff that troops with less than 12 months' intensive 
peace training can not be considered dependable troops for war 
service. 

The debate in Congress and the discussion in the press of the 
country indicated that there is a very widespread, serious and vital 
misconception in this country in regard to the time it takes to train 
the individual soldier and the organization of which he is an element. 

In the belief that soldiers can be very quickly trained and armies 
improvised, we not only run counter to the military opinion and 
practice of practically all the other great nations of the world, but we 
run counter as well to our own experience as a nation in war. The 
time required for the training of armies depends largely on the 

fresence or absence of trained officers and noncommissioned officers, 
f there be a corps of trained officers and noncommissioned officers 
and a tested organization of higher units with trained leaders and 
staff officers, the problem of training is largely limited to the training 
of the private soldier. This has been satisfactorily accomplish^ in 
Europe as is beine demonstrated in the present war by giving the 
soldiers in time ox peace two years of intensive training with the 
colors and additional training in the reserve. 

It should be obvious to any unprejudiced mind that if we are to 
defeat highly trained and splendidly disciplined armies of our possi- 
ble enemies, our own forces when called upon for battle should have 
training and discipline at least equal to that of our opponent. While 
we have splendid material for soldiers, for us seriously to claim that 
the average American youth can be trained and disciplined in less 
time than the average English, French, German, or Japanese youth 



158 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

argues a decided lack of understanding on the part of our people of 
the progress and character of the English, French, German, or Japa- 
nese people. All that we can hope for and confidently claim is that^ 
given equal intensive training as to time, under equally favorable 
conditions as to officers and noncommissioned officers for instructors 
and leaders, our soldiers will be prepared to assure in war the success 
of our armies. 

Under their systems of intensive training other nations reauire 
approximately 6 hours' daily work in theoretical and practical in- 
struction of each soldier, or approximately 4,000 hours during the 
2-year period of training. In our Eegular service, due to the necessity 
of depending on volunteer enlistment, we require in 3 years approxi- 
mately the same number of hours that the army in which universal 
and compulsory service exist obtains in 2 years. 

If we continue to accept approximately 4,000 hours as our stand- 
ards of training and discipline, we will meet our opponents on prac- 
tically equal terms, proviaing that the quality of our instructors and 
leaders is up to their standard. If we adopt a lower standard of 
training, we lessen directly the fighting efficiency of our troops. 

It should be clear that troops trained for 1 year of intensive train- 
ing, or approximately for 2,000 hours, are only one-half as well 
trained and less than one-half as well disciplined as they would be if 
they had 4,000 hours of trainmg in 2 years. It is obvious that troops 
trained for only 1 year in time of peace will have to be given addi- 
tional training in time of war before they can successfully oppose 
troops with the high standard of training and discipline that is given 
in 2 years in time of peace, and that we will have to make up for any 
deficiency in training and discipline by decided superiority in nuni- 
bers. 

If we can not increase the period of training for the National 
Guard to the minimum laid down as essential by the General Staff, 
and it is very doubtful if we will be able to do so and keep the force 
recruited to the maximum authorized by Congress, we are confronted 
by a serious situation. The difficulty that is being now experienced 
in obtaining recruits for the Re^lar Army and for the National 
Guard in service on the border and at their mobilization camps raises 
sharply the question of whether we will be able to recruit the troops 
authorized by Congress in the national-defense act, both Regular 
Army and National Guard. 

It is, in my judgment, a cause for very sober consideration on the 
part of every citizen of the country when the fact is fully understood 
that the units of the National Guard and the Regular Armj have not 
been recruited to war strength in the crisis which we have just passed 
through. The number of units in both organizations are relatively 
small and the total number of men needed to recruit them to war 
strength certainly not great — almost negligible, in fact, when consid* 
ered in relation to the total male population in the United States of 
military rige; that is, men between 18 and 45 years. Many of the 
elements which favor recruiting under a volunteer system in this 
country existed at the time of the call for mobilization ior the militia. 
Among others may be enumerated : 

a. The agitation for preparedness that has swept over the country, 
due largely to the lessons of the European war. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 15^ 

b. The public press of the country generally, regardless of 
partj^ had given liberal space in the news and editorial columns in 
favor of mifitary preparation for months previous to the call. 

c. Preparedness parades in which thousands had participated 
had recently been held in many of the principal cities of the country. 

d. Congress had but recently, in response to public sentiment,, 
passed a new national-defense act, which will ultimately almost 
double the size of our small Eegular Army and almost quadruple the 
size of the Organized Militia. 

e. In response to the same national sentiment, Confess has passed^ 
since the National Guard was called to active service, a naval bill 
giving the largest naval increase in the history of the country. 

These facts are mentioned to show that public interest in the Army 
and Navy, and the national defense generally, had been aroused to a 
comparatively high degree; yet, in what is c<msidered by the Gov- 
ernment a grave emergency the National Guard is mobilized for 
service on the southern frontier to protect the lives of American men, 
women, and children, recruiting is found so difficult that many of its 
organizations have not yet, over three months after the call, been 
raised to even minimum peace strength, and likewise the units of the 
Eegular Army have not been recruited to the minimum peace 
strength authorized in the new national-defense act. Anyone at all 
familiar with the effort made and now being made to recruit the 
units of both the Begular Army and the Organized Militia will un- 
derstand that the failure to obtain recruits is not due to defective 
methods of recruiting. In fact, every effort has been made, in many 
cases an actual house-to-house canvass being undertaken to obtain re- 
cruits for the militia. It can be stated, I think, without fear of con- 
tradiction, that there are very few young men in the country to-day 
who do not know that there is a demand for their services both in 
the Organized Militia now on the border or shortly to go there and 
in the units of the Begular Army now on the border or in Mexico. 

In view of the above facts, it would be, indeed, an exceedingly 
shallow thinker who could attach much blame to the personnel of 
either the Regular Army or the Organized Militia for failure to 
recruit to war strength. The failure should make the whole people 
to realize that the volunteer system does not and probably will not 
give us either the men we need for training in peace or for service 
in war. 

In my judgment, the country will never be prepared for defense 
until we do as other great nations do that have large interests to 
guard, like Germany, Japan, and France, where everybody is ready 
and does perform military service in time of peace as he would pay 
every other tax and is willing to make sacrinces for the protection 
he gets and the country gets in return'. The volunteer system in this 
country, in view of tne highly organized, trained, and disciplined 
armies that our possible opponents possess, should be relegated to the 
past. There is no reason why one woman's son should go out and 
defend or be trained to defend another woman and her son who 
refuses to take training or give service. The only democratic method 
is for every man in his youth to become trained in order that he may 
render efficient service if called upon in war. 



162 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

measure to a realization that we must believe in ourselves, and as the 
exponents of a democracy that should regenerate the political systems 
of the world, we must be ready to hold our place in the councils of 
the world, and to do this we must be physically fit, or we shall be 
brushed aside by the vigorous manhood of other races who sacrifice 
self that the nation may live. 

During the months of May and June hundreds of thousands 
marched in so-called preparedness parades to the plaudits of on- 
lookers. But when the militia was called out in June to protect 
our border, it was with the utmost difficulty that its units were 
recruited to the small number required, and some were never filled. 
The spirit was rife to let somebody else do it Not only is there 
evidence of the volunteer spirit being moribund, but the States 
have for years been unable to make an efficient showing with the 
militia, even with the generous assistance of the General Govern- 
ment in qualified instructors and supplies. It would seem that the 
self-reliance of the individual, like that of the States, had given way 
to dependence upon others. The fine volunteer spirit of the Stat^ 
militia was injured in the demand for Federal pay in time of peace. 
It sounded the knell of patriotic military training for individuals 
and commercialized the highest duty that a State can demand from 
its people. We have fallen away from the teaching of the Fathers, 
for there is no longer instilled into our people the ftmdamental doc- 
trine that every man owes a military as well as a civil obligation to 
his Government. 

A young man between 18 and 21 is at the least earning capacity 
of his career. It is a time of anxiety to the parent and uncer- 
tainty for the son. During these years few settle into their life's 
vocation. They are an expense to their parents; their averaj 
earnings will not pay for their board and clothes. They can 
given military training without the slightest disruption of business. 
The stabilizing effect of military discipline and intensive training 
upon such young men would be or utmost value in forming character 
and thereb}^ a foundation for their life's work. The^ would become 
an asset of incalculable value to the nation, not only m time of emer- 
gency, but in the recruitment to industrial life of the thousands re- 
turned from military pursuits improved mentally, morally, and physi- 
cally by the training. The hundreds of military schools in the coun- 
try are evidence of the faith of thousands of parents that their boys 
are better fitted for the responsibilities of life by the elementary dis- 
cipline and drills therein received. The most important function of 
our regular establishment should be to make it a real training school 
for our young men, and thereby inspire them with the spirit of patri- 
otism and sense of duty and responsibility with which each generation 
must be imbued if we are to continue our high mission as a nation. 

I shall not attempt in this report to evolve a system to carry out 
so important a work. It is believed that the average parent would 
gladly welcome the opportunity for military training for their boys 
between the ages of 18 and 21. As the training would be educational, 
there should he no remuneration for service, but the Government 
should stand all the expense. 

If we are to continue to compete with the wage of labor for our 
soldiers the cost will be enormous if we are to get the men. We hi^ 
police, we hire firemen, but there is a repugnance to the idea that 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 163 

we must continue to commit ourselves to no military resource other 
than that of hiring citizens to accept military training and to commit 
our future to such inadequate defense. 

The justice of, as well as the necessity for, universal training is rec- 
ognized in section 79 of the national defense act, which prescribes 
that in time of war^ "if for any reason there shall not be enough 
voluntary enlistments to keep the reserve battalions at the prescribed 
strength^ a sufficient number of the unorganized militia shall be 
drafted into the service of the United States to maintain each such 
battalion at the proper strength." This provision is intended to keep 
the National Guard units that have been sent into the field at war 
strength and is one of the best provisions regarding the National 
Guard in the bill. What I am contending for is that the principle 
recognized as applying to time of war should applv equally to time 
of peace, so that all oi the youth of the country who are physically 
qualified for military service should be given thorough military 
training and disciplme under competent officers and noncommis- 
sioned officers, so that on the outbreak of war they will be able with- 
out much additional training to render efficient service. To send men 
into battle who have not been given this thorough training and disci- 
pline is not only a useless waste of our resources in men but, to anyone 
who understands anjrthing of the realities of modem war, convicts the 
]{)eople of the country who are responsible for such proceeding of 
criminal neglect. 

THE NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT. 

In general terms it may be said that this is the first comprehensive 
legislation for national defense. It provides for four classes of sol- 
diers in the United States: First, the Regular Army: second, the 
National Guard ; third, the enlisted reserve force, all or which shall 
exist in time of peace; and, fourth, the Volunteer Army, which will be 
raised only in time of war. The peace strength of the Regular Army 
in 1920 is fixed at figures previously stated. The National Guard 
should consist of about 17,000 officers and 440,000 men. Volunteers 
can be called in time of war in such numbers as Congress shall 
authorize. 

The increase in the Regular Army is to be made in five annual 
increments, beginning July 1, 1916, and running to July 1, 1920, 
although the President is authorized to make the increase more 
rapidly in case of emergency. 

The organizations provided for the Re^lar Army will be divided 
into two classes — over-sea and home garrisons. The composition of 
each of the garrisons in the Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands, 
Panama, and Alaska will be as stated in that policy report and the 
aggregate will be about three Infantry divisions. This will leave in 
the United States four Infantry diviaons and two Cavalry divisions. 

Each Infantry division will consist of three Infantry brigades 
(nine regiments), one regiment of Cavalry, one brigade of Field 
Artillery (three regiments), one regiment of Engineers, one Field 
Signal battalion, one aero squadron, and the ammunition, supply, 
engineer and sanitary trains. Each Cavalry division will consist of 
three Cavalry brigades (nine regiments), one regiment of Horse 
Artillery, one battalion of Mounted Engineers, one Field Signal bat- 



164 BBPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

talion, one aero squadron, and ammunition, supply, en^neer, and 
sanitary trains. Alter deaucting the necessary troops for the over- 
sea garrisons, the troops remaining in the United States are just 
sufficient to organize the divisions mentioned, giving what is termed 
a well-balanced military organization, because there is just enough 
of each arm to make a good fighting machine, and there are no extra 
organizations left over. 

The number of general officers of the Army has been increased so 
as to provide the necessary general officers to command the divisions 
and brigades and furnish the general officers of the General Staff. 

The Adjutant General's Department, the Inspector General's De- 
partment, the Judge Advocate General's Department, the Quarter- 
master Corps, and the Medical Department have all been materially 
increased to meet the increased size of the Be^lar Armv. 

The number of officers in the Corps of Engineers will also be in- 
creased and the engineer troops for mfantry divisions will hereafter 
be organized into regiments instead of battalions as heretofore, while 
the mounted engineer troops for use with the cavalry divisions will 
be in battalion organizations. 

The Ordnance Department and the Signal Corps both received 
material increases. The work of the Ordnance Department in the 
design and construction of new armament and the greatly increased 
importance of aviation work necessitated it. 

The Medical Department was increased so as to provide 7 officers 
and 50 enlisted men for every 1,000 of the enlisted strength of the 
Regular Army and by the addition thereto of a new corps of 
veterinarians, which corps, together with the Dental Corps, have 
been given increased rank, with the accompanying pay and allow- 
ances. 

The organization of Infantry and Cavalry regiments has been 
changed by the introduction of three new companies, i. e., the head- 
quarters, supply, and machine-gun companies. These companies 
have existed as provisional experimental organizations, but the per- 
sonnel had to be taken from other companies of the regiment Each 
regiment of field artillery has been increased by a headquarters and 
a supply company. The organization of the regimental units of these 
three arms was worked out with ^eat care and represents the very 
latest improvements known to military experts. 

The Coast Artillery has been increased from 701 officers and 19,321 
men to 1,201 officers and 29,469 enlisted men, exclusive of bands, on 
July 1, 1920, giving that corps the complement that it requires in 
regular officers and men for the harbor defense of the country. The 
remaining number of officers and men will be supplied from the 
National Guard. 

The Porto Rico regiment has been increased from two battalions to 
three battalions, and will be organized as other regiments of infantnir. 

Hereafter officers appointed as second lieutenants in the Armv will 
be ^ven provisional appointments for a period of two years, (furing 
which period of probation they must demonstrate their abilitv ana 
fitness. All new officers will be drawn from graduates of the United 
States Military Academy, from enlisted men of the Regular Army, 
from members of the OflScers' Reserve Corps, or the National Guard, 
or from honor graduates of military schools, or, lastly, from civil life. 



BEPO&T OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 165 

The condition of retired officers is improved, in that the time which 
a retired officer may serve on active dutv brings to him increased pay 
and rank corresponding to his period of active service, and in time of 
war retired officers may be used as the President shall prescribe. 

To provide for the regular officers necessary for duty with the 
National Guard, duty at the various colleges where military instruc- 
tion is given, for recruiting duty, military attaches, etc., provision is 
made for a detached officers' list which provides 1,022 officers. 

Provision has been made for the retirement of officers of the Phil- 
ippine Scouts. 

The enlistment contract provides for three ye«^rs with the colors 
and four in the reserve, but an important addition is that at the end 
of one year's service any enlisted man within the continental limits 
of the United States may be discharged if he has become proficient , 
in that time. Provision is made for paying the enlisted men in the 
reserve $24 a year, and the President is authorized to utilize the per- 
sonnel of any department of the Government, such as postmasters, 
mail carriers, etc., to keep track of reservists, and also to use the 
postmasters (except first class) to obtain recruits for the Army. 

Enlisted men are prohibited from engaging in any civil occupa- 
tions, whether for pay or otherwise, that would put them in compe- 
tion with men in civil life. 

An officer's reserve corps is provided which authorizes the commis- 
sioning of civilians up to ana including the grade of major in the 
various branches of the Army. These men can be selected and 
trained in time of peace, and the officers so obtained should be fairly 
prepared for their duties. In order to assist in obtaining these re- 
serve officers, a Reserve Officers' Training Corps is authorized which 
will consist of units at the various colleges, academies, and universi- 
ties throughout the country where military education and training 
will be given which should give a personnel for the officers' reserve 
corps that is better equipped for the duties of an officer than any 
heretofore available. 

In order to provide the enlisted men for the various technical staff 
corps and departments, an enlisted reserve corps has been authorized 
which will consist of men whose daily occupation in civil life spe- 
cially fits them for duty in the Engineer, Signal, and Quartermaster 
Corps, and in the Ordnance and Medical Departments. This enlisted 
reserve corps should provide the railway operatives, bridge builders, 
chauffeurs, hospital attendants, nurses, telegraphers, etc., required 
for the departments and corps mentioned. It is impracticable to 
keep in the Regular Army the number of men of these classes that 
will be necessary in time of war, and it is hoped that the enlisted 
reserve corps will provide the deficiency. 

No provision is made for a volunteer force in time of peace, but 
in place thereof the ideas heretofore embodied in the so-called Dusi- 
ness men's camps have been provided for, in the provisions that all 
expenses in connection with attendance at training camps shall be 
borne by the Federal Government. 

The National Guard is within the limits of the Constitution fed* 
eralized. The maximum number authorized is 800 for each Repre- 
sentative and Senator in Congress, and such number from the Terri- 
tories as the President shall prescribe. It is hoped that this will 
give a total of about 17,000 officers and 440,000 enlisted men. 



166 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

The President is authorized to organize the National Guard into 
brigades, divisions, and other tactical uuits, and to prescribe the kind 
of oi^anizations that shall be maintained in the various States to 
insure that these brigades and divisions will be complete in all re- 
spects. Certain qualifications are required of oflBcers of the National 
Guard, and although these officers will be commissioned by the gov- 
ernors, they can not be recognized by the Federal Government unless 
they fulfill the prescribed qualifications. Regular Army officers may 
be commissioned in the National Guard if the governors so desire. 
Enlistments in the National Guard will be for six years, three years 
with the colors and three years with the reserves, but a man may 
serve out his enlistment, it he so desires, instead of going into the 
reserve. Hereafter the enlistment contract for the National Guard 
will contain an oath of allegiance both to the United States and to the 
Btate, and not only enlisted men but officers must subscribe to such 
an oath. The President is not only authorized to call out the Na- 
tional Guard for the constitutional purposes but is also authorized 
under certain conditions to draft them into the service of the United 
States whether they desire to come or not, and also to draft the 
additional men that may be needed to keep such National Guard 
units at war strength, in case the National Guard Reserve is not 
sufficient for that purpose. Provision is made for the protection of 
Federal property in the hands of the National Guard. 

Horses can be supplied to the mounted organizations of the Na- 
tional Guard, and provision is made for their care and maintenance. 

The National Guard will be required to have 48 periods of armory 
training each year and 15 days' field training, and in case the pre- 
scribed amount of training is not undergone the President may with- 
hold the funds appropriated for the National Guard. The Secretary 
of War may require such additional study on the part of the officers 
as he deems necessary. During periods of field training the National 
Guard will be paid at the same rate as the Regular Army, and for 
the armory training a generous rate of pay is authorized. National 
Guard officers and men may be sent to various service schools and will 
be paid during such periods. The National Guard will be subject 
to tne laws and regulations governing the Arm.y of the United States 
from the time that they are recjuired to come into that service, and 
after that time there is no evadin/^ the Federal law. A uniform sys- 
tem of courts-martial for the National Guard is authorized, the limi- 
tations of which are fixed by law. When the National Guard is 
drafted into the service of the United States they will be entitled 
to all the rights of the existing pension laws. 

To encourage target practice the Secretary of War is authorized 
to establish ranges and to supply rifies, ammunition, and instructors 
for rifie clubs in various parts of the country. The initial step in 
carrying out the law was made in the Army appropriation bill for 
the current fiscal year, which appropriated $300,000 for the mainte- 
nance of indoor and outdoor rifie ranges for the use of all able- 
bodicKl males capable of bearing arms under reasonable regulations 
to be prescribed by the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle 
Practice, and provision is made for the appointment of a director 
of civilian marksmanship. 

The President is authorized in time of war to exercise a sort of 
eminent domain over the various manufacturing plants in the country 



REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF STAFF, 167 

and Government orders are given right of way over all private orders. 
It establishes in time of peace a board of mobilization of industries, 
which is authorized to investigate all privately owned plants in the 
country suitable for the manufacture of arms and ammunition, and 
the Ordnance Department is authorized to prepare in time of peace 
the necessary tools of special kinds that are required in the manu- 
facture of arms, ammunition, etc. 

The United States is dependent upon Chile as a source of supply 
for nitrates which are essential to the manufacture of ammunition. 
The President is authorized to investigate the best means for the 
production of nitrates and to establish the necessary plants to manu- 
facture nitrates for the Government's use. 

The uniform of the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps 
is given protection in that only certain authorized individuals and 
organizations have the right to wear the uniform or any uniform so 
nearly like it as to be readily mistaken therefor. 

THE GENERAL STAFF CORPS. 

Attention is invited to the tendency to enact laws affecting the 
personnel of the Army in relation to its stations and duties. Fre- 
quently these enactments are not considered at the hearings or de- 
bated on the floor of Congress, nor is the War Department given 
opportunity to show how the military service will be affected thereby, 
and it sometimes happens that such legislation has an injurious effect 
upon the service. In this connection attention is invited to the 
second paragraph of section 5, national defense act, relating to the 
General Staff Corps. The formation of a general staff had its incep- 
tion in the blunders made by our staff departments during the Spanish 
War, and it was to form a supervising, informing, and coordinating 
staff department of the War Department. It was carefully con- 
sidered and fuUy debated in all of its varied aspects, and the organic 
law stated fully its purpose. The number of officers at first detailed 
for the Generid Staff was fixed at 45 as the proper number to per- 
form this new but most important and varied duty. In 1912 the 
Greneral Staff was reduced by one general officer and eight captains. 
This reduction seriously interfered with the work of the General 
Staff, which had been steadily growing in importance, as officers 
grew to understand its important functions. 

The European war has fully demonstrated to the world the im- 
portance of a general staff for coordinating in time of peace a com- 
prehensive knowledge of the resources of the Nation — that is, its war 
power — as well as m the preparation of war plans. The work of 
preparing the Army, the National Guard and volunteers to carry out 
effectively and efficiently these plans is an involved and complex 
study. THie collection in advance of all the information necessary for 
a correct understanding of every problem of national defense is an 
immense work. General Staff work has to do not only with prepar- 
ing war plans but consideration of every policy of instruction, equip- 
ment, and supply, so as to obviate waste of public funds and secure 
the best possible results. . -, x- j 

After a full and careful consideration of its various duties and re- 
sponsibilities, the General Staff recommended 94 officers as the num- 



168 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF, 

ber that should compose that body. The national-defense act was 
passed by the Senate, fixing the number at 92. But as this measure 
came from conference and as enacted into law the Oeneral Staff, aside 
from its general officers, was increased by 18 officers, to come by incre- 
ments for the next five years. It directed not more than one-half of 
the officers detailed in said corps shall at any time be stationed or as- 
signed to or employed upon any duty in or near the District of CJolum- 
bia, and directs a penalty upon an officer who violates this or any other 
provisions of the section. It is needless to say that this provision, by its 
reduction of the available officers for the General Staff work at the 
War College, has militated seriously against the work of preMrinjj 
the coimtry for any emergency of war. The law limiting the JPresi- 
dent in the number of General Staff officers he can order to duty in 
Washington gives us fewer officers here than at any time in the his- 
tory of the organization and at the most important time of our mili- 
tary development. Just what end of military efficiency it was pro- 
posed to serve thereby it is impossible to conjecture. In the interest 
of progress in military preparedness it is recommended that all the 
restriction placed in the national-defense act be removed and the 
General Staff in number be fixed as proposed in the national-defense 
act as first passed by the Senate. 

DETACHED SERVICE LAW. 

Congress, upon its own initiative and without the recommendation 
of the War Department, in the appropriation bill for the Array, 
approved August 24, 1912, passed a law which required that commis- 
sioned officers of the line of the Army below the rank of major should 
not be detached unless they have been actually present for duty for 
at least two of the last preceding six years with a troop^ battery, or 
company of that branch of the Army in which the omcer is com- 
missioned. 

Legislation extending the provisions of the detached-service law 
for field officers was included in the Array appropriation bill ap- 
proved April 27, 1915. The laws on the subject are raost stringent, 
and have been very rigidly construed by the departraent. The law 
was intended to remedy by legislation the keeping of certain officers 
too long from duty with troops. Officers who were selected for de- 
tached service were frequently kept on such duty for unduly long 
periods. Having laid down a principle and a general rule for the 
service, with a penalty to enforce its operation, Congress made ex- 
ceptions by excluding their application to the Ordnance Departraent; 
for officers below the grade of major detailed for aviation duty ; for 
aU officers detailed for duty in connection with the construction of 
the Panama Canal until alter it shall have been formally opened ; 
for those detailed in connection with the Alaskan Eoad Comraission, 
the Alaska Railroad, Bureau of Insular Affairs; oerraits the re- 
detail of officers above the grade of major in the iStaff Corps and 
departments. The excepting of certain officers from the restrictions 
of the law has been largely personal legislation, without any special 
benefit to the service. It has, in fact, created a distinction in de- 
tached service which has not made a favorable impression in the 
service generally. The detached-service law has been in effect now 



BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 169 

for four jrears, which has given time to consider its results. In so far 
as it requires service with troops, the effect has be(m good, although it 
has increased ffreatly the expense of administration with the frequent 
chan^ of officers to meet its strin^nt requirements. It likewise 
occasions undue expense to the individual, especially so if the officer 
has a family to take with him ; and the majority of our young officers 
are married men, with the responsibility of growing children. The 
provisions of the national-defense act, constituting the detached 
officers' list of 1,022 officers, will enormously increase this expense to 
the Government and to the individual on account of the greater num- 
ber of officers affected, for the time available for detached service 
will be materially shortened. 

The War Department is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of the 
laws on this subject. I believe it would promote very greatly the 
efficiency of the service, and at the same time make a material re- 
duction in the cost of the militarj^ establishment, if these laws were 
now rescinded and the matter simplified by a law which would 
authorize an officer entering upon a detail to serve out the four years 
of the detail and then require him to serve two years with troops 
before he becomes eligible for another detail. A law to this effect, 
bearing equally upon all departments and upon all officers below the 
grade of general officer, would materially enhance the efficiency of 
the service and the satisfaction of the personnel. 

It is believed that some such measure will not only relieve the de- 
partment of much embarrassment but will give the permanency to 
detached details necessary for efficiency, with the proper safeguards 
to insure against abuse, and at the same time reduce the cost of de- 
tached service by approximately 50 per cent. 

THE PERMANENT STAFF 00RP8. 

Our experience in the War with Spain brought the War Depart- 
ment face to face with the fact that few officers of the regular service 
had knowledge of the problems of subsistence, clothing, equipment, 
transportation, sanitation, the vast and complicated business of sup- 
plying and transporting an arm^, caring for the health and strength 
of the men — matters which reauire previous training and experience. 
The policy had been foUowea that the country relied for its main 
stren^h upon volunteers who, when called into the service, brought 
but little of the knowledge and experience necessary to these im- 
portant functions. So, having in view the sp.x:ial duties to be per- 
formed by regular oP^cers, not only in connection with their own 
affairs but with the militia and volunteers, the then Secretary of War 
(Mr. Root) urgently recommended the substitution of a system of 
details from the line in place of the, at that time, permanent staff 
and supply departments so as to provide for the training of as many 
officers as possible in the variety of experience which would fit them 
for the duties of the staff and the combined service of regulars, 
militia, and volunteers. 

In accordance with these recommendations the act to increase the 
efficiency of the permanent military establishment of the United 
States, approved February 2, 1901, provided for the details from the 



170 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

line of the Army to be made in the staff departments and corps of 
the War Department and no more permanent appointments to be 
made in those departments. Some changes have since been made so 
as to provide examinations and give officers advanced rank for de- 
tail in the Ordnance Department, but details continue to be made as 
grovided by the original law in the Adjutant General's, Inspector 
[eneral's, and Quartermaster General's Departments and the Signal 
Corps except for the Aviation Section. The workings of the law 
have pro vedr satisfactory in every respect. But as the number of 
permanent staff officers is steadily decreasing and as the law provides 
that the heads of these corps must be selected from the permanent 
officers as long as any such remain a condition will soon arise when 
selections must be made from a small number and thus limit the 
ranee of selection. - 

Chiefs of bureau can not be removed by a Secretary of War, whereas 
in the interest of efficient military administration they should be as 
easily removed as is a chief of staff. The association of the perma- 
nent officei*s of the staff corps with the line is, in most cases, limited to 
inspections, reading of reports, etc., whereas every officer of the per- 
manent staff should be in close touch with the sentiments and needs 
of the line. There would result better cooperation and increased 
efficiency. 

I am of opinion that all the officers of the staff corps, excepting 
judge advocates, engineers, medical officers, and chaplains, should be 
transferred to the line. A number of officers equal to those trans- 
ferred would have to be detailed to perform staff duties. But the 
total number of officers of the Army would not be increased and all 
officers would belong to a common body and the struggle between the 
line and staff brought to an end. Thereafter an officer detailed as 
chief of a bureau or corps of the War Department should be detailed 
for four years, unless sooner relieved, and upon being relieved would 
return to that grade and branch in which commissioned and be not 
eligible to redetail except in time of war or other national emergency 
until he shall have served therewith for two years. The law that 
applies to the Chief of Staff should apply to the chief of every bureau 
and corps of the War Department, with above exceptions only. 

RESERVE officers' TRAINING CORPS. 

The national defense act authorizes the establishment and main- 
tenance at civil educational institutions of a Reserve Officers' Train- 
ing Corps. The system contemplates utilizing to their fullest extent 
the facilities of public and private educational institutions of all 
types at which officers of the Arm^ are or may be detailed as pro- 
ressors of military science and tactics. 

In 1915 5,200 students who had completed courses of military 
training under the supervision of officers graduate from the college 
tjrpe of institution in the United States, and the total number of stu- 
dents who received military instruction that year under officers of 
the Army in the schools and colleges of all types was 32,000. There 
are 567 colleges in this country, with an enrollment of 170,000 male 
student& If all these institutions comply with the provision author- 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 171 

izing the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, there will annually gradu- 
ate a large number of men trained for reserve commissions. The en- 
thusiastic approval accorded this provision by educators warrants 
the prediction that a large number of our colleges which now afford 
no military training to the student will apply to participate in its 
provisions. The total cost to the United States of the military train- 
mg of a reserve officer should not be over $1,000 per man. This 
includes service of training in the Regular Army subsequent to 
^aduation for at least six months. There was some delay in receiv- 
mg from the printing office the regulations for the Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps, but these are now in the hands of all educational 
institutions interested. 

PLAN FOR MHJTARY TRAINING IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

In paragraph 6, " Statement of a Proper Military Policy for the 
United States," '^ was shown that our military system should be able 
to furnish at tne outbreak of war 600,000 trained and organized 
mobile troops, and to have available not less than 500,000 more 90 
days thereafter. In addition, to supply losses and wastage in war, 
it was considered that, after the outbreak of hostilities, the system 
should provide a plan for raising and training 500,000 more. 

To prepare for this task requires us to use every available means 
of educatmg the young as to their future duties as citizens. 

If our democracy is to endure it must " recognize as its primary 
standard of duty the obligation of the individual man and woman 
to sacrifice themselves for the whole community in time of need." 

The necessary elementary instruction that every young American 
should have in order to be prepared when the time comes to play 
his part in the national defense can be partially given in the public 
schools. Moreover, this can be done m such a way as to enlist 
parental approval, because of the manifest improvement of the 
scholars in physique, deportment, and obedience to authority at home 
as well as at school. 

The object of the prescribed course of instruction is to inculcate 
high ideals and correct views on the duties of the citizen to the State. 
The training ^ven is along military lines, but is so conducted as to 
encourage initiative and individuality, to correct defects and develop 
natural gifts, and to teach self-control by showing the value of obe- 
dience to superior authority. The old method of "breaking the will '* 
by insisting on blind, unreasoning obedience to arbitrary rules is 
replaced by one showing how to use the individual will in attaining 
the concerted effort known as "teamwork," which is the secret ot 
efficiency, and which is dependent upon a conscious and willing obe- 
dience to a superior directing authority. Those who learn how to 
obey fit themselves to direct and bj practicing self-control become 
imbued with the fundamental principle underlying good citizenship. 
This is not a theoretical scheme. It is a practical system carefully 
worked out by Capt. E. Z. Steever, United States Army, and appliea 
with marked success in the public hi^h schools of the State of Wyo- 
ming. It has been designated the " Wyoming plan," and its dis- 
tinctive features are outfined in what follows. 



172 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF 8TAFF. 

The Wyoming plan. 

The Wyoming school authorities hold : 

1. That good citizenship involves a willingness on the part of 
each able-bodied youth to make such effort and sacrifice as will pre- 
pare him for his obligations and duties as a citizen. 

2. That this preparation embraces the following: (a) Military 
preparation; (6) Moral preparation; {c) Civic preparation; {d) 
Business preparation; and {e) Educational preparation. 

(a) Military T^eparation. — It is unsound to assimie that any sys- 
tem of training its adolescent youth will remove from the nation the 
further responsibility of training its manhood. 

Trained youth can not take the place of trained manhood. Youths 
make imitation, but not real, soldiers. 

A thorough preliminary military training of its adolescent youth 
has been recognized in primitive as well as modern civilizations as 
the first step in the greater training of the tribe or nation. 

With the civilized as with the primitive youth the " game " is the 
medium of all successful training. " Competition " is to youth what 
" security " is to old age. 

According to the Wyoming plan all cadets are organized into com- 
petition units. 

Leaders take "turnabouts" choosing the members of their units^ 
so that each unit (squad, platoon, or company) is made up of an 
equal number of strong, medium, and weak lads. 

After final choosing-up these units are fixed and can not be added 
to nor subtracted from. 

All the work is done by competition units. 

There are: Wall-scaling units, infantry-drill units, troop-leader- 
ship units, scholarship units, field-firing units, camp and field units. 

Sponsors are elected from the girls in the mixed school and 
assigned to the competition units. The sponsors are in every sense 
members of the cadet organization. They attend all drills, are the 
leaders in all social functions, and while they do not actually drill 
the sponsors are entitled to and receive such individual rewards as 
may be won by their units. 

Medals, ribbons, and distinctive marks on the uniform are given 
each member of a winning unit, the sponsor, of course, included. 

Each cadet organization is based on the voluntary enlistment plan. 
The cadet classes are held ffenerall]^ during and not after school 
hours, and credit toward graduation is awarded therefor. 

Cadet tournaments are held during the school year between the 
different high schools, to which the public is invited, and at which 
are held infantry-drill, wall-scaling, field-firing, and camp and field, 
and troop-leadership competition "games." 

From the Wyoming experience is deduced the following system of 
training adapted to the adolescent American youth. Local conditions 
will necessarily modify the application of this system, but the general 
principles on which it is basea will obtain in any part of the united 
States, and will permit the evolution of a practical course suited 
to local conditions: 



BKPORT OF THE GHIES OF STAFF. 173 

^ 1. Cut the school year into separate, short, intensive training pe- 
riods, working up through preliminary to final competition £ttes, 
with the fixed competition units. 

2. September 1 to December 31, wall-scaling and calisthenic 
events ; minimum of drill, maximiun of body building. 

3. January 1 to February 28, troop-leadership competitions, 12- 
inch Grettydburg war-game map. Include military policy of the 
United States. 

4. January 1 to February 28, minimum of drill, maximum of gal- 
lery practice, group competitions. 

^ 5. March 1 to May 7, minimimi of drill, maximimi of range prac- 
tice, and field-firing competition. 

6. May 8 to June 15, minimum of drill, maximum of camp and 
field pr<H)lems, competitive between high schools. 

7. All through school year, commencing in the spring and nmning 
through the following fall and winter, take boys into camp each 
week-^id and harden them to the rigors of camp life. Teach them 
sanitation, cooking, woodcraft, simple field engineering, plains craft, 
castrametation. sketching, scouting, patrolling, the service of se- 
curity and iniormation, and qualifv them as guides in their own 
immediate surroundmg territory. 

8. Summer camp inimediately after closing of school. 14 days. 
The organization that puts into effect the "game'' idea differs 

fundamentally from the modem American athletic system. The 
•cadet leaders choose up each in turn so that each fixed competition 
unit represents a certain proportion of strong, of medium, and of 
weak lads. 

In football and basket ball and track events, only the few physi- 
cdLly fit take part. In this system each squad represents an average 
and every boy takes part. There is as much " in it " for the weak as 
for the strong, and the survival of the fittest units, whether they be 
squads, platoons, or companies, gives the competition spirit. 

(6) Moral preparation, — ^A nation stands or falls, succeeds or 
fails, just in proportion to the high-mindedness, cleanliness, and 
manliness of each suceeding generation of men. 

In the Wyoming system the fundamental factor is the competition 
between equally balanced units. The individuals are forced by pub- 
lic opinion amongst their fellows to go into training, and this training 
means clean, moral youths. It is shown conclusively in the various 
competition that clean men morally are the surest kind of winners. 
Smoking and inunoral practices must go. Under the fiercest kind of 
competition^ and a new and fascinating interest in life, the adoles- 
cent youth is better enabled to negotiate that difficult period of life. 

(c) Civic preparation. — It is almost a fundamental principle of 
correct military organization that the leader should not be voted 
for. The Wyoming system is not intended to make soldiers. The 
Wyoming schoolmasters are of the opinion that soldiers can only 
be made from mature manhood, and that the preparation of the 
adolescent youth should be such that when he reaches manhood he 
majr then l>e made into the highest type of soldier. Hence the ob- 
jection to voting for leaders does not obtain in the cadet organization, 
whereas the objection is perfectly valid in a military organization. 



174 KEPOKT OP»THB CHIEF OF STAFF. 

The cadet leaders are chosen at the beginning of each year by 
vote of the older cadets. The leaders are selected on merit, very 
much as the captain of the football team is selected for his merit. 
It has been noticeable that on the first organization boy politics elect 
a certain percentage of popular but inefficient leaders, whose very 
inefficiency is later a terrible punishment to the members of their 
own units. The stress of competition soon brings out the real lead- 
ers. The cadets never repeat their mistake. After the first election 
they take steps to insure a very wise and careful selection of leaders. 

This civic lesson can not be wholly lost to them in years to come, 
when they are called upon as citizens to elect the leaders of their city, 
county, State, and National Governments. 

(d) Business preparation. — Teamwork and efficiency are prime 
reouisites in the business life of to-day. 

The soldier game can be made the keenest, as well as the most 
fascinating, of all games, and efficiency is a necessity if a competition 
unit is to win. Not only must each man be worked to the limit of his 
capacity, but each competition unit leader must analyze his men and 
fit each to his proper place. The leaders are always leading and 
learning efficiency. 

There is every reason why the " Wyoming plan " should be taken 
up by every high school in the country. 

TRAINING CAMPS. 

Over three years ago Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, then Chief of 
Staff, put in operation the plan of camps of instruction for regular 
troops at which students were permitted to attend for training with- 
out cost to the United States. This plan was later enlarged by per- 
mitting the attendance of business men at certain of these camps. 
The plan has been most successful as carried on in the Eastern De- 
partment, now commanded by Gen. Wood, with a minimum of troops 
and few officers to call upon for this additional instruction. Camps 
have been maintained in the Eastern Department as follows: 

Plattshurg. — Five camps were held in sequence beginning Jime 
5 and ending October 5. 

Oglethorpe, — ^Two camps were held beginning May 3 and ending 
June 30. 

Fort Terry^ N. Y. — One camp was held beginning July 5 and 
ending August 10. 

Fort Wadstcorth^ N. Y. — Six camps of two weeks' duration each 
were held beginning May 28. 

There was a total attendance at the various camps of 12,200 men 
and boys, who came from all parts of the country. 

In reporting upon these camps. Gen. Wood says: 

The training at these camps is intensive; the work is hard; the food good; 
the hours regular ; the discipline extraordinarily good — ^there were practically 
no infractions of discipline. The general tone of the camp is excellent It is 
difficult for one to appreciate how absolute the discipline is unless one has 
served in camp. 

FoUowingthe Plattsburg plan, camps were also established this 
year in the Western Department at the Presidio of San Francisco- 
two camps — and one at American Lake, Wash., with a total attend- 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 175 

ance of 357 students and business men. A satisfactory camp was 
also held at San Antonio, Tex, in the Southern Department. The 
plan has now received official recognition from Congress, and ma- 
terially increased attendance should ensue at the camps to be held 
next year. Congress has appropriated money for transportation to 
and from training camps and tor subsistence in kind while at the 
camps. Appropnation ^ould be made for the issue of a proper 
uniform while m camp with the privilege of purchase or of tummg 
it back at the expiration of the training period. 

RECRUrriNG REGUIiAR ARMY. 

Between March 15, 1916 (the date active recruiting began to meet 
the increase in the Army authorized by the joint resolution of Mar. 
17), and August 31, 1916, the losses and enlistments were as follows: 

Enlistments. Losses. 

March 15 to 31 1. 635 1. 079 

April ^ 2, 873 2, 136 

May 2, 275 2, 022 

June 3, 343 1. 4»5 

July ^ 4. 354 1, 105 

August 3, 054 1. 234 

Total - 17, 534 9, 071 

This represents a gain of 8,463 during the period mentioned. 

On June 30, 1916, the close of the fiscalyear, there was a difference 
of 20,292 between the actual and authorized strengths of the Regular 
Army, and the increase authorized for the fiscal year beginning 
July 1, 1916, exceeded that authorized by the joint resolution of 
March 17 by 13,909, making a total difference oetween the actual 
and authorized strength on July 1, 1916, of approximately 34,200: 
Between June 30 and August 31 the enlistments exceeded the losses 
by 5,069, leaving a difference on August 31 of 29,130 between the 
actual and authorized strengths. 

CAVALRY. 

All regiments of Cavalry having permanent stations in the United 
States, excepting the Second, located at Fort Ethan Allen, Fort Myer, 
and Fort Oglethorpe, have been engaged in arduous patrol duty 
along the southern border or with the expeditionary force now in 
Mexico. The sections of the national defense act, which provide for 
the composition of the various units of the several arms, followed 
the recommendations of the General Staff, except in so far as these 
sections provide a minimum strength for these units. The enlisted 
strength of the Army under this act is limited to 175,000 combatant 
troops after all increments are added. In fixing the authorized en- 
listed strength of the Army to include the first increment, it was 
decided, until all organizations have minimum peace strength, there 
would be no increase for any unit in excess of the minimum pre- 
scribed in the national defense act, and no unit of any branch of 
the Army would be increased above this minimum at the expense 
of any other branch. The enlisted strength of Cavalry units and 



176 BKPOBT OF THE OHIEF OF STAFF. 

<especiallv the Cavalry troop in the squadron is now less than that 
n^ded for proper efficiency. This can only be properly remedied 
by legislation, which is recommended to provide but one enlisted 
strength, the maximum, at all times for all Cavalry imits. The over- 
head charges for a Cavalrv troop of 70 enlisted men are practically 
the same as for a troop oi 105, lx)th requiring the same number of 
officers and practically the same noncommissioned officers and bar- 
rack accommodation. Some provision should also be made for a 
training and remount troop in time of active service. This can be 
done by adding a training detachment to the headquarters troop 
as now authorized and organizing the training and remount troop 
only in time of actual field service by assigning thereto the training 
detachment from the headquarters troop and such officers and enlisted 
men for other troops as necessary to conduct the work. In main- 
taining Cavalry organizations on the border it has recently been nec- 
essary to send both untrained men and untrained horses directly to 
regiments neither at all fit for the hard work required. This has 
been necessary on account of the reduced strength of these organiza- 
tions at the front. No trained material being available, it was neces- 
sary to fill up the organizations with the best obtainable. Such a 
pohcy is, however, a- makeshift both expensive and extremely unsat- 
isfactory in its results. 

Cavalry' equipment. — ^The model 1912 Cavalry equipment was 
issued by the Ordnance Department to the entire First Cavalry and 
to one squadron each of the Third, Fifth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth, and Fifteenth (transferred by the latter to the Eighth 
Cavalry). Owing to the many complaints received from regimental 
and otner conunanders with reference to the unsuitability of various 

fortions of this equipment, a board of officers was convened at Rock 
sland Arsenal (under the provisions of par. 44, Special Orders No. 
211, War Department, 1915) for the purpose of examining and re- 

?orting on the relative merits of certain military saddles for the 
Javalry service, as well as of considering reports submitted with ref- 
erence to the Cavalry equipment, model of 1912, and suggested 
changes therein. The final reconmiendations of this board have not 
as yet) been submitted, and when received will require some months 
or a thorough tryout before final action. In the meantime, the manu- 
facture and issue of the Cavalry equipment, model of 1912, has been 
ordered discontinued. In April the Chief of Ordnance reported the 
supply of Cavalry equipment available for issue, including both the 
model 1912 and earlier models, as rapidly reaching a point where it 
would be impossible to meet requests for the ordinary maintenance in 
the service, and that it was imperative that the manufacture of a 
limited amoimt of Cavalry equipment be imdertaken at once. The 
reports received from commanders having the model 1912 equipment 
emphasized such serious defects in the enlisted men^s saddle as to 
make it clearly inadvisable to continue the manufacture of that equip- 
ment unless tne Cavalry Equipment Board at Rock Island Arsenal 
could find a remedy for the defects reported. This board was accord- 
ingly instructed to continue the tests of this equipment and submit 
report as soon as practicable. Reports received from organization 
commanders on the border clearly mdicated that the McClellan sad- 



i 



BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 177 

die was better adapted for field service than the 1912 model. This 
question was also submitted to the Cavalry Equipment Board at 
Rock Island Arsenal, which recommended the issue of the McClellan 
equipment, the Ordnance Department having all appliances on hand 
for that purpose. After due consideration this recommendation was 
approved and the Chief of Ordnance was instructed to renew the 
manufacture of the McClellan equipment in such quantities as neces- 
sary to meet current and reserve needs until otherwise ordered. 

Cavalry Drill and Service Regulations, — The revision and bring- 
ing up to date of the Cavalry Drill and Service Regulations by the 
board of officers convened by paragraph 29, Special Orders No. 210, 
War Department, 1915, has been completed, and it is hoped to have 
these regulations very shortly issued to the service. The 1914 regu- 
lations requiring double rank as the normal formation and assummg 
the regiment to consist of six squadrons of two troops each, com- 
manded by captains, were approved and issued to the Cavalry service 
October 22, 1914, in accordance with General Orders No. 79, War 
Department, which instructed each officer to submit, on June 1, 1915, 
a report embodying his opinion and recommendations in connection 
therewith. These regulations have been in effect since that daio. 
After an extensive try out which included much field service on the 
southern border, these reports were rendered, and upon being tabu- 
lated, it was found that about 90 per cent of the Cavalry officers 
favored return to single rank as the normal formation with the 
statutory organization of troop, squadron, and regiment. A large 
percentage oi these officers likewise favored the principle of " lead- 
mg '' upon which the regulations of 1914 were based. 

The revision now submitted by the board provides: 

1. Single rank as the normal formation with the statutory organ- 
ization of the various units. 

2. Retention of the principle of the 1914 regulations, that mounted 
units are habitually led in person by their commanders. 

3. Provision for double rank for use under circumstances requir- 
ing it. 

The new manual treats with great detail and thoroughness the 
training of the recruit and remount. Detailed explanations practi- 
cally terminate with the platoon, after which drill evolutions and the 
maneuvering of the troop, squadron, and regiment are but the appli- 
cation of fixed principles and methods laid down for the smaller 
units. 

Mounted Service School, — This school graduated during the last 
year 28 officers in the first-year class, 7 officers in the second-year 
class, and 12 officers in the fall class^ field officers' course. No spring 
class was held for field officers owmg to the need of officers with 
troops on the southern border. Ten noncommissioned officers were 
graduated. Several members of the different classes failed to gradu- 
ate on account of unsuitability or inaptitude. Regimental com- 
manders of cavalry and field artillery have been instructed to give 
careful attention in submitting recommendations for details at the 
Mounted Service School, having in mind intelligence and character 
as well as physical skill in order that all students may not only take 
the various courses with credit but with a view of their afterwards 

69176"— WAR 1916— VOL 1 12 



178 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

being advantageously employed as experts in the training of both 
men and remounts. 

^ Now that the Mounted Service School has established beyond ques- 
tion its function in our scheme of military education, and its perma- 
nent location at Fort Riley determined, it is believed that a more 
definite policy of building construction should be approved by the 
department so as to provide adequately for the needs of a larger 
school as made necessary by the recent increase in the mounted 
branches of the service under the national-defense act. Heretofore 
the school has been more or less dependent for quarters normally 
required for the garrison of two regiments that are permanently sta- 
tioned at Fort Ruey, but which have during the past few years been 
on border service. With the return of these regiments additional 
quarters will be required for the school. In accordance with the 
reconmiendations of the Quartermaster General and the commandant, 
the 1918 estimates will include new construction work covering the 
more pressing needs of the school. 

CAVALRY HORSES. 

Some fear has been expressed by officers of the mounted service 
that shipments from this country of horses and mules abroad were 
reducing the available stock very materially within the country, as 
during the period August 1, 1914, to July 31, 1916, over 620;000 
horses were exported. In addition to this, 176,000 mules were ex- 
ported. The Department of Agriculture has kept very accurate sta- 
tistix^ of the number of horses exported and definite information con- 
cerning their quality, sex, and probable usefulness. Of those shipped 
about 30 per cent were mares. Many of these were old, and few of 
the young ones showed evidence of having produced foals and would 
probably add nothing to the breeding value of the horse stock ob- 
tained at home. The loss in good producing mares is neglible, as the 
f arniers prefer to keep this stock at the prices now prevailing. The 
foreign purchases encourage the type of horse needed for cavalry 

furposes, and has stimulated rather than restricted their breeding, 
t is probable that the suitable horses for military purposes will be 
increased as the farmers have disposed of inferior producers and 
are recruiting the remaining stock by means of better breeding 
methods. 

The system of breeding horses for the military service conducted 
by the Bureau of Animal Industrv, Department of Agriculture, 
referred to in my last report shoulcf oe extended and the necessary 
appropriations made for that purpose. Some of the advantages of 
this system are : 

1. The War Department will know where to find 8-year-old colts 
of the types desired, and result in the standardization of suitable 
military types. 

2. Resulting foals will all be sired by sound registered stallions 
and be out of sound mares selected for their fitness to produce foals 
of the cavalry or artillery type. 

3. Unsouna and unregistered stallions will eventually be elimi- 
nated. 



B£PORT OP THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



179 



HORSES AND MULES BOUGHT. 

As no appropriation had been made for supplying militia troops 
with animals prior to calling these organizations into field service 
on June 18, immediate steps were taken to secure the animals needed 
to equip these troops. Remount stations and purchasing officers ad- 
vertisea for them as extensively as possible. Bids were opened June 
26, and contracts awarded June 27, tor 42,408 horses and 18,440 mules. 
Inspection agents at the points of delivery inspected and shipped the 
animals to the auxiliary remount depots at El Paso and Fort Sam 
Houston, Tex., where they were held until free from shipping fever, 
which is prevalent among animals required to undergo railway jour- 
ney. This quarantine covers a period of about two weeks. Animals 
issued to troops before they fully recover from this ailment would 
infect the other animals. Each organization was given a partial 
supply before attempting to complete the allowance to any one organ- 
ization. This enabled each unit to be partially equipped until other 
additional remounts were received. 

The following table shows the horses arid mules received and issued 
from the auxiliary remount depots and other points on the Texas 
border: 



Auxninrv rtmoant depot, El Paso, Tm.: 
Wwk ended— 

JuIrS 

JulvlS 

JulyW 

July 29 

Aug. 6 

Aug.ia 

All«,W 

Total 

Auzfltanr ramoimt depot. Port Btaa Hoofton, Tex.: 
Wt«k eoded— 

July I 

July 16 

JnlyW 

July 30 

ADf.5 

Aiif.l3 

Aiig.l« 

Totol 

Shipped to ▼wloQi pasta on the border ( Brownsrille, Trarllnj^, 
Eflffle Pan, Laredo, Me Alien, Calexioo) and teued to troops 
when releaaad tlom ^Ibaran tine 

Graad total, ablpped and hned 



Received. 



Ilorjws. 



S51 
1,093 
3,703 
2,833 
3.339 
l,n3 
1.399 



12,313 



1,653 
2,161 
1,093 
1,831 
1,588 
1,814 
503 



10,703 



2,787 



25,607 



Mules. 



33 

Ztfi 

703 

1,853 

1,087 

1,800 

448 



6,107 



1,630 
3,065 
3,137 
1,415 
1,431 
1,191 
630 



10,495 



633 



17,199 



Issned. 



Horses. 



68 

3(i5 

429 

1,160 

2,857 

703 

1,986 



7,657 



878 

479 

1,997 

1,069 

1.693 

766 

960 



7,851 



3,787 



18,295 



Mules. 



151 
331 
829 
1,340 
703 
857 



4,110 



235 

170 

1,096 

1,831 

1,433 

910 

895 



6,516 



63S 



11,250 



FIELD ARTILIJSRT. 



The report of a board of officers convened to make recommenda- 
tions concerning types of field guns and ammunition supply there- 
foFi as finally approved by the Secretary of War, was based on the 
necessary equipment for a force of 1,000,000 men organized into 15 
Anny corps and 4 Cavalry divisions. 



180 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

Advantage was taken of knowledge and experience gained from 
reports and observations abroad and in the light of most recent de- 
velopments in the manufacture and efficiency of the different types 
of guns, kind of ammunition, means of transportation, improved 
equipment for fire control in making its study and report, and types 
OT guns have been adopted which conform to the requirements of 
modern war. 

The computation as to the number of guns required is based on an 
allowance of 4.9 guns to a thousand gross Iniantry and Cavalry, 
instead of 3.1 guns, as formerly. 

The full accumulated ammunition allowance is provided for over- 
sea stations and one-half the amount for home stations. 

Motor tractors and trucks are provided for the heavier types, 
and provision is made for all signal equipment, including aeroplanes, 
necessary to render effective the Field Artillery material. 

Under the national-defense act the number of Field Artillery regi- 
ments will be increased by 15 — 3 to be organized each year for five 
years. The new regiments for this year were organized from a 
nucleus of trained personnel drawn from old regiments. 

The unusual demands during the past year made it necessary to 
abandon the regular courses of instruction at the School of Fire for 
Field Artillery. It is contemplated to reopen the school for the 
regular spring courses and with a more extended program of instruc- 
tion. The increased ammunition allowance authorized by Congress 
this year for target practice will insure increased efficiency in fire 
for effect. 

Modem types of observation balloons and heavier-than-air flying 
machines for use in training and fire control at the School of Fire 
have been authorized. 

The question of the advisability of utilizing motor traction and 
transport for heavy field artillery has been under trial and experi- 
ment for sufficient time to demonstrate its efficiency and economy 
with the heavier material, and further experience and test will en- 
able more accurate conclusions to be drawn. 

It is a matter of satisfaction to cite the interest shown by the 
National Guard in Field Artillery work and the nunher of batteries 
that have been organized. A complete battalion of field artillery 
was enlisted from students at Yale University, and their progress 
and interest in the work at the training camp at Tobyhanna, Pa.. 
under a corps of instructors from the Regular Army is worthy oi 
special praise and comment. 

The lack of sufficient regular field artillery to meet the demands 
made on this arm has been emphasized during the past year. It has 
been impossible to provide sufficient officers for duty as inspector- 
instructors of the National Guard and for other purposes, and no 
regular organizations could be made available for the field training 
of the militia. As a result of the mobilization on the Mexican bor- 
der it became necessary to discontinue the School of Fire for Field 
Artillery and thus deprive, not only the regular personnel but also a 
large class of officers and noncommissioned officers of the National 
Guard of the advantages afforded by this school. 

The armory training of the Field Artillery of the National Guard 
has shown a marked improvement over previous years. While only 
185 gunners were qualified in 1915, the reports for 1916 show 1.560 



BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 181 

qualified gunners, nearly one-third of whom were in the expert first- 
class grade. The instruction of National Guard officers has not pro- 
gressed as satisfactorily as that of the enlisted men, and the number 
who qualified for certificates of proficiency has not been up to 
expectations. 

Only one battery of the National Guard Field Artillery was able to 
attend a camp for field training and conduct target practice before 
the mobilization in 1916, and this was made possible because the 
State defrayed all expenses. An effort was made to secure sufficient 
appropriations from Congress to conduct camps prior to June 30, but 
funds could not be obtained in time for use. As a rule, such camps 
are not profitable unless Regular organizations can attend to furnish 
instructors and trained horses. The future development of the field 
artillery of the National Guard must depend upon the degree to 
which file Regular regiments can assist in their field training. For 
reasons of economy in transportation it will be desirable, therefore, 
to station the Regular regiments where they can reach the field 
artillery training camps by marching. 

The appropriation of $200,000 for the fiscal jrear 1916 to provide 
forage for horses and pay for helpers for the Field Artillery of the 
National Guard has had a beneficial effect. At the time of the 
mobilization the National Guard batteries had on hand 912 horses, 
568 of which were purchased from Federal funds or issued by the 
Federal Government. These horses were distributed among 74 of 
the 83 National Guard batteries, thus affording a general opportunity 
for mounted instruction. 

MohUe-artUlery target practice, — The increased importance of 
mobile-artillery nre developed by the war in Europe has emphasized 
the necessity for more target practice, and Congress during the 
last session provided a much-needed increase in the amounts avail- 
able for expenditure for this purpose, so that for next yeai- it 
will be possible to provide a more adequate allowance for the proper 
instrrction of the personnel of the Field Artillery. 

COAST ARTILLERT HARBOR DEFENSE. 

The national defense act, by its increments of increase, will give 
the Coast Artillery Corps a complete manning body for the guns 
and mine defenses of tne over-sea fortifications, for all the mine 
defenses of the home fortifications, and for one-half of the gun 
defense. 

It has been the policy of the War Department to look to the States 
in which harbor defenses are located to supply one-half of the per- 
sonnel required for a complete manning for the gun defenses. Up 
to the present time the coast States have not met their obligations in 
supplymg militia artillerymen. Up to the present time they have 
supplied less than 50 per cent of their quota. Steps will be taken to 
try and arouse great interest in this matter in the militia of the 
States concerned. 

The increase of armament of recent battleships, by which they 
carry more powerful, longer range guns than those which have here- 
tofore been installed, has exposed certain cities — harbors of anchor- 
age — to a fire which would not be met successfully bv existing forti- 
fications. This led the Secretary of War to direct the War Depart- 



182 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

ment Board of Review to revise the approved projects. This board 
submitted a report on November 26, 1915, covering what it considered 
the most pressing requirements of harbor defense. These projects 
will involve: 

(a) The emplacement of 50-caliber 16-inch guns and 16- inch 
mortars. 

(b) The utilization as howitzers of the surplus 12-inch guns now 
on hand by mounting them on barbette carriages of a special design 
that will permit of the attainment of a range of 30,000 yards. 

(c) The initiation of the construction oi movable howitzers and 
an experimental^ gun on railroad car mount, for defense against 
hostile landings in unfortified harbors. 

(d) The provision of 3-inch antiaircraft guns for seacoast fortifi- 
cations. 

(e) The abandonment of certain existing seacoast armament that 
IS deemed to be of insufficient military value to warrant incurring the 
cost of providing a manning personnel or ammunition therefor. 

(/) The retention of the disappearing carriage as the type mount 
for airect-fire seacoast guns, except in those instances where special 
conditions may render advisable the installation of the turret or 
barbette mount; any type of mount for direct-fire guns to be con- 
structed in future to admit of an elevation of approximated 30 
degrees and a motion in azimuth as great as the necessities oi the 
site demand to meet an attack over water or land areas. 

(g) Increases in the allowances of seacoast ammunition. 

When the features of the revision proposed shall have been effected, 
our harbor defenses will be able successfully to meet any attack which 
can reasonably be expected from the sea. 

In view of the confidential nature of mine-planting work and of 
the importance of having military control over the crews of mine 
planters^ cable ships, tugs, launches, and other vessels employed with 
the armies of the United States, it is recommended that legislation 
be sought declaring the members of these crews " Persons subject to 
military law" within the meaning of Article II of the Articles of 
War. 

The instruction of Coast Artillery has been somewhat interfered 
with by the necessity for the detachment of troops for service along 
the Mexican border, but they have all now been returned to their 
proper stations. Vocational training has received considerable atten- 
tion and 1,919 men are reported by the Chief of Coast Artillery as 
having availed themselves of the opportunities to take vocational 
courses, which covered instruction of electricians, telephone opera- 
tors, telegraph and radio operators, engineers, firemen, blacksmiths, 
painters, plumbers, carpenters, and also in music, map reading, 
sketching, etc. 

In February, 1913, three administrative units called Coast Artil- 
lery districts were established, and an additional district in the 
Panama Canal Zone has since been added. The duties required of 
commanding officers of these districts are analogous to those pre- 
scribed for brigade commanders of troops. The lact that the duties 
are largely technical has led to the policy of appointing to the com- 
mand OI these districts Coast Artillerv officers who have been appointed 
general officers of the Army. Legislation which fixed the number of 
brigadier generals of the Army did not take into consideration these 



REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 183 

assignments, but was based upon the necessities of the mobile troops. 
It is as desirable to have brigadier generals with Coast Artillery 
training command these Coast Artillery districts as it is unsuitable 
to use them in command of mobile troops. 

It is therefore recommended that the Coast Artillery Corps be 
increased by brigadier generals to command Coast Artillery dis- 
tricts, the number to be the proportion due the Coast Artillery as a 
part of the line of the Army, to be filled by the transfer oi such 

?;eneral officers of the line who, under past policy, have been appointed 
rom the Coast Artillery, and thereafter appointment of general 
officers for that corps be made entirely withm that corps and none 
to the line of the Army. These brigadier generals, with the Chief 
of Coast Artillery, would give the Coast Artillery Corps a proper 
proportion of general officer appointments. 

Am/munition for harbor defenses, — A step has been taken toward 
securing the full eflFectiveness of harbor-defense armament by increas- 
ing the allowance of reserve ammunition for guns to that correspond- 
ing to the accuracy life for one-half the guns mounted in the conti- 
nental United States and for all the guns mounted in the insular 
possessions and the Canal Zone. The allowance for mortars has also 
been materially increased. This proposed increase in the allowances 
has been met by increased appropriations by Congress, and it is 
hoped that during the next three years the total allowance will be 
provided for. 

SHORTAGE IN ORDNANCE MATERIEL. 

The most serious shortage of materiel for preparations for war is 
that of field and siege artillery, its ammunition, and machine guns. 
With reference to field and siege artillery and its ammunition, the 
project therefor in existence since 1911 and known as the Greble 
Board standards, has been replaced by that known as the Treat Board 
standards, in which provision has been made not only for a larger 
number of guns for the men employed, but also for a materially 
greater allowance of ammunition per gun. While Congress at ite 
recent session made markedly greater appropriations for this class 
of materiel than in the past, larger appropriations must be made 
if this project is to be provided for in the next seven years as contem- 
plated. 

The large orders placed in this country for foreign Governments 
have developed a large capacity for ordnance materiel, especially 
mobile artillery ammunition, of which class the greatest quantities 
will be required in time of war, but this capacity is far in excess of 
the peace requirements of the United States, and a large portion 
must, therefore, inevitably disappear. Every effort will be made to 
utilize to the best advantage the provisions in recent appropriation 
acts for developing private capacity for the manufacture of ordnance 
materiel of service design, but the fimds available for this are too 
limited to permit of any marked progress being made. 

A part of the improvement that might otherwise be obtained 
is lost, due to restrictive legislation as to the capacity at which the 
arsenals shall be operated and as to procurement by purchase. The 
extent to which special plants can be continued in existence after 



184 KEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

the European demand ceases, is directly dependent upon the orders 
that can be given them. 

It is therefore recommended that effort be made to increase the 
appropriations for armament, to continue the provisions of law which 
aim to retain commercial capacity for production of war materiel, 
and to remove the restrictions which will result in reduction of this 
capacity. 

In this connection I desire to invite attention to the following 
extract from my report of last year : 

The history of war wiU show, almost without exception, that each great 
conflict has resulted In the introduction of new and powerful weapons and 
devices for attack and defense. Initial advantages of immense import have 
been gained by a belligerent who has developed some new innovation against 
which no Immediate defense was adequate. The innovation of yesterday be- 
comes the necessity of to-morrow. The present gigantic conflict waging in 
Europe is too near in perspective and too obscure In detail to grasp as yet all 
its manifold lessons, but one of the great outstanding features is the use of 
iarge-calibered mobile artillery. Each and all of our observers have been struck 
with the gigantic results attained by its use, and each and every one emphasizes 
the necessity of our Immediate development along similar lines. In this view 
I am in thorough accord and earnestly recommend that the necessary steps be 
taken to this end. 

Mobile guns of at least 124nch caliber mounted on railway carriages or 
dragged by suitable motors are especially needed for transportation up and 
down our coast lines to protect our undefended harbors and prevent hostile 
ships from putting landing parties ashore anywhere on our coast outside of 
the range of the guns of our coast-defense forts and assist the mobile army 
in defending the rear of those forts. 

As a result of the hearings before Congress appropriation was 
made for only one mobile mortar and one mobile gun on designs pre- 
pared bv the Ordnance Department. Many of our harbors are unde- 
fended oy permanent fortifications. Heavy artillerv of mobile type 
must be obtained to give proper defense to landing places and harbors 
which otherwise mignt give access to an enemy. 

It is a well-known fact that the resources of England, France, 
Italy, and Russia were noneffective in producing war materiel re- 
quired by those countries, and that the industries of other nations are 
now largely employed in making up this deficit. 

There is danger that the procurement of war materiel by the 
Ordnance Department will be delayed. The fortification act, ap- 
proved July 6, 1916, provides, in effect, that no purchase shall be 
made unless the price quoted is within 25 per cent more than the 
arsenal cost, or in the absence of previous arsenal manufacture, the 
estimated arsenal cost: except when in the opinion of the President 
an emergency exists affecting the general welfare. In times of fluctu- 
ating and high prices, with manufacturing plants supplied with more 
work than they can do, as at the present time, this provision might 
seriously delav the procurement of needed armament unless the Presi- 
dent were willing to declare an emergency. The Army appropria- 
tion act, approved August 29, 1916, provides, for field artillery, that 
not more than $5,000,000 out of $10,000,000 appropriated shall be 
used for purchase. As the arsenal capacity on a two-shift basis is 
not above $3,000,000 for this class of product and as it is very un- 
desirable to run plants on a three-shift basis it is evident that this act 
alone supplies sufficient work for the arsenals for about 18 months, 
'^nd it is practically obligatory that a certain amount of the funds 
ider other acts be spent for these same purposes at the arsenals. 



BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 185 

The Ordnance Department is using every means to expedite pro- 
duction of artillery. Further speeding will require faster procure- 
ment of designs and more rapid manufacture. The former can be 
obtained only by purchasing foreign designs the nearest to those 
required that can be procured and regardless of oost. Manufacture 
can be best hastened by invoking paragraph 120 of the national de- 
fense act, approved June 3, 1916, which provides, in effect, that in 
time of war, or when war is imminent, the President may empower 
the Ordnance Department to partially or wholly take over such 
manufacturing plants as may be needed and cause them to be operated 
in the production of war materiel for the United States. This course 
would be expensive on account of damages because of contracts in 
existence, but it is the only method of coercion available. Difficulty 
will be encountered in getting early deliveries of materiel, as the 
factories are generally under contract for their capacity for a consid- 
erable period ahead. The maximum speeding up of production 
would also require very large appropriations and contract authoriza- 
tions at the next session of Congress, and it would be necessary that 
legal restrictions on purchase in this country and abroad be removed. 

I can not emphasize too strongly the vital importance of providing 
as quickly as possible for our first-line defense all materiel that re- 
quires time to design and manufacture. 

SERVICE SCHOOLS. 

Owing to the acute situation on the Mexican border, the Army 
service schools at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., the Mounted Service 
School at Fort Riley, the School of Fire and the School of Musketry 
at Foi-t Sill were closed May 10, 1916, and tiie class graduated as of 
that date, the student-officers and instructors being sent to join their 
regiments on the border. Since then several tentative dates have 
been fixed for the reopening of the schools, but the training of the 
Organized Militia on the border has been of such paramount im- 
portance and the necessity of every officer who could be spared from 
his organization being required for this purpose has so far prevented 
the reopening of the schools. 

CHIEFS OF INFANTRY, CAVALRY, AND FIELD ARTILLERY. 

It is fundamental military principle that the entire Military Estab- 
lishment, and each of its various components, should have a military 
head (chief) superior in rank to all under his control, who directly 
supervises and may be held responsible for its training, efficiency of 
personnel, and other correlated matters. All staff corps and dej^art- 
ments as well as the Coast Artillery now have such a chief. The 
Cavalry, Infantry, and the Field Artillery have not. Correct mili- 
tary principles and consequently military efficiency require that each 
of these arms should have such a chief and this chief while so serving 
should have one grade higher rank than any otlicer of his arm. 
This chief should be charged with the inspection of his arm and 
should supervise its training and equipment and all such chiefs should 
have the same status. If any arm be given an advantage over 
another, either in the matter of having a chief or in the matter of the 



186 BEPOKT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

official standing of such chief, unequal consideration and treatment 
and unbalanced military development of these arms will naturally 
result. For the reasons stated, chiefs of Cavalry, Infantry, ana 
Field Artillery should be provided for those arms as now authorized 
by law for the Coast Artillery. During the Civil War when Ameri- 
can Cavalry was being developed along lines that have influenced all 
nations in the use of this arm, it became necessary to establish a 
bureau of Cavalry at the War Department and appoint chiefs of 
Cavalry also of Artillery of the various large commands. 

The developments of modern war have made it equally necessary 
that we should have chiefs of Field Artillery and Infantry. For 
Field Artillery there are the many questions incident to personnel, 
organization, training, equipment, arm, etc., which demand the direct 
and constant attention of a single head or chief. The same is true for 
Infantry. It is generally admitted that in any final showdown the 
mobile army must be the mam defense of the country. It is, there- 
fore, important that all branches be maintained on the highest plane 
of emciency, and this will be only possible when they are given exactly 
the same status, viz, a chief directly responsible to the Chief of Stan 
and Secretary of War. This accords with the recommendation made 
by the General Staff as well as the views of the line of the Army. 

SITUATION ON MEXICAN BORDER. 

VUla^s attack on Columhvs^ N. Mex.^ niqht of March 8-9^ 1916. — 
The small town of Columbus, N. Mex., with a population of a few 
hundred Americans and Mexicans, is situated on the El Paso & 
Southwestern Railroad, about 73 miles west of El Paso, Tex., and 3 
miles north of the border. The country is flat and partly covered with 
mesquite brush, though troops can move in practically all directions, 
either mounted or on foot, except as prevented by the wire fence 
along the border. • ' ^ ^ I 

The troops stationed at Columbus at the time of the attack com- 
prised some 500 officers and men of the Thirteenth Cavalry, which 
regiment had furnished this garrison since September, 1912. During 
this period border conditions have varied so greatly that, shortly 
before the attack, a reduction of the garrison by half had been 
recommended. 

The sector of the border assigned to this command covered about 
90 miles and was patrolled by detachments varying in strength de- 
pending on the proximity or Mexican forces south of the border. 
During the months of January and February conditions were very 
quiet and only small patrols covered the border. Early in March 
there came rumors that Villa was somewhere near Columbus. The 

Satrols and outposts were strengthened as considered necessary. Or- 
ers prohibited our troops from crossing the border to investigate 
nunors. Numerous Villa sympathizers lived in Columbus and vicin- 
ity, and Villa was fully informed of conditions at Columbus, includ- 
ing the disposition of troops. 

V ilia's command crossed the border in small parties about 3 miles 
west of the border gate, concentrated for and made the attack during 
hours of extreme darkness after the moon had set and before day- 
light 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 187 

In the fight which ensued 7 American troopers were killed and 
about an equal number wounded. Seventy-eight Mexicans were 
killed and many wounded. One troop mounted and pursued the 
Mexicans. Another on outpost duty at the border gate mounted and 
struck the retreating Mexicans in flank, killing 18. These two troops 
continued the pursuit of the Mexicans south of the border for 12 
miles, discontinuing only when their ammunition wns exhausted. 

Expeditionary force into Mexico. — As a result of this attack the 
conunnnding general. Southern Department, was on March 10 di- 
rected to oiganize a suitable expeditionary force under the command 
of Brig. (ien. John J. Pershing to pursue Villa into Mexico for the 
purpose of capturing Villa and preventing any further raids by his 
baud and with scrupulous regard to the sovereignty of Mexico. A 
comnuind of sufficient size had to be assembled at Columbus, N. Mex. 
Owing to the nature of the country and the character of the pursuit 
it was necessary for the force to consist largely of cavalry. The Villa 
forces were all mounted and capable of making long marches. To 
ha\o pursued at once with troops then on the border would have 
loft tlie important border points, Douglas, Bisbee, Columbus, and El 
Paso, and intervening sections exposed to like raids. Therefore, be- 
fore the expedition could start on its mission, it was necessary to 
S(»nd to that section the remaining available troops in the United 
States, which required approximately five days. During this time 
the first motor transport companies were organized and shipped from 
eastern points, (ien. Pershing's command crossed the border March 
15, and at once took up a vigorous and energetic pursuit, neither 
men nor animals being spared in the long and anluous marches which 
ri'snltod in driving the Villa bands over 400 miles southward and 
killin*; srme *200 or more members. Oflicors and men of this com- 
mand are des<Mving of the highest conunendation.* 

Horder conference wit ft G( n. Ohrccfon, — I proceeded from Wash- 
ington on April 19 to Fort Sam Houston, Tex., arriving on the 
evening of April 21. My instructions were to discuss fully with 
Gen. Funston the object of Gen. Pershing's expeditionary force in 
Mexico, the extent to which it should be concentrated, the number of 
troops necessary, the extent to which the border could be ade(jnately 
protected with the troops remaining in the Southern Department, 
and what, if any, additional troops were needed to meet conditions 
liable to arise. These matters were thoroughly gone over with Gen. 
Funston, our conclusions wired the War Department, and special 
instructions conforming thereto communicated to Gen. Perehmg. 

On April 24, 1 was instructed that a conference with Gen. Obregon 
had been arranged for Gen. Funston and myself to be held at 
El Paso, Tex., or that vicinity, and we should hold ourselves in readi- 
ness to proceed there on receipt of instructions. These instructions 
were received April 26, and on April 27 we proceeded to El Paso, 
arriving there on the evening of the *28th. Gen. Obregon having pre- 
viously arrived in Juarez, (ten. Funston and myself, accompanied by 
our aides, called on him that evening. On the next day, April 29, 
Gen. C)bregon returned our call, and arrangements were made for 
future conferences, commencing that afternoon. 

^A more detailed report of thiH expedition would have been made, bat at this writing 
th« report of tbe Southern Department and the report of Gen. Pershing have not beea 
received. 



188 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

On May 3 a tentative agreement was completed which was signed 
by Gens. Obregon, Funston, and myself, and submitted to our respec- 
tive Governments. Subsequent conferences were held on May 7, 8, 9, 
and 11. The proceedings and the results of the various conferences 
were at once communicated in dispatches from El Paso. While the 
Carranza Government would not agree to ratify the tentative agree- 
ment signed with Gen. Obregon, the conference furnished most bene- 
ficial results in materially relieving a very acute situation and in 
demonstrating to Gen. Obregon and other Carranza leaders the 
pacific intentions of our Government. 

It had in every way been most emphatically impressed upon Gen. 
Obregon that whenever the Mexican Government had demonstrated 
its capacity, and provided proper protection for our border, consid- 
eration would then be given to the withdrawal of our troops from 
Mexico. 

Raid on Glen Springs^ Tex. — On the night of May 5, 1916, a de- 
tachment of 9 enlisted men stationed at Glen Springs, with Sergt. 
Charles E. Smyth, Troop A, Fourteenth Cavalry, m charge, was 
attacked by from 50 to 100 M^^exican bandits. Although surrounded 
and hopelessly outnumbered, this detachment stood off the bandits, 
suffering a loss of 3 privates killed, 4 wounded, and 9 horses captured. 
After leaving Glen Springs these bandits proceeded to Deemer's 
store, which was raided and Deemer carried off as a prisoner. 

On May 6, Troops A and B, Eighth Cavalry, trom Fort Bliss, 
Troops F and H and Machine Gun Troop, Fourteenth Cavalry, from 
Fort Clark, all under the command of Col. Frederick W. Sibley, 
Fourteenth Cavalry, were ordered to Marfa, Tex., to take up the 
pursuit and capture or destroy the bandits that had made the attack 
on Glen Springs and Deemer's store. These troops arrived at Marfa, 
Tex., May 7. One party of the bandits was surprised and attacked 
at Santa Anita, Mexico. Deemer was rescued and the bandits driven 
so far south and punished that the expedition fully accomplished its 
mission and on May 26 the troops were returned to their proper sta- 
tions. All officers and men taking part performed this very arduous 
duty most ccimmendably. 

Attack at San Ignacio^ Tex, — About 2 a. m., June 15, 1916, Troops 
I and M, Fourteenth Cavalry, were attacked by a large force of Mexi- 
can bandits at San I«:nacio, Tex., Troop M having three men killed 
and one noncommissioned officer and three privates wounded, the 
noncommissioned officer fatally. These two troops, under the com- 
mand of Maj. Alonzo Gray, pursued the bandits into Mexico, but 
being unsuccessful in picking up the trail, returned to the American 
side late the same day. 

Calling out of the militia, — As a result of such raids and attacks 
hy Mexican bandits there were continuous demands from border 
towns, villages, and ranches for regular troops to insure protection 
not only for property but for American women and children. With 
the continued pursuit of Villa bands by the expeditionary force under 
Gen. Pershing, the attitude of the Mexicans in general became moi*e 
and more embittered against Americans. It is believed that the 
leaders felt that if the advance of the American troops continued 
southward into Mexico it would result in actual intervention bv the 
United States, and with such an eventuality they would prefer to force 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 189 

ail open conflict. This feeling undoubtedly had its influence in in- 
creasing the number of raids, as bandit leaders were able to pick up 
the necessary recruits either for a small raid by a few men for steal- 
ing cattle or for a more extensive one to attack American camps. 
Owing to this attitude and the occurrence of these raids, it became 
urgent to provide at once more troops along the border to insure 
reasonable protection to both life and property as well as to permit 
Gen. Funston to be able to reinforce Gen. Pershing with a regular 
force of sufficient size to meet possible attacks. (Jen. Pershing's 
expeditionary force was more or less scattered, with his advance 
units some 400 miles in Mexico. The entire Regular Army stationed 
in the United States, with the exception of a regiment of Cavalry and 
some of the Coast Artillery, was either already distributed along the 
border or with Gen. Pershing's expeditionarj^ force. There being 
no regular troops available, the militia of Texas, New Mexico, and 
Arizona was ordered out May 9. This eased the situation materially, 
but it was only temporary. 

The Mexican leaders became insistent upon the withdrawal of 
Gen. Pershing's expeditionary force and threatened to attack any of 
our detachments in Mexico marching in any direction other than 
toward the American border. Conditions became such that an imme- 
diate increase in the border troops was necessary. The only organ- 
ized force available was the National Guard, which was accordingly 
ordered out by the Presiotent June 18 and the greater part sent to 
the border as promptly as possible. 

The mere calling out of the militia had the effect of completely 
changing the attitude of the Mexicans, and the presence of this addi- 
tional force has enabled sufficient numbers of troops to be stationed 
so as to furnish adequate protection to American homes near the 
border, which they have been without for from five to six vears. 

The mobilization of the militia in the large camps established at 
or near Douglas, El Paso, Fort Sam Houston, and Brownsville has 
also enabled these troops to receive practical instruction with trained 
officers under field conditions which would not otherwise have been 
possible. 

THE ORGANIZED MH^ITIA AND THE NATIONAL GUARD. 

According to the latest return of this force, before being called 
into service 1,451 officers and 6,131 enlisted men belonged to the staff 
noncombatant branch; 456 officers and 8,084 enlisted men to the Coast 
Artillery; and 6,682 officers and 109,390 enlisted men to the mobile 
branches, a total of 8,589 officers and 123,605 enlisted men. 

The plan of organizing the mobile troops and the National Guard 
into 12 tactical divisions has made some progress during the year; 
however, no division is complete. The division in the State of New 
York and the division in Pennsylvania are most advanced in divi- 
sional organization. On June 30 both were deficient a few 
auxiliary units. On a divisional basis there is an excess of Infantry 
units equivalent to 17 regiments, and a deficiency of 52 troops of 
Cavalry, 58 batteries of Field Artillery, 49 machine-gun companies, 
12 medical supply detachments, 8J battalions of engineers, 26 field 
hospitals, 17 ambulance companies, and 17 sanitary detachments. 
There i? a deficiency in Coast Artillery of 261 officers and 9.239 en- 



190 BEPOET OP THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

listed men in order to provide their half of the complete manning of 
guns of harbor defense elsewhere referred to. 

The nimierical strength of the National Guard was 18,195 enlisted 
men below the minimum authorized peace strength. Reports show 
that only about 43 per cent of the reported stren^h attended at least 
24 drills of one hour per day during the year. 

Reports on small-arms target practice are incomplete. Seven 
States have submitted no report. Of the remaining States only 58 
per cent fired range practice; 128 companies of Coast Artillery at- 
tended camps of instruction at or near harbor-defense batteries. The 
reports of 46 of these companies show that only 72 per cent had serv- 
ice practice. Six batteries of Field Artillery attended camps of in- 
struction and one battery had service practice prior to call of June 
18, 1916. Six special camps of instruction were held for officers and 
noncommissioned officers. Other camps which were planned had to 
be abandoned by reason of the organizations being called into the 
service of the United States. 

The effect of pay for armory service is yet to be determined and 
can not be judged imtil the National Guard in the service of the 
United States has been mustered out and has assumed its normal 
peace training. The plan of organizing the mobile and auxiliary 
troops of the National Guard into tactical divisions will be modified, 
both as to organizations specified and as to geographic distribution 
in order to adapt it to the national defense act. 

There was called into the service of the United States on May 9 
and June 18, 1916, 108 regiments and 7 separate battalions of In- 
fantry ; 3 regiments, 13 separate squadrons, and 22 separate troops of 
Cavalry ; 6 regiments, 12 separate battalions, and 17 separate batteries 
of Fidd Artillery; 3 battalions and 11 separate companies of Engi- 
neers; 4 battalions, 16 separate companies, and 1 aero company. Sig- 
nal troops; 22 ambulance companies and 37 field hospitals. There 
were already organized on June 18 two Infantry divisions, 19 In- 
fantry brigades, and one Artillery brigade. On July 31 reports 
show that 110,957 were on the border and 40,139 in State mobilization 
camps, aggregating 151,096. This aggregate strength was deficient 
by 4,083 of the authorized minimum peace strength and short war 
strength by 97,350 men. 

Forty-four officers of the Army were commissioned in the Na- 
tional Guard. Called into service were 3 as brigadier generals, 10 
as colonels, 27 as lieutenant colonels, and 40 as majors. There were 
also commissioned of noncommissioned officers of the Army, 34 in 
the Infantry, 9 in the Cavalry, 7 in the Field Artillery, and 1 in the 
Signal Corps. Two major generals and 24 brigadier generals of the 
National Guard, in addition to the 3 brigadier generals commissioned 
from the Regular Army, were mustered into the service of the United 
States. 

In 11 States from which complete returns are at hand 16,630 
officers and men in the aggregate were on the rolls at the date of 
call. Of this number 1,761, or a little over 10 per cent, failed to 
report Of the remainder who reported in response to the call 4,385, 
or about 29 per cent of those examined, failea to pass the required 
physical examination. From the two causes combined 37 per cent 
of the aggregate strength at the date of call failed to materialize as 
soldiers. By these subtractions the original aggregate was reduced 



REPORT OP THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 191 

to 10,484 officers and men. To these were added 7,950 new recruits 
without former service, making a final strength of 18,434. Making 
a comparison by percentages, about 57 per cent of the final strength 
were officers and men with more or less former training in the Na- 
tional Guard and 43 per cent were without former service or training. 
These figures will probably hold good approximately for the entire 
bodv of the National Guard. 

When we consider that the National Guard when called upon was 
obliged to take with it, at a minimum strength, 43 per cent of men 
without former service or training, which, when it is recruited up to 
war strength of 150 men to a company, with its present state of 
development would amount to 75 per cent of untrained men and 
these commanded by officers of very limited experience, the con- 
clusion is obvious that it is a very expensive military system, which is 
no sooner called into service than the department is inundated with 
requests for the discharge of individuals and Congress is called upon 
to make provision for families left behind. Discharges from these 
and other causes were so great that department commanders were 
authorized to provide three recruiting parties for each regiment 
mustered into the service of the United States. These parties con- 
sisted of a commissioned officer, a noncommissioned officer, and a 
Erivate, and were maintained at Government expense. The results, 
owever, were so unsatisfactory owing to the lack of recruits that 
orders have recently been issued to the commanding generals of 
several departn^jBnts authoriziujg them to discontinue National Guard 
recruiting service when in their opinion the results obtained do not 
warrant its continuance. This may be illustrated in the State of 
New York in which the militia organization was very much above 
the average. From August 2 to September 6 only 351 recruits were 
secured at an average cost necessitated by the keeping up of recruit- 
ing parties of $40 per recruit. This was the cost to merely get the 
man. The system speaks for itself in dollars and cents, which is 
readily understood by the average man. In the State of Massa- 
chusetts 20 recruiting stations wore established; between August 1 
and September 25 they enlisted only 189 recruits. 

THE Mn^rriA bureau. 

The following is taken from the report of the Acting Chief, 
Militia Bureau: 

Under the provisions of section 81 of the amended militia law, the " Division 
of MiUtia Affairs In the office of the Secretary of War " formerly con8titute<] by 
War Department orders as a subdivision of the office of the Chief of Staff, be- 
comes the Militia lUironu of the War Department *' under tlic immediate super- 
vision of the Secretary of War and shall not form a part of any other bureau, 
office, or organization.** 

The National Militia Board created by the act of May 27, 1008, is abolished 
and the President Is autliorized to nssiim one colonel and one lieutenant colonel 
of the National Guard to duty In the Militia Bureau as assistants to the chief 
thereof. 

The officers of the National Guard who can be of most service as assistants 
In the Militia Bureau are those who have had experience in an administrative 
capacity, particularly as quartermasters and disbursing officers. As a general 
rule experience of this sort should be a necessary quallflcatlon for assignment. 

In drafting the provisions of the act of June 3, 1916, It was the evident in- 
tention of Congress to exercise to its full extent Its constitutional powers to 



192 REPORT or THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

" provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia ** within the limit, 
"reserving to States, respectively, the appointment of the officers and the 
authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Con- 
gress.*' The National Guard is federalized as far as it can be federalized 
under the constitutional restrictions. 

This was the desire of the representatives of the National Guard Association 
as expressed in their hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs of 
Congress. There is, however, considerable evidence that the construction placed 
upon the term federalization by these representatives did not Involve vesting 
In the Federal Government the greatest amount of control over the National 
Guard consistent with the terras of the Constitution On the contrary, a rejwrt 
of a legislative committee of the National Guard Association proposed, in 
November, 1915, to retluce the already Inadequnte powers conferred on the 
Fe<leral Government in the militia law of 1903 by securing the adoption of a 
constitutional amen<lment which would place the very important power of deter- 
mining the organization of tiie National Guard, now a pi-erogatlve of the IVcl- 
eral government, in the hands of the States. The adoption of such an amend- 
ment would have resulted In complete heterogeneity In the composition of the 
militia of the several States and would have destroyed all possibility of develop- 
ing the National Guard Into a force organized to meet the necessities of national 
defense. Further evidences of the opposition to any real federalization Is 
found in draft of a bill "to provide for the organization, armament, discipline, 
and government of militia of the United Stales and to further provide for thc^ 
national defense" (Committee print, J. 26698-1) which was offered with the 
sanction of the executive committee of the National Guard Association. The 
cnitstanding feature of this draft was the creation of a militia section of the 
General Staff, composed entirely of National Guard officers, with powers so 
extensive as practically to Insure the control of the National Guard by its own 
members and to destroy such power as was possesseil by the War Department to 
control the training of the mlUtia as an effective Federal force. The tendency 
of the proposed legislation may be gathered from certain provisions here men- 
tioned. The scoi>e of the examinations to determine the fitness of candidates 
for commission in the National Guard was to be determined by tlie mllltla sec- 
tl«>n of the General StafT. the examinations themselves to be conducted by 
boards appointed by the governors of States or Territories. Regulations fixing 
the standard of military fitness which should entitle members of the National 
Guard to Federal pay were to be prescribed by the militia section. Although 
projects evolved by the mllltla section could not be carried into effect until 
apr)roved by the Secretary of War, he could not reverse their decision and ptit 
into effect plans which appeared to him more effective, but could only interpose 
his objection and if the militia section persisted, a deadlock would result. 
These provisions are of Importance when considered In connection with the sub- 
sequent amendment to the Army reorganization act which was urged for tlie 
addition of five militia officers to the General Staff. It is difficult to escape the 
conclusion that the purpose of this amendment was to create in the city of 
Washington a body of mllltla officers In whose hands the control of mliltia 
affairs would be vested and through whom a practically complete Independence 
from Federal control would be attained. 

Such a result would be deplorable. It would involve the predominance of 
local interest over the interests of general national defense. Two systems 
would have been built up, the existence of which, side by side, would have 
destroye<l all Idea of the coordinated action under a common control which 
is the real significance of federalization. It would be almost Inevitable that 
militia officers serving In su^h a capacity would become the representatives of 
local Interests and the wlelders of local Influence for the benefit of local Interests 
In national mllltnrj* affairs in much the same way that this function was exer- 
cised by a group of National Guard representatives in bringing local Influence 
to bear on the legislation enacted at the recent session of Congress. Their 
official position would give sanction to their statements, and their nonamen- 
nbllity to military jurlstllctlon would relieve them from a sense of responsblllty 
for their actions. 

It is but just to say that there was not full concurrence on the part of the 
National Guard In the views of their representatives and in the measures advo- 
CO ted by them. Probably the provisions of the new defense act as they apply 
to the National Guard much more nearly conform to the ideals and sentiments 
of the National Guard as a body than the original measure proposed by the 
r-ommittee of National Guard representatives. 



REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP STAPP. 193 

It l8 believed that under the act of June 3, 1016, the powers of Oongress to 
vest coDtrol over the National Guard in the Federal Government have been 
practically exhausted. Every power that can be granted to the War Department 
has been conferred, and the necils of the National Guard In respect to conipen- 
satton have been met. This leaves no further material legislative changes to 
be sought to increase the efficiency of the system. A failure to attain a reason- 
able degree of efficiency with the facilities provided will be attributable only to 
defects too inherent in the militia system to be subject to correction by legis- 
lative action. 

MOBILIZATION OF THE ORGANIZED MILITIA AND NATIONAL GUARD. 

Organizations of the militia and National Guard of the States of 
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were called into the service of the 
United States on May 9, 1916. These organizations were directed to 
proceed from the home rendezvous direct to their border stations. 

On June 18, 1916, the Organized Militia and the National Guard 
of all the other States were called into the service and directed to 
assemble at their State mobilization camps. The movement from the 
company rendezvous to the State camps was under the control of the 
State authorities and from those camps to the stations designated 
on the border under direction of the War Department. These ti'oops 
began leaving their mobilization camps June 27 and on July 1 there 
were en route to the border from various sections of the United 
States 122 troop trains, carrying over 2,000 pasK^ger and baggage 
cars, with a total strength of 36,042 men. Four days later 101 troop 
trains were en route to the border: 56,681 militia troops were either 
at the border or en route to the borcjcr. Up to July 31, 112,000 militia 
troops were transported to the border. 

The task imposed upon the railroads of the country involved «S50 
trains to carry the first 100,000 men. Over 3,000 passenger cars were 
provided an(l, in addition, about 400 baggage cars, most of which 
were equipped as kitchen cars for serving hot meals en route, 1,300 
box cars, 2,000 stock cars, and 800 flat cars. This call upon the rail- 
roails came at a time when their passenger traffic was at its height. 
All railroads concerned gave preference to troop movements over 
other travel. The distance traveled by the militia organizations was 
from 600 to 3,000 miles, the majority of these troops being carried 
over 2,000 miles. It was impracticable to furnish touri>t sleepers for 
all the troops, but over 600 tourist and standard cars were made 
available for the movement. In cases where tourist cars could not 
be furnished, day coaches were supplied at the rate of a double seat 
for each man where the distance was long. Wherever tourists could 
be secured en route they were placed in the train and men trans- 
ferred from coaches to these tourists up to the number that could be 
berthed. Official reports from all departments show that no organi- 
zation moved in coaches with less space than three men to every four 
seats. The average number of men transported in coaches was 30 to 
the coach. When we consider the great distance traveled, the celerity 
with which trains were moved, and the entire absence of congestion 
or delay, it is believed that there has been no case in our history 
where troops have been so well and safely transported. Especial 
credit is due the transportation division of the Quartermaster Gen- 
erars Office for bringing abi)ut the cooperation which existed among 
the transportation companies. Over a year ago the matter was taken 
up by the head of that division, who outlined the plan of mutual 

OOlTrt" w\nlJ)m -voi.l - i.'i 



194 EBPOET OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

cooperation before several of the transportation associations and 
brought about the establishment within the American Railway Asso- 
ciation of a committee on military transportation with a view to co- 
ordination and cooperation between the railroads and the War 
Department in the transportation of troops and supplies for the 
United States. 

Immediately after the call for mobilization of State troops ar- 
rangements were made through this committee for placing a compe- 
tent railroad official at each department headquarters, at each mobi- 
lization camp, and the office of the Quartermaster General, who could 
act as advisers to the quartermasters at these various points on mat- 
ters affecting rail transportation. In this way the railroad equip- 
ment of the country became available to effect this movement in the 
most expeditious manner possible. 

A series of placards was adopted by which cars of Government 
freight were given the right of way from point of ori^n to point of 
destination and were placed in fast-moving freight trains to point of 
destination where immediate delivery was made, the placards them- 
selves serving to identify all ^ipments. The placards showed the 
department to which the supplies belonged ana all information of 
the car and contents. In this way many shipments have been sent 
from Washington and vicinity to the Texas border in 4 days; 
and from the Lakes to the border shipments have been made in a 
little more than 48 hours. This cooperation of the railroads has 
been rendered without hesitation, without additional charge to the 
Government, and with all the energy possible. This placard, with 
the full cooperation of the railroads, has removed one of the prin- 
cipal sources of criticism applicable to the mobilization in 1898. 
With the plan of cooperation now working with the transportation 
interests, the problem of rail congestion has been eliminated and it 
is not believed possible to repeat the mistakes of 1898. The coopera- 
tion of the American Railway Association representatives, with their 
knowledge of transportation conditions, eliminated a great deal of 
trouble heretofore experienced in the mobilization of lar^e bodies of 
troops, and the War Department is highly appreciative oi this volun- 
tary and able assistance. 

Subsistence. — When the National Guard is called into the service 
of the United States they are subsisted at the expense of the Govern- 
ment from time of arrival at company rendezvous, but it is super- 
vised and provided for by the military authorities of the State and 
also at State mobilization camps until sworn into the service; then 
they come under the supervision and control of the Federal authori- 
ties and are subsisted as are other troops of the Regular Army. 

When these tr<> ps were transported to the Texas border, kitchen 
cars or baggage or box cars, furnished with range installed, were 
provided with each train by which the food could be prepared. 
When ready for transportation 10 days' rations were furnished to 
make the journey to destination and afford them a small supply in 
addition for emergencies. 

The.sul>sistencc of the soldier is of vital importance as conducive 

to his health, contentment, and efficiency. Our Army ration is the 

most liberal of that of any in the world, notwithstanding that cora- 

olaint was occasionally made as to the poor quality and insufficiency 

f food furnished various militia organizations. Each case of com- 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 195 

plaint was investigated thoroughly and the records indicate that 
practically all were unfounded or due to the inexperience of cooks . 
of the National Guard or lack of experience and training of these 
organizations in taking care of themselves. Extensive inspections 
of the National Guard have borne testimony to the thorough and 
satisfactory manner in which troops have l>een subsisted in Texas 
and on the border. 

Rollvna kitchens. — All European nations use some type of rolling 
kitchen by which men, after the fatigue of march or action, can h^ 
quickly furnished with hot soup or other substantial diet. A number 
of experiments or tests of various types have been made during the 
year. An American type has now been procured and shipped to the 
Southern Department for elaborate field test. These tests should 
result in the adoption of a type as good as any in existence. 

Field shoes. — The constant service on the border has demonstrated 
that our regulation shoe was too light and did not possess the neces- 
sary wearing qualities for service in the field. As a result of an 
experiment with 600 pairs with uppers made of undressed side leather 
and soles of adequate thickness and provided with hob nails, made 
upon the lasts as heretofore used in the manufacture of Army shoes, 
it is believed that a proper field shoe has been obtained. The Quar- 
termaster Department is now purchasing 365,000 pairs which are 
being sent to the troops as fast as accepted from the factory. 

Uniforms. — The impossibility of importing dyes which have been 
used to produce the fast color and shade in the olive-drab woolen 
and cotton fabric entering into the manufacture of material for 
uniforms for the Army for a while produced a serious situation, but 
manufacturers now claim to be able to produce suitable dyestuffs in 
the United States. 

Motor transportation. — ^In 1907 the first motor truck for carrying 
supplies was purchased. Since then there has been constant progress 
in developing the motor truck as a means of transportation. During 
the early part of 1916 motor transportation was confined to opera- 
tion of trucks in transporting supplies to outlying camps on the 
border. When instructions were given for the organization of a 
force to cross the Mexican border in pursuit of the band which 
attacked the town of Columbus, N. Mex., there was received a request 
from the Southern Department for two motor-truck companies of 27 
trucks each of 1^ tons capacity, equipped with the necessary per- 
sonnel for their operation. Two additional truck companies, as well 
as the necessary tank trucks, followed soon after. It was the use of 
motor trucks which made possible the long advance of this expedi- 
tionary force into Mexico. There was such an increase in the demand 
for motor trucks that on June 30 there were in use 588 motor 
trucks, besides tank trucks, motor machine trucks, and wrecking 
trucks. It is reported that the approximate cost of operation of 
trucks per ton-mile is 70 cents, which includes all incidentals such as 
upkeep of repair shops, roads, etc. Motor trucks will remain an 
important factor of transportation in our Army, as they have in 
every other army. 

HEALTH OF THE ARMY. 

The general health of the Army was excellent during the year. 
There were no epidemics or unusual incidents of infectious diseases. 



196 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

The mean strength of the entire Army for the calendar year 1916, 
upon which the statistics contained in the Surgeon General's report 
are based, was 103,842. 

The admission rate for the entire Army during 1915 was 726.19 
per 1,000, as compared with 660.46 for 1914. With the exceptions 
of 1914 and 1913, the 1915 admission rate is the lowest in the last 10 
years and shows a marked decline since 1906, when it was 1,188. 

The noneffective rate for the entire Army for 1915 from all causes 
was 25.22 per 1,000 (for disease alone, 20.85), which is slightly 
higher than that for 1914, the lowest noneffective rate in the history 
of the Army, but still much below the rates for any preceding year, 
except 1913, when the rate was 23.98 per 1,000. This rate during the 
past decade shows a steady reduction. In 1906 the noneffective rate 
was 47.86. 

There were eight cases of typhoid fever in the entire Army during 
the year 1915, only four of which occurred among troops serving 
within the continental limits of the United States. 

There were no deaths from typhoid fever during the year. 

The noneffective rate for this disease was 0.02 per 1,000. 

All of these cases, with one exception — a recruit — ^had been vacci- 
nated against typhoid fever, with intervals elapsing between the time 
of vaccination and the onset of the disease varying from 8 months 
and 18 days in the shortest period, to 4 years 7 months and 2 days 
in the longest. The average interval for the year 1915 was 2 years 
2 months and 10 days. The average interval for the past 3 years 
was 2 years 1 month and 5 days. 

The admission rate from alcoholism and its results for the entire 
Army during the year was 12.68, as compared with 13.64 in 1914 
and 13.54 in 1913. This rate is the lowest in the history of the Army 
and shows a steady diminution since 1907. 

The death rate of the entire Army for 1915, from all causes, was 
4.45 per 1,000, compared with 4.40 for 1914, which was the lowest 
mortality rate in the Army for many years. The death rate from 
disease was 2.53 per 1,000 for 1915; the same rate for 1914 was 2.35, 
and that for 1906 was 3.77. 

The discharge rate for the year from all causes was 14.06, somewhat 
higher than for 1914, when the rate was 12.78 per 1,000, but still 
markedly less than the discharge rates prior to 1910, when they 
ranged from 16.64 upward. 

The total losses or the Army from all causes (deaths, discharges, 
and retirements) was 18.03 per 1,000 for 1915; for the year 1914 it 
was 16.86, the lowest in the past decade. 

Malarial fevers show the lowest noneffective rate in the history of 
the Army, 0.54. In 1906 the noneffective rate for malarial fevers 
alone was 2.55 per 1,000. The decade following that year has dem- 
onstrated the effectiveness of the antimalarial measures that have 
been unceasingly employed by the sanitary officers of the Army each 
year, exhibiting, with but two exceptions, a marked decrease in the 
mcidents of the disease. 

The record in the Philippines ht\s been specially creditable com- 
pared to former years, though here, as in Panama, the Medical De- 
partment has been seriously handicapped at several posts through 
lack of screening due to insufficient appropriation of funds. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 197 

The highest noneffective rate, for disease, for the year 1915 was 
among the troops stationed in China, 31.79 per 1,000. Then follows 
Panama with 21.66; the Philippine Islands, 21.42; the United States, 
20.90; Porto Rico, 20.57, and Hawaii and Alaska with the lowest 
noneffective rates for the year 1915, 16.20 for Hawaii and 6.02 for 

Alaska. 

Paratyphoid fever. — Nine cases of paratyphoid fever occurred in 
the entire Army during the calendar year 1915. Three of these cases 
were reported from the Philippine Islands and one from the Ha- 
waiian Islands, leaving but five distributed throughout the United 
States. 

The Acting Surgeon General states: 

Paratyphoid fever is a distinct clinical entity and is not typhoid fever, though 
sometimes resembling typical cases of that disease. It is caused by a different 
micro-organism, the bacillus paratyphosus, of which two types are distinguish- 
able : B. paratyphosus ** A " and B, paratyphosus ** B ". In western Europe, 
as reported, paratyphoid fever is much more frequently due to the " B " type 
of bacillus than to the "A" type. CllnlcaUy they are hardly distinguishable, 
but it is stated that the " A " fever is apt to last three or four days longer. 

Paratyphoid fever, heretofore but infrequently met with in our 
Army, appeared in the New York division of the National Guard, 
stationed in the Brownsville district in August, 1916, principally 
among the troops at Mission, Tex. A few scattering cases at other 

foints occurred in the same district, in all, a total of about 120 cases, 
t is probable that this portion of the State of Texas contains many 
carriers and foci of paratyphoid fever. 

The outbreak of tnis disease was promptly and satisfactorily met. 
The vaccination against paratyphoid fever with mixed paratyphoid 
" A " and " B " vaccine, prepared in the laboratories of the Army 
Medical School, was immediately authorized and the searching of 
carriers of the disease was vigorously prosecuted, camp sites were 
changed and all sanitary orders rigidly enforced under the direc- 
tion of inspectors of the Army Medical Corps. 

The results of these measures were immediately successful in check- 
ing this outbreak. The disease as it manifested itself in the New 
York division of the National Guard was generally very mild in 
character and no deaths occurred. 

THE HOSPITAL TRAIN. 

With the movement of the militia to the border, the majority of 
whom had been suddenly removed from the comforts and luxuries 
of civil life and stripped to the bare necessities of fighting men, 
bringing the force along the border to about 150,000 men, it was 
inevitable that a certain amount of sickness and disability would 
occur. Camp hospitals were established at certain points, larger 
(base) were located at El Paso and San Antonio. Motor and 
animal drawn ambulances were provided for the transport of the 
sick and injured from the field to the near-by camp hospitals. The 
trivial cases, or those requiring only short periods of convalescence, 
were cared for in the camp hospitals and the more serious cases 
transferred to the base hospitals. A certain proportion of the latter 
cases which required more invigorating climate and changed sur- 
roimdings were evacuated to the interior general hospitals at Wash- 



198 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF BTAFP. 

ington. Hot Springs, San Francisco, and elsewhere. Provision was 
made lor long-distance trips along tne border and in the interior by 
a hospital train. The hospital train consisted of 10 modified stand- 
ard Fullman cars, constructed at the Pullman shops and designed 
jointly by a medical officer of the Army and the supervising con- 
structor of the Pullman shops. This new train is different from 
those of the Spanish War, which were standard Pullman cars, prac- 
tically without modification. The total capacity of the new train 
is 76 bed cases and 120 ambulance cases. Wherever the Pullman 
equipment has been removed, the regulation Armj medical equip- 
ment has been substituted. The use of hospital trains in active war- 
fare is of modem development and very necessary for proper care of 
the sick and wounded. 

PHILIPPINE SERVICE. 

The details of administrative matters, which in every department 
of government are left to the responsible head, are, for the War 
Department, often confused by limitations injected in appropriation 
bills. To illustrate, the Army appropriation act, approved March 4. 
1915, provided "That on ana after October first, nineteen hundrea 
and fifteen, no officer or enlisted man of the Army shall, except upon 
his own application, be required to serve in a single tour of duty for 
more than two years in the Philippine Islands, nor more than three 
years in the Panama Canal Zone, except in case of insurrection or of 
actual or threatened hostilities." 

Previous to this time, the War Department had fixed upon three 
years as the tour of duty for the Philippines for officers. This 
decision was based upon reducing the cost of the upkeep of this 
garrison to a minimum, and increasing the efficiency of troops to a 
maximum. Begiments had been made permanent ; tnis was done not 
only to reduce the expense of upkeep, but because the plan of chang- 
ing regiments once every two years had been given trial for 14 years, 
with results that it was found practically impossible to maintain in 
the Philippines any military organization well prepared for duty 
which might be required in case of invasion. 

About the time of the re^ilation of the matter by Congress, ap- 
plications by officers for Philippine service had become so numerous 
that the Secretary of War had decided that in order to give all an 
equal chance that officers should go on a roster and take their turn. 

The present law is very disrupting to the efficiency of the service, 
expensive to the public funds in the carrying out, and it is involving 
many of our young officers with families in serious financial prob- 
lems. Every officer in the Philippines itiust change station at least 
once everv two years, and they may be detailed on staff and other 
dutv while there, and then return to a camp station on the border, 
with the only provision for their family in rented rooms in houses in 
a near-by town. For the young married officers of limited income 
this frequent change of station is a veritable curse. 

The length of service for the Philippines was fully considered two 
years ago from every viewpoint, including that of health, and due 
to the opinion of the great majority of general officers including 
the Surgeon General, the tour was continued at three years. The 
noneffective rate for 1915 per 1,000 for the Philippines, as previoudy 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 199 

noted, was only 21.42, as compared with 20.90 for the United States. 
The present reistriction should be removed and the Army permitted 
to work out such problems in a rational and businesslike manner. 

SHELTER FOR TROOPS. 

The existing barrack accommodations were built to provide for a 
minimum strength of 65 for Infantry companies. The national 
defense act, which raises the minimum strength to 100 and provides 
additional units to regiments in the machine-gun^ headquarters, and 
supply companies for Infantry and Cavalry regunents, and supply 
and headquarters companies for Field Artillery regiments, will neces- 
sitate the extension of existing barrack accommodations to provide 
for these increases. This will necessitate increased estimates for bar- 
racks and quarters for the fiscal year 1918 to complete the work of 
extension of existing barrack accommodations in permanent and 
abuidoned posts of the United States for that portion of the first 
increment oi increase to be taken care of in the United States and to 
provide temporary quarters for that portion of the increment as- 
signed to the Philippines and Panama and permanent quarters to 
regiments assigned to the Hawaiian Islands. It will be necessary to 
provide permanent construction for the second increment of increase 
m the United States and Hawaii and to continue the temporary shel- 
ter in the Philippines. 

The estimates for construction work pertaining to the military 
service on the Panama Canal Zone have heretofore oeen prepared by 
the Panama Canal authorities, and these authorities will continue 
to prepare estimates and undertake construction for that portion of 
the Army there located. 

TRANSFER OF GUARDIANSHIP OF YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK TO THE 

INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

United States troops have been used in the Yellowstone National 
Park since 1886 under the provisions of the act of March 8, 1883, 
to prevent trespass, intruders, etc. It was at first the practice to de- 
tail a certain number of troops of Cavalry for this duty. In 1914 
it was arranged to use a detachment for this purpose of 8 officers 
and 200 enlisted men. The Interior Department being charged with 
the care of national parks, the use of regular troops for police pur- 
poses naturally caused conflicting responsibilities oetween the War 
and Interior Departments. Since the passage of the act of 1883 con- 
ditions have materially changed. The States surrounding the na- 
tional parks extended the protection of State laws governing killing 
of game, and the sentiment of communities surrounding the parl^ 
became more law-abiding and favored complying with the laws and 
regulations governing park administration. In the interests of econ- 
omy as well as the efficiency of the Army, it was deemed advisable 
to urge the transfer of the guardianship of all national parks to the 
Interior Department. This was effected for the Yosemite and 
Sequoia Parks in 1914. The transfer of the Yellowstone National 
Park was not acceptable at that time to the Interior Department, 
owing to the lack of appropriations necessary for the employment of 
civilian rangers. In July of this year the Secretary of the Interior 



200 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



advised the Secretary of War that the Department of the Interior 
was ready to cooperate in making arrangements for the complete 
withdrawal of regular troops from the Yellowstone National Fark, 
suggesting that the detachment of troops now on duty in the park 
be retained there until shortly after the close of the present tourist 
season, between September 15 and October 1, and that specially se- 
lected cavalirmen he made available for service as civilian rangers 
upon the withdrawal of the United States troops. Instructions were 
given for this transfer of the guardianship of the park to the In- 
terior Department to take effect October 1. Such enlisted men as are 
qualified and desire to become rangers will be discharged from the 
Army for employment by the Interior Department. Movable Gov- 
ernment property at Fort Yellowstone has been ordered shipped to 
other pomts. The buildings, water system, telephone lines, except 
those required for use by the Engineer Corps in the park, will be 
transferred to the Department of the Interior, as was done in the case 
of the Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks at the time of their 
transfer. 

REVISED ARTICIiES OF WAR. 

The project for the revision of the Articles of War has been 
under consideration of the War Department for the past 13 years 
and before Congress for the past 4 years, and was enacted into law 
in the Army appropriation act approved August 29, 1916. With the 
exception of a few articles which take effect immediately, the revision 
will go into effect March 1, 1917. In the meantime the Jud^e Advo- 
cate General will have the Manual for Courts-Martial revised and 
distributed through the Army by February 1, 1917, in order that 
there may be a month avaUable for its study before the new code, as 
a code, takes effect. 

DESERTION. 



There were 2,382 desertions reported during the fiscal year 1916, 
which is 2.40 per cent of the whole number of enlistment contracts in 
force during the year, which is a decided improvement when com- 

f>ared with 4,435 reported desertions and a percentage of 3.23 for the 
ast year. These ngures include the cases in which the charge of 
desertion was removed as having been erroneously made in which the 
accused was acquitted and in which he was convicted of the lesser 
included offense of absence without leave and retained or dishonor- 
ably discharged from the service. The following table exhibits the 
true as compared with the reported percentages for the past eight 
years: 



Year. 



Deeer- 

tiODS 

reported. 



1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1910 



4,993 
3,464 
2,504 
3,411 
4,451 
3,882 
4.435 
2,382 



ChtrgM 

UDStU- 

tafned. 



True 
oomber 
of dflser- 

tlODS. 



311 
096 
380 
500 
871 
810 
795 
588 



4,682 
2,768 
2,124 
2,851 
3,580 
3,072 
3,640 
1.794 



Reported 

percent- 

agw. 



4.97 
3.00 
2.28 
3.00 
4.15 
3.10 
3.23 
2.40 



True ptr- 
oentsfes. 



4.66 
2.92 
1.93 
2.50 
3.34 
2.45 
2.65 
LSI 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 201 

It is believed that a materiml improTement in discipline was effected 
in the revised punishment order published two ^ears ago, which made 
important changes in tiie regolations gjoveming punishment to be 
imposed by military tribunals. The statistics of the Judge Advocate 
Greneral show a very great lessening in the number of enlisted men 
now placed in confinement in the guardhouse to serve punishments as 
compared with former years. 

AVIATION. 

The concentration of forces under (Jen. Pershing to protect our 
border marked a distinct step in military aviation in the United 
States. It was the first time a tactical unit from this branch was 
put in the field. There was only one such unit, the First Squadron, 
San Antonio, Tex., equipped with ei^t low-power«i machines, 
which, at the time of their transfer to Columbus, had been in service 
for many months. The altitude up to 12,000 feet encountered in 
Mexico and the long distances to be covered made Uiis theater a very 
difficult one in which to operate aeroplanes. Valuable service and a 
great amoimt of flying were rendered, but the machines were quickly 
used up. The appropriation of $500,000 made by Congress March 81, 
1916, for the Aviation Section was the large^ appropriation that 
had been made for aviation up to that time. Civilian consulting 
engineers were obtained in connection with the board of officers of 
the Aviation Section, and this board recommended the purchase of 
types of material. Twelve 160 to 200 horsepower biplanes were pur- 
chased. Tliese, with other material, gradually equipped the aero 
squadron with Gen. Pershing in all details — ^motor trucfcs, portable 
machine shops, automatic photographic cameras, machine guns, 
i^oulder rifles, bombs, and other accessories. Difficulty was found 
with the propellers, due to the high altitude and the dry atmosphere 
of northern Mexico. Finally a propeller-making plant was estab- 
lished at Columbus and engineering talent all over the country con- 
sulted in the solution of the problem, to the end that troubles were 
satisfactorily solved. 

The proj^ for the development of the Aviation Section contem- 

Slates 7 aero squadrons for the Regular Army, 12 squadrons for the 
rational Guard, and 5 for the defenses on the coast. The aviation 
field is a new one to the United States, but the progress it is making 
in training personnel and in developing material is so far satisfactory. 

WASHINGTON-ALASKA MILTTARY CABLE AND TELEGRAPH SYSTEM. 

This system embraces 2,627 miles of submarine cable and 448 miles 
of land telegraph lines, 52 officers, and 10 radio stations. Receipts 
for current busmess handled during the year were $159,819, and the 
value of official business at commercial rates amounted to $194,571. 
The yearly outlay for this system is about $442,000 and is charged 
against the Army appropriation. There is no sufficient reason for 
continuing this system at its present cost against Army appropri- 
ations, for the reason that land commimication with the military gar- 
risons in Alaska can be secured through Canadian lines in combina- 
tion with our wireless system in Alaska. The maintenance of this 



202 REPORT OF THB OHIEF OF STAFF. 

system has been a heavy burden upon Anny api>ropriations as well 
as upon the personnel of the Army, requiring as it does a number of 
officers and about 200 Signal Cori)s men to conduct the business effi- 
ciently and maintain it in operation. In addition to the personnel 
it has been necessary to maintain a cable ship. For five years effort 
has been made to have this system turned over to the "Post Office 
Department, as it is of the greatest possible value to the commerce of 
Alaska, mail service of that country, and to the various departments 
of the civil government. A bill was introduced in Congress two 
years ago to turn this system over to the Interior Department. 
Either the Interior or the Post Office Department had better be 
charged with the cost and maintenance of these lines than the Army 
appropriation. It is recommended that further effort be made to 
have this burden transferred. 

SUPPLY DEPOTS. 

In 1911 a policy was adopted which established depots of supplies 
in areas withm which troops were to be mobilized in the event of war 
and retaining in these depots the supplies necessary to supplement 
and completely equip Organized Militia units should they be called 
into service. Three field supply depots were established — one in 
Philadelphia, one in St. Louis, and one in San Francisco. The 
fundamental idea was that any call for militia would be made in 
such time as to permit the shipment of supplies from these depots to 
mobilzation camps in advance of the troops arriving from their com- 
pany or regimental rendezvous. The lack of complete reserve stores 
and the desire to decrease expense incident to storage limited these 
depots to three. The largest of these depots, and the only one of the 
three Teco^zed by specific appropriations, is the one located at 
Philadelphia, in which were stores to eauip the Organized Militia of 
16 States, containing the greater part ot the Or^amzed Militia. The 
inadequacy of this plan was fully demonstrated m the sudden call for 
the militia on June 18 last to meet an emergent condition on the 
Texas border. It was deemed necessary to send these troops to the 
border as expeditiously as possible, as their presence there was neces> 
sary to save a vast amount of property and women and children in that 
section in case a break should have occurred in our relations with 
Mexico. This hurried call found the principal supply depot at 
Philadelphia somewhat depleted in supplies, diie to lack of appro- 
priation for complete reserve supplies, to the necessity of sending a 
part of the supplies on hand to the Militia of Texas, New Mexico, and 
Arizona, and to an increase of 20,000 enlisted men in the Regular 
Army. The siding facilities at the depot were limited — two sidings 
each capable of accommodating five cars at a time — so that it was 
some days before supplies could reach the necessary points of mobili- 
zation. It was a physical impossibility to expect supply departments 
to anticipate the action and have blankets and clothing at mobiliza- 
tion camps prior to the arrival of men and recruits, covering as it did 
States from Maine to Florida. 

These depots were an experiment, but it has demonstrated that in 
a sudden call for troops, the system of a small number of supply 
depots for so many troops is an impracticable one for expeditious 
mobilization. As all calls for the Organized Militia will probably 



REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF, 203 

be of a sudden and emergent nature, it seems imperative that supplies 
and equipment of all kinds for each State that are necessary for im- 
mediate use in the field should be stored within State limits and 
where practicable in the storerooms of regiments themselves under 
the direct control of the inspector-instructors on duty with regiments. 
Arrangements should be made for reserves of animals. There was no 
appropriation for horses and mules which had to be purchased after 
the call. The equipment which can not be obtained on 15 days' notice 
is that for which general supplv depots should be provided. Based 
upon our experience in this moBilization, a board has been convened 
to submit a new plan for the supply of National Guard and volunteers 
when mustered into the service of the United States which when 
made will be subject to the scrutiny and recommendation of the 
General Staff. 

AUTHORIZED LAND PURCHASES. 

The current Army appropriation act makes provision for the 
acquirement of lots of land for military purposes. 

Three hundred thousand dollars is appropriated for the Aviation 
School and Training Ground at San Diego, Cal. The site has been 
recommended by a board of officers, and steps are now being taken to 
acquire it. There was an additional appropriation of $300,000 for 
other land for aviation purposes in case no militarv reservations were 
found suited to the purpose. A board of officers has baan appointed 
to examine the present reservations. Action will be taken as soon as 
this report is received. 

At Fort Sam Houston, Tex., an appropriation of $750,000 was made 
for the acquisition of additional land for adequate supply depots, 
for terminal facilities of that post and for the Southern Department. 
The land is estimated to cost about $300,000. Steps are bemg taken 
to acquire the land under consideration. 

For Vancouver Barracks, Wash., $100,000 was appropriated to 
provide suitable target ranges for each arm of the military service 
stationed at that post. The land was to cost about $70,000. Suitable 
sites are under investigation by department and post authorities. 

For Fort Bliss, Tex., $120,000 was appropriated for the af*qulsl 
tion of certain private holdings now within the target range. Effort is 
now being maae to purchase these tracts within the appropriation. 
If this falls, condemnation proceedings will be resorted to. 

Three hundred thousand dollars is appropriated for the acquisition 
of the necessary land for suitable ranges for field artillery practice. 
These purchases are under investigation by the Militia Bureau. 

The last Army appropriation act also directed the Secretary of 
War to investigate and report to Congress as soon as practicable what 
additional tracts are necessary for permanent mobilization, training, 
and supply stations for use by the National Guard and by the Reg- 
ular Army and the probable cost of same. A board of officers is 
to be appointed to make thorough report upon this subject. 

The fortification act approved July 6, 1916, provided the sum of 
$1,400,000 for the acc[uisition of sites for coast defenses and this 
amount is to be applied to the acquisition of the land required at 
Rockaway Beach. Negotiations are now in progress with a view to 
the completion of the acquisition of the land as soon as practicable 



204 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

and the initiation of the construction of the defenses as soon as funds 
may be provided therefor. 

UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY. 

Since my last report a law has been enacted by Congress increasing 
the number of caaetships to 1,332. When that law is in full effect 
four years from now it is anticipated that it will place about 1,200 
cadets at the academy. This increase, although spread over a pe- 
riod of four years, makes it imperative that the erection of the neces- 
sary buildings to meet the increase should be started at the earliest 
possible date. It will require two years and perhaps more in some 
cases to complete the large buildings after they are started. This 
coming year s increase can be handled with the present plant, but 
further increases in the number of cadets call for material increase 
of accommodations. The superintendent of the academy, in his 
annual report, submits a construction plan calling for an expenditure 
of approximated $3,000,000. A board of officers has been appointed 
to report upon this important matter by December 1. 

The growth in size and importance of this institution makes it im- 
portant, in order to properly maintain the dignity of the position of 
the superintendent, that he should have the temporary rank of a 
general officer, whatever his rank may be when detailed to the posi- 
tion. I therefore recommend that the law which now gives him the 
temporary rank of colonel be changed to give him the temporary 
rank of brigadier general. The authorized number of cadets at the 
United States Military Academy, at the time of the passage of the 
law, June 12, 1858 (sec. 1310, Rev. Stat.), giving the superin- 
tendent the grade of colonel, was 282. 

INEQUALITIES OF RANK IN MILITARY AND NAVAL SERVICE. 

There is every reason that in the military and naval service of the 
United States there should be such coordination of rank for duty 
as will not induce invidious comparisons. In both services, where 
similar interests are involved, they should be considered alike in the 
enactment of laws. If a superior grade is created for one service, 
a similar grade should be created for the other, so that all the officers 
of one service will be on a footing of official equality with officers 
holding similar commands in the other service and in the services of 
the world. Otherwise embarrassment results when the two branches 
are brought in contact with each other and with officers of foreign 
services. If in all those joint matters in which the Army and Navy 
are concerned, the Navy, by reason of the possession of superior 
grades is entitled to outrank the Army, it is easy to see that the Army 
will, perforce, be looked upon as a subordinate branch. 

The act of March 4, 1915, provided the grade of admiral for the 
commander in chief of the United States Atlantic Fleet, the com- 
mander in chief of the United States Pacific Fleet, ana the com- 
mander in chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet. The second in 
command of these fleets was given the rank of vice admiraL These 
ffrades correspond to the grades of general and lieutenant general 
in our service. The duties of a fleet commander may properly be 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 205 

compared to those of the commander of a tactical division, of a de- 
partment, of the commander of the land forces of the United States 
m the Philippine Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Panama 
Canal Zone. These officers of the Navy are given this rank only 
during the performance of duty and then return to the lower grade 
of rear admiral, of which there are 24 on the active list of the Navy. 
The Navy has no grade corresponding to that of brigadier general 
in our service, which grade has also disappeared from nearly all 
the armies of the world. The chiefs of bureaus of the Navy Depart- 
ment are thus superior to all bureau chiefs of the War Department 
except the two who received the favor of special laws giving them in- 
creased rank. The result is that most bureau chiefs of the War De- 
partment and all brigadier generals of the line are junior in grade 
to officers of the Navy performing corresponding duty. An adjust- 
ment hj Congress of these differences and distinctions and doing 
away with the grade of brigadier general would materially benefit 
the efficiency of the military service. 

The naval appropriation act for the current fiscal year, approved 
August 29, 1916, provides for a Chief of Naval Operations, who 
under the terms oi the act shall have the rank and title of admiral, 
to take rank next after the Admiral of the Navy (Admiral t)ewey). 
The Chief of Naval Operations under the new naval law has duties 
corresponding to those of the Chief of Staff of the Army, and he is 
given two grades of rank above the Chief of Staff of the Army. The 
scope of his authority may be seen from the following extract from 
the law : 

All orders issued by the Chief of Naval Operations in performing the duties 
assigned him shall be performed under the authority of the Secretary of the 
Navy, and his orders shall be considered as emanating from the Secretary of 
the Navy and shall have full force and effect as such. 

A similar law covering the functions of the Chief of Staff would 
solve many questions and relieve the Secretary of War from the 
necessity of giving his personal attention to many small details of 
administration which now take up his time. 

In this connection attention is invited to the following provision 
in the same act : 

That officers of the Marine Corps with the rank of colonel who shall have 
served faithfully for forty -five years on the active list shall, when retired, have 
the rank of brigadier general ; and such oflicers who shall hereafter be retired 
at the age of sixty-four years, before having served for forty-five years, but who 
shall have served faithfully on the active list until retired, shall, on the com- 
pletion of forty years from their entry in the naval service, have the rank 
of brigadier general. 

A similar provision for officers of the Regular Army would be very 
appropriate, otherwise the Army becomes the object of comparison 
with what may seem to be the more favored branch of Congress. 

DELAYS IN PRINTING. 

The War Department has experienced frequent and embarrassing 
delays in obtaining from the Government Printing Office blank forms 
for use of the Army under ordinary circumstances, and this em- 
barrassment has been greatly increased by the many delays which 



206 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

occurred in obtaining blanks for use of the National Guard while in 
the service of the United States. 

The delay in printing orders and bulletins is the same as that 
experienced in the printing of the blank forms, and it is probable 
that the pressure of work at the Government Printing Office is such 
that prompt delivery of the department's printing can not be made. 
This IS especially so while Congress is in session, during which time 
the congressional work takes precedence of all others. The Public 
Printer nas been uniformly courteous and obliging and has put forth 
special efforts to meet the needs of the department, and the heads of 
his several departments have cooperated to the full extent of their 
ability. 

It is recommended that an effort be made to have the present branch 
printing office materially enlarged so that it will be able to handle 
the printing of practically all the orders, bulletins, and changes and 
all of the smaller blank forms that are printed by the department. 

To accomplish this it will be necessary to provide much more com- 
modious quarters than it is believed can be provided in the State, 
War, and Navy Building. Ample provision in the way of space 
for an office large enough to do the work referred to may be had by 
removing the office to the building at 1725 F Street NW., which 
belongs to the War Department, and is now occupied by a branch 
of the Insular Bureau. Some years ago the War Department branch 
printing office was located in this building and at that time printed 
all the desertion circulars and the Army List and Directory, so 
that there can be no doubt that it would be ample for the purpose 
indicated. 

CENSORSHIP OF INFORMATION IN TIME OF PEACE, 

In my report of last year I invited attention to the importance of 
devising some legal plan for a censorship during time of war. It 
is reasonable to expect that if the public peace is in jeopardy or 
our relations with another power become strained, most editors and 
press associations would refrain from publishing information con- 
cerning our troops and material which would be of advantage to the 
enemy. On the other hand, the press must suppler the public with 
news, and much information will be given out which will interfere 
with plans for national defense or the preservation of peace within 
our country. This matter has during the year been very fully con- 
sidered by the General Staff, by the Judge Advocate General of the 
Army, and by the Joint Board of Army and Navy officers. As a 
result of this consideration the view was held that so long as the 
freedom of speech and press do not permit publications injurious to 
the public or private morals, there has never been a right to publish 
matter endangering the safety of the country. In order to give full 
sanction to this, the passage of a law was recommended to the chair- 
men of the Judiciary Committees of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, but no action was taken at the last session of Congress. 
In order to invite full discussion of this proposed measure, and in 
the hope that thereby action may be hastened in Congress, the pro- 
posed draft is given herewith, as follows: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of RepreientativeM of t?ie United 
States of America in Congress assemhledt That whenever in his judgment the 



BEPOET OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 207 

defense of the country or the preservation of the public peace requires such 
action, the President may issue a proclamation prohibiting the publication of 
any or all information, facts, rumors, or speculations referring to the armed 
forces of the Government, materials or implements of war, or the means and 
measures that may be contemplated for the defense of the country, except when 
such publication shall have been duly authorized, and he may issue such regula- 
tions as may be necessary to render such prohibition effective. 

Sec. 2. That after the President shall have issued such proclamation as is 
authorized by section one of this act it shall be unlawful for any person or cor- 
poration, or any officer, director, or agent of a corporation, in his capacity as 
such, within the Jurisdiction of the United States to publish, or cause or 
procure or willingly or through negligence permit to be published, or to assist 
in the publication of any information, facts, rumors, or speculations prohibited 
by the terms of the proclamation or regulations issued under this act, except 
when such publication shall have been duly authorized under such regula- 
tions, and any person who so offends may be punished by a fine of not more 
than ten thousand dollars or by a term of imprisonment of not more than three 
years, or both. Any corporation which so offends shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than twenty thousand dollars; and any officer, director, or agent of 
any. corporation who shall consent to, connive at, or through negligence permit 
any violation of the provisions of this act by such corporation or by any of its 
agents or agencies shall be punished by a fine of not more than ten thousand 
dollars or by a term of Imprisonment of not more than three years, or both. 

Sec. 3. That when, in the Judgment of the President, the defense of the 
country or the preservation of the public peace no longer requires prohibition 
of publication, he shall issue a proclamation revoking any proclamation issued 
under section 1 of this act, and thereafter the pains and penalties authorized 
by this act, except for violations thereof committed prior to such revocation, 
shall not be effective until a further proclamation is issued under authority 
of this act. 

MOBILIZATION OF INDUSTRIES. 

Section 120 of the national defense act of June 3, 1916, provides 
that the Secretary of War shall make, or cause to be made, a com- 
plete list of all privately owned plants in the United States equipped 
to manufacture arms and ammunition or the component parts 
thereof. 

The President is authorized, in his discretion, to appoint a Board 
on Mobilization of Industries essential for military preparedness, 
nonpartisan in character, and to take all necessary steps to provide 
for such clerical assistance as may be deemed necessary to organize 
and coordinate the work. 

Section 121 of the same act authorizes the Secretary of War to 
appoint a board of five citizens, two of whom shall be civilians and 
three of whom shall be officers of the Army, to investi^te and report 
to him the feasibility^ the desirability, and practicability of the Gov- 
ernment manufacturmg arms and munitions and equipment. The 
Secretarv of War is directed to transmit the report or this committee 
to Confffess on or before January 1, 1917. 

The Naval Consulting Board has prepared extensive lists of manu- 
facturing concerns and privately owned plants. Army officers have 
cooperated with the Naval Consulting Board in preparation of these 
lists. Inventories of some 20,000 concerns are now being arranged in 
the office of the Naval Consulting Board. When completed, copies 
of these lists are to be furnished the War Department. 

The investigation required as to the Government manufacture of 
arms is proceeding through the office of the Chief of Ordnance. This 
investigation has been delayed on account of the great rush of work 
due to the calling of the militia into the Federal service and increase 



208 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

of the Regular Army. The committee will be appointed and the 
report rendered on January 1, 1917, as required. 

I have omitted from this report statistics usually embodied con- 
cerning the authorized and actual strength of the nulitary establish- 
ment, geographical distribution of troops, and information of de- 
tached officers and other incidental details, as these matters are fully 
covered in other reports. 

Attention is invited to reports of department commanders and to 
the reports of chiefs of bureaus and corps of the War Department 
as containing interesting detailed information of their respective 
responsibilities. 

H. L. Scott, 
Major Generaly Chief of Staff. 

To the Secretary of War. 



APPENDIX. 



War Department, 
Office of the Chief of Staff, 

War College Division, 
Washington^ September 11 j 1916. 

Memorandum for the Chief of Staff: 
Subject: Military policy. 

1. Memorandums from your office, dated March 11 and March 17, 
1915, directed the War College Division to make a complete and ex- 
haustive study of a proper military policy for the United States, and 
to prepare a clearly and succinctly expressed statement of the policy, 
basing it, in a general way, upon the " Report on the Organization oi 
the Land Forces of the United States, 1912," " eliminating every- 
thing that is not necessary for the easy and quick comprehension of 
the military policy, and adding anythmg which may be necessary to 
afford such comprehension." 

2. The following extract from the memorandum of March 17, 1916, 
gives the subjects which the " statement " was to cover, viz : 

The substance of this policy wUl, therefore, be a clearly and succinctly ex- 
pressed statement, with the reasons therefor, of the recommended strength and 
organization of — 

I. (a) The Regular Army; 
(6) The Organized Militia. 

This should be followed by — 

II. A careful study of the question of a reserve for both the Regular Army 
and the Organized Militia and, if possible to agree upon it, a plan for the forma- 
tion of such reserves. 

III. The Volunteers: Their organization and relation to the Regular Army 
and the Organized Militia. 

IV. Reserve material and supplies which should be available and which can 
not be promptly obtained if delayed till the outbreak of war. 

The Secretary of War is of the opinion that a statement which shall contain 
everything that is pertinent to the foregoing subjects will Inform Congress of 
all the essential things that the best Judgment of the War Department thinks 
it Is Justified In asking Congress to provide in peace and to be prepared to pro- 
vide in war. These things, being such as commend themselves to the general 
miUtary intelligence (if they do not so commend themselves there can be no 
policy such as is now aimed at), may be assumed to be those that will be asked 
for by succeeding administrations of the War Department — ^at least, they wUl 
indicate the general line of ^development to be pursued. Such a statement wiU 
constitute what he has in mind as a comprehensive military policy. 

There are many other things that will from time to time be asked of Con- 
gress or, when authority exists for it, that will be done without asking legisla- 
tion. Such things may be requests for appropriations to build new posts in 
view of the abandoning of others ; the concentration of the Army in a swaller 
number of posts in definite areas of the country; projects for promotion, re- 
tirement, etc. ; plans for training the Army and the militia, etc. 

68176*— WAB 1916— VOL 1 14 209 



210 REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

Such things have no part in the statement of a general military policy which 
the Secretary of War now desires to have prepared, and in order to save time 
and labor and to concentrate attention upon that which is essential, he desires 
any such extraneous matter to be eliminated from the study which he has 
directed. 

3. Following these lines the accompanying " Statement of a Proper 
Military Policy for the United States " was prepared. 

4. It is proposed to supplement this statement later with brochures 
on such subjects as require more detailed discussion than would be 
appropriate herein. 

M. M. Macomb, 
Brigadier Oeneraly Chief of War College Division. 



A PEOPEE MILITARY POUCY FOE THE ITNITED STATES. 

INTBODXTCTION. 
THE MILITARY PROBLEM CONFRONTING THE UNITED STATES. 

1. TJie evolution of national military policies. — National policies 
are evolved and are expanded as the Nation grows. They renect the 
national sense of responsibility and also the national ambitions. 
They constitute the doctrine underlying acts of statesmanship and 
diplomacy. A nation's military policy is the national doctrme of 
self-preservation. The world is never without virile, capable, and 
progressive nations, the circumstances of whose development have 
imbued them with the belief that their vital interests demand an 
active aggressive policy. They are forced to resort to imiversal 
service in the effort to fulfill, at any cost, what they conceive to be 
their destiny. In the United States the development of the Nation 
has proceeded under an environment so favorable that there is no 
well-defined public opinion in regard to what constitutes an ade- 
quate military policy. Heretofore isolation, combined with the neces- 
sity of preserving the balance of power, has been a sufficient guaranty 
against strong hostile expeditions from Europe or Asia. The safe- 
guard of isolation no longer exists. The oceans, once barriers, are 
now easy avenues of approach by reason of the number, speed, and 
carrying capacity of ocean-going vessels. The increasing radii of 
action of the submarine, the aeroplane, and wireless telegraphy all 
supplement ocean transport in placing both our Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts within the sphere of hostile activities of oversea nations. 

The great mass of the public does not yet realize the e&ct of these 
changed conditions upon our scheme of defense. 

Ajiother thin^ that militates against the evolution of a soimd 
military policy lor our country is me erroneous conclusion drawn by 
the people from our past experiences in war. In developing such a 

1)olicy victory is often a less trustworthy guide than defeat. We 
lave been plunged into many wars and have ultimately emerged 
successfully from each of them. The general public points to these 
experiences as an indication that our military policy has been and 
still continues to be soimd. That this is not really the belief of those 
in authority is shown b^ the fact that each war of importance has 
been followed by an official investigation of our military system and 
the policy under which it operated. The reports of these investiga- 
tions give a startling picture of faulty leadership, needless waste of 
lives and property, costly overhead charges augmented by payment 
of bounties to keep up voluntary enlistments, undue prolongations of 
all these wars, and finally reckless expenditure of public funds for 
continuing pensions. These documents supply convincing proofs 
that all such shortcomings have been due entirely to a lack of ade- 
quate preparation for war in time of peace. But we have not yet 

211 



212 BEPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

learned our lesson. It has never been driven home by the bitterness 
of defeat. We have never known a Jena or a Sedan. At no stage 
of our national life have we been brought face to face with the armed 
strength of a great world power free to land sufficient forces to gain 
a foothold at any desired portion of our coasts. That we have to 
some extent felt this danger is evidenced by our efforts to provide a 
navy as a first line of defense and to supplement it with the necessary 
harbor fortifications ; but we have not yet realized that our ultimate 
safeguard is an adequate and well-organized mobile land force. 
Experience in war has shown the need of these three elements, but 
the public has not yet demanded that they be perfected, coordinated, 
and combined in one harmonious system of national defense. Not 
until this has been accomplished will a proper military policy for the 
United States be adopted. 

2. Our abiding national policies. — The majority of our people have 
always believed in asserting their own rights and in respecting those 
of others. They desire that the cause of right should prevail and that 
lawlessness should be crushed out. To live up to these high ideals 
imposes upon us new duties as a world power ; duties that require 
something more positive than a policy or mere passive defense. In 
addition, there are two underlying and abiding national policies 
whose maintenace we must consider as necessary to our national life. 
These are the " ^Monroe doctrine " and the policy of avoiding " entan- 
gling alliances." They are distinctive and affect our international 
relations in a definite manner. In addition, policies may develop in 
the future as a result of international relations with respect to trade 
conditions. 

A general consideration of our responsibilities as a nation and of 
our geographical position indicates that the maintenance of our 
abiding policies and interests at home and abroad involves problems 
of defense measures both on land and on sea. The solution of the 
general problem of national defense must be sought in the provision 
of adequate land and sea forces and a consideration of their coor- 
dinate relationship. 

3. Coordinate relationship of Army and Navy. — ^Upon the Navy 
devolves the solution of the problem of securing and maintaining 
control of the sea. To accomplish this it must be free to take the 
offensive promptly — that is, to seek out and defeat the enemy fleet. 
The use oi any part of the high-sea fleet for local defense defeats the 
chief object or tne Navy and is a misuse of naval power. A fleet de- 
feated at sea and undefended by an adequate army is powerless 
either to prevent invasion or even its own ultimate destruction by 
combined nostile land and naval forces. In illustration compare the 
cases of the Spanish fleet at Santiago and the Russian fleet at Port 
Arthur with the present example of the German, Austrian, and 
Turkish fleets under the protection of land forces. 

Upon the Army devolves the task of gaining and maintaining on 
shore the ascendency over hostile land and naval operations. To 
accomplish this it must be able to seek out promptly and to defeat, 
capture, or destroy the invader wherever he may attempt either to 
secure a footing upon our territory or to enter the waters of our har- 
bors with the object of threatening the destruction of the seaport 
or of a fleet driven to seek refuge or repair therein. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 213 

The problems involved in operations against hostile land forces 
are complex and include only as an incident the protection of harbor 
defenses on the land side. The problems of harbor defense against 
attack from the sea are simple and passive in their nature. 

4. Coordinate relationship of statesman and soldier. — In our coun- 
try public opinion estimates the situation, statecraft shapes the 
policy, while the duty of executing it devolves upon the military 
and naval departments. 

Such a doctrine is sound in direct proportion to its success in pro- 
ducing a military system capable of devoloping fighting power suffi- 
cient to meet any given national emergency, at the proper time, sup- 
ported by all the resources, technical and economic, oi the country, 
m a word — preparedness. All the other world powers of to-day have 
realized the necessity of maintaining highly trained and organized 
military and naval forces in time of peace, and all, or nearly all, are 
allied in powerf itl coalitions. 

Without superiority on the sea or an adequate land force there is 
nothing to prevent any hostile power or coalition of powers from 
landing on our shores such part of its trained and disciplined troops 
as its available transports can carry. The time required is limited 
only by the average speed of its vessels and the delay necessarily 
consumed in embarking and disembarking. 

In order that the American people can intelligently decide on a 
doctrine of preparedness which shall constitute the military policy 
of the United States, and that Congress and the Executive may be 
able to carry out their decision, information concerning the military 
strength of other great nations and shipping available for transport 
purposes must be clearly set forth. 

The work of the statesman and of the soldier and sailor are there- 
fore coordinate; where the first leaves off the others take hold. 

5. Preparedness of the world powers for over-sea expeditions. — 
Control of the sea having been once gained by our adversary or 
adversaries, there is nothing to prevent them from dispatching an 
over-sea expedition against us. In order to form an idea of the 
mobile force we should have ready to resist it an estimate must first 
be made of the approximate number of troops that other nations 
might reasonably be expected to transport ana of the time required 
to land them on our coasts. 

The number of thoroughly trained and organized troops an enemy 
can bring in the first and succeeding expeditions under such an 
assumption is a function of — 

(a) The size of the enemy's army, and 

(6) The number, size, and speed of the vessels of the enemy's mer- 
chant marine that can be used as transports. 

Should our enemy be a nation in arms — that is, one in which all or 
nearly all of .the male inhabitants of suitable physique are given a 
minimum of two years' training with the colors m time of peace (and 
this is true of all world powers except ourselves and England), it is 
evident that the size of the first expedition and succeeding expeditions 
would be limited only by the number of vessels in the transport fleets. 
It also follows that as the capacity and number of steamers in the 
merchant marine of any nation or group of nations increase in the 
future, the number of trained soldiers which such nation could send 



214 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



in such expedition will also increase, and our trained forces should 
be correspondingljr augumented. 

What the conditions were in August, 1914, is shown in the follow- 
ing table, which may be regarded as a reasonable estimate : 

Preparedness of the great powers for over-sea expeditions. 



Nation. 



Austria-Hungarj . 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain .... 
Italy 

Russia 



Strength 
of army. 



4,320,000 
5,000,000 



Tonnage available of ships 
with capacity over—* 



3,000 
tons. 



2,000 
tons. 



762,756 
l,70fi,931 



5.000,000 3,560,962 4,018,185 
«69:>,00013,000,000 

2,600,000 

2,212,000 

5,000,000 



1,065,321 
'42^619 



1,000 
tons. 



First expe- 
dition using 
60 per cent 
ol tonnage 
given. 



Men. 



1,013,9S5 



Ani- 
mals. 



72,000 

160,931 

« 387, 000 

170,000 

91,000 

95,715 

37,630 



Second expe- 
dition using 
75 re cent 
of tonnage 
given. 



Men. 



Ani- 
mals. 



14,000 10S,000 21,600 

32,1S6 243,295 4S,279 

« Kl, •270,2 440, 000 > 94, 600 

90,000 1 

13,650 136,000i 20,475 



24,416 
7,940 



142,6221 36,623 
66,444| 11,918 



Time 
needed to— 



Load 

and 

cross 

ocean 

with 

first 

expe- 

tlon. 



Daf8. 

20.7 
15.8 
15.8 
14.0 
18.3 
22.5 
20.5 



Re- 
turn, 
load, 
and 

re- 
cross 
with 
sec- 
ond 

^ 

tion. 



4a4 

3ao 

30.8 
27.0 
35.0 
41.0 

4ao 



1 Fifty per cent has been assumed as the figure representing the amount of shipping In or within call of 
home ports at outbreak of war. 

s Using no ships less than 3,000 tons. 

• 240,500 territorials. 

< Japanese fleld regulations indicate the intention to use steamers of 1,000 tons; for this reason and becaoM 
<tf the large amount of steamers between 10 and 12 knots speed, all Japanese steamers over 10 knots speed 
and a thousand tons gross have been considered. 

Note.— The allowance prescribed in our Field Service Regulations of 3 tons per man and 8 tons per 
animal for ships over 5,000 tons and 4 tons per man and 10 tons per animal for vessels under 5,000 tons has 
been used in estimating the capacity of ships, except where the regulati(xis of any country prescribe a 
different allowance. Tnese allowances include rations, water, forage, etc., for the voyage ana a margin 
for three months' reserve supplies. The tonnage allowance covers men, animals, and all accessories and 
Is sufflcient to provide for vehicles (Including gims). 

Fighting power is the result of organization, trainins, and equipment backed by the resources of the 
country. Available shipping is a matter of commercial statistics. 

The Quality, organization, and efficiency of these troops, except 
those or Japan, which demonstrated their excellence in the Russo- 
Japanese War, are now undergoing a supreme test of military 
strength on land and sea. This test by the ordeal of battle is visibly 
demonstrating their organization, their fighting power, and the rate 
at which each is capable of developing and mamtaining its military 
strength. In addition, where certain nations have transported troops 
by sea their capabilities in this respect have to some extent been 
shown. 

This evidence, produced under conditions of actual warfare, pre- 
sents an example of the resultant efficiency of any nation that has de- 
veloped a sound military policy; the soundest policv being the one 
which insures a successful termination of the war in the shortest time. 

6. Statement of the military problem^ — From what has been stated, 
we are forced to the conclusion that we must be prepai'ed to resist a 
combined land and sea operation of formidable strength. Our prin- 
cipal coast cities and important harbors have already been protected 
by harbor defenses which, by passive method alone, can deny to an 
enemy the use of these localities as bases for such expeditions. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 215 

The enemy being unable to ^in a foothold in any of these fortified 
areas by direct naval attack will therefore be f orcea to find some suit- 
able place on the coast from which land operations can be conducted 
both against the important coast cities and the rich commercial cen- 
ters in the interior. Long stretches of coast line between the fortified 
!>laces lie open to the enemy. The only reasonable way in which these 
ocalities can be defended is by provicfing a mobile land force of suffi- 
cient strength, so located that it may be thrown in at threatened 
points a|; the proper time. 

It has just been shown what the strength of these expeditions might 
be, as well as the time required for any one of them to develop its 
whole effective force. Hence it can be seen, when we take into con- 
sideration the possible two months' delay provided by the Navy, that 
our system should be able to furnish 500,000 trained and organized 
mobile troops at the outbreak of the war and to have at least 500,000 
more availaole within 90 days thereafter. Here, however, it must be 
pointed out that two expeditions alone will provide a force large 
enough to cope with our 1,000,000 mobile troops, and consequently we 
must at the outbreak of hostilities provide the srjrstem. to raise and 
train, in addition, as least 500,000 troops to replace the losses and 
wastage in personnel incident to war. To provide this organized 
land force is the military problem before us for solution. 

I. THE BEGXJIiAB ABMY. 
GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE REGULAR ARMY. 

7. In the endeavor to reach a just conclusion as to the strength 
and organization of a regular army adequate to play its part in 
our national defense, it must not be forgotten that this defense is a 
joint problem requiring for its correct solution the united efforts of 
both Army and Navy, and that the ultimate strength of the greater 
war army is dependent to a considerable extent upon the part to be 
played by the neet. It is therefore assumed in this discussion that 
the Navy is preparing to place and maintain in the Pacific, when the 
occasion requires, a force superior to that of any oriental nation, and 
in the Atlantic one second only to that of the greatest European 
naval power. 

The Regular Army is the peace nucleus of the greater war army of 
the Nation. Its strength and organization should be determined not 
only by its relation to the larger force but by its own peace and war 
functions. It must be prepared at all times to meet sudden and 
special emergencies, which can not be met by the army of citizen 
soldiers. Its units must be the models for the organization and train- 
ing of those of the ^reat war army. 

Some of the functions of the Regular Army are: 

(a) To furnish the entire strength of our garrisons outside of the 
United States proper both in peace and war. 

(6) To garrison our harbor defenses within the United States 
proper in time of peace. 

(c) To furnish detachments of mobile forces in time of peace suffi- 
cient for the protection of these harbor defenses and naval bases 
against naval raids which, under modem conditions, may precede a 
declaration of war. 



216 BBPOBT OF THE OHIEP OF STAFF. 

(rf) To furnish sufficient mobile forces to protect our principal 
cities by preventing the landing of hostile expeditions for their cap- 
ture in the intervals between our fortified harbors or near such cities. 

(e) To supply a mobile reserve to reenforce our garrisons outside 
of the United States proper during periods of insurrection and dis- 
order. 

(/) To furnish expeditionary forces for minor wars resulting from 
the occupation of foreign territorv where treaty rights or funda- 
mental national policies may have been threatenea. 

{ff) To prepare in advance its existing administrative and supply 
departments for the equipment, transportation, and supply or the 
great war army of the Nation. 

(h) To assist in the training of organizations of citizen soldiers. 

8. Concerning the strength and organization of the Regular Army, 
the following points are U> be considered : 

(a) At the outbreak of war the Regular Army at home should be 
strong enough, with the addition of organized and trained citizen 
soldiers, to form the first line of defense in order to give sufficient 
time to permit the mobilization and concentration of our greater war 
army, and to seize opportimities for such immediate initial operations 
as may be undertaken before the mobilization of the army of citizen 
soldiers can be completed. 

i6) It should be so organized and located that it can be economi- 
y and efficiently trained, quickly and easily mobilized and concen- 
trated, and readily used as a model in the education and training of 
the citizen forces. 

MOBUJB AND COAST ARTILLERY TROOPS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS. 

9. Ejcperience has shown that our regular land forces and others 
modeled^upon them must consist of two distinct classes, i. e. : 

(a) Mobile troops. 

(b) Coast Artillery troops. 

These two groups have their own special functions for which they 
are trained and equipped and from which they should not be diverted 
except in some emergency. 

The function of the Coast Artillery is to man our harbor defenses 
designed to protect important seaports from direct naval attacks and 
raids from the sea. The armament and accessories of these forts are 
intended to be so complete and powerful as not only to prevent 
hostile landings at all places within range of the guns, but also to 
cover all navigable waters in the vicinity of ^eat seacoast cities so 
thoroughly as to leave no dead spaces from which enemy ships, either 
at anchor or during a run-by, could bring them under bombardment. 
While these harbor forts are important elements in our scheme of 
defense, thev are, nevertheless, powerless to prevent invasion at 

Eoints outsiae the range of their guns. The total length of our coast 
ne is enormous, and the stretches covered by harbor defenses are 
and must remain very small compared with the unprotected inter- 
vals that lie between them. If we should lose command of the sea 
an invader would simply land in one of these intervals. It there- 
fore follows that the ultimate defense of our coasts depends upon 
defeating a mobile army of invasion, and this can be done only by 
having mobile forces prepaFed to operate in any possible theater of 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 217 

war. At this stage of hostilities the problem becomes one of cooper- 
ation between Coast Artillery and mobile troops, but there can be no 
fixed relation in the strength of these two classes of land forces*. 
The necessary strength of Coast Artillery troops depends upon the 
number and character of harbor defenses established ; that or mobile 
troops upon the nature and extent of the defensive and offensive 
operations for which the Nation decides to be prepared. 

RELATION BETWEEN HOME AND OVERSEA GARRISONS. 

10. The most rational method of determining the proper strength 
and organization of the Regular Army is based upon the fact that 
this force is and must be divided into two distinct parts — one for 
oversea service, the other for home service. Each of these parts 
must have its proper quota, both of mobile and Coast Artillery 
troops. 

The troops on oversea service consist of the detachments required 
to meet the special military problems of the Philippines, Oahu, 
Panama, Alaska, Guantanamo, and Porto Bico. Each of these de- 
tachments has a distinct tactical and strategic mission, and is to 
operate within a restricted terrain. All of them are limited to over- 
sea communication with the home country, and all of them may 
therefore be isolated for considerable periods, especially in the criti- 
cal fiist stages of war. It is obvious that imder these circumstances 
these detachments should be prepared to meet all military emergen- 
cies until reenforcements from the United States can reasonably be 
expected. They must, therefore, be maintained at all times at full 
statutory strength, and must, in addition^ be organized with the view 
to being self-supporting, preferably during the continuance of war, 
or at least until the Navy has accomplished its primary mission of 
securing the command of the sea. 

The Force at home is on an entirelv different basia It may or may 
not be given an adequate number oi units in time of peace, but it is 
supported by atl of the resources of the Nation. It may be increased 
at the pleasure of Congress, and it may be reenforced by considerable 
forces of citizen soldiery. It follows from these considerations that 
the Military Establishment of the United States in time of peace 
should first provide effective and sufiicient garrisons for the political 
and strategic outposts of the United States, and that the residue at 
home should be organized with the view to ultimate expansion into 
such war forces as national interests may require. The possibility 
of a satisfactory mobilization of this home force is dependent upon 
keeping the units of the regular contingent at full statutory strength. 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF OVERSEA SERVICE. 

11. The Philippines. — ^A decision to defend the Philippines against 
a foreign enemy is a matter of national and not of military policy. 
But in studying the military requirements of such defense it must be 
remembered that, under conditions of modem warfare, imless our 
Navy has undisputed control of the sea, we can not reenforce the 
peace garrison after a declaration of war or while war is imminent. 

12. Oahu. — ^The maintenance of the naval base at Pearl Harbor, 
Oahu, is an essential factor in the military problem of holding the 



218 REPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

Hawaiian Islands. These islands constitute a vital element in the 
defense of the Pacific coast and in securing to ourselves the full value 
of the Panama Canal as a strategic highway between the two oceans. 

The problem of holding the Hawaiian Islands can be solved by 
making Oahu, and therefore Pearl Harbor, secure against all comers. 
A satisfactory solution requires the joint action of the Army and 
Navy. Pearl Harbor and Honolulu are already protected from 
direct naval attack by fortifications now nearing completion. These, 
v/hile deemed adequate to meet the conditions existing when they 
were designed, must now be strengthened to meet the recent increase 
in power of guns afloat; but no matter how complete these harbor 
fortifications on the southern coast of Oahu may be, they are unable 
to prevent attacks either on the remaining hundred miles of coast 
lying beyond the range of their guns or on the other islands of the 
group. Consequently there should be in addition a force of modern 
submarines and destroyers forming part of the permanent naval 
equipment of Pearl Harbor with sufficient radius of action to keep 
the Hawaiian waters thoroughly patrolled throughout their whole 
extent and to make them dangerous for enemy vessels. Should this 
force be worsted in combat and withdrawn before the arrival of our 
high-sea fleet, the complete control of the local waters might pass 
temporarily to the enemy, so that the ultimate security of both Hono- 
lulu, the naval base at Pearl Harbor, and indeed of the whole group, 
depends upon including in the Oahu garrison enough mobile troops 
to defeat any enemy that may land anywhere on the island. It is 
clear that perfect coordination between the Army and Navy at this 
station is absolutely essential to success in holding this key to the 
Pacific. Unless we provide such dual defense of the Hawaiian Islands 
we can not be sure of retaining control even of that part of the Pacific 
lying within the sphere of defense of our western coast. By making 
such provision the high-sea fleet is left free to seek out the enemy fleet 
in Pacific waters. 

13. Panama. — ^The Panama Canal is a very important strategic 
position which it is our duty to hold. By our control <Jf this highway 
between the two oceans the effectiveness of our fleet and our general 
military power is enormously increased. It is therefore obvious that 
the unquestioned security of the canal is for us a vital military need. 
The permanent garrison should be strong enough to guard the locks, 
spillways, and other important works and to prevent a naval attack 
which, under modem conditions, may even precede a declaration of 
war. We should therefore be able, even in peace, to man the sea- 
coast guns and mine defense that cover the approach to the canal, 
and we must have enough mobile troops to deieat raids. A modem 
fleet might land a small raiding party of several thousand bluejackets 
at any one or more of a number of places, and such a force landing 
out of range of the seacoast guns could, if unopposed, penetrate to 
some vulnerable part of the canal within a few hours. The permanent 
garrison should therefore include a mobile force strong enough to 
anticipate and defeat naval raids at the beginning of hostilities and 
to protect the canal against more serious land operations liable to be 
undertaken later. If the enemy is operating on one ocean only, it 
might be possible to send reenforcements from the United States, but 
to count on such relief would be running too great chances. By au- 



BSPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 219 

thority of the Bepublic of Panama, this garrison is given facilities 
in time of peace to operate beyond the Canal Zone in order that the 
troops may be properly trained for their special mission and made 
familiar with tne terrain over which they may be called upon to 
operate in defending the canal. 

14. Guantanamo. — ^The policy of the United States contemplates 
the establishment of a naval base at Ouantanamo. Garrisons of coast 
artillery and mobile troops are necessary for its defense and should 
be assigned to station there at the proper time. 

15. Alaskcu — The garrison of Alaska should be large enough to 
support the authority of the United States, and, in time of war, to 
maintain our sovereignty over a small selected area of the Territory. 
As work on the Alaskan Kailroad progresses, the military needs of 
Alaska will increase. 

16. Porto Rico is to be classified with the Philippines and Guam. 
Unlike Alaska and Hawaii, these island possessions have not been 
organized as Territories; nevertheless, they all belong to the United 
States and must be protected. 

GEXEfiAL REQUIREMENTS OF HOME SERVICE, 

17. Oeneral distribution of Coast Artillery troops in fortified 
areas. — It has already been ^own where we diould have garrisons 
for oversea service and why. It now remains to show how we should 
distribute our regular troops for service at home. Coast Artillery 
stations should correspond to the fortified areas on the seacoast, and 
these are indicated by the position of the harbor defenses, which are 
at present located as follows : 

Portland, Me. The Potomac. New Orleans. 

Portsmouth, N. H. Chesapeake Bay. Galveston. 

Boston. Cape Fear. San Diego. 

New Bedford. Charleston. Los Angeles. 

Narragansett Bay. Savannah. San Frandsca 

Long Island Sound. Tampa. Puget Sound. 

New Tork. Key West The Columbia. 

The Delaware. Pensacola. 

Baltimore. Mobile. 

18. Oeneral distribution of mobile troops in strategic areas. — ^As 
previously explained, the influence of harbor defenses is limited to 
the areas within the range of their guns. To provide harbor defenses 
without mobile forces necessary to cover the unprotected intervals 
that lie between them would be comparable with attempting to make 
a house burglar proof by barring the doors and leaving the windows 
open. There is not a case in history where seacoast fortifications, 
efficiently manned, have been captured by direct attack from the sea. 
In all cases of capture mobile land forces have been employed for the 
purpose, and an enemy that hopes for success must undertake landing 
operations against us. We must therefore decide upon a rational 
distribution of our mobile forces to meet this contingency. 

19- Puget Sound area. — Western Washington is bordered on the 
east by the steep and rugged Cascade Mountains, on the south by 
the Columbia River, and on the north by Juan de Fuca Strait and 
Canada. This comer of the United States is completely cut off from 
the rest of the country by great natural obstacles and presents an 



220 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

extensive front for attack by sea. While the maps show some twenty 
passes across the Cascade Mountains, communication with the ea^ 
IS almost entirely by three railroads, all crossing at points less than 
50 miles apart and having tunnels or other vulnerable structures. 
The only practicable wagon road is effectually closed to traflSc for 
between four and five months each year by heavy snows. Communi- 
cation with the south is by one line of railroad, crossing the Columbia 
River by bridge at Vancouver. Communication between this section 
and the east and south is thus largely dependent upon a number of 
structures readily destroyed by high explosives, and impossible of 
restoration to traffic within a definite time. The two railroads along 
the Columbia River, at the point where it breaks through the moun- 
tains, could be easily wrecked so as to require considerable time to 
repair, and the gorge could be held by a small force against a large 
one coming from the east. If an enemy succeeds in entering western 
Washington and in seizing and destroymg the important bridges and 
tunnels, he would be so securely established as to render it extremely 
difficult to dislodge him. In this rich region an invader could main- 
tain himself indefinitely. The harbor defenses maintained in this 
region are reasonably strong. Ordinary precaution demands that a 
mobile force of reasonable strength be also maintained in this region. 

20. California area. — ^There are five transcontinental lines of rail- 
way entering California. The Western Pacific and Southern Pacific 
by the passes through the Sierras northeast of Sacramento; the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & 
Salt Lake via Daggetts Pass northeast of Los Angeles; and the 
Southern Pacific via the Salton Sea and Gorgonia Pass southeast of 
Los Angeles. There are no other passes through the Sierras that have 
been considered practicable. There is no railroad running south 
into Lower Caliiornia. Only one railroad, the Southern Pacific, 
runs north into Oregon. As in the Puget Sound region, communica- 
tion with the east is largely dependent upon structures readily de- 
stroyed by explosives and impossible of restoration to traffic within a 
definite time; California and the greater centers of population are 
separated by wide expanses of sparsely settled country. To trans- 
port promptly large bodies of troops into California would be diffi- 
cult if not impossible in face of opposition at the passes. The 
invader would have a most fertile region at his back, while the reverse 
would be the situation with us. 

The harbor defenses maintained in this region are reasonably 
strong, but they are of little use unless supported by a reasonably 
strong mobile force maintained in this region. 

To rely, for defense, during the first stages of a war upon a mobile 
force shipped in from the east is to invite disaster. 

21. Atlantic area, — In case of war with a first-class power on the 
Atlantic, that portion of our country lying between and including 
Maine and Virginia would undoubtedly be the primary object of an 
invader. While all other points along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
and all points on our land frontiers would undoubtedly be in danger, 
the danger would be secondary to that of the North Atlantic States 
above named. Here also the harbor defenses are reasonably stronff, 
and here also a mobile force should be kept sufficient in size to hold 
important points until the citizen soldiery can be mobilized. 



R£POBT or THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 221 

While many other regions are important^ the three regions de- 
scribed — Pug^ Sound, California, and the North Atlantic States — 
contain the critical areas. 

22. Middle West area. — ^The center of jwpulation of the United 
States is in the Middle West, and here diould be located a mobile 
force for use in case of need on either the Pacific or Atlantic coast, 
the northern or southern border. 

NECESSAKY 8TREI«JGTH OF MOBILE TBOOPS FOE OVEB-SEA SEBTICE. 

23. Constant study of the problem which confronts each of our 
oversea garrisons in connection with the advance made in arms, trans- 
portation, tactics, lines of information, methods of communications, 
undersea craft, and aerial operations has led to the conclusions that 
the strength of the over-sea garrisons herein given is the minimum, 
below which they should not be allowed to fall at any time. 

The general requirements of over-sea service have already been 
stated for each of the several localities concerned. It now remains 
to determine the necessary strength to meet these requirements, tak- 
ing up each case in turn. 

24. The Phnippiius. — ^If in accordance with national policy it is 
decided to keep the American flag flying in the Philippines, m war 
as in peace, it becomes essential to hold Manila Bay. 

25. Oahu. — ^Having in mind the principles governing the relations 
between home and over-sea garrisons, the force maintained at all 
times in Oahu should include : 

9 regiments of Infantry (3 brigades). 

1 regiment of Cavalry. 

2 regiments of Field ArtlUery. 

2 battalions Engineers; 1 field battalion of Signal troops; 1 aero squad- 
ron ; 1 telegraph company. 
2 ambulance companies. 
14 companies Coast Artillery. 

This force will total about 25,000 combatant officers and men. 

26. Panama. — ^The force maintained at all times in the Canal Zone 
should include : 

9 regiments of Infantry (3 brigades). 
1 regiment of Cavalry. 

1 regiment of Field Artillery. 

2 battalions Engineers ; 1 field battalion of Signal troops ; 1 aero squad- 

ron; 1 telegraph company. 
1 ambulance company; 1 evacuation hospital. 
21 companies Coast Artillery Cori)s. 

This force will total about 24,000 combatant officers and men. 

27. Guantanamo, — The policy of the United States contemplates 
the establishment of a naval base at Guantanamo. Garrisons of 
Coast Artillery and mobile troops are necessary for its defense and 
should be assigned to station there at the proper time. 

28. Alaska. — ^The garrison of Alaska should be large enough to 
support the authorit;^ of the United States and in time of war to 
maintain our sovereignty over a small selected area of the Terri- 
tory. As work on the Alaskan Kailroad progresses the military 
needs of Alaska will increase. 

In time of peace it is believed that the Alaskan garrison should be 
one regiment of Infantry (1,915 officers and men), to be increased 
later as circimistances may demand. 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



29. Porto Rico. — ^The present garrison, reorganized into a full regi- 
ment of three battalions, etc., is sufficient (1,915 officers and men). 

80. The foUoTFing table gives a summary of the minimum garrison 
to be maintained on over-sea service: 







ea Hationi. 






Locstittes. 


miantry. 




SH 


11' 


.«., 

s 


SqUKl- 


Corp.. 




9 


1 


18 


1' 


it 


i 
















































2» 


t 


3t 


Si 


*\ 


3 









I Inclurlu I ulegripli compsny In eacb earrlsc 
> lro!npBQy mounted lorCavalry brigade. 



NECESSARr STRENGTH OP MOBILE TROOPS POD HOME SERVICE. 

SI. Careful studies made at the War College, extending over a 

Eriod of years, lead to the conclusion that the strength of the 
fantry, Cavalry, Field Artillery, Engineers, and signal troops of 
the Regular Army maintained at home in time of peace, and the 
distribution of administrative units of these arms in the principal 
strategic areas, should be as givea in the following table: 
Combatant troops. 



lAKmiie. 


SS3 


C««IrT 


Pf.M 

JSSS 


End- 

UUoil. 


Corps. 


■quad- 









1 

3 
3 


1 


U 
1 
1 

1 
I 


























- ■ 


as 


X 


IS 


10 


J 


• 



•ttallon horn artUhrji 1 eompuiT mmaM EncUiMn; 1 cvmpaor 



« organized in higher tactical units and dis- 
ss substantially aa follows : 

division (less dlvtsiooel Cavalry) and one CavaliT 
Igade (ol 3 regiments). 

division and one Cavalry brigade. 

dtvlsloD and one Cavalry brigade. 

division (less divisional Cavalrjr] and one Cavaliy 
'lgad& 



B£POBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



223 



NECE88ABT STRENQTH OF COAST ARTILLERT TROOPS BEQUIRED FOR SERVICE 

OVERSEAS AND AT HOME. 

82. The strength of the Coast ArtiUery depends upon the number 
of guns and mine fields installed and projected and upon the assist- 
ance to be received from Organized Militia units. An estimate pre- 
pared in the Office of the Chief of Coast Artillery* gives the follow- 
ing strength, in companies, required under the supposition that all 
mine fields and all oversea guns and one-half the guns at home are 
manned from the Regular Army : 

Comj^anles. 

Phnipplnes 26 

Oahu 14 

Panama 21 

United States 228 

Total 289 

Total companies (gun and mine) 289 

Officers and men 34, 413 



TOTAL STRENGTH OF THE REGULAR TROOPS REQUIRED FOR ALL SERVICES. 

83. Combining all previous estimates of Coast Artillery and mobile 
troops required for service in oversea garrisons and at home, the fol- 
lowing tabulaB statement of the required strength of the Regular 
Army in units appropriate to each arm, results, viz : 





Intentry 
regi- 
men tfl. 


CavAlry 
regi- 
ments. 


Field 

ArtiUery 

regt- 

ments. 


t\ wt 
Artillery 

com- 
panies. 


Engi- 
neer 
bat- 
talions. 


Signal Corps. 


LocaUtltt. 


Battal- 
ions. 


Aero 

squads. 


PblUppliMs* 



9 


8 

1 
1 


3 
2 

1 


26 
14 
21 


2 


U 

1 

1 


1 


Of^n" ..^. 


1 


CkdaI Z<m* 


1 


AJMka 




Porto Rko 














pQff1^f Soud4 mv*^. 


3 

4 
4 
3 
t 


3 

I 

1 




2) 
2 

I 


it 
1 
1 

1 


1 


C^fomfft • 




1 


North AtlantJc SutM 




1 


ICIddia W«t 




1 


IffftT^ffii hordtr 




1 


UnlttdSUtas 




228 


















Total required • 


65 


35 


21 


280 


iH 


11* 


8 







> This estimate can only be yerifled by an inspection of all the harbors in question, fbr which inspection 
Umts has not been sufllcient time since this estimate was received. 

• Nine regiments Infantry, 2 regimenU Field ArUUery, 2 battalions Engineers. Filipinos to be added, 
n/no offloen and men. 



These figures may be summarized as follows : 

Oversea: 

Mobile (combatant ) ..^•. 

Goast Artillery Ck>ri» 



74,600 
7,500 



In United States: 

Mobile (combatant) 121,000 

Goast Artillery Corps 27,000 



Total : 

Mobile (combatant) — 195, 500 

Goast Artillery Ck)rps- .,■,. 34,500 



82,000 



148,000 



230.000 



224 BEPOBT OF THB OHISF 07 STAFF. 

To this total should be added officers and men for the Sanitary. 
Quartermaster, Ordnance Department, etc., appropriate to a force oi 
this strength, amounting approximately to 30,000 officers and men. 
Including Philippine Scouts, 21,000, the grand total becomes 281,000. 

34. Organization. — ^The Tables of Organization, approved and 
published on February 25, 1914, for the information and government 
of the Regular Army and Organized Militia of the United States 
have been taken as the guide in estimating the numerical strength of 
the personnel of the various tactical and administrative units men- 
tioned in this report. This was done as a matter of convenience and 
because the service generally is familiar with these tables, which 
are the latest official publication of the War Department on this 
subject. They conform to the Field Service Regulations and are the 
best that can be devised under the limitation of the present laws gov- 
erning the Army, but it can not be too emphatically stated that they 
are for emergency vse only and contain certain undesirable and un- 
scientific features which should be corrected as soon as the necessary 
legislation can be obtained. For example, the war organization 
shown in the tables is provisional only, while the peace strength is 
arranged so as not to exceed the total enlisted strength of about 
93,000 men now permitted by existing appropriations. 

This limitation falls heaviest upon the Infantry, whose organiza- 
tions on home service are maintained at only 43 per cent of full statu- 
tory strength, while the Cavalry organizations are maintained at 75 
fer cent and those of Field Artillery at 77 per cent of such strength, 
t is generally conceded that our Infantry companies should each 
have the full statutory strength of 150 men in order topermit proper 
training of the officers in time of peace and supply emcient fighting 
strength in time of war. 

In consequence of the greatly reduced strength of these Infantry 
organizations, their efficiency is unduly decreased and overhead 
charges correspondingly increased. 

The requirements of modem war demand that a machine-gun unit, 
a supply unit, and certain mounted men be attached to each regiment, 
and that units of various strengths be assigned to brigade and divi- 
sion head(juarters. None of these units is unthorized by law, yet all 
are essential. Tables of Organization, 1914, represent an effort to 
adapt an archaic statutory organization to modem reouirements by 
organizing the nece^ary additional units, provisionally. This has 
been done by detaching from statutory organizations the personnel 
required. An examination of the tables will show that more than 
5 per cent of the Infantry personnel authorized by Congress have 
been diverted from their legitimate duty as members of statutory 
organizations and have been assigned to provisional imits which, 
while necessary and essential, have only the sanction of departmental 
authority, and lack the efficiency which can only be given oy statute. 
In the Cavalry more than 9 per cent are similarlv diverted.* 

Recognizing these facts, the War College Division of the General 
Staff has prepared a plan for organizing on modem lines an army 
of the strength just shown to be necessary for the national needs. 
Should this plan be approved, the organization of the Regular Army, 
the militia, and whatever reserves are formed would proceed along 
the new lines. 



BEPOBT OF THE 0HIE7 OF STAFF. 225 

n. THE OBGANIZED HILITIA. 

85. Tho act of Congress approved April 25, 1914, commonly known 
as the volunteer law, defines the land forces of the United States os 
^ the Begular Army, the organized land militia while in the service 
of the United States, and such volunteer forces as Congress may 
authorize." 

The Organized Militia, in addition to its use as a State force, is 
available lor use by the Federal Government, as provided in the 
Constitution. 

36. Constitutional functions of the Organized Militia. — ^Its consti- 
tutional functions are the following: 

(a) A -State force to preserve order within the State limits, in 
order to avoid calling upon the Regular Army or the Organized 
Militia of other States to discharge such function. 

(6) A Federal force when called forth by the President, and duly 
mustered as prescribed by Congress, for any of the three purposes 
authorized by the Constitution. 

37. Some uses of the Organized Militia as a Federal force. — ^Hav- 
ing been called forth as militia, they may be used as follows : 

(a) As Coast Artillery supports and reserves. 

(b) To guard and protect certain bridges, canal locks, arsenals, 
depots of supplies, docks, navy yards, and other vulnerable points in 
the home territory. 

(c) To guard lines of communication within the limits of the 
United States. 

38. Limitations. ^rlt is stated later in this report that 12 months, 
at 150 hours per month,^ ^^ is considered the minimum length of time 
of actual training considered necessary to prepare troops for war 
service." Due to constitutional limitations. Congress has not the 
power to fix and require such an amount of training for the Organ- 
ized Militia. No force can be considered a portion of our first line 
whose control and training is so little subject to Federal authority 
in peace. No force should oe considered a portion of our first line in 
war unless it be maintained fully organized and equipped in peace at 

? Tactically war strength. This would exclude the Organized Militia 
rom consideration for service in the first line mainly l^cause of the 
impossibili^ of giving it in peace the training required for such 
function. It may be necessary to continue Federal support of the 
Organized Militia in order that some organized force may he imme- 
diately available for the purposes set forth in paragraphs 36 and 37> 

39. Recommendations. — In the preparation of plans for the na- 
tional defense and for the preservation of the honor and dignity of 
the I'^nited States, the numl)er of troops that are deemed necessary 
are largely in excess of the total regular and militia forces available 
in the United States. 

It is only during the existence of war, or when war is imminent, 
that any other forces may l)e raised under existing law. WTien Con- 
gi*ess so authorizes the President, he may call forth volunteers. 

Section 3 of the volunteer law provides that under certain condi- 
tions organizations of the Organized Militia may be received into 
the volunteer service in advance of any other organizations of the 
same arm or class from the same State, Territory, or District: and 

69176'- WAB 1916^-voL 1 15 



226 BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 

section i of the act of May 27, 1908, amending the militia law, pro- 
vides that the militia shall be called into the service in advance of any 
volunteer force that may be raised. 

It is evident that it can not be known prior to the existence of the 
imminence of war what organizations, if any, of the Organized 
Militia will enter the volunteer service, and that no definite plans can 
be prepared providing for the use or such organizations, either as 
mihtia or as volunteers, imtil war is actually upon us. 

No legislation affecting the Organized Militia is recommended 
bejond the repeal of all provisions of laws now in effect whereby 
militia or militia organizations may or must be received into the 
Federal service in advance of any other forces. 

This recommendation is not to be construed as advocating express 
repeal of certain sections of existing laws relating to the Organized 
Militia, but as suggesting that any legislation hereafter proposed 
for the organization of a Federal reserve force shall contain the 
usual concluding section repealing all laws and parts of laws incon- 
sistent therewith, and that such legislation be so framed as to render 
inconsistent with it the provisions of law just referred to. 

m. BESEBVES. 

40. Reserves include : (a) Well-instructed soldiers of the Regular 
Army furloughed to what is herein termed the regular reserve, (b) 
citizen soldiers, (c) reserve officers. 

41. T?te regular reserve, — As the United States should have a 
mobile force of 500,000 soldiers available at hom» at the outbreak of 
war, the Army, with the regular reserve, should amotmt'to this 
strength. In order to develop the necessary regular reserve with the 
Army at the strength advocated in this policy, enlistments would 
have to be for about eight years — two with the colors and six in 
reserve. That would, in eight years, result in approximately the 
following mobile forces at home available at the outbreak of war: 

(1) Mobile regular troops (combatant) with the colors 121.000 

(2) The regular reserve -— — 879,000 



Total 500,000 

During the first weeks of war in this country the military situation 
will probably be critical. At that time eveir fullv trained soldier 
should be put in the field. To do that with the small military estab- 
lishmeiit herein advocated it is necessary that during peace the Army 
be kept at war strength, and that the regular reserve be organized 
and not kept back to replace losses expected during war. Such lo^es 
should be replaced from depot units. 

42. Citizen soldiers, — In addition to the 600,000 fully trained 
mobile troops mentioned above, at least 500,000 more — a total of 
1,000,000 men — should be prepared to take the field immediately on 
the outbreak of war and should have had sufficient previous military 
training to enable them to meet a trained enemy within three months. 
Twelve months' intensive training is the minimum that will prepare 
troops for war service. Therefore the 600,000 partly trained troops 
above referred to require nine months' military training before war 
begins. Military efficiency of reserves requires that Regular Army 
oflooers be assigned thereto for training purposes — at least one to 



BEPORT OP THE CHIEP OF STAFF, 227 

every 400 men — and that organizations and specially designated non- 
commissioned officers of the Army be utilized in instructing reserves 
as far as practicable. 

Based upon experience with Tables of Organization, 1914, the 
War College Division has recently prepared a new plan of organiza- 
tion for the Army. The Regular Army and the reserves should be 
organized according to this plan. Or^nizations should be formed 
of men from the districts to which their respective organizations are 
assigned for recruiting. For this purpose, each organization should 
be assigned to a district from which recruits most suitable for the 
service required of the organization may be obtained — ^mounted units 
to horse-raising districts, technical troops to manufacturing districts, 
etc. As a rule the size of districts should be about in proportion to 
population of the qualifications — age, etc. — required. Organizations 
m war ^ould be kept at full strength from the depot units which 
they ^ould have in their respective recruiting districts. 

43. Reserve ojficers. — Officers for staff ana organizations of re- 
serves, and officers for temporary appointment in the Eegular Army 
as provided for in section 8 of the volunteer law (act of Congress 
approved Apr. 25, 1914), should be selected and trained in time of 
peace. The President should be authorized to issue, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, commissions as reserve officers 
to citizens of the United States who, upon examination prescribed bv 
the Secretary of War, demonstrate their physical, mental, moral, 
and professional fitness therefor, and who duly obligate themselves 
to render military service to the United States while their commis- 
sions are valid. Such commissions should be valid five years, and 
renewable under such regulations regarding examinations and quali- 
fications as the Secretary of War may from time to time prescriDe. 

IV. VOLXTNTEEBS. 

44. In addition to any forces that may be maintained and trained 
in time of peace, provision must be made for vastly increasing such 
forces in time of war. These must come from the untrained body of 
citizens, and provision for raising them is contained in the act of 
Congress approved April 25, 1914. 

45. This act meets the military needs for raising volunteer troops 
as far as concerns the enlisted personnel, except in two particulars, 
which are: First, that under the existing laws certain organizations 
of the militia, with numbers far below the full strength, can enter the 
volunteer force in advance of other similar volunteer organizations 
from the same State; and, second, no volunteers of any arm or 
branch have been called into the service of the United States. The 
changes necessary to remedy these defects have been set forth in 
paragraph 89 under the subject of the Organized Militia. 

V. BESEBVE HATfiBIEL. 

46. Of all the features disclosed by the war in Europe none stands 
more clearly revealed than the power to be derived from national 
economic organization behind the armed forces of a nation. 

47. In a war of gigantic proportions the chances of success are 
immeasurably lessened by wastage, abuse, and confusion. Steps should 




228 REPORT OF THE CHIEP OF STAFF. 

be taken looking toward a national organization of our economic and 
industrial resources as well as our resources in fighting men. 

48. In its report the commission appointed by the x^resident to 
investigate the conduct of the War Department in the War with 
Spain used the following language: 

One of the lessons taught by the war is that the country should hereafter be 
In a better state of preparation for war. Testimony has been taken on this sub- 
ject and suggestions have been made that large supplies of aU the materiel not 
liable to deterioration should be kept on hand, to be continuously issued and 
renewed, so that in any emergency they might be available. £iSpeciaUy should 
this be the case with such supplies, equipment, and ordnance stores as are not 
in general use in the United States and which can not be rapidly obtained in 
open market. 

49. The lack of such articles as shoes, wagons, harness, rifles, sad- 
dles, medical chests, and so on, will render ineffective an army just 
as certainly as will the lack of ammunition. 

50. For the purposes of storage military supplies may be divided 
into four classes : 

(a) Supplies that can be obtained in great quantities in the open 
market at any time. 

(b) Those that can be obtained in sufficient quantities on 15 days' 
notice. 

c) Those that can be obtained on throe months' notice. 

d) Those that can not be obtained within three months. 

51. The War College Division of the General Staff is of the opin- 
ion that for purposes of defense we should maintain the troops 
enumerated in Parts I and III of this report. 

52. A fully trained force, to be effective during the critical period 
when war is imminent and during the first few weeks of a war, must 
not be hampered by lack of necessary supplies and equipment. For 
this reason, supplies of all kinds which can not be obtained in the 
open market at any time must be kept on hand, in use and in store, 
at home and oversea, sufficient to equip without delay all troops whose 
training warrants sending them promptly into the field. 

53. It is probable that as soon as war becomes imminent, the Conti- 
nental Army — 500,000 mobile troops — will also be called out. As 
this partially trained force can not be expected to take the field within 
three months' time, it is practicable to refrain, after the third year, 
from keeping on hand or in store for it any articles of eauipinent 
except those necessary to complete its training and those wnich can 
not be procured within three months. 

54. The total number of harbor-defense troops necessary is about 
50,000. Due to conditions of service, it is believed that ultimately 
supplies of all kinds for 60,000 should be kept on hand. 

55. In any great war volunteers must be called out in addition to 
the troops above enumerated. 

56. It would be unwise to have on hand at the beginning of a war 
merely the supplies sufficient to place in the field our first contingent 
of troops and to complete the training of the Cdhtinental Army, and 
to be unprepared to supply to even a limited extent the Volunteer 
Army we should have to raise, not to mention replacements of arms, 
ammunition, clothing, and equipment of all kinos for those already 
in the field ; but on account of the great sum of money which will be 
necessary, in entering upon a program for collecting and storing mill- 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



229 



tary supplies it is believed that the subject of equipment for a volun- 
teer army and replacements for the Regular ana Continental Armies 
should be provided for by obtaining options with domestic manufac- 
turers to lumish the required supplies, all of domestic manufacture, 
in accordance with tentative contracts to be made by the supply de- 
partments with such manufacturers in time of peace. By so doing wo 
will be taking the initial steps toward organizing the industrial and 
economic resources of the country as well as its resources in fighting 
men. 

57. Referring to Part III, approximately the following troops will 
be available at the close of the successive years: 



First y 
Soetind year . 
Third year.. 
Fourth y«ar. 
Fifth year... 
Blxthyear... 
8e\cnth yew 
Eighth )*ear. 



Fully- 
trained 
mobUe 
troops. 



160,000 
210,000 
320,000 
383,000 
439.000 
480,000 
6M,000 
674,000 



PartlaUv- 
trained 
Conti- 
nental 
Army. 



185,000 
351,000 
500,000 
500,0(10 
500,000 
500,000 
500.000 
500,000 



Harbor- 
deieoM 
troops. 



30,000 
40.000 
SO.OOO 
52,000 
54,000 
56,000 
58,000 
60,000 



Total. 



37.5,000 

610,000 

870,000 

03.5,000 

093,000 

1,01.5,000 

1,092,000 

1,134,000 



A study of those figures and of the difficulties we have experienced 
in the past in the matter of supplies lead to the conclusion that the 
program adopted for procuring reserve supplies should be such that 
at the close of each year we should have in use and in store, at home 
and oversea, supplies of all kinds necessary to equip : 



Infantry 
divisions. 



First year... 
Second year. 
Third y<par.. 
Fourth year. 
Fifth j-ear... 
Sixth year... 
Seventh year 
Ejkhth year. 



13 
23 
32 
U 
36 
37 
38 
40 



Ca^-alry 
divisions 
of regi- 
ments. 



3 
6 
6 
7 
8 

10 
10 



Harbor- 
defense 
troops 



30,000 
40,000 
50,000 
63,000 
54,000 
66,000 
68,000 
6>,000 



The supplies acquired durine the first three ^ears should include 
all articles which can not be obtained in sufficient quantities on 15 
days' notice, those acquired during the last five years to include only 
those articles which can not be obtained on three months' notice. 
After the eighth year the program should be extended to provide for 
the storing of sucn additional machine guns, rifles, field guns, ammu- 
nition, etc., as may be considered advisable. 

58. In order that vast supplies pertaining to one supply bureau 
should not be secured and relatively nothing be done by other supply 
bureaus, supplies should be obtained progressively in complete divi- 
sion units. 

59. In order that the efforts of the various supply bureaus may be 
properly coordinated by the Chitt of Staff, reserve supplies should 



230 



BEPOBT OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF. 



be collected in general supply depots located in accordance with the 
general principle below enumerated. Each general supply depot 
should be considered a place of issue in time oi peace for all articles 
of field equipment, so that the stock on hand will be continually 
turned over and the machinery for the issuing and forwarding of 
supplies will be in operation at the outbreak of war. The com- 
mander of each general supply depot should be either a line or a 
staflF officer specially selected by and reporting direct to the Chief 
of Staff or to the department commander and independent of the 
control of any one particular staff department, but keeping in touch 
with all. The commander of each general supply depot should be 
assisted by the necessary commissioned, enlisted, and civilian person- 
nel. Supplies for not more than three division units should be stored 
at any one locality. Each place selected for a reserve storehouse 
should be one that will be at all times under adequate military pro- 
tection, where ground is available and where abundant railroad 
facilities exist. 

60. As a general military principle, no supply depot, arsenal^or 
manufacturing plant of any considerable size, supported by War 
Department appropriations for military purposes, wiould be estab- 
lidied or maintained east of the Appalachian Mountains, west of the 
Cascade or Sierra Nevada Mountains, nor within 200 miles of our 
Canadian or Mexican borders, and steps should be taken gradually 
to cause to be moved depots and manufacturing plants already estab- 
lished in violation of this military principle. 

61. The estimated cost of the fiela equipment of one Infantry divi- 
sion, Tables of Organization 1914, is as follows: 



KlndofsappUei. 



Signal supplies 

guartermaster sapplies 
neliiMr supplies 

Ordnanoe supplies 

Medical supplies 



Can be ob- 
tained in the 
open market 

in great 
quantities at 

anytime. 



$722.12 

61,983.35 

1,835.26 

6,77».«7 

10,997.05 



Can be ob- 
tained on 15 
days' notice. 



Il,688w61 

54,054.45 

471.50 

7,730.00 

10,180.63 



Can be ob- 
tained on 
8 months' 
notice. 



$6,030.46 

8,177,083.47 

7,703.07 

257,489.80 

88,801.51 



Can not be 

obtained oo 

8 months' 

notJoa. 



$385,8ia26 



8,428.05 
4, IM, 77a 68 



And the estimated cost of the field equipment of one Cavalry 
division of nine regiments is approximately as follows: 



Kind of supplies. 



Signal supplies 

guartermaster supplies 
ngineer supplies 

Ordnance supplies 

Medical supplies 



Can be ob- 
tained in the 
open market 

in great 
quantities at 

anytime. 



$370.80 

55,102.48 

l,7fi9.50 

31,8r>2.02 

13,464.00 



Can be ob- 
tained on 15 
days' notice. 



$1,638.63 
76,143.40 
416.53 
18,630.56 
13,060.57 



Can be ob- 
tained on 
3 months' 
notice. 



$4,290.61 

4,584.628.98 

10.885.20 

811,056.68 

106,630.36 



Can not bo 

obtained oo 

3 months' 

notice. 



$2n,156.4S 



8,000.45 
3,541,004.68 



62. While the amount of money involved is large, practically all of 
it will remain at home, especiaUy if every effort be made by toe sup- 



REPORT OP THE CHIEF OP STAFF. 231 

ply bureaus to eliminate from supply tables all articles not of domes- 
tic manufacture. It must also be kept in mind that it is cheaper to 
buy war supplies in time of peace than in time of war. 

Utt of Broohiir«t Prepared by the War College DiTition, General Staff Oorpt, 
ai Snpplementi to the Statement of a Proper ICiUtary Polloy for the United 
States. 

NOVKICBEB, 1916. 
Poc. 
No 

606. Changes in orjcanlzatlon found necessary during progress of the Eioropean 

War. WCD 4886-2S. 

607. Comparison of costs of our military estabUshment with those of other 

countries. WCD 9053-120. 

608. Coordination of the mobile and coast artillery units of the army in the 

national defense. WCD 8911-9. 

609. Development of large caliber mobile artillery and machine guns in the 

present European War. WCD 923^1. 

610. Educational institutions giving military training as a source for a supply 

of reserve officers for a national army. WCD 9053-121. 

611. Elimination of unnecessary expense from army administration. WCD 

9053-113. 

612. Finances and costs of the present European War. WCD 9287-1. 

613. Fortifications. WCD 4896-4. 

614. General Staffs of certain belligerent powers. WCD 9286-2. 

615. Military aviation. WCD 9311-1. 

616. Militia as organized under the Constitution and its value to the Nation 

as a military asset WCD 7835-9. 

617. Mobilization of industries and utilization of the commercial and industrial 

resources of the country for war purposes in emergency. WCD 8121-46. 

618. Modern (»rf;anlzation for the Regular Army and its use aa a model In 

organizing other forces. WCD 9302-1. 

619. Motor transport in campaign. WCD 9318-1. 

620. Organization and administration of the War Department adapted to a 

change from peace conditions to a state of war. WCD 9262-14. 

621. 1. Organization, training, and mobilization of a force of citizen soldiery. 

2. Method of training a citizen army on the outbreak of war to Insure 
its preparedness for field service. WCD 7641-12. 

622. Organization, training, and mobilization of a reserve for the Regular 

Army. WCD 8106-16. 
628. Organization, training, and mobilization of volunteers under the act of 

April 26, 1914. WCD 8160-26. 
624. Outline of plan for military training In public aehools of the United 

States. WCD 9064-16. 
626. Pension roll as affected by the war with Spain in 1896. WCD 9290-3. 

626. Personnel versus mat&lel in plans for national defense. WCD 9614-L 

627. Places of origin and ability to procure supplies needed In vast quantities 

in time of war. WCD 8121-89. 

628. Proper relationship between the army and the press in war. WCD 8976-^ 

629. Recruitment of oflicers in time of peace in the principal armies of Europe. 

WCD 9278-L 

680. Standardization of methods of military instruction at schools and colleges 

in the United States, with draft of a bill to establish a Reserve Oflicers* 
Training Corps. WCD 9069-8. 

681. Statistical comparison of universal and voluntary service. WCD 4886-26. 

682. Strategic location of military depots, arsenals, and manufacturing plans 

in the United States. WCD 8121-42. 
688. Sanitary troops in foreign armies. WCD 9819-1. 
634. Training of forces of belligerent nations of Europe. WCD 928^1. 
686. Utilization of our resources in various means of transportation and of 

the services of trained specialists. WCD 9068-111. 



REPORT OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



War Department, 
The Adjutant General's Office, 

October 5, 1916. 

Sm: The following report covers the entire fiscal year 1916 and 
relates to the organization and operations of the Army and National 
Guard organizations in the Federal service as shown oy the records 
of The Adjutant General's Office, and to the business of that office as 
a bureau of the War Department. 

AUTHORIZED STRENGTH OF THE ARMY. 

The strength of the Regular Army authorized by the President 
imder the provisions of the act of February 2, 1901, and of the joint 
resolution of Cong;ress of March 17, 1916, which latter authorizea the 
President to recruit the line organizations to the maximum strength 
prescribed by the acts of February 2, 1901, and January 25, 1907, with- 
out regard to the limitrtion of 100,000 men for the line and the 
Philippine Scouts, imposed by the first-mentioned act, is shown in 
the following table: 



Branches of service. 



General offlcw3 

General Staff Corps 

Adjatant GeneraPa Department 

Inspector Oenerars Department 

Judge Advocate General's Department. 

SoartemiBster Corps 
edlcal Department 

Cwps of Enjf^eers 

Ordnance Department 

Signal Corps .-. 

Bureau of insnlu' Afteirs 



Professors, United States Military Academy. 
Chaplains. 



Cavalry 

Field Artillery 
Coast Artillery Coips. 
Infant 



itry. 
3Ri( 



Porto Rico Reeiment of Infantry 

United States Military Academy dctochnicnt^ 

Recruiting parties, recruit depots, and unassicnetl recruits. 

United States Disciplinar>' Barracks j. uarus 

Service school detachments 

With disciplinary organizat ions 

Mounted orderlies 

Indian scouts 



Total Regular Army. 
Philippine Scouts 



Aggregate. 



OflBcers. 



24 

34 

23 

17 

13 

256 

»ei60 

248 

85 

106 

3 

7 

G7 

810 

262 

747 

1,606 

50 



6,018 
182 



5,200 



Enlisted 
men. 



6,403 
»5,388 
1,982 
1,115 
1,472 



17,594 

6,358 

19,321 

54,443 

599 

632 

6,098 

350 

746 

110 

7 

76 



122,693 
6,733 



128,426 



Total. 



24 

34 

23 

17 

13 

6,659 

6,048 

2,230 

1,200 

1,678 

3 

7 

67 

18,404 

6,620 

20,068 

66,049 

649 

632 

6,098 

360 

746 

UO 

7 

76 



127,711 
6,916 



133,626 



1 Includes 155 officers of the Medical Reserve Corps assigned to active duty under the provisions of the 
act of Congress approved Apr. 23. 1908 (35 Stat. L., 66). 

The a^of June 3. 1916, provides that the enlisted strength of the Medical Department is not to be 
counted as a part of tne enlisted strength of the Army, which is similar to the provision contained in the 
act of Mar. 1. 1887 (24 Stat. L.,4S6). 

235 



236 



EEPOET OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 



One of the temporary major generals referred to in the previous 
annual report was retired from active service December 4, 1915, 
causing a reduction during the year of one in the nimiber of major 
generals. 

The following increases in the authorized commissioned strength of 
the Army were authorized by the national defense act approved 
June 3, 1916, to take effect on the date of the approval of tnat act: 
General Staff Corps, 34, resulting from the application of the provi- 
sions of section 27 of the act of February 2, 1901, to oflScers below the 
rank of brigadier general detailed to the General Staff; Quartermaster 
Corps, 73, caused Dy the appointment of former pay clerks as second 
lieutenants of that corps, and Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry, 19. 
There was also an increase of 1 additional oflScer in the Cavalry arm, 
an increase of 58 in the nimiber of officers of the Medical Reserve 
Corps assigned to active duty, and 1 additional officer in the Medical 
Corps. Tnere was a decrease of 1 additional officer in the Coast 
Artillery Corps, makins a net increase in the authorized commissioned 
strengtn of the Army during the year of 184. 

There was an increase of 370 enusted men for the Ordnance Depart- 
ment and 17 for the service school detachments authorized during 
the year, in addition to the following increases authorized by the 
joint resolution of Congress of March 17, 1916: Infantry, 19,104; 
Cavalry, 3,446; Field Artillery, 823; Coast Artillery Corps, 302, and 
Engineers, 40. There was a decrease of 27 in the number of author- 
ized recruits during the year, and a decrease of 6 in the Field Artillery, 
leaving a net increase of 24,069 in the authorized enlisted strength of 
the Anny during the year. 

The authorized enlisted strength of the Hospital Corps was in- 
creased 1,376 during the year. 

There was no change in the authorized strength of the Philippine 
Scouts during the year covered by this report. 

ACTUAL STEENGTH OP THE ABMT. 

The actual strength of the entire military establishment on June 
30, 1916, by branches of service, is shown in the following table: 



Branches of aervloe. 



GenerAl o ffloec t 

Btftfl corps and deptirtmuito.. 

Kngtnxis 

CATtlnr 

Field Arifltory 

CoMt Artllkry Corps 

Intentry 

lUiotUintoas 



TotaJ Regular Anny. 
FhiUpptDe Scoots 



Aoragato. 



Officers. 



94 

t 1,206 
22S 
782 
257 
739 
1,007 



t4,S43 
182 



16,025 



BnUsted 



• 12,374 

1,829 

15,100 

5,027 

18,273 

34,313 

9,440 



■»7,013 
5,008 



102,016 



I Inchidss 154 first Ueutesiante of the Medical Beserrt Corpa. 
■ InelodM 4,070 enlisted men of the Medical Departmaot. 



TotaL 



M 

18,580 
2,064 

16,942 
6,884 

19,012 

85,920 
9,440 



101,860 
6,786 



107, OU 



XEPCHET or THE ABJITTAJTI GBSTEMAU 237 

coMFABaas or avtbihuimd axd actual boxsotsl 



The foIlowiDg table h preBeoted for the porpose of sliowing the 
authorized and the actual fetreniTLh of the miiitarT estabBBhment on 
June 30, 1916, and June 30, 1^15, K^thcr wiih the increases during 
the year and the nmnber of vacancdef on each fjf tti'^>se dt^tes. 5 
inchideB the enlisted Btreaigth of the 1i4edinal I>epartanenx and the 
Quartermaster Corp& 



*^®- i^ Total i2^ iSd TBial. ^ 1^ 



JtlIwaQ,19U 4,&4 »7.24» im.0a2 182 Ii,T33 i,9U 6,01ft 102 WSl 107,«B7 

dtiriDcy«ar. IM 2.445 £,09 IW a.44& 25,aB 



Actual Btren^h: 

JllXii30, Ifiie 4.R43 97. Oi:, IfT. 8:^ l*fl 5 603 fi.TK", 5,025 102 r,]f> KT.Ml 

Jm»30, 1915 4,C16 K.Ttii lX*.i**il lifi 5,430 5,fil2 4. TVs 101 IM 105,! 



IncTMie donng year 227 l,Mi 1,«75 173 173 227 1,421 1, 

:^= — - • =^ - I =^ 



Juoe3Q,lPl6 175 »,««0 26,855 1 130 1V> 175 25,BI0 25,«i 

JimedO, 1915 1 as 1,4S3 1,701 303 ^f^i 21S 1,7W 2,0W 

^ I ! I 

The large number of vacancies (175) in commissioned personnel 
on June 30, 1916, is due to the fact that the 124 graduates of the 
Military Academy were not appointed until after the close of the 
fiscal year and to the increase resulting from the appUcation to the 
General Staff of the provisions of section 27 of the act of February 2, 
1901. Tliat appUcation was authorized by the act of June 3, 1916. 

The large number of vacancies in the enlisted force is due to the 
fact that the authorized strength was materially increased by the 
joint resolution of March 17, 1916, and during the short period 
betwe^i March 17 and the close of the fiscal year it was found mipos- 
sible to enlbt a sufficient number of men to fill the vacancies occurring 
from time to time and those resulting from the increase in the author- 
ized strength. Every effort was made, and is being made, to secure 
a sufficient nimiber of recruits to fill the Army to its authorized 
strength. 

INCREASE IN THE ABMT. 
(Authorized by the act of June 3, 1916.) 

The act of June 3, 1916^ provides for a material increase in both 
the commissioned and enlisted strength of the Regular Army, and 
also provides for the federalization of the Nation^ Guard. Those 
provisions of the bill that pertain to this office are mentioned in this 
report under the subjects to which they relate. 

The increases in the numbers of officers and enlisted men authorized 
by the bill is to be made in five annual increments, with the provision 
**That in the event of actual or threatened war or similar emergency, 
in which the public safety demands it, the President is authorized 
to immediately organize the entire increase authorized by this act, 
or 80 much thereoi as he shall deem necessary/' 



238 BBPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT OENERAIi. 

Under the provisions of the act cited, the authorized enlisted 
strength for the fiscal year 1917, which includes the first increment, 
is as follows : 

Infantry 51,224 

Cavalry 17,357 

Field Artillery 7,881 

Engineers 2, 198 

Coast Artillery Corps 21, 423 

Quartermaster Corps 8, 000 

Signal Corps 3,369 

Ordnance Department 1, 241 

MedicAl Department 6, 614 

Service school detachments 752 

Military Academy detachments 684 

United States Disciplinary Barracks guards 468 

Disciplinary oi]ganizations 101 

Mounted orderuee 29 

Seiveants on duty with National Guard 209 

In<uan scouts 75 

Recruiting parties and unassigned recruits 11, 539 

Total Regular Army 133,164 

Philippine Scouts 5, 733 

Aggregate 138,897 

In time of peace the total authorized enlisted strength of the line 
of the Anny is limited to 175,000. Under that limitation the total 
enlisted strength will be 175,000 for the line (including Ordnance 
Department) and approximately 42,750 for the staff corps and 
departments and miscellaneous organizations, making a total of 
approximately 217,750 for the Regular Army, or an aggregate 
strength of approximately 223,580 u the enlisted strength (5,733) 
of the Philippme Scouts is included. Approximate figures are given, 
because tlie strength of some of the staff corps and departments is 
not fixed by the act, but will be fixed by the President from time to 
time in accordance with the needs of the service. The total enlisted 
strength of the Medical Department, limited to 5 per cent of the total 
enlisted strength of the rest of the Army, can not be determined at 
this time, because the strength of all of the other staff corps and 
departments is not fixed. 

The total number of officers authorized by the act in time of peace 
is approximately 11,450, including the 182 officers of the Philippine 
Scouts, while the maximum numoer of officers authorized womd be 
about 580 more, all the additions being in the Medical Department. 
The exact number of officers authorized can not be stated, because 
the number of additional officers varies from time to time, and 
because the number of retired officers that will be transferred to the 
active list under the provisions of the act of March 4, 1915, can not 
be foretold. 

The total maximum enlisted strength (war strength) of the Army, 
including the Philippine Scouts, is nearly 298,000. This figure is 
approximate and is based on increases in the staff corps and Depart- 
ments in proportion to the increases authorized for the nrst increment. 

The total number of officers authorized for the fiscal year 1917 is 
7|252, including 182 officers of the Philippine Scouts. 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GEKEBAU 



239 



PHILIPPINE SCJOUTS. 

There was no change in the organization and authorized strength 
of the Philippine Scouts during the past fiscal year. The scouts are 
organized into 13 battalions of 4 companies each, a total of 52 com- 
panies of enlisted natives of the Phihppine Islands, with a total 
authorized strength of 182 ofQcers and 5,733 enlisted men. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS. 

The geographical distribution of the Regular Army on Jime 30, 
1916, is shown in the following table: 



Oeograpbical distribution. 



In the United States! 

In Alaska 

In the Philippine Islands: 

Regular Army 

Philippine Scouts 

In China 

In Porto Rloo 

In Hawaii 

In the Isthmian Canal Zone 

Troops en route and officers at foreign stations. 



Total. 



Officers. 



8,622 
23 

480 

182 

41 

85 

333 

253 

66 



5,025 



Enlisted 



•103,016 



Total 



67,416 


71,038 


760 


702 


U,404 


^^'2* 


5,603 


5,785 


1,233 


1,274 


679 


714 


8,112 


8,445 


6,846 


7,090 


554 


610 



107,641 



1 Indudes troops serving in Mexico, it befaig deemed inadvisable at this time to give the exact number 
of troops serving in that country, 
s Includes 154 first lieutenants of the Medical Reserve Corps. 
• Includes 4^70 enlisted men of the Medical Department. 

OEOOBAPHICAL DEPARTMENTS. 

There was no change during the past fiscal year in the constitution 
of the geographical departments established for purposes of miUtary 
administration. A statement showing the territory embraced in the 
several geographical departments was printed in the annual report 
for the year 1914. 



CHANGES OP STATIONS OP TROOPS. 

The following tables show the movement of troops to and from 
the insular possessions, and changes of stations of troops within the 
continental limits of the United States during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1916: 

Movements of troops on transports to and from the insular possessions. 



Transport. 


Left- 


Arrived at— 


Troops on board. 


Place. 


Date. 


Place. 


Date. 


Thomas... 

Sherman.. 
Tbomu... 


San Francisco, Cal. 
Manila, P. L 

• .. . •QO. ••••••••••• 


1916. 
Aug. 6 

Aug. 16 
Sept. U 


Manila, P. I. 

San Francisco, Oal. 

a • ■ • «G0 ■•.•••••••*• 


1016. 
Sept. 2 

Sept. 13 
Oet. 13 


Fourth, Seventeenth, Thirty- 
third, Thirty-sixth, and One 
hundred and eleventh Com- 
panies Coast Artillery Corps. 

Euhth Cavalrv and Company 
rV Twenty-fourth Infantry. 

Headquarters and 9 companlei 
Twenty-fourth Infantry. 



240 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 



MovementM of troops orCtransporU to and from (he insular ]K>M0M<on«— Continued. 



Timnsport. 



Buford 

Sheridan.. 
Logan 



Sheridan. 



Do... 
Thomas. 



Kflpatiiok. 

Do 

Do 



Do. 
Do. 



Left- 



Place. 



Qalyeeton, Tex.... 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Manila, P. I. 



.do. 



San Francisco, OaL 
do 



Galveston, Tex.... 

.....do 

New York, N.Y.. 

Fortlfonroe, Va.. 
Pensaoola, Fla.... 



Date. 



1915. 
Sept. 29 
Oct. 6 
Oct. 15 

Nov. 15 

1916. 
Jan. 6 
Feb. 5 

Feb. 23 

Mar. 11 

Apr. 8 



Apr. U 
Apr. 18 



Arrived at— 



Place. 



Manila, P. L 

San Francisco, Gal. 



Manila, P. I. 

Honolulu, Hawaii . 

Cristobal, Canal 
Zone. 

» • • • ttUV ■ • ••••••••• « 



> • • • aUM •••••••••••• 



Data. 



1915. 
Mar. 51 
Nov. 5 
Nov. 14 

Dec 14 

1910. 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 13 

Mar. 1 

Mar. 18 

Apr. 28 



> • •ViV* • • • • 



Troops (m board. 



Twenty-seventh Infantry. 
Fifteenth Cavalry. 
Companies C and I, Tweoty- 

fourth Infantry. 
Seventh Cavalry. 



Ninth Cavalry. 

Thirteenth Band, Coast Artil- 
lery Corps. 

First Squadron, Twelfth Cav^ 
airy. 

Battories E and F, Fourth 
Field ArtiU^ry. 

Fifth Band and Ei^h, 
Eighty-seventh, and On* 
hundred and twenty-fourth 
Companies, Coast Artillery 
Corps. 

Seventy-third Company, Coast 
Artillery Corps. 

Fifteenth Company, Coast Ar- 
tillery Corps. 



> Delay caused by slide in Panama CanaL 
Changes of statione of troope within the United States. 



Organization. 



One hundred and eleventh 

Company, Coast ArtiUery 

Corps. 
Fourth Company, Coast 

Artillery Corps. 
Seventeenth Company, 

Coast Artillery Corps. 
Thirty -sixth Company, 

Coast Artillery Corps. 
Thirty • third Company, 

Coast Artillery Corps. 

Eighth Cavalry 

Fifteenth Cavalry 

Seventh Cavalry 

Ninth Cavalry 



First Squadron, Twelfth 

Cavalry. 
Thirtieth Company, Coast 

Artillery Corps. 
One hundred and sixtieth 

Company, Coast Artillery 

Corps. 
Twenty-fourth Infsntry. . . . 
Batteries E and F, Fourth 

Field Artillery. 
One hundred and twenty- 

fburth Company, Coast 

ArtiUery Corps. 
Eifl^th Company, Coast 

Artillery Coips. 
Etehty-seventh Company, 

Coast Artillery Corps. 



Left- 



Place. 



Fort Dade, Fla.», 



Fort MoU,N. 7.1 

Fort Washington, Md.i. 

FortMott.N.J.i 

Fort Cohimbia, Wash.i. 



San Francisco, Cal. 
Fort Bliss, Tex.1.. 
San Francisco. Cal. 
Douglas, Aris.>..... 



Mercedes, Tex.s 

Fort Rosecrans, Cal. 
do 



San Fruicisco, Cal. 
El Paso, Tex 



Fort Andrews, Mass.* 



FortMcKinley,Me.>. 
FortTotten,N.Y.i.. 



Dato. 



1915. 
July 24 

July 25 
...do 



July 28 

Sept. 21 
Sept. 25 
Dec. 21 
Dec. 26 

1916. 
Feb. 21 

Feb. 15 

Feb. 17 



Feb. 25 
Mar. 8 

Apr. 6 



Apr. 7 
Apr. 8 



Arrived at— 



Place. 



San Francisco, Gal. 



do 

do............ 

do 

do 

Fort Bliss, Tex 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Douelas, Ariz 

San Francisco, Cal. 



QalvestoD, Tex 

Fort Worden, Wash, 
Fort Stevens, Oreg. . 



Fort D. A. Russell, Wyo.. 
Galveston, Tex 



New York, N. Y. 



.do. 
.do. 



Date. 



1915. 
July 29 

July 30 

Do. 

Do. 

Da 

Sept.2« 
Sept. 28 
Dec 23 
Dec 28 

1916. 
Feb. 23 

Feb. 19 

Feb. 21 



Feb. 28 
Mar. 10 

Apr. 7 



Apr. 8 
Do. 



1 En route to PhUippine Islands. 



• En route to Canal Zone. 



The foregoing table does not show practice marches, temporary changes in stationSi 
or movement ol troops along the Mexican border. 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 241 

TROOPS SBRVINa OUTSIDtl THE CONTINENTAL LIMITS OP THE UNITBD 

STATES. 

The troops serving outside the continental limits of the United 
States, excluding those in Mexico, at the close of the fiscal year were 
as follows: 

PHILIPPINB DEPABTMBNT. 

First Company, Second Aero Squadron. 

Ninth and Fifteenth Cavahy. 

Second Field Artillery. 

Fourth, Eleventh, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twenty-third, Thirty-third, Thirty- 
flixth. Forty-second, Seventieth, Eighty-sixth, Ninetieth, Ninety-fifth. Ninety-ninth. 
One hundred and eleventh, and One hundred and forty-second Companies, ana 
Ninth Band, Coast Artillery Corps. 

Eighth, Thirteenth, Fifteenth (headquarters, band, first and third battalions de- 
tached in China), Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-seventh Infantry. 

Companies K and L, Ciorps of Engineers. 

Companies F and L, Signal Corps. 

Fiela Hospital No. 4 and Ambulance Company No. 4. 

HAWAUAN DSPARTMBNT. 

Fourth Cavalry. 

First Field Artillery. 

Thirteenth Band, Tenth, Fifty-sixth, Sixty-eighth. Seventy-fifth, Ninety-first. 
One hundred and fourth^ One hundred and fifth, One nundred and fo^-third, ana 
One hundred and fifty-ninth Companies, Coast Artillery Corps. 

First, Second, and Twenty-fifth Infantry. 

Company I, Corps of Engineers. 

Company E, Signal Corps. 

CANAL ZONB. 

Fifth Band, Eighth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-first, Fortieth, Forty-fourth, 
Forty-fifth, Seventy-third, Eighty-first, Eighty-seventh, One hundred and sixteenth. 
One hundred and nineteenth. One hundred and twenty-fourth, and One hundred 
and forty-fourth Companies, Coast Artillery Corps. 

First Squadron. Twelfth Cavalry. 

Batteries E ana F, Fourth Field Artillery. 

Fifth, Tenth, and Twenty-ninth Infantry. 

Company M, Corps of En^neers. 

Third Platoon, Company H, Signal Corps. 

Ambulance Company No. 8. 

The First Battalion, Fourteenth Infantry, and Companies C and 
K, Signal Corps, are stationed in Alaska. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS APPOINTED. 

During the year ended June 30, 1916, 163 second lieutenants, 
graduate of the United States Militair Academv , were appointed to 
the Army, 23 being assigned to the Corps of Engineers, 33 to the 
Cavalry arm, 11 to the Field Artillery arm, 31 to tne Coast Artillery 
Corps, and 65 to the Infantry arm. Five civihans^ were appointed 
probational second lieutenants in the Corps of Engineers, under the 
provisions of the act of Congress approved February 27, 1911 (36 
Stat. L., 957). 

Since June 30, 1916. the close of the fiscal year, 124 graduates of 
the United States Military Academy have been appointed to the 
Army. All of them, with the exception of 1 who was not gradu- 
ated until June 29, 1916, and was not appointed imtil that date, 

69176*— WAR 1916— VOL 1 16 



242 BBPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

were appointed to rank from June 13, 1916, the date of the gradua- 
tion of their class. Of those appointed, 24 were assigned to the 
Corps of Engineers, 22 to the Cavalry, 10 to the Field Artillery arm, 
20 to the Coast Artillery Corps, and 48 to the Infantry arm. 

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS IN ACTIVE SERVICE. 

On June 30, 1916, there were 4,843 commissioned officers on the 
active list of the Arm v. Of these, 1,458 (including 65 chaplains) were 

feneral officers or o&cers of the staff corps and departments, 782 
elonged to the Cavalry, 257 to the Field Artillery, 739 to the Coast 
Artillery Corps, and 1,607 to the Infantry. 

Of the 1,458 general and staff officers 1,354 were present for duty, 
27 on leave, 4 absent sick, and 73 on detached duty. Of the 3,385 
line officers 2,699 were present for duty, 71 on leave, 22 absent sick, 
and 593 on detached duty. 

From the foregoing it appears that 20.26 per cent of the line officers 
and 7.13 per cent oi the general and staff officers were absent from 
their commanck. At the close of the preceding fiscal year 25.33 per 
cent of the line officers and 11.66 per cent of the general and sti^ 
officers were so absent. 

The decrease in the total number of officers absent from their com- 
mands at the end of this fiscal year, as compared with the preceding 
year, is due chiefiy to the decrease in the number of officers on de- 
tached service as snown in detail in the section of this report relating 
to "Officers on detached service." 

In addition to the officers on the active list there were 128 retired 
officers under assimment to active duty on Jime 30, 1916, as is more 
fully shown ekewhere in this report. 

ADDITIONAL OFFICERS. 

The Army appropriation act apmt)ved March 3, 1911 (36 Stat. L., 
1058), provides that every line officer on the active list below the 
grade of colonel who has lost in lineal rank through the system of 
regimental promotion in force prior to October 1, 1890. may, in the 
discretion of the President and subject to examination for promotion 
as prescribed by law, be advanced to higher ^ades in his arm up to 
ana including the grade of colonel, in accordance with the rank he 
would have been entitled to hold had promotion been lineal through- 
out the arm or corps to which he permanently belongs. It is ^o 
provided that officers advanced to higher erades under the law cited 
shall be ''additional officers" in those grades. 

From the date of approval of the act to the close of the past fiscal 
year there had been 76 advancements in grade (51 to the CTade of 
colonel and 25 to that of lieutenant colonel) imder the act oi March 
3, 1911, before cited. The table following shows the CTades to which 
and the arms in which these advancements were made. 



BEPOHT OF THE ADJUTANT GENEBAIj. 



243 



Anns Of servic*. 



From 
lieu- 
tenant- 
colonel to 
colonel. 



CAVftlry 

Field AitiUery 

Coast Artillery Corps 
Intantry. 

Total 



19 
2 
6 

24 



51 



From 
major 
to lieu- 
tenant- 
colonel. 



14 



2 




25 



Total. 



83 
2 
8 

33 



n 



Of the 76 advancements shown in the foregoing table, 32 were 
advancements in the cases of 16 officers who were advanced to the 
grade of lieutenant colonel and subsequently to that of colonel. 
Twenty-three of the officers advanced were retired from active 
service prior to June 30, 1916; 2 died; 5 were promoted lineaUy and 
ceased to be '' additional officers/' and 5 were appointed brigadier 
generals, leaving 25 additional officers in the service June 30, 1916. 
Of these, 11 were in the Cavalry arm, 1 in the Field Artillery arm, 
3 in the Coast ArtiUerv Corps, and 10 in the Infantry arm. 

All of the officers advanced in grade had alreadv reached the grade 
of major. The 25 majors advanced to be aciditional lieutenant 
colonels left a like number of vacancies in the grade of major, which 
caused the promotion to the next higher grade of the same number 
of captains, first lieutenants, and secona lieutenants. Of the 51 
lieutenant colonels advanced, 35 left vacancies in that grade and 
caused the promotion to the next higher grade of the same nimiber 
of majors, captains, first lieutenants, ana second lieutenants. The 
16 additional lieutenant colonels who were advanced to be additional 
colonels did not leave any vacancies in the grade of lieutenant colonel. 



OFFICERS ON DETACHED SERVICE. 

The number of officers absent from their commands on detached 
service was lower than that of the previous year. On June 30, 1915, 
there were 7.56 per cent of the general officers and officers of the 
staff corps and departments and 21.32 per cent of the line officers on 
detachea service. On June 30, 1916, those percentages were 5.11 
forseneral and staff officers and 17.52 for officers of the line. 

T^e character of the duty performed by the officers of the Army 
on detached service on June 30, 1916, the numbers so detached, and 
their ranks and branches of service are shown in the table following. 



244 



BEPOET OF THE ADJUTANT GENEBAL. 





Rank. 


Duty and branches of service from which 
detadied. 


■ 

1 


n 
1 


• 

1 
s 


Lieutenant 
colonel. 


1 


B 


First lieuten- 
ant. 


Second lieu- 
tenant. 


■ 

1 


Army War College: 

General officers ............................ 














1 


Staff deoartments. 






1 


...... 

I 


1 






2 


Field Artillery 












1 


Coast Artillerv Corns 






1 










2 
















Total 




1 


1 


1 
2 


a 


1 



















United States MiUtary Academy: 

RtAfT <l«rM»'tTnAntii 


10 

1 
1 
4 
4 


3 

5 

3 

13 

10 


"'i' 


15 


Cavalry 








11 


Field Artillery 












4 


Coast Artillerv Corns 






1 






24 












20 
















Total 






1 


a 




20 


34 


23 


80 


Army Service Schools, Fort Leavenworth, 
Kans.: 
Staff deoartments.......... 










4 


2 

1 
2 
8 






6 


Cavalry. .,...,-,, 














1 


Field Artillery 










1 
1 






3 


Infantry.. .......•••* » r-*--* r 










4 




18 














Total 













13 


4 




23 














Artillery School, Fort Monroe, Va.: 

Coast Artillery Corps 








1 




10 


20 


10 


47 












Mounted Service School, Fort Riley, Kans.: 
Cavalry 










1 


1 


2 




4 














Bchool of Fire for Field Artillery, Fort 801, 
Okla.: 
Field Artillery 












1 






1 














***""" 






School of Musketry, Fort SIU, Okla.: 

Infantry ••• 






1 








1 


• 


2 
















Instructors at civil educational institutions: 
Cavalry 












1 


7 

1 

1 

44 


1 
...... 


f 


Field .Artillery 












1 


Coast Artillery Com 














1 


Intentrv. ^^r-^-r • T»»»Tr-- 










1 


1 


53 














Total 










1 


2 


88 


7 


08 














Becruiting service: 

Cavalrv 






1 


1 
1 




9 

1 

7 

23 


13 

6 

12 

21 


...... 


21 








7 


Coast Artillery Corps 








19 


Infantry 






3 


1 


2 


51 
















4 


3 


2 


40 


51 


1 


101 










Aids-de-camp: 

Cavalry 












4 
2 


4 
••••j* 

4 


2 

1 
1 
3 


10 


Field Artniery 












8 


Coast Artillery Corps 










s 


Infantry 


*' 




****** 




1 


8 













Total 


1 1 




7 


10 


7 


9i 










1 
2 




Cavalry 
















1 


Infantry 
















2 






i 










Total 


1 


3 








8 






J 








With Panama Canal: 

General officers 


1 










1 






3 


4 


10 
1 
1 


1 




1ft 


Coast Artillerv Corps 






1 


Infnntrv 














1 




....... 










Total 


1 '. 


3 


4 


12 


1 




21 
















BEFOBT OF THE AI>JUTANT OENBBAIi. 



245 



1 


Rank. 


Doty and brandies ofserFiee from which 
detadied. 


• 

1 


Brigadier gen- 
eral. 


1 


Lieutenant 
ooloneL 




1 


First lieuten- 
ant. 


Seoond lieu- 
tenant. 


Total. 


liUitaryattaehft: 

8tan departments 






2 


1 


s 


Cayalry'. 








5 






5 


Field Artlilery ^ 














1 


1 


Coast ArtlUery Corps 










1 


4 
4 




5 


Infantry. 










1 




A 
















Total 






a 


1 


1 


13 


1 


1 


10 










With Philippine Scoots: 

Cavalry 












4 

8 






4 



















g 




















Total 










12 






12 








1 








In bureaus of War Department: 

Staff departments 










2 


1 
1 






8 


Cavalry 














1 


Field Artillery 










1 






1 


Coast Artillery Corps 






1 
1 




7 
3 






8 










2 


3 















Total 






2 




5 


12 


3 





22 










At department and brigade headquarters: 
Cavalry 






2 


1 




2 

1 

■••*2* 


3 




8 


Field Artillery 






1 








::::::•::::: 


2 

1 


1 
1 




8 








4 




8 










Total 






6 


1 


3 


5 


6 




20 










At Disciplinary Barrc Ics: 










1 


...... 

5 


1 

1 
11 


"e" 


2 


Coast Artillery Corps 










2 


Infuitrv 7.....* 












22 










; 














1 


6 


13 





20 














With militia: 

Staff dejmrtmwits . x ......... a . 












1 


1 

5 

7 

10 

35 






7 


Cavalry' 






1 




5 
8 

1 
20 




12 


Field ArtUlery 






15 










1 

5 


I 



13 










M 












Total 






1 


6 


u 


58 


34 

1 




118 










Alaskan Road Commission: 














1 


Infantry 




i 






1 


2 












"**** 






Total ' 






1 






1 


1 




8 














OiDce Engineer Commissioner, District of , 
Columbia: ; 
fttaff fifpartments . . 






1 


1 


1 






3 






• 








Staff departments 








1 




1 






2 


Coast Artillery Corps • 








1 


1 


1 




...... 








t 




Total .J 




_ . 1 . 


1 




1 1 


1 


3 




......... 


...... 




Cavalry , 












1 




10 

1 
1 

10 


11 


Field Artillery V.V.V. 


1 




J - 


1 


Coast Artillery Corps 


1 






...... 

, 


2 


Tnfantnr ....7...." 


I 






10 







' 








Total ' 


1 






1 


1 


22 


24 














Special duty abroad: 

Staff departments 1 










1 


1 






2 


Cavalry V. . 








2 




2 












1 


1 


Coast Artillery Corps 










2 




2 

















Total j 




• • * • * *i • * • * * * •••••• 


1 


2 


4 


•••••• 


7 



246 



REPOBT OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



Duty and branches of service from which 
detached. 



Kember of board: 

Coast Artillery Ck>rp6, 

Special duty: 

Infantry 



With American Red Cross: 
Staff departments 



United States Soldiers' Home: 
Staff departments 



Observers with European armies: 

Staff departments 

Cavalry 

Field Artmery 

InCantry 



Rank. 









g 

s 



il 

« 8 






§ 



I- 

= 9 

Em 



3 



Total. 



With Yellowstone P§rk detachment: 
Cavalry , 



Alaskan Engineering Commission: 
Cavalry 



With Quartermaster Corps: 

Cavalry 

Field Artmery 



Total. 



Naval War College: 

Coast Artillery Corps . 

Duty toipedo depot: 
Coast Artillery Corps . 



Total. 



22 



23 



5 
1 



6 



65 232 



3 



250 



6 



5 
2 

1 
1 



8 
2 



10 



3 



82 MO 



RECAPITULATION. 



Rank. 



Major general 

Brigadier general.. 

Cirionel , 

Lieutenant c<^onel. 

Major 

Captain 

First lieu tenant... 
Second lieutenant. 



Total. 
Percentage. 



General 
oflloers 

and 
officers 
of staff 
corps and 
depart- 
ments. 



1 

1 

3 

10 

26 

27 

5 



73 
5.11 



Cavalry. 



5 
2 
4 

42 
48 
20 



121 
15.47 



Field 
Artillery. 



1 
3 

18 
17 

4 



43 
16.73 



Coast 

Artillery 

Corps. 



4 

4 

6 

47 

60 

20 



141 
10.08 



Infantry. 



10 

6 

16 

08 

120 

38 



288 

17.02 



Total. 



I 

1 
22 
23 
55 
232 
250 
82 



666 
13.84 



It will be seen from the foregoing table that of the 593 line officers 
on detached duty\ 532, or 90 per cent, were captains or lieutenants. 
Of the 719 line omcers on detached duty at the end of the preceding 
year, 672, or 93 per cent, were captains or lieutenants. 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



247 



The following table shows, by grades and arms of service, the 
number of officers detached from their proper commands on June 30, 
1916, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved March 3, 
1911 (36 Stat. L., 1045): 



Arms of aenrioe. 



Cavalry 

FWd Artillery 

Coast Artillery Corps. 
Infantry 



Total. 



Ondfli. 



Colooal. 



2 

4 



8 



Lien- 
tenant 
coIoQel. 



2 

1 

2 
4 



Mi^jor. 





2 

A 

13 



Cap- 
tain. 



19 

7 

IS 

88 



27 



82 



First 

lien- 

tenant. 



18 

5 

16 

85 



74 



TotaL 



47 
15 
44 
•4 



200 



The character of employment of those officers, by grades, on June 
30, 1916, is shown in the following table: 





Grades. 




Character of duty. 


Colonel. 


Lien- 
tenant 
colonel. 


Major. 


Cap- 
tain. 


First 

lien- 

tenant 


Total. 


With OrKanised If ilitia of 43 States 




5 

4 


5 
22 


84 

48 


22 

52 


es 


On other than mUitla dqty,, , , . , , - ^ , . , ^ , . , , ^ 


8 


134 






Total 


8 


9 


27 


82 


74 


200 







RETIRED OFFICERS ON ACTIVE DUTY. 

On June 30, 1916, there were 128 retired officers under assignment 
to active duty. The following table shows the grades and employ- 
ment of those officers: 



Dnty. 


Lieu- 
tenant 
gener- 
al. 


Colo- 
nel. 


Lieu- 
tenant 
oolonel. 


Major. 


tain. 


First 
lien- 
tenant. 


Second 

lieu- 
tenant. 


Total. 


At Soldiers' TTome 


1 




4* 

2 

1 
1 


1 

10 
7 








3 


On recruiting service 


11 

9 


3 
1 




30 


With State militia 




23 


At Army Service Schools, Fort Lea- 
venworth. Kans 




1 


At Army War Colleee 






1 

5 

1 

12 








2 


At dvil educational Institutions 






10 


8 


2 


32 


Doorkeeper to President ... 


* 


1 








i' 


12 
1 


8 


1 


34 


Withl^ignftlC<nT9... . ' 




2 














Total 


1 







37 


49 


20 


3 


128 







Of the retired officers on duty, as shown in the forgoing table, 1 
lieutenant general, 1 colonel, and 1 major (all at the United States 
Soldiers* Home in this city), 1 captain, and 1 second lieutenant (on 
college duty) received from the United States only the retired pay of 



248 BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENEBAIj. 

their respective grades; 8 colonels and 9 lieutenant colonels received 
the pay and allowances that a retired major would receive under a like 
assignment; and 36 majors, 48 captains, 20 first lieutenants, and 2 
second Ueu tenants received the active pay and allowances of their 
respective grades. 

OFFICERS EXAMINED FOB PROMOTION. 

During the fiscal year 2,197 officers of the Army were examined and 
2 were reexamined for promotion. 

Of the 2,197 officers examined, 2,179 were found professionally 
qualified. 4 were found professionally disoualified and will be sus- 

{ tended irom promotion for one year, ana 14 were examined and 
oimd physicaUy disqualified and were retired after the close of the 
fiscal year. Of the 2 officers reexamined, 1 was found qualified and 
1 was honorably discharged from the Army. 

The act of Jime 3, 1916, extended the provisions of previous law 
requiring examination to determine fitness of officers for promotion 
to include examination for promotion to all grades below that of 
brigadier general. Previous laws provided for the examination of 
officers up to and including the grade of captain before promotion to 
the next higher grade, except medical officers, who were examined 
for promotion to any grade oelow that of brigadier general. 

BETIBED OFFICEBS. 

On Jime 30. 1916, there were 1,005 commissioned officers on the 
retired list. During the fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1916, 36 officers 
were placed on that list. In addition to the officers of the R^ular 
Army placed on the retired list during the year there were 31 former 
officers of the PhiUppine Scouts — ^20 captains and 1 1 first lieutenants — 
who had been separated from active service by resignation, discharge, 
etc., and subsequently placed on the retired hst as enlisted men 

E laced on a list of retired officers of Philippine Scouts as of the grades 
eld by them as officers of said scouts, under the provisions of section 
26 of the national defense act approved Jime 3, 1916. Fifty of the 
officers on the retired list died durmg the vear, 5 were restored to the 
active list as additional officers, under the provisions of the act of 
Congress approved March 4, 1915, leaving 1,017 officers, including 
those of the PhiHppine Scouts, on the retire list, June 30. 1916. Six 
of the brigadier generals were advanced to the grade of major 
general^ 1 with me pay and allowances of a major general on 
the retired list, and the other 5 with the pay and allowances of a 
brigadier general on the retired list. One officer on the retired list 
was advanced one grade imder the provisions of an act of Couctcss 
approved March 4, 1915, on accoimt of services with the Canal Com- 
mission in the Canal Zone in connection with the construction of the 
Panama Canal. The table following shows the grades of the officers 
on the retired list and the causes of the retirement of those officers. 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENEBAIj. 



249 



GxBd«f. 



i 



I 









Lioutenant general 2 

UaiorwiDenl 16 

Brigadier generaL 70 

Colonel 57 

Lieutenant ooIooeL 17 

Major 10 

Gaptab.... 4 

Flnt lieutenant 2 

Second lieutenant 

Qiaplain: | 

Lieutenant Ofdonel \ 2 

Mik|or ! 5 

Captain i 4 

First lieutenant I 

Philippine Scouts: I 

Captain 

First lieutenant i 



Total. 



189 



QQ 

P4 






8 
5 



13 



On own appli- 
cation. 



s 



88 



I 



I 

< 



1 

6 
71 
31 

6 



114 



00 



i 

I 



I 



1 

17 
39 
33 
40 
12 



142 



1 
1 
3 



For disability. 



In line of duty. 



OQ 



P4 



3 



16 
32 
25 
78 
122 
66 
21 



10 
3 
1 



374 



12 
44 

45 
20 



121 



s 



it 



I 

1 



I! 



o 

a* 



OQ 

P3 






I 



1 
3 
3 
1 



8 



CO 



I 



20 
11 



31 



1 
2 
6 



12 



I 



8 

25 

183 

166 

94 

183 

192 

91 

23 

8 

16 

7 

1 

20 
11 



1,017 



Of the 4 officers retired under section 32 of the act of Congress 
approved July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 337), on account of disability 
occasioned by wounds received in battle, with the full rank of the 
command held by them at the time such woimds were received, 1 was 
advanced three grades, 1 two CTades, and 2 one grade. All of them, 
with the exception of the brigamer general, receive a further advance- 
ment of one grade imder the act of Congress approved April 23, 
1904 (33 Stat. L., 264). In addition to these, 67 origadier generals, 
13 colonels, 27 lieutenant colonels, 54 majors, 16 captains, and 1 first 
Ueutenant hold their present grades on the retired list through an 
advancement of one grade tmder the act of Congress approved 
April 23, 1904, making a total of 180 officers on the retired list June 
30, 1916, who have been advanced one grade under that act because 
of service during the Civil War. 

The table following shows, by grades, the number of officers of the 
Army retired from active service during the fiscal year ended June 
30| I9I6, and the causes of their retirement. 



250 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



Ond«f. 



lAf^oreeneral 

Br^sadier general. . . . 

G<doiiel 

Lieutenant (xdonel. . 

Major 

Gaptain 

First lieutenant 

Chaplain (major). . . . 
Philippine Scouts: 

Captain 

First lieutenant. 



Total. 



K3 






2 
1 

7 



11 



On own application. 



8, 

> a . 






t>>9 
Is 



1 

"i 



£^ 



1 
1 
3 



Fordisabmty. 



"CO 

2 • 



1 

2 
1 
6 
1 



11 






^^ 



III 



9 



1 
1 



CO 



^<5 



20 
11 



31 



I 



2 
1 

13 
8 
4 

10 
2 
1 

20 
U 



07 



COMMISSIONED OFFICERS WHO HAD CIVIL WAR SERVICE. 

The official records show that of the 4,811 commissioned officers 
(including 154 officers of the Medical Reserve Corps called into active 
service) on the active list of the Regular Army June 30, 1916, none of 
them served in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps during the Civil 
War otherwise than as a cadet prior to April 9, 1865, the last officer 
so serving being Col. John L. Clem, Quartermaster Corps, who was 
retired by operation of law, 64 years of ace, on August 13, 1915. 

Tliere were 986 officers of the Army, otner than Philippine Scouts, 
on the retired list Jime 30, 1916. Oi these, 310 served m the Army, 
Navy, or Marine Corps, otherwise than as cadets prior to April 9, 1865. 
The following table shows, bv grades, the number of officers on the 
retired list of the Army on thme 30, 1916^ and the number of those 
officers who had Civil War service otherwise than as cadets prior to 
April 9, 1865: 



OradM. 



Lieotenant general. . . . 

Malor general 

Bngadier general 

Colonel , 

Lieutenant colonel . . . . 

Major 

Captain 

First lieotenant , 

Second lieutenant 

Chaplain: 

Lieutenant colonel 

M^or 

Captain 

First lientenant. . . 

ToUl 



Officen 


1 on the retired list 


June 30, mo. 




Civfl 


No Civfl 


Total. 


War 


War 




serrice. 


servioa. 


8 
25 


3 
20 




6 


188 


145 


88 


100 


18 


148 


94 


82 


02 


183 


67 


120 


102 


22 


170 


01 


8 


88 


23 
8 




ss 


2 


1 


16 


8 


7 


7 

1 




7 




1 






080 


810 


070 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT OENEBAL. 251 

It will be seen from the foregoing table that approximately 32 per 
cent of the oflBcers of the Army on the retired list June 30, 1916, 
served as officers or enlisted men of the Army, Nayy, or Marine Corps 
during the Civil War. On June 30, 1915, approximately 34 per cent 
of the officers of the Army on that list had Civil War service. 

officers' reserve corps. 

Provision is made in the national defense act approved Jime 3, 
1916, for an Officers' Reserve Corps, to consist of sections correspond- 
ing to the various arms, staff corps, and departments of the Regular 
Army. As stated in the law, its object is ^' ior the purpose of securing 
a reserve of officers available for service as temporary officers in the 
Regular Anny, * * * as officers of the Quartermaster Corps and 
other staff corps and departments, as officers for recruit rendezvous 
and depots, and as officers of volunteers." The corps is to be organ- 
ized under such rules and regulations as the President may prescnbe. 
These rules and regulations are printed in Oeneral Orders No. 32, 
War Department, tmly 28, 1916. 

The organization of the Officers' Reserve Corps is an effort to obtain 
and train in time of peace the large number ot commissioned officers 
necessary in war or when war is imminent. 

Especial inducements to secure trained and educated officers have 
been made to land-grant colleges, other universities and coUeges, and 
to essentially military school!. When the act has been given full 
effect, by appropriations made and regulations promulgated, it is 
intended to supply students under military training at such institu- 
tions necessary uniforms, military eouipment, and for those recom- 
mended by the officer on duty and tne head of the institution com- 
mutation of subsistence for the last two vears of the prescribed four- 
year course. Additional officers have oeen provided for detail to 
these coUeges, to bring the militarj^ instruction up to the standard 
which its importance to the nation justifies. 

That this is expected to add greatly to the nulitary strength of the 
country is indicated hy a provision in the national defense act that 
the total number of omcers that may be appointed and commissioned 
in the Reserve Corps from this source is 50,000. 

To secure the large number of educated and trained officers for 
the large armies that will be necessary under existing conditions in 
war IB one of the greatest miUtary problems; and it is noped that the 
Officers' Reserve Corps provisions in the national defense act will 
in time solve it. 

Copies of the rules and regulations TOveming appointments in the 
corps will be furnished to applicants tnercfor. 

RETIRED ENLISTED MEN. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were 4,028 enlisted men on 
the retired list created by the provisions of the act of Congress 
approved February 14, 1885 (23 Stat. L., 305), modified by the acts 
of Congress approved September 30, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 504), March 2, 
1907 (34 Stat. L., 1218), and August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 575). 

During the fiscal year 310 enlisted men were placed on the retired 
list, 153 of the men on that list died, and 31 were transferred to 



252 BEPOET OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL, 

the list of retired commissioned officers of Philippine Scouts, under 
provisions of the national defense act approved Jmie 3, 1916, leaving 
4,154 enlisted men on the retired list at the end of the fiscal year. 

PERSONS QUALIFIED TO HOLD TOLtTNTEEB COHHI8SION8. 

Certificates were issued during the year, under the provisions of 
section 23 of the act of Congress approved January 21, 1903 (32 Stat. 
L., 779), in the case of 52 persons who were founa upon examination 
by boards of officers convened for that purpose to be "specially 
qualified to hold commissions in any volunteer force which may 
hereafter be c^ed for and organizea under the authority of Con- 
gress, other than a force composed of Organized Mihtia." Of these, 
10 were from New York, 5 from Minnesota, 4 from Washington, 2 
from Massachusetts. 1 each from Illinois, Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio, 
Rhode Island, Soutn Dakota, Wyoming, and the Phihppine Islands; 
17 were enlisted men of the Regular Army, and 2 were clerks of the 
Quartermaster Corps, United States Army; 1 was a commissioned 
officer of the Phihppine Constabulary, and 3 were commissioned 
officers of the Philippme Scouts. 

The board of officers appointed to recommend candidates for 
appointment as volunteer omcera, as provided in General Order No. 
42, War Department, 1915, reported on May 18, 1916 (date of latest 
report), that 658 candidates had been found qualified. These candi- 
dates werenot required to pass aprofessional and physical examination, 
as were the persons to whom certificates were issued under the provisions 
of section 23 of the act of Congress approved January 21, 1903, but 
were required to make formal applications, upon a blank form fur- 
nished by the department, and to furnish letters and other evidence 
as to character and qualifications. The following table shows the 
number of candidates by grade, arm, corps, or department found 
quahfied by the board toMay 18, 1916, for appointment as volunteer 
officers: 



QndM. 


i 

|j 


1 
1 


1 


, 


■3 

1 


1 
1 


. 


1 

l 

1 


1 


1 


1 


* 


1 






15 






33 
S 


3 


35 

a 


1 
13 


i 










» 


2 


\ 






















































n 


• 






























■ 


M 


> 


^ 


" 


6 


113 


18 


24 


S» 


IT 


' 


ftSS 



al the national defense act, June 3, 1916, anpli- 
snt as volunteer officers are no longer considered 
)rs referred to. Such apphcations will hereafter 
section 53 of that act, or the candidates will be 




afflisr*^-- 



liar-- 






.1 



S' "^ 



254 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT QENEBAU 



HONOB SCHOOLS. 

Culver Military Academy, Culver, Ind. 

Kemper Militi^ School, Boone ville, Mo. 

Kentuck^r Militiuy Institute, Lyndon, Ky. 

New Mexico Military Institute, Roswell, N. Mex. 

New York Military Academy, Comwall-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

St. John's Military Aotdemy, Delafield, Wis. 

St. John's School, Manlius, N. Y. 

College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn. 

Wentworth Military Academy. iiexinfi:ton, Mo. 

Western Military Academy, Alton, 111. 

STUDENTS AND GRADUATES OF CIVIL INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING AT 
WHICH ARMY OFFICERS ARE DETAILED AS MILITARY INSTRUCTORS. 

In December, 1914, an effort was made by this office to ascertain 
for each of the 10 years 1905 to 1914, inclusive, the number of stu- 
dents enrolled at, and the number graduated from, civil institutions 
of learning at wnich officers of the Army were detailed as military 
instructors. Requests for information on the subject were sent to 
all such institutions (103 at the time), and all but 7 of them furnished 
figures. Data on this subject have been obtained from time to time 
since 1914, and the following table shows the numbers of students 
at, and graduates from, those civil educational institutions at which 
officers of the Army are detailed as instructors in miUtary science 
and tactics that have furnished figures: 



Year. 



1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 



NumlMr 
of stu- 
dents 
under 
military 
instruo- 
tion. 



17,8S5 
18,138 
21,616 
24,191 
35,222 
27,122 
28,843 
29,979 
31,028 
33,424 
32,313 
85,091 



Number 
of mili- 
tary stu- 
dents 
eradu- 
at«L 



2,880 
8,078 
8.441 
8,789 
4,215 
4,701 
4,757 
5.188 
4,970 
>2.37« 
2,474 



1 Includes only those who graduated in military science and tactics, and does not represent the total 
number of graduates that at some time during the course received instruction in that subject. 

The report for 1914 included students enrolled at 101 institutions; that for 1915, students at 100 institutioaa; 
and that for 1916, students at 106 institutfons. 

STRENGTH AND LOSSES OP THE ARMY. 



The tables facing show (A) the strength of the Army of the United 
States June 30, 1915, and June 30, 1916, with losses from all causes 
between those dates; (B) the strength and losses from all causes in 
the Army in each month of the fiscal year; (C) the strength of the 
Anny by departments, etc., at the end of each month of the fiscal 
year; and (D) the number of deaths in the Army during the fiscal 
year. 



?Es PEOM All Causes bethtebn Those Dates. 




TAXES Between July 1, 1915, and June 30, 1916. 





WoUlfDED. 
























• 






ENUSTED MEN. 














J 










Died. 








• 












• 


1 




















a 






« 


• 






1 




• 








9 


4S 




•S-S 




« 


1 


1 


1 
f 


'1 


« 


• 


1 


• 


• 


g 


s 


1 




is 




1 


1 


U 


it 


5 

o 


« 


1 


f 


1 


e 




o 




W 


c 


o 


-< 


« 


QQ 


^•^ 


§ 


p; 


P 


S 


H 


o 


w 


PS 


4 


1 

1 
3 


...... 


13 
22 
18 


6 

17 

5 


11 


3 
7 

8 






23 
23 
28 


468 
483 
402 


...... 


2,796 
2,921 
2,739 






214 


2 






1 
1 


4 

3 


360 





i 




338 





4 





21 


6 


1 


5 


2 




25 


331 




2,736 




8 


236 







1 


18 


6 




6 




334 


30 


272 




1,824 




2 


243 


2 






25 
12 
26 
17 


6 

9 

6 

12 


2 
8 
3 
4 


7 
5 
3 
3 


4 

7 
3 

1 


576 
997 
602 
620 


29 
31 
29 
29 


213 
208 

228 
207 




1,976 
2,387 
2,302 
2,157 






254 


2 










227 


7 


"y- 


1 

1 






173 


4 


3 


10 


143 


8 


5 


1 


20 


4 




3 


1 


597 


28 


367 


i 


2,134 




9 


143 


3 


4 




29 


4 


3 


5 


7 


621 


20 


380 




2,020 




6 


143 


9 


9 


2 


22 


9 


3 


3 


2 


190 


26 


489 


3 


1,493 


1 


13 


170 


1 ! 34 

1 


4 


243 


89 


46 


68 


28 


4,626 


321 


3,856 


6 


127,484 


5 


66 


3,443 


3 
3 , 

5' 




' 
















05 

88 
80 
45 
6 
21 
33 
12 
10 
10 
13 
15 








• • ■ • 




1 
1 
2 
1 








...... 
















1 








.. 














» 














5 










2 - 





















3 


4 

5 
2 








1 


1 


2 




4 

1 
2 








2 


















t 


1 


1 
1 
2 


t 


















5 










2 
1 
3 
3 








1 


3 1 












» 








3 


i 

1 

7 1 

1 
















1 


1 





2 









































1 




11 


1 




1 


1 


11 




13 




428 






9 








34 t 

1 


7 


254 


90 


46 


59 


29 


4,637 


321 


3,869 


5 


«27,912 


6 


6 


2,451 



* Actual losses are 25,461, as the total ga!n from desertion during the year was 2,451. 



ACH Month of the Fiscal Year. 



6. 


Febniary, 191C. 


March, 1916. 


AprU,1916. May, 1916. June, 1916. 

1 


8ted 


1 
1 


Offloen. 

937 

60 

1,664 

803 

347 


Enlisted 
men. 


Offloen. 


Knltvt«d 
men. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


OffleefB. 


EnlistMi 
men. 


,401 
,993 
,105 
,143 
,000 


1,009 25,645 
173 , 3.<>57 

1,337 24,731 
360 8,423 
348 1 9,038 


2<i,639 
562 

31.200 
7,472 
8,969 


947 

60 

1,673 

803 

846 


28,898 
565 

81,667 
7,378 
8,510 


818 

59 

1,903 

228 

384 


19,819 
595 

87,697 
6,071 
8,167 


760 

63 

1,987 

337 

388 


17.887 
618 

40,476 
6,888 
6»11S 


.878 
,549 
,196 
,355 


430 

182 

44 

1.033 


10,836 
5,587 
1.194 
9.914 


471 

183 

44 

904 


11,676 

5,604 
1,161 
8,232 


475 

182 

41 

887 


11,576 
5,C04 
1,281 
9,632 


486 

182 

38 

857 


11,327 
6,006 
1,271 
9,659 


480 

183 

41 

963 


11,404 
6,608 
1,338 

11,601 


,630 


4,906 99,025 


4,911 


98,406 ! 4,912 j 99,600 4,905 

> 1 


100,202 


6,036 


ioa,6ie 



dng troops at camps, en route, recmlti, etc 

Jlt-t 1, 1915, AND June 30, 1916. 



4e. 


Murder 
or homicide. 


TotaL 


:nllsted 

r»i*«n 


offlcers. 


Enlisted 


Officers. 


Kntfatted 

.TTWm 



• »»1«»»« . 



v^ 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT QENEBAL. 255 

The losses in the Arm^r durmg the year ended June^O, 1916, are 
summarized in the following statement: 

REGULAR ARMY. 

Officers: 

Died of disease, etc 86 

Resigned or discharged 38 

DisimsBed 3 

Retired 36 

Deserted 1 

113 

Enlisted men: 

Died of disease, etc 605 

Discharged upon expiration of term of 8er\'ice 6. 793 

Discharged for disability, by sentence of court-martial, or by order. 12, 378 
Deserted (includes 2,442 deserters subsequently returned to mili- 
tary control) 3, 866 

Retired 321 

Transferred to the Reserve 4,626 

Missing in action 6 

27,484 

Aggr^iate 27,697 

PHILIPPINE SCOUTS. 

Officers: Resigned or discharged 3 

Enlisted men: 

Died of disease, etc 14 

Discharged upon expiration of term of service 262 

Discharged for disability, by sentence of court-martial, or by order. 128 
Deserted (includes 9 deserters subsequently returned to military 

control) 13 

Transferred to the Reserve 11 

428 

Aggregate 431 

AGOREOATB. 

Officers: 

Died of disease, etc 36 

Resigned or discharged 41 

Dismissed .^ 3 

Retired 36 

Deserted 1 

116 

Enlisted men: 

Died of disease, etc 619 

Discharged upon expiration of term of service 6, 066 

Discharged for disability, by sentence of court-martial, or by order 12, 506 
Deserted (includes 2,451 deserters subsequently retiuned to mili- 
tary control) 3, 869 

Retired 321 

Transferred to the Reserve 4, 637 

MiflHing in action 6 

27, 912 

Aggregate 28,028 

As will be seen from the foregoing table, but 5,793 enlisted men 
were discharged from the R^ular Army upon expiration of term of 
service during the year. This small number of discharges upon 
expiration of service is the result of the act of August 24, 1912, which 
provided that alter November 1, 1912, all enlistments in the Regular 
Army shoidd be for a period of seven years, four years with the 



256 REPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 

colors and tbtee years in the Reserve, or the soldier may be furloughed 
to the Reserve after an active service of three years. In order to 
reenlist for active service, he must serve four years with the colors. 
Consequently, the only discharges occurring auring the year upon 
expiration of term of service were of those men who enlisted prior to 
November 1, 1912. The niunber (4,626) furloughed to the Reserve 
during the fiscal year 1916 should be included in the separations from 
service upon expiration of term of enlistment, for even though they 
have not been actually discharged, they have completed the term of 
active service for which enlisted. If tms number be added, the total 
number of separations from active service because of completion of 
term of enlistment, or that part of it calling for active service, is 
10,419. Dxuing the preceding fiscal year the number of discharges 
upon expiration of term of service was 27,020, and during the fiscal 
year 1914 it was 25,027. Those numbers are, respectively, 8.4, 19.7, 
and 20 per cent of the whole number of enlisted men in service or of 
enlistment contracts in force during each of those years. 

The losses from all causes other than completion of term of active 
service among enlisted men of the Regular Army during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1916, numbered 17,065, but from tnis number 
should be deducted the nxmiber (2,442) of deserts that returned to 
military control during the year, leaving 14,623 as representing the 
nxmiber of losses during the year from causes other than completion 
of term of active service. During the preceding fiscal year those 
losses were 14,517, and during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914, 
they were 12,487. Those numbers are, respectively, 13.4 (or 11.8, if 
the nxmiber gained from desertion is deducted from the total losses 
from desertion), 10.6, and 9.97 per cent of the whole nxmiber of 
enlistment contracts in force dxuing the year. 

DE8EBTIONS. 

As shown by the official returns, the nxmiber of desertions from 
the Army durmg the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, aggregated 
3,856, which is 3.10 per cent of the whole number of enlistment con- 
tracts in force during the year. This is a slight decrease as com- 
Sared with the percentage (3.23) for 1915. The number of reported 
esertions during the year 1916 is 579 less than the number reported 
during 1915 and 595 less than the number reported in 1914. 

Oi the 3,856 cases of reported desertion during the year, 200 were 
declared erroneous; 2 of the men so reported were tried and acquit- 
ted of the charge, and 580 were tried and found guilty of the lesser 
offense of absence without leave, making a total of 782 cases im- 
properly classed as desertions. If this number be deducted from the 
3,856 reported desertions, as shown by the retmns, there remain but 
3,074 cases, or 2.47 per cent, of actual desertions. However, this 
figure does not represent the actual number of desertions occiuring 
during the year, because it is impossible at this time to even estimate 
the number of the men now regarded as deserters that will come under 
military control and be acquitted of the charge or be convicted of the 
lesser offense of absence without leave before the statute of limita- 
tions will apply in their cases. Under the law now in operation the 
trial of the men who enlisted and deserted during the fiscal year 1916 
will not be barred by the statute of limitations until some time during 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENEBAL. 



257 



the fiscal year 1925. Unless it can be assumed that all men reported 
as deserters during the year who do not return to military control 
or have not been tried before the annual report for that year is pub- 
lished can be classed as deserters, the actual number of desertions 
during a year can not be stated in the report for that year. As cases 
have arisen in which men have been convicted of absence without 
leave after having been absent more than two years from the date 
of their reported desertion, no such assumption is possible. As the 
figTures hereafter given in this report are comparative, and because it 
is impossible to determine at this time how many of the men dropped 
as deserters during the year will ultimately be regarded as such, the 
number of reported desertions as shown by the returns will be used. 
A comparison of the percentages of reported desertions in each of 
the past 20 years is shown in the following table: 



Fiscal yean. 


Peroentace 
deserted. 


Fiscal years. 


Peroentase 
deserted. 


1916 


3.10 
3.23 
3.10 
4.15 
3.00 
2.28 
3.66 
4.97 
4.59 
5.62 


1906 


7.43 


1915 


1905 


6.79 


1914 -. 


1904 


6.61 


1913 


1903 


7 10 


1912 


1902. 


5.00 


1911 


1901 


4.12 


1910 


1900 


4.09 


1909 


1899 


3.22 


1908 


1898 


1.57 


1907 


1897 


8.13 









The following table shows the percentages of desertions occurring 
in each of the several periods of service during the past three years : 



Period of service in which desertioo took place. 



First 3 months of seiTioe 

Second 3 months of service 

Third 3 months of service 

Fourth 3 months of service 

First year of service 

Second year of service 

Third year of service 

Fourth year of service 

First enlistment 

Second enlistment 

Third enlistment 

Fourth enlistment and subsequent enlistments 

Total 



Feroentase of whole number 
of desertirais. 



Year 

ended 

June 30, 

1916. 



10 
11 
10 

8 



(0 



39 

24 

9 



72 
21 

4 
3 



100 



Year 

ended 

June 30, 

1915. 



13 
17 
14 
10 



64 

20 

5 



79 

16 

3 

2 



100 



Year 

ended 

June 30, 

1914. 



18 

19 

14 

7 



58 

18 

5 



81 

13 

3 

3 



100 



1 During the year 1916 there were 10 desertions during the fourth year of^rvice, but as that number is less 
than one-third of 1 per cent, it is not shown in this table. I>uring the preceding years the enlistment period 
ended at the expiration of 3 years. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, there was a material 
decrease in the percentage of desertions occurring in the first year of 
service, the percentages for the years 1916, 1915, and 1914, being, 
respectively, 39, 54, and 58 per cent. This decrease is due no doubt 

69176'— WAR 1916— VOL 1 17 



258 



BBPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



to the fact that during the first ei^ht months of the year 1916 the 
original enlistments were comparatively few, as the Army had been 
recruited to its authorized strength. Consec[uently, the total nimiber 
of men serving in the first year of their enlistment period was much 
less than the number so serving during the years 1914 and 1915, and 
it naturally followed that the number of desertions during the first 
year of service was less in 1916 than in preceding years. 

The percentages of desertions by branches of service during the 
fiscal years 1911-1916 are shown in the following table: 



Branches of servioe. 


Percentages. 


1916 


1915 


1914 


1913 


1912 


1911 


Hospital Coips 


4.15 
3.78 
3.53 
3.43 
2.58 
2.48 
2.82 


4.64 
3.72 
3.87 
4.82 
4.08 
2.28 
3.12 


3.34 
3.48 
3.48 
5.20 
2.94 
2.49 
2.68 


4.24 
4.19 
4.53 
6.11 
4.68 
3.95 
3.18 


3.03 
3.38 
2.95 
4.07 
4.26 
2.37 
3.32 


3.10 


Coast Artlltory Corps 


2.43 


Cavalry .' \ 


1.92 


Field Ar^Itary 


2.93 


EiuriiMen 


3.09 


Infantry 


1 85 


All ot^ent, Indndlns onassfRned recruits 


2.85 






The Army 


3.10 


3.23 


3.10 


4.15 


3.00 


2.2S 







The foregoing statement shows a decrease in the percentage of de- 
sertions during the last fiscal year over the year 1915 in each branch 
of the service except the Infantry, in which there is a slight increase 

As in the preceding reports, the percentages of desertions hereinbe- 
fore shown are basea on the whole number of enUsted men who were 
in service at any time during the year, and not on an average enlisted 
strength. All the losses during the year are included in the basic 
figures used^ and those figures represent the whole number of enlisted 
men who might have become deserters or the whole number of enlist- 
ment contracts that might have been terminated by desertion at some 
time during the year, it is clearly improi>er to use as a basis for cal- 
culating the percentages of desertions a strength obtained by aver- 
aging tne number of men in service at the end of each month of the 
year — a number that does not include men who went out of service 
during the year, and even does not include the deserters themselves. 
If, however, the average enlisted strength is used as a basis, it is found 
that the number of desertions from the enlisted force of the Armv 
during the year ended June 30, 1916, was 4.07 per cent of the stren^n 
as against 4.76 per cent during the preceding fiscal year, 4.55 during 
the year 1914, and 5.48 during the year 1913. 

An examination of the returns for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1916, was made for the purpose of ascertaining what organizations 
serving within the continental limits of the United States had the 
lowest and highest relative number of desertions. It should be borne 
in mind that m the following paragraphs, showing the results of that 
examination, the organizations that served apart or the whole of the 
year in Hawaii, Alaska, the Canal Zone, Cnina, or the PhiUppine 
Islands are not taken into consideration, because in those regions it is 
unusually diJfficult for a deserter to make good his escape m>m mili- 
tary control, and consequently the number of desertions that occur 
there are so small as to oe of no importance for the purpose of this 
report. 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTAKT GENERAL. 



259 



The r^ments serving in the United States that had the lowest 
percentages of desertions during the year were the Twenty-sixth 
infantry, Tenth Cavalry, and Twenty-fourth Infantrv, the first- 
mentioned regiment being a white organization, while the other two 
were colored organizations. The desertions from those regiments 
are 1.46, 1.50, and 1.81 per cent, respectively, of the whole number 
of enlisted men in the service, or enlistment contracts in force, in 
those r^ments during the year. The Tenth Cavalry was one of the 
two regiments having the lowest percentage of desertions during the 
years 1910 to 1915, inclusive, the percentages for those years being 
1.52, 0.78, 1.52, 1.99, 1.42, and 1.17, respectively. 

As was the case during the years 1914 and 1915 the Third Field 
Artillery had the lowest percent^e of desertions of any regiment of 
that arm serving in the United States, the percentages of desertion 
for that r^ment being 3.96 for the year 1916, 4.57 for 1915, and 5.19 
for 1914. 

The three r^ments that had the highest percentage of desertions 
were the Twenty-first Infantry. First Cavalry, and Eleventh Infantry, 
the percentage of desertions trom those organizations being 11.12, 
9.16, and 6.35 per cent, respectively. 

Of the white troops 3.72 per cent and of the colored troops 0.96 
per cent were reported as deserters, as compared with 3.10 lor the 
whole Army. The percentages for the fiscal year 1915 were: White 
troops, 3.40, and colored troops, 0.44. 

Tne following table shows for each month of the fiscal vears 1914, 
1915, and 1916 the percentages of the total nimiber of desertions 
occurring during each of these years: 



MontbB. 



July 

August.... 
September 
October... 
November 
December. 
January... 



Fiscal years. 

1 


1916 


1015 


1014 


12.16 


10.30 


0.70 


12.52 


11.41 


10.52 


10.43 


0.56 


8.17 


8.58 


8.12 


8.66 


7.06 


5.80 


6.73 


5.50 


5.70 


6.70 


5.38 


5.00 


5.65 

1 



Months. 



February. 
March.... 

April 

May 

June 



Total. 



Fiscal years. 



1016 



5.01 
5.87 
6.02 
7.40 
12.68 



100.00 



1015 



5.84 

7.08 

0.43 

10.35 

11.23 



100.00 



1014 



6.02 
8.06 
0.20 
0.31 
11.48 



100.00 



That nationality is not an important factor in considering the sub- 
ject of desertions from the Army was again emphasized by the fact 
that during the past fiscal year the ratio of foreign-bom deserters to 
the whole nimiber of deserters was approximately the same as the ratio 
of foreign-bom men who have enlisted during tne past three years to 
the total number of enlistments during that period. 

Reports of return of deserters and escaped prisoners to military 
control during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, were received in 
2,501 cases, not including 52 cases in which the deserters were found 
to be not amenable to tnal because of the statute of limitation. Of 
the 2,501 returned to military control during the year, 997, or 39.86 
per cent, surrendered themselves, and 1,504, or 60.14 per cent, were 
apprehended. Of the latter number 706 were apprehended by the 
municipal police, 390 by sheriffs or other county officers, 181 by pri- 
vate detective agencies, 122 by the military authorities, including 



260 REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

those identified by finger-print records in The Adjutant General's 
Office, 28 bv officers in charge of penal institutions^ 25 by United 
States marsnals and their deputies, 13 by railroad pohce, 12 by naval 
authorities, 11 by civilians (not civil officers), 7 by State detectives 
or police, 5 by Mexican authorities, and 4 by immigration officers. 
Of the total number apprehended during the year 46.94 per cent were 
apprehended by the mimicipal pohce, 25.93 per cent by county 
officers, 10.03 per cent by private detectives or detective agencies, 
8.11 per cent by the mihtary authorities. 

The disposition of the 2,501 men returned to mihtary control during 
the year is shown in the foDowing table: 

Disposed of without trial: 

Ch&rge removed as erroneoiis under paragraph 131, Army Regula- 
tions 200 

Restored to duty 5 

Discharged under paragraph 148), Army Reflations 123 

Discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability 1 

Escapeof .' 13 

DiedT. 2 

Dropped, turned over to Navy 2 

346 

Tried by court-martial: 

Acquitted 2 

Convdcted of absence without leave — 

Not sentenced to discharge 486 

Dishonorably discharged 84 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge mitigated by re'viewing au- 
thority 1 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge disapproved by reviewing 

authority 3 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge suspended and restored to 

honorable duty 2 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge suspended, sentence imcom- 

pleted 4 

Convicted of desertion — 

Not sentenced to discharge 77 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge mitigated by reviewing au- 
thority 10 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge disapproved by reviewing 

authority 6 

Restored to honorable duty after being sentenced to dishonorable 

discharge 59 

Sentence of dishonorable discharge suspended, sentence imcom- 

pleted 220 

Dishonorably discharged and confined 1. 032 

1,986 

Reports of results of trial not yet received 169 

Total 2,501 

It will be seen from the foregoing table that of the men tried for 
desertion 646 have been retained m service (61 after having been 
sentenced to dishonorable discharge), 224 have been sentenced to 
dishonorable discharge with that part of sentence suspended and 
remaining unexecuted at date of this report, and 1,116 have been dis- 
honorably discharged. 

The lengths of sentences of confinement as approved in cases of 
men dishonorably discharged, not including men restored to honorable 
duty or serving under suspended sentences of dishonorable dischaige, 
are shown in the table following. 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 261 

than 3 months 8 

3 to 6 months 226 

7 to 12 months 16 

Leas than 1 year 250 

1 year 425 

1 J years 283 

2 years 1 83 

2J years 24 

3 years 17 

3 J years 3 

4 years and over 7 

1,092 

No sentence of confinement 24 



Total 1,116 

RESTORATION OF CITIZENSHIP AND REENLISTMENT OF MEN WHOSB 
SERYIGB DURINO THE LAST FREOEDINO TERM OF ENLISTMENT WAS 
NOT HONEST AND FAITHFUL. 

Applications were received during the year from 141 deserters for 
restoration of the rights of citizenship under the provisions of the 
act of Congress approved August 22, 1912 (37 Stat. L., 356). Favor- 
able action was taken upon all of these applications. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the act cited, the enlistment (under 
certain conditions) of former soldiers whose service during their pre- 
ceding terms of enlistment was not honest and faithful was continued 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916. Of the 1,431 applications 
for permission to enlist a^ain received during the year from such 
former soldiers 99 were mvorably considered, 1,182 were denied, 
either because the offenses for whicn the soldiers had been discharged 
were of such a nature as to preclude their enlistment or because their 
conduct while in service or after discharge had not been such as to 
warrant favorable consideration, and 150 applications had not been 
finally acted upon because evidence or reports needed for an intelli- 
gent consideration of the applications haa not been received in this 
office. During the year 45 men who had been granted permission 
to reenlist (17 of them being former deserters) availed themselves of 
the privilege. In addition 1 man (a former deserter) was reenlbted 
at the United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, imder 
standing authority given to the commandant, a total of 46. Of 
these, 1 (a former deserter) has deserted, 1 has been discharged under 
paragraph 148i, Army Regulations, and 44 (17 of them former 
deserters) were serving with their organizations on Jime 30, 1916. 

Of the 204 former soldiers (91 of them former deserters) referred 
to in the last annual report as having enlisted during the fiscal years 
1914 and 1915 after a prior service that was not honest and faithful, 1 
has died while absent in desertion, 37 (13 of them former deserters) 
have been dishonorably discharged, 2 have been discharged without 
honor, 18 (8 of them former deserters) have been discharged under 
paragraph 148^, Army Regulations, 2 (1 of them a former deserter) 
nave died while in service, 14 (7 of them former deserters) have been 
honorably discharged — 2 with the rank of corporal, 14 (9 of them for- 
mer deserters) were absent in desertion at the close of the fiscal year 
1916, 1 was serving sentence (dishonorable discharge suspended) for 
desertion, 1 (a former deserter) was present awaiting tnal for deser- 



262 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENEBAL. 



tion, and 114 (52 of them former deserters) were on duty with their 
organizations at that time — 16 with the rank of corporal, 1 with the 
rank of electrician sergeant, second class, 3 with the rank of sergeant, 
1 with the rank of first sergeant, and 1 with the rank of sergeant, 
first class. 

The total number of these reenlistments prior to the dose of the 
fiscal year 1916 is 250. 

In tabulated form the results appear as follows: 





1914 


1915 


1916 


Totals. 


Raenllsted 


(34) 


93 


(57) 111 


(18) 


46 


(109)250 


Honorably discharged 


(4) 


10 
1 

31 
1 
fl 
1 
5 


(2) 4 

(») w 

(8) 12 




m " 


Died 




T)1«f>OP<Y^blV d*SCh«ri?«d . r . r r - t - - - r r r r r - - T 




(13) 37 


Discharsad without honor 




2 


Dischareed undar oar. 1484. Armv Raeulatloiis 


1 


(8) 19 


Died In desertion 




Absent in desertion, Jane 30. 1910 

Serving sentence (dishonorable discharge sospended) for deser- 
tion, June 30. 191« 


(5) 9 
1 


(1) 


1 


(10) U 
1 


Present, awaituur trial for dwertton. June 30. 1916 


(1») 


1 
47 




(1) 1 
(69) 158 


Present for duty. June 30, I91d. , 


(83) 67 


(17) 


44 






Totals .*. 


(34) 


93 


(57) 111 


(18) 


46 


(100) 250 




\*w«/ ^ww 



NoTB.— Figures in paranthesai indicate nomlMr of men who were convicted of deMrtion prior to 
Ustment. 

DISCHABOES OF ENLISTED MEN BT OBDEB. 

Of the 8,051 discharges by order, as shown in the table opposite 
page 24 of thus report, 602 (not including 17 discharged upon suigeon's 
certificate of disability) were discharged under the provisions of 
para^aph 148^, Army Regulations, which provides for the discharge 
of eiuisted men who are inapt, or who do not have the required degree 
of adaptability, or who have undesirable traits of character; 5,747 
were discharged by purchase imder rules governing such discharge, 
and the remaining 1,702 were discharged for vanous causes, we 
principal ones being on ac(K)unt of fraudulent enlistment, desertion, 
imprisonment by the civil authorities, to enter the Soldiers' Home, 
and for the convenience of the Government. 

Of the discharges by purchase ordered, 611 were ordered by the 
War Department, 2,953 by the commanding general. Eastern Depart- 
ment, 132 by the commanding general. (Antral Department, 1,251 
by the commanding general. Southern Department, 169 by the com- 
manding general, rhilippine Department, 272 by the commanding 
feneral, Hawaiian Department, and 359 by the commanding general^ 
Western Department. 

Of the discharges imderparagraph 148^ ordered during the year 
276 were ordered by the War Department, 137 by the commandinfi" 

fenerd, Eastern Department, 6 by the commandiiLg general, Centnu 
>epartment, 71 by the commanchng general. Southern Department, 
36 Dy the commanding general. Western Department. 2 by the com- 
manding general, Phihppine Department, and 44 by the commanding 
general, Hawaiian Department. 

Under the provisions of paragraph 139. Armv Regulations, a com- 
mander of a territorial department or moDilizeci division is authorized 
to discharge enlisted men by purchase, on accoimt of desertion or 
imprisonment by civil court or imder paragraph 148^, Army Regu- 
'tions. 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 263 

DISCHABOES ON SUBGEON's CERTIFICATE OF DISABIUTT. 

It appears from the official returns that 1,329 enlisted men of the 
Regular Army were discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability 
during the year. This number is larger than the nmnber (1,168) 
discJiarged during the preceding year, and was also larger than the 
number (1,004) dischai^ed during the fiscal year 1914. 

The number of discharges for disability is larger during the year 
1916 than during any of tne three precedmg years, and based on the 
number of enlistment contracts in force during the respective years, 
the percentage is greater for the year 1916 than for either of the three 
preceding years, the percentage being 1913, 0.99; 1914, 0.80; 1915, 
0.85: and 1918, 1.06. 

An examination of the records shows that 691 of the 1,329 dis- 
charges on surgeon's certificate of disability during the past fiscal 
year were based on disabilities that existed prior to enlistment. Of 
the 1,168 men discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability during 
the preceding year 707 were discharged because of disability existing 

Srior to enlistment, and during the year 1914, out of a total of 1,004 
ischar^es of this class, 545 were discharged because of disabilities 
that existed prior to enhstment. These items in terms of percentage 
for the past three years are as follows: 1916, 52.0; 1915. 60.6: and 
1914, 54.2. The percentage of discharges on accoimt ot disability 
existing prior to enlistment was less durmg the past year than it was 
during any of the three preceding years. 

THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. 

The total number of officers of The Adjutant General's Department 
remained unchanged during the fiscal year. Of the 23 officers con- 
stituting the department, 4 are permanent and 19 are detailed from 
the line of the Army. Three of the detailed officers were reheved 
and were replaced by other officers during the year. One permanent 
officer of the department was retired and his place was fiUed by the 
detail of an officer. 

The act of Jime 3,1916, provides for an increase of 27 officers of The 
Adjutant General's Department, but none of the increase authorized 
was for the fiscal year 1916. 

THE BOLTrARY ACADEMY. 

On June 30, 1916, there were imder assi^ment to duty at the 
United States MiHtary Academy 99 conMnissioned officers (including 
7 professors, 2 acting professors, and 2 associate professors), 1 libra- 
rian, 1 master of the sword, 1 teacher of music, 4 civilian instructors in 
languages, and 2 civilians employed as instructors in fencing, broad- 
sword exercise, and mihtary gjTunastics. a total of 108. This is a 
decrease of 7 since July 1, 1915, the date of the superintendent's report 
for that year. 

On September 1, 1915, there were 630 cadets on the rolls, includ- 
ing 4 Filipino cadets and 2 foreign cadets from China. Between 
September 1, 1915, and September 1, 1916, 39 cadets were dis- 
charged for deficiency in studies; 1 was discharged for deficiency in 




264 REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 

conduct: 1 was discharged for deficiency in studies and in conduct; 
8 were oiscliaTged by reason of physical disability; 15^ induding 1 
foreign cadet, from China, resigned; 125, including 1 Filipino cadet^ 
were graduated; and 1 was accidentally drowned. In June, 1916, 
158 cadets were admitted; in July, 1916, 164 cadets, including 1 
foreign cadet, from Cuba, were admitted; and in Auras t^ 1916, 
3 were admitted. Four ex-cadets, who were reappointea, with the 
approval of the academic board, were also admitted in Aurast.. 1916. 

On September 1, 1916, the beginning of the current academic year, 
there were 769 cadets on the rolls, including 4 Filipino cadets and 
2 foreign cadets — 1 from China and 1 from Cuba. Those cadets 
were divided among the four classes, as follows: First class, 141; 
second class, 156; third class, 147; and fourth class, 325. 

The usual examination of candidates for admission to the Military 
Academv was held at various military posts, beginning March 21, 
1916. An additional examination was held, beginning June 6, 
1916, with a view to fill the 102 vacancies tnat existed after the 
regular examination, and also to fill the vacancies (166) in the first 
annual increment of the increase in the Corps of Cadets provided for 
by the act of Congress approved May 4, 1916 (Public, No. 191, 64th 
Cong.). Inasmuch as it oecame apparent that not enough cadets 
to ffll the vacancies in the first increment would be obtained from 
this examination it was decided to hold still another examination 
(physical) on June 27, 1916, mental qualification being by certifi- 
cate only. The total number of candidates designated for the three 
examinations was 1,228. Of that number, 202 failed to report for 
exanunation: 12 declined appointment, their appointments were 
canceled or they were prevented by sickness from reporting; 109 
failed to complete the mental or physical examination, or both; 
515 were rejected u{>on mental or physical examination, or upon both; 
1 was refused adimssion because of cribbing, and (at the June 27 
examination) 2 qualified physicall]^ and failed to submit educational 
certificates. There were no vacancies for 58 alternates and 5 candi- 
dates at lar^e who qualified. The remaining 324 candidates were 
found qualified and were admitted to the academy. 

The act of Congress approved May 4, 1916, referred to above, 
authorized an increase of 664 in the Corps of Cadets. It is pre- 
scribed that that increase shall be divided into four annual incre- 
ments, each increment to be as nearly equal as practicable. Alter 
the examination of Jime 27 there were 26 vacancies in the first incre- 
ment. 

The number of cadets authorized for 1916 is 834. There were 767 
cadets on the rolls (excluding the two foreign cadets) on September 
1, 1916, leaving 67 vacancies on that date. That number has been 
increased by resignations and death, so that the number of vacancies 
now is 75. The number of cadets authorized for 1917 is 1,000; for 
1918, l,166j and for 1919, 1,332. 

Information concerning the operation of the several academic 
departments, the enlarging of the Militaiy Academy, discipline of 
the Corps of Cadets, and other matters oi interest are to be foimd 
in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of the United States Mili- 
tary Academy. As it is customary to print that report with the 
other reports of the War Department, further reference to those sub- 
jects is omitted from this report. 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 265 

BECBUTITNO FOB THE BEOULAB ABMT. 

The general recruiting detail for the Regular Army at the begin-' 
ning of the fiscal year 1916 consisted of 124 conunissioned officers 
and 636 enlisted men. At the end of that year the detail consisted 
of 126 officers and 1,077 enlisted men. Included in tiie number of 
commissioned officers so detailed at the end of the year are 66 offi- 
cers regularly on duty at general recruit depots and 60 officers on 
duty at recruiting stations. In the last mentioned nmnber are in- 
cluded 30 retired officers detailed on active duty under the provi- 
sions of the act of Congress approved April 23, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 
264). Due to the increase in the strength of the Army authorized 
by the joint resolution of Congress approved March 17, 1916, and 
the act of Confess approved June 3, 1916, and the consequent neces- 
sity for securmg the niunber of recruits authorized, the recruiting 
personnel has been increased in niunber 443, the increase consisting 
of 2 commissioned officers and 441 enlisted men. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year 84 central recruiting stations were 
maintained, and on June 30, 1916, there were 189. Of the latter 
number, 54 were main stations, each in charge of a recruiting officer, 
and the remainder were stations auxiliary to the main stations. In 
three recruiting districts additional comnnssioned officers are assigned 
to assist the recruiting officer in charge. New York having 3 and (3u- 
cago and San Francisco having 1 each of such additional officers. 
An additional main station and recruiting district, with a commissioned 
officer in charge, was also authorized at Houston, Tex., within the 
fiscal year covered by this report, but the station was not fully opened 
for business until after the dose of the fiscal year. In addition to 
the main and auxiliary stations, temporary stations were opened and 
maintained after the increase in the Army was authorized in order to 
canvass more thoroughly the territory embraced in the various 
recruiting districts within the United States. 

Within the fiscal year 1915 the largest number of stations of all 
kinds — ^main, auxiliary, and temporary — maintained in any one 
month was 270, and the smallest number was 94. Within the fiscal 
year covered by this report the corresponding numbers were 366 and 
94, respectively. In this connection, it may be remarked that prior 
to the mcrease of the Army authorized, the average number of stations 
maintained was not increased, although, due to the activity of the 
officers and enlisted men on recruiting auty, a sufficient number of 
recruits were secured to keep the Army filled to the strength then 
authorized. As a matter of fact, prior to the increase authorized 
March 17, 1916, the number of recruits secured in excess of the 
number required to fill existing vacancies caused a practical cessa- 
tion of recruiting in some arms of the service. 

The practice maintained for several years of sending applicants for 
enlistment, accepted at the recruiting stations, to the recruit depots 
for physical examination and enlistment was continued throughout 
the past fiscal year with the same satisfactory results experienced in 
preceding years. 

Included in the term "reenlistments" in this report are those former 
soldiers who enlist again within three months of the date of termina- 
tion of their prior service and are thereby entitled, under existing law, 
to three months' additional pay, on second enUstment and continuous- 
service pay on any such enlistment, while under the term "enlist- 



266 



REPORT OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



ments" are included men of no previous service and also those men 
who having had former service did not enlist again within three 
months from the date of the termination of their former service. 

Within the fiscal year 1916 enlistments and reenUstments for the 
Regular Army numbered 27,468, including 35,450 for the line of the 
Army, 601 for the Hospital Corps (now Medical Department), 329 for 
the Quartermaster Corps, 374 for other staff departments, and 714 
for the Phihppine Scouts. The enlistments numbered 22,182, includ- 
ing enlistments of 3,238 men with former service. Of these enlist- 
ments, 21,002 (2,920 with former service) were for the line of the 
Army, 412 (92 with former service) for the Hospital Corps or Medical 
Department, 116 (71 with former service) for the Quartermaster 
Corps, 201 (66 with former eervice) for other staff departments, and 
451 (89 with former service) for the Philippine Scouts. The reen- 
listments numbered 5,286, of which 4,448 were for the hne of the 
Army, 189 for the Hospital Corps or Medical Department, 213 for the 
Quartermaster Corps, 173 for other staff departments, and 263 for the 
PhiUppine Scouts. 

With very few exceptions, rendered necessary by the demands of 
regiments stationed on the Mexican border, the plan authorized by 
the Secretary of War several years ago of furnishing recruits to organ- 
izations senuannually, was adhered to throughout tne past fiscal year. 

The total number of those who apphed for enlistment in the Army 
in each recruiting district, the number of such applicants accepted or 
rejected in each district, and the number of accepted applicants after- 
ward rejected at recruiting depots are set forth m the following table: 



lUmiltlindblrtlti. 


Numlwral 

•ass; 


Nombwor 








1 

3C9 
SW 

ta 

i 

i 

ass 

i 
1 


§ 
!;S 

an 
i.om 

i 
1 

i;os6 

'« 

l,OU 
l,4H 

■'i 

1,333 

1,114 

930 

12, 2m 


i 

i;<>ia 

1'W7 

'STB 

,.!S 
!:S 
|;S 

i)iw 

i's 




















































































































Ntwirk.K.J 


J" 








«» 











BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



267 



Recruiting dislricts. 



Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsbtuih, Pa. 

Portland, Me 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Richmond. Va 

Roanoke, Va. 

St. Louis, Mo 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Francisco, CaL.. 

Savannah, Qa. 

Scranton, Pa. 

Seattle. Wash 

Spokane, Wash 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Terra Haate, Ind 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Wichita, Kans 

ToUl 



Number of 

applicants 

accepted. 



837 
353 
176 
353 
289 
2T7 
18« 

1,476 
157 

2,937 
532 
261 
150 
201 
227 
398 
339 
292 



30,993 



Number of 

applicants 

rejected. 



2,190 

2,173 
576 

1,347 

1,250 
488 
482 

3,865 

864 

12,505 

2,221 
968 
404 
410 

1,171 
723 

1,163 
925 



102,097 



Total num- 
ber of 
applicants. 



Applicants 
accepted at 

stations 
andsub8»> 

aoently 

rejected at 

depots and 

depot posts. 



3.027 

2,526 

751 

1,700 

1.539 

765 

068 

5,341 

1,021 

15,532 

2,753 

1,229 

554 

611 

1,396 

1,121 

1,502 

1,217 



133,090 



175 
34 
38 
44 
48 
43 
17 

311 
28 

535 
18 
56 
10 
26 
31 
56 
31 
51 



4,194 



Analysis of the preceding table shows that 23 per cent of those who 
applied for enlistment at recruiting stations were accepted and that 
13 per cent of the accepted apphcants were afterward rejected at 
depots. These iten^s for the preceding fiscal year were 26 per cent 
and 13 per cent, respectively. 

The following taole shows the number of enlistments for the 
Regular Army and the number of applicants rejected at the recruit 
depots and other military posts and m the field within the fiscal year 
1916: 



station or post. 



Number 
enlisted. 



Namber 
ri!)ected. 



Total 
namber 
exam- 
ined. 



Oeoeral recntitiog stations. 



Recruit depots: 
Colnmoos 



B«nieki.0l 
(arrae]cs,M0 



Jeflerson Barradcs, 
Port Loan, Colo... 
Port McDowed, CM. 
PortSlocam^N.Y. 



Ohio. 



Total. 



Depot poets: 

Fort Bliss, Tte 



Fort DooctMLUtah 

Fort Gcorse Wr^bt, Wash,* 

Jackson Barracks, L«,* , 

Fort Lawtoo, Wash^. 

Fort Ofdetborpe, Ga.« 

Fort Sam Hooston, Tex,, 

United States Disdpltoarr Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kaos. 
Vancouver Barracks. Wssb^ 



Total. 



• f •tfrt0f0trtrftrr**»*»**» 



193 



6,611 
6.667 
L234 
Z416 
5,066 



30. 9M 



8 
161 
228 



608 

W7 

29 

370 



Inthefldd -^^ j ^j^ 

Toeio Uko Bit^iafmi f4 tMi^j / 




768 

1,080 

328 

549 

1,322 



4.0«7 



1 

1 

6 
26 
10 
54 
19 

6 i 



m 



6,379 
7,747 
1.662 
3,966 
6.388 



2&041 



70 
9 

167 

ra 

278 
657 
206 
36 
327 



2,002 

2.421 

1.348 

136 

In, 141 



• Ptsront toosil as 4^v4 j^^M iUg H,*^ 



i/'fttAAMf* :4^iJf4 m 4^fi pff*t May 1% 1916. 
* f/it^^j^U'M^i^ M 4*iM poet Hm. Vt, 1914, 



268 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL* 



The foregoing table does not include 714 enlistments and 197 
rejections for the PhiUppine Scouts. Including those, the aggregate 
number of enlistments for the entire Regular Army within the &cal 
year was 27,468 and the total number olrejections 134,149, of which 
102,097 were rejected at the recruiting stations, 4,387 at recruit 
depots, and 197 for the Philippine Scouts. This makes an aggregate 
of 161,617 enUstments and rejections for the entire Regular Army 
withm the fiscal year. 

Of the rejected appUcants, 14,987 were rejected because of minoriU", 
2.728 because they were aliens, and 3.537 because of illiteracy. Of 
the accepted apphcants 2,196 declinea to enlist at depots or eloped 
en route thereto. 

The race and nativity of those enlisted and reenlisted in the Army 
within the fiscal year 1916 are set forth in the following table: 





Regular Army. 


Phflip- 

pine 

Scouts. 




Race ftDd nativity. 

• 


Line of 
Army. 


Staff de- 
partments, 
not includ- 
ing Hospi- 
tal Corps 
and Quar- 
master 
Corps. 


Medical 
Depart- 
ment. 


Quarter- 
master- 
Corps. 


Total. 


^ 


Native white: 

Enli*>i.ient8 


18,243 
3,306 


190 
187 


367 
146 


96 
166 


18,808 
3,764 




18,808 


Rfff^plfstments 




3,754 








Total 


21.548 


327 


513 


264 


22,652 




22,652 






Forebn white: 

E^nlistments * 


2,136 
057 


11 
36 


43 
82 


16 
86 


2,206 
761 




2,206 


Reenlistments. ........... 




761 








Total 


2,793 


47 


75 


52 


2.967 




2.967 






Colored: 

Enlistments 


563 
413 




2 
11 


2 
11 


666 

435 




566 


Reenlistinents 






436 










Total 


975 




13 


13 


1,001 




1,001 








Indians: 

EnUstments 


14 








14 




14 


Rf^nit^tments , 


























Total 


14 








14 




14 











Porto Ricans: 

Enlistments 


47 
73 








47 
73 




47 


Reeolistmfnts 










7S 






...... 








Total 


120 








120 




120 






............ 








.......... 




FHiplnos: 

Enlistments 










451 
263 


451 


Reenlistm^nts .. ..^... 


^ 










283 
















Total 






I 




714 


714 








..........j 








Total enlistments 

Total reenlistmenti 


21,002 
4,448 


201 
173 


412 
180 


116 
213 


21,731 
6,023 


451 
263 


22.182 
5,286 


AeKTeeate 


25,450 


374 


GOl 


329 


26,754 714 i 27.4fia 
















' 



Analysis of the last preceding table discloses that practically 90 
per cent of the original enlistments of white soldiers were enlistments 
of natives of the Lnited States. Within each of the three years last 
preceding that percentage was 86, 84, and 87, respectively. 

The table following shows the number of enlistments and reenlist- 
ments monthly in the line of the Army within the three years ended 
Jime 30, 1916. 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT QENKRAL. 



a«9 



ICantlu. 



Jaly 

August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December. 
January... 
February.. 

March 

Apra 

May 

June 

Total 



Fiscal year ended— 



June 30, 1916. 



June 30, 1015. 



Enlist- 
ments. 



1,325 
1,547 
1,582 
1,423 
1,460 
1,441 
1,488 
1,104 
1,961 
2,483 
2,058 
3,130 



21,002 



Reenlist- 
ments. 



820 
744 
688 
688 
390 
213 
125 
227 
110 
246 
109 
88 



4,448 



Total. 



2,145 
2,291 
2,2T0 
2,111 
1,850 
1,654 
1,613 
1,331 
2,071 
2,729 
2,167 
3,218 



25,450 



Enlist- 
ments. 



2,211 
2.664 
2,737 
3,202 
3,329 
3,316 
3,542 
2,761 
2,116 
1,540 
1,463 
1,461 



30,342 



Reenlist- 
monts. 



1,318 

1,439 

1,348 

1,353 

1,249 

1,506 

1,535 

1,074 

1,035 

7W 

705 

724 



14,085 



Total. 



3,529 
4,108 
4,085 
4,555 
4,578 
4,824 

5, on 

3,835 
3,151 
2,337 
2,168 
2,1HA 



44,4/7 



Jiwe30,l9l4, 



Enllnt- 
menti. 



1,671 
2,0(15 
1,H74 
2, (MO 
2,454 
3,447 
3,2D5 
2,3H8 
2,311 
2,754 
2,4M 



28,559 



moMtJi. 



431 

mo 

KA7 

l,ao6 

1,0A3 
1,0JI7 

l,(r/7 

1,101 



Total, 



s.nwi 

y. 4*11 

»,44l 

a.iil 

4,^Ml 

4,411 
4,441 
»,il7 

n,m 

»,A11 
5l,f»47 

M 'HA 



The average total monthly enlistments, including reenlmtmi;ni«, 
derived from the foregoing table are as followH: 

For the fiac^ year 1914 %,V0 

For the fiac*l year 191 5 Z,W£ 

For the fiacal yearlSB 2. Ui 

The decrease observed in the numT>er of enViAimfmin an/i r^uUnf^ 
ments is bdieved to be doe to the lo\ifm'\u% fttnAfn: Fir^t, tb« r4^tnf> 
tion on reemitiog that prevailed for pra/^jr ally th^ firnt two thirdtt of 
the fiscal ^ear, due to the fact that fiunn/^ that p^ru//! th^ ^^fftf 
was practicaDj filled. S'icond, <\nr\u^ tr.e la^t or#^^ tr^fH ^4 U^n 
fiscal year when rerruj^intr wjw ^*irr.'iiA*^/i ff^ tr*^ purff^M^ ^4 oht^nfh' 
ing the additional rv^^.^-i provK>>^l hy Ui^. k</><U'v'/f# tft^^^'n^tft^ 
the Armv. labor cor*^:-'. ^h *r.ro';$^r.'V^*» tr^ f/f^.wrj w^r^ «i*/fi ff.at 
aO who iesmd to cVjur* '^rr.f^j*',;. rr.^,*. ,r, ti.A \A^ r^'^Uly o\^*.h t.f/\ *t 
with good wagei. ^jlta r^.c^rs.t^ ." 't*ff,^./ V/ ^^jr^ r^z-ri/^* 7 f.,^4, 
the provkirjCH /yf j«w *r.i>r, //.-'sr.gf ^%4^ f*r. r,^V/j v^,/,^"* nrf^'^ 
enlisted after ^,r^:y^m \ Vi/i i'%^:, r-Ar,*. * ^/ ,^^i ///•#/ /*^« 
from the dai;^ 'vf *r..- ^ ^''* -<>r >-->!- / *"'. ^^a^; r>t f* »i:.'f^ ^4 

The norr/'^r '/ "" .-■- *^'- 4' , '^^^ , .^^-^-^ '%f ',^^'/ ^,&9, <4 ♦'■^ 
service w.*"..-, *:>» -i?^ .;«^>*- ^' '-*'• "*--' X*'* -^^ *^.o'tr% .r, ^>< jm. 
lowing tahf 



.'.'', 



* ^^-^ 



i^m r 



"■■ > 



»*•■ 



fta^VpWi 



-y 



C 



.»*-* 



• « 



-jC ' '^ 



270 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



The relative increase or decrease in the number of enlistments or 
reenlistments in the different branches of the service is more apparent 
when the nimibers in the last preceding table are reduced to percent- 
ages of the total number of enlistments and reenlistments lor each 
year compared. For that reason those percentages are shown in the 
table which follows: 



Bmicfaas of swvioe. 



Staff departments. . . 

Engineers 

Cavalry 

Field AitiDery 

Coast Artillery Corps 

Inlantry 

MlsoeUaneoos 

Total 



Percentages of total nomber of enlistments and reenlistments daring the 

fiscal year ended— 



Jane 30, 1016. 



Enlist- 
ments. 



2.72 

1.17 

25.70 

4.60 

21.fi0 

25.43 

.04 



81.22 



Re. 
enlist- 
ments. 



2.15 
.27 
8.01 
1.00 
4.66 
7.52 
.17 



TotaL 



4.87 

1.44 

28.77 

5.60 

26.16 

32.05 

.21 



18.78 



100.00 



Jon 1 30, 1015. 



Enlist- 
ments. 



1.68 

1.20 

15.41 

3.48 

15.54 

28.35 

.04 



65.70 



Re- 
enlist- 
mmts. 



4.57 

.62 

4.00 

1.25 

8.40 

14.24 

.32 



34.30 



Total 



6.25 

1.82 

20.31 

4.73 

23.04 

42.50 

.36 



100.00 



Jane 30, 1014 



Enlist- 
ments. 



1.02 

.05 

20.06 

5.05 

15.62 

25.58 

.05 



Re- 
enlfat- 
ments. 



4.35 

.66 

4.21 

1.00 

6.73 

12.38 

.45 



70.13 20.87 



TotaL 



6.37 

1.61 

26.17 

6.14 

22.35 

37.06 

.50 



100.00 



The comparison similar to that made in previous reports of the 
number of reenlistments in the several branches of the service with 
the authorized strength of those branches shows with greater accuracy 
the relative nimiber of reenlistments. Therefore, the following table 
is presented showing the nimiber of reenlistments to each 1,000 of 
the authorized enlisted stren^h of the several branches of the service 
within the three fiscal years last past: 



Branches of service. 



Staff departments. . . 

Engineers 

Cavalry 

Field Artillery 

Coast Artillery Corps 

Infantry 

Miacellaneoas 

The Army 



Nomber of reenUstments to 
each 1,000 of the anthoriaed 
enlisted strength dnrtog 
the fiscal year ended Jane 
30- 



1016 


lOlS 


1014 


40 


in 


178 


31 


150 


143 


53 


160 


124 


46 


105 


83 


65 


208 


148 


42 


158 


126 


73 


24 


30 


40 


167 


130 



The marked decrease in the relative number of reenlistments in 
each branch of the service within the past fiscal year is doubtless 
entirely due to the fact that existing law, as previously pointed out, 
precluded such reenlistments. 

With the view of keeping fully informed as to the comparative 
eflBciency of each of the vanous methods of advertising for recruits, 
the practice has been continued of re(][uirin^ recruiting officers at 
stations to report whether the applications Tor enlistment made to 
them were, or were not, the result, wholly or in part, of any form of 




KEPOBT OF THE ADJUTAIYT GENERAL. 271 

adyertisingy and, if so, of what form. The number of applications 
reported to have been the residt of each of the several methods of 
aclvertising during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, is as follows: 



Methods of advertisiDf. 



Bight of rarniitizif flag and statloD 

In parka and Muarts 

Recruiting poston 

Oanvaoe by recruiting parties 

Recruiting circulars 

Recruiting booklet. "The United 8Utei« Army aa a Career " . . . 

Newspaper advertising 

Special cireulan issoed by recruiting officers 

Handbills 

Bleetrte signs ra districts) 

Advertising cards 

Personal lelten fhMn recruiting officers 

News items in newspapers 

BasebaU team (1 dlstrwt) 

Blidee is movittg-piolure booses (5 districts) 

Signs on elevated stations (1 district) 

Postal oards 

Bookiei, ** BxpsrlMiee of a Reeruit in the United SUtee Army 
Photographs a district) 

Total 

NottheiesoltofadTertisIng 

Total mmber of applioants reported upon 



Number 
of applica- 
tions. 



50,011 

25,288 

19,009 

8,9W 

6,970 

4,445 

3,n5 

3,350 

3,253 

500 

500 

480 

446 

416 



115 

» 

10 

5 



128,862 
4,000 



U32,943 



1 Thisnnmber Is 148 lees than the whole number of aeospted and rejected applicantsshown by trlmanthly 
Nperts of reemitlng (p. 87), no rsporta having been received in that number of caaes. 

Within the fiscal year covered by this report, as in previous years, 
the sight of the recruiting flag and station proved the most proUfic 
method of advertising for recruits, the park and square parties and 
the recruiting posters being second and third, respectively. 

The recruiting booklet issued in 1914 has continued to be a very 
effective means of advertising and of conveying information relative 
to the advantages received from an enlistment m the Army. A new 
edition of this booklet has been authorized, amended to conform 
with the provisions of the act of Congress approved Jime 3, 1916. 

Another booklet which has been and whicn, it is thought, will con- 
tinue to be a potent method of advertising for the recruiting service 
is the ''Experience of a Recruit,'' pubfished by the department 
within the past fiscal year. This booklet relates m a very readable 
and attractive manner the experience of a recruit who enlisted at 
Columbus Barracks, Ohio, and details ejmlicitly his experience while 
at the depot. The personal statement of the recruit was so forceful, 
truthful, and favorable to the Army that it was published by the 
department without comment. 

Another publication prepared and issued in connection with 
recruiting for the Regular Army is the pamphlet entitled ** Guide to 
Civil Employment for Ex-Soldiers." In connection with the prepara- 
tion of this publication information was obtained from each recruiting 
officer throughout the United States relative to civil emplovment 
in the respective recruiting districts that might be open to former 
Boldiors of the Army discnarged with character at least **Good." 
A full list of these employrnonts arranged by States is included in 
the pubUcation, together with ijistructions describing the method bv 
whidi prospective appUcants, fonner soldiers, may get in touch witn 
prospective employers. 



272 BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

A copy of this publication will be placed in all permanent mess and 
soldiers^ reading rooms and a copy will be given to every man leaving 
the service whose character is not less than "Good." This guide to 
civil employment has received favorable comment from all to whose 
attention it has been brought and it is believed that it will prove to be 
of great utilitv to former soldiers in enabling them to obtain emplov- 
ment and will act as a stimulus to recruiting by pointing out to tne 
prospective applicant for enlistment the advantages possible for 
vocational training in the Army and assuring him that the military 
authorities are prepared to aid him in applving that vocational 
training in civil pursuits after he shall have left the Army. 

Immediately upon the authorization of the increase in the Army 
March 17, 1916, advertising for recruits, which prior to that time 
had been largely restricted, was greatly expanded. As previously 
stated many new stations were opened, largely increasing the number 
of the recruiting fla^ and stations. Special circulars were issued. 
Newspaper advertising was increased. Additional booklets were 
printed and the recruiting oflBcers were instructed to work without 
regard to hours in the effort to obtain recruits. 

Under the provisions of the act of Congress approved June 3, 1916, 
section 27, tne President is authorized in his discretion to utilize 
the services of the postmasters of the second, third, and fourth classes 
in procuring the enlistment of recruits lor the Army. For the 
purpose of carryingout the provisions of this law the matter has been 
taken up with the rost OflBce Department with the view of securing 
the cooperation of that department and of the postmasters con- 
cerned. 

At the date of the preparation of this report information is not 
available from which a definite statement can be prepared showing 
the expense of the recruiting service for the fiscal year covered by 
this report, but constant effort has been maintained throughout the 
year to minimize expenses and eliminate all costs that were not 
absolutely required for the needs of the service. Telegraphic cor- 
respondence as heretofore has been carefully scrutinized with the 
view of reduction in tolls. The large number of recruiting stations 
previously maintained were kept closed during the greater portion 
of the fiscal jear and were only reopened when the increase in the 
Army necessitated such reopemng and a consequent increase in the 
recruiting personnel. Prior to that time the number of stations had 
been reduced greatly, with a conseauent reduction in rentals, pay, 
and allowances for the personnel ana other expenses incident to the 
maintenance of stations and the mileage expenses of officers. 

As in previous years, applicants for enlistment who, after having 
been accepted at recruiting stations and sent to depots, fail througn 
their own fault to enlist there, are required, when such applicants 
a^ain apply at recruiting stations, to reimburse the Government for 
the expense incident to tneir former application and failure to enlist* 

REGULAK ARMY RESERVE. 

The act of August 24, 1912, provides for two classes of reservists — 
those furloughed to the Reserve after an active service of four years, 
or at the discretion of the Secretary of War after a service of three 
■-ears, and those who were honorably discharged and voluntarily 




REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 273 

enlisted in the Reserve. Enlistment contracts entered into prior to 
November 1, 1912, did not contain, imder the provisions of the law 
referred to, any provision for service in the Reserve, and consequently 
no furloughs to the Reserve could take place prior to November 1, 

1915. For convenience, those furloughed to the Reserve will be 
designated class A reservists and those who voluntarily enlist in the 
Reserve will be designated class B reservists. While all furloughs 
to the Reserve during the year were made under the provisions of 
the act before referred to, it is proper to add that the act of Jime 3, 

1916, provides that the enlistment period after November 1, 1916, 
shall be seven years, three years with the colors and four years in the 
Reserve, with a provision that if a soldier is considered sufficiently 
trained he may be furloughed to the Reserve after an active service 
of one year. 

Between November 1, 1915, and June 30, 1916, the number of men 
furloughed to the Reserve was 4,626. Of those, 1 was discha^ed to 
enable him to complete his naturalization as a citizen of the United 
States and to accept employment under the Grovemment, 2 were 
discharged because they had been sentenced to imprisonment by a 
civil court, and 2 died of disease, leaving 4,621 class A reservists on 
June 30, 1916. 

Because of conditions along the Mexican border, on May 17, 1916, 
the Wax Department directedthat all furloughs to the Reserve at the 
expiration of three years active service, except in the cases of mem- 
bers of the Coast Artillery Corps, be suspended. Consequently, 
there were very few furlougns to the Reserve during the last month 
and a half of tne past fiscfd year, and the foregoing figure does not 
represent the number that would have been in the Reserve on June 
30 last imder normal conditions. 

The act of June 3, 1916, authorizes the payment of $2 per month 
to reservists andprovides for their field training each year. This 
will enable the War Department to keep in closer touch with the 
reservists, and, as a physical examination is provided during their 
attendance at field traimng, the department will also be able to dis- 
charge the physically unfit. Heretofore members of the Reserve were 
carried as members of the organizations in which they were serving 
at the time of furlough, but now they are transferred or assigned to 
the arm or corps to which they belonged, and their records are sent 
to the conmianding general of the mihtary department in which they 
elect to reside, fit the event of mobilization they are directed to 
report to the commanding general of the department in which they 
reside for assignment to organizations. On June 28, 1916, orders 
were issued to the several department commanders within the. con- 
tinental limits of the United States to mobilize the Regular Army 
Reserve, excepting members of the Coast Artillery Corps, for assign- 
ment to Regular Army units serving on the Mexican Dorder in the 
Southern Department. No figures are available at this time from 
which the number of reservists who responded to the mobilization 
call can be ascertained, but it is purposea to give such figures in my 
next annual report. 

On June 30, 1916, the class B reservists numbered 27 men. During 
the year 12 men enlisted in this class, and 4 were dischai^ed upon 
expiration of service, making a net gain during the year of 8. 

69176''— WAR 1916— VOL 1 18 



274 BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

ENLISTED RESERVE CORPS. 

For the purpose of securing a reserve of enlisted men for the En- 

S'neer, Si^al, and Quartermaster Corps, and the Ordnance and 
edical Departments, additional to those furloughed to the Reserve 
after completion of a term of active service in the Regular Army, an 
Enlisted Reserve Corps was authorized by section 55 of the act of 
Jime 3, 1916. The section referred to did not become eflFective until 
July 1, 1916. 

The corps is to consist of such nimibers of enlisted men of such 
grade or grades as may be designated by the President from time to 
time. The enlistments are to be for a period of four years and of 
grades similar to those prescribed for the Regular Army. Each mem- 
ber of the corps will be furnished with a certificate of enlistment by 
The Adjutant General of the Army, showing the rank and corps or 
department for which the recipient was enlisted. Regulations nave 
been prepared for the administration of the corps and for the guidance 
of recnutin^ officers in procuring enlistments. Every effort will be 
made by this office to enlist men for the corps, and the result of those 
efforts will be submitted in the annual report for the fiscal year that 
will end Jime 30, 1917. 

CAMPS OP INSTRUCTION. 

Orders were issued early in the present calendar year to department 
commanders in the United States and Hawaii to make the necessary 
preparations for holding cam^ of instruction for officers and non- 
commissioned officers of the Organized Mihtia and joint camps for 
the several arms of the service of the Regular Army and the Organized 
Militia. 

However, in view of the necessity for the dispatching of the greater 
part of the mobile Army in the United States to the Southern De- 
partment, for duty on the Mexican border, and the consequent lack 
of an adequate number of officers and troops of the Regular Army to 
conduct properly these camps, the instructions for the holding of the 
camps were rescinded with respect to all departments in the United 
States, except the Eastern Department. The commanding general 
of that department was authorized to hold such camps for the Cavalry 
of the Regular Army and Organized Mihtia as were practicable. 
Under this authority a camp of instruction for officers and noncom- 
missioned officers of the Oi^anized Mihtia was held at Fort Myer, 
Va., May 21-28, 1916, and a joint camp of instruction for the First 
S<juadron, First Cavalry, Vermont National Guard (composed prin- 
cipally of cadets of the Norwich University), was held at Fort Ethan 
Allen, Vt., for about 10 days beginning June 4, 1916. As the reports 
of these camps have not as yet been received, no statement can be 
made at this time as to the nimiber of officers and noncommissioned 
officers who attended these camps. 

No reports have been received showing whether or not camps have 
been held in the Hawaiian Department. 

JOINT COAST DEFENSE EXERCISES. 

Joint coast defense exercises, participated in bv ^e Regular Coast 
Artillery and the Coast Artillery Militia, were '^ ^^^go held as 

'allows: 




REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 275 

EASTERN DEPARTMENT. 

Fort Constitution, N. H. Fort Williams, Me. 

Fort H. G. Wright, N. Y. Fort Greble, R. I. 

Fort Strong, Mass. Fort Andrews, Mass. 

Fort Warren, Mass. Fort Screven, Ga. 

Fort Howard, Md. Fort Moultrie, S. C. 

Fort Caswell, N. C. Fort Monroe, Va. 

WESTERN DEPARTlfENT. 

Fort Winfield Scott, Cal. Fort Worden, Wash. 

Fort Roeecrans, Cal. Fort Stevens, Oreg. 

As the reports of the department commanders on these camps have 
njt as yet Deen received m the War Department, a complete state- 
ment as to the number of troops of the Regular Army and of the 
Organized Militia participating m them can not be presented at this 
time. 

citizens' training CAMPS. 

Owing to the satisfactory results obtained from camps of this char- 
acter held in 1914 and 1915, and the enthusiasm displayed by those 
who participated therein, department commanders were authorized 
to establish similar camps for 1916, as follows: 

EASTERN DEPARTMENT. 

Flattsburg Barracks, N. Y.: 

June 5 to July 2, senior division. 

July 5 to August 8, junior division. 

July 12 to August 8, senior division. 

August 10 to September 6, senior di\4sion. 

September 8 to October 5, senior division. 
Fort Terry, N. Y.: July 5 to August 10, for students. 

Fort Wadsworth, N. Y . : Six camps of two weeks' duration each, commencing May 28. 
Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. : 

May 3 to May 30, senior division. 

June 3 to June 30, senior division. 

July 5 to August 8, junior division. 

Owing to the smaU enrollment for the July camp at Fort Oglethorpe, 
and the necessity for the use of the available Regular troops at other 
points in the department on accoimt of the mobilization of the 
l^ational Guard;, the department commander terminated the camp 
for the junior division, but all men enrolled were accepted for the 
camps at Plattsburg. 

CENTRAL DEPARTMENT. 

Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind. : 
July 5 to Aiigust 4. 
August 7 to September 6. 
September 8 to October 5. 

Under date of Jime 19, 1916, the commanding general. Central 
Department^ was authorized to cancel the camps scheduled to be held 
at Fort Benjamin Harrison on account of the lack of Regular troops 
and the mobilization of the National Guard. 

SOUTHERN DEPARTMENT. 

JPort Sam Hoiuton, Tex.: June 12 to July 8. 



Ll 



276 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAU 



WESTERN DEPARTMENT. 



Monterey, Cal.: July 10 to August 5. 

American Lake, Wash. : August 14 to September 9. 

Fort Douglas, Utah: August 21 to September 16. 

As most of the reports of the camp commanders hare not been 
received, a compilation of the number of troops of the Regular Army 
and of the numoer of civilians participating in the camps can not be 
presented in this report. 

SMALL-ARMS FIRING. 

Because the regular target-practice season varies in the several 
departments, ana in some instances extends to the close of the 
calendar year, it is impracticable to make a statement showing the 
results of the practice lor the year 1916 in this report. 

The numbers of qualifications in the several organizations of the 
line of the Army in the grades of expert rifleman, sharpshooter, and 
marksman since 1909 are shown in the following table: 



Grades. 



Years. 



1909 



Expert riflemen 
Shwpsbooters.. 
Marksmen. 



2,875 
9,790 
5,815 



1910 



2.151 
8,857 
5,741 



1911 



1,211 
7,326 
5.196 



1912 



1,312 
9.323 
6,307 



1913 



1,627 

11.144 

7,121 



1914 



2,180 

8,236 

13.423 



1915 



3,599 

7,6es 

2D.995 



Under paragraph 1345, Array Regulations, as amended by chanfi;es, 
Army Regulations, No. 43, War Department, Julv 24, 1916, an 
enlisted man who qualifies hereafter as an expert rineman is entitled 
to $5 a month, as a sharpshooter to $3 a month, and as a marksman to 
$2 a month, in addition to his pay, from the date of qualification until 
the next opportunity to requaUfy, or for one year if no opportunity 
for recjualincation is presented within that year, provided tnat during 
that time he does not attain a higher qualification and that he con- 
tinues to be a member of an organization anned with the rifle, in which 
qualification is authorized, or reenlists in such organization within 
tnree months from date of discharge therefrom.*' 
• The grade of expert revolver shot was established in revolver prac- 
tice by the Provisional Small-Anns Firing Manual, 1909, and reports 
of results of revolver firing in the several organizations of the line of 
the Army during the target years 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, and 
1915, show, respectively, 810, 1,050, 1,335, 1,412, 981, and 1.476 
qualifications in that grade. A silver badge is provided for each 
original qualification. 

Paragraph 282, Small- Arms Firing Manual, 1913, provides that 
departmental rifle and pbtol competitions shall be held in every 
alternate vear. The Secretary of War has directed that they be held 
in the oda-numbered years, and, accordingly, those competitions will 
not be held in the year 1916. 

There was held, however, in the PhiUppine Department, during this 
year, a department rifle competition for Philippine Scouts, the Secre- 
tary of War having directea that such competition be held in every 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



277 



alternate year, commencing \iHth the year 1916. In that competition 
there were 52 enlisted and 13 commissioned competitors, 14 of whom 
succeeded in winning medals. 

The Nation^ Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice has arranged 
for the holding of the national matches at State Camp, Jacksonville, 
Fla., to commence Friday, October 20, 1916, and has prescribed con- 
ditions and regulations for those competitions. Those conditions 
and regulations, having received the approval of the Secretary of War, 
were published in Bulletin No. 6, War Department, February 25, 1916. 
However, by reason of the exigencies of the service, it was decided in 
May, 1916, that there would be no participation therein by any 
teams, oflRcei-s, or enlisted men of the Regular Armv. This decision 
left to the adjutants general of the several States the matter of con- 
ducting the matches. Under date of September 13, 1916, it was 
decided by the Secretary of War, on recommendation of the Chief of 
the Militia Bureau, that the National Matches be held and that Col. 
Samuel W. Miller, Infantry, be detailed as executive officer of the 
matches. 

The National Matches for the year 1915, comprising the national 
LDdividual match, the national pistol match, ana the national team 
match, were held at Jacksonville, Fla., October 18-22, under the 
supervision of Col. Richard M. Blatchford, United States Infantry, 
as executive officer, and Capt. William C. Harllee, United States 
Marine Corps, as assistant executive officer. The results of those 
matches have been published in Bulletin No. 3, War Department, 
February 7, 1916. In the national team match there were entered 
2 teams, 1 Cavalry and 1 Infantry, from the Army, 1 team from the 
Marine Corps, 1 team from the South Carolina Mihtary Academy 
cadets, and 40 teams from the Organized MiUtia. No teams were sent 
from the Organized Militia of Cahfomia, Idaho, Michigan, Mississippi, 
Nebraska, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, or Washington. 

The competing teams were divided into three classes. A, B, and C, 
upon the basis of their relative standing in the national team match 
of 1913, and prizes were awarded to each of the teams making the 
highest aggregate scores in each class. 

The foDfowmg table shows the winning teams, the scores made, 
and the prizes won in that competition: 




Prize. 



CLASS A. 

Unitod States Army Infantry 
United States Marine C orps. . 
United States Army Cavalry. 
Massachusetts 

CLASS B. 

Pennsylvania 

Minnesota 

IlUnols 

Wyoming 

CLASS c. 

Kentucky 

North Carolina 

New Mexico , 

Vermont 



3,(4(1 . National trophy and $450. 
3.013 S3oO. 
3,508 $300. 
3,587 $250. 



3, .'it 3 I II nton trophy and $380. 

3,5*2 $250. 

3.5.59 ' $225. 

3,540 , $200. 



3,518 , Bronie soldier of Marathon and $300. 
3,49S ' $200. 
3.497 I $175. 
3,493 i $150. 



278 REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL, 

A bronze medal was also awarded to each member of the wmning 
teams, the medals for each class being of a different design. 

The interest manifested by the militia in the national team matches 
is shown by the number of entries each year since the institution of 
those matches. Eleven State teams were represented in 1903, 19 in 
1904, 32 m 1905, 37 m 1906, 43 in 1907, 45 in 1908, 43 in 1909, 38 in 
1910 and in 1911,41 in 1913, and 40 in 1915. It is observed that the 
maximum number of State teams represented was reached in 1908. 
There were no national team matches in 1912 and 1914. 

The first prize in the national individual match — a gold medal and 
$60 — ^was won by Sergt. James S. Stewart, First Corps of Cadets. 
Massachusetts, with a score of 365, and the first prize in the national 

Sistol match — a gold medal and $30 — ^was won by First Ldeut. 
erry B. Garland, Third Indiana Infantry, with a score of 721. 

DEMOBILIZATION OP THE SECOND DIVISION. 

The Second Division, which was mobilized at Galveston and Texas 
City, Tex., in compHance with orders issued by the War Department, 
February 21 and 24, 1913, was ordered demobilized on October 18, 
1915. rrior to the demobiUzation a hurricane occurred at the places 
named above which caused the death of 13 enlisted men and the de- 
struction of the property of the troops encamped there. 

Prior to the date of demobiUzation, the Twenty-seventh Infantry, 
one of the regiments of the Second Division, was sent to the PhiUp- 
pine Department for station, in place of the Twenty-fourth Infantry, 
retumea to the United States. 

By the date set for the demobiUzation, the remaining organizations 
of tne Second Division were, on various dates in September and 
October, 1915, transferred to the Southern Department for duty 
along the border. 

THE RAID ON COLUMBUS, N. MEX., AND THE PUNITIVE EXPEDITION. 

On the night of March 8-9, 1916, the Mexican outlaw, Francisco 
ViUa, with a force variously estimated at from 500 to 1,000 men, 
crossed the border, in small detachments, about 3 miles west of the 
border line gate, and concentrated for an attack on the town of 
Columbus, N. Mex. The attack was made during hours of extreme 
darkness, it being the intention of Villa, accordmg to information 
obtained by the miUtary authorities, to loot the town after disposing 
of the gamson. In the fight which ensued, 7 American soldiers were 
killed and 2 officers and 5 soldiers were wounded; 8 civiUans were 
killed, and 2 were wounded. Mexican bandits killed in the town, the 
camp, and on the border line, numbered 67 , while the woimded and 
captured numbered 7. Immediately after the raid, one troop of 
Cavalry mounted and pursued the Mexicans. The troop at the 
border line gate also mounted and struck the retreating Mexicans in 
the flank; the two troops then joining, continued the pursuit of the 
Mexicans south of y the border for 12 miles, discontinuing the pursuit 
only when the ammunition was exhausted, and the horses and men, 
without water and almost exhausted, could continue no longer. 
The bandits, in the meantime, retreated in a southeasterly direction. 
The number of Mexicans killed in this running fight is estimated to 
be between 70 and 100: but no accurate estimate of the number 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 279 

wounded can be made. Much property and many animals were 
abandoned by the Mexicans in their flight. 

On March 10, 1916, the conmianding general, Southern Depart- 
ment, was directed to organize an adequate military force, under 
the conmiand of Brijg. Gen. John J. Pershing, with mstructions to 
the latter to proceed promptly across the border in pursuit of the 
Mexican band of outlaws that had attacked Columbus. Under these 
instructions, two columns were organized, one being from Columbus 
and the other from Culberson^s ranch. The advance of the Columbus 
colimMi, consisting of 7 troops of the Thirteenth Cavalry, the Sixth 
and Sixteenth Infantry, Battery C, Sixth Field Artillery, and Ambu- 
lance Company No. 7, started, on March 15, on the road through 
Palordas, Ascension, and CorraUtos, toward Casas Grandes. Tne 
Culberson column, consisting of the Seventh Cavalry, 10 troops of 
the Tenth Cavalry, and Batterj B, Sixth Field Artillery, left the same 
night by the Ojitas route, arriving at Colonia Dublan, 4 miles ilorth 
of Plueva Casas Grandes. on the night of March 17. 

THE PARRAL INCIDENT. 

During the pursuit of Villa and his followers, Maj. Frank Tompkins, 
Thirteenth Cavalry, and Troops K and M of that regiment, under 
command of Col. W. C. Brown, Tenth Cavalry, camped outside of 
the town of Parral, Mexico, and sent a detachment of soldiers to the 
town for the purpose of purchasing suppUes, at about 11 o'clock a. m., 
April 12, 1916. Maj. Tompkins was cordially received by the higher 
civil and military officials. The Mexican general, Lozano, accom- 
panied Maj. Tompkins on the way to camp. On the outskirts of the 
town groups of native soldiers and civilians jeered, tlu*ew stones, 
and fired on the cohimn. Maj. Tompkins took a defensive position 
north of the railroad, but was soon flanked by Mexican troops and 
forced to retire. The American troops continued to withdraw, to 
avoid further compUcations, xmtil thev reached Santa Cruz, 8 miles 
from Parral. Gen. Lozano attempted to control his men when the 
fighting first began, but failed. The known casualties were: Two 
American soldiers killed, 2 officers and 4 soldiers wounded, 1 soldier 
missing; 40 Mexican soldiers killed. The number of Mexican soldiers 
woimded is not known, although it is known that 1 Mexican civilian 
was woimded. 

THE CARRIZAL INCIDENT. 

Troops C and K, Tenth Cavalry, under the command of Capt. 
Charles T. Boyd, Tenth Cavalry, while on their way to Villa Ahu- 
mada on a scouting expedition, reached the town of Uarrizal, Mexico, 
on the morning oi June 21, 1916, and permission was sought from 
the commanding oflBcer of the Mexican forces garrisoning me latter 
place to pass tnrough the town in order to reach Villa Ahumada. 
Uen. Gomez, the Mexican commander, sent an oflBcer of his com- 
mand to the American troops, denying the latter the permission 
requested. During the conference Mexican troops began to move 
toward the flanks of the American troops. The latter assumed a 
defensive position, and in the engagement which ensued Capt. 
Charles T. Boyd and Lieut. Henry K. Adair, Tenth Cavalry, ana 7 
enlisted men were killed, and Capt. Lewis S. Morey, Tenth Cavalry, 




280 REPORT OF THE ADJTJTAKT GENERAL. 

and 9 enlisted men were wounded. Twenty-three enlisted men of 
the Tenth Cavalry and 1 civilian interpreter were captiired and sent 
to Chihuahua City, but they were subsequently returned to the 
United States, llie estimated number of Mexicans killed, which 
included Gen. Gomez, is 39; the ntunber of wounded is not known. 

BANDIT RAIDS ACROSS THE MEXICAN BORDER. 

In addition to the raid at Qolumbus, N. Mex., before referred to, 
several raids of more or less impK)rtance occurred during the period 
covered by this report, notably the raids at — 

Glenn Spings, Tex., on May 5, 1916, the casualties being 3 Ameri- 
can soldiers and 1 civihan killed; 3 American soldiers wounded. It 
is estimated that 2 Mexican bandits were killed, but the number ot 
wounded is not known. 

San Ygnacio, Tex., on June 15, 1916, the casualties being 4 Ameri- 
can soldiers killed and 5 wounded; 6 Mexican bandits kill^. 

Near Fort Hancock, Tex., July 31, 1916, casualties being 1 Ameri- 
can soldier and 1 civilian (United States customs inspector) killed 
and 1 American soldier wounded; 3 Mexicans killed and 3 captured 
by Mexican de facto Government troops. 

GALL OF THE ORGANIZED MILITIA AN^ NATIONAL GUARD INTO THE 

SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Having in view the possibiUty of further aggression upK)n the terri- 
tory of the United States and the necessity ft? the proper protection 
of the Mexican frontier, the President thought proper to exercise the 
authority vested in him by the Constitution and laws to call out the 
Organized Militia; consequently, on May 9, 1916, he issued a call 
Uu-ough the governors of the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Texas, and directed the concentration of the militia of those States 
at places to be designated by the commanding general of the Southern 
Department. 

On the same date San Antonio, Columbus, and Douglas were desig- 
nated as the places of concentration for the miUtia of Texas, New 
Mexico, and Arizona, respectively, and upon the arrival of the mihtia 
at the designated places of rendezvous the necessary procedure for 
their muster into the service of the United States under the provisions 
of the act of Congress approved January 21, 1903, as amenaed by the 
act of Congress, approved May 27, 1908, was at once entered upon and 
vigorously prosecuted, the greater part of the mihtia so called having 
b^n duly mustered into service before the close of the fiscal year. 

It was also directed by the department that the Federal authorities 
assume the duty of recruiting for the miUtia in the United States 
service and that this office take the necessary action. In accordance 
with these directions the commanding general of the Southern De- 
partment was ordered, on May 27, 1916, to detail such officers and 
enlisted men from Texas mihtia mustered into the United States 
service as might be necessary to recruit the miUtia of Texas to full 
strength, and similar orders with respect to recruiting the militia of 
the other States concerned were issued at a later date. On June 3, 
1916, the recommendation of the commanding general of the South- 
em Department that Fort Sam Houston be designated as a reoroit 
"rendezvous for that purpose was approved. 



% 



KEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 281 

In accordance with these directions and orders the recruitment of 
the militia called into service as above set forth has proceeded as 
rapidly as conditions permitted and is still being prosecuted at the 
close of the period covered by this report. 

The same reasons that caused the President to issue the call for 
militia on May 9, 1916, impelled him on Jime 18, 1916, to call into 
the service of the United States a large part of the Organized MiUtia 
and the National Guard of the other States of the C^nion and the 
District of Columbia, the call being duly issued on the date last 
mentioned through the governors of all the States concerned and 
the conmaanding general of the District of Columbia militia, a mobili- 
zation point for the mihtia of each State and the District of Colxmibia 
being designated in tho call. 

In the meantime the national defense act had been approved June 
3, 1916, providing among other things for the transition of the Organ- 
ized MiUtia of the several States and the District of Colimibia to the 
National Guard by taking the oath prescribed in that act, and this 
transition was in progress in the several States when the call of Jime 
18 was made. TJpon tho arrival of the mihtia at the mobiUzation 
points or places of rendezvous designated the necessary procedure 
for their induction into the mihtary service of the United States 
was entered upon at once, those who had qualified as members 
of the National Guard being accepted into the service of the United 
States under the provisions of the act of Congress approved June 3. 
1916, and the others being mustered into the service of the United 
States under the provisions of the act of Congress approved January 
21, 1903, as amended by the act of Congress approvoa May 27. 1908. 

It is obvious that there is a large amount of work to be performed 
and many matters of detail involved in the concentration of the mihtia 
at the various mobilization points, in examining them individually 
and inducting them into the mihtary service oi the United States. 
While necessarilv this work was not completed at the close of the 
fiscal year, satisfactory progress therein had been made, many of the 
organizations had been inducted into the Federal service, and the 
work connected therewith remaining undone was well in hand and 
was being expedited by all concerned. 

Urged DV tnc importance of having an adequate force on the border 
at the earnest practicable date, instructions were given on June 23, 
1916, to the commanding generals of the Eastern, Central, and 
Western Departments that the moment any complete unit of militia 
had arrived at a State mobilization camp and the mustering officer 
had reported that the imit was reasonably equipped for field service, 
the particular organization concerned be sent at once to the point 
on the border designated by the commanding general of the Southern 
Department. 

On Jidy 31, 1916, the date of the latest complete returns received, 
the troops in the Southern Department consisted of 2,352 officers and 
43,338 enhsted men of the Regular Army, and 5,058 officers and 
102,077 enhsted men of the National Guard, making a total of 7,410 
officers and 145,415 enhsted men. On the date given there were 
1,910 officers and 38,229 enlisted men in mobihzation camps, and 128 
officers and 3,410 enhsted men of ihe National Guard serving m the 
Western Department not mcluded in the foregoing figures, making 
the total strwigth of the National Guard in the Federal service on the 
dale JBpationed 7.096 officers and 143,716 enhsted men. 




The practice, inaugurated in February, 1912, of separating as far as 
possible prisoners convictetl of purely military offenses from those 
convicted of statutory or common-law crimes, with a view to afford 
the former every opportunity practicable to be restored to an honor- 
able status, was continued throughout the year. In furtherance t^ 



BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 283 

this policy an additional disciplinary company was organized at the 
Pacific Branch of the Disciplmary Barracks m January, 1916. Up 
to the close of the fiscal year 8 disciplinary companies and 2 dis- 
ciplinary bands had been organized; 4 companies (formed into a 
battaUon) and 1 band at the United^States Disciplinary Barracks, 3 
companies and 1 band at the Pacific Branch, ana 1 company at the 
Atlantic Branch. Since the close of the fiscal year a fourth company 
has been organized at the Pacific Branch and tne 4 companies at that 
branch have been formed into a battalion. The organization of a 
disciplinary band at the Atlantic Branch also was authorized in 
General Order No. 29, War Department, dated July 21, 1916. Men 
whose conduct is such as to entitle them to ths privilege are assi^ed 
to these companies, in which they receive a special course in mihtary 
training and instruction during one-half of each working day. The 
time thus devoted to mihtary training would other^'ise be expended 
by these men at hard labor. After he has been deemed to have made 
sufficient progress in his duties as a member of the disciplinary 
oi^anization the prisoner is permitted to file his apphcation for 
honorable restoration to duty. A recommendation is finally made 
to the Secretary of War in these cases only after information has been 
obtained by the commandant from all available sources relative to the 
character and habits of the prisoner before his enhstment, during his 
enlistment, and while in confinement. If the prisoner's conduct and 
habits seem to have been such as to warrant favorable action, his 
honorable restoration to duty is recommended. As stated in a 
subsequent paragraph, 193 of the members of these disciplinary 
organizations were honorably restored to duty in the Army dunng the 
fiscal year. After having been restored to duty the soldier is detailed 
for duty at the barracks tor at least three months, upon the completion 
of which period of duty he is regularly assigned to an organization. 

The Army appropriation act approved March 4, 1915, authorized 
the Secretary oi vVar to establish a system of parole for prisoners con- 
fined in the United States Disciplinary Barracks and its branches, 
the terms and conditions of parole to be such as the Secretary of War 
might prescribe. As stated in the last annual report, parole regula- 
tions were approved by the Secretary of War and put into effect May 
18, 1915. and one prisoner was released on parole prior to the close of 
the fiscal year 1915. This man was discharged from custody during 
the fiscal year 1916, while still on parole. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, 228 applications for 
release on parole were received in this office. Of these, 159 were ap- 
proved. 57 were disapproved, 1 was not acted upon owing to the fact 
that a recommendation that the unexecuted portion of the appli- 
cant's sentence of confinement be remitted had been approved prior 
to the receipt of his application for release on parole, ana 1 1 haa not 
received final consideration at the close of the fiscal year. 

During the year 156 general prisoners were actu all v released on 

Earole from the United States Disciphnary Barracks and its branches, 
tf these, 2 violated the terms of their parole and were returned to the 
barracks to serve out the balance of tneir sentence in confinement, 7 
others who likewise violated the terms of their parole were in escape 
at the close of the year, 81 were discharged from custody while on 
parole on account of their terms of confinement having expired, and 
66 were still on parole on Jime 30, 1916. 



284 REPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

GENERAL PRISONERS. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year 1916 there were 2,459 general 
prisoners in custody. Of this number, 546 were m confinement at 
military posts; 155 at the United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth, 
Kans. ; 982 at the United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leaven- 
worth, Eans.; 432 at the Pacific Branch, United States DiscipUnary 
Barracks, Alcatraz, Cal.; 257 at the Atlantic Branch, United States 
Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Jay, N. Y. ; 34 at the Government Hos- 

Jital for the Insane (now St. Elizabeths Hospital), Washington, 
K C. ; and 53 were in transit from one place of confinement to another. 

During the fiscal year 3,011 were committed to confuaement; 34 
escaped prisoners were recaptured; 2,669 were released at expiration 
of sentence; 58 escaped; 7 died; 213 were honorably restored to duty; 
and the unexecuted part of sentence was remitted in 262 cases; leaving 
2,295 general prisoners in custody at the close of the year. Of this 
number, 205 were at military posts; 225 at the United States Peni- 
tentiary, Leavenworth, Kans.; 1,083 at the United States Disciplinary 
Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kans.; 430 at the Pacific Branch, 
United States Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz, Cal.; 311 at the 
Atlantic Branch, United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Jay, 
N. Y.; 33 at the Government Hospital for the Insane (now St. Eliza- 
beths Hospital) , Washington, D. C. ; and 8 were in transit from one 
place of confinement to another. Of the 2,295 general prisoners 
reported above as in confinement at the close of the fiscal year, 21 
were on parole from the United States Penitentiarv, and 26 from the 
United States Disciplinary Barracks and its branc&es. 

As in previous years, applications for clemency in the case of pris- 
oners undei^going confinement in execution of sentences of general 
courts-martial added materially to the correspondence of the office. 
At the beginning of the fiscal vear 87 applications for clemency pre- 
viously made had not received final consideration, they having been 
referred to the commanding generals of military departments or else- 
where in the course of investigation as to the merits of the cases. 
During the year 2,263 applications for clemency were received, but 
173 of these were cases in which other applications were pending at 
the date of their receipt. Clemency was denied in 1,515 cases, the 
unexecuted parts of sentences were wholly remitted in 201 cases, 
parts of the imexecuted sentences were remitted in 242 cases, and in 
108 cases reports were made to the Department of Justice for con- 
sideration in connection with applications for parole under the act 
of Congress approved June 25, 1910 (36 Stat. L., 819>. One prisoner 
was released prior to action on the application for clemency in his 
case. At the close of the fiscal year 110 cases had not received final 
consideration, having been referred to the commanding generals or 
others, in the course of investigation as to the merits of tne case-, and 
not having been returned to uiis office before the close of the year. 

The number of cases received does not represent the number of 
individual prisoners by whom, or in whose behalf, applications for 
clemency were made. In many cases as soon as one application is 
denied another is presented, as many as five consecutive applicationa 
having been received during the year in the case of one general prid- 
2t066 cases act^ u]>on during the year were applications 
' of 1,836 general prisoners, as against 1,928 appUcatioos 




i 



KEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 285 

in the cases of 1,754 general prisoners acted upon during the pre- 
ceding year. 

It has been the poHcy to give special recognition on the Fourth of 
Julv and Thanksgiving Day of each year to a limited number of gen- 
oral prisoners confined at the United States Disciplinary Barriicks 
and its branches who have served not less than 18 montns of their 
terms of confinement and who have the best records of conduct, and 
in accordance with that policy the unexecuted portions of the con- 
finement of 8 general prisoners were remitted during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1916. 

The commandant of each of the barracks was authorized in De- 
cember, 1915, to submit each year recommendations for the pardon 
at Christmas time of not more than 3 general prisoners, without 
regard to the restrictions as to length of sentences imposed by the 
regulations with respect to the pardons authorized for July 4 and 
Thanksgiving Day. Accordingly, the sentences of 6 general pris- 
oners were remitted for Christmas, 1915. 

In addition to the cases considered upon applications, the unex- 
ecuted parts of sentences were remitted oy the War Department for 
administrative reasons in the cases of 8 general prisoners without 
applications for clemency having been made in their behalf. 

Under the authority conferred upon the Secretary of War by sec- 
tion 1352 of the Revised Statutes or the United States, which author- 
ity was reaflSrmed in the act of March 4, 1915 (38 Stat. L., 1074). 
honorably to restore to duty general prisoners confined at the United 
States Disciplinary Barraclcs and its oranches, 193 general prisoners 
(143 of them former deserters) were honorably restored to duty, and 
under the authoritv contained in the act of Xfarch 4, 1915 (38 Stat. 
L., 1074). honorably to restore to duty general prisoners confined at 
places other than the DiscipUnary Barracks and its branchas, 20 
general prisoners (12 of them former deserters) were honorably 
restored to duty from confinement at military posts, a total of 213 
general prisoners (155 of them former deserters) honorably restored 
to duty during the fiscal year 1916. Of this total, 126 were restored 
after sentence of dishonorable discharge had been executed, and 87 
were restored without having been dishonorably discharged, the 
execution of the sentence of dishonorable discharge in their cases 
having been suspended. 

Of the 193 general prisoners restored after confinement at the 
Disciplinary Barracks or its branches, 2 (both former deserters) 
have been dishonorably discharged, 2 (1 of them a former deserter) 
have been dischaiwd under paraeraph 148^, Army Regulations, 7 
(6 of them former deserters) have been honorably discharged, 15 (13 
of them former deserters) were absent in desertion at the close of 
the fiscal year 1916, 1 was present awaiting trial for desertion, and 
166 (121 of them former deserters) were serving with their organi- 
zations at that time — 5 with the rank of sergeant. 

Of the 20 general prisoners restored to duty after confinement at 
a military post other than the Disciplinary Barracks or its branches, 
1 has been dishonorably discharged, 1 has been discharged under 
paragraph 148^, Army Kegulations, 2 (both former deserters) have 
oeen honorably discharged, and 16 (10 of them former deserters) 
were serving with their organizations at the close of the fiscal year — 
1 with the rank of corpord. 



286 



KEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 



Of the 194 general prisoners (171 of them former deserters), re- 
ferred to in the last annual report as having been restored to duty 
during the fiscal years 1914 and 1915, 19 (17 of them former deser- 
ters) nave been dishonorably discharged, 8 (7 of them former de- 
serters) have been discharged without lionor, 6 (all former deserters) 
have been discharged under paragraph 148^^, Army Regulations; 1 
(a former deserter) has been aischarged under paragraph 126, Army 
Regulations, as amended; 1 (a former deserter) has died, 60 (54 of 
them former deserters) have been honorably discharged — 9 with 
rank of corporal and 5 with the rank of sergeant, 29 (28 of them 
former deserters) were absent in desertion at the close of the fiscal 
year 1916, 2 (both former deserters) were present awaiting trial 
for desertion, and 68 (55 of them former deserters) were on duty 
with their organizations at that time — 7 with the rank of corporal, 2 
with the rank of sergeant, and 1 with the rank of battalion sergeant 
major. 

The total number of restorations to duty prior to the close of the 
fiscal year 1916 is 407. 

In tabulated form the results appear as follows: 



Restored to duty. 



Honorably discharged. 
Died 



Dishonorably discharged 

Discharged wlthotit honor 

Discharged under par. 148i, Army Repilarioas 

Dischareed under par. 126, Army Regtilatlons, 

amended. 

Absent in desertion, June 30, 1916 

Present, awaiting trial for dosertion, June 30, 1916. . 
Present for duty, June 30, 1916 



as 



Totals. 



1914 



(38) 39 



(21) 22 



(5 

(3) 

(2) 



5 
3 
2 



(4) 
(3)' 



4 

'3 



(38) 39 



ms 



(133) 155 



(33) 38 

(I) 1 

(12) 14 

(4) 5 

(4) 4 




(133) 155 



1916 



(155) 213 



(8) 9 



(2) 3 

(i)***3 



(13) 15 

1 

(131) 182 



(155) 213 



Totali. 



(32ft) 4<r7 



(62) 69 

(I) 1 
(19) 22 

8 
9 



(7) 
(7) 



(1) 1 
(41) 44 

(2) 3 
(186) 250 



(326) 407 



Note.— Figures in parentheses indicate number of men who were convicted of desertion prfor to nsio- 
ration to duty. 

CURRENT WORK OP THE ADJUTANT GENERAL's OFFICE. 

There was an increase in the volume of current work of the office 
during the latter part of the fiscal year, as compared with the prior 
year. This increase was caused by the increase of the Army under 
the provisions of the act of Congress approved June 3, 1916, by the 
offers of service and the correspondence in connection with the 
troubles on the Mexican border, and by the calling of the National 
Guard into the service of the United States because of those troubles. 
Notwithstanding the vigorous efforts of the officers and clerks, their 
unceasing interest in the work, and an extension by the Secretary 
of War oi the office hours in divisions in which the work was falling 
in arrears, it was found to be impossible to dispose of all cases re- 
ceived during the year and, at the close of office on June 30, 1916, 
there remained 2,775 ca?(*s undisposed of. During the fiscal vcar 
471,655 cases were disposed of — an average of 1,546 for each working 
day of the vear. During the preceding fiscal year this average was 
1,100, and Suring the fiscal year 1914 it was 971 cases. 

The table following shows either the source of receipt or the char- 
•w^ter of the cases received in The Adjutant General's Office during 

^ fiscal year ended June 30, 1916. 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 287 

From the Anny at large 108, 038 

From the General Staff and chiefs of bureaus in the War Department 15, 433 

Recruiting for the Army 10, 389 

Whereabouts of individual officers or enlisted men or organizations of the 

Army 13,883 

Appointments in the Army or as cadets at the Military Academy 6, 457 

Requests for blank applications or other forms or for printed orders 13, 811 

Clemency for general prisoners 5, 556 

Applications for certificates in lieu of lost discharges 4, 569 

Applications for removal of charges of desertion (art of Mar. 2, 1.SR9) 494 

Applications for certificates for purchase of campaign and certifi( ate of merit 

badges /. 3, 520 

From the Commisrioner of Pensions 36, 647 

From the Auditor for the War Department 13, 663 

From the Commissioner of the General I.<and Office 801 

From Union associations and volunteer soldiers' homen 2, 024 

From Confederate associations and homes and State pension oHlr ial.^ 24, 252 

Notifications to the Auditor for the War Department of desertions and dis- 
honorable discharge* from the Army 3, 700 

All other cases, miscellaneous 211, 193 

Total 474,430 

Total number of cases disposed of during tLe year 471, 655 

On hand June 30. 1916 2,776 

The foregoing table does not include approximately 384,000 re- 
ttims, muster rolls, enlistment papers, identification records, periodical 
reports, and other similar records and reports received and med in the 
omce during the year, nor does it include approximately 67,500 copies 
of department and other general, special, and general courts-martial 
orders also received in the office during the year. This represents a 
total for the fiscal jear of 451,500 of these papers — an average of 
1,480 for each workmg day in the year. 

Mention was made m the precedmg annual report of The Adjutant 
General with regard to the very largo number of requests that are 
made in person or by telephone for information from the records and 
which are answered orally without any record being made either of 
the request or of the answer. The number of such personal and tele- 
phone calls increased so much during the latter part of the last fiscal 
year, principally in connection with inquiries as to the whereabouts 
or status of officers and enlisted men of the National Guard called 
into the service of the United States, that it became necessary to 
install an additional telephone in the office of the chief clerk for the 

EurpHOse of handling them. No count of such requests has been kept 
ut it is certain that they amounted to thousands in the course of 
the fiscal year covered by this report. 

Extra efforts were made to keep the current work of the office as 
nearly up to dat^ as possible, but, notwithstanding those efforts, only 
85.4 per cent of all cases received were disposed of within 24 hours 
from the time they reached the office. However, the cases that re- 
quired more than 24 hours for investigation and adjudication or for 
answer were either routine matters of little urgency or complicated 
cases or those which required the compilation of extended lists or 
lenethy answers to dispose of them. 

it is proper to remark, in connection with this part of the report, 
that much that can not be shown in any statement of the nimibcr of 
cases received and disposed of has been added to the work of tho 
office. This added work consists of the keeping of rosters and ret- 



288 . REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAIi. 

erence lists in order to meet legislative requirements concerning the 
detached service of commissioned officers and the duration of foreign 
service of both officers and enlisted men; the keeping of records of 
enlisted men while on furlough in the Army Reserve; tne printing and 
distribution of all publications issued by the War Department o^ork 
that heretofore has been done by the War College Division) ; keeping 
the records of the Officers' Reserve Corps; the obtaining, compiling, 
and keeping continually up to date all obtainable information as to 
the names, ages, addresses, occupations, and qualifications for ap- 
pointment as commissioned officers of the Army, in time of war or 
other emergency, of men of suitable ages who. by reason of having 
received military training in civil educational institutions or else- 
where, may be regarded as qualified and available for appointment 
as such commissioned officers; and the making of other rosters and 
lists in order to comply with all of the requirements of the so-called 
'^national defense act, approved June 3, 1916. 

The distribution to the Army, as prescribed in paragraph 803, 
Army Regulations, of general and special orders, bulletins, and 
changes was continued tliroughout the year. The following table 
shows the number of copies of orders, bulletins, and changes dis- 
tributed d\u*ing the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916: 

General orders 714, 360 

Bulletins 462.500 

Special orders, full copies 95, 000 

Spe<*ial orders, extraits 91. 200 

Special orders, bulletined 85, 120 

Recruiting, enlistment, and m«3t ellaneoiis circulars 61. 120 

Changes, Army Regulations, manuals, et^- 661, 650 

During the fiscal year 7,526,662 blank forms and 206,592 books, 
manuals, etc., were distributed to the Army by this office, either 
directly or to the proper officei's of the military aivision and depart- 
ments for distribution by them, or were sold to the Organized Militia 
of the several States and the District of Columbia. 

The distribution of War Department public documents was trans- 
ferred from the War College Division, General Staff, to this office 
under the provisions of Paragraph I, General Orders, No. 21, War 
Department, June 16, 1916. 

In addition to the foregoing, approximately 9,765,000 circulars, 
containing descriptions of deserters irom the Army, were distributed 
during the year. Tlie data for those circulars were prepared in this 
office and the circulars were distributed to police officials, United 
States marshals and their deputies, comity officers, established detec- 
tive agencies, and others, in connection with the descriptive cir- 
culars, approximately 46,000 lists containing the names of deserters, 
with circiuar numbers, who had been returned to military control, 
were mailed to the recipients of the circulars. 

IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM. 

The use of finger prints, photographs, and personal descriptions as 
a means of personal identification of enlisted men of the Regular 
Array was continued throughout the year. At the close of the year 
354,296 finger-print records had been received in this office, 107,931 
of those records having been made in cases of reenlistment, in which 
records made during the previous service of soldiers were on file. 



REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 289 

As has been indicated in previous annual reports of this office, it b 
desirable to obtain finger-print records of men claiming prior service, 
unless it is known positively at the post at which tne man seeks 
recnlistment that he is the former soldier. This is necessary in detect- 
ing cases, several of which have been discovered, in which a man with 
a discharge certificate in his possession claimed the service represented 
by and enlisted under the name appearing in that certificate, although 
wnen his finger-print record was receiv^ in this office it was estab- 
lished beyond doubt that he was not the man he claimed to be, but 
was an impostor. On June 30, 1915, this office had on file the finger- 
print records of 246,365 individuals who were then or had been 
previously enlisted in the Regular Army. 

Dming the fiscal year 414 cases of fraudulent enlistments of former 
deserters^ general prisoners, and others were discovered through the 
finger-pnnt system. Of these 414 cases, 17 had withdrawn from miU- 
tary control when the identity was established. Of the remaining 
397 cases, 58 were held in service, 229 were dishonorably discharged 
and confined for various periods by sentences of courts-martial, 67 
were discharged under paragraph 148^, Army Regulations, 5 were 
dropped from the rolls of the Army and delivered to the naval 
autnorities, either as deserters from the Navy or Marine Corps, and in 
38 cases no report of final disposition has been received. 

By means oi this system this office has identified also dead men who 
were former soldiers and whose identity could not be satisfactorily 
established in any other way, as well as civil offenders who sought to 
evade arrest for their crimes by enlisting in the Army under assumed 
names, and soldiers who left impressions of their fingers while in the 
act of conmiitting some serious offense. As stated in previous reports 
the use of finger-print records undoubtedly has deterred many 
criminals from enlisting in the Army for the purpose of escaping 
detection and arrest, fi the civil authorities have reason to suspect 
that an offender wanted by them has enlisted in the Army and will 
send his finger prints to this office, it can be determined promptly 
Avhether or not such pereon has enlisted, thereby enabling the civil 
authorities to apprehend persons wanted by them and materially 
aiding the War Department in carrying out its poUcy of preventing 
imdesirable pei^ons from serving in the Army. 

The following cases are cited as examples of the utihty of the 
finger prints in identifying dead men or malefactors whose identity 
could not be established otherwise: 

A man was killed by a train in Iowa; his finger prints were taken 
and they finally reacned this office. The man was found to be a 
former soldier. A somewhat similar case was that of a man killed 
by an elevated train in New York City. His features were so muti- 
lated that they were beyond recogmtion. His finger prints were 
taken, and after they reached this office it was discovered that hb 
was a former soldier. The body of a man killed during the storm at 
Galveston was supposed to be that of a soldier. The remains were 
so badly mutilated, however, that recognition was impossible, but 
after his finger prints were taken and forwarded to tnis office his 
identity was established beyond all doubt. 

A soldier who broke into and robbed a tailor shop left finger prints 
on a pane of glass he broke. The glass was sent to this office, and 

69176'— WAB 1916— VOL 1 19 



290 KEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL, 

by comparing the impression on the glass with records in this office 
his identity was established. 

In addition to the finger-print records of the enlisted men of the 
Regular Army received during the year, finger-print records of mem- 
bers of the National Guard oi^anizations have been received and filed 
in The Adjutant General's (Sfice. Records from but few of those 
organizations had been received before the close of the fiscal year, 
but it is expected that complete data on this subject can be fumishea 
in the next annual report. 

INDEX-BECOKD OARD WOKK. 

The index-record card work performed during the fiscal year con- 
sisted in the reproduction of 511,807 Confederate individual-service 
record cards of the Civil War. This work is being- prosecuted as 
rapidly as the current work of the office will permit. 

The whole number of index-record cards prepared up to and in- 
cluding June 30, 1916, comprised 51,721,759 mihtary cards and 
8,655,868 medical cards, a total of 60,377,627 cards. The foregoing 
figures do not include the medical cards (approximately 2,312,00^ 
pertaining to the Regular Anny. These cards are not made in this 
office, but are received in the Surgeon General's office from the field 
and transmitted to this office after they become noncurrent. 

The total number of index-record cards prepared up to Jime 30, 
1916, includes 8,204,360 Confederate mihtary cards and^ 740,781 Con- 
federate medical cards. These cards were prepared in the process 
of compilation, pursuant to law, of the roster oi officers and enhsted 
men of the Union and Confederate Armies, and represent entries on 
the records and not the number of diflferent individuals. 

OFFICIAL RECORDS OF THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES. 

Eight sets of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate 
Armies, consisting of 1,024 books and 1,424 atlas plates, were dis- 
tributed during the fiscal year to Senators, Representatives, and Dele- 
gates of the Fifty-seventh Congress, and to permanent libraries and 
educational institutions designated by those Senators, Representa- 
tives, and Delegates under the provisions of the act of Congress 
approved March 3, 1903. (32 Stat. L., 1145.) 

Thirty-nine volumes of that publication were sold by The Adjutant 
General s Office during the fiscal year, the prices of the volumes 
aggregating $27.10. 

ROSTER OF OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN OF THE UNION AND CON- 
FEDERATE ARMIES. 

The compilation of the Confederate part of the '* Complete Roster 
of Officers and Enhsted Men of the Union and Confederate Armies^** 
authorized and required t^ be compiled by a provision contained m 
the act of ConOTess approved February 25, 1903 (32 Stat. L., 884), 
was continued auring tne year as rapidly as the condition of the cur- 
rent business would permit. The le^slation under which the com- 
pilation is being made does not require or authorize the pubUcatioQ 
of the proposed roster, but Congress no doubt intended that the 



BEPOBT OF THE ADJUTANT GENEKAL. 291 

authority for its publication should be given when the work of com- 
pilation shall have been completed or shall have been sufficiently 
advanced to justify the beginning of the pubhcation. 

The compilation of the Union part of the roster is comparatively 
complete, and, as stated in previous annual reports, if the publication 
is authorized by (Congress, the preparation oi printer's copy for the 
part relating to Union volunteer troops can be begun. 

The compilation of the (Confederate part will not be completed for 
any one State until the carding of all the Confederate hospital records 
shall have been completed. 

COLLECTION OF BEVOLUTIONARr WAR RECORDS. 

The provision of the act of Congress approved March 2, 1913 (37 
Stat. L., 723), which authorized and directed the Secretary of War 
to collect or copy and classify, with a view to publication, the scat- 
tered military records of the Revolutionary War, has been complied 
with as far as practicable with the money appropriated for that pur- 

{)ose. The entire smn of $25,000 appropriated by that act for col- 
ecting or copying the records has been expended and that part of 
the work was completely suspended early in June, 1915. 

The total niunber of records copied is 30,522, of which 19,796 are 
from Massachusetts, 6,122 from Virginia, 4,073 from North Carolina, 
527 from Connecticut, 2 from Kentucky, and 2 from the District of 
Columbia. 

The collection of Revolutionary War military records in the pos- 
session of the War Department, including the records copied as indi- 
cated above, is so far from complete that it is now impracticable to 
arrange them for pubhcation. 

MEDALS OF HONOR. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, there were 9 medals 
of honor issued by the War Department. All of them were issued 
to replace medals of the old design. The whole number of awards of 
the congressional medal of honor up to and including June 30, 1916, 
was 2,622, the same number as shown in the last report. Medals 
of honor are issued by the War Department imder the provision of 
the act of Congress approved April 23, 1904 (33 Stat. L., 274). 

The act of June 3, 1916, provided for the appointment of a board 
of five general officers on the retired list of the Army for the purpose 
of investigating and reporting upon past awards of the so-called con- 
gressionalmedal of honor by or through the War Department, with 
a view to ascertain what, if any, medals of honor have been awarded 
or issued for any cause other than distinguished conduct by an officer 
or enlisted man in action involving actual conffict with the enemy. 
The act provides further that in any case in which the board shall 
find and report that said medal was issued for any cause other than 
distinguished conduct by an officer or enlisted man involvinjj actual 
conffict with the enemy, the name of the recipient of said medal shall 
be stricken permanently from the official medal of honor Ust, and it 
shall be a misdemeanor for any person whose name has been stricken 
from said Ust to wear or pul)licly display said medal, and if such per- 



292 BEPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

son is in the Armv, he shall be required to return the medal to the 
War Department for cancellation. Pursuant to the provisions of the 
act cited Special Orders, No. 136, War Department, June 10, 1916, 
was issued convening a board of officers composed of Lieut. Gen. 
Nelson A. Miles. Lieut. Gen. Samuel B. M. Young, Maj. Gen. Joseph 
P. Sanger, Brig. Gen. Butler D. Price, and Brig. Gren. James N. 
AUison. 

MEDAL OF HONOR ROLL. 

The act of Congress approved April 27, 1916, established the "Army 
and Navy medal of honor roll," and provides for the issue of suitabfe 
certificates to persons who have received the medal for distinguished 
and hazardous deeds beyond the call of duty, performed in action, 
and grants a special pension of $10 a month for life to all such nersons. 
Between the date of the passage of the act and the dose of^the fis- 
cal year certificates had been issued by the War Department to 121 
former officers .ind enlisted men of the Army. 

CAMPAIGN, CERTIFICATE OF MERFf, AND SERVICE BADGES. 

A simimary of the campaigns for which the issue of campaign 
badges has been authorized is published in General Orders, No. 129, 
War Department, August 13, 1908. The issue of those badges, which 
are intended *Ho commemorate services which have been or shall 
hereafter be rendered in campaign," was authorized by Genernl Or- 
ders, No. 4, War Department, January 11, 1905. 

During the past fiscal year 181 names were added to the lists of 
officers and enlisted men who were found to be entitled to campaign 
badges, making a total of 42,881 badges issued to officers and enlisted 
men found to be entitled to those badges. Of these 31,685 were 
Philippine campaign badges, 7^259 Spanish campaign badges, 1,629 
China campaign badges, 1,859 Indian campaign badges, ancr449 CivU 
War campaign badges. 

Campaign badges are a part of the uniform ; they are sold to officers 
and issued to enlisted men in service by the Quartermaster Corps, on 
data furnished by Tlie Adjutant General's Office. 

It was decided by the Secretary of War in 1908 that campaign 
badges may be issued to members of the Organized Militia who are 
entitled to wrnr the uniform of the Army and whose service conforms 
to the requirements of General Orders, No. 129, before cited. Since 
the date of that decision. May 26, 1908, data have been furnished to 
the Quartermaster General of the Army in the cases of approximately 
2,015 members of the Organized Militia who made applications for 
campaiojn badges. 

In addition to the campai^i badges before referred to, the issue of 
a service badge was autlionzed for service in the Army of Cuban 
Pacification by General Orders, No. 96, War Department, May 11, 
1909. Data fiavc been furnished to the Quartermaster General of 
the Army- in the cases of 6,248 applications for those badges since 
tlie date of the order authorizing their issue. 

By authority of the President, the issue of an "Armv of Cuban 
Occupation Badge '^ was provided for in General Orders, No. 40, War 
Department, June 28, 1915. The badge is for issue to officers and 



REPOBT OF THE ADJITTAKT GKiiKRAU 29JI 

enlisted men who rendered service with the Annv of Cuban OiTupatiuu 
between July 18, 1898, and May 20, 1902. Yhe onler CiiuetNrning 
these badges was not distributea generally until July, 1915, Patik 
have been furnished to the Quartermaster General m the oast^ of 
3,134 appUcations for these badges during this fiscal year. 

The issue of a certificate of merit badge and ribbon an a part of 
the imiform to each oflScer and enhstod man in the service having a 
certificate of merit was authorized in General Orders, No. 4, War 
Department, January 11, 1915, as amended in Genertu Ordow, No. 
129, War Department, August 13, 1908. At the close of this iiuoal 
year 237 certificates of merit badges had been issued. 

In order that former officers and soldiers now in civil life might be 
able to obtain the campaign badges and certificate of merit badges to 
which they would have been entitled if they were still in service, an 
arrangement was made with the United States Mint at Phila(le)|)hiA 
by wmch these badges would be furnished by the mint at a nominal 
cost, covering expense of manufacture, upon receipt of certilicate* 
from The Adjutant General of the Army in verification of the < lainw. 

This arrangement was completed in December, 1913. and since 
that date 19,417 appUcations for campaign bailges ana the Army 
of Cuban Pacification badge have been receiveu in tliis oflico. In 
16,551 of these cases the service was verified and certificaten were 
issued accordingly, and in 2,866 cases the appli<tatiorm were denied. 
The campaigns and service for which the«e certificat/i« W(*rft issued 
are as follows: Civil War, 5,498; Spanisli War, 4,056; i'hiUppine 
insurrection, 4,838; Indian wars, 778; diina cmnpuign, 321; Army 
of Cuban Pacification, 190; Army of Cuban Occupation, 870, la 
addition to these, ccrtificaU-s for purcha-^e of r:«rtificate of i/*mt 
badges were issued in 17 cahCM. 



The "Philippine hfrvw^. medsd/* authorizifd by tJie a/^:t of (U/fi'/f^^tm 
approved June 2^i, U/f, ^Zi Sut, L,, 62Jy, ii» h»ju4 "U; ea/h of Uuj 
sev^al officerb niid *ft '*i-*j4 u *^u ntA itL".A\\t-^. of Mi' }j «ui /.;ay f^ d-aid^ 
who, having roJ'ir.*.*-*f< 'i st' '\ *"., 't'\ •.( d*'r *h*' * >-:i^. of t/i<; iV-^.^i'-ut 
for the War w>h ^.'^t^u, >■> ? - ', -r' y,u'l »;.*; U^rtt « of v.,*'.s *-?.;--! • ^nt 

to help to fcUf^rr*-!?* \uK V '>\. '>: \ur. '*rt^AU*>U. %aA Vv;iO 1s^'/u<J^ 

?uently rec<:>v*:'; a.'- w^'.^a^'/^, '..a^ , iac/*: fro;', um hruri *A tii« 
'nited Stat**, ^n v .o ', • -, •/r,'^/ V/ ^ ^' u ', v ;.*/;", 

nisbed by T:*e - ^.\k.*.* ^>*''>-f.- 

Up to aiid ii*''i -' *'Y '" *■'•> ^ ' - '^ ^ • ' ^ ' *"' *' ''' ^ *>^ * ''-*'* '-^'f or i>X 

service Up'ilj ir5:**'i ,,,*- <;'>:**» .-- r*- v-,..//, irw .' ^' ' «kc V/ ^ ^A**/!" 

iz^ the istfu^ of v;.«s* u> -^ . «.', •/« <-• i .- */ . V •> A '.^ , • !",♦ 0*f' *<-f J • 
Office ifj 7,47^ 'a««« Jy.* - y '-. ** vw?- '.>/ .,, ^ < *f ».- .jcj e*fc*>-f'j*-"t# 
were madi^ ii. Vi *<--»:> ^^ '// «. >/ >- '^ t,%$i «,/ r.* x.-.,^,'** f*/r 

PhilippijJ^ b*^ i'> , >',' 1 '♦/« ■' <:! '*'< * *- A*' • ^r*.' *A '** i^-^-^iri*^ 

tion uefo« ^jU,^. ii t ,/^*- / .' > ' ^^^^ .* ,> * ».'* r *-■ *ov' ', v^ *^ 

IBSUe of tij<; l«».^ 



294 REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL. 

CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

The number of employees authorized by law for The Adjutant 
General's OflBce during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, was the 
same as the number authorized during the preceding year, although 
after the close of the last fiscal year Congress provided for an increase 
in the force proportionate to the increase in the Regular Arraj 
for the fiscal year 1917, authorized bv the act of June 3, 1916. This 
addition to the force is required to handle the large amount of ad- 
ditional work that will fall upon this office as the result of the re- 
organization and increase of the permanent military establishment 
provided by the act of June 3, 1916, and the new duties devolving 
upon the office as the result of certain provisions of that act, and was 
not required to meet the temporary increase in the work caused by 
the conditions along the Mexican border and the induction of the 
Organized Militia into the service of the United States. The officers 
of Tlie Adjutant General's Department on duty in the War De- 
partment and the civilian employees of the office would have been 
able to handle this last-mentioned additional work through an ex- 
tension of office hours, but they could not be expected to handle the 
enoraious increase in the amount of work occasioned by the increase 
in the Regular Army and the conditions along the Mexican border. 
Since last March part of the force has been working beyond the 
regular office hours— often far into the night — to the limit of their 
endurance. It mattered not whether the hours had been long and 
the work exacting, the^^ all — officers, clerks, and messengers — re- 
sponded promptly and without complaint when called upon to work 
longer hours in order to handle the current work. I fully appreciate 
the fact that it was their unselfish loj^alty and devotion to duty 
that prevented the work of the office from falUng hopelessly in 
arrears, and I desire to take tliis opportunity to extend my thanks 
to each officer, clerk, and subclerical employee for the assistance each 
has rendered. 

Not including 1 clerk who entered the miUtary service of the 
United States as a captain of a National Guard organization, and 5 
clerks of short service who were transferred to other branches of the 
Government service, 32 vacancies occiu*red in the clerical force of tliis 
office during the fiscal year covered by this report, 20 by resignation 
and 12 by oeath. The average age of those who died was a Utue over 
70 and the average length of their service was over 34 yedrs. The 
average length of service of those who resigned was a Uttle more than 
8 years. Classified, by salaries, those vacancies were as follows: 1 at 
$2,000, 1 at $1,800, 2 at $1,600, 2 at $1,400, 14 at $1,200, and 12 at 
$1,000 — an annual average salary of $1,206. 

H. P. McCain, 
Tlie Adjutant General. 

The Secbetaey of War. 



REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 



295 




REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 



War Department, 
Office of the Inspector General, 

Washington^ September 0^, 1916. 

Sir: The following is a report relative to the work of the In- 
spector General's Department during the fiscal year ended June 30» 
1916. 

personnel of the department. 

The oflScers of the permanent corps remain as stated in my last 
annual report, namely, one brigadier general and one colonel. Three 
colonels, four lieutenant colonels, and nine majors served as in- 
sp)ectors general during the fiscal year under the act of February 2, 
1901; and four acting inspectors general, consisting of one colonel, 
one lieutenant colonel, and two majors were doing duty in the de- 
partment under the act of June 23, 1874. 

Without exception, these officers performed their varied and 
numerous duties in an intelligent, fearless, and zealous manner. 

Under the national defense act, approved June 3, 1916, the In- 
spector General's Department is to consist of 1 Inspector General 
with the rank of brigadier general, 4 inspectors general with the 
rank of colonel, 8 inspectors general with the rank of lieutenant 
colonel, and 16 inspectors general with the rank of major — an in- 
crease of 1 colonel, 4 lieutenant colonels, and 7 majors. Under the 
same act this increase is to be made in five annual increments, and 
the first increment, which has now become available, is to consist 
of 1 lieutenant colonel and 1 major. 

This increase, it is believed, will be sufficient for the additional 
work of inspection resulting from the increase of the Regular Army. 
Whether it will suffice for the inspection of the National Guard, im- 
posed upon this department by the above act, can not at this time be 
stated. 

In this connection, I wish to point out the importance of placing 
all the inspections of the Regular Army, other than those made by 
commanding officers, including inspections of civil institutions of 
learning, where officers of the Army are detailed as military instruc- 
tors, under the control of the Inspector General's Department, and 
providing a personnel sufficient in strength to perform these duties. 

inspections. 

During the past fiscal year the inspection of the Military Estab- 
lishment, though not entirely completed, was approximately^ so. In 
some of the geographical departments the remaining inspections had 

297 



298 EEPOET OF THE INSPECTOB GENERAL. 

been arranged for and in some cases were under way when 
emergency orders were received for the immediate inspection of the 
mobilization camps of the National Guard, which had been callcNl 
into the service of the United States. This was the latter part of 
June, at the very close of the fiscal year. 

The prescribed inspections embraced every phase of military affairs, 
and included military posts, stations, and commands; camps of ma- 
neuver and instruction; the staff offices at department headquarters; 
the Military Academy and the service schools ; the armories, arsenals, 
general hospitals, and the depots of the supply departments; the 
recruit depots and main recruiting stations; the Disciplinary Bar- 
racks and its branches; the numerous required inspections of Army 
transports upon arrival at or departure from ports; the cable boats, 
mine planters, and the harbor boats of the Quartermaster Corps; 
and the biennial inspection of such national cemeteries and ungarri- 
boned posts as became due during the year. Also included in the 
work of the fiscal year were the inspections of the Soldiers' Home, 
District of Columbia, and of the headquarters and 10 branches oi 
the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers located in va- 
rious parts of the country. The usual inspections of the money 
accountability of all disbursing officers of the Army and the very 
numerous inspections of unserviceable property presented for 
condemnation, were also made during the year. 

The irregularities and deficiencies noteci in these inspections were 
reported in due and prescribed form, and the necessary steps were 
promptly taken to secure proper and speedy remedial action. 

In addition to the large number of regularly prescribed inspections 
enumerated above, the officers of the Inspector General's Depart- 
ment made during the year, under orders from the War Department 
or of department commanders, many special investigations, involving 
much time and labor, and they assisted in the annual tactical inspec- 
tions of troops devolving upon department and brigade commanders 
under paragraphs 193 and 194, Army Regulations. 

NEW DUTIES ASSIGNED TO THE DEPARTMENT. 

The national defense act, approved Jime 3, 1916, adds some new 
duties to be performed by the Inspector General's Department, to 
wit: 

Sec. 67. • • • The governor of each State and Territory and the cora- 
mnnding general of the National Guard of the District of Columbia, shall 
appoint, designate, or detail, subject to the approval of the Secretary of War, 
an officer of the National Guard of the State, Territory, or District of Colum- 
bia who shall be regarded as property and disbursing officer for the United 
States. • • • Provided further, That the Secretary of War shall cause aa 
Insi)ectlon of the accounts and records of the property and disbursing officer 
to l>e made by an Inspector general of the Army at least once each 
year: • • • 

Sec. 93. The Secretary of War shall cause an inspection to be made at least 
once each year by inspectors general, and if necessary by other officers, of the 
Regular Army, detailed by him for that purpose, to determine whether the 
amount and condition of the property in the hands of the National Guard la 
satisfactory; whether the National Guard is organized as hereinbefore pre- 
scribed; whether the officers and enlisted men possess the physical and other 
qualifications prescribed; whether the organization and the officers and en- 
listed men thereof are sufficiently armed, uniformed, equipped, and being 



REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 299 

trained and instructed for active duty in the field or coast defense, and whether 
the records are being kept in accordance with the requirements of this act. 
The r^;x>rts of such inspections shall serve as the basis for deciding as to the 
issue to and retention by the National Guard of the military property provided 
for by this act, and for determining what organizations and individuals shall 
be considered as constituting parts of the National Guard within the meaning 
of this act 

The act says that these inspections of the National Guard shall be 
made by inspectors general, and if necessary by other officers, of the 
Kegular Army detailed for that purpose. The presumption is that 
the detail of other officers will not be necessary except when an in- 
spector general is not available to make the inspection. 

When the National Guard was called into the service of the United 
States on June 18, 1916, inspections were at once begun by officers of 
the Inspector General's Department. These inspections had for their 
objects the following: The determining of the suitability of the 
camps, sanitary condition, care of sick, water supply, drainage, the 
efficiency of service of supply; and also inspections were made of 
the organizations of the National Guard on the following points, 
to wit : 

Law complied with as to organization. 
Food and preparation of same. 

c) Physical condition of men and officers. 

d) Typhoid immunization and smallpox vaccination. 
[e) Equipment: Organization, individual, and camp. 
(/) Fitness and sufficiency of uniform. 



;?! 



[g) Clothinff (shoes, special). 

h) Wheeled transportation, including ambulances. 

i) Pack transportation. 



(j) Officers' mounts. 

1% 



) Field return of command. 

Some of these inspections were made in the last fiscal year, but 
most of them were not made until after its close. 

The considerable increase in the numerical strength of the Regular 
Army provided for by the national defense act of June 3, 1916, does 
not impose any new duties upon the Inspector General's Department, 
but it does add very materially to the work it has to do. As shown 
above, however, new duties, as well as much additional work, are 
added in connection with the inspection of the National Guard and 
of the accoimts, etc., of the National Guard property and disbursing 
officers. 

INSPECTOR general's OFFICERS' RESERVE CORPS. 

The War Department has authorized the appointment of 16 majors 
in the Inspector General's Reserve Corps, authorized by the act of 
June 3, 1916. All applicants for examination for appointment to 
these positions must have had at least one year's active service as an 
officer with some branch of the Armv, the Volunteers, or the Na- 
tional Guard in the service of the United States. Applicants must 
be under 45 years of age, and must show themselves qualified for the 
position. Complete details as to the examinations required are given 
in General Orders, No. 32, War Department, 1916, which may 1^ ob- 
tained from The Adjutant General of the Army. 



300 REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 

CLERKS FOR THE INSPFXTOR GENERAL's OFFICE. 

In order to keep up with the current work the present force of 
clerks in the Inspector General's Office has for some time past been 
compelled to work overtime every day and is still doing so. A ^reat 
amount of additional work will soon be imposed upon these clerks 
by the new duties assi^ed to this department by the national defense 
act of June t3, 1916; mdeed, the additional work has already begun 
to come in, and it will continue to come in in increasing volume. An 
estimate for the minimum number of clerks that will be required 
to do the work has been submitted, and it is hoped that it will receive 
favorable consideration. 

DISCIPLINE. 

Discipline, generally, throughout the Army, so far as reported, 
has been good. 

INSTRUCTION. 

The troops appear to be generally well instructed. No serious 
criticisms have been made. 

It has been reported that the work of the mobile troops in field 
training has been satisfactory; that the officers and men, generally, 
in camps of instruction, were eager to learn. 

In bayonet combat and fencing it was reported that the mobile 
troops show marked improvement, notwithstanding the fact that 
the fencing outfits are still criticized as unsatisfactory. It is stated 
that many organizations have abandoned the outfits supplied them 
and have improvised substitutes. 

As a general thing, earnest effort has been made by troops to 
acquire efficiency in signaling with the flag and general service code, 
and to attain the standard prescribed by paragraph 1562, Army 
Regulations, but it has been reported that the effort has not been 
generally successfid. The success in mastering the semaphore, it is 
stated, has been much more encouraging. 

It appears that, as a rule, the work of garrison schools for officers 
at the various posts has been satisfactorv, but in post schools for 
enlisted men, in many instances, the results have not been satisfac- 
tory. 

In the Philippine Department the consensus of opinion among 
Infantry officers is that the present allowance of ammunition is not 
sufficient to permit the thorough training of companies in combat 
practice. The opinion seems to be that an increase of about 100 
rounds per man in the annual allowance would be of great benefit 
in the more thorough training of organizations. 

SERVICE SCHOOLS. 

Since the Spanish- American War both the development and the 
benefit to the Army of the service schools have been striking. These 
schools could, however, be better coordinated, and it is believed in 
such coordination is to be found a great possibility for the further 
increase of their usefulness. 



BEPOBT OF THE INSPECTOB GENERAL. 299 

trained and instructed for active duty in ttie field or coast defense, and whether 
the records are being kept in accordance with the requirements of this act. 
The reports of such inspections shall serve as the basis for deciding as to the 
issue to and retention by the National Guard of the military property provided 
for by this act, and for determining what organizations and individuals shall 
be considered as constituting parts of the National Guard within the meaning 
of this act 

The act says that these inspections of the National Guard shall be 
made by inspectors general, and if necessary by other officers, of the 
Regular Army detailed for that purpose. The presumption is that 
the detail of other officers will not be necessary except when an in- 
spector general is not available to make the inspection. 

When the National Guard was called into the service of the United 
States on June 18, 1916, inspections were at once begun by officers of 
the Inspector General's Department. These inspections had for their 
objects the following: The determining of the suitability of the 
camps, sanitary condition, care of sick, water supply, drainage, the 
efficiency of service of supply; and also inspections were made of 
the organizations of the National Guard on the following points, 
to wit : 

a) Law complied with as to organization. 

b) Food and preparation of same. 

c) Physical condition of men and officers. 

d) Typhoid immunization and smallpox vaccination. 
^e) Equipment: Organization, individual, and camp. 
7) Fitness and sufficiency of uniform. 
[g) Clothing (shoes, special). 
(A) Wheeled transportation, including ambulances. 
(i) Pack transportation. 

l) Officers' mounts. 
) Field return of command. 

iome of these inspections were made in the last fiscal year, but 
most of them were not made until after its close. 

The considerable increase in the numerical strength of the Regular 
Army provided for by the national defense act of June 3, 1916, does 
not impose any new duties upon the Inspector General's Department, 
but it does add very materially to the work it has to do. As shown 
above, however, neV duties, as well as much additional work, are 
added m connection with the inspection of the National Guard and 
of the accounts, etc., of the National Guard property and disbursing 
officers. 

iNSPEcrroR general's officers' reserve corps. 

The War Department has authorized the appointment of 16 majors 
in the Inspector General's Reserve Corps, authorized by the net of 
June 3, 1916. All applicants for examination for appointment to 
these positions must have had at least one year's active service as an 
officer with some branch of the Army, the Volunteers, or the Na- 
tional Guard in the service of the United States. Applicants must 
be under 45 years of age, and must show themselves qualified for the 
position. Complete details as to the examinations required are given 
m General Orders, No. 32. War Department, 1916, which may be ob- 
tained from The Adjutant General of the Army. 



302 BEPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 

COOPERATION OF ARMS OF THE SERVICE. 

The war abroad has accentuated the importance of close coopera- 
tion between the different arms, especially between Infantry and 
Field Artillery. Although the necessity of officers familiarizing 
themselves with the duties of arms other than their own has been 
realized in our service, it is believed that the steps thus far taken 
have been along theoretical rather than practical lines. 

It is believed that at stations in which organizations of two or 
more arms are serving officers should be required to familiarize them- 
selves with the powers and limitations of arms other than their own 
through actually accompanying units of such arms during small 
maneuvers, target practice, etc. Selected officers of Cavalry and In- 
fantry should also be detailed for a period of a month or six weeks 
at the School of Fire for Field Artillery. 

COLONIAL REGIMENTS. 

The department inspector of the Philippine Department reports 
that the officers of that department are about unanimous in the 
belief that the system of colonial regiments now in vo^e is not 
desirable, the general opinion among them being that it is very 
injurious to the discipline, the training, and the general efficiency 
of organizations on foreign service. It is said that this system of 
a constantly changing personnel compels a feeling of uncertainty 
and lack of settled policy that is very narmful and is destructive of 
organization esprit. 

RECRUITS. 

No complaint has been received of the quality of the recruits 
received during the year. 

The following extract from the report of the last annual inspection 
of Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., relative to the training of recruits, is in- 
teresting and instructive : 

Under a system Inaiiiairated in this recclmeut [Eleventh Cavalry] about two 
years ago, aU the recruits for the regiment are turned over to one troop for 
training before being permanently assigned to troops. The present recruit 
troop is Tnx)p H, under the command of • ♦ •, Eleventh Cavalry. 

At the time of my visit a class of recruits had Just completed three months' 
training and was ready to be turned over to the other troops for permanent 
assignment. A careful inspection of the work of these recruits, mounted and 
dismounteil, demonstrated beyond question that this method of training recruits 
is the proper one. Their knowledge of the duties of a soldier is, I believe, 
above that of the average enlisted man of a year's training assigned to a troop 
in the ordinary way. Tlieir proficiency In riding and handling their arms 
mounted was especially noticeable. 

QUARTERMASTER CORPS. 

There have been no complaints as to the adequacy of the ration 
allowance and but few as to the quality of the ration or other com- 
missary supplies. 

The system of fuel supply has been reported as cumbersome and 
as iuAohing much office work. Inspection reports show numerous 



REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 303 

complaints of the inadequacy of the fuel allowances properly to heat 
public buildings. This is especially the case on the western coast, 
and it has been urged that fuel allowances for the Western Depart- 
ment be further considered with a view to its special needs, since 
climatic conditions there differ so radically from other sections of 
the country in the same latitude. 

UNIFORMS. 

While changes in imiform are, in general, imdesirable, and are 
so regarded in the service, it is believed that certain changes in the 
service coat are both desirable and necessary. 

The service uniform should be designed for service in the field 
rather than in garrison. The discontinuance of the sweater makes 
it necessary to take the service coat into the field. For service 
in the field a coat must be loose at the neck and in general must be 
so cut, including a slit in the back of the skirt, as to permit freedom 
and ease of movement. That the present service coat, with its close- 
fitting collar and rigid cut, is unsuitable for hard work or even 
moderate exercise must be admitted. 

From an examination of the present field uniform of other coun- 
tries it is apparent that a suitable coat for field work can be given a 
military appearance quite as formal and as pleasing as that of our 
present service coat. 

It is recommended that a suitable service coat be designed and 
adopted. 

The opinion throughout the line of the Army seems to be in favor 
of a shirt that opens all the way down the front. It is believed that 
this change in the shirt will add to the comfort of the men, in warm 
weather especially. 

ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT. 

The war abroad has developed or emphasized the importance of 
new articles of arms and equipments, besides improvements in the 
old. The larger types of field guns and howitzers ; trench mortars of 
the larger types, as artillery, and of the smaller types, as infantry 
weapons; new types and methods of employment oi machine guns, 
hand grenades, steel caps, etc., and the use of and protection against 
gas, are all matters which claim our serious attention. The develop- 
ment and manufacture of new materiel of these kinds which are being 
undertaken by the Ordnance Department should be accompanied by 
practical tests and instruction, which can only be obtained by putting 
the new materiel in service as rapidly as it can be developed ana 
supplied. 

REPAIR SHOPS — QUARTERMASTER AND ORDNANCE. 

Large quantities of quartermaster and ordnance property are un- 
doubtedly lost to the Government through the lack of proper and 
timely repairs. This loss is due, it is believed, to a variety of such 
causes as lack of facilities in organizations for making proper re- 

1)airs; lack of skill by organization mechanics; and, to some extent at 
east, lack of care and attention on the part of organization com- 



304 REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL. 

manders. Losses due to lack of proper and timely repairs are espe- 
cially apparent in all articles of canvas, webbing, and leather. In 
addition, in the Field Artillery the lack of timely repairs, made by 
expert mechanics, to the materiel results in greatly increased ultimate 
expenditures. 

If suitable quartermaster and ordnance repair shops were estab- 
lished at all points at which a regiment or more is stationed it is 
believed that a substantial saving could be effected. Such shops 
should be equipped with all necessary machinery and should be pro- 
vided with expert mechanics as foremen, the greater part of the actual 
labor of repair being done by the organization mechanics. 

TRANSPORTATION FOR SANITARY TROOPS. 

There is, no doubt, a universal recognition in the Army of the ad- 
visability, if not the absolute necessity, of providing motor transpor- 
tation for sanitary troops. Probably the necessities attendant upon 
the present mobilization of a large number of troops upon the Mexi- 
can border will result in causing motor transportation for the sanitary 
troops to be supplied. 

FIELD TRAINS. 

It is believed that the field trains have been too greatly reduced. 
In fixing the allowances of wagons, etc., for field trains the primary 
object is, of course, mobility, but it is to be remembered that mobility 
may be as readily reduced by too great a reduction in the number of 
wagons allowed as by too great an increase in field trains. An unwar- 
ranted reduction in wagons tends to overloading in spite of honest 
efforts to enforce the regulations. 

When our Army is compared to those of other nations the paucity 
of trained soldiers affords a striking illustration of the necessity or 
preserving the health and, in so far as possible, the comfort of our 
men when in the field. To this end it is believed that the surplus 
kits should be carried in the field trains, as was formerly the regu- 
lation. In so far as concerns the Infantry, it is essential that at least 
a st)are pair of shces be carried in the field trains. 

On account of the general lack of ability in cooking among our 
prople, it is particularly necessary to avoid individual cooking in our 
service. It is believed that in the early stages of the present war in 
Europe, rolling kitchens were frequently kept with their organiza- 
tions until the arrival of the units upon the actual battlefield. 

It is understood that several types of rolling kitchens are now 
under test in the Southern Department, and that the issue of kitchens 
to all organizations of the mobile forces only awaits the determma- 
tion of the most suitable type. It is recommended that this be 
expedited and that coincident with the supply of the kitchens, regu- 
lations be issued providing that such kitchens shall habitually ac- 
company their units on the march. 

PUBLIC ANIMALS. 

The requirements of active service on the border have resulted in 
having quite a number of public animals inspected and condemned* 



BEPOBT OF THE INSPEGTOB GENEBAL. 305 

The data called for on descriptive cards of public animals are 
said often to be incomplete, owing largely to lailure on the part 
of purchasing officers to cause proper entries to be made on the 
cards. 

REMOUNTS. 

The following extract from the report of the last annual inspection 
of Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., relates to the training of remounts, and 
is reproduced as being, as is believed, worthy oi consideration : 

All remounts for the regiment [Eleventh Cavalry] are now turned over to 
one troop (Troop O) to be trained for six months before being assigned to 
troops. The remounts now at the post have been under training for three 
months. The remounts, with one or two exceptions, appear to be of a good 
type. They are somewhat light in weight, but this defect may disappear 
after a year's training. 

The system of turning the remounts over to one troop for training is, I 
believe, the proper one to secure the l>est results. 

First Lieut ^ * *, Eleventh Cavalry, is at present In conunand of the 
remount troop and is accomplishing excellent work. His own opinion of these 
remounts is as follows: 

"The horses are very quiet and gentle; they show a very good degree of 
suppleness and activity, and they jump, freely and willingly, small hurdles 
and ditches of any character. I believe that by the end of another three 
months, when they are turned in to the other troops, they will be as weU 
trained as is necessary for troop horses, and very much better than the 
average troop mount." 

After witnessing the work of these remounts, I confirm the above estimate. 

FARRIERS^ AND HORSESHOERs' SCHOOL. 

The following extract relative to the establishment of a post 
farriers' and horseshoers' school, which it is reported has been of 
great value, is also from the report of inspection of Fort Oglethorpe, 
Ga., viz: 

Without interfering with the other instruction of the regiment [Eleventh 
Cavalry] a farriers' and horseshoers' school has been established under the 
direction of ♦ ♦ ♦, Eleventh Cavalry, assisted by the two veterinarians of 
the r^ment The class consists of 24 farriers and 24 horseshoers, the regu- 
lar horseshoer and farrier from each troop, with an apprentice from each 

troop. 

After a thorough investigation of this class, including the Inspection of the 
work and examination of the men as to their theoretical and practical knowl- 
edge, I am of the opinion that this school is of great value to the regiment 
It systematizes horseshoeing and treatment of diseases, and stimulates the 
interest of officers and men in these two important subjects. 

PUBLIC FUNDS. 

As a general rule the inspections of the accounts of disbursing 
officers of the Army have shown that the public funds have been 
honestly and efficiently administered. 

POST EXCHANGES. 

It has been reported that frequent irregularities of a more or less 
serious nature have been discovered in the inspection of post ex- 
changes, and these were almost in every instance made possible by 
failure on the part of exchange officers, auditors, and exchange coun- 

69176**— WAR 1916— VOL 1 20 



306 KEPOBT OF THE INSPECTOB GENERAL. 

cils to properly perform their duties. The financial losseG, in every 
case where they could be definitely determined, were recommended to 
be charged against the officers whose negligence was proven ; in other 
cases wnere negligence was found it was recommended that it be 
noted on the efficiency records of the delinquent officers. 

PAPER WORK. 

Generally speaking, business is so conducted as to reduce paper 
work to a minimum and simplify administration so far as is pr^- 
ticable under the Government system of transacting business. Not- 
withstanding this fact, paper work in the Army still appears to be 
excessive, as always heretofore. 

PRISONERS. 

The system of parole of general prisoners and of probation of 
garrison prisoners appears to have been generally carried out, and 
apparently with good results. 

ARMY TRANSPORTS. 

Reports show that the trans-Pacific transport service has been effi- 
cientlv conducted; no complaints of any consequence have been re- 
ceived relative to any of the departments of this service, but on the 
contrary commanding officers of troops have generally commended 
the efficiency and courtesy of the ships officers, the cleanliness of the 
ships, and the excellence of the accommodations and food. The 
life-saving apparatus is reported as ample and of the latest pattern. 

DISCIPLINARY BARRACKS. 

At the inspections of the Disciplinary Barracks and its branches 
the disciplinary companies were found to be well instructed and well 
trained, and affairs were in excellent condition. 

RECRUIT DEPOTS. 

At the various recruit depots it was found that the instruction of 
recruits was carried out in conformity with War Department regula- 
tions prescribed therefor, and the results obtained were good. The 
depots appeared to be carefully and efficiently administered. 
Very respectfully, 

E. A. Garlington, 
Inspector GeneraL 
The Secretary op War. 



REPORT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 



807 



REPORT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 



September 14, 1916. 

Sm: I submit the following report of the Judge Advocate General's 
Department for the year enmng Jxme 30, 1916. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. 

The recently enacted national defense act (sec. 8) reorganized the 
department by adding thereto 2 judge advocates with the rank of 
colonel, 4 judge advocates with tne rank of lieutenant colonel, and 
13 judge aavocates with the rank of major, these increases to be made 
in five annual increments, as nearly as practicable one-fifth of the 
total increase in each graae to be added each year. The vacancies 
created or caused by the act distribute themselves under this rule 
as follows: 



Original yacanctos: 

Colonels 

LIeat€oant oolonals. 
Mi^Ofs. 



Appointmeot of mi^on to fin Increments. 



1916 



1 
3 



1917 



1 
1 

a 



1918 



1919 



1 
1 
2 



1920 



1 
8 



The additional lieutenant colonelcy corresponding to this year's 
increment was filled by the promotion of Maj. Walter A. Bethel, 
the senior officer of his grade. The four vacancies in the grade of 
major corresponding to this year's increment have not yet been filled. 

Additions to the clerical force of the Judge Advocate GeneraVs 
Office of one clerk class 3, and two clerks class 1, with an additional 
messenger, are authorized by the act of September 9, 1916. 

REVISED ARTICLES OF WAR. 

A project of revision of the Articles of War which has been pending 
before tne War Department since December of 1903, and before Con- 
gress since April of 1912, was, with amendments of the original proj- 
ect, enacted mto law as a rider to the Army appropriation act for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, approved Aiigust 29, 1916. 

The first project of the revision of the Articles of War was prepared 
during the uitter half of the calendar year of 1903. This project was 
subnutted to department commanders and to a large number of 
specially selected officers for criticism and was exhaustively consid- 
ered by a board of officers convened by the then commandant of the 

309 



310 EEPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 

Army Service Schools, Maj. Gen. J. Franklin Bell, but was not trans- 
mitted to the Congress hj the War Department. It was not until 
April, 1912, that the revision, perfected in the light of the criticism 
it had received, was submittea by the then Secretary of War, Mr. 
Stimson, to Congress as a basis of remedial legislation very much 
needed. The revision was introduced in the House on April 22, 1912, 
by the chairman of the House Military Committee, and in the oenate 
on April 25 by the chairman of the Senate Mihtary Committee, and 
was by both Houses of ConCTess referred to their respective Conmiit- 
tees on Mihtary Aflfairs. Hearings were conducted by the House 
Mihtary Committee covering the period from May 14 to May 27, 1912, 
but that committee, though receiving the revision favorably and 
su^esting a few amendments therein of a nature to improve the 
revision, did not report the revision as a whole. The Senate com- 
mittee reported out 9 articles of the revision relating to the composi- 
tion, constitution, and jurisdiction of courts-martial, and these articles 
were enacted as a part of the Army appropriation act approved 
March 2j 1913. 

The Sixtj-third Congress convened on April 7, 1913. The revision 
of the Articles of War, carrying the amendments su^ested during 
the House Military Committee's nearings and certain otners suggested 
by further study was introduced by the chairman of the Senate Mih- 
tary Committee on April 15, 1913, and referred to the Committee on 
Mihtary Affairs. Hearings were subsequently held by a subcommit- 
tee of the Senate Mihtary Committee, whicn reported the revision 
back to the full committee during the second session of the Sixty- 
third Congress, which reported the revision to the Senate on Febru- 
ary 6, 1914, with certam amendments. The revision passed the 
Senate with further amendments on February 9, 1914, and upon 
reaching the House was referred to the Committee on Mihtary 
Affairs, which took no action. On February 22, 1915, the Senate 
Military Committee included the revision in the tnen pending Army 
appropriation bill, and as a part of that bill the revision again passed 
the Senate February 23, 1915^ and went to conference. The conferees, 
after reporting back to their respective houses two disagreements 
respecting the revision, finally rejected it and the bill passed without 
this particular rider. 

Shortly after the convening of the Sixty-fourth Congress, first ses- 
sion, the revision was again introduced in the Senate January 6, 
1916, and hearings were conducted before a subcommittee of the 
Senate Military Committee. On February 9, 1916, the revision, with 
amendments, was favorably reported by the full committee to the 
Senate, and on March 9, 1916, the revision was again passed by the 
Senate. On reaching the House it went to the House Military Com- 
mittee March 11, 1916, but it was not until June 29, 1916, that a 
subcommittee of the House convened to consider the revision. It 
does not appear that the subcommittee made any report iipon the 
revision. Meantime the Senate Committee on Mihtary Affairs, in 
reporting to the Senate the Army appropriation bill on July 3, 1916, 
includecT the Articles of War m tne form they had passed the 
Senate on March 9, and with the articles included, the appropriation 
bill was passed on July 25. The House disagreed to the Senate 
amendments and the bin went to conference. On August 7 the con- 
ference report, embodying the Articles of War amended so as to 



BEPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 311 

exempt retired officers and soldiers from amenability thereto, and in 
certam other regards, was accepted by both Houses, and the bill 
went to the President for his approval. On August 18 the President 
vetoed the bill, basing his objections thereto on the amendment 
introduced by the conferees respecting retired officers. The appro- 
priation bill was inmnediatelv remtroduced in the House without the 
Articles of War, and in that form was passed by the House on August 
22. Upon reaching the Senate MiUtary Committee that committee 
restored the Articles of War, with the changes necessary to meet the 
objections of the President and with certain other minor amend- 
ments, and in this form the bill was passed 'by the Senate. In the 
House a motion to concur in all the Senate amendments prevailed. 
The bill was approved by the President August 29, 1916. 

With the exception of articles 4, 13, 14, 15, 29, 47, 49, and 92, 
which take effect immediately, the revision will go into effect on 
March 1, 1917. Meantime the Manual for Courts Martial will have to 
be revised and circulated throughout the Army. It is proposed to 
enter upon this work at once, and an attempt will be made to have 
the revised manual distributed throughout tne Armv by February 1, 
1917, in order that there may be a month available for its study 
before the new code, as a code, takes effect. 

GENERAL REVISION OF THE MILITART LAWS. 

A much larger task than the revision of the Articles of War is the 
revision and codification of all our military laws which this office has 
been directed to prepare in pursuance oi authority granted in the 
Anny appropriation act approved August 29, 1916. In 1911 this 
office suDmitted a report to the Secretary of War recommending that 
such a general revision be attempted, the revision to conform in scope 
and character to the revision and codification of the laws of tne 
United States of a permanent and general nature directed by the act 
of March 3, 1901. Mihtary legislation since 1878, enacted mainly in 
the form of riders to appropriation acts, is piecemeal legislation. 
Related legislation is widely separated and there is real difficulty 
within the military estabUshment in ascertaining the condition of the 
statute law on any subject. Experiencing the same difficulty in 
drafting the large amount of legislation enacted this year, the mili- 
tary committees readily accepted the suggestion for a comprehensive 
revision and codification and have provided an initial appropriation 
of $5,000 for paying the expense of clerical hire, printing, and other 
expenses incioent to the making of the revision. The work has been 
already entered upon and substantial progress has been made with 
the chapter relatmg to organization of the Regular Army. The 

Sroblem in that chapter is to restate the provisions of the new 
rational Defense Act of June 3, 1916, on tne subject of Regular 
Army organization, incorporating the unrepealed provisions of prior 
law and particularly of the act of February 2, 1901, and to make of 
it a consistent whole. It is hoped to have this much of the revision 
ready to submit with the preliminary report of progress which must 
be rendered to Congress on the first day of the ensuing session of 
that bodv. It is confidently expected that the general revision will 
be completed well within the two-year period allowed by law. The 
scope and character of the revision authorized by Congress will per- 



312 EBPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 

mit of the omission of redundant and obsolete matter, the making of 
such alterations as are necessary to reconcile contradictions^ supply 
the omissions, and amend the imperfections of the original text; and 
permits also the embodiment in the revision of changes in the sub- 
stance of existing law. It is hoped to take advantage of this authority 
to rewrite the statutes in the light of the administrative and judicial 
construction they have received, in the expectation that we may 
thereby reduce the number of references to the War Department 
and to this office for legal construction. 

OTHER REVISION WORK. 

The revision of the book on Military Reservations, etc., Title, 
Jurisdiction, etc., has been completed and the book published and 
distributed to tiie Army. The revision of Federal Aid in Domestic 
Disturbances was interrupted by the relief of lieut.E.V. Cutrer from 
duty as instructor in law at West Point and his assignment to station 
in the Philippines, thus postponing indefinitely tne completion of 
this work. On accoimt of the large increase in the volume of work 
of this office, the revision of Winthrop's Military Law and Precedents 
has been suspended for many montns, but with the increased per- 
sonnel authorized bv the national defense act it is hoped thk work 
may be resumed ana completed at an early date. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, this office has contin- 
ued the preparation of the monthly bulletin giving a digest of the 
opinions of this office, decisions of the Comptroller of the Treasury 
and of the State and Federd courts, as weU as of the opinions of tlie 
Attorney General on questions relating to the military service. 

TRIALS IN CIVIL COURTS. 

During the year a number of important insular cases, involving 
considerable laoor, were prepared and presented by this office in the 
Supreme Court of the United States and in the Court of Appeals for 
the First Circuit, to which circuit the district of Porto Rico oelongs. 
In addition, this office has represented the interests of the depart- 
ment in various Federal courts and in several State courts in a num- 
ber of habeas corpus and injunction proceedings arising out of the 
call of the Organized Militia and National Guard into the military 
service of the United States, and involving novel, difficult, andim- 

E>rtant questions growing out of the reorganization of the National 
uard prescribed by the national defense act. 

TRIALS BY GENERAL COURTS-MARTIAL. 

There were 4,743 trials by general courts-martial during the year 
1916, of which trials 337 resiuted in acauittal, as against 5,339 for 
1915 and 4,572 for 1914, showing a reauction of 11.1 per cent as 
against 1915 and an increase of 3.6 per cent over 1914. 

DELAY IK GENERAL COURT-MARTIAL TRIALS. 

While the judge advocates at the department headquarters have 
continued their efforts to reduce the delay between the arrest of the 
soldier \mder charges and the final action Dy Uie reviewing authority 



BEPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENEBAL. 



813 



in bis case, the UBsettled conditions affecting the Army, requiring a 
lai^ portion of the troops to be stationed on the Mexican border, 
away from their permanent stations, have caused the average number 
of days of delay lor the year 1916 to increase to 36, as compared to 33 
in 1915 and 34 in 1914. There has been a notable decrease in the 
delay this year of 12 days at West Point, while in the Eastern, 
Central, and Philippine Departments the average number of days 
remained the same as last year. The average delay in the Western 
Department was increased by 6 days, in the Southern Department 
by 3 days, and in the Hawaiian Department by 4 days over last year. 
TTiese delays have been caused principally by the difficulty in secur- 
ing witnesses and depositions from great distances, due to the fre- 
quent chan^ of stationed troops during the year — sometimes per- 
sons belonging to oi^anizations in the field in Mexico — and other 
causes which active duty in the field has served to counteract the 
efforts to reduce the average number of days; also, another primary 
counteracting cause to expeditious trials of cases has been the break- 
ing up of courts by sending oflScers and organizations to the Southern 
Department, thereby increasing the penod during 1916 over that 
for the two preceding years. 

The following taUe shows the average delays in the several de- 
partments for flie past five years: 



Eastern Department 1 .. . 

Central Department 1 

Western Department i. . . 
Boathem Department . . . 
Hawaiian Department. . . 
Philippine Department^. 
Canal zone 



West Point 

China expedition . 



1912 



Dairt. 
48 
48 
44 



25 



Average. 



41 



1913 



Day 9. 
47 
48 
40 
44 
36 
38 



40 



1914 



Daf9. 
42 
45 
41 
89 
32 
30 



26 



34 



1915 



Daft. 
37 
40 
40 
80 
22 
37 



38 



33 



1910 



Dvft. 
37 
40 
40 
43 
20 
37 
32 
20 



30 



^ These were "Divisions" in 1912, and the figures given under that year so relate to them. 

From July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916, this oflice received, recorded, 
and filed 5,017 general courts-martial records; prepared 1,749 
clemency reports, 255 reports on restoration to duty, 130 on citizen- 
ship, 128 on parole, and 4 on reenUstment, making a total of 7,283 
cases handled. During this period the oflBce loaned 451 general 
courts-martial records to the united States Disciplinary Barracks at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kans., 455 to the Pacific Branch, IJnited States 
Disciplinary Barracks^ Alcatraz, Cal., and 105 to the Atlantic Branch, 
Fort Jay, In. Y., making a total of 1,001. 



TRIALS BY SPECIAL OOUBTS-MAETIAL. 

During the year there were 2,163 trials by special courts-martial. 
of which trials 159 resulted in acquittal, as against 2,533 in 1915 and 
1,953 in 1914, showing a reduction of 15 per cent as against 1915 and 
an increase of 9.2 per cent over 1914. There were also 88 general 
prisoners tried by special courts during the year, of which 3 were 
acquitted. 



314 



BEPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENEBAL. 



TRIALS BY SUlOfARY OOURTS-MABTIAL. 

The total number of trials of enlisted men by summary courts- 
martial during the year 1916 was 37,877, of which trials 965 resulted 
in acquittals, as compared to 40,905 in 1915 and 36,856 in 1914, show- 
ing a decrease of 0.074 per cent as against 1915, and a decrease of 026 
per cent as against 1914. 

DESEBTnON. 

The statistics show that there were 1,950 enlisted men tried by 
general courts-martial for desertion in 1916, as against 2,535 in 1915 
and 2,097 in 1914, showing a decrease of 23 per cent as against 1915 
and 7 per cent as against 1914. There were also 432 enlisted men 
tried bjr special comets-martial in 1916, as compared to 201 in 1915, 
indicatmg an increase of 114 per cent. 

The desertions reported durmg the fiscal year 1916 amount to 2,382, 
or 2.40 per cent of the whole number of enlistment contracts in force 
during the year, as compared to 4,435 reported desertions and a i>er- 
centage of 3.23 per cent for last vear. 

It snould be noted that these tigures include the cases in which the 
charge of desertion was removed as having been erroneously made, 
in which the accused was acquitted, in whicn he was convicted of the 
lesser included offense of absence without leave and retained or dis- 
honorably discharged from the service. 

The reports of the judge advocates show that during this year there 
were 5 acquittals, 105 cases in which charges were removed as 
having been erroneously made, 364 cases in which the soldier was con- 
victedof the lesser included offense of absence without leave and re- 
tained in the service, and 114 cases in which the soldier was convicted 
of the lesser includea offense of absence without leave and dishonora- 
bly discharged, making a total of 588 cases, which, subtracted from the 
nimiber of desertions reported, leaves 1,794, or 1.81 per cent, of the 
total number of enlistment contracts in force during the year. 

The following table exhibits the true as compared with the reported 
percentages for the past eight years. 



Year. 



1900. 

mo. 

1911. 
1913. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1910. 



T)iKmi tlmn 


Charges 


True nam- 


Reported 


reported. 


onsiis* 
Uined. 


ber of de- 
sertions. 


percent- 
ages. 

4.07 


4,993 


311 


4,682 


3,464 


696 


2,768 


8.66 


2,504 


380 


2,124 


2.28 


3,411 


660 


2,851 


8.00 


4,451 


871 


3,580 


4.15 


3,882 


810 


3,072 


8.10 


4,435 


795 


3,640 


8.23 


2,3^ 


688 


1,794 


2L40 



True per- 



4.66 
192 
LOS 
2LS0 
8.84 
145 
16S 
LSI 



REVISED PUNISHMENT ORDER. 



The executive order published in War Department General Orders' 
No. 70, September 23, 1914, making important chafes in the regu- 
lations governing punishment to m imposed by miUtary tribunab 
has been in operation now about 22 months, and the reports received 
indicate that the failures to comply with its requirements have been 
decreasing until now they are quite unusual. 






BEPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENEBAL. 315 

As to the figures which follow it may be said that in all but a small 
percentage of the cases in which detention of pay alone, forfeiture 
alone, or hard labor without confinement was imposed, or sentence 
of confinement was suspended, the soldier imder former conditions 
would have been awarded a sentence including confinement. 

Sentence of confinement imposed in cases not involving dishonorable dis- 
chaige 3, 143 

Sentences of confinement suspended 79 

Sentences of detention of pay alone 1, 416 

Sentences of forfeiture alone 14, 437 

Sentences of hard labor without confinement 674 

Sentences of hard labor and forfeiture without c<Hifinement 846 

Total without confinement 17» 452 

CrVIL WORK OF THE OFFICE. 

The civil work of the office is indicated by the following summary 
classes of opinions and reports rendered and legal instrmnents 
prepared. 

Questions involving appropriations 51 

Examination of bonds 559 

To secure issues of Government property to rifle clubs under the act of 

April 27, 1914 352 

To secure issues of Government property to schools under the act of 

April 27, 1914 66 

To secure issues of Crovemment property to universities and colleges 

having courses in military training 34 

Of ofiicers of the Quartermaster Corps 63 

Of Quartermaster agents 7 

Of oisbursing officers of the militia 28 

To secure the performance of contracts 3 

Indemnity bonds 5 

Of treasurer of Soldiers' Home 1 

Claims against the Crovemment 50 

Contracts 74 

Clemency to general prisoners 1, 749 

Detached service 21 

Discharge 51 

Eieht-hour law 64 

Enlistment 16 

Gratuities to disabled or deceased officers and soldiers 39 

Instruments relating to Government property 118 

Leases 49 

Revocable licenses 69 

Proposed legislation 92 

Loans and mles of Government property 46 

The militia 54 

Navigable waters 54 

Parole of general prisoners , 128 

Pajr and allowances 72 

Pnvate debts of persons in the military service 29 

Permits for work in navi^ble waters 337 

For wharves and similar structures, dredging, etc., under authority 

of section 10 of the act of March 3, 1899 116 

For bridges across waterways the navigable portions of which He 

wholl V within a single State, under authority of section 9 of said act . 170 
For bridges across navigable waters of the United States, under the 

general bridge act of March 23, 1906, and special acts 30 

Notices to alter bridges which have become unreasonable obstruc- 
tions to navigation, under authority of section 18 of the act of 
March 3, 1899 U 



316 REPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE QENEBAL. 

Permits for work in navi^ble waters — Continued. 

For deposits of material in navigable waters, under authority of sec- 
tion 13 of the act of March 3, 1899 3 

For structures in navigable waters of Porto Rico, imder authority of 

the act of June 11, 1906 7 

Government reservations 186 

Beenlistment of discharged general prisoners 4 

Restoration of general prisoners 256 

Retirement 31 

Questions concerning taxation 11 

Volunteers 3 

Transportation 47 

Restoration of citizenship 130 

Transfer of general prisoners 139 

Miscellaneous opinions and reports (estimated) 1, 100 

Total of opinions, reports, and instruments 6, 056 

Total, 6,056, compared with 4,211 for last year, which shows an 
increase in volume of work of 43.81 per cent. 

The following tables, marked ' * Appendix A," show detailed statis- 
tics as to the number of trials by general and specieJ courts-martial, 
and the classification of offenses tried by all courts-martial, as well 
as the trials by summary courts. 

There is also submitted herewith, marked "Appendix B," a sum- 
marization of reports of judge advocates on duty at department head- 
quarters and other generd court-martial jurisdictions during the 
year, in order that the remarks and recommendations of each officer 
may be scrutinized by the others and by the service generidly, with 
a view to eliciting broader criticism as to the betterments of the 
legal work of the Army. 

E. H. Crowdeb, 
Jvdge Advocate OenerdL 

The Segbstabt op Wab. 



APPENDIXES. 



APPENDIX A. 

Number of trials by general court-martUd. 

CkymmifiGioned officers 31 

OonvictionB 24 

GonvictiQna disapproved 

Acquittals approved 4 

Acquittals disapproved 8 

Awaiting action by the War Department (June 30, 1916) 

Cadets, convictions approved 2 

Enlisted men 4,660 

Convictions approved 4, 262 

Convictions di^pproved 81 

Acquittals approved 206 

Acquittals disapproved 26 

Proceedings declared inoperative 

Desertion proceedings declared void 5 

Plea in bar sustained 2 

Members of China expedition (report does not show action of reviewing 

authority) 88 

General prisoners 50 

Convictions approved 45 

Acquittals approved 2 

Convictions disapproved 2 

Trials null and void 1 

Total 4,743 

The statistics as to trials by general court-martial in recent years are as follows: 





1909 


1910 


i9il 


i912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


CoinTn*s!«*An«!>d offl'W'^trfft'l 


43 

10 

2 


80 

7 

4 

2 

5,127 

45 

6.98 


42 
6 
5 

"3,*766' 
48 

5 


29 
6 

10 

6 

4,345 

53 

5.2 


33 

8 

7 

2 

5,121 

48 

&8 


32 

8 

1 

1 

4,466 

71 

4.7 


35 

7 
3 


31 


Commissioiied oflQcers dismissed 

Cadets tried 


3 
2 


Cadet? dismissed .......r.rwTr 




KnHsted men tried ...,.-» t 


5,449 
56 

7.4 


5,235 
66 

4.3 


4,660 
50 


Qeneral Drisoners tried 


Percentage of trials of enlisted men to 
average enlisted strength of the 
Army 


4.7 







Additional general court-martial statistics. 



Charges received reoonmiending trial bv general court-martial 

Cases referred fortrialby eeneral court-martial 

Cases returned for trial by inferior court-martial 

Charges upon which no trial was ordered 

Defective charges requiring amendment before reference 

Cases in which prooeedinss were returned for revision 

Enlisted men dishonorably discharged as result of trial 

Where dishonorable discharge resulted only from 5 previous convictions. 



1913 



5,546 
5,193 

215 

138 
2,117 

397 
2,653 

412 



1914 



1915 



5,199 


6,191 


4,595 


5,468 


460 


493 


116 


232 


^»SS 


2,436 


207 


422 


2,732 


3,241 


299 


368 



1916 



6,037 
4,619 

217 

103 
1,733 

348 
2,906 

438 



317 



318 



REPORT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 



Additional general court-martial statistics — Continued. 



Total trials by general court-martial 

Convictions approved 

Trials of enlisted men by special coorts-mar- 
tlal 

Acquitted 

Trial of enlisted men by summary court- 
martial 

Acquitted 



1910 



5,206 
4,820 

346 
96 

42,275 
1,216 



1911 



3,851 
206 



33,062 



1912 



4,435 
4,063 

249 
52 

37,805 
1,036 



1913 



5,209 
4,831 

884 
54 

39,795 
1,023 



1914 



4,572 
4,292 

1,953 
175 

30,856 
1,102 



1915 



5,339 
4,992 

2,523 
202 

40,905 
1,166 



1016 



4,748 
4,321 

2,158 
158 

37,877 
966 



During the year 88 general prisoners were tried by special court-martial, of which 3 
were acquitted, and 52 by summary court-martial, 7 or which were acquitted. 



DESERTION. 



statistics for desertion for the &ye fiscal years preceding June 30, 1916, are set forth 
below: 



Tried for desertion by general court-martial 

Convicted of de8ertion.and dishonorably discharged . . . 

Convicted of desertion and not dishonorably discharged . 

Convicted of absence without leave only and dishonor- 
ably dlsdiareed 

Convicted of absence without leave only and not dis- 
honorably discharged 

Tried for desertion by speclal.oourt 

Tried for desertion by special court and convicted of 
absence without leave only 



1911 



1,347 

932 

14 

101 

283 



1912 



1913 



1914 



1,577 

944 

98 

117 

414 



1,896 

1,107 

163 

169 

457 



2,097 

1,280 

149 

158 

492 



1915 



2,635 

1,637 

120 

161 

531 
201 

11 



1916 



1,950 

1,358 

64 

147 



4sa 

229 



The above table does not specifically set out the number tried for desertion and 
acquitted, and it does not include cases of desertion where action other than trial by 
court-martial has been taken. 

General Orders, No. 77, War Department, June 10, 1911, announced the policy of 
the War Department as to the proper punishment for the offense of desertion in the 
cases of inexperienced soldiers who desert in the earlier periods of their enlistment 
contracts, and as well for the surrendered deserter.* Disciplinary punishment by 
confinement and forieiture was therein suggested as an appropriate punishment for 
such of these men as show a disposition to atone for their oQenses, and the cooperation 
of reviewing authorities was invited in carrying out the new policy. 

The order was issued near the close of the fiscal year 1911, and so does not materially 
a£Fect the statistics of that ^ear. The execution which the order has received is very 
clearly revealed by comparing the number of soldiers convicted of desertion who were 
retained in the service for the two years preceding the issue of the order with the num- 
ber so retained during the three years following the order. For the former years (1910 
and 1911) these numbers were 38 and 14. respectively, the corresponding percentages 
to the total number of soldiers tried and convicted of desertion being 3 per cent and 
2 per cent. For the latter years (1912, 1913, 1914, and 1915) the number of convicted 
deserters retained in the service rose to 98, 163, 149, and 310, respectively, the corre- 
sponding percentages being 10, 13, 11, and 18. While the percentage increase of men 
saved to the colors through the operation of this order has been most marked, the 
numbers actually restored continue small in comparison with the total number con- 
victed of this o£fense and dishonorably discharged. ' 



BBPOBT OF THE JTTDGE ADVOCATE QEKEBAIj. 



319 



CUusification of offenses tried by all eourts-martidl. 



Article 
or War. 



Description of offense. 



8 Making fialse return. 

Offenses relating to pablic property: 

16 Wasting ammunition. 

17 Selling horse or arms. 
1 7 Selling accouterments or clothing ^ 
17 Losing or spoiling horse or arms through neglect 
17 Losing or spoilmg aoooutermmts or clothing 

through neglect 

62 Abusing public animals. 

62 Destroying publ ic property. 

62 Pawning and disposing of clothing. 

62 Attempting to sell clotning 

62 Losing arms, accouterments, stores or other prop- 
erty 

62 Disposing of equipment. 

62 Disposing of other public property 

62 Other offenses relating to public property tmder 
sixty-second article of war 

60 Purchasing Government property 

Offenses against constituted autnority: 

20 Disrespect to oommanding officer 

21 Offering violence to superior officer 

21 Disobeying superior officer 

23 Mutiny 

23 Failure to endeavor to suppress mutiny 

24 Disobeying nancommissumed officer while quel- 

ling n'ay, etc 

62 Disobedience of standing orders or regulations 

62 Disobedience of or failure to obey commissioned 
officer 

62 Disobedience of or failure to obey noncommis- 
sioned officer 

62 Dlsobed ience of or failure to obey sentinel 

61 Impugning professionaleonduct of superior officer. 

62 Disrespect or Insulting language or insubordi- 

nate conduct or threats toward or striking or 
assaulting a commissicmed officer 

62 Disrespect or threats or insulting language or in- 
subordinate conduct toward or assaults upon a 
noncommissioned officer 

62 Disrespect or insulting language or insubordinate 
conduct or threats toward or assaults upon a 
sentfaiel 

62 Resisting arrest by military authorities 

62 Breach of arrest 

62 Breaking quarantine or restrictions or parole 

62 Escape or conspiring to escape from confinement 
or sentinel 

62 Other offenses against those in authority 

Offenses against subordinates: Abuse by officer or 
noncommissioned officer of auth(H-ity over subor- 

dtoates 

Conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman: 

61 Financial Irregularities 

61 Other irregularilies 

61 Violation of pledge 

62 Fraudulent enlistment 

62 Carrying concealed weapons 

Offenses by guards: 

39 Leaving post 

30 Sleeping on post 

40 Quittiiu; guard 

62 Senti^^allowing prisoner to escape 

62 Sentinel permitthig prisoner to obtain intoxicating 

liqucM' 

62 Sentinel sitting down on post 

62' Other offenses committed by sentinels or others on 

guard in connection with such duty 

Offenses of violence: 

62 Fighting 

62 Threats to kill or injure 

62 Assault with dangerous or deadly weapon 

62 Assault with hitent to do bodily harm 

62 Assault with Intent to kill 

62 Assault with Intent to commit robbery 

62 Assault, or assault and battery, nnd other offenses 
of violence not against one In authority nor 
otherwise classified under this subhead 

08 Manslaughter 



Number of ooovictJona. 



OtHowB. 



Enlisted 
men. 



6 

6 

183 

90 

464 

270 

62 

47 

6 

188 
5 


213 



60 

14 

141 

1 

1 

3 
3,730 

840 

2,852 
151 



273 
2,510 



174 

100 

1,610 

25 

150 
326 



18 



411 
41 

74 
117 
194 

51 

21 

140 

057 

17 
51 
43 
301 
38 
1 



410 

7 



Oaieral 
prisoners. 



Militia. 



5 

8 



4 

6 



1 
34 



8 
7 
6 



a 
s 

1 

*i 



2 

2 



7 

a 



3 
8 



320 



REPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE QEmSBAL. 



ClassificoHon of offenses tried by all oenirto-mortiol— Continued. 



Article 
oCWar. 



Description of offense. 



60 
80 
60 
60 
60 

60 
62 
62 



62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 

62 



81 
82 
83 
47 
62 

62 
86 
62 
81 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 

62 

62 
84 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 



88 
62 



Oflteises involving personal dishonesty: 

Embesslement or misappropriation 

Forgery 

Larceny 

Making or pr«8enting false claims 

Wrongful acquirement or disposition of Govern- 
ment property 

Any other violation of the sixtieth article of war . 

Failure to pay debts 

Failure to return borrowed property 

Selling, pawning, or otherwise diq>08ing of bor- 
rowed property 

Perjury or sabomation of perjmy 

Falsifying aooounts 

Forgery and utterinc forged papers 

Fraudulent flnancJaitransactions 

Larcmy 

Embezdement 

Robbery 

Having possession of stolen property 



Burglarv.. 
emptinf 



Attempting burglary 

Obtaining money or other property under Itlse 

pretenses 

Other offenses under the sixty-eeoond article of 

war involving persooaldishonesty of the offender. 
Unauthorfied absences: 

Lving out of quarters 

Absence without leave 

FaUure to attend drill, roll call, etc 
Desertion 



Absence without leave from duty 

lUtary 



Offenses closely connected with military duty: 

Losing or abandoning eouipment 

Hiring men to perform duty 

Quitting ranks on march 

Advisinc another to desert 

Careless handling or discharge of firearms 

False official statement or report 

Impersonating superior officer or sentinel 

Conspiring to desert 

Refusing to submit to surgical operation or medi- 
cal treatment 

Refusing to submit to medical treatment for 
syphilis 

Malmgering 

More than I mile from camp without pass 

Sleeping while on duty 

Failure to perform company punishment 

Failure to report for prophylactic treatment 

Failure to salute 



Other neglects of duty not classified under this 
lead 



subh< 



62 

62 
62 



62 
62 
62 
62 
62 



62 
66 



Offtaises connected with intoxicating liquor: 

Drunkenness on duty 

D runke nness at post or in quarters 

Drunkenness ana disorderly cooduot at poet (or 
in quarters) 

Drunkenness and disorderly conduct, causing 
oflteider's arrest and conviction by oItII author- 
ities 



Having possession of or selUng or buying faitoxi- 
catingUquor 



Introducing liquor into camp, quarters, etc 

Other offenses connected with intoncating liquor and 

not otherwise classified under this subhead 

Offenses against decency: 

Committing a nuisance 

Indecent exposure of person 



Sodomv ana other unnatural practices. 
Assault with intent to commit rape. . .. 



Other similar offenses 

Conduct (not involvjug drunkenness^ causing ar- 
rest and conviction by civil authorities 

Loaning monev at usurious rates of interest 

Use or possMsion of narcotics 

Oflteses against private property 

Offenses against private property 



Number of convlciiona. 



Officers. 



1 
6 



2 
4 



28 



Enlisted 
men. 



22 

5 

191 

4 

68 

8 

348 

29 

39 
7 

12 

99 

33 

629 

28 

24 

2 

23 

2 

41 

816 

9 

14,841 

6,117 

1,593 

1,244 

8 

6 

8 

2 

821 

886 

15 

2 

67 

4 

43 

1 

68 

6 

1.094 

10 

1,609 

1,624 
8,424 

1,728 



811 

347 

876 

1,787 

346 

19 

62 

4 

46 

76 
7 

34 
1 

18 



Oenenl 
prlsonera. 



3 



MOltift. 



8 

19 
8 



3 
1 



1 



REPORT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 



321 



Clasnfication of offenses tried by aU oenirto-mortJd^-Oontinued. 



Articto 
of War. 



62 
63 

62 
63 
63 
62 
62 
63 

63 
63 
63 
62 
63 
63 
63 
63 



Description of offense. 



Offenses to the disgrace of the uniform and service 

Profane or provoking or threatening or indecent lan- 
gnage or creating a disturbance in quarters 

Qambling in post or quarters 

Attenipts to commit suicide 

Disorderly conduct and neglects not classified 

Dirty arms, accouterments, or clothing 

Visiting neighboring towns without pass 

Wearing improper uniform or civiliah dothing with- 
out authority 

Fraudulent use of class A card 

Having contraband in guardhouse 

Missing or sailing on transport without authority 

Prisoner refusing or failing to work 

Resisting arrest by or interfering with civil authorities. 

Trespass and loitering around private quarters 

Offenses agataist civilmns 

Offenses not otherwise classified 



Number of coovictions. 



OfBoers. 



Enlisted 
men. 



63 

170 

29 

1 

238 
53 
34 

51 
7 
12 
12 
21 
3 

30 

15 

1,023 



General 
prisoners. 



Militia. 



TridU by summary courts. 



Posts. 



each month, during year. 



Alcatraz Island, Cal 

Apache, Fort. Arix 

Armstrong. Fort, Hawaii 

Army ana Navy General Hospital, Arkansas 

Baker, Fort, Cd 

Balboa, Canal Zone 

Baltimore, Md.. coast defenses of 

Barry, Fort, Cal 

Bayanl, Fort,N. Mex 

Benicia Arsenal, Cal 

Benj. Harrison, Fort,Ind 

Bliss, Fort, Tex 

Boston, Mass., coast defenses of 

Brady, Fort, Mich 

Cape Fear, N. C, coast defen'^es of 

Casey, Fort, Wash 

Charleston, 8. C, coast defenses of 

Chei<t^>eake Bay, coast defenses of 

Clark, Fort, Tex.^ 

Columbia,Fort, Wash 

Columbus Barracks, Ohio 

COTOzal, Canal Zone 

Cristobal, Canal Zone 

Crook, Fort, Nebr 

D. A. Russell, Tort, Wyo 

Davis, Fort, Alaska 

Delaware, coast defenses of 

Department Headquarters, Hawaiian Department, 

Department Hospital, Hawaiian Department 

DeRussv, Fort, Hawaii 

DesMomes, Fort, Iowa 

Douglas, Fort, Utah 

Eastern N.Y.. coast defenses of 

Empire, Canal Zone 

E. 8. Otis, Camp, Canal Zone 

Ethan Allen, Fort.Vt 

Filler, Fort, Wash 

Gaulard, Camp, Canal Zone 

Galveston, Tex. , coast defenses of 

Gatun, Canal Zone 

George Wright, Fort, Wash 

Gibbon, Fort, Alaska 

Grant, Fort, Canal Zone 

Harrison, Fort. Mont 

Henry I5arracks, P. B 



Average of 
enlisted 
strength 

K resent on 
kst day of 



Total 

number of 

trials by 

summary 

courts 



339 



238 
231 



18 



1,351 

8 

226 

3.18 

367 

1,063 



1.118 

461 

19 

13 

385 

99 

238 

21 

86 



17 

24 

668 

1,760 

1,675 

1.097 

325 

990 

660 

254 

256 

316 

671 



157 



345 
"63 



118 



119 
83 



8 
14 



718 



82 

36 

133 

276 



251 

294 

30 

2 

208 

49 

114 

2 

56 

121 

3 



212 
833 
592 
436 

47 
262 
245 

99 
169 

73 
490 



35 



Peroentaga 
oftrlaUby 
summary 

Courts 
during year. 



34.8 



50 
35.6 



.77 



58 



36 
10.6 
36 
26 



.23 
63 
1.80 
.15 
.54 
49.5 
47 
9.9 
65.3 



.17 



31 

47 

35 

40 

14.5 

36 

44 

38 

66 

S4.0 

73 



16 



69176'— WAB 19ie--voL 1 21 



I i 



■ 



I 



I II 



\i\ !; 



' I 



n. 



1 

J___ 



322 



BEPORT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL, 
Trials by summary cowrts — Continued. 



Posts. 



Huachuca, Fort, Arls.i 

Jay, Fort, N.Y 

Jefferson Barracks, Mo 

Kamehameha. Fort, Hawaii 

Keogh, Fort, Mont 

Key west Barracks, Fla 

Lawton, Fort, Wash 

Leavenworth, Fort, Kans 

Letterman General Hospital, California 

Llscum, Fort, Alaska 

Logan, Fort, Colo 

L^an H. Roots, Fort, Ark 

Long Island Sound, coast defenses of 

McDowell, Fort, Cal 

Mcintosh, Fort, Tex.> 

McPherson, Fort, Oa 

Mackenzie. Fort, Wyo 

Madison Efarracks, New York 

Mason, Fort, Cal 

Meade, Fort, 8. Dak 

Miley, Fort, Cal 

Missoula. Fort, Mont 

Mobile, Ala., coast defenses of 

Myer, Fort, Va 

Narrf«ansett Bay, coast defenses of 

New Bedford, Mass., coast defenses of 

New Orleans, La., coast defenses of 1 

Niagara, Fort, N. Y 

Oahu. Hawaii, coast defenses of. 

Oglethorpe, Fort, Ga 

Omaha, Fort, Nebr..'. 

Ontario, Fort, N. Y 

Panama, coast defenses of 

Pensacola, Fla. , coast defenses of 

Plattsburg Barracks, N.Y 

Porter, Fort, N.Y 

Portland, Me^ coast defenses of 

Portsmouth, N. H., coast defenses of 

Potomac, coast defenses of 

Presidio of Monterey, Cal 

Quarry Heights, Canal Zone • 

Randolph, Fort, Canal Zone 

Rilev, Fort. Kans 

Robbison, Fort, Nebr 

Rock Island Arsenal, 111 

Rosecrans, Fort, Cal 

Ruger, Fort, Hawaii 

St. Michael, Fort, Alaska 

Sam Houston, Fort, Tex.» 

Sandy Hook, rf . J., coast defenses of 

San Juan, P. R 

Savannah. Ga., coast defenses of 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 

Shaf ter, Fort, Hawaii 

Sheridan, Fort, 111 

Sherman, Fort, Canal Zone 

Signal Corps A\iation Corps 

SiJl, Fort, Okla.i 

Slocum, Fort, N. Y 

Snellhig, Fori, Minn 

Southern New York, coast defenses of 

Stevens, Fort, Oreg 

Tampa, Fla., coast defenses of 

Thomas, Fort, Ky 

United States DisdpUnary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 

Valdez, Alaska 

Vancouver Barracks. Wash 

Walter Reed General Hospital, District of Columbia 

Ward, Fort, Wash 

Washington Barracks, District of Columbia 

Wayne, Fort. Mich 

West Point, N. Y 

WiUiam H. Seward, Fort, Alaska 

WinfleM Scott, Fort, Cal 

Wood, Fort, N.Y 

Worden, Fort, Washlngtoo 

Yellowstooe, Fort, Wyo 



Average of 
enlisted 
strength 

{>resent on 
ast day of 
each month 



284 

1,306 



143 

353 

274 

169 

76 

391 

17 

1,446 



39 

13 
560 

42 
214 
226 

14 
182 
801 
887 
140 
168 

17 
945 
871 

11 
268 



520 
869 
37 
1,318 
143 
189 
333 
174 
135 
118 
172 
136 
398 



67 



672 
524 
376 
5,443 
1,908 
261 
345 



24 
929 
274 
160 

29 
225 
124 
915 



133 
730 
13 
707 
225 
1,180 
126 
636 



Total 

number of 

trials by 

summary 

courts 
during year. 



106 
404 
121 



30 

220 

206 

64 

24 

49 

4 

547 

303 



6 

2 

346 

2 

110 

54 

7 

79 

262 

413 

70 

46 

5 

433 

523 



89 



225 

222 

6 

449 

78 
130 
119 
707 

14 
127 
101 

17 
163 

25 

28 



207 

99 

127 

2,115 

766 

163 

200 

15 



304 

2 

479 

62 

77 

8 

121 

3 

248 

128 

38 

110 

3 

205 

80 

355 

30 

127 

79 



Peroeatag» 
of trials b J 
gnmmary 

courts 
during year. 



37 



.30 



21 
62.3 

.75 
37.9 
3L6 

.12 
23 
38 



15 
15 
62 
4.8 

.51 
23.9 

.50 
43 
33 
46 
50 
27 
29 

45.8 
60 



33 



43 
25 
16 
34 
54 
68 
35.7 

4.04 
10 

L07 
.58 
.12 

4a9 

'4L8* 



31 

19 

34 

38.8 

4ai 

.62 
57 



.08 
51 

22.6 
48 
28 

.53 
2.4 
27.1 

'28.6' 
15 

.23 
2&9 
3&2 

sai 

34 

ao 



BEPOBT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 



323 



TriaU bff nanmajy eourU — Continued. 



Posts. 



Av«rm{!«of 

prventon 
wstday of 



Tout 

numborof 

triatoby 

tommary 

coorts 



Mch mooUL durtnc FMT. 



Camps of instruction , 

Camp at San Diefo,CaI , 

Camp at Calexfco, CaJ , 

Miscellaiieous: 

Augusta, Frank/ord, WatwtOArn, and Watervliet Arsenals and 
Springfiald Armorr 

TransMrts 

R«cnuting and signal stations in the field, and miscellaneous. . . 

Twenty-seventh In'antrv » 

Ordnance Depot, Hawaii 



946 
236 



PHILIPPINE 1SLAin>9L* 



A Qgnr Barracks 

Camp Eldridfe 

CampGreo^. 

Camp JiAin Hay 

CampKeithiy 

CampMcCkath 

CampNidiols 

Camp Overton 

Camp Stotsenburg 

Fortimis 

Fort San Pedro 

Fort WUUam McKlnley 

Ludlow Barracks 

Manila: 

Cuartel de Espana, Department Hoq>ital, and Ordnance Depot . . 

Pettit Barracks 

Regan Barracks 

Warwick Barracks 

Miscellaneous camps, stations, etc 

Transports 



890 
13 



864 
333 

223 
483 

719 

563 
96 

418 
1,628 
4,396 

329 
2,348 

851 

855 



573 
434 



451 
93 
67 



68 

79 

325 

47 



143 

304 
33 
63 
70 

471 
17 
44 

688 

1,110 

54 

1,574 

69 

441 
44 

331 
56 
37 
63 



Perc«ntac» 
of trials by 
summary 

courts 
durtnc yMT. 



37.4 



6.00 



16w6S 
61.36 

0.91 
13.04 

0.73 
83.66 
17.71 
ia53 
43.36 
35.83 
16.41 
67.04 

8wll 

51.58 

0.91 

57.79 

13.31 



RECAPITULATION. 



Eastern Department 

Central Department 

Western Department 

Southern Department' 

Hawaiian Department 

Philippine Department 

Unitea States Military Academy . 

Canal Zone 

China expedition 



18,410 
4,632 
8,269 



8,413 

15,436 

707 

7,373 

1,249 



8,133 
3,015 
3,525 



3,373 
5,499 
205 
3,583 
1,007 



38.70 

.38 

33.10 



4a 00 
35.62 
29.00 
49.00 
i^OO 



1 The frequent shifting: of tro(n)s pertainfnt; to posts and camps in the Southern Department durinc 
the fiscal year in connection with border patrols make it impracticable to complete statistics which would 
be of any practical value. 

s The summary court at Quarry Heights tries offenders from all posts on the Canal Zone for offenses 
committed at or in the vicinity of Panama. The number of trials of members of the provost guard com* 
pany was 50; hence the percentage given above would not be an indication ol the discipline of the com- 
mand, the actual pat»ntage of whicn is 28. 

s Twenty-seventh Infantry stationed on Canal Zone September, October, November, December, 1915, 
and January, 1916. 

* July 1, 1915, to May 31, 1916. 

* Abandoned. 



APPENDIX B. 



Extracts From Reports and Recommendations of Judge Advocates of Depart- 
ments AND West Point. 



eastern department. 



There have been very few cases of duplication of charges requiring correction before 
reference for trial or reduction of sentence because of such duplication. 

The failures to comply with the requirements of paragraph 8, General Orders, No. 
70, War Department, 1914, have been constantly decreasing and are now quite unusual. 
The same may be said of paragraph 9 of said order. 



324 BEPORT OP THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 

There were very few cases, only two or three as recalled, in which the court spread 
upon the record its reasons upon which its findings and sentence were based. 

(Signed) Lieut. Col. Dodds. 



80T7THERN DEPARTMENT. 

The daily routine work of this office throughout the year has included notation of 
all points arising which suggest the advisability of changes in the procedure or in the 
reflations pertaining to it. From time to time, when the importance of the points 
arising seemed to warrant such action, recommendations relative thereto have been 
submitted to the War Department. The following miscellaneous recommendations 
gleaned from the notes made, while of minor importance, are nevertheless submitted 
■as reHecting desirable changes resulting from questions of a routine nature. 

Paragraph 126, Army Regulations, provides for discharge without trial of a deserter 
foimd physically unfit for service. This paragraph should, I think, contain a qualifi- 
cation so as to preclude discharge under its provisions when the umfitness for service 
is due to insanity. 

Paragraph 139, Army Regulations, provides, inter aliaj for the discharge of an enlisted 
man on account of a sentence to imprisonment by a civil court, whether suspended 
or not. This provision should include discharge because of any sentence of a civil 
court resulting in imprisonment, whether suspended oir not, as well as sentences 
resulting in probation or parole, either of which status is, I believe, inconsistent with 
military service. 

Paragraph 928, Army Regulations, provides designations for different classes of 

Prisoners. I think prisoners sentenced to dishonorable discharge in whose cases the 
ishonorable dischiu^ has been suspended should have a desifiiiation different 
from general prisoners. I suggest that they be designated as ''disciplinary pris- 
oners. 

Deserters' descriptive circulars issued by the War Department are useful in con- 
nection with the action of reviewing authorities upon the records of their trials, and 
it is sug^ted that officers preferring charges for desertion be required to attach 
thereto me descriptive drciuar of the alleged deserter. 

It is important that all decisions of the Judge Advocate General be available at 
Department Headquarters for use in the office of Department Judge Advocates, and 
I, therefore, suggest that photographic copies of all opinions issued by the Judge 
Advocate General be furnished each Department Juoige Advocate. 

If it is the policy of the War Department to give effect to the provisions of the act 
of March 4, 1915, in so far as it provides for honorable restoration to duty of general 
prisoners confined elsewhere than in the Disciplinary Barracks, I think that the 
service should be furnished with appropriate regulations. 

The service at laive is, 1 think, unacquainted with that provision of the act of April 
25, 1914, which decGires that no distinction shall be made between the Regular Army, 
the Organized Militia while in the service of the United States, and the voluntew 
forces in respect to the eligibility of any officer of said Army, militia, or volunteer 
forces for service upon any court-martial, and which revokes section 6 of the act of 
May 27, 1908, requiring that the majority membership of courts-martial for the trial 
of officers or men of the militia when in the service of the United States shaU be com- 
posed of militia officers. It is suggested that the attention of the service at large be 
invited to this imfamiliar provision of law. 

Six himdred and ninety-eight general court-martial charges, out of a total of 892 
during the ^ear^ contained errors which necessitated either minor or material amend- 
ment in this office. These errors were due principally to carelessness on the part of 
the officers preferring them, and to their failure to conform to the prescribed models 
for charges. I do not believe that this carelessness can be corrected and I consider 
it quite the proper function for the Department Judge Advocate's office to correct 
chfljges before reference to courts. 

Sixty-three trials by general courts-martial out of 889 in this department during the 
year were held in order that the accused inight be discharged from the service because 
of five previous convictions. When the important and varied duties of the commis- 
sioned personnel along the Mexican border during the past year and the diJ£culty of 
holding meetings of general courts-martial are considered, I think the above fact is 
a strong argument for an administrative discham by department commanders on the 
approved action of boards of officers, and I therefore renew a recommendation recently 
made that the discharge of soldiers with five or more previous convictions by depart* 
ment commanders upon the approved action of boiuxls of officers be authonsed. 



BEPOBT OF THE JXTDGE ADVOCATE GENEBAI^. 325 

The average period of time aanued were in confinement before final action of the 
reviewing authority ap<Hi the proceedingB amoonted for the past year in thia depart- 
ment to 42 days. I consider Uiis average large, particularly when it is remembered 
that depositions are not extensivelv used in the trial of cases in this department. 
The delays have been due principally to the frequent moving of officers and enlisted 
men, necessitating frequent changes of courts, of judge advocates, transfers of prisoners^ 
second reference of charges, ana to the difficulty of securing military witnesses. In 
this connection I desire to renew a recommendation that I nave previously made to 
the effect that time spent by accused in confinement awaiting trial and result of trial 
shall be awarded as good-conduct abatement, provided conduct while in confinement 
during service of sentence warrants such abatement. Such a scheme would. I think, 
materially improve our system and ]>revent injustice due to long periods of confine- 
ment awaiting trial and result of trial and preclude anj criticism of that system. 
The department judge advocate should be mtrusted with the duty of preventing 
trials from being delayed unnecessarily because of a knowledge on the part of those 
concerned that the allatement would prevent any injustice due to delav. 

I desire also again to submit a rec(Mnmendation that I have frequently made with 
a view to securing an improvement of procedure in trials of desertion cases. I recom- 
mend that when a desertion occurs the organization commander be required to make 
a thorough investigation and to secure by means of depositions all pertinent testimony 
as to the circumstances attendant upon the offenses discovered to have been committo<l 
and to transmit the charges with accompKanyin^ P^P^ including the depositions so 
secured, to the War Department to remain until notification is received there of the 
deserter's return to mihtarv control, and that the papers then be mailed directly to 
the proper commanding officer for investigation and action under the provisions of 
paragraph 954, Army Keguladons. It has been extremely difficult to try deserteiv 
from the organizations in Mexico who absented themselves before their organlzati/ms 
entered that country. The records of these organizations were left in the United 
States and have not been accessible to organization commanders, so that long [Hmods 
of confinement awaiting trial have resulted. I do not think that the nincty-flrst 
article of war, which permits the use of depositions if taken upon reasouahio notice to 
the opposite party, would be interpreted to preclude their use when takoTi in the 
manner above suggested, provided, of course, that the accused consents to tlicir uuo. 
If he does not consent, then the delay is his own fault and not that of the Government. 

The number of troops in the department has increased during the last six monttis 
from a total of about ^,000 to a total of approximately 130,000. During this time the 
work of this office has been carried on by exactly the same personnel that was on duty 
when the department contained bv approximately one-fifth as many troops and with- 
out any necessity of a change in tne enrstem in vogue, and without any necessity of a 
subdivision of the court-martial jurisdiction of the department commander. In fact 
the department commander has recently recommended that no such subdivision of 
the duties of this office be made, but that the entire court-martial work of the dej)art' 
ment continue to be conducted from this office as heretofore. 

During the last few months the number of troops in the department has increased 
very materially, with a natural increase in the work of this office, but it has been 
impossible to secure additional clerks to assist the present clerical force in handling 
the large amount of additional work thrust upon it. This fact necessitates, in my 
opinion, the repetition of the recommendation so frequentlv made by dei>artment 
judge advocates that judge advocates' clerks should be under tne exclusive jurisdiction 
of the Judge Advocate General in order that assignments and promotions of these clerks 
may be more equitably and expeditiously accomplished. 

Ill conclusion, I desire to sav that the very vaned and extensive nature of the work 
of this office for the past year has not only afforded a splendid test of the procedure in 
vo^e in the Judge Advocate GeneraPs Department, but has demonstrated, in mv 
opinion, that no material modification of that procedure, as exemplified in the work 
here, is necessary. 

(Signed) Capt. Howze. 



HAWAIIAN DEPARTMENT. 



In the last annual report of this office the desirability of making it easier to ^et rid 
of worthless soldiers other than by general court-martial on five previous convictions 
was stressed. In this connection attention is Invited to the amenaed excerpt from th& 
one recommendation made by the undersigned on June 17. 1911. * * » 



326 REPORT OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL. 

It is submitted that this is still incomplete and inadequate in that it applies money 
voted by the people for their defense to returning to the places of acceptance former 
soldiers found to be of no value in such defense. 

It should be impossible for a soldier who, either because of the existence of disquali- 
fication or because of a vicious feigning of such disqualification, has earned a dis- 
charge under this paragraph to enter or reenter, in time of peace, as a haven or asylum, 
anv Branch of the public service. 

If these two changes were written into the law and were made known to all men on 
entering the service, they would result in great improvement. 

It is recommended that the legislation necessary to e£fect these changes be secured; 
that no discharce under paragraph 148i, Army Regulations, be ordered until the pro- 
ceedings have been passed upon b)r the judge advocate of the general court-martial 
jurisdiction; that the payment to interpreters of $5 a day be authorized; and that 
judge advocates' clerks be placed in a separate class and promoted therein. 

(Signed) Capt. Galloglt. 



PHILIPPINE DEPARTMENT. 

lu the last annual report of this office the hope was expressed that the Philippine 
Legislature would pass an act similar to section 35, Federal Penal Code, punishing 
the unaiitUorized purchase of clothing and other Government property from soldiers. 
Such a law has been enacted. The terms are substantially identical with those of 
section 35. No statistics are yet available as to the number of prosecutions imder 
this new law. 

The average period of time the accused has been in confinement under general court- 
martial charges before final action of the reviewing authority on the proceedines has 
been 37 days. The period was the same for the year ending June 30, 1915. Effort 
has been made to reduce this period, but the time required to transmit mail between 
the southern islands and Mamla and the absence of a sufiScient number of competent 
stenographers to report proceedings of courts convened in the vicinity of Mamla are 
two elements that have made it impracticable to reduce it further. . 

During the past vear progress has been made in clearing up titles to military res- 
ervations. The title of the United States to the military plaza in Manila has been 
decided to include the filled-in land between the plaza and tne Cavite Boulevard. 

(Signed) Lieut. Col. Morrow. 



WEST POINT. 

The statement of evidence submitted with a view to meeting the reouireraents of 
para^pli 9o4, Army ReiruUtions, frequently consists solely ot a number of papers 
bearing si«^ne 1 or uusignei statements of witnesses whose testimony is relied upon 
by tie otficer preferring the charges. This practice multiplies papers and seldom 
results in presenting for consideration a complete and logical summary of the avail- 
able evidence. It is my opinion that more satisfactory results would be obtained if 
the officer preferring the chuges were required by regulations to submit a communica- 
tion, signed by himself, sotting forth in logical order a summary of the testimony that 
may be expected of each witness, together with an appropriate reference to any other 
available e^Hdence. The closer study which the officer preferring the charges would 
find it necessary to make in order to prepare a complete and logical written summary 
of available evidence would tend to reduce the number of charges requiring materia' 
amendment before reference to general courts-martial or return for reference to in- 
ferior courts. Such a summary would enable the officer detailed to investigate the 
case to make his report with the least possible delay and also enable the judge advo- 
cate to go to trial with the greatest promptness. The general effect of the adoption of 
the plan outlined would, it is bolieve-i, be to lead to more accurate pleading and to 
greater promptness in the final disposition of cases. 

(Signed) Lieut. Col. Krbobr. 



Iff TT TTT^a ia^;CjL!3 »UX-51k..4* 



■UbJ.bi jUjtX. 



* .- 



K'latc-iusiiia; tut immr i umiKninBiii 'm ii«uutu«*tjtT4. . m'tj** Sai*'* .> . -^ 
aerknv jffiniftgn. T'auh f^-^s-' fifni^ it l^an^^ huuh m iv*t- r^umma'/tn^ i, .^,^,\is^\ 

erefflinr ▼•*«r or viili^ at ihik t»*imr rnmCMLrS^ ?vc in?'?»t 7; v<ifc? u»f r.uKit .»r.\«*> 



hMTif "ULtHL fc'.'ii^*' HiepF Trrrjsrc "Uif- rrnkiarativTii and -^^nar-.lfiiirMa)! ix a f^u:.ic<r»' 
tbe c&oerr kuq eLm^r-HC meE tif "drt- '■nniiuiiii ai»- :t if iiop^ xhw lixwr *iD.<n? mill 

Dritpt --Tiif tinjr ^^iJ, ■eape^naL'T c^ntiijf if ii hit r»;iirujii: «n/ifidaiT iiirrwa^cTic. 
Sev«a3 c^aiePF in iLh- x.^aaricrnf r.-u'^iue*- '^^sj'.t'i.'i in I*i.i:fi.TTii^ lis-vf ^»f»fiii It^cTY'it^*: t»iit 
•ad irouciii bekre Xiie kicaid-e aiia :ii^ nitixiTi.iiiii ji'iiufti.iiHin , a t.iw iii JfM* I r.n<*d 
Stjtqp nnTBXirT. air»r6<*d in ea^*i •'•apt-. Ti^ese r:»r%3 ^:j<-»Tif "were f»f^ruTY*d bv fsir.-'^}.^'- 
VDZ swdi«» on cuiT a;t tiii-«f ii^i*d^iiaru*rF, iiirLi.siit*c'. viih fuDcif oxit iti nn v^ra 
prkf^, £jjd dirwted to jiun-naftt' liaf drur iroiii lij^ f*uppfH"i^ ^eudllr<u I tx^e Tiie 
-^,^E ' l»€dn^ «a."irr^d . h irae sein to itie patiicilari'.'aj ia!* w^uttt, Abcitii, C-aiiaJ Zi^fli*, 
far atia^^-me. "W'liV, r>.is e^idenoe the 'im-viTniditf referred io irere cvbtaiihpd \\ was 
rej^»on-:'d to me a.t tbe linkf of one of the tii&ls in t}»e alralde't oouri the alcaide pro- 
docad SiTid Aowad 11 c^'un C'^e^ 5{t eniiJ] boxep, 2 mr^ t»otuwv, 1 >ial. and i lin bax, 
cootajring about, o^er 3(i drwee of tbiF t-erriMe dmir. which his men had secured iixmh 
v^kJois* i»laceR, freauented t>T The soldiera. aft^r pe-v^ral raids thereon, ebofrini: That 
to aH appezLraaces ti>e supply of cocame in the city of Panama if aliDOf*l unliiun^d, 
ae it k fe3t that a great iniiiiher of vendoTF of tlup diruf escaped del^ection, 

I leel that it is Xkot to be expectcni that an iDdiA^duaJ (^oe^* should, from hif> own 
liosited Boesiif, be reqtiired br our OovemiDeiii 10 meet the eJtpeiisap of lighting thia 
penuckxis and dtaxkaraLuin^ practice, and 1 therefore reiterate and apdn reoew my 
reoommendatioDft, aad request that mifficieiit funds be furnished this ofin^e to be 
used lor this and lite purpoeee. * * ♦^ 

I am azaiii forced to call to your attentioo the fact that thi? command should be 
made a d^nrtmeut without delay. The rapidity with which the disciplinary* mat- 
ten are acted upon when comiiared to the oW method of refemnt them to the Depart- 
ment <rf the East in New York City, has l>een oi in€%«timaMe >Jue to the command, 
and ii» rajadity with which all other business could be handled were this a depart- 
ment ia of aimiJar comparable chara<*teT. 1 c^an see no ai|rumeDt a^nst the otstab- 
liriimeDt of a department and many in fa\ or of such actiou . 

(^Si^ed) Herbert A. WnrrK, 

Major, Jydge AdxKtaUe, 



CHINA BXPEMHON. 



The discipline of this command, from the nature of conditioDs here, most alwmyi 
be maintained at an excepti<HiaUy hi^ standard, and that it has been so maintained 
during the past year is diown by the reports of the department oommander and the 
d^MTtment inspector. 



328 REPOBT OP THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENEBAL. 

In view of the fact that liquors of all kinds can be purchased uy our soldiers in the 
immediate vicinity of barracks for less than one-third what they would cost in the 
United States, the number of trials in this command is small. 

Besides all kinds of liquors, cocaine and morphine are easily obtained here. Every 
effort is made to prevent our men from becoming addicted to the use of these dru^, 
and those found guilty of usine them are, as a rme, sent to Alcatraz, in order to give 
them a chance to break the habit. I believe that here, as in most places, the great 
majority of offenses committed by enlisted men are due, directly or indirectly, to 
dnigs or liquor. The fact that this place is so accessible to all sorts of vice and ia not 
supplied with wholesome amusements on the outside undoubtedly increases the 
number of trials. 

(Signed) Col. Hale. 



CBNTRAL OBFARTMBNT. 

None. 

(Signed) Col. Hull. 



WB8TBRN DBPARTMBNT. 

None. 

(Signed) Lieut. (3ol. Goodibb. 



REPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL 



329 



REPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 



War Department, 
Office of the Quartermaster General of the Army, 

Wdshington, September 6, 1916, 
The Secretary of War. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the annual report of the operations 
of the Quartermaster Corps for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916. 

PERSONNEL. 

Commissioned. — On June 30, 1915, the comnussioned strength, 
Quartermaster Corps, was as follows: 

Major ^neral 1 

Brigadier generals 2 

Colonels 14 

Lieutenant colonels 18 

Majors 48 

Captains 102 

Total 185 

The two vacancies in the grade of lieutenant colonol which existed 
Jime 30, 1915, remain unfiUed. 

Of the 14 colonels in the corps Jime 30, 1915, 1 was retired and the 
vacancy filled by the promotion of a lieutenant colonel who, later in 
the year, was also retired and his vacancy filled by the promotion of 
a Ueutenant colonel, leaving the number of colonels, June 30, 1916, 14. 

Of the 18 lieutenant colonels in the corps Jime 30, 1915, 2 were 
promoted to colonels and the vacancies filled by the promotion of 2 
majors, leaving a total number of lieutenant colonels, June 30, 
1916, 18. 

Of the 48 majors in the corps Jime 30, 1915, 4 were relieved, 2 were 
promoted, 2 were retired, 1 died, reducing the nimiber from 48 to 39. 
Nine majors were detailed in the corps, bringing the total number of 
majors in the corps, Jime 30, 1916, to 48, the number authorized 
by law. 

Of the 102 captains in the corps June 30, 1915, 45 were relieved 
from detail and 1 was killed, reducing the number to 56. Forty-six 
captains were detailed in the corps from captains of the line, making 
a total of 102 in the corps June 30, 1916. 

The duties being performed by officers of the Quartermaster Corps 
on June 30, 1916, are shown in Exhibit No. 1. 

Quartermaster sergeants^ Quartermaster Corps. — During the year 25 
quartermaster sei^eants. Quartermaster Corps, were retired, 6 died, 
3 transferred to the permanent school detachment, 2 discharged bv 
purchase, 1 discharged to accept commission in National Guard, 



t 



331 



332 BEPOBT OF THE QUAKTERM ASTER GENERAL. 

and 1 dishonorably dischai^ed, making a total of 38 vacancies, 31 of 
which were filled from eligibles who had qualified for appointment to 
the position, leaving 7 vacancies Jime 30, 1916. 

Pay clerks, — On Jime 30, 1915, there were 74 pay clerks in the 
service. Between Jmie 30, 1915, and June 30. 1916, 1 pay clerk was 
retired from the service, he having been found by an Armv Retiring 
Board incapacitated for active service on account of disability inci- 
dent thereto, leaving a total of 73 pay clerks in the service on June 
30, 1916. 

The regular annual educational examinations of enlisted men for 
appointment to the higher grades of the Quartermaster Corps (quar- 
termaster sei^eants. Quartermaster Corps, excepted) were hela on 
March 6, 1916, pursuant to the provisions of Circular No. 18, Office of 
the Quartermaster General, 1915. Attached hereto, as Exnibit 2. is 
a statement showing the number of persons examined and the numoer 
of appointments made of those who attained an eligible rating of both 
the educational and noneducational grades during the period July 1, 
1915, to June 30, 1916. 

On Jime 30, 1916, a total of 1,941 civilian employees in the United 
States and 243 in the Philippines, together with 2,045 enlisted men of 
the line on extra duty in the Quartermaster Corps, had been replaced 
by 5,379 enlisted men of the Quartermaster Corps. 

Attached hereto, as Exhibit 3, is a statement showing the number 
of men by grades apportioned to the diiferent departments and other 
stations and to Hawaii and the Philippines, the number of men in 
the service, and the number of vacancies as of June 30, 1916. 

Civilian employees, — ^There are distributed throughout the United 
States and its insular possessions approximately 7,900 civilian 
employees. 

NATIONAL CEMETERIES. 

There are 83 national cemeteries, classified as follows: 



First clasB 31 

Second class 18 



Third class 6 

FourthclasB 28 



The interments therein during the fiscal year were 1,752, the total 
at the close of the year being 219,026 known, 153,138 unknown; 
grand total, 372,164. 

The appropriation for maintaining and improving national ceme- 
teries, including fuel for superintendents, pay of laborers and other 
employees, purchase of tools and materials, was $120,000. From 
this sum the buildings, drives, walks, walls, fences, monuments, 
etc., have been kept in proper condition, so far as practicable, the 
most important improvements being made at the foUlowing ceme- 
teries: 

Alexandria, La. , new 45>foot well |250. 00 

Arlinfftonj Ya.: 

Repairing Mansion House 1,140.00 

Providing parking space for automobiles 250. 00 

New hot-water boiler for greenhouse 350. 00 

Baton Rouge, La., new 75-foot steel flagstaff 315.00 

Chalmette, La., window screens and screened balcony for lodge 425. 00 

City Point. Va., new 75-foot steel flagstaff 614.00 

Fort Donelson, Tenn., new wire fence around reservation 500.00 

Qettvsburg, Pa., resurfocing lower road SOaoO 

^obUe, Ala., new concrete sidewalkB 354.00 







The ptiptthk: i-?i£ tilin^e :f tir arrr rr.: ::.ri *x the <»^i *v ^ise 
fiscftl year ttas f ^^< . 

of narion&. <»r:-e:>r>^, £-jl1 jriT :.->". wisi $^v\:>.\ ar.^^airt 
expencled. $6^:;.::i.n : >4T^r t- ^mexrvr :.-i h&lAiicie of $1x1?. 

There *r« 76 szp&r^'i^-Zr.i^ :f r.i-..-i* coir.-xeri^ axithv^-tsJ by 
law. Scxen rerz.*-t^ri*? ^r^re- --irrr :iiij^^ of ■:jj>rtAkers dunng tb<> 
year. There Lfcxe i.-rn iLr^ OL-uiliit^. all by dwitii, and 
new Appob^zzz.^!.!.^ Live V«?-r- r .s-ie, 

C^ooenuK/r^ c; ;** -::--• -.o: .^: .. — Ti.-? appropriaiic^n far rrpjdiing 
the 17 roadiriys ::■ r.*::!.*: ••'".t'-n-es maintiiDed by the Gv^vent^ 
ment ^ras S12,<»j, cf wL; i. $il,^^7-5I■ wiiS expended, leavi-.^ an 
unexpended biliir.:^ c-f ?: J.S- 

The mo?t irLp:>n2Ln: r?j -irs Lixe >- n -^tde : d :Le f . "owing roads : 

Astietam, Md. $<Pifl M 

BaBsBfaiS. Va. 3VlOO 

CoDiitiuMia. Lf?6.O0 

FrBdcnckitazE. V&. 2^ 00 

MoaadCirr. IX t v*< M 

Hatcbez.Mis : ^ 00 

NewbenuX. C 2 - W 

BaliAnrv, K-C 4-T.OO 

Bpost^e^Mo Z *;-::. 00 

gtnnatan, Va. 22^.00 

Vicicabin]^ JUS.. ........ - . - ^i*.»-50 

Port cem^Urie^, — ^Approximately il/y/J wa« ♦'rpfrjd'vj irj the 
repair and maintenance of |x>st cer:f't*'ri*-« durio^ tr^f; fi^ral y*'U". 

Headttoneg, — A contract was ent-ered into J'Jy 2^. 191-5* for fnr- 
ptfthmg 14,000 headstones for miliijown grave*; of Union *^'')dif'r3, 
sailors, and marine^, and Confederat** buried in nittionaJ <i*Tnet*-rieB 
and ctrilian emplorees buried in po^t eerneteries, undf*r the act% of 
March 3, 1873, Februarr 3, 1879, March 9, 1906, April 2%, 1904, and 
Jane 30, 1906, at S2^9 each. 

YieTcxx thousand eigiit hundred and sixty-one headstones were 
furnished and shipped for this purpose during the fiscal year. 

DUpoiiiion <f rerruiins. — ^Appropriation for fiscal vear 1916, 
J57^; expen<fod, $53,789.76; learing a balance of $3,710. 24. 

Ihe following dispoeition was made of the remains of officers and 
enlisted men ot the Army (active) and the remains of civilian em- 
ployees in the emplov of the War Department who died abroad, in 
Alaska, in the Canal Zone, in Mexico^ or on Army transports, or who 
died while on duty in the field, or at military posts witnin the limits 
of the United States: 

Becehred at San FnuKuaoo, Cal. (including tLe remaine of 24 clviLiao0 mad 
IZ ranaaisM handled (or tU« Nav/ liepartoMmt): 

^Sbdupped bome ».,.. 49 

DeUv«ced torelativee 15 

Intecrod in San Franciaco (Cal.) National OemoWry 36 

Awaiting diBpoaition July X, U>1« 6 

IOC 



334 REPORT OP THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 

Buried in Alaska 3 

Received at Seattle^Wash. , from Alaska and shipped home 1 

Received at New York from Panama and shipped home 4 

Received at New Orleans from Panama and shipped home 1 

Interred in Canal Zone, Panama 6 

Interred in Porto Rico 4 

— 19 
In the United States and Mexico: 

Missing 6 

Drowned, not recovered 5 

Shipped home 311 

Interred in post or national cemeteries 144 

— 465 

Total 590 

To provide for the preparation of the remains of officers, enlisted 
men, and civilian employees of the Army and transportation of their 
remains to their homes when desired, contracts were entered into 
with local imdertakers at all military posts for this service, which 
included embalming, furnishing coffins, caskets, and shipping cases. 

A burial corps was organized by the department quartermaster, 
Southern Department, imder the charge of an experienced cmbalmer, 
for service in recovering the bodies of soldiers who might be killed or 
die in Mexico. 

During the year the following remains of soldiers were removed 
from fields and abandoned cemeteries and reinterred in national ceme- 
teries. Two known soldiers from near Billing, Mont., to the Custer 
Battlefield (Mont.) National Cemetery; 15 unlmown remains at City 
Point, Va., to the national cemetery at that place; and 6 remains of 
civilians from the abandoned post cemetery of Fort Washington, Md., 
to the Arlington National Cemetery. 

During the year the remains of a British sailor who died in 1855, 
and of a Unitea States Navy seaman, who died in 1850, were removed, 
with the head and foot stones at their graves, from the Fort Baker, 
Cal., military reservation to the cemetery at the Mare Island Navy 
Yard, Cal. 

Interment of indigent soldiers. — Forty claims, amounting in the ag- 
gregate to $1,760.67, have been settled under the provisions of the 
act for expenses of burying in the Arlington National Cemetery, or 
in the cemeteries of the District of Columbia, indigent ex-Union sol- 
diers, ex-sailors, or ex-marines of the United States service, etc., who 
have been honorably discharged or retired and who died in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. The amount allowed in each case, exclusive of 
cost of grave, is $45. Seven claims of burial expenses under this 
law were rejected and two claims are awaiting settlement. One-half 
of the exnenses incurred for this purpose is payable by the District 
of Columbia. 

Revocable licenses. — Revocable licenses authorizing the use of por- 
tions of national cemetery reservations or Government approach road- 
ways to national cemeteries have been issued by the Secretary of War, 
as follows : 

Annapolis, Md., to county commissioners for Anne Arundel County, 
Md., to lay an 8-inch sewer pipe on the cem.etery reservation; October 
30, 1915. * 

City Point, Va., to E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., to lay a 6-inch 
water pipe under the approach roadway; December 10, 1915. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB OEKEBAL. 335 

City Point, Va., E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., to lav two water 
pipes, one 4 inches and one 6 inches in diameter, across the approaoh 
roadway • February 14, 1916. 

Corinth, Miss., to city of Corinth, to lay concrete sidewalk 4 feet 
wide along the approach roadway; August 12, 1915. 

Fort McPherson, Nebr., to Farmer's Cooperative Telephone Asso- 
ciation, Brady, Nebr., to erect three telephone poles on the reserva- 
tion, to string wires thereon, and maintain the same; August 2, 1915. 

Newbem, N. C, to William T. Hill, for himself and 17 other resi- 
dents of Riverview, Newbem. to cross the approach roadway with 
water and sewer pipes from tne east to west sides thereon, in order 
that water and sewer faciUties may be given to the residents of 
Riverview; September 2, 1915. 

Staunton, Va., to W. B. Johnson, to construct a crossing over the 
approach roadway by placing a concrete slab acrosLi the gutter at 
station No. 31 ; July 17, 1915. 

A revocable lease issued by the Secretary of War, March 26, 1916, 
to Jacob Hankins, of Brady, Nebr., for a term of one year from April 
1, 1916, for cultivation of a portion of the Fort McPherson National 
Cemetery Reservation, contaming from 6 to 8 acres, the lessee agree- 
ing to seed the tract to oats, one-n)urth of the crop to be the property 
of the United States. 

The depot quartermaster, Jeffersonville, Ind., reported on October 
18, 1915, that by an act of the legislature of the State of Tennessee, 
fifty-eighth general assembly, 1913, approved April 14, 1913, the cor- 

8 orate limits of the town of Dover were extended so as to include the 
rovemment approach roadway to the Fort Donelson National Ceme- 
tery, and under the proviso limiting the expenditure of the appropria- 
tion "Repairing roads to national cemetenes'' to roads owned by the 
United States within any town or village the authorities of the town 
of Dover were accordingljr advised that the Government will make 
no repairs on the roadwav in the future, the title of the United States 
to the roadway being only a right of way. 

Mommients have been erected during the fiscal year by the State 
ot Minnesota in the national cemeteries at Andcrsonville, Ga., 
Little Rock, Ark., and Memphis, Tenn., in memory of its soldiers 
buried there who died during the Civil War. 

In October, 1915, a monument which had been erected on Flamenco 
or Deadmans Island, in the Bay of Panama, by the oflBcers and crew 
of the U. S. S. Lancaster, to the memory of nine shipmates who died 
and were buried there in 1860 and 1861, and subsequently transferred 
to the Ancon Cemetery, Canal Zone, was brought on the U. S. S. 
Ohio to Philadelphia, and from that point shipped to and reerected 
in the ArUngton National Cemetery. When the monument was re- 
moved to Ancon Cemetery it was also intended to remove the remains 
thereto, but no trace of them was found. 

On August 4, 1915, a storm caused considerable damage to the 
Poplar Grove National Cemetery, Petersburg, Va., destroying 138 
trees, damaging the lodge and outbuildings, and destroying the wagon 
sheH, part of inclosing wall was blown down, the Saltan bent, and 
a large number of headstones were broken, etc., which required an 
expenditure of $1,225 to put the cemeterv in good condition. 

On September 29, 1915, a hmricane also caused damage to the 
Chalmette National Cemetery and the national cemeteries at Baton 



336 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMA8TEB GENERAL. 

Rouge and Port Hudson, La. At Chalmette 78 trees were destroyed, 

Eart of inclosing wall was blown down, lodge was badly damaged, 
itchen addition damaged, wagon shed demolished, stable unroofed 
and waUs blown down, rostrum wrecked, and many headstones 
broken. Expenditures to place the cemetery in good condition 
amoimted to $4,204. At the Baton Rouge and rort Hudson National 
Cemeteries $30 each was expended for repairs. 

On October 4, 1915, a flood at the United States National Ceme- 
tery, Mexico City, Mexico, washed away a large portion of the in- 
closing wall and otherwise damaged the cemetery, repairs being made 
at a cost of $2,150. 

In April, 1916, a bronze tablet, including bronze supports for same, 
was erected near the tomb of Maj. Charles L'Enfant, m the Arlington 
National Cemetery, containing the facsimile of the inscription that 
apnears on the tomb, at a cost of $297. 

On May 9, 1916, the superintendent's lodge at the Mill Springs 
National Cemetery, Somerset, Ky., was destroyed by fire, and a 
thorough investigation of the matter by the depot quartermaster, 
Jeffersonville, Ind., failed to disclose the cause. Steps are being 
taken to reconstruct the lodge. 

I can not too earnestly invite attention to the^ inadequacy of the 
appropriation made annually ($120,000) for the care and mainte- 
nance of the 83 national cemeteries imder the control of this office. 
Of this sum 58J per cent is expended annually in the hire of labor in 
keeping these cemeteries in proper condition, which leaves but a 
very small sum available for repair to lodges, outbuildings, water 
supply and sewer systems, reservation walls and fences, roads and 
walks, trimming trees, etc., or the construction of new locoes and 
outbuildings destroyed by fire, or of repairing damages occasioned 
by hmricanes and storms. 

During the past fiscal year the amount required to repair damages 
by storms at three cemeteries in the South and in Mexico City aggre- 

fated $6,414, and a new lodge is required to replace one destroyed 
y fire at the Mill Spriijgs (Ky.) National Cemetery, which will cost 
apm-oximately $4,500. 

The price of labor and material has so far advanced in the past 
year or two that most needed improvements and repairs at many 
of the national cemeteries have been postponed, or only partially 
made, for want of fimds. To meet this condition it is recommended 
that in submitting estimates for the fiscal year 1918 the sum asked 
for ''For care and maintenance of national cemeteries" be increased 
to $150,000. 

CLAIMS. 

Miscellaneous accounts. — ^During the fiscal year there were received 
for action 49 accounts for payment for services due to deceased 
civilian employees of the Quartermaster Corps, amoimting in the 
aggregate to $1,875.46. One account, amoimting to $58, was allowed 
for pavment, and 48 accounts, amoimting to $1,817.46, were trans- 
mitted to the Treasury or other departments for settlement. 

Damage claims. — At the berinning of the fiscal year there were on 
file in the office 16 claims for damages to private property of citizens 
of the United States and its island possessions, amoimting in the 
aggregate to $715.95. Thirty-six claims were received during the 



3CEP0BT or THE QTJiSTEXMJLSTESi GEXSSUkL. ^T 

fiscal yevr, smomitzng to S3«5&4.S9. Tot4J on hxnd «nd r^c«uvMi. ^!^ 

In tie CBtim&teB porgtsTDd in this offic* for the Ww IVr^ttTT^meTit 
mod submitted to Cangrees aJ its present session in IVc<»mhor liist, 
the sum of $5,0(K) ^iras iDcliided for the piyn^ent of duna^ c1iu7r$ 
theai cm £le in t^ office sod socb Additional ciaiTiis as ^'«(N' <!nh<)e- 
<IiientlT reoerred and approTed bj tbe Secretjuy of War afrw an 
investisatian to aBoertain viiat amount was iusvUv doe to tho r]jii;n- 
ants. Tlus sera, h is nDder5t<K>i is inchidM in tbe hill making aT>* 
|Rx>piiatians for tbe support of the Army durini^ the cnrront t»i"^ 
year, 'widci is now petnmng in Congress,* As the approrwiatjon oJ 
$5,000 win eK-seed the amount required for pavnieint of the dATiiiure 
claims now on file in tbe office, if that amount Is made avftU«blA, ti>e 
balance, after paTmcnt of the claims now on lile^ will be used to p^^' 
such additionju claims of this character as may be received dtmng 
the present fiscal year. 

ChnfederaU J^f/r^e da'tirt^. — ^At the beginning of the fissral yCAf there 
was on file in this office 421 claims for payment for horses and l^>^::irA4^e 
taken from paroled Confederate soldiers in violation of the tcr.^is of 
the saiTCTider of the Confederate armies at Appomattox in April, 
1865, pr^ented to this office under the act of Conaress appi\>>-e*i 
FetMnary 27, 1902. 

The time limit fixed by law for the presentation of these olaii>^:* 
having expired on June 25, 1912, no claims were receive<i during the 
fiscal year. 

One claim was disallowed during the fiscal year, and two chin>!^ 
amoimting to $260 were allowed, leaving on hand at the cK\se of the 
last fiscal year 418 claims. 

It is beheved tluit of tlwse 418 claims, ncAriy, if not all, should W 
dropped as abandoned and the papers sent to the i>ermanet>t tilcK <^ 
the office. Many of tbe claimants it is presume<i have died sinoe 
their claims were presented, and others have been abandonetl by the 
claimants for want of official evidence to enable favorable aotion U> 
be taken upon them. 

There remained at the close of the fiscal year of the appri>priatit>n 
made by Congress for the payment of tliese claims the sum of 
$5,399.05. 

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS, 

For the supply of newspapers and periodicals for the use of the 
enlisted men of the Armv there was authorized expondod d\iiinjx 
the fiscal year the sum of $7,149.13, and the amount expoiuiod for 
supply of reading matter for the troops serving in the Philipniiu^ 
Islands was, as reported, $632.74, making a total of $7,781.87 nutitor- 
ized expended for this purpose. 

Reading matter is bemg suppUed during the current fiscal year to 
all posts and stations in the Lnited States, including the troo|xs serv- 
ing on the Mexican border, and also the troops serving in Alaska, 
the Canal Zone, and tbe island possessions. 

FINANCE AND ACCOUNTINQ. 

Apportionments, — Consolidated financial statement^ fiscal year 
ended Jtme 30, 1916. (Exhibit No. 4.) 

69176**— WAB 19ie~voL 1 22 



838 



BEPOBT 09 THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 



Detailed statement of expenditures of the Quartennaster Corps 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, itemized under different appro- 
priations. (Exhibit No. 5.) 

Statement of account of the Phihppine Islands (Exhibit No. 6) : 

Letters, etc., received during fiscal year 1916 10, 671 

Letters, etc., eex^t during the fiscal year 1916 13,781 

OflScers' money accounte: 

Onhand July 1, 1915 212 

Received diuing the fiscal year 1916 2, 984 

Examined and sent to the Auditor for the War Department during the 

fiscal year 1916 3,045 

On hand at the close of the fiscal year 1916 151 

Certificates of deposit received 4, 278 

Beneficiaries. — ^During the period July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916, 
payments were made under authority of the act of Congress ap- 
proved May 11, 1908. as amended by act approved March 3, 1909, 
to the beneficiaries oi 31 officers of the Regular Army $50,205; for 
321 enlisted men of the Regular Army, $49,112.60, and 11 enlisted 
men of the Phihppine Scouts, $603, malang the total paid on account 
of enlisted men $49,715.60, and a grand total disbursement on thb 
account of $99,920.60. 

Mileage. — For mileage disbursements for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1916, see Exhibit No. 7. 

Letters, etc., received during fiscal year 1916 15,272 

Letters, etc., sent during fisotl year 1916 23, 458 

Property amounts. — Beginning with the fiscal year 1916 the rendi- 
tion of annual returns of quartermaster property in the hands of the 
Organized Mihtia was discontinued and the system of property 
accounts provided in Circular No. 38, office Chief of the Quarter- 
master Corps, 1913, for use in the Quartermaster Corps, was adopted 
to account for this property. 

The number of vouchers to property accounts handled during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, is as follows: 

Onhand July 1, 1915 9,295 

Received during the fiscal year 284, 245 

Posted to property accounts 279, 323 

On hand June 30, 1916, to be posted 14,217 

Letters, etc., received during the fiscal year 1915 6, 500 

Letters, etc., sent during the fiscal year 1916 7, 332 

Deposits and aUotments. — Report of soldiers* deposits received 
and repaid during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916: 





Number. 


Amount. 


Interest. 


Deposits received 


69.514 


S1.&57.&44.02 










PAivMits reDft^d by nnftrtenn«ut*j»^ ......,,.,,.,,,.,., 


44,308 


1,143,614.77 
16,036.36 


$40,677.63 


DebosJts rebeid by Treasury settlement 


579.13 








Total 




1,159,651.13 


41,156.75 









Amount remaining to credit of depositors June 30, 1916, 12, 719,549.91. 



During the period July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916, there was dis- 
bursed $973,770.47 in payment of allotments made by enlisted men 
of the Army, 



BEPOBT OF THB QTJABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 339 

Total number of allotments in force on June SO, 1916 8,138 

Letten, etc., received during fiscal year 1916 83,379 

Letters, etc., sent during fiscal year 1916 16,481 

Svhsistenee returns. — ^The number of subsistence returns handled 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, is as follows: 

On hand June 30, 1915 80 

Received during the fiscal year 1,924 

Examined during the fiscal year 1,894 

On hand June 30, 1916 110 

Letters, etc., received during fiscal year 1916 1,349 

Letters, etc., sent during fisoil year 1916 2,323 

Contracts. — ^There have been received, indexed, examined, and cor- 
rected when necessary and entered on record of contracts during the 
fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1916, contracts, leases, etc., as indicated 
below: 

Contracts with bonds 1,658 

Contracts without bonds 1,777 

Leases 1,143 

Supplemental contracts * 189 

Annual bonds 21 

Notices of increase, decrease, termination of contracts 589 

Letters, etc., received during the fiscal year 15,990 

Letters, etc., sent during the fiscal year •••• 2,395 

SUPPLIES. 

Statement ofisma made during thefieedl year 1916, 

Qairison, travel, reserve, trail, and field rations (36,487,325); average 

cost, 28.0124 cents $10,220,989.99 

Filipino ration (2,058,132); average cost, 17.4048 cents 358, 213. 85 

Number, value, and average eoet of ratume, by geographical divieione, etc., ieeued during 

the fiecai year 1916. 



DlTiaions. 



United BtatM (IncludM Canal Zona). 

Alaska 

Hawaii 

PhfUppinaa (AuMrioan) 



Total aTwaga coat: 

Annrlcan 

Phfllppinea (natlTa), 
Canal zona 



Nombarof 
rations. 



28,006,531 

215,024 

8,248,027 

4,416,863 



Vahia. 



86,487,325 
2,058,132 
2,334,048 



18,000,825.88 

76,162.00 

800,031.44 

1,244,060.77 



10,220,080.09 
858,213.85 
782,548.77 



oott 

(oants). 



28.00 
85.42 
27.41 
28.10 



28.0124 
17.4048 
83.52 



MILITIA. 



Jima 21 to 36, inclnsHa, 5 dayi. 
Jima 36 to 30, incioalva, 5 dayi. 



Total ftv mmtia, Jona 21 to 30, IncOoalTa. 



106,000 
106,000 



106,000 



8807,600.00 
150,000.00 



556^500.00 



178.00 
t30.00 



153.50 



1 Par day. 



Average cast of the roHon, wiih and without transportation. — ^The 
averagje cost of the actual food included in the garrison ration 
(Amencan) during the fiscal year 1916 was as follows: 



Canta. 



At all posts or stations in the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). . 27. 9912 

At all posts or stations in the Philippines 28. 1664 

At all posts or stations in the Unitea States and Philippines 28! 0124 



340 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENERAIi. 



The cost of transportation charged on subsistence supplies was 
$364^143.74. Charging this amount to the total cost of the garrison 
ration issued, it gives for the fiscal year 1916 an increased cost for 
each ration oi 0.998 cents, thus making the cost of the garrison ration 
delivered, including food and transportation, as follows: 

CeDts. 

At all posts or stations in the United States 28. 9892 

At all posts or stations in the Philippines 29. 1644 

At all posts or stations in the United States and Philippines 29. 0104 

Yearly and per diem cost of subsistence per man in the United States and the Philippine$. 



Cost in United SUtes. . 
Cost in Philippines. . . 



Number of 
rations. 



Datty 
average 
ni mber 
of men. 



32,070,472 
6,474,985 



87,864 
17,739 



Netoost. 



$8,976,920.23 
1,602,283.62 



^^^- (cents). 



$102.17 
90.33 I 



27.99 
24.74 



Emergency ration, — Some difficulty has been experienced with the 
emergency ration and it.s final adoption, owing to a slight odor and 
rancidity which was noted after it had been packed for several months. 
This defect has been traced and overcome, and 20,000 of these emerg- 
ency rations have been procured in order to give an elaborate try-out 
under difl'ering conditions and in various sections, especially on the 
Mexican border and in the Philippines, where conditions should be the 
most trying;, and if entirely satisiactory, a large quantity will be pro- 
cured and kept as a reserve to meet possible needs. 

The ration as devised by the fooa experts of the Department of 
Agriculture, working in conjimction with medical officers and quar- 
termasters of the Army, is composed of the following: Raw and 
ground lean beef, 96 parts; flour, 96 parts; skim -milk powder, 64 
parts; invert sugar, 3 parts. Salt to taste. 

The nutritive qualities of the ration have been tested fully by the 
experts and pronounced satisfactory, and it only remains to test the 
keeping qualities, which may be determined only by long periods of 
storage under various conditions of climate and temperature. 

Restoration oj certain articles to subsistence list, — In the act making 
appropriations for the support of the Army for the fiscal year 1913. 
certain articles from the appropriation ''Subsistence of the Army 
were transferred to the appropriations ''Reralar supplies,*' "Incidental 
expenses/' and "Clothing, and camp and garrison equipage." The 
act making appropriations for support of the Army for the nscal year 
1916 authonzed the disbursement of the appropriations named 
above, including "Subsistence of the Army," as one lund to be known 
as "Supplies, services, and transportation." In view of this it was 
deemecf advisable in order to facilitate supply, and in order to avoid 
complaints as to deUveries and keeping the stock of the articles at 
posts up to the required Quantities, to obtain authority to direct 
the purchase of the articles listed below with purchases of subsistence 
stores and suppUes for posts on monthly ana quarterly requisitions, 
as outlined in Circular 15, O. Q. M. G., July 6, 1916: 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMA8TEB GENE&AIi. 



341 



Baaiiis, hand. 

Bluing, ball. 

Bluing, powdered. 

Borax. 

Brooms, whisk. 

Brushes, hair. 

Brushes, shaving. 

Brushes, shoe. 

Brushes, tooth. 

Buttons, composition, 

large and small. 
Buttons, collar. 
Candles. 
Candles, lantern. 
Combs, medium. 
Combs, pocket. 
Electrosilicon. 
Equipment, dressing, olive 

draD. 
Equipment dressing, 

white. 



Handkerchief, linen. 

Matches, safety. 

Metal polish, paste. 

Metal polish, powder. 

Mugs, shaving, enameled. 

Needles. 

Polish, shoe, black, combi- 
nation. 

Polish, shoe, russet, combi- 
nation. 

Poliah, shoe, russet, paste. 

Razors. 

Razor strops. 

Salt, rock. 

Shoestrings, linen, black, 
long. 

Shoestrings, linen, black, 
short. 

Shoestrings, linen, olive 
drab, long. 



Shoestrings, linen, olive 

drab, short. 
Soap, issue. 
jSoap, hand. 
Soap, laundry. 
Soap, scouring. 
Soap, shaving. 
Soap, toilet. 
Starch, laundry. 
Thread, cotton, black. 
Thread, cotton, O. D. 
Thread, cotton, white. 
Thread, linen, black. 
Thread, linen, white. 
Thread, silk, olack. 
Towels, bath. 
Towels, huckaback. 
Toweling. 



RoUirw Icitchens, — Quite a number of experiments or tests of various 
types of rolling kitchens, from both domestic and foreign sources, 
have been made during the year, and some under severe service 
conditions in Mexico and on tne border. It is beheved that a satis- 
factory type of American design has been found, and over 25 of 
the most promising designs have been procured and shipped to the 
Southern Department for a most elaborate field-service test. A 
special test is also being conducted at Fort Sam Houston, Tex., of 
certain models, under the direction of the department authorities of 
the Southern Department. 

Among those tried out were several which developed the fact that 
the^ simply added to the amount of transportation that had to be 
mamtainea for an army in the field, and did not produce satisfactory 
results in the way of hot food for men on the march and on the firing 
line. 

So far as information is obtainable or judgment can be depended 
upon, it is believed that the type that is finally adopted after addi- 
tional and elaborate tests have oeen made will compare most favor- 
ably with the best designs of rolling kitchens in European armies. 

Manual for Army bakers and Army cooks. — It was deemed advisable 
to have the Manual for Army Bakers and the Manual for Army Cooks 
revised and brought up to date. It was also desired when such 
revision was made to have these two manuals, which are so closely 
related and both of which are ordinarily used by instructors and 
students at the bakers' and cooks' school, combined into one volume, 
but divided into two parts. Such consolidation would reduce the 
expense of printing, eliminate the necessity for carrying so many 
puolications for distribution, and enable the volume to be more 
readily carried or handled. 

Capt. E. S. Wheeler, Fourth Field Artillery, who was well qualified 
to do the work, was selected and bejgan the revision. He made 
considerable progress, but his tour of^duty in the Quartermaster 
Corps expirea before he could complete the work, and did not. in 
consequence, conclude it. In view of this, Capt. Leonard L. Dei- 
trick, Seventh Cavalry, who was also well prepared to continue and 
complete the volume was selected for this duty and now has the 



342 BEPOBT OF THE QUAETERMASTEB GENERAL. 

work well on toward completion, and it is hoped to have it shortly 
ready for issue. 

Mobilization of the National Guard. — On May 1, 1916, the National 
Guard of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico was called into active 
service by order of the President, and on June 18, 1916, the remainder 
of the National Guard of the United States was called into active 
service by the President. It became necessary, therefore, to at 
once provide for their subsistence. Under law and regulations, 
when called into active service they are to be subsisted at the expense 
of the Government from the time of their arrival at company ren- 
dezvous. The subsistence of the National Guard is supervised and 
provided for by the mihtary authorities of the State at company 
rendezvous, and also at State mobilization camps until sworn into 
the service, when they come imder the supervision and control of 
the Federal authorities and are subsisted as are other troops of the 
Regular Army. 

When the National Guard troops were transported from State 
mobilization camps to the Southern Department, or Texas border, 
kitchen cars were provided in which to prepare their food, or a 
baggage or box car was furnished, with a range installed by which 
the food could be prepared. When they were ready to be trans- 
ported, 10 days' rations were furnished to make the journey to 
destination in the South and to afford them a small supply in addi- 
tion, so as to provide against anv delays and to care for their wants 
until arrangements could be mad.e to meet their needs at destination 
in the regular way. 

The subsistence of the troops, suddenly mobilized in camps and 
when transported to the Mexican border and after their arrival 
there, was accomplished in a satisfactory and successful manner by 
the department. This is borne out bv the extensive inspections of 
the National Guard by inspectors, ana in the inspection and reports 
of Maj. Gen. Tasker H. Bhss, who has borne testimony to the thor- 
ough and satisfactory manner in which the troops have been sub- 
sisted in Texas and on the border. 

Isolated cases of inadequate subsistence have here and there been 
urged by some, but even if true, it is hiunanly impossible to over- 
come every objection and meet every possibility of hardship, but 
where any mistake or hardship has occurred it will probably be 
found traceable to lack of experience and judgment of the Nationdl 
Guard in not knowing how to care for themselves as regulars do, 
which is a most natural result, because of the fact that they have 
not had the necessary training and experience in this direction, but 
have done remarkably well, all things considered. Regular, troops 
at posts, when traveling or when campaigning, have very rarcJy 
complained. This is prmcipally due to the years of training and 
experience regular troops have had in caring for themselves whereas 
the National Guard come from homes where they enjoy aaily sur- 
roundings, comforts, and cooking accustomed to, and the cnange 
comes somewhat as a revulsion when they go from such homes and 
food and cooking to the camp and the fooa and life of the soldier. 
In short, most of the complamts as to the National Guard are due 
to or can be charged up fi^ainst inexperience. Cooks who may be 
first-class men in a restaurant, club, or home, but without experience 
in the field cooking for himdreds and without the tools ana equip- 



EEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAIi. 343 

ment at hand they would have at home, can not be expected to meet 
every demand, and is one of the reasons for failure. Another reason 
is the inexperience of commanding officers in not knowing how to 
provide for their men. One company may be living in plenty on 
the regular ration, wlule another company may be hungry because 
of food spoiled through lack of proper care or preparation. 

The niunber of meat inspectors of the Army is very limited. In 
consequence meat inspectors from the Agricultural Department were 
detailed, through the courtesy of that department, to cooperate with 
and assist the inspectors of the Army in safeguarding its meat supply 
by making a careful inspection of all fresh and canned meats before 
issue to and consmnption by the troops. 

Meat for use of the Army is riridly inspected at the packing houses, 
the inspection beginning with tne animal before it is killed and all 
througn the after process by inspectors of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment stationed at tne various packing houses throughout the coimtry. 
In addition to this, meat inspectors and experts of the Quarter- 
master Corps are also stationed at the large packing centers, Uke 
Chicago, Kansas City, Omaha, San Francisco, and elsewhere where 
meat is being prepared or cured for the Army, and they also watch 
it through tne wnole process from the killing of the animal until 
turned over to the Government. Besides all this, the inspectors of 
the packing houses also closely inspect all moats. 

In addition to the above safeguards, meat inspectors from the 
Agricultural Department have, with the cordial cooperation of that 
department, been ordered stationed at all places where large bodies 
of troops are located to inspect all meats oefore use by the troops. 

With regard to other food articles or stores purchased for me 
Army, trained experts at depots and purchasing stations carefully 
inspect all supplies purchased, and at stations where troops are 
actually locatea, inspections are made by the officers who procure 
the supplies, who are assisted by trained inspectors if they are 
available. 

The pure food and drugs act of 1906, and amendments since, as 
to the sale, etc., of poisoned or deleterious food, and also the meat- 
inspection law of 1906, and amendments since, against the use of 
meat that is * * unsound, unhealthful, unwholesome, or otherwise imfit 
for human food," helps greatly to safeguard the food supply. 

The health, contentment, and efficiency of troops are tne first care 
of a commander. To make proper provision regarding the soldier 
demands the best thought and effort of his superiors at all times. 
The subsistence of the soldier is of vital importance, and it is ad- 
mitted that the ration of the American soldier is the most liberal of 
that of any army in the world, and, as stated, proper subsistence 
or cooking of their food is of the greatest importance, for it is follv 
to train soldiers to the highest state of efficiency ana then by lacK 
of care or attention to their food for a short season prepare the way 
to put them out of condition at the most critical moment. 

The Army has also the latest designs and devices for cooking 
food in the field and baking bread. Tne field bakery will compare 
most favorably with the very best types of this kind, in any of^the 
European armies of to-day, and the bread produced is uniformly 
excellent. There are, too, trained cooks and bakers who prepare the 
food and bake the bread for the Army. These trained experts are 



344 REPOBT OF THE QUARTERMA8TEB GEKEBAL. . 

taufbt in the various bakers' and cooks' schools that are estabEshed 
at designated places in the United States, in the Hawaiian Territory, 
in the rhilippmes, and it is hoped shortly to establish a school m 
Panama. 

To meet any possible exigency that might arise, it has been nec- 
essary to procure and place in stock at the depots at El Paso, Fort 
Sam Houston, Harlingen, CJolimabus, Nogales, etc., large quantities 
of articles of the ration and other subsistence supplies for troops 
on the border and in the Southern Department. The corps has 
been able to practically meet every demand made upon it, so far 
as the food supply of the Army is concerned. 

Some complaints have reached this office as to the poor quality 
and insufficiency of the food furnished various militia organizations. 
After investigation of these cases, the records indicate that prac- 
tically all the complaints so far as have been investigated have oeen 
unfoimded, or due to the inexperience of cooks of the National Guard 
or lack of experience and training of the National Guard in taking 
care of themselves, though, as previously stated, they have done 
remarkably well in this respect. The following indicates the char- 
acter of the complaints and some of the replies thereto: 

Hon. Hoke Smith, United States Senate; Hon. Carl Vinson, House 
of Representatives; and Mr. C. T. Wiebis, reported to this office that 
there was a shortage of food, etc., also that the food was not of good 
quality at the Geor^a mobilization camp at Macon, Ga. The com- 
plaints were immediately referred for investigation, and the reports 
of the senior mustering officer at the camp at Macon,. Ga., indicated 
that at no time were the rations inadequate, but that they were ample 
and of excellent quality. Later on Senator Smith submitted a com- 
munication from the lion. Hooper Alexander, United States attorney 
for the northern district of Georgia, who stated that he had visited 
Camp Harris and found the troops in fine spirits and prospering in 
every way. Mr. Alexander's letter is as follows: 

August 7, 1916. 
Hon. Hoke Sioth, 

UnxUd States SenaU, Washington, D. C. 

Mt Dear Senator: I see by the ^pen that the customaiy crop of critics 10 com- 
plaining at the administration of the War Department and its treatment of the militia. 

It has occurred to me that the Secretary of War may be interested to know that the 
Geors^ troops are in fine spirits and prospering in every way. I went to Camp 
Hams a few days ago after they were concentrated there and personally inspected 
the cooking arrangements and other camp facilities and I was delighted with the 
situation. 

I have a boy 19 years old, who enlisted with the Fifth Geonria Regiment and is now 
in camp. He came here last night on a 36-hour furlough. He has gained 14 pounds 
while m camp, and reports to me that everything there, especially the food, is as 
nearly perfect as could be asked. He seems delighted with the situation, and sa^ 
that practically every man with the Georgia Brigade feels the same way about it. 
There are a few critics there as you will fiuad them everywhere, but I am sure that 
there is no ground for criticising the War Department, at least so far as concerns the 
Georgia troops. 

I am writing this because it may be of interest to the Secretary of War, if you should 
see fit to communicate it to him. 
Respectfully, 

Hooper Alsxakder. 

This communication was entirely volimtary and unsolicited, and 
Senator Smith, who had previously deplored the alleged poor food 
and conditions, stated that he was very much gratified to receive this 



EEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 345 

letter and to submit it to the Secretary of War, as he had very much 
confidence in the statements of Mr. Alexander. 

Mr. Frank G. Gorrell, secretary of the National Canners Associa- 
tion, forwarded a clipping to this oflBce from the New York World 
relative to the poisoning of the Massachusetts Militia by canned 
salmon. A thorough investigation of this case disclosed the fact that 
several cans of this salmon were brought by the Massachusetts 
Militia with them from their mobilization camp at Framingham, 
Mass. Through the carelessness of the cook a swelled" can was 
mixed with other cans containing good food furnished by the Army 
authorities, and the mixing of tne bad with the good food was the 
cause of the illness of the troops. The illness was the direct result of 
lack of judgment and experience of militia cooks. Steps were imme- 
diatelv taken by the authorities to prevent a recurrence of cases of 
this cnaracter, and orders were issued from this office looking to the 
prevention of similar cases. 

Mr. G. W. Pratt submitted a clipping from Mr. McCann regarding 
the bad food furnished the militia on the border, particularly the 
New York troops. A thorough investigation of tnis matter was . 
made, and the commanding general of tne New York Division re- 
ported that the complaint was entirely without foxmdation and 
attached complete statements of company commander, mess ser- 

feant, first sergeant, and cook of Company H, Seventh New York 
nfantry (where it was alleged the bad food had been served), indi- 
cating that the food furnished was of the best quality and that the 
complaints were entirely imfoimded. 

But one case reached this office and was investigated, wherein the 
complaint of lack of food was well founded. This occurred in com- 
plaint of the Hon. H. P. Snyder, House of Representatives, who 
reported to this office that a member of Troop 6, First New York 
Cavalry, on his way to the border by train, had been without food 
for 24 hours. On investigation it was ascertained that the officer in 
charge failed to provide for subsistence at the time. This failure 
was due to lack of experience and poor judgment on the part of the 
officer, for he should have met the emergency promptly by procuring 
the necessary food if his rations were exnausted, at any eating 
station, and made a charge against the Government the same as he 
would or should have done if his men had been delayed and the ration 
supplies were all consimied before reaching his destination, as is fre- 
(juently the case with the Regular Armv. So that while the incident 
is greatly regretted, it seems to have been due to the fact that the 
militia officer in charge was lacking in experience and initiative in 
caring for his men. 

But, as previously stated, it is humanly impossible to provide 
against every contingency, mistake, or even nardsnip in a great move- 
ment of this character. 

In conclusion it may be well to repeat that Maj. Gen. Tasker H. 
Bliss, United States Army, Assistant Chief of Staff, made an ex- 
tensive investigation of practically all the militia organizations en- 
camped on the Mexican Tborder, and reported that the rations were 
ample and of excellent quality, and that a general spirit of content- 
ment prevailed among tne troops. 



846 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 

Value of miscellaneous supplies issued to the militia; fiscal year 
1916, $38,446.65. 

Losses, — ^The following losses occurred during the year, and are 
based on the losses for nine months, which is the latest d.ata available: 

Ordinary wastage $21,109.92 

Deterioration 166,701.34 

Loss in transit 2,001.80 

Loss — carriers and sellers responsible 4, 747. 60 

Theft or fire .-. 549.95 

Miscellaneous 34,034.28 

Losses on account of Galveston hurricane 10, 761. 90 

Issued to replace losses to troops on account of Galvestou hurricane 11, 769. 86 

Total 261,666.65 

Deduct gains r23,228.68 

Deduct sales at auction 32,750.36 

Deduct reclamation made on carriers and sellers 4, 747. 60 

Total 60,724.64 

Total net losses 190,942.01 

Issues to destitutes on accoimt of hurricane, etc 3, 041. 04 

The excessive losses are due to the sale of surplus stock of the Corregidor Reserve and 
to the Galveston hmrricane. 

CLOTHING AND EQUIPAGE. 

FINANCE. 

Appropriation by Congress for the purchase and manufacture of cloth- 
ing and equipage for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916: 

Original amount -. $6,693,000.00 

Deficiency 5,014,702.00 

Total 11,707,702.00 

Credit on account of sales to oflicers, etc 220,000.00 

Collections and disbursements in connection with the settlement of the 
clothina accounts of the enlisted men of the Army. — The following are 
the collections from and disbursements to the enlisted men oi the 
Armj in the settlement of their clothing accounts during the period 
specified, viz: 

Collections on accoimt of clothing drawn in excess of established allow- 
ances: 
Appropriation, 1915— 

From Apr. 1, 1915, to June 30, 1915 $13,107.63 

From July 1, 1916, to Mar. 31, 1910 76,349.91 

Appropriation, 1916, from July 1, 1915, to Mar. 31, 1916 98, 783. 52 

Total collections 188,241.06 

Payments to enlisted men at time of discharge from service on account of 
clothing undrawn: 
Appropriation, 1915 — 

From Apr. 1, 1915, to June 30. 1915 304,432.58 

From July 1, 1915, to Mai. 31, 1916 457.705.37 

Total disbursements 762,137.95 

From the above it will readily be seen that the allowance of cloth- 
ing established to properly clotne the enlisted men of the Army under 
alTservice conditions is ample. 



EEPOBT OF THE QUABTERM ASTER GENERAL. 347 

Issues to the militia.^Theie were issued to the governors of the 
several States and Territoiies and to the commanding general of the 
District of Coltmibia Militia, for use of the Organized Militia during 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, clothing and equipage supplies 
to the total value of $1,098,813.15, of which $931,104.08 was on 
account of issues under the act of May 27, 1908, and $167,709.07 
under the act of June 22, 1906, amending section 1661, Revised 
Statutes. 

The issues of these supplies were made upon requisitions submitted 
by the governors of the respective States and Territories and the com- 
manding general District of Columbia MiUtia, duly approved by the 
Secretary of War. Reimbursements for the value of the property 
issued have been and will, as soon as the receipts for the same shall 
have been received by the officer making the issues, be submitted to 
the Mihtia Bureau for transmission to the Auditor for the War 
Department, in order that the appropriation *' Clothing, and camp 
ana garrison equipage" may receive proper credit. 

S3.es to the muitia, — ^The amount of money realized during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, from sales of clothing and equipage 
supplies to the governors of the States and Territories, and the com- 
manding gener^ District of Columbia Militia, under the act of Con- 
gress approved January 21, 1903, amounted to $70,352.85, which 
sum has been placed to the credit of the appropriation *' Clothing, and 
camp and garrison equipage.'* 

Sales of clothing and equipage to various departments and bureaus of 
the Government — By special authority of the Secretary of War, imder 
the provisions of paragraph 671, Army Regulations, 1913, there were 
sold during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, to various depart- 
ments and Duroaus of the Government, clothing and equipage supplies 
to the value of $87,301 .09. The amounts have been or wul be crodi tod 
to the appropriation "Clothing, and camp and garrison equipage." 

Sales of clothing and equipage supplies to military schools and col- 
leges, — Tnere were sold dunng the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, 
under the provisions of the act approved July 17, 1914, to military 
schools and colleges at which officers of the Army are detailed as pro- 
fessors of military science and tactics, clothing and equipage supplies 
to the value of $9,363.75. The amounts have been placed to the 
credit of the appropriation "Clothing, and camp and garrison 
equipage." 

Sales at auction. — There was realized at the general depots of the 
Quarteiinaster Corps during the past fiscal year from sales of con- 
demned and unserviceable articles of clothing and equipage and cut- 
tines the total sum of $27,532.53. The expenses connected with 
making these sales amounted to $192.04, which were deducted from 
the amount realized, leaving a balance of $27,340.49, which, under the 
law, was covered into the Treasury of the United States, credited to 
''Miscellaneous receipts." 

Field supply depots. — For statement of quantities of clothing and 
equipage ^\^ch, by direction of the Secretary of War, as stated in com- 
munication from the office of The Adjutant General, of February 23, 
1911, are to be kept available in field supply depot No. 1, also the 
quantities on hand Jime 30, 1916, see Exhibit No. 12. It will be seen 
that most of the supplies have during the recent mobiUzation of the 
National Guard been drawn upon and that the articles constituting 



348 



BEPORT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 



the reserve supply have virtually become exhausted and no great de- 
pendence can DC placed upon the same. 

Cloihim and equipage supplies for the National Guard called out by 
the President of the United States, — The Secretarv of War on June 18, 
1916, under instructions from the President, called upon each of the 
governors of the States (except the governors of Texas, New Mexico, 
and Arizona, the militia of which States were called into service upK>n 
a previous call), by telegraph, and directed the assembling at the re- 
spective State mobiUzation points, or at such points as mi^ht be 
designated by the conmianding generals of the respective imlitary 
departments, of such organizations as were deemed necessary. 

Kealizing that immediate steps should be taken to promptly and 
efficiently furnish the troops thus called into service with the neces- 
sary clothing and equipage supplies for field service, at war strength, 
all the supphes available^together with such as imder s{>ecial author- 
ity of the Secretarv of War were purchased at the general depots, 
either in open market or after inviting proposals upon short notice, 
were placea under the control of the several department conmianders. 
The States in the Western Department to be supplied from the depot 
at San Francisco, Cal., those in the Central and Southern Depart- 
ments from the depot at St. Louis, Mo., and the States located in 
the east from the depot at Philadelphia, Pa. 

The action in making these pm*chases was due solely to the fact 
that the stock of clothijng and equipage held in reserve proved to be 
inadequate to meet the pressing demands so suddenly made upon 
the corps, the limited appropriations by Congress heretofore made 
for the procurement of a reserve supply not having been sufficient. 

The loUowing is a statement showing the amoimts estimated by 
the clothing supply branch as being required for reserve suppUes of 
clotliing and equipage for the fiscal years 1909 to 1916, inclusive, 
the amounts included in the annual estimates, and the amounts 
appropriated by Congress for the purpose: 



Fiscal year. 



1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



Amount esti- 
mated by 
clothing sap- 
ply brancb. 



Amount in- 
cluded in 
estimate. 



12,500,000.00 $2,500,000.00 
1,549,615.61 1,M9,615.61 



1,494,653.64 I 494,653.64 

332,011.70 1 332,04L76 

1913 ! 2,051.889.34 1 131,70a00 

1914 1 1,596,8^79 I 696,898.79 

1915 1 2,900,064.45 j 225,880.95 

1916 225,ooaoo i aoo,ouaoo 



Total. 



12,656,158.59 6,030,294.75 



Amount ap- 

propriatea 

by Congress. 



$1,274,873.85 

1,549,61^.61 

494,653.64 

832,041.76 

" *244;958!7» 
225,389.96 



4,121,53101 



The stock on hand at the general depots had been further reduced 
by issues to equip the trainmg camps, no funds having heretofore 
been appropriatea to cover cost of such supphes. 

Purchase of clothing for spedal issue to troops in Alaska. — ^Under 
existing orders the troops stationed in Alaska perform duties which 
require that they shoiild be suppHed clothing of a specially warm 
character. The following is a statement of the articles prociired 
during the past fiscal year, amounting in the aggregate to $8,758.46: 



iAJSOJLL^ i^^ 



SMI V T'lrkK finest . > IKS 

^ »L ■ fiumm ft. tmr , . ::.' nC ■ 

at m- f»ti»x«rfc7«r - . 4M .-Tilt 



fi 14% 9 I 1111111 I ^ wBtt.. cnr.. , .3^ 4^ ■ 
M m. ■ 

! 

Trial ^dsAimf mmimBf^ehtrrei ffxmt v(nt! o »* '7 : a- t. ?# ,v-:" '^ : --^ : r> — 

Reports upoD the cotic«i loid wk>} matd ^t y*^ 'j * r i^-u'-i 

for trial by tzoc«p« slAtJcosc^ At FtS Mjvrr Vi. T'-Tr^^i i r ::j*^ 

lOBtuJ rcpTTt fee liw- £?4nJ yew ^ZjIts - -r*' • ! IT. i.L-* *>«- 

reeeived- The ti^^Ke of tbf*?^ rvpr-ri- m^Lj' ftT -rtJ' V > r- : . _ '** 

conchishnp, as li>^ rt" ihr-.g h** i*-! r»^- >-** --vi :. v lt -• . j 

fieU-s-e-rvice eocfedit>ciQ&. Jadg^.g fr^is r*T» ^1=. r'^-^.-'if -'• * '-^ 

oBr-PHlrab sliirte. vlurli «rp irc-m- #-x'iuf.- -It rr.h z . Jkf" ^-l ir :zi 

flannel cooaposed of 75 per orT.t w-> -1 *r i 1* >^ rvr_: ", :*. :. ':i^.'* * ^t 

no doubt Inat the C'lrrf^-drmb s-^iti'-v <j :1_.z »"~il i-r -* - -/-t--J ** 

aceeptabie acd serrioeable. 

Searcity <!^ df^^ityTi. — As MAii^-i ir. tb?- 1^^*. 4^ - :ii.I r- -» n r'^t". ./' 
ficidties were expenenoed br rr.Mr.vf^A^ir^T^ r c'^-l * -' i' " *> -: v*^ 
stuffs needed to produce the fa.st rrrkrv ^r : ^r.-..*^ f r •.;-'^ - ' '^-^-•t*^ 
woolen and cotton fabrics er.i*er.:-z ir.:^* li.'^ i^i' "-5^* * -r- •' .v..tv ; t^* 
for the Army. 

On account of the European wa»r &- •! f>:r.*^ .-> - • rr. 'r>*-/- „ \} -/ 
importing the dyes which har^ L-r*e:'>f -r^ xm^z^ • r'>' -r^*-; 5r'y;-% *^;'/t/i, 
the situation became quite s«-r>.*us. 

In connection with the purchise of \t.^ -l tLI: z :r,^>r^l* f*-, >,.''d 
by the Quartennaster Corps, c^f^^i.^r *l' -r^e -.--i: .-rr ^-*t. ,v.^' ,- 
factawrs represented thait it wo:Id t-^ irj^Tra/:.- ^'^^ •'^y ',*/•-<.,; r.'.^ 
needed dyes, which had entiivly di-^'j-irwi fro:a t.^'r A,v,< r.' >-r# 
markeL 

Contractors haTe, however, be^r* able to pr-vi-;'^ ^':.*t f^*/*-/'* ;^' J 
the situation seems to hare beer* -onif^rr^.t t* ..^^*^A or •;,'- i'.,,.* y vf 
American manufacturers to producer i^'i\tJ,\*^ dy#;^t*.:T* i;. t;.<: \,:.\***i 
States. 

The department no longer ifi^btj upo'. an orin^-^Jmb -f/Ior for 
stockings, it having been decided to p'Jr^..A.-»rf? o;.!y t'.<r '-^y/.-./^i-r'^^J 
article, therebv giving relief to manufA/:l»in'r^ of u-xiiif {3w*fT,t *.. 

Brawn mixei tpoolens. — In view of the var^ itv of rf v^* uiU t*^U^nt*A 
to, this office realized that timely step«» -uould tjo ta^c^n fo f^ro'lu/^ a 
fabric that would prove satisfactory a% a ser.i'e uniforrn and a» t}*e 
same time eliminate the uncertainty of depending ufKjn Ay^^ 'A for<^ij{n 
production, and samples of brown and gray mixed melt/jriA merw pro- 
cured from various woolen mills, and it was'^demonstrated that, »h/>uJd 
occasion arise, there will be no difficulty in obtaining woolen cl/Hht in 
sufficient quantities. 

Revision qf specifications for woolen fabrics. — It having been found 
advisable to change the standards and specifications for woolen f ab- 
rics entering into the manufactiu^ of uniforms, the specifications 
governing the purchase of such materials have been revised by elim- 



360 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTBBMASTBB GENERAL. 

inating the 14 and 17 ounce olive-drab meltons and substituting 
therefor a 16-ounce melton for service coats and breeches. 

Changes in uniform, — For the purpose of making a studv of and 
reporting upon the question of the uiiifonn and clothing allowances 
of enlistod men, a board of officers was appointed under the provisions 
of War Department Special Orders, No. 39, February 16, 1916, as 
amended by Special Orders, Nos. 49 and 80, of February 29 and April 

5, c. s. 

It is understood that the board referred to has rendered its report 
and submitted the same to The Adjutant General. Up to the present 
time this office has not been advised of the action taken upon the rec- 
ommendations of the board of officers referred to. 

Previous to the appointment of the board this office, on several 
occasions during the past year, recommended the abolishment of the 
blue imiform as an economic measure and the discontinuance of the 
clothinff money allowance, it having been found impracticable to 
establish an allowance that would be equitable imder existing service 
conditions. 

Unauthorized wearing of uniforms. — ^The act of Congress approved 
June 3, 1916 (sec. 125), provides that it shall be unlawful for any 
person not an officer or enlisted man of the United States Army, 
riayy, or Marine Corps to wear the duly prescribed uniforni of the 
United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, or any distinctive part 
of such imiforms, or a xmiform any part oi which is similar to a dis- 
tinctive part of the duly prescribea uniform of the United States 
Army, Navy, or Marine Corps. This provision is not, however, to be 
construed so as to prevent officers or enlisted men of the National 
Guard from wearing, in pursuance of law and regulations, the imiform 
lawfully prescribed to be worn by such officers or enhsted men of the 
National Guard; members of tne organization known as the Boy 
Scouts, or such other organizations as the Secretary of War may 
designate, are exempted from the provisions of this act. 

Several organizations having made inquiry as to whether their 
status was such as to prevent tnem from weanng the authorized uni- 
form of the Anny^ The Adjutant General, by direction of the Secre- 
tary of War, hds informed the representatives of such organizations 
that a compliance with the following requirements, with the exception 
of a distinctive hat band, would meet with the approval of the War 
Departmcn t, viz : 

Organizations must be purely military. 

They must be composea of atizens of the United States, or those who have declared 
their intention to become citizens. 

The object of the organization must be to so drill and train its members that they 
may be better able to take their places in the large armies that would be called in 
case of great national emergency. 

The organization must be armed with the rifle or other arm approved by the War 
Department. 

The drill and training must be according to the prescribed regulations and tw^nn^iiy 
of the War Department. 

Some mark or insignia of a distinctive character must be adopted to be worn on 
the blouse or coat, or shirt when blouse or coat is not worn; also a distinctive hat- 
band in lieu of a cord must be worn. 

Officer must not wear the insignia of rank prescribed for officers of the Army, Navy, 
or Marine Corps. 

The insig[nia of rank prescribed for officers of educational institutions are reomi- 
mended, with reference to which a circular now in process of pubUcadon will be 
issued in a few weeks and furnished to the different educational institutions and 
military societies. 



REPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 351 

Fidd shoes. — ^ReaUzmg the fact that on account of the numerous 
complaints that the regulation shoe, while excellent in all other re- 
spects, was too li^it in construction and material, and consequently 
Old not possess tl^ necessary wearinjg qualities for seryice in the fiela, 
this office ordered the purcnase and issue to troops, for preliminary 
trial, of 600 pairs conforming in pattern and substance, with minor 
modifications, to those fumisned \>y American manufacturers to the 
French and Belgian Armies during the present European war. The 
uppers are made of undressed yeiQ or side leather. Ihe soles are of 
adequate thickness and are studded with hobnails. The shoes are 
made upon the same lasts as heoretofore used in the manufacture of 
Army snoes, and in r^ard to ^diich no complaints haye reached this 
office. 

There are now being purchased under contracts at the Boston, 
Philadelphia, and St. I>)uis depots 265,000 pairs, at an ayera^e cost 
of $3.69 per pair, and they are dispatched to tne troops as fast as 
accepted rrom the contractor. 

Overhauling and repairing qfivom-out shoes. — ^It haying been demon- 
strated that m many cases tne worn-out shoes discaroed by the en- 
listed men could be oyerhauled and remodeled at a reasonable price, 
thus rendering them fit for further service, the question of retaining 
the ownership of the shoes by the Goyemment was submitted for 
consideration by higher authority. The work connected with the 
repair of such snoes, after collecting them from the principal posts, 
could, it was suggested, be done eitner at the Disciplinary Barracks 
or under contract with a firm specializing in the remodeling of old 
shoes, which would result in a large saying to the Goyemment in the 
cost of shoes. 

In reply to the foregoing this office has been adyised that after 
carefid consideration it has been decided that it is to the best interest 
of the service to continue the clothing allowance system for enlisted 
men instead of the Goyemment retaining ownership of all dothing 
issued to enlisted men. 

Aviators^ clothing. — Under the proyisions of paragraph 20, Special 
Orders No. 274, War Department, Noyember 24, 1915, a board of 
officers was apj)ointed to meet at Fort Sam Houston, Tex., to con- 
sider the question of adopting clothing suitable for ayiation purposes. 
This depiutment, upon the recommendation of said board, procured 
from abroad, through the miUtary attachfi at London, England, 
articles of equipment suitable for the purpose. 

Upon receipt of these samples they were forwarded to the board 
of officers referred to for consideration. No definite result has, how- 
eyer, as yet been communicated to this office. 

On the 27th of May last the Chief Signal Officer requested a de- 
cision as to whether ayiators' clothing should be paid for from 
appropriations of the Signal CJorps or from those for the Quarter- 
master CJorps. 

Under date of June 7, 1916, the Secretary of War approyed the 
recommendation of this office that the clotmng required oy officers 
should be paid for by the officers themselyes, and that sucn as may 
be required by the enlisted men be furnished by the Quartermaster 
Corps and issued on memoradum receipt. 

Issue of civilian clothing to prisoners upon release from confinement — 
Under tne proyisions of paragraph 1170, Army Regulations as 



852 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 

changed by C. A. R. No. 27, 1915, each general prisoner upon release 
from conmiement is furnished by the Quartermaster Corps with a 
suit of citizens' outer clothing at a cost of not to exceed $10. 

Experiments conducted at the .United States Disciplinary Barracks. 
Fort Leavenworth, Kans., demonstrated that the clothing reqmred 
for issue to discharged prisoners could be economically manufactured 
by prison labor and tne savings would cover the cost also of an 
overcoat. 

Steps were taken during the past year to install a tailor shop at 
the Pacific Branch, United States Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz 
Island, CaJ., and the Atlantic Branch, Fort Jay, N. Y. A shoe- 
repair shop has also been established at these barracks. 

These aaded f acihties will not only enable the Quartermaster Corps 
to manufacture the several suits required for issue to discharged pris- 
oners, but will provide the means by which garments can be reno- 
vated and repau-ed for issue to general prisoners in confinement. 
Experience has shown that obsolete shoes and other articles can be 
altered and utilized in this manner with considerable economy to 
the Government. 

Leather leggings, — A supply of leather leggings has been procured 
and issued to the mountea organizations for whom they are intended. 
From reports received it appears that they do not meet with favor, 
partly due to xmsuitable material of which made. No action to dis- 
continue their procurement and issue has thus far been taken, as the 
department considers that a further and more extensive trial will be 
necessary to arrive at a thorough and correct understanding. 

Suggestions have been made that in case it should be decided to 
a])o;ish the leather leggings it would be preferable to adopt for the 
mouiite<l troops a suitable legging made of canvas and to reinforce 
them with leather. 

Canvas leggings, — Reports have been received that the present can- 
vas legging is not suitable for the requirements of the service. It is 
pointed out that a return to the pattern issued prior to the Spanish- 
American War would be preferable. The pattern referred to was 
provided with a leather strap to go beneath the shank of the shoe, 
thereby keeping the legging m proper place and extending the ma- 
t(»rial sufficientR'' over the instep to prevent sand and other substances 
fro?n entering tne shoe. 

Ponchos and slickers. — Experiments have continued during the 
past year in the eflFort to develop a satisfactory poncho and slicker for 
the service, it being found that the waterproof sheeting heretofore 
used in manufacturing these articles was not suitable for the purpose. 

As to shckers, so far experiments have shown that a double texture 
material with a rubber interlining has given the most satisfaction. 

Recently a fabric known as ** aeroplane cloth" was brought to the 
attention of this oflfice, and preliminary experiments and tests indi- 
cated that this fabric would prove especially serviceable for ponchos. 
Contracts have been awarded for a quantity of this material, and it 
will be given a thorough trial. 

In general it can be stated that complaints with reference to pon- 
chos and shckers have been less frequent during the past year, and 
it is hoped that within the near future a perfect^ satisfactory article 
will be evolved. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB OENEBAIi. 



353 



Changes in speciJUationsfor clothing and equipage. — ^The following is 
a statement oi the yarious changes that were made in the specifica- 
tions for clothing, equipage, and materials dining the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1916, with the reasons therefor: 



Mo. 



1231 
1232 
1233 
1234 
1235 



1236 

123S 

1239 
1240 

1241 

1242 



Articles. 



Collar omftmeiits. 

Cap ornaments 

Leather leggings 

Ambulance guidon staffs 
Tent poles and pins 

Tentage 



Silken colors, guidons, and standards . 



Field desks for companies andregi* 

moital headquarters. 
Woolens 



Banting flaa, colors, standards, pen- 
nants, ana guidons. 

Containers for identification certificates 



Reasons for change. 



Adoption of ornaments for Disciplinary Guards. 

Adoption of ornaments for Disdpllnary Guards. 

Adoption of. for mounted oi^anJxations. 

Readopted for ambulances. 

New hexagonal pole for pyramidal tents in lieu of old pole 
and tripod; new specmcations f<x- ward tents and con- 
solidation of specifications for poles and pins. 

Adoption of wall tent, large (formerly hospital, regulation); 
adoption of ward tent; wall tent, small (formerly wall 
tent, tropical) in lieu of pyramidal tent, small; canvas 
cover for folded ward tent as prescribed in 0. 0. 39, W. D., 
1915; and oonsoUdation of all tentage speciflcatioos. 

Adoption of guidons for ambulance companies, field hos- 
pital compaoles, aero squadron, and telefpraph c(Miipa- 
nies. Signal Corps. 

New nllng arrangement. 

Provide for mixture of cotton in 30-oance melton and shirt- 
ing flannel; substitution of 16-ounoe for 14 and 17 ounoe 
meltons. 

Adoption of guidons for ambulance and field hospital com- 
panies, aero squadron, and telegraph companies. Signal 
Corps. 

New. 



Guidons for nutchine-gun troops. — ^Requisitions for guidons for 
machine^un troops having been made upon this department, The 
Adjutant General, by order of the Secretary of War, has advised 
this office that the same are not required by such troops. 

The officers in charge of the several issuing depots have been 
advised accordingly. 

Band instruments. — ^The change in musical instruments furnished 
to the bands of the Army and the militia by the Quartermaster Corps 
from hiffh to what is known as the low or mtemational pitch has re- 
ceived the constant attention of this office in so far as the appropria- 
tions available for that purpose would permit. About one-third of 
the bands have been supphed with new instruments, or, whenever 

Eracticable, alterations in the instruments on hand by means of sUdes 
ave been made, thereby perfecting the changes in the most economi- 
cal manner. 

Mosquito bars for troops in Canal Zone. — The attention of this office 
having been called to tne necessity of supplying the troops stationed 
in the Canal Zone with mosquito oars of a nner mesh, in view of the 
fact that those of regulation pattern did not afford sufficient protec- 
tion against the sand ffies so prevalent in that part of the country, 
the Department Quartermaster of the Eastern Department on June 
28 last was authorized to purchase the necessary bars, to be of a 
quality that may be found most suitable and satisfactory. 

A report has been received from the officer referred to, from which 
it appears that 5,610 bars have been purchased at the several posts 
requiring them, at a total cost of $10,889.68. 

Claims, act of March S, 1885. — ^There were received at this office 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, 144 claims for personal 
property destroyed or lost by officers and enlisted men while in 
the service of the United States. The act of Congress approved 



e917e*— WAB 1916— VOL 1- 



23 



854 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 

March 3, 1885, authorizes settlement of claims of this character by 
proper accomiting officers of the Treasm'y Department. 

The act contains a provision that the Uability of the Grovemment 
shall be limited to such articles as the Secretary of War, in his dis- 
cretion, shall decide to be reasonablcj useful, necessary and proper 
for sucn officer or soldier to have in his possession while in quarters, 
engaged in the public service, or in the Ime of dxitj. 

The claims received were carefuDy considered in this office and 
submitted to the Secretary of War for transmittal to the Auditor for 
the War Department, the total amount reconmiended for settlement 
amounting to $1,713.23. 

Claims on account of the Texas flood. — ^A severe tropical storm or 
hurricane reached the coast of Texas at Galveston on August 16, 
1915. The storm was of exceptional violence and duration, and the 
wind and the rain and the floods from the great tide and backwaters 
caused enormous damage at the Army posts, camps, and stations at 
and near Galveston ana Texas City. 

In view of the extraordinary situation the Secretary of War ap- 

f)roved recommendations for apphcation to Congress for special legis- 
ation for the reUef of those connected with the Army wno suffered 
loss of private property in the storm, including civihan employees, 
and also to provide reimbursement for loss of articles personal to 
the use of members of families and dependents of officers, enlisted 
men, and civihan employees and for military organizations. 

Up to June 30, 1916, there have been received appUeations* from 
8,321 claimants for amoimts aggregating over $655,000. As revised 
by several boards of officers, where there has been such review of 
the claims submitted, the amount involved is reduced to $515,449.20. 

Of this latter amount $414,306.29 is for articles that were personal 
to the use of officers and enhsted men; $55,841.79 for articles used 
by civihan employees connected with the Army and members of 
famihes and dependents of officers, enUsted men, and civihan employ- 
ees; and $45,301.17 for reimbursement of articles lost by mihtary 
organizations. 

The matter was reported to Congress by letters addressed by the 
Secretary of War to the Speaker of the House of Representatives 
imder dates of October 30, 1915, and January 11, 1916. Those com- 
munications, with inclosures, were pubhshed in Document No. 582, 
House of Representatives, Sixty-fourth Congress, first session. 

The exammation of these claims is proceeding, but their trans- 
mittal to the Auditor for the War Department must of necessity be 
deferred until Congress shall have had opportunity to consider the 
special legislation recommended by the Secretary of War. 

The claims can not be adjudicated under the act of Congress 
approved March 3, 1885. 

Clothing danuiged by Galveston, Tex,, flood, — The large (j^uantities 
of overcoats, blankets, sweaters, and other articles of clothing dam- 
ped by salt water incident to tne hurricane and flood at Galveston. 
%x., in August last, which it was beheved could be renovated ana 
rendered serviceable for issue, were ordered to the depot at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., for that purpose. The expenditure connected with 
sucn renovation is reported to have amomited to $12,606.97. 



BEPORT OF THE QUABTERMASTER GEXERAL. 355 

Many of the articles were discolored with a brown color which it 
was found impossible to remove, bat the discoloration was not suffi- 
ciently noticeable to prevent the clothing from bein^ issued to troops 
at the several disciplinary barracks, and it has therefore been set 
aside accordingly. The remainder of the renovated property has 
been placed in stock for issue. 

Manx^adure cf maUressesfor prisoners at the AUantie UrUted States 
Disciplinary Barracks. — On the 2l8t of March last The Adjutant 
General informed this office of the approval of the request of the 
commandant United States Disciplinary Barracks at Governors 
Island, New York Harbor, that the old and present poMcy of fur- 
nishing the prisoners with straw mattresses witn no pillows or sheets 
be discontinued, and that they be supphed with cotton mattresses, 
pillows, etc. 

A requisition for the required articles having been submitted, and 
it having been decided to make the mattresses at the United States 
Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., thus giving employ- 
ment to prisoners, an order to manufacture the number needed (400) 
was given after ascertaining that the necessary picking and filler 
macbme and materials could be procured as cheaply at Fort Leaven- 
worth as elsewhere. Purchase has been authorized at a cost of 
$1,404.25. 

Relief of sufferers from fre at Paris, Tex, — Congress, by act approved 
April 11, 1916, authorized the Secretarv of War to supply for tem- 
porarv use, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, 
a sufficient niunber of tents to aflfora shelter for the suJOTerers from 
the conflagration in Paris, Tex., and who may be in need of the same, 
and to fiUTiish such cots, blankets, and supplies as, in his judgment, 
woidd be necessary to give relief to such persons as were rendoix>a 
destitute by said conflagration. 

The act of Congress quoted made no provision permitting the use 
of anv public fimds for the purpose referred to, and upon the receipt 
of information to the effect that governmental aid would not be 
required, no further action regarding the matter was taken by this 
office. 

Issue of tents to flood sufferers in the Mississippi Valley, — There 
were issued in February fast, from the St. Louis, Mo., depot, to 
sufferers from the overflow of the Mississippi River, 51 conical wall 
tents, 2 pyramidal tents, large, 5 wail tents, small, and 17 wall tents, 
large, all complete with poles and pins, valued at $2,875.10. The 
cost of shipping the same from St. Louis to Arnaudville, La., was 
$199.53, and report has been received that all this tentago would 
be returned to the St. Louis depot. 

Loan of cotsfoi' use of the United Veterans' reunion at Birmingham^ 
Ala, — There were loaned from the depot at Philadelphia, Pa., to the 
committee having charge of the United Veterans* Reunion ncld at 
Birmingham, Ala., in M^y last, under Senate joint resolution No. 76, 
by authority of the Secretary of War, for use of the veterans attend- 
ing said reunion, 5^000 cots, satisfactory bond for the value of the 
property to insure its safe return having been given. 

£oan of tents arid other property to sanitary organizations of the 
American Na4ional Red Cross. — There were loaned for use of the 



356 BEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 

National Service School, upon receipt of satisfactory bond, the fol- 
lowing Quartermaster Corps suppUes, etc. : 

260 each cots, mattresses, pillows, and mosquito bars. 

520 pillowcases. 

1,040 bed sheets. 

150 galvanized-iron buckets. 

2 field desks. 

11 hospital tents. 

65 p>Taniidal tents. 

41 tent flies. 

all complete with tripods, poles, and pms. 

The property has been returned to the custody of the department. 

Purchase of supplies under annual contracts, — Under the annual 
contract system advertisements were issued and contracts awarded 
by the Quartermaster GeneraPs office, for delivery of various classes 
01 supplies, as required diuing the fiscal year, at the several depots 
of the Quartermaster Corps. Under these advertisements 674 oids 
were submitted and 319 contracts awarded. 

These contracts covered supplies and services of the classes indi- 
cated in the following statement, which also shows the total amoimt 
of purchases under each class, viz: 

Stationery and office supplies, wrapping and toilet paper, school books, 

etc 1178,047.70 

Hardware and tools 223, 731. 12 

Rope and twine 66, 876. 38 

Toilet articles, soap, and cleaning materials 253,384.75 

Paints, acids, and glass 71,668.17 

Canvas, duck 10,920.71 

Iron, steel, copper, etc 5,530.23 

Leather and harness hardware 167, 999. 00 

Band instruments and parts 18, 565. 99 

Clothing, equipase, and materials 2, 430, 471. 55 

Manufacture of clothing 327,635.57 

Packing and waste 14, 304. 55 

Office furniture 23,813.57 

Fire, garden, and steam hose 24,414.70 

Tableware and kitchen utensils 27,934. 97 

Total 3,845,298.96 

Under these annual contracts orders are placed with the con- 
tractor direct by the depot quartermaster requiring the suppUes^ from 
time to time during the fiscal year, which simplifies to a great extent 
the procurement of supplies. 

Some diflSculty was experienced in a few cases in obtaining satis- 
factory and prompt dehveries of certain supplies, due to the unusucl 
market conditions existing and the shortage oi materials entering 
into their manufacture. 

CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR. 

Appropriations and expenditures. — A tabulated statement attached 
hereto as Exhibit No. 8 shows the appropriations and amounts avail- 
able during the past fiscal year for the construction, repair, and rental 
of buildings, hicluding plumbing, heating, hghting and equipment, 
purchase and rental of land, construction and repair of water, sewer, 
lighting and power systems, wharves, roads, walks, bridges, and other 
nprovements on military reservations ; also the approximate amounts 
^portioned from the several appropriations, the general purpose for 







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S^^iiid S&S to b€^^ 



358 REPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 

The following report indicates the expenditures made thereunder: 

Construction: Oo«t. 

Dade, Fort, Florida, rebuilding tai:get-ran£:e shelter $150. 00 

George Wright, Fort, Washington, material for construction of shooting 

gallery. 31.96 

Greble, Fort, Rhode Island^ target range house storeroom 246. 82 

Kamehameha, Fort, Hawaii, target butts 1, 100. 00 

Mcintosh, Fort, Texas, replacing revetment and target house on range 

(Laredo)* 170.00 

Brownsville, Tex . , material for target range, Fourth Infantry* 320. 10 

Canal 2k)ne, temporary butts on range 1, 000. 00 

Gaillard, camp, Canaf Zone, temporary range 309. 66 

Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y., addition to range house for storage of 

additional tat^gets 451. 80 

St. Michael, Fort, Alaska, extending shooting-gallery building No. 43. . 266. 37 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, revetting range site, excavating, etc 9, 681. 00 

Sill, Fort, Oklahoma: 

Target range for school of musketry 774. 60 

Range house for school of musketry 605. 00 

Williams, Fort, Maine, small-arms target range and house 396. 00 

Total 15,503.31 

Items followed by (*) pertain to Mexican border. 

The following items, not included in the foregoing, indicate where 
target ranges were rented, and cost, for the fiscal year 1916: 

Buena Vista, P.I $111 . 30 

Colchester, Vt 276. 00 

Clackamas, Oreg 699. 99 

Edsall, Va 750.00 

Fabens, Tex. * 30. 00 

Junemanns Pasture, Tex. * 600. 00 

Laredo, Tex. * 420. 00 

La Teria Tract. ( ameron County, Tex.* ; 75.00 

Leichuang. China 180. 00 

Do 30.00 

Marfa. Tex. * 75. 00 

Do.* 17.43 

Nogales, Ariz. * 240. 00 

Pbarr, Tex. * 15. 00 

Total 3,519.72 

Items followed by (*) pertain to Mexican border. 

Militarif post exchanges. — The Army appropriation act, under 
heading of '^MiUtary post exchanges,'' covers the following: 

For continuing the construction, equipment, and maintenance of suitable buildings 
at military posts and stations for the conduct of the post exchange, school, library, 
readine, lunch, amusement rooms and gymnasium, including repairs to buildings 
erected at private cost, in the operation of the act approved May 31, 1902, for the 
rental of films, purchase of slides, supplies for and maian^ repairs to moving-picture 
outfits, to be expended in the discretion and under the direction of the Secretary of 
War, fl5,839.85. 

The following indicates the expenditures made thereunder for 
construction: 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, completion of swimming tank $500. 00 

Corozal, Canal Zone: 

2 bowling alleys 650.00 

Equipment 130. 60 

Empire, camp at. Canal Zone, improvements in exchange 1,724.00 



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360 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTERMASTEB QENEBAL. 

Some of the more important projects undertaken during the year 
were: 

Fort Maaon, Cal., fire-protection eystem $1, 981. 75 

Fort Mills, r. I., two air compreemrs, centrifugal pump, air receivers, etc. 9, 902. 00 
Fort Sam Houston, Tex., pump house, tanks, etc., for aviation grounds. . 5, 330. 75 

Scbofield Barracks, Hawaii, completing the water-supply system 31. 320. 00 

Water disirilyuting systems: 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz., water and sewer systems for new building 19, 000. 00 

Fort Sam Houston, Tex., water-distributmg system for aviation post.. 4, 970. 00 
Sewer systems: 

Fort Miley, Cal., connecting post with city sewer 1, 445. 00 

Fort Sam Houston, Tex . , sewer system for aviation post 7, 392. 00 

Fort Sill. Okla., sewer for school of fire building 1,875.00 

Purchase oflandy revocable licenses, leasee, etc. — ^Particular attention 
has been given to leases of Government property under the control 
of the Quartermaster Corps, in order that the greatest benefit might 
be derived therefrom. The Secretarv of War has authority under the 
law to lease property not required for immediate military use^or a 
period not exceeding five years, and revocable at any time. When- 
ever practicable such leases aie entered into after public advertise- 
ment and award made to the highest bidder. Oftentimes the 
grounds, buildings, etc., are kept in repair, etc., by the lessee, as a 
condition of the lease, and the land, too, is thereby kept from weeds 
and generally turned back to the Government, after having been 
cultivated for a period of time, in a much better condition tiian it 
would have been had it been allowed to remain unused. Although 
the funds derived from the rental thereof are not recredited and made 
available foi military expenditure, they are, however, deposited to 
the credit of the Treasurer of the United States as miscellaneous 
receipts and indirectly operate to loweiing the cost of the Military 
Estanlishment. 

Dm-ing the past fiscal year this office reconmiended, and the rec- 
ommendation was approved by the Secretary of War, that hereafter 
leases of Government property to others be executed in guintuphcate, 
one copy to be fumisnod the lessee, one copy filed witn the records 
of the post concerned, one copy returned for file in. the office of the 
Jud^e Advocate General, as required by law, one copy sent to the 
Auditor for the War Department, and the remaining copy furnished 
for the information of this office. The point raised by this office was 
that heretofore there had been no complete and adequate check 
upon the receipts collected from the lease of such property, or of any 
moneys received from licenses, and it is beUeved that ,the plan 
adopted will eliminate that objection. 

Tne amoimts expended for the purchase of land, etc., and a state- 
ment of changes m military reservations, also a list of revocable 
license? granted during the year, as far ao shown by the records of the 
Quartermaster General's office, will be found in Exhibits Xos. 10 
and 11. 

Front Royal, Va, — Vouchers were prepared in October, 1915^ 
and payments made to Mrs. Alma Jackson and R. H. Jackson, in the 
sum of $1 ,042.19, for the acquisition of lOS acres and 120 square poles; 
and to Miss Lucy E. Barbee, in the sum of $1,068.13 for 85 acres and 
20 square poles. This completed the purchase of the land authorized 
by Army act of March 3, 1911. (See p. 35 of the annual report for 
1915 for details.) 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTBB QENEBAL. 361 

Presidio of San Francisco, Cdl. — ^The sum of $100,000, appropiiated 
by the sundry civil act of March 4, 1909, remains available and 
covers the purchase of land and acquisition of water rights on Lobos 
Creek. An agreement, dated June 10, 1915, between the Depart- 
ment and the opring Valley Water Co., under the terms of which the 
Govenmient will pay to me above-mentioned company $98,937.50 
upon being furnished with a deed conveying a good and valid title 
to the property, remains in effect. The dteed has not as yet been fur- 
nished, but the negotiations are in process and it is expected soon to 
close this matter. 

Tobyhanna^ Pa. — ^During the past fiscal year, the Henry Pratt 
tract, compiising about 422 acres, was purchased from the owner, 
Mr. Thomas Brady, for the sum of $1,255. This money came from 
the original appropriation of $50,000 made in the Army act for 1914. 
(See p. 36, annual report for 1915, for further details.) Two small 
tracts still remain to be acquired through condemnation proceedings. 

Fences. — ^The total amount expenaed from the appropriation 
"Supplies, Services and Transportation, Quartermaster Corps," 
during the fiscal year, for the constiuction of reservation fences, was 
approximately $2,937.50, which includes $1,632.10 for a fence at 
Fort Barry, Cal., $388 for material for construction and lepair of 
fences at Keno, Okla., $372.40 for extension of fences along southern 
boimdary of Fort Sill, Okla.^ and $545.56 for a woven-wire fence on 
the east side of the reservation at Vancouver Barracks, Wash. For 
corral fences, which are constructed from the appropriation "Bar- 
racks and quarters," see Exhibit No. 9. 

Balce ovens and apparatus. — ^The cost of bake ovens, dough mixers, 
bread racks, ana othei equipment for post bakeries, is defrayed from 
the appropriation "Supplies, Services and Transportation, Quarter- 
master Corps." Dming the past fiscal year these articles weie pur- 
chased on approved requisitions by the depot quaitei master, Jeffer- 
son ville^ Ind., at a cost of $11,466.12. 

Heating installations. — ^There have been authorized during the 
year in connection with heating installations the following: 

Fort Bliss, Tex., hot- water heating apparatiis in 5 captains' quarters and 

8 lieutenants* quarters $9, 090. 00 

Fort Keogh, Mont., heating system in oflScers' quarters No. 2 .*. . . 850. 00 

Fort Liscum, Alaska, supplies for installation of steam heating plant in 

officers' quarters No. 33 593. 80 

Fort Moultrie^ S. C, hot-water heating plants in 5 sets captains' quarters 

and 5 sets lieutenants' quarters 6, 635. 00 

Philadelphia Depot, Pa., material for connecting officers* quarters to central 

heating plant 650. 00 

Fort Sill, 6kla. : 

Steam-heating plants in 13 sets officers' quarters, old post 11, 475. 00 

Steam-heating plants in 6 sets officers' quarters, old post 4, 200. 00 

Lighting systems. — Under this beading there has been expended 
during the year from the appropriation * * Supplies, Services, and Trans- 
portation, Quartermaster Corps," for the mstallation, extension, and 
improvement of electric-lightmg systems, the following amoimts at 
the posts named : 

Fort Baker, Cal., material for electric-lighting systems on road between 

poet and Sausalito - $942.83 

Fort Hamilton, N. Y., extension of lighting system 411. 83 



362 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz.^ combination electric light, pow^, and ice plant, 
including electric distribution system, wiring and fixtures in buildings 

(lighting portion only) $77, 115. 00 

Fort Keogn, Mont., electric-lighting system 2, 266. 00 

United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kans. : 

Traveling crane in power plant 1, 010. 00 

Purchase and installation of 300-kilowatt turbo-generator and switch- 
board 13,689.00 

Letterman General Hospital, California: 

Metering feed water-heater and purifier in power plant 2, 626. 00 

Two bofler feed pumps in power plant 1, 144. 00 

Fort Mcintosh, Tex., instollation electric-light system 2, 079. 23 

Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., changing location of pole line and making 

improvements to lighting system, West Cantonment 1, 274. 87 

Fort Kuger, Hawaii, electnc line along engineers' trail to Diamond Head. 795. 00 

Fort Sam Houston, Tex., exterior and interior lighting system, aviation 

post 2,017.00 

Fort Sill, Okla.: 

Wiring and fixtures in extension of barracks and stables 800. 52 

Wiring and fixtures in remodeled buildings, old post 1, 500. 00 

Boiler feed pump, additional feed- water lines and steam header for 

power plant 855. 00 

Fort Snellin^, Minn.: 

Installation electric motor-driven machinery for power plant 2, 878. 00 

Smokestack for power plant 580. 00 

Fort Strong, Mass., connecting hoisting engine with central power plant.. 859. 52 

Fort Terry, N. Y., new street-lighting system 1, 765. 00 

Ice and refrigeraiina plahts. — ^The following work has been author- 
ized during the fiscal year in connection with ice and refrigerating 
plants: 

At Fort Bayard, N. Mex., the walls in refrigerating room of ice 
plant have been rebuilt, at a cost of $1,131, ana a complete ice and 
refrigerating plant, with a capacity of 20 tons refrigeration per day, 
in combination with the electric light and power plant at Fort 
Huachuca, Ariz., has been installed, at a cost of $20,050. 

Laundry plant. — The only laundry plant installed during the year 
is that at Fort Huachuca, Ariz., at a cost of $33,047.40. 

Incandescent lamps, — There has been expended for the piurchase of 
incandescent lamps in the United States, $20,868.01. All lamps 
now being supplied are of the Tungsten type, and are purchased 
through tne General Supply Committee and aistributed through the 
New York depot. The supply of lamps for the ensuing fiscal year will 
be of the nitrogen-filled Tungsten type in lieu of the vacuum Tung- 
sten, on accoimt of the greater efficiency which will thus be obtained. 
The supply of carbon lamps is exhausted, and the Gem lamp is nearlj 
so. These latter two types of lamps are no longer purchased by this 
department. 

Purchase of light. — For the purchase of light there has been author- 
ized during the fiscal year the following amoimts: 

Electric current and gas $361, 287. 21 

Mineral oil 48,014.98 

Total 409,302.19 

Fu^. — ^There has been expended during the fiscal year for fue' in 
kind and purchase of heat the following amounts: 

Fuel in kind, for heating public buildines, and power purposes 51, 755, 035. 76 

Heat, purchase of 36. 837. 74 

Fuel for pumping plants 132. 243. 75 

Fuel for incineratorB 34,989.45 

Fuel, blacksmith coal, and charcoal 5, 251. 40 



BEPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 363 

WaU lockers. — Wall lockers are purchased for installation in barracks 
and the cost is defrayed from the appropriation ** Barracks and quar- 
ters." They are also sometimes issued to offices. As they can be 
gurchased cneaper when large lots are obtained, the Quartermaster 
brps makes contract, upon which the Office of the Surgeon General 
sometimes draws for installation in hospitals, in which event reim- 
bursement of appropriation from which purchased is made from the 
appropriation "Construction and repair of hospitals;" $23,044.01 
expended fiscal year 1916. 

^Annual repairs to huUdings, etc. — Based on the estimates of March 1, 
1915, received from military posts and depots, apportionments were 
made to departments and mdependent stations at the beginning of 
the fiscal year 1916 for annual repairs to buildings and systems 
From the apportionments to departments, allotments were made to 
each post by the department commanders within the limits of the 
funds available. Instructions were given to retain a reserve balance 
in each department to meet unforeseen contingencies. The total 
amount apportioned for annual repairs from each appropriation of 
the fiscal year 1916, not including the Phihppine Islands, was approxi- 
mately as follows: 

Barracks and quarters: General repairs to buildings $616, 507. 03 

Military post exchanges: Repairs to post exchanges, gymnasiums, bowl* 

ing alleys, gymnastic apparatus, etc 11, 358. 00 

Supplies, service, and transportation, Quartermaster Corps: 

Kepairs to reservation fences, lighting and heating plants, exterior 
lighting and heating systems, lighting and heating within build- 
ii^, bakery buildings, bake ovens and equipment, ice and refriger- 
ating plants, and laundry buildings 117, 908. 10 

Repairs to water systems and pump houses, sewer sys- 
terns, sewerage-disposal plants and crematories, 

plumbing in buildings, and fire apparatus $134, 331. 57 

Repairs to flagstaffs, picket lines, and electric-bell 

systems 4, 171. 00 

Railroad equipment 2, 832. 00 

Total 259, 242. 67 

Roads, walh^, wharves, and drainage: Repairs to roads, walks, curbs, 
gutters, railroad tracks, wharves, seawalls, retaining walls, drains, and 

drainage; also improvement of grounds 208, 303. 00 

Shooting galleries and ranges: Repairs to buildings on target ranges, etc . . 9, 049. 15 

Construction and repair of hospitals: Repairs to hospital buildings 77, 578. 26 

Quarters for hospital stewards: Repairs to hospital stewards' quarters ... 10, 191. 15 

Special repairs, aUerationSj and improvements. — In addition to the 
annual apportionments for repairs as stated above, expenditures were 
authorized in the course of the past fiscal year for special repairs, 
exclusive of Mexican border expenditures (the necessity for which 
could not be anticipated when tne annual estimates were prepared), 
and for alterations and improvements in buildings, exterior systems, 
and grounds of the various military posts and stations. The total 
amount expended for special repairs, alterations, etc., from each 
appropriation was approximately as follows: 

Barracks and quarters (including door and window screens, storm doors, 

etc.) $191, 991. 16 

Military pK)et exchanges (including gymnastic apparatus, etc.) 25, 076. 25 

Construction and repair of hospitals 29, 153. 99 

Quarters for hospital stewards 814. 89 

Supplies, services, and transportation. Quartermaster Corps 121, 093. 36 

Roads, walks, wharves, and drainage 61, 804.86 

Total 429,934.51 



364 BEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 

Meiican border. — ^The following is a siimmarized statement of 
expenditures made during the past fiscal year to provide necessary 
accommodations and conveniences for troops on the Mexican border: 

Temporary storehouses, kitchens, mess hails, stables, latrines, screening, 
etc., flooring and framing of tents, assembly and amusement halls, hos- 
pitals, bakeries, etc $213,932.43 

Repairs to temporary shelter, etc 16, 663. 29 

Electric lighting of camps, installation and repairs 9, 992. 08 

Construction and repair of water-supply systems and plumbing 32. 070. 96 

Roads, walks, drainage, etc., at camps 2,093.12 

Fittinfi; up target ranges, repairs, etc. , including rentals 3, 037. 59 

Miscellaneous supplies 42, 980. 80 

Total 320.770.27 

Losses by fire and storm. — The losses by fire and storm during the 
fiscal year 1916 were as follows: 

Fort Thomas, Ky., July 7, 1915, buildings Nos. 2, 3, 15, 17, 18, 19, 26, 43, and 56 
were damaged by storm to the extent of $2,562.10. Extensive damage was caused to 
glass, electric and telegraph lines and poles. 

Valdez, Alaska, July 15, 1915, building No. 2 (post office, storeroom, and stables) 
was destroyed by fire. 

Fort Revere, Mass., August 9, 1915, stable No. 6 was struck by lightning and dam- 
aged to the extent of $200, and forage loss amoimted to $300. 

Camp Stotsenburg, P. 1., July 9, 1915, the machine-gun platoon stables, building 
No. 382, was damaged by fire to the extent of $700. 

Fort Howard, Md., August 4, 1915, damage by storm, $1,000. 

Fort Carroll, Md., August 4, 1915, damage by storm $25. 

Fort Armistead, Md., August 4, 1915, damage by storm $20. 

Fort Small wood, Md., August 4, 1915, damage by storm $5. 

Fort McHenry, Md., August 4, 1915, damage by storm $400. 

Presidio of San Francisco. Cal., August 27, 1915, brigade commander's quarters 
No. 22 was totally destroyed by fire, at a loss of $12,617.05. 

Fort Crockett, Tex., August 16-18, 1915, buildings, roads, sewers, water system, 
batteries, electric lighting, and telephone systems were damaged by severe hurricane 
in the total sum of $338,680. 

Fort Slocum, N. Y., September 18, 1915, the coal dock was damaged by fire, loos 
$820. 

N^'ashington Barracks, D. C, September 23, 1915, limiber shed and storeroom were 
destroyed by fire, and on September 26, 1915, quartermaster stable (No. 24A) was dam- 
aged by fire. 

Jackson Barracks, Fort St. Philip, and Fort Jackson, La., September 29, 1915, 
buildings, wharves, and property were ba<ily damaged by hurricane; estimated damage 
to buildings $13,000, lignting systems $1,000, hospital $800, wharf $5,000. Launch 
Mansfield was sunk. 

Vancouver Barracks, Wash., October 4, 1915, building No. 145, brigade headquarten 
ofllce, was damaged by fire. 

Fort Bliss, Tex., October 15, 1915, storeroom in rear of basement under bakery in 
building No. 57 was damaged by fire. 

Fort Sill, Okla.. October 15, 1915, saddle shops, school of musketry, was damaged 
by fire to the extent of about $125. A lot of target cloth was destroyed. 

Fort St. Michael, Alaska, October 27, 1915, post laundry building No. 57 and con- 
tents were totally destroyed by fire. 

Fort Sill, Okla., November 1-2, 1915, post exchange building (new post) was dam- 
aged by fire to the extent oi ^0. 

Fort Ontario, N. Y., November 19, 1915, buildings were damaged by storm to the 
extent of approximately $135. 

Fort Slocum, N. Y., November 19. 1915, porch in rear of barracks, building No. 84, 
was damaged by storm to the extent of about $71.93. 

Madison Barracks, N. Y., November 20-21, 1915, buildings damaged by wiodstonn 
to the extent of about $400. 

Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., December 2, 1915, officers* quarters No. 19, main 
post, was damaj^ by fire apparently due to defective flue. Damage confined to two 
rooms and portion of roof. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBBfASTEB OENEBAL. 365 

• 

F(»rt Dade, Fla., December 4, 1915, range shelter, building No. 32, totally destroyed 
by fire, loss $150. 

Fort Mills, P. I., December 7, 1915, btiildings, etc., damaged by typhoon to the ex- 
tent of $11, 596.50. 

Camp Eldridge, P. I., December 7, 1915, buildings, etc., damaged by typhoon to 
the extent of $61.40. 

St. Francis Barracks, Fla., December 13, 1915, building known as '"Monastery" 
used for offices of militia, State of Florida, destroyed by fire. Quantity of militia 
property and all records destroyed. 

Valdez, Alaska, December 23, 1915, Hogan telegraph station destroyed by fire. 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, December 25, 1915, three Infantry and two Cavalry 
barracks were destroyed by tornado, and 150 other buildings were damaged. The 
board of officers' report stated that the total damage was to the extent of $29,377. 
Request was made for $25,000, but owing to the low state of appropriation, this office 
authorized but $15,000 for immediate repairs. 

Fort Hamilton, N. Y., December 26, 1915, roof of building No. 77S damaged by 
storm to the extent of $200. 

Fort Strong, Mass., December 26, 1915, building No. 42, barracks, partly unroofed 
by storm; al^ damage to porch. 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz., December 29, 1915, building No. 17, barracks, damaged by 
fire. 

Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., December 29, 1915, band barracks, building No. 
164, main poet, was damaged by fire. 

Fort Miley, Cal., January 2-3, 1916, buildings were damaged by gale to extent of 
$800. Main sewer and drain pipe damaged to the amount of $100; also, shooting- 
gallery roof damaged. 

Fort St. Michael, Alaska, January 4, 1916, all buildings damaged by storm, porches 
destroyed, and all docks dams^ed. Amount of loss, $5,000. 

Unalaska, Alaska, January 9, 1916, building No. 49, telegraph station, destroyed 
by fire. 

Balsovia, Alaska, January 4, 1916, buildine No. 64, fish cache, destroy by storm. 

Fort Ontario, N. Y., January 17, 1916, barrack building No. 24 was seriously damaged 
by storm to the extent of about $1,793.10. 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz., January 30, 1916, stable No. 28 collapsed under weight of 
snow, amount of damage $430; telegraph line destroyed. 

Fort Flagler, Wash., January 23, 1916, wharf building No. 42 damaged by storm to 
the extent of $650. 

Whipple Barracks, Ariz., January 26-27, 1916, old blacksmith shop destroyed by 
storm, 200 yards of fence washed out, and county road damaged. 

Governors Island, N. Y., January 27-28, 19*6, building No. 15, offices of depart- 
ment staff, damaged by fire to the extent of $40. 

Fort Ontario, N. ¥., February 7, 1916, buildings Nos. 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 damaged 
by wind storm. 

Fort Reno, Okla., February 9, 1916, building No. 97 destroyed by fire. 

Eagle Pass, Tex., February 22, 1916, hay sh^ destroyed by fire. 

Fort Gibbon, Alaska, March 7, 1916, building No. 2, barracks, destroyed by fire, 
including all property, records, etc. Three soldiers' lives lost. 

Presidio of Monterey, Cal., March 13, 1916, administration building No. 20 destroyed 
by fire. Original cost, $1,000. 

Fort Slocum, N. Y., March 17, 1916, building No. 23, tinners' shops, damaged by 
fire to the extent of about $44.50. 

Fort Ixiaven worth, Kans., March 20, 1916, crematory (new) building No. 332, with 
all electrical apparatus, destroyed by fire. Furnace and chimney not injured. Esti- 
mated damage, about $1,495.29. 

Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y., March 31, 1916, post hospital was damaged by fire and 
$20 was authorized to repair the same. 

Fort Williams, Me., April 8, 1916, post gymnasium damaged by fire to the extent 
of $108. 

Fort Walla Walla, Wash., April 21, 1916, barrack building No. 9 was totally destroyed 
by fire, and building No. 20, formerly used as administration building and commis- 
sary, about half destroyed. 

Fort Mills, P. I., April 21, 1916, company barracks (C. A. C), was damaged by fire 
to the extent of $10. 

Fort Adams, R. I., May 9, 1916, building No. 42A was damaged by fire to the extent 
of $60. 



366 REPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 

Fort Crook, Nebr., May J.4, 1916, the chimney to the post hospital was damaged by 
lightnine and $31.65 authorized to repair the same. 
Fort Bliss, Tex., May 13, 1916, stables of Troops C and D were destroyed by fire. 

Rentals. — The total amount expended from the appropriation 
'* Barracks and quarters/' fiscal year 1916, for the rental of quar- 
ters, offices, storehouses, stables, recruiting stations, lodgings, camp 
sites, etc., was approximately $451,556.41. This amount includes 
$50,000 allotted for all rentals in China. 

It was not necessary to rent quarters for officers during the fiscal 
jear 1916, and a large reduction in the total cost of rentals has 
resulted thereby, all officers having been placed on a commutation 
status by law. Barracks were rented on the Mexican border for 
noncommissioned officers and enlisted men at a total cost of $3,867.64 
the larger rentals being at Texas City, Tex., in the sum of $2,075.14, 
due to the storm of August 15-16, 1915, and at Mission, Tex., in the 
sum of $1,031.50. In addition to the above quarters were hired for 
noncommissioned officers on general recruiting service, who were 
authoiizcd by tne Secretary ot War to live separate from the recruit- 
ing party at an approximate cost of $13,262.94. Quarters with the 
heat and light included were obtained at an average cost of $15 per 
man per month. 

Offices weie rented at a total cost of $50,650.85. 

Storehouses were rented at a total cost of $91,105.44. 

The cost of stabling pubhc animals and authorized private mounts 
of officeis during fiscal year 1916 was approximately $27,022.92, the 
rentals being distributed over approximately 61 dliflferent cities in 
the United States. The average rental paid, for stable proper was 
$10 per horse per month. 

The rental of main and auxihary recruiting stations during the 
fiscal year 1916 (not including lodgings) amounted to approximately 
$100,526.28. A total of 140 new auxiliary reciuiting stations were 
rented dui*mg March, April, May, and June, 1916, when it became 
necessary to mcrease the Army under emeigency. 

The cost of lodgings for enlisted men on duty at recruiting sta- 
tions, appUcants for enlistment and lecruits, amounted to approxi- 
mately $81,810.88. 

Congress appropriated $45,987 for rental of offices, warehouses, 
and quarters in tne District of Columbia. An unexpended balance 
of $13,347.90 remains. 

TRANSPORTATION. 
ABinr TRANSPORT 8BRVICB. 

Ovmed service. — ^This service consists of 16 ocean-going vessels, 
owTied and opeiated as required for the transportation of troops, 
animals, and supplies for the Army. These vessels were engaged in 
service or stationed at the close of the fiscal year as foUovrs: 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAI.. 



367 



Name. 


Class. 


Location. 


PACmC FLEET. 

Bumskie, 


rAhlAflhfp , 


r&hle sArvir>A. TaramA. Wash. 


Crook. ..' 


Troop sliip 1 UndereoingriBpairs, San Francisco, Cal. 

Fretent ftnd animal ship, . . , ' TraiKuPsu'ifip isAnHnA 


Dix 


Ix)gaD 


Troop ship 


Out of commission. Ban Francisco, CaL 
Trans- Pacific service. 


8her idfui 


do 


Bherm&D 


do 


Do. 


Thoirms 


do 


Do. 


Slocum 


TuK 


In service, San Francisco, CaL 
At Manila. P. I. 


ATLANTIC FLEET. 

BufOTd 


Troop ship 


Kflpfttriek 


CK) 


New York and Canal Zone service. 


Mf/lflllftn 


Refrigerator ship 


Out of commission, Newport News, Va. 
Do. 


If 6ade 


Troop ship 


Siimner 


do 


At Vera Cms. Mexico. 


PHILIPPINE FLEET. 

LJscum 


Troop ship 


Interisland service. 


Merritt 


do 


Do. 


Warren 


do 


Do. 









Movement of transports. — ^The transports have been operated with- 
out interruption upon a monthly scnedule between San Francisco, 
Cal., and Manila, P. I. The Logan was dispatched as an extra trans- 
port, leaving San Francisco January 7, 1916, and after taking aboard 
the Twenty-seventh Infantry at Balboa, Canal Zone, arrived at 
Manila March 5, 1916. Besides other cargo this transport carried 
778 tons of ordnance material for fortification work in the rhihppines. 
This ship returned to San Francisco April 20, 1916, and soon after 
made ready for interchanging troops in Alaska, but the movement 
was suspended, due to the mobilization of troops on the Mexican 
border. 

The B^ord was in service during the greater part of the year, 
leaving Gfalveston, Tex., September 29, 1915, with the Twenty- 
seven tn Infantry aboard for Manila, P. I., but the Panama Canal 
being closed, the troops were disembarked and the ship utihzed for 
the return of the Twenty-third Infantry from Jacksonville, Fla., to 
Galveston, thence going to New York to carry Company A, Signal 
Corps, with its complement of animals and equipment to the Canal 
Zone. After completion of this duty, the Bujord was loaded at 
Newport News and New York with turret material for the PhiUp- 
pines, where the vessel arrived Mav 28, 1916. 

The KilpatricJc left Galveston, Tex., September 20, 1915, with the 
Twenty-tlurd Infantry, which was disembarked at Jacksonville, Fla., 
for duty at the National Matches. Commencing in February, 1916, 
this transport made three voyj^es to the Canal Zone, taking on the 
first trip the First Squadron, Twelfth Cavalry; on the second trip 
Batteries E and F, Fourth Field Artillerv; and on the third trip, the 
Fifth Band and five companies Coast Artillery Corps. After com- 
pletion of this special service, the Kilpatrick was continued in ojpera- 
tion upon a regular monthly schedule between Christobal, Canal 
Zone, and New York, the expense connected therewith being divided 
in accordance with tne terms of an agreement between the Panama 
Canal and the Quartermaster Corps, mutually advantageous to aU 
concerned. 



368 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QEKEBAL. 

The Sumner was hurriedly made ready for sea at the request of 
the State Department and left Newport News Jime 23, 1916, for 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, where 606 refugees were taken aboard for dis- 
embarkation at Port Tampa, Fla., and New Orleans, La. At the 
latter port 173 Porto Rican refugees from Progreso, Mexico, were 
embarked after the close of the fiscal year and landed at I^once, 
P. R., after which the transport was agam placed out of commission 
at Newport News, Va. 

Philippine cargo, — Owing to the shortage of ocean tonnage upon 
the Pacific available for the movement of products of the Pmlippine 
Islands, it was decided by the Secretary of War to utilize the cargo 
space upon returning transports for the carrying of such products of 
tne Philippine Islands as could not be taken bv conmiercial carriers. 
By agreement the PhiUppine government will reimburse the War 
Department for all additional expenditures incident to the handling 
of such cargo upon the transports and will deposit the remainder of 
the freight chaises collected from shippers to tne credit of the United 
States Government. 

Special duty for ^^ Crook.** — ^Under agreement with the Interior 
Department, steps were taken to prepare the Crook for service in 
connection with the Alaskan Engineering Commission between the 
United States and Alaskan ports. The snip will be operated by the 
Quartermaster Corps, but the entire expense of operation will be 
borne by the Alaskan Engineering Commission. The Crook left 
Seattle, Wash., for the first voyage on August 5, 1916. 

RBPAIB8. 

San Francisco. — ^The transports having San Francisco as a home 
port have been maintained in good nmnmg condition by repairs at 
the end of each round voyage, which have averaged in cost $3,850 
per vessel for each vojrage. The Sherman and Logan have been 
withdrawn from service in turn during the year for chipping of iron- 
work and overhauhng, which could not lie accompUshed between 
voyages. 

Seattle. — Necessary repairs to the Dix were made during the year 
at an aggregate cost of $24,457.38, and to the Bumside at a cost of 
$13,699.87. 

Newport News and New York, — Repairs to the KUpatrick during 
the year have aggregated $31,786.59; to the Buford, $11,546.39; to 
the Sumner, $27,810.64; and the McCleUan, $9,550. 

Service for other departments. — ^There have been carried bv the 
transports during the year for other departments and for the Philip- 
pine government, passengers and freight, the value of which at tariff 
rates would be as follows : 

Navy Department $308,105.32 

Poet Office Department (including 495,276 pounds mall) 157, 390. 30 

Philippine government 158, 905. 86 

Other departments 7.583.96 

Total 631.985.44 

WORK OF THE THAN8PORTS. 

The following is the summary of the work performed by the 
transports during the year: 



BEPORT OP THE QUABTEBMASTER GENERAL. 



369 



PASSENQEBS. 



Between— 

• 


Salllnei. 


Officers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


CiyOians. 


Total. 


Ran Francisco and Philippine Islands 


13 

13 

3 

1 
7 


367 
288 


6,792 

7,477 

18 

2 

2,564 

12,507 


1,500 
1,906 


7,669 

9,670 

18 


Seattle and Manila 


New York and Philinnlnes 


2 
118 
864 


25 

81 

3,022 


29 


United States ports and Canal Zone 

Other ports... 


2,763 
16,393 






Total 




1,639 


28,360 


6,533 


36,532 







CARGO. 



Between— 


Animals. 


Freight 
(tons). 


Remains. 


Lumber 
(feet). 


Mans 
(pounds). 


Money (dol- 
lars or pesos). 


San Francisco and Philip- 
pine Islands 


138 


33,521 

17,614 

14,623 
4,601 

10,165 
12,322 






234,059 
76,745 


1,823,854 
184,773 


Philippine Islands and San 
Fraiicls'X*, . . . . , 


60 




Seattle and Philippine 
Islands 


788 
15 

865 
371 


676,653 


San Francisco and Hondulu. 




45,340 




United SUtes and Canal 
Zone 








Other ports 


45 


63,755 


139,132 








Total 


2,171 


92,846 


106 


740,408 


495,276 


2,008,627 





Earnings arid expeTidiiures. — The eaxnings of the transports during 
the year for the above service, based on the lowest rates offered for 
similar service by commercial lines, have been: 

For passengers $2,094,336.84 

For cargo 1,583,966.33 

Total 3,678,303.17 



At pubHc commercial rates the earnings would be: 

For passengers 2,103.816.84 

Forcaigo 1,584,678.17 

Total 3.688,395.01 

The foregoing does not take into consideration the value of trans- 
porting fs^ilies of officers, soldiers, and employees, or of the other 
persons not entitled to transportation at the expense of an appropria- 
tion of the United States or of the Philippine government. 

The value of such gratuitous service auring the year, however, 
agOTegated $568,612.97. 

The expenditures for the operation and maintenance of the trans- 
ports durmg the year were as follows: 



Wages of oflQcors and crew 

Repairs 

FueL 

Deck, engine, and steward's supplies 

Miscellaneous .' 

Total 

69176'*— WAB 1916— VOL 1 24 



In commission. 



1671.683.81 
165.608.24 
418,556.37 
562.009.56 
1.58,464.09 



OutofconunJs- 
sion. 



1,976,322.07 



133,418.60 

28,796.65 

3,163.09 

9,276.48 

4,401.37 



79,058.28 



ToCaL 



f705,102.S0 
194,406.80 
421,719.46 
571,286.04 
162,865.40 



2,055,380.35 



370 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 

Shore expenses, including proportionate part of salaries of officers, 
commutation of officers' quarters, wages of^ employees, rent of offices, 
warehouses, wharves, etc., were as foUows: 

San Francisco $53,349.52 

Seattle and Tacoma 8,220.51 

Galveston and Newport News 30, 678. 51 

Honolulu 5,384.25 

Nagasaki (estimated) 9,983.11 

New York 1,781.32 

Manila (estimated) 21,023.90 

Total for this purpose 130,421.12 

Grand total 2,185,801.47 

Included in these expenditures is the cost of operating and main- 
taining the Bumside while engaged in cable work for the Signal 
Corps of the Army, the total of which was $106,004,83. 

Inasmuch as the service rendered by the Bumside was not performed 
in the interest of the Quartermaster Corps, the expenditure in 
connection therewith should be deducted, leaving the net cost to the 
Government on account of the transportation of troops, suppUes, etc., 
and the maintenance of all transports, both active and inactive, 
during the year $2,079,796.64. 

RECAPrrULATION. 





Lowest com- 
mercial rate. 


Pnbllc com- 
mercial rata. 


Eamfnn of th* transports rtnrlnR th« y«ftf . ...-^-^-r-- tt 


13,678,303.17 
2,079,796.64 


13.688,395.01 


KxMins6 of OTX^rAtkni And niftlntmanoo dtuins th6 sani4 p^fod 


2.079.796.61 






Savinp to the Qoverament by using transports over same senr- 


l,508,.'i06./» 


1,006,506.87 





HARBOR BOAT SERVICE. 



Ovmed service. — ^The department has operated during the fiscal 
year in the various harbors along the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf 
coasts and rivers tributary thereto the following vesseb; 

6 firstrclaai steel mine planten, 
2 cable steamers, 

2 ferry steamers, 

24 passenger and freight steamers, 
28 tugs and Artillery steamers, 

3 lighters, 

88 steam and gasoline launches, 
30 distribution box boats, 

a total of 133 owned vessels (exclusive of 118 mine yawls and mis- 
cellaneous small craft) engaged in (^artermaster, ArtiUery, and 
Signal Corps work. The totiS expenditure for wages of officers and 
crews, fuel, supplies, repairs, water, etc., was $1,538,777.81. 

These vessels carriea diuing the year 2,668,943 passengers and 
153^83,520 poimds of freight. 

Chartered service. — ^To supplement the foregoing service, chartered 
vessels were operated in connection with the coast defenses of Nar- 
ragansett Bay, between Newport and Fort Greble, R. I., at a total 
cost of $9,288. The entire cost of th6 chartered service at all points, 



EEPOBT OP THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENEBAL. 371 

including the cost of the hire of substitute vessels for short periods 
to replace owned vessels undergoing repairs and of vessels hired 
for towing targets, vessel tracking, subcaUber practice and like 
purposes for the Coast Artillery, which could not be performed by 
owned vessels, amounted to $23,429.41. 

Vessels disposed of. — ^The electric launch West Point having been 
reported to be in an unserviceable condition and not worth the cost 
of necessary repaire, was disposed of by sale November 11, 1915. 

Vessels lost. — During the year the following small vessels were lost: 
Lieut. Self ridge, lost in storm; distribution dox boat No. 5, lost in 
storm; distribution box boat No. 16, run down by tank steamer and 
sunk; mine yawl M-BS, lost in storm; mine yawl rio. 41 , lost in storm. 

The launch Mansfield sank in the Mississippi River, but was subse- 
quently raised and restored to serviceable condition. 

Vessels acquired. — ^The following vessels were acquired or con- 
tracted for during the fiscal year. 

One 171-foot twin-screw steel mine planter and cable steamer, to 
be constructed and deUvered before July 1, 1918, under contract with 
the New Yurk Shipbuilding Co., at a cost of $331,000, without boil- 
ers. This steamer will be known as the General Wm. M. Graliam, 
and is intended for service at the Panama Canal Zone. 

Eight 30-foot standard mine yawls (four with gasoline engines) 
were constructed at the New York Navy Yard at an approxunate 
cost of $7,500. Six of the yawls were assigned to the coast defenses. 
Panama Canal Zone, and one each to Fort H. G. Wright, N. Y., ana 
Fort Hancock, N. J. 

One 64-foot large distribution box boat, afterwards named L-S6, 
was constructed at Gulfport, Miss., xmder contract with T. M. Favre, 
at a cost of $11,800, and assigned to duty in the coast defenses, 
Panama Canal Zone. 

One houseboat for service in the waters of the Panama Canal 
Zone was authorized at a cost of $4,500 and also $1,600 for the pur- 
chase of the material for a similar boat for the same coast defenses. 
The latter vessel has been named the Capt. W. F. Endress. 

Two motor sailing launches were purchased from the Navy Depart- 
ment for service in the Panama Canal Zone at an approximate cost 
of $5,600. These vessels have been named the Lieut. C. F. Conry 
and Lieut. H. R. Adair. 

Betterments. — ^During the year the masts of several mine planters 
were lengthened, as reauired to permit the use of radio outfits of 
greater range furnished oy the S^al Corps. 

Philippine Army transport service. — ^The owned transports Liscunif 
Merritt, and Warren have been operated during the year and made 
a total of 34 voyi^es to various ports in the PniUppines and China. 
These vessels carried upon these voyages 7,360 passengers, 599 ani- 
mals, 45 remains, 26,495 tons of freight, 9;658 feet of lumber, and 
$975,737.60 in United States or Philippine Islands currency, all enti- 
tled to transportation at Government expense, the value of which 
transportation at commercial rates for similar service amoimted to 
$251,116.98. There were also carried 16,953 passengers and 1,062 
cubic tons of freight, for which no credit has been taken, the value 
of which at regular rates was $97,387.18. 

The expenses of the whole service amounted to $585,239.25, and 
after allowing the proper proportion of shore expenses chargeable to 



374 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 

and Morgan Line steamships (via Galveston and rail) from October 15, 
1915, to May 31, 1915, at an agreed rate of 90 cents per 100 poimds. 
On the latter date both companies canceled their agreements and 
shipments thereafter were forwarded over various lines at regular 
tanff rates, less land-grant deductions. 

Bids were invited lor transportation from New York City to San 
Francisco, Honolulu, and Manila for the fiscal year 1917, but no 
bids were submitted carrying a lower rate than was available under 
regular tariffs and all bids were rejected and shipments for the 
fiscal year 1917 will be forwarded by such routes as desired at open 
rates. 

Cooperation between the transporte^tion companies and the Quarter^ 
master Corps, — EJspecial attention was devoted during the fiscal year 
1916 to the establishment of a closer cooperation between the Quarter- 
master Coips and the various transportation interests with a view to 
coordination in the movements of troops and supplies for the Army. 
The officer in charge of the transportation division. Office of the Quar- 
termaster GreneraT, appeared before several of the transportation 
associations and outlined a plan of mutual cooperation which would 
be of benefit to both the carriers and the Government in case any 
necessity arose involving the transportation of large numbers of 
troops, the plan outlined oeing practically that which has since been 
placed in effect. 

Under date of October 16, 1915, a letter was prepared in the office 
of the Quartermaster General reconmiending that the Secretary of 
War commimicate with the American Railway Association (which 
association is composed of the presidents, general managers, and 
other chief operating officials of tne American railways) ana surest 
the establishment within that association of a committee on mihtary 
transportation to whom the department could look for any informa- 
tion that might be desired as to the railroads of the United States, 
and with a further view to coordination and cooperation between the 
railroads and the War Department in the transportation of troops 
and supplies of the United States. On October 26, 1915, a letter 
of the nature indicated was sent by the Secretary of War to the 
American Railway Association, and after some further correspondence 
a** Special committee on cooperation with the military autnorities** 
was appointed by that association. This committee was, and is, 
composed of the following gentlemen: Fairfax Harrison (chairman), 

S resident Southern Railway- R. M. Aishton^ president Chicago & 
[orth Western Railway; A. W. Thompson, vice president Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad; W. 6. Besler, president Ontral Railroad of New 
Jersey. Conferences were held with this committee, and a general 
plan of cooperation outlined to be placed in effect at the time of any 
public emergency. 

Immediately after the call for mobiUzation of the State troops 
was issued, this committee met in the office of the Quartermaster 
General with Lieut. Col. Chauncey B. Baker, representing that office, 
and the plans previously determmed were at once placed in effect. 
Arrangements were made for placing a competent railroad official 
at eacli department headquarters, at each mobilization camp, and 
in the office of the Quartermaster General. These repre3entati\cs 
were to act as advisors to the officers of the Quartermaster Corps at 
these various points on any matters affecting rail transportation. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 375 

They were all men of the highest reputation in the railroad world, 
and did not represent any particular railroad hut were representa- 
tives of all lines interested. 

Directly after the announcement of the mobilization this com- 
mittee of the American Railway Association also called upon repre- 
sentatives of the various railroads of the country to meet in Wash- 
ington for the purpose of extending every possible assistance among 
the railroads themselves. The object of this meeting was to make aU 
of the railroad equipment, motive power, and personnel, of the 
country available to effect this movement in the most expeditious 
manner possible. 

The main object of the special committee on cooperation with 
the military authorities was to assist the War Department in the 
transportation of troops and supplies, and the committee acted only 
on instructions from the War Department, except in matters directly 
affecting the operation of trains. 

When it was definitely known that an organization was to move, 
the camp quartermaster consulted with the American Railroad 
Association representative at his camp and advised him as to the 
strength of the organization, and it was the duty of the American 
Railway Association representative to see that all railroad equipment, 
other than tourist cars, was promptly assembled in time for the move- 
ment. Tourist cars were ordered direct from the office of the Quar- 
termaster General, and the camp quartermaster was immediately 
advised by wire whether tourist cars could be furnished from point 
of origin* if not, the American Railway Association representative 
was so advised, and it was his duty to see that coaches were secured 
for the movement. 

In 1912 the Quartermaster General's Office took up with the 
American Railway Master Car Builders' Association the question 
of placing placards, in time of war or threatened war, on all carload 
shipments of Government property. As a result of a large amount 
of correspondence, a plan was formulated which was accepted by 
all the railroads in the country and a series of placards adopted. 

Through the agency of the American Railway Association all rail- 
way officials and employees were notified that cars so placarded must 
be given right of way from point of origin to point of destination. 
Sucn cars are placed in the fastest moving freight trains and kept 
constantly moving to point of destination, where they are imme- 
diately delivered and at once identified, shifted into position, dis- 
charged, and released without the necessity of waiting for the formal 
bills of lading and official papers of the railways and the Govern- 
ment: the placards themselves serving to fully identify all shipments. 
All placards bear the legend '* United States Army" at the head, 
foUowed by the department to which suppUes belong, the car initial, 
car number, point of shipment, contents, consignee, destination, 
routing, date shipped, and consignor. Cars bearing these cards are 
never sidetracked nor shifted into yards except to be placed in 
through freight trains. Should a car become damaged through any 
cause, it is given preference and precedence for any repairs, and if 
repairs require an extended period, contents are loaded into another 
car and the movement continued. 

As a result of this imderstandiiig between the railroads and the 
Quartermaster General's Office, shipments of freight are being made 



876 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTBB GENERAL. 

with remarkable expedition. Many instances are cited where freight 
shipments have been sent through from Washii^ton and vicinity to 
the Texas border in four days, and from New i ork and vicinity in 
five days or less; freight from Philadelphia, Pa., has reached San 
Antonio, Tex., in 79 hours, from the Lakes to the border shipments 
have been made in an elapsed time of a Utile more than 48 hours. 

The hearty cooperation of the railroads in making these shipments 
has been rendered without any hesitation whatever, with all the 
energy possible, and without admtional chcu^e to the Government. 

It IS Deheved that this simple device, with the fullest cooperation 
of the railroads, has removed one of the principal sources of criticism 
appUcable to the period of mobilization m 1898. 

Where special, urgent shipments have been made they have been 
followed t&ough by wire to destination and most satisfactory results 
have been obtained in every instance. 

As a specific example showing how the cooperation of the railroad 
companies assisted the Army, there may be cited the case of the first 
motor truck company purchased for the expeditionary forces in 
Mexico. 

Bids were invited for a number of trucks, and award made about 
6 o'clock the evening of March 14. Twenty-seven trucks were pur- 
chased under this advertisement in Wisconsin. These truclra were 
inspected, the personnel to operate them employed, the trucks were 
loaded in 14 cars, and tourist car furnished for the personnel, and the 
train left at 3.11 a. m. March 16. It arrived at Columbus, N. Mex., 
1,591 miles away, shortly after noon on the 18th, the trucks were 
unloaded from the cars, loaded with suppUes, and sent across the 
border, reaching Gen. Pershing's command with adequate suppUes 
of food before he had exhausted the suppUes taken with him trom 
Columbus. 

In a Uttle more than four days after orders were placed with the 
manufacturers, these trucks had gone across the border at Columbus, 
1,600 miles away from the factory, loaded with supplies. 

The generalplan of cooperation also provided for coordinating the 
duties of the Pullman Co. in furnishing sleeping car equipment, and 
under this plan when it became necessary to mobiUze the Organized 
Militia the supply and distribution of tourist sleeping cars was handled 
directly under the instructions of the Quartermaster General of the 
Anny . In order to centraUze the furnishing of toiuist sleepers at the 
point most convenient to the Government, to utilize the available 
supply of these cars to the best advantage, and to keep them con- 
Btantfy in service, the Pullman Co. changed the supervision of the 
supply and movement of these cars from the heaaquarters of the 
company, at Chicago, to Washington, where they stationed Mr. 
C. W. Henry, assistant to superintendent of car service, with a com- 
petent force. Mr. Henry was in immediate touch with the office of the 
Quartermaster General, and on receipt of request from camp quarter- 
masters for tourist cars, he was advised of the needs and at once took 
steps to supply the cars if they were available at any point. Reports 
were received by him daily from all parts of the United States showing 
the number of tourist cars that were available in all sections of the 
country and in cases when, on account of the necessity for immediate 
departure, it was impossible to ftmiish cars from the starting point, 
this branch of the Pullman Co. used every effort to furnish uie cars 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 377 

en route, immediately starting such cars as could be secured over the 
route to be taken by the troons, so that they could be transferred to 
toiuist sleeping cars at the nrst possible opportunity. During the 
first two weeks of the concentration this force was on duty until 
nearly midnight every day, including Sundays, and deserves great 
credit for the excellent assistance rendered the Government. 

The great value of the plans made for cooperation and coordination 
between the railroads and the War Department was fully demon- 
strated in the mobilization and concentration of the Organized 
Mihtia. Every assistance possible was rendered the Government, 
not only by the American Railway Association and the Pullman Co. 
but by the various passenger associations, and by the officials and 
employees of all the railroads concerned, from the presidents of the 
companies down to the minor employees. In addition to the rep- 
resentative of the American Railway Association, nearly all the 
important Southwestern railway lines had representatives in Wash- 
ington during the entire movement, and these representatives kept 
in close touch with the transportation over their respective Unes, and 
were available for consultation at any time, if desired by the depart- 
ment. The cooperation of the American Railway Association 
representatives, with their expert knowledge of transportation con- 
ditions, has proved of great value to the aepartment, and quarter- 
masters have been reUeved of a great deal of trouble and annoyance 
heretofore experienced in the mobilization of large bodies of troops. 

It is believed that the careful plan of cooperation adopted and the 
assistance of the transportation interests m this plan has demon- 
strated that the problem of rail congestion, which was the bugaboo 
of the mobihzation of troops in 1898, has been entirely eUminated. 

TTie arrangements entered into with railway lines in eastern and 
western territory, as referred to in the Annual Report of the Quarter- 
master General for 1915, pases 50 and 51, were continued during the 
fiscal year 1916, and resiiltea in a saving of approximately $40,000 on 

8assenger traffic. Negotiations are now under way with lines in 
few England and Southeastern territory on a similar basis with every 
prospect of a successful conclusion; this arrangement will then cover 
the entire United States. Briefly, it provides for a deduction of 5 
per cent from the usual fare available to the Government and for an 
equitable distribution of the traffic between all lines interested, it 
simpUfies the settlement of accoimts, and insures the cooperation of the 
various carriers. 

Transportation of Regular Army organizatwns to the Mexican 
border, — During the latter half of tne fiscal year 1916 conditions on 
the Mexican border were such that it became necessary to augment 
the troops stationed along that frontier, and the following movements 
of Regular Army organizations were ordered on the dates indicated. 

March 11, 1916, First, Eleventh, and 2 squadrons Twelfth Cav- 
alry. 

March 20, Fifth Cavalry. 

May 9, Third, Twenty-first, Thirtieth, and 2 battalions. Four- 
teenth Infantry, First battalion Third Field Artillery, and 21 com- 
panies Coast Artillery. 

June 11, First battalion Engiaeers. 



378 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEEAIi. 

The transportation of these organizations was accomplished in an 
excellent manner, in exceptionally good time, and without any 
accidents of any nature. 

Mobilization of the Organized Militia and National Ouard. — On May 
9 the President called into the service of the United States the 
organizations of the Organized Militia and the National Guard of the 
States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. These oi^anizations were 
not mobiUzed at their State mobilization camps, out directed to 
proceed from their home rendezvous direct to the border. 

On Jime 18, 1916, the Organized Militia and the National Guard of 
all the other States of the Union were called into the service of the 
United States and directed to assemble at their State mobilization 
camps. The movement from the company rendezvous to the State 
mobilization camp was under the control of the State authorities, 
and from these camps to the station designated on the border was 
under direction of the War Department. 

Ixnmediately on receipt of tne order for this mobilization, routing 
schedules prepared in tne office of the Quartermaster Greneral were 
furnished to tne quartermaster at each of the four department head- 
quarters; these schedules indicated the routing to be used bv each 
organization from the State mobilization camp to the Mexican 
border, 288 routes being shown, and were arranged with a view to an 
expeditious movement, employing all available lines, as far as prac- 
ticable, so that if it had become necessary to transport all the militia 
at one time the carriers could have performed the service without 
congestion and without delay. 

A Handbook on Transportation by Rail, issued by the Quarter- 
master General of the Army, was sent to each mobilization camp 
immediately aiter orders were issued for the mobilization of the State 
troops. 

This handbook, amon^ other matters, consolidates the information 
showing tiie manner and extent to which standard sleepers, tourist 
sleepers, and coaches shall be furnished under existing regulations 
for troops traveling; it provides for the methods to be i^ed to secure 
an adequate suppfy of drinking water for the troops, and contains 
full instructions as to the instalfiition of Army field ran^ in baggage 
or box cars, so that hot coffee and hot meals may be furnished en route. 
It also exhibits the details of assembling and loadiujg of equipment, 
and the entraining and detraining of the men and animals. 

The militia troops began leaving their mobilization camps for the 
Mexican border about midnight June 26, the first organization to 
leave its camp for the border being Battery B of the New Jersey 
Field Artillery, which departed from Sea Girt, N. J., at 11.30 p. m., 
June 26, but was closely followed by the Ninth Massachusetts 
Infantry, which left its canip at Framingham at 12.28 a. m. June 27. 
Other organizations from Massachusetts and New Jersey abo left 
the State mobilization camp for the border on June 27, as well as 
organizations from Connecticut, New York. Oregon, Utah, and 
Vermont. On July 1 there were en route to tne boraer from various 
sections of the United States 122 troop trains, carrying over 2,000 
freight, passenger, and baggage cars, with a total strengUi of 36,042 
men. On July 4 101 troop trains were en route to the border and 
62,681 militia troops (not including Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas 
were either at the border or en route thereto. 



B^POBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAIj. 379 

From the beginning of the movement up to July 31, 1916, there 
have been 111,919 militia troops transported to the border, as shown 
by Exhibit 13. 

Some idea of the task imposed upon the railroads of the country by 
the transportation of the rJational Guard may be had when it is 
considered that 350 trains were necessary to carry the first 100,000 of 
the National Guard and that these trains, if combined, would have 
made a train nearly 90 miles long. Over 3,000 passenger cars, in- 
cluding standard Pullman and tourists and coaches, were provided 
for the troops, and in addition about 400 baggage cars, most of which 
were equipped as kitchen cars for serving hot meals en route, 1,300 
box cars, 2,000 stock cars, and 800 flat cars were used in transporting 
the equipment and materiel of the troops. An enormous number of 
locomotives were required in these movements, as will be reaUzed 
when it is remembered that at each division point a different loco- 
motive, with crew, was attached to each train section, and the num- 
ber of division points at which it was necessary to change locomotives 
varied from three, in the case of the Louisiana troops, to 24, in the case 
of the Connecticut troops. There were employea in the movement 
of the first 100,000 of these troops approximately 4,900 engines and 
crews, not including switching engines, yard engines, and their crews. 

The call upon the railroads for the transportation of the militia 
came at a time when their passenger traffic was at its height. In the 
fortnight which includes the Fourth of July the greatest density of 
travel of the entire year always occurs in the Eastern States. 

Instructions were issued by all railroads concerned that the move- 
ments of troop trains were to be given preference over other travel, 
and it is beheved that this was done m all cases. Many of the 
western roads being single-track lines, it was, in some cases, necessary 
for the troop train to take the siding in order that a train proceeding 
in the opposite direction could pass, but this action is sometimes 
necessary on these roads with even the fastest limited trains. The 
following wire received from one of the southwestern railroads is 
characteristic: 

Instructions have been issued to aU concerned that all military trains are to be 
^ven ri^ht of way. Sunshine Limited was sidetracked last night for the first time 
in its history. We are doing everything possible to facilitate the handling of this 
business. 

It is, of course, impossible to compare the concentration of the 
United States Militia on the Mexican border with the mobilization 
in Europe in the summer of 1914. In Europe all civil trafl&c was 
stopped and the entire railroad system given over to the military 
movement. The distances involved in this movement of the Organ- 
ized Mihtia are very much ^eater than those in Europe, the long- 
est run in the German Empire, from one frontier to the other, being 
about 700 miles and those in Fr«\nce much less. The distances 
traveled bj; the militia organizations of the United States yar^ from 
608 miles, in the case of the Jjouisiana troops, to 2,916 miles in the 
case of the Connecticut troops. Ihe majority of these troops came 
from North and Northeastern States and were carried over 2,000 
miles; in most cases in remarkably fast time. As an example, the 
Seventh New York Infantry, about 1,400 men, with equipment, 
ammunition, and baggage, left New York at 2 p. m. Jime 27, and 



380 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QEKEBAL. 

arrived at San Antonio, Tex., 8.30 p. m. June 30, a distance of 
2,087 miles. Similar nms on time almost as last were made from 
other points. 

When it is considered that these trains were, as a rule, heavy trains 
of from 17 to 22 cars each, and were composed of freight, passenger, 
and baggage eauipment (which was necessary in order to enable each 
unit to proceea to its destination intact with all its equipment and 
impedimenta), it will be seen that the movement was made with 
exceptional rapidity. 

To have effected the entire movement of all the troops moving in 
tourist sleepers would have required the use of approximately 3,000 
cars; in otner words, approximately five times as many as there are 
in existence. The Pullman Co., by utilizing some standard cars, 
made available for the movement of these troops 623 tourist cars. 
Tourist equipment was furnished troops from tne beginning of the 
movement wnenever it was possible to do so. 

Particular attention is invited to the fact that the effort to furnish 
tourist ciXTS for organizations leaving in coaches did not cease imtil 
the organizations had actually arrived at destination, and that 
wherever tourists coidd be secured en route they were placed in the 
train and the men transferred from coaches to these tourists up to 
the number that coidd be suitably berthed. Taking as an example 
some of the New York organizations: Headquarters, band, and 
Battery A, First Field Artillery, left Yonkers, N. Y., for Browns- 
ville. Tex., on J\dy 3, requiring four tourists. There was only one 
available at startmg point, but the organization was furnished one 
at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., one at Buffalo, N. Y., and one at Sapulpa, 
Okla. The Seventy-fourth New York Infantry, leaving Buffalo, 
N. Y., on July 5, required 25 tourists, but none were available at 
Buffalo, Chicago, or Kansas City. Four were furnished at Herrington, 
Kans., 13 at Caldwell, Kans., 3 at El Reno, Okla., and 5 at Fort Worth, 
Tex. These two examples are fair illustrations of the efforts made 
to furnish toiunsts for these organizations wherever they could be 
secured. In other words, the department did not lose track of 
organizations, but continued to serve these organizations in the 
above manner and to loUow them until their arrival at destination. 

In cases where tourist cars coidd not be furnished, day coachee 
were supplied by the railroads at the rate of one double seat for eadi 
man where the distance was long. In some instances day coaches 
were suppUed at the rate of four seats for each three men for at least 
a portion of the journey; this the railroads considered necessary, 
due to the fact that at the beeinning of the mobilization it was 
anticipated that movements womd be kept up in the same intensity 
throughout this concentration as in the first 48 hours, in which case 
the radroad equipment necessary coidd onl^ have been obtained by 
annulling many of the most important trains of the railroads and 
U}?ing the equipment therefrom for the movement of troops. The 
railroads, in case of necessity, were prepared to proceea to this 
extremity. In all cases, where it was possible to do so, tourist 
equipment for the entire movement was furnished, but where not 
immediately available the troops were met en route and transferred 
to tourists in every possible case. This proved to be a wise method, 
inasmuch as it kept all toiurist equipment in constant use. 



BEPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAJj. 381 

Official reports from all military departments show that no organi- 
zation moved in coaches with le.ss space than three men to every four 
seats, and wherever equipment was available the railroads furnished 
two seats for each man. Tlie total nxmiber of men trr.ns} orted in 
coaclies showed an average of 30 men to each coach. 

With all this large number of persons transported in special trains, 
on special schedules, but one accident involving any injury to the 
men was reported. This occurred to a train of the First Minnesota 
Field Artillery, due to a collision with a commercial train, in which 
throe men were injured — two of them slightly and one seriously but 
not dangerously — and with this exception tHe transportation of the 
militia was accomplished without accident. 

Although the movement of the Organized Militia to the border 
came at a time when the commercial traffic on railroads of the United 
States was the largest in years, the transportation of the militia was 
performed with very Uttle interference with regular train service and 
with no congestion whatever, either at initial or terminal po'mts or 
en route. As an example, there moved into the Brownsville district 
during the month of JuJy, 1916, 106 special trains, composed of 1,216 
cars of passengers and 1,201 cars of ireight for the Army, a total oi 
2,417 ciirs, in addition to 680 cars of Army supplies handled in 
freight trains and the usual commercial traffic. This district is 
reached only by one single-track railroad line, and all rolling stock 
had to be returned over the same line. ITie cars were unloaded at 
once and hauled back and there was at no time any delay in unloading 
nor was there any congestion. 

Considering the great distances traveled by the militia from the 
various camps to the Mexican border, the fact that there was but a 
single accident, and that of a minor character, the celerity with which 
the trains were moved and the entire absence of congestion or delay, 
it is believed there has been no case in history where troops have 
been as well and safely transported or as well cared for while en route 
as in the recent mobilization. 

Drayage and hauling, — During the fiscal year 1916 the cost of dray- 
age, cartage, and haming was $(>9,256.47, as shown below: 

Drayage at poste $44,633.19 

Drayage at depots and arsenals 24,623. 28 

Total 69,256.47 

The bulk of the expenditures for hauling at posts is incurred at posts 
in Alaska and the Canal Zone, where owned means of transportation is 
insufficient; at Coast Artillery posts in the United States that are situ- 
ated on islands, necessitating hauling from railroad stations to docks; 
and at some of the western posts that are situated a considerable dis- 
tance from railroad, such as Fort Apache, Ariz., and Fort Clark, Tex. 
The approximate division of the amoimt shown above is as follows: 

Alaska $16,000 Interior western posts $12,000 

Canal Zone 5,000 Miscellaneous posts 3,000 

Coast Artillery posts 8, 000 

The drayage at depots is incurred at cities where owned means of 
transportation is either unavailable or insufficient. 

Transportation accounts acted on, — During the fiscal year 1916 a total 
of 1|442 transportation accoimts, aggregating $203^930.69, were re- 



382 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENEBAIi. ^ 

ceived and acted on in the transportation division, office of the Quar- 
termaster General, as shown below: 

Accounts payable from appropriations pertaining to other bureaus of the 
War Department (699) .^ ^ $64, 885. 33 

Disputed accounts payable from appropriation "Supplies, Services, and 
Transportation " (743) 139,045.36 

The accounts prepared by the disbursing officers of the Quartermas- 
ter Corps, covermg transportation payable bv other departments of 
the Government, are forwarded direct to sucn departments for pay- 
ment. The accounts paid by the disbursing officers from appropria- 
tion ''Supphes, Services, and Transportation" are not received in the 
transportation division, but pass tm*oi^h the finance and accounting 
division to the Auditor for the War Department, the 743 accounts 
referred to above being those in which disputes have arisen as to the 
proper basis of settlement. 

The four offices of the Quartermaster Corps charged with the settle- 
ment of transportation accounts during the fiscal year 1916 paid trans- 
portation accounts in which were included a total of 76,353 transpor- 
tation requests and 72,849 bills of lading. 

Motor transportation. — ^The first motor truck for carrying supplies 
was procured by the Quartermaster*s Department in Jime, 1907, since 
whicn time the Quartermaster's Department has made constant prog- 
ress in developing the motor truck as a means of transportation. 
Appropriations for this purpose, until recently, have been very lim- 
ited. The progress of oevelopment, however, considering these cir- 
cumstances, has been very satisfactory. The Quartermaster's De- 
partment first took up the matter of operating trucks seriously in 1911, 
and extensive experiments and observations nave been made annually 
since that time. Near the close of the fiscal year 1916, however, ex- 
tensive opportimities were afforded for detennming the value of motor 
transportation imder severe conditions in connection with the opera- 
tions in Mexico and along the Mexican frontier. 

The first specifications of the Quartermaster's Corps were written 
in 1913, after extensive correspondence with manufacturers and 
the Society of Automobile Engineers. These specifications have 
been revised and brought up to date annually. The revision of 1916 
was carefully prepared in consultation with the Society of Automobile 
Engineers, which nas given this department valuable and much appre- 
ciated assistance in solving the problems of motor transportation. 

In this connection it may be stated that it is very difficult for motor- 
truck manufacturers to immediately efifect changes to conform to the 
reauirements of military trucks, for the reason mat orders for mate- 
rials are placed many months in advance of the time when it is re- 
quired to enter into the manufacture of trucks. 

DuriM the early part of the fiscal year 1916 motor transportation 
was confined to operation of motor trucks in connection with the trans- 
portation of suppUes between base depots and outlying camps on the 
Mexican border, in connection with the operation of Quartermaster 
Corps depots, and at a few posts in the United States and over-sea 
possessions where motor transportation could be installed at a saving 
over animal-drawn transportation. By careful observations and such 
experiments as could be undertaken with the Umited funds appropri- 
ated for procurement of motor transportation experience of great value 
was obtained, demonstrating that motor transportation can be relied 



BEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBM ASTER GENERAL. 383 

upon under severe road conditions. Tentative organizations and reg- 
ulations for all motor units, repair shops, and suDsidiaries were pre- 
pared in the office of the Quartermaster General and distributea to 
those charged with handling these units, so that necessary steps were 
taken, so far as it was possible for this office to do so, under these new 
conditions. 

When instructions were given for the organization of an adequate 
mihtary force of troops to cross the Mexican border in pursuit oi the 
Mexican band which attacked the town of Columbus, Pi. Mex., and 
troops there on the morning of March 9, 1916, this office was in position 
to take inmiediate steps k) procure necessary motor transportation 
which it was foreseen would be required. On March 11,1916, the first 
call was received from the Southern Department for two motor-truck 
companies, consisting of 27 motor trucks each, of 1^ tons capacity, 
equipped with necessary personnel for their operation. As soon as the 
approval of the Secretary of War was received these trucks were pur- 
chased and provided witn the necessary personnel, hired at the facto- 
ries at which the trucks were manuiactured. The personnel con- 
formed to the organization above referred to. The two motor-truck 
companies first ordered left the region of the Great Lakes at 12 o'clock 
midnight, March 15, and early on the morning of March 16. Both 
were sent by special-train service to CJolumbus, N. Mex. Two addi- 
tional truck companies followed soon thereafter, as well as the neces- 
sary tank trucks for carrying gasoline, oil, and water. 

It was soon found that motorcycles which originally accompanied 
these truck companies for carrying a certain portion of the personnel 
were unsatisfactory in operation over the heavy sandy coimtry in 
Mexico where no made roads exist. Upon the recommendation of the 
local authorities light automobiles of the roadster type were substi- 
tuted for use of motor-truck company commanders and truckmasters 
in heu of motorcycles and have been found more satisfactory. 

One of the most important features in connection with the operation 
of motor trucks is that they be equipped with a strong and suitable 
body. This ia especially necessary where the roads over which they 
operate are rough and imeven. The body should be specially con- 
structed and smtable for the work for wmch intended. Whilst the 
heavy body provided for in the specifications of the Quartermaster 
Corps adds materially to the weight of the truck, it more th^ makes 
up by its longevity and carrying capacity. 

As the experience of the department becomes more extensive in the 
operation oi motor trucks imder the extremely severe conditions to 
be found in 'the operations in Mexico, many defects developed in some 
of the trucks in use; some of them of minor character, which could be 
easily corrected; others of a much more serious character. In gen- 
eral, however, it may be stated that the provisions of the specinca- 
tions issued by this department were found to be based on correct 
principles for the service for which these trucks were intended. 

The department has been greatly assisted by representatives of 
various truck manufacturers in the study of defects and recommen- 
dations for improvement in the motor transportation now in opera- 
tion. By the end of the fiscal vear 10 motor-truck companies, each 
consisting of 27 motor trucks oi 1^ tons capacity, 6 mo tor- truck com- 
panies consisting of 28 motor trucks of 3 tons capacity, and 2 motor- 
truck companies each consisting of 33 motor trucks of S t^x^ ^^^%£^^ 



384 ' BEPOBT OF THE QUAKTERMASTEB GENERAL. 

had been purchased and were in operation along the Mexican border 
or en route to that point to be placed in operation. Of the above 
truck companies, 10 companies of l^ton trucks and 2 companies of 
3-ton trucks were in operation on the line of communications which 
extended from Columbus, N. Mex., to San Antonio, Mexico, 301 miles 
from Columbus. 

Upon the recommendation of the department authorities, Southern 
Department, a proportion of 3-ton trucks were suppUed for use on the 
line of communications into Mexico, and at certain points along the 
Mexican border. At present there are 8 companies oi 3-ton trucks in 
service in connection with troops operating m the Southern Depart- 
ment. Reports received up to this time mdicate that these trucks 
are satisfactory in dry weather, but it is reported that during the 
rainy season the lighter trucks of 1 J tons capacity are more rehablo. 

From reports received it would appear that these truck companies 
were averaging somewhat more than 60 miles per day, in many 
instances as high as 80 to 90 miles per day, but due, however, to con- 
stant travel, the roads are reported to have become almost impassable. 
Steps were taken early in these operations to provide road machinery 
for necessary repairs to the roads This work was done by the EngT- 
neer Department with funds and machinery furnished by the Quar- 
termaster Corps. 

From the time that the expedition went into Mexico to June 30, 
1916, there were purchased for use on the Mexican border and with 
the expedition into Mexico 588 motor trucks; 57 motor tank trucks for 
carrying water, oil, and gasoline; 10 motor machine-shop trucks for 
repairing motor transportation in transit; 6 motor wrecking trucks; 
75 automobiles; 61 motorcycles; and 8 tractors for repairing roads, 
miscellaneous road machinery, repair parts, and equipment, amount- 
mgto $2,175,670.09. 

The policy pursued in furnishing transportation for operations in 
Mexico and in connection with the troops on the Mexican border was 
to furnish only such makes of trucks as had been tried out under the 
severe service conditions prevailing in Mexico and on the border and 
had proven satisfactory to a committee appointed by the department 
authorities. All motor-truck manufactiirers applying were given 
authority to place their trucks on the line of conmiunications at 
Columbus, N. mex., for demonstration and test. The operations of 
these trucks were carefully observed, and upon their performance on 
the line of communications subseouent purchases were made. 

The commanding general, Soutnem Department, states that "All 
motor-truck manumcturers agree, without exception, thtft their serv- 
ice on our line of conmiunications from Columbus, N. Mex., south into 
Mexico was the hardest test of motor-truck transportation they have 
ever known, and no make of truck was purchased for this service that 
was not first tested out on our line of communications and recommended 
as satisfactory by officers who actually tested out these machines on 
the line." 

In this way it is believed that the Government has secured the best 
makes of motor-truck transportation for this severe class of service 
that can be procured in this country. Motor-truck manufacturers 
have expressed themselves as being well pleased to have been afforded 
an opportimity of testing out their trucks, even in cases where trucks 
have not proven satisfactory for the service, inasmuch as it discloses 



KEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBMASTER GENERAL. 



385 



the nature of the weaknesses of such truck and led manufacturers to 
modify and improve their trucks for this class of service. It is real- 
ized by them that the truck best suited for the military service is also 
best suited for use of the average farmer over ordinary country roads 
and across fields. 

The conmianding general, Southern Department, reports that the 
approximate cost of operation of trucks per ton-mile is $0.70, which 
includes all incidentals, such as upkeep of repair shops, roads, etc. 

Among officers of experience with motor trucks it is known and 
realized that speed is the greatest menace to the successful operation 
of trucks. It IS the hardest thing to control and causes more expense 
than all other things combined m connection with the handling of 
motor trucks. Manjr officers of the Army are now getting valuable 
experience and gaining a considerable knowledge of motor-truck 
transportation, and no doubt in the future will be able to handle such 
problems better than they have in past, and all of them will realize 
that care is essential in the handling of this class of transportation. 

The commanding general, Southern Department^ states that, due to 
the necessity of Quartermasters devoting their tune to the supply 
situation on the Mexican border, it was impossible to obtain lull 
reports with reference to the operation of motor transportation in the 
Southern Department; therefore complete data with reference to 
operating expenses of the various kmds of motor vehicles during the 
fiscal year 1916 must be included in the report which will be renaered 
for the fiscal year 1917. 

This office is continuing its efforts in conjunction with the Society 
of Automobile Engineers, manufacturers, and Government de- 
partments in developing our present specifications, with a view to 
making such changes as will adequately meet the requirements of the 
Government and which it is felt will eventually harmonize to a greater 
extent than has been expected heretofore with the needs of private 
users of commercial motor vehicles. Some well-qualified experts feel 
that within two or three years the commercial product will approxi- 
mate what, according to the best opinion, will be suitable for opera- 
tion in aU except special cases of Government service. 

Trailers. — During the fiscal year eleven 2^ to 3 ton and one 1 J-ton 
trailers were purchased for use in connection with the operation of 
motor transportation on the Mexican border, costing $8,023.50. 

So far trailers have not proven satisfactory. It is not believed 
that they can be generally utilized in divisional trains, though in 
certain instances it may be found practicable to use them on the line 
of commimications. 

Road machinery, — ^The following road-makii^ machinery was pur- 
chased during the fiscal year for use in connection with the repair of 
roads into Mexico: 



Num- 
ber. 


Articles. 


Cost. 


Num- 
ber. 


Articles. 


Cost. 


i 

2 
1 
3 
3 
18 


Holt tractors 


1 
$14,250 ' Ifl 


CouDllnr Doles 


1180 


Phoenix tractors 


8,900 

10,200 

4,800 

4,950 

105 

2,160 

47 


3 


Russell CTa lers 


2,724 


Knox tractors 


3 

4 


Austin era Jers 


1,485 


Buckeye tractor 


Acme scrauers 


632 


Monarch roail rollers 


Tractor Darts 


600 


TnriiATi ^aaI rlr&ff^ 


Total 




Watson dumu trailers 


61,083 


4 


Tractor Doles 













69176°— WAB 1916— VOL 1- 



-25 



386 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 



Issues to the militia. — Supplies to the value of $275,059.75 were 
issued by the transportation division to the Oi^anized MiUtia dur- 
ing the fiscal year under authority of statutes providing for such 
issues, as follows: 



Items. 



Ambolanoes, hdrse-drmwn . . . . 

Harness, lead, s. s 

Harness, wheel, i. i 

Saddles, rldtai£ 

Wagons, esoort 

Miscellaneous articles 



Total. 



Number. 



87 
2,1m 
1,838 

12 
921 



Cost. 



18.309.00 
41,350.85 
42,500.00 
336.00 
118,780.50 
20,786.83 



4,984 ,232,150.18 



Items. 



Oats pounds.. 

Hay do... 

Bran do 

Bedding do... 



Number. 



Cost. 



1,479,811 

1,728.544 

36.023 

386,547 



04,532.68 

16,904.50 

471. a 

1,991.97 



Total 3,630,925 



42,900.6T 



No gratuitous issues of such supplies were made to the Organized 
Militia of the District of Columbia. 

Forage. — ^The expenditures during the fiscal year for forage for 
animals pertaining to the Army amoimted to $3^563,251.15. This 
includes the forajge used in the rhiUppine Islands, Alaska, Hawaiian 
Islands, Porto Rico, and the Panama Canal Zone, except native grass 
and beading purchased in the Phihppine Islands. In addition to the 
above there was purchased 127,179 pounds of dog food at a cost of 
$8,237.60. 

Quantities and cost of forage and bedding purchased during the 
fiscal year 1916, except that purchased for the rhiUppine Islanos: 



Kind. 



Oats , 

Hay 

Bran 

Com 

Barley 

Shiveriok compressed forage. 

Bedding 

Peatmoss 

Dog food 



Total 

Total forage and bedding purchased (except for the Philippines 
and ex^islre of dog food) 



Poands. 



Total oo8t 



108,152,007 

140,198,523 

2,674,662 

1,008, 1S9 

2,262,274 

71,400 

23,043,885 

8,995 

127,179 



277,648,107 
2n, 420, 928 



$1,979,506.86 
999,733.42 
84,732.72 
20,263.52 
28,916.21 
1,963.50 
112,825.87 
80.06 
8,237.60 



3,186,338.75 
3,178,101.15 



Ayeiage 
cost. 



SI. 8304 

.7U1 
L2008 
Z008 
L2S 
i75 

.4899 



6l39 



>••••••••••• 



Of the above suppUes the following were shipped to Alaska, Porto 
Rico, Panama Canal Zone, and the I^waiian Islands: 



ALASKA. 

Oats 

Hay 

Com. 

Barley 

Bran 

Beidfaig. 

Dog food 

Total 

POBTO UCO. 

Oats 

Hay 

Bran 

Bedding 

Total 



Poands. 



501.149 
1,013,544 

10,000 
140,000 

24.990 
240,900 
127.179 



Cost. 



17,052.04 

8,872.50 

176.00 



PANAMA CAKAL ZONE. 



2,060.762 



Oats. 
Hay. 

1,806.00 I S^^l;; 

820.97. Bedding 
1,080.45 



8.237.60 



27,664.65 



487.885 

720.609 

6t.951 

128.838 



Total 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 



11,006.34 

9.722.50 

993.55 

1, 48^.05 



Oats. 
Hay. 
Bran. 



1,392,183 23,208.44 



Total. 



Pounds. 



407,620 

639,483 

9,500 

127,710 



Cost. 



S10,Ml.O 
7,827.2ft 
131.67 
888. !• 



1,184,213 



10,600,000 146,741.gt 



19,6».33 



14,822.117 
220.000 



25,642,117 



123, 003. 9t 
3,722.30 



371,088.42 



SEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMA8TBB GENEBAL. 



387 



Of the above supplies the following were piirchased in the Hawaiian 
Islands: 





Pounds. 


Cost 


Hay 


1,000 
2,413,050 


SIO 00 


Bedding 


16,069.36 




Total 


2^414,050 


16,079.36 





The following quantities of forage were purchased for shipment to 
the PhiUppine Islands during the hscal year 1916: 





Pounds. 


Cost 


Oats 


14.000.000 


ti5n Qxn iM 


Hay ^....x . 


24,000,000 1 204,200.00 


« 


Total 


38,000,000 


385,150.00 





The following forage was purchased in the Phihppine Islands 
during the fiscal year 1916: 



Green forafce 
Bedding 

Total. 



Pounds. 



8,351,200 
2,486,000 



10,837,200 



Cost 



$21,559.16 
6,446.20 



28,005.36 



Average 
cost 



10.259 
.26 



The matter of amending contracts for forage so as to permit con- 
tractors to supply grades of hay and grain as fixed by the grain 
associations and chambers of commerce was considered. It was 
represented that the peculiar conditions existing in various sections 
made it difficult for mspectin^ officers to accept forage that would 
comply in all respects with the specifications. The Department of 
Agriculture was consulted, as that department had assisted in the 
preparation of the specifications in use by this department, and it 
was concluded that contractors should have no dimciJty in meeting 
the requirements called for in regular specifications. No change 
was therefore authorized, except that a modification so that oats 
which were clean and practically free from other grains could be 
accepted. No change was authorized in the specifications for hay. 

Compressed forage, — ^An extended test was begun in the Eastern 
Department of compressed forage with a view to determining if 
it will be possible either to definitely adopt this ration for certain 
conditions of field service, or to suggest such minor changes as ex- 

i>erience may indicate to be necessary. A quantity of compressed 
orage was purchased and issued to posts in the Eastern Department, 
but owing to the withdrawal of troops for service on the Mexican 
border before the test could be concluded, no definite conclusion was 
reached as to its value. A test on the Mexican border under service 
conditions has been ordered, and this test should decide if there are 
any merits in this type of forage. 



888 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 



Forage shipped to the Philippine Islands. — Oats and ^in hay sent 
to the Philippine Islands from the United States during the fiscal 
year have been of good quality and sufficient at all times. 

Remount service. — Animals purchased by the Quartermaster Corps 
during fiscal year 1 9 1 6 : 



Kiod. 



Cavalry horses. . 
Artillery horsses 
RMiiignorses... 
Youne horses. . . 

Draft horses 

Bell horses 

Draft mules 

Pack mules 

Dogs 



Number. 



8,733 

2,255 

137 

2.3M 

2 
2, £09 
1,434 

28 



Total cost 



$1,299,880.79 
371,265.08 
20,n4.14 
320,574.92 
1.470.00 
200.00 
511,288.25 
189,451.50 
1,400.00 



Average ooflt. 



1916 



$148.85 
164.64 
146.82 
137.64 
245.00 
100.00 
203.38 
132.11 
50.00 



1915 



$146.00 
150.15 
152.11 
134.46 
218.24 



184.55 

140.13 

5L68 



The average cost of mounts for the year is $149:53 per head. 

During the year 1,630 animals were condemned, sold, etc.; 437 
died; a total oi 1,967. There remained on hand June 30, 1916, in the 
United States, Hawaii, and Panama, excluding animals at remoimt 
depots : 

Cavalry horses 12,613 Pack mulee 2,073 

Artillery horses 3,715 Riding mules 639 

Ridine iiorses 2,042 Dogs 121 

Drafthorses 930 

Bell horses 27 Total 28,814 

Draft mules 6,754 



Fort Keogh Bemount Depot, Fort Keogh, Mont: 

Animals on hand July 1, 1915 

Animftiq received during the fiscal year 1916. . 



► Total on hand and received 

lasaed durine the year- 
Cavalry norses 999 

Artillery horses 164 

Ridine norses 5 

Horses sold tooi£cers 1 

Horses died 62 

Horses otherwise disposed of 4 



Total disposed of. 



Balance on hand June 30, 1916. 



Fort Reno Remount Depot, Fort Reno, Okb.: 

Animals on hand July 1, 1915 

Animals received during the fiscal year 1016. 



Total on hand and received 

lasaed during the year- 
Cavalry horses 1,056 

Artillery horses 3S3 

Riding horses 67 

Horseesold tooflScers 29 

Horses died 62 

Horses otherwise disposed of 17 



Total disposed of 

Moles Issued 232 

Moles otherwise disposed of 1 

i of!^. 



Total disposed 

Balance oo band June 30, 1016. 



Horses. 



893 
2,075 



2,968 



1,235 



1,733 

992 
3,215 



4,207 



2,514 



1,(»3 



Moles. 



6 
Ml 



au 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTERMASTEB GENERAL. 



389 



Front RojBl Remount Depot. Front Royal, Va.: 

Animals on hand July 1. 1915 

Animals Teoeired during the fiscal year 1916. . 



Total on hand and received 

Issued during the year- 
Cavalry horses 535 

Artillery horses 199 

Riding horses 14 

Draft horses •. 2 

Horses sold tooillcers 34 

Horses died 24 



Total disposed of. 
Mules issued 



Balance on hand June 30, 10 16. 



Sammary of remount depots: 

Aniinals on hand July 1, 1915 

Animals received during fiscal year 1916. 



Total on hand and received 

Issaed during the year- 
Cavalry horses 3,490 

Artillery horses 746 



Riding horses. 

Draft horses , 

Horses sold to officers 

Horses died 

Horses otherwise disposed of. 



86 

2 

64 

148 

21 



Total disposed of , 

liules issued 233 

If ules otherwise disposed of 1 



Total disposed of 

Balance on hand June 30, 1916. 



Horses. 



448 
1,104 



1,552 



808 



744 



2,333 
6,394 



8,727 



4,557 



Moles. 



84 



84 



33 



281 



381 



4,170 



234 



47 



The number of horses that* passed through the Army remount 
depots during fiscal year 1916 was much greater than the number that 
were handled during fiscal year 1915, as shown by the following com- 
parative table: 



Received at jemoont depots 
Issued from remount depots 
On band at remount depots. 



Fiscal 
year 
1016. 



6,394 
4,557 
4,170 



Fiscal 
year 
1915. 



2,309 
1,964 
2,333 



Increase 

in 1016 

over 1015. 



3,005 
2,503 
1,837 



The quality of horses purchased during the past fiscal year showed 
a marked improvement over those bought previously, aue, in part, 
to the stallions provided by the Department of Agriculture, and to 
the better knowledge that^ farmers and breeders have of the type of 
horses desired, as tne result of coining in contact with the remoimt 
officers who can advise them as to the tvpe of animals required by the 
Army. However, the breeding of suitable horses for military purposes 
could be greatly improved and their number increased if the appro- 
priations were mcreased so as to enable the Department of Agricul- 
ture to purchase additional stallions and extend the present plan of 
breeding. 

Foreign Governments have purchased and exported thousands of 
mature norses out of the coxmtry. This baa Tedwc^^di XJciftVox^^ ^\»^Ofi. 
considerably in the United States and Yiaa vaeTe^ae^di ^Sci'^ ^^^^^ ^ 



390 BEPORT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 

mature horses. However, it is not thought that the shortage in ma- 
ture horses will materially affect the supply of animals needed by the 
Regular Army during peace time, for the reason that a sufficient num- 
ber of young norses can be obtained and handled through the remount 
depots to meet the normal rec[uiremcnts of the Army. 

In March, 1916, two auxiliary remount depots were established — 
one at El Paso. Tex., and the other at Fort Sam Houston, Tex. — for 
the purposb ot providing the necessary means of maintaining the 
animals of the forces along the border in good condition. These are 
the important reservoii-s from which animals are drawn for the 
equipment of new troops and to replace those that are lost or become 
unfit for service from any cause. At these points hospitals have 
also been established, to which animals are withdrawn from the 
service when they become sick or, from long continuous service, 
reqiiirc- recuperation. 

Keports indicate that horses shipped from the remount depots at 
Fort Keogb, Reno, and Front Royal to troops on the borcter and 
elsewhere arrived in good condition. On May 16, 1916, the depot 

Suartermaster, El Paso, Tex., stated that horses shipped to tnat 
epot from the Fort Keogh remount depot were received in excel- 
lent condition ; that no horses were sick, none appeared to be gaimted, 
and that the condition of the horses was so fine that his veterinarian 
was most enthusiastic about them, remarking while they were being 
imloaded, ''This, from a standpoint of condition, is the l>est shipment 
we have receivea and appear ready to go to work at once." 

On the other hand, a good deal of sickness and a number of deaths 
were reported among mature horses purchased imder contract and 
shipped to the Mexican border, due to the shipping fever contracted 
in passing through stock yards. These animals had to be quaran- 
tined for several weeks and doctoted before they became fit for 
issue to troops. 

In a report received from the authorities in the Southern Depart- 
ment, they state that the wisdom of issuing green animals to oi^ani- 
zations to bring to the border with them immediately is seriously 
doubted; that about 150 deaths have been reported in the New 
York division at McAllen, Tex., and a board of moimted officers has 
reported as follows: ^'The board on mortalitv amon^ public ftnimRlfl 
at McAllen considers that mortality is not abnorm^in view of con- 
ditions of mobilization. Losses mostly occurred amongst horses 
purchased for the emergency, of whicn nearly all were sick when 
received by organizations and many sick when entrained." 

The prudence of handling as many horses as possible through the 
Army remount depot is apparent. 

Fort Keogh remount depot — In the fiscal year 1916 the exterior 

Eainting of all buildings around the narade and on entrance road has 
een completed hj the use of depot laboi and material secured under 
the annual apportionment for repair. 

An interior and exterior electnc lighting system was installed at a 
cost of $2,266.20, current being purcnasea from Miles City. 

Four grooming machines, electrically driven, were installed at a 
cost of $839.52, which will permit the thorough grooming of aU horses 
being trained, an important training factor, which, without this 
equipment, has necessarily been less thoroug^y done. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAU 391 

A steam heating plant was installed in the commanding officer's 
quarters by depot laoor at a cost of $617.19 for apparatus. 

A tank of 8,000 gallons capacity was installed by depot labor at a 
cost of $395.96, for storage of fuel oil for power farm machinery. 
This enables the depot to receive the oil in car lots at about half 
the cost of other methods. 

Three windmills were installed at a cost of $217.50 at artesian 
wells in pastures. They will provide water continually and the 
overflow irom the troughs will fill holes and furnish water at all 
times for animals in pasture. To accomplish this heretofore it has 
been necessary to use several men with gas engines. 

Two 30-60 oil pull tractors, each with gang plows, were purchased 
at a total cost of $6,171.40. They were necessary to carry the farm- 
ingoperations beyond the acreage of 1915. 

The pasture area remained imchanged — about 35,000 acres. The 
area cmtivated in 1916 was 1,625 acres, as against 1,275 acres in 
1915. It is proposed to break about 300 acres of new land in the 
fiscal year 1917, only to fallow an equal amount now cultivated, as 
the total of about 1,600 acres is ail that can be handled with the 
present personnel and existing irrigation plant. 

Forage grown during fiscal year 1916: 

Oats, 1,750,000 pounds. 

TTov i500,000 pounds (alfalfa). 

^*y 1450,000 pounds (blue joint). 

Straw, 2,000,000 pounds. 
Approximate value of above forage* $40,000* 
Forage grown during fiscal year 1915: 

Oats, 116,250 pounds. 

Tra«/43,300 pounds (aMalfa). 

^*y\21,750 pounds (timothy). 

Straw, 296,390 pounds. 
Approximate value of above forage, $3,270. 

Front Royal remount depot — During the fiscal year the following 
progress has been made in improving the depot: 

Buildings completed and received from contractor: 

3 colt stables. 1 coal storage (banker). 

1 granary and hay shed. 1 oil house. 

3 civilian quarters. 1 dispensary. 

1 barracks. 1 set double noncommlamoned officers' quar- 

1 administration building. ters. 

1 quartermaster stable. 1 veterinary ward. 

1 farm implement shed. 1 fire station. 

10 Isolated quarters for en- 1 granary office, 
listed men. 10 sheds. 

Roads constructed: 

Macadam road from main gate to officers' quarters. ^ 

Macadam road from officers' quarters to administration building. 

Roads to feeding sheds repaired. 
All feed sheds have been repau^. 
200 trees have been planted at depot. 
500 rods interior fencing completCKl. 

About 100 acres of land were imder cultivation in 1916, compared 
to 45 acres in 1915. It is contemplated to break up such land as it 
is possible to farm where briars, locust, etc., have ruined the turf — 
from 100 to 150 acres. 



392 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENEBAL. 

Forage raised during the fiscal year: Vain*. 

140.000 pounds hay $1,386.00 

640 bushels rye 513.00 

28.000 pounds com 280.00 

32.450 pounds straw 145.22 

Total 2,324,22 

Forage has been raised as an incident to the main object, th© 
planting of barren tracts with permanent grass pastures. This has 
Deen sbghtly extended to the planting of tracts m alfalfa, so that a 
permanent hav crop is assm'ea on an otherwise worthless field. 

Fori Reno nemount Depot. — Improvements have been made at this 
depot during the fiscal year, which have largely been in the nature 
of caring for buildings, roads, and sroimds in the vicinity of the post. 
Other improvements are contemplated and will be effected before 
winter. Temporary shelter will be constructed in the vicinity of the 
post where feeding can be readily carried on without the loss of time 
and expense of labor. 

Acreage imder cultivation during the fiscal year 1916 was the 
same as that for fiscal year 1915. The acreage m pasture was also 
the same as that for fiscal year 1915. Up to cume 30, 1916, 316 tons 
alfalfa hay were baled and stored. Experiments were made with 
Sudan erass, and this crop yields excellent returns. The feeding 
value of Sudan grass has not yet been ascertained, but should it prove 
to be a good feed crop and relished by the animals, a considerable 
acreage of it will be sown next year. The feterita forage grown was 
of excellent quality. 

MisceUaneoua statements. — ^The following statements pertaining to 
transportation are appended: 

Statement showing principal movements of troops in the United States for etiictly 
military purposes, marked "Exhibit No. 14.** 

Statement showing special movements o! troops in connection with labor strikts, 
parades, dedications, celebrations, etc., marked ^Exhibit No. 15.** 

Statement showing number of National Guard and Organized Militia moved to 
Mexican border from each State prior to August 1, 1916, marked ''Exhibit No. 13.*' 

Statement showing operations of the tran^rtation division of the Quartermaster 
Ck)rps in the Hawaiian Islands, marked ''Exhibit No. 16.** 

Statement showing operations of the transportation division of the Quartermaster 
Corps in the Philippme Islands, marked "Exhibit 16|.** 

Statement showing weight of bagea^ of officers, noncommissioned officers, and 
civilian employees transported at public expense, with cost of shipment and cost of 
packing ana crating, marked "Exnibit No. 17.** 

Statement showing cost to the Quartermaster Corps of operation of militarv telegraph 
lines in Alaska exclusive of the operation of tne caole ship Burrmae, maiked 
"Exhibit No. 18.** 

Statement showing motor trucks purchased during the fiscal year, except the 
Philippine Islands, marked "Exhibit No. 19.** 

Statement showing automobiles in use June 30, 1916, except Philippine Islands, 
marked "Exhibit No. 20.'* 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

Fuel. — ^The cost of coal for domestic purposes at posts in the 
department was found so high that the ase of wood has been sub- 
stituted at practicaly all stations in order to keep the cost of fuel 
down to at least what it has been heretofore. The Army range is 
adapted to either fuel and no change in fire boxes was required. 



KEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 393 

Ndtwe lumber. — During the year native lumber has been used exclu- 
sively for general purposes throughout the department. There seems 
to be a diversity of opinion as to the suitability of native lumber as 
compared with Oregon pine. A report on this subject was called for 
from the different posts, and a statement of tne result, marked 
"Exhibit 23/' is inclosed. On the whole, however, the native lumber 
(Lauan, Tanguili, and Apitong) have proved so satisfactory and much 
cheaper than Oregon pine tnat contract has been made for over 
4,600,000 feet of rougn lumber at $24 per 1,000 board feet, and 
411,000 feet of flooring at $30 per 1,000 board feet. 

Oreen forage and hmding. — Green forage has been procured imder 
contract to supplement the forage ration for animals in this depart- 
ment at posts of Camp Eldridge, Camp McGrath, Camp John Hay, 
Camp Stotsenburg, Fort Wmiam McKinley, and Manila. The 
quahty of this class of forage has been very satisfactory. The class 
usually furnished is known as native zacate, barn grass, and green 
com. Rice straw and cogon grass, for bedding, have been supphed 
imder annual contract. At Fort WilUam McKimey, in January, 1916, 
the animals in several organizations were seriously affected and 11 
died. The local veterinarians were puzzled as to the cause but 
finally, by analysis, traced the trouble to musty rice straw used as 
beddmg. With this exception no complaints as to the quality of 
bedding have reached this oflBce. 

Heavy furniture for officers' quarters, — The following heavy furniture 
wasmanufactured at the land transport shops during the year, from 
native woods: 

50 chairs, dining, end 1832.94 

228 chairs, dining, side 323.49 

47 drawers, chests of 1,210.52 

55 sideboards 1, 156. 55 

13 tables, dining 652.67 

74 tables, kitchen 269.09 

Orders have recently been given for construction at the land trans- 
port shops of additional heavy furniture and ice boxes. All quarters 
occupied by officers with American troops are now fully equipped 
with these articles, and when the furniture now imder construction 
is completed all officers' quarters at scout posts will also be fully 
equipped. 

Fresh potatoes. — ^The procurement of fresh potatoes presented some 
obstacles. Bids were mvited and opened on February 1^ 1916. 
There was but one bidder (Pacific Commercial Co.) and their price 
was 2.99 cents per pound as compared with 1.56 cents per pound, 
their old price. The bid was considered excessive and a cable was 
sent to the depot quartermaster, Nagasaki, to ascertain if he could 
purchase 500,000 pounds of potatoes, and at what price. He repUed, 
quoting 1.16 cents per pound f. o. b. Nagasaki. He was asked to 
purchase 500,000 pounds. Later the depot quartermaster, Nagasaki, 
replied: ** Government contractor(s) potatoes, fresh, crop cornered by 
Pacific Conamercial. Will send particulars by mail. Was unable to 
secure bond.*' Here we were confronted with a serious proposition. 
TTie following letter was sent to aU posts, and in the meantime this 
office began to look about for substitutes: 

Keport is desired from commanding oflScers as to the possibility of procuring locally 
potatoes or substitutes therefor during the months named (March, April, May, and 



394 BEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 

June), and accounts settled with issuing quartermasters at the end of the month, or 
whenever necessary, on the basis of the price of the last lot purchased, at $0.02199 per 
pound, instead of depending upon the quartermaster for supply as usual. 

First. We bought 70,000 pounds of sweet potatoes at 1.25 cents 
per pound from the Momungan Colony near (Jamp Overton. These 
were issued and sold. We c5)led the depot quartermaster, San Fran- 
cisco, and bought 63,000 pounds potatoes at 2.05 cents; they arrived 
on Sherman, 

Second. We ascertained that there was an excellent white notato 
in the local market, and upon investigation found it was shipped from 
Hongkong. Arrangements were at once made for an open-market 
purchase of 150,000 pounds of these potatoes at 2.15 cents per pound. 
This stock, together with the sweet potatoes and the San Francisco 
shipment, broke the ''comer" on white potatoes required for month 
of April. The low and only bidder (Pacific Commercial Co.) protested 
any mtention of a ''corner," but at the same time desired to offer a 
lower quotation after this oflBce had arranged for March deliveries. 
For May and June deliveries this same firm offered potatoes at 2.4 
cents per poimd, ascribing the difference to easier freight conditions. 
This price was considered excessive, and the depot quartermaster at 
Nagasaki was requested by cable to quote on 500,000 pounds in that 
market, shipment to be made on the U. S. Army transport MerriU on 
return trip from China. He quoted 1.65 cents per pound, and pur- 
chase was made accordingly for the month of May. For the montn of 
June potatoes were procured from China at 2.05 cents per pound. It 
was impossible to prociire potatoes from Japan for June consimiption 
on account of lack of transportation facihties. 

Fresli fruit. — Fresh fruit received from San Francisco has been very 
good quality and is much appreciated by the personnel of this com- 
mand. Considering quantities handled and conditions of diipment, 
losses have been comparatively small. The monthly shipment has 
been increased as follows: Apples, 200 cases; oranges, 150 cases; 
lemons, 70 cases; grapefruit, 100 cases. This will give ample fruit 
to all. 

United States Morgue and Burial Corps. — ^There has been no change 
in the civiUan personnel during the year and the work has been car- 
ried on successfully and satisfactorily. Eightv-four bodies were 
embalmed and prepared for burial, 41 disinterrea, 44 shipped to the 
United States, 31 transferred to other cemeteries, 3 awaiting ship- 
ment. The cemetery at Camp Gres^ was abandoned and l>odie8 
removed to the cemetery at Fort Wiffiam McKinley. 

Quartermaster steam laundry. — ^To accommodate the needs of the 
troops the capacity of the taundrv in buildings, machinery, and 
employees, has practically been douoled during the year. This plant 
is a great convenience ana in fact has become a necessity to the troops 
in Manila and to a large number of organizations other than those 
stationed in the city. The average number of pieces laundered for 
the past 11 months was 301,507 per month, at a total cost of 
$1,456 per 100 pieces. The number of employees has been increased 
from 187 to 225, but the full number authorized is not employed 
except in cases of necessity. In the past collections and delivery of 
lauildry in the city o^Manila has been made by two wagons, wnich 
has proved unsatisfactory, being both slow and imnecessarily expen- 
sive. A Ford chassis has been purchased, for which a body is now 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENEBAL. 395 

beins constructed at land transport shops. This light delivery car; 
which will run at very moderate expense, will greafly facilitate the 
collection and delivery of laundry. The cost of operation of this car 
will of course be borne entirely from the revenues of the laundry and 
will therefore be without cost to the Government. Due to increased 
cost of supplies and replacement of machinery, the rate for enlisted 
men was mcreased in January, 1916, from $1.26 to $1.50 per month, 
and flat-rate work for the Quartermaster Corps and Medical Depart- 
ment from $1.25 to $1.30 per month. 

Beservations. — ^There has been very little change in the reservations 
during the year. Camps Gregg and Treadwell were both abandoned 
and aB buildings and other structures at those stations, in so far as it 
was practicable to do so, were demolished and the material salvaged. 

A small addition to the Camp Eldridge Reservation was purchased 
for the purpose of making a necessary extension to the target range. 

Agreement has been made with the owners for the purchase of two 

Earcels of land lying within the limits of the Camp Gregg Reservation, 
ut as yet the reqiured papers in the case have not been completed. 
At Augur Barracks, Jolo, an old blockhouse and the grounds sur- 
rounding it, not needed by the mihtary authorities, were turned over 
to the constabulary for its use until further orders. The civil govern- 
ment was given a license to construct a roadway through the Augur 
Barracks Reservation. 

BARRACKS AND QUARTERS. 

All buildings at Manila depot have been repaired and repainted, 
but the floors in some of the buildings will require additional work 
in the near future, which will be taken up as soon as funds become 
av^able. Twenty-eight iron-pipe posts have been installed in the 
laimdry groxmds at the Manila depot and equipped with galvanized- 
iron wire for the air drying of heavy articles, such as canvas bunk 
bottoms, blue denim, and cotton O. D. cloth. The grounds have 
been improved in appearance by the setting out of hei^es bordering 
roads and walks and the use of flowering shrubs. 

The condition of barracks and quarters at the different posts in 
this department is as good as could be expected under the circum- 
stances. The majority of them are old and badly in need of exten- 
sive repairs. Althoiidn for several years the appropriation has been 
insuflicient to keep the barracks and quarters m repair, this year it 
has been particularly insuflBcient on accoimt of extra repaLre made 
necessary by the succession of storms, one or more of which has 
reached and damaged nearly every post in the department. In 
order to repair the damages caused by these storms it was necessary 
to use funds which had been allotted for annual repairs; consequently, 
repairs much needed at the present time will have to be delayed 
until funds for the next fiscal year become available. The following 
construction of barracks and quarters is now under way or has been 
completed: 

Fori Mills. — ^Two Infantry barracks, permanent construction; 
five scout barracks, temporary construction, to replace five barracks 
demolished diuing typhoons; a hangar, complete with plumbing and 
electric wiring. 



396 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 

Fort WiUiam McEinley. — This post was provided during the last 
fiscal year with a bakers' school barrack by enlarging and remodeling 
a building formerly used for civilian employees. Also, a kitchen 
was built in connection with the present post bakery building, for 
baking pastry in conjunction with the bakers' and cooks' schooL 
The two double sets of company^ officers' quarters, semipermanent, 
are now imder construction at this post. * 

Camp Stotsenburg. — ^Twelve old field officers' quarters, nipa con- 
struction, are being replaced by new wooden construction, and in 
addition, six new sets of quarters are being built at this post. 

Camp Overton.— Two new sets of company officers' quarters were 
constructed at this post during the past fiscal year. 

Camp Keithley. —Fo}}T cottages bmlt as rest houses were, during 
the year, remodeled into satisfactory officers' quarters. 

Camp Nichols. — ^Two double sets of officers' quarters, semiper- 
manent construction, have been completed during the year. 

Camp John Hay.— Two frame barracks were constructed at the 
scout garrison at this post from the same plans as the present bar- 
racks. The scout barracks now have sufficient accommodations for 
one battalion. 

Bakeries, storehouses, stables, etc. — These buildings are in the same 
condition as the barracks and quarters, being in need of extensive 
repw^ during the coming fiscal year. 

A large modern and well-eqmpped bakery, permanent construc- 
tion, has been completed at Fort Mills during the year. 

The bakine f acihties at Camp John Hay have been increased dur- 
ing the year DV the installation of an additional oven. 

Storage faciuties at Fort Mills, Fort William McEinley, and Camp 
John H^y have been increased to some extent during the present 
year. 

No new stables have been constructed during the present fiscal 
year, and very little change has been made in the old ones. 

A small addition was made to the Signal Corps stables at Fort 
William McKinley. The blacksmith shops and guard house in 
connection with the Cavalry stables at Camp Stotsenburg wero 
rebuilt by the use of material salvaged from Camp Gregg. 

The following bake ovens are now installed and in operation at 
the different posts in this department: Marshall, No. 30, 8: No. 40, 
20. Middelby, No. 3, 2; No.l, 1. Blodgett Stanard, 3; No. 19, 2. 
Knocked-down type, 1. Concrete, 1. 

A number of ovens have been repaired and some have been replaced 
during the year. All of them are now in good working condition. 

Hosjoitals. — New hospitals under construction at Camp John Hay 
and (Jamp Nichols have been practically completed. Sufficient 
screening has also been furnished Camp Nichols to completdy 
screen the hospital at that post. The hospitals at the other posts in 
the department are in good condition and sufficient funos were 
available during the year to keep them in repair. 

A temporary smallpox hospital has been constructed at Augur 
Barracks. 

The hospital at Fort San Pedro, Hoilo, has been remodeled to 
provide a dressing room. 

Electric passenger elevators have been installed in the hospital at 
Fort William McKinley, and at the department hospital, Manila. 



BEPORT OF THE QUARTEBMASTER GEITBRAIj. 397 

Water supply. — In general, the water supply at the different posts 
is ample and water is of good quality, although in most places it is 
not potable. 

The water supply at Camp John Hay has been improved by the 
installation of electrically driven pumps and an increase in the 
reservoir capacity. Arrangements have been made for procuring a 
hypochloride dosing apparatus for the water system at Camp John 
Hay, which, when installed, will render the water potable and will 
allow the distilling plant to be discontinued. 

The water sup^y at Fort WilUam McKinley is derived from two 
sources — ^wells and seepage water along the Pasig River. The well 
system is satisfacory and is sufficient to supply potable water for 
all purposes excepting fire and sprinkling. The seepage water 
system has been remodeled and increased durmg theyear, in so far as 
funds would permit. It is the intention to carry on the work during 
the next fiscal year. When completed. Fort William McKinley wiu 
have a water supply sufficient for all needs. 

The water system at Camp Eldridge has been improved during 
the year by the installation of a larger sized main to the reservoir, 
and now it has a water supply sufficient for all purposes. 

The water system at Camp Overton was improvea during the year 
by raising the elevation of the intake and straightening the pipe. 
Shortly filter this work was completed a flood carried away a por- 
tion 01 the pipe line, but this has been replaced and the water system 
is in good condition at present. 

The water system at rettit Barracks is not satisfactory at present, 
but as the city of Zamboanga is installing a water system which 
when completed will be sufficient to supply both the city and the 
post, nothmgis being done at present except to keep the system in 
operation. When the city water system is completed arrangements 
will be made to procure water from this system. 

An attempt was made to drive an artesian well at Ludlow barracks 
for the purpose of obtaining a satisfactory and potable water supply. 
This attempt was not a success. It is believed tnat one of the reasons 
why a successful weU was not obtained is that it was not properly 
located. Further investigation will be made, after which it will be 
determined whether or not the probabiUties of obtaining a potable 
water supply are sufficient to justify another attempt. 

Camp Stotsenburg has two sources of water supply, one from the 
river and the other from artesian wells. Owing to the condition of 
the pipe line and the failure of the wells, the water supply was reduced 
below the needs of the post. The pipe line for the river water supply 
has been placed in good condition and a reservoir in connection there- 
with is being constructed. Two new successful artesian wells have 
been driven. When the reservoir is completed and the machinery 
installed for pumping the new wells, Camp Stotsenburg will have a 
water supply sufficient for all necessary purposes. 

Camp Nichols obtains its water from an artesian well. This has 
been improved during the year by the erection of a new tank, and by 
the installation of an auxiliary engine for use in case of emergency. 
The water supply is now satisfactory and ample for all necessary pur- 
poses. 

The large product of water conservation at Fort Mills is well under 
way. Downspouts have been placed on a number of the buildings, a 
number of successful wells have been driven, and a number of springs 



398 BEPOBT OF THE QUARTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 

have been opened up and arrangements made for conserving the 
water therefrom, and the excavations for two of the reservoirs are 
made. Work on the reservoirs is delayed on account of lack of mate- 
rial, which has been ordered from the States. 

A new high-power electrically driven triplex pump and other 
equipment, including condenser, etc., for the more economical opera- 
tion of the pumping plant and to increase its capacity, is being pur- 
chased under contract. A new boiler to be installed in conjunction 
with the present boilers, to increase the capacity of the boiler plant, 
is also being purchased. 

The Sisiman water supply has been placed in good condition, and 
as soon as the new water barge is completed it will materially assist 
in supplying water for Fort Mills and tne other Coast Artillery posts 
in Manila Bay. 

The project of increasing the water supply at Fort Frank by rais- 
ing the intake and installmg a new pipe une from the mainland to 
Carabao Island is now imder way. After this project has been com- 
pleted Fort Frank will have a supply of water sufficient for all pur- 
poses. 

Water for the use of the military stations m Manila, excepting for 
drinking purposes, is secured from the city water supply. This is olf 
course paid for on meter readings. In the past it was customary to 
have but one meter at each station, in consequence of which sewerage 
charges were paid on all water consimied. During the past year this 
has all been changed, so that water for sprinkling purposes, 
watering stock, etc., is paid for on a different meter and no sewerage 
charges paid tnereon. This has resulted in a considerable saving m 
the expenditures for water for stations in Manila. 

The water used for drinking purposes was formerly obtained from 
the distilling plant located at the land transport corral. As the oper- 
ating expenses of this plant were very large, it was decided to make 
an attempt to obtain a successful artesian well for the purpose of 
supplying drinking water to the different stations in Manila. A weJl 
was driven at the Ouartel de Espana. Although the well was suc- 
cessful, unfortunately, on account of the failure of the distilling 
plant, the water from this well had to be used before it had been 
pumped sufficient to clear it. Like all other artesian wells in this 
vicinity, the water at first is very impalatable, but after having been 
used for some time it finally clears up and becomes palatable. It is 
believed that the result in this case will be the same as in others. 

The distilling plant at the land transport corral having been 
unserviceable, it was dismantled and installed in connection with 
the fire system at the Manila depot for use in case of emei^ency. 

A successful artesian well has been drilled at the department hos- 
pital and the installation of machinery completed. It will deliver 
sufficient water to supply this station. 

Sewer systems, — At such posts that have sewer systems the same 
have been satisfactory during the year. Sufficient fimds have been 
available to keep these systems in proper condition. However, at a 
number of posts dry-earth closets are still in use. These are being 
replaced by sewer systems as rapidlv as funds will permit. 

A sewer system has been installed at Camp Nichols during the 
present year, and funds to start sewer systems at Camp Keithley and 
Ke^an Barracks have been allotted. Work on these systems is now 
under way. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 399 

As soon as the post of Pettit Barracks is connected with the water 
system of the city of Zamboanga, it is proposed to install a sewer sys- 
tem at that place should the necessary funds be available. 

The sewer system at Fort William McKinley is being improved by 
the installation of a new bacteriological tank. When this tank has 
been completed the sewer system at Fort William McKinley will be 
satisfactory and in good condition. 

New incinerators have been constructed during the year at Fort 
Mills, Camp John Hay, and Regan Barracks. 

lAgJUing systems. — ^The only stations in this department lighted by 
electricity are Camp John Hay, Fort William McKinley, Fort Mills, 
and the posts in Manila. Fort Mills and Camp John Hay have their 
own lighting systems. At the other posts mentioned electric current 
is purchased from the Manila Electric Railroad & Light 0>. 

it is the intention to install a generating plant at Fort William 
McKinley. and one generator, two exciters, one switchboard, com- 
plete, ana one condenser, to be used in conjunction with street and 
service lighting, for installation in the new power plant in connection 
with the steam engine and generator now on hand, are being pur- 
chased under contract. Electric house meters to replace those now 
owned by private parties, as well as constant-current transformers 
with street-lighting brackets and lamps to replace the present arc 
lamps, are also under contract. 

It is the intention during the fiscal year 1917 to pay on one meter 
reading for all current consumed at the different stations in Manila, 
and to this end meters are being purchased under contract for use 
where it is necessary to measure current to comply with existing r^- 
ulations to replace those now owned by the lighting companv. 

Sufficient funds have been available during the year to keep the 
system at Fort Mills in repair, and the same has been satisfactory. 
The only additions made tnereto have been the necessary extensions 
to furnish light to buildings completed. 

Camp Stotsenburg was provided with a switchboard to be used in 
conjunction with a small generator. 

At Camp John Hay a concrete shed was erected for the protection 
of certain electrical equipment and main valves for the hydroelectric 
]>liuit: also the electric substation at this post was provided with addi- 
tional equipment, and a machine shop was installed in conjunction 
with the ice plant. 

Complete apparatus has been purchased for the installation of series 
street lighting at Camp John Hay, as well as cooking ranges, hot-water 
heaters, and air heaters for the entire post, so as to utilize power now 
generated by the hydroelectric plant. 

Ice, distiUiryjj coid-stordge, and pumping plants. — ^These, in the main, 
have been satisfactory throughout the department and sufficient funds 
have been available to keep them in proper condition. 

During the year an inspection of every plant has been made by an 
engineer from this office, the result of wilcn has been an improvement 
in the condition of aU these plants and a saving in the amoimt of 
coal consumed. 

During the year a new compressor was installed at Camp Eldridge. 
New compressors have been purchased for Fort Mills, but as yet have 
not been instaUed. Material and apparatus have also been purchased 
for insulating one of the rooms in the present bombproof plant at this 



400 BEPOBT OF THE QUAKTEBMASTER GENERAL. 

post, as well as a new ammonia condenser, piping, etc., so as to in- 
crease the cold-storage facilities, and to be used m conjunction with 
the two 65-ton ammonia condensers already purchased. 

The ice and cold-storage plant at Camp John Hav is being enlarged 
and remodeled. When completed this post will have a plant sim- 
cient for all needs and shoula be a very economical one, as it will be 
operated by electricity. A machine shop was iostalled in conjunction 
with the ice plant at this post, as stated in paragraph 48. 

As stated before, the distiUing plant at the land transport was moved 
to the depot. When the new well at the department hospital is in 
operation, the distilling plant at that place can be discontinued. 

Roads and walks. — ^The roads at the different posts in the depart- 
ment are in good condition, and sufiBicient fimds nave been available 
to keep them in proper repair. 

Road extensions nave been made at Camp Eldridge, Camp John 
Hav, Camp Stotsenburg, and Fort Mills. 

A cableway is being erected at the hydroelectric plant at Camp 
John Hay, so as to provide a better means of reaching the plant and a 
safe exit for the employees in case of danger. 

Considerable grading in connection wim the scout post at Camp 
John Hay was done during the year. 

At Camp Stotsenburg fimds have been allotted for the purpose of 
building a road to connect the post system with the insular pubUc- 
road system. After this road nas been completed there will be a 
&st-class road from Camp Stotsenburg to Manila. 

During the year funds were allotted for resurfacing the Overton- 
Keithley road. WTiile this work was being carried on the road was 
severelv damaged by flood, which carried out some of the bridges, 
washed, out portions of the roadbed, and caused slides which covered 
other portions. All steps possible were inmiediately taken to clear 
this road and it is now passable for automobiles. Work is being car- 
ried on in repairing the road and resurfacing it, and such funds as 
could be used during the year were allotted. It is the intention to 
carry this work on until completed, such funds as are necessary to 
be provided from the fiscal year 1917 appropriation. 

Considerable grading has oeen done at Fort Mills in connection with 
new construction at that post. 

The old bridge across tne moat at Fort Santiago has been replaced 
by a fill and a macadam roadway, which has very much improved the 
appearance of the entrance to Fort Santiago. 

Wharves. — Pier No. 1, Manila, has been completed aiid surfaced 
with block pavement during the year and is now in splendid condition. 

Contract has been let for the construction of Pier B on the Port 
Reservation, Manila. This pier will be constructed on the bay side 
of the strip of land known as Lot No. 2, Port Reservation, Mafiila, and 
will be directly opposite the present Pier A. The construction con- 
sists of concrete piles of sufficient size and driven to sufficient depth 
to provide for a future concrete docking. The present plan is to 
install a wooden deck, with the necessary wooden beams, etc., pro- 
tecting same with an asphaltum coating. 

Extensive repairs have been made to the wharf at Camp Eldredge. 

A new wharf has been buUt at Camp Keithley. 

Two new wharves, in connection with water supply at SisimaUi are 
being constructed. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTBB GENEBAL. 401 

A contract was made with the civil government for the dredging of 
the approaches to the wharves at Fort Mills. Anchors and buoys 
were also furnished Fort Mills. 

The wharf at Iloilo has been improved by the installation of fender 
piles, so that interisland transports can go alongside and unload at this 
wharf at any stage of the tiae. 

The old wooden wharf at Fort William McKinley was replaced by a 
concrete wharf during the year. 

The wharves at Ludlow Barracks, Augur Barracks, and Camp Over- 
ton have been kept iq serviceable condition, and while the whan at the 
latter post is not in perfect condition, suflSciont funds were allotted to 
keep it in repair durmg the year. 

Screenivg, — Such fimds as were available were allotted the different 
posts in the department during the year for screening, and a state- 
ment showing the condition of the dinerent posts in regard to screen- 
ing is inclosed. 

Typhoons. — ^This department was visited during the year by four 
destructive typhoons and a disastrous flood at Camp Overton, which 
occurred on the following dates: October 23, November 3, December 
7, 1915, January 14 to 27 and May 6, 1916, resulting in damage to the 
different posts as follows: 

Camp Eldredge $73.40 

Camp John Hay 8,713.92 

Camp Overton (O.-K. Road) 32, 000. 00 

Camp Overton 6,000.00 

CampMcGrath 3,288.00 

Camp Stotsenburg 4,737.00 

FortMillfl 78,341.50 

Regan Barracks 970.00 

Augur Barracks 4,000.00 

Fire apparat'us, — The fire apparatus at the different posts has been 
kept in good condition. On investigation it was found that no 
standard nad been adopted for the size of hose and hydrants at the 
different stations. A standard has been adopted which conforms to 
that in general use and the project is imder way to standardize all of 
this apparatus at the different posts in the department. 

Post exchanges. — The post exchange handball court has been con- 
structed at Fort William McKinley, and jimiping standards have 
been furnished all posts in the department. 

Motor. — ^The economy of motor transportation over animal-drawn 
is no longer debatable, but so far as this department is concerned, 
the initialcost of motor trucks and the Umited appropriation available 
prohibits consideration of any very considerable increase in trucks. 
A recent board of officers on Corregidor Reserve recommended exclu- 
sive use of motor transportation for Corregidor Island. Owing to the 
distance from the factory, the cost of upkeep of motor transportation 
in these islands is very great for two cogent reasons, viz : 

First. In order to avoid delays in making repairs the department 
is called upon to invest large sums of money in spare parts sent out 
from the States, or, 

Second. These spare parts are bought locally, as needed, at an 
exorbitant pnce, because the local dealer nmst bear the outlay men- 
tioned in firet paragraph above, and he makes his retail price to cover 
interest on investment. 

These conditions should not be overlooked m coT^idsra^ xsksA/^x 
transportation for this department. 

69176"— WAB 1916— VOL 1 26 



402 BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENERAL. 

One auto truck of IJ-ton capacity was purchased and placed in 
service on the Overton-Keithley Road, wnich, together with the 
supply of two trailers, which were manufactured at the land-transport 
shops at a cost of $714 each, released for assignment elsewhere 22 
draft animals. 

Twelve 2-ton, one three-fourths ton, and four Ford truck chassis, 
three Ford runabouts, and one 7-passenger touring car have recently 
been ordered. 

Three of the 2-ton trucks arrived here from San Francisco on July 
3, 1916, and will be sent to Camp John Hay for use in hauling fud 
for the post. Contract was made for 3,243 cords of wood, dehvfery 
to be taken at a point 7 miles from the post, at a price $14,593.50 
less than the lowest bid for delivery at post, and these three truck 
chassis will be equipped with bodies constructed at Manila Depot 
suitable for transportmg this wood to post. 

Three of the 2-ton trucks will be used on the Overton-Keithley 
Road and the post authorities at Camp Overton have been instructed 
to submit plans for suitable bodies, and trailers, if desired, to be con- 
structed at Manila Depot. 

It is estimated that each of the 2-ton trucks to be used on the 
O.-K. Road and in Manila will take the place of two 4-mule teams 
at present in service, and the light trucks each take the place of two 
light deUvery teams. Requisitions for animals for fiscal year 1917 
will be reduced accordingly. 

Railroads. — Regan Barracks has been connected by a spur track 
to the Manila Rai&oad during the year. This utihty is now in opera- 
tion and has resulted in a great saving in wagon transportation. 

The electric railroad at Fort Mills has been kept in good condition 
and funds have been allotted for double-tracking it. This project is 
well under way and it will be nearly, if not entirely, completed by the 
end of the present calendaryear. 

Transportaiion, water. — The equipment of inter-island transports, 
harbor boats, mine planters, distnbution box boats, laimches, lighter- 
age, and rowDoats has been maintained in a satisfactory state during 
the year. The following additions have been made to tnis equipment 
at cost indicated : Scow No. I4S, $6,795 ; scow No. 144y $6,795. 

Due to lack of water transportation and fimds pertaining to 
fiscal year 1916 being available, contracts have been made for the 
construction of five additional scows, viz: Two 110 feet long at an 
estimated cost of $18,100; work was begun June 12, 1916, and calls 
for completion in 76 working days. One 110 feet long ; contract price. 
$10,515.60; work was begun June 28, 1916, and is to be completea 
in 68 working days. Two 80 feet long ; contract price, $10,750 ; work 
was begun June 28, 1916, and is to be completed in 90 working days. 

The following equipment was lost during typhoons in October and 
December, 1915: 

Value. 

Bcow No. 39 11,700 

Scow No. 45 2,000 

LorchaNo. 106 3,800 

Bcow No. 121 1,760 

Bcow No. 124 3,650 

Total 12,900 

Total| 1 lorcha and 4 scows. 



BEPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENEBAL. 403 

Lorcha No. 90, value $13,814.37, was sunk at sea en route to 
Aparri. Repairs to equipment, made necessary incident to typhoons, 
amoxmting to $40,000, were made from apportionment maae to this 
department for fiscal year 1916. 

Manual for the QuartermcLster Cor^ps. — ^The compilation of a manual 
for the Quartermaster Corps has been in progress for several months. 
When completed it will cover the consoUdated corps and will embrace 
all subjects contained in the manuals for the former Quartermaster, 
Pay, end Subsistence Departments. 

It is estimated that the manual will be ready for distribution to 
the service by January 1, 1917. 

Civilian employees, Oj^ce of the Quartermaster General, — The legis- 
lative, executive, and judicial appropriation bill, fiscal year 1916, 
provides for 295 employees of this office, 235 of the number being 
clerks. The organization of the office is that approved by the 
Secretary of War September 10, 1912. and with tms organization 
CTeat economies in the administration of the business of the office and 
Quartermaster Corps have been accomplished. The clerks have 
attained a high state of efficiency and are entitled to great credit for 
the splendid work performed during the year. Delinquencies have 
been remarkably few. The office has kept step with modem commer- 
cial developments in its business methods, and the work has been 
simplified and so systematized as to require the fewest clerks possible. 

The national defense act. approved June 3, 1916, will, it is beUeved, 
after a careful analysis of its provisions, increase the work of tlus 
office 40 per cent, and the clerical force must necessarily be in- 
creased. With a view to obtaining additional clerical assistance 
this office, on May 20, 1916, the date the national defense act passed 
the House of Keprcsentativcs, submitted a supplemental estimate 
for 30 clerks (3 principal clerks at $2,000, 4 clerks at $1,600, 6 at 
$1,400, 8 at $1,200, and 9 at $1,000 per annum), an increase of 
approximately 10 per cent. These clerks are urgently required in 
tne grades indicated to assist in handling the large amount of ad- 
ditional work imposed upon the office by the national defense act. 

The need for tne grad!e of principal clerk of branch at $2,000 per 
annum has been much felt since the consolidation of the Pay, Sub- 
sistence, and Quartermaster's departments on' November 1, 1912 
(fiscal year 1913), at which time the Quartermaster General in his 
scheme for an office force for a consoUdated bureau, recommended 
six such positions. This grade was again asked for for the fiscal years 
1915 ana 1917. This latter year Congress authorized three of the 
positions, and it is hoped that it will authorize the remaining three 
which have been estimated for, thus completing the organization 
originally proposed. 

In a number of previous annual reports this office called attention 
to the need for some equitable system of retirement for superannuated 
clerks. Because of the consideration that has been given this 
subject both in and out of Congress, I do not deem it necessarv to 
say more in this report than that as each year passes the neea for 
some such provision becomes more pressing. . 
Very respectfully, 

Henry G. Sharpe. 
Brigadier General, Quartermaster Uorvs, 

Acting Quartermaster General. 



BEPOBT OF THE QDASTEBUABTEB QENEBAIt. 



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408 



BEPOBT OF THE QUAHTEBMASTEB QENEBAL. 



Exhibit 2. 



Grade and examixiation. 



Educational: 

Master electrician. 



Sergeant, flist class- 
Baker 

Blacksmith and horseshoer, foreman. 

Carpenter, foreman 

Clerk 



Electrician 

Engineer, foreman 

Mechanic, foreman 

Packmaster 

Painter, foreman 

Plumber, foreman 

Superintendent of transportation. 

Trainmaster 

Truckmaster 



Total. 



Sergeant^ 

Chauffeur 

Clerk 

Electrician..., 

Engineer , 

Foragemaster. 
Storekeeper... 



Total 

Total educational. 



Noneducational: 
Sergeant- 
Baker 

Blacksmith and horseshoer. 

Carpenter 

Farrier 

Fuel overseer 

Mason 

Overseer 

Packmaster 

Painter 

Plumber 

Saddler 

Tinner 

Trainer 

Wagonmaster 

"WheelwriRht 



Total noneducational 
Grand total 



Number 
ex- 

amined. 



Nomber 
poixited. 



17 



17 

15 

27 

122 

18 

29 

5 

6 

11 

Id 

12 

18 



1 

le 

2 
2 



296 



134 

143 

24 

67 

5 

15 



378 



691 



34 
64 

50 
12 
18 

6 
S3 
11 
34 
23 
41 

5 

1 
40 

5 



427 



1,118 



3 

»7 



33 



143 
75 

8 
11 

1 



238 
272 



15 

47 

16 
'» 

at 

17 
1 

31 
8 
5 

10 

18 
2 
1 

10 



183 



453 



1 Appointed after practical test. 
Exhibit 3. 

Statement showing number of enlisted men, Quartenruuter Corps, by grades, apportioned 
for the performanceofthe variouLS duties of the Quartermaster Corps in the United States, 
Hawaii, and the Philippines, the number of such men actually in the service, and the 
number ofvaaincies as of June SO, 1916. 






United States 
Alaska. Porto 
Canal Zone): 
Apportioned. 
In the sen,ice 
Vacancies 

Hawaii: 

Apportioned., 
In the "service 
Vacancies 

Phillppine.s: 

Apportioned., 
In the service 
Vacancies 



(including 
nice, and 



Totals: 

Apportioned.. 
In the service. 
Vacancies 



Master 
elec- 
tricians, 



4 
4 



3 
3 



Ser- 
geants, 
first 
class. 



94 

86 

8 

5 
5 



18 

14 

4 



Ser- 
geants. 



1,028 

934 

74 

66 

63 

3 

143 

132 

11 



7 
7 



117 

105 

12 



1,237 

1,149 

88 



Cor- 
porals. 



615 

464 
51 

26 

25 

1 

46 

43 

3 



5S7 

532 

55 



Cooks. 



75 
75 




6 



II 
8 
3 



92 

89 

3 



Pri- 
vates, 

first 
class. 



2,2S1 

2,lo:j 

178 

157 

153 

4 

299 

261 

38 



2,737 

2,517 

220 



Pri- 
vates. 



543 
621 



27 

25 

2 

32 
14 

18 



602 
660 



ToUl. 



4,540 
4,307 



287 
277 



552 

475 



Va- 
cancies. 



311 



10 



77 



6,379 
5,060 



378 



I 






1 



J 



BBPOBT OF THE QUABTEBMASTEB GENEBAL. 409 

Exhibit 4. 

I\re(uury balance hool$, financial Mtatement, QuartermasUr CorpSf fiscal year ending 

June SO J 1916. 

For appropriatioDfl desiniatod as aimiial there was provided for the service 
of toe Quartermaster Corps for the fiscal year aiding June 30, 1016, and 
by allotments, the sum 01 $106,321,808.60 

During the said fiscal year 1016 there was deposited to the credit of said 
appropriations by Treasury settlements, sales, collections, balances, etc., 
thesumof. 0,062,308.26 

And by department and Treasury transfers and miscellaneous items the 
sum of 02,012.40 

Total 1116,477,114.81 

Of this there was remitted to disbursing officers upon requisitions, the sum 

of 100,081,820.10 

There was expended on account of settlements made at the Treasury, the 

sum of 880,170.00 

And by department and Treasury transfers and miscellaneous items 2, 630. 01 

Total 110,873,630.10 

Leaving a balance on hand July 1, 1016, available for payment of 
outstanding obligations, the sum of 4,603,484.26 

On July 1, 1016, there was on hand from annual appropriations for the 
service of the Quartermaster Corps, pertaining to said fiscal year, the 
sum of 4,656,735.74 

Also on hand from appropriations of other fiscal years, including all special 
and indefinite appropriations, the sum of 2,714,603.30 

There was added during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1016, by appro> 
priations and allotments, the sum of 2,467,703.03 

During said fiscal year there was deposited to the credit of these appropria- 
tions by balances, sales, collections, etc., and settlements made at the 
Treasury, the sum of 3,548,588.00 

And by department and Treasury transfers and miscellaneous items 34,184.23 

Total 13,421,004.48 

Of this there was remitted to disbursing officers on requisition the sum of. . 6, 233, 001. 75 
There was paid out cm account of settlements made at the Treasury the 

stmiof 1,023,008.21 

And on account of department and Treasury transfers and miscellaneous 

items 2,321,278.50 

Carried to surplus fund, the sum of. 2,002,220.01 

Total 11,580,505.46 

Leaving a balance on hand July 1, 1016, available for payment of 
outstanding obligations pertaming to fiscal years lOlo, 1014, etc., 
and special or inaefinite appropriations, the sum of 1,841,480.02 

KECAPITULATION. ' 

Balance on hand, all appropriations, July 1, 1015, fiscal year 1015 7, 371, 420. 13 

Appropriated by Congress for fiscal year ending June 30, 1016 106, 321, 893. 60 

Credited to all appropriations by deposits, transfers. Treasury settlements, 

allotments, etc 15,205,786.10 

Total 128,809,108.88 

Remitted to disbursing officers, all appropriations 116,215,730.^ 

Charged on account of translers and Treasury settlements, etc 4, 236, 177. so 

Carried to surplus fund 2,002,22<i.91 

Total 122,454,135.66 

Balance on hand July 1, 1916, for all appropriations of the Quartermaster 
Corps 6,444,973.27 

Grand total for fiscal year ending June 30, 1016, of all appropriations 
of the Quartermaster Corps, the sum of. 128,899,108.83 



410 



BEPOBT OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL. 



Exhibit 5. 

Detailed expenditures of the Quartermaster Corps for the fiscal year ended June SOy 1916, 
itemized under different app